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DURING THE YEARS 1843-1846. 




Edited by ARTHUR ADAMS, F.L.S., 


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PuSItSIjea uniter flje atitfjorttg nf tfje JLorW Comim&Sumerg of tfje &amiraltu. 






A HE survey of the various coasts and islands in the Eastern Seas, made by Sir 
Edward Belcher in H.M.S. Samarang, in the years 1843-6, afforded many valuable 
opportunities for adding to our knowledge of the Zoology of those parts of the world ; 
and the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty having been pleased to sanction the 
publication of the materials that were collected, a liberal grant was made by the Government 
for carrying their Lordships' intentions into effect. 

The following brief retrospect of the course of the Expedition will at once point out 
the widely-extended range of the field of our researches. 

Erom St. Jago, Cape de Verds, the Samarang passed to windward of Ascension along 
the African coast, and, after touching at the Cape, anchored off Anger Point in Java. 
Her course from thence was to Singapore, Sarawak, Hong-Kong, Macao, and the coast 
of China. The Bashee Islands were next visited, and afterwards the small island of 
Sama-Sana, viewing the coral-bound shores of Formosa on the passage. After surveying 
Pa-tchung-san, and other islands of the Meiacoshima group, the vessel proceeded to Hong- 
Kong ; she subsequently visited Manila, and, when the Panagatan Shoals were surveyed, 
arrived in the Samboangan Roads, off the island of Mindanao; she shortly afterwards 
anchored at the Island of Tawee-Tawee. The Expedition then proceeded along the east 
coast of Borneo to the province of Unsang, and next reached Cape Rivers, in the island 



of Celebes, touching at Manado, landing on the islands of Mayo, Ternate, and Gillolo. 
Proceeding southward, Bouru was sighted, the Boutong Passage passed, the Great Solombo 
and the Caramata Islands were observed, and the Samarang again arrived at Singapore. 
Sailing a second time for Sarawak, Ambong, Tampasook, and Dumaran Island were visited ; 
some stay was made at Manila j the Sooloo Roads and Archipelago were again reached ; 
the vessel remained a short time at Maratua Island and Leegeetan in Borneo ; touched at 
Mindanao, sailed for Manila, and once more anchored at Hong-Kong. Starting again for 
Batan, one of the Bashee Islands, the Samarang, proceeding northward, passed near Botel 
Tobago, examined Sama-Sana, and afterwards, more in detail, Pa-tchung-san ; visited the 
little Hoa-pin-san and Ty-pin-san Islands, and remained some time at the Great Loo-Choo. 
The Expedition then sailed for Corea, Quelpart, and Kiusu, and after navigating among 
the numerous almost unexplored islands of the Yellow Sea, and visiting Nangasaki in the 
Japanese Empire, proceeded a second time to Loo-Choo, and eventually reached Hong- 
Kong. Homeward bound, the vessel touched at the Keeling or Cocos Islands, remained 
off the Cargados Garajos, or St. Brandon Shoals, in the Indian Ocean, a sufficient time 
for their being surveyed, touched at the Mauritius, the Cape, St. Helena, and Ascension, 
and arrived in England in December 1846. 

With reference to the natural history of the Philippines, that sagacious and most 
indefatigable traveller, Hugh Cuming, Esq., had anticipated us in many points, and to his 
advice and liberality in the loan and comparison of specimens greater accuracy in the deter- 
mination of new species has been secured. 

The desire shown by the Commander of the Expedition to afford every facility in the 
pursuit of science, enabled me to bring together numerous observations, to collect speci- 
mens, and make sketches and drawings of many of those more rare and evanescent forms 
which it is my hope may help to advance the Zoology of that part of the globe. To these 
favourable circumstances, and the gratuitous services of the able and talented individuals 
who have assisted me, the public are indebted for the following work. 

PBEFACE. viii 

John Edward Gray, F.R.S., Keeper of the Zoological Department in the British 
Museum, has furnished a most valuable List of the Mammalia of the Eastern Islands. 

Sir John Richardson, M.D., F.R.S., &c, has, by his description, imparted a peculiar 
interest to the new species of Fish. 

Professor Owen, E.R.S., &c, has contributed an elaborate memoir on the Spirula. 

Lovell Reeve, F.L.S., &c, has afforded his valuable aid in the description and 
identification of the Mollusca. 

Adam White, F.L.S., &c, of the British Museum, has been my able collaborateur 
in the determination of the Crustacea. 

And I avail myself of the present opportunity to offer my best thanks to the above- 
mentioned gentlemen for this their very valuable assistance. With respect to the execution 
of the Plates, it is only necessary to observe that they are the production of Messrs. 
Sowerby, Wing, and Hawkins, to assure the public of their accuracy and excellence. 




Plate I. Simia satyrus. 
„ II. Nasalis larvatus. 
„ III. Herpestes semitorquata. 
„ IV. Herpestes brackyurus. 

Plate V. Ptilocercus Lowii. 
„ VI. Pteromys elegans. 
„ VII. Galidictis vittata. 
,, VIII. Pelamis maculata. 


Plate I. 

Fig. 1-6. Podabrus Cottoides. 

7-11. centropornus. 

12-16. Batrachus quadrispinis. 

Plate II. 

Fig. 1-3. Choridactylus multibarbus. 
4, 5. Minous Adamsii. 
6, 7. Sthenopus mollis. 

Plate III. 

Fig. 1, 2. Apistes depressifrons. 

3-5. Trackinoides. 

6, 7. Cottoides. 

Plate IV. 

Fig. 1, 2. Apistes taeniauotus. 
3, 4. multicolor. 

Plate V. 
Fig. 1, 2. Apistes leucogaster. 
3-5. Cirrhites areata. 

Plate VI. 
Fig. 1-4. Balistes ringens. 

Plate VII. 
Fig. 1, 2. Tetrodon atratus. 

Plate VIII. 
Fig. 1-3. Tetrodon naritus. 

Plate IX. 
Fig. 1, 2. Tetrodon insignitus. 

3, 4. hispidus. 

5-8. Balistes senticosus. 

Plate X. 
Fig. 1-3. Nemiehthys scolopacea. 

4, 5. Aperioptus pictorius. 



Plate I. 
Fig. 1. Loligopsis ellipsoptera. 
2. Argonauta gondola. 

Plate II. 
Fig. 2. Argonauta gondola. 

Plate III. 
Fig. 1. Argonauta Owenii. 
2. Argonauta hians. 

Plate IV. 
Figures and Dissections of Spirula. 

Plate V. 
Fig. 1. Dentalium formosum. 

2. Kostellaria rectirostris. 

3. Oniscia exquisita. 

4. Shells of the winged nuclei of 

Cyprcea annulus. 

5. Cypraea caurica. 

6. erosa. 

7. Conus papillaris. 

8. Borneensis. 

9. floridulus. 

10. ■ pica. 

11. pigmentatus, 

Plate VI. 
Fig;. 1. Ovulum acuminatum. 




■ coarctatum. 
• recur vum. 





Fig. 8. Ovulum concinnum. 

9. volva. 

10. subreflexum. 

1 1 . gracile. 

12. nubeculatum. 

13. bm 1 latum. 

Plate VII. 

Fig. 1. Fusus gracillimus. 

2. spectrum. 

3. acus. 

4. Marginella diadochus. 

5. undulata. 

6. Voluta abyssicola. 

7. Turbinella Belcheri. 

8. lauceolata. 

9. ■ picta. 

10. Buccinum hinnulus. 

Plate VIII. 

Fig. 1. Murex eurypterori. 

2. rorifluus. 

3. plorator. 

4. Burnettii. 

5. Eburna areolata. 

Plate IX. 

Fig. 1. Pleurotonia impages. 

2. fagina. 

3. Triton testudinarius. 

4. Fieula laevigata. 

5. reticulata. 

6. Terebellum subulatum. 

7. Calyptrasa trigonalis. 


Plate X. 
Fig. 1. Pyrarnidella niagnifica. 

2. CanceUaria macrospira. 

3. semipellucida. 

4. lyrata. 

5. Pleurotoma lurida. 

6. albicincta. 

7. leucotropis. 

8. Coreanica. 

9. Mangelia trivittata, 

10. Cyllene lugubris. 

11. pulchella. 

12. Oliva fulgurata. 

13. Terebra torquata. 

14. Ceritbium articulatmn. 

15. longicaudatum. 

16. CanceUaria pyrum. 

17. Triton pjTiilum. 
18. monilifer. 

19. Strombus corrugatus. 

20. Terebra serotina. 

21. albicostata. 

22. caelata. 

23. areolata. 

24. roseata. 

25. Marginella ony china. 

26. Mitra rufilirata. 







32. Erato callosa. 

Plate XL 
Fig. 1. Pileopsis astericola. 
2. Calyptrsea depressa. 

Fig. 3. Calyptrsea plana. 

4. eancellata. 

5. Fissurella excelsa. 

6. Emarginula clatbrata. 

7. Delphinula stellaris. 

8. Littorina castanea. 

9. Ianthina striolata. 

10. planispirata. 

11. Margarita bicarinata. 

12. Buccinum clatbraturn. 

13. mitrella. 

14. Scalaria macidosa. 

15. negleeta. 

16. eximia. 

17. Cbemnitzia grandis. 

18. Buccinum filosum. 

19. Columbella tseniata. 

20. Bissoa insignis. 

22. Eotella conica. 

23. EuUma unilineata. 

24. bilineata. 

25. Mindorensis. 

26. tortuosa. 

27. sobdula. 

28. Tripboris speciosus. 

29. suturaHs. 

30. alveolatus. 

31. dextroversus. 

32. verrucosus. 

33. grannlatus. 

34. gemmulatus. 

35. Purpura cuspidata. 

36. Tripboris pyramidalis. 

37. nodiferus. 

Plate XII. 
Fig. 1. Turritella bicolor. 


Fig. 2. Turritella congelata. 

3. conspersa. 

4. irmltilirata. 

5. vittulata. 

6. monilifera. 



8. Eglisia tricarinata. 

9. Turritella fastigiata. 

10. declivis. 

11. caitaliculata. 

Plate XIII. 
Fig. 1. Siphonaria Coreensis. 

2. radiata. 

3. Cerithium obtusum. 

4. Ranella albivaricosa. 

5. Haliotis venusta. 

6. Anoillaria obtusa. 

7. Columbella semipunctata. 

8. Sigaretus acumiiiatus. 

9. Natica maorotremis. 
10. Sigaretus insculptus. 
11. latifasciatus. 

12. Carinaria Atlantica. 

13. Pleurotoma Grifiitliii. 

Plate XIV. 
Fig. 1. Cyclostoma spiracellum. 

2. Pupina Mindorensis. 

3. Cyclostoma leeve. 

4. Bulimus gregarius. 



6. Cyclostoma tenebricosum. 

7. Helix calliostoma. 

8. Cyclostoma reticulatum. 

9. Helix curvilabrum. 
10. Bulimus chloris. 

Fig. 11. Bulimus citrinus. 

12. Scarabus trigonus. 

13. imbrium. 

14. Helix tropidophora. 

15. Auricula subula. 

16. Scarabus Cumingianus. 

17. Melampus leucodon. 

18. Helix obscurata. 

Plate XV. 

Fig. 1. Bulimus Adamsii. 
2. Helix Tayloriana. 
3. Typinsana. 

4. Brookei. 

5. Batanica. 

6. Mackeusii. 

7. vittata. 

8. Cbitou formosus. 

9. ■ ■ Coreanicus. 

10. acutirostratus. 

11. petasus. 

Plate XVI. 

Fig. 1. Helix antiqua. 

2. Coreanica. 

3. leucostoma. 

4. orientalis. 

5. immaculata. 

6. caliginosa. 

7. decora. 

8. densa. 

9. plurizonata. 

10. canescens. 

11. conoidalis. 

Plate XVII. 
Fig. 1. Aplysia lineolata. 


Fig. 2. Aplysia fimbriata. 

3. ooulifera. 

4. Goniodoris trilineata. 

5. Sty lifer Astericola. 

6. Pkorus Solarioides. 

7. exutus. 

8. Columbella fulgurans. 

Plate XVIII. 
Fig. 1. Siphonotus geograpkicus. 

2. Bulla soluta. 

3. Coreanica. 

4. Dolabella Rumphii. 

5. Bulla Voluta. 

6. Pleurobranchus luniceps. 

7. Aplysia nodifera. 

Plate XIX. 
Fig. 1. Bornella digitata. 

2. ScyllaBa Grayae. 

3. Bornella Adamsii. 

4. Bulla vesillum. 

5. Ceratosoma cornigerum. 

6. Goniodoris WMtei. 

7. Natica melanostoma. 

Plate XX. 
Hemipecten Forbesianus. 

Plate XXI. 
Fig. 1. Terebratula Japonica. 

2. angusta. 

3. Coreanica. 

4. Capensis. 

5. abyssicola. 

6. Lima Basilanica. 

7. orientalis. 

Fig. 8. Nucula mirabilis. 
9. Japonica. 

10. Pecten Reevei. 

11. fulvicostatus. 

12. aurantiacus. 

13. aspervdatus. 

14. denticulatus. 

15. cristularis. 

16. Venus Labuana. 

1 7 . Artemis Dunkeri. 

18. Venus costellifera. 

19. Ostaea pyxidata. 

20. Chama laciniata. 

21. Cardita ferruginosa. 

Plate XXII. 
Fig. 1. Isocardia tetragona. 

2. Cardium Adamsii. 

3. Isocardia Moltkiana. 

4. Cardium aurantiacum. 

5. Pectunculus Belcheri. 

6. Cardium modestum. 

7. Kalamantanum. 

8. Pectunculus aspersus. 

9. Cardium speciosum. 

10. Venus Philippinarum. 

11. tessellata. 

12. Cardium Becliei. 

Plate XXIII. 
Fig. 1. Poromya pulchella. 

2. Crassatella nana. 

3. Poromya nitida. 

4. Nesera Moluccana. 

5. Pholas rivicola. 

6. Crassatella picta. 

7. corrugata. 



Fig. 8. Mactra Thracioides. 

9. Crassatella pallida. 

10. compressa. 

11. Lyousia navicula. 

12. Corbula ventricosa. 

13. My a Mindorensis. 

14. Corbula variegata. 

15. Solen albida. 

1 6 . Thracia granulosa . 

Plate XXIV. 

Fig. 1. Hippagus novemcostatus. 
2. Psammobia denticulata. 

3. Psammobia flexuosn. 

4. rugulosa. 

5. Lucina fibula. 

6. sericata. 

7. Venus quadrangularis. 

8. Thracia trigonalis. 

9. Amphidesma exarata. 

10. Cytherea virginea. 

11. Amphidesma simplex. 

12. Cyrenoida alata. 

13. Venus elegans. 

14. Cyrenoida Coreensis. 


Plate I. 
Fig. 1. Chorinus acanthonotus. 
2. Doelea calcitrapa. 

Plate II. 
Fig. 1. Oncinopus Neptunus. 

2. Inachus Lorina. 

3. Chorinus verrucosipes. 

4. 5. Pisa Planasia. 

Plate III. 

Telmessus serratus. 

Plate IV. 
Fig. 1, 2. Mensethus subserratus. 
3. Huenia frontalis. 
4-7. Proteus. 

Plate V. 
Fig. 1. Lambrus lamellifrons. 

Fig. 2. Lambrus turriger. 

3. earinatus. 

4. Pisoides. 

5. Parthenope Calappoides. 

Plate VI. 
Fig. 1. Oreophorus reticulatus. 

2. reticulatus junior. 

3. Lambrus harpax. 

4. Cryptopodia fomicata. 

5. dorsalis. 

6. Ceratocarcinns longimanus. 

7. Gonatonotus pentagonus. 

Plate VII. 
Fig. 1. Zebrida Adamsii. 

2. Parthenope Tarpeius. 

3. Lambrus hoplonotus. 

4. Carpilius cinctimanus. 

Plate VIII. 
Fig. 1. Atergatis lateralis. 

2. insularis. 

3. subdivisus. 

4. Actaea nodulosa. 

5. jEgle rugata. 

Plate IX. 
Pig. 1. Panopeus Formio. 

2. C'aystrus. 

3. Chlorodius Pilumnoides. 

4. PiluHums dilatipes. 

5. scabriuseulus. 

6. ursulus. 

Plate X. 
Fig. 1. Carpilius signatus. 


Fig. 2. Galene ? ochtodes junior. 

Plate XI. 
Fig. 1 . Panopeus dentatus. 

2. Chlorodius fragifer. 

3. areolatus. 

4. hirtipes. 


5. Lissoearoinus Polybioides. 

Plate XII. 
Fig. 1. Ixa megaspis. 

2. Leucosia haematosticta. 

3. Xenophthalmus Pinnotheroides. 

4. Lupoeyclus rotundatus. 

5. Harrovia albolineata. 

6. Stenopus hispidus. 

7. Galathea elegans. 


For descriptions of Chitons figured in Plate XV., and inadvertently omitted in the text, see Monograph of that genus in ' Concho- 
logia Iconica.' 





Captain Sir Edward Belcher brought home several drawings, made by Mr. Adams, of 
the different Mammalia which he had observed in the Islands of the Indian Ocean. It has 
occurred to me that it might be useful to give a list of all the species which have hitherto 
been discovered inhabiting those islands and the country near to them, intercalating in their 
places the descriptions of the hitherto unfigured species. 

Fam. 1. SIMIADiE. 

1. SIMIA. 

1. Simia Satyrus, Linn. Mutter, Verkand. Zool. vol. i. 1-56. 1. 1 to 7 *. S. agrias, Schreb. Papio 
Wurmbii, Latr. Simia Abelii, Fischer. S. "Wallichii, Blainv. S. Pongo, Fischer. S. giganteus, Pearson, 
Pithecus Satyrus, Martin. Satyrus rufus, Lesson. S. bicolor, J. Griff. (Plate I.) 

Yar. 0. Cantor, Mamm. Malay 2. Simia Abelii, Fischer. Orang outang, Brooke, Pro. Zool. Soc, 
1842, 9. 

Hab. Sumatra ; British Museum. Var. /3. in Borneo ; B. M. 




1. Siamanga syndactyly, Gray, List Mamm. 1. Simia syndactyly Raffles ; Horsf . Java. Sj'iidac- 
tylus Sianiang, Boitard, Jardin Planles. 

Hab. Sumatra. B. M. 


1-.. .Hylobates Bar, Lesson ; Cantor, Mamm. Malay, 2. Grand Gibbon, Buffon, Hist. Nat. Homo 
Lar, Linn. Syst. Nat. Simia longimana, Schreb. t. 2. f. 1. S. Lar, Gmelin, Syst. Nat. Pithecus Lar, 
Besm. Mamm. Simia albimana, Vigors et Horsf. Zool. Journ. Hylobates albimana, Schinz, Syst. 

Var. /3. Petit Gibbon, Buffon, Hist. Nat. Simia Lar, /3. Gmelin, Syst. Nat. Pithecus variegatus, 
Geoff. Hylobates variegatus, Ogilby. Hilobates leuciscus, Cantor, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist, (not Kuhl). 

Hab. Malayan peninsula, /. Reeves ; called UngJca etamj Cantor. Siam, Burmah, Tenasserim. B. M. 

3. Hylobates agilis, F. Cuvier, Man. Lith. ; Cantor, Mamm. Malay, 3. Simia Lar, Vigors 8f Horsf. 
(not Linn.). Hylobates Lar, F. Cuvier, Man. Lilhog. H. variegatus, Mutter, Verh. t. 7. H. Kaffiesia, 

Hab. Malay peninsula, Malacca, Purlis, Keddali, Pungah ; called Unglca etam ; Cantor. Sumatra, 
Mutter. Himalaya? B.M. 

4. Hylobates leuciscus, Kuhl; Gray, List Mamm. Brit. Mus.1. Cantor, Mamm. Malay, 3. Simia 
leucisca, Schreb. t. 3. S. Moloch, Audeb. Pithecus cinereus, Batr. Singe. 

Hab. Java. B.M. 

5. Hylobates concolor, Muller, Verhand, 1848. 
Hab. Borneo. 


1. N as alis larvatus, Geoff. Cercopithecus larvatus, Wurmb. Simia Nasica, Schreb. S. longimanus, 
Link. Semnopithecus nasicus, Muller, Verh. 62. 80. 1. 12. f. 3. Jun. Martin, Pro. Zool. Soc. 1837, p. 70. 
anat. (young.) Nasalis recurvus, Vigors Sf Horsf. Zool. Journ. vol. iv. p. 110. (Plate II.) 

Hab. Borneo. B.M. 

Capt. Sir Edward Belcher brought home a young specimen of this species, showing that 
N. recurvus is only the young of the common species. 


1. Pkesbytes Namaus, Gray. Simia nemaeus, Linn. Semnopithecus Nemseus, F. Cuv. Man. Lith. 
1. 12. Muller, Verh- 62, 

Hab. Cochin China. QOl 


2. Peesbytes obscurus, Gray, List Mamm. Brit. Mus. Lotong {Simla maura, Linn.), Raffles, Linn. 
Trans, vol. xiii. Semnopithecus obscurus, Reid, Pro. Zool. Soc. 1837, p. .14; Martin; Cantor, Mamm. 
Malay, 4. Semnopithecus halonifer, Cantor, Pro. Linn. Soc; Ann. fy Mag. Nat. Hist. 1845. S. leu- 
comystax, Temm. MS. Mus. Leycl.; Midler, VerA. 59. S. albocinereus, Fydoux fy Soul. Voy. Bonite (fide 
Mus. Paris, not Desm.) Presbytes jubatus, Wagner. Simia maurus, Heifer. 

Hab. Malayan peninsula, Penang, and Singapore; called Lotong, or Lotong elam ; Cantor. 1 Siam, 
Midler. B.M. 

8. Peesbytes cristata, Gray, List Mamm. Brit, Mus. Cliingkau (Simla cristata), Raffles, Linn. 
Trans, vol.xiii. Semnopithecus cristatus, Horsfield ; Mat-tin; Midler, Verh. 61.77. t.12. S. pruinosus, 
Besmar. S. maurus, Horsf. Java, (not Ouv.) 

Hab. Penang, Cantor ; Sumatra, Raffles ; Borneo, Mutter. B.M. 

4. Peesbytes maurus. Simia maura, Schreb. not Raffles. Presbj'tes maura, Gray, List Mamm. 
Brit. Mus. 3. Semnopithecus maurus, F. Cuv. Mamm. Lit A. 1. 10; Mutter, VerA. 61, 76, t. 12. Simia 
Edwardsii, Fischer, Sim. Man.; Edw. Birds, t. 311. S. Maurita, Bmn. 

Yar. a. Beddish, Semnopithecus Pyrrhus, Horsf. Java, t. 6. 
Tar. |3. Golden, Cercoplthecus auratus, Geoff. Ann. Mus. 
Hab. Java. B. M. 

5. Peesbytes rublcundus. Semnopithecus rubicundus, Midler, VerA. 61, 69, t. 9 & 11. 
Hab. Borneo. B.M. 

6. Peesbytes melalophos, Gray, List Mamm. Brit. Mus. p. 2. Semnopithecus melalophos, F. Cuv. 
Mamm. Lith. t. 7 ; Mutter, VerA. 60, 66, 1. 12*. f. 2. Simia melalophos, Raffles, Linn. Tram. vol. xiii. 
p. 242. S. melanolophos, Mus. Leyd. 

Yar. 0. Semnopithecus flavimanus, •/". Geoff, in Lesson Cent. Zool. t. 40 ; Mutter, VerA. 61, 67. 
Hab. Sumatra. B. M 

7. Peesbytes mltratus, Eschsch. Kotzebu, Voy. 196. t. 3. Semnopithecus mitratus, Midler, VerA. 
60, 65, 1. 12. 12*. t. 24 a. S. comatus, Desm. in Cuv. Mamm. LitA. Cop. ScAreb. Sum. Simia fasci- 
cularis, Raffles. 

Hab. Java. B. M. 

8. Peesbytes clnereus. ? Cercopithecus albocinereus, Desm. Semnopithecus albocinereus, Cantor, 
Mamm. Malay, 4. Presbytes cinerea, Gray, List Mamm. Brit. Mus. 193. ? Sem. nigromanus, •/. Geoff. 
Semnopithecus dorsatus, WaterAouse, MSS.; Martin, 481. 

Hab. Malayan peninsula ; called ha ha ; Cantor. 

9. Peesbytes chrysomelas. Semnopithecus chrysomelas, Mutter, Verh,. 61. 71, 1. 10, 11. 
Hab. Borneo. B. M. 

Capt. Sir Edward Belcher brought home a young specimen of this species, agreeing with 
MuUer's figure, t. ] 0. f. 2. 


10. Presbytes Sumatranus. Semnopithecus Sumatranus, Mutter, Verh. 61, 73. 1. 10*. S. ob- 
scurus (part), Cantor, Malay Mamm. 4. 

Hab. Sumatra. B.M. 

11. Puesbytes frontatus. Semnopitliecus frontatus, Mutter, Verh. t. 8. Martin, vol. i. p. 475. 
f. 285. 

Hab. Borneo. B.M. 


1. Macacus cynomolgus, Gray. Cercopithecus cynomolgus, Ogilby ; Cantor, Mamm. Malay ; Cuming, 
Pro. Zool. Soc. 1841, 33. Smiia cynomolgus, Linn. S. aygula, Linn. ; Mutter, Verh. 48. S. attys, 
Schreb. S. fascicularis, Raffles, Linn. Trans. Macacus aureus, /. Geoff. Belanger, Voy. Zool. t. 2. M. Iris, 
/. Geoff. M. carbonarius, /. Geoff. ? 

Hab. Malayan peninsula, Penang ; called Icra ; Cantor. Java, Sumatra, Banka, Borneo, Celebes, 
and Timor, Tenasserim and Nicobar Islands, Philippines ; Cuming. B. M. 

2. Macacus Nemestrinus; Desm. Inuus nemestrinus, Linn.; Mutter. Simia nemestrina, Linn. 
S. platypygos, Schreb. S. fusca, Shaw. S. carpologos, Raffles. S. longicruris, Link. S. porcaria, Brim. 
Papio nemestrinus, Cantor, Mamm. Malay. 6 

Hab. Malayan peninsula, Penang ; called Broh ; Cantor. Sumatra, and Borneo. B. M. 


1. Cynopithecus niger, J. Geoff. Macacus niger, Gray. Cynocephalus niger, Besm. C. Malayanus, 
Besmoul. Papio iEthiops, Zimm. ? P. maurus, Blainv. Macacus nigrescens, Mm. Leiden. 

Hab. Celebes, Philippines. B. M. 

Fain. 2. LEMURLim 

1. Nycticebus tardigradus, Gray, List Mamm. Brit. Mus. 194. Cantor, Mamm. Malay, 7. Stenops 
tardigradus. Mutter, Yerh. Lemur tardigradus, Raffles, L. S. vol. xiii. p. 247 ; Bennett, Gard. Zool. Soc. 
339. Hoeven, Nat. Tijdschr. vol. viii. p. 345. t. 3, 4, 5. 

Hab. Malayan peninsula, Penang ; called fcukaug ; Cantor. Java, Sumatra, Borneo ; Mutter. B.M. 

2. Nycticebus Javanicus, Geoff. Gray, List, 16. Stenops Javanicus, Hoeven, Nat. Tijdschr. vol. viii. 
p. 343. t. 5. f. 1. 

Hab. Malay peninsula, Penang, Java, Sumatra. B. M. 



1. Tarsius spectrum, Geoff . Ann. Mies. vol. xix. p. 168; Cuming, Pro. Zool. Soc. 1838, p. 66. Lemur 
spectrum, Pallas ? Tarsius Daubentonii, Geoff. Horsf. Java. T. Pallasii, G. Fischer. T. fuscomanus, 
Fischer, t. 3, 4. T. Fischeri, Desm. T. Bancanus, Horsf. Java. Didelphis macrotarsus, Schrei. 
Tarsier, Buffon, H. N. vol. viii. t. 9. Macrotarsus Buffonii, Link. 1794. 

Hab. Sumatra? Java, Borneo, Celebes, Banka; called Podje. Philippine Islands, where it is called 
malmag ; Cuming. B. M. 



1. Galeopithecus volans, Shaw, Zool. t. 38. G. variegatus, Geoff. Temm. Midler, Ver/i. 49. G. 
Ternatensis, Desm. G. rufus, Audeb. G. undulatus, Wagner. G. Temminckii, Waterh. Pro. Zool. Soc. 
Cantor. Lemur volans, Linn. Marsden, Raffles. 

Hab. Malayan peninsula, Singapore, Penang, and other islands of the Straits. Lancavy Island ; 
called kubong or hurbong. Pelew Island, Siam ; Cantor. Java, Sumatra, Borneo ; Midler. B. M. 

2. Galeopithecus Philippinensis, Waterhouse, Pro. Zool. Soc. 1838, p. 219; Trans. Zool. Soc. ii. 
Caguang, Cuming, Pro. Zool. Soc. 1838, p. 67. Gal. macronrus, Temm. MSS. (not described). 

Hab. Philippines, Bohol and Mindanado. The skins are sold at Manilla. 



1. Megadeejia spasma, Geoff. Ann. Mus. vol.xv. t.12; Cantor, Mamm. Malay, 9. Vespertilio 
spasma, Linn. V. lanceolata, Deschamp. Megaderma trifolium, Geoff. M. Philippinensis, Waterhouse. 

Hab. Java; Deschamp. Penang, Singapore, Ternate; Cantor. Philippines; Cuming. B. M. 


1. Aquias Indus, Gray, Pro. Zool. Soc. 1847, p. 16. Rhinolophus luctus, Temm. Monog. vol. iv. 
p. 24. t. 30. Eh. morio, Gray, Ann. and Mag. N. H. vol. x. p. 257. 

Hab. Java and Sumatra; Temm. Singapore, Gray. B. M. 

2. Aquias trifoliatus, Gray, Pro. Zool. Soc, 1847, p. 16. Rhinolophus trifoliatus, Temm. Monog. 
vol. iv. p. 27. t. 30. 

Hab. Java and Borneo. B. M. 




1. Rhinolophus affinis, Horsfield, Java; Cantor, Mamm. Malay, 11. 
Hab. Java; Horsf. Penang; Cantor. 

2. Rhinolophus pusillus, Temm. Monog. ii. p. 36. 
Hab. Java. 

3. Rhinolophus minor, Horsf. Java. Temm. Monog. ii. p. 35. 
Hab. Java, Timor. 

4. Rhinolophus (Euryotis) PMlippmensis, Waterhouse, Pro. Zool. Soc, 1843, p. 68. 
Hab. Philippines ; Cuming. B. M. 


1. Hipposlderos larvatus, Gray, Mag. Zool. 8f Bot. ii. 11. Rhinolophus larvatus, Horsf. Java. 6. 
Temm. Mon. R. insignis, Horsf. Java; Temm. Monog. ii. 14 to 29. f. 2. R. vulgaris, Horsf Java. t. 7. 
f. 3 ; Cantor, Mamm. Malay, 13. R. deformis, Horsf. Java. Vespertilio Cyclope, Desch. MSS. 

Hab. Java; Horsf eld. Penang; Cantor. B. M. 

2. Hipposlderos bicolor, Gray, List Mamm. Brit. Mus. 33. Rhinolophus bicolor, Temm. Monog. ii. 
18 to 32. f. 9, 10; Waterhouse, Pro. Zool. Soc., 1843, 67. 

Hab. Java, Amboina, and Timor. Philippines ; Cuming. B. M. 

3. Hipposlderos pygmaus. Rhinolophus pyginseus, Waterhouse, Pro. Zool. Soc, 1843, 67. 
Hab. Philippines; Cuming. 

4. Hipposlderos speoris. Rhinolophus speoris, Temm. Monog. i. 17. Vespertilio speoris, Schreb. 
Peron, Toy. t. 33. 

Hab. Amboina, Timor. 

5. Hipposlderos murinus, Gray, Mag. Zool. and Bot. ii. 11; Cantor, Joum. Asiat. Soc. Beng. xv. ; 
Mamm. Malay, 13. 

Hab. Penang; Cantor. South Mahratta Country, Nicobar Islands. B. M. 

6. Hipposlderos galeritus, Cantor, Joum. Asiat. Soc. Beng. xv. ; Mamm. Malay, 13. 
Hab. Penang ; Cantor. 


1. Phyllorhina nobilis, Gray. Rhinolophus nobilis, Horsf. Java ; Waterhouse, Pro. Zool. Soc, 
1S43, 67. 


Hab. Java, Sumatra, Amboina, Timor ; Mutter. Penang, Malayan peninsula ; Cantor. Philippines ; 
Cuming. B. M. 

2. Phyllorhina diadema. Hipposideros diaderna, Gray, List Mamm. Brit. Mus. Cantor, Mamm. 
Malay, 11. Bhinolophus diadema, Geoff. Ann. Mus. xx. t. 5. 

Hab. Timor ; Mutter. Penang, Malay peninsula ; Cantor. B. M. 

3. Phyllorhena. griseus. Rliinolophus griseus, Meyer, Nov. act. Ccesar, xvi. t. 46. 
Hab. Philippine Islands; Luzon. 


1. Asellia tricuspidata. Bliinoloplius tricuspidatus, Temm. Monog. ii. 20. 
Hab. Amboina. 


1. Petalia Javanica, Gray, Mag. Zool. and Bot. ii. 12. Nycteris Javanica, Geoff. Ann. Mus. xx. 
1. 1. Mutter, Yerh. N. Kuhlii, Temm. Vespertilio pollicaris, Descliamp. MSS. 

Hab. Java ; Descliamp. B. M. 


1. Plecotus Timorensis, Guerin, Mag. Zool. 1832. Vespertilio Timorensis, Geoff. Ann. Mus. viii. 
t. 47, cop. Temm. Monog, ii. 253. t. 57. f. 10. 

Hab. Timor. 


1. Vespertilio ? pettucid-us, Waterhouse, Pro. Zool. Soc, 1845. 3. 
Hab. Philippines. 


1. Kerivoula Hardioickii, Gray, List Mamm. Brit. Mus. 27. Vespertilio Hardwickii, Horsf. Zool. 
Java; Temm. Monog. ii. 222. t. 55. f. 7-9. 

Hab. Java, Sumatra. B. M. 

2. Kemvottla tenuis, Gray; Cantor, Mamm. Malay, 15. Vespertilio tenuis, Temm. Monog. ii. 220. 
t. 57. f. 5, 6, 7. 

Hab. Java, Sumatra, Borneo; Mutter. Penang; Cantor. 


3. Keeivoula picta, Gray, Ann. fy Mag. Nat. Hist. 1842, 258; Cantor, Mamm. Malay, 15. Ves- 
pertilio pictus, Pallas, Schreb. t. 49; Geoff.; Horsf.j Temm. Mono//, ii. 233. t. 56. f. 1, 3. V. radiatus, 
Brum. V. kirivoula, Boddaert, Fischer, Syn. 106 ; Geoff. V. Ternatanus, Seba. Muscardin volant, 

Hab. Java, Sumatra, Borneo. B.M. 

4. Keeivoula trilatitoides, Gray, List Mamm. Brit. Mm. 27. Vespertilio trilatitius, Temm. Monog. 
ii. 228. t. 57. f. 1-4., not Eorsf. ? V. Gartneri. Knhl. 

Hab. Java. B.M. 

5. Keeivoula rufopicta. Verspertilio rufopictus, Waterhouse, Pro. Zool. Soc, 1845, 3. 
Hab. Philippine; Cuming. 



1. Teilatitus blepotis, Gray, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. 1842, 258. Vespertilio blepotis, Temm. 
Monog. ii. 212. t. 53. f. 1, 2. 

Hab. Java, Amboina, Banda, Timor, Japan. B. M. 

2. Teilatitus Horsfieldii, Gray, List Mamm. Brit. Mus. 26; Cantor, Mamm. Malay, 15. Vesper- 
tilio trilatitius, Horsf. Java. 

Hab. Java, Sumatra. Penang ; Cantor. B. M. 

3. Teilatitus Meyeni. Vespertilio Meyeni, Waterhouse, Pro. Zool. Soc, 1845, 3. 
Hab. Philippines ; Cuming. 


1. Scotophilia Temminchii, Gray, Mag. Zool. and Bot. ii. 15 ; Cantor, Mamm. Malay, 15. Nycti- 
cejus Temminckii, Mutter. Vespertilio Teniminckii, Horsf. Zool. Java (young). V. Belangeri, /. Geoff. 
Belanger, Toy. V. noctulinus, /. Geoff, (very young). Nycticejus Belangeri, Temm. N. Noctulinus, 

Hab. Java, Sumatra, Borneo, Banda, Timor, Pondicherry. Calcutta ; Hardwicke. Malayan peninsula 
and Island ; Cantor. B. M. 

2. Scotophilus/^otw, Gray, List Mamm. Brit. Mus. 31. 
Hab. Java. B.M. 

3. Scotophilus Meyenii. Vespertilio Meyenii, Waterhouse, Pro. Zool. Soc, 1845, 3. 
Hab. Philippines; Cuming. 

4. Scotophiltjs pachypus. Vespertilio pachypus, Temm. Monog. ii. 217. t. 54. f. 4-6. 
Hab. Java. B.M. 


5. Scolophilus Borbonicus. Vespertilio Borbonicus, Geoff. Ann. Mus. viii. ■ Nicticejus Borbonicus, 
Temm. Monog. ii. 153. t. 47. 

Var. Waterhouse, Pro.Zool. Soc, 1845, 10. 

Hab. Philippines; Cuming. 

6. Scolophilus Hasseltii. Vespertilio Hasseltii, Temm. Monog. ii. t. 56. f. 7, 8. 
Has. Java. B. M. 


1. Noctulina Malaccensis, Gray, List Mamm. Brit. Mus. 31. 
Hab. Singapore. B. M. 

2. Noctullna? Eschsckoltzii. Vespertilio Eschscholtzii, Waterhouse, Pro. Zool. Soc., 1845, 3. 
Hab. Philippines; Cuming. 


1. Miniopteris macrotarsus. Vespertilio niacrotarsus, Waterhouse, Pro. Zool. Soc, 1845, 3. 
Hab. Philippines ; Cuming. 

15. MUEINA. 

1. Murina suillus, Gray, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. 1842, 259. Vespertiho snillus, Temm. Monog. 
ii. 224. t. 56. f. 4, 5, 6. 

Hab. Java, Sumatra; Temm. Darjeeling; Hodgson. 

The following species have been so indistinctly described by M. Temminck, that it is 
not possible to refer them to their proper genera until specimens are procured : — 

1. Vespertilio macellus, Temm. Monog. ii. 230. 
Hab. Borneo. 

2. Vespertilio macrotis, Temm. Monog. ii. 218. 
- Hab. Sumatra. 

3. Vespertilio circumdatus, Temm. Monog. ii. 219. 
Hab. Java. 

4. Vespertilio adversus, Horsf. Java; Temm. Monog. ii. 221; Cantor, Mamm. Malay, 14. V. 
cineraceus, Blyth, MSS. 

Hab. Java; Horsf. Penang; Cantor. Calcutta; Blyth. 



5. Vespeetilio papillosus, Temm. Monog. ii. 220. t. 55. f. 1, 4. 
Hab. Java, Sumatra. 

6. Vespeetilio imbricatus, Horsf. Java ; Temm. Monog. ii. 216. t. 54. f. 1-3. 
Hab. Java. 

7. Vespeetilio Horsfieldii, Temm. Monog. ii. 226. t. 56. f. 9, 10, 11. 
Hab. Java. 

8. Vespeetilio brachypterus, Temm. Monog. ii. 213. t. 36. f. 5, 6. 
Hab. Sumatra. 

9. Vespeetilio Malayanus, F. Cuv. Nouv. Ann. Mus. t. 2. f. 3, cop. Temm. Monog. ii. 260. 
Hab. Malacca. 

10. Vespeetilio Oreias, Temm. Monog. ii. 270. 
Hab. Singapore ; Temm. 


1. Haepiocephalus rufus, Gray, Ann. Nat. Hist. 259. Vespertilio harpyia, Temm. Monog. ii. 219. 
t. 55. f. 5, 6. 

Hab. Java. B.M. 

2. Haepiocephalus tristis. Vespertilio tristis, Waterhouse, Pro. Zool. Soc, 1845, 3. 
Hab. Philippines; Cuming. 


1. Ehballonuea moniicola, Temm. Zijdschr. v. t. 2. f. 1, 2. 
Hab. Java. 


1. Taphozous saccolaimus, Temm. Monog. ii. 285. t. 60. f. 1, 6. 
Hab. Java, Sumatra, Celebes, Ternate. B. M. 

2. Taphozous PMlippinensis, Waterhouse, Pro. Zool. Soc., 1845. 9. 
Hab. Philippines ; Cuming. 

3. Taphozous melanqpogon, Temm. Monog. ii. 287. t. 60. f. 8, 9. Cantor, Mamm. Malay, 10. 
Hab. Java ; Temm. Pulo Tikus, Pulo Lancavy, Malayan peninsula ; Cantor. Caves of Kannera. B. M. 



1. Cheieoheles torquatus, Horsf. Java; Temm. Dysopes cheiropus, Temm. Mono//, ii. t. 17. t. 23. 
f. 15. Molossus cheiropus, Lesson. Cheirorneles caudatus, Temm. Monog. ii. 348. t. 66. 

Hab. Java, Sumatra, Borneo. B. M. 


1. Nyctixomus plicatus, Gray, Mag. Zool. and Bot. ii. 18. VespertiMo plicatus, Buchann. Linn. 
Trans, v. 1. 13. Nyct. Bengalensis, Geoff. Nyct. tenuis, Horsf. Java, fide spec. Horsf. ; Cantor, Mamm. 
Malay, ii. ; Waterliouse, Pro. Zool. Soc, 1845, 10. Nyct. dilatatus, Horsf. Java, fide spec. Horsf. 

Hab. India, Bengal, Malayan peninsula ; Cantor. Philippines ; Cuming. Java, Sumatra, Borneo. B.M. 


1. Pteeopus Edwardsii, Geoff., Ann. Mus. xv. P. medius. 
Var. ? P. Edwardsii, var. Waterhouse, Pro. Zool. Soc., 1843, 67. 
Hab. India, Ceylon, Madagascar. Var. Philippines ; Cuming. 

2. Pteeopus edulis, Geoff. Ann. Mus. xv. ; Temm. P. Javanicus, Horsf. Java. 
Hab. Java, Sumatra, Banda. B. M. 

3. Pteeopus funereus, Temm. Monog. ii. 68. t. 35. f. 4. 
Hab. Sumatra, Borneo, Amboina, Timor. B. M. 

4. Pteeopus jubatus, Eschscholtz, Zool. Atl. 1. 16 ; Waterhouse, Pro. Zool. Soc., 1843, 67. P. pyrrho- 
cephalus, Meyer, Nov. Act. Nat. Cur. xvi. t. 45. f. 6. 

Hab. Pliilippines ; Meyer; Cuming. 

5. Pteeopus Phaiops, Temm. Monog. ii. t. 35. f. 3. 
Hab. Celebes, Amboina, Banda. 

6. Pteeopus chrysoproctus, Temm. Monog. ii. t. 34. f. 2. 
Hab. Amboina. 

7. Pteeopus Alecto, Temm. Monog. ii. 75. 
Hab. Celebes. 

8. Pteeopus griseus, Geoff. ; Temm. Monog. i. t. 35. 
Hab. Amboina, Timor. 

9. Pteeopus Maclotii, Temm. Monog. ii. t. 35. f. 5. 
Hab. Timor. 


10. Pteropus personalis, Temm. Honor/, i. 
Hab. Ternate. 

11. Pteropus pallidus, Temm. Monog. i. ; Fischer, Syn. 84. 
Hab. Banda, Sumatra. 


1. Xantharpya amplexicaudata, Gray. Pteropus amplexicaudatus, Geoff.; Temm.Monog. i. 1. 13. 
Hab. Timor, Java, Sumatra, Amboina ?, Philippines ; Cuming ; Belcher. B. M. 


1. Cynopterus marginatus, Gray, List Hamm. Brit. Mus. 38. Pteropus titthascheilus, Temm. Pa- 
cliysoma titthecheilum, J. Geoff. ; Mullet: Vespertilio marginatus, Hamilton (Buchannan) . 

Hab. Java, Sumatra, India, Nepal. Plulippines ; Cuming. B. M. 

2. Cynopterus Rorsfieldii, Gray, List Mamm. Brit. Mus. 38. Pachysoma rnelanocephalum, Mutter. 
Pteropus marginatus, Horsf. Java, not Hamilton. 

Hab. Java. B. M. 

3. Cynopterus brevicaudatus. Pachysoma brevicaudatum, /. Geoff. 
Hab. Sumatra; Cuming. Philippines; Cuming. B. M. 

4. Cynopterus brachyotis. Pachysoma brachyotis, Mutter, Verh. 
Hab. Borneo. 

24. MEG^EA. 

1. Meg^ra ecaudata, Temm. Monog. ii. ; Mutter, Verh. Pachysoma ecaudata, Temm. Monog. ii. 
Hab. Sumatra. 


1. Macroglossus minimus, Gray, Mag. Zool. and Bot. ii. ; Waterhouse, Pro. Zool. Soc., 1843, 67. 
Pteropus minimus, Geoff. Ann. Mus., xv. 335. P. rostratus, Horsf. Macroglossus kiodotes and M. 
Horsfieldii, Lesson. 

Hab. Java, Sumatra, Borneo, Celebes, Amboina, Banda, Timor. Philippines ; Cuming. B. M. 


1. Harpyia cephalotis. Harpyia Pallasii, Temm. Monog. ii. t. 40. Cephalotis Pallasii, Geoff. Ann. 
Mus. xv. Vespertilio cephalotis, Pallas, Spic. Zool. iii. 1. 12. 
Hab. Celebes, Amboina. 



1. Cephalotes Peronii, Geoff. Ann. Mus. xv. t. 7. Pteropus Palliatus, Geoff. Hypoderma Moluc- 
censis, Quoy and Gaim. Toy. Astrol. 

Hab. Amboina, Banda, Timor, Celebes. B. M. 

Order II. FERvE. 

Fam. 1. FELIM. 


1. Tigris regalis, Gray. Eelis Tigris, Linn.; Mutter, Verli. 52; Cantor, Mamm. Malay, 35. 
Hab. Java and Sumatra. Malayan peninsula ; called Harimau or Rimau. India. B. M. 


1. Leopardus varius, Gray. Eelis pardus, Linn. E. varia, Schreb. E. Panthera, Erxleh. F. ehaly- 
beata, Herm. E. antiquorum, Fischer. E. fusca, Meyer. F. nirm, Fhrenb. E. melas, Peron. 

Hab. Java and Sumatra. Malayan peninsula ; called Remau Bintang ; Cantor. India. B. M. 

2. Leopardus macrocelis. Felis macrocelis, Temm. ; Horsf. Eelis nebulosa, Griffith, A. K. Rimau 
dahau, Raffles, Linn. Trans, xiii. 

Hab. Sumatra and Borneo. 

3. Leopardus marmoratus, Gray, List Mamm. Brit, Mus. 42. Felis marmoratus, Martin, Pro. 
Zodl. Soc. Cantor, Mamm. Malay, 36. Eelis Diardii, Fischer, Sym. Mamm; Jardine, Cats, t. 21, 22. 
Felis Charltonii, Gray, Ann. Nat. Hist, xviii. 1846, 211. 

Hab. Malayan peninsula ; called Rimau dahau ; Cantor. Nipal ; Charlton. B.M. 

4. Leopardus Javensis, Gray, List Mamm. Brit. Mus. 43. Eelis Javensis, Horsf. Java ; Cantor, 
Mamm. Malay, 36. E. Diardii, Griffith, A.K. t. 85 ; F. Cuv. Mamm. Lit A. F. minuta, var. Temm. ; Fischer ; 
Mutter, Verh. 54. F. undulata, Schinz. 

Hab. Java, Borneo, Penang, Malay peninsula. B. M. 

5. Leopabuus Sumatranus. Felis Sumatrana, Horsf. Java. F. minuta, var., Temm. F. undulata, 

Hab. Sumatra. B.M. 

6. Leopardus megalotis. Eelis megalotis, Mutter, Verh. 54. 
Hab. Timor. 

7. Leopardus Temminckii. Eelis Temminckii, Vigors. Zool.Joum. iv. 451. t. 22. 
Hab. Sumatra; Vigors. B.M. 



3. FELIS. 

1. Felis domestica, Linn. ; Cantor, Mamm. Malay, 38. 

Hab. Domesticated in the Malay peninsula ; called Kuching ; Cantor. B. M. 

4. CHAUS. 

1. Chatjs planiceps, Gray, List Mamm. Brit. Mus. 44. Felis planiceps, Vigors and Horsf. Zool. 
Java, vii. t. 2. F. Diardii, Orawfurd. 

Hab. Sumatra, Borneo, Malayan peninsula; called Kucliing utan or Jalang ; Cantor. B. M. 


1 . Vivekra Zibetha, Linn. ; Gray, Pro. Zool. Soc, 1832, 63 ; Catitor, Mamm. Malay, 27 . V. undu- 
lata, Gray, Spic. Zool. 9. t. 8 (1830). V. melanur us, Hodgson. Y. orientals, Hodgson. V. civettoides, 
Hodgson. V. Tangalunga, 1. c. 53. V. Zibetha, F. Guv. Mamm. Lith. Civett (undescribed), M'Clelland, 
Calcutta Joicm. Nat. Hist. Zibet, Bnffon, Hist. Nat. ix. t. 34. 

Hab. Malayan peninsula, Penang, Singapore ; called Tanggallong ; Cantor. Bengal, Nepal, Siam, 
South China, Sumatra, Borneo, Celebes, Amboina. B. M. 

2. Viverra Tangalunga, Gray,Pro. Zool. Soc, 1832, 63. V. Zibetha, Raffles; F. Guv. Mamm. Lith. 

Hab. Sumatra ; Raffles. Borneo, Celebes, Amboina, Philippines, Penang, Singapore, Malayan penin- 
sula; called Musang jibat ; Cantor. B. M. 

3. Viverra Malaceensis, Graelin. V. gunda, Hamilton. V. Basse, Horsf. Java; Midler, Verk. 
V. Indica, Geoff. V. Bengalensis, Gray. V. pallida, Gray. V. Leveriana, Shaw. Genetta Manillensis, 
Eydoux. Viverricula Malaceensis, Cantor, Mamm. Malay, 29. 

Hab. Java, Malayan peninsula, Singapore, China, Philippine Islands, Cochin China, Tenasserim, 
India, Bengal, Nepal, Hindostan, Bombay. B. M. 


] . Linsang gracilis, Muller, Verh. Felis (Prionodon) gracilis, Horsf. Java. Prionodon gracilis, 
Water -liouse, Pro. Zool. Soc, 1842,114; Cantor, Mamm,. Malay, 29. Viverra ? Linsang, Hardw. Linn. 
Trans. Viverra Hardwickii, Lesson., not Gray. V. Genetta, Deschamp. Paradoxurus prehensilis, Schinz. 

Hab. Java, Sumatra ; Muller. Borneo, Malayan peninsula, Siam ; Cantor. B. M. 


1. Herpestes Javanicus, Desm. ; Gray, List Mamm. Brit. Mm. 51; Muller, Verh.; Cantor, 
Mamm. Malay, 38. Mangusta Javanica, Horsf . Zool. Java. Mustek? glauca, Linn. M. galera, Besch. 
Hab. Java ; Horsf. Penang, Malayan peninsula ; Cantor. B. M. 


2. Heepestes griseus, Desm. Mamm.; Cantor, Mamm. Malay, 34. Ichneumon griseus, Geoff. 
Mangusta grisea, Fischer. M. Malaccensis, Fischer, Syn. Mamm. H. Edwardsii, Fischer. M. Nyula, 
Hodgson. H. ? pallidus, Schinz. 

Hab. Malayan peninsula ; Cantor. Bengal, Hindostan, Scinde, Nepal. B. M. 

3. Heepestes iVe^e/m.j, Gray, Mag. Nat. Hist. Mangusta auropunctata, Hodgson. Herpestes auro- • 
punctata, Hodgson; Cantor, Mamm. Malay, 34. H. Javanica, Hodgson, not Horsf. H. Edwardsii, Ogilby. 

Hab. Malayan peninsula ; Cantor. Bengal ? Nepal ? Scinde ? Afghanistan ? B. M. 

4. Heepestes irachyurus, Gray, in Bond. Mag. Nat. Hist, new Series, i. 1836, 578. Cantor, Mamm. 
Malay, 35. (Plate III.) 

Black hairs, yellow-ringed ; under fur brown ; face, cheeks, and sides of neck yellower ; 
belly and tail darker ; throat pale yellow-brown ; forelegs and feet blackish ; tail thick, 
about half as long as the body. 

Hab. Malaccas, Malayan peninsula ; called musang turon ; Cantor. Borneo. B. M. 

This species has much the appearance of H. pdludosus, of South Africa, but is easily 
known by the yellower colour of the rings on the hair, and the shortness of the tail. 

5. Heepestes semitorquatus, Gray, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist, xviii. 211. (1846). (Plate IV.) 
Dark brown, yellow grisled ; sides and beneath rufous ; feet blacker ; tail paler ; lips 

thin ; throat and lower part of the side of the neck rufous, separated from the colour of 
the upper part of the neck by a well-defined straight line ; fur rather rigid, with a fine 
brown undercoat ; longer hair of the back dark brown, with a broad reddish yellow, sub- 
terminal band ; of the sides bright red-bay ; of tail pale yellow, with a broad dark band and 
yellowish tip. Length, head and body 18.6; tail 11 inches. 
Hab. Borneo. B.M. 


1. Ctsogale Benneiti, Gray, Mag. Nat. Hist. 1836, 1. 579 ; Pro. Zool. Soc, 1836, 56 ; Eydoux and 
Souleyet, Toy. Bonite Zool. 24. t. 6 ; Cantor, Mamm. Malay, 38. Potamophilus barbatus, Mutter, Zijdsch. 
N. G. v. 140 183; Terh. 115. 1. 17. "Viverra (Lhnictis) Carcharias, Blainville, Ann. Sci. Nat. viii. 279. 
t. 8 a. 

Hab. Borneo ; Mutter. Sumatra and Malayan peninsula ; called Pane ; Cantor. B. M. 


1. Abctictis Binturong, Eischer, Syn. Mamm. ; Cantor, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. xv. ; Mamm. Malay. 22. 
Yrverra? Binturong, Baffles, Linn. Trans, xiii. 253. Binturong, Farquhar, Icon. ined. Gray, Pro. Zool. 
Soc, 1831, 64. Paradoxuras albifrons, F. Cuvier. Ictides ater, F. Cuvier; Blainv. ; Calcutta Journ. Nat. 
Hist. iii. 210. Arctictis penicillata, Temm. 


Hab. Malacca; Far quhar, Raffles; called unturong. Tenasserim, Arracan, Assam, Bholan ; Buvaucell. 
Nipal ; Hodgson. Java and Sumatra ; Midler. B. M. 

10. PAGUMA. 

1. Paguma leucomystax, Gray, List Mamm. Brit. Mus. 55 ; Cantor, Mamm. Malay, 30. Paradoxurus 
leucornystax, Gray, Mag. Nat. Hist. 1836, 579; Temm.Monog. ii. t. 64. f. 4, 6; Midler, Verh. 55. Am- 
blyodon auratus, Jourdan. 

Hab. Sumatra, Borneo; Midler. Malayan peninsula, Singapore ; called musang bidan ; Cantor. B.M. 

2. Paguma trivirgata, Gray, List Mamm. Brit. Mus. 59. Paradoxurus trivirgatus, Gray, Pro. Zool. 
Soc, 1832, 68; Midler, Verli. 55. Viverra trivirgata, Reinw. MSS.; Gray, Sjric.Zool. 9. 

Hab. Java; Mutter. Malayan peninsula, Singapore, and Tenasserim ; called musang a/car; Cantor. 


1. Paradoxurus Zeylanicus, Gray, List Mamm. Brit. Mus. 55. Martes Philippinensis, Camel, Phil. 
Trans, xxv. 2204. Viverra Ceylonica, Pallas. V. Zeylanica, Schreb. V. Ceylonensis. Bodd. Paradox- 
urus Philippinensis, Temm. Monog. ii. not Jourcl. P. aureus, F. Cuv. Mem. Mus. ix. 7. t. 4. 

Hab. Philippines. B. M. 

2. Paradoxurus Pallasii, Gray, Pro. Zool. Soc., 1832, 67 ; Illust. Lnd. Zool. P. albifrons, Bennett, 
MSS. Viverra ? fasciata, Besm. V. Geoflroyii, Fischer. P. Musanga, Cantor, Mamm. Malay, 34. 

Hab. Malacca, Malayan peninsula, Penang, Singapore ; called musang ; Cantor. B. M. 

3. Paradoxurus Musanga, Gray, Pro. Zool. Soc, 1832, 66; Mutter, Yerh. 54. Viverra Musanga, 
Raffles; Horsf. P. dubius, Gray, I.e. 66. 

Hab. Java, Sumatra, Borneo. B. M. 


1. Hejiigalea HardwicMi. Viverra Hardwickii, Gray, Spic. Zool. 9 (1830), not Lesson. Hemi- 
galea Zebra, Jourdon, Comp. Rendus, 1837, 442 ; Blainv. in Ann. Sci. Nat. viii. 270 {not Hemigaleus, 
Mutter). Viverra Boiei, S. Mutter, Tijdsch.N G. v. 144. Paradoxurus Derbianus, Gray, Pro. Zool. Soc. 
1837, 67 ; Mag. Nat. Hist. 1837, f. 579 ; Cantor, Mamm. Malay, 32 ; Waterhouse, Pro. Zool. Soc, 1842, 
114; Viverra Derbyi, "Gray" fide Temm. Monog. Mamm. 1841. ii. 343 ; Eydoux and Souleyet Yoy. Bonite, 
28. t. 5. Paradoxurus Zebra, Gray, Mag. Nat. Hist. 1837, 579. 

Hab. Malacca; Farquhar. Malayan peninsula ; called masang batu or sangah prao ; Cantor. Borneo; 
Mutter. B.M. 

13. CUON. 

1. Cuon primavns, Hodgson, Trans. Asiat. Soc. ; Cantor, Mamm. Malay, 26. Canis primsevus, 
Hodgson. Chrysams primsevus, H. Smith. Canis Dukhunensis, Syies, Pro. Zool. Soc. 

Hab. Malayan peninsula ; called anjing utan ; Cantor. Bengal, Nipal. B. M. 


2. Cuon Sumatrensis. Canis Sumatrensis, Hardw. Linn. Trans, xiii. t. 23. Canis rutilans, Bote 
MSS. ; Mutter, Verh. 51. C. Javanicus, F. Cuvier. 

Hab. Java, Sumatra? Borneo. B. M. 

Is this different from the former, or does the Malacca specimen belong to this species ? 

14. MAETES. 

1. Maetes flavigula, Hodgson; Cantor, Mamm. Malay, 24. Mustek flaviguk, Bodd. Mustek 
Hardwickii, Horsf. Zool. Joum. Viverra quadricolor, Shaw. Must, leucotis, H. Smith. M. Henrici, 
Bme. M. lasiotis, Temm. 

Hab. Java, Sumatra; Temm. Malay peninsula ; called angaprao; Cantor. India, Nepal. B. M. 


1. Putoeius nudipes, F. Cuvier ; Cantor, Mamm. Malay, 24. Mustek nudipes, Besm. 
Hab. Sumatra, Borneo ; Temm. Malayan peninsula ; called pulosan ; Cantor. 

16. MYDAUS. 

1. Mydaus meliceps, F. Cuvier. Mephetis Javanensis, Raffles. Ursus fcetidus, Besck. 
Hab. Java and Sumatra. B. M. 


1. Helictis orientalis. Gulo orientahs, Horsf. 
Hab. Sumatra. B. M. 

18. LUTEA. 

1. Lutba nair, F. Cuvier ; Sylces; Cantor, Mamm. Malay. 25. Lutra Indica, Gray. L. Chinensis, 
Gray, Mag. Nat. Hist. 1836. L. Tarayensis, Hodgson. 

Hab. Malayan peninsula ; Cantor; called anjin ayer. China, Bombay, South Mahratta. 

2. Ltjtra ? Simung, Muller, Verh. 51 ; Marsden's Sumatra, 1. 12. 

Hab. Sumatra, Borneo ; Temm. Malayan peninsula ; called murang or amrang ; Cantor. 

19. AONYX. 

1. Aontx leptonyx, Gray, List Brit. Mus. 71 ; Cantor, Mamm. Malay. 25. A. Horsfieldii, Gray. 
Lutra leptonyx, Horsf. ; Muller, Verh. 51. L. cinerea, Hliger. L. perspicillata, /. Geoff. Mustek fusca, 
Besch. Mustek Lutra, Marsden. 

Hab. Java, Sumatra, Borneo. India, Nepal, Malayan peninsula ; called anjin ayer ; Cantor. 



Farm 6. URSID^E. 

1. Helarctos Malay amis, Horsf. ; Cantor, Mamm. Malay. 21. Ursus Malayanus, Raffles. 

Hab. Sumatra; Raffles. Malayan Peninsula; called bruang. Tenasserim Provinces, Assam ; Cantor. 
B. M. 

Var. /3. H. Furyspilus, Horsf. Zool. Joum. i. 221. t. 7. U. Malayanus var. Temm. 
Hab. Borneo. B. M. 

Fain. 7. TALPLLVE. 

1. Ttjpaia Javanica. Hylogalea Javanica, Horsf. Java; Mutter, Verh. 161. 165. t. 26. f. 27. 
Cerp, F. Oimier, Mamm. Lith. 

Hab. Java, Sumatra, and Borneo. B. M. 

2. Tavaia ferruginea, Baffles, Linn. Trans, xiii. 256; Cantor, Mamm. Malay. 18; Horsf. Java. 
Hylogalea ferruginea, Temm. Cladobates ferruginea, F. Cuvier. Glisorex ferruginea, Desm. ; Mutter, Verh. 
160.163. t. 26. 27. Herpestes n. sp. M'Clelland, Calcutta Joum. Nat. Hist. ii. 458. 1. 13^. Sorex 
Glis, Diard. As. Research, xiv. t. 9. 

Hab. Java, Sumatra, Borneo ; Temm. Malayan peninsula, Penang, Singapore ; called tupai tana ; 
Cantor. B. M. 

3. Tupaia Tana, Raffles, Linn. Trans, xiii. 257 ; Horsf. Zool. Java. Hylogalea Tana, Mutter, Verh. 

160. 161. t. 26. 27. Cladobates speciosus, Wagner, Sought. Supp. 43. 

Hab. Sumatra, Borneo. B. M. 


1. Dendrogale murina, Gray, Pro. Zool. Soc, 1848, 23. Hylogalea murina, Mutter, Verh. p. 50. 

161. 167. t. 26. 27. 

Hab. Borneo. 


Head moderately large, tapering ; whiskers elongated, rather rigid. Ears moderate, 
naked, exposed. Body slender, fur soft. Limbs moderately elongated, nearly equal. Toes 
5.5. rather compressed, free. Thumb moderate, like the toes but shorter. Claws short, 
compressed, triangular, acute. Tail elongate, cylindrical, hairy quite at the base, then naked, 
covered with rings of square, broad, depressed scales, and short scattered hairs, and the 
hinder third with a series of elongate hairs, forming a barb on each side. Skull conical ; 


face rather short. Cutting teeth ~~ ■. upper elongate, far apart, rather curved ; lower 
shelving, front pair conical, small, shorter than the middle pair, which are elongate, curved, 
acute , the hinder smallest and shortest. Canines none. Grinders £=, the front 3.3 in each 
jaw, small ; the hinder 4.4 large, square, acutely tubercular. 

The skull is shorter, broader, and the face less elongated than that of the different 
species of Tupaia, and it differs from them in the two front teeth of the lower jaw being 
smaller and shorter than the succeeding one, while in all the species of Tupaia (including the 
genus Dendrogale) figured by Temminck, the four front teeth of the lower jaw are equally 
elongated. The hinder cutting tooth in the upper jaw is placed on the suture of the inter- 
maxillary (and hence may be a true canine) and not in front of the suture of the inter- 
maxillary, as is the case with the skull of Tupaia tana and T. ferruginea in the British 
Museum collection. 

Borneo may be regarded as the proper home of the subfamily Tupaina, as it possesses 
all the genera, Tupaia, Hylomys, and one which, from the form of its tail, may be called 

The true Tupaia have a broad hairy tail like the squirrels ; the Hylomys have a very short, 
slender, cylindrical tail, covered with short close adpressed hair ; and the Ptilocercus, on the 
other hand, have an elongated cylindrical tail, covered with rings of square broad scales, 
like the long-tailed rats, but the end of the tail is furnished with a series of rigid hairs on 
each side, like the barb of an arrow. I may remark, that besides the genera here noticed, 
the Dutch naturalists have described an animal under the name of Hylogalea murina, Verh. 
Mamm. t. 26. f. 3. t. 27. f. 17-18, also from Borneo, which differs from the Tupaia (or 
Hylogale) in having a cylindrical tail covered with short hair, but furnished with a pencil of 
longer hair at the tip, which I propose to separate from the other under the name of Dendro- 
gale. Each of these genera has a peculiar livery ; the Tupaia are grizzled yellow and brown, 
with a yellow streak across the shoulders ; the Hylomys are uniform dark-coloured ; the 
Dendrogale and Ptilocercus have no shoulder-streak, but a dark streak on the side of the 
face inclosing the eyes ; the former having a white spot on the forehead not observed in the 

At first sight Ptilocercus has much the appearance of a marsupial animal allied to 
Cuscus, but this resemblance proves to be only in the mere external form, when the characters 
are examined, as, for example, it wants the large great-toe of that group. 

The skulls of Tupaia and Ptilocercus have a considerable resemblance to those of the 
LemuridcB, and particularly in having the orbits entire. The Tupaia are peculiar in having 
a large elongated aperture on the hinder-part of the middle of the zygomatic arch, while the 
Ptilocercus has only a small round perforation in the front part of the middle of the same 
part, which is probably the analogue of the hole in the former genus. 


1. Ptilocercus Loivii, Gray, Pro. Zool. Soc, 1848, 24. (Plate V.) 

Blackish brown, very minutely grizzled with the yellowish tips of the hairs ; lips, lower 
part of cheeks, chin and beneath yellowish : sides of the face, inclosing the eyes, black. Tail 
black ; barbs white, except a few hairs near the scaly part, which are black. 

Length 5& inches ; tail 6^; hind foot 1. Skull: length 1" 4'" tooth line, 7|"'; of 
face 5'" ; of zygomatic arch 7f, width at zygomatic arch 9^'", at temples 6^"', between 
orbits 3f". 

Hab. Borneo (Sarawak) ; J. Brooke, Esq. B. M. 

I have named this species after my friend Mr. Hugh Low, who has much enriched our 
knowledge of the natural productions of Borneo. 


1. Hylomys suillus, Muller, Verh. 50. 153. t. 25, 26. 
Hab. Java and Sumatra. B. M. 

5. SOREX. 

1. Sokex myosurus, Pallas. S. cserulescens var., Raffles. S. murinus, Linn.; Cantor, Mamm. 
Malay. 21. 

Hab. Java, Sumatra, Borneo, Amboina, Penang ; called chinchorot ; Cantor. B. M. 

2. Sorex tenuis, Muller, Verh. 50. 
Hab. Timor. 


1. Gymnura Rafflesii, Lesson ; Vigors and Horsfield ; Cantor, Mamm. Malay. 26. Viverra ? Rafflesii, 

Hab. Malacca; Farquhar; Cantor. Sumatra. B. M. 

Yar. Bomeensis. G. Rafflesii var., Waterhouse, Pro. Zool. Soc., 1842, 114. 

Hab. Borneo. /. Brooke, Esq. 

Tarn. 8. MACROPOD^E. 


1. Curstts orientalis, Gray, List. Mamm. Brit. Mus. 84. Phalangista cavifrons, Temm. Mon. i. 1. 1. 
Didelphis orientalis, Linn. Ph. rufa and Ph. alba, Geoff. 

Hab. Amboina, Timor. B. M. 

Capt. Sir Edward Belcher brought home a female specimen of this species which is now 
in the British Museum. 


2. Cuscus ursinus, Lesson, Mamm. 219. Phalangista ursina, Temm. Monog. i. 10. 1. 1. t. 2. 
Hab. Celebes ; Temm. B. M. 

3. Cuscus chrysorrhos. Phalangista chrysorrhos, Temm. Monog. i. 12. 1. 1. 
Hab. Amboina. 

4. Cuscus maculata, Lesson, Zool. Coq. i. t. 5. Phalangista maculata, Temm. Monog. i. 14. t. 2. 
Hab. Amboina, New Guinea. 

Order III. CETE. 

1. STENO. 

1. Steno Malayanus, Gray, Zool. Erebus and Terror, 43. Delphinus plumbeus, Dussumier ; Cuvier. 
R. A. i. 288 ; Cantor, Mamm. Malay. 66. D. Malayanus, Lesson, Toy. Coq. t. 9. f. 5. D. Capensis, Rapp, 
Cetac. t. 2. f. 1 (not Gray). D.Eappii, Reich, Cetac. 117. 48. 1. 18. f. 57. D. & ventre roux, Voy. Pol. 
Sud. t, 22. f. 2. t. 23. f. 3, 4. 

Hab. Coast of Penang ; called paramjman laut; Cantor. Malabar Coast. B. M. 



1. Halicore dugung, P. Cuvier. Hahcore Indicus, Desm. ; Cantor, Mamm. Malay. 66 ; Owen 
Inhes, Voy. H.M.8. Fly, ii. 323. f. 2, 4, 6. Trichechus dugong, Eixlei. Halicore cetacea, Huger. H. 
dugong, Cuvier; Raffles. Dugong, Home, Phil. Trans. 1821. t. 20. Dugungus marinus, Tiedemann. 
Indian Walrus, Penn. 

Hab. Malayan peninsula, Singapore; called dugong or parampuan laut; Cantor. Sumatra, Philip- 
pines, Molucca, Sunda Island. 

Order IV. GLIRES. 

Fam. 1. MURINE. 

1. MUS. 

1. Mus setifer, Horsf. Zool. Java; Gray, Pro. Zool. Soc, ii. 40 ; Cantor, Mamm. Malay. 46. M. 
giganteus, jun., Temm. 

Hab. Java, Sumatra; Temm. Penang; called lihusvirok; Cantor. 



2. Mus Bandicota, Bechstein; Cantor, Mamm. Malay. 45. M. giganteus, Hardw. Linn. Trans. 
Temm. M. Malabaricus, Shaw. M. perchal, Shaw. M. Jcria, Buck, Ham. MSS. M. nemorivagus, 
Hodgson. Bandicote Bat, Penn. 

Hab. Java, Sumatra, Malay peninsula ; called tikus hesar ; Cantor. Bengal, Nepal, South Mahratta 
country. B. M. 

3. Mus decumatius, Pallas, Glires, 91 ; Cantor, Mamm. Mala?/. 46. Mus Norvegicus, Brisson. 

Hab. Java, Sumatra, Banda, Borneo, Celebes, Amboina, Timor, Malayan peninsula, Penang; called 
tikus; Cantor. B. M. 

4. Mus nifescens, Gray, Mag. Nat. Hist. ; Cantor, Mamm. Malay. 46. M. flavescens, Elliot. M. 
rufus, Elliot. 

Hab. Penang ; Cantor. Dharwar, Madras, Bengal, Arracan. B. M. 

5. Mus musculus, Linn. ; Cantor, Mamm. Malay. 46. 
Hab. Penang ; called tikus ruma ; Cantor. B.M. 


1. PHLiEOMYS Cumingii. Mus (Phlseoniys) Cumingi, Waterhouse, Pro. Zool. Soc, 1839, 108. 
Hab. Philippines, Island of Luzon. B. M. 


1. Pithechib melanurus, P. Cuvier, Mamm. Lithog . 
Hab. Java. Only known from a drawing. 


1. Acanthion (Acantherium) Javanicum, Gray, Pro. Zool. Soc, 1847, 102. A. Javanicum, F. Cuv. 
Mamm. Mus. ix. 1. 1. f. 3, 4. Hystrix brevispinosus, Wagner. H. torquatus, Mus. Ley den. H. longi- 
cauda, Marsden, Sumatra ; Cantor, Mamm. Malay. 48. H. macroura, Muller, Terh. 

Hab. Java, Borneo, Sumatra, Malayan peninsula; called buli landac; Cantor. B. M. 


1. Ktrvwra. fasciculata, Cuvier ; Gray, Pro. Zool. Soc., 1847, 104. Hystryx macroura, Linn, from 
Seba. H. fasciculata, Shaw from Buffon ; Gray, Illust. hid. Zool. 6 ; Temm. Mus fasciculata, JDesm. 
Landak, Marsden, Sumatra ; Baffles, Linn. Trans. H. opeigura, Hamilton, MSS. ; As. Research, xiv. 222. 

Hab. Sumatra ; Raffles. Borneo, Celebes ; Seba. Penang ; called landak ; Cantor. 


Fam. 3. LEPORIDiE. 

1. LEPUS. 

1. Lepus hirgosa, Buckan. Mysore, i. 169. Lepus nigricollis, F. Cuvier; Mutter, ferh. L. mela- 
naucken, Temm. L. ruficolks, Mus. Paris. 
Hab. Java; Mutter. India. B. M. 

Fam. 4. JERBOIDiE. 

1. Pteeomys nitidus, Muller, Yerli. 107. 112. S. petaurista, fern., Cuvier, Reg. Anim. P. albo- 
venter, Gray, Pro. Zool. Soc., 1836, 88. 

Hab. Java, Sumatra, Borneo. B. M. 

2. Pteeomts elegans, Muller, Ferh. 56. 107. 112. 1. 16. f. 1, 2, 3. Pteromys punctatus, Gray, Ann. 
and Mag. Nat. Hist, xviii. 1846, 211. P. nitidus, var., Cantor, Mamm. Malay. 44, note. 

Hab. Java; Temm. Molucca; Cantor. B. M. 

3. Pteeomts melanotis, Gray, Pro. Zool. Soc., 1836, 88. P. nitidus, Gray, Hhist.Ind. Zool. 
P. Diardii, Temm. MSS. 

Hab. Siam. B. M. 


1. Sctukopteeus FLorsfieMii, Gray, List. Mamm. Brit. Mus. 134; Cantor, Mamm. Malay. 45. 
Pteromys (Sciuropterus) Horsfieldii, Waterhouse, Pro. Zool. Soc., 1837, 87. P. aurantiacus, Wagner, 
Weigm. Arch. 1843. 

Hab. Malacca ; Gray. Malayan peninsula ; Cantor. Sumatra ? or Java ? Waterhouse. B. M. 

2. ScruEOFTEEUS sagitta, Desm. Pteromys sagitta, Geoff r, Muller, Ferh. 109, 113. Petaurista 
sagitta, IAnk. Sciurus sagitta, Schreh. Supp. t. 224. 

Hab. Java, Sumatra, Banka. 

3. ScnmoPTEETJS genibarbis, Cantor, Mamm. Malay. 48. Pteromys genibarbis, Horsjleld, Zool. Java. 
P. lepidus, Horsf. Java. 

Hab. Java; called keehubu ; Horsf. Malayan peninsula ; Cantor. B. M. 


1. Sciuetjs Javensis, Schreb. Gaugth. t. 216. Sciurus bicolor, Sparrm., Goetheb. Handl. 1778. 70. 
Horsf. Zool. Java ; Muller, Ferh. 85, 88 ; Cantor, Mamm. Malay. 38. S. Bemgmaricus, M'Clelland. 
S. Madagascariensis, Shaw. 


Hab. Java, Sumatra, Malacca, Cochin China, Assam; Temm. Penang; called chingkrawah etam. 

2. Sciueus ephippium, S. Mailer, Tijdsch. N. G. 1838, 147 ; Verh. 86. 91. 1. 13 ; Waterhouse, Pro. 
Zool. Soc, 1842, 116. S. Javensis, var. ? 

Hab. Borneo ; Brooke. B. M. 

3. Sciueus hypoleucus, Horsfield, Zool. Java; Midler, Verh. 85, 90. S. humeralis, Coulson? 
S. Finlaysonii, Horsf. Z. R. S. aureventer, /. Geoff. Guerin. Mag. Zool. 1841, t. 5 ; 1842, t.34. S. Lesche- 
naultii, Desm. JV. Diet. if. N. x. 105. S. albiceps, Desm. 

Hab. Java. B. M. 

4. Sciueus aureiventer, J. Geoff.; Gray. S. bicolor, var., Horsfield; Cantor, Mamm. Malay. 39. 
,Hab. Java. B.M. 

5. Sciueus hippuris, J. Geoff. Mag. Zool. 1832. t. 6. S. caudatus, M'Clelland, Pro. Zool. Soc., 1839, 
151 ; Cantor, Mamm. Malay. 41 ; Midler, Verh. 86. 

Var. 1. S. rufog aster, Gray. 

Var. 2. S. castaneoventris, Gray, fide Cantor. 

Hab. Java, Sumatra, Assam ; Cantor. B. M. 

6. Sciueus Rafflesii, Vigors and Horsf. Zool. Joum. iv. 113, t. 4 ; Midler, Verh. 56. 86. 93 ; Cantor, 
Mamm. Malay. 40 ; Gervais, Mag. Zool. 1842, t. 33. S. Prevostii, Desm. Mam. 335. 

Var. 1. S. rufogularis, Gray. 

Var. 2. S. rvfoniger, Gray. 

Var. 3. S. redimitus, Boon. 

Var. 4. S. Bomoensis, S. Rafflesii, var., Waterhonse, Pro. Zool. Soc., 1842, 116. 

Var. 5. S. Indica, Muller, Verh. 86. 

Hab. Borneo. Malacca; called tupai belang; Cantor. B.M. 

7. Sciueus nigrovittatus, Horsf. Zool. Java ; Muller, Verh. 86. 95 ; Cantor, Mamm. Malay, 42. S. 

griseiventer, J. Geoff. Mag. Zool. 1832. 

Hab. Java, Sumatra, Borneo, Malacca, Canton ; Temm. Malayan Peninsula ; Cantor. B. M. 

8. Sciueus Platani, Zool. Java. S. bilineatus, Geoff. Desm. Mamm. 336. S. notatus, Bodd. 
Hab. Java, Sumatra. B. M. 

9. Sciueus tenuis, Horsf. Java, Cantor, Mamm. Malay. 42. Var. ? Sciurus modestus, Muller, Verh. 
55. 87. 96. t.14. f.l. 3. 

Hab. Sumatra, Borneo, Malacca, and Canton. Singapore ; Cantor. B. M. 


10. Sciurus vittatus, Raffles, Linn. Tram. xiii. 259 ; Midler, Verh. 86, 94 ; Cantor, Mamm. Malay. 
42. Macroxus Toupai, Lesson. Sciurus bivittatus, Desm. Mamm. 543 ? S. flavimanus, J. Geoff. 

Hab. Sumatra, Borneo, Malacca; Cantor; Temm. Malayan peninsula, Singapore, Penang; called 

11. Sciurus rubiventer, Porsten; Mutter, Verh. 86. 
Hab. Celebes. 

12. Sciurus leucomus, Porsten; Mtiller, Verh. 87. 
Hab. Celebes. 

13. Sciurus murinus, Porsten ; S. Mutter, Verh. 87. 
Hab. Celebes. 

14. Sciurus Philippinensis, Waterliouse, Pro.Zool.8oc., 1839, 117. Sciurus, Citming, Pro. Zool.Soc. 
1838, 66. 

Hab. Philippines, Mindanado. 

15. Sciurus insignis, Desm., Mamm. 544 ; Horsf. Zool. Java; F.Cuv. Mamm. ; Mutter, Verh. 87, 93. 
Grev. Mag. Zool. 1842, t. 32. 

Hab. Java, Sumatra, Borneo ; Temm. China ? Reeves. B. M. 

16. Sciurus melanotis, S. Muller, Verh. 87, 98. 1. 14. f. 4, 5. 
Hab. Java, Sumatra, Borneo. B. M. 

17. Sciurus eccilis, S. Muller, Tijd. N. G. 148. Verh. 87. 97. 1. 15. f.4, 6. 
Hab. Sumatra, Borneo. B. M. 


1. Ehinosciurus Tupaioicles, Gray, List. Mamm. Brit. Mus. 195. Sciurus laticaudatus, var., Cantor, 
Mamm. Malay. 43. 

Hab. Malacca ; Gray. Malayan peninsula ; Cantor. B. M. 

Var. 1. Sciurus laticaudatus, Biarol.; Muller. Verh. 87. 100. 1. 15. f. 1. 3. 

Hab. Borneo (west coast). 

Fam. 7. ASPALACID^l. 

1. RHIZOMYS, Gray. 

1. Rhizomys Sumatrensis, Gray, Pro. Zool. Soc., 1831, 98 ; Cantor, Mamm. Malay. 47. R. Decan, 
Schinz. R. Sinensis, Cuming, Pro. Zool. Soc., 1848, 62 (not Gray). R. cinereus, M'Clelland, Calcut. 



Journ. Nat. Hist. ii. 456. 1. 14, Bamboo Rat, Farquhar, Icon. Mus Sumatrensis, Raffles, Linn. Trans. 
xiii. 258 ; Temm. Mus. Ley den. Hypudeus de Sumatra, Temminch, Monog. i. Nyctocleptis Dekan, 
Temminck, Monog. (very bad) ; Voy. Bonite. Rat Taupe de la Sonde, Cuvier, R. A. Spalax Javanus, 
Cuvier, R. A. ed. 2. i. 211. 

Hab. Malayan peninsula ; called tihis bulow ; Cantor. Malacca ; Farquhar ; Raffles. Assam ; 
Moulmein. (not Sumatra.) 


Fam. 1. BOVLM. 

1. BOS. 

1. Bos Taurus, var. Indicus, Linn. ; Cantor, Mamm. Malay . 65. 

Hab. Domesticated, Malay peninsula, ; called sapi; the bull, sapi jatan ; cow, sapi hetina ; Cantor. 

2. BIBOS. 

1. Bibos Gaurus, Hodgson, Icon. 1. 137; Gray, Cat. Hodgson Collection, 24. Bos Gaurus, H. Smit/i, 
Griffith, A.K. x. 894. Bos Gaur, Evans. Bos Gour, Trail, Edin. Phil. Journ. 1824; Cantor, Mamm. 
Malay. 64. Bisonius subheinachalensis, Hodgson, Icon. Bos Bubalus gauvera, Penn. Bibos cavifrons, 
Hodgson. The Bison, Lowe, Hist. Tenasserim. 

Hab. India, Malayan peninsula ; called sapi utan. Tenasserim, Hindostau, Assam, and Nepal ; 
Cantor. (Common.) B. M. 

2. Bibos Sondaicus. Bos Sondaicus, Mutter, Ferh. t. 35. Bos Bantinger, Temm. Mus. Leyden. B. 
frontalis, part, Fischer, Syn. 

Hab. Java, Borneo ; called bantinger. B. M. 

This species is very distinct from Bos frontalis and B. gaurus. 
Is the Sapi utan of Malacca this species, or B. gaurus ? 

3. BUBALUS, H. Smith. 

1. Bubalus Buffalus, Gray, List. Mamm. Brit. Mus. ; Catal. Hodgson Coll. 25. Bos Indicus, Pliny. 
Bos Bubalus, Linn. Bos Buffalus, Brisson. Bos arnee, Shaw. Bubalus Arna, Hodgson. Bubalus ferus 
Indicus, Hodgson. Wild Buffalo. 

Hab. Malay peninsula. Domesticated, Penang, Singapore; called karbau; Cantor. Tenasserim, 
Nepal, Southern China. 


4. ANOA. 

1. Anoa depressicornis, H. Smith, Griff. A. E. Bos (Anoa) depressicornis, Gray, Spic. Zool. VI. 
t. 11. f. 2, 3. Antelope platyceros, Temm. MSS. Mus. Leycl. (Skin.) A. Celebica, Temm. MSS. Mus. Leyd. 
(Skull). A. depressicornis, E. Smith, Griff. A. K. ; Midler, Verh. ; Ann. Sci. Nat. xix. 100. t. 10. 
Anoa compressicornis, Leach. Anoa Loten's, MSS. see Pennant Quad. 6. Annoa, Zimm. Geog. Zool. ii. 
93; Bound, Zool.Beitr. i. 703. ? Buffalo with small horns, Cuming, Pro. Zool. Soc, 1839, 93. 

Hab. Celebes (Philippines?). B.M. 


1. INTehorrhedus Sumatrensis, Gray, List. Mamm. Brit. Mus. Antelope Sumatrensis, Pennant, 
Shaw. Zool. ii. 354 ; Baffles. A. interscapularis, Lichst. Kambing utan, Marsden, Sumatra, 93. Camb- 
tan, F. Cuvier. 

Hab. Sumatra, Malayan peninsula ; called kambing utan. Tenasserim ; Cantor. (Common.) 


1. Tragultjs Javanicus, Pallas ; Gray; Cantor, Mamm. Malay, 61. Moschus Javanicus, Gmelin; 
Baffles ; Mutter. M. Indicus, Gmelin. Tragulus affinis, Gray. M. napu, F. Cuvier ? Napu, Baffles. 

Hab. Java; Mutter. Malayan peninsula; called napu; Cantor. B.M. 

%. Tragulus kanchil, Gray, List. Mamm. Brit. Mus. 173; Cantor, Mamm. Malay, 60. Moschus 
napu, Mutter. M. kanchil, Baffles ; Gray, Pro. Zool. Soc., 1836, 64. M. Pelandoc, Marsden; Baffles; 
H Smith. M. fulviventer, Gray, Pro. Zool. Soc., 1836, 65. 

Hab. Sumatra, Borneo ; Mutter. Malayan peninsula ; called kanchil or pelandok ; Cantor. B. M. 

We have received a variety of Memina Indicus (Moschus Memina) from Singapore, 
M. Malaccensis, List Mamm. Brit. Mus. 172, but Dr. Cantor does not mention it in his list 
of the Mammalia of the Malayan Peninsula, so that perhaps the animal had been imported 


1. Muntjacus vaginalis, Gray, List. Mamm. Brit. Mus. 173. Cervus muntjac, Zimm.; Mutter, 
Verh. C. vaginalis, Bodd. C. subcornutus and C. moschatus, Blainv. C. moschus, Besm. C. aureus, 
H. Smith. C. Phihppinus, H. Smith. C. Ratwa, Hodgson. C. albipes, F. Cuv. Styloceras muntjac, 
H.Smith; Cantor, Mamm. Malay, 61. Red-faced Deer, Marsden, Sumatra. 

Hab. Java, Sumatra, Banka, Borneo ; Mutter. Malayan peninsula; called kidang ; Cantor. Tenas- 
serim, Nepal, Assam, Dukhun, Bengal, and Southern Mahratta ; Cantor. B. M. 


8. AXIS. 

1. Axis maculatus, H. Smith ; Cantor, Mamm. Malay, 62. Cervus axis, Erxleb. C. nudipalpebra, 
Ogilby, Pro. Zool. Soc, 1831, 136. Axis major and A. minor, Hodgson. 

Var. Cervus pseudaxis, Zool. Bonite, 64. 

Hab. Malayan peninsula, Penang ; called rusa bunga; Cantor. Bengal, Assam, Nepal, Southern 
Mahratta. Ceylon and Sumatra (?) ; Cantor. Var. Philippine Islands. 

Not mentioned by Muller as a Sumatran species. 

9. EUSA. 

1. Rusa equina, H.Smith; Cantor, Mamm. Malay, 63. Cervus equinus, Cuvier, Os. Foss. Eusa 
etam or kumbang ; Cervus rusa, Raffles. C. Malaccensis, F. Cuv. Mamm. Lith. ? 

Hab. Sumatra, Borneo ; Muller. Malayan peninsula ; called rusa or rusa etam ; Cantor. 

2. Rusa Peronii? Cervus rusa, Muller, Yerh. 56, not Raffles. C. Peronii, Cuv. Os. Foss. t. 5. f. 41 ? 
C. axis, /3, Gmelin ? 

Hab. Java, Borneo. 

3. Eusa Molluccensis. Cervus Molluccensis, Muller, Fern. C. Timorensis, Geoff, and F. Cuvier, 
Mamm. LitJwg. ? 

Hab. Celebes? Boeroe, Amboina, Timor. 

4. Eusa Kuhlii, Muller, Verhand. t. 44. 
Hab. Island Baviaan; Muller. 

5. Eusa ? Mariannus. Cervus Mariannus, Quoy and Gaim. 
Hab. Philippines, Marianna Island ; Quoy. 

N.B. See also Tamaroo, Cuming, P. Z. S., 1840, 33, from Philippines ; what is it? 


1. Panolia Eedii, Gray; Cat. Hodgson Coll. 34. Panolia acuticornis, Gray, List. Mamm. Brit. Mus. 
P. platyceros, Gray, List. Mamm. Brit. Mus. Cervus (Eusa) frontalis, M'Clelland. C. lyratus, Sc/dnz. 
C. Eedii, M'Clelland, Calcutta Journ. N.H. p. 415. t, 12. 

Hab. Malayan Peninsula, Cantor. Munneepore. Animal, Mus. Ind. Company. Horns, B. M. 

Fam. 2. EQUID^E. 
1. EQUUS. 

Equus Caballus, Linn.; Cantor, Mamm. Malay. 59. 

Hab. Domesticated, Malayan peninsula; called kuda; Cantor. Imported from Siam, Burma, or 





1. Elephas Indicus, Linn. ; Mutter, Verh.; Cantor, Mamm. Malay, 52. E. maximus, Linn. E. 
Asiaticus, Blumenb. 

Hab. Sumatra, Borneo ; Mutter. Malayan peninsula ; called gagali ; Cantor. India, Borneo, Siam, 
Ceylon; Cantor. B. M. 


1. Tapieus Malay anus, Baffles, Horsf.; Cantor, 58. T. Indicus, /. Cuvier; Mutter, Verh. T. 
Sumatranus, Gray. T. bicolor, Wagner. 

Hab. Sumatra, Borneo; Mutter. Malayan peninsula ; Farquhar; called baclak, kuda ayer, or fenna; 
Cantor. B. M. 

3. SUS. 

1. Sus scrofa, var. Sinensis, Linn. ; Cantor, Mamm. Malay, 54. 
Hab. Domesticated, Malayan peninsula ; called babi ; Cantor. 

2. Sus Indicus, Gray, List. Mamm. Brit. Mus. 185; Cantor, Mamm. Malay. 53; Wagner. S. scrofa, 
Elliott. S. scropha, Hodgson. 

Hab. Malayan peninsula, Penang, Singapore, Lancavy Island ; called babi utan ; Cantor. Bengal, 

3. Sus villains, Schlegel; Mutter, Verh. 173. t. 29-32. f. 56. 
Hab. Java, Sumatra, Banka? 

4. Sus verrucosus, Muller, Yerh. 175. t. 28. t. 32. f. 1, 2, 3, 4. 
Hab. Java. B. M. 

5. Sus Celebensis, Muller, Verh. 177. t. 28 * f. 1, 2, 3. 
Hab. Celebes. B. M. 

6. Sus Timorensis, Muller, Verh. 178. t. 31. f. 1, 2, 3. 
Hab. Timor. 

7. Sus barbattcs, Muller, Verh. 179. t. 30. f. 1, 2. t. 31. f. 4, 5. 
Hab. Borneo. 

1. Babyeusa Alfurus, Lesson, Mamm. Sus Babyrussa, Erscleb. Aper orientalis, Brisson. 
Hab. Celebes. Ternate. B. M. 




1. Rhinoceros Unicornis, Linn. ; Cantor, Mamm. Malay, 54. R. Indicus, Cuvier. R. Asiaticus, 
Blumenb. R. inerrnis, Lesson. 

Hab. Malayan peninsula : called badak; Cantor. Bengal, Assam, and Nepal. 

2. Rhinoceros Sondiacus, Cuvier, Oss. Foss. ii. 25, 33. iii. 384; Mutter, Ferh. 184. t. 33. f. 1, 2; 
Ilorsf. Java ; Cantor, Mamm. Malay, 34. R. Javanicus, F. Cuvier. R. Javensis, Schinz. ; Boutins, Hist. 
Nat. v. 50. 52 ; P. Camper. Ouv, i. 263. 

Hab. Java. Called Badac, Ilorsf. Malayan peninsula ; Cantor. 

2. Rhinoceros Sumatrensis, Cuvier. R. Sumatranus, Raffles; Mutter, Ferh. 190. t. 34. f. 1, 2. 
Sumatran Rhinoceros, Bell. 

Hab. Sumatra. 

3. Rhinoceros ? 

Hab. Borneo; Mutter, Ferh. 

Fain. 4. DASYPID^E. 

1. MANIS. 

1. Manis Javanica, Desm. ; Mutter, Ferh.; Cantor, Mamm. Malay, 51. M. pentadactyla. Raffles, 
not Linn. M. aspera, Sundeval. Pangolin, Buffon, H. N. x. t. 34. t. 36. f. 1, 2, 3. 

Hab. Java, Sumatra, Borneo. Malayan peninsula, Penang ; called pengoling, or tangiling ; Cantor. B.M. 

Prom this list it appears that these islands have many animals in common with one 
another, and with the Malayan peninsula, which has several that are found in the interior 
of Continental India. 

The following species, according to the present state of our knowledge, appear to be 
peculiar to the islands under which they are arranged, but they may hereafter be found to 
have a more extended distribution. 

1 . Sumat'i 


Simia Satyrus, var. 1. Hylobates syndactylus ; H. variegatus. Presbytes flavimanus; P. melalophus. 
Xantharpyia brevicaudatum. Megaera ecaudata. VespertiKo macrotis ; V. brachypterus. HeHctis orientalis. 
Rhinoceros Sumatrensis. Antelope Sumatrensis. 

2. Java. 

Hylobates leuciscus. Presbytes mitratus ; P. pyrrhus ; P. maurus. Cynopterus melanocephalus. 
Rhinolophus (?) larvatus; R. insignis; R. pusillus. PetaKa Javanica. Vespertilio Harpyia; Y. Horsfieldii ; 
V. imbricatus; V. Hasseltii; Y. adversus; Y. circumdatus. Embalonoura monticola. Sciuropterus 
sagitta; S. genibarbis ; Sciurus liypoleucos. Pithechir melanurus. Sus verrucosus. 


3. Amboina. 
Pteropus chrysoproctus. Rkinoloplms tricuspidatus ; E. Euryotis. Phalangista chrysorrhos. 

4. Timor. 

Pteropus Macklotii. Ehinolophus diadema. Sorex tenuis. Felis megalotis. Sus Timorensis. 

5. Celebes. 

Pteropus Alecto. Phalangista ursina. Sus ? Anoa depressicornis. 

6. B avian. 
Cervus Kuhlii. 

7. Boeton. 

Sus ? 

8. Temate. 
Pteropus personatus. 

9. Borneo. 

Simia Satyrus, var. 2. Vespertilio rnacellus. Dendrogale murina. Ptilocerus Lowii. Sciurus Ephip- 
pium ; S. Eafflesia^ var. Borneenis. Ehinoceros - — — ? Sus barbatns. 

10. Philippines. 

Galeopithecus Philippinensis. Pteropus keraudrenius. Ehinolophus griseus. Vespertilio tristis; 
V. Eschscholtzii; V. macrotarsus ; V. pellucidus ; Y. Meyeni; V. rufopictus. Taphozous Philippinensis. 
Phlseomys Cumingii. Sciurus Philippinensis. An unknown Ruminant : Tamaroo. 


The Mammalia hitherto recorded as found in New Guinea are of quite a distinct 
character from those inhabiting the other Malay Islands, they all (except a pig) belong to 
the Marsupialia, and of the divisions of them which have their head quarters in Australia, 
the species, though they belong to the same genera or groups, are all distinct from those 
from any part of Australia which has been yet explored ; except Petaurus Sciurus (Muller 


Verh.). I have not seen the New Guinea specimens of the species which Dr. S. Muller has so 
named, so that I am not able to determine which of the three Australian species, which have 
been confounded under this name, it is most allied to, but most probably, from its geogra- 
phical position, it is the Petaurus ariel {Belideus ariel of Gould, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. 
1842, 404) found at Port Essington, if it is not distinct from it. 

One species of discus (C. maculata) is common to New Guinea and Amboina, the 
latter country appearing to be the home or centre of the genus Ciiscus, three out of the 
known species being natives of that island, the fourth being confined to Celebes. 

1. Petaurus sciurus, Muller, Ferhancl. (Desm.?). ? Belideus ariel, Gould. 
Hab. New Guinea; Muller. (Port Essington, Gould.) 


1 . Cuscus maculata, Lesson, Zool. Coq. Plialangusta maculata, Temm. Monog. 
Hab. New Guinea and Amboina. B. M. 


1. Dendrolagus ursinus, S. Muller, Terh. 131. 141. 1. 19. 22. 23. Hypsiprymnus ursinus, Temm. 
Faun. Japon. 6. 

Hab. New Guinea. B. M. 

2. Dendrolagus inustus, S. Muller, Verh. 131. 143. t. 20, 22, 23. 
Hab. New Guinea. 


1. Dorecopsis Asiaticus. Didelphis Asiaticus, Pallas, N. A. Petrqp. 1777, 228. t. 9. D. Brunii, 
Gmelin. Halmaturus Brunnii, Illiger. Hypsiprymnus Brunii, Muller, Verh. Filander or Kengoeroe, 
Bruyn. Reizen. 374. t. 213. 1714. Dorecopsis Brunii, Muller, Verh. 131. t. 21, 22, 23. 

Hab. New Guinea ; Island of Aroe. 


1. Perameles Boicyanus, Quoy and Gaim. Voy. Astrol. 1. 16. f. 1, 5. Kalubu, Lesson, Voy. Coq. 
Hab. New Guinea. 

1. Phascogale melas, Schinz. Phascogalea melas, Muller (tab. Verh. 149. t. 25). 
Hab. New Guinea. 



1. Halicore australis, Owen, in Jukes' Voyage of My, ii. 323. f. 1, 3, 5. 1847. 
Hab. Timor Straits. 

8. SUS. 
1. Sus Papuensis, Lesson, Toy. Coa. Mutter, Verh. 
Hab. New Guinea ; called bene. 


Except the few species of Mammalia of these islands which were procured by Mr. Reeve 
at Canton, we are almost entirely indebted to the Dutch naturalists. For the knowledge of 
the Mammalia of this very interesting country, MM. Temminck and Schlegel have published 
from the materials collected by them, a specific work on the Mammalia, Birds, and Fish of 

Fam. 1. SIMIAD^E. 


1. Macactjs maurus, F. Cuvier. M. arctoides, /. Geoff. Mag. Zool. Simia Cuvieri, Fischer. Papio 
nielanotis, Ogilby. 

Hab. Japan? Cochin China? 

2. Macactjs speciosus, F. Cuvier. Inuus speciosus, Temm. Faun. Japon. t. 1, 2. Inuus fuscatus, 
Mus. Leyden. 

Hab. Japan. B. M. 


1. Rhinolophtjs Nipon, Temm. Monog. ii. 50 ; Faun. Japon. 14. t. 3. f. 1, 2. 
Hab. Japan. B.M. 

2. Rhinolophus cornutus, Temm. Monog. ii. 57 ; Faun. Japon. 14. t. 3. f. 3, 4. 
Hab. Japan. 


1. Vespeetilio molossus, Temm. Monog. ii. 270; Faun. Japon. 15. t. 3. f. 5. 
Hab. Japan ; called aha komuli. 



2. Vespeutilio abramus, Temm. Monog. ii. 232. t. 58. f. 1, 2; Farm. Japon. 17. 
Hab. Japan ; called abamusi. 

3. Vespeutilio akakomidi, Temm. Monog. ii. 223. t. 57. f. 8, 9; Faun. Japon. 17. 
Hab. Japan ; called Jeomuli or akakomidi. B. M. 

4. Vespektilio maerodactylus, Temm. Monog. ii. 231. t. 58. f. 3, 4, 5 ; Faun. Japon. 17. 
Hab. Japan; called komoli. 


1. Noctulinia (altivolans?). Vespertilio noctula, Temm. Faun. Japon. 15. 
Hab. Japan. Europe. 


1. Trilatittjs Blepotis. Vespertilio Blepotis, Faun. Japon. 16. 
Hab. Japan and Timor, Java. B. M. 


1. Pteeoptjs dasymallus, Temm. Monog. i. t. 40 ; Faun. Japon. 12. P. rubicollis, Siebold, Spicel. 
Faun. Japon. 

Hab. Japan. 

2. Pteeoptjs pselaphon, Lay, Zool.Journ. iv. 457 ; Temm. Monog. ii. t. 37. P. ursinus, Kittlis. 
Hab. Japan, Island Bonin. B. M. 

Farn. 3. FELIDyE. 

1. CANIS. 

1. Cakis familiaris, Fauna Japon. 37. t. 1. 

Var. 1. Kari inu, or No inu, Fauna Japon. t. 10. f. 1, 2. 
Var. 2. Bawa inu, or hui ina, t. 10. f. 4-6. 
Var. 3. Tsin. Introduced from China. 

2. Canis ? C. oakame, Fauna Japon. 38. 

Hab. Japan (Mountains). 

3. Canis hodophylax, Temm. ; Faun. Japon. 40. C. hippophylax, Temm. Mm. C. hodophilax, Fauna 
Japon. t. 9. 

Hab. Japan ; called Jamainu. 



1. Canis Fulpes, Temn. Faun. Japon. 39; not Linn.? 
Hab. Japan ; called kiene. 


1. Ntctieeutes Procyonoides, Gray. Canis procyonoides, Gray, Illmst. Ind. Zool. Nyctireutes 
viverrinus, and N. procyonoides, Temm., Faun. Japon. t. 40. t. 8. 

Hab. Japan ; called Rabsimon si, mami tanuki, and tanuti, and musina tanuie. B. M. 


1. Martes (Mustek) melampus, Temm. Faun. Japon. 31. t. 7. f. 3, 4. M. melanopus, Gray, List 
Mamm. Brit. Mus. 63. 

Hab. Japan ; called ten, or aha ten. B. M. 


1. Mustela brachyura, Temm.? Japan, 33. 
Hab. Japan ; called iezoten. 

2. Mustela ? Faun. Japon. 35. 

Hab. Japan; called tomatsu; Siebold. 

6. VISON. 

1. Vison Itatsi, Mustela (Putorius) Itatsi, Temm.; Faun. Japon. 33. M. Natsi, Temm. Fauna 
Japon. t. 7 (misprint.) 

Hab. Japan ; called Itatsi. B. M. 

7. MELES. 

1. Meles akakuma, Temm. Faun. Japon. 30. t. 6. M. Taxus, var. Temm. 
Hab. Japan ; called anakuma. B. M. 

8. LUTRA. 

1. Lutea (Chinensis, Gray?) vulgaris, Temm. Faun. Japon. 33. 
Hab. Japan ; called kawa-uso. 


1. Enhttdra Lutris, Gray. Enhydris marina, Temm. Faun. Japon. 38. Lutra marina, Stetter. 
Mustela Lutris, Linn. 

Hab. Japan. California. B. M. 


Fam. 4. URSIDiE. 

1. DANIS. 

1. Danis ferox. ? Ursus ferox, Temm. Faun. Japon. 29; Lewis and Claris U. cinereus and U. 
griseus, Demi. U. horribilis, Ord. 

Hab. Japan; called ohohima and akakuma. And N. America ? 


1. Helaectos Tibetanus, Gray, List Brit. Mus. 73. Ursus Thibetanus, F. Cuvier; Temm. Faun. 
■Japon. 29. U. ferox, Mobinson, Assam, 69. 

Hab. Japan ; called Jcuma. India. China. B. M. 


1. Thalaectos maritimus. Ursus maritinius, Temm. F. Japon. 30 ; Linn. U. marinus, Pallas. 
U. polaris, Shaw. 

Hab. Japan. Polar Seas. 

Fam. 5. TALPID^E. 

1. TALPA. 

1. Talpa Wogura, Temm., Faun. Japon. 19. t. 4. f. 2-5. T. moogura, Temm. Leon. t. 4. f. 1-5. 
(misprint) . 

Hab. Japan. B. M. 


1. Urotrichus talpoides, Temm., Faun. Japon. 30. 64. f. 6, 11. U. Japonicus, Mus. Leyden. 
Hab. Japan ; called Hinmsi, Doinezume, or Jama-ugura. B. M. 


1. Ceossopus platycephalus. Sorex platycephalus, Temm. Faun. Japon. 23. t. 5. Chrosopus platy- 
ceplialus, Temm. I. c. 

Hab. Japan. 

4. SOREX. 

1. Soeex Indieus, Temm., Faun. Japon. 25. t. 5. 
Hab. Japan; Temm. 

2. Soeex Dsinezumi, Temm., F. Japon. 26. t. 5, 6. S. kinezumi, Temm. Faun. t. 5. f. 2, and S. kine- 
zumi, f. 3. (misprints). 

Hab. Japan. 


3. Soeex umbrinus, Temm. F. Japon. 27. 
Hab. Japan. 


1. Erenaceus ? Temm. Faun. Japon. 19. 

Hab. Japan. 

Fam. 6. PHOCID^E 
1. PHOCA. 

1. Phoca barbata, Midler? Temm. Faun. Japon. 2. P. maxima, Stetter. P. leporina, lepechen. 
P. nautica, and P. albigena, Pallas. 

Hab. Japan; Siebold. 

2. Phoca nummularis, Pallas, Z. Ross. 117 ; Temm. Fauna Japon. 3. P. n. 2. Stetter, Camtsch. 107. 
P. vulgaris, var., Pallas. P. Largha, Pallas. 

Hab. Japan. 


1. Arctocephalus lobatus, Gray. Otaria Stelleri, Temm. Faun. Japon. t. 21, 22. 0. cinerea, Mus. 
Ley den. Ph. australis, Quoy and Gaim. 
Hab. Japan. B. M. 

Fam. 7. BAL^NIDtE. 
1. BAL.ENA. 

1. Baljena Japonica, Gray, Zool. Ereb. and Terror, 15. B. Antarctica, Temm. Faun. Japon. 18. t. 29, 
not Gray. Batenoptera Antarctica, Temm. Faun. Japon, 21. t. 28 (misprint). 
Hab. Japan. 

1. Bal^enopteba Iwasi, Gray, Zool. Ereb. and Terror, 20. B. arctica, Temm. Faun. Japon. 26. 

Hab. Japan. 


1. Megaptekon Antarctica, Gray, Zool. Ereb. and Terror, 17. Balaenoptera Antarctica, Temm. Faun. 
Japon. t. 30. Rorqual noueux, Voy. Pol. Sud. t. 24. 

Hab. Japan. 



1. Catodon macrocep/ialus (?) Physeter ? Temm. Faun. Japon. 26. 

Hab. Japan. 




1. Delphtnus longirostris, Gray, Spic. ZooL; Zool. Ereb. and Terror,^. Cuvier; Temm. Faun. 
Japon. t. 24. D. Capensis, Gray, Spic. Zool., not Cuvier, nor Rapp. 

Hab. Japan. Cape of Good Hope, Malabar, Ceylon. B. M. 


1. Globiocephalus Sieboldii, Gray, Zool. Ereb. and Terror, 32. Delphinus globiceps, Temm. Faun. 
Japon. 17. t. 27. 

Hab. Japan ; called golo. 


1. Grampus Sakamaia, Gray, Zool. Ereb. and Terror, 31. Delphinus orca, Temm. Faun. Japon. 25. 
Hab. Japan ; called sahamata ; Kuzira. 


1. Neoiieris Phocmnoides, Gray, Zool. Ereb. and Terror, 30. Delphinus Phoccenoides, Cuvier. D. 
melas, Temm. Faun. Japon. 14. t. 25, 26. Delphinapterus melas, Temm. F. Japon. 7. 

Hab. Japan, Cape of Good Hope, Malabar. 

Fam. 10. MURID^E. 
1. MUS. 

1. Mus argenteus, Temm., Faun. Japon. 1. 13. 
Hab. Japan. 

2. Mus Molossiuus, Temm., Faun. Japon. t. 13. 
Hab. Japan. 

3. Mus Negumi, Temm., Faun. Japon. t. 13. 
Hab. Japan. 

4. Mus specioms, Temm., Faun. Japon. t. 16. 
Hab. Japan. B. M. 

Fam. 11. LEPORID^E. 
1. LEPUS. 
1. Lepus brachyurus, Temm. Faun. Japon. t. 11. 
Hab. Japan. B. M. 


Fam. 12. JERBOIDtE. 


1. Sciueus Lis, Ternm. Faun. Japon. 1. 12. S. vulgaris, var. Temm. 
Hab. Japan. 


1. Pteeoitys leucogenys, Temm. Faun. Japon. t. 13. 
Hab. Japan. B. M. 


1. Sciueopteeus momoga. Pteromys momoga, Temm. Faun. Japon. t. 14. 
Hab. Japan. B. M. 


1. Myoxtjs elegans, Temm. Faun. Japon. 1. 14. 
Hab. Japan. 

Fain. 13. BOVIDiE. 


1. Nemoeehedus crispus. Antelope crispa, Temm. Faun. Japon. 1. 18, 19. 
Hab. Japan. Mus. Leyden. 

2. BUSA. 

1. Btjsa Silca. Cervus Sika, Temm. Faun. Japon. 1. 17. 
Hab. Japan. 


1. sus. 

1. Sus leucomystax, Temm. Fauna Japon. t. 20. 
Hab. Japan. 



We are chiefly indebted to Mr. Reeves and his son, Mr. John Russell Reeves, for the 
knowledge of the animals of Canton and its neighbourhood, and this is almost the only part 
of China from whence Mammalia have been sent to England. 

It must be observed that Japanese species are often to be procured at Canton, and that 
some of them have been mistaken for inhabitants of China. 


1. Vespertilio irretitus, "Wiegm. Arch. 1843, ii. 

Hab. Island of Chusan. 

Fam. 2. FELLDiE. 

1. Leopardtjs Chinemis, Gray, List Mamm. Brit. Mus. 43. Felis Chinensis, Gray, Mag. Nat. Hist. 

Hab. China ; /. Reeves. B. M. 

2. Leopardus Reevesii, Gray, List Mamm. Brit. Mus. 41. 
Hab. China ; J. Beeves. B. M. 


1. Nycteretjtes Procyonoides, Gray. Canis Procyonoides, Gray, Illust. Ind. Zool. ~N. viverrinus, 
Temm. Fauna Japon. 

Hab. China ; J. Beeves. Japan. B. M. 


1. "VrvERRA Zibetka, Linn.; Gray. V. undulata, Gray. 
Hab. China ; J. Beeves, Esq. B. M. 

2. Viverra pallida, Gray, Pro. Zool. Soc. 
Hab. China. Mus. Zool. Soc. 


1. Paguma larvata, Gray, Pro. Zool. Soc., 1831, 95. Gulo larvatus, Temm. Mus. Leyden; H. Smith, 
Griffith, A. K. ii. 281. Viverra larvata, Gray, Spic. Zool. 9. 1830. Paradoxurus larvatus, Gray, Pro. 
Zool. Soc. 1832, 67 ; Elust. Ind. Zool. 

Hab. China; J. Beeves. B. M. 



Helictis mosckata, Gray, Pro. Zool. Soc, 1831, 94. Melogale personata, /. Geoff. ? 
Hab. China, Canton; J. Beeves. B. M. 

6. LUTEA. 

1. Lutea Chinensis, Gray. 
Hab. China ; J. Beeves. B. M. 

Fam. 3. TALPID^E. 

1. SOREX. 
1. Sokes murinus, Linn. 
Hab. China; J. Beeves. B. M. 

Fam. 4. JERBOLD^E. 

1. ScniRUS insignis, E. Cuvier. 
Hab. China ; J. Beeves. B. M. 

2. Sciueus castaneo-ventris, Gray, List Mamm. Brit, Mus. 143. 
Hab. China ; /. Beeves. B. M. 

3. Scitraus CMnensis, Gray, Zmz! Mamm. Brit. Mus. 144. 
Hab. China ; /. Beeves. B. M. 



1. Rhizomys Sinensis, Gray, Pro. Zool. Soc., 1831, 95 ; Must. Ind. Zool. ii. t. R. Chinensis. 
Hab. China, Canton; J. Beeves. 

Fam. 6. BOVID^E. 


1. Mtjntjacus Beevesii. Cervus Reevesii, Ogilbg, Pro. Zool. Soc, 1838, 105. 
Hab. China ; /. Beeves ; Gardens Zool. Soc. 



Fam. 7. DASYPIDjE. 

1. MANIS. 

1. Manis Dalmanni, Sundeval, K. V. Acad. Hand., 1842, 256. 
Hab. China; Dalmann. 

Plate VII. 

Galidictis vittata, Gray, Pro.Zool. Soc.Lond., p. 22. (1848). 

Hab. Madagascar. 

Grey, black and white grizzled ; back and sides with eight nearly equal parallel, narrow, 
black-brown streaks ; chin and beneath pale brown ; hind-feet and outer sides of fore-legs 
reddish brown. Tail subcylindrical, bushy, black and grey grizzled, white towards the ends ; 
hairs elongate, brownish white, with two (rarely three) broad black rings. 

Length of body and head (when stuffed), 14 inches ; tail, 12 inches. 

The skull, which shows that the animal was not quite full grown, agrees in all the 
particulars with that figured by M. J. Geoffroy, in Guerin's Mag. Zool. t.19, but is about one- 
fourth smaller in all its parts, and it has one more very small roundish false grinder on each 
side in front of the other (between it and the canines) in the upper jaw, which is not noticed 
in M. Geoffroy's figure and description, and which probably falls out when the animal arrives 
at adult age. 

Dr. T. R. H. Thomson, Surgeon, R.N., who had one of these animals for six months 
on board ship, says it was procured at Tulyah Bay, Madagascar. It was at first extremely 
timid, but soon became tame and acquainted with the different parts of the vessel, and very 
partial to those who bestowed any attentions on it. It was remarkably agile, keeping its 
long bushy tail somewhat erect in running about, and uttering a sort of chirp not unlike a 
rat. Its chief food was uncooked meat, but it preferred raw eggs above all other articles 
when they could be procured. Its method of breaking them was not a little amusing ; on 
receiving one it would roll it towards a projecting timber or gun-slide ; then lying down on 
its side, the little creature would grasp the egg with all its feet and throw it by a sudden 
jerk, repeating the attempt until the contents were obtained. Turtles' eggs, being so soft 
and rich, were always eagerly sought by it. It was very irascible while feeding, and would 
attack those who interfered with it at such a time, although at others it delighted in being 
fondled, and would play like a kitten with those it knew. The habits of this interesting 
animal were not nocturnal. It died from convulsions, under which it had suffered for 
five weeks. 


Its mode of breaking the egg is somewhat different from that of Herpestes fasciatus, 
which Dr. Thomson had also under observation for some time. This latter, after getting 
the egg close to a projecting object, seizes it with the two anterior feet, and then jerks it 
through between the hinder legs, which are raised somewhat to let the egg pass. 

Geoffroy St. Hilaire, in the manuscript catalogue of the Mammalia in the Paris 
collections, notices a specimen from Madagascar which had been collected by M. Sonnerat, 
which he described in the following manner, under the name of Mustela striata : — " Supra 
saturate fusca ; striis quinque longitudinalibus angustis parallelis albis ; gastraeo pallide 
canescente, cauda basi fusca, reliqua alba ; statura Mustelae vulgaris." — Fischer, Syn. 224. 
M. Cuvier, in the ' Regne Animal ' (ed. 2de, 144) described the same specimen under the 
name of " La Belette rayee de Madagascar, Putorius striatus, Cuvier, de la taille de la 
belette d'Europe, d'un brun roussatre avec cinq lignes longitudinales blanchatres ; le dessous 
et presque toute la queue blanchatre." M. Isidore Geoffroy St. Hilaire, in the notes to a 
paper on some Madagascar animals in M. Guerin's Magasin de Zoologie for 1839, p. 32, 
informs us that the specimen above described then existed in the collection, and that he had 
convinced himself that it was a young specimen of an animal rather more than two feet long, 
which had been sent to the Museum in 1834 by M. Goudot, under the name of Vonsire 
blanc, and called Vontsira foutclie by the Madecasses ; and he gives a description and figures 
of the animal and its skull, t. 18, 19, forming for it a genus which he names Galidictis. 

A few months ago the Museum purchased of Mr. Tucker of the Quadrant an animal 
from Madagascar, which is evidently nearly allied to the Galidictis striata, but differs from 
it in some particulars, which induce me to regard it as a second species of that genus. I 
may remark that it agrees with all the characters assigned to that genus by M. Isidore 
Geoffroy, except that the soles of the hind feet are more naked than he described those of 
his genus Galidia to be, though he observes that Galidictis has the feet " presque entierement 
semblable " to that genus ; for the naked part is nearly as broad as the foot, almost to the 
top of the heel. The chief difference between the Museum specimen and that described and 
figured by the two Geoffroys and Cuvier is in the colour of the tail, and I might think this 
depended on age, if the elder Geoffroy and Cuvier did not describe the young animal as 
being of the size of a weasel, and the younger Geoffroy the adult as having the same pecu- 
liarity, viz., a white tail ; while our specimen has the tail of the same colour as the back, 
and even more distinctly variegated with black and white. The stripes are narrower, rather 
differently placed, and more equal in width than in the description and figure above quoted, 
and they do not extend so far up the neck towards the head. 





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- fceevts imp- 



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"Reeva Banhazn i S. aeve unc . 






Apistes trackinoides, Cuv. et Val. Hist, des Poiss. vol. iv. p. 401. pi. 92. f. 1. 
Radii.— B. 6; D.15|4; A. 3|4; C. 9|; P. 13 ; V. 1|4. 

Plate III. Fig. 3-5. 

Our specimens agree exactly with the description and plate above quoted, except that 
there are only four soft rays in the ventrals, instead of five as quoted in the Histoire des 
Poissons. The small scales are very deeply imbedded in the skin, and are ranged on the 
sides in vertical lines not tiled. I have not been able to detect them in the space between 
the lateral line and fore part of the dorsal, but the whole of the shoulder for some distance 
below the lateral hne is rough with prominent pores, as are also the sides of the head. On 
the limbs of the lower jaw, and the membrane connecting them, these pores render the 
surface villous. 

The jaws, chevron of the vomer, and a narrow plate on the palatine bones are armed 
with fine short villiform teeth. Length, 2f inches. 

Hab. Sea of China, 

Radii.— B. 5 ; D 13|7 ; A. 3|5 ; C. lOf ; P. 10 ; V. 1|S . 

Plate III. Fig. 1-2. 

This Apistes agrees with trackinoides and draccena in the three anterior dorsal rays 
being stouter, approximated to one another and somewhat remote from the following ones. 


SL a- 


Indeed it possesses so many of the characters ascribed to draccena in the Histoire des Poissons, 
that we should have referred it to that species were it not that the preorbitar and preopercular 
spines of the latter are said to be very large, while in our fish they are rather shorter than is 
usual in the genus. The anterior spinule of the preorbitar is, however, larger than common, 
being half as long as the chief spine and, like it, slightly curved and directed backwards. 
The species differs from A. belengeri in the more posterior origin of the dorsal, and in having 
only two bony points or ridges on the operculum. A. rubripinnis of the Fauna Japonica has 
no scales above the lateral line. 

The body is highest about the fifth and sixth dorsal spines, the height there being equal 
to one fourth of the total length, and the thickness to about half the height. The head is 
considerably depressed, the profile rising at an angle of only twenty-five degrees to the 
beginning of the dorsal. When the mouth is closed the under jaw forms the extremity of 
the head, and the cleft of the mouth descends almost vertically. There is a small knob 
beneath the symphysis of the mandible. The mandible can be depressed to the horizontal 
line, the upper jaw remaining nearly vertical. The length of the head is contained thrice 
and one third in the total length. When viewed in front, the interorbital space is seen to be 
traversed by two smooth ridges which are approximated to the mesial line ; the edges of the 
orbits themselves are also prominent. The breadth of this space is less than the diameter of 
the orbit. The principal preorbitar spine reaches to the anterior third of the orbit. The 
preopercular spine, which is of the same size, is straight, and there are three obtuse corners 
beneath it. The two opercular ridges are visible, but their points are scarcely pungent. 
The supra-scapular, however, has an acute point at the upper corner of the gill opening. 
The scales of the body are very small and remote from each other, are much sunk in the 
skin, and, being dark, look like little pits rather than scales on a cursory view. 

The dorsal commences over the upper limb of the preoperculum. Its first three spines 
are a little stouter than the rest, are approximated to each other at the base and a little 
removed from the following one, to which the third one is connected by membrane. The 
second spine is a little taller than the first or third ; the following ones are somewhat shorter 
and nearly all of one height, except the last, which, though more slender than the second one, 
is even taller. The anterior soft rays rather overtop the tallest of the spines : the last one 
is short and is bound to the back its whole length by membrane, which does not reach to 
the base of the caudal. The anal rays are fully taller than the soft dorsal ones ; its spines, 
which are graduated, are shorter. 

The teeth are in close-shaven, vilhform bands on the jaws, prominent chevron of the 
vomer, and palatine bones. On the latter they form an elliptical patch. 

The general colour of the specimen, which has been long in spirits, is brownish grey, 
the fins seem darker, and there are many obscure fiecklings on the dorsal fin and back. 
Length, 2§ inches. This specimen had a surmullet in his oesophagus. 

Hab. Sea of Japan. 



Radii.— B. 6 ; D. 15)6 ; A. 3|4 ; C. lOf ; P. 11 ; V. 1|4. 

Plate IV. Fig. 3-4. 

In this Apistes the profile of the face is steep with an abrupt curve over the eye to join 
the dorsal line, which descends gradually from its summit at the temple to the tail. The 
height of the body is equal to one quarter of the total length of the fish, and its thickness is 
equal to the sixth of the same length. The head forms a third of the whole length, the 
mouth is at its extremity, the jaws being equal, and the gape, which is small, is nearly 
horizontal. The ventral line is more horizontal than the dorsal one, being even with the 
lower jaw as far as the anus, from whence it ascends to the base of the caudal, whose height 
is about one third of the height of the head. The edges of the orbits and two smooth ridges 
between them are equally prominent and equidistant. The interorbitar space is one third nar- 
rower than the diameter of the eye. The jaws, prominent chevron of the vomer and palatine 
bones are set with close-shaven, villiform teeth. 

The slender, acute preorbitar spine reaches back to the posterior part of the eye, and 
there is a spinule at its base in front standing forwards and outwards. The axilla of the spine 
is filled by a small slip of membrane. The opercidar spine, though conspicuous, is not so 
long as the preorbitar one. There are four obtuse points beneath it. The operculum has 
two bony ridges whose points do not penetrate the skin. The scales of the body are small 
and the lateral line is formed of oblique tubes whose points are elevated. The last three 
dorsal spines are grooved at their tips so as to appear forked, and the same is the case with 
the anal spines. The spines are tipped by short skinny filaments, and the membrane 
is deeply notched between them. The last soft ray of the dorsal is attached to the back by 
membrane for nearly its whole length, and is divided to the base. The lowest ray of the 
pectoral is uubranched, the rest are forked. The ventral contains only four slender soft rays, 
the last of which is bound to the belly by a rather wide membrane. 

The two specimens in the collection retain several lively colours, chiefly different 
shades of brown, red, and white ; but there is considerable difference in the mode in which 
these tints are combined in the two individuals. Each of them has three conspicuous, 
lateral, white marks ; viz., one on the fore part of the dorsal near its base, which descends from 
the third spine to the shoulder, another on the back under the last spine, and the third 
forming a bar which extends from the soft dorsal to the anal. The head is marbled like the 
back. The dorsal and anal are edged with aurora-red, and are dotted posteriorly with 
oblique rows of small white specks having broken black borders. On the fore part of the 
spinous dorsal the black, separating from the white centres, forms short oblique lines. Specks 
of the same kind are ranged in transverse lines on the caudal and pectorals. The ventrals are 
minutely freckled with brown and black, and are marked also by two or three white spots. 
Length, three or four inches. 

Hab. Sea of China. 



Perca cottoides, Lin. Mus. Ad. Fr. vol. xi. p. 84. 

Apistes cottoides, Cuv. et Val. Hist, des Poiss. vol. iv. p. 413. 

Radii.— B. 6 ; D. 14|6 ; A. 3|8 ; C. llf ; P. 6 et viii.; V. 1|4. 

Plate III. Fig. 6-7. 

Our specimens agree with the Linnsean account of Perca cottoides in all respects, except 
that they have only six gill rays instead of eight, which latter number I consider to be a 
mistake ; and in the rows of spots on the fins being more numerous than two. This also 
may be accounted for by a partial effacement of the markings, and I have therefore considered 
the specimens as examples of the species described by Linnaeus. 

The head is thick and large, with a considerably arched profile. It forms more than one 
third of the total length, while the height of the body scarcely exceeds the fourth. The 
thickness is a little more than half the height. The diameter of the eye is equal to one 
quarter of the length of the head. The principal preorbitar spine reaches to beneath its 
centre, and is thrice as long as the smaller spine, which hes parallel to it, and is quite 
straight. The second-suborbitar ridge is visible only when the integuments are suffered to 
dry. It is flat, quite unarmed, and runs close to the orbit. The preoperculum is armed by 
four small spines, the upper one being the largest but not equalling the preorbitar spine ; there 
is also an obtuse corner under the lowest spine. This bone is better described by the 
passage " opercula brancliiarum spinoso-serrata " in this species than in any other Apistes 
that we have seen. The two ribs of the bony operculum can scarcely be detected, and 
present no pungent points. Neither are there any acute points on the suprascapular. The 
jaws and the acute prominent chevron of the vomer are armed by villiform teeth, rather 
coarser than in the other Apistes we have figured, and this species differs from them in the 
palatine bones being entirely toothless. The scales of the body, though small, are visible to 
the naked eye, and are more crowded or tiled than in some others of the genus. They are 
wanting above the lateral fine as far back as the fifth or sixth dorsal spine, and a narrower 
smooth space extends along the base of the dorsal its whole length. The head is also quite 
destitute of scales. The lateral line, formed of a series of short tubes, is straight, and about 
one third of the height distant from the summit of the back. 

The first dorsal spine stands between the anterior corners of the orbit. The third is 
the tallest, being equal to four fifths of the height of the body, and is almost twice as 
high as the first one. The membrane is notched between the spines. The soft dorsal is 
rounded, lower than the last spine, and ends opposite to the anal at some distance from the 
caudal. The membrane which connects the last rays to the tail is smaller than in most 
Apistes. The pectorals are rather oblique, and their eight lower rays have simple, thick, 
and prominent tips, the others being forked at the ends. The ventrals have only four rays. 
The caudal is even at the end. 


The ground colour on the back is chestnut brown, distributed in five or six clouds or 
bars, the sides are very pale, and the belly quite white. The head and whole of the body 
down to the middle of the sides is thickly covered with small round dark brown dots, having 
paler disks. There are also some diluted spots on the lower lip. These dots are numerous 
on the base of the dorsal, and form rings on the spines. On the pectorals, anal and caudal, 
the markings assume the form of five or six freckled cross-bars, and there are also a few 
specks on the ventrals. Length, 2>\ inches. 

Hab. Seas of Borneo and China. 


Apisles tanianotus, C. et V. Hist, des Poiss. iv. p. 404 ; Lacepede, t. iv. pi. 3. f. 2. exclus. descript. 
Radii.— D. 17|7 ; A. 3|5 ; C. 13-f-; P. 12 ; V. 1|5. 

Plate IV. Fig. 1-2. 

We have two examples of this Jpistes before us, one measuring three inches and three 
quarters from Japan, and the other four inches and a half long from the Philippines. Both 
correspond well with the detailed description of the species contained in the Histoire des 
Poissons, but they differ from one another in colour. The Japanese specimen is of a pale, clear, 
wood-brown, with a dark brown spot on the dorsal between the fifth and sixth spinous rays, 
and two or three faint indications of spots on the body, besides a row of points crossing the 
middle of the caudal rays. The specimen from the Philippines is of a much darker colour 
generally, being deep liver-brown, and wants the dorsal spot above mentioned, though it has 
some smaller and less distinct ones in other parts of the fin and several on the body. There 
are two rows of points on the caudal rays. The greatest difference between the species is in 
the fin membranes, those of the specimen from the Philippines being much thicker and more 
spongy and opaque. The scales in both are small, roundish, and in contact with each other, 
but not tiled. When the skin is allowed to dry, they become concave. 

In reckoning the soft rays of the dorsal and anal, we have enumerated one fewer than 
the number quoted in the Histoire des Poissons, by considering the posterior one of each fin 
to be divided to its base, the two branches or rays springing from the same point. 

Hab. Malay Archipelago ; Seas of China and Japan. 

Radii.— JBr. 7; D. 13|8; A. 3[7 ; C. 11}; P. 15; V. 1|5. 

Plate V. Eig. 1-2. 

The preceding Jpistes are more or less completely scaly, the following one is entirely 
destitute of scales. It has a thick bluff head, from whence the moderately compressed body 


tapers to the narrow base of the caudal, whose height is only about one quarter of that of the 
nape. The curves of the back and belly correspond, being but slightly arched. The profile 
of the head, from the mouth to the beginning of the dorsal, forms the sextant of a circle, 
and the lower jaw and throat form a smaller arc below. The total length is equal to thrice 
the height at the shoulder and one half, and the head makes one third of this length, while 
the thickness is two thirds of the height. The eye is situated high up, the margin of the 
orbit intruding slightly on the profile ; the space between the eyes is equal to a diameter of 
the orbit and is concave ; but the whole of the bones of the head are so covered with loose 
integument, that their forms are but very imperfectly distinguishable until the skin is suffered 
to dry. The mouth is terminal, and its moderately large gape descends obliquely till it 
comes under the middle of the eye. The jaws, chevron of the vomer, and palate bones are 
furnished with microscopical, close-shaven, villiform teeth. The preorbitar spine is straight, 
and scarcely exceeds half the diameter of the orbit in length. There is no small spine at its 
base, but a blunt projection of the bone stands forwards in its usual site. The disk of the 
preorbitar is flattish and its outline uneven. The second suborbital' forms an acute uneven 
ridge without spinous points. The preopercular spine is stouter but not longer than the 
preorbitar one, and has four obtuse corners beneath it, but none above it. Two ribs cross 
the operculum, the upper one being considerably curved with a perceptible point ; the under 
one is straight. The soft flexible point of the suboperculum curves up behind the bony 
operculum, and forms the upper tip of the gill-cover. The gill-opening curves forward 
beneath, as far as the hinder part of the eye. The crests of the temples and supra- 
scapular are very uneven and indistinct. The dorsal commences between the posterior 
quarters of the orbits, and its posterior spines are rather taller than the soft rays. The last 
of the latter is bound to the back its whole length, but the membrane does not quite reach 
the base of the caudal, while the membrane of the anal attains that fin. The caudal is 
moderately rounded at the end. The pectoral is very oblique, its rays gradually diminishing 
as they descend ; their tips are mostly curved and project beyond the membrane ; but, except 
one or two of the lowermost, they are all more or less forked, the upper ones being most so. 
The ventral spine stands immediately in the axilla of the lowest pectoral ray, the last soft ray 
is bound to the belly by loose skin. The ventrals are small, the pectorals comparatively large. 
The skin is perfectly smooth and scaleless. Two minute, simple, tapering barbels spring 
from the upper border of each eye. The lateral line is marked by a series of soft elevations 
which are rendered more prominent by drawing the finger backwards over them. The 
ground tint of the upper parts is purplish-brown, with one large patch over the pectorals, 
formed by a close marbling of liver-brown, and another under the soft dorsal. The head is 
more finely mottled with liver-brown. The whole under surface, including the lower part 
of the pectorals, is pure white. The lateral dark patches extend to the membrane of that 
fin. The rays are white, finely ringed with brown. The upper half of the pectorals, the 
end of the caudal, the anal, and tips of the ventrals, are freckled and minutely clotted with 
blackish brown. Length, 2^ inches. 


The only Apistes noticed in the Histoire des Poissons, to which this fish bears a resem- 
blance, is niger; but it would appear from the description there given, that niger has stronger 
spines, and the perfectly white ventral surface of leucogaster would ill accord with the specific 
name of niger. 

Hab. Sea of China. 

MINOUS ADAMSII, Richardson. 

Badii.— B. 7 ; D. 10;10 vel 11 ; A. 10 vel 11 ; C. lOf ; P. 11, I. ; V. 1|5. 

Plate II.- Fig. 4, 5. 

This species agrees neither with the M. woora nor M. monodactylus of the Histoire des 
Poissons in the number of its rays, and it further disagrees with the latter in wanting the 
three trenchant teeth of the second suborbital'. As to the former, we have no specimen 
wherewith to compare ours ; but Russell's figure, 159 A, has but a very imperfect resemblance 
to it in the head. We have therefore given it a distinct specific appellation, and, in doing 
so, embraced the opportunity of paying a tribute to the zeal and ability displayed by 
Mr. Adams in making the collection of fish on this voyage, and to his artistic skill evinced by 
the drawings of many which he executed at the time of their capture. The M.pusillus of 
the Fauna Japonica is evidently a distinct species. 

The space between the eyes is concave, and is a little broader than the diameter of the 
orbit. It is traversed by two low acute ridges, which diverge a little as they run backwards. 
The anterior frontal is also marked by five prominent lines, which spread from an anterior 
point like the sticks of a fan, and form teeth on the fore edge of the orbit. The rest of the 
upper margin of the orbit is still more roughly crenated or toothed. A transverse farrow 
separates the frontals from the conical and ridged bones which lie between the nostrils and 
cover the maxillary pedicles. Behind the frontals there is another and a larger depression, 
which is traversed by the very uneven lateral ridges. These ridges have each three triangular, 
rough points, the terminal one being the largest. The temporal ridges are composed of two 
rough prominences, immediately behind which is the acute point of the suprascapular, at the 
commencement of the lateral line. The preorbitar has five short crenulated crests diverging 
from its centre, one of them running out anteriorly into a short triangular point, which is 
directed forwards ; behind it springs the slightly curved spine, which reaches back to the 
middle of the eye. The great suborbitar has a central, thin, crenated crest, from which there 
radiates one thin crest forwards, a short one obliquely forwards and downwards, two back- 
wards to the base of the preopercular spine, five short ones to the upper limb of the pre- 
operculum, and a very low one directly upwards to the orbit. There is also a rugged conical 
point on this bone below the anterior ridge. All these lines are granulated and crenated, 
and the cheek of this fish is better protected by bone than in most of the family. The 
preoperculum has a somewhat concave disk, with both borders unequally prominent. The 


spine of this bone is rather longer than the preorbitar one, is compressed, grooved, quite 
straight, and very acute. There is one acute corner on the edge of the bone above it and 
five below, the latter ones being very conspicuous, and the one immediately below it acute 
enough to be named as a short triangular spine. The operculum is strengthened by two 
ridges which diverge greatly. The lower ridge and its point can be discovered only when 
the integuments are suffered to dry ; but the point of the upper ridge projects immediately 
behind the soft tip of the gill-cover, which is formed of the flexible cartilaginous extremity of the 
suboperculum ; when the gill-opening is closed beneath, there is a round orifice above this tip, 
which is seemingly kept open by the direction then taken by the upper ridge and spine of the 
operculum. The dorsal commences in the occipital notch over the posterior margin of the pre- 
operculum, and its second ray stands even with the acute terminations of the lateral cranial 
crests. The last pair of soft rays of the dorsal and anal fins approximate at then* bases, and 
may prove on dissection to be only one deeply divided ray, so that only ten soft rays ought 
in that case to be reckoned to each. If an anal spine exists, it cannot be seen through the 
integuments. The teeth are microscopical, in villiform bands, those on the prominent 
chevron of the vomer being with difficulty distinguishable even with the aid of a lens. A 
small white barbel hangs from each limb of the lower jaw, a little behind its middle. 

The colours of the specimen in spirits are nearly the same with those attributed to 
M. monodactylus in the Histoire des Poissons. The ground tint is a pale brown with two 
darker diffused stripes on the back. The fins are clouded with black and white, and the 
caudal has two white bars alternating with three blackish ones. Length, 2^ inches. 

Hab. Sea of China. 


Radii.— B. 5; D. 13)9; A. 2|8 ; C. llf; P. 10,111. ; V. 1|5. 

Plate II. Pig. 1-3. 

This fish has characters in common with several of the Cottoid genera. In union with 
the preorbitar spines of Apistes, or Minous, it exhibits the hollow cheeks, prominent orbits, 
tall slender, dorsal spines, the filaments of the fins, free pectoral rays, and ventrals adnate to 
the belly of Pelors. It has not, however, the elongated body, depressed head, and horizon- 
tally protruding muzzle, nor the vomerine teeth of this genus, and the membrane of its dorsal 
is complete, thick, and spongy, instead of being deficient between the posterior spines. In 
the lax skin, shape of the head, and general form, it comes nearer to some of the Synanceice, 
from which it is readily distinguished however by its free, curved, pectoral rays. The generic 
appellation is derived from -xu>pi?fios, sejunctio, and SaKTvXos, digitus. 

The face of this fish is vertical, as high as the very prominent orbits, behind which there 
is a deep notch. The height of the shoulder is contained thrice and nearly one half in the 
total length, and the thickness is equal to three fourths of the height. The back is consi- 


derably arched, the ventral line horizontal to the anus, whence it slopes upwards to the 
slender base of the caudal. The thickness is greatest at the gill-covers. The length, height, 
and thickness of the head are equal to one another, and to rather less than one fourth of the 
total length. Its shortness is owing to the vertical direction of the face, the front of the orbit 
being nearly as far advanced as the lips. The eyes are lateral, the upper bony margins of the 
orbits very prominent and uneven, presenting three irregular, angular corners. The anterior and 
posterior frontal bones, which form the upper part of the orbit, have each their diverging ribs. 
There is also a short longitudinal ridge on each elevated wall of the smooth mesial, inter- 
orbital furrow. The whole space between the edges of the orbits is equal to a diameter of 
the eye. The orbits are connected posteriorly by a slightly curved ridge, behind which there 
is a deep transverse depression, that is bounded behind by the first dorsal spine, flanked 
on each side by the conical eminences of the par-occipitals and temporal ridges. There is a 
very small depressed cheek beneath the eye. The comparatively small preorbitar has an 
elevated, ridged centre, from which a short three cornered point descends anteriorly, and a 
slightly curved spine projects posteriorly. This spine reaches back to the middle of the eye. 
The great suborbitar forms a conspicuous, prominent, very uneven ridge, which is not armed 
with spinous points. The preopercular spine equals the preorbitar one in size ; immediately 
beneath it, there is an acute angular point, and at some distance below a smaller point, the 
under hmb of the bone having but a slight inclination forwards. The small operculum is 
situated almost wholly over the preopercular spine, and is furnished with two ridges, the 
point of the upper one alone penetrating the skin. The gill-cover is attached by membrane 
to the shoulder, but the curved gill-opening is ample, and runs forward beneath as far as the 
fore end of the preoperculum and middle of the eye. The mouth is small, terminal, with a 
slightly descending cleft, so that when the lower jaw is depressed it reaches rather farther 
forward than the upper one. The rounded margins of the jaws are covered with microscopical, 
densely crowded, close-shaven, villiform teeth. The vomer is prominent and apparently tooth- 
less, and there are no teeth on the palate bones. The tongue is thick but pretty free. 

The skin is quite scaleless, and lax, and rather spongy. The lateral line runs in the 
upper quarter of the height, and is formed of a series of short tubes. There are two conspi- 
cuous fringed barbels attached to each limb of the lower jaw. There is also one attached to 
the upper part of the eye springing from within the orbit,- several skinny prominences on the 
bony points of the head, and a row of round tufts on the second preorbitar ; numerous short 
filaments are crowded at the tips of the dorsal spines, and a row at the base of the spinous 
part of the fin is continued across the middle of the soft rays. There are also minute 
filaments on the pectoral rays. The dorsal commences in the occipital notch. It is more 
arched than the curve of the back. Its spines are tall and slender. The pectoral has three 
detached rays beneath, which curve downwards. The ventral spine is slender and shorter 
than the soft rays which are all forked : the last one is attached by membrane to the belly 
for its whole length. Only two anal spines could be detected without dissection, but there 
may be another small one hidden under the skin. 



The colour of the specimen, as preserved in spirits, is chocolate-brown, more or less 
diluted on various parts of the body, and fading into white on the belly. A white band, 
proceeding from the third and fourth dorsal spines, passes down the sides ; another crosses 
the basal half of the tail. The ventrals and the sides between them and the pectorals are 
covered with milk-white dots on a ground colour of blackish-brown. The pectorals are a little 
less dark, and the vertical fins are dark brown towards their edges and extremities. The 
extreme parts of the dorsal at the tips of the rays are white. Length, 3 inches. 

Hab. Sea of China. 


Eadii.— B. 6 ; D, 3-|; A. 1)9; C. llf; P. 15; V. 1)3. 

Plate II. Pig. 6-7. 

In profile, the outline of the face being very little elevated is a prolongation of the mo- 
derately arched curve of the back, and the ventral line is nearly similar. When the mouth is 
closed, the nearly vertical lower jaw forms the obtuse fore end of the head, but the body 
tapers considerably posteriorly, the height of the base of the caudal being only one third of 
the height at the nape. The total length, caudal included, is equal to three times and three 
quarters the height, and to six times and a half the thickness. The head is large in pro- 
portion to the size of the fish, forming a third of the total length, and is high and compressed 
with flat sides. The eye is small and high up, but does not interfere with the profile. The 
space between the eyes equals the diameter of the orbit, and is occupied by three anterior 
detached rays of the dorsal. The shaggy skin conceals all the bones of the head. A 
transverse furrow is visible between the orbits and nostrils. The mouth descends almost 
vertically from nearly the level of the eye. The maxillary, covered with loose shaggy skin, 
shews a rather broad disk behind the premaxdlary, which is in no way concealed when the 
mouth is closed. The preorbitar is entirely hidden by the integuments, and on dissection is 
found to be a small subulate bone with a soft tip, proceeding forward from the suborbitar 
chain, which is very narrow and forms the under margin of the orbit. A narrow plate of 
bone descends from the chain under the posterior part of the eye to the curve of the preoper- 
culum, which is also concealed by the skin. The curve of the preoperculum is the segment 
of an oval, the upper limb being very short, and its whole edge perfectly entire. The oper- 
culum on dissection is seen to be thin and weak, with two inconspicuous ribs which end in 
feeble points not at all pungent, and it has a concave edge between them. The narrow sub- 
operculum curves up behind the operculum, and furnishes to the gill-cover a small elastic tip, 
which points upwards, nearly on a level with the summit of the back, and encloses a small 
round portion of the gill-opening when the gill-flap is closed. There are no pungent points 
whatever on the head. The gill-opening is very large, and extends in the segment of a circle 
from high on the shoulder down, and forwards to beneath the nostrils. The branchiostegous 


membrane is supported by six curved cylindrical rays. The four small branchial arches lie 
deep in the cavity covered by the ample gill-flap. They are furnished with sessile knobs on 
their borders. The teeth on the jaws are microscopical, and set in close-shaven, villiform 
bands. They are even smaller on the chevron of the vomer and in a narrower transverse band. 
The palatines are toothless. 

The integuments are soft, lax, scaleless, and almost everywhere furnished with small 
slender filaments, either simple or bifid. These are numerous on the jaws and most parts of 
the head, and are most conspicuous on the spinous dorsal fins and lateral line. They are 
small, but numerous on the lower half of the pectoral, and exist on the soft dorsal anal and 
caudal. The lateral line runs parallel to the back in the upper quarter of the height, and is 
furnished with bifid filaments. 

The anterior dorsal consists of three approximated rays which stand between the eyes : 
the middle ray is the tallest, and is connected to the other by membrane as high as the tips. 
The next dorsal ray is over the preoperculum, and is connected to the following ones by low 
membrane, but stands at a greater distance from them than they do from each other. The 
membrane is deeply notched between them, but they are all clothed with thick skin studded 
with filaments. The soft rays are higher than the spines, and the last one is connected to 
the caudal by low membrane. The existence of an anal spine was not clearly made out. 
The pectorals are obliquely rounded, but not connected to the sides after the manner of Sy- 
nanceia. All the rays are jointed, unbranched, and have prominent curved tips, the lower 
ones being thicker. The ventrals are exactly under the base of the pectorals, are small, and 
are composed of a short spine and two soft rays. The generic name is derived from their 
comparatively diminutive size. The caudal is rounded at the end with the tips of the rays 

The colour of the specimen, after immersion in spirits, is blackish-gray, passing on the 
under surface into pale purplish -brown and white. There is a row of pale spots on the 
lateral line, and there are some pale dots scattered over the head, flanks, and fins. The fin 
membranes, particularly the borders of the pectorals, are dark. Length, 3 inches. 

Hab. Sea of China. 


•Radii.— B.6; D. 10|-20 ; A. 18; C.llf; P. 17; V. 1(2. 

Plate I. Fig. 7-11. 

This fish is much compressed, the height, which is greatest under the spinous dorsal, 
being more than twice the thickness. The profile approaches a semi-ellipse, the line of the 
belly being nearly horizontal with a slight convexity, while the back is elevated. The mouth 
is horizontal and low down, and the ascent from it to the dorsal is at an angle of 45°, nearly 
in a straight line ; while the posterior part of the back is a little more arched than the under 
outline, both meeting in the very slender short trunk of the tail. 


The head forms one third of the length of the fish, caudal excluded, or less than a fourth, 
including that fin. Its length exceeds the greatest depth of the body, and is twice its own 
height at the occiput. The eye is moderately large, forming a fourth part of the length of 
the head. It is placed one diameter of the orbit from the tip of the snout, two diameters 
from the apex of the gill-flap, and encroaches slightly on the upper profile. The nostrils are 
minute orifices without cirrhi before the eye, the anterior one being near to the end of the 
snout, and the posterior one more removed from the orbit. The space between the eyes is 
equal to almost two thirds of the diameter of the orbit, is covered with smooth skin, and is 
flattish. The preorbitar has a smooth under edge, curved in the segment of an ellipse ; the 
rest of the suborbitar chain is concealed by the integuments ; but a smooth, moderately wide 
process crosses the cheek from under the eye to the hollow of the preoperculum. This latter 
bone is curved, and its narrow disk, whose under edge is somewhat uneven, is also covered 
by the integuments continued from the cheek, so as not to be apparent in the recent fish : 
a little above the curve, there is a small, narrow, flat, obtuse spine or process, projecting from 
the upper limb of the bone. The interoperculum is rather narrow, flexible, and smooth. 
The operculum, of a triangular form, ends in an obtuse, thin point, which is not at all 
pungent, and is wholly concealed by the flexible, narrow, prolonged end of the suboperculum, 
that forms a conspicuous tip to the gill-cover. The gill-opening is pretty large, although it 
is restricted above by a membrane which runs from the tip of the suboperculum, and binds 
the gill-cover to the nape. The gill-membrane is also united to its fellow beneath and plays 
free over the isthmus, to which it is connected only at the root of the tongue. It is sustained 
by six pretty long, slender, curved rays on each side, and, when fully expanded, is convex 
externally. The mouth is horizontal, with a pretty large gape, though it does not extend so 
far back as the orbit. The under jaw is rather the longest. The margin of the mouth is 
formed by the premaxillaries and the inaudible, and both are armed by villiform bands of 
teeth, which are broadest at the symphyses, where there are four or rive teeth in the breadth 
of the bands ; the individual teeth, when examined by the aid of a lens, appear to be subulate 
and acute. The projecting chevron of the vomer is similarly armed, and there are more 
minute ones covering the narrow edges of the palatine bones. The tongue is hemispherical 
and smooth. There are four branchial leaves and a small single one attached to the gill- 
plate. Each arch is armed interiorly by two roM r s of small, obtuse, sessile processes ; and 
the posterior branchial leaf is bound to the shoulder by membrane, leaving only four openings 
from the gullet. The maxillary bone is closely bound by integument to the pre-maxihary 
its whole length, and glides partly under the edge of the preorbitar : its lower end is wider 
and truncated. 

The skin is smooth and scaleless, and the lateral line, which is composed of a series of 
short tubes, is much arched over the pectoral, and quite straight for the remainder of its 
course to the caudal fin. 

The first dorsal is arched, the fourth and fifth rays being the tallest, and the last one 


very short. All the rays are slender and flexible. The rays of the second dorsal are all 
unbranched and finely jointed. The anal is similarly constructed. The membrane of these 
and of the other fins is extremely delicate and easily torn, and as it has suffered some damage 
in the specimen, we cannot determine whether the two dorsals were connected by a low 
membrane or not, or whether the last rays of the dorsal and anal were bound to the tail. 
There is a deep furrow on the upper surface of the short trunk of the tail and a similar one 
below, in which the last rays of the dorsal and anal recline. The caudal is truncated at the 
end with a slight projection of the angles, and the membrane is notched between the tips of 
the rays, which are forked. The pectoral appears to have been pointed, but its rays being 
brittle have been mutilated. The ventrals are very small and are attached beneath, or rather 
behind, the attachment of the pectorals. The first ray is flexible without apparent joints, the 
other two, which are not separated from each other by membrane, are longer and distinctly 
jointed. Colour in spirits uniform and brownish. Mr. Adams has noted that the body 
and fore part of the dorsal are chestnut brown, the throat and belly orange. There are 
oblong, silvery spots on the sides, one of them extending from the eye to the gill-opening, 
another being in the axilla of the pectoral, and the third under the end of that fin, just 
where the lateral fine begins to take a straight course. The eye is orange and golden. 
Length, 4-| inches. 

Hab. The sea off the Island of Quelpart. 

Eadii.— B. 6; D. 10|-19; A. 18; C. 11J-; P. 15 ; V. l|2. 

Plate I. Pig. 1-6. 

This fish is much less high and compressed in the body than P. centropomus and has a very 
different aspect, though it posesses the same generic characters. It has some resemblance to a 
Coitus or Apistes, but is distinguished from the former by its palatine teeth, and from the latter 
by its unarmed preorbitar. It is moderately compressed, the height at the shoulder being twice 
the width ; the dorsal line is continued from the eye to the caudal with a very slight con- 
vexity, and the descent of the snout is small ; the ventral line is similar, both profiles meeting 
in the rather slender tail, which has scarcely a third of the height of the body at the pectoral. 
The belly is tumid. The head forms one third of the length of the fish, excluding the caudal, 
which is shorter than the head. The eye touches the profile, and its diameter is equal to 
about one fourth of the length of the head, and scarcely equal to the breadth of the cheek 
between the orbit and preopercular disk. The space between the eyes is less than the 
diameter of the orbit, whose upper margin is rather raised, and the interval in the skull is 
furrowed, but the inequalities are concealed by the integument. The jaws are equal ; very 
little of the maxillary is concealed by the preorbitar, and its truncated end falls back as far 



as the middle of the orbit when the mouth is closed. The premaxillary does not reach quite 
to the corner of the mouth, which is membranous. The jaws are armed by bands of acicular 
teeth, standing about four deep at the symphyses, and narrowing to a single row towards the 
corner of the mouth. The edges of the palatine bones, the prominent chevron of the vomer, 
and the hemispherical pharyngeals are set with similar teeth. There is no tongue. The 
preorbitar is not much broader than the rest of the suborbitar chain, and its under edge is 
curved in the segment of an ellipse, and is slightly uneven. The process which crosses the 
cheek from the second suborbitar to the preoperculum can be felt rather than seen. The 
preoperculum is curved with a narrow disk and no prominent angle, but is armed by a small 
acute spine, directed a little upwards, and springing from its upper limb above the apex of 
the curve. The triangular bony operculum is unarmed, and the gill-flap ends in a narrow 
strap-shaped tip, formed by the flexible extremity of the suboperculum. The upper edge of 
the gill-plate is connected to the shoulder by membrane, but the gill-opening is ample, and 
the thin gill membranes, supported on each side by six, slender, curved rays, are united 
beneath and play freely over the isthmus. The ventral is composed of two simple jointed 
rays, and a short spine. The lateral line, formed of a series of short tubes, is somewhat undu- 
lated and moderately curved over the pectoral, after passing which it runs straight to the caudal. 
The general tint is brownish, with some silvery tints towards the belly. The back is darker, 
and the sides are crossed by about six vertical brown bars of a deeper tint. The tubes of 
the lateral line are silvery, and are strongly relieved by a series of small brown spots. The 
head and lips are also spotted with brown, and the vertical fins are barred transversely, each 
by about four brown lines. The pectoral is likewise marked with brown. 

Several shrimps were contained in the oesophagus of this fish. Length, 3J inches. 

Hab. Sea of China. 


Bateachus quadrispinis, Cuv. et Valenc, Hist, des Poissons, vol. xii. p. 487. 
Radii.— Br. 6; D. 3]-17; A. 16; 0. 15f; P. 21 ; V. 1|2. 

Plate I. Pig. 12-16. 

Our specimen agrees with the description in the Histoire des Poissons, in the opercular 
and subopercular spines., and with the other particulars noticed in the brief description, 
except that the dark points or dots on the back and belly cannot be traced, but in place 
thereof the belly is pale without dots, and the back is clouded in a somewhat banded 

The head forms one third of the total length of the fish, including the caudal, and its 
height and thickness at the occiput are equal. The cleft of the mouth reaches to under the 
middle of the eye. The premaxillary teeth are in two rows and are acute, though short ; 


they are represented by mistake in figure 15 as uniserial. The vomerine and palatine teeth 
form a continued series of short teeth with rounded cusps, the vomerine teeth being some- 
what larger and more prominent than the palatine ones. The mandibular ones resemble the 
latter, and stand in two rows at the end of the jaw. The first dorsal is connected to the 
second by membrane, and the pectoral and caudal are ovate. The ventrals are furnished with 
a spine and two unbranched jointed rays, the second soft ray being closely applied to the 
first and so slender as to be detected with difficulty. The dorsal and anal are connected to 
the base of the caudal by low membrane, and there are similar cutaneous folds in the axillary 
of the ventrals. Length, 3^ inches. 
Hab. China Sea. 


Eadii.— B. 5 ; D. 9 ; A. 8 ; C. 8i- ; P. 17. 

Plate VII. Fig. 1-3. 

This Tetrodon belongs to the group which have short heads, a generally hispid body, 
and pale spots. The spines are small, scarcely protrude even on the belly through the inte- 
gument, and are but very little pungent to the finger, as they sink beneath the skin when 
pressed. They are most conspicuous on the belly, but become visible on the back when the 
skin is inflated. They can be traced over all the back, nearly to the base of the dorsal, and 
down the sides over the styloid bone, till they meet the spinous skin of the belly. Some very 
delicate ones are detected with difficulty on the lateral line, where it traverses the trunk of 
the tail, and a few also at the posterior part of the base of the dorsal. The top of the head is 
also set with minute spines, but the snout anterior to the nostrils, the chin, cheeks, the 
pectoral axilla?, the flanks posterior to the point of the styloid bone, and the whole of the tail, 
except the lateral lines, are smooth. The lateral line can be traced from near the nostril in a 
curve, under the eye, over the shoulder and pectoral fin with some slight undulations, and 
then straight through the tail, above the middle height. Porous lines can also be traced over 
the eye, and one hne runs from the caudal fin through the lower third of the tail. The skin 
along this hne is minutely granulated, as if spinous, but the spines are neither visible by aid 
of a single lens, nor sensible to the touch. The rest of the integument above and below is 
quite smooth. 

The obtuse chin projects beyond the mouth, which is thus turned obliquely upwards. 
The profile is slightly concave at the nostrils, and convex at the eye, from whence it runs 
nearly horizontally to the dorsal. The belly is tumid, and is capable of considerable disten- 
tion. The head, measured to the gill-opening, forms one-fourth of the total length of the 
fish, caudal included; its breadth at the gill-openings is equal to its length, and its height, 
when the skin is flaccid, is nearly equal to its breadth. The nostrils are two small contiguous 


openings, situated before and above the level of the eye, the tips of the anterior opening 
being tumid. The distance between the eyes is nearly half the length of the head, and the 
mouth is small, with the loose tips granulated or fringed interiorly. The anus is lax, and is 
fully a quarter of an inch before the anal fin. 

By dissection, the preoperculum is found to have a broad flat disk with numerous 
furrows towards its border. Its under limb is one-third longer than the upper one, which is 
vertical. They meet at a right angle, and the corner is very slightly rounded. The under 
edge is straight and horizontal, and lies in contact with, and partly conceals, the gill-rays. 
The body of the operculum is triangular, with a prominent ridge or crest near its articulation, 
and a narrow, flat process descending from its anterior edge, over a thin plate, formed by the 
interoperculum and suboperculum, which lie wholly behind the preoperculum, and are closely 
joined by membrane to one another. The hyoid bone gives attachment to five slender, curved 
branchiostegous rays, and the point of the uppermost can be felt through the integuments at 
the margin of the gill-opening, where it projects. Beneath the rays there is a broad thin plate, 
undulated so as to give lodgment to several large muscles, and articulated to the body of the 
hyoid bone. It looks like a greatly developed gill-ray, or rather like several (four) confluent 
rays, being traversed by three lines, indicating the points of union. The anal and dorsal are 
rather high, and the latter is the narrowest. The two fins terminate opposite to each other, 
but the dorsal commences a little farther forward. The caudal is even at the end, and the 
pectoral is much rounded. 

The upper half of the fish is deep black, but there are some scattered round marks on 
the back of greyish-black, in general not much paler than the ground colour. In one speci- 
men, however, these spots look whitish, as if the pigment were partially worn off. The under 
surface is white, and there are some orange tints on the flanks. The black and white meet 
in an irregular, clouded manner. The anal is white. The other fins are more or less clouded 
or mottled with black. Length, 5f inches. 

Hab. China Sea. 

Of the species named in the Regne Animal, p. 368, as belonging to the division 1° D., 
T. testudineus, Bl. 139, differs in its colour and markings, as well as in the general diffusion 
of the spines on the chin, flanks, and tail, as well as on the belly and back. Lacepede would 
appear to have confounded more than one species under the name of hispidus, as he states it 
to be an inhabitant both of the embouchure of the Nile, and of the Indian Ocean. His 
figure is copied from one of Commerson's designs, and is studded on the back with round, 
well-defined, white clots, in which as well as in the band-like processes of the dark ground 
colour, which run from the back into the white of the belly, the species differs from atratus. 
The T. hispidus of Bloch, pi. 142, has similar lateral descending bars of the dark colour without 
the superior white dots. T. patoca of Buchanan Hamilton, pi. 18. f, 2, differs from atratus in 
its more arched back, more prominent upper jaw, and in the numerous yellow angular spots on 
the back. Of the many handsome species figured in the Fauna Japonica by M. Schlegel, 


the only ones which require to be compared with atratus, are rubripes, pi. CXXIII. f. 1., and 
firmamentum, pi. CXXVI. f. 1. Both differ from atratus in the mouth being at the extremity 
of the head, and not the chin, and rubripes has the eye much more remote from the profile, 
and large black marks on the flanks, while firmamentum, with a more arched back, has the 
spines more generally diffused, and many pale oval or round spots equably placed on the 
head, back, belly, and basal half of the caudal fin. None of the species named under 
Cuvier's fourth division of the genus, characterized by smooth flanks, without tubercles, have 
any resemblance to atratus. 

Le Tetrodon Mrisse, Lacep. vol. i. p. 487. pi. 24. f. 1. ? 
Radii.— D. ]0; A. ; C. 9j; P. 17. 

Plate IX. Pig. 3-4. 

I refer this species, though not without doubt, to the Tetrodon hispidus figured by 
Lacepede, from a drawing of Commerson's, but it seems to be distinct from the hispidus of 
Block, which wants the white spots on the back. In retaining the specific name of hispidus, 
I have followed the Regne Animal, though without expressing an opinion as to the identity 
of Commerson's fish with the hispidus of the Nile and Mediterranean, which I have not 

This Tetrodon has a short thick snout, which in profile ascends to the prominent eyes. 
The back is moderately arched, and the belly can be distended to a semi-globular form. 
When the fish is fully blown up, the pectorals, dorsal and anal, are much concealed, as well as 
a considerable portion of the caudal. The space between the eyes is equal to two diameters 
of the orbits, and is slightly concave owing to the prominence of the upper borders of the 
orbits. The nostrils are pierced in two short barbels, which are connected at the base. The 
pectorals have an even or slightly crescentic edge, with rounded corners. The caudal is even, 
and the dorsal is placed, nearly its own breadth, before the anal. The lips are papillated. 
A ring round the mouth, the upper part of the snout, as far back as the nostrils, the narrow 
borders of the eyes, a ring round all the fins, the fins themselves, and the tail, posterior to 
the anal fin, are smooth. The rest of the integuments are spiny. The spines of the sides, 
belly, and cheeks, are closely set and rigid, and though small, are conspicuous enough. Those 
of the back are very short, scarcely penetrating the skin, and are not so numerous. They 
extend backwards behind the dorsal, and terminate over the fore-part of the anal. 

The specimen, which has been long in spirits, has a grayish-brown colour above, and a 
white belly. The upper parts are regularly spotted with white, the dots being round on the 
snout, tail, and base of the caudal fin, and oval on the back. They coalesce into circular 
lines round the eyes and bases of the pectorals and dorsal fins ; the bases, themselves, being 
dark. The end of the caudal is blackish brown, and there are some dark tints on the dorsal. 


There is also a series of four deep black marks, or bars, on the sides, viz., one under the eye, 
another before the gill-opening, the third and largest under the pectoral, and the fourth 
rather before the dorsal. The ground colour of the back deepens slightly over these marks, 
as if in the recent fish they had formed the extremities of transverse dorsal bands ; but they 
cannot be said to be mere prolongations of the ground colour into the white of the sides, 
such as the lateral bars of the Mspidus of Bloch are described to be. When the skin is 
examined with a lens, it is seen to be composed of tessellated minute plates, having various 
forms in different parts. On the smooth skin of the tail they are round or polygonal. They 
are oblong, but very unequal on the back, and smaller, granulated, and irregular on the belly. 
Hab. Eastern Atlantic. 


Eadii.— D.33; A. 28; CIO; P. 17. 

Plate VIII. Fig. 1-3. 

The usual number of rays in the dorsal fin of a Tetrodon is nine or ten. One species, 
the nigro-punctatus, is noted by Schneider as having only seven rays in that fin, in others the 
numbers amount to twelve or thirteen ; but out of twenty-four species characterized by the 
author just named, only one is said to have as many as fifteen dorsal rays. 1 The species 
described below has more than twice that number of rays in the dorsal, and its anal is also 
proportionably great. It differs also from any other fish we have seen in its nostril, which is 
single and has an orifice equal in extent to the length and breadth of the cavity. 

The length of the head, measured to the gill-opening, is one fourth of the whole length 
of the fish, caudal included ; the breadth of the head is less, being contained five times and 
a half in the whole length. The eye is placed above the level of the mouth, and mid-way 
between the end of the snout and gill-opening. The nostril is before, and rather higher than 
the eye, and is a single, wide opening, with a smooth bottom, and a plaited, loose margin, 
which forms two small, narrow, obtuse lobes anteriorly, the border being deficient between 
the lobes, so as to form a small channel or notch on the anterior rim of the opening. The 
mouth is rather small, the lips granulated or papillated on the edges ; and within close to the 
teeth, there is a narrow, prominent, more densely papillated ridge. The mouth is terminal, 
and the profile is gibbous over the eye. The belly is capable of considerable distention, so 
as to assume a semi-globular form. The tail, between the three vertical fins, has a peculiar 
shape, arising from an osseous enlargement of the upper and under interspinous bones, each 
about the size of a kidney bean. The dorsal and anal fins have a different shape from those 
of any other Tetrodon which we have seen, being longer than high, and considerably arched. 

The skin is smooth on the back, and of a pale brownish-purple tint, with various 
reflexions, when taken from the spirits. The recent colours were not noted. The skin is 

1 This is the Chinese ocellatus, which has usually only fourteen rays in the dorsal. 


traversed by various fine furrows, or depressed lines, whose course will be better understood 
by referring to the plates than by description. The spines are stronger than usual in the genus, 
and are each composed of a longitudinal base, imbedded in the integument, and a central 
subulate, acute stem rising from it through the skin at a right angle. These spines cover the 
belly, from the chin to the anus, leaving the cheek naked, but rising before the gill-opening to 
the temples and supra-scapular region. There are also five spines on the shoulder, behind and 
above the pectoral fin, the spiny surface there being bounded above by the undulating lateral 
line, and meeting beneath with the spiny ventral surface. The rest of the skin of the snout, 
top of the head, cheeks, and body, is smooth and polished, the axillae of the pectorals alone 
being finely and softly granular. Length, 8 inches. 
Hab. River Sarawak, Borneo. 

Tetrodon meleagris, Solander. (Rich. Ichth. of Voy. of Sulph. p. 122. p. lvii. f. 1-3.) 
We take this opportunity of adding a short extract form Solander's Manuscripts, relating to 
this species. " Caro venenata. Totus e purpurascenti nigricans undique adspersis maculis, 
parvis, numerosis, albidis etiam in pinnis. Spinulee breves rigidce, vix spinosce, subcartilaginece 
sunt in vel sub cute totius animalis, exceptis pinnis, spar see, numerosce, in caudd rarce ; has 
vivus retrahere et exserere potest, unde nunc uno nunc altero loco hispidus." — -Sol. MS. p. 79. 


Tetrodon Solandri, Richardson, Zool. Toy. of Sulph. Fish, p. 125. 
Tetrodon punctatits, Solander, MS. 

Since the figure and short description of this species were published in the work above 
quoted, I have had an opportunity of again consulting Solander's manuscripts and Parkinson's 
drawings, and find that I was in error in quoting T. cinctus of Solander, as a synonym of 
the species, the error having arisen from the figures of punctatus and cinctus being on the 
same leaf of Parkinson's volume, and being referred to by the same number. The following 
is Solander's account of the species. 

"Tetrodon punctatus, D. 10; A. 9 ; C. 10; P. 17. "Taste." Totus piscis {excluso 
abdomine) rufo-ferrugineus, punctis numerosis in corpore e viridijlavis, ubique circumcinctis, el 
inter oculos striges numerosce ccerulece, in dorso etiam puncta oblong a evadunt utpotius strigce 
appellanda. T. dixit, piscis intoxicat illos qui ilium edunt. Iris e viridijtava, annulo extero 
aureo. Pnpilla nigra, annulo aureo. P. dorsi e glauco pellucida, basi carnoso nigricante, 
sub qua linea coerulea. P. pectoris glauco-pellucidce. P. ani viridis, lineis duabus sordide 
flavis. P. Cauda a basi ultra medium pallide olivacea punctis ut in corpore, postice e rubro 
lutea, strigis transversis interruptis sen potius maculis oblongis, cceruleis, ipso apice cceruleo. 
Abdomen setis brevibus hispidum, Jtaccidum e viridiflavum ; carina abdominis mollis, coerulea, 
limitibus luteis ; linece ad later a carina, obsoletce, glaucae. Gula dilute crocea." — Sol. MS. 


Parkinson's figure is nearly of the same size with that published in the Ichthyology of 
the Voyage of the Sulphur, which coincides with specimen, and measures four inches and a 
half in length. Parkinson has made a memorandum under the drawing, stating that " every 
spot is bordered with a dark line, which turns paler as the ground colour does." The specific 
name of punctatus having been given in Schneider's edition of Bloch to a Brazilian Tetrodon, 
cannot be retained for Solander's fish. 

Tetrodon cinctus, which is also figured on the sixty-sixth folio of Parkinson's drawings, 
has a short head, obtuse snout, and a nearly globular form, when the belly is distended. It is 
also studded with sinall round dots on the upper surface, and on the caudal fin, but is 
characterized by two oblique black bars, which embrace the fore-part of the belly, whence its 
specific name. The intervals between the bars are light yellow, and there are several bars in 
outline on the remainder of the belly, but their colours are not specified. I have not found 
any reference to this species in Solander's Manuscripts. Like the preceding species, it was 
discovered at Otaheite, or, as Parkinson writes the name of the island, Taitai. Supposing all 
the bars on the belly to be black, the species will closely resemble the lineatus of the Fauna 


Kadii.— D. 9; A. 8; C. 9|; P. 16. 

Plate IX. Fig. 1-2. 

This Tetrodon belongs to the third division of the genus, characterised by a keeled back, 
and of which only two species are named in the Regne Animal, viz., T. rostratus, Bl. 146, 2, 
to which T. electricus, Paterson, Phil. Trans, p. 76. pi. 3, is referred; and T. Gronovii, Cuv. 
Our fish resembles T. grammatocephalus of the Fauna Japonica (pi. cxxvi. f. 3.) so much, 
that I have great doubt as to its being really distinct ; but M. Schlegel's figure does not 
show the striking ocellated mark at the base of the dorsal, nor the stripes on the back, and 
spots on the sides, and as the letter-press referring to this plate has not yet reached us, we 
do not know the condition of the specimen, or whether the colours had perished or not. T. 
ocellatus of Bennett, (Fishes of Ceylon, pi. 21,) has some resemblance to insignitus, but the 
eyed spot surrounds the base of the dorsal in the same way as it does in the ocellatus of Bl. 
p. 145, and the dorsal bands and streaks do not correspond with those of our fish. Nothing 
is said, in Mr. Bennett's text, of spines, nor are any represented in his figure. 

In insignitus the belly and back are studded with minute spines, which roughen also the 
top, and entire sides of the head. There is a narrow ring of smooth integument round the 
base of the lips, the eyes, and gill-openings. The spines of the belly rise as high as the under 
ray of the pectoral, and backwards to the anus, while those of the back extend to the dorsal, 
and as low as the level of the centre of the eye. The axilla of the pectoral, the sides, and tail, 
are smooth, including the bases of the dorsal and anal fins. 


The head forms one-third of the entire length of the fish ; the snout is conical, 
and the profile in rising becomes a little gibbous at the eyes, and attains its summit in a 
prominent point, directly over the gill-opening, from whence it is horizontal to the dorsal fin. 
The belly is round and prominent, but apparently not capable of much distention. Posterior 
to the anus, the compression of the tail is considerable. The space between the eyes is 
rather concave transversely, and equals in breadth a diameter and a half of the orbit. This 
space narrows to a point posteriorly, the summit of the dorsal line, which is an acute point of 
bone covered by integument, forming, when viewed in front, the apex of a flat triangle. From 
thence the back to the dorsal is ridged, but not very acutely. The snout, before the eyes, 
is rounded, and tapers to the mouth. There is a low cutaneous seam on the mesial line of 
the belly. The nostril is a small round opening before the eye, which is so closed by a flat 
operculum, that when the skin is allowed to dry, it can with difficulty be discovered. The 
dorsal is a little before the anal, and the caudal is even at the end, with the tips of the rays 

The specimen in spirits has a brown colour above, and is pale or whitish beneath. The 
snout, and cheeks are marked with numerous round, blue-eyed spots, with darker borders, 
which fade under the pectorals, into an indistinct marbling, and entirely disappear farther 
back. The upper parts are marked with blue lines having dark borders. Two of these 
cross the upper surface of the snout before the nostrils, one crosses the nostrils and extends 
from eye to eye, four others cross the inter-orbital space, and five radiate from the posterior 
part of the orbit backwards ; there is also one beneath the eye. Many short ones undulate 
longitudinally in the back and upper parts of the sides, and there are a few on the upper 
surface of the tail behind the dorsal. All these will be better known by consulting the figures 
than by description. They have much resemblance to the lines of Tetrodon mapjja of Lesson. 
On each side of the base of the dorsal, there is a somewhat triangular black spot, with a pale 
blue border. These spots do not touch each other in front of the dorsal, and there is a still 
broader space between them behind. The fins are pale and transparent. Length, 2^ inches. 

Hab. Sea of China. 


Balistes ringens, Bloch, pi. 152. f. 2. Bl. Schn. p. 472. Lacep. vol. i. p. 370. pi. 1 8. f. 1. [B. sillonne.) 
Balistes niger, Osbeck. Voy. Bl. Schn. p. 471. 
Balistes radula, Solander, MS. 

Eadii.— D. 3|-31 ; A. 28 ; C. 10 \; P. 16. 

Plate 6. Fig. 1-4. 

The reference to Bloch's plate 152. f. 2, is made on the authority of the Megne Animal, for 
the figure is so bad a representation of our fish, that without the opportunity of verifying it by 
consulting Bloch's specimens, enjoyed by Cuvier, we could not have quoted it with confidence. 


It is incorrect in the general profile of the fish, and in the vertical fins, Lacepede's figure is 
better. The species enters the group, which is characterized in the Regne Animal by six or 
seven rows of spines on the tail. Schneider attributes seven rows to niger, and eight to ringens. 
Solander, again, mentions nine rows as existing on the tail of his fish. There are in our 
specimen nine rows, four of which attain the base of the caudal, but the uppermost three and 
the lowermost two are shorter. The upper rows begin opposite to the anterior third of the . 
dorsal fin, and the lower ones above the same part of the anal. These lines can scarcely be 
said to be spinous : they are rather low ridges, formed by a narrow, rough elevation of the 
transverse or short diameter of each scale, (fig. 3.) The scales, generally, are regular rhombs, 
having their surfaces densely, but equably scabrous, and are separated from each other by 
smooth lines. The rhombs are mostly vertical, and are higher and proportionally narrower 
on the tail than elsewhere. They are shorter, without losing their width near the pectoral fin, 
are more oblique on the belly, and make an approach in form to hexagons on the cheek. 
Behind the gill-opening there are a few scales, rather wider than the others, but not much 
longer. The dorsal spine is stout, cylindrical, obtuse, and slightly curved. It is not serrated 
in front, like the spine of Bloch's figure of ringens, nor does it taper so much. Its front is, 
in fact, villous, appearing so to the eye, but feeling smooth to the touch ; and it is made rough 
on the sides by fine and crowded, hard granulations. The second ray of the first dorsal is 
short and slender, and the third one is far back, and so short, that it does not rise above the 
level of the furrow, which receives the fin when depressed. The dorsal and anal are arched in 
front, and lower and more even posteriorly. The exterior rays of the caudal are stout, with 
rough surfaces, which project beyond the intermediate straight, or slightly convex border, 
forming falcate points, equal in length to about one-thbd of the length of the fin. The ven- 
tral spine is short and truncated, and is raised only by force from a depression into which it 
fits. There is no thin membrane, nor appearance of rays behind it, the belly remaining 
roundish between it and the anus; but the narrow rows of scales which converge towards that 
part, are rough on the rim, or mesial line of the belly, making a low ridge. The length of the 
head is contained four times and one-third, in the total length, caudal included. The mouth 
is small, the eye quite round and high up, and the upper and under profiles of the fish are 
alike. The height of the body equals two-fifths of the whole length. 

The colour of the specimen in spirits is dark brown, with a blacker face and chin. 
Some pale lines cross the nape and forehead, and there are darker lines on the body and tail 
corresponding to the centres of the rows of scales. The lines of skin, which appear between 
the scales, are pale and bluish, though they have been represented necessarily by the artist 
as dark. A milk-white line runs along the bases of the dorsal and anal rays, and there is a 
dark crescentic line, edged with a pale tint, within the border of the caudal. 

The following is Solander's description, taken from his manuscript Animalia Oceani 

" Balistes kadtjla. Totus piscis efusco nigricans, cute cceruled quce in inferiore capite, 


pectore et precipue abdomine sape inter squamas apparet, quod pulchrum reddit piscetn. 
Pinna magis fidiginosa. Ad basin pinna dorsi poster ioris et pinnae ani striga pulcherrime 
glauca seu e cceruleo alba. Pupitta olivacea. Iris nigra. Ordines novem spinarum cari- 
natarum in posteriore parte piscis (equates ; sex ad basin pinna caudali extenduntur. Pinna 
dorsi anterior bi-radiata. 

" Squama in inferior e parte piscis sub-olivacea quod inter cutem cceruleum strigas obliquas 
olivaceas efficit. Pinna caudalis postice lunulato fascia nigricante ornata, limite posteriori 
sordide glaucescente. Aelhi pahah or Aelhe pahahah." Solander, MS. An. Oc. Pacif. p. 86. 

Eadii.— D. 31-25; A. 22; C. 12; P. 15. 

Plate IX. Fig. 5-8. 

This Batistes belongs to that division of the genus which has no peculiar armature on 
the tail, for though the scales there are spiny, they are more or less so over the whole fish. 
When newly removed from the spirits in which the specimens are kept, the form of the scales 
cannot be well perceived, but as the skin is allowed to dry, it is seen to be covered with small, 
roundish, or obscurely tetragonal, or hexagonal scales, which have an elevated point in the 
centre, from whence lines radiate to the edges. On the scales of the head and breast, the 
elevation of the central point is less, and it does not appear much more conspicuous than 
several other rough points which stud the disk. On the back, sides, and tail, however, 
the central point becomes a true, small, acute spine, and the disk of the scale is more 
elevated, with radiating lines, but the other points are comparatively smaller. There are 
nine rows of scales on the trunk of the tail, laterally, and the scales on the narrow upper 
and under surfaces of that, have also spines, though not so large. On the under surface and 
point of the pelvic bone, the central spines and other points on the scales are larger and more 
acute, and on the edge of the dew-lap, between the pelvic bone and anus, the scales are 
ranged in pahs, and their central spines are bifid. The front of the dorsal spine is roughened 
by four rows of spinules, and the rays of all the other fins, pectorals included, are also 
rough, except the upper and under ray of the caudal, which are smooth. The scales behind 
the gill-opening are no larger than elsewhere, but on the immediate border of the opening 
the points on the scales are smaller, and more equable in size, and numerous. 

The shape of this fish is much like that of B. capriscus. Its height is equal to half its 
length, caudal included. It is much compressed, the greatest thickness being at the temples. 
The space between the eyes is convex, and almost ridged in the specimen we have figured ; 
but in younger individuals, from the greater prominence of the orbits, it appears concave. 
The length of the head is contained thrice and nearly one-half in the total length of the fish. 
The pectoral fin is small, the dorsal and anal high and rounded. The front spine of the first 


dorsal is stout, and the third is as tall as the second, and rises considerably above the edge of 
the furrow which receives the fin. The dew-lap is not greatly distensible, and presents no 
resemblance of rays. 

Our specimens are streaked and dotted with black, in the directions of the centres of 
the scales, but the pigment seems to be perishable, and the specimens are not in a perfect 
state, so that the proper colours cannot be described. Length, from one to six inches. 

Hab. Sea of China. 

Sir Edward Belcher's collection contains several other Batistes, such as 

BALISTES ACULEATUS, Lin. Bl. pi. 149. 
Batistes ornatus, Solander, MS., An. Oceani Pacifici, p. 93. Parkins. Icon. pi. 59, Mus. Banks. 

This species has an extensive range, and appears to be abundant in most places where it 
is found. Sir Edward Belcher's collection contains several specimens. The following is 
Solander's account of it. 

"Balistes ornatus, (B. acideatus, L. Syst. 406-6, sectmdam, Sebam.) "Aer'h. Aelhitea." 

" Piscis supra medium antice pallide olivaceus, poslice fuliginosus infra medium albicans. 

Maxilla sordide lutescentes. Fascia intense ccerulea supra maxillam superiorem, unde vitta 

utrinque ad latera capitis, paulo pone basin pinna pectoralium extensa lutea. Inter oculos 

fascia quatuor ccerulea. Infra oculos ad basin pinnarum pectoralium fasciae tres angusta 

ccerulea. Infra medium corpus fascia quatuor obliqua. Prima incipiens paulo pone pinnas 

pectoris ad anum extenditur : Secunda angustissima pinna parallela : Tertia prima similis : 

Quarto inferne flavescens. In caudd quatuor ordines spinarum nigrarum. P. D. 1 ma. 

cmndescenti-pallida : 2da. pellucida. Anus intense cmruleus. Iris lulescens. Pupilla nigra. 

Cauda intra aculeos glaucescens. Pinna pectoris pellucida immaculata." 

Hab. Polynesia, Australia, Malay Peninsula, Seas of Borneo and China. 

BALISTES VERRUCOSUS, Linn. (Cuv. Begn. An.) 

Balistes pralin, Lacep. vol. i. p. 365. 
Hab. Sea of China, Polynesia. 


Batistes angulatus, Solander, MS. Anim. Oceani Pacif. p. 57. Park. Icon. Bibl. Banks, no. 58. 

Solander's description is as follows : — 

"Balistes angulatus. "Aedhi, Oedi, or Oehli." 

" Superne sc. caput superne et superna pars corporis ex olivaceo castanea. Gula, pectus, 
abdomen ad anum usque alba. Labia cinerea. Arcus cceruleics supra labium superius. Striga 


nigricans ab anteriori parte orbitce ad basin pinnae pectoralis. Ab oculis oblique descendit 
supra pinnam pectoris per latera ad pinnam caudalem, area magna lalissima, nigra, prope 
oculos angustior, pone pinnas pectoris maximum partem lateris occupans. Prope basin posticam 
pinnae ani, et dorsi posterioris strigce duce e viridi jtavce, antrorsum oblique exeunt, angulos 
acutos a latere formantes : primus angidus ad medium latus extenditur, alter dimidio brevior. 
Cauda nigra, quae nigredo in angidum acutum antrorsum intra angulos lutescentes exten- 
ditur. P. caudalis basis tecta corio olivaceo castaneo, striga transversa lutea inter lianc et 
nigredinem caudae. Pinna pectoris e glauco pellucida, prope basin striga transversa miniata. 
Aculei recumbentes plurimi in cauda: ordines tres intermedii plurimi (9-10) aculeis compositi: 
laterales ab unico tantummodo vel altero." — Solander, 1. c. 

Parkinson's figure represents the colour as buff orange, with an oblique black stripe 
crossing the pectoral region, and extending from the eye to the tail. The acute, black 
chevron on the tail has green borders and lines, and the caudal is green. 

Hab. Polynesia. Sea of Borneo and China. 

Plate X. Fig. 1-3. 

Of this apparently novel form I can give but an imperfect account. There is only a 
single specimen which I am unwilling to mutilate by dissection, and from its shape, it cannot 
be examined otherwise by a microscope, while its parts are too minute to be readily seen by 
the aid of a common eye-glass. 

Its general form is thread-like, more slender near the head, swelling out by degrees in 
the anterior quarter of the body, and again tapering imperceptibly into the caudal extremity, 
which is as fine as a hair. The eye is large, and is very conspicuous from its dark purplish 
blue colour. The jaws are long and slender, and the cleft of the mouth extends back to the 
posterior part of the eye. The length of the upper jaw seems to depend on the prolongation 
of the premaxillaries, and the slender maxillaries lie more exteriorly at the angle of the mouth, 
which they form, their lower ends slightly overlapping the limbs of the mandible. The interior 
surfaces of both jaws are convex, and are entirely covered like a file with short triangular or 
semi-lanceolate teeth, having their points inclined backwards. There appear to be about six 
rows of these teeth on each premaxillary, and the dental surface narrows off to a mesial point 
at the entrance of the gullet. The maxillaries are armed with three rows of similar teeth. 
The limbs of the mandibles recede towards the angles of the mouth, so as to receive the 
mesial dental plate of the upper jaw between them, the maxillaries lying exterior to both. 
There is no visible tongue. Nine or ten gill-rays, as slender as a fine hair, and curved like 
the ghl-rays of a Muraena, support the branchiostegous membrane. A narrow space beneath 
divides the gill-openings, which reach upwards to about half the height of the head. The 
anus is placed between the middles of the small pectorals, and is with great difficulty detected. 


The very tender, pointed pectorals, are sustained by about eleven rays. Between them 
the belly bulges a little. The back is furnished with a numerous series of short, sub- 
ulate, acute rays, each having a short membrane in its axilla, and being destitute of joints, 
but shrivelling as they dry, and without pungency. They can be traced from the occipital 
crescent of the cranium to within an inch of the hair-like point of the tail, but as this has been 
injured by handling, their exact termination could not be determined. The tip of the tail 
under a high magnifying power showed no vestige of caudal rays, but its surface being 
somewhat abraded, the absence or presence of dorsal or anal rays on it could not be deter- 
mined. The anal rays commence at the verge of the anus, and are considerably larger and 
more numerous than the dorsal ones. They are also unjointed, but one or two of them in 
the middle of the series, where they are longest, are split at the tips. A low continuous mem- 
brane connects their bases, and probably originally extended to their tips, but if so, it has, 
from its delicacy, been in great part destroyed. A fine groove running along the middle 
height of the body represents the lateral line. Mr. Adams has noted the colours of the 
recent fish as being dull white, with dark brown spots, and the head as having a pink tint. 
The spots are small, and mostly confined to the ventral surface, very few rising above the 
lateral line. Under the lens their borders appear radiated. The skin is quite scaleless. 
Length, 14 inches. 

Hab. Southern Atlantic. 

CIRRHITES ARCATA, Cuv. et Val. Hist, des Poiss. 

Perca? areata, Solander, MSS. A. 64. 

Radii.— Br. 5 ; D. 10|11 ; A. 3|6 ; C. lof ; P. 8 et VI.; V. l|5. 

Plate V. Fig. 3-5. 

This fish is described in the Histoire des Poissons by the specific name which we have 
adopted, though the preferable orthography is arquata or arcuata. In Solander's MSS. the 
word appears to be areata, and the following is his account of the species: — 

" Perca areata (" Pahulhu-t'aeo "). Piscis glaucus, area lata a medio pisce ad caudam 
per lineam lateralem e rubicundo aurantiaca. Pone oculum arcus oblongus aurantiacus, limi- 
tibus rubris, inferiore in lamina postremd operculorum litura tres lutea. Margo infimus 
lamina operculorum branchiarum aurantiacus, carina jugidi nigricans. Apex labii inferioris 
flavus. Striga Jlava, supra mandibulam superiorem. Pinna ventrales pone pinnas pectorales. 
Narium apertura antica tubidosa, saturatissime aurantiaca. Iris argentea. Pupilla oblonga 
nigra. Pinna sordide lutescentes, exceptd pinna caudali qua in medio glauca. Squama 
majuscula. In multis similis Perc^; mund^e." — Solander, 1. c. 

The various-coloured lines mentioned by Solander can still be distinctly traced on our 
specimens. The length of the head is contained thrice and one-third in the total length of 


the fish, caudal included. The thickness of the body scarcely exceeds one-third of its height, 
and this again is more exactly one-third of the length. The upper margins of the orbits 
are prominent but obtuse, rendering the space between them concave. The width of this is 
rather less than a diameter of the orbit. The line of the closed mouth descends with a 
moderate curvature, and does not extend backwards beyond the front of the eye. The teeth 
on both jaws are disposed in dense villiform bands, with an exterior row of stouter subulate 
ones, not rising much above the general surface, nor very regular. There is a stout conico- 
subulate canine on the front of each premaxillary at some distance from the symphyses, and 
a somewhat more slender one on the anterior third of the mandible. Between these and the 
symphyses, above and below, thei-e are several smaller subulate teeth in the exterior row. The 
prominent chevron of the vomer is covered with fine, short, villiform teeth ; the palate-bones 
and tongue are toothless. The height of the preorbitar does not quite equal the diameter of 
the orbit, its disk is uneven, and its edge entire. The rest of the suborbitar chain is narrow. 
The large cheek is covered by six oblique rows of scales, intermixed with numerous much smaller 
scales. It is bounded posteriorly by the curved preoperculum, which is entire on its lower 
third, and finely and equally toothed on the edge above. The opercular scales are larger, but 
are also mixed with minute ones. The bony operculum ends in an obtuse corner, beneath 
which the bone is rounded off. Very small, densely crowded scales cover the interoperculum, 
lirubs of the mandible, temples, and interorbital space, but there are none on the maxillary. 
Forty-six rows of scales exist between the upper angle of the gill-opening and base of the 
caudal. The lateral line runs parallel to the back, bounding the upper third of the height, 
and is traced by a series of small, short tubes, as well as by the rows of scales beneath it 
being more oblique than the upper rows. Length, 5 inches. 

Hab. Otaheite. Mauritius. Cape of Good Hope. 

Solander mentions a variety in the following terms : — 

"Pahulhu toeo, A. 167, no. 6. Perca areata varietas absque area laterali. Piscis 
e purpureo-cinereus. Corpus immaadatum. Caput naresque omnino uti in antecedente. Iris 
ex argenteo exius rubicundo, intus lutea. Pinna dorsalis antice e pallide-miniato, viridi- 
nebulosd ; postice basi rubescens ; medio glauca, apice flavescens. Pinnae pectoralis corpore 
concolores immaculatce. Pinnce ventrales et ani fuscescentes. Pinna caudalis radiis luteis. 
Piscis idem cum antecedente eodem die capitis." 


Radii.— D. 13; A. 11; C. 18i|; P. 11 ; V. 9. 

Plate X. Fig. 4-5. 

Of this fish I can give no details. There were two specimens which I unfortunately 
placed in the hands of the artist before I had examined them, except very cursorily. While 
he was employed in sketching, he put them into a plateful of water for the purpose of ex- 


paneling their fins more perfectly, and forgetting that he had not returned them into the 
spirits, they were thrown out and lost. The general aspect of the fish is that of a slender 
Galaxias, but there are no teeth on the jaws. The orifice of the mouth is a narrow vertical 
oval, which is restricted on the sides by membranous processes. The figure is of the natural 

Hab. Borneo. 

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_L HE portions of the bed of the ocean subject to examination during the Voyage of H.M.S. 
Sarnarang comprised the coasts of that portion of the volcanic zone of islands termed the 
Banda Group, including Java, Timor, Ternate, &c, from thence to the great chain com- 
mencing with Gillolo, Borneo, and Celebes, northwards through the -Philippine Islands and 
Bashee Group to the north-east, through the Loo-Choo Archipelago, the Meiacoshima 
Islands, and Corean Archipelago, as far as Japan ; and homeward across the Indian Ocean, 
visiting the lagoon islands of Keeling, the great barrier reef and islets of St. Brandon, the 
Mauritius, and the Agulhas Bank, to the Cape of Good Hope. 

In the Straits of Sunda an opportunity was afforded of examining for the first time 
the animal of Phorus, six out of seven species of which are natives of these seas. Passing 
through the Straits of Gaspar, the soundings varied from sixteen to twenty fathoms, the 
floor being soft mud : the Mollusca obtained were species of Clavatula, Pleurotoma, Phos, 
Ringicula, Ovulum, and Erato. In that portion of the China Sea which lies between the 
extremity of the peninsula of Malacca and the island of Borneo, we obtained Orassatella 
radiata, Cancellaria antiquata, Corhula tunicata and crassa, several species of Cylichna, 
Ringicula, Nucula, Pleurotoma, Marginella tricincta, and single valves of the Cardilia semi- 
sulcata, besides Phorus Indicus and Solarioides, Terebellum subulatum, and Rostellaria Jissa. 
The China Sea, forming one of the narrow gulfs or divisions of the great Pacific Ocean, 
enclosed by Borneo, the Philippines, and Formosa, seems to resemble a shallow basin, the 
floor of which is formed of mud, gravel, and the debris of dead shells ; and although probably 
the sediment of the numerous large rivers, which carry down mud, sand, and gravel, would 



not raise its bed in any considerable degree for ages, yet the Meinam and Camboja rivers, 
subject to inundations which loosen the earth of their banks, must continually alter the 
nature of the floor. The Hoang Ho, or Yellow River, alone daily contributes forty-eight 
millions of cubic feet of earth, which may partly contribute to the turbid appearance of its 
waters, and cause an uneven surface, inhabited chiefly by mollusks whose progression is 
rather a succession of jumps than a gliding motion. The gradual accumulation of alluvial 
matter must destroy large numbers of molluscous animals that live buried or at the surface 
of the mud, and as successive generations take their place above them, which in turn suffer 
the same fate, vast beds of accumulated shells will be formed like those among which our 
dredging operations were conducted, which in process of time will fill up the estuaries and 
increase the dimensions of the continent. Many new species were procured by placing the 
produce of the dredge in large wire sieves, washing it clean by pouring water on it, and 
picking out the small shells with forceps : in this manner several beautiful Tripkoris, Sca- 
laria, and Liotia were obtained. In the Sooloo Islands the water is very deep outside the 
barrier reefs, the bottom is for the most part muddy, and the tide runs between the 
islands at the rate of four miles and a half per hour ; the Phos roseatus, reiecosus, Blain- 
vittii, and senticosus were abundant, the caudal extremity of the animals of all the species 
ending in a slender filament. Terebrce, Mitrce, Pectunculi, Cardites, and Comes thalassiarcfais 
were obtained. Crossing from Sooloo, we proceeded along the east coast of Borneo, and 
anchored for about twelve days outside a sand-bank about a mile and a half from the 
easternmost point of the province of Unsang. This part of the coast of Borneo is very flat, 
the bottom within the fringing reefs is sand and broken coral : numerous species of Cyprcea, 
Rotetta, and Oliva were obtained here ; and in the large swampy lagoons and rivulets of 
brackish water slender Melanice, Assiminece, and Neritince were collected. Within Cape Rivers, 
at the north-western extremity of Celebes, a belt of coral extends from the extreme outer islet to 
the southward for about a mile and a half, where it joins the main and forms a snug harbour, 
with about eight fathoms in the bight. As there is a rise of tide of about nine feet, many 
parts of these reefs are left bare at low water, and abound in Mollusca. In many places the 
dark and slug-like bodies of Parmopkori, and the crawling forms of the Stomatellidee, espe- 
cially those named by Mr. J. E. Gray Gena, which cover a portion of their shells with the foot, 
were soon gliding about the coral beds ■ while scarce a stone was turned without disturbing 


Chitonelli, which slide rapidly away or conceal themselves in holes. In every part where 
solid rock was seen the bright blue gills of the Iridacna were visible in the fissures, while 
Neritee and Patella covered the stones along the shore. As soon as the tide rose and 
bathed the rocks, Conies and Balani that encrust them exhibited a strange appearance, 
millions of branchiated feet being then extruded from the apertures of their shells, all 
vibrating at once in a regular measured manner, and forming little vortices around them ; 
various Gastropods, now beginning to feel the water welling up around them, would be 
seen to dilate their locomotive discs, exsert their siphons, and cautiously forsake the holes 
and crevices where they had lain concealed ; while on the sandy patches the siphons of the 
Sole?i and the Mactra were protruded from innumerable holes, starring the soil with their 
beautiful fimbriated extremities. At Manado, another part of the coast of Celebes, the 
coast line is very different, and seems to consist of the side of a volcanic mountain, the 
anchorage, at the distance of a mile from the shore, being in 150 fathoms, with a floor 
composed of iron-stone sand. In the fresh-water ponds and rivulets Auricula subulata and 
Conovulus leucoclon were found upon the moist banks in company with species of Assiminea, 
and on the mud-flats of the river, during the reflux of the tide, myriads of Clithon, Neritincs, 
and MelanicB were observed ; while Pirence were numerous in the bed of the river, where 
the water was deeper. The Neritina sulcata was found on the foliage of tall trees, many 
hundred yards from the river. Neritincs and Navicellce were obtained from floating sticks, 
and from the petioles and roots of the Nipah palm ; while Ampullarice were not uncommon 
in the still ponds, many being observed on the stones out of the water. The shores of the 
volcanic island of Gillolo, and others of the Molucca Archipelago, with arms separated by 
narrow channels of the sea, surrounded by barrier reefs and coral fringes, abound with 
molluscous animals. On some of the shallow shores, especially where there were no currents, 
the water was appreciably warm, averaging about 84° Fahr., whereas throughout the ocean 
generally it is usually about 39° Fahr. Among these islands, as elsewhere, we found 
herbivorous mollusca, that feed upon the Algce and Fuci covering the rocks and stones : — 
Purpura, Littorina, and Nerita on exposed rocks, Chiton and Boris, Patella, Siphonaria, 
and Vermetus adhering to the stones, with Mytilus, Ostrcea, and Byssoarca anchored in 
the clefts. A little further out, the Naticce and Olives, partly covered by then foot, form 
burrows in the sand in company with Nassa and Pyramiclella, while Verms, Solen, and the- 


light-shelled Mactra perforate obliquely the yielding soil. On the reef Coiories and Stoma- 
tellcB abound ; outside the barrier Marginella, Fusus, Pleurotoma, Clavatula, and Strombus ; 
while in the deep water, more seaward, Terebratula, Cylichna, Nucula, and Necera are 
met with. At Leegeetan, in Borneo, there are many miles of low rnangrove-swamp, partly 
watered by trickling rivulets, where thousands of Tekscqpium and Potomis, or Cerithium 
palustre, are seen partially buried in the mud, then' spires bristling the surface ; amongst the 
tangled mangrove-roots were numerous Cassidulcs and Quoyice ; in the half-stagnant ponds " 
MelanicR were abundant, and, crawling on the soft muddy banks, forming slender tracks, 
were Nematwra and Assiminea ; in the damp woods near, Auricula Midce, Scarabi, and 
Pedipes were obtained; Pterocyclos parvus, spiraculum, and spiracellum, and Cyclostoma 
planorbulum were found among decayed leaves, in the fissures of rocks near the margin of 
the forest, while Choanopoma concinnum and nitidum were seen inhabiting the foliage of the 
trees ; Scarabi were very numerous, usually hiding under dead ieaves, but crawling about 
briskly after rain. The number of herbivorous mollusca peculiar to Borneo, judging from 
our limited exploration, does not seem so great as we might be led to expect from its 
abundant vegetation and warm, humid atmosphere ; the large Helix Brookei and the 
Bulimus Adamsii, together with Nanina vittata and some others, were, however, obtained 
from this island. 

From the circumstance of the islands of the Eastern Archipelago lying within the 
tropics, the equinoctial line extending nearly through the centre, the Mollusca partake of 
characters exhibiting general uniformity ; but when one group is separated from the rest, 
as the Philippine by the seas of Sooloo and Celebes, several peculiarities occur in their 
distribution. The genera Stomatia, Gena, Stomatella, Mitra, Mangelia, and Liotia 
appear principally confined to this group. Whether it is owing to the laborious and 
successful efforts of the Prince of Collectors, Hugh Cuming, Esq., which have made the 
Mollusca of these islands known, or whether to natural causes, it is certain these islands 
harbour a vast number of forms. The constant flow of water towards these equinoctial 
regions may tend to favour the submarine migration of Mollusca thither, added to which, 
the vast stores of nutriment and the higher degree of temperature of the water, favour their 
growth and reproduction. Upwards of fourteen species of Cyclostrema, as many of Liotia, 
whose habitats are known, have been collected among the Philippine Islands ; whde sixteen 


species of Stomatetta, nine of Stomatia, sixteen of Genu, and a small new genus belonging 
to the same group, were also procured by Mr. Cuming from the same locality, appearing 
to represent the Haliotis family of Australia and the Chitonidce of America. The members of 
this group are tolerably brisk in their movements, crawling among the stones and coral at high 
water, and hiding under stones dining the reflux of the tide ; they have the power of sponta- 
neously throwing off the hind part of the foot when taken, in the same manner as the Op/durus 
parts with a ray, or a Crustacean a claw. Out of forty-seven species of Mangelia described 
by Mr. Lovell Reeve in his beautiful monograph of that genus, no less than forty-three are from 
these islands • then favourite^ locality is coarse loose sand, either sand-patches on the reefs, 
or under stones in deeper water outside the reefs, or in still deeper water where the sand 
is mixed with mud. The species which live at considerable depths, as M. abyssicola, cinna- 
momea, and tenebrosa, are dark-coloured and strongly ribbed ; those that prefer the loose 
sands are generally granulated, finely ribbed or cancellated, and of a light brown colour ; 
while light-coloured species, as M. Marginelloides, which are seen crawling over mud-flats, 
are often covered with a fuscous epidermis. Perhaps the amount of colour in shells depends 
upon the degree of light they are subject to : as light does not penetrate lower than 700 
feet, Mollusca dredged from very deep water are usually colourless, while species living 
on the rocks are usually brightly coloured. On turning large stones, groups of Bicinula 
Columbelloides, Bissoce, and other gregarious genera, as Truncatellce and Melampi, which 
are amphibious, were constantly met with, and during the night Neritce were observed 
crawling actively in company over the stones ; and in the pools within the barrier reefs, 
numbers of Limes were observed darting rapidly about. In the Samboanga Roads very 
few shells were obtained, as the tide sets through them with great rapidity, and no soundings 
can be obtained further off shore than half a mile, where the floor is composed of dead coral, 
black sandy mud, and loose pebbles; a coral reef, however, borders the shore all along 
this part of Mindanao, within which the water is comparatively shallow and filled with 
marine vegetation supporting numerous Fissurella and Emargimdee. In fresh-water ponds 
and rivulets near the village of Calderas, Navicellce, Melanice, and Neritince were very 
numerous ; but no Ancyli, Ampullar i<B, or Bivalves coidd be detected. The Bulimics chloris 
was very abundant on the mountains : it glues itself to the under surface of leaves ; the eggs 
are very large, oval, calcareous, and of the same size at each end, and the young shell, which 


occupies the entire cavity before extrusion, is perfectly pellucid. In the woods of Ambolan 
and other small islands at the east end of Mindoro, although the pulmoniferous Gastropods 
were in a state of aestivation, specimens of Caracolla {Listen and rota) were obtained from 
under loose bark ; Helicina jpolita, Bulimus fictilis and syhanus, adhering to the branches; 
Chondropoma atricapillum and Iceve attached to the under surface of the leaves ; Megaloma- 
stoma alatum, Pupina Mindorensis, similis, and lubrica hiding in clusters amid the holes 
and fissures of the banks ; and species of Cyclostoma proper, concealed under loose stones 
and dead leaves, at the foot of the trees. While slowly sailing through the calm and 
beautiful sea of Mindoro, the young of two species of Dolium occurred in light brown 
patches, mixed with floating Alga, among which were also species of pelagic Aplysiadce and 
several Nudibranchs, which seem to browse on these pygmy forests like caterpillars on the 
trees, clinging by their long grooved foot to the stems of the Fuci, and relieving by their 
gaudily-coloured bodies the monotony of the submarine scenery. 

The Batani Islands, or Bashees, a volcanic group, which forms a link of the great chain 
connecting the Philippines and Formosa, and which is continued by means of isolated craters 
to the Loo-Choo and Japanese Archipelagoes, exhibits rather a barren field to the labours of 
the malacologist. Originally torn from the Philippine chain, they still bear traces of their 
plutonic origin in the shape of old exhausted volcanoes and magnetic iron-stone. On the 
sheltered side of Ibujos, however, extensive reefs afford good retreats for mollusca ; but the 
strong tides and black shifting sand render the other shores very unproductive. The inland 
parts, however, harbour numbers of the beautiful Helix speciosa and three varieties of 
Bulimus KocJiii, together with a new sinistral snail, our Helix Batanica. There appears to 
be a sandy belt between China and the Bashee group, for on the coast, about forty miles 
from the north-east point of Hong-Kong, soundings were obtained in thirty-four fathoms, 
fine sand ; this extends as far as the Pratas shoals, and between the latter and the Bashee 
Islands. Clavatula robusta and other species, Murex pinnatus, Isocardia Moltkiana and 
vulgaris, and a small species of Scalaria, were dredged here. From the North Bashees to 
Sama-Sana the full force of the N.E.E. current is felt, the nearer Formosa the stronger, but 
north of this it perceptibly diminishes ; hence, northern species of marine mollusca would be 
more probably met with as you approach the islands of the Eastern Seas, than southern 
species among the Corean Archipelago ; the currents, moreover, isolating the islands from 


the main land, may possibly assist in determining a peculiar Fauna, but as we did not visit the 
opposite shores of Asia, we were unable to judge from personal observation if such is the 
case; near Botel Tobago sounding could not be obtained with 150 fathoms of line. The 
Meiacoshima group, though never forming Attolls, abounds in barrier reefs and coral fringes, 
which sometimes extend from a half to three-quarters of a mile from the shore. Fissurellcs 
abound within the reefs, where the vegetation is abundant, and where, together with JEmar- 
ginulcB, they crawl among the branches of the arborescent Alga. The fiats and plains 
covered with coral, forming extensive shoals among these islands, are frequently dry at low 
water, where Mitra exasperata and arenosa, with Turbo, Bicinula, Conus, Cyprcea, Lima, 
Pecten, Terebra, Pteroceras, &c, occur in tolerable abundance. 

The superficial temperature gradually diminishes from the tropical seas towards the 
southern hemisphere ; hence we find the forms of molluscous animals growing less numerous 
and of less brilliancy of colouring as we recede from the equator. The most favourable 
localities for harbouring Mollusca are among the bays and reefs of archipelagoes where 
the coasts are low and shelving, and where the water remains shallow at some distance 
from the shore. On this account the Philippine and Gallapagos Islands afford rich harvests 
to the collector, but bold and rugged coasts, particularly if the result of volcanic agency, 
are not prolific in mollusks ; the waves dash against them and rend off large masses, which, 
falling into the sea, alter the nature of the floor, while the soundings give a great depth of 
water close in shore. This we found to be the case with the Bashees ; when, however, the 
tops of ancient submarine mountains are crowned with belts of coral, as in the Loo-Choo, 
Meiacoshima, and Corean groups, mollusks are tolerably abundant-; but even here their 
existence seems to depend upon the presence of coral. In Quelpart, for instance, where the 
perpendicularity of the sides of this deep-seated submarine mountain will not allow of the 
formation of coral, few shells are found. This island appears to be surrounded by a zone 
of lower submerged hills, for in lat. 33° 24' N., 127° 47' E., we made the east point 
(west 37") and obtained soundings in fifty-five fathoms ; as we neared the land, however, 
the water gradually increased till within a distance of five miles, when it again gradually 
decreased, and the same circumstance was observed on approaching it at other points. 
Haliotis gigantea was found strewing the ground in large numbers ; the Terebratula picta 
of Chemnitz, and other species, were obtained from the deep channels between the islands, 
and Stomatia rubra and Crepidula from the reefs. 


Among these islands we were fortunate enough to discover four new species of Chitons, 
a circumstance the more satisfactory from the fact of so few species of this genus having 
been noticed in the Asiatic region, and most of those confined to the Philippine Archipelago ; 
for while the Australian region boasts of the greatest number of Haliotides, the American can 
muster the largest amount of Chitons, and the other zoological regions would appear to be 
remarkably deficient in both genera. Out of one hundred and forty-three species described 
and figured in Mr. Reeve's beautiful monograph of the genus, sixty-six come from America, 
forty-two from Australia, fourteen from Asia, twelve from Europe, and nine from Africa. 
But two or three have been found in the Pacific, while ten are peculiar to the Philippines. 
Chiton hirudiniformis was found by us among these islands, and is also peculiar to the 
Gallapagos Archipelago ; and C. spiniger, of the Philippines, appears to represent C. occiden- 
talis of the West Indies. The largest and most brilliant species come from the tropical 
seas ; the smallest and most obscure from cold climates, or from considerable depths, in 
accordance with the known laws of geographical distribution. Northern Chitons have the 
valves covered either partially or entirely by the mantle, as in Chiton Sitkensis, C. tunicatus, 
and C. auriculatus ; the C. chlamys will probably be found to have come originally from a cold 
climate. I have frequently found Chitons among the islands of the Oriental Archipelago, 
adhering to the stones in the society of Neritce and Patettte, at very considerable distances 
from the water, and perfectly exposed to the burning rays of a tropical sun. At Cape Rivers 
we discovered, adhering to stones on the reefs, three new and beautiful species, namely, 
Chiton petasus, C. acutirostratus, and C.formosus. 

The floor along the eastern coast of Africa consists of fine clear sand, forming in many 
situations vast accumulations, like the Agulhas bank projecting from the Cape, which arises 
to within a few fathoms of the surface. These banks are prolific in Ancillarice, Margimllee, 
and BullicB. The shells collected at the St. Brandon Shoals, or Gargados Garajos, were 
remarkable for their white appearance ; Valuta costata, Cerithium, and Cardium were all of 
this colour, as were also the only species of Cone {Conns verrucosus) and of Pleurotoma 
P. virgo). — A. A. 





The chief objects of scientific interest collected during the voyage of the Samarang 
among the highest forms of Mollusca, consist of a new Loligopsis, Argonauta gondola with 
the soft parts, a species not hitherto described which we propose to name A. Owenii, and 
two mutilated specimens of the Spirula Peronii. No living Nautilus was detected throughout 
the course of the expedition, though it was assiduously sought for, which circumstance may be 
recorded in further testimony of the rare appearance of this deep-dwelling animal on the 
surface of the ocean. A very complete specimen was collected by Sir Edward Belcher in the 
Sulphur, and its anatomy has been fully demonstrated by Owen, Valenciennes, and Vogel. 
The capture of the animal of Spirula, of which the shell has been so long and abundantly 
known to naturalists, though imperfect, was a matter of great good fortune, and it is with 
much pleasure we are enabled to give a detailed account from the pen of Professor Owen 
of such parts of its anatomy as the specimens present. The drawing of Argonauta gondola, 
taken from life, presents an additional evidence, if any were needed, of the cephalopodic 
origin of these fragile Paper Sailors, and the Loligopsis, of which Professor Owen kindly 
promises the dissection before the close of our volume, will prove a valuable acquisition 
towards the history of that somewhat obscure and little-known genus. 

Before proceeding to describe these animals in detail, Mr. Adams notes the following 
on the Octopi of the Eastern Seas. 

Oetopi of enormous size are occasionally met with among the Islands of the Mei'a-co-shimah Group. 
I measured one, which two men were bearing on their shoulders across a pole, and found each brachium 
rather more than two feet long, giving the creature the power of exploring an area of about twelve feet 


2. a- 


without moving, taking the mouth for a central point, and the extremities of the arms, to describe the 
circumference. Dorsal plates of Sepia, afoot and a half in length, are found strewing the beaches. I have 
frequently observed the Sepia and Oetopi in full predatory activity, and have had considerable trouble and 
difficulty in securing them, so great is their restless vivacity at this time, and so vigorous are their endeavours 
to escape. They dart from side to side of the pools, or fix themselves so tenaciously to the surface of the 
stones, by means of their sucker-like acetabula, that it requires great force and strength to detach them. 
When removed, and thrown upon the sand, they progress rapidly in a sidelong, shuffling manner, extending 
their long arms, ejecting their ink-like fluid in sudden violent jets, and staring about with their huge 
shining eyes, which at night are luminous, like a cat's, in a very grotesque and hideous manner. A. A. 

1. LOLTGOPSIS, Lamarck. 

1. Loligopsis ellipsopteea. Lolig. pallio magno, laxo, infundibuliformi, antice aperto, semi- 
pellucido, per cujus parietes viscera obscure conspiciuntur, extremitate caudali longa et fastigiata, confirmata, 
atque intus corpore longo, gracili, penmformi, corneo sustentata; lobis caudalibus, sive pinnis, magnis, 
depressis, extra rotundatis, forma seinicirculari conjunctis, pinnam ovalem horizontalem terminalem 
efficientibus ; infundibulo permagno, extremitate truncata ; capite magno, rotundato, utrinque dilatato, oculis 
grandibus, depressiusculis, argenteo-irridescentibus, pupillo nigro; brachiis octo trifariam divisis, duobus 
superioribus medianis, tribus inferioribus brevibus, acetabulis undique munitis. 

Hab. North Atlantic Ocean. 

The Loligopsis belongs to that family of Cryptodibranchiate Cephalopods which is charac- 
terized by the possession of eight brachial appendages around the head ; differing in this 
respect from the Loligo of Lamarck, and the Cranclda of Leach, which belong to the 
decapodous division or those with ten arms. M. de Ferussac considered, however, that the 
genus Loligopsis should be reunited with Cranchia, so little was then known of the nature of 
this mollusk. Lesueur has bestowed the name of LeacMa on this genus, which, in addition 
to its conferring an honour on our illustrious countryman, Dr. Leach, would, perhaps, have 
been more appropriate than the received appellation, which sometimes tends to confound it 
with Loligo. This present species, which appears to come nearest to the Loligopsis pavo of 
D'Orbigny, is of a delicate flesh colour, with scattered, pale brown blotches, the whole 
surface of the mantle being finely puncticulated with a deep brown colour. The mantle is 
large, loose, infundibuliform, and wide open anteriorly ; it is semipellucid, and the internal 
viscera may be indistinctly seen through its parietes. The caudal extremity is long and 
tapering, strengthened and supported internally by an elongated, slender, pen-shaped, 
corneous body. The caudal lobes, or fins, are large, flattened, rounded externally, semicir- 
cular in outline, and forming together an oval, horizontal, terminal fin, which constitutes the 
principal organ of progression. The funnel, of great size, is nearly cylindrical, semitrans- 
parent, and rather expanded at its fixed or basal portion. The head is large, rounded, and 
considerably dilated from side to side. The eyes are very large, in form of a flattened spheroid, 
having the black-coloured sclerotic marked, on the under-surface, with four silver spots ; the 
iris is of a beautiful golden hue, and the pupil is large, black, and circular. The brachia, 
eight in number, are divided, by reason of their length, into three sets : the central set, con- 


sisting of two upper and two lower, are short ; the two external and upper ones are longer 
and thicker ; and the two external and lower are of much greater length, strength, and thick- 
ness. They are all provided with acetabula on the lower-surface. 

The name ellijjsoptera has been suggested by the curious oval fin which is developed at 
the caudal extremity. The drawing which accompanies this description was taken from the 
living animal, and is enlarged one-third of its natural dimensions. 
Plate I. Fig. 1. Increased one-third larger than life. 

2. ARGONAUTA, Linn. 

Of the Argonauts captured during the voyage, we are enabled, with the assistance of 
some specimens collected in the same seas by Mr. Cuming, to confirm the value of two very 
excellent species, A. Mans and gondola described in 1817 by Mr. Dillwyn 1 but not figured ; 
one subsequently named A. nitida by Lamarck, the other quoted by M. Deshayes as a variety 
of A. tuberculosa. To these we have the pleasure of adding a third species, A. Owenii, 
which has been satisfactorily determined by a comparison of the shells of each in different 
stages of growth. The soft parts of A. Mans are figured in the beautiful work of De Ferussac 
and D'Orbigny on the Cephalopods. 2 Of the A. gondola, Mr. Adams was fortunate enough 
to preserve a young individual for some days alive, during which time he made a careful 
drawing of it, including the development of the ovum. Living specimens were also taken 
of the A. Owenii, and placed in spirits, but the liquid having escaped from the bottle through 
some accident in the packing, the animals dried up and were found partially decomposed ; 
the shells were preserved entire and form a characteristic series of different ages, agreeing 
with one of adult growth in the collection of Mr. Cuming. 

1. Augonatjta GONDOLA. Arg. ccrrpore elongato-ovato, lateribus subcompresso, pallio aniplo punctis 
grandibus vivide rufis ornato ; cajrite subangusto, brachiis tumidis breviusculis, acetabulis paucis, grandibus 
confertiusculis rufo-marmoratis ; velamentis minute rufo-punctatis; iiifundibulo lato, breviuseulo, ad extre- 
mitatem bifuxcatim tubuloso ; testa lateribus subplanulata, radiatim rugata, rugis subprominentibus, vix 
undulatis, alternis brevioribus, medio descendentibus, superne dilatata, auriculis extrorsum valde prolongatis ; 
carina latissima, fortiter tuberculata, tuberculis acute compressis; apertwd latissima, suboblongo-quadrata, 
antice utrinque spiram canaliculata ; colore lactea, sordide fusco ad latera jilus miimsve tincto. A. gondola, 
Dillwyn, Descriptive Catalogue of Shells, vol. i. p. 335. 

Hab. South Atlantic Ocean. 

The animal of A. gondola approaches nearer to the A. Mans figured by De Ferussac and 

D'Orbigny in the work already referred to ; from which the shell differs most remarkably by 

the outwardly prolonged growth of the auricles on each side of the spire. The keel is moreover 

wider with the tubercles rather distant and more compressed. The wrinkles are much 

less numerous than in A. tuberculosa, and do not fade into solitary warts as in that species. 

1 Catalogue of Shells, vol. i. p, 334-5. 2 Hist. Nat. Moll. 1834. pi. 5. 


There is a considerable difference in the general aspect and disposition of the spots, &c, between the 
animals of Argonaulce gondola and argo. In A. gondola the sac-like mantle is more ovoid and elongated ; 
the head is narrower ; the funnel broader, shorter, and furnished, at the upper and anterior extremity, 
with two conical elongations ; the eyes are considerably larger and slightly more prominent ; the tentacular 
arms are much shorter in comparison and of greater width, more particularly at their basal portions ; the 
suckers are much larger, more prominent, and placed closer together. This species varies also considerably 
in colour from A. argo. The extremities of the brachia are marbled with deep red-brown, and, in the other 
parts, are covered with large, irregular, oval, reddish blotches, each margined with a dark colour ; the 
circumference of the suckers is marked with brown spots; the upper surface of the funnel is covered with 
pale pink, rather scattered and irregular, quadrate blotches, margined with dark red-brown ; the mantle, 
on the dorsal surface, is densely sprinkled with round and square spots of a chesnut-brown and crimson of 
different sizes; the velamenta are minutely dotted with crimson and red-brown, and have a more bluish 
tinge than those of A. argo ; the under surface is mottled and minutely dotted with dark chocolate on the 
arms, and on the body is marked with small, irregular, dark red-brown spots. A. A. 

Plate I. Fig. 2 a. Animal swimming, embracing the shell with its velamenta. Fig. 2 b, the same divested of 
its shell. Fig. 2 c to k, development of the ovum, — c, impregnated egg ; d, three spots appear ; e, head and mantle 
indicated ; /, rudiments of brachia ; g, yolk-bag seen ; h, lateral view of the same. Fig. 2 i, egg-mass in situ ; 
2 k, egg-mass unravelled; 2 I, front view of egg-mass. Fig. 2 m and n, aeetabida ; 2oandj9, the mandibles. — 
Fig. 2 a, b, i, k, and I, of the natural size, the remainder more or less magnified. 

Plate IT. Fig. 2 q. Front view of a full grown specimen of A. gondola, from Mr. Cuming's Collection, showing 
the outward extension of the auricles. Fig. 2 r, s, and t, lateral views of specimens of different ages. 

£. Argonauta hians. Arg. testa lateribus convexis, radiatim rugatis, rugis exiliusculis, vix undulatis, 
alternis brevioribus medio descendentibus, carina lata, tuberculis compressis, aperturd subquadrato-oblonga, 
auriculis simplicibus ; colore fuscescente. A. hians, MSS. Dillwyn, Desc. Cat. of Shells, vol. i. p. 334. 
Argonauta nitida, Lamarck. 

Hab. South Atlantic Ocean. 

Several examples of this species, easily distinguished from the A. gondola by the following 
characters, were collected in the South Atlantic Ocean. The wrinkles are more faintly 
developed, the keel is not so broad, and the tubercles are much less prominent ; the auricles 
are but slightly prolonged, and the shell has frequently a peculiar yellowish-brown glazy 
appearance, which probably suggested the name given to it by Lamarck. Both animal and 
shell have been figured by De Ferussac and D'Orbigny in the work already referred to. The 
latter is here introduced for the sake of exhibiting a comparison of the species, and on account 
of that work being so little known to English conchologists. The shell there figured as the 
young of A. hians is our A. Owenii. 

Plate III. Fig. 2 a. Front view of the shell showing the aperture and simple auricles. Fig. 2 b and c, lateral 
views of specimens of different ages. 

3. Argonauta Owenii. Arg. testa lateribus convexo-compressa, radiatim rugata, rugis angustis, 
valde prominentibus, undulatis, alternis brevioribus medio descendentibus ; carina mediocri, fortiter tuber- 
culata, tuberculis valde prominentibus; aperturd subangusta, auriculis simplicibus ; colore fulvo-fuscescente. 

Hab. South Atlantic Ocean. 

A. fine adult specimen of A. Owetiii (Fig. 1 b), collected by Mr. Cuming, has enabled us 


to attach an interesting importance to several examples of this species in an early stage of 

growth, which were captured alive, but unfortunately dried up from an accident in the 

packing. It is mainly distinguished by the prominent structure of the lateral wrinkles and 

tubercles, and these are developed with equal force in the youngest specimens. It is clearly 

distinct from A. Mans, for the young of which species a small specimen was figured by 

De Ferussac and D'Orbigny in their great work on the Cephalopods, Hist. Nat. Moll., 

published in 1837. In naming this shell we have availed ourselves of the rare occurrence of 

a new species to dedicate it to Professor Owen. 

Plate III. Fig. 1 a. Front view of the shell, showing the aperture and simple auricles. Fig. 1 b, c, and d, 
lateral views of specimens of different ages. 

On our passage home across the South Atlantic, I enjoyed numerous opportunities of observing the 
animals of Argonauta argo and gondola in the living state, specimens having been captured by us in large 
numbers by means of a trawl, as they came to the surface of the water at the decline of day in calm weather, 
in company with Carinaria, Hyalma, Firola, and Cleodora. My observations all tend to prove, as might have 
been expected, the accuracy of Madame Power's observations on the Cephalopodic origin of the shell, and 
the fanciful nature of the statements of Pliny, Poli, and the poets. 

It is quite true that the female Argonaut can readily disengage herself from the shell, when the vela- 
mentous arms become collapsed, and float apparently useless on each side of the animal ; and it is equally 
certain that she has not the power or, more properly, the sagacity to re-enter her nest and resume the 
guardianship of her eggs. On the contrary, she herself, if kept in confinement, after darting and wounding 
herself against the sides of the vessel in which she is confined, soon becomes languid, exhausted, and very 
shortly dies. Numbers of male Argonauts were taken by us, at the same time, without any shells, and this 
being the season of oviposition may account for the females, in such a number of instances, being found 
embracing their calcareous shell-nests, which, so ingeniously formed by the instinct of the mother for the 
protection of her eggs from injury, resemble, in some measure, those nidimental capsules secreted by 
many marine Gastropods for the preservation of the immature embryo. 

To satisfy myself that the thin shell of the Argonaut is employed by the female merely as a receptacle 
in which to deposit her eggs, I dissected a specimen of A. gondola, with an egg-mass occupying the dis- 
coidal part of the shell and the posterior portion of the roof. The eggs, very numerous, ovoid, pale yellow, and 
semipellucid, are all united together by a delicate, glutinous, transparent, filamentous web which is attached 
to each ovum by a slender tapering peduncle at the anterior extremity. The entire egg-mass is suspended 
to the body-whorl of the spire at its anterior part by means of a pencil of delicate glutinous threads which 
retain it in a proper position. 1 

The posterior globular part of the body of the female is in close apposition to the mass of ova, and 
thus, like a strange aquatic Mygale, or other spider, does this remarkable Cephalopod carry about her eggs 
in a light calcareous nest, which she firmly retains possession of by means of the broad, expanded, delicate 
membranes of the posterior pair of tentacles. When disturbed or captured, however, she loosens her hold, 
and leaving her cradle to its fate, swims about independent of her shell. 3 There is not, indeed, the slightest 

1 Poli in his magnificent work " Testacea utriusque Sieiliaj," where he has represented the egg-mass, though not 
" in situ " (Tab. XLI. f. 2.) but unravelled, observes concerning it : " Ovorum congeries eboris nitorem asmulantiuni, 
partim jam ab ovario emissa, ac racemorum instar composita, cymba? puppi involuta? adhasrebat. " Professor Owen, 
in his lectures on Comparative Anatomy, p. 360, mentions the same fact : "In the Argonaut the minute ova are 
appended by long filamentary stalks to the cavity of the involuted spire of the shell where they are hatched." 

2 This is probably but for a limited period, as it does not appear that the animal is able to exist long when 
disengaged from its shell. 



vestige of any muscular attachment. In the specimen of A. gondola from which the accompanying drawing 
was made, the ovary was distended with ova, but in a much less advanced stage of development than those 
deposited in the shelly nidus. Some of these latter were sufficiently matured to enable me to trace, under 
the microscope, the early indications of the being of the Argonaut ; and although the progress is not 
followed very far, it is sufficient to ascertain the similarity with the changes observed by Poli in the same 
genus, with whose writings I afterwards compared my remarks; the only difference of any importance 
appears to be that Poli regarded as the shell what I have called the yolk-bag. At first, the ova are semi- 
opaque, pale yellow, and apparently speckled minutely, which is owing to the granular yolk ; afterwards they 
become clouded with light brown blotches, and three dark spots make their appearance, one for each eye 
and one for the viscera ; these spots, in the next stage, approach each other, and a faint outline of the 
future Argonaut is visible, a club-shaped embryo, rounded in front and tapering behind. The front part is 
then lobed; a black mark for the horny mandibles is perceived, and the eyes are large and prominent; 
the yolk-bag, or vitellus, is next seen very distinctly, and the processes extending from the head are more 
elongated. Here, however, I was obliged to stop, this being the most perfectly developed embryo I could 
find amongst the ova. The eggs in contact with the front part of the body- whorl of the shell, where the 
egg-mass is attached by the glutinous threads, are the most forward in their development, while those in 
the posterior part of the chamber are much less matured. 1 A.A. 

3. SPIRULA, Lamarck. 
Description of two mutilated specimens of Spirula Peronii, with some observations on S. australis and reticulata. 

Plate IV. 
(By Peofessor Owen, F.R.S.) 

It is remarkable of the two known genera of polythalarnous Cephalopods, Spirula and 
Nautilus, that both should be noted for the extreme rarity of the entire animal, as compared 
with the frequency of the shell in collections of Natural History ; and this is more particularly 
the case with the Spirula, on account of the mutilated state, with a single exception, of all 
the few examples of the animal or soft parts hitherto described. The specimen captured by 
Capt. Sir Edward Belcher in the Indian Archipelago, is no exception to the rule. Like that 
inspected and described by Professor De Blainville in the Annates Francaises et Etrangeres 
d' Anatomie et de Physiologic, pour V Annee, 1837, vol. i. pp. 369, 382, the head has been 
torn from the body, and the opposite extremity, or the part answering to that which supports 
the appendages, described as fins in M. de Blainville's memoir, is also wanting ; so that the 
last whorl of the shell is terminal, as in the specimen figured in the Atlas of the Voyage of 
Peron and Lesueur, pi. 30. fig. 4. It does not necessarily follow, however, that this difference 
is the result of mutilation, and that the terminal part in question has existed in these speci- 
mens and been torn away. At least in Sir Edward Belcher's specimen, the rounded posterior 
terminations of the lateral lobes of the mantle, fig. 1, 4, 5, 7, d d, are entire, and covered by 
the epiderm, which shows no sign of laceration or abrasion. 

To Lamarck l and Peron 2 we owe the knowledge of the acetabuliferous character of the 
Spirula ; whence, after the dissection of the Nautilus, its dibranchiate organization was to be 

1 Encyclopedie Methodique, Atlas, Coquilles, pi. 465, fig. 5, a b. 2 Loc. cit. 


inferred. 1 M. de Blainville 2 has demonstrated some of the chief characteristics of the 
dibranchiate type of structure from which the decapodous character of the head (wanting in his 
specimen') might be deduced, and thus concomitant inferential proof be had of the accuracy ; 
before doubted, of Lamarck's figure. Finally Mr. Cuming's specimen, described and figured 
by Mr. Gray 3 and Mr. Lovell Reeve,* sets at rest the question of the external decapodous 
characters of Spirula, and confirms M. de Blainville's description of the terminal appendages 
of the mantle and the position and degree of exposure of the shell, at least in certain speci- 
mens of Spirula. It needed but the examination of the internal structure of Mr. Cuming's 
specimen to prove the accuracy of the inference of the dibranchiate type of internal organiza- 
tion from the decapodous external structure of the animal, and reciprocally. 

Another point also remained for consideration, viz., whether the figure by Peron (pi. iv. 
fig. 1 *), showing a comparative shortness of the mantle in proportion to its breadth, and the 
absence of the terminal disc and fin-like appendages, truly indicated such a form of Spirula 
in nature ? Or, whether the continuous exposure of so large a portion of the outer whorl of 
the shell, as is represented by Peron, might not be due to accidental laceration of the disc 
and appendages from the rest of the mantle ? And whether, if such differences were natural, 
they were differences of age, or sex, or species ? Towards the solution of these questions, and 
the completion of the anatomy of the Spirula, the facts which I have now to offer, though 
not of much importance, may contribute : they are the result of careful and, I trust, faithful 
observation, and every little will be welcome to the genuine student of nature in a question 
of so much diffi culty and interest as the present. 

The specimen of Spirula (pi. iv. fig. 1, 4, 5, 6) which Capt. Sir Edward Belcher was so 
obliging as to place in my hands for description and dissection, like that of M. de Blainville, 
had the head and its appendages torn away ; but the infundibulum (c) was left, with the 
mantle and shell (ch). The shell, partly imbedded in the hinder end of the mantle, had the 
greater part of the last whorl uninterruptedly exposed (fig. 7), and the thick borders of the 
terminal lobes of the mantle (dd, fig .4, 7, and 11) which extended over the umbilicus and inner 
whorls of the shell, were smooth, rounded, and entire. The exposed part of the shell was 
coated by a thin epiderm : the last whorl was directed from the ventral to the dorsal aspect, 
bending round the end of the body, and advancing forwards, not again entering the mantle, 
but with the last or open chamber, terminating freely over a small opening of the mantle 
(fig. 6,fn) through which the membranous siphon of the shell (sA) passed, and from which 
opening part of the second whorl of the shell protruded. The proportions of the body, or 
mouth, especially its shortness as contrasted with its dorso-ventral diameter, accord with those 
of Peron's specimen (op. cit. and fig. 1 *) : as does also the exposed position of the last 
whorl of the shell, concomitant upon the absence of the terminal fleshy disc and its appendages. 

1 Owen, Memoir on the Pearly Nautilus, p. 54, and Classification of Cephalopods, Zool. Trans, v.ii. pp. 123, 129. 

2 Loc. cit. 3 Annals of Natural History, vol. xv. p. 257. pi. XV. 

4 Elements of Conehology, p. 16. pi. A. 


Figures 5 and 6 give a view of the mantle of the specimen here described from the dorsal 
aspect : the anterior aperture of the mouth is trilobed, the lobes obscurely pointed ; one, a, 
projects forwards from the middle of the dorsal aspect, the two others, b b, from the ventro- 
lateral aspect, on each side of the base of the funnel, c. Some lacerated remnants of the 
retractor muscles of the head also projected from the aperture of the mantle, as figured at 
e, fig. 1 ; but these are omitted in fig. 3, as they obscured the view of the funnel or expiratory 
tube, c: letters del are the lateral terminal lobes of the mantle applied over the inner whorls 
and umbilicus of the shell {ch). The ventral aspect of the specimen, fig. 4, shows the 
beginning or narrower part of the last whorl of the shell as it first protrudes from between 
the lateral terminal lobes of the mantle, d d. The two ventro-lateral anterior lobes are shown 
at b b, and the funnel (c) projecting between them : behind this is the torn portion of the 
muscles of the head. 

The side view of this specimen, fig. 1, shows the greater antero-posterior diameter of the 
mantle as compared with the transverse diameter in fig. 4 and 5. It also shows the free 
termination of the shell at/, and the rounded contour and extent of the terminal lobe, d. 
This part was subjected to a careful and minute scrutiny, but no signs of laceration could be 
detected : it presented a thick convex border like the bottom of a bag or sac on both sides 
of the shell (see the magnified view in fig. 11); this border being, as it were, tucked up or 
bent in towards the umbilicus ; becoming thin and smooth and of a softer texture next the 
shell, as shown in fig. 7, d and <?, which gives a view of the hinder extremity of the specimen, 
with the lateral terminal mantle-lobes drawn a little away from the shell to show the delicate 
portion of the pallial membrane, e, which passes from one lobe to the other through the 

The ordinary surface of the mantle is smooth. Its structure, like that in other di- 
branchiates, presents a delicate epiderm, a thin stratum of pigmental cells, and a fibrous 
muscular corium forming the chief substance of the mantle. The dorsal part of the mantle 
shown in fig. 5, was continued from the anterior pointed lobe, a, backwards to beneath the 
open end of the shell at fn. fig. 2 ; where it thinned off to the border of a small aperture 
through which projected the dorsal part of the shell ; there was a small space between this 
whorl and the anterior border of the aperture, through which aperture the membranous 
siphon (sk) was continued from the shell into the cavity of the mantle. The aperture seemed 
much too small to have ever admitted the termination of the shell, f: but it is to be 
presumed that after the natural connections of the last chamber of the shell with the muscular 
retractors of the head had been violently disturbed, the mantle may have contracted at 
the rent, from which the open end of the shell was withdrawn, to the dimensions of the 
aperture that now admits only the siphon. Nothing at least can be safely argued against 
M. de Blainville's description of the muscular attachments of the Spirilla to its shell from 
the obviously mutilated specimen here described. A small part of the second whorl of 
the shell was visible at the aperture, fn. 


The dissection of the specimen was commenced by laying open the mantle along the 
median line of the ventral or infundibular aspect to near the border of the posterior fossa 
from which the shell began to protrude. On divaricating the divided mantle, the parts were 
exposed which are shown in fig. 11 ; viz., the base of the funnel, with its two narrow, elon- 
gated articular cavities {g g), the linear elevations on the inner surface of the mantle corre- 
sponding thereto^'j/); the membranous and muscular tunic, h, enveloping the liver, perfo- 
rated on each side posteriorly by the pallial nerve-trunks, which immediately swell into the 
pallial ganglions, i, fig. 1 2 and 1 3 ; posterior to which ganglions the bases of the gills are 
attached ; and, in the ventral interspace of these, there is a low conical prominence with 
three valvular apertures : the middle one, of an infundibuliform anus, k, fig. 1 2, and on each 
side a more minute orifice (I) with a plicated prominent border. Behind the base of the left 
gill, n, a fourth orifice at the extremity of a short tube (m, fig. 12), also communicates with the 
branchial or external compartment of the pallial cavity. The branchial chamber showed no 
trace of a muscular or membranous septum (" bride anterieure," Cuv. in the Octopods). The 
gills {n ri) have the usual elongated narrow triangular form : each is supported on a fleshy 
stem, extended along its outer border, perforated by the branchial artery, and connected to 
the walls of the branchial chamber by a duplicature {n", fig. 13) of the delicate lining mem- 
brane, which is reflected upon the basal half of the stem, and invests the whole complex gill : 
the base of the stem itself is attached to the septum dividing the branchial from the peri- 
cardial and visceral chambers. Each gill consists of about twenty -four pairs of plicated folds 
extended between the fleshy stem, and the trunk of the branchial vein that traverses the 
opposite or inner border of the gill. The principal venous trunks (o, fig. 13) of the general 
system, enter the peritoneal compartments on each side the rectum, and there develope the 
venous follicles, in the form of irregular puckered subelongate bulgings out of their coats, 
which give a spongy aneurismal character to their trunks ; they unite into a single trunk on 
each side, which enters a small branchial heart, p, with an appendage. The branchial artery 
is continued directly into the fleshy stem. The branchial veins, q, pass behind the spongy 
veins, and terminate in the outer ends of a transversely elongated fusiform ventricle, r, from 
which a large anterior and small posterior aorta is given off. 

Directing my attention, next, to the mass covered by the muscular investment, h, I slit 
up the funnel and exposed the small terminal valve, c, fig. 14, and raising the valvular base 
of the funnel, removed, first, the covering formed by the lining membrane, and exposed the 
longitudinal fasciculi of the muscular tunic, h, fig. 14. On dissecting away this, as on the 
left half in fig. 14, the corresponding lobe of the liver was shown, as at s. On removing 
the whole of the muscular investment, together with the funnel, the parts were exposed which 
are shown in fig. 15. The liver consists of two lobes, distinct from their anterior apices (ss) to 
near their opposite ends : here they had been torn, so that whether they were distinct throughout 
or not, I could not determine. On divaricating them, as in fig. 15, the oesophagus, t, was seen 
penetrating their interspace, with the aorta and the trunk of the visceral nerve. Behind the 


funnel was found that part of the cartilaginous cranium which forms the capsules of the 
organs of hearing : these formed two oval cartilaginous cups (w), their walls confluent at the 
median line, but their cavities distinct, with a thin semitransparent oval portion on their 
ventral walls, through which the small opake white otolite within could be discerned : the 
line is drawn from this thinner part to the letter w, in fig. 15. Behind the ear-capsules 
emerged the oesophagus, with the slender duct, v, of the large salivary gland, u z, and on each 
side were the larger pallial nerves, i i ; these indent the sides of the salivary gland in their 
passage downwards, backwards, and outwards, to penetrate the lateral fasciculi of the muscular 
investment of the liver. The oesophagus does not expand into a crop or ingluvies, but 
maintains the same diameter until it terminates in a small stomach, w, which is succeeded 
by a second cavity of almost equal size, y, forming the laminated or pancreatic sac, which 
receives the ducts of the liver ; these (c y) appeared to have been beset by numerous minute 
cystic follicles. The intestine is very short, and makes one slight bend backwards before it 
advances, as rectum, to terminate in the infundibuliform anus, k, which it forms as soon as 
it has perforated the peritoneal septum, shown in fig. 11. A very minute pyriform ink-bag, z, 
is situated close to the rectum, and its duct opens within the verge of the anus. The anus 
does not protrude and float freely in the branchial chamber, nor is it provided with valvular 
or filamentary appendages. 

The visceral cavity is continued into each of the terminal lobes of the mantle, as shown 
in fig. 15, where they are laid open. They were occupied principally by the generative organs, 
which seemed to be in a feebly developed state. Either from the state of the specimen 
or my own ill success in the attempt, I could not satisfactorily make out the precise forms 
and relations of these organs. On the right side was situated the principal gland, either 
ovary or testis, A, and on the left side there was the chief part of the efferent duct, B, 
either vas deferens or oviduct, slightly convoluted, and complicated with some other parts 
where it communicated below, or behind, the intestine with the ovarium or gland on the 
right side. This gland consisted of minute, close-set, subelongate follicles, with the cellular 
nuclei of either ova or spermatozoa. 

Prom the acceptable Memoire by Professor de Blainville, " Sur l'animal de la Spirula, 
et sur 1' usage du siphon des coquilles polythalames," published in the Annates Franchises et 
Etranyeres d'Anatomie et de Physioloyie, torn. i. p. 369 (1837), we learn, that in the Spirula 
the funnel has its parietes entire ' (i. e., not longitudinally slit, as in the Nautilus); that the 
gills are two in number ; that the intestinal canal extends between the two masses of the 
generative apparatus, is accompanied by an ink-bag, and terminates by a small free floating 
appendage ; and that there is an ovary and an organ of digestion. 2 

1 " L'entonnoir fort considerable entierement ferine." p. 378. 

2 " Vers le milieu de la face inferieure de la masse viscerale le canal intestinal se terminant par un petit appen- 
diee libre, flottant, largement ouvert, absolument comme dans les seches, et accompagne dans toute son etendue entre 
les deux masses de l'appareil generateur, par le canal de la vessie a encre, contenant de la matiere noire que j'ai 

MOLLUSCA. . 1 1 

If these facts in the organization of Spirula be compared with the following characters 
of Dibranchiate Order of Cephalopods ; viz., 

" The gills not exceeding two in number ; but the branchial circulation is aided by two 
muscular ventricles, situated at the base of each gill in addition to the third systemic ven- 
tricle ; there is an organ for secreting and expelling an inky fluid. The parietes of the funnel 
are entire 1 ," — it will afford a striking instance of the power of prediction afforded by the 
laws of correlation of animal structures, and of the truth of the inference that a Cephalopod 
"proved to have eight short arms and two long tentacles," 2 must, notwithstanding it 
possessed a polythalamous shell, have the characteristic organization of the Dibranchiate Order, 
in contradistinction to that of the Nautilus, the type of the Tetrabranchiate Cephalopods. 

The additional facts derived from the dissection of the specimen obtained by Capt. Sir 
Edward Belcher, show that the funnel of the Spirula is provided with an apical valve, and 
with two basal lateral joints ; that the skull is provided with two large cartilaginous acoustic 
capsules with otolites ; that the. oesophagus, after passing through the cartilaginous skull, 
rests upon a large salivary gland, and is then continued, preserving its slender diameter, to a 
small gizzard ; that this is followed by a laminated pancreatic bag, from which the short 
intestine proceeds and forms, after one slight bend, the rectum ; that the anus is infundibuli- 
form, and without an appendage ; that the liver consists of two lobes enveloped in a muscular 
capsule ; and that the cystic ducts are beset with numerous glandular follicles before termi- 
nating in the pancreatic sac ; that each gill has its branchial heart, and that this heart is 
provided with an appendage ; that the systemic heart is transversely fusiform, with an 
anterior process ; and that the branchial compartment of the mantle is devoid of any trace of 
median septum. By these additional facts we are enabled to test the value of the assumed 
co-existence of certain modifications of the Dibranchiate structure with the superaddition of 
two peduncles to the eight ordinary arms, as shown by the figures of the Spirula given by 
Lamarck and Peron. 

The Octopods, both Octopus proper and Argonauta, have a well-developed septum of the 
branchial chamber : Cuvier describes it as the " bride anterieure qui lie la bourse a la masse 
viscerale." The muscles corresponding to this " bride anterieure " also exist in Sepiola ; but 
in the Cuttles {Sepia) and Calamaries {Loligo), both these muscles and the septum of the 
branchial chamber are absent as we find them to be in Spirula. The base of the funnel is 
provided with a large valvular fold on each side in Octopus and Eledone, but has no lateral 
joints ; it possesses these joints in the Cuttles and Calamaries, but has not the lateral valvular 
folds. The interior of the funnel is provided with a valve near its apex in the Calamaries 
and Cuttles, but not in the Octopods. In the characters of the funnel we find the Spirula 

pu faire sortir par un petit orifice situe a gauche de Farms. Les deux parties principales de l'appareil generateur 
femelle, savoir, d'un cote, a, droite un ovaire considerable et de 1' autre sans doute un organe de la digestion, for- 
mant a eux deux presque toute la face inferieure de la masse." p. 379. 

1 Art. Cephalopoda, Cyclopaedia of Anatomy, vol. i. p. 519. 2 lb. p. 520. 


agreeing with the Decapods. The branchial hearts are devoid of the appendage in the 
Octopods, but this is present in the Decapods, and equally characterizes the Spirula. In the 
Octopods the gullet dilates into a crop, but not in the Decapods, neither in the Spirula, in 
which, as in other Decapoda, it is remarkable for its length and tenuity. In Octopus the 
liver consists of one lobe, and has the ink-bladder imbedded in it : in Sepia the liver consists 
of two lobes, and the ink-bag is not in any way connected with it ; the Spirula agrees with 
the Cuttle-fish in these respects. In all Octopods the hepatic ducts are simple; in all 
Decapods they are complicated with numerous small blind pouches, which have been regarded 
as a pancreas ; these cystic follicles are equally present in Spirula, So far, then, as the 
organization of the Spirula is known, its modifications are those that characterize the 
Decapodous type of the Dibranchiate structure in the class Cephalopoda. If, therefore, the 
accuracy of Lamarck's highly important original description and figure of the animal, inasmuch 
as relates to the superaddition of two long peduncles to the eight ordinary arms, had not 
been confirmed by Mr. Percy Earl's discovery of the entire animal, figured in the Annals 
of Natural History, vol. xv. pi. 1 5, and more accurately in Mr. Lovell Reeve's Elements of 
Conchology, part 1, pi. A., fig. a, b, c, and which unique specimen is now in the unrivalled 
conchological cabinet of Mr. Hugh Cuming, the confidence that had been placed in Lamarck's 
accuracy would have been fully justified by the well-marked repetitions of the decapodous 
modifications of the Cephalopodic structure which the dissection of Sir E. Belcher's specimen 
has brought to light. 

The mere description of appearances, even of the interior structure, still less of the 
exterior surface of an animal, without the deductions which they legitimately yield, is of 
comparatively small value to the philosophic Naturalist ; for of what value are facts until they 
have been made subservient to establishing general conclusions and laws of correlation, by 
which the judgment may be safely guided in regard to future glimpses at new phenomena 
in Nature, such as those which the figures and descriptions of Lamarck and Peron afforded 
of the Spirula, before the publication of the anatomy in the Annates d'Anatomie, and in the 
present Work? The combination of deduction with observation in Natural History has, 
indeed, been so rare, and the grounds for confidence in such laws of correlation as have served 
to deduce one type of Cephalopodic structure from the absence of an ink-bag, and another from 
its presence, have been so recently attained, and are appreciated by so few, that the scepticism 
in the deductions from such laws in regard to the Spirula may be readily pardoned. In 
perusing the observations of so respectable an authority as the author of the article "Turrilites " 
in the Penny Cyclopaedia, tending to show the insufficiency of the grounds of my separation 
of Spirula and Belemnites from the Nautilus, and other Tetrabranchiate Cephalopods with 
chambered shells ; and the statement of the author of the Elements of Conchology (p. 11), 
that " a difference in the number of branchiae seems scarcely of sufficient importance to 
warrant the association of the Spirula with the Argonaut, separate from the Nautilus;" I 


recollected that these writers had the authority of Cuvier 1 for continuing to associate 
together Cephalopodic animals with shells so similar in their complex chambered structure, 
as those of the Nautilus and Spirula. But at the same time I retained all my convictions 
that the period woidd arrive when it should be demonstrated that a Cephalopod with arms and 
peduncles, like those of a Sepia, would have the same type of Cephalopodic organization as 
the Sepia : a type so modified from that of the many-armed Nautilus as to forbid their 
association in the same Order in any system professing to be based on Nature ; i. e. on the 
totality of the organization of its objects. 

The chief addition made by M. de Blainville's Memoir of 1837 to the knowledge of 
the exterior characters of the Spirula was the existence of a circular disc with a pair of 
fin-like appendages (" aplatissement oblique au milieu duquel est un bouton terminal, accom- 
pagne a droite et a gauche d'une petite nageoire demi-circulaire," I.e. p. 376. see fig. 15*, ac. 
in pi. iv.) at the posterior end of the body, covering and concealing the part of the last whorl of 
the shell which winds round that end, and which whorl was exposed in Lamarck's and Peron's 
specimen (fig.l*) as it is Sir Edward Belcher's (fig. 7). The same disc, with rudiments of the 
terminal fins or appendages, is present in Mr. Cuming's perfect specimen (fig. 8, ac). The 
disc is called "a thick gland" by Mr. Gray (I.e. p. 259), and a "leathery gland" by 
Mr. Reeve (1. c. p. 16); but the texture of the part is not described by either author. 
It remains to be seen whether this appendage be truly constant in nature, or whether 
it be characteristic of age, or sex, or species. Mr. Gray in his brief notice of some of the 
exterior characters of Mr. Cuming's specimen of Spirula, affirms that "it differs from 
the Cuttle-fish in being entirely destitute of any fins" (torn. cit. p. 258. 2 ): but Mr. Reeve, 
by a more accurate observation of the same specimen, confirms M. de Blainville's descrip- 
tion of two terminal and lateral fins to the Spirula ; stating that " they are clearly definable, 
one at each lateral extremity, on either side of the terminal gland" (1. c. p. 18). Their 
condition is accurately given in the figure representing the hind end of Mr. Cuming's Spirula 
(pi. iv. fig. 8, ac ac). With regard to the structure of the intervening subcircular disc (ad), 
I could not detect any trace of the pores of glands upon its surface, and the structure of the 
same part in the mantle of the Spirula reticulata (fig. 3 and 9) was that of condensed cellular 
tissue only. This I determined by microscopical examination. The central orifice {ad, fig. 9) 
leads merely to the interspace between the disc and the last whorl of the shell, and is not the 
excretory outlet of any glandular cavity. In the specimen of Sp. reticulata which consisted of the 
mantle only, with its terminal appendage and the shell, the latter, by the violence that has torn 
away the head and viscera, has been displaced and turned half round with the open end of the 
last whorl projecting through the ventral aperture (fig. 3, fm). The lateral fin-like appendages 

1 Kegne Animal, vol. iii. (1830) p. 17. "Des Nautiles. — "Une d'elles appartient en effet a un Cephalopode 
tres semblable a une seiche, mais a bras plus courts ; e'est le genre Spirula, Lam." 

2 Mr. Gray, however, after having been made acquainted with M. de Blainville's Memoir, corrects his error in a 
supplementary note in a subsequent number of the Annals (p. 415). 



{ac ac) differ from the short, terminal, subcircular, true fins in Cranchia and Loligopsis, 
in having their plane transverse to the axis of the body instead of parallel with it : their 
base is attached, in the dorso-ventral direction of the trunk, to the sides of the terminal 
disc, as shown in fig. 9. Their structure is fibrous, the fibres are collected into fasciculi, 
directed from the base to the free margin of the appendage ; they are probably contractile, 
but the ultimate fibres are smooth, more minute than those of voluntary muscle, and devoid 
of transverse striae. The disc adheres pretty closely to the epithelium of the part of the shell 
which it conceals. The appendages are part of the disc, which has very little organic con- 
nection with the terminal lobes of the mantle. In the specimen obtained by Mr. G. Bennett 
(fig. 3 and 9), the surface of the integument differs in a well-marked degree from that in 
Capt. Sir E. Belcher's or Mr. Cuming's specimens. Instead of being smooth, it is pitted by 
small close-set angular depressions, which give a well-marked reticulate character to the 
whole surface of the true mantle. The surface of the cellular disc and its appendages is 
quite smooth. I regard the character of the skin in the mantle of the Spirula just described, 
as indicative of distinction of species, and propose for it the name of Spirula reticulata. 
The general shape of the mantle differs from that of the Spirula australis, obtained by 
Mr. Percy Earl in New Zealand, in so far as that, instead of being compressed laterally, it 
is broadest from side to side ; the difference is well shown in the two figures 8 and 9 ; but 
I do not lay stress upon it in the question of their specific distinction, on account of the 
mutilated state of the specimen of Spirula reticulata. 

Whether the difference in the development of the appendages of the terminal disc in the 
Spirula australis (fig. 2 and 8) and Spirula reticulata (fig. 3 and 9) be specific, or due to 
accident, may be questioned ; but from the dotted character of the integument in the figures 
of M. de Blainville's specimen (fig. 15*), in which those appendages are as well developed as 
in Spirula reticulata, it might be suspected that the integument presented a similarly 
reticulate surface ; and this may, perhaps, account for the differences in the condition of the 
anus and the fins, observable in fig. 15*, copied from M. de Blainville's Memoir, and in fig. 11, 
which gives a similar view of the parts in Sir E. Belcher's specimen. 

Whether the terminal disc be a normal generic character of Spirula, cannot be con- 
clusively determined from the actual evidence : it has the character of an adventitious 
growth, and is certainly not a part of any of the organs of the vegetal or animal functions : 
the influence of the appendages of the disc in the locomotion of the Spirula reticulata must be 
feeble, if any ; in the Spirula australis (fig. 2 and 8) they could have had none. Is the disc with 
its appendages a sexual character ? It might serve for the attachment of the cluster of ova 
after their extrusion, and be peculiar to one sex : that of M. de Blainville's specimen was 
female. I regret that all my pains failed me in determining the sex of Sir E. Belcher's 
specimen ; had it been unequivocally a male, it would have supported the hypothesis of the 
sexual character of the appendages in question, since it does not possess them, and seems not 
to have possessed them. 


A second hypothesis of the function of the terminal disc and appendages, present in the 
individuals or species of Spirula, might explain them as organs of adhesion or anchorage 
when the creature wished to be at rest, and to resist the fluctuation of the surrounding 
element; and this view derives some support from a passage in Rumphius' 'D'Amboinische 
Rariteit-Kamer,' p. 68 ; where, after pointing out the distinction of the shell of the Spirula 
from that of the young Nautilus Pompilius, he says : " But, on the contrary, these little Post- 
Horns (Spirulce) have in their first chamber a slimy (or molluscous) animal, which does 
hang to the rocks by a thin and small (disc or) door, through which the creature in the first 
gate goes, and sets itself fast to the rocks.'"' ' The passage is obscure, and some of the 
details unintelligible to me ; but my experience of the accuracy of Rumphius in regard to the 
Nautilus major, or Pearly Nautilus, gives me confidence in his having drawn his statement 
from nature respecting the Spirula. His description and figure (pi. xx. n. 1) of the shell 
admit of no doubt respecting the genus which he was describing. 

On the hypothesis of the terminal disc and appendages being a specific character, the 
Spirula devoid of them and with the last whorls of the shell exposed behind, might be indicated 
under the name of Spirula Peronii, and the second synonym of Lamarck be restricted to 
such individuals. 

To M. de Blainville's description of the soft siphon of the Spirula, as a solid tendon by 
which the retractor muscles of the mantle are inserted into the calcareous hollow siphon, and 
in which tendon they are said to terminate after filling the last chamber of the shell, I can at 
present only oppose the clearly recognisable fact that the soft or membranous siphon in 
Sir E. Belcher's specimens of Spirula was hollow, — in fact, a tube. I have already mentioned 
that it was continued from the hard siphon and last chamber of the shell through the semi- 
circular aperture of the mantle (fig. 6, sh,fn) into the visceral cavity, where it was lost in the 
remains of the membrane or capsule of the lacerated termination of the liver. On gently raising 
the exposed portion of the siphon (s/i, fig. 6) with a needle, the soft siphon was withdrawn 
without sensible resistance from the tube of the hard siphon : the portion so withdrawn must 
have reached nearly to the innermost whorl. It exhibited a slight segmentation answering to 
the successively sheathed parts of the calcareous siphon. Under a magnifying power of three 
hundred linear dimensions, the dark contour of the central cavity could be traced from end 
to end, the larger extremity withdrawn from the body shewed plainly the circumference of the 
aperture of the central cavity from which a minute filament, either vessel or nerve, protruded ; 
the texture of the walls of the canal was minutely fibrous, the fibres being longitudinal, and 
of the size of the elementary fibres of cellular tissue. This difference from the account of 
the membranous siphon given by M. de Blainville 2 leads me much to desire the opportunity 

1 " Daar en tegen deze Posthoorentjes hebben in hunne voorste kamer een slymerig dier, tVelk aan de klippen 
hangt, met eenen dunnen en smallen dooren, die door het beest en de eerste gaatjes gaat, en aan de klippen vast 
zit," p. 68. The marginal indication of this paragraph is " En zit aan de klippen," i. e. " It sits on the rocks." 

2 " Le siphon de la coquUle est forme d'une suite de petits entonnoirs s'emboitant plus ou moins les uns dans 


of studying in a better specimen the relations of the shell of the Spirula, and especially of 
its last or open chamber with the muscular system of the animal. 

And, indeed, notwithstanding the specimen which I have had the good fortune here to 
examine, has contributed some additional facts relative to the principal parts of the body 
of the Spirula, many others of equal importance still remain to be determined. Such, for 
example, as the structure of the male organs, the structure of the female organs, particularly 
as to whether the oviduct be single or double ; whether complicated by glandular enlarge- 
ments, or associated with independent rudimental glands. M. de Blainville notices the fact 
of one large eye remaining attached to his mutilated specimen. That the eyes are sessile, 
the law of the interdependencies of the dibranchiate organic characters would justify us in 
concluding in the Decapodous Spirula ; but the structure of the eyes and the condition 
of the eyelids have yet to be determined. The brain and cranium, the principal nerves, 
the tongue, beak, and lips, are also amongst the wholly unknown organs of the Spirula ; and 
every earnest cultivator of Natural History in its comprehensive and truly scientific sense, 
must greatly desiderate the requisite means of effecting that which would enable the zoologist 
to say with truth, that he at length possessed an exact description of all the principal parts 
of the body of the Spirula. 


Fig. 1. Side view of Sir E. Belcher's specimen of Spirula Peronii. 

Fig. 4. Front view of ditto. 

Fig. 5. Back view of ditto. 

Fig. 6. Back view with the shell depressed, exposing the aperture of the mantle through which the siphon passed 

to the base of the liver : — all of the natural size. 
Fig. 1.* Side view of the specimen of Spirula Peronii, figured by Peron, copied from the Atlas du Voyage aux 

Terres Australes, tab. xxx. fig. 4. 
Fig. 2. Side view of the specimen of Spirula australis from New Zealand, in the Museum of Hugh Cuming, Esq., 

F.L.S. : — natural size. 
Fig. 3. Side view of a mutilated example of Spirula reticulata, captured by George Bennett, Esq., off Timor: — 

natural size 

les autres, de maniere quelquefois a former un tout solide" (lb. p. 375). "Le siphon membraneux n'est lui-meme* 
qu'une partie de ce muscle (le muscle columellaire ou retracteur de la tete). II est assez difficile de coneevoir 
que si le prolongement tubuliforme qui se loge dans le siphon de la Sprrule n'est pas creux, il le soit dans le 
Nautile," p. 380. To this not very philosophic scepticism of my account of the siphon in the Nautilus, Mr. Broderip 
has replied by referring M. de Blainville to the easy determination of the tubular structure of the membranous 
siphon of that genus, by examining its dried remains in any recent Nautilus' shell. He refers to my preparation 
(no. 900, B, Physiological Series, Coll. of Surgeons), in which a part of the siphon is preserved attached to the 
animal which I dissected in 1832, and says, "We have minutely examined the preparation, and can vouch for the 
accuracy of the description ; no one at all versed in the subject can see the former without being satisfied that the 
prolongation of the mantle and membranous tube to form the siphon is tubular, and not solid." — Penny Cyclopaedia, 
Article Spirulidce. 


Fig. 7. Hinder end of the body of Spirilla Peronii (fig. 1, 4, 5, 6) : — twice the natural size. 
Fig. 8. Hinder end of the body of Spirilla australis (fig. 2) : — twice the natural size. 
Fig. 9. Hinder end of the body of Spirula reticulata (fig. 3) : — -four times the natural size. 
*** The engraver has added to the original drawing the impressions round the aperture of the siphon, discovered by Charles Stokes, Esq. 

Fig. 10. Section of the hinder end of the mantle of Spirula reticulata, showing one of the terminal sacs of the 

visceral cavity. 
Fig. 11. The specimen of Spirula Peronii, fig. 4, with the mantle laid open : — twice the natural size. 
Fig. 12. Shows the relative position of the anus, k, the valvular apertures of the sacs of the venous (renal?) follicles, I, 

and of the generative outlet, m. The fig. k' shows the termination of the duct of the ink-bag, z, within 

the verge of the vent, k', magnified. 
Fig. 13. Branchial and systemic hearts and venous follicles. 
Fig. 14. The livers in situ, with part of its capsule dissected off. 
Fig. 15. Cranium, acoustic sacs, digestive organs, branchiae, &c, of Spirula Peronii. 
Fig. 15.* From M. De Blainville's Memoire Sur 1' Animal de la Spirula, "Annales Franchises et Etrangeres 

d'Anatomie et de Physiologie," torn. i. 1837. 
%* In the preceding figures the same letters are used to denote the same parts, and are explained in the text. 



Out of from eighty to a hundred species of Cones collected during the voyage of the 
Samarang, only four proved to be new, the greater number of those of recent discovery 
having been anticipated by Mr. Cuming during his researches among the Philippine Islands, 
and described in the ' Conchologia Iconica.' The genus Ovidum, not having been examined 
since the publication of Mr. Sowerby's ' Species Conchylioruin,' afforded a greater amount of 
novelty. Mr. Sowerby, junr., being engaged in preparing a monograph of this genus for 
the forthcoming number of his ' Thesaurus,' it was thought desirable to place the specimens 
collected in his hands for comparison, and we are indebted to him for the descriptions and 
figures of eleven new species. A few species of Erato were collected, and in the genus 
Cyincea, some interesting observations were made at Singapore upon some living specimens 
of C. annulus in its early winged state, procured from the parent animal, and examined in 
activity under the microscope. 

1. CONUS. 

1. Contjs papillaris. PI. V. Fig. 7 a, h. Con. testa fusiformi-oblonga, spira elevato-turrita, apice 
papillari, anfractibus superne acute concavo-angulatis, peculiariter tenuicoronatis, nodulis subobliquis, 
infra laevibus ; albida, aurantio-ferrugineo longitudinaliter strigato-nebulata. 

Hab. ? 

This remarkable species of Conus, undoubtedly new, was found amongst the shells 
collected by Sir Edward Belcher during his voyage round the world in H.M.S. Sulphur, and 



overlooked by Mr. Hinds in describing the Mollusca of that expedition. It had unfortunately 
no memorandum of its locality. 

The upper portion of the whorls is sharply angled, and distinguished by a row of fine 
obliquely disposed nodules, the interstices between which are stained with the same rusty 
brown colour with winch the rest of the shell is bedaubed. The apex is papillary. 

2. Conus Borneensis. PL V. Pig. 8 a, b, c, d. Con. testa fusiformi, medio attenuate, spira acute 
elevata, anfractibus superne concavis et angulatis, infra transversim lineari-sulcatis, sulcis setate plus minusve 
obsoletis, longitudinaliter lineis incrementi arcuatim striatis ; alba, rufo-fusco sparsim maculata. 

Hab. North-east coast of Borneo (in ten fathoms, sandy and stony bottom). 
The main distinction between this species and the C. arcuatus, to which it is so closely 
allied, consists in its attenuated growth, a character satisfactorily observed by a careful 
comparison of several specimens with the type of that species in Mr. Cuming's collection. 

3. Conus flokidulus. PL V. Pig. 9 a, b. Con. testa oblongo-turbinata, solidiuscula, basi tumidiuscula, 
liris perpaucis subdistantibus, spira striata, obsolete oblique coronata, apice acuta; violascente-alba, basi 
vivide roseo-violacea, medio fasciatim immaculata, snpra infraque aurantio-fusco tincta et punctata, apice 
pallide rufescente. 

Hab. ? (from the Sulphur Voyage). 

A shell of rather solid growth, very deeply stained with violet at the base, and delicately 
suffused with that colour throughout ; a pale band being formed round the middle by the 
interruption of the orange-brown dots, which are painted above and below it. The spire is 
very indistinctly undulately noduled, and faintly spotted with orange-brown, with which" 
colour it is also tinged at the apex. 

4. Conus pica. PL V. Pig. 10 a, b, c, d. Con. testa sub-cylindraceo-ovata, tenuicula, tumida, inflata, 
spira depresso-convexa, creberrhne impresso-sulcattL, apice parvo, acute elato ; basi lineari-suleata, sulcis 
subdistantibus ; alba, fusco-nigricante plus minusve grandimaculata et minute punctata. 

Hab. Island of Balambangan, north end of Borneo (on a shallow coral reef). 

Very closely allied to the C. spectrum, but distinct in form and style of painting. 

5. Conus pigmentatus. PL V. Pig. 11 a, b. Con. testa oblongo-turbinata, transversim obsolete 
crebrisulcata, spira striata et oblique coronata ; alba, violascente tincta, olivaceo maculata, flocculis albis 
hie illic aspersa, basi et aperturse fauce vivide caeruleo-violaceis, spira alba, apice intense roseo. 

Hab. ? (from the Sulphur Voyage). 

An extremely interesting species in which the apex is remarkable for its intense crimson- 
rose colouring in all stages of growth. The ground colour is a pale verdigris blue, the shell 
is then crossed by olive lines which form two broad bands, and these are sprinkled with 
little opake-white flakes ranging mostly in a longitudinal direction, and the crimson apex 
rising in the centre of a pure white spue is very conspicuous. The interior is a rich violet. 


The Cones have the siphon in general very much elongated, and curved upwards and backwards over 
the shell ; the head is usually somewhat produced, and furnished with a retractile proboscis, the eyes vary 
in position, being in some instances situated on the outer side near the extreme end of the tentacles, whilst 
in others they are placed in the middle, and even at their outer bases. Their bodies are not unfrequently 
handsomely marked and marbled, but, as a general rule, are less brilliant in colour than the shell. 

The Cones become more numerous and varied in their colours as we approach the equatorial seas. 
They seem to prefer fissures and holes of the rocks, especially among coral reefs, living in the warm shallow 
pools within the barrier, where, although slow-moving, they lead a predatory life, boring into the substance 
of the shells of other mollusks, for the purpose of sucking the juice from their bodies. They crawl but 
slowly, and usually with their tentacles in a straight line before them. They are very timid, and shrink 
within their shells quickly on the approach of danger. Some species affect deep water, and one was dredged 
by us in the Sunda Straits, in thirty fathoms ; and another, the Conus thalassiarchus, at Sooloo, in about 
forty fathoms. In the Asiatic region, the species of this beautiful genus seem greatly to predominate, there 
being more than one hundred and twenty peculiar to this portion of the globe, while there are but two or 
three known in Europe, about twenty in Africa, thirty in Australia, and about fifty in America. The 
animal of Conus aulicus has the proboscis beautifully varied with red and white, and there is a square and 
very minute operculum on the dorsal surface of the hinder part of the foot. Its bite produces a venomed 
wound, accompanied by acute pain, and making a small deep triangular mark, which is succeeded by a 
watery vesicle. At the little island of Mayo, one of the Moluccas, near Ternate, Sir Edward Belcher was 
bitten by one of these Cones, which suddenly exserted its proboscis as he took it out of the water with his 
hand, and he compared the pain he experienced to that produced by the burning of phosphorus under the 
skin. The instrument which inflicted the wound, in this instance, was probably the tongue, which in 
these mollusks is long, and armed with two ranges of sharp-pointed teeth. 

Tn many species of Conus I have noticed a very peculiar dilatation of the anterior extremity of the 
siphon, reminding one of that singular inflated portion of the mantle in Terebettum, which performs the 
office of a siphon ; and the shell of this genus more nearly approaches those species of Cones in which the 
eyes become nearly terminal, and in which the operculum, horny and triangular in outline, is partially free. 
The Cones are not unfrequently marked somewhat in accordance with the colours of their shells. A, A. 

2. OVULUM, Brug. 

1. OvrjLrjM volva. PL VI. Fig. 9. Ovul. pallio elongato, utrinque valde producto, mamillarum 
serie regulari prope margine munito, mamillis subequidistantibus ; pede et corpore opaco-albis, corporis 
extremitate postica intense nigra, pallio pellucido-carneo, mamillis nigricantibus. 

The principal specific peculiarity of the rnollusk which produces the well-known shell 
of the Eastern Seas, termed the " Weaver's Shuttle," consists in the mantle being furnished 
near the edge with a row of blackish nipple-like tubercles extending to the end of the 
prolonged extremities. The specimen from which the drawing is taken was dredged 
in about five fathoms, from a rocky coral bottom off the Island of Basilan, between the 
Islands of Mindanao and Sooloo, in the Mindoro Sea. It was in a living state but had not 
arrived at maturity, the lip not being thickened or reflected, and of that tenuity, that the 
mamilke of the mantle, which, partially withdrawn probably, lined the interior, were visible 


through it as represented in the accompanying figure. Whether this peculiarity in the soft 
parts of the Ovulutn volva sufficiently entitles the species to rank as a genus, as proposed by 
De Montford under the name of Radius, remains a matter of opinion. 

The mantle of the Ovulum volva is furnished near the margin with a row of nipple-shaped tubercles, 
the nipples and areolae of which are dark coloured. The tubercles extend to the extremities of the beaks 
of the shell. The foot is of moderate size and folded longitudinally. The tentacles are elongate and 
subulate. The mantle covers a small portion of the shell on the left or inner side, where it is partially 
reflected over the pillar lip, but it does not extend beyond the margin of the thin outer lip ; at least it did 
not in the specimen from which this description is taken, which, however, was not perfectly adult. In 
older specimens, it may perhaps be reflected over the outer lip as well as over the columella. The eye, 
large and black, is placed on the side of the head, at the base of, and below, the tentacles. In the figure, 
the dark-coloured tubercles are seen through the shell, the mantle adhering to and lining the interior. In 
colour, the body and foot of this mollusk are of an opake pearly white, but the mantle is thin, semitrans- 
parent, and flesh-coloured ; the posterior sharp produced portion of the foot is sooty black. 

The 0. volva is slow and languid in its movements, sliding along deliberately, and not more sensible 
to alarm than Cypraa. Prom the foot being rather narrow, and folded longitudinally upon itself, this 
animal is no doubt in the habit of crawling upon and adhering to the slender round coral branches and 
fuci, in like manner as smaller species are not unfrequently seen on Gorgonia. A.A. 

2. Ovulum veeeucosum. PL LI. Pig. 7. Ovul. pallio utrinque lobatoj pede amplo, tenui, 
plicato-expanso, capite brevi, planulato, obtuse producto ; opaco-alba, nigro maculata, maculis parviusculis, 
subdistantibus, capite nigro unimaculata, tentaculis vertice nigro fasciatis. 

The animal of Ovulum verrucosum approaches much nearer to the Cowry type than the 
preceding species, having the mantle partially lobed on either side. The shell likewise 
partakes more than any other Ovulum of the Oyprcea character ; the callosities, from which 
it derives its name, may be seen in a modified form in the C. bicallosa. The soft parts 
of 0. verrucosum are of the same delicate opake white as the hard, the difference being that 
the former are prettily painted with black spots, the latter unspotted, but suffused with a 
soft blush of pink. The specimen represented in the accompanying plate was taken alive 
at the southern extremity of the Island of Mindoro, one of the Philippines, where several 
were observed gliding cautiously along a bright sandy bottom in shallow water. This species, 
which De Montford also proposed to elevate to the rank of a genus, under the title of 
Calpurnus, possesses much less claim to that distinction than the preceding. 

In the Ovulum verrucosum the mantle adheres to the sides, but does not entirely cover the shell. It 
is dead-white and covered with round black spots. The foot is large, thin, flat, expanded, and marked 
like the mantle. The tentacula are tapering, of a pure pearly white colour, with a broad black band near 
their extremities. The eyes are large and black, and placed at the outer base of the tentacles. The head 
is short and flattened, and ends in an obtuse rounded muzzle. The longest slope and narrowest end is the 
fore-part of the shell. 

In its habits it is a very slow-moving and sluggish mollusk, with all the peculiarities of the Cowries, 
and exhibits a singularly beautiful and striking appearance under the calm shallow water as it glides 


tranquilly along the bright sandy bottom. The spots on the mantle are much smaller and more irregular 
in form than those on the foot. The head is pure opaque white, with the exception of one large black 
spot placed in the centre of the fore-part, which, with its large black eyes and black-tipped tentacles, gives 
it a very peculiar appearance. A.A. 

3. Ovulum acuminatum. PI. VI. Fig. 1 a, b. Ovul. testa subovali, in medio sub-ventricosa, ad extre- 
mitates sub-rostata, Levi, alba, longitudinaliter fasciata ; dorso margine distincto; canalibus ad dorsum elevatis; 
labio externo crasso, kevi, ad extremitates recedente, antice sub-angulato, ad canalem emarginato ; labio 
interno tumido, intus unicariuato, postice spiraliter uniphcato, ad canales rectiusculo. 

Hab. The east coast of Bilaton. 

'Differing from 0. secale in being proportionately ventricose in the middle, and having 
the extremities turned upwards at the back. 

4. Ovulum coaectatum. PL VI. Kg. 2 a, b. Ovul. testa elongata, sub-cylindracea, fulva, striata, supra 
medium gibbosa, ad extremitates coarctata, labio externo paululum incrassato, lsevi, antice sub-angulato ; 
labio interno intus sub-depresso, ad extremitates acuminato. 

Hab. Straits of Sunda, near Java. 

This shell resembles 0. hordacea in some degree, but is not angular, and has the outer 
lip smooth. It may, however, very possibly be a young shell. 

5. Ovulum recuuvum. PL VI. Pig. 3 a, b, c. Ovul. testa elongata, medio ventricosa, sub-angulata ; 
laevigata, ad extremitates attenuata, recurva ; labio externo crasso, antice angulatim arcuato, ad extremitates 
truncato ; labio interno in medio ventricoso, ad extremitates attenuato, recurvo. 

Hab. China Seas. 

The' canals are not so much attenuated as in 0. longirostrum, and the outer lip is more 
suddenly narrowed into the anterior canal. It is thick, and pressed closely against the body 
whorl at the upper part, so as to leave the aperture very narrow. The shell is almost white, 
slightly tinged with pale buff. 

6. Ovulum dentatum. PL VI. Fig. 4 a, b. Ovul. testa parva, oblonga, sub-angulata, minute striata ; 
pallide rosea, fusco rubescente variegata ; canalibus sub-productis, emarginatis ; apertura angustata ; labio 
externo breviusculo, complanato, intus et ad extremitates usque ad marginem dentato ; labio interno lsevi, 
intus longitudinaliter sulcata, postice tumorem elevatum crenulatum ferente, ad canalem recedente ; antice 
angustato, tumido ; ad canalem sub-uniplicato. 

Hab. Caramata Passage, near Singapore. 

Not so angular as 0. striatulum. The teeth of the outer lip extend to the outer margin 
at the upper extremity where they form denticulations. The colour is pale rose, strengthened 
at the ends with two longitudinal waved bands at the back. 

7. Ovulum bulla. PL VI. Eig. 5 a, b. Ovul. testa ventricosa, subcylindracea, lsevi, antice sub - 
acuminata ; canalibus brevissirnis integris ; labio externo in medio sub-rotundo, intus crenulato ; labio 
interno postice tumorem parvum ferente, ad canalem angustato, uniphcato, intus paululum excavato. 

Hab. China Seas. 



Differing from 0. margarita and O.pundatum in form, being more cylindrical and very 
narrow at the anterior extremity. 

8. Ovulum formostim. PI. VI. Fig. 6 a, b. Ovul. testa elongata, in medio sub-angulata, violacea, 
ad extremitates fusca, lineis puncturatis cincta, ; canalibus brevibus, valide ernarginatis ; apertura angusta ; 
labio externo in medio sub-angulato, denticulato, ad extremitates brevi, postice ad marginem externum 
dentato ; labio interno lsevi, longitudinaliter sulcato, postice tumido, ad canalem angusto, rectiusculo, antice 
ad canalem rectiusculo. 

Hab. East coast of Borneo. 

Of an elongated angular form, and of a remarkably bright violet colour, with yellow tips ; 
the spiral striae are regular and beautifully punctured. The extremities rather produced, the 
outer lip short at the ends and denticulated, the denticulations reaching the outer margin at 
the posterior extremity. 

9. Ovulum concinnum. PI. VI. Fig. 8 a, b, c. Ovul. testa, parva, ventricosa, angulata, alba vel 
rosea, minutissime striata ; dorso tumido, anguloso ; canalibus brevibus obtusis, integris ; apertura angusta ; 
labio externo intus denticulato, in medio anguloso, labio interno postice tumorem angulosum crenulatum 
ferente, interne longitudinaliter sulcato, antice angustato, ad canalem posticum recedente, ad canalem anticum 
prominente, angustato sub-uniplicato. 

Hab. Isle of Capul, Philippines. 

A miniature resemblance of 0. angulosum ; more angular, minutely striated with a 
groove along the inner lip, with an elevated, angular tumidity on the body whorl near the 
angle. It is white, or pale rose. 

10. Ovulum sub-keflexum. PL VI. Fig. 10 a t b~ Ovul. testa oblonga, albida, laevigata, sub-rostrata, ; 
dorso in medio sub-angulato ; extremitatibus sub-recurvis ; apertura angustata ; canalibus sub-emarginatis ; 
labio externo lsevi, rotundato, supra medium sub-angulato, antice sub-angulatim arcuato ; labio interno 
postice tumido, ad canalem producto, recedente, intus longitudinaliter depresso, antice ad canalem producto. 

Hab. Coast of Bilaton. 

An oblong, smooth, white shell, with the extremities rather produced, blunt and turned 
upwards. The outer lip is smooth, round, and flexuous. 

11. Ovulum sracile. P. VI. Fig. 11 a, b, c. Ovul. testa elongata, fusiformi, minutissime striata, 
ad extremitates attenuata, recurva ; labio externo lsevi, sub-angulatim arcuato ; labio interno lsevi, in medio 
sub-ventricoso, ad extremitates attenuato, acuminato ; colore pallide fulvo, dorso prope marginem longi- 
tudinaliter rubro-fasciato. 

Hab. East coast of Borneo. 

Fusiform, striated, more gradually ventricose in the centre, and less attenuated at the 
canals than either 0. longirostrum or 0. recurvum. At the back, near the margin, is an 
irregular longitudinal band of dull red, interrupted in the centre. 

M0LLU8CA. 23 

12. Ovultjm ntjbeculattjm. PI. VI. Kg. 12 a, b, c. Ovul. testa ventricosa, sub-pyriformi, pallide 
rubro vel fulvo nubeculato ; dorso obscure costellato ; canalibus brevibus, vix emarginatis ; apertura angusta, 
labio externo intus crenulato, prope medium sub-complanato ; labio interne- tumorem elevatum crassum 
ferente, ad canalem breve et recedente, antice tumido, intus excavate-, ad canalem sub-uniplicato. 

Hab. Isle of Basilan. 

More pyTiform than 0. cameum; posterior canal shorter, posterior tumidity more 
elevated. The colour consists of pale or strong brownish red, arranged in three cloudy bands. 

13. Ovtjlum BCLLATUSi. PI. VI. Pig. 13 a, b. Ovul. testa ovali-oblonga, minute striata, roseo tincta, 
ad extremitates fusco lineata : dorso ad marginem sulcato ; canalibus sub-productis, integris ; apertura angusta, 
labio externo intus crenato, complanato ; labio interno tumido, lsevi, intus depresso, sub-sulcato, postice 
bullulam prominentem crenulatum ferente, ad canalem sub-tortuoso, antice sub-excavato, ad canalem uni- 

Hab. Caramata Passage, near Singapore. 

Of an oval form, striated at the back. The inner hp of the posterior canal slightly 
tortuous, the outer hp flattened, slanting inwards and crenulated, the body whorl in front 
near the posterior angle having a raised, rounded, prominent pustule. 

Figures all more or less magnified. 


Prom the rare occurrence of a new Cypraa it will not be a matter of surprise that no 
additional species were collected of this genus. Some observations were, however, made at 
Singapore on the Cowry in its early winged state, which it will be interesting to record, as 
confirming the following by Professor Edward Forbes in the Edinburgh Philosophical Journal, 
(vol. xxxvi. p. 326) : " All Gasteropoda commence life under the same form, both of shell 
and animal, namely, a very simple spiral hehcoid shell, and an animal furnished with two 
ciliated wings or lobes by which it can swim freely through the fluid in which it is con- 
tained. At this stage of the animal's existence, it corresponds to the permanent state of the 
Pteropod, and the form is alike, whether it be afterwards a shelled or a shell-less species." 

While staying at Singapore I had an opportunity, in conjunction with Dr. Trail of that place, of 
observing the fry of Cypma annidus, the species being then in spawn. Several specimens collected by us at 
low water were seen to have conglomerated masses of minute transparent shells (PI. V. Fig. 4 a, b, c.) 
adhering to the mantle and other parts of the animal, which masses, when placed in a watch-glass of salt 
water, under the microscope, became disintegrated, and detached individuals were perceived quitting the rest, 
and moving in rapid gyrations, with abrupt jerking movements, by means of two rounded flattened alar 
membranous expansions, reminding one of the motions of some of the Pteropods. "When at rest they 
joined the principal mass, or adhered, by means of their dilated expansions, to the surface of the watch-glass. 
Owing to the deficient powers of the microscope, I was precluded from making further observations, but a 
small mass of these objects was brought home and is represented in the plate above referred to, 


While crossing the Mindoro Sea in calm weather, masses composed of many hundred individuals were 
obtained of similarly formed young shells, which were believed to be the young of two species of Bolium, 
some being smooth and some hairy. These clung chiefly to floating masses. A.A. 

The minute helicoid shell of the young Cowry forms the nucleus of that which after- 
wards grows and undergoes several changes in form, gradually becoming more and more 
complicated until the outer lip is inflected and at length denticulated. The converse of this 
would appear, however, to take place in other Gasteropoda, as shown in the development of 
Boris, Aplysia, Tritonia, and others, where the shell at first turbinated and nautiloid in 
shape, afterwards becomes a merely internal rudimentary plate or altogether disappears. 

On placing the young of Cypraa in a watch-glass of sea-water they may be seen to 
whirl about like the Hyalcea and Cleodora, and, like Atlanta, to adhere when fatigued to 
foreign bodies, not by any disc, but by means of the dilated expansions of their mantle. In 
the course of growth these fleshy expansions become entirely absorbed and do not ultimately 
constitute the lobes of the mantle which embrace and partially cover the shell in the adult. 
It would be interesting to observe the transitions in the figure of the animal and shell 
throughout the entire series of Mollusca ; many phases exhibited in their metamorphoses 
would throw new light, not only on the identity of species, but on the reality of the existence 
of certain genera. 

Of the rarer species of Cyprcea, the C. subviridis and pyriformis were collected at 
Unsang, east coast of Borneo, on coral reefs ; C.flaveola at Ambolan, eastern extremity of 
the Island of Mindoro, Philippines, from a sandy and weedy bottom in shallow water ; and 
the small banded variety of C. Iimnphreysii at the Island of Gilolo, under stones on a reef ; 
an enormous specimen of the white variety of C. gangrenosa was also taken from the coral flats 
at the Island of Panagatan. The most important addition to the genus consisted of some 
fine specimens of the C. producta, described by Mr. Gaskoin in the Proceedings of the 
Zoological Society for 1835, from a single worn specimen, of which no other example had 
been seen. They were collected at Unsang, east coast of Borneo, on the coral reefs, together 
with specimens of C rubinicohr, of the same author, of almost equal rarity. The following 
are the principal observations upon the living animal in situ. 

Although I have examined hundreds of Cyprcea tigris in a living state, I never saw those changes of 
colour in the mantle of the animal described by Mr. S. Stutchbury in the Zoological Journal, who moreover 
states that they crawl about usually exposed to the sun, while the result of my experience would lead me 
to believe that they almost invariably lurk in holes of rocks, or under loose stones and among branching 

The soft parts of the different species of Cyprcea vary considerably in colour, the animal of Cypraa 
carneola, for example, is of a beautiful red colour with the foot and mantle covered with numerous opaque 
oval white spots ; that of C. Talpa is of a pale brownish black, with minute whitish specks ; that of 
C. caput-serpentis is of a rich green brown ; and in C. lynx the mantle is covered with numerous tufts of 
various forms, nodulous, trifid, or ending in two short processes ; that of C. Mauritiana has conical tubercles, 
of C. erosa (Plate Y. Tig. 6) numerous, rather long, branching, arborescent appendages ; of C. moneta with 


but few, and those chiefly around the free upper edge of the mantle; while in some these processes 
are altogether wanting. 

In Q/prcea erosa (PI. V. Kg. 6) the siphon is of a dirty white colour; the tentacles orange; the eyes 
black; the mantle brown, covered with small dark spots ; the foot white, with black reticulated markings. 

In Ct/praa caurica (PI. V. Fig. 5) the mantle is light brown, perfectly smooth, and covered with 
dark brown reticulations ; the foot is brown, with minute white spots ; the peduncle of the eye is of a 
brilliant white ; the head is brown ; the base of the tentacles dull white ; the tentacles beyond the eyes 
light brown. 

In Quo^s figure of Cyprma Isabella (Voy. Astrol. t. 48. f. 15) the edge of tbe mantle is simply lobed, 
and the remainder of the surface naked and void of appendages. In the animal of C. caurica, the edge 
of the mantle forms a continuous slightly- waved line, and the surface covering the shell is perfectly smooth, 
with the delicate anastomosing lines mentioned above. A. A. 


4. ERATO, Risso. 

1. Erato callosa. PI. X. Pig. 32 a, b. Erat. testa pyriformi, crassa, tumida, callosa, spira bre- 
viuscula, subobtusa, columella escavata, labro conspicue denticulate ; carnea, subtus albicante. 

Hab. China Sea. 

An interesting species of rather large size, distinguished by its callous, thickly-enamelled 


A considerable number of species of Mitra were collected, but as in the case of the 
Cones, nearly all had been described and figured in the ' Conchologia Iconica,' chiefly from 
the researches of Mr. Cuming in the same locality. An important accession was made to 
the genus Voluta by the discovery of the first recent analogue of a well-known fossil type, 
abounding in the Eocene portion of the Tertiary beds of the Isle of Wight, dredged at the 
depth of a hundred and thirty -two fathoms off the Cape of Good Hope ; and some inter- 
esting species of Marginella were procured, with the animal in a living state, of which 

drawings were made. 

5. VOLUTA, Linnceus. 

1. Voluta abyssicola. PL VII. Kg. 6 a, b, c, d. Vol. testa pyriformi, tenui, spira brevi, sub- 
turrita, apice acuta, anfractibus superne depresso-canaliculatis, liris numerosis, acutis, longitudinalibus 
et transversis undique creberrime subprofunde cancellatis, liris superne mucronatis, columella quadriplicata, 
apertura subangusta, labro tenui; fulvescente-cinerea, fasciis rufo-fuscis angustis tribus vel quatuor 


Hab. Cape of Good Hope. 


This elaborately carved species is one of considerable interest in a geological point of 
view, from the circumstance of its being the first living representative yet discovered of 
a group of highly sculptured Volutes abounding in the Eocene portion of the Tertiary beds 
of the British Isles. The principal of these, V. lima, elevata, crenulata, and digitalina, were 
distinguished by Mr. Swainson as a subgenus, under the name Volutilithes. The Voluta 
abyssicola is not identical in species with the fossils, being characterized by a closer and 
more sharply-defined pattern of lattice-work, which comprises as many as thirty transverse, 
and forty longitudinal, ridges in a whorl. The upper edge of the whorls is depressly 
flattened at the sutures, forming a narrow ascending canal. The ridges are slightly nodulous 
at the point of crossing, and round the upper extremity impart a coronated aspect to the 
shell. The columellar plaits, four in number, are sharp and delicate. The outer lip is thin, 
and does not appear to be mature. The only specimen collected was dredged from a bank 
of dead shells and rounded iron-stones, at the depth of 132 fathoms. 

6. MITRA, Lamarck. 

The animal of Mitra has in general a very short foot, straight and continuous from 
side to side in some species, but in others notched, and produced, with a thickened anterior 
margin. It is commonly narrow and rounded, or acuminated posteriorly, and it bears a very 
small semi-transparent horny operculum, in some instances scarcely visible. The siphon is 
mostly directed forwards, and the somewhat short tapering tentacles have the eyes either 
situated about half-way, or they are placed on the outer side of the base. The head is long 
and very flat, and the tentacles are very close together at their bases. The proboscis is 
rarely exserted when they are crawling and lively, but as they become languid after capture 
it becomes distended with water and protrudes considerably. 

1. Mitra rufilirata. PI. X. Pig. 26. Mitr. testa ovato-fusiformi, spira subcanaliculata, apice acuta, 
transversini undique lirata, lirarum interstitiis creberriine subtiliter clathratis, columella sexplicata, apertura 
longiuscula, angusta, labro simplici ; virescente-alba, liris lineis rufo-fuscis interruptis undique tincta, in 
medio subobscure fasciata. 

Hab. China Sea. 

The colouring is very characteristic in this species. The ridges are regularly stained 
throughout with interrupted red-brown lines, a profusion of which in the middle produces 
an obscure band. 

2. Mitra Suluensis. PL X. Pig. 27. Mitr. fusiformi-turrita, apice acuta, anfractibus subrotundato- 
angulatis, undique longitudinaliter lirato-costatis, costarum interstitiis sulcato-clatliratis, columella quadri- 
plicatfi, apertura angusta; fulvo, fusco, ceeruleoque varie tincta, apice fusco. 

Hab. Sooloo Islands. 


Very closely allied to 21. cruentata, from which it chiefly differs in its more slender 
fusiform growth. 

3. Mitra semisculpta. PI. X. Fig. 28. Mitr. testa oblongo-fusifornii, apice acuta, anfractibus 
duodeeini, posticis longitudinaliter costatis, costarum interstitiis sulcato-clatkratis, anfractibus anticis 
lsevigatis, columella tri- quadriplicata, apertura angusta, labro simplici ; plumbea, lineis tenuibus ferru- 
gineis undulatis obscure picta, anfractu ultimo pallide unifasciata, apice fusco. 

Hab. Sooloo Islands ; at a depth of about thirty fathoms. 

All the specimens collected were of the same uniform lead-colour, the last and penulti- 
mate whorls being smooth, whilst the rest are highly sculptured. 

4. Mitra dichroa. PI. X. Fig. 29. Mitr. testa obeso-ovata, crassiuscula, oblique subobscure 
plicato-costata, columella subobscure triplicata; intense ceeruleo-nigro et albo transversim alternatim 

Hab. Philippine Islands. 

Belonging to that obese section of the genus of which M. lauta and leticodesma are 
typical examples. 

5. Mitra rubella. PI. X. Pig. 30. Mitr. testa fusiformi-turrita, anfractibus superne tumidiusculis, 
inferne contractis, undique creberrime clathratis, columella quadriplicata, basi subcontorta et recurva ; 

Hab. Sooloo Islands. 

Of a uniform, delicate rose-tint, and finely cancellated throughout, the whorls being 
swollen behind, and attenuated and recurved in front. 

6. Mitra ocisa. PL X. Fig. 31. Mitr. testa oblongo-ovata, apice acuta, anfractibus anguste 
sulcatis, sulcis spirse latioribus et crenulato-punctatis ; sordide luteo-alhicante, anfractu ultimo antice 

Hab. China Sea. 

Remarkable on account of the contrast between the sculpture and colouring of the front 
and hind part of the shell. 

The Philippine Islands would seem to harbour the greatest number of these elegant and beautiful 
shells, although a great many species were obtained by Mr. Cuming in tropical America. They appear to 
be chiefly confined to the equatorial regions, scarcely any being natives of cold climates. I have met with 
several among the Meia-co-shima Islands, at Loo-Choo, at Japan, and at the Keeling or Cocos Islands. 
They are most frequently to be met with in somewhat shallow water among the ledges of rocks, between 
small islands where the water barely covers the land, and within the shelter of coral-reefs ; sometimes 
preferring a clear sandy bottom, and sometimes affecting a hard muddy sandy soil. The transversely ribbed 
species are frequently found in very deep water, and many were dredged by us in twenty and thirty 
fathoms at Sooloo and in the China Sea. 


The animal of Mitra flammigera, one of these deep-water species, is very prettily marked. The body is 
grey, varied with round, well-defined, white spots, and dark -brown blotches, of a pyramidal form, arranged 
in a row round the lower edge in a Yandyke pattern, and below that a white rim with a row of small, 
linear, horizontal, black spots; the head is wliite, marbled with grey-brown ; the eyes black and the 
tentacles white, with a large, oval, black spot in their middle ; the siphon is brown, edged with black, and 
with a broad white band at its free extremity. The operculum is very minute, horny, and transparent. — 
Caramata Passage ; fourteen fathoms, hard muddy bottom, mixed with sand and broken shells. 

Another species, with the same habits, the Mitra interlirata, is semiopake, white, faintly mottled 
with light brown, with the eyes at the outer base of the tentacles and black. — China Sea ; ten fathoms. 

The animal of that division of the genus which Swainson included under Conolielix is the same as in 
the typical species. I have found the Mitra Conns buried rather deep in the soft black mud under the 
roots of trees in mangrove swamps, above high-water mark, in the Island of Basilan. The M. conica is 
found in company with other species of Mitres, crawling slowly over the sandy mud in shallow places, 
among the islands of the Philippine group. 

Although M. Quoy has rightly termed the Mitra an " animale apathique," I have seen the small 
longitudinally-ribbed species crawl about pretty briskly over the smooth sand among the low coral is- 
lands. The Mitra ejnscoj)alis, probably on account of the small size of its locomotive disc, and the 
ponderous nature of its long shell, is a very sluggish mollusk. I have observed some of the Auricula- 
shaped Mitres that live among the Philippines, in the shallow pools left by the receding tide, crawling 
about the stones out of the water, in company with Tlanaxis and Qiwi/ia. The Mitres, like many 
of the large Yolutes, prefer, however, to associate together, and may be seen in dozens crawling over 
the sandy mud-flats in shallow water, being most active just as the flood-tide makes. When the tide 
recedes, they bury themselves superficially in the yielding soil, and are with difficulty discovered. 
Some of the small-ribbed species cover themselves entirely with the sandy mud, and in that disguised 
condition travel about with comparative security. On one occasion, on the small island of Ambolan 
at the south end of Mindoro, I was walking up to my ankles over a firm sandy mud-flat, taking 
little notice of the Cones, Strombi, Meleagrina, and Yolutes, which people the water in great numbers, but 
looking about anxiously for the rarer Mitres, when I first perceived these small species, under their 
ingenious disguise, marching in towards the shore as the tide flowed rapidly over the level surface. 
Persons, by the way, should never venture in places of this description barefooted, as there is a species of 
Pinna which buries its sharp end in the mud, but leaves the thin trenchant edges of the gaping 
extremity exposed, and, when trodden on, inflicts very deep and painful incised wounds. Both myself and 
geveral of the boat's crew suffered in this way. A. A. 

7. MARGINELLA, Lamarck. 

1. Maeginella diadochus. PI. YII. Pig. 4 a, b, c. Marg. testa oblongo-ovata, spira subprominula, 
anfractibus quinque, superne declivibus et tumidiusculis, columella quadriplicata, apertura. subangusta, 
labro vix incrassato ; olivaceo-carneola, lineis nigris distantibus conspicue subirregulariter cingulata. 

Hab. Straits of Sunda ; from a sandy floor at a depth of about three fathoms. 

The animal of this beautiful species may be described as follows : — Tentacles yellowish, 
with a row of marbled crimson spots ; eyes black and minute ; mantle pale, semi- 


transparent, pinkish-yellow, with a row of semioval crimson spots round the thin free edge, 
the remainder being covered with radiating linear spots and short waved lines of a crimson 
colour ; siphon marbled with crimson ; foot of a delicate yellowish-pink, marked with deep 
crimson rays. The shell is of a bright olive carnelian hue, conspicuously encircled at 
irregular intervals with broad black lines, having almost the consistency of bands. 

2. Marginella undulata. PI. VII. Fig. 5 a, b, c. Deshayes, Anim. sans vert. vol. x. p. 451. 
Yoluta glabella undulata, Gliemnitz, Conch. Cab. vol. s. pi. 150. f. 1423-4. Voluta strigata, DihVyn. 
Marginella strigata, Kiener. 

Hab. East Coast of Africa ; from a sandy floor. 

This fine species was also taken alive. The tentacles, siphon, foot, and mantle are of a 
delicate, semitransparent, yellowish ground colour, streaked and mottled with carmine, the 
border of the mantle being richly spotted with the same. The left lobe of the mantle is 
more produced over the shell than the right. 

The tentacles of the Marginellcs appear to vary in different species. In those observed 
by M. Deshayes on the shores of the Mediterranean, the tentacles are described as being 
short, whilst in this and the preceding species they are slender and elongated. It may be 
remarked, too, that the eyes of the Marginella diadochus are more pedunculated than those 
of M. undulata. 

3. Marginella onychina. PI. X. Pig. 25. Marg. testa ovata, subobesa, spira plano-depressa, fere 
occulta, anfractibus superne rotundato-tunxidis, columella fortiter sexplicata, apertura elongata, labro incras- 
sato ; albida, cinereo-grisea, confertim promiscue strigata, obscure trifasciata, labro albo. 

Hab. China Sea. 

This species might be readily confounded with the Marginella tricincta, but it differs 
materially in form, being more depressed and rounded at the hinder extremity, with the 
spire buried as in the Cowries, and less swollen in the middle. The streaky character of 
the painting is also characteristic. 


The Parpurifera are most abundant in the Eastern Seas, and were collected in great 
numbers ; but, as monographs of the principal genera have been only lately published, 
little remained that was new. No Columbellm were taken but what have been already 
figured in the ' Thesaurus Conchyliorum ;' it has, however, been thought desirable to figure 
the living C.fvlgurans and semipunctata, the habits of which afforded some observations. Five 
species of Terebra, differing from any of those described in Mr. Hinds' recent monograph of 
that genus, were collected, and a magnificent addition was made to the limited genus 



1. Terebra serotina. PI. X. Fig. 20. Ter. testa lanceolato-turrita, basi breviter recurva, anfrac- 
tibus planulatis, superne plicato-nodulosis, deinde arcuatim liratis, litis striis transversis numerosis irregu- 
laribus decussatis; citrino-aurantia. 

Hab. Japan Island, Nangasaki Bay. 

The noduled sculpture round the edge of the whorls, forming somewhat of a shelf, 
makes the sutures very distinct. The nodules are slightly plicate and pass into arched 
concentric ridges. 

2. Terebra albicostata. PL X. Fig. 5J1. Ter. testa subulata, anfractibus superne plicato-nodosis, 
deinde costatis, costis angustis, subirregularibus, interstitiis transversim impresso-striatis ; castaneo -rufa, 
costis nodisque albidis, anfractu ultimo basin versus albifasciato. 

Hab. China Sea. 

The ribs and nodules, although naturally white, appear colourless from the effect of 

3. Terebra celata. PI. X. Fig. 22. Ter. testa lanceolato-turrita, anfractibus longitudinaliter 
arcuatim plicato-costatis, costis liris duplicatis striisque transversis cancellatis, sulco unico conspicuo infra 
suturas; alba. 

Hab. Philippine Islands. 

The chief peculiarity of this delicately carved species consists in the transverse ridges 
being finely duplicate. 

4. Terebra areolata. PL X. Fig. 23. Ter. testa lanceolato-turrita, gracili, anfractibus planis, 
longitudinaliter plicato-costatis, costis tumidiusculis, confertis, subundulatis, interstitiis alveolatis ; rubella, 
albo variegata. 

Hab. China Sea. 

The opake white marbling of the shell is mainly upon the ribs, which have a swollen 
appearance, and are unusually close-set. 

5. Terebra roseata. PL X. Fig. 24. Ter. testa subulata, anfractibus plicato-costatis, costarum 
interstitiis liris tenuibus clathratis, sulco prominulo infra suturas ; pallide rosea. 

Hab. Sooloo Islands; from sandy mud, at a depth of about thirty fathoms. 

Of a uniform, delicate, transparent, pink colour. 

6. Terebra torquata. PL X. Fig. 13. Ter. testa lanceolato-turrita, anfractibus concavis, arcuatin" 
costatis, superne biseriatim, infra uniseriatim, nodosis, transversim striatis ; fuscescente-alba, ferruginei 

Hab. China Sea. 


The whorls of this species are concave and arcuately ribbed, the ribs being characterized 
by two rows of nodules at the upper part, and one below. 

9. OLIVA, Bruguiere. 

1. Oliva fulgurata. PI. X. Kg. 12. Oliv. testa fusiformi, laevissinia, nitente, spira acuminata, 
columella arcuata, parurn sulcata, truncata, apertura oblonga, labro subdilatato ; albida, castaneo longitu- 
dinaliter conspicue fulgurata, columella castaneo-rufo fasciata. 

Hab. China Sea. 

A highly polished shell, very conspicuously painted with longitudinal, zigzag, chestnut 
bands upon a whitish ground, the columella having a reddish tinge of colour. 

10. ANCILLARIA, Lamarck. 

The animal of Ancillaria is voluminous, covering the entire shell, with the exception of the 
spire. The head, which is entirely concealed by the reflected portions of the foot, consists of 
a short, inflated, cylindrical, annulated proboscis, above which is a semilunar veil formed by 
the dilatation and union of the tentacles ; there is no indication of eyes. The mantle lines the 
shell, and is produced anteriorly into a long siphon. The foot is large and bursiforin, the 
side-edges being greatly extended and reflected over the shell, meeting in the middle on the 
back. As in Oliva, it is deeply fissured anteriorly, forming a semilunar disc before the head, 
divided by a deep longitudinal groove into two lateral, triangular lobes, acuminated transversely; 
posteriorly it is bilobed, and is either without an operculum, or is provided with a thin, 
horny, unguiform one, with apical nucleus, semilunar striee, and an oval muscular impression. 

1. Axcillaria obttjsa. PI. XIII. Pig. 6 a, b. Swainson, Journ. Sci. Lit. and Arts, vol. xviii. p. 2S2. 
Sowerby, Species Conchyliorum, Anc. p. 5. Pig. 24, 25. 

Hab. East coast of Africa, below Port Natal. 

The specimen taken alive at the above-named locality was of a dirty white colour, 
marked with dull brown, elongated blotches, distributed with scarcely so much regularity as 
represented in our figure. Fig. 6 b represents the operculum. 

The Ancillarice resemble the Oliva in their habits, dwelling among the smooth sands in which they 
frequently bury themselves. They crawl with a quick sliding motion, and, as they glide briskly along, the 
tubular cylindrical siphon only is visible, directed backwards and upwards, and even laid flat upon the 
back ; the alar expansions of the foot slightly overlap each other in the middle, and, extending considerably 
beyond the spire, form posteriorly a loose open sac. It is possible that the dilated lobes of the foot 
are sometimes extended and serve for swimming, as D'Orbigny has observed in Oliva Tehuelchana, Yoy. 
Amer. Me'rid. Moll. p. 419. A. A. 


11. EBURNA, Lamarck. 

An interesting drawing was made of the living Eburna areolata, Lamarck, but no new 
species were collected of the genus. It agrees in all respects with the generic description of 
the animal given by M. Deshayes (Anim. sans vert. vol. x. p. 231), and is only inserted here 
for the sake of its specific characters. 

1. Ebukna akeolata. PI. VIII. Pig. 5. Lamarck, Anim. sans vert. vol. x. p. 235. Eburna 
tessettata, Swainson. Head flat, extended ; tentacles very long and slender ; eyes consisting of a yellow- 
iris and black pupil mounted upon pedunculated swellings on the outer base of the tentacles ; siphon large, 
fleshy and slightly curved ; foot long, fleshy and robust, acuminated behind and carrying a horny oper- 
culum. Colour dull pinkish-white, sprinkled with large, light brown, irregular blotches; siphon and 
tentacles mottled with spots of the same colour. 

Hab. China Sea ; from mud at the depth of fourteen fathoms. 

It is extremely rare to find any sort of concordance between the colouring of a rnollusk 
and its shell. In the present instance there is a characteristic resemblance in this respect. 

12. BUCCINUM, Linncens. 

1. BucciNtnn hinnulus. PI. VII. Pig. 10 a, b. Bucc. testa ovato-turbinata, ventricosa, basi con- 
torta et recurva, anfractibus septem, transversim crebriliratis, superne angulato-declivibus, ad angulum 
exiliter nodulosis ; albida, aiu'antio-fusco sparsim maculata et strigata. 

Hab. Cagayan-Sooloo. 

Closely encircled throughout with contiguous slightly convex ridges, promiscuously 
blotched with rich orange chestnut upon a white ground. 

2. Buccintjm clathratum. PL XL Pig. 12. Bucc. testa fusiformi-oblonga, crassiuscula, anfrac- 
tibus septem, superne tumidiusculis, liris longitudiiialibus et transversis undique creberrime clathratis, 
columella lamina callosa induta, apertura angusta, labro incrassato, superne vix siuuato ; fuscescente-alba, 
obscure bi- trifasciata. 

Hab. Cape of Good Hope ; dredged from the depth of a hundred and thirty-six fathoms. 

This interesting deep-water species, and that which follows, approximate to the form 
distinguished by Bivona as a genus under the name Pisania. It is of rather solid growth, 
very closely sculptured throughout with lattice-work. 

3. Buccinum mitrella. PI. XL Pig. 13. Bucc. testa anguste fusiformi, spira exserta, anfractibus 
octo, convexo-planis, lineis elevatis, longitudinaliter arcuatis et transversis subtiliter cancellatis, apertura 
angusta, breviuscula, labro subincrassato, superne vix sinuato ; alba, maculis subquadratis spadiceis obscure 

Hab. China Sea ; from ten fathoms. 


Characterized by the same idea of form and sculpture as the preceding species, though 
materially distinct in detail. 

■I. Buccinum eilostjm. PL XI. Fig. 18. Bucc. testa acuminato-oblonga, crassiuscula, spirae suturis 
canaliculars, anfractibus plano-convexis, lsevibus, lineis incisis subdistantibus transversim regulariter sulcatis, 
columella arcuata, peculiariter abbreviata et truncata, niargine uniplicata, apertura antice dilatata, postice 
subemarginata ; carnea et cinerascente, sulci's alternis rufo-fuscescentibus maculisque obscure bifasciata. 

Hab. China Sea. 

This shell, which is remarkably characterized by the abrupt truncature of the columella, 
and by its anteriorly dilated aperture, might possibly belong to an animal generically distinct 
from Buccinum. If such should prove hereafter to be the case, we propose to regard the 
species as the type of a new genus, with the name Truncaria. 

5. Buccinum albipunctatum. PI. XL Fig. 21. Bucc. testa acurninato-ovata, anfractibus septem, 
tribus oblique plicatis, ceeteris lsevibus, nitentibus, ad suturas subtiliter marginatis, apertura parviuscula, 
labro subincrassato, lirnbo spinoso-crenulato, superne sinuate; pallide fulvescente, punctis minutis opaco- 
albis seriatim notata, apice rosaceo. 

Hab. Island of Mindanao, Philippines ; on the shore. 

B. albipunctatum belongs to that section of the genus distinguished by Mr. Gray with 
the title of Northia, of which B. pristis is the type ; and it is very closely allied to a 
species improperly referred in the ' Conchologia Iconica' to the genus Pleurotoma, Sp. Ill, 
P. Rissoides. 

13. CYLLENE, Gray. 

1. Ctllene lugubbis. PI. X. Fig. 10. Cyll. testa ovata, crassa, spira acuta, anfractibus undique 
creberrime sulcatis, superne tumidis, subtiliter noduloso-plicatis ; intense castanea, labro albo, anfractuum 
margine superiore albivariegata. 

Hab. Sooloo Islands. 

A fine stout species of this characteristic, but little known, genus, in which the whorls 
are finely nodulously plicated round the upper part. 

2. Cyllkne pulchella. PI. X. Fig. 11. Cyll. testa ovata, crassiuscula, spira subacurninata, acuta, 
anfractibus medio tumidis, transversim lineari-sulcatis, apicem versus subtilissime plicatis ; alba, flammis 
pallide rosaceis obscure variegata, apice roseo. 

Hab. Borneo ; on the shore. 

An extremely delicately painted species, with light pink waves, and pink apex. 

14. PURPURA, Lamarck. 
1. Puuptjea cuspidata. PL XL Fig. 35. Purp. testa abbreviato-ovata, spira brevi, acuta, anfrac- 



tibus superne concavis, infra quadriliratis, liris duabus superioribus compresso-squamatis, squamis supremis 
grandibus, erectis, spinosis ; nigricante-fusca, liris quatuor albis, aperturse fauce ceerulescente-alba. 

Hab. China Sea. 

Several examples of this species, differing materially from any hitherto described, were 
collected in the China Sea, with scarcely any variation of form or colouring. 

15. COLUMBELLA, Lamarck. 

The animal of Colwmbella has a long and somewhat narrow vertically depressed head, 
with the eyes sometimes placed on the outer side of the base of the tentacles, and sometimes 
on the outer side of reflected prominences, situated at some little distance from the head. 
The siphon, long and directed forwards, is considerably dilated at the anterior extremity. 
The foot is short and pointed posteriorly, and bears a small, semitransparent, horny oper- 
culum, with concentric elements. Anteriorly the foot is often considerably produced beyond 
the head, where it forms a long, thick, flattened, fleshy, finger-like process. Sometimes it 
is expanded laterally, when it is truncate anteriorly and furnished with two lateral angular 

1. Columbella TiENiATA. PI. XI. Fig. 19. Col. testa fusiformi-ovata, anfractibus plano-convexis, 
lsevibus, nitentibus, apertura parva, labro incrassato, superne sinuato ; rufescente-carnea, maculis quadratis 
rufo-fuscis tamiata. 

Hab. Borneo. 

There are two fillets of square red-brown spots on each whorl, the lower of which is 
concealed in all but the last whorl. 

2. Columbella semipunctata. PI. XIII. Fig. 7. Lamarck, Aniim sans vert. (Deshayes 5 edit.) 
vol.x. p. 267. 

Hab. Shores of Borneo. 

The animal of this species has a white head, marked with a series of large orange 
blotches on the upper surface ; the siphon is of a deep orange colour at the anterior extre- 
mity, and is ornamented with two rows of large, oval, orange spots, placed alternately with 
each other. The eyes are black ; the tentacles are dead white, and deep orange at their 
distal extremities ; the body is handsomely marbled w T ith orange and yellow, the latter colour 
forming a loose open net-work, with irregular, lozenge-shaped meshes. 

3. Columbella FULGtiEANS. PL XVII. Fig. 8. Lamarck, Anim. sans vert. (Deshayes' edit.) vol. x, 
p. 272. 

Hab. From the shingly beach of a small islet off Billiton. 

The animal of Columbella fulgurans has the head white, covered with large, black, oval 


spots ; the tentacles pure white ; the siphon elegantly annulated with alternate, broad, 
black and white rings, the white rings being much narrower than the black ; the foot is of a 
clear dead white, covered with large, black, somewhat scattered, oval spots. 

The Colmnbellce live in shallow water, some species crawling on the surface of sand-flats, and some 
affecting stony beaches, where they congregate about the stones in considerable numbers. C. varia, ob- 
served in plenty at the Island of Billiton, on a coral and stony bottom, is of a pure dead white ; the body, 
head, and foot being covered with large, oval, black blotches, and the tentacles marked with a row of black 
spots along their entire length. The siphon is annulated alternately with brown and white. A. A. 

16. ONISCIA, Sowerby. 

1. Oniscia exqtjisita. PI. V. Fig. 3 a, b. Onisc. testa subtrigono-ovata, basi obtuse recurva, spira. 
brevi, acuta, anfractibus octo, superne concavo-depressis, tuberculis papillaribus undique angulatis, lira 
subobscura interveniente, labro columellari late expanso, granulis valde irregularibus, labro externo in- 
crassatim reflexo, Kris brevibus dentiformibus irregulariter munito ; albida, aurantio-fusco hie illic sparsim 
punctata, et pone labrum trimaculata, labris palfide purpureo-rosaceis, apice rufo. 

Hab. Sooloo Archipelago ; outside a coral reef near the city of Sooloo, in about sixteen to twenty 
fathoms, sandy mud. 

The surface of this very chaste and delicate Oniscia is covered with papillary tubercles, 
in rows of about ten either way, transversely or longitudinally. The columella and outer 
lips are enamelled of a livid purplish-pink colour. 

4. ALATA. 

17. STROMBUS, Linnaeus. 

1. Stbombus corrugatus. PI. X. Pig. 19. Stromb. testa fusiformi-turrita, anfractibus novem, 
transversim undique creberrime liratis, superne rotundato-angulatis, ad angulum plicato-costatis, costis 
subcorrugatis, in anfractu ultimo gradatim distantioribus et majoribus, tubercula formantibus, apertura 
subangusta, labro columellari calloso, externo pone incrassato ; alba, fulvo-castaneo subirregulariter fasciata, 
aperturse fauce alba. 

Hab. Korea. 

Distinguished by its corrugated ribs, which in the last whorl gradually pass into 
tubercles, larger, and at more distant intervals. 

18. ROSTELLABIA, Lamarck. 

1. Eostellaria EECTiEOSTEis. PI. V. Pig. 2 a, b, c. Lamarck, Anim. sans vert. (Deshayes' edit.) 
vol.ix. p. 655. 

Hab. Coast of Borneo ; dredged from black sandy mud at the depth of thirty-one fathoms. 
Animal with a subcylindrical annular proboscis, coloured by a broad, central, dark 


bronze line, the edges of which are yellow, bordered with vermilion ; eyes deep blue, with 
black pupils, surmounted on long cylindrical peduncles ; tentacles white, with a narrow 
vermilion streak along their anterior surface ; body cylindrical and much elongated, marked 
with red-brown on the outer surface, white beneath ; foot narrow, rather dilated and rounded 
in front, with a thickened anterior margin, small and subquadrate behind, the two portions 
separated by a deep notch ; operculum ovate-triangular, annular, horny, semitransparent. 

The B. rectirostris, like the rest of the Alata, progresses by bending the foot under the 
shell and suddenly straightening, which enables it to roll and leap over and over. It is 
extremely timid in this respect, unlike B. Jissa, of which the animal is light brown varied 
with lighter markings of the same colour. 

19. TEREBELLUM, Klein. 

The discovery of the living Terebettum has occasioned the removal of that genus to this 
family, on account of its affinity with Strombus. The eyes are pedunculated, and the mantle 
is characterized by the same peculiar divided edge. In the narrow form of the foot and 
proboscis-like head it is allied to Struthiolaria and Jporrhais, and, like Oliva, the mantle 
has a long filamentary cord winding into the sutures of the shell. 

1. Tekebelltjm subulatum. PI. IX. Fig. 6. Lamarck, Anim. sans vert. (Deshayes' edit.) vol. s. 
p. 584. 

Hab. China and Sooloo Archipelago. 

The animal of Terebettum may be thus described : — Head proboscidiform ; tentacles 
connate with the long cylindrical eye-peduncles, at the ends of which are placed the eyes ; 
mantle with the right edge reflexed over the outer lip, produced in front into a short siphon, 
and furnished behind with three or four filaments, the inner edge spread over the columella 
and ending behind in a long slender filament, which occupies, as in Oliva, the channelled 
suture of the spire ; foot large, ovate, fleshy, laterally compressed, with a lobe at the fore 
part, rounded behind, and bearing a minute, horny, triangular operculum. 

The eye-peduncles of this species are finely dotted with brown, the proboscis and the 
fore part of the body is punctulated with the same ; the rest of the body is opake white, 
with three large irregularly-shaped red-brown blotches on the fore part ; the under-surface of 
the foot is light brown, with a white subcruciate marking. 

The Terebettum is extremely shy in its movements. Poising its shell in a vertical position, and 
cautiously protruding its longest telescope-eye from the truucature in the front of the shell, it will remain 
stationary until assured of security. It will then use its pointed foot as a lever and roll its shell over and 
over, progressing by a series of irregular leaps. When removed from the water before dying, it will jump 
several inches from the ground. Mr. Cuming assures me his knowledge of the animal coincides with my 
own experience, and that on one occasion he lost a fine specimen owing to its suddenly leaping from his 


hand into the water. I have observed both the varieties of this species alive. In the spotted variety, the 
muzzle is reddish towards the tip, the body is opake pearly white, the eye-peduncles mottled with dark 
red ; in the common variety there are three large red-brown blotches on the fore part of the body, and the 
under surface of the foot is light brown with a cross-like mark of darker brown. A. A. 

J o' 

20. TRITON, DeMontford. 

1. Triton testudinarius. PI. IX. Kg. 3 a, I. Trit. testa, trigono-fusiformi, longicaudata, varicibus 
senis septemve, spira obtuso-elongata, anfractibus superne concavo-declivibus, transversim noduloso-costatis, 
et tuberculatis, tuberculis grandibus, costis super varices duplicatis, apertura parviuscula, labro intus fortiter 
tuberculato-dentato ; rufescente-fusca, columella intense rufo-purpurea, albirugosa. 

Hab. China Sea. 

An interesting species, having the form of T. tripus, with the colouring of T. cynoceplialus, 
which is always well characterized by the deep purple colouring of the columella. 

2. Triton pyrultth. PI. X. Pig. 17. Trit. testa clavseformi, longicaudata, varice unica, anfractibus 
superne declivibus et rotundatis, transversim subthiter crenato-liratis et multinodatis ; albida, fuscescente 
hie illic pallide tincta. 

Hab. Eastern Seas. 

Very like T. canaliculatus, except that the spire is not canaliculated. 

3. Triton monilifer. , Trit. testa clavato-pyriformi, varice unica, anfractibus superne angulatis, Kris 
crenatis subdistantibus cingulatis, ad angulum acute phcato-nodosis, labro columellari subincrassato, aper- 
tura ovah, intus corrugato-dentata ; albida, varicibus rafo-fusco tessellatis. , 

Hab. Eastern Seas. 

Distinguished by its pyriform growth, and general detail of sculpture. 

21. RANELLA, Lamarck. 

In Ranella the tentacles are commonly somewhat closer together than in Triton, and 
the head is longer and narrower than in Murex and Fusus ; the eyes in some species are 
nearly basal, but are generally placed about the middle of the tentacles on their outer sides ; 
the siphon is short and directed upwards, the foot larger than in Triton, Murex, or Fiisus, 
and considerably dilated both before and behind ; the mantle does not appear to be furnished 
with fimbriated processes as seen in some Murices. In some species the trunk is enormously 
developed, whereas in others it is not protruded in the usual condition of the animal. In 
colour the JRanellce are usually of a pale brown, marbled and mottled with deeper brown. 
The operculum is ovate, horny, with a lateral nucleus and semicircular elements. 

1. Eanella albtvaricosa. PI. XIII. Kg. 4. Eeeve, Conch. Icon. Ranella, pi. 1. f. 2. The animal 



of this species is white, faintly marbled with grey ; the eyes are black, and there is a dark transverse band 
across the middle of each tentacle. Operculum horny, semicircular, with the lines of growth distant. 

Hab. Java Sea. 

The Ranetta is by no means an inactive animal, but moves with considerable animation, 
thrusting out its head, dilating its foot, and protruding its tentacles and sometimes its pro- 
boscis with much vivacity ; it will even crawl with considerable facility up perpendicular 
surfaces, supporting its somewhat weighty shell with comparative ease. In a species dredged 
from twenty fathoms in the Java Sea, the very long extensile proboscis was exserted to the 
distance of three inches from the head, and the animal appeared to employ it as an exploring 
organ, moving it about in all directions. 

22. MUREX, Linnceus. 

1. Murex eurypteron. PI. VIII. Fig. 1 a, b. Eeeve, Conch. Icon. Murex, pi. 34. f. 176. 
Hab. Japan. 

The shell here figured is only the second specimen yet discovered of this fine species, 
and is remarkable for its elegant growth. 

2. Murex rorlfluus. PL VIII. Fig. 2 a, b. Mur. testa fusiformi, subventricosa, anfractibus trans- 
versim obscure hratis, rugosis, quadrivaricosis, varicibus ruclibus, simpHcibus, planulatis, obscure denticu- 
latis, aperture margine dentato ; sordide cinerascente, intus nigricante-castanea, varicibus albidis. 

Hab. Korean Archipelago. 

Chiefly distinguished by the simple character of the varices. 

8. Murex plorator. PL VIII. Fig. 3 a, b. Mur. testa trigono-ovata, anfractibus lsevibus, tri- 
varicosis, varicibus compresso-alatis, apertura parva, rotundata, canali clauso ; castaneo-fusca, medio trans- 
versim albizonata. 

Hab. Korean Archipelago. 

This shell is somewhat worn, but two or three specimens were collected, all having the 
same characteristic form and dark chestnut colouring. 

4. Mtjrex Burnettii. PL VIII. Fig. 4 a, b. Mur. testa trigono-ovata, crassiuscula, anfractibus 
transversim obsolete costatis, trivaricosis, varicibus late fimbriatis, dente unico marginali promineute, aper- 
tura ovali, canali clauso ; albida, castaneo-fusco plus minusve tincta. 

Hab. Korean Archipelago. 

Another species from the same locality, of which two or three specimens were collected 
in worn and broken condition. Each varix is furnished with a prominent tooth, the outer 
varix being finely winged. The canal of the shell is closed over. We have the pleasure to 
name this fine species in honour of Sir William Burnett, E.R.S. 


23. FICULA, Swainson. 

Head elongated, slender, flattened ; tentacles long, subulate, placed at the sides of the 
front, separated by a wide interval at their base ; eyes large, black, and sessile on the outer 
side of the base of the tentacles ; siphon elongated, subcylindrical, and produced ; mantle 
thin and membranous, produced on each side into a rounded lobe equally reflexed on each 
side over the shell ; foot large, expanded, rounded in front, rather produced on each side of 
the front edge, expanded, broad and tapering, and not furnished with any operculum. 

1. Ficula l^vtgata. PI. IX. Fig. 4. Peeve, Conch. Icon. Ficula, pi. 1. f. 4. Bulla ficus, Linnaeus. 
Pyrula Jicus, Lamarck. Head and neck pink, varied with scattered yellow spots, mantle bright pink, 
mottled with white and darker pink ; under surface of foot dark purple chocolate, varied with yellow 
scattered spots. 

Hab. Sooloo Sea, at the depth of thirty-five fathoms. 

The dark chocolate colouring of the under surface of the foot presents a rich contrast 
with the bright freckled pink of the upper. 

2. Ficula reticulata. PI. IX. Fig. 5. Eeeve, Conch. Icon. Ficula, pi. 1. f. 1. Pyrula reticulata, 
Lamarck. Head and tentacles white, mantle light pink, marbled and reticulated with darker pink ; foot 
pink, with sis large opake white spots at about equal distances. 

Hab. West coast of Borneo ; from mud at a depth of about seventeen fathoms. 

The head of this species differs from that of the former in being colourless. The mantle 
is characterized by the same pink reticulated marbling as the foot. 

The Ficula is a very lively animal when observed in its native element, crawling along with consi- 
derable velocity, and, owing probably to the lightness of its shell, able to ascend the sides of a glass vessel, 
in which I had it captive, with facility. The proboscis is rarely exserted when the animal is in motion, 
but the Ions; slender tentacles are stretched out to their full extent. A. A>. 

J 5 

24. PLEUROTOMA, Lamarck. 

The animal of Pleurotoma has rather a short flattened body, with the foot notched in 
front, and the two angles produced on the sides ; the posterior part is rounded and bears a 
small, semitransparent, horny operculum, with concentric elements. The head is very long, 
flattened, and but little produced in front ; the tentacles are subulate and close together at 
the base, and the eyes are near the outer side of the tip, which latter tapers off beyond them. 

The Pleurotomce generally inhabit deep water and crawl rather quickly. 

1. Pleukotoma impages. PL IX. Fig. 1 a, b. Pleur. testa clavato-turrita, solidiuscula, anfractibus 
novem ad decern, medio tumidiusculis, concentrice obscure plicato-rugatis, canali brevisshno, truncate, 
apertura oblonga, labro leviter emarginato ; albida, carneo-fuscescente suffusa, inter rugas saturatiore. 


Hab. China Sea. 
A solid, club-shaped shell, in which the surface is slightly disposed in concentric folds. 

£. Pleurotoma fagina. PI. IX. Pig. 2 a, b. Pleur. testa, elongato-fusiformi, solida, anfractibus 
quatuordeciin, superne depresso-canaliculatis, infra spiraliter costatis, costis planiconvexis, interstitiis impresso- 
striatis, columella basi umbilicata, labri sinu profundo. 

Hab. China Sea. 

Of solid fusiform growth, strongly spirally ribbed and deeply channelled. 

3. Pleurotoma lurida. PI. X. Fig. 5. Pleur. testa gracili-fusiformi, anfractibus decern, trans- 
versini subtiliter striatis, superne concavo-angulatis, ad angulum plicato-nodosis et transversirn obtuse 
costatis, sinu subamplo ; ferrugineo-fusca, infra angulum albida. 

Hab. China Sea. 

A shell of light substance, in which the sculpture is of a tremulous or corrugate cha- 

4. Pleurotoma albicincta. PI. X. Fig. 6. Pleur. testa subabbreviato-fusiformi, anfractibus 
decern, transversirn subtiliter striatis, superne concavo-declivibus, deinde oblique plicato-nodatis, sinu latius- 
culo ; fulvescente, saturate variegata, medio albizonata. 

Hab. China Sea. 

The white zone passes over the nodules upon the angle in the centre of each whorl. 

5. Pleurotoma leucotropis. PI. X. Fig. 7. Pleur. testa fusiformi, medio subobesa, solidiuscula, 
anfractibus undecim, lsevibus vel tenuissime striatis, superne concavis, deinde acute carinatis, anfractu 
ultimo inferne bicarinato, sinu peramplo ; ustulato-fusca, carina albida. 

Hab. China Sea. 

Distinguished by the broad slanting concavity round the upper part of the whorls, and 
prominent central keel. 

6. Pleurotoma Coreanica. PI. X. Fig. 8. Pleur. testa fusiformi, canali breviusculo, anfractibus 
novem, superne concavis, deinde exiliter oblique nodulosis, sinu peramplo, profundo ; cereo-alba, fascia 
lata fusca inferne cingulata. 

Hab. Korea. 

A very characteristic species, of a wax-white aspect, encircled round the lower part of 
the last whorl with a broad brown band. 

7. Pleurotoma Grifeithii. PI. XIII. Fig. 13. Gray, Eeeve Conch. Icon. Pleurotoma, pi. 7. f. 57. 
Body without any kind of marking, of a semi-opake white, with the eyes black. 

Hab. Java Sea ; from a muddy stony bottom, at the depth of fourteen fathoms. 

There is little of painting in the shell, and none in the animal. 


25. MANGELIA, Leach. 

1. Mangelia tkivittata. PI. X. Kg. 9. Mang. testa subtrigono-fusiformi, spira breviuscula, 
acuta, anfractibus superne angulatis, longitudinaliter costatis, costis ad angulum nodulosis, interstitiis 
concavis, transversim sub lente subtilissime striatis ; albida, rufescente pallide trivittata. 

Hab. Island of Mindoro, Pliilippines. 

This appears to be distinct from any of the many pretty species of Mangelia collected 
by Mr. Cuming in the same locality, and described in the ' Conchologia Iconica,' 

26. FUSUS, Lamarck. 

1. Pusus gracillimus. PI. VII. Pig. 1. Pus. testa, gracilliino-fusiformi, undique spiraliter sulcata 
et lirata, anfractibus rotundatis, longitudinaliter plicato-costatis, costis latiusculis, medio uuicariuatis, 
labrum versus evanidis ; castaneo-fuscescente. 

Hab. Eastern Seas. 

Nearest allied to the F. longicauclaius, from which it may be readily distinguished. 

2. Pusus spectrum. Pus. testa, elongato-fusiformi, anfractibus convexis, transversim subtilissime 
striatis, longitudinaliter tuberculatis, tuberculis apicem versus fortioribus, valde conspicuis, anfractiis ultimi 
fere evanidis, nisi in carinam acute compressam ; alba, epidermide tenui lutescente induta. 

Hab. Eastern Seas. 

The rib-like tubercles of this species are developed with great force in all except the last 
whorl, in which they are merely represented by a compressed keel. 

•3. Fusus acus. PI. VII. Pig. 3 a, I. Pus. testa lanceolato-fusiformi, gracillimi, solidiuscula, anfrac- 
tibus longitudinaliter plicato-costatis, spiraliter sulcatis, sulcis snbtilibus, confertis, peeuliariter plano- 
excavatis, apertura parva, canali fere clauso ; rufo-ferruginea. 

Hab. China Sea, off Borneo. 

A narrow lanceolate shell, of a solid, constricted growth. 

27. CANCELLARIA, Lamarck. 

1. Cancellaria macrospira. PI. X. Pig. 2. Cane, testa, acuminato-turrita, solidiuscula, vix umbi- 
licata, spira. valde exserta, suturis plano-excavatis, anfractibus octo, convexis, apicem versus plicato-costatis, 
hie illic undique obscure varicosis, liris tenuibus longitudinalibus et transversis, subobsolete crenulatis, 
exiniie clathratis, columella tenuiter triplicate, apertura parva, labro incrassatim varicoso, superne producto ; 

Hab. Coast of Borneo, China Sea. 

Remarkably distinguished from any species hitherto described by the elongated convo- 
lution of the spire. 


2. Cancellaria semipellucida. PI. X. Fig. 3 and 3 a. Cane, testa ovato-ventricosa, tenuicula, 
vix urabilicata, spira breviuscula, suturis profunde impressis, anfractibus quinque, superne rotundatis, 
longitudinaliter oblique plicato-costatis, liris transversis, costas super nodulosis, subobsolete decussatis, 
columella triplicata, apertura ovata, effusa, labro simplici ; fuscescente-alba, semipellucida. 

Hab. Sooloo Sea. 

A light inflated shell, with the sutures rather deeply channelled. 

3. Cancellaria lyrata. PL X. Fig. 4. Cane, testa acuminato-ovata, umbilicata, spiree suturis 
profunde impressis, anfractibus sex ad septem, subangustis, rotundatis, prominentibus, longitudinaliter 
costatis, costis elevatis, compressis, distantibus, e suturis descendentibus, liris tenuibus transversim regu- 
lariter sculptis, linea elevata interveniente, columella triplicata, plica antica subobsoleta, apertura trigono- 
ovata, parva, subeffusa ; albicante, costis pallide fuscescentibus. 

Hab. Cliina Sea. 

The sculpture of this species, under the lens, is extremely characteristic. 

4. Cancellable pyrum. PL X. Fig. 16. Cane, testa ovato-pyriformi, solida, spira. brevissima, 
parum exserta, anfractibus quinque, apicem versus clathratis, anfractu ultimo lsevigato, granoso-corrugato, 
superne calloso, columella triplicata, plica postica prominula, acuta, antica obsoleta, apertura oblouga, sub- 
ampla ; sordide alba, epidermide cornea fusca induta, columella et aperturse fauce luteo-aurantiis. 

Hab. China Sea. 

A fine solid bulbous species, richly enamelled about the aperture. 

28. TURBINELLA, Lamarck. 

1 . Turbinella Belcheri. PL VII. Fig. 7 a, h. Turb. testa fusiformi, spira subturrita, anfractibus 
transversim subtiliter striatis, superne concavis, medio ventricosis, serie duplici tuberculorum, deinde serie 
nodulorum cinctis ; apertura? fauce striata ; alba, maculis fiammisque nigris conspicue picta, epidermide 
lutea induta. 

Hab. Cargados Garajos, Indian Ocean (coral bottom). 

This very beautiful new species, which we have the pleasure to dedicate to the Com- 
mander of the Expedition, is remarkable for its bold and characteristic painting. 

2. Turbinella lanceolata. PL VII. Fig. 8. Turb. testa lanceolato-fusiformi, hexagonali, laevi- 
gata, basin versus rude lirata, anfractibus tuberculis grandibus costeeformibus continuis undique longitu- 
dinaliter decussatis ; aperturse fauce tenuistriata ; luteo-fuscescente, apertura vivide violacea. 

Hab. Philippine Islands. 

Distinguished from its nearest ally, T. nodata, in being of a more sharply lanceolate 
growth, whilst the whorls are less rounded, and the ribs, following continuously one beneath 
the other, impart a hexagonal form to the shell. The aperture, which in T. nodata is pink, 
in the present species is of a deep violet. 


3. Tuebinella picta. PI. VII. Fig. 9. Turb. testa ovato-fusiforini, medio ventricosa, anfractibus 
transversim sulcatis, longitudinaliter obtuse plicato-costatis, superne concavis, deinde tuberculis compressis, 
quorum supremis majoribus cingulatis ; aperturse fauce striata ; alba, maeulis numerosis nigricante-fuscis, 
li neisque transversis coccineis et luteis pulcherrinie picta, columella fusco-rosacea. 

Hab. Feejee Islands. 

A pretty species, of rather solid growth, extremely richly painted. 

The animal of Turbinella cornigera is of a deep purple, finely marbled with white, the colours being 
fainter towards the margin of the foot. The eye is distinct and well formed, having a black pupil and iris 
of a light yellow colour. It crawls with deliberation and with apparent difficulty, appearing to labour 
under the weight of its heavy shell as a tortoise does under that of its carapace. It is, moreover, of a very 
timid disposition ; shrinking also, like a tortoise, quickly within its shell on the slightest alarm. The specimen 
from which the foregoing observations were taken, was procured in about a fathom water, from a weedy 
bottom, on the shores of Bilhton, an island in the Java Sea, between Borneo and Sumatra. 

The only notice in M. Bang's 'Manuel' is "Animal tres imparfaitement connu." This species must 
vary in colour, as Quoy (Voy. Astrol.) states that the animal is " pale olive, darker spotted." Singularly 
enough, Quoy in his figure, as copied by Mrs. Gray ('Figures of Molluscous Animals/ t. 8. f. 8), has 
altogether omitted the operculum, which forms such a conspicuous appendage to the foot. It is a large, 
thick, dense, nearly opake, claw-shaped operculum, composed of horny laminae, and is free at its posterior, 
curved, sharp-pointed extremity, like the operculum of Fasciolaria Tarentina, according to Delia Chiage 
(Mrs. Gray's ' Figures of Molluscous Animals/ t. 8. f. 4). A. A. 

29. CERITHIUM, Bruguiere. 

1. Ceeithium articulatum. PI. X. Fig. 14. Cer. testa subulato-turrita, solida, anfractibus planu- 
latis, subobsolete varicosis, transversim regulariter sulcatis, apertura parviuscula ; livido-albicante, varicibus 
subobscure albis, anfractuum margine superno rufo-fusco longitudinaliter lineato et maculato, anfractibus 
infra transversim articulatis. 

Hab. Coast of Borneo, China Sea. 

Each whorl has a narrow collar, as it were, round the upper part, in which the markings 
are longitudinal, while below they are transverse. 

2. Ceeithium longicaudatum. PI. X. Fig. 15. Cer. testa, acuminato-turrita, suturis concavo- 
impressis, anfractibus longitudinaliter nodoso-plicatis, transversim sulcatis, anfractu ultimo lativaricoso, 
canali retrorsum valde producto, apertura parva ; fuscescente-spadicea, anfractuum margine superno rufo 

Hab. Korea. 

Readily distinguished by the elongately produced structure of the canal. 

3. Ceeithium obtusum. PI. XIII. Fig. 3 a, b. Lamarck, Anim. sans vert. (Deshayes' edit.) 
vol. ix. p. 294. 

Hab. Borneo and Singapore ; at the mouths of rivers. 


The animal of Ceritldum obtusum lias a broad; suborbicular, and expanded foot, and an 
elongated, snbcylindrical, annulated trunk, of a light brown colour, with three rather broad, 
well-defined, opake, yellow lines extending along its upper surface, the central one of which 
extends from the head to very near the extremity of the proboscis, where it is bifid, the two 
forks diverging ; the two lateral lines are shorter, not bifid at their extremities, and reach 
forward on the head to within a little distance of the origin of the tentacles ; the tentacles 
are very short, annulated, with the eyes (which are small, though with a distinct iris and 
pupil) situated at their tip, whereas they are mostly placed on tubercles situated on the outer 
side of the base of the tentacles, or on the tentacles themselves at a little distance from their 
origin. The foot is of a light pinky brown on its upper surface, mottled with a deep, rich 
brown, and on the under surface is lilac. 

The Cerithia obtusa live in brackish water in mangrove-swamps and the mouths of 
rivers, in Singapore and Borneo. Sometimes they crawl on the stones and leaves in the 
neighbourhood, and are not unfrequently found suspended by glutinous threads to boughs 
and the roots of the mangroves, as represented in our plate. The operculum is round, horny, 
with a central nucleus and concentric elements ; it is semitransparent, and borne upon the 
posterior part of the foot at its extreme end. When the animal hybernates, it retracts itself 
into the shell, and brings its operculum to fit closely into the aperture, after having previously 
affixed sixty or seventy glassy, transparent, glutinous threads to the place of attachment, 
when they occupy the outer or right lip and extend half-way round the operculum. 

A species of Cychstoma {Megalomastoma stispensicm, Guilding) was found by the 
Rev. Lansdowne Guilding at the Island of St. Vincent, suspended in like manner from the 
trees ; and Bissoa parva has been observed by Mr. Gray, upon our own shores (Pro. Zool. 
Soc. 1833, p. 116), to have the power of emitting a glutinous thread by which it attaches 
itself to floating sea-weeds. 

There is a very handsome Cerithium closely allied to the foregoing, which I have frequently found 
crawling languidly on the leaves of the Pontedera and sedges in the tluviatile marshes on the banks of the 
rivers in many parts of Borneo, and many miles in the interior where the water is perfectly fresh, and 
which has the eyes likewise terminal and the proboscis marked with crimson and yellow ; the foot is very 
dark brown, and has a vivid scarlet line extending round the lower margin. The position of the eye 
varies considerably in this group. In an amphibious Bornean species, allied to C. decollatum, they are 
terminal at the end of peduncles ; in other words, the tentacles are connate with the eye-peduncles for 
the whole of their extent. In C. mieroptera the tentacles extend a third beyond the eye-peduncles ; in 
C. decollatum the eye-peduncles are truncated, with the eyes at the end, while the tentacle extends beyond 
them in the form of a minute filament ; all these species have circular multispiral opercula. 

In another species, from the Island of Billitou, coral reef, two fathoms and a half, the animal is of a 
greenish brown, minutely punctulated with darker brown, and covered moreover with small, light red, 
round spots. The operculum is oval, horny, and semipellucid, the elements not concentric, curving 
from a nucleus at the anterior extremity towards the periphery. In this species the foot is moderately 


broad, notched in front, rounded behind, and extended on either side towards the front part; there 
is a small, short siphon and a not very prominent muzzle ; the tentacles are subulate, very thick at their 
base, and bearing the eyes on very distinct reflexions towards the tip on the outer surface. The eyes are 
furnished with a distinct pupil and iris. A. A. 

30. TRIPHORIS, Besliayes. 

1. Teiphoeis speciosus. PL XI. Kg. 28 a, b. Triph. testa, acute turrita, medio subcylindracea, 
anfractibus octodecim ad viginti, biseriatim nodatis, nodorum serie superiore proininula, anfractu ultimo 
tubulato, valde producto, canali etiani tubulato ; albida, linea spirali aurantio-rufa undique tincta. 

Hab. China Sea. 

The last whorl is curiously produced beyond the diameter of the shell in the form of a 
tube ; and the canal is also tubular. The whorls are characterized by two rows of nodules, 
of which the upper is much the more prominent, and has a fine, spiral, orange-red line 
beneath it. 

2. Teiphoeis sutuealis. PI. XL Pig. 29 a, b. Triph. testa turrita, anfractibus duodecim ad tre- 
decim, eximie triseriatim granuloso-carinulatis, suturis concavo-impressis, leevigatis ; pellucido-alba. 

Hab. China Sea. 

The aperture of this delicately grain-keeled species, which is characterized by its hollow 
sutures, is incomplete. 

■3. Teiphoeis alveolatus. PI. XL Pig. 30 a, b. Triph. testa elongato-pyramidali, anfractibus viginti 
ad quatuor et viginti, planulatis, spiraliter triseriatim liratis, hrarum interstitiis clathratis ; intus extusque 

Hab. China Sea. 

The whorls of this species are flattened and deeply latticed throughout. The aperture 
is incomplete. 

4. Teiphoeis dexteoveesus. PI. XL Pig. 31a, b. Triph. testa elongato-pyramidali, gracili, an- 
fractibus sedecim ad octodecim, medio concavis, spiraliter tricarinatis, carina mediana multo minore, 
carinarum interstitiis sub lente minute concentrice striatis, sordide alba. 

Hab. China Sea. 

This species differs from the rest of the Triphorides under consideration in being con- 
voluted to the right. The surface of the whorls is concave, and keeled at the upper and 
lower margins. A fine keel intervenes in the centre, and the interstices are sculptured 
concentrically with very minute stria?. 

5. Teiphoeis veeetjcosds. PL XL Pig. 32 a, b. Triph. testa gracillimo-subulata, anfractibus 
octodecim ad viginti, granoso-clathratis, granis transverse oblongis ; sordide alba. 



Hab. China Sea. 
A slender species, latticed throughout with transversely oblong granules. 

6. Teiphoeis granulatus. PI. XI. Fig. 33 a, b. Triph. testa turrita, medio subcylindracea, anfrac- 
tibus duodecira ad quatuordecim, triseriatini granulatis, granulis regularibus confertis, anfractuum suturis 
subinipressis ; sordide alba. 

Hab. China Sea. 

Distinguished by its short, cylindrical form, and by the precise arrangement of the 
granules with which it is sculptured. 

7. Triphoeis gemmulatus. PI. XI. Pig. 34 a, b. Triph. testa pyramidali, basi concavo-planuJata, 
anfractibus duodechn ad quindecini, planulatis, triseriatim granulatis, seriebus distantibus, mediana fere 
obsoleta, inferiore prominula ; pellucido-alba. 

Hab. China Sea. 

A very distinct species, of true pyramidal form, encircled with three distant necklaces 
of granules, of which the middle is almost obsolete. 

8. Teiphoeis pyramidalis. PL XI. Pig. 36 a, b. Triph. testa pyramidali, basi subplanata, anfrac- 
tibus ad octodecim, superae et interne bicarinatis, earinis granulatis, inferiore minore ; rufo-fuscescente. 

Hab. China Sea. 

"Each whorl of this species is encircled with two granuled keels round the upper part 
and two round the lower part, and in each instance the lower keel is the smaller. The aper- 
ture, as in the preceding species, is incomplete. 

9. Teiphoeis nodifertjs. PI. XI. Pig. 37 a, b. Triph. testa turrita, anfractibus duodecim ad qua- 
tuordecim, medio subangulatis, triseriatim nodosis, nodis transversim oblongis, ad angulum majoribus, 
apertura rotunda, superne sinuata, canak' tubulato ; alba. 

Hab. China Sea. 

This, and the first here described, are the only species of which the specimens are 
complete at the aperture, and have the tubular canal which is characteristic of the genus. 


31. STYLIFER, Broderip. 

The accounts hitherto given of this parasitic mollusk, not being derived from living- 
specimens, have not been satisfactory. Mr. Broderip described the mantle (Pro. Zool. Soc. 
1832, p. 61) as thick, very large, and cup-shaped, enveloping the last whorl of the shell, 
whilst the animal presented only the rudiment of a foot. Mr. Gray observes (Zoology of 


Beechey's Voyage, p. 138, sub nom. Stylina) that what has been considered the enlarged 
mantle is in reality the foot. The following observation is from the living animal. 

The Stylifer Astericola (PI. XVII. Fig. 5), found living in the body of a star-fish 
(dsterias), on the coast of Borneo, has two elongate, subulate tentacles, with the eyes 
sessile near the outer side of their base, and a small rounded head. The mantle is entirely 
enclosed and covered by the thin shell, and the foot is narrow, slender, very much produced 
beyond the head in front, and scarcely extended at all behind. 

For the anatomy by Professor Owen, see K-eeve's Conch. Systematica, vol. ii. p. 174. 

32. TURRITELLA, Lamarck. 

The animal of Turritella is rather small for the size of the aperture of the shell ; the 
head is small and oblong ; the tentacles short and subulate, with the eyes on the middle of 
their outer side. The foot is moderate and slightly notched in front. Operculum orbicular, 
homy, many-whoiied, with an epidermic fimbriated margin. 

This niollusk is very shy and sensitive ; retiring quickly within its shell on the slightest 
alarm. It is slow-moving and inactive. It seems to balance its unwieldy shell, though of 
comparatively light structure, with some degree of difficulty, and occasionally will remain 
fixed for hours in one spot. The fringed veil over the head is not usually visible, nor is the 
head of the animal often seen, so excessively timid is its disposition. 

1. Tureitella bicolor. PI. XII. Kg. 1. Turr. testa acuminato-turrita, anfractibus decem ad 
duodecim, convexis, subtilissime quadriliratis et striatis, liris distantibus, obscure granulatis ; aureo-lutea, 
suturis lirisque nigrescente-purpureis. 

Hab. China Sea. 

In addition to the above characters, there are a few puckered obliquely-wrinkled striae 
next the sutures. 

2. TufMUTEiXA congelata. PI. XII. Fig. 2. Turr. testa acute subulata, basi angulata, anfractibus 
sedecira, convexo-planis, laevibus, obscure triliratis, liris tenuibus, distantibus ; pellucido-alba. 

Hab. China Sea. 

Transparent at the base ; towards the apex more opake. 

3. Tukkitella conspeesa. PL XII. Pig. 3. Turr. testa turrita, anfractibus duodecim, superne 
declivibus, deinde tumidis, et conspicue bicariuatis et liratis ; lutescente-alba, fuscescente longitudinaliter 
undulata et punctata. 

Hab. China Sea. 

Delicately mottled throughout with irregular light-brown waved streaks, forming dots 
here and there next the sutures. 


4. Tueritella MULTiLiRATA. PI. XII. Pig. 4. Turr. testa acuminato-turrita, anfractibus superne 
contractus, infra leviter declivibus, interne canaliculatis, spiraliter multiliratis, liris subtilissime granulatis ; 

Hab. China Sea. 

An extremely delicate transparent shell, encircled with numerous granulated ridges. 

5. Tdrritella vtttulata. PI. XII. Pig. 5. Turr. testa acuminato-turrita, basi subconcava, anfrac- 
tibus duodechn, ad suturas contractis, creberrime spiraliter striatis, striis elevatis, subirregularibus, anfracti- 
bus perpaucis primis bicarinatis ; fuscescente, striis interrupts castaneis. 

Hab. China Sea. 

The striae of this species are not reticulated with chestnut, but merely coloured in an 
irregularly interrupted manner. 

6. Tuekitella monilifeea. PI. XII. Pig. 6. Turr. testa acuminato-pyramidali, basi depresso- 
concava, et acute angulata, anfractibus quindecim, carina latiuscula infra suturas, medio convexis, deinde 
bi-liratis ; rosaceo-alba, carina punctis distantibus obliquis rufescente-fuscis ornata. 

Hab. China Sea. 

The only painting in this species, beyond its delicate pink hue, consists in the necklace- 
like row of red-brown dots upon the keel. 

7. Tukritella opalina. PI. XII. Pig. 7. Turr. testa subventricoso-turrita, tenuicula, anfractibus 
duodechn, rotundatis, superne depresso-eanaliculatis, sub lente rainutissiine creberrime inciso-striatis ; pellu- 
cido-alba, fuscescente pallide concentrice flammata. 

Hab. China Sea. 

Distinguished by its rounded whorls and opal-white substance. 

8. Turbitella fastigiata. PL XII. Pig. 9. Turr. testa graeillimo-subiilata, tenuicula, anfractibus 
octodecim ad viginti, superne contractis, declivibus, deinde rotundatis, undique subtilissime liratis et striatis, 
apicem versus bicarinatis ; violaceo alboque pallide variegata, strigis fuscescentibus obliquis, liris obscure 
fusco punctatis vel articulatis. 

Hab. Chma Sea. 
The oblique clouded streaks of painting are very characteristic in this species. 

9. Tueeitella declivis. PL XII. Pig. 10. Turr. testa pyrarnidali-tiurita, basi plano-angulata, 
anfractibus octodecim, plano-declivibus, basin versus gradatim latioribus, undique creberrime subtilissime 
undulato-striatis, prope apicem medio plicatis ; lutescente-alba, livido-fusco tincta et apicem versus pecu- 
liariter maculata. 

Hab. China Sea. 

In this very interesting species the livid brown appears in the first few whorls in a 
necklace of spots beneath the sutures. 


10. Tukritella canaliculata. PI. XII. Fig. 11. Turr. testa acuminato-turrita, anfractibus duo- 
decim, spiraliter acute sex-liratis et striatis, interstitiis striis obliquis eancellatis, liris tenuibus duabus infe- 
rioribus promiuulis ; sordide alba. 

Hab. China Sea. 

The two lower ridges, more prominent than the rest, form a spiral channel immediately 
above the suture. 

33. EGLISIA, Gray. 

1. Eglisia tbicarinata. PI. XII. Pig. 8. Egl. testa acute turrita, anfractibus ad octodecim, 
superjie contractis et decKvibus, deinde tricarinatis, sub lente longitudinaliter creberrime et tenuissime can- 
cellato-striatis, apertura parva, rotunda; sordide. cinereo-fusca. 

Hab. China Sea. 

The cancellated structure of this species very much resembles that of Eglisia lanceolata. 

34. LITTORINA, Ferussac. 

1. LnroKESA castanea. PI. XI. Pig. 8. Litt. testa ovato-conica, spira breviuscula, apice acuta, 
anfractibus superue depressis, rotundatis, spiraliter carinatis, columella arcuata, callosa, apertura suborbi- 
culari; intense castanea. 

Hab. Eastern Seas. 

Veiy near the typical form of the genus, strongly spirally keeled throughout. 

35. MARGARITA, Leach. 

1. Mahgabjta bicaeinata. PI. XL Pig. 11 a, b. Marg. testa depresso-orbiculari, perampliter 
umbilicata, apice acuta, anfractibus spiraliter bicarinatis, carinis distantibus, interstitiis concavis, spiraliter 
creberrime lineatis, concentrice striatis; fuscescente ant flavicante, nammulis rubidis varie picta, carinis 
rabido obhque articulatis, aperturse fauce iridescente. 

Hab. Eastern Seas. 

This very interesting species of Margarita is characterized externally by a certain 
metallic hue, whilst it is particularly iridescent in the interior. 

36. ROTELLA, Lamarck. 

1. Rotella conica. PL XL Pig. 22 a, b. Rot. testa conoidea, laevigata, obsoleteroncentrice striata ; 
cupreo-castanea, apicem versus rubescente-purpuiea, Kneis fuscis concentricis undulatis obscure notata. 

Hab. Mouth of the Lundu river, coast of Borneo. 

Notwithstanding that the painting of the Rotella is extremely variable, all that were 
collected of this species are characterized by the same dark purple-red chestnut. 



37. PHORUS, Be Montfort. 

The propriety of distinguishing the ' Carrier Trochi ' as a separate genus, is fully con- 
firmed by the present discovery of two living species, in both of which the soft parts are 
distinct from those of Troches proper. Except in that the eyes are not raised on pedicles, 
the outward form of the animal is similar to that of Strombus, which Phorus resembles also 
in its mode of progression. The shell produced by these genera is, however, so materially 
different in its formation, there can be but little zoological affinity between them. 

The animal of Phorus is very slender in proportion to the size of the aperture of the 
shell. The foot is small, produced, as it were, into two parts, of which the front is rather 
expanded and more subservient to the purposes of locomotion, and the hinder tapering, sup- 
porting a large horny operculum, which is partially free, as in Solarium. The proboscis is 
very prominently developed and annulate ; and the tentacles are long and tapering, with the 
eyes completely sessile on the outside of their base. The portion of the mantle lining the 
aperture of the shell is vascular, thin, aud delicate, extending over the front and outer lip, 
which is often much produced and uneven in outline, especially in P. Indicus and ewutus. 

The Phori are arranged by Mr. Gray next in order to the Calyptrcece, but it is obvious 
that the genera, as already anticipated in the ' Conchologia Iconica,' are very remote from 
each other ; the former have a divided S'tromb-like operculated foot, are of active habits, and 
produce a regular convoluted shell, whilst the latter have a simple foot, live attached to 
foreign bodies, are incapable of progression, have no operculum, unless the rare secretion of a 
calcareous plate to the place of attachment can be regarded as the analogue of one, and the 
shell is not formed on the spiral type ; all which external differences concur to show that the 
Phori and Calyptrcece, whether regarded as genera or families, have little or no affinity with 
each other. 

The Phori invariably inhabit rough places incapable of accommodating a gliding motion, 
and their mode of progression, like that of the Strombi, is by little jumps. Each species has 
its own peculiar manner of collecting the debris of shells or pebbles which cover the ground 
it inhabits, and each has, to a certain extent, its peculiar kind of debris ; their conchological 
peculiarities have, however, been already described in detail in the ' Conchologia Iconica.' 

1. Phorus Solaeioides. PL XVII. Fig. 6. Reeve, Conch. Icon. Phorus, pi. 3. f. 8. The animal 
of this species is characterized throughout by numerous circular stria?, the tentacles are laterally com- 
pressed and rather prismatic, the proboscis is long and transversely wrinkled, yellow at the tip and on the 
under surface, but pink between the tentacles, which are straight, rigid, and opake dead-white ; the eyes are 
black and conspicuous. 

Hab. China Sea. 

2. Phoeus exutus. PL XVII. Fig. 7. Reeve, Conch. Icon. Phorus, pi. 2. f. 7 a, b. The animal 


of this species is smoother than that of the preceding, the tentacles being longer and the eyes smaller, 
placed on slight swellings, not, however, resembling even the rudiments of peduncles. 

Hab. Eastern Seas. 

The operculum of Thorns is horny, soft, and flexible, formed of concentric and radiating 
fibres. On the under surface it is smooth and attached to the foot by the central part, and free 
around the circumference and posterior portion. On the upper surface it is covered with 
radiating ridges, or salient processes formed by the constituent fibres being elevated in 
succession one above another. 

38. DELPHINULA, Lamarck. 

1. Delphintjla stellaris. PI. XI. Fig. 7. Delph. testa orbiculari-discoidea, spira depresso-plana, 
subampliter umbilicata, anfractibus superne concavo-angulatis, ad angulum squamato-carinatis, squamis 
compressis, erectis, infra regulariter squamato-spinosis ; alba, purpurascente sparsim tincta. 

Hab. Eastern Seas, near Basilan. 

This has very much the appearance of an immature shell, although it differs from the 
young of any of the larger described species. 

39. SCALARIA, Lamarck. 

1. Scalaria maculosa. PI. XL Fig. 14. Seal, testa, elongato-turrita, vix umbilicata, anfractibus 
decern, rotundatis, lsevibus, politis, costis annularibus subdistantibus, tenuibus, prope suturas latioribus et 
flexuosis ; cserulescente-alba, fusco promiscue maculata. 

Hab. China Sea. 

The brown spots which characterize this species have a promiscuous blotchy appear- 
ance, about two between each annular rib. 

2. Scalaria neglecta. PI. XL Fig. 15. Seal, testa conico-turrita, profunde umbilicata, anfractibus 
septem ad octo, rotundatis, lcevibus, aut, sub lente, minute spiraliter impresso-striatis, costis annularibus 
subdistantibus, angustis, elevatis, prope suturas spinoso-uncinatis, aperture rotundata, labro chlatato; 
carneo-fuscescente, costis albis. 

Hab. China Sea. 

The hook-like spine upon the upper part of the ribs is laterally very compressed and 
bent slightly backwards. 

3. Scalaria eximia. PI. XL Fig. 16. Seal, testa pyramidali-turrita, acute acuminata, haud umbili- 
cata, anfractibus novem, costis annularibus numerosis, angustis, lamehatis, prope suturas conspicue spi- 
noso-uncinatis, costarum interstitiis eximie spiraliter liratis ; casrulescente-alba. 

Hab. China Sea. 

The prominent uncinate spine upon each rib gives a beautiful pyramid-like form to 


the shell, which is further characterized by having the interstices of the ribs sculptured with 
spiral equidistant ridges. 

40. CHEMNITZIA, D'Orbigny. 

1. Chemnitzia gbandis. PI. XI. Kg. 17. Chemn. testa elongato-turrita, anfractibus compluribus, 
plano-convexis, suturis tamen distinctis, longitudinaliter creberrime costatis, costis subprominentibus, 
flexuosis, anfractu ultimo infra lsevigato ; alba. 

Hab. Eastern Seas. 

The ribbed sculpture of the whorls ceases at the sutures ; below that point the whorls 
are smooth, as shown in the last whorl. 

41. EULIMA, Bisso. 

The head of Eulima is small, with the tentacles subulate, and close together at the base, 
where they are rather swollen. The eyes are situated at the back of the head, behind the 
tentacles. The foot is rather expanded, especially at the sides, and is furnished with an ovate 
sub-spiral operculum. The polish of the shell is occasioned by the front edge of the mantle 
being extended over it ; the lobes are, however, difficult to observe, in consequence of the 
extreme timidity of the animal in speedily retracting them, when disturbed. 

The soft parts of Eulima major are, like the shell, of which several fine specimens were 
collected, of an opake pearly white, except that the tentacles are delicately tinged with orange 
in the middle and with yellow at the tip. The eyes, which are black, are usually concealed 
beneath the front of the shell. 

1. Eulima unilineata. PL XL Pig. 23. Eul. testa aciculata, anfractibus octo, plano-contiguis, 
apertura suboblonga ; rufo-brunnea, linea unica nigricante cingulata. 

Hab. Sooloo Sea. 

A rich red-brown sharply aciculated shell, with the sutures almost obsolete, encircled 
throughout with a faint blackish line. 

2. Eulima bilineata. PI. XL Pig. 24. Eul. testa aciculata, anfractibus novem ad decern, plano- 
convexis, apertura oblonga, labro superne inflexo ; pellucido-alba, vitrea, lineis tenuibus duabus castaneis 

Hab. Sooloo Sea (from the stomach of an EcJdnus). 
A light transparent glassy shell, encircled with two delicate brown lines, of which the lower 
falls exactly in the place of the sutures. 

3. Eulima Mindoeoensis. PI. XL Pig. 25. Eul. testa elongato-turrita, basi subobesa, suturis im- 
pressis, anfractibus decern, convexis, apertura ovata ; pellucido-alba, opaco-albo maculata. et lineata. 


Hab. Mindoro Sea, Philippines. 

Unlike the preceding species, the sutures of this are rather strongly impressed. 

i. Euliha tortuosa. PI. XL Pig. 26. Eul. tortuoso-acuminata, anfractibus du.od.ecim ad quatuor- 
decim, plano-contiguis, oblique varicosis, apertura parviuscula ; eburnea, infra suturas obscure lineata. 

Hab. China Sea. 

Only the tortuous species of Eulima are varicose, depending doubtless on some conco- 
mitant peculiarity of the animal. 

5. Euliha solidula. PL XI. Kg. 27. Eul. testa abbreviato-turrita, solidula, tortuosa, varicosa, 
anfractibus novem ad decern, convexis, apertura parva; eburneS. 

Hab. China Sea> 
A solid contracted shell, with the whorls more convex than in the preceding species. 

42. RISSOA, Freminville. 

1. Eissoa insighis. PL XL Eig. 20. Eiss. testa abbreviato-turrita, basin versus obesa., anfractibus 
superne plano-angulatis, ad angulum acutis, spiraliter striatis, anfractibus primis valde contractis et longi- 
tudinaliter peculiariter foveolatis, apertura subampla, dilatata ; albida. 

Hab. China Sea. 

This is truly a remarkable shell : the upper part of the first few whorls is peculiarly 
flatly angled and deeply pitted longitudinally ; at the last whorl but one the angle and the 
pits suddenly cease. 


43. PYRAMIDELLA, Lamarck. 

1. Pyeahidella magnifica. PL X. Eig. 1. Pyram. testa pyramidali-conica, subcylindraeea, 
spira? suturis impressis, anfractibus quatuordecim, plano-convexis, superne canaliculatis, longitudinaliter 
crebriliratis, interstitiis foveolatis, anfractu ultimo ecostato, promiscue foveolato, columella fortiter tripli- 
cata, apertura antice subemarginata ; albida, ferrugineo-fusco tincta. et maculata. 

Hab. Shores of Borneo, China Sea. 

This fine species of Pyramidella, of which only a single specimen was collected, forms 
an interesting addition to this very limited genus. 



44. IANTHINA, Lamarck. 

1. Ianthina striolata. PL XI. Pig. 9. Ianth. testa subgloboso-ovata, spira brevi, suturis parum 
impressis, anfractibus rotundatis, spiraliter irnpresso-striatis, striis tenuibus, flexuosis, apertura orbiculari- 
ovata ; pallide violacea. 

Hab. Pacific Ocean. 

Several examples were collected of this species, as well as of I. globosa, to which it is so 
closely allied. It differs in having the spire less depressed and the aperture less dilated in 
front, whilst the spiral striae are peculiar and the shell is uniformly of smaller size. 

2. Ianthina planispirata. PI. XI. Pig. 10. Ianth. testa, discoidea, spira depressa, plano-convexa, 
anfractibus ad peripheriam subacute rotundata, apertura latiuscula, antice leviter sinuata ; intense violacea, 
apicem versus pallidiore. 

Hab. Atlantic Ocean. 

Chiefly distinguished by its narrow compressed mode of convolution, by which the spire 
is unusually depressed. 


45. NATICA, Lamarck. 

1. Natica maceoteemis. PI. XIII. Pig. 9. Nat. testa, subglobosa, spira depressa, perarnpliter 
urnbilicata, umbilico patente, profundissimo, infundibuliformi, anfractibus convexiSj lsevibus, politis, apertura 
semiorbiculari ; virescente-alba. 

Hab. Coast of Borneo. 

The Natica melanostoma (PI. XIX. Fig. 7) is furnished with a strong coriaceous foot, well 
developed in front, by means of which it perforates the sand, while its tentacles are pro- 
tected ; but when the tide rises and covers the sands, the large side lobes and dilated hind 
part of the foot are expanded, and the Natica flaps along above the sand. A great peculiarity 
in the animal of this family is the existence of an operculigerous lobe, which in the polished 
species nearly covers the shell, and is seen in our figure mounting up behind and partly 
covering the sides. In Sigaretus this lobe is extended entirely across, and covers the shell, 
while the operculum is rudimentary ; in Coriocella it not only encloses the shell, but extends 
beyond it in front, and has been erroneously termed the mantle. 

46. SIGARETUS, Lamarck. 
1. Sigaeetus acuminatus. PI. XIII. Pig. 8. Sig. testa oblongo-ovata, ventricosa, subumbilicata, 


spira acuminata, suturis impressis, anfractibus convexis, spiraliter latistriatis, striis planatis, undulatis, inter- 
stitiis plano-excavatis ; intus extusque alba. 

Hab. Coast of Borneo. 

Chiefly distinguished by its acuminate inflated form. 

2. Sigaeetus insculptus. PI. XIII. Kg. 10. Sig. testa depresso-orbiculari, auriformi, spira fere 
occulta, spiraliter latistriata, striis planatis, leviter undulatis, interstitiis plano-excavatis ; alba, ferrugineo- 
luteo pallidissinie tincta, apice purpurascente-cinerea. 

Hab. Eastern Seas. 

The sculpture of this species is similar to that of the preceding, although the shell 
differs so materially in form. 

3. Sigaketus latifasciatus. PL XIII. Fig. 11. Sig. testa depresso-orbiculari, auriformi, spira 
brevissima, spiraliter tenuistriata, striis vix undulatis, subtus concava ; albida, fascia latissima cinerascente, 
apice purpureo-cinerea, aperturee fauce sub fascia castaneo-brunnea. 

Hab. Eastern Seas. 


The habits of this family are somewhat variable. Marinula affects salt-water only, and 
Pedipes lurks in the cavities of rocks and under stones exposed to the sea. Cassidula is am- 
phibious, having been observed crawling on a sandy bottom in clear water at a depth of 
nearly two fathoms, as well as in mangrove-swamps and on the sea-beach. Auricula and Me- 
lampus live in clamp situations near the sea, and on the muddy banks of rivers. Scarabus 
inhabits moist situations in woods near the sea, but is wholly of terrestrial habits, living on 
decayed vegetable matter, and crawling about actively after showers of rain. Alexia and 
Carychium aboimd in salt-water marshes. 

47. AURICULA, Lamarck. 

1. Atjbicula subula. PL XIY. Eig. 15. Quoy and Gaimard, Yoy. de l'Astrol. pi. 13. f. 39, 40. 
The head of this species is broad, the muzzle produced and bilobed, the tentacles rather flattened and 
tapering, and the eyes sessile on their inner bases. Colour of a uniform light grey-brown. 

Hab. Celebes, on the muddy banks of rivers out of the reach of the water. 

The A. subula crawls but slowly. In young individuals the columella is truncate and 
the outer lip thin. 

2. Melaitpus letjcodon. PI. XIV. Fig. 17. Beck? In this species, which is of a uniform dull 
pale black, the eyes are small and placed at the inner base of the tentacles, which are flattened, the muzzle 
is slightly produced and longitudinally cleft, and the end of the foot is slightly bifid. 

Hab. Island of Mayo, from the damp margins of a water-course, crawling over the moist rocks. 


48. SCARABUS, Be Montford. 

1. Scakabus teigonus. PL XIV. Pig. 12. Troscheh Eeeve Conch. Syst, vol. ii. pi. 183. f. 2. Head 
and lower part of the tentacles blackish-brown, rest of the animal pale brown, whitish towards the end of 
the foot. The tentacles are annulated, with a swelling at the base, on the inner side of which are the sessile 
black eyes surrounded by a light areola ; the tentacles are comparatively long and cylindrical in this species. 

Hab. Borneo, under dead leaves. 

2. Scarabus imbiutjm. PI. XIV. Pig. 13. De Montford, Conch. Syst. The animal of this species 
varies in colour according to the shell : when the latter is dark, the animal has a blackish head and neck, 
growing gradually paler towards the hind part of the foot ; the animals of the light-coloured shells are of a 
uniform pale brown. 

Hab. Celebes and Borneo, under dead leaves and decayed vegetable matter in the forests near the 

3. Scakabus Cumingianus. PI. XIV. Pig. 16. Petit, Pro. Zool. Soc. 1843, p. 3. Animal of a light 
chestnut-brown, the muzzle rather produced, the tentacles subulate and annulated, with the eyes sessile at 
their inner bases, surrounded by a light-coloured areola. 

Hab. Koo-Kien-San, one of the Meiacoshima group of islands, near Formosa, in the Blue Sea. 


The subgeneric types of this extensive and interesting group vary also in their habits, 
for while Zeptopoma invariably lives among the foliage of the trees, Cyclopliorus inhabits the 
decayed vegetable matter at their roots. Pterocyclos is found in moss among loose stones. 
Nematura and many of the Cyclostoma proper are semi-aquatic ; the former inhabiting ponds, 
attached to the under surface of floating leaves, and the latter being found among loose 
stones near the sea-shore. 

49. CYCLOSTOMA, Lamarck. 

1. Cyclostoma splracelluji. PI. XIV. Pig. 1. Cyclost. testa suborbiculari, planorbula, spira depressa, 
pallida, anfractibus quatuor, rotundatis, transversim striatis, sutura distincta, ultimo dorso inflato, demum 
coarctato et quasi strangulate, varice fornicato prope aperturam, apertura circulari, peritremate duplici, 
interne postice emarginato, externe reflexo, postice in canalem desinente, anfractu ultimo spiraculum tubu- 
losum prope aperturam gerente, umbilico patulo, anfractibus intus conspicuis. Operculo circulari, spirali, 
intus corneo, concavo, extus testaceo, margine sulcato. 

Hab. Borneo, under decayed vegetable matter in the forests. 

A small species, largely umbilicated, belonging to the division Pterocyclos. 


2. Cyclostoha l^eve. PI. XIY. Fig. 3. Gray, Wood Ind. Test. Supp. pi. 6. f. 5. In this species, 
which is a good typical example of Leptopoma of Troschel, the eyes are on short peduncles at the outer 
base of the tentacles, which are long and setaceous, the muzzle is produced and bilobed, and the foot is 
elongated and tapering beyond the large, circular, subtransparent, multispiral, horny operculum. Pale 

Hab. Monado, Island of Celebes, upon the leaves of the Screw-pine {Pandanus) . 

All of this group of Cyclostomata have light ventricose shells, and live upon the foliage 
of the trees, among which they move actively in the rainy season, and hybernate during the 
dry months by adhering to the under surface of the leaves. 

3. Cyclostoha tenebricosqm. PI. XIV. Fig. 6 a, b. Cyclost. testa globoso-conica, subpellu- 
cida, fusca, intense fusco variegata, fascia pallida circumcincta, spira acuminata, apice obtusa, anfractibus 
quatuor, rotundatis, ultimo subventricoso, apertura subcirculari, peritremate prope ultimum anfractum 
interrupto, umbilico parvo. Operculum ? 

Hab. Balambangan, Borneo, on the leaves of the Pandanus. 
The pale central band coming in the place of the sutures is seen only on the last whorl. 

4. Cyclostoma reticulatum. PI. XIV. Fig. 8 a, b. Cyclost. testa globoso-conica, subpellu- 
cida, spira subconoidali, apice obtuso, anfractibus quinque, ventricosis, brunneis, albo conspicue reticu- 
latis, spiraliter carinatis, carinis fere obsoletis, multis, confertiusculis, apertura fere circulari, peritremate 
reflexo, superne acuminato, ad ultimum anfractum subinterrupto, umbilico magno, spiraliter sulcato. Oper- 
culo testaceo, spirali, extus in medio concavo, anfractibus 4-5, margine sulcato. 

Hab. Island of Madagascar. 

Remarkably characterized by its striking white reticulated marbling. 

50. PUPINA, Vignard. 

1. Pupina Mindobjsnsis. PL XIV. Fig. 2. Pup. testa subcyhndraceo-turrita, crassiuscula, fusca, 
tenuissime striata, anfractibus sex, subrotundatis, apertura circulari, peritremate discontinuo, labio externo 
reflexo, incrassato, pallido, ad basin columellarem canali angusto, et postice in canalem spiralem desinente. 

Hab. Island of Mindoro, Philippines. 

This species has not the polished surface of the P Nunezii and others ; it is of a dull 
rust-brown, with the lip very much thickened. 


The Arions and Limaces of temperate climates are represented in the East by the Otic/ii- 
dium, Veronicella, and Peronia, as they are in the western hemisphere by the Vaginula. The 
Veronicella lives upon the trees in the forests, and is active after showers ; the Onchidia live 



on aquatic plants in ditches ; while Peronia, like Onchidoris, lives among the stones on 
beaches, but, unlike the latter genus, above high-water mark, a little beyond the influence of 
the tide. 

51. BULIMUS, Lamarck. 

1. Bulimus gbegarius. PI. XIV. Pig. 4. Bui. testa cylindraceo-turrita, compresse umbilicata, 
anfractibus octo, oblique impresso-striatis, suturis inipressis, columella verticaliter dilatata, apertura, parva, 
subquadrato-ovata, labro subreflexo ; pellucido-cornea. 

Hab. Sarawak, Borneo. 

The oblique striae are extremely superficial, and the shell is of a thin horny substance. 

2. Bulimus Meiacoshimensis. PI. XIV. Fig. 5. Bui. testa, subpyramidali-oblonga, vix umbilicata, 
anfractibus decern, subangustis, columella verticaliter reflexa, apertura rotunda ; pellucido-cornea. 

Hab. Islands Ty-pin-san and Koo-Kien-san, Meiacoshirna group, Yellow Sea. 
A small thin horny species, collected among the loose stones and leaves about 
the tombs. 

3. Bulimus chloris. PL XIV. Fig. 10. Peeve, Concli. Icon. Bui. pi. 37. f. 223. 

The animal of B. chloris is of a pale brown colour, always differing in this respect from 
that of B. citrinus, and of extremely vivacious habits. A bushel of them, collected on the 
mountains of Mindanao, soon dispersed themselves all over the cabin in which the basket 
was deposited. The shell was of the same elongated form and deep yellow colour through- 
out, with no indication of bands or marking. 

4. Bulimus citrinus. PI. XIV. Fig. 11. Bruguiere, Eeeve Concli. Icon. Bui. pi. 31: f. 187 a. 
The animal of this variety of B. citrinus is marked with dark colour, especially about 

the head and neck, corresponding in a manner to the pattern of the shell. It inhabits in 
comparative plenty the low trees and bushes of Rhio and other small islands in the vicinity 
of Singapore ; the specimen figured is from a little islet off Biliton. 

5. Bulimus Adamsii. PI. XV. Fig. 1 a, i. Eeeve, Concli. Icon. Bui. pi. 13. f. 73 a, b, c, d. 
Hab. Eastern coast of Borneo, on a tall tree in an islet between Banguey and Balambangan. 

Two varieties of this beautiful species were described in the ' Conchologia Icoriica,' on 
the return of the Samarang, about two years since. A tree which was being cut down in the 
above-mentioned islet, fell upon one of the carpenters, depriving him for a time of sensation. 
What proved a misfortune to the man was a gain to science, for a number of this deli- 
cately-painted Bulimus were found adhering to the tree. 

Dr. Gould, of Boston, United States, communicated to us his opinion that it might be, 


his B. monilifer from Tavoy, in Siam ; he has, however, very kindly forwarded specimens of 
that species, which proves to be clearly distinct, and will be figured in a supplementary 
plate to the monograph of the genus in Conch. Icon. 

52. HELIX, Linnceus. 

1. Helix calliostoma. PI. XIV. Tig. 7 a, b. H. testa obconica, obtecte perforata, valde carinata, 
alba, superne planiuscula, transvershn oblique striata, striis interrupts, longitudinaliter lineis impressis 
obsita, cingulis angustis et maculis rufo-violascentibus circumdata, anfractibus quatuor ad quinque, plani- 
usculis, basi convexa, infra carinam concava, reticulato-striata, fasciis rufescentibus multis circumdata, 
apertura angulata, depressa, intus purpureo-violascente, peristomate intus incrassato, rubicundo. 

Hab. ? 

A solid depressed sharply-angled species, encircled throughout with irregular brown 
and purple-brown linear bands, whilst the aperture is deeply stained with violet-red. 

2. Helix curvllabruii. PL XIV. Fig. 9 a, b. H. testa conica, perforata, basi acute carinata, 
lsevi, flavicante, prope suturam cingula lata rufo-castanea, basi planiuscula, omninb castanea, apertura sub- 
angulata, depressa, obliqua, margine superiore dilatato, inflexo, peristomate incrassato. 

Hab. Philippine Islands. 

A flattened conical shell, conspicuously umbilicated, with the lip peculiarly curved at 
the edge. The base is of a dark reddish chestnut, the spire yellowish, spirally banded with 
the chestnut colouring against the sutures. 

3. Helix tropidophoea. PL XIV. Pig. 14. H. testa subdiscoidea, imperforata, valde carinata, 
carina acuta, prominula, brunnea, striis minutis confertis reticulata, anfractibus quinque, convesiusculis, 
apertura lonato-transversa, angulata, peristomate simplici, acuto. 

Hab. Borneo. 

A comparatively thin shell, with simple lip, very sharply keeled, of which the base has 
a shining horny aspect. 

4. Helix obscurata. PL XIV. Fig. 18. H. testa discoidea, late et profunde umbilicata, olivacea, 
oblique striata, striis transversis distinctis decussatis, spira depressa, anfractibus ad quinque, rotundatis, 
apertura lunato-rotundata, labio simplici, acuto. 

Hab. Borneo, under decayed leaves in the forests. 

A small rounded species, composed of rounded whorls, broadly umbilicated, after the 
manner of the large II. BanJcsii. 

5. Hellx Tatloriana. PL XV. Fig. 2 a, b. H. testa conica, trochiformi, lsevi, imperforata, sub- 
pellucida, basi acute carinata, fulva, ad apicem carneola et reticulata, maculis sparsis perlucidis fuscis 
obsita, oblique striata et transversim subtilissime rugulosa, spira acuta, basi convexiuscula, fulva, circa 


regionem umbilicalem carneola, apertura triangularis antice valde products et coarctata, peristomate 
atro-purpureo, incrassato, reflexo. 

Hab. ? 

An extremely delicate and characteristic species, remarkable for the spouted angular 
construction of the lip. 

6. Helix Typinsana. PI. XV. Fig. 3 a, b. H. testa discoidea, depressiuscula, subcarinata, late 
et profunde umbilicata, striis obliquis, confertis, corrugatis, olivaceo-fusca, fascia pallida cingulata, spira. 
obtusa, anfractibus septem ad octo, rotundatis, apertura rotunda, peristomate intus carneolo, margine 
acuto, reflexo. 

Hab. Island of Ty-pin-san, Meiacoshima ; found under decayed leaves in the pine- woods. 
The whorls of this species are coiled round a broad axis, forming a large and deep 
umbilicus, as in H. polygyrata ; they are, however, less in number and not so depressed. 

7. Helix Brookei. PI. XV. Fig. 4 a, b. H. testa, magna, sinistrorsa, subdiscoidea, obesa, im- 
perforata, obtusa, carinata, oblique strigillata, corneo-fusca, epidermide crassa induta, castanea, carina 
pur])urascente, supra pallidula, basi convexa, radiatim striata, anfractibus cpaatuor ad quinque, apertura 
obliqua, peristomate incrassato, intus casrulescente-alba. 

Hab. Mountains of Borneo. 

This fine species, which has very much the appearance of a sinistral H. Otaheitana, was 
brought by the Borneo Dyaks to his Excellency, the Rajah Sir James Brooke, to whom we 
have the pleasure of dedicating it. 

8. Helix Batanica. PL XV. Fig. 5 a, b. H. testa depresso-globosa, sinistrorsa, anguste per- 
forata, albida, fasciis fusco-rubris circumdata, epidermide olivaceo-lutea induta, anfractibus quinque, 
convexiusculis, transversim oblique striatis, ultimo rotundato, apertura transverso-lunata, peristomate 
incrassato, subreflexo. 

Hab. Island of Batan (Bashee group), under weeds and low plants on the ground. 

A small globular reversed species, reminding one somewhat of the British H. nemoralis 
though of more solid structure. 

9. Helix Mackensii. PI. XV. Fig. 6 a, b. Valenciennes, Voy. de la Bonite, pi. 25. f. 14. 
Hab. Island of Ty-pin-san, Meiacosliimas. 

Several examples of this interesting species were collected at the above-named island. 
The hairs which grow from the epidermis at the periphery of the whorls, are most conspicuous 
in young specimens. 

10. Helix vittata. PL XV. Fig. 7 a, b, c. H. testa subdiscoidea, sinistrorsa, umbilicata, pellu- 
cida, acute carinata, superne depressa, sutura indistincta, carneola, fasciis quatuor ad quinque fulvicantibus 


eingulata, striis undulatis granulosis obliquis et lineis concentricis decussata, anfractibus sex., planiusculis, 
ultimo basi convexo, fasciis duabus fulvicantibus circumdato, carina et regione umbilicali opaco-albis, 
apertura depressa, angulata, obliqua, peristomate simplici, acuto. 

Animal of a delicate sub transparent pinkish colour, the free lobes of the mantle moveable, and often 
extended from the fore part of the shell; eye-peduncles long, the truncatures for the eyes very broad, 
tentacles rather long and clavate ; foot compressed, finely crossed with oblicpie lines, and margined in- 
feriority, the end with a large hollow muciparous follicle, ending below in a sharp, moveable, rather 
recurved process. 

Hab. Balambangan, Borneo. 

This beautiful and singular species lives among the foliage of the low trees, about which 
it crawls with surprising rapidity, reminding one of the movements of the Vitrlnce more than 
those of the Helicidce. 

11. Helix antiqua. PI. XYI. Kg. 1. H. testa globoso-acuminata, solida, obtecte perforata, alba, 
oblique striata, anfractibus quatuor ad quinque, subrotundatis, ultimo inflate, apertura. oblique orbiculari, 
labro late effuso-reflexo, umbilicam fere tegente. 

Hab. Borneo. 

A shell of antique elegance of form, found in a dead state among loose stones in the 
province of Unsang, Borneo. 

12. Helix Coreanica. PI. XVI. Fig. 2. H. testa depresso-globosa, perforata, rufo-spadicea, ru- 
gulosa, oblique striata, fascia pallida eingulata, apicem versus albicante, apertura lunato-ovali, peristo- 
mate simplici, acuto. 

Hab. Corean Archipelago. 

This is the common snail of the islands of the Corean Archipelago, where it is used as 
an article of food. 

13. Helix leucostojia. PI. XVI. Pig. 3. H. testa orbiculari-conoidea, umbilicata, glabra, oblique 
striata, apud suturam opaco-alba, anfractibus quinque, convexis, flavescentibus, fasciis rufo-spadiceis cir- 
cumdatis, apertura lunato-transversa, intns alba, nitida, peristomate albo, valde reflexo, margine inferiore 

Hab. Philippine Islands. 

Very like IT. septdc/iralis, but differing slightly in form, and distinguished by a marked 
peculiarity of colouring. 

14. Heltx obientalis. PL XVI. Pig. 4. H. testa depresso-globosa, profunde umbilicata, fusco- 
aurantia, oblique striata, lineis numerosis elevatis minutis concentricis decussata, anfractibus quinque, 
subrotundatis, fasciis duabus castaneis cingulatis, apertura lunato-elliptica, peristomate reflexo, intus 

Hab. Borneo. 



The lip of this species is reflected with a characteristic violet-flesh tinge. 

15. Helix ihmaculata. PI. XYI. Fig. 5. H. testa pyramidali-globosa, vix unibilicata, alba, semi- 
pellucida, nitidula, striis incrementi distinctis, anfractibus quinque, convexiusculis, ultimo subcarinato, 
apertura lunato-orbiculari, peristomate parum reflexo. 

Hab. Philippine Islands. 

Of a shining semitransparent blue-white substance, with the remains of a slight 
epidermis about the sutures. 

16. Helix caliginosa. PL XVI. Fig. 6. H. testa subglobosa, perforata, strigis obliquis eleva- 
tiusculis concentrice notata, lutescente-alba, anfractibus sex, ultimo spadiceo-fusco, fascia angusta rufa 
circumdata, apertura depresso-lunata, peristomate reflexo. 

Hab. Island of Mindanao, Philippines. 

A striking new species, approaching the form of H. ungulina. 

17. Helix decora. PL XVI. Fig. 7. H. testa conoideo-globosa, imperforata, pallide straminea, 
epidermide spadicea obtecta, oblique striata, anfractibus quatuor, planiusculis, ultimo subcarinato, apertura 
lunato-orbiculari, intus alba, peristomate reflexo, intus albo, nitente. 

Hab. Island of Mindoro, Philippines. 

A smooth solid shell, of a delicate shining straw-colour beneath, whilst the upper 
surface is covered with a fawn epidermis. 

18. Helix densa. PL XVI. Fig. 8. H. testa subdiscoidea, perforata, densa, obtuse carinata, 
superne depressiuscula, oblique plicato-striata, undique eximie corrugata, fulvescente, infra carinam fascia 
lata castanea circumdata, anfractibus quinque, apertura transverse lunata, intus alba, peristomate simplici, 
intus subincrassato. 

Hab. Plvihppine Islands. 

Approaching the form of H. citrina, from which it differs in being of stouter growth, 
and having the surface delicately corrugate throughout. 

19. Helix plueizoxata. PL XVI. Fig. 9. H. testa subglobosa, obtecte perforata, alba, ma- 
culis pallide fuscis nubeculata, striato-rugosa, faschs plurimis spadiceis et purpurascentibus cincta, anfrac- 
tibus quatuor, convexis, ultimo rotundato, apertura lunato-transversa, intus fusca, peristomate valde reflexo, 
albo, margine inferiore subcalloso. 

Hab. Island of Mindanao, Philippines. 

The stripe-bauds which encircle this very characteristic species are mingled irregularly 
fawn and purple-black. 

20. Helix canescens. PL XVI. Fig. 10. H. testa globosa, subobtecte perforata, opaco-alba, 
strigis obliquis lineisque plurimis concentricis nigricantibus interruptis fasciaque conspicua centrali ornata, 


anfraetibus quinque, ultimo rotundato-inflato, apertura lunato-rotundata, peristomate intus incrassato, in 
inargine columellari calloso. 

Hab. Airiea. 10 iJ^^c^u &xJ^J^, - <^AX-#-C<^£^ <-rfhj ..'V^A 
A white globose shell, with simple lip banded and minutely sprinkled with black. 

21. Heltx conoidalis. PL XVI. Kg. 11. H. testa orbiculato-conoidea, subobtecte perforata, 
superne elevata, basi convexa, radiatim striata, pallide rufescente, anfraetibus quinque, superne marginatis, 
reticulato-striatis aut corrugatis, mfo-violescentibus, ultimo fascia angusta castanea circumdato, peristo- 
mate simplici, vix incrassato. 

Hab. Island of Mindoro, Philippines. 

Distinguished chiefly in form by its concave base and conoid manner of convolution above. 


53. CARINARIA, Lamarclc. 

1. Carinaria Atlantica. PI. XIII. Pig. 12. Body elongated, subcylindrical, smooth ; head tumid, 
rather elevated in front; eyes behind the tentacles on the upper part of the head; tentacles small, 
aciculate ; proboscis rather large, furnished at the extremity with curved hooks ; fin sharply triangular, 
sucker linear. Shell small, compressed, with the keel broad and prominent. 


Hab. Xorth Atlantic Ocean. 

Numbers of this species were taken at twilight in the trawl, swimming in company 
with Firol<s. They were observed to progress with their body straightened, darting through 
the water with great rapidity. 

54. APLYSIA, Limusus. 

1. Aplysia loeolata. PI. XVII. Pig. 1. Aplys. dorso convexo, postice acuminato, pallide viridi, 
lineis nigricantibus anastomoticis oculisque compluribus ornato, oculis pupillo nigro, iride vivide violacea. 

Hab. Mauritius. 

This elegant species is remarkable for the acuminated form of its caudal extremity, and 
for the slenderness of the posterior tentacles. 

2. Aplysia fimbeiata. PL XVII. Pig. 2. Aplys. tentaculis anterioribus fimbria lata margine 
sinuata ab exteriore tentaculi parte ad capitis latus pertinet, tentaculis posterioribus ad apicem inclinatis 
et in margine acnto inclinato alte incisis, obscure subviridi, ocellis permultis pupillo minuto albo, iride 
fusca, lineis nigris anastomoticis ornata, punctis minutis opacis albis picta. 

Hab. Ty-pin-san, Meiacoshima Islands. 

Inner surface of foot, when seen expanded, marbled with black and white. 


This large and handsome species is remarkable for the dilated and fringed anterior 
tentacles, and for the peculiar notched and infiexed character of the posterior tentacles. It 
was found crawling among the Fuci, in small pools left by the receding tide, on the flat coral 
shores of Ty-pin-san, one of the Meiacoshima group. 

3. Aplysia ocolieeka. PL XVII. Eig. 3. Aplys. sordide viridi, ocellis pupillo lutescente, iride 
fusca, punctis lutesceiitibus albisque in nubeculis dispositis ornata. 

Hab. Mauritius. 

The beautiful eye-like spots render the appearance of this species very elegant ; the 
posterior tentacles are subulate and acutely pointed. 

The Aplysia punctata of Philippi is marked with congregated dots in the same 
manner, but it wants the ocelli ; the Aplysia Argus of Riippell has the body covered with 
numerous ocelli, without the clusters of dots. 

4. Aplysia nodifeba. PI. XVIII. Eig. 7. Aplys. sordide olivacea, tuberculis elevatis compluribus 
subdistantibus obtecta, maculis pallide violaceis sparsis picta, pede maculis fuscis ornata, margine serie 
macularum albarurn circumdata. 

Hab. Mauritius. 

The row of white spots round the margin and numerous pale violet spots on the sides 
are striking characters of this species. 

55. SIPHONOTUS, n. g. 

Corpus elongatum. Branchiae pallio testaque tectse. Pes lateribus in lobos natantes 
dilatatis. Orificium respiratorium in siphonem prolongatum. Testa submembranacea. 

Body elongated. Gills covered by the mantle and shell. Toot with the sides dilated into 
swimming lobes. Respiratory orifice prolonged into a siphon. Shell nearly membranaceous. 

1. Siphonotus geographicxjs. PI. XVIII. Eig. 1. Siphon, albo-fusco, punctis multis nigris et 
maculis magnis reticularis viridibus albo-marginatis, superficie inferiore pedis vivide flava, palhi siphone 
longo, cylindrico, pyramidato. 

Hab. Java Sea, among masses of floating Fuci. 

Whitish-brown, covered with minute dark specks, and large, irregular, green, reticu- 
lated patches, margined with opake white ; under surface of foot of a bright yellow, left 
side of foot with a projecting lobe which overlaps that of the opposite side ; siphon of the 
mantle prolonged into a tapering, subcylindrical tube. 

This form of Aplysiadce belongs to a group indicated, but not named, by M. Rang, in 
which the margin of the mantle is posteriorly produced into a more or less elongated siphonal 
tube, instead of forming a simple aperture as in other species. 


The species figured was captured off Java, among a mass of floating sea-weed, and, 
from being in a languid state, the tentacles are not fully extended. 

56. DOLABELLA, Lamarck. 
1. Dolabella EuiiPHii. PI. XV 111. Fig. 4. Lamarck, Anim.sans vert. (Deshayes' edit.) vol.vii. p. 699. 

This fine species of Dolabella was collected at Mauritius, feeding in groups of eight or 
nine in a smaU muddy inlet of the sea. The colour of the specimens varied from dark green 
to dirty yellow. 

57. BULLA, Klein. 

1. Bulla Coreaxica. PL XVIII. Pig. 3. Adams, Sowerby Thesaurus Conch. Bui. pi. 125. f.166. 
Hab. Corean Archipelago. 

This species belongs to that division in which the shell is internal, and, when alive, 
presents a quadrilobate fleshy mass without any great amount of vivacity. There are no 
visible eyes or tentacles, and its elongated head probes with its extremity the mud-flats on 
which the species abounds, for the small bivalves which seem to constitute its food. Some 
of the large mud-flats among the Corean islands were covered with these shapeless mollusks, 
and offered tempting morsels to the Grallatorial birds seen striding over the mud. 

2. Bulla vexilluh. PI. XIX. Pig. 4. Chemnitz, Conch. Cab. vol. x. pi. 146. f. 1318, 9. Bulla 
fasciata, Bruguiere. 

Hab. Miudoro Sea, Philippine Islands. 

The animal of Bulla vexillum is of a delicate pink colour, with the head, lobes, and 
margins of the foot edged with white, with an intramarginal dark chocolate-red border. 
The foot is thin, nearly membranous, and very volumiuous, and, when not dilated for 
swimming, folded up around the shell ; the inner margin of the mantle forms a thick fleshy 
lobe, which partially fills up the hind part of the aperture of the shell ; the outer margin is 
thin and lines the outer lip. This Bulla, so beautiful in the living state, was found in grass- 
like sea-weed, in about a fathom water, near Ambolan, Mindoro. 

3. Bulla soluta. PI. XVIII. Fig. 2. Chemnitz, Conch. Cab. vol. x. pi. 146. f. 1359, 1361. 
Bulla Ceylanica, Bruguiere. 

Hab. Borneo. 

The Bulla soluta, Chemn., appears to be blind, while the head is very elongated, 
and the side lobes of the foot well developed for swimming, — which faculty, indeed, this 
fonn enjoys in great perfection. The inner or thickened edge of the mantle sends off 



from the hind margin numerous horny setae, or fine bristles, which are protruded through 
the fissured suture of the shell, the use of which, however, I have been unable to ascertain. 

4. Bulla Voluta, PI. XVIII. Pig. 5. Quoy and Gairnard, Voy. de 1' Astrolabe, pi. 26. f. 33-35. 

Hab. China Sea, in mud and debris at ten fathoms. 

In Bulla Voluta the eyes are visible at the sides of the head, but the foot is narrow, 
and without the usually swimming side lobes. It is extremely slow in its movements, and 
is an inhabitant of deep water. Most of the specimens procured by us were dead shells, 
being bored by some carnivorous mollusk, showing the number of its enemies. 


1. PLELmoBEANCHUS luniceps, PI. XVIII. Fig. 6 a, b. Cuvier, Regne Anim. Plew. f. 6 a, b. 

We have given a coloured figure of this beautiful species, which is very remarkable for 
its depressed, almost foliaceous body, and broad semilunar head. The proboscis is retractile 
when the animal is lively, but is protruded to its full extent before death. The dorsal 
tentacles are abruptly truncate at the ends, and the hind part of the mantle is produced 
into a siphonal inflexion, which guides the water into the marginal groove between the 
dilated foot and mantle, where the branchial plume is situated. 


Among the naked-gilled Gasteropods with which the equatorial seas abound, there are 
very many forms which are not referable to any hitherto recognized genera, but which the 
industry of future years will demonstrate : the two types here named Bomella and Cerato- 
soma are of this class, and drawings were made of some others ; the species of Scyllcea and 
two species of Goniodoris we have likewise regarded as new. 

59. BORNELLA, Gray. 

Corpus elongatum, compressum, semipellucidum, postice acuminatum, ventriculo ramoso in appen- 
dicibus dorsalibus estendens. Caput appendicibus duabus stellatis aut fimbriatis. Tentacula dorsalia 
retractiba in vaginulibus ramosis. Appendices dorsales in serie unica ad utrumque latus corporis dispositse, 
cyUndricse, curvatse, conicse, bifida^ trifidfe, aut simplices ; branchiae bipinnatse, appendicibus dorsalibus 
exeuntes. Pes linearis, sulcatus. 

The authors proposed to found a genus for these mollusks and had them figured for that 
purpose, but were anticipated by Mr. Gray, into whose possession the drawings had pre- 
viously passed in their way from the Admiralty. 


1. Bornella digitata. PI. XIX. Fig. 1. Born, corpore carneolo, lineis carmineis infra reticularis 
transversim striato, appendicibus dorsalibus elongatis, bifidis aut trifidis, in apicibus conicis carmineis 
terminatis, brancMis ab parte superiore appendicibus dorsalibus exsertis, pede albo. 

Hab. Straits of Sunda. 

This species was found adhering to floating Fuci : it crawls briskly, and when detached 
swims by lateral inflexions of the body. 

2. Boenella Adamsii. PI. XIX. Pig. 3. Gray, Mrs. Gray's Pigures of Molluscous Animals, p. 107. 
Born, corpore carneolo, lineis carmineis infra reticulatis transversim striato, appendicibus dorsalibus elon- 
gatis, simplicibus aut bifidis, in apicibus carmineis terminatis, brancliiis ab parte inferiore appendicibus 
dorsalibus exsertis, pede stramineo. 

Hab. Coast of Borneo. 

Like the preceding species, this also was found adhering to the stems of a mass of 
floating Fuci, clinging to them by its narrow grooved foot. 

These handsome Nudibranchs, which are figured of the natural size and colour, resemble 
Dendronotus of Alder and Hancock in their dorsal tentacles being branched at the ends, in 
their ramifying digestive apparatus, and in their back being furnished with cylindrical 
branching processes arranged in a single row on each side ; but the existence of distinct 
gills, arising, as in Scyllcea, from the dorsal appendages, at once distinguishes them. They 
seem to form a connecting; link between the Trifoniadcs and the Eolididce. 


60. SCYLLJM, LinncBus. 

1. Sctll^a Gkay^:. PI. XIX. Pig. 2. Scyl. corpore flaveolo, punctis compluribus parvis fuscis 
et maculis majoribus fulvis, in lateribus notis ovalibus albis serie curvata ornato, linea lata turbide viridi 
maculis viridioribus in parte inferiore, in utroque latere una nota ultramarina, tentaculis luteolis, rnar- 
ginibus flavis et roseis, appendicibus dorsalibus liberis, extvemitatibus vivide flavo-marginatis, lateribus 
notis parvis viridibus pictis. 

Hab. North Atlantic Ocean. 

We have dedicated this species of Scyll&a to Mrs. Gray, a lady to whom all who 
desire to study the nature of Molluscous animals are highly indebted for having presented 
them with outlines of the figures of this class, hitherto contained in expensive and generally 
inaccessible works. 

61. CEKATOSOMA, n. g. 

Caput magnum, antice rotundatum, proboscide retractili, appendicibus lateralibus cylindricis, trun- 
catis ; velum nullum. Tentacula dorsalia claviformia, non retractilia, apicibus laminatis, e tuberculis rotun- 
datis orientia. Corpus oblongum, angustatum, postice acuminatum : appendices dorsales duas, conicse, ante- 
riores ante aperturam branchialem, breves, rotundatse, posteriores post aperturam branchialem, elevatiores, 


permagnse, curvse, comutee. Branchise ramosae, e stirpe communi orientes, in ramos quinque bipinuatos 
divisfe. Pes angustus, linearis. 

1. Ceratosoma COENIGEEUM. PI. XIX. Pig. 5. Cerat. testa straminea, carrnineo vivide marmorata, 
infra, evanida, margine inferiore alba, maculis cseruleis in serie longitudinali dispositis, appendice dorsali 
anteriore maculis ceeruleis ornata, vertice capitis maculis cseruleis in serie transversa dispositis ornate- . 

Hab. Sooloo Sea. 

This genus differs from Polycera, as defined by Cuvier, in wanting the frontal veil, in 
the surface of the body being smooth, in the possession of but two simple horn-like tubercles, 
and in the dorsal tentacles being swollen at the base ; the two cylindrical, truncate labial 
appendages are also peculiar. In the figure the proboscis is represented as exserted, giving 
a peculiar character to the head, which it does not possess in the ordinary passive condition. 

62. GONIODORIS, Forbes. 

1. Goniodoiiis trilineata. PI. XVII. Pig. 4 and 4 a. Gon. capite sub fronte pallii celato, sub- 
roseo, tentaculis dorsalibus vivide luteis ; corpore pallide roseo, margine cyaneo, in medio signo triangulari 
et notis duabus rotundis in utroque latere superficiei superioris ad partem posteriorem quee ultra pallium 
pertinet; pallio roseo-purpureo, margine pallide ultramarino, lineis tribus flavis, media antice claviformi, 
postice bifurcata ut anum includat, lateralibus ad annulum branchialem curvatura desinentibus ; branchiis 
septem, parvis, acuminatis, vivide flavis, circum anum dispositis, simpliciter pinnatis ; pede lato, pallide roseo. 

Hab. China Sea. 

This, though a small species, is very elegantly coloured, and is among the most beautiful 
of a group which contributes, by its variety of form and colour, to enliven the solitudes of 
the ocean. 

2. Goniodoeis Whitei. PI. XIX. Fig. 6. Gon. corpore luteo, margine ultramarino, pallidis 
notis ovalibus distinctis, duabus longis paulo curvatis roseis lineis in utroque latere, lineis septem roseis 
retro et infra pedem pertinentibus, linea rosea una ad superiorem partem corporis quae ultra pallium 
pertinet ; pallio antice longissime producto atque dilatato, margine libero, rotundato, vivide luteo, com- 
pluribus notis ovalibus pallide luteis, tseniis quatuor pulchris liliaceis in dorso paribus intervallis dispositis, 
margine vivide ultramarino, lunula rosea inter tentacula; tentaculis dorsalibus luteis, simmo axe productis, 
acuminatis, albis ; branchiis quatuordecim, simpliciter pinnatis. 

Hab. Caramata Passage, near Biliton. 

The figures that most nearly resemble this beautiful species, which we have dedicated to 
our zealous friend Mr. Adam White, are the Doris magnified of Quoy and Gaimard (Voy. 
Astrol. t. 20. f. 1) and an unnamed Doris, marked "Banks, Icon. ined. 25, Endeavour River," 
represented in Mrs. Gray's work on Molluscous Animals. 



63. HALIOTIS, Linn. 

1. Haliotis vejjusta. PI. XIII. Fig. 5«, b. Hal. testa, ovata, depresso-plana, spiraliter tenuicostata 
et striata, costis distantibus nodulosis, foraminibus subproniinentibus ; lactea, vivide coccineo variegata, 
intus argentea. 

Hab. Eastern Seas. 

Richly variegated with bright vermilion scarlet, upon a white ground, and faintly tinged 
at the apex with purple. 

64. SIPHONARIA, Sowerby. 

1. Siphojtabia Cobjeensis. PI. XIII. Fig. 1 a, I. Siph. testa ovata, valde depressa, apice centrali, 
cinerea, lineis undulatis rufescentibus radiatim dispositis, costis prominentibus, interstitiis plicatis, margine 
acute dentato ; intus flavescente, radiis albis picta, centra marginecpie castaneis. 

Hab. Corean Archipelago. 

A prettily-coloured species, with the siphonal impression strongly marked. 

2. SiPHONAJtiA. eadiata. PI. XIII. Pig. 2 a, b. Sipli. testa convexo-depressa, apice centrali, oblongo- 
ovata, flavescente, costis lineisque rugoso-radiatis, margine crenato ; intus brunnea, radiis numerosis nigris 
et albis prope marginem tinctS,. 

Hab. China Sea. 

The black and white rays around the internal margin are frequent and the crenula- 
tions fine. 

65. EMARGINULA, Lamarck. 

1. Ejiaegintjla clathrata. PI. XL Pig. 6. Emar. testa, ovato-oblonga, conica, costis longitudina- 
libus hneiscpae transversis clathrata, vertice elato, postico, uncinato ; intus intense viridi, margine crenulato. 

Hab. Mindoro Sea. 

A deeply -latticed high conical shell, of a peculiar blue-green colour in the interior. 

66. PILEOPSIS, Lamarck. 

1. Pileopsis astericola. PL XL Pig. 1. Pil. testa, acuminato-conica, curvata, vertice minute con- 
voluta, radiatim creberrime sulcata, margine crenulato ; alba. 

Hab. Sooloo Sea, on the tubercle of a Star-fish. 

This very interesting species, of which only a single example was collected, is very neatly 
sculptured throughout with fine close-set grooves radiating from the apex. 



67. FISSURELLA, Lamarck. 

1. Pissueella excelsa. PL XI. Eig. 5. Piss, testa elevato-eonica, coslis grandibus imequalibus 
subsquamatis rude clathratis, margine crenulato, orificio parvo, subrotundato, postice inclinato ; albida aut 

Hab. China Sea. 
Mainly distinguished by its high conical form. 

68. CALYPTRiEA, Lamarck. 

1. CALYPTEiEA trigonalis. PI. IX. Pig. 7 a, b. Calyp. testa, trigono-ovata, profunda convexa, apice 
uncinata, radiatim subtiliter plicato-corrugata, cyatho amplo ; albida^ lineis fuscis peculiariter reticulata. 

Hab. China Sea. 

The principal distinguishing features of this species are its triangular compression, 
which is alike in all the specimens and not occasioned by any circumstances of attachment. 
There is, also, a peculiarity in the reticulated marking which shows more or less distinctly a 
radiate series of uncoloured patches, ranging like a frill around the apex. 

2. CALYPTEiEA DEPRESSA. PI. XL Pig. 2 a, b. Calyp. testa suborbiculari, depresso-conica, alba, 
semipellucida, trilaminata, apice subcentrab, obtuso, radiatim corrugato-striata, cyatho crescentiformi, acuto, 

Hab. China Sea. 

This species is composed of three laminge lying one upon the other after the manner 
of C. tectum- Sinense, but compressed closely one upon the other. 

3. Calyptejla plana. PI. XL Pig. 3. Calyp. testa suboblonga, depresso-convexa, sellseformi, alba, 
concentrice subtinssime lineata, apice laterali, cyatho arnplo, plano-laminato, ad latus emarginato. 

Hab. China Sea, adhering to the interior of dead shells. 

A flattened species, turned as it were inside outwards, and well characterized by the 
term saddle-shaped. ^u)& 

4. CALYPTEiEA cancellata. PL XL Pig. 4. Calyp. testa orbiculari, irregulari, conica, apice sub- 
laterali, retrorsum curvato, radiatim longitudiualiter costata, costis rugosis, medio sulcatis, interstitiis can- 
cellatis, cyatho crescentiformi, prominulo. 

Hab. China Sea. 

Sculptured throughout with radiating ribs, down the middle of which there is for the 
most part a fine groove. 



1. Dentaliuh forhosum. PL V. Fig. 1 a, b. Dent, testa arcuata, tumidiuscula, tredecim-costata, 
costis rotundatis, interstitiis latiusculis, extremitate postica dorsali fissurata, fissura apicem versus latiore ; 
roseo, olivaceo-viridi et albo pulcherrime variegata. 

Hab. Sooloo Archipelago (outside a coral reef near the city of Sooloo, in about sixteen to twenty 
fathoms, sandy mud) . 

A beautiful addition to a genus rarely distinguished by any brilliancy of colour beyond 
the well-known green of the D. elepliantinum and aprinmn. It is of rather lighter and more 
tumid growth than the former, richly variegated with rose, olive-green, and a little white. 



1. Terebratula Japonica. PI. XXI. Pig. 1. Ter. testa elongato-ovali, tumida, lsevi, fragili, pel- 
lucido-alba, antice semicostata, costis postice evanidis, valvis subsequaliter convexis, margine ventrali vix 
sinuato, crenulato, foramine parviusculo, rotundato. 

Hab. Seas of Japan. 

A semitransparent-white species, radiately finely ribbed towards the beaks, the ribs 
soon fading away. 

2. Tekebratula angusta. PI. XXL Pig. 2. Ter. testa elongato-ovali, subcompressa, pellucido- 
alba, longitudinaliter dense et subtilissime costellata, costellis rugulosis, rostro truncato, valvis fere sequa- 
libus, medio leviter sulcato-depressis, margine ventrali, subsinuato. 

Hab. Seas of Japan. 

An extremely delicately-sculptured oblong species, allied to T. caput-serpentis. 

3. Terebratula Coreanica. PI. XXI. Pig. 3. Ter. testa rotundato-triangulari, ltevi, carneola, 
radiatim carmineo fasciata, fasciis irregularibus, interruptis, valva dorsab: convexa, medio subcarinata, 
ventrali planiore, latera versus subcompressa, foramine amplo ovali, utroque latere subangulato. 

Hab. Corean Archipelago. 

A smooth species, delicately painted with irregular crimson-scarlet rays. 

4. Terebratula Capensis. PI. XXL Fig. 4. Ter. testa subtriangulari, longitudinaliter costata, 
crassiuscula, coccineo vivide radiata, valvis conspicue sinuatis et sulcatis, foramine subamplo. 

Hab. Cape of Good Hope. 

An interesting small species, dredged off the Cape of Good Hope at a depth of 120 


5. Terebkatdxa abyssicola. PI. XXI. Fig. 5. Ter. testa trigono-ovali, pellucido-carneola, lsevius- 
cula, radiatim planicostata et striata, costis striisque fere obsoletis, valvis fere squaliter convexis, medio 
leviter sinuato-sulcatis. 

Hab. Cape of Good Hope, 120 fathoms. 

Dredged with the preceding species, but very different in character, and belonging 
more to the type of T. caput-serpentis. 



71. OSTREA, LinncBus. 

1. Oste^a pyxibata. PI. XXI. Pig. 19. Ostr. testa orbiculari, ina?quivalvi, valva sinistra plana, 
radiatim costata, costis nodulosis, dextra convexa, radiatim valde costata, costis nodulosis saepe duplicatis, 
margine ventrali crenulato; sordide fusca. 

Hab. Philippine Islands. 

This singular species appears to be characterized by having the right valve extremely 
convex, and the left one flat. 


72. HEMIPECTEN, n. g. 

Testa adhserens, insequivalvis, irregularis, hyalina, valva snperiore antice simplici, postice vix auriculata, 
valva inferiore antice simplici, postice conspicue auriculata, infra auriculam profundi sinuata et denticulata ; 
cardine edentulo, ligamento leviter marginali, cartilagine parvo in cavitatem centralem. 

This interesting shell is intermediate in its characters between Pecten and Anomia. 
Like Anomia it is a thin hyaline substance, adhering to some foreign body, and of an irre- 
gular growth, according to the inequalities of its place of attachment. Like Pecten the hinge 
consists of a slight marginal ligament, intersected in the middle by a small triangular 
cartilage, situated in the hollow of a superficial cavity in each valve. The under valve is 
distinguished by a conspicuous auricle on the posterior side, and beneath this is a sinus so 
deeply cut in the direction of the hinge-margin as to remind one of Pedum, especially when 
presented with the under valve closed upon the hollow of the upper one, as in Fig. lb, 2 6 ; 
and the margin of this sinus, as indicated in some of the Pectens, is furnished with a row of 
sharp erect denticles. The shell bears some resemblance to Pedum, from the circumstance 
of there being no corresponding sinus in the upper valve ; but it is apparently only a 
character of resemblance, not one of affinity. The shell has no umbonal area ; nor are the 
sides of either valve reflected. 


The observations to be derived from the microscopic structure of Hemipecten, which has 
been kindly exhibited to us by Dr. Carpenter, are, however, singularly contradictory to the 
views presented by its external characters. Of the two specimens collected, the texture and 
composition of both valves consist of a hyaline semi-pearlaceous lamina, presenting a series of 
closely-packed concentric lines, the interstices of which are minutely rayed with much finer 
lines. Submitted to the microscope, the flat valve in both specimens (Fig. la, 2d) is 
permeated by copious tubuli, a character in which the genus agrees with Pedum and with 
some species of Lima, and differs from Pecten. This tubularity Dr. Carpenter observed to 
exist also in the upper valve of the colourless specimen (Fig.l c), but not in the other (Fig. 2 c), 
so far as the Bryozoon upon its surface allows of an examination. 

The upper valve of the coloured specimen (Fig. 2 c) possesses a rudimental sculpturing 
over its entire surface ; but as it may have received this from the parasite, and exhibits no 
other appreciable poiut of difference, we have not ventured to distinguish it specifically from 
the white specimen. 

1. Hemipecten Forbesianus. PI. XX. Hemip. testa orbiculari, Anomiaefbrmi, tenuissima, hya- 
lina, concentrice lineata, linearum interstitiis eximie reticulatis, valva iuferiore plauulata, auricula lon- 
gitudinaliter radiata, sinu profuudo, valva superiore convexa, vix auriculata; pellucido-alba, valva superiore 
interdum rufo-aurantio radiata. 

Hab. Sooloo Archipelago, Eastern Seas (dredged from a coral and stony bottom at a depth of about 
fourteen fathoms) ; Belcher. 

Two specimens of this interesting new form were collected during the voyage, one 
smooth and white, the other slightly sculptured in a decussately corrugated style, probably 
from the effect of the Bryozoon which covers it, and rayed with orange-red. The under 
valve is smooth in both specimens, showing it to have been attached ; the upper valve is 
more or less covered in both with various parasitic objects. 

We have the pleasure to name the species in honour of Professor Edward Forbes, who 
notices the genus, in his valuable work on the British Mollusca, as affording a curious inter- 
mediate link between Pecten and Anomia. 

Plate XX. Fig. 1 represents the smooth colourless specimen ; a, interior of the under valve ; b, the valves 
closed, presenting the exterior of the under valve ; c, the valves closed, presenting the exterior of the upper valve. 
Fig. 2 represents the coloured and slightly corrugated specimen ; a, interior of the upper valve, which is not 
shown of the former specimen ; b, the valves closed, presenting the exterior of the under valve ; c, the valves closed, 
presenting the exterior of the upper valve; d, interior of the under valve : — all of the natural size. 

73. PECTEN, Bruf/uiere. 

1. Pecten Reevei. PI. XXI. Pig. 10 a, b. Pect. testa sequivalvi, subaequilatera, suborbiculari, 
paululum longiore quam alta, alba, carmineo vivide variegata et radiata et violaceo maculata ; costata, costis 



ad viginti, latiusculis, lineis concentricis elevatis minute et densissime decussatis, auriculis subsequalibus, 
intus vivide carminea et alba. Adams, MS. 

Hab. China Sea. 

Several specimens of this magnificent new Pecten were collected in the China Sea, all 
more or less brilliantly coloured in the manner described. 

2. Pecten fulvicostatus. PI. XXI. Fig. 11. Pect. testa subobliqua, multb altiore quam longa, 
insequilatera, albida, rubro sparsirn maculata, costis fulvis, valvis subsequalibus, tenuibus, compressis, decem- 
costatis, costis interstitiisque marginem versus elevato-striatis, auriculis valde insequalibus. 

Hab. Sooloo Arcbipelago. 

A very thin shell, rayed with ten broad yellowish ribs, very sparingly red-spotted. 

3. Pecten aukantiactjs. PI. XXI. Pig. 12. Pect. testa oblongo-orbiculari, subsequilatera, pecu- 
liariter compressa, valva superiore planata, inferiore subconvexa, ambabus radiatim costatis, costis quatuor- 
decim, rotundatis, sulcosis, squamis minimis per quatuor series longitudinales in costis dispositis, costarum 
interstitiis profunde excavatis, transversim striatis, vix auriculis insequalibus ; intense aurantia, luteo et 
violaceo maculata. 

Hab. China Sea. 

A truly beautiful species, characterized by the most elaborate and delicate sculpture, 
with brilliant colouring. 

4. Pecten aspeeulattjs. PL XXI. Fig. 13. Pect. testa insequivalvi, sequilatera, carneola, aureo 
variegata, rostris vivide runs, liris numerosis, irregularibus, obsolete squamulosis, asperulatis, auriculis 
valde insequalibus. 

Hab. Corean Archipelago. 

The auricles are remarkably unequal in this species, whilst the under valve has a row 
of denticles almost as strongly developed as in Hemipeden. 

5. Pecten denticulatus. PI. XXI. Fig. 14. Pect. testa elongato-ovata, suba3quivalvi, sequilatera, 
tenui, compressa, radiatim lirata, liris valvae superioris ad quindecim, alternatim minoribus, angustis, squa- 
mulis dentiformibus ornatis, valvae inferioris permultis, squamulis aculeatis, scabris, auriculis insequalibus, 
margine cardinali valvse inferioris dentato, alterius simplici ; pellucido-lutescente, rosaceo obsolete tincta. 

Hab. Sliores of Borneo. 
Rayed with narrow elevated ridges, surmounted with fine scales. 

tS. Pecten cristulabis. PL XXI. Fig. 15. Pect. testa subsequivalvi, suborbiculari, paululum 
altiore quam longa, pallide carnea, rubro variegata, costis quatuor et viginti, rotundatis, liic illic subtiliter 
squamatis, interstitiis lsevibus, margine cardinali valvse superioris simplici, inferioris cristato-crenato. 

Hab. Eastern Seas. 

Of very simple character, though not exactly agreeing with any hitherto described 


74. LIMA, Bruguiere. 

1. Lijia Basilanica. PL XXI. Kg. 6. L. testa oblique ovata, fragili, tumida, utroque latere sub- 
hiante, radiatim subtiliter costellata, transversim tenuissime striata; cardinis area suboblique lanceolata. 

Hab. Island of Basilan. 

A very delicately ribbed species, the ribs being devoid of any squamate sculpture. 

2. Lijia oeientalis. PL XXI. Fig. 7. L. testa oblique ovata, subangusta, fragili, tumida, utroque 
latere hiante, radiatim subtiliter costellata, costellis numerosis, rugulosis, auriculis minimis, cardinis area 
oblique lanceolata, margine ventrali dentato. 

Hab. Philippine Archipelago. 

Somewhat like the preceding species in general aspect, but of narrower form, whilst 
the ribs are finer, more numerous, and delicately rugose. 


75. CHAM A, Linrums. 

1. Chama laciniata. PI. XXI. Fig. 20. Ch. testa anguste ovata, albida, rufo variegata, longitu- 
dinaliter plicata, plicis conspicue irregulariter squamatis, liris brevibus corrugatis oblique decussata. 

Hab. China Sea. 

A rather compressed species, armed with bunches of vaulted scales, and fine transverse 
wrinkled ridges. 


76. NUCULA, Lamar ch. 

1. Nucuxa mieabilis. PL XXI. Fig. 8. Nuc. testa transverse oblonga, subtriangulari, antice 
brevissima, concavo-truncata, epidermide virescente-lutea. induta, longitudinaliter utrinque costata, costis 
corrugatis, medio divaricatis. 

Hab. Kieu-sieu, Nangasaki Bay, Japan. 

This remarkable species partakes of the character of a very interesting type, only known 
hitherto in a fossil state. 

2. Nucula Japonica. PI. XXI. Fig. 9. Nuc. testa elongato-oblonga, antice longiore, subrostrata, 
postice tumida, rotundata, lsevi, albida, epidermide lntescente-cornea induta. 

Hab. Kieu-sieu, Nangasaki Bay, Japan. 

In this species, which more resembles the ordinary form of the genus, the anterior 
side is much the longer, produced, as it were, into a beak. 


77. PECTUNCULUS, Lamarck. 

1. Pectuncui/us Belcheei. PL XXII. Pig. 5. Pect. testa oblique ovata, depressa, decussatim 
striata, latere antico brevi, postico rnultb longiore, dilatato, epidermide fusca, dense pilosa, pilis in fimbriis 
concentricis dispositis. 

Hab. Cape of Good Hope, 120 fathoms. 
Remarkable for an epidermis of festoons of fringes. 

2. Pectunctjltjs aspeesus. PI. XXII. Pig. 8. Pect. testa magna, orbiculari, subfequilatera, radiatirn 
subtilissime sulcata et striata, striis concentricis decussata, albida, rubro-fusco adspersa, epidermide fusco- 
pilosa partim obtecta. 

Hab. Sooloo Archipelago. 

A fine new species, belonging to the same type of the genus as the well-known 
P. pilosus. 


78. CARDITA, Bruguiere. 

1. Caedita FEEEUGrNOSA. PI. XXI. Fig. 21. Card, testa subcordata, compressa, antice truncata, 
albo et ferrugineo-rufo variegata, radiatirn costata, costis ad quatuordecim, convexis, nodoso-striatis, inter- 
stitiis latiusculis. 

Hab. Philippine Archipelago. 

Of an unusually compressed growth, prettily variegated with light rust-colour. 

79. HIPPAGUS, Lea. 

1. HiEPAGTJS novemcostatus. PL XXIY. Fig. 1. Hip. testa suborbiculari, cordata, radiatirn fortiter 
costata, costis septem ad octo, distantibus, sub lente granulosis ; sordide fusca, intus argenteo-margaritacea,. 

Hab. China Sea. 

A single valve of this remarkable genus, apparently recent, was dredged from among 
the debris of the China Sea. It is rayed with about seven to eight elevated ribs, covered 
with a very dark brown epidermis, bright silver-pearled within, and quite distinct from the 
fossil species, the only Jlippagi known, H. Lsocardioides, Lea, and H. acuticostatus, Philippi. 

80. ISOCARDIA, Lamarck. 

1. Isocaedia teteagona. PL XXII. Fig. 1. Isoc. testa, elongato-cordata, compressiuscula, lactea, 
hie illic obsolete rufescente, longitudinaliter plicata, plicis angulatis, latere postico acuminato-producto, 
carina, acuta, umbonibus confertis, minutis. 

Hab. Japanese Seas. 


A species of rather slight structure, distinguished by its remarkably elongated form, 
the posterior extremity being sharply acuminated. 


Two specimens of this beautiful red-spotted variety of the true Chama Moltkiana of 
Chemnitz were collected at Corea, both amply distinguished from the common species, 
I. vulgaris, by their solid cordate form and bold development of the ribs. 

81. CARDIUM, Linnceus. 

1. Cardiusi Adamsii. PI. XXII. Fig. 2. Card, testa subquadrato-cordata, postice oblique truncata, 
angulata, subasquilatera, alba, rubro variegata, costis ad sex et triginta, elevatis, squamulis aculeatis confertis 
regularibus undique dense arniatis. Beeve, MSS. 

Hab. Shores of Borneo. 

Several examples of this most exquisitely sculptured species were collected on the coast 
of Borneo. 

2. Cardiuit atjrantiactjh. PI. XXII. Fig. 4. Card, testa subcordata, gibba, glabra, nitida, albo 
aurantiaco ruboque variegata, longitudinaliter striata, latere postico lsevi, antico striis transversis concentricis 
elevatis subdistantibus exsculpto. 

Hab. China Sea. 
A fine species, allied to C.pectinatum. 

3. Caedium modestum. PI. XXII. Pig. 6. Card, testa subquadrato-cordata, tenuicula, flaveola, radiis 
tribus rufescentibus subobsolete picta, radiatim subtilissime et creberrime costellata et coneentrice striata, 
area, postica subclathrata, margine crenulato. 

Hab. Eastern Seas. 

A thin and minutely-sculptured species, comparatively smooth except on the pos- 
terior area. 

4. Cardium. Kalamantanum. PL XXII. Pig. 7. Card, testa subcordata, gibbosa, glabra, nitida, 
lateo-aurantiaca, umbonibus rosaceo-albis, radiatim substriata, latere antico liris obliquis distantibus ex- 
sculpto, postico lsevi, margine dentato. 

Hab. Shores of Borneo. 

Another species of the C.pectinatum type, apparently distinct from C. aurantiacum. 

5. Cakdhjji speciosusi. PL XXII. Pig. 9. Card, testa subcordata, crassiuscula, tumida, postice 
peculiariter concavo-truncata, albo rufoque tessellata, radiatim costata, costis ad sex et viginti, convexis, 
squamato-granulatis, interstitiis transvershn striatis. 

Hab. China Sea. 

Very distinctly characterized from any species known hitherto. 


6. Cabdium Bechei. PI. XXII. Fig. 12. Card, testa subcordato-ovata, medio et antice laevigata, 
striis raimitis superficiariis radiantibus et concentricis sub lente decussata, epidermide tenui cornea nitente 
in funicubs fibrisve concentricis creberrime disposita, area postica, epidermide nulla, radiatim costata, costis 
tenuibus, confertis, quinque et viginti ad triginta, spinis brevibus compressis densissime seriatim ornatis ; 
undique pulclierrime rosea, intus alba. 

Hab. Sooloo and Yellow Seas. 

We have much pleasure in dedicating this species, at the desire of Capt. Sir Edward 
Belcher, to Sir Henry de la Beche, Director of the Ordnance Survey and President of the 
Geological Society. It forms a most interesting addition to the genus Cardium, and is, without 
exception, the most striking and distinct from any hitherto known that can well be imagined. 
In colour it is of a fine rose-tint, with the following singular contrast of character. The 
middle and anterior portion of the shell is smooth, presenting a peculiar soft velvety ap- 
pearance, the effect of its being minutely decussated with concentric and radiating striae, 
and covered with an exquisite thin shining horny epidermis, disposed in fine concentric cords, 
abruptly terminating at the posterior area. The posterior portion, accordingly destitute of 
epidermis, is very thickly rayed with ribs of short compressed spines, as if the delicately-clad 
surface of the shell had been thus far ploughed up, as it were, into furrows. 

Only two odd valves of this pre-eminently beautiful shell were obtained, and, singularly, 
in localities very remote from each other : one was dredged at the depth of forty fathoms in 
the Sooloo Seas, between the islands of Borneo and Mindanao ; the other in the Yellow Sea, 
thirty degrees north, at one of the islands of the Corean Archipelago. 


82. CYTHEREA, Lamarck. 

1. Cytherea virginea. PI. XXIV. Fig. 10. Cyth. testa oblongo-triangulari, sequivalvi, crassius- 
cula, cinerascente-alba, nitente, radiatim obscure fasciata, latere postico linea impresso, area postica vio- 
lasceilte. — 3u>-eJ.a- iLtzU&rt-u^rn. 'yncu^e-. Ct , 'Hcw-tzlnsi f >cx>cv; t>. isc/. r /fm, 

Hab. Eaotorn Seas . toAz^crm^a,. 

A very delicate and characteristic species, equivalve and of rather an oblong-trian- 

gular form. 

83. ARTEMIS, Poll. 

1. Artehis Dunkeri. PI. XXI. Fig. 17. Eeeve, Conch. Icon. Artem. pi. 6. f. 34. Cytherea 
Dunkeri, Philippi, Abbild. uud Bescli. Conch. Cyth. p. 4. pi. 2. f. 5. 

Hab. Eastern Seas. 

We are anticipated in the publication of this fine species of Artemis by Dr. Philippi, 
who had already named it after Dr. Dunker of Cassel. 


84. VENUS, Linnmis. 

1. Venus Philippinaeuu. PI. XXII. Fig. 10. V. testa oblongo-ovata, antice truncata, fulva, 
fusco variegata, obscure radiata, radiatim lirata, liris nmnerosis, subundatis, ad latera decussatim nodulosis ; 
intus partini violacea. 

Hab. Philippine Ai'chipelago. 

This and the following species belong to that section of the genus which partakes of the 
character of Pullastra. 

2. Venus tessellata. PL XXII. Pig. 11. V. testa oblongo-ovata, antice truncata, crassiuscula, 
fusco alboque strigata et tessellata, radiatim niultilirata, transversim tenuissime striata, lunula lanceo- 

Hab. Philippine Archipelago. 
A dark ash-rust shell, beautifully mottled and streaked throughout with white. 

3. Venus Labuana. PL XXI. Pig. 16. V. testa subtriangulari, gibbosa, antice truncata, postice 
flexuosa, acuminato-rostrata, albida, lineis nigricantibus acute angulatis ornata, concentrice valde sulcata, 
sulcis irregularibus, margine ventrali postice sinuato. 

Hab. Island of Labuan. 

This fine species, though not apparently new, does not seem to have been described. 

4. Venus costellifeiia. PL XXI. Pig. 18. V. testa oblongo-ovata, subtrigona, subsequilatera, 
alba, rubro sparsim variegata, longitudinaliter costata, costis confertis, decussatim plicatis, plicis semiluna- 
ribus, confertis, posticis squamulosis. 

Hab. Philippine Archipelago. 

Very closely ribbed, the ribs being densely sculptured throughout with close-set 
semilunar folds. 

5. Venus quadrangulaeis. PL XXIV. Pig. 7. V. testa cpiadrato-ovata, subcompressa, crassius- 
cula, concentrice tenuiter et irregulariter striata, paUide straminea, nitida, umbonibus roseis, latere antico 
brevi, postico multb longiore, lunula parum distincta. 

Hab. Corean Archipelago. 
Peculiarly square-formed, of a light shining straw-colour, with pink umboes. 

6. Venus elegans. PL XXTV. Pig. 13. V. testa oblongo-ovata, calcareo-alba, lamellis concen- 
tricis subirregularibus ad latus posticum majoribus ornata, lunula cordata, parva. 

Hab. Eastern Seas. 
An elegantly-formed species, delicately sculptured with irregular concentric lamellae. 



85. LUCINA, Bruguiere. 

1. Lucina fibula. PI. XXIV. Fig. 5. Reeve, Conch. Icon. Luc. pi. 7. f. 33, 37, and 38. 
Hab. China Sea. 

There are two or three varieties of this species from very remote localities ; in addition 
to that under consideration from China, Mr. Cuming possesses specimens from the Philippine 
Islands and from New Zealand. 

2. Lucina seeicata. PI. XXIV. Fig. 6. Reeve, Conch. Icon. Luc. pi. 9. f. 55. 
Hab. Philippine Archipelago. 

This and the preceding species were incidentally described and figured in the Con- 
chologia Iconica whilst the accompanying plate was in the hands of the engraver. 

86. CYRENOLDA, Joannis. 

1. Cyeenoida alata. PI. XXIV. Fig. 12. Cyren. testa rotundata, oblonga, subaequilatera, utrin- 
que producta, tumida, sordide alba, epidermide lutea partim induta, striis rugosis concentrice sculpta, latere 
antico subangustato, rotundato, postico dilatato, subtruncato. 

Hab. Corean Archipelago. 

Remarkable for its produced growth at the sides. 

2. Cyrenoida Coeeensis. PI. XXIV. Fig. 14. Cyren. testa subquadrato-ovata, valde aequilatera, 
subcompressa, sordide alba, epidermide tenui induta, concentrice irregulariter rugoso-striata, latere antico 
brevi, lunula oblonga, postico rotundato. 

Hab. Corean Archipelago. 
This species partakes more of the form and general character of Lucina. 

87. PSAMMOBIA, Lamarck. 

1. Psammobia denticulata. PI. XXIV. Fig. 2. Psam. testa oblonga, tenui, alba, postice angulat^, 
ad angulum costata, costis rnuricato-squamatis, medio et latere antico peculiariter oblique phcato-liratis, 
liris subundatis, per summitatem sulcatis. 

Hab. China Sea. 
Only a single valve of this remarkable species was collected. 

2. Psammobia flexuosa. PI. XXIV. Fig. 3. Psam. testa e.longato-ovata, postice rostrata, alba, oblique 


plicata, plicis undulato-corrugatis, Mc illic duplicatis, latere postico rostrato, flexuoso, acuto, antico rotun- 
dato, umbonibus subacuminatis. 

Hab. Shores of Borneo. 

Strongly plicated obliquely, somewhat after the manner of the preceding species, but 
wanting the radiately-ribbed posterior area. 

1. Psahjiobia rugttlosa. PI. XXIV. Pig. 4 a, 6. Psam. testa oblonga, alba, antice rotundata, obli- 
que plicata, plicis tenuibus, confertis, undulatis, postice vix angulata, costis radiantibus squamuliferis exsculpta. 

Hab. China Sea. 

The oblique plaits are finer in this species, whilst the radiating ribs of the posterior side 
are rather strongly developed. 

88. AMPHIDESMA, Lamarck. 

1. AiTPHiDESHA exaeata. PI. XXIV. Fig. 9. Amph. testa oblongo-ovata, alba, maculis perpaucis 
roseis pallide adspersa, concentrice costata, costis tenuibus, acutis, subrecurvis, interstitiis profunde exca- 
vatis, lineis pulcherrime decussatis. 

Hab. Sooloo Sea. 

Well distinguished by its numerous delicately recurved concentric ribs. 

2. Aiiphidesma simplex. PL XXIV. Pig. 11. Amph. testa ovata, crassiuscula, subtrigona, concen- 
trice tenuissime striata, rosaceo-alba, apicibus roseis, intus aurea, latere postico breviore, subflexuoso. 

Hab. China Sea. 

This species has very much the aspect of a small Tettina. 

89. MACTRA, Linnoeus. 

1. Mactra Thracioedes. PI. XXIII. Pig. 8. Mac. testa ovato-oblonga, inaequilatera, tenui, opaco- 
alba, concentrice plicata, plicis rotundatis, nndulatis, corrugatis, oblique striatis, latere postico longiore, 
subattenuato, late hiante. 

Hab. Eastern Seas. 

This very curious species is quite an abnormal form of Mactra, having much the appear- 
ance of a Tliracia. 

90. CRASSATELLA, Lamarck. 

1. Crassatella nana. PL XXIII. Pig. 2. C. testa subtrigono-ovata, compressa, concentrice sul- 
cosa, latere postico longiore, angulato, subflexuoso ; brunnea, rufescente obscure trifasciata. 

Hab. Eastern Seas. 



Several examples of this small species were collected at various localities in the Eastern 

2. Ceassatella picta. PI. XXIII. Kg. 6. Cras. testa trigono-ovata, crassa, gibbosa, concentrice 
rude plicata, plicis crassis rotundatis, virescente-alba, radiis aat maculis duabus rufo-castaneis conspicue picta. 

Hab. Philippine Archipelago. 

A stout solid shell characterized by two blotched red-chestnut rays on each valve. 

3. Ceassatella coeeugata. PL XXIII. Fig. 7. Cras. testa subtriangulari, crassa, gibbosa, antice 
declivi, rotundata, postice angulata, rubro-eastanea, obscure radiata, concentrice peculiariter undato- plicata, 
plicis corrugatis. 

Hab. Sooloo Sea. 

Very distinctly characterized by the waved corrugated folds with which it is sculptured. 

4. Ceassatella pallida. PI. XXIII. Pig. 9. Cras. testa oblonga, subtrigona, crassa, latere postico 
ruultb longiore, obtuse angulata, antico brevi, concentrice profunde sulcata, sordide alba, umbonibus rufes- 

Hab. China Sea. 

The absence of dark colouring is very unusual in this genus. 

5. Ceassatella compeessa. PL XXIII. Fig. 10. Cras. testa oblongo-ovali, valde compressa, latere 
antico rotundato, postico vix angulato, castaneo-brunnea, concentrice phcato-sulcata. 

Hab. Corean Archipelago. 
Remarkably compressed, with very simple sculpture. 


91. MY A, Linnmus. 

1. Mya Mindoeensis. PL XXHI, Fig. 13. M. testa ovato-oblonga, subcompressa, alba, epider- 
mide subfusca partim induta, latere antico rotundato, postico subtruncato. 

Hab. Mindoro Sea. 

This little shell appears to be a true adult Mya, though apparently young. 

92. THRACIA, Leach. 

1. Theacia geanulosa. PL XXHI. Fig. 16. Thr. testa ovato-oblonga, subsequilatera, alba, undique 
minute grauulata, transversim oblique plicata, plicis grandibus undulatis, ad latus posticum valvse superioris 
obsoletis, latere postico subtruncato. 

Hab. China Sea. 

An extremely interesting addition to this very limited genus. 


2. TnnAO iA trigonalis. PI. XXIV. Tig. 8. Tlir. testa trigono-ovata, subsequivalvi, irregulari, pellu- 

cido-alba, concentrice elevato-striata, antice rotundata, postice angulato-flexuosa, margine ventrali postice 


Hab. Sooloo Archipelago. 

We have some doubt of this being a true Thracia, but know not any genus to which it 
could be better referred. 

93. CORBULA, Lamarck. 

1. Corbijla ventricosa. PI. XXIII. Fig. 12. Cor. testa subtrigono-ovata, ventricosa, antice ro- 
tundata, postice paulxim longiore, angulata, subtruncata, sordide alba, epidermide fusca partim induta. 

Hab. China Sea. 

A very dull simple species, peculiar in form. 

2. Corbula variegata. PI. XXIII. Fig. 14. Cor. testa trigono-oblonga, latere postico multb 
longiore, attenuate, rostrate, valde augulato, concentrice plicato-costata, alba, croceo et rufo-spadiceo varie- 
gata, margine ventrali incrassato, roseo maculato. 

Hab. China Sea. 

A very conspicuously painted species, of quite a different type from the preceding. 

94. LYONSIA, Turton. 

1. Ltoxsia navicula. PL XXIII. Fig. 11. Lyon, testa oblonga, gibba, tenui, fragili, antice ro- 
tundata, postice cornpressiuscula, subtruncata, hiante, radiatirn striata et obscure lirata, liris distantibus, epi- 
dermide flaveola, margine ventrali flexuoso. 

Hab. Shores of Borneo (dredged from a depth of about eleven fathoms). 

A fine characteristic species, of which only a single specimen was collected. 

95. POROMYA, Forbes. 

1. Porohya pulchella. PI. XXIII. Fig. 1. Por. testa oblongo-ovata, tenui, fragili, alba, pellucida, 
nitente, concentrice pUcata, plicis obtusis, subdistantibus, antice rotundata, postice attenuata, rostrata. 

Hab. Shores of Borneo. 

A very delicate transparent species, of which many were collected on the coast of 

2. Poromya nitida. PL XXIII. Fig. 3. Por. testa subgloboso-trigonali, alba, seinipellucida, laevi, 
nitida, latere antico rotundato, postico acute acuminate-rostrate, concentrice sulcato, radiatirn impresso, ad 
marginem angulato, umbonibus phcato-sulcatis. 


Hab. Shores of Borneo. 
A smooth species, very sharply beaked on the posterior side. 

96. NE^ERA, Gray. 

1. Ne^ra Moloccana. PI. XXIII. Pig. 4. N. testa tenui, ovata, postice in rostrum angustum 
elongatum producta, alba, concentrice oblique plicata, plicis undulatis. 

Hab. Islands of the Molucca, Gillolo. 

An interesting elongately-beaked species, oblique wave-plaited across, after the manner 
of the Psammoiice. 

97. SOLEN, Linntms. 

1. Solen albida. PL XXIII. Pig. 15. Sol. testa oblonga, utrinque rotundata, tenui, fragili, albida, 
striis confertis concentricis, postice late hiante. 

Hab. Corean Archipelago. 

Very simply characterized, white, with a very light horny epidermis. 


98. PHOLAS, LinncBus. 

1. Pholas eivicola. PL XXIII. Pig. 5. (Sow. Thes. pi. cviii. f. 90, 91.) Pliol. testa clausa, cunei- 
formi, canali transverse divisa, parte antica oblique dimidiata, latere dorsaH striato, latere ventrali Isevi, sub- 
angulato, parte postica subelongata, lsevi, epidermide laminis angulatis marginibus serratis ornata, lamina 
dorsali subquadrata, in medio longitudinahter divisa. 

Hab. Pound burrowing in floating logs used as landing places at Gunung Taboor, twelve miles up 
the Pantai river, where the water was perfectly fresh. 

This species of Pholas, of which several specimens were collected, is chiefly interesting 
from the circumstance of its inhabiting a river, in a situation where the water was not 




Amphidesma exarata (Tab. XXIV. Fig. 9) . . . . 81 

simples (Tab. XXIV. Fig. 11) 81 

Ancillaria obtusa (Tab. XIII. Fig. 6 a, b) 3] 

Aplysia fimbriata (Tab. XVII. Fig. 2) 63 

lineolata (Tab. XVII. Fig. 1) 63 

nodifera (Tab. XVIII. Fig. 7) 64 

oculifera (Tab. XVII. Fig. 3) 64 

Argonauta gondola (Tab. I. Fig. 2<z to 2p; Tab. 

II. Fig. 2 q to 2 t) 3 

hians (Tab. III. Fig. 2 a) 4 

Owenii (Tab. III. Fig. 1 a, b, c, d) 4 

Artemis Dimkeri (Tab. XXI. Fig. 17) 78 

Auricula subula (Tab. XIV Fig. 15) 55 

Bomella Adamsii (Tab. XIX. Fig. 3) 67 

digitata (Tab. XIX. Fig. 1) 67 

Buceiuum albipunctatum (Tab. XL Fig. 21) ... 33 

clathratum (Tab. XI. Fig. 12) •. 32 

filosum (Tab. XI. Fig. 18) 33 

hiimulus (Tab. VII. Fig. 10 a, b) 32 

mitrella (Tab. XI. Fig. 13) 32 

Bulimus Adamsii (Tab. XV. Fig. 1 a, b) 58 

chloris (Tab. XIV. Fig. 10) : 58 

citrinus (Tab. XTV. Fig. 11) 58 

gregarius (Tab. XIV. Fig. 4) 58 

■ Meiacoshimensis (Tab. XIV. Fig. 5) 58 

Bulla Coreanica (Tab. XVIII. Fig. 3) 65 

soluta (Tab. XVIII. Fig. 2) 65 

vexilmm (Tab. XIX. Fig. 4) 65 

Voluta (Tab. XVIII. Fig. 5) . . . 66 

Calyptraea cancellata (Tab. XL Fig. 4) 70 

depressa (Tab. XL Fig. 2 s, i) 70 

plana (Tab. XI. Fig. 3) 70 

trigonalis (Tab. IX. Fig. 7 a, b) 70 

Cancellaria lyrata (Tab. X. Fig. 4) 42 

macrospira (Tab. X. Fig. 2) 41 

pynim (Tab. X. Fig. 16) 42 

semipellucida (Tab. X. Fig. 3, 3 a) 42 


Cardita ferrugmosa (Tab. XXI. Fig. 21) 76 

Cardium Adamsii (Tab. XXII. Fig. 2) 77 

aurantiacum (Tab. XXII. Fig. 4) 77 

Bechei (Tab. XXII. Fig. 12) 78 

Kalamantanum (Tab. XXII. Fig. 7) . 77 

modestum (Tab. XXII. Fig. 6) 77 

speeiosum (Tab. XXII. Fig. 9) 77 

Carmaria Atlantica (Tab. XIII. Fig. 12) 63 

Ceratosoma cornigerum (Tab. XIX. Fig. 5) . . . . 68 

Ceritliium articulatum (Tab. X. Fig. 14) 43 

longicaudatum (Tab. X. Fig. 15) 43 

obtusum (Tab. XIII. Fig. 3 a, b) 43 

Cbaraa laciniata (Tab. XXI. Fig. 20) 75 

Chemnitzia grandis (Tab. XL Fig. 17) 52 

Columbella fulgurans (Tab. XVII. Fig. 8) 34 

semipunctata (Tab. XIII. Fig. 7) 34 

tamiata (Tab. XL Fig. 19) 34 

Conus Borneensis (Tab. V. Fig. 8 a, b, c, d) ... 18 

floridulus (Tab. V. Fig. 9 a, b) IS 

papillaris (Tab. V. Fig. 7 a, b) 17 

pica (Tab. V. Fig. 10 a, b, c, d) IS 

pigmentatus (Tab. V. Fig. 11 a, b) 18 

Corbula variegata (Tab. XXIII. Fig. 14) 83 

ventricosa (Tab. XXIII. Fig. 12) S3 

Crassatella compressa (Tab. XXIII. Fig. 10) . . . 82 

■ comigata (Tab. XXIII. Fig. 7) S2 

nana (Tab. XXIII. Fig. 2) SI 

pallida (Tab. XXIII. Fig. 9) 82 

picta (Tab. XXIII. Fig. 6) S2 

Cyclostoma laeve (Tab. XIV. Fig. 3) 57 

reticulatum (Tab. XIV. Fig. 8 a, b) ...... . 57 

spiracellum (Tab. XIV. Fig. 1) 56 

■ tenebricosum (Tab. XIV. Fig. 6 a, b) . . . . 57 

Cyllene lugubris (Tab. X. Fig. 10) 33 

pulcneUa (Tab. X. Fig. 11) 33 

Cypraa (Tab. V. Fig. 4 a, i, c, 5, 6) 23 

Cyrenoida alata (Tab. XXIV. Fig. 12) 80 



Cyrenoida Coreensis (Tab. XXIV. Fig. 14) 80 

Cytherea virginea (Tab. XXIV. Fig. 10) 78 

Delphiuula stellaris (Tab. XL Fig. 7) 51 

Dentalium formosum (Tab. V. Fig. Is, J) .... 71 

Bolabella Bumphii (Tab. XVIII. Fig. 4) 65 

Ebuma areolata (Tab. VIII. Fig. 5) 33 

Eglisia tricarinata (Tab. XII. Fig. 8) 49 

Emarginula clathrata (Tab. XL Fig. 6) 69 

Erato callosa (Tab. X. Fig. 32 a, b) 25 

Eulima bilineata (Tab. XL Fig. 24) 52 

Mindorensis (Tab. XL Fig. 25) 52 

solidtda (Tab. XL Fig. 27) 53 

tortuosa (Tab. XL Fig. 26) 53 

unilineata (Tab. XL Fig. 23) 52 

Ficula laevigata (Tab. IX. Fig. 4) 39 

reticulata (Tab. IX. Fig. 5) 39 

FissureUa excelsa (Tab. XL Fig. 5) 70 

Fusus acus (Tab. VII. Fig. 3 a, V) 41 

gracillimus (Tab. VII. Fig. 1) 41 

spectrum (Tab. VII. Fig. 2) 41 

Goniodoris trilineata (Tab. XVII. Fig. 4, 4 a) . . 68 

Whitei (Tab. XIX. Fig. 6) 68 

Haliotis venusta (Tab. XIII. Fig. 5 a, b) 69 

Helix antiqua (Tab. XVI. Fig. 1) 61 

Batanica (Tab. XV. Fig. 5 a, b) 60 

— - Brookei (Tab. XV. Fig. 4 a, b) 60 

caliginosa (Tab. XVI. Fig. 6) 62 

calliostoma (Tab. XIV. Fig. 7 a, b) 59 

canescens (Tab. XVI. Fig. 10) 62 

conoidalis (Tab. XVI. Fig. 11) 63 

Coreanica (Tab. XVI. Fig. 2) 61 

curvilabrum (Tab. XIV. Fig. 9 a, b) 59 

decora (Tab. XVI. Fig. 7) 62 

densa (Tab. XVI. Fig. 8) 62 

immaeulata (Tab. XVI. Fig. 5) 62 

leucostoma (Tab. XVI. Fig. 3) 61 

Mackensii (Tab. XV. Fig. 6 a, b) 60 

obscurata (Tab. XIV. Fig. 18) 59 

orientalis (Tab. XVI. Fig. 4) 61 

plurizonata (Tab. XVI. Fig. 9) 62 

Tayloriana (Tab. XV. Fig. 2 a, b) 59 

tropidoptora (Tab. XIV. Fig. 14) 59 

Typinsana (Tab. XV. Fig. 3 a, b) 60 

vittata (Tab. XV. Fig. 7 a,b,c) 60 

Hemipecten Forbesianus (Tab. XX.) 73 

Hippagus novemcostatus (Tab. XXIV. Fig. 1) . . 76 

Iaiithina planispirata (Tab. XL Fig. 10) 54 

striolata (Tab. XL Fig. 9) 54 

Isocardia Moltkiana (Tab. XXII. Fig. 3) 77 


Isocardia tetragona (Tab. XXII. Fig. 1) 76 

Lima Basilanica (Tab. XXI. Fig. 6) 75 

orientalis (Tab. XXI. Fig. 7) 75 

Littorina castanea (Tab. XL Fig. 8) 49 

Loligopsis ellipsoptera (Tab. I. Fig. 1) 2 

Lucina fibula (Tab. XXIV. Fig. 5) 80 

sericata (Tab. XXIV. Fig. 6) 80 

Lyonsia navicula (Tab. XXIII. Fig. 11) 83 

Mactra Thraeioides (Tab. XXIII. Fig. 8) 81 

Mangelia trivittata (Tab. X. Fig. 9) 41 

Margarita bicarinata (Tab. XL Fig. 11 a, b). . . . 49 

Marginella diadochus (Tab. VII. Fig. 4 a, b, c) 28 

- — ■ onychina (Tab. X. Fig. 25) 29 

■ imdulata (Tab. VII. Fig. 5 a, b, c) 29 

Melampus leucodon (Tab. XIV. Fig. 17) 55 

Mitra dichroa (Tab. X. Fig. 29) 27 

incisa (Tab. X. Fig. 31) 27 

rubella (Tab. X. Fig. 30) 27 

■ rufflirata (Tab. X. Fig. 26) 26 

semisculpta (Tab. X. Fig. 28) 27 

Suluensis (Tab. X. Fig. 27) 26 

Murex Bumettii (Tab. VIII. Fig. 4 a, b) 38 

euvypteron (Tab. VIII. Fig. 1 a, b) 38 

plorator (Tab. VIII. Fig. 3 a, b) 38 

rorifluus (Tab. VIII. Fig. 2 a, b) 38 

Mya Mindorensis (Tab. XXIII. Fig. 13) 82 

Natica macrotremis (Tab. XIII. Fig. 9) 54 

Nesera Moluccana (Tab. XXIII. Fig. 4) 84 

Nucula Japonica (Tab. XXI. Fig. 9) 75 

mirabilis (Tab. XXI. Fig. 8) 75 

Oliva Mgurata (Tab. X. Fig. 12) 31 

Oniscia exquisita (Tab. V. Fig. 3 a,b) 35 

Ostaea pyxidata (Tab. XXI. Fig. 19) 72 

Ovulum acuminatum (Tab. VI. Fig. 1 a,}),.. . 21 

bulla (Tab. VI. Fig. 5«,4) 21 

bullatum (Tab. VI. Fig. 13 a, b) 23 

coarctatum (Tab. VI. Fig. 2 a, b) 21 

concinnum (Tab. VI. Fig. 8 a, b, c) 22 

dentatum (Tab. VI. Fig. 4 a, b) 21 

formosum (Tab. VI. Fig. 6 a, b) 22 

gracile (Tab. VI. Fig. 11 a, b, c) 22 

■ nubeculatum (Tab. VI. Fig. 12 a, b, c) . . . 23 

recur vuai (Tab. VI. Fig. 3 a, b, c) 21 

subreflexum (Tab. VI. Fig. 10 a, b) 22 

verrucosus (Tab. VI. Fig. 7) 20 

volva (Tab. VI. Fig. 9) 19 

Pecten asperulatus (Tab. XXI. Fig. 13) 74 

aurantiacus (Tab. XXI. Fig. 12) 74 

cristularis (Tab. XXI. Fig. 15) 74 




Pecten denticulatus (Tab. XXI. Fig. 14) 74 

fulvicostatus (Tab. XXI. Pig. 11) 74 

Reevei (Tab. XXI. Pig. 10 a, b) 73 

Pectuncnlus aspersus (Tab. XXII. Pig. 8) . . . . 76 

Belcheri (Tab. XXII. Fig. 5) 76 

Pliolas rivicola (Tab. XXIII. Fig. 5) 84 

Phorus exutus (Tab. XVII. Fig. 7) 50 

Solarioides (Tab. XVII. Fig. 6) 50 

Pileopsis astericola (Tab. XL Pig. 1) 69 

Pleurobranckus luniceps (Tab. XVIII. Fig. 6 a, b) 66 

Pleurotoma albicincta (Tab. X. Fig. 6) 40 

Coreanica (Tab. X. Pig. 8) 40 

fagina (Tab. IX. Fig. 2 a, b) 40 

Griffithii (Tab. XIII. Fig. 13) 40 

impages (Tab. IX. Fig. \a,b) 39 

leucotropis (Tab. X. Fig. 7) 40 

lurida (Tab. X. Pig. 5) 40 

Poromya nitida (Tab. XXIII. Fig. 3) 83 

pulchella (Tab. XXIII. Fig. 1) 83 

Psammobia denticulata (Tab. XXIV. Pig. 2) . . . 80 

flesuosa (Tab. XXIV. Fig. 3) 80 

rugulosa (Tab. XXIV. Fig. 4 a, b) 81 

Pupina Mindorensis (Tab. XIV. Fig. 2) 57 

Purpura cuspidata (Tab. XI. Pig. 35) 33 

Pyramidella magnifica (Tab. X. Pig. 1) 53 

Eanella albivaricosa (Tab. XIII. Fig. 4) 37 

Eissoa insignis (Tab. XL Fig. 20) 53 

Eostellaria rectirostris (Tab. V. Fig. 2 a, b, c) . . . 35 

P,teUa conica (Tab. XI. Fig. 22 a, b) 49 

i^alaria exirnia (Tab. XL Fig. 16) 51 

maculosa (Tab. XL Pig. 14) 51 

neglecta (Tab. XI. Fig. 15) 51 

Scarabus Cumingianus (Tab. XIV. Fig. 16) ... . 56 

imbrium (Tab. XIV. Fig. 13) 56 

trigonus (Tab. XIV. Pig. 12) 56 

Scyltea Grayse (Tab. XIX. Fig. 2) 67 

Sigaretus acuiuinatus (Tab. XIII. Fig. 8) 54 

insculptus (Tab. XIII. Fig 10) 55 

latifasciatus (Tab. XIII. Fig. 11) 55 

Siphonaria Coreensis (Tab. XIII. Pig. 1 a, b) . . 69 

radiata (Tab. XIII. Fig. 2 a, b) 69 

Siphonotus geographicus (Tab. XVIII. Fig. 1) . 64 

Solen albida (Tab. XXIII. Fig. 15) 84 

Spirula australis (Tab. IV. Fig. 2, 8) 6 

Peronii (Tab. IV. Fig. 1, 1* 4-7, 11, 15),'. 6 

reticulata (Tab. IV. Fig. 3, 9, 10) ". 6 

Strombus corrugatus (Tab. X. Fig. 19) 35 


Stylifer Astericola (Tab. XVII. Pig. 5) 47 

Terebra albicostata (Tab. X. Fig. 21) 30 

areolata (Tab. X. Fig. 23) 30 

caslata (Tab. X. Fig. 22) 30 

roseata (Tab. X. Fig. 24) 30 

— serotina (Tab. X. Pig. 20) 30 

torquata (Tab. X. Fig. 13) 30 

Terebellum subulatum (Tab. IX. Fig. 6) 36 

Terebratula abyssicola (Tab. XXI. Fig. 5) 72 

angusta (Tab. XXI. Fig. 2) 71 

Capensis (Tab. XXI. Fig. 4) 71 

Coreanica (Tab. XXI, Fig. 3) 71 

Japonica (Tab. XXI. Pig. 1) 71 

Thracia granulosa (Tab. XXIII. Fig. 16) 82 

trigonalis (Tab. XXIV. Fig. 8) 83 

Triphoris alveolatus (Tab. XL Fig. 30 a, b) 45 

■ dextroversus (Tab. XL Pig. 31 a, b) 45 

gemmulatus (Tab. XL Fig. 34 a, b) 46 

granulatus (Tab. XL Fig. 33 a, b) 46 

■ nodiferns (Tab. XL Pig. 37 a, b) 46 

pyramidalis (Tab. XL Fig. 36 a, b) 46 

speciosus (Tab. XL Fig. 28 a, b) 45 

suturalis (Tab. XL Pig. 29 a, b) 45 

verrucosus (Tab. XL Pig. 32 a, b) 45 

Triton monilifer (Tab. X. Pig. 18) 37 

pyrulum (Tab. X. Fig. 17) 37 

testudinarius (Tab. IX. Fig. 3 a, b) 37 

Turbinella Belcheri (Tab. VII. Fig. 7 a, b) ... . 42 

lanceolata (Tab. VII. Fig. 8) 42 

picta (Tab. VII. Fig. 9) 43 

Turritella bicolor (Tab. XII. Fig. 1) 47 

canaliculata (Tab. XII. Fig. 11) 49 

congelata (Tab. XII. Fig. 2) 47 

conspersa (Tab. XII. Fig. 3) 47 

declivis (Tab. XII. Fig. 10) 48 

■ ■ fastigiata (Tab. XII. Fig. 9) 48 

monilifera (Tab. XII. Fig. 6) 48 

multilirata (Tab. XII. Pig. 4) 48 

opalina (Tab. XII. Fig. 7) 48 

vittulata (Tab. XII. Fig. 5) 48 

Venus costellifera (Tab. XXI. Fig. 18) 79 

elegans (Tab. XXIV. Fig. 13) 79 

Labuana (Tab. XXI. Fig. 16) 79 

quadrangularis (Tab. XXIV. Fig. 7) . . . . 79 

Philippinarum (Tab. XXII. Pig. 10) ... . 79 

tessellata (Tab. XXII. Pig. 11) 79 

Voluta abyssicola (Tab. VII. Fig. 6 a, b, c, d) . . 25 



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J. HE first indication of the Crustacea which presented itself during the late Voyage of 
H.M.S. Saniarang, occurred on the 10th of June, 1843, as we slowly sailed through 
the Straits of Sunda, the surface of which being nearly cairn, was swarming with myriads of 
Stomapodons, such as the transparent Erichthus and Alima, together with several other 
genera, as Phronima, Nerocila, and Sphceroma. These were swimming apparently in 
dense masses near the surface, carried bodfly on by the current setting through the Straits, 
and darting about among themselves. The Nerocila and Sphceroma rapidly revolve in the 
water and swim in every direction, while Erichthus, Alima, and Phronima propel themselves 
more steadfly onwards by repeated flexion and extension of the abdomen. 

While the trawl supplied us with specimens of these, the employment of the dredge 
furnished us with several forms of Podosomatous spider-like Crustaceans, which occur, 
however, most frequently and in the greatest number among coral barriers surrounding 
islands, where they are found concealed among the coral branches and in the holes of 
madrepores. I have also taken them from tubular sponges and even from among the spines 
of the larger Echinoderms. We found them in large numbers in the Mindoro Sea, in twenty 
fathoms water and sandy bottom, on which occasion they were found entangled in huge 
bunches of a species of pinnatiferous keratophyte. Mr. Adam White, in the Proceedings 
of the Zoological Society, has described two new species of the genus Nymphon obtained in 
this manner, under the names of Nymphon Johnsionianum and Nymphon Phasma. 1 These 
Crustaceans are very slow and languid in their progression, moving their slender articulations 
but feebly. In the Straits, we likewise obtained by the dredge several fine specimens of the 

1 Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 2nd Ser. vol. i. p. 227. 


beautifully marked Galathea elegans, a figure of which we have given ; it is very active in 
its movements, darting backwards by sudden powerful jerks, snapping its fore-legs quickly 
together and producing a clicking noise ; when at rest the fore-legs are extended in the 
same line as the body, perfectly straight ; when swimming, the tail is first bent under the 
body and again forcibly reflexed backwards. Near the same spot a specimen of our very 
rare Tlos muriger was dredged at a depth of ten fathoms, with other species of Crustaceans, 
chiefly belonging to the genus Philyra and Leucosia. The Tlos, like Oreophorus and 
Leucosia, is apathetic and inert, slow in its progressive movements, and relying for security 
upon its stone-like form. Arrived among the islands of the China Sea, crustaceous animals 
were observed in all their prolific variety, for in these organisms, as in others, the existence 
of a high temperatm'e seems to increase their numerical importance, and invest them with 
more singular modifications of form and with greater brilliancy of colour. 

Two of the most remarkable Crustaceans to be met with among the group of islands 
next visited, namely, that of the Me'ia-co-shimah, are the Scopimera globosa of De Haan, and 
the Mycteris deflexifrons of the same naturalist. The former burrows in the muddy banks 
and sandflats, just above low-water mark, perforating the surface in every direction. In 
some parts of Koo-kien-san (one of this group) they are so numerous as to impart a peculiar 
colour to the shores, when seen at a distance. They walk but slowly and are very inactive 
in their habits ; when disturbed they make awkward scrambling habits to get out of sight, 
by burying themselves in the mud in the manner of certain Macroplitlialmi. The latter 
genus {Mycteris), although somewhat resembling the genus Ocypode in many particulars, yet 
differs considerably in regard to vivacity and locomotion ; like their swift-footed consimilars, 
they form superficial burrows in the sandy mudflats, into which they retreat in the same 
clumsy scrambling manner as do the Scopimerce on the approach of danger. In some parts 
of the Me'ia-co-shimahs I have ridden over many acres of sandy mud covered with these 
bright blue crabs, and on looking behind could perceive a dark straight line made by the 
passage of the horse, as he caused them to conceal themselves in the soil in his progress 
onwards. They delight to bask at the mouth of their apertures in the sun, just after the 
receding tide has left the flats partially dry, and appear then to be most on the alert in 
procuring food. Here likewise we met with a species of Gelasimus allied to G. Chloropthalmus 
of Professor Milne Edwards, with bright orange fore-legs, the left one being bigger than its 
carapace or, indeed, than the entire body, which inhabits burrows, formed obliquely among 


the grass in muddy places near the sea. The Ocypode ceratophthalma and other species are 
collected by the poorer classes as food ; they dig thern out of their deep sandy burrows with 
great eagerness and diligence, by means simply of their hands. I have seen the natives 
sometimes drive them out by insinuating a long pliant twig into the aperture, and have 
known them also pour water into the hole and so force its occupant to appear ; by minutely 
examining the foot-prints near the burrow, they are able to say with certainty whether it is 
vacated or occupied by an Ocypode. On the flat sandy beaches of this group, if the stones 
which the tide has left dry are turned over, hundreds of Porcellana are perceived shuffling 
along, with their bodies closely applied to the under surface of the stones, seeking protection 
by quickly gliding to the opposite side. Our species, P.pidchripes, is active and bustling 
in its habits, but another new species (P. versimand), found among the coral-reefs of 
Koo-kien-san, is apathetic and indolent, and the P. obesula, A. and W., which was dredged 
from twenty-four fathoms in the Sooloo Sea, was very sluggish in its movements. The 
Elamena wiguiformis of De Haan was found here also ; slow in its movements, it lurks 
concealed in holes of the under surface of stones below high-water mark. A species of 
Calappa, allied to C. spinosissima, is found in the shallow bays, which covers itself with sand, 
and when captured feigns death, folding the fore-legs close against the front and retracting 
the hind-legs under the carapace. All the species of Calappa that I have seen alive are 
timid and slow-moving. A species of Alpheus, probably new, inhabits pools under stones 
on the sandy beaches, and when disturbed makes a loud clicking noise by snapping together 
the claws of the fore-legs ; and in the padi-fields, a Gecarcinus, allied to G. lateralis, is very 
common, running about in all directions, feeding on the larvae of Libellulidce and other 

The Paguridce, or Pirate-Crabs, are very numerous throughout the shores of the Indian 
Islands, taking refuge, some in the prostrate bodies of decayed trees that usually lie upon 
the strand, some among the loose stones and in the dead leaves and underwood, and some 
even penetrating the verge of the forest and ascending the trees that border upon the sea. 
These are almost entirely terrestrial ; some, however, are quite littoral in their habits, while 
others again live at great depths. We obtained one species of Pagurus off the Cape of Good 
Hope, living in 230 fathoms water, which was remarkable for having fabricated a dwelling in 
the form of a univalve turbinated shell out of the dead Ancillarice which abound there, and 
which are covered with masses of alcyonoid sponge. In the Bashee Group, numerous fine 


specimens of the large Birgus latro were obtained. Respecting this species, which lives high 
up among the mountains, the natives of Batan (one of the islands of this group) tell very- 
remarkable stories, maintaining that it utters a sharp cry when caught, that it bites most 
severely and defends itself with desperation, that it carries its eyes in its tail, runs with 
surprising celerity backwards, feigning death when alarmed, and does much mischief in the 
cocoa-nut plantations by cutting down the young trees with its powerful fore-legs. From 
my own observation I may safely affirm that it runs swiftly backwards, feigns death when 
disturbed, feeds on fruits, and is of immense strength. They are esteemed, especially the 
female in spawn, great delicacies in these islands, and from experience I can say that the 
partiality for them seems well bestowed. We found the same species at the Meia-co-shimah 
Group of Islands, where they inhabit holes in the banks among the pine woods, and frequent 
the cemeteries, where they feed on the bodies of the dead, several being caught in the act by 
one of our officers. We obtained several live specimens, as large as a common Lobster, also 
from the Cocos or Keeling Islands, where they are said to be very destructive to the young 
cocoa-nut trees, and where their principal food consists of the pulp of the cocoa-nut, which 
they obtain through a round hole made by tearing away the fibres and breaking through the 
shell. On the flat, weedy, sandy beach of the island of Ibugos (another island of the Bashee 
Group) I observed a species of Callianassa, which digs pits in the sand in which it conceals 
itself until its prey is in the vicinity, when it seizes upon it and drags it below the surface. 

In many parts these islands are over-run with various kinds of Sesarma, the species of 
which differ very much in their habits. Among those I detected as belonging to the fauna 
of this group, one was found under stones, on sandy flats just below high-water mark ; 
another inhabited the coral reefs ; a third, fresh-water rivulets and pools, hiding under stones 
and logs, and chmbing the roots of trees with great facility. Another species, allied to 
8. qfflnis of De Haan, has the same habits, but running more about upon the dry land 
among the roots of grass, &c. One, of a marbled light sandy colour, with pale grey blotches, 
lives in holes in the sand ; another, with a hairy carapace, dark brown and purple, inhabits 

holes in the sandy beach above high-water mark ; while in Mindanao I found a species living 
in fresh-water rivulets among weeds, and in the forests of Celebes, another under damp 
stones and logs, at some considerable distance from any water. On the summits of the hills 
near the sea coast, particularly on those of Koo-kien-san, I procured numerous Talitri and 

Gammari, from among the roots of the long damp grass in the society of Tropidinoti and 


other orthopterous insects, and on one occasion observed the natives employing the Eriocheir- 
Japonicus, De Haan, as food, throwing them alive upon the embers of their fire, and, when 
burnt crisp, consuming them, shell and all. 

In the course of our dredgings in the China Sea, numerous new species of Leucosim 
were collected, generally affecting a sandy bottom, and living among the corallines and 
madrepores at considerable depths. They are seldom found in muddy places, but prefer 
deep sandy banks, where they move in a sluggish manner, and seem destitute of acute 
perceptions. Sufficiently protected by their hard porcellanous shells, they want the rapid 
progression and threatening attitudes assumed by many other genera. We have figured one 
of the most beautiful of these new discoveries, which is of a dead white colour covered with 
numerous round crimson spots. The genus Dorippe is another form very common in the 
China Sea, living in deep water, from twenty to thirty fathoms, on a muddy bottom. The 
Chinese fishermen often bring them up in their nets, and among large numbers which I 
have observed in their boats, I have found nearly every individual with an adventitious body 
(I believe an alcyonoid sponge) attached to the upper surface of the carapace, and retained 
in its position by the hooked claws of the two small posterior dorsal pairs of legs. This 
body is divisible into a thin brown layer, with concentric fibres, and an external white lamina 
with radiating fibres and a dark central nucleus. I have frequently noticed the same pecu- 
liarity in Dromia verrucosipes, and in many specimens both of Dorippe and Dromia which I 
examined in this condition, the carapaces were perfectly soft, as if this foreign body served 
them as a protection during the period of their moulting. The Caphyrea pectinicola, White, 
which was dredged by us in the Sunda Straits from thirteen fathoms, bears a small pecten 
shell in a similar manner, hooking itself on to the ears of the shell by the claws of its hinder 
legs, its soft carapace being thus secured from harm by this adventitious covering. Sir 
E. Belcher informs me that he discovered another species in the Gulf of Papagaya inhabiting 
the single valve of a Terebratula, which he states was in a partially softened condition. 
Many other genera, as Hyas, Maia, Arciopsis, Mithrax, and Pericera, are known to have 
similar propensities, loading their backs with foreign bodies, such as sponges, alga?, and other 
phytozooic and vegetable productions. 

Near Manado, in the island of Celebes, I visited a woody tract which harboured numbers 
of Gelasimi of several species, many of them of the most beautifully varied markings and 
colour. Among them were varieties of our G. bellator, of a green colour with black 



markings ; another was black, with two bright ultramarine spots in the middle of the 
carapace; while another species was grey, marbled with white, with an enormous light 
yellow chela. These Gelasimi cover the ground by thousands, stalking about in a deliberate 
manner, and holding up and occasionally snapping the claws of their huge fore-legs. 
Notwithstanding that they appear to be over-burdened with this unwieldy member, they are 
by no means easy to capture, but run quickly to the mouths of their burrows, where they 
remain stationary, holding up their fore-claws as organs of defence, and, if further pursued, 
retreat backwards into their holes, their bodies protected by the same member. In the 
pools of fresh water and under damp stones, a dark olive-green Sesarma with bright yellow 
blotches was obtained, and on the coast numbers of the elegant and agile Thelphusa grap- 
soides, which is found on the coral flats left dry by the receding tide. The Cliasmagnathus 
convexus of De Haan is another crab which appears to be rather common among the 
Philippine Islands. I have found it in the company of Xenophthahmis pinnotherides, in the 
firm black mud of Manila Bay, where it forms oblique cylindrical holes. 

Near the Dyak village of Samahrtan, not far from the mouth of the Lundu River in 
Borneo, there are certain mud-banks left dry at low-water, and which are perfectly cribriform 
with the cylindric holes of Gelasimi, Ocgpode, and other genera. When their communities 
are no longer flooded by the water, these Crustaceans make their appearance in large 
numbers, but retreat on the slightest alarm into their subterranean burrows. They are of 
every variety of colour, some of them being milk-white, some purple, others reddish and 
mottled, while many are perfectly black. So numerous are these crabs, that seen at a little 
distance they give the surface a variegated appearance, nearly obscuring the original colour 
of the mud. 

In many parts of Borneo, as soon as the water recedes from the shore on the ebbing of 
the tide, and the large firm mud-flats are left exposed, numbers of Crustaceans of different 
genera and species issue from their various holes and hiding-places. The males of many 
species, after looking cautiously around them, stalk a few paces with their huge fore-legs 
raised, the claws of which they snap frequently together, producing a slight clicking sound, 
then rushing eagerly towards the females they embrace them with their fore-legs. The 
salute is very brief, and is immediately followed by the swift retreat of the females into their 
different burrows. Other species are seen feeding on worms and shell-fish, feeding alternately 
first with one hand and then with the other. The common species of Grapsus varius is 


found running over the rocks near the sea, feeding on the Blennies and Periophlhahni that 
quit the water occasionally ; they feed also on the different Cirripedes. There is one species 
(67. latifrons, White) that I have found inhabiting fresh-water rivulets and ponds, which, 
however, has aU the- quick and wary habits of the other species, and when pursued hides 
under weeds and stones. Among numerous other forms observed along the Bornean coast, 
I may allude to the Sicyonia of Edwards, which swims in a slow and deliberate manner 
forwards, and occasionally propels itself backwards with a sudden jerk ; it keeps at a con- 
siderable distance from the shore, and appears to love deep still water. 

The Spheromce are generally obtained in company with Cymodocece, Cypridinm, Amphi- 
podece, and others, among dense masses of floating sea-weeds, where they appear to lead an 
active predatory life amid the populous mazes of the Sargassum, &c. They are constantly 
spinning and darting about, rolling up their bodies into a ball, then straightening them, and 
crawling among the algse and keratophytes, with a great deal of vivacity. Among the 
collection brought home in the Samarang, are several species not before known to Crusta- 
ceologists. Like the genera Tlienus and Ibacus, the Scyllarus lives at some distance from 
the shore, and in tolerably deep water. It swims in the manner of Crangon, by rapid 
inflexions of the abdomen, occasionally springing through the water with the greatest 
velocity in a backward direction, and, when caught, wounds the hands with its tail, throwing 
it about with violent jerks. At Unsang in Borneo, which was the next place visited, I 
discovered a new species of Alope, (White,) an active restless Crustacean, darting and whirling 
forwards and backwards, and frequently producing a loud clicking noise by snapping the 
claws of their fore-legs, in the manner of Callianassa and Sqidtta. Specimens were found 
under nearly every stone which I turned on the beach at low water. The Gonodactyli 
appear to differ slightly from the Squillee in their habits, inasmuch as they are generally 
found in deeper water, whereas the Squillee affect the shallow, weedy, and sandy bottoms, 
within coral-reefs and on flat beaches, where they hide in holes of the banks of pools, across 
which they dart occasionally in straight lines, leaving a turbid track behind them. Both 
genera have, however, the same power of producing a loud clicking noise with the claws of 
their fore-legs, and of inflicting very severe wounds with their chelae, using them in a 
scythe-like manner, like the Mantis which they resemble. The Trapezia are tolerably lively 
in their habits, with the same manner of hiding and shuffling under stones as the Porcellance, 
but unlike them they inhabit the coral branches and madrepores of deep sunken reefs. 


Many species of Idotea and Iara would appear to inhabit the sea-weed along the shores, as 
well as that found floating on the high seas. At the island of Quelpart, I found a large and 
singular species in considerable numbers in the former situation, and in the Sea of Celebes 
I met with several new forms among algse far from land. Off Tampassook in Borneo, to 
which island we again returned, several Ix<e were obtained by the dredge, one of which (our 
I. megaspis) was new to science ; they inhabit very deep water, and are inactive and feeble. 
Near the same part of the coast several specimens of Partkenqpe, which simulated death 
when taken, and species of Lambrus and Arcania, which have similar habits, likewise were 
obtained from a rocky bottom by means of the dredge. Off Balambangan, our new genus 
Ceratocarcinus was procured from twelve fathoms water ; and at Unsang, on the east coast; 
another new genus, our Cosmonotus, was dredged among the clear sandy pools within the 
reef-barrier, which extends along a part of the coast ; and near the mouth of the Pantai River 
a third new genus, our Zebrida, rewarded our research, the habits of which Crustaceans are 
alluded to in the following pages. On the return of the Samarang across the Atlantic, at 
which we have now arrived, Erichthi and Alimce, with their spiny carapaces and elongated 
abdomens, were obtained, by trawling, in large numbers, swimming in an erratic manner on 
the surface when the water was calm. Among the vast quantities of Acalephce which 
became entangled in the trawls, were several containing living Phronima, which, on being 
extricated, swam freely about. Here also was obtained, at the same time as Nemichthys of 
Richardson, 1 our new genus Rhabdosoma, which swims by suddenly straightening its body 
when in a bent position, moving either backwards or forwards ; it is sluggish in its move- 
ments compared with other Hyperiada. The Phyllosomata, diaphanous and sluggish of 
movement, were frequently assembled during this calm by many thousands on the surface 
of the Atlantic, and, together with numbers of anomalous Zocecs, afforded ample amusement 
during the protracted passage. Among the Entomostracous Crustacea, several specimens of 
Cypridinae of large size (C. Adamsii, Baird 2 ) were obtained, as they were revolving and 
darting about the surface. The specimens described and figured in the following pages are 
deposited in the British Museum. A. A. 

1 Vide Fishes, PI. X. Fig. 1. 2 Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 2nd Ser., vol. i. p. 21. 





In the family Inachidce we have been fortunate enough to discover a new species of 
Inachus, and a remarkable form of Oncindpus, both from the Eastern Seas ; species of 
Doclea, Camposcia, and Egeria were collected, those genera appearing to be principally 
exotic, while but few species of Inachus, Leptopodia, or Stenorynclms were noticed among 
the islands of the Eastern Archipelago, they being chiefly confined, in their geographic 
distribution, to other zoological regions. All the members of this small, though singular, 
group are passive in defence, having a tendency either to conceal themselves in sponges and 
among the tangles of Keratophytes and Alga?, or, as is the case with Camposcia, to cover 
themselves with foreign bodies, so as to be almost undistinguishable from the marine objects 
that surround them. They are feeble in their articulations, and extremely inert and slow- 
moving when disturbed in their lurking places. 

1. ONCTNOPUS, Be Hamu 

1. ONCTNOPUS NEPTUNUS, Adams $ White. Tab. II. Fig. 1. 

Fronte profunde incisa; lobis frontis angularibus; secundo et tertio paribus pedum admodum 
gracilibus ; vix ter et dimidio longioribus thorace ; quarto et quinto paribus thorace vix ter longioribus. 

Thorace longitudine septem linearum, latitudine quinque ; trigonali, postice lato, ad frontem paullatim 
angustiore, tomentoso, compluribus, brevibus, acutis, aculeatis processibus prsesertim ad partem posteriorem 
circumdato ; regionibus mediis et branchialibus depressione haud admodum profunda separatis ; posteriore 
parte sulco transverso inter thoracem et post-abdomen : corpore excavato inter quintum par pedum ; 



thorace subdilatato lateraliter supra insertiones secundi, tertii, et quarti pedum parium, sed inde ad frontis 
apicem omuino integro. 

Fronte ad extrernitatem anteriorem declinata, a thorace liaud plane distincta, ultra medium emarginata, 
atque incisa antice, efficiente duos lobos qui ad extremitates rotundati sunt. 

Chelis sequalibuSj subgracilibus, brevibus densis tenuibus setis coopertis ; brachio subcylindrico ad 
oculos introrsum curvato, longis, fortibus, paululum curvatis setis utrimque fimbriato; carpo convexo et 
extrorsum inclinato ; manu lateraliter compressa, convexa externe, concava interne, infra rotundata, supra 
subangulari ; digito breviore, lsevi, curvato, et minutim denticulato. 

Secundo et tertio paribus pedum thorace vix ter dimidioque longioribus ; multo crassioribus, majoribus et 
longioribus quarto et quinto paribus ; tertio articulo cylindrico et antice paullo latiore ; quarto articulo elongate, 
conicali, longis setis utrimque fimbriato ; quinto articulo tertio longiore tertia parte, margine anteriore leniter 
curvato, posteriore dilatato, arcuato, longis, bene dispositis, ciliatis processibus retro directis utrimque 
fimbriato, supra leniter sulcato, infra profundis canahbus ; chelis dilatatis, admodum curvatis, supra sulcatis, 
setis longis fortibusque utrimque fimbriatis ; apice curvato et acuto. 

Quarto et quinto pedum paribus thoracem fere ter longitudine superantibus ; secundo et tertio paribus 
multo gracilioribus atque minoribus ; tertio et quarto articulo fere simili longitudine ; quinto articulo brevi, 
lato, depresso incurvato ; chelis dilatatis, acutis, et chelis reliquorum pedum crassioribus. 

Hab. Mare Mindorum. 

Front deeply incised, lobes of the front angular ; second and third pairs of legs very 
slender, nearly three times and a half the length of the carapace ; fourth and fifth pairs nearly 
three times as long as the carapace. 

Carapace about seven lines long and five wide, trigonal, broad behind, gradually 
becoming narrower towards the front, tomentose, and beset with numerous short, sharp, 
sting-shaped processes, particularly towards the hinder part ; middle and branchial regions 
separated by a rather superficial impression, posteriorly a transverse groove between the 
carapace and abdomen ; body hollowed out between the fifth pair of legs, carapace a little 
dilated laterally above the insertions of the second, third, and fourth pairs of legs, but per- 
fectly entire from this to the apex of the front. 

Front bent down towards the anterior extremity, not distinctly separated from the cara- 
pace, emarginate beyond the middle, and deeply notched anteriorly, forming two lobes which 
are rounded at the ends. 

Fore-legs equal in size, rather slender, covered with short, close-set, fine hairs ; third joint 
subcylindrical, curved inwards towards the eyes, fringed on each side with long, stiff, slightly- 
curved hairs ; fourth joint convex and bent outwards ; fifth joint somewhat laterally com- 
pressed, convex externally, concave internally, rounded below, rather angular above ; claws 
rather short, smooth, curved, and finely denticulated. 

Second and third pairs of legs nearly three times and a half longer than the carapace, 
much stouter, larger and longer than the fourth and fifth pairs ; third joint cylindrical, and a 
little wider anteriorly ; fourth joint elongated, conical, fringed on each side with long hairs ; 
fifth joint a third longer than the third joint, the anterior margin slightly curved, the posterior 
dilated, arched, fringed with long, regular, ciliated processes on each side, directed back- 


wards, slightly grooved above, and deeply channelled below ; claws dilated, much curved, 
grooved above, fringed on each side with long, stout hairs, curved and sharp at the ends. 

Fourth and fifth pairs of legs nearly three times as long as the carapace, much smaller 
and more slender than the second and third pairs ; third and fourth joints about equal in 
length: fifth joint short, broad, flattened, incurved; claws dilated, sharp and stouter than 
the claws of the other feet. 

Hab. Sea of Mindoro ; fifteen fathoms. 

This species comes very near the Oncinopus aranea of De Haan, Faun. Japon. (tab. xxix. 
f. 2), but its carapace is much smaller in comparison with the length and slenderness of the 
legs. The fore-legs are much slenderer and of greater length ; the fourth and fifth pahs of 
legs are nearly three times as long as the carapace ; whereas in 0. aranea they are only twice 
the length of the carapace ; the second and third pairs of legs are nearly three and a half times 
longer than the carapace, the front is more deeply incised, and the lobes are very angular. 

The Oncinopi, like the Inachi, live in rather deep water, more particularly in coral 
bottoms, and where Keratophytes and other zoophytic forms abound. Among the branches 
of these, like aquatic spiders in their webs, these apathetic crustaceans entangle their elongated 
limbs ; they are, like the Pholci among Arachnidans, very inert and feeble, and excessively 
slow and languid in their movements. 


Pedibus quartis et quintis anterioribus brevioribus, tarsis curvatis ; thoracis lateribus integris. 

Hab. Maria Orientalia (M. Mindorum) ; Adams. 

Fourth and fifth pairs of legs shorter than the anterior pairs, tarsi curved, sides of the 
thorax entire. 

Hab. Eastern Seas (Sea of Mindoro). 

2. INACHUS, Fabricius. 

1. INACHUS LOEINA, Adams fy White. Tab. II. f. 2. 

Eegionibus ventricularibus et cardiacis convexis, bitubercularibus ; oculorum pedunculis uni-spinosis. 

Thorace trigono, supra convexo, regionibus laterakbus paullo latioribus intermedia regione ; tliorace ad 
latera post oculos attenuato : spina tuberculari paullo prominente ad antelateralem thoracis partem ; duobus 
validis magnis tuberculis in linea intermedia in superiore thoracis superficie, quae tuberculis minutis graira- 
laribus et setis longis, tenuibus, sparsisque distinguitur. 

Fronte vix ad finem brachii antennarum exteriorum pertinente, profunde sulcato inter canthos in linea 
secunda, et valido jugo longitudinali in utroque latere; apice truncato, horizontali, in medio paululmn 
emarginato, duobus terminalibus grandiusculis lobis adornatis compluribus, rectis et crassis setis. Canthis 
integris ad partem superiorem arcuatis et paululum protendentibus ; oculorum pedunculis lateraliter directis 
extra canthos spina longiore et prseacuta in parte anteriore posita, ; antennis exterioribus tliorace fere dimidio 

Chelis thorace dimidio longioribus, marginibus exteriore et interiore fimbriatis ; longis, validis, curvatis 


setis, ex ordine dispositis ; bracliio trigono ; carpo supra convexo et extrorsum curvato ; manu extra con- 
vexa, intra concava, introrsum curvata, supra et infra obtusa; unguibus introrsuin inclinatis, deorsum 
curvatis, longioribus, compressis, margine inferiore ad basin sinuato; marginibus utrisque minutim denticulatis; 
uno majore dente ad utriusque basin. 

Primo pari pedum posteriorum admodum gracili et elongato, quintuplo et dimidio thorace longiore ; 
secundo pari vix tanta longitudine ; femoribus cylindricis paululum tornentosis, serie setarum curvarum in 
parte posteriore; tibiis tertia parte longitudinis femorum, parte anteriore setis incurvatis obsita; tarsis 
femora longitudine sequantibus compluribus breviusculis setis, inter quas setse majores sparsee inveniuntur; 
unguibus setis perlongis, tenuibus, gracilibus coopertis. Abdomine in femina sex-articulato. 

Hab. Maria OrientaKa (littus Mindanauru). 

Ventricular and cardiac region convex, bitubercular, peduncles of the eyes with one spine. 

Carapace trigonal, convex above, lateral regions rather wider than that of the middle 
region, carapace narrowed at the sides behind the eyes, a tubercular, rather prominent spine 
on the antero-lateral part of the carapace, two strong and large tubercles, in the middle line, 
on the upper surface of the carapace, which is, moreover, covered with minute granular 
tubercles, and long, thin, scattered hairs. 

Front not quite extending as far as the end of the second joint of the external antennae, 
deeply grooved between the orbits, in the middle line, and with a strong longitudinal ridge on 
each side : apex truncated, horizontal, slightly emarginated in the middle, with the two 
lateral, terminal, slightly-developed lobes, tufted with numerous straight and stiff setae ; orbits 
entire, arched at the upper part, and slightly projecting ; peduncles of the eyes protruding 
laterally considerably beyond the orbits, with a rather long and sharpened spine situated on 
the anterior part ; external antennae scarcely half as long as the carapace. 

Fore-legs one and a half times the length of the thorax, with the outer and inner edges 
fringed with long, stiff, curved hairs very regularly disposed ; third joint trigonal ; fourth joint 
convex above, and bent outwards ; fifth joint convex externally, concave internally, curved 
inwards, obtuse above and below, claws bent inwards, curved downwards, rather long, com- 
pressed, inferior edge sinuated near the base, both edges finely denticulated, each with one 
larger tooth near the base. 

First pah' of hinder legs very slender, much elongated, five times and a half the length 
of the carapace, second pair of posterior legs hardly as long, femora cylindrical, slightly 
tomentose, with a row of curved hairs on the posterior part ; tibiae a thud of the length of 
the femora, the anterior part beset with incurved hairs, tarsi as long as the femora, with 
numerous rather short hairs, and having longer hairs scattered among them ; claws covered' 
with very long, fine, slender hairs. Abdomen, in the female, six-jointed. 

Hab. Eastern Seas (Shores of Mindanao). 

This species comes very near Inachus (Achceus) Japonicus of De Haan, Faun. Japon- 
p. 99. t. xxix. f. 3, but the middle region has two strongly-marked tubercles, and the peduncles 
of the eyes have but one spine instead of four. The legs are also much longer in proportion 
than in A. Japonicus. 


3. ACHiEUS, Leach. 


Eegione ventriculi et cordis convexa ; oculorum pedunculis 4-spinulosis. 

Hab. Japoniam. 

Ventricular and cardiac regions, convex ; peduncles of the eyes with four small spines. 
Hab. Japan. 

Inachis (Aclums) Japonieus, De Haan, F. J. p. 99. t. 29. f. 3 (femina). 

. 4. LATREILLIA, Boux. 


Major, thoracis regione ventriculi unispinosa; pedibus postreinis anteriorum pedum feruoribus lon- 
gioribusj abdominis feminae articulo quarto medio non spinoso; spinis frontalibus in utroque sexu integris, 
tertia parte thoracis brevioribus. 

Japonice MMm MM gani, i. e., Cancer in formam Polygoni filiformis. 

Hab. Japomam. 

Rather large, thorax with one spine in the ventricular region ; the hind feet longer than 
the femora of the anterior feet ; the fourth joint of the abdomen, in the female, not spiny in 
the middle ; the frontal spines, in both sexes, entire, shorter than a third part of the thorax. 

Called in Japanese Midsu MM gani, or Crab of the shape of a filiform Polygonum. 

Hab. Japan. 
Latreillia valida, De Haan, F. J. p. 107. t. 30. f. 1 (femina). 


Minor, thorace in regione ventriculi unispinoso, pedibus postreinis femoribus prfecedentium brevioribus ; 
abdomine femineo medio bispinoso; spinis frontalibus tertia parte longitudinis thoracis brevioribus, in 
feminis bispinulosis. 

Hab. Japoniam. 

Rather small, thorax with one spine in the ventricular region, the hind feet shorter than 
the femora of the preceeding ; abdomen, in the female, with two spines in the middle line ; 
frontal spines one third shorter in length than the thorax, in the female, bispinulose. 

Hab. Japan. 

Latreillia Phalangium, De Haan, F. J. p. 108. t. 30. 



Cornibus frontis extrorsum inflexis ; canthis parte superiore 4-spinosis. 

Japonice Sima-Gani, i.e., Cancer insularis. 
Hab. Littus orientale Nipponense {Mus. Brit.). 



Horns of the front bent outwards, the upper part of the orbits four-spined. 

In Japanese Sima-Gani, or insular Crab. 

Hab. The eastern shores of Niphon ; Japan. 

Inacliiis (Maorocheira) Kampferi, De Haan, F. J. p. 100. t. 25. (mas.) t. 27 et28 (femina) ; Rsempfer, 
Beschr. von Japan. 1. p. 158. torn. 14. A. (Brac/dum maris adulti). 

6. CAMPOSCIA, Latreille. 

1. CAMPOSCIA RETUSA, Latreille. 

Thorace fere dimidio longiore quam latiore, fronte latissima, truncata, desinente in duobus parvis 
tuberculis quse ad basilarem articulum antennarum exteriorum fere pertinent ; dente validissimo ad partem 
lateralem thoracis, spatio satis magno post oculos ; pedibus prioribus cylindricis, digito parum vabdo desinen- 
tibus, paululum introrsum curvatis, ad margines denticulatis, cavis punctis in sulco, tertio pedum pari 
ferme dimidio longiore quam corpus. 

Hab. Insulas Philippinas. 

Carapace about as long again as wide, front very wide, truncated, and terminating in 
two little tubercles which nearly extend as far as the basilar joint of the external antennas ; 
a very strong tooth on the lateral part of the carapace at some distance behind the eyes. 

Fore-legs cylindrical, terminated by a weak pincer, slightly curved inwards, denticulated 
at the edges with hollow puncta in the groove, the third pair of legs nearly twice as long as 
the body. 

Hab. Philippine Islands (Guimaras) ; Cuming. 

Camposcia retusa, Latr. R. Anim. t. 4. f. 61; Guerin. Icon. t. 9. f. 1 ; Edw. Crust, t. 1. p. 283. 
t. 15. f. 16. 

The Camposcia retusa, in its young state, has the carapace smooth and shining, and the 
legs, which appear rather slender, are but slightly tomentose ; as it advances in life, the 
carapace and legs become covered with a thick, woolly, yellowish-brown tomentum, and, in 
advanced age, the entire animal is concealed by a covering of Sponges, Corallines, Algae, 
Actinias, and Alcyonia, beneath which it is impossible to recognise the species. The dissimilar 
aspect presented by this species, under these various conditions, is splendidly illustrated by 
a suite of specimens in the collection of the British Museum. 

The species is widely distributed, and the materials with which their bodies are covered 
appear to depend upon the localities in which they are found. Specimens from the Mauritius 
are covered with fine corallines and algae, while those from the Philippines are concealed 
altogether by stones and sponges. 

7. EGERIA, Latreille. 

1. EGERIA INDICA, Latreille. 

Interiore margine tertii articuH maxillarum exteriorum recto, et ad angulum prominente. 

Hab. Oceanum Indicum. 


Inner edge of the third joint of the external maxillae straight and prominent at its 


Hab. Indian Ocean. 

Egeria indica, Leacli, Zool. Misc. vol. 2. t. 73. Edw. Crust, vol. 1. p. 292. 

2. EGEBIA LONGIPES, (E. Herbstii,) Edwards. 

Fionte permagna, longitudine ter ampliore quam latitudine ; csetera Egerise Arachnoidi similibus. 

Hab. Insulas Philippinas (Zebu) ; Cuming. 

Front very large, three times as wide as long ; in other respects like Egeria Arachnoides. 
Hab. Philippine Islands. 

8. DOCLEA, Leacli. 

1. DOCLEA CALCLTBAPA, White, (t. 1. f. 2.) 

Thorace septemdecim niagnis spinis in latere lateribusque, et sedeeim tuberculis minoribus in superficie 
superiore ; septem magnis spinis in medio thorace, sex erectis quarum sexta e basi spina? admodum 
elongatse horizontahs terminahs exoritur ; postrema spinarum in latere rehquis tribus multo longiore. Tota 
superficies setis obsita fuisse videtur. Quatuor paria pedum posteriorum perlonga atque gracilia sunt. 

Thoracis latitudo unum pollicem, quatuor hneas ; longitudo unum pollicem, decern Kneas. 

Hab. Insulas Philippinas (Zebu) ; Cuming. 

Carapace with seventeen large spines on the back and sides, and sixteen smaller 
tubercles on the upper surface ; seven of the large spines down the middle of carapace, six 
of them erect, the sixth springing from the base of the much-elongated, horizontal, terminal 
spine ; the last of the spines of the side much longer than the other three. The whole sur- 
face seems to have been covered with hairs. The four hind pairs of legs are very long and 

Breadth of carapace, one inch, four lines ; length, one inch, ten lines. 

Hab. Philippine Islands (Zebu) ; Cuming. 

A species distinguishable at first sight from the four species hitherto described, of all of 
which there are specimens in the British Museum. 

2. DOCLEA OVIS, Edwards. 

Nulla spina mediana in posteriore thoracis margine. 
Hab. Chin am. 

No median spine on the posterior border of the carapace. 

TTat* China 

Hab. China 

Doclea ovis, Edw. Crust, vol. i. p. 294. Cancer ovis, Herbst. vol. i. p. 210. t. 20. f. 82. Inaehus 
ovis, Pabr. Ent. Syst. Suppl. 355. Ifaia ovis, Bosc. t. 1. p. 256. Latr. Hist. Nat. des Crust, t. 4. p. 100. 

3. DOCLEA HYBRID A, Edwards. 

Posteriore thoracis margine in linea mediana parva spina armato ; marginibus latero-anterioribus 
thoracis quatuor brevibus spinis armatis posteriore non rehquis majore ; secundo pedum pari fere dimidio 
longiore thorace. 

Hab. Indiam. 


Posterior margin of the carapace armed on the median line with a small spine : latero- 
anterior borders of the carapace armed with four short spines, the posterior of which is not 
larger than the others : second pair of legs not quite twice the length of the carapace. 

Hab. India. 

Boclea liylrida, Edw. Crust. 1. 294 ; Inachns hgbridus, Pabr. Suppl. p. 355 ; Jlfaia hyhrida, Bosc. 
t. 1. p. 256 ; Latr. Hist. Nat. des Crust, t. 6, p. 99. 


Posteriore thoracis margine magna, mediana, spina, armato ; latero-anterioribus marginibus quatuor 
spinis arrnatis, posteriore reliquis multo majore. 
Hab. Indiam. 

Posterior margin of the carapace armed with a large median spine ; latero-anterior 
margins armed with four spines, the posterior of which is much larger than the others. 
Hab. India. 

Doclea muricata, Edw. Crust. 1. 295; Cancer muricatus, Herbst. 1. 211. t. 14. f. 83.; Fabr. Ent. 
Syst. Suppl. 355. 


In the family of the Maidce, many new and interesting forms, hitherto unknown, are 
here, for the first time, indicated, including two new genera and seventeen new species. In 
their habits, these Crustacea resemble the Inachidce, being very inert and apathetic, not 
using their chela? in self-defence, and covering themselves very frequently with foreign bodies. 
They appear to be diffused pretty equally over the globe, Chorinus being found both in the 
east and west : Mithrax and Libinia seem to be confined to the New World ; Micippe and 
Pericera are tropical genera, as are also Huenia and Mencsthius; while Maia, Hyas, 
Jrctopsis, and Pisa, are found in the countries of Europe. 

1. PISA, Leach. 

1. PISA SINOPE, Adams Sf White. 

Thorace serie tuberculorum magnitudine diversa, in linea intermedia, serie septem tuberculorum in 
quaque regione laterak' ; proprius lineam intermedial quinque abis tuberculis seriatim dispositis ; lateribus 
quinque spinis, postrema reliquis rigidiore et eminentiore ; tota superficies thoracis, tuberculis admodum 
minutis et tenuibus, curvatis, sparsis setis obsita est. Fronte duobus spinis rigidis, divaricantibus, curvatis 
setis circumdatis ; superiore canthorum margine piano spina una, antice et spina rigida angulari projecta 
profunda incisione in fronte. Clielis lsevibus, postfrontalem thoracis partem longitudine exsequantibus • 
pedes poderioribits fuscis tuberculis admodum minutis obsitis, et tenuibus sparsis setis circumdatis. 

Hab. Insulas Philippinas. 

Carapace with a row of tubercles varying in size in the middle line, a row of seven 
tubercles in each lateral region, internal to these, nearer the middle line, five other tubercles 
in a linear series ; sides with five spines, the hind one stronger and more prominent than the 


rest ; entire surface of carapace covered with very minute tubercles and fine, curved, scattered 
seta?. Front Math two strong, divaricating spines, beset with curved setae ; upper margin of 
orbits plane, with a single spine anteriorly, and a strong, angular spine directed forwards, 
with a deep notch in front. Fore-legs smooth, as long as the postfrontal portion of the cara- 
pace ; hindlegs covered with very minute, brown tubercles, and beset with thin scattered hairs. 
Hab. Philippine Islands. 

2, PISA PLAN ASIA, Adams fy White. Tab. II. Pig. 4 & 5. 

TJwrace niajore longitudine quam latitudine, ovato-trigonali, superficie lsevi quasi denudata, sparsis 
cristulis setaium fuscarum atque villosaruin, ad partem posteriorem minutim granulosa ; parva spina 
tuberculari paululum eminente in medio tuberculo ventriculari ; parva. eminente spina in media quaque laterali 
vel branchiali regione ad partem posteriorem posita ; tribus, parvis tuberculis supra earn seriatim dispositis 
in partem anteriorem thoracis pertinentibus ; marginibus lateralibus postice integris, tribus obtusis 
paululum eminentibus spinis ad partem anteriorem, quam ad partem thorax angustus subito fit. 

Fronte duabus, robustis, eminentibus, breviusculis, parallelis spinis, ad apices paululum incurvatis, et 
crassis, validis, curvatis setis obsitis ; canthis antice integris, postice profunde incisis, eminente, obtuso, 
angulari, tuberculo post incisionem. 

Chelis lsevibus, parvis, gracilibus, paribus, raris, longis, crassis setis obsitis ; carpo subcylindrico 
introrsum curvato et antice majore ; manibus brevibus rotundatis, atque curvatis, duobus parvis tuberculis 
in superficie exteriore et superiore; digitis subgracilibus, subcylindricis lateraliter compressis, et longis, 
crassis, raris setis obsitis ; unguibus in medio paululum hiantibus, introrsum curvatis et minutim 

Secundis et tertiis paribus pedum, toto atque dimidio thorace longioribus, denso, fusco tomento adopertis, 
carpis subcylindricis antice dilatatis ; manibus elongate conicalibus ; quartis et quintis paribus pedum 
secundis et tertiis brevioribus ; unguibus acutis, validis, atque curvatis. 

Abdomine maris sex articulis, serie tuberculorum eminentium in linea intermedia ; articulo secundo 
latissimo tuberculo papilliformi ad utrumque latus tuberculi intermedii ; reliquis segmentis paullatim 
angustioribus, postremo triangulari et acuminato. Abdomine femince ovato admodum convexo atque 
dilatato, quinque articulis, prostremo articulo late trigonali. 

Hab. Mare Sinense. 

Carapace longer than wide, ovately trigonal, surface smooth, as if denuded, with scat- 
tered tufts of brown, villose hairs, and finely granulose towards the hinder part ; a small, 
slightly prominent tubercular spine in the centre of the ventricular prominence ; a small 
prominent spine in the middle of each lateral or branchial region, situated towards the 
posterior part, and three small tubercles arranged above this, in a linear series, extending 
towards the fore part of the carapace ; lateral margins entire, posteriorly, with three obtuse, 
slightly prominent spines towards the anterior part, at which situation the carapace becomes 
suddenly contracted. 

Front with two strong, prominent, rather short, parallel spines, somewhat incurved 
towards their apices, and covered with thick, strong, curved hairs. Orbit, anteriorly, entire, 
deeply incised posteriorly, with a prominent, obtuse, angular tubercle behind the notch. 

Fore-legs smooth, small, slender, equal in size, covered with scattered, long, stout hairs ; 
the third joint subcylindrical, curved inwards and enlarged anteriorly ; fourth joint short, 
rounded, and curved with two small tubercles on the outer and upper surface ; fifth joint 



rather slender, subcylindrical, laterally compressed, and covered with long, stout, scattered 
hairs, claws slightly gaping in the middle, curved inwards, and finely denticidated. 

Second and third pairs of legs one and a half times longer than the carapace, covered 
with a close, dense, brown tomentum ; third joints subcylindrical, dilated anteriorly ; fourth 
joint elongately conical. Fourth and fifth pairs of legs shorter than the second and third 
pairs. Claws sharp, strong, and curved. 

Abdomen of male six-jointed, with a row of prominent tubercles in the middle line, the 
second joint the widest, with a nipple-shaped tubercle on each side of the central tubercle, 
the remaining segments becoming gradually narrower, the last being triangular and pointed. 
Abdomen of female ovate, very convex and dilated, five-jointed, the last joint broadly trigonal. 

Hab. Chinese Sea. 

This species comes nearest Nawia diacantha of De Haan (Tab. 34. Fig. 1), but in that 
species the frontal spines are very long, straight, and diverging ; the fore-legs very large, thick) 
and strong ; and the carapace is armed on each side with a stout, strong, and prominent 
spine ; N. diacantha wants, moreover, the three tubercles on the lateral regions, the form of 
the carapace is more trigonal, and the legs are much shorter in comparison with the carapace 
than in Pisa Sinope. 

2. ARCTOPSIS, Lamarck. 


Haud multum a Pisa tetraodonte differt, thorace tamen longiore, et margmibus latero-anterioribus 
crassis spinis in medio armatis ; superiore canthi margine fissura perangusta. 
Hab. Maui'itium. 

Does not differ much from Pisa tetraodon, but the carapace is more elongated, and the 
latero-anterior margins are armed in the middle with thick spines, while the superior edge of 
the orbit has a very narrow fissure. 

Hab. Mauritius. 

Pisa Styx, Latr. Enc. Metli. 10. 141. Edw. Crust, vol.i. p. 308; Cancer Styx, Herbst. vol.i. p. 243. 
t. 17. f. 96 ; 

3. NAXIA, Edwards. 


Thorace parte postica lateribus utrimque unispinoso, spina product!, fronte bicornuta, cornibus acutis 
simplicibus, regione ventriculi media unituberculata. 

Lateral margins of the carapace armed at the posterior part with a single spine on each 
side, spine produced, front with two horns ; horns acute, simple, a single tubercle on the 
middle of the ventricular region. 

Pisa (Naxia) diacantha, De Haan, Eaun. Japon. t. 24. f. ] . 


4. HYASTENUS, White. 

Thorax suboblongus, ad latera rotundatus, ante et pone oculos directus ; parvo, transverso sulco in 
superiore cantho. Frons duobus cornibus tlioraceni longitudine Bequantibus, primo parallelis, posterius 
divergentibus et paululum deorsum directis ; antennis exterioribus omnibus articulis cylindricis ; inser- 
tione articuli basalis cornu frontali occultatEi. 

Chela graciles, secundo pari pedum majori longitudine, graciUimo; articulo terminali acie spinosa. 

Carapace rather oblong, rounded on the sides behind, before and behind the edges 
straight ; a slight transverse groove in the upper orbit ; front with two horns as long as the 
carapace, at first parallel, and then diverging, and directed slightly downwards ; outer 
antennae with all the joints cylindrical ; the insertion of the basal joint concealed by the 
frontal horn. 

Fore-legs slender ; second pair of legs the longest, and very slender ; terminal joint with 
the edge spined. 

A genus alhed to Hyas and Chorinus, the only species of which was long ago figured in 
the large work of Seba. 

Superficie superiore subaspersa et pube velata. 
Hab. Philippine Islands. 

Upper surface somewhat roughish, and covered with a delicate down. 
Hab. Philippine Islands. 

Hyastenics Seba, White, List of sp. of Crust, in Brit. Museum ; Cancer araneus, cornutus alter, Seba 
Thes. 3. 4. 5. t. 18. f. 12. 

5. CHORINUS, Leach. 

1. CHOEINUS ACANTHONOTUS, Adams $ White. Tab. I. Fig. 1. 

Tkorace quatuor longis spinis armato duabus anterioribus ad basin sese adpropinquantibus atque 
paululum projectis, posterioribus bifidis ; furcis anterioris spinarum posteriorum lateraliter divergentibus, 
posterioris longitudinaliter ; tribus spinis in utraque brachiali regione ; anteriore projecta, horizontaliter 
depressa ; media gracili retrorsum, sursum et extrorsum projecta duobus acutis tuberculis ad basin deorsum 
spectantibus ; posteriore duabus divaricantibus gracihbus spinis retrorsum et sursum directis. 

Rostro cornibus longis depressis, ad basin conjunctis, paulatim divergentibus et deorsum curvatis. Can- 
thorum marginibus ad partem superiorem longa bifida spina armatis, ad anteriorem brevi bifida spina, et ad 
posteriorem, brevi spina prorsum curvata finitis; canthorum margine inferiore fere obsoleto, angulo 
externo in acuto dentali processu desinente. 

Chelis et supra et infra crista acuta denticulata armatis ; pedibus cylindricis, duobus spinis longis 
prseacutis instructis, una in utroque latere superioris partis extremitatis articulorum disposita, sursum et 
extrorsum tertiorum divergente. Tarsis longis curvatis, infra lsevibus. Corpore longis tenuibus setis co- 

Hab. Maria Orientaha ; Borneo (Unsang) . 

Carapace armed with four long spines, the two front ones rather close together at their 


bases, and directed a little forwards ; the two binder bifid ; the forks of the anterior hinder 
spines diverging laterally, and those of the posterior divaricating longitudinally,, three spines' 
on each branchial region, the anterior pointed forwards, flattened horizontally, the middle 
slender, curved backwards, upwards, and outwards, with two divaricating, slender spines, 
directed backwards, outwards, and upwards. Horns of the rostrum long, flattened, close 
together at the base, gradually diverging and curved downwards. Orbital margin armed 
at its superior part with a long bifid spine, on the anterior part having a short bifid spine, 
and on the posterior part bounded by a short spine, curved forwards. Inferior margin of 
the orbit nearly wanting, and its external angle ending in a short, sharp, tooth-like process. 
The first pair of legs armed both above and below with a trenchant, denticulated crest, the 
other legs cylindrical and furnished with two long, sharp-pointed spines, situated one on each 
side of the upper part of the extremity of the third joints, and diverging upwards and 
outwards ; tarsi long, curved, and smooth below. Body covered with long, thin hairs. 
Hab. Eastern Seas ; Borneo (Unsang). 

This species differs from Chorinus aculeatus (Edwards, Hist. Nat. des Crust., vol. i. 
p. 316, and De Haan's species, Fauna Japonica, Plate 23. fig. 2.), in the length and position 
of the spines, which are not tipped with a knob, but sharp-pointed, and in the thin joints 
of the posterior pairs of legs being armed with two spines. The peculiarity of the long bifid 
spine above the old orbit must also be regarded as a singular characteristic, the front legs are 
more slender, the horns of the rostrum are longer and less divaricating than in C. aculeatus. 

The species described above enters into Chorinus of Professor Edwards and Dr. De Haan, 
but it seems to be very different from Chorinus of Leach, founded on a West Indian and 
South American type. 

The Chorinus, like the species of Mithrax, inhabit deep water, and always seem to prefer 
those localities where the bottom is covered with weeds ; they are very inactive in their move- 
ments, and become rigid in all their limbs when first captured, but make no defence with 
their forelegs. One specimen was obtained by the dredge, entangled in a mass of corallines, 
and the C. longispina was procured from a coral bottom near the great Loo-Choo. 


Canthoruin margine superiore spinis elongatis armato, thorace in linea media spinis 6, tertiis et quartis 
basi transversirn conjunctis ; spinis duabns in regionibus branchialibus ; omnibus cylindricis valde elongatis, 
apice incrassatis, femoribus apice unispinosis, tarsis apice integris. 

Hab. Maria Orientalia. 

Chorinus longispina, De Haan, Faun. Japon. p. 94. t. 23. f. 2. 

The superior margin of the orbits armed with elongated spines, six spines in the middle 
line of the thorax, the third and fourth transversely joined at the base, two spines on the 


branchial regions, cylindrical and greatly elongated, with the apex thickened, femora with 
one spine at the end, tarsi entire at the apex. 
Hab. Eastern Seas. 


Thorace quinque admodum longis spinis in mediana linea armato, et duabus ad utramque regionem 

Hab. Maria Orientalia. 

Carapace armed with five very long spines on the median line, and with two on each 
branchial region. 

Chormus aculeata, Milne-Edwards, Crust, vol. i. p. 316. 
Hab. Indian Seas. 

4. CHOEINUS "VEEEUCOS1PES, Adams fy White. Tab. II. Fig. 3. 

Thorace sex, acutis elevatis tubereulis, quinto permagno et conspicuo, parva spina ad basin utroque 
latere ; duobus tubereulis eminentibus et angularibus in utraque regione laterali, uno minore in medio 
alteroque in parte inferiore atque exteriore ; thoracis superficie minutis, depressis, punctis et curvatis setis 
sparsim aggregatis obsita ; lateribus pone oculos quinque rotundatis tubereulis. 

Fronte desinente in duabus, crassis, divergentibus spinis setis curvatis obsitis superiore canthorum parte 
tribus spinosis processibus armata ; anteriore obtuso, sursum et prorsum directo ; medio reliquis minore, a 
posteriore profunda incisione separato, posteriore longo, dente in margine posteriore. 

CAelis lsevibuSj longitudine thoracem fere exsequantibus ; secundo pari pedum longissimo ; pedibus tenu- 
ibus, cylindricis, tubereulis verrucosiformibus et setis crassis atque sparsis obsitis. 

Hab. Maria Orientalia. 

Carapace with six, sharp, elevated tubercles, the fifth being very large and conspicuous, 
with a small spine at each side at the base ; two prominent angular tubercles on each lateral 
region, with a smaller one between them, and another on the lower and outer part ; surface 
of carapace covered with minute, depressed dots, and scattered tufts of curved setae ; sides, 
behind the eyes, with five rounded tubercles. 

Front terminating in two stout diverging spines beset with curved setee ; upper part of 
orbit armed with three spiny processes, the anterior obtuse, directed upwards and forwards, 
the middle smaller than the others, and separated from the posterior by a deep incision, the 
posterior process long, with a tooth on the hind edge. 

Fore-legs smooth, nearly equal in length to the carapace ; the second pair of legs the 
longest ; legs thin, cylindrical, covered with wart-like tubercles, and coarse scattered setee. 

Hab. Eastern Seas. 

6. MITHRAX, Leach. 


Thorace granuloso, sine spinis in superficie superiore ; cornibus rostri admodum divergentibus paullo 
lonuioribus quam latioribus, desinentibus in duobus dentibus qui fere sequales sunt. 
Hab. Insulas Philippinas. 



7. PARAMITHRAX, Edwards. 


Canthis iufra emarginatis ; oculis usque ad angulos cantliorum extemos productis ; thorace lateribus 
5-spinosis ; manibus laevissimis utrinque convexis margine superiore et interiore obtusis. 

Hab. Japoniam. 

Carapace granulose, and without spines on the upper surface ; horns of the rostrum 
very diverging, not much longer than wide, and terminated by two teeth, which are nearly 

Hab. Philippine Islands ; Cuming. 

Mithrax dichotomies, Latr. Desm. Cons. 150; Edw. in Guer. Mag. de Zool. 1S32. t. 1. Crust. 1. 319. 
t. 15. f. 1-4. Maja dichotoma, De Haan, Faun. Japon. t. 22. f. 4. 

Orbits emarginate below, eyes prolonged as far as the external angles of the orbits, 
thorax with five spines on the sides ; hands very smooth, convex on both sides, obtuse on the 
upper and lower edges. 

Hab. Japan. 

Maja (Paramithrax) Edwardsii, De Haan, P. J. p. 92. Tab. 21. fig. 2. {Peronii. Edw.) 

8. TELMESSUS, White. 

Thorace depresso, pentagonali, latero-anterioribus lateribus reliquis longioribus ; latero-posterioribus 
lateribus duobus dentibus in medio; latero-anterioribus lateribus duobus latis dentatis dentibus inter 
exteriorem cantliorum angulum et magnam, latarn dentatam divisionem, cujus finis unum ex eminentibus 
angidis thoracis efficit. Rostrum latissimum, ex tribus latis dentibus consistens, quorum lateralis in- 
teriorem cantliorum angulum efficit. 

Pedes longissimi, compressi. 

Carapace depressed, somewhat pentagonal, the latero-posterior sides being the longest, 
the latero-posterior sides have two teeth in the middle ; the latero-anterior sides have two 
broad, dentatcd teeth, between the external angle of the orbit and the strongly developed, 
wide, dentated division, the end of which forms one of the prominent angles of the carapace ; 
the beak is very wide, and is formed of three broad teeth, the lateral forming the internal 
angle of the orbit. 

Legs very long, compressed. 

This genus, described in the Proceedings of the Entomological Society, was, by mistake, 
referred to as coming near Plagusia. It, however, enters into the family Maidia ; near it 
and probably placed in the same genus is the Cancer cheirogonus, described and figured by 
Dr. Tilesius, in the Meraoires de l'Academie Imperiale des Sciences de St. Petersbourg 
(tome V. 1812. p. 347. Tab. VII. f. 1.), which species he tells us is taken abundantly in 
Kamschatka, at Arvatchsa, in a bay which derives its name from the abundance of the Crabs : 
the sailors of the Niva eagerly sought after the species, finding it to be very delicious as food. 


Superficie obsita parvis verrucis nonnunquam seriatim dispositis, setis e fronte extantibus. 


Surface covered with small warts, arranged in some places in lines, with hairs proceeding 
from the front of them. 

The specimen is a male. 

9. MAI A, Lamarck. 


Spiiiis lateribus et frontalibus quartam partem longitudinis postfrontalis emetientibus, acuminatis ; 
spinis quinque dimidio brevioribus, pone medium transversim dispositis; verrucis in spatio intermedio 
minutis, sequalibus. 

Hab. Japoniam. 

Lateral and frontal spines pointed, measuring a fourth part of the length of the post- 
frontal part of the carapace ; five spines, half the size, arranged transversely behind the 
middle, with minute, equal-sized warts in the intermediate space. 

Hab. Japan. 

Maja {Maja) spinigera, De Haan, Faun. Japon. p. 93. Tab. 24. fig. 4. 

10. DIONE, De Haan. 


Thorace granulate-, et acute spinuloso ; cornubus rostri ter longioribus quam latis, apice acutis ; lateribus 
spina dimidio breviore armatis ; digitis superioribus parte media unispinosis. 
Hab. Japoniam. 

Carapace granulated and acutely spinulose, horns of the front three times as long as 
wide, and with the points sharp, sides armed with a spine, half as large, one spine in the 
middle of the upper finger of the fore-legs. 

Hab. Japan. 

Maja (Bione) affinis, De Haan, F. J. p. 94. t. 22. f. 4. 

11. MICIPPA, Leach. 


Pedibus posterioribus thoracem postfrontalem vix superantibus ; fronte ultra medium in comua duo 
extrorsum versa divisa. 
Hab. Japoniam. 

The hinder legs scarcely extending beyond the post-frontal thorax ; front beyond the 
middle, divided into two horns turned outwards. 
Hab. Japan. 
Pisa {Micippa) Thalia, De Haan, F. J. p. 98. t. 23. f. 3. (mas) ; Cancer Thalia, Herbst. t. 58. f. 3. 


Thorace tuberculis granulosis obsito : baud tamen in superfieie superiore spinoso. 


Carapace covered with granular tubercles, but not spiny on the upper surface. 
Hab. Philippine Islands (Guiniaras). 


Tliorace compluribus longis acutis spinis in superficie superiore. 
Hab. Insulas Philippinas (Siquijor, Zebu.) Javam. 

Carapace bristling on the upper surface, with a great number of long, sharp spines. 
Hab. Philippine Islands (Siquijor, Zebu). Java. 

Micyppa cristata, Leach, Zool. Misc. vol. 3. t. 128. Edw. Crust, vol. 1. p. 330. Cuv. R. Anim. (Crocli) 
t. 31. f. 2. 

Cancer cristatus, Linn. Syst. Nat. vol. 2. p. 1047. t. 44. 

Cancer bilobus, Herbst. vol. 1. p. 245. t. 18. f. 98. Rumph. t. 8. f. 1. 

4. MICIPPA BICARINATA, Adams 8/ White. 

Thorace fkveolo, rubro intersperse Fronte duabus longitudinalibus carinis, tuberculis, ex quibus 
complures setae oriuntur. Pedibus depressis. 
Hab. Insulas Philippinas (Zebu, Luzon). 

Carapace pale-yellow, sprinkled with red ; front with two longitudinal keels, bearing 
tubercles, from which spring many hairs ; legs depressed. 

Hab. Philippine Islands (Zebu, Luzon) ; Adams and Cuming. 

12. SCHIZOPHRYS, Adams 8r White. 

Thorax ovalis, depressus, postice paululum attenuatus. Rostrum profunde incisum ; superiore cantliorum 
parte alte incisa, valido dente in media incisione ; inferiore cantliorum parte appendice elongato intus, duobus 
dentibus ad extremitatem. Chela reliquis pedibus breviores ; digiti sine dentibus. Cauda maris septem 
articulis ; latera fere parallela. 

Carapace oval, depressed, somewhat attenuated behind ; beak deeply cloven, upper part 
of orbit deeply cloven with a strong tooth in the middle of the cleft ; under part of orbit 
with an elongated appendage on the inside, with two teeth at the end. Fore-legs shortest ; 
ringers without teeth. Tail of male with seven joints, the sides nearly parallel. 


Duo articula basalia clielarum minutis acuminatis tuberculis ; latera thoracis sex validioribus dentibus, 
exteriore canthorum dente adnumerato ; duobus validis dentibus frontalibus, denticulo in utroque dente, ad 
exteriorem basis partem. (Mas.) 

Hab. Mauritium. 

The two basal joints of fore-legs with numerous pointed tubercles ; sides of carapace 
with six rather strong teeth, including outer tooth of orbit ; two strong teeth of front, with 
a tooth on each at the outside. (Male.) 

Hab. Mauritius. 


2. SCHIZOPHRYS SPDttGER, Adams 8f White. 

Articuhs basalibus chelaruin laevibus ; in quoque thoracis latere oeto dentibus ; secundo et tertio 
a canthis ad basin conjunctis ; postice, in medio, duobus parvis dentibus simul dispositis. Thorax supra 
compluribus minutis tubercubs, inter quse sunt undeviginti paullo majora, plerumque transverse disposita. 
Thorax flavus est, bic illic rubro tinctus. 

Hab. Insulas Philippinas. Siquijor, Ins. Bohol; Cuming. 

Basal joints of fore-legs smooth, sides of carapace with eight teeth on each, the second 
and third from the orbit united at the base ; behind in the middle, close to each other, are two 
small teeth. Carapace above with numerous minute tubercles, amongst which are nineteen 
of larger size, arranged mostly transversely ; carapace yellow, tinged here and there with red. 

Hab. Philippine Islands, Siquijor, Island of Bohol; Cuming. Coll. Brit. Museum. 

13. PERICERA, Latreille. 

1. PERICERA TIARATA, Adams $ White. 

Frontis cornibus styliformibus, gracilibus, sine spinis, parallelis, ad apices paululum divergentibus, 
fimbriatis, ut antennae exteriores, ad utrumque latus rigidis curvatis setis ; spina robustissima ante, altera 
post canthos. 

Lateribus et superiore superficie thoracis obsitis tubercubs conicis, obtusis, diversa magnitudine, 
cum minoribus, depressioribus, verrucosiformibus tubercubs mixtis ; superficie tamen non granulata ; una. 
eminentiore spina ad latera in parte posteriore, inter quas tiara e magnis rotundatis tubercubs conficta 
extenditur. In parte posteriore vabdo intermedio tuberculo, et duobus lateralibus, infra qua? series est 
quinque minorum tuberculorum. Superficie thoracis inter tuberculos sparsis lanosis setis. 

Pedibus in superiore superficie lsevibus, lateribus tuberculatis et fimbriatis longis, densis, furvis, lanosis 

Horns of the front styliform, slender, not armed with spines, parallel, slightly diverging 
at their points, and fringed, as well as the external antennae, on each side, with stiff curved 
hairs ; a very strong spine before, and another after, the orbits. 

Sides and upper surface of carapace covered with conical, obtuse tubercles, varying in 
size, mixed with smaller, flatter, wart-like tubercles, but the surface is not granulated ; one 
rather prominent spine on each side, on the hinder part, between which extends a tiara of large 
rounded tubercles ; at the posterior part a strong central, and two lateral tubercles, with a 
row of five smaller tubercles beneath them. Surface of carapace, between the tubercles, with 
scattered woolly hairs. 

Legs smooth on the upper surface, with the sides tuberculated and fringed with long, 
thick, reddish-brown, woolly hair. 

Hab. Philippine Islands ; Cuming. 

2. PERICERA SETIGERA, Adams fy White. 

Cornibus frontis styliformibus parallebs, et per totam longitudinem contiguis ; rigidis, curvatis, setis 
cibatis, neque tamen spinigeris vel ad fines divergentibus. 

Thoracis superiore superficie compluribus rotundatis tubercubs obsita; crista setarum in cujusque 
medio ; tota. superficie et tuberculorum et spatiorum intermediorum minutim granulata ; tribus tubercubs 
eadem magnitudine in parte posteriore, et duobus infra ea minoribus. 


Pedibus minutim granulosis prsecipue in superficiebus superiore et exteriore, secundis ceteris longioribus. 
Unguibus minutim denticulatis, longis tenuibus setis inter denticulationes quse paullo curvatse et spiniformes 

Hab. Insulas Philippinas. 

Horns of the front styliform, parallel, and contiguous throughout their length, ciliated 
with stiff curved hairs, but not spinigerous nor diverging at their ends. 

Upper surface of carapace covered with numerous rounded tubercles, each with a tuft of 
hairs proceeding from its centre ; the entire surface, both of the tubercles and the spaces 
between them, very finely granulated ; three equal-sized tubercles on the hinder part with 
two smaller ones beneath them. 

Legs minutely granulose, more particularly on their upper and outer surface ; the second 
pair longer than the others. Claws finely denticulated, with long, slender hairs between the 
denticulations, which latter are slightly curved and spiniform. 

Hab. Philippine Islands. 


Cornibus rostri styliforinibus, parallels, et per totam longitudinem contiguis. 

Hab. Insulas Philippinas. 

Horns of the rostrum styliform, parallel, and contiguous throughout their length. 
Hab. Philippine Islands ; Cuming. 
Pericera cornigera, Edw. Crust. 1. 335; Pisa cornigera, Latr. Enc. Meth. 10. 141. 

14. MEN^ETHIUS, Edwards. 

1. MEN^ETHIUS SUBSERRATUS, Adams fy White. Tab. IV. Fig. 1, 2. 

Thorace trapseziformi angulo anteriore in tres spinas ex eadem plamtie surgentes diviso, angulo 
posteriore truncate-; superficie superiore compluribus prominentibus tubercuhs obsita, lateribus valida, 
breviuscula spina, quatuor obtusis, depressis dentibus ante spinam, sinu inter duos anteriores et duos 
posteriores dentes. 

Fronte spina angusta, longa, inclinata, paullo bilobata ad finem, et setis curvatis utroque latere fimbriata. 

C/ielis brachio cylindrico, paucis tuberculis in superficie superiore et exteriore ad basin ; carpo gibboso ; 
manu compressa, tevi, supra et infra obtusa ; digitis hiantibus, inferiore curvato, dentibus ad umim finem 
dense dispositis, nullis tamen ad basin ; superiore compluribus dentibus ad finem, dente magno et crasso ad 
basin, et alto inter eos sinu; brachio pedum posteriorum duobus tuberculis in superficie superiore ad 
basin ; secundo pedum pari ceteris longiore. 

Hab. Insulas Philippinas. 

Carapace diamond-shaped, with the front-angle divided into three spines, arising from 
the same plane, and with the hind angle truncated ; upper surface covered with numerous, 
raised, prominent tubercles ; side-margins with a rather short, strong spine, with four blunt, 
flattened teeth before it, and a sinus between the two front ones and the two hinder ones. 

Front with a narrow spine, long, bent down, slightly bilobate at the end, and fringed on 
each side with curved setae. 

Fore-legs with the third joint cylindrical, with a few tubercles on the upper and outer 
surface near the base ; fourth joint gibbose, fifth joint compressed, smooth, obtuse above and 


below, fingers gaping, the lower one curved, with closely-set teeth at one end, but without 
teeth at the base ; upper one with several teeth at the end, a large, thick tooth near the base, 
and a deep sinus between them ; third joint of the hind-legs with two tubercles on the upper 
surface near the base ; second pair of legs longer than the others. 
Hab. Philippine Islands. 

In this species the sides are armed with four broad, rounded teeth placed before the 
lateral spine, while in M.porcettus there is but one tooth anterior to the spine, and in M. tuber- 
culatus there are two large, prominent teeth ; the carapace is more elongated in the males 
than in M. porcellus or M. tuberculatus, the frontal spine is much longer, and the tubercles 
on the back are smaller and less rounded. The young female of this species appears to be 
the M. diadema, Leach, MSS., where the carapace is subtetragonal, nearly as wide as long, 
strongly embossed with numerous tubercles of different sizes, and with the frontal spine short 
compared with the male and adult females. 

2. MEN^ETHIUS POKCELLUS, Adams #• White. 

Thorace trigonali, longiore quam latiore, antice producto, postice rotundato ; parte superiore coniplu- 
ribus, magnis, rotundatis tuberculis obsita ; lateris margine una, valida spina, magno, obtuso, conspicuo 
dente ante spinam; lateribus post eanthos angustatis. 

Fronde tribus dentibus ex eadem planitie surgentibus ; medio admodum elongato, acmninato, ad finem 
inclinato, longitudine fere tertia parte thoracis, setis curvatis ad utrumque latus ciliato, velut in Huenia ; 
spinis lateraJibus admodum validis et acutis, ad utrumque latus prorsum directis ; basi pedum duobus vel 
tribus tuberculis in latere exteriore ; secundo pari ceteris longiore. 

Hab. Mauritium. 

Carapace trigonal, longer than wide, produced anteriorly, rounded behind, upper part 
very irregular, and covered with numerous large, rounded tubercles ; side-margin with one 
strong spine, with a large, blunt, conspicuous tooth before it ; sides narrowed behind the orbits. 

Front with three teeth arising from the same plane, the middle one very much elongated, 
pointed, bent down at the end, about a third the length of the carapace, ciliated on both sides 
with curved setae, as in Huenia ; the lateral spines very strong and sharp, directed forwards 
on either side, base of legs with two or three tubercles on the outer side, second pair longer 
than the others. 

Hab. Mauritius. 


The existence of a single well-formed, strong tooth, situated anterior to the lateral 
spine, serves to characterize this species. 


Thorace subtrigonali ; lateribus duobus, depressis, angularibus dentibus ante spinam lateralem, quae 
obtusa est. Regione cardiaca et ventriculari duobus antice tuberculis, uno ad utrumque latus lineae mediae ; 
crista verticali tuberculo minuto, altero post admodum prominente et rotundato, et tertio post alteram 
paullo minore ; posteriore thoracis margine duobus, erectis, angularibus dentibus. 

Fronte tribus spinis ex eadem planitie surgentibus ; media longa, gracib, inclinata atque in medio 
sulcata ; spinis laterakbus altioribus validis, triangularibus, duobus inter eas parvis tuberculis. 

Hab. Mauritium. 


Carapace subtrigonal, sides with two large, flattened, angular teeth before the lateral 
spine, which is obtuse ; cardiac and ventricular region with two tubercles anteriorly, one on 
each side of the middle line ; a vertical crest with a minute tubercle ; and behind that, a very 
prominent, rounded tubercle, with another, rather smaller, behind it ; posterior edge of cara- 
pace with two erect angular teeth. 

Front with three spines arising from the same plane, the middle one long, slender, bent 
down, and grooved in the middle; lateral spines rather elevated, strong, triangular, with 
two small tubercles between them. 

Hab. Mauritius. 

M. tuberculatus, Leach, MSS. 


Fronte bicomuta, cornibus divergentibus acutis ; regionibus ventriculi et cordis medio acute unispi- 
nosis ; lateribus ante medium in laciniam truncatam dilatatis. 
Hab. Japoniam. 

Front with two horns ; horns sharp, diverging, a single sharp spine in the ventricular 
and cardiac regions, the sides anteriorly dilated into a truncated border. 
Hab. Japan. 
Pisa (Meneethius) incisus, De Haan, F. J. p. 98. t. 24. f. 3. (femina). 


Fronte bicomuta, cornibus divergentibus acutis ; regionibus ventriculi et cordis convexis ; thoracis 
lateribus bispinosis, spinis anterioribus ab spinulis canthorum posticis sinu separatis. 
Hab. Japoniam. 

Front with two horns : horns sharp, diverging, ventricular and cardiac regions convex ; 
sides of the carapace with two spines, the anterior spines separated from the posterior spines 
of the orbits by a sinus. 

Hab. Japan. 

Pisa {Mencethim) auaclrklens, De Haan, F. J. p. 97. t. 24. f. 2. (mas.) 

15. HUENIA, Be Haan. 

1. HUENIA FRONTALIS, Adams 8f White. Tab. IV. Fig. 3. 

Thorace seque lato atque longo, subquadrilateraH, laevi, sine tuberculis in media linea, producto 
et postice rotundato ; lateribus acutis, uno lato lobo, postice paululum emarginato, horizontaliter undulato, 
antice arcuato, in medio depresso et postice elevato. 

Fronte latissima, laterabter dilatata, obtusa et antice rotundata, admodum depressfi, supra plana et infra 
in media linea alte sulcata. 

Chelis minimis, thoracem fere longitudine adsequantibus, pedibus posterioribus non crassioribus ; brachio 
trigonali, apice in parte superiore valida conica spina et postice duabus minoribus, verticalibus, conicis 
spinis in carina ; carpo supra carinato, spina tuberculari in superficie superiore et minore ; manu supra 
carinata ; carina una in medio spina et infra in valido angulari dente desinente ; tertio et quarto paribus 


pedum ceteris brevioribus ; uiiguibus paululum curvatis, subelongatis, infra minutim serratis et inter 
serrationes setis circumclatis. 

Carapace as broad as long, subquadrilateral, smooth, without tubercles in the middle 
line, and produced and rounded posteriorly ; sides acute, with a single broad lobe, slightly 
emarginated posteriorly, horizontally undulated, arched anteriorly, depressed in the middle 
and raised behind. 

Front very wide, laterally dilated, obtuse and rounded anteriorly, considerably depressed, 
plane above, and inferiorly deeply channelled in the middle line. 

Fore-legs very small, about the length of the carapace, not thicker than the posterior 
pairs, third joint trigonal, the end, on the upper part, with a strong conical spine, and 
posteriorly, two smaller, vertical, conical spines on the keel, fourth joint keeled above, with a 
tubercular spine on the upper and inner surface ; fifth joint keeled above ; claws slightly 
gaping, the upper one with a single spine a little behind the middle. 

Second pair of legs longer than the others, third joint trigonal, carinated above, with 
a single, strong, compressed spine at the end, and two smaller ones posteriorly, fourth joint 
winged above, carinated externally, and rounded below ; fifth joint very much compressed, 
carinated above, keel with a single spine in the middle, and ending below in a strong, 
angular tooth ; thud and fourth pairs of legs shorter than the others ; claws slightly curved, 
rather elongated, finely serrated below, and beset with hairs among the serrations. 

In the peculiar and characteristic form of the front and carapace, this species differs in a 
very remarkable manner from those varieties of Huenia proteus, which are named var. elongata, 
heraldica, and tenuipes. The locality of the specimen described above, which is in the collec- 
tion of Crustacea in the British Museum, is unknown, but as all the others are natives of the 
Eastern Seas, the present species is most likely from the same part of the globe. The 
description is from a female. 

2. HUENIA PROTEUS, Be Earn. Tab. IV. Kg. 4-7. 

Frontis margine inferiore acuto, pedibus posterioribus margine anteriore valde carinatis. 

a. Mas. Thorace elongato, lateribus uni- vel bi- laciniato ; fronte valde producta ; thorace longiore. 
(Var. elongata.) 

b. Fern. Thorace dilatato, lateribus bi-laciniato ; fronte dimidium tlioracem vix superante. (Var. 

c. Anteriore margine pedum posteriorum paululum carinato ; thorace subelongato ; chelis gracilibus ; 
inferiore margine frontis non tarn producto quam in reliquis varietatibus. (Var. tenuipes.) 

Hab. Maria Orientalia. 

Lower edge of front sharp, posterior legs with the anterior margin strongly carinated. 

a. Male. Thorax elongated, sides with one or two lobes ; front greatly produced, cara- 
pace rather long. (Var. elongata.) 

b. Female. Carapace dilated, sides with dilated lobes, front scarcely extending beyond 
half the length of the carapace. (Var. heraldica.) 



c. Anterior margin of hinder legs but slightly keeled ; carapace rather elongated ; 
forelegs slender ; inferior margin of front not so much produced as in the other varieties. 
(Var. temiipes.) 

Hab. Eastern Seas ; Mindanao, China, Japan. 

;ja {Hiienia) Proteus, De Haan, Faun. Japon. p. 95. t. 23. f. 4-5 mas. (elont/ata) f. 6. &, b, femina 

M. De Haan appears to have had considerable difflcidty in defining the varieties of this 
curious species, nor are we able to do more than add another variety to the two already indi- 
cated. Whether at any time these varieties will be elevated to the rank of species, on the 
discovery of a more extensive suite of specimens of different sexes and ages, remains for 
future observers ; and, in the meantime, we furnish a more extended description of the 
variety we have named tenuipes. 

3. HUENIA PROTEUS, Be Haan. Var. tenures. Tab. IV. Eig. 5. 

T/wrace longiore quain latiore, oblcmgo, trigonali, superficie superiore depress! et lsevi, duobus tuber- 
culis in media linea paululum inter se distantibus ; lateribus duobus compressis lamellaribus lobis ; anteriore 
antice rotundato, posterioribus ad margines Hberos truncatis. 

Fronte valde elongata, thoracem longitudine fere adsequante, ad latera ciliata rigidis incurvatis seti? • 
lamella inferiore non tarn deorsum producta quam in H. proteo ; canthis productis in validam spinam ad 
utrumque latus frontis antice directam. 

Chelis gracilibus, thoracem longitudine fere adsequantibus, secundo pari paullo crassioribus ; bracliio 
subtrigonaH, uno tantum parvo tuberculo in superficie superiore, duobus in inferiore ; spina ad finem partis 
superioris parva; in H.jjroteo autem duo sunt tuberculi supra et tria infra; et spina supra ad apicem 
pervalida et maxima est ; carpo supra obtuso ; manu in superficie superiore carinata ; unguibus denticulatis ; 
secundo pari pedum thoracem longitudine superante ; bracliio cylindrico nulla ad finem spina ; carpo paulu- 
lum compresso ; manu dilatata infra in spinam vahdam ad apicem positam, crista setarum adornatam ; un- 
guibus longis, marginibus inferioribus minutim denticulatis, setis intermediis ; bracliio quinti paris una 
spina in media anteriore parte. 

Abdomine quinque articulis : quarto valde convexo in medio longitudinaliter impresso ; primo et 
secundo rotundato in medio tuberculo. Femina adulta. 

Hab. Maria Orientalia. 

Carapace longer than wide, oblong, trigonal, upper surface flat and smooth, with two 
tubercles in the median line a little distance apart ; sides with two compressed lamellar lobes, 
the front lobes rounded anteriorly, the hinder lobes truncated at their free edges. 

Front very much elongated, nearly as long as the carapace ; ciliated at the sides with 
stiff, incurved hairs, inferior lamella not so much produced downwards as in If. proteus ; 
orbits produced into a strong spine on each side of the front, directed forwards. 

Fore-legs slender, nearly as long as the carapace, rather thicker than the second pair, 
third joint less trigonal, with but one slight tubercle on the upper surface, and but two 
tubercles on the under surface, the spine at the end of the upper part very small, whereas in 
H. proteus there are two tubercles above and three below, and the spine at the apex above is 


very strong and large ; the fourth joint obtuse, superiorly ; the fifth joint carinated on the 
upper surface. Claws denticulated. Second pair of legs longer than the carapace, the third 
joint cylindrical, without a spine at the end ; the fourth joint slightly compressed ; the fifth 
joint dilated below into a strong spine situated near the apex, surmounted by a tuft of hairs ; 
third and fourth pairs of legs with the third joint slightly keeled, with two spines in the 
middle, the fourth joint carinated : the fifth with a slight tooth tufted with hair ; claws long, 
with the lower edges finely denticulated, and having intermediate seta? ; the third joint of the 
fifth pair with one spine in the middle of the fore-part. 

Abdomen five-jointed, the fourth joint very convex, impressed longitudinally in the 
middle ; the first and second joints with a rounded tubercle in the middle. Adult female. 

Hab. Eastern Seas, Island of Mindoro. 

17. HALIMUS, Latr. 


Nulla spina, in margine posteriore thoracis, neque in regione ventriculari. 

Hab. Oceanum Indicum. 

No spine on the posterior border of the carapace, nor on the ventricular region. 
Hab. Indian Ocean. 

Halimus aurifots, Edw. Crust. 1. 341; Cuv. E.. Anirn. (Croch.) t. 28. f. 3; Pisa aurita, Latr. Enc. 
Meth. 10. 140. 

18. ZEBR1DA, Adams 8f White. 

Thorax depressus, seque longus atque latus. 

Frons horizontals, paululum declinata, conficta ex duabus spinis depressis, conicalibus, antice directis 
ad apices paululum divergentibus ; can this circularibus ; pedunculo oculorum permagno et crasso, latiore 
ab latere ad latus quam de supra deorsum ; cornea oculorum ultra exteriorem frontis marginem protendente, 
fere complente canthorum hiatus, quorum margines superiores salientes sunt ; marginibus thoracis latero- 
anterioribus uno, valido, depresso processu armatis, conicalibus, acutis, ad basin latis, aciebus exterioribus 
paululum elevatis, cacumrnibus prorsum curvatis ; prhno articulo antennarum exteriorum permagno, longo, 
cylindrico, antennis rostro tectis ; epistomate ei Acanthonycis simillimo. 

Chela breviores iis Acanthonycis, spinis depressis, conicalibus, subobtusis armatse ; brachio triangulari, 
spina conicah exteriore et interiore; exteriore perlonga, sursum et prorsum directa; carpo tribus spinis 
armato; una superiore, posteriore prorsum directa; duabus anterioribus lateralibus extrorsum directis, 
ad extremitates rotundatis ; manu spina acuta, depresso, cristata. 

Pedes posteriores breves, crassi, admodum compressi ; tertio articulo duabus magnis, depressis, conicis 
spinis in fronte, prorsum directis ; quarto articulo uno depresso, spinoso processu in parte anteriore ; quinto 
articulo ampliata et postice instructo spina acuta, depressa, curvata, retrorsum directa. 

Carapace flattened, about as broad as long. Front horizontal, slightly bent down, 
formed of two flattened spines, conical, directed forwards, and slightly diverging at their tips. 
The orbits circular ; the peduncle of the eyes very large and thick, broader from side to side 


than from above downwards ; the cornea of the eyes projecting beyond the outer margin 
of the front, nearly filling up the orbital cavities, the upper margins of which are salient. 
The latero-anterior borders of the carapace armed with a single, strong, flattened process ; 
conical, trenchant, broad at the base, the outer edge slightly elevated, with the point 
curving forwards. The first joint of the external antennas very large, long, and cylindrical, 
antennae covered by the rostrum. Epistome very nearly similar to that of Acanthonyx. 
The chelse, shorter than in that genus, are armed with flattened, conical, slightly obtuse 
spines. The second joint triangular, with an external and internal conical spine, the 
external very long, and directed upwards and forwards ; the third joint armed with three 
spines ; one superior-posterior, and directed forwards ; two anterior-lateral, directed outwards 
and rounded at their extremities ; the fourth joint crested with a sharp, flattened spine. 
The legs short, thick, very much compressed ; the third joint with two large, flattened 
conical spines on the front, directed forwards ; the fourth joint with but one flat, spinous 
process on its anterior part ; the fifth joint enlarged and furnished posteriorly with a sharp, 
flat, curved spine, directed backwards. 

This beautiful genus is very apathetic when alive ; in that respect resembling Lambrus. 
In the system it is not far removed from Acanthonyx and Huenia. The description is from a 

1. ZEBBLDA ADAMSII, White. Tab. VII. Fig. 1. 

Colore subcarneolo, fasciis rufo-fuscis ; linea intermedia antice bifurcata, dcinde in basin inte- 
riorern cornuum rostri obsoleta, postice ad ultimum abdominis articulum pertinente, linea utrinque 
tenui duplice paululum undulata ; duabus latis lineis pertinentibus ab apice spinarum rostri, in ultimo 
abdominis segmento concurrentibus, in medio thorace angustatis; linea extra tenui, duplice; extra 
banc lineam fascia lata, paululum curvata, ad postero-exteriorem thoracis angulum subito desinente; 
latiore fascia rufo-fusca ad basin spinarum antero-lateralium. Duabus latis, rubro-fuscis fasciis in 
omnibus pedum articulis, subdiagonaliter trans articulum directis; una lata fascia eodem colore in 
quarto et quinto articulis. Superficie infeiiore colore paullo intensiore. Exteriore parte abdominis 
segmentorum puncto circulari subnigro. Tota animalis superficie lsevi, sine setis, dura, polita et porcel- 
lana; oculis nigris. 

Hab. Borneo. 

In colour this species is of a light, delicate pink, with dark liver-coloured markings. 
There is a central line bifurcated anteriorly, where it is lost on the inner bases of the horns of 
the rostrum, reaching posteriorly to the last joint of the abdomen, and having external 
to it a fine, double, somewhat waved line ; extending from the apex of the rostral spines, and 
meeting at the last abdominal segment, are two broad lines, narrowed in the middle of the 
carapace ; external to these is a fine double line, and on the outside of this is a broad, some- 
what curved stripe, ending abruptly at the postero-external angle of the carapace ; and at the 
base of the antero-lateral spines is another rather broad linear mark of the same dark liver- 
colour. The third joint of all the legs has two broad, dark, red-brown bands, directed some- 
what diagonally across the joint ; the fourth and fifth joints have one broad mark of the same 
colour. The under surface is of a somewhat darker colour. On the outer part of the 


abdominal segments is a round, dark spot. The entire surface of the animal is smooth, 
hairless, hard, polished, and porcellanous. Eyes black. 

Hab. Borneo. 

Zebrida Aclamsii, White. Pro. Zool. Soc, 1847. 

A very distinct variety, from about twelve fathoms, in the Sooloo Seas, had the carapace 
of a light green, with deep, red-brown stripes, and the legs and chelae of a pearly semi- 
opaque white, very distinctly banded with deep red-brown. 

The specimen from which the foregoing description is taken, was dredged from a sandy 
bottom, at about six fathoms water, near the mouth of the Pantai river, on the coast of 
Borneo. The description, it ought to have been remarked, was from a living specimen ; but 
even the dried individual in the Museum collection is very distinctly marked. 


In the family of Parthenopidce, the results of the Expedition furnish us with forms highly 
interesting to the Crustaceologist, including two new genera and ten new species. The 
genus Cryptopodia has been strengthened and confirmed by the discovery of a new and well- 
marked species, and several peculiar forms of Parthenope and Lambrus are here for the first 
time indicated. In their habits, the members of this group are feeble and inactive, feigning 
death when captured, and living generally in deep water, seeming to prefer a stony or gravelly 
bottom ; some specimens of Parthenope were obtained by the dredge on the coast of Borneo, 
in thirty fathoms water, from a clear sandy floor ; and the sandy mud of the China Sea, in 
many parts, abounds in Lambri. 

1. LAMBRUS, Leach. 

1. LAMBRUS HAEPAX, Adams Sf White. Tab. VI. Fig. 3. 

TAorace subtrigonali, lavi, in fronte rotundato, in medio carinato, carinata tribus rotundatis tuberculis 
armata, antice furcata, intervallum depressum triangulare exhibente, marginibus lateralibus valde crenatis, cre- 
nationibus depressis et rotundatis ; angulis latero-posterioribus in depresso, triangulari, subobtuso, spinoso, 
processu desinentibus ; posteriore thoracis parte valida spina retrorsum et extrorsum directa, paululurn 
tuberculifera, et valida carina in posteriore parte regionis branchialis continuata ; altera minore spina, propius 
mediam lineam posita, valde carinata, spatio depresso inter se spinamque priorem ; tribus parvis tuberculis 
in linea intermedia, una centrali, et una ad utrumque latus. 

Fronte paululurn producta, antice rotundata, margine paululurn denticulata. 

Chelis vix duplici longitudine thoracis ; brachio et carpo, marginibus tuberculis rotundatis armatis ; 
manu lsevi, superiore angulari margine tuberculifera. 

Hab. Oram Bninensem, (Mare Sinense.) 

Carapace subtrigonal, smooth, rounded in front, carinated in the middle, the keel armed 



with three rounded tubercles, and forked anteriorly, leaving a depressed, triangular interval ; 
lateral edges rather conspicuously crenated, the crenations flattened and rounded ; latero- 
posterior angles ending in a flattened, triangular, rather obtuse, spiny process ; hind part of 
carapace with a strong spine, directed backwards and outwards, slightly tuberculiferous, and 
continued in a strong ridge upon the posterior portion of the branchial region ; another 
smaller spine, situated nearer the middle line, likewise strongly carinated, leaving a depressed 
space between it and the former spine ; three small tubercles in the median line, one central, 
and one on each side. 

Front but little produced, rounded anteriorly, with the margin slightly denticulated. 

Fore-legs about twice the length of the carapace, third and fourth joints with the edges 
armed with rounded tubercles ; fifth joint smooth, with the upper angular edge tuberculi- 

Hab. China Sea ; coast of Borneo. 

In the living state, this singular species is of an olive-green colour, with the fore-legs of 
a light pinkish-brown, and the under surface of a slate colour. 

2. LAMBEUS LAMELLIFRONS, Adams Sf White. (Tab. V. Fig. 1.) 

Thorace loiigiore quam latiore, tribus majusculis tuberculis in parte posteriore superficiei superioris; 
una in medio et una ad utrumque latus ; lateribus thoracis in medio crenatis ; latitudine thoracis 4-g- lin. 
longitudine 5| lin. 

Chelis longissimis. 

Hab. Insulas Philippinas. 

Carapace longer than wide, with three rather large protuberances on the hinder part of 
the upper surface, one in the middle, and one on each side ; sides of carapace, about the 
middle, crenated. Breadth of carapace four lines and a half; length five lines and three 

Fore-tegs very long. 

Hab. Philippine Islands. 

3. LAMBRUS TURRIGER, Adams fy White. (Tab. V. Fig. 2.) 

Thorace longiore quam latiore pentagono paululum producto, in fronte acuminato. Superficie 
superiore quatuor spinis elevatis, crassulis et ad extremitates obtusis ; prima inter anteriorem et posterio- 
rern partem thoracis, sursum et paululum retrorsum directa; altera post multo longiore; tertia ad 
utrumque latus alterius in posteriore thoracis margine ; in medio duabus spinis retrorsum et paululum 
sursum directis ; prima et altera spinis anterioribus sublongis ; tertia in medio thorace longa, ver- 
ticali, et subacuminata ; spinis in elevato tuberculo regionis branchialis positis, longis, crassis, erectis 
et paululum extrorsum retrorsumque directis ; tota superficie thoracis obtusis subconicis tuberculis obsita. 
Latitudine thoracis vix 4 hnearum ; longitudine vix 4-j hnearum. 

Fronte parva, valde depressa, breviuscula, subobtusa ; in medio profunde concava, parvo dente ad 
utrumque latus. 

Chelis longissimis pro magnitudine corporis, tuberculis verrucosis, lsevibus, ad latera rotundatis, 
in cristis angularibus spinosioribus. 

Pedibus posterioribas gracillirois, lsevibus, supra et infra rotundatis, unguibus longis, tenuibus, paululum 
depressis et acutissimis. 

Hab. Insulas PliiKppinas. 


Carapace longer than wide, five-sided, rather produced and acuminated in front. 
Upper surface with four elevated spines, rather thickened and blunt at the ends, the first 
about midway between the fore and hind part of carapace, directed upwards and slightly 
backwards ; behind it, another spine much longer, and one on each side of this, on the hind 
margin of carapace ; in the middle, two spines directed backwards and slightly upwards ; the 
first and second spines from before backwards, moderate in length ; the third placed in the 
centre of the carapace, long, vertical, and rather sharp-pointed ; the spines situated in the 
raised prominent tuberosity of the branchial region, long, stout, erect, and directed a little 
outwards and backwards ; entire surface of the carapace covered with blunt, subcorneal 
tubercles. Breadth of carapace about four lines ; length about four lines and a half. 

Front small, depressed very considerably, rather short, somewhat obtuse, deeply con- 
cave in the middle, with a slight tooth on each side. 

Fore-legs very long in comparison with the size of the body, verrucose or covered with 
warty tubercles, which latter are smooth, rounded on the sides, and more spinous on the 
angular crests. 

Hind-legs very slender and smooth, rounded above and below, with the claws long, fine, 
slightly flattened, and very sharp. 

Hab. Philippine Islands. 

This species comes very near Lambrus lamellifrons (Adams & White), but the legs are 
smooth, and not spiny like those of the latter, which, moreover, has tubercles on the carapace, 
instead of long, erect spines. 

4. LAMBRUS CARINATUS, Milne-Edwards. (Tab. V. Kg. 3.) 

Latero-posterioribus marginibus thoracis ad utrumque latus duobus parvis dentibus armatis et validis- 
sinio triangulari dente quo margo latero-anterior desinit. Superiore superficie chelarum Isevi et margi- 
nata dentibus nullum inter se intervallum habentibus. 

Thorace admodum insequali, ad regiones branchiales carinato, et tribus dentibus crista? forma in linea 
intermedia armato. 

Fronte magna, triangulari, non denticulata ; latero-anterioribus marginibus minutim denticulatis ; 
brachio quatuor posteriorum pedum spinoso. 

Longitudine 8 hnearum. 

Hab . Oram Brunensem, (Mare Sinense.) 

Latero-posterior edges of the carapace armed on each side with two small teeth, and 
with a very strong triangular tooth, similar to that which terminates the latero-anterior edge. 
Upper surface of the fore-legs smooth, and bordered by close-set teeth. Carapace very 
unequal, carinated on the branchial regions, and armed with three teeth in the form of a 
crest in the median line ; front large, triangular, and not denticulated, latero-anterior 
margins finely denticulated. Third joint of the four hind pahs of legs spiny. Length 
eight lines. 

Hab. Coast of Borneo ; China Sea. 
Lambrus carinatus, Edw. Crust. 1. 358. 


5. LAMBEUS PISOIDES, Adams % White. (Tab. V. Kg. 4.) 

Thorace seque longo ac lato, triangulari, marginibus lateralibus spinis depressis, rotundatis, tuberculi- 
formibus arinatis ; media et brancliiali regionibus valde emiuentibus et convexis ; regione brancliiali products 
ad utrumque latus in longam, validaro, acurninatam spinam retrorsum et extrorsum directam, et paululum 
prorsum inclinatam; tota superficie thoracis obsita depressis, lsevibus circularibus, verrucosiformibus 
tubercuHs, aliis alios magnitudine longe superantibus ; serie elevatorum tuberculorum in posteriore parte 
lona;itudinalis lateralis sulci, medium a brancliiali regione dividentis, carinam efficientis elevatam desinentem 
in spinam subobtusam, brevem, retrorsum, extrorsum, et paululum deorsum directam. 

Fronte acuta, productiore, utrinque dentata, angustiore, profunde sulcata in medio, in spinam valde 
depressant triangularem desinente. 

C/ielis longissimis pro magnitudine thoracis, pari longitudine et crassitudine ; brachio lsevibus, 
depressis tuberculis supra obsito ; marginibus antice et postice armatis compluribus longis et brevibus 
spinis alternatim dispositis ; superficie inferiore angulo obtuso, externe lsevi, interne granulata ; carpo tuber- 
culis verrucosis supra obsito, et externe armato tribus, validis, obtusis, recurvatis spinis ; manu triangulari, in 
superficie superiore lsevibus, rotundis tuberculis obsita, interne et in superficie inferiore minutim granulata ; 
margine externo valde carinato, et quinque eminentibus subcurvatis spinis armato, serie parvorum, obtu- 
sorum, tuberculiformium processuum alternatim disposita ; in superficie interiore serie parvarum, obtusarum 
proxime appropinquantium spinarum. 

Peclibus posterioribus parvis, tenuibus, infirmis, lsevibus marginibus superioribus obtusis ; unguibus 
longis, acutis, depressis, villis lanosis fimbriatis ; corpore et chelis subfuscis, majusculis subrubris maculis 

Hab. Insulas Philippinas. 

Carapace about as long as wide, triangular, lateral borders armed with flattened, 
rounded, tubercle-shaped spines ; middle and branchial regions very prominent and convex, 
branchial region produced, on each side, into a long, strong, and pointed spine, directed 
backwards and outwards, and inclined slightly upwards ; entire surface of carapace covered 
with flattened, smooth, circular, wart-like tubercles, varying in size, some being considerably 
larger than others ; a row of elevated tubercles on the posterior portion of the longitudinal 
lateral groove which divides the middle from the branchial region, forming an elevated ridge 
which terminates in a somewhat obtuse, short spine, directed backwards, outwards, and a 
little downwards. 

Front acute, rather produced, toothed on each side, somewhat narrowed, deeply chan- 
nelled in the middle, and ending in a considerably-depressed triangular spine. 

Fore-legs very long in proportion to the size of the carapace, and equal in length and 
thickness ; third joint covered above with smooth, flattened tubercles, the margins before and 
behind armed with numerous, long and short spines arranged alternately, lower surface bluntly 
angled, smooth externally, granulated internally ; fourth joint covered above with warty 
tubercles, and armed externally with three strong, obtuse, recurved spines ; fifth joint trian- 
gular, covered with smooth, round tubercles on the upper surface, finely granulated internally, 
and on the under surface, with the external margin strongly keeled and armed with five 
prominent, slightly-curved spines, finely denticulated on their edges, and alternating with a 
row of small, blunt tubercle-shaped processes ; on the inner surface a row of small, blunt, 
closely-approximated spines. 


Hind-legs small, thin, feeble, smooth, the upper edges obtuse ; claws long, sharp, flat- 
tened, and fringed with woolly hair. The body and fore-legs of a light brown colour, 
marked with rathei' large, faint-red blotches. 

Hab. Philippine Islands. 

This species is very closely allied to Part/ienqpe [Lambrus) diacantha, De Haan 
(E. J. Tab. xxiii. Fig. 1.), but it differs from that crustacean in the greater comparative length of 
the fore-legs ; in the fifth joint having intermediate small spines between the five larger ones, 
which latter, moreover, are different in form ; and in having but two spines on either side, 
extending from the postero-lateral margins of the carapace, whereas in Parthenope (Lambrus) 
diacantha, there are three on either side. 

The Lambri are extremely sluggish in their movements, relying for safety not in mus- 
cular force, but in the disguised nature of then' bodies, which, owing to their similarity to the 
gravelly floor on which they are generally found, must afford a protection from their enemies. 
Many species appear, indeed, at first sight to be made up of a conglomerated mass of small 
stones and sand. The Lambri are very numerous throughout the China Sea, where they live 
in about twelve or twenty fathoms, upon the submerged beds of broken shells and muddy 
gravel which constitute the floor of that sea. 


Tkorace multo latiore quam longo, rnargine laciniato, manibus carina externa et media 15-17 spinis, 
conicis validis granulatis armatis, carina interna tuberculatis ; fronte in spinam basi dilatatarn producta, 
pedum posteriorum tibiis tarsisque margine superiore acuto-carinatis. 

Hab. Japoniam. 

Carapace much wider than long, the margin laciniated ; fifth joint of fore-legs with the 
external and middle keels armed with from fifteen to seventeen strongly-granulated conical 
spines ; internal keel tuberculated ; front produced into a spine dilated at the base ; fourth 
and fifth joints of hind legs acutely carinated on the upper margin. 

Hab. Japan. 
Lambrus laciniatus, De Haan, Faun. Japon. 


Tliorace multo latiore quam longo, tuberculis fragiformibus ecliinato, margine laciniato; manibus 
carina externa et media spinis 11-12 conicis validis granulatis armatis, interiore vix tuberculatis; fronte in 
spinam angustam producta; manibus carina media tuberculis 12 armatis; pedum posteriorum tibiis 
tarsisque margine superiore obtusis. 

Hab. Japoniam. 

Carapace much wider than long, covered with fragiform tubercles, margin laciniated, 
external and middle keel of the hands armed with eleven or twelve strongly granulated 
conical spines, inner keel scarcely tuberculated, front produced into a narrow spine ; the 



middle keel of the hands armed with twelve tubercles, tibiae and tarsi of the hinder legs 
obtuse on the upper edge. 
Hab. Japan. 

Parthenope (Lambrus) valida, De Haan, Faun. Japon. t. 22. f. 1. (mas.) t. 22. f. 2. (femina.) 


Fronte externe parva subeminente, horizontal^ tribns dentibus. 
Hab. Oram Brunensem, Insulas Philippinas. 

Front extremely small, slightly prominent, horizontal, and formed of three teeth. 
Hab. Coast of Borneo, Philippine Islands. 

When alive, this curious species is of a stone colour, with the under surface pinkish. 

Numerous specimens were dredged by us from a gravelly bottom, in about thirty-five fathoms 


Lambrus longimanus, Leach, Lin. Trans, t. 12. p. 310 ; Cancer longimanus, Linn. Mus, Lud. Ulr. 
p. 441. Syst. Nat. 2. 1047, 42; Lambrus pelagicus, Biippell, t. 4. f . 1 ? Humph, pi. 8. f. 2. 


Thorace trigono vix aeque lato ac longo, verrucoso, postice utrinque in spinam acutam dilatato ; 
chelis sequalibus ; pedibus lsevissimis. 
Hab. Maria Orientalia. 

Minute, with a trigonal carapace hardly as long as wide, warty, dilated posteriorly on 

both sides into a sharp spine, fore-legs equal, hinder legs very smooth. 

Hab. Eastern Seas. 

Parthenope {Lambrus) diacantha, De Haan, Faun. Japon. t. 23. f. 1. 


Marginibus latero-posterioribus thoracis serie trium parvarum, Eequalium spinarum armatis. 
Hab. Insulas Philippinas. 

Latero-posterior margins of the carapace armed with a row of three, small, equal spines. 

Hab. Philippine Islands (Corregidor) ; Cuming. 

Lambrus serratus, Edw. Crust. 1. 357. Seba. 3. t. 20. f. 12. 

2. CRYPTOPODIA, Edwards. 

1. CBYPTOPODIA DOES ALLS, Adams fy White. Tab. 5. Pig. 6. 

Thorace depresso, permagno, triangularis in medio paululum elevato, bis latiore quam longo, postice 
paululum sinuato ; ad margines magnis rotundatis crenationibus valde distinctis ; majore parte tergi 
parvis pustularibus elevationibus obsita ; duobus profundis sulcis in posteriore parte thoracis, longitudi- 
naliter dispositis, et paululum inclinatis ita ut formam Ipse exhibeant. 

Fronte horizontali, valde producta, antice rotundata, tribus subacutis crenulationibus in utroque latere ; 
oculis parvis, retractilibus. 


Chelis longissimis et maximis, prismaticis, jiigis angularibus, tuberculis rotundis, subobtusis, ex ordme 
dispositis, arniatis ; quatuor posteribus pedum, paribus gracillirois parvis, pari longitudine, et omnino celatis 
sub lateralibus lamellaribus extensionibus thoracis. 

Aidomine lsevi, septem articulis, serie parvorum tuberculorum ad utrumque latus subemineutis inter- 
niedise linese : articulo penultimo ceteris latiore. 

Yivus colore turbide-carneolo, fuscis distinctionibus, et minutis nigris punctis ; in utraque chela crocea 
lineari macula ; superficie inferiore alba, subrubro colore in pectore. Siccatus obscuro, turbido, albo 
colore est. 

Hab. Mare Suluense ; fundo scruposo. 

Carapace flattened, very large, triangular, slightly elevated in the middle, nearly twice 
as wide as long, slightly sinuated posteriorly, strongly marked round the edges with coarse, 
rounded crenations ; the greater part of the back covered with slight pustular elevations ; on 
the posterior part of the carapace two deep grooves, placed longitudinally, and slightly bent, 
so as to have a lyre-shaped form. 

Front horizontal, much produced, rounded anteriorly, and having three rather sharp 
crenulations on either side, eyes small, retractile. 

Fore-legs very long and large, prismatic in form, with the angular ridges armed with 
regular, round, rather blunt tubercles ; the four hind pairs of legs very slender, small, 
equal in length, and entirely concealed beneath the lateral lamellar extension of the carapace. 

Abdomen smooth, seven jointed, with a row of small tubercles on either side of the 
slightly prominent, middle line ; penultimate joint wider than the rest. When alive it is 
of a dirty flesh-colour, with brown markings, and minute black specks ; on each chela there 
is an orange, linear spot ; the under surface is of a dead white, with a reddish tinge on 
the breast. In the dried state it is of a dull, dirty white. 

Hab. Sooloo Sea; twenty fathoms, stony bottom. 

The species of this genus resemble those of Calappa, in their habit of simulating death 
when disturbed, folding the chelae close to the front of the carapace, and concealing their 
legs under the ddated sides of the carapace. They are always found in deep water, while 
the Calappidce are observed on sandy flats, under the shelter of stones, or even sometimes 
buried in the sands. 

In the distinct and beautiful species of the singular genus described above, the lyre-shaped 
grooves on the carapace at once distinguish it from the other two known species ; it, however, 
differs from the Cryptopodiafornicata of Herbst, and the C. angulata of Edwards and Lucas, in 
other and minor particulars. The carapace is narrower and wider than the same part in C./or- 
nicata, and the posterior edge is furnished with coarser and rounder crenations, the ridges on 
the chelae have blunter tubercles ; the front, moreover, is longer, more rounded in outline, and 
more deeply crenulated. Prom C. angulata, Edwards and Lucas, (Archives du Museum, vol. ii. 
t. 28. f. 15-19,) described in 1841, it differs in the rounded form of the posterior portion of 
the carapace, which, in that species, is sharply angulated and spiniferous, and also in the 


minute incisions, instead of crenatures, on the posterior edge of the carapace. Their species, 
the locality of which is unknown to Messrs. Edwards and Lucas, is probably a native of the 
Eastern Archipelago, and with our new C. dorsalis forms a very interesting addition to a 
genus which has been hitherto limited to but one species. 

2. CBYPTOPODIA FOPNICATA, Jinn. Eerbst. t. 6. f. 4. 

In juniore thorax rrmlto triangularior, ad angulos rotundior, postice directior, et superficies dorsalis 
pluribus pustulis obsita est, quam in anirnalibus adultis ; chelse etiam breviores et crassiores sunt, frons 
latior, rotundatior et distinctius crenulata, oculi majores, juga dorsalia erninentiora. 

Hab. Mare Sinense; vadis submersis concharum mortuarum et lapidum. 

Oar figure represents, most probably, the young of this species ; the carapace is more 
decidedly triangular, more rounded at the angles, straighter behind, and the dorsal surface 
more covered with pustules than in the adult individuals j the chelae, moreover, are shorter 
and comparatively thicker, and the front is wider, more rounded and distinctly crenulated, 
the eyes are of comparatively greater size and the dorsal ridges more prominent. 

Hab. China Sea; submerged banks of dead shells and stones. 

3. GONATONOTUS, Adams 8f White. 

Thorax pentagonalis, depressus ; anguli laterales acutissimi. 

Frons latissima, lamelliformis, dilatata, rotundata, ad fines subnictata; oculi magni, eminentes, 
pedunculi breves in nictu profundiore ad latus iuserti; antennas exteriores, appendice terminali 

Chela subcrassse ; carpus rotundatus et interne spinosus ; ungues in margine serrati. 

Pedes tertii et quarti paullo longiores secundus et quintis ; articuli tarsales secundi, tertii, quarti 
et quinti parium, sequali magnitudine et crassitudine ; quinto pedum pari supra quart um inserto. 

Abdomen feminas septem articulis, tribus vel quatuor articulorum basalium supra conspiciendis. Mas 

Carapace pentagonal, depressed ; lateral angles very sharp. 

Front very wide, lamelliform, dilated, rounded, slightly notched at the end; eyes large, 
prominent, peduncles short, inserted in a rather deep notch on the side. Outer antennae 
with the terminal appendage elongated. 

Fore-legs rather thick ; fourth joint or wrist, rounded and spined on the inside, claws 
serrated on the edge. 

Third and fourth pairs of legs rather longer than the second and fifth, tarsal joints of 
second, third, fourth and fifth pairs of equal size and thickness ; fifth pair of legs inserted 
above the fourth pair. 

Abdomen of female, seven-jointed, three or four of the basal joints seen from above. 
Male unknown. 

This genus is allied to Fumedonus. 


1. GONATCHNTOTUS PENTAGONUS, Admits Sf White. (Tab. VI. Fig. 7.) 

Thorace supra confertim verrucoso, verracis depressis ; robusta carina dorsab, ab uno laterali angulo 
ad alterum pertinente, duobus tuberculis in medio. 

Fronte medio sulcata, medio dorsi duabus longitudinalibus impressionibus ; ultimo articulo abdominis 
in femina verrucoso. Primo pedum pari verrucoso, digitis sulcatis. 

Hab. Oram Brunensem. 

Gonatonotus jyentagoniw, Adams and White, Proc. Zool. Soc. 

Carapace above closely verrucose, the warts depressed ; a rather strong ridge across the 
back, extending from one lateral angle to the other, with two tubercles in the middle ; the 
front grooved down the middle ; the centre of the back with two longitudinal impressions ; 
terminal joint of abdomen, in the female, verrucose. 

Hab. Coast of Borneo. 

When alive, this species is of a brick-red colour, with the chela? crimson, and the under 
surface rufous. 

4. CEKATOCARCINUS, Adams §r White. 

Thorax subpentagonalis ; latera supra insertionem cbelarum in magnam spinam paululum prorsum 
directam producta. 

From lata et prom in ens, cornibus conicis inter se valde distantibus utrinque eminens; oculi 
parvuli, pedunculis brevibus, sulcis in lateribus rostri aptatis. Exteriores antennae perniagnse, termi- 
nales appendices certe dimidia longitudine antennarum, et ultra cornua rostri prominentes. 

Clielm valde elongatae; latera fere parallela, carpus subpyriformis, sine spinis in parte interiore; 
aeies digitorum convenientes et serratse. Secundum par pedum longius et gracihus quam postrema tria 
paria ; articulus tarsalis gracilis et elongatus ; quartum et quintum sequalia longitudine ; quintum par, ut in 
Eumedono, tarn alte positum ut quarti paris insertionem fere celet ; tarsales articuh horum pedum crassi ; 
unguis ad extremitatem translucidus. 

Abdomen maris ut in Eumedono : femina incognita. 

Hab. Maria Orientalia. 

Carapace somewhat pentagonal ; the sides, over the insertion of the first pair of legs, 
produced into a large spine directed slightly forwards. 

Front wide and prominent, projecting on each side in the form of conical horns, widely 
separate from each other. Eyes rather small, peduncles short, the eye fitting into a groove 
on the side of the front ; outer antennas considerably developed, the terminal appendages at 
least half the length of the whole antenna?, and projecting beyond the horns of the front. 

First pair of legs much elongated, the sides nearly parallel, the wrist somewhat pear- 
shaped, without spines on the inside, the edges of the pincers meeting and serrated. Second 
pah of legs longer and more slender than the last three pairs ; the tarsal joint slender and 
elongated ; fourth and fifth pairs of legs of equal length ; the fifth pair, as in Fumedonm, 
placed so high as nearly to conceal the insertion of the fourth pah ; the tarsal joints of these 
legs thick ; the claw at the end translucent. 



Abdomen of male, as in Eumedonus ; that of female unknown. 

This genus is closely allied to Eumedonus of Professor Milne Edwards (Crust, vol. i. 
p. 349), and, like it, comes from the Eastern Seas. 

1. CERATOCARCINUS LONGIMANUS, Adams fy White. (Tab. VI. Fig. 6.) 

Duobus acuminatis transversis tuberculis, ad extremitatem pilis cristatis, in dorso thoracis, post oculos ; 
primo pedum pari minutis verrucis obsito compluribus altis longitudinalibus sulcis ; digitis basi excepta 

Hab. Oram Brunensem (Balarnbangan). 

Cerotocarcinus longimanus, Proc. Zool. Soc. 

Two pointed transverse tubercles, tufted with hair at the end, on the back of the 
carapace, behind the eyes ; the first pair of legs covered with minute warts and with several 
deep longitudinal grooves ; the pincers blackish brown, except at the base. 

Hab. North coast of Borneo (Balarnbangan). 

When alive, the colour of this species is blood-red, with five light bands across the 

5. PARTHENOPE, Fabricius. 

1. PARTHENOPE CALAPPOLDES, Adams fy White. (Tab. V. Eig.5.) 

Thorace subtrigono postice truncato, antice rotundato, dorso verrucosiformibus subdepressis tuber- 
culis obsito ; lateribus in parte anteriore obtuso rotundato lobo ; alto sinu post lobuin ; branchialibus 
regionibus permagnis, coinpluribus tuberculis, jugo majorum tuberculorum ad angulos latero-posteriores 
pertinentium et brevibus sequis intervallis circum niargines alte incisis. Mediana regione serie magnoruni 
rotundatorum tuberculorum, anterioribus tuberculis proxime appropinquantibus, posterioribus distantibus ; 
duabus caveis inter laterales et medianas regiones, et post caveas duabus altis foveis. 

Fronte lata, obtusa, antice rotundata, ad extremitatem subemarginata, denticulis in lateribus, tuber- 
culifera in dorso. 

Chelis breviusculis et crassis ; brachio verrucoso, valida anteriore spinifera crista ; carpo exteme lsevi, 
serie tuberculorum in superficie interiore ; manu serie magnorum tuberculorum pertinentium a digito 
superiore intus ad basin articuli exteriore carina Isevi et sine spinis ; digitis magnis et validis, inferiore 
tribus magnis dentibus. 

Abdomine in femina septem articulis, depressis tuberculis obsito. 

Hab. Maria Orientalia. 

Carapace subtrigonal, truncate behind, rounded in front, upper surface covered with 
wart-like, rather depressed tubercles ; sides at the forepart with an obtuse rounded lobe, 
behind which is a deep notch ; branchial regions very much developed, covered with tubercles, 
with a ridge of larger tubercles extending to the latero-posterior angles, and deeply incised 
at short regular intervals round the edges ; the middle region with a row of large rounded 
tubercles, the anterior of which are close together, and the posterior isolated ; two hollows 
between the lateral and middle regions, and two deep pits behind the hollows. 


Front wide, obtuse, rounded anteriorly, slightly emarginate at the end, faintly dentated 
on the sides, and tuberculiferous on the upper surface. 

Fore-legs rather short and stout j third joint verrucose, with a strong anterior spiniferous 
crest ; fourth joint smooth externally, with a row of tubercles on the inner surface ; fifth 
joint with a row of large tubercles, extending from the upper claw to the base of the joint, on 
the inner surface, outer keel smooth and without spines ; claws large and strong, the lower 
one with three large teeth. 

Abdomen, in the female, seven jointed, and covered with flattened tubercles. 

Hab. Eastern Seas. 

2. PARTHENOPE TARPEIUS, Adams 8f White. (Tab. VII. Fig. 2.) 

Thorace subtrigono, cornpluribus lsevibus depressis rotundatis tuberculis, in regionibus mediaua et 
laterali majoribus obsito : lobo rotundato integro, in margine latero-anteriore ; alto sinu lobum a lateralibus 
regionibus dividente; lateralibus regionibus dilatatis, rotundatis, postice angustatis, niagnis superficialibus 
crenationibus circum margines ; posteriore margine serie validorum obtusorurn subconicalium tuberculorum 
extrorsum et retrorsum directis. 

Fronte lata obtusa rotundata, subcrenulata, alte sulcata, vix laevi in superiore superficie. 

Chelis validis tuberculiferis, brachiis uno magno et compluribus minoribus tuberculis in acie anteriore ; 
carpo lsevi, externe noduloso ; manu subtuberculifero latere in interiore superficie ; pedibus posterioribus 
depressis, marginatis depressis subtriangularibus obtusioribus processibus. 

Abclomine in femina septem-articulato, obsito tuberculis, fbnbriato crebris setis. 
Hab. Maria Orientalia. 

Carapace subtrigonal, covered with numerous smooth, depressed tubercles, larger in the 
middle and lateral regions ; a rounded entire lobe on the latero-anterior margin, and a deep 
notch, which separates it from the lateral regions, which are dilated, rounded, narrowed 
posteriorly, with large superficial crenations round the edges ; the hind margin with a row of 
strong, obtuse, sub-conic tubercles, directed outwards and backwards. 

Front wide, obtuse, rounded, subcrenulate, deeply channelled, and nearly smooth on 
the upper surface. 

Fore-legs strong, tuberculiferous ; third joint with one large and several smaller tubercles 
on the front edge ; fourth joint smooth, externally nodulous ; fifth joint with a rather faint 
tuberculiferous ridge on the inner surface ; hind-legs flattened, edged with flattened, sub- 
triangular, bluntish processes. 

Abdomen, in the female, seven-jointed, covered with tubercles, fringed with close-set setae. 

Hab. Eastern Seas (Caramatta Passage). 

LAMBRUS, Leach. 

[Additional Species.'] 
11. LAMBRUS HOPLONOTUS, Adams Sf White. (Tab. VII. Fig. 3.) 

Thorace subpentagono, antice acuminato, ad latera subangulato, postice lato, obsito rotundis sequis 
tuberculis, majoribus et crebrioribus in regionibus medians* et branchiali ; lateribus crenatis antice, armatis 


in medio crassis obtusis tubercuhformibus processibus, postice desinentibus in longa prominente acumi- 
nata spina extrorsum et paululum retrorsnm directa ; acie posteriore octo validis spinis instructs, marginibus 
thoracis, cum tuberculis et spinis, fimbriatis longis rigidis subcurvatis setis. 

Fronts acuminate triangulari, aciebus subcrenulatis et valida spina supra canthum. 

Chelis ter thorace longioribus ; bracbiis serie crebrorum sequorum tuberculorum antice ; quatuor vel 
quinque magnis rotundatis tuberculis, paululum inter se distantibus in latere exteriore, quinque validis 
spinosis processibus a margine posteriore retrorsum et extrorsum tendentious ; carpo serie tuberculorum 
supra, et tribus validis spinis externe ; manu crista octo validarum spinarum supra, serie tuberculorum 
interne, et serie fere duodecim crassarum obtusarum spinarum in acie inferiore. 

Pedibus posterioribus gracilibus minoribus, duobus posterioribus paribus longis subcurvatis setis 

Aidomine (in mare) quinquarticulato, crebris setis circum margines. 

Hab. Maria Orientalia. 

Carapace subtriangular, anteriorly acuminate, somewhat angulated at the sides, wide 
behind, covered with rounded equal-sized tubercles, larger in the middle and branchial regions, 
the sides anteriorly crenated, armed in the middle with thick, obtuse, tuberculiform processes, 
and ending posteriorly in a long, prominent, acuminated spine, directed outwards and a 
little backwards ; posterior edge with eight strong spines and tubercles, the spines fringed 
with long, rigid, slightly curved hairs* 

Front acuminately triangular, the edges subcrenulated, and with a strong spine above 
the orbit. 

Fore-legs three times longer than the carapace, the third joint with a row of equal-sized 
tubercles anteriorly ; four or five large rounded tubercles slightly separated from each other 
on the outer surface ; five strong spiny processes, extending backwards and outwards from 
the hinder margin ; the third joint with a row of tubercles above and three strong spines 
externally ; the fifth joint with a crest of strong spines above, a row of tubercles internally, 
and a row of about twelve thick, obtuse spines on the lower sharp edge. 

Hind-legs slender, rather small, the two posterior fringed with long slightly curved setee. 

Abdomen (in the male) five-jointed, the crenated margins beset with short hairs. 

Hab. Eastern Seas. 


In their habits, the Canceridtz are evasive and prone to concealment, passive in defence, 
and though voracious and predatory, they do not exhibit the same activity, intelligence, and 
cunning as the Ocypodidce, the Gonoplacidtz, or the Grapsidce. The (Ethrce inhabit deep 
water, living in sandy mud, among shells and coral debris, while such genera as Carpilius, 
Atergatis, Xant/io, and Chlorodius, select shallow waters along the shores, preferring weedy 
and rocky bottoms, where they hide among the stones, and prey on shrimps and small fishes. 
Pilumnns and Trapezia are tolerably lively in their movements ; the latter genus having the 


same habit of hiding and shuffling under stones as Porcellana, but unlike that genus it 
inhabits the coral branches of deep sunken reefs and the cavities of madrepores. 

At the island of Koo-kien-san a species of Eriphia was common, hiding under stones 
below high-water mark, having the carapace, legs, and chelae covered with stiff red hairs, the 
colour of the shell itself being dark greenish brown, the legs lighter and banded with dark 
brown, while the under surface of the body was ultramarine blue, and the terminal joint 
of the abdomen the same colour. 

The Zozymus lives among rocks, hiding in holes, while Pilumnus is sluggish in its 
movements, hiding in the crevices and cavities of the under surface of stones below high- 
water mark. 

1. CARPILIUS, Leach. 

1. CAKPILIUS CINCTIMANUS, White. (Tab. VII. Fig. 4.) 

Thorace sine dente laterali, latissimo; lateribus in quatuor lobos divisis; digitis nigris, subalbis 
ad extreinitatem ; manu in medio lata nigra fascia cum nigro digiti immobilis commixta ; thorace et peclibus 
laevibus, intense rubris. 

Hab. Insulas Philippinas. 

Carapace without lateral tooth ; very wide ; the side divided into four lobes ; claws of 
fore-legs black, whitish at the tip ; fifth joint of fore-legs with a broad black band in the 
middle which runs into the black of the immovable claw. 

Carapace and legs smooth, of a rich red colour. 

Hab. Philippine Islands. 

2. CABPILIUS SIGNATUS, Adams Sf White. (Tab. X. Fig. 1.) 

Thorace valde convexo, supra punctis carinisque latiusculis impresso, aurantiaco, signaturis pallide- 
citrinis variegato. 

Hab. In littore Mauritiano. 

Carapace very convex, the upper surface distinctly punctulated and beautifully marked, 
in the dried specimen, with symmetrical figures of a pale yellow on an orange ground, which 
are well expressed in our figure ; the several regions are separated from each other by shallow 
grooves, rendering them much more prominent than in other species of the genus ; the ante- 
rior convex margin is furnished with long crenulations, the crenulation in front being longer 
than the one behind. 

Front shghtly projecting, deeply notched in the middle line with an obtuse tubercle 
before, and a smaller one behind the eyes. 

Fore-leys large, with the claws very black, the under claw with four obtuse tubercles, 
the hind-legs as in C. corattinus, but the fifth pair are unfortunately wanting. 

Hab. Isle of France. 


2. ATERGATIS, Be Haan. 


Tkorace marginali membro integerrimo, crassiore, omnino subfusco-rubro colore. 
Fronte tribus lobis, unoquoque in medio nictato ; digitis chelarum cristis pilorum, nigris, summa 
extremitate alba. 

Thorace quatuor digitorum latitudine. 
Hab. Mauritium. 

Carapace with the marginal limb very entire, rather thick, and of a uniform brownish red. 
Front with three lobes, each notched in the middle ; claws of fore-legs with tufts of hair ; 
claws of a black colour, with the extreme tip white. 
Width of carapace four inches. 
Hab. Mauritius. 

2. ATEEGATIS SUBDIVISUS, Adams 8/ White. (Tab. VIII. Eig. 3.) 

Thorace membro marginali quatuor lobis valde indistinctis diviso; majore parte summi thoracis 
intense rubra, postice subrubra ; digitis nigris, basi digitorum mobiliiun flava. 
Fronte thoracis duobus rectis lobis, proxime oculum sinuata. 
Thorace trium digitorum octo linearum latitudine. 
Hab. Insulas Philippinas. 

Carapace with the marginal limb divided into four very indistinct lobes ; the greater part 
of upper surface of carapace deep red with yellowish spots, behind paler. Claws of fore-legs 
black, base of movable one yellow ; front of carapace with two rather straight lobes, sinuated 
close to the eye. 

Width of carapace three inches, eight lines. 

Hab. Philippine Islands. 

This species comes near A, marginatus. 

3. ATERGATIS INSULARIS, Adams 8f White. (Tab. VIII. Fig. 2.) 

Thorace anterioribus lateribus acie incisore ; parte thoracis post hanc punctata ; reliqua superiore 
superficie fere levi, tribus vel quatuor lineis impressis antice. 

Manibus rugosis preesertim supra; digitis et mobilibus et fixis profunde sulcatis. Flaveolo rubro, 
pedibus colore intensiore ; digitis chelarum pallidis ; cornu colorato. 

Hab. Insulas Philippinas. 

Latero-anterior sides of carapace with a cutting edge ; part of carapace behind this 
punctate, the rest of upper surface very nearly smooth, with three or four impressed lines in 
front ; fifth joint of fore-legs rugose, especially above ; claws, both movable and fixed, deeply 
channelled. Pale yellowish-red ; legs darker ; claws of fore-legs pale horn-colour. 

Hab. Philippine Islands. Cuming. 


4. ATERGATIS LATERALIS, Adams Sf White. (Tab. VIII. Fig. 1.) 

Thorace laevi irregulari, lineis impressis, lateribus latero-anterioribus in tres dentes latos divisis. 
Fronte lata, denticulata, hi medio subemarginatS. 
Hab. Maria Orientalia. 

Carapace smooth, irregular, with numerous impressed lines ; latero-anterior margins 
divided into three broad teeth. 

Front wide, denticulated, subemarginate in the middle ; fifth joint of fore-legs rugose, 
claws tipped with dark brown. 

Hab. Eastern Seas. 

3. ACTiEA, DeHaan. 

1. ACTiEA NODULOSA, Adams fy White. (Tab. VIII. Eig. 4.) 

Thorace et pedibus supra dense obsitis rotundatis tuberculis maximis in chelis et anterioribus margi- 
nibus ; tuberculo in cantho inferiore ; thorace in medio longitudinaliter impresso ; acie posteriore recta et 
duabus lineis transversis parvorvun tuberculorum instructs,. Chelis et superiore et inferiore carinis longi- 
tudinalibus ; cornn colorato. 

Hab. Mauritium. 

Carapace and legs, above, thickly covered with rounded tubercles, largest on fore-legs 
and fore-margins of carapace ; a tubercle on the under orbit ; carapace, in the middle, longi- 
tudinally impressed ; the posterior edge straight and furnished with two transverse lines of 
small tubercles ; claws, both upper and under, with longitudinal keels, and horn coloured. 

Hab. Mauritius. 

4. XANTHO, Leach. 

1. XAJSTTHO DEPRESSA, Adams Sf White. 

TJiorace valde depresso, antice tuberculato, compluribus tuberculorum acuminatis. 
Fronte in medio profunde nictata ; lateribus tribus dentibus. Manibus extra tuberculatis, tribus 
posterioribus articulis pedum parvis tuberculis, paucis capillis. 
Hab. Insulas Philippinas. 

Carapace much depressed ; in front tuberculated, many of the tubercles sharp-pointed. 

Front deeply notched in the middle ; sides with three teeth ; fifth joint of fore-legs 
tuberculated on the outside ; the three last joints of legs slightly tuberculated, and with a few 

Hab. Philippine Islands. 

2. XANTHO CULTEIMANUS, Adams 8? White. 

Thorace supra convexiore; fronte nictata; lateribus quatuor dentibus; parte anteriore et lateribus 
parvulis tuberculis; thorace post oculos impressis lineis quae in medio conveniunt; manibus quatuor 
longitudinalibus impressis lineis in superficie exteriore quae parvis subasperis tuberculis exornatur ; thorace 
et pedibus flaveolis rubro commixtis. 

Hab. Insulas Philippinas. 


Carapace slightly convex above, front notched, sides with four teeth ; front part and 
sides with very slight tubercles ; carapace, behind the eyes, with impressed lines, which meet 
in the middle ; fifth joint of fore-legs with four longitudinal impressed lines on the outside, 
which is covered with small roughish tubercles ; carapace and legs pale yellowish varied 
with red. 

Hab. Philippine Islands. Cuming. 

3. XANTHO LAMELLIGEEA, Adams 8f White. 

Thorace supra couvexiore, quatuor dentibus in utroque latere ; superiore parte ad latera subsubercu- 
lari. Manibus extra asperis ; acie carpi superiore margine dentate- ; acie manuum et supra et infra margine 
lamellari; pedibus posterioribus in acie superiore lamellaribus. 

Hab. Mauritium. 

Carapace rather convex above, with four teeth on each side, upper part on the sides 
slightly tubercular, fifth joint of fore-legs rough on the outside, edge of fourth joint, above, 
with a toothed margin ; edge of fifth joint, both above and below, with a lamellar border ; 
hind-legs, on the upper part, lamellar. 

Hab. Mauritius. 

5. CHLORODIUS, Edwards. 

1. CHLORODIUS HIRTIPES, Adams S,- White. (Tab. XL Fig. 4.) 

Thorace levi. 

Frcmte latissima, vix in medio nictata ; lateribus quatuor dentibus obtusis. 

Chelis longis, brachio crassissimo ; acie superiore ad basin uno crasso dente ; pedibus posterioribus 
multis fuscis capilbs. 

LIab. Insulas PhiHppinas. 

Carapace smooth. 

Front very broad, scarcely notched in the middle ; the sides with four blunt teeth. 
Fore-legs long ; fourth joint very thick, upper edge, at the base, with one thick tooth ; 
hind-legs with many brownish hairs. 
Hab. Philippine Islands. 

2. CHLORODIUS FRAGIFER, Adams 8f White. (Tab. XL Fig. 2.) 

Thorace obsito tuberculis rotundatis bacciformibus gregatim dispositis, defmitis impressis lineis 
separatis ; pediculo oculi duabus spinis prope oculum dispositis ; pedibus tuberculis oryziformibus obsitis, 
albis, lata carminea longitudinati linea per medium in fronte; quinque carmineis notis in posteriore 
thoracis parte. 

Hab. Insulas Philippinas. 

Carapace covered with roundish berry-like tubercles, arranged in groups and separated 
by definite impressed lines ; pedicel of eye with two spines close to the eye ; legs covered with 
rice-like tubercles ; white, with a broad pinkish longitudinal line down the middle in front ; 
five pink marks on hind part of carapace. 

Hab. Philippine Islands. 


3. CHLOKODIUS PILUMNOIDES, Adams $ White. (Tab. IX. Fig. 3.) 

Tkorace et pedibus fuscis pilis obsitis ; thorace depressiore ; lateribus tribus dentibus, spinis exomatis, 
priore parte thoracis compluribus eminentiis et spinosis tuberculis aspera. Manibus magnis ; acie superiore 
serrata extra et supra tuberculis majoribus ; digitis extra et supra sulcatis compluribus tuberculis ad basin 
digiti mobilis ; digitis nigris ; concavis extremitatibus albis ; pedibus posterioribus supra serratis. 

Hab. Singhapuram et Insulas Philippinas. 

Carapace and legs covered with brown hair ; carapace somewhat depressed ; sides with 
three teeth covered with spines ; fore part of carapace with several bosses, and rough with 
spiny tubercles ; four transverse raised lines on hind part ; the inmost the shortest ; fifth 
joint of fore-legs large, upper edge serrated on the outside and top with rather large tubercles. 
Claws on the outside and top channelled ; several tubercles at the base of the movable claw : 
claws black, the hollowed ends white ; hind-legs serrated above ; second and third joints 
with three rows of serratures. 

Hab. Singapore. Philippine Islands. 

4. CHLOEODIUS ABEOLATUS, Milne Edwards. (Tab. XL Fig. 3.) 

Thorace tuberculis et granulis multis obsitis. 

Fronte lata, in lobos quatuor distinctos incisa ; margine latero-anteriori in quatuor dentes triangu- 
lares diviso, hiatu anguli canthi interno angusto. 

Chelis granulosis,, pedibus posterioribus sublsevibus. 

Abdomen (femiuse) articulis septem. 

Hab. Insulas Philippinas. 

Chlorodius areolatus, Milne Edwards, Crust, vol. i. p. 400. 

Carapace covered with tubercles and granules. 

Front wide, divided into four distinct lobes; latero-anterior margins short, nearly 
straight, and divided into four triangular teeth ; fissure of orbital angle internal, narrow, 
lodging the movable joint of the outer antennae. 

Fore-legs granular ; hind-legs and lower surface of body nearly smooth. 

Abdomen (of female) seven-jointed, fringed with setae. 

Hab. Philippine Islands. 

6. PANOPEUS, Edwards. 

1. PANOPEUS DENTATUS, White. (Tab. XL Pig.l.) 

Thorace rotundato, lsevi, postice coarctato, lateribus productis tuberculis postfrontalibus transversis 
irregularibus ; margine latero-anteriore lobis quinque magnis dentiformibus, lineis elevatiusculis duabus 
ab angulo latero-anteriore porrectis. 

Fronte in lobos quatuor divisa ; angulo externo canthi acuto. 

Chelis in carpo dentibus duobus conicis, manu externe granulata, interne valde reticulata, ad basin 
linea tuberculata ; digito superiore inermi, digito inferiore tuberculis quinque depressis. 



Abdomine (maris et feminse) articulis septem. 
Hab. Insulas Pliilippinas. 

Carapace rounded in front, produced at the latero-anterior angles, and contracted 
behind, upper surface smooth, marbled with a row of irregular transverse tubercles extending 
across the postfrontal portion ; latero-anterior margin with five large, prominent, dentiform 
lobes, the anterior three obtuse, the two posterior acute ; two curved, slightly elevated lines 
proceeding inwards from the latero-anterior angle. 

Front divided into four lobes, the two inner wide and obtuse, the two outer narrower 
and more prominent, upper surface slightly concave, outer angle of orbit acute. 

Fore-legs with two strong teeth on the inner and upper part of the fourth joint, the 
fifth joint slightly granulated externally, coarsely reticulated internally, and with a tubercular 
ridge at the base ; upper claw unarmed, under claw with five round depressed tubercles. 

Hind-legs transversely rugose, fringed with short, stiff setse. 

Abdomen (both of male and female) seven-jointed, the former fringed with long, the 
latter with short, setee. 

Hab. Philippine Islands. 

2. PANOPEUS CAYSTEUS, Adams Sf White. (Tab. IX. Fig. 2.) 

Thorace subtrigonali, antice convexo, marginibus rotundatis lineis impressis obsitis ; margine latero- 
anteriore serratulis tribus subdistantibus. 

Fronte, in medio, emarginata, supra sulcata, angulo externo canthi obtuso. 

Chelis lsevibus, digito superiore arcuato inermi, digito inferiore tuberculis quatuor parvis acutis. 

Abdomine (feminse) articulis septem. 

Hab. Maria Orientalia. 

Carapace subtrigonal, rounded in front and at the sides, surface smooth, marked with 
faintly impressed lines ; latero-anterior margin with three rather distant sharp serrations. 

Front emarginate in the middle, without lobes, a trifid groove on the upper surface ; 
outer angle of orbit rather obtuse. 

Fore-legs smooth, upper claw strong, arched, unarmed ; lower claw with three or four 
small acute tubercles. 

Hind-legs smooth, fringed on the last and penultimate joints with long hairs. 

Abdomen (of female) seven-jointed, the second joint narrower than the rest, fringed with 
short stiff setse. 

Hab. Eastern Seas. 

3. PANOPEUS FORMIO, Adams Sf White. (Tab. IX. Fig. 1.) 

Thorace latiore quam longiore, lateribus rotundatis, linea valde distincta ab angulo latero-anteriore 
projecta; margine latero-anteriore lobis quatuor longis rotundatis, dente parvo ad angulum latero-anteriorem. 
Fronte lobis quinque subobsoletis, supra sulcata, angulo externo canthi fissura parva. 


Chelis manu subtuberculata, digito inferiore tuberculo magno cum multis tuberculis parvis. 
Abdomine (maris) articulis septem, articulo tertio ad latera dilatato. 
Hab. Maria Orientalia. 

Carapace transversely oval, the sides rounded, surface smooth, marked with faintly 
impressed lines, a strongly marked line extending across the middle from the latero-anterior 
angle, and a fainter line posteriorly ; latero-anterior margin with four long, rounded crenu- 
lations, and a small tooth at the latero-anterior angle. 

Front with four slightly developed lobes, a bifurcate groove on the upper surface, outer 
angle of orbit slightly fissured. 

Fore-legs smooth, with the upper and outer surface of fifth joint faintly tuberculated, 
upper claw unarmed, lower claw with one large and several small tubercles. 

Hind-legs transversely rugose and slightly granulated, not fringed with hairs. 

Abdomen (of male) seven-jointed, the third joint dilated at the sides ; fringed with short 
stiff setae. 

Hab. Eastern Seas. 

7. ^EGLE, Be Haan. 

1. ^GLE KUGATA (sp.), Milne Edwards. (Tab. VIII. Fig. 5.) 

Tliorace grarmlis minutis dense dispositis ; margine latero-anteriore lobis quatuor rotundatis distinctis. 

Chelis sublsevibus. 

Abdomine (feminas) articulis septem. 

Hab. Insulas Philippiuas. 

Zozymus rugatus, Edw. Crust, vol. i. p. 385. 

Carapace covered with small close-set granulations ; latero-anterior margins divided 
into four rounded very distinct lobes. 

Surface of body and fore-legs comparatively smooth. 

Abdomen (of female) seven-jointed, and fringed with long, close-set, coarse setae. 

Hab. Philippine Islands. 

8. GALENE, Be Haan. 

1. GALENE OCHTODES (Junior), Eerbst. (Tab. X. Kg. 2.) 

Cancer tliorace lsevi, lateribus verrucosis. 

Fronte biloba, braehiis, carpis, manibus, digitisque verrucosis. 

Hab. Maria Orientalia. 

Galene ocModes, Mus. Cat. p. 18. Cancer oehtodes, Herbst. vol. 1. p. 158. t. 8. f. 54. 

Carapace smooth, sides verrucose. 

Front bilobed, second, third, and fourth joints of chelae, and the claws, verrucose. 

Hab. Indian Ocean. 


We have figured a young specimen of this species, which does not seem to be common 
in collections. 

9. PILUMNUS, Leach. 

1. PILUMNUS DILATIPES, Adams fy White. (Tab. IX. Pig. 4.) 

TJwrace latiore quam longiore, granulis multis distinctis setigeris obsito ; regionibus lineis depressis 
distinctis separatis ; margine latero-anteriore dentibus quatuor, magnis denticulatis. 

Fronte emarginata, antice crenulata fasciculis duobus pilosis ; margine superiore cantlii multidentato. 
Chelis externe tuberculis multis rotundatis obsitis, margine superiore setifero. ' 
Pedibus posterioribus valde dilatatis, tuberculis lineisque setigeris instructis. 
Abdomine (mai'is) articulis septem, lsevi. 
Hab. Maria Orientalia. 
Pilumnus dilatipes, White, Pro. Zool. Soc. 

Carapace wider than long, covered with coarse granulations, each beset with several 
short setae ; the different regions divided by distinct shallow grooves ; latero-anterior margin 
with four prominent denticulated teeth, the first small, the second wide, and the two 
posterior equal and triangular. 

Front emarginate, with numerous serrations and with two tufts of straight setae ; upper 
margin of orbit with numerous dentations. 

Fore-legs covered with granules and short stiff hairs on the outer and upper surface, 
smooth internally. 

Hind-legs considerably dilated, beset with fine granulations and numerous rows of 
short bristles, the edges fringed with long hairs. 
Abdomen (of male) seven-jointed and smooth. 
Hab. Eastern Seas. 

2. PILUMNUS SCABRIUSCULUS, Adams 8f White. (Tab. IX. Pig. 5.) 

Thorace vis longiore quam latiore, granulis multis parvis setigeris obsito, regionibus lineis depressis 
vix distinctis separatis ; marginibus latero-anterioribus dentibus tribus denticulatis. 
Fronte prominente triangulari crenulata, margine superiore canthi unidentato. 
Chelis tuberculis granulosis distinctis obsitis, parte superiore setis brevibus rigidis fimbriate. 
Pedibus posterioribus scabriusculis, pilosis. 
Abdomine (feminas) lateribus subparallelis, septem articulis. 
Hab. Maria Orientalia. 

Carapace nearly as long as wide, covered with numerous granulations, each beset with 
several short setae ; the regions of carapace separated by several faintly impressed grooves, 
antero-lateral margins with three wide denticulated teeth fringed with stiff hairs. 

Fronl subtriangular, slightly produced, finely crenulated on the margin, which is 
furnished with a single fringe of stiff setae ; upper edge of orbit with a single rounded 


Fore-legs covered with numerous distinct granular tubercles on the upper and outer 
surface, and fringed with short hairs. 

Hind-legs rough with granules and short hairs, arranged in transverse rows. 
Abdomen (of female) villose, seven-jointed, the sides subparallel. 
Hab. Eastern Seas. 

3. PILUMNUS UBSULUS, Adams Sf White. (Tab. IX. Kg. 6.) 

Tho-race vix longiore quam latiore, dense tomentoso, granulis multis rotundatis setigeris obsito, margi- 
nibus latero-anterioribus dentatis. 

Fronte denticulata, fasciculis quinque pilosis longis instructs. 
CJielis granulosis, pilis longis dense coopertis. 
Abdomine (maris) dense tomentoso, articulis septem. 
Hab. Maria Orientalia. 

Carapace nearly as long as wide, densely tomentose, covered with numerous large 
close-set granules beset with very long coarse hairs, latero-anterior margins dentated. 
Front toothed, with five tufts of long straight hairs. 

Fore-legs covered with coarse granulations, and very long, coarse, slightly curved hairs. 
Hind-legs granular, thickly beset with numerous, long, coarse hairs. 
Abdomen (of male) densely tomentose, seven-jointed. 
Hab. Eastern Seas. 


The large species of this family are much esteemed as food among the poor islanders 
of the Meia-co-shimahs, and in the markets of China large species of Neptmus {N. pelagicus), 
are frequently offered for sale. Two well-marked genera have been added to this group by 
our researches in the Eastern Seas, besides numerous species. The island of Balambaugan, 
at the north end of Borneo, harbours the Lupocyclus, which is very active in its habits, 
keeping close in shore like Lupa, Oceanus, and other swimming crabs ; it swims by rapid 
jerks along the bottom, and, when caught, will wound the fingers by striking side-ways with 
its spiny fore-legs. The other new genus, Lissocarcinus, was obtained at some considerable 
distance from land, concealed in the internode of a fragment of floating bamboo, and is a 
powerful swimmer. The Cancer (T/talamita) admete of Herbst, and the Cancer {TJialamita) 
prymna of the same Crustaceologist, besides three new species of Amphitrite, and a new 
species of Neptimus, were likewise procured. 

1. LISSOCARCINUS, Adams 8f White. 

Pedipalpi externi articulo tertio, ad basin, latiore quam longiore, ad marginem anteriorem non incisum 
prope angulum. 



Thorax trapezoidalis, postice coarctatus. 

Frons prominens, lamellaris, in medio valde incisa. Antennae internee artieulo secundo elongate, 
usque ad fissuram porrecto. 

Pedes posteriores pedibus Portuno simillimi. 

Abdomen (feminse) articulis septem lateribus subparallelis. Mas adhuc latet. 

External pedipalps with the third joint broader at the base than long, and not notched 
at its anterior margin near the angle. 

Carapace trapezoidal, considerably contracted posteriorly. 

Front projecting, lamellar, deeply cleft in the middle. Inner antennas with the second 
joint elongated and reaching to the commencement of the notch. 

Legs very much as in Portunus. 

Abdomen (of female) seven-jointed, the sides nearly parallel. 

This generic group, described from a female, will be found an interesting connecting 
link between the genera Portunus, Platyonychus, and Polybius. We have named it Poly- 
bioides from its resemblance to the genus of Leach, which, as Professor Bell remarks, is of a 
more decided natatory character than any other Brachyurous form found on the British coast. 

1. LISSOCABCINUS POLYBIOIDES, Adams fy White. (Tab. XL Fig. 5.) 

Thorace pentagonali, in fronte producto, postice coarctato, laevissimo, multis parvis rotundatis maculis, 
linea distincta ab angulo latero-anteriore projecta ; margine latero-anteriore valde dentate, dentibus prorsum 

Fronte lamellari, pro min ente, antiee bifida, antennis lateralibus fronte occultis. 

Chelis artieulo quinto bicarinato ; carina antiee valde dentata. Pedibus posterioribus depressis, pari 
ultimo unguibus valde dilatatis. 

Hab. Maria Orientalia. 

Carapace five-sided, produced in front, narrowed behind, very smooth on the upper 
surface, and covered with numerous small round markings, a strong line extending from the 
latero-anterior angle across the carapace towards the middle line ; latero -anterior margin 
strongly toothed, the teeth directed forwards. 

Front lamellar, projecting, bifid anteriorly, covering and concealing the lateral antennae, 
a wide space between the eyes. 

Fore-legs with the fourth joint doubly keeled, the keels strongly toothed anteriorly. 

Hind-legs flattened, the fifth pair with the penultimate joint more flattened than the 
corresponding joint of the other pairs, and with a greatly dilated flattened claw. 

Hab. Eastern Seas. 

2. LUPOCYCLUS, Adams 8f White. 

Pedipalpi extend artieulo secundo ad apicem tenuiore (quam in Lvpd- — L. forceps), artieulo tertio 
minore (quam in Lvpd). 


Thorax suborbicularis, postice coarctatus, margine latero-anteriore spinis acutis conicis prorsum 

From semicircularis, in lobos quinque equales divisa ; canthi margine superiore subfisso postice, dente 
magno, conico, curvato. 

Chela longa?, spiniferee, pedes posteriores graciles, corupressse, pari quinto valde dilatato. 

Abdomen (maris) triangulares articulis quinque ; femina adhuc latet. 

External pedipalps with the second joint rather more slender towards the tip (than in 
Lupa forceps), the third joint considerably smaller. 

Carapace snborbicular, contracted posteriorly, latero-anterior margin with sharp conical 
spines directed forwards. 

Front divided into five equal dentiform lobes, orbit with the upper margin slightly 
notched, a large curved conical tooth behind it. 

Fore-legs long and spiniferous. 

Hind-legs slender and compressed, the fifth pair greatly dilated. 

Abdomen (of male) triangular, five-jointed. 

1. LUPOCYCLUS ROTUOT)ATUS, Adams 8f White. (Tab. XII. Fig. 4.) 

Thorace minutissime punctulato, tuberculis parvis aggregatis lineisque granulosis adsperso, margimbus 
latero-anterioribus spinis quinque magnis, spinis quinque parvis interpositis ; regionibus lateralibus 
pallidulo-luteOj corneo-fusco discoloratis ; in medio thoracis taenia lata rubra. 

Hab. Balambangan. 

Carapace subcircular, slightly narrowed behind, surface irregular, very finely punctulated, 
and covered with isolated clusters of minute tubercles and transverse gramdated lines ; the 
latero-anterior margin with five large, sharp, conical spines directed forwards, and an equal 
number of small intermediate spines. 

Front semicircular, divided into five equal dentiform lobes ; orbit with a slight notch at 
the upper margin, and bounded behind by a strong, curved, conical tooth, directed forwards. 

Fore-legs with the third joint furnished with a row of five sharp, curved, conical spines 
on the anterior margin, numerous transverse ridges of small tubercles on the upper surface, 
and a longitudinal granulated line ending externally in a sharp spine ; fourth joint with a 
strong spine on the upper edge ; upper surface of fifth joint with a large spine at the base, 
and two ridges each ending anteriorly in a prominent spine ; claws long, slender, grooved, 
and slightly curved. 

Hind-legs slender, compressed, finely punctulated and granulated, the last pair with all 
the joints horizontally flattened, the last and penultimate joint greatly dilated and fringed 
with close-set stiff hairs. 

Abdomen (of male) triangular, five-jointed. 

Hab. Island of Balambangan, north end of Borneo. 


In colour this pretty and curious genus is of a pale yellow, marbled with light pinkish 
brown on the lateral regions of the carapace, and a broad scarlet longitudinal stripe extending 
from the front to the hind margin, narrowed opposite the orbits and in the middle of the 
back. The fore-legs are marbled with scarlet and yellow, with a broad scarlet band in the 
middle of the fifth joint, and two broad bands of the same colour on each claw. The 
hind-legs are light pinkish yellow, with broad transverse scarlet bands. 

3. CHARYBDIS, Be Haan. 

1. CHARYBDIS DURA, Adams fy White. 

Thorace valde duro, lsevi, marginibus lateralibus quinque-dentatis, primo et secundo dentibus ad basin 
denticulo minuto instructo. 

Fronte sex dentibus obtusis, dente externo prominentiore quam in speciebus abis. 

Chelis carpo externe scabro, tuberculato, interne spina longa crassa in medio, manu rnargine superiore 
spinis sex in serie duplicate parallela dispositis, externe carinis tribus longitudinabbus. 

Pedibus posterioribus externe spina magna prope extremitatem. 

Hab. Mauritium. 

Carapace very hard and smooth, lateral margin five-toothed, the first and second teeth 
with a minute tooth at the base. 

Front with six large bluntish teeth, the external tooth rather more prominent than 
in the other species. 

Fore-legs with the fourth joint rough and tubercular on the outside, with a very long 
thick spine on the middle of the inside, the fifth joint with six spines, in two parallel rows, on 
the upper edge, and three longitudinal keels on the outside. 

Hind-legs with a large spine on the outside near the end. 

Hab. Mauritius. 


Species of Oeypode and Gelasimus are extremely numerous throughout the islands of the 
China Sea. Every sandy shore is perforated above high-water mark with the holes of the 
former, and the banks of the rivers, the mangrove swamps, damp forest margins, and muddy 
places near the sea, are peopled with the latter, which form oblique burrows frequently 
penetrating to a considerable depth. The Ocypodes appear to be chiefly crepuscular in their 
habits, remaining concealed in their holes during the heat of the day, but as evening 
approaches running side-ways In a curvilinear manner at the edge of the sea, where the 
waves break along the sandy shores. The Gelasimi remain concealed in their burrows 
during the high tide or in the dry hot part of the day, but delight to come out of their holes 
after a shower, or when the tide has receded and left their mud banks moist, but they never 


venture very far from their habitations. The clicking noise produced by snapping the 
claws of their larger fore-leg together, when made by many hundreds at a time, may be 
heard at some considerable distance. On the least alarm they retreat precipitately to then 

1. GELASIMUS, Latreille. 


Thorace lsevi ; marginibus lateralilras rotundatis, sine carina acuta, ab angulo canthi externo. 

Fronte, inter oculos, lobo parvo rotundato, dilatato ; margine canthi inferiore distincte crenrJato ; 
chela majore digitis latis, finibus extrorsum curvatis ; digito inferiore in medio profunde sinuato, lobo lato, 
prope extremitatem margine serrato-crenulato ; digito superiore margine inferiore fere recto. 

Hab. Insulas Philippinas. 

Carapace with the upper surface smooth ; the lateral edges rounded, without any sharp 
keel from the outer orbital angle. 

Front, between the eyes, with a small dilated rounded lobe ; edge of lower orbit very 
distinctly crenated ; fifth joint of fore-legs with the claws wide, both slightly curved outwards 
at the ends ; the lower claw with a very wide sinus in the middle, a wide serrato-crenated 
lobe on the edge near the end ; upper claw with the lower edge very nearly straight. 

Hab. Philippine Islands. 

2. GELASIMUS CEASSIPES, Adams §■ White. 

Thorace valde arcuato, postice subito coarctato. 

Fronte lobo sine pedunculo angusto. 

Pedibus posterioribus crassioribus et robustioribus quam in speciebus aliis. 

Hab. Insulas Philippinas. 

Carapace very much arched, suddenly narrowed behind. 

Front with a lobe, without narrow stalk. 

Four hind pairs of legs thicker and stronger than in the other species. 

Hab. Philippine Islands. 

3. GELASIMUS BELLATOR, Adams fy White. 

Thorace antice (prope insertionem canthorum pedunculorum) sinuato. 

Fronte in lobum rotundatum subdilatata ; chelis manu digitis perlongis ; digito superiore lateribus 
subparalleris, margine prope ad basin tuberculis duobus vel tribus ; digito inferiore infra marginato, acie 
ad basin sinus superficiali tuberculari, dente robusto lato ad extremitatem. 

Hab. Insulas Philippinas. 

Carapace, in front, just behind the insertion of eye-peduncles, sinuated. 
Front slightly dilated into a rounded lobe ; fifth joint of the larger fore-leg, with the claws 
very long ; the upper, or movable claw, with the sides nearly parallel, two or three larger 



tubercles on the edge near the base ; fixed or lower claw margined on the under side ; the 
cutting edge with a very wide shallow tubercular sinus at the base ; at the end of the sinus, 
beyond the middle, a strong wide tooth, gradually sloping down to the end, which curves 

Hab Philippine Islands. 


Ocidorum joedunculis perlongis. 

Thorace parte frontali non coarctata ad basin ; parte posteriore longiore quarn latera. 
Chelis digito inferiore ad finem incrassato, margiuibus internis digitorum amborum tuberculis magnis 
quatuor inter parvos crenulos. 
Hab. Borneonem. 

Bye-pedicels very long. 

Frontal portion of carapace not narrowed at the base ; hind part of carapace much 
longer than the sides. 

Fore-legs with the lower claws thickened at the end, the inner margins of both claws with 
four larger tubercles amongst the small crenules. 

Hab. Borneo. 


Thorace valde postice coarctato. 

Fronte, inter oculos, lobo dilatato, linea acuto-marginata, ab angulo canthi externo porrecta. 
Chela majore digitis sequalibus, dente prope medium, et prope extremitatem, lobo truncate 
Hab. Borneonem. 

Carapace much narrowed behind. 

Front with a dilated lobe between the eyes ; from the outer orbital angle a sharp-edged 
line continued beyond the middle of carapace. 

Fore-legs with the larger claw nearly equal in size, with a tooth near the middle, and a 
truncated lobe towards the end ; a rather broad impressed line along the middle of each 
claw ; upper edge of palmar portion with a slight ridge ; outer side of palm covered with 
very slight tubercles. 

Hab. Borneo. 


The Macropthalmi inhabit muddy flats along the sea-shores, and, when disturbed, 
bury themselves quickly in the yielding soil, leaving the ends, however, of their long telescope- 
eyes above the surface. When taken, they are quite defenceless, not using their fore-legs as 
organs of aggression, or erecting and snapping them as do the Gelasimi. They are nume- 
rously distributed throughout the Philippine Archipelago and the islands in the China Sea. 


1. MACPOPHTHALMUS, Latreille. 


Thorace lato-quadrato, ad latera obtuse dentato ; manibus (marium) latere exteriore lsevibus et inermi- 
bus, interiore glaberrimis, carina superiore granulatis; digitis (in maribus) deorsum inilexis. 
Japonice Suna gani, i. e., Cancer arenarius, quod se in arena abscondere solet. 
Ocypocle (Macrophthalmus) Japonicus, De Haan, P. I. p. 54. 1. 15. f. 2. (mas) t. 7. f. 1. (femina.) 
Hab, Insulas Meia-co-shirnahs et Japoniam. 

Carapace widely-quadrate, sides obtusely toothed ; the fifth joint of fore-legs, in the 
male, smooth and unarmed on the outer side, very smooth on the inner side, granulated on 
the upper keel ; claws in the male bent downwards. 

In Japanese Suna gani, i. e., Sand Crab, because it is in the habit of burying itself in 
the sand. 

Hab. Meia-co-shimah Islands ; Adams. Japan ; De Haan. 


Thorace anguste-quadrato, lateribus dentibus tribus, angulo canthi incluso, dente secundo latiore, dente 
tertio parvo. 

Chelis articulis perlongis vix supra marginatis, digito superiore dente parvo prope basin ; digito in- 
feriore sinu valde profundo, manu infra tuberculata, interne pilosa. 

Hab. Insulas Pliilippinas. 

Carapace narrowly-quadrate ; sides with three teeth, including the orbital angle ; the 
second widest, turned up considerably, the third very small. 

Fore-legs with the joints very long, scarcely margined above ; movable or upper claw 
with a very slight tooth near the base ; fixed or under claw with a very deep sinus ; fifth joint 
tuberculated on the under side, hairy on the inside. 

Hab. Philippine Islands. 


Thorace anguste-quadrato, lateribus antice dentibus tribus robustis, postice carina subcrenulata. 
Chelis, manu ab basin interne dilatata, longitudinaliter excavata ; digitis pilis longis densis obsitis ; 
digito superiore, in medio, dente truncato. 

Pedibus posterioribus, parte superiore, spina prope extremitatem. 
Hab. Insulas Philippinas. 

Carapace narrowly-quadrate, with three strong teeth on the sides in front, succeeded by 
a slight somewhat crenated keel which margins the rest of the carapace. 

Fore-legs with the fifth joint dilated on the inside from the base, and longitudinally hol- 
lowed out ; inside of both claws densely clothed with long hairs ; upper or movable claw 
with a large truncated tooth in the middle. 

Hind-legs with a spine on the upper side near the end. 
Hab. Philippine Islands. 




Tkorace gibbo, granulato, brevi-setoso, dorso subtetragono, lateribus arcuato. 

Fronte arcuata, medio sinuata. 

Hab. Maria orientalia. 

Octypode (Chasmagnathus) convexa, De Haan, F. 1. p. 56. t. 7. f. 5. 

Carapace gibbose, granulated, shortly-setose, subtetragonal on the back, arched at the 

Front arcuated, sinuated in the middle. 

Hab. Eastern Seas. 


The Sesarmm are found in various localities, sometimes in fresh-water rivulets, among 
weeds ; sometimes under damp logs and stones at a considerable distance from any water, 
and most frequently among the roots of mangroves in salt-water swamps. They are active 
and extremely wary in their habits, and, like the Grapsi, very predacious. The Grapsus plicatus 
is a very common species in Borneo, and appears to vary greatly in colour according to the 
localities in which it is found. The Grapsi are fond of rocks, over which they run with 
surprising agility ; they frequently remain stationary for hours, basking in the sun, when 
the tide has just left the high rocks. 

1. UTICA, White. 

Pedipalpi externi articulo tertio externe recto non dilatato. 

Thorace 8-angulato, depresso, post-medium carina transversa valde distincta ; margine latero-anteriore 
dentibus tribus ; parte iatero-posteriore obliqua, parte posteriore recta. 
Chelis parvis. 
Pedibus posterioribus perlongis, tarso vix dilatato subelongato, pilis fimbriato. 

Outer jaw-feet with the third joint, on the outside, straight, not dilated. 

Carapace somewhat eight-angled, tabular, a very strong transverse ridge behind the 
middle ; latero-anterior ' margin with three teeth ; latero-posterior part oblique, posteriorly 
very straight. 

Fore-legs small. 

Hind-legs very long, tarsus not particularly dilated, somewhat elongated, fringed with 
hairs as is the preceding joint. 

This genus is nearly allied to Trichopus, De Haan, which is synonymous with Varuna, 
M. Edwards. 


1. UTICA GEACILIPES, White. (PI. XIII. Fig. 6.) 

Bronte lata, anteriore margine valde recto, post-frontem ad medium thoracem pertinente, eminentia. 
magna lata subtriangulari, a transversa carina separata per altam lunatam depressionem, linea subimpressa 
a finibus ad latus carinas porrecta. Pedibus gracillimis, pilis fimbriatis. 

Hab. Insulas Phiiippinas. 

Utica gracilipes, White, Pro. Zool. Soc, May, 1847. 

Front wide, fore-edge very straight ; behind it and extending to the middle of the 
carapace, a considerable, wide, somewhat three-sided elevation, separated from the trans- 
verse ridge by a deep lunated depression, from the ends of which a slight impressed line pro- 
ceeds to the side of the ridge, where it deepens. 

Hind-legs very slender, and fringed with hair. 

Hab. Philippine Islands. 

Mr. Cuming found this species in a fresh-water rivulet among the mountains of the 
Island of Negros. It was also obtained during the Expedition of the Samarang in the Island 
of Mindanao, in the deep still muddy fresh-water rivulets near Samboangan, hiding under 
weeds and rotten wood. When caught, it feigns death, contracting its limbs and rendering 
them perfectly rigid. Its colour, when alive, is dark-red brown, on the under-surface dark 
chocolate-brown, lighter on the legs and abdomen, which latter in the female has a yellowish 
line down the middle. 

ix. leucosim:. 

Besides several species of Leucosia new to science, a few Philyrce were obtained in 
the Sooloo Sea, and on the coast of Borneo from a rocky stony bottom ; among them 
was the P. scabriuscula of Leach, which, when alive, is of a chocolate colour, with red-brown 
legs ; the Philyra latifrons (A. & W.), which is of a deep red brown, with orange fore- 
legs ; and another with a dead-white pohshed carapace, marked with dark olive brown, and 
the fore-legs banded with the same. The Philyrce have much the same habits as the 
Leucosice, being slow-moving, torpid Crustaceans, never using their fore-legs for defence, and 
living in deep water on a clean rocky or stony floor. A pretty species of Myra was dredged 
in the Sooloo Sea of a delicate flesh colour, with two blood-red spots on the carapace. 
The Myrafuyax, which is punctulated and dark liver-coloured on the carapace, and a new 
species with white carapace and pinkish legs, were also procured ; they are found usually in 
about eight or ten fathoms on a muddy bottom ; one species is common in the mud of 
Manda bay. The Arcanice are usually of a dead-white colour, variously marked with red, 
with the legs spotted or banded ; they prefer deep water and a clear gravelly bottom ; several 
were dredged on the coast of Borneo in twenty-four fathoms. The Iocce inhabit very deep 
water, and are inert and feeble ; when taken they contract their legs and remain perfectly im- 
movable. The Iphides are usually found concealed in madrepores and sponges, and live in a 
coral bottom in from fifteen to twenty fathoms ; they are numerous on the coast of China, 



1. LEUCOSIA, Fabricius. 

1. LEUCOSIA HCEMATOSTICTA, Adams 8f White. (Tab. XII. Kg. 2.) 

Thorace trapezoidali supra valde convexo, post angulum latero-anteriorem inscissura, profunda, maculis 
multis sanguineis rotundatis obsito. 
Hab. Maria Orientalia. 

Carapace trapezoidal, very convex, of a light yellow, covered with numerous small 
round blood-red spots, fewer posteriorly, and in the middle line a deep notch behind the 
latero-anterior angle. 

Front obtuse. 

Fore-legs with round, scattered, blood-red spots, and a large quadrate mark of the same 
colour on the outer surface of each claw. 

Hind-legs with a blood-red band on the upper half of each joint. 

Hab. Eastern Seas. 

2. OREOPHORUS, Euppell. 

1. OREOPHOBUS BETICULATUS, Adams $ White. (Tab. VI. Eig. 1.) 

Thorace subtrigono, reticulato, fossis subdivisis duabus latero-anterioribus, postice fossa profunda, in 
medio tuberculo clypeoformi, regionibus lateralibus valde elevatis. 
Fronte rotundata, antice subernarginata supra exsculpta. 
Chelis reticulatis. 
Hab. Maria Orientalia. 

Carapace subtrigonal, covered with a net-work of beaded lines, the intermediate areas 
finely granulated ; a long semilunar, irregularly-shaped cavity extending along the latero- 
anterior margin on each side, separated by a strong post-frontal septum, each lateral cavity 
divided in two portions by two over-arching processes, which unite above, leaving a round 
foramen of communication ; the posterior sublongitudinal portion partially divided by a 
conical projecting process ; a small hole in the floor of the hind portion of the latero-anterior 
fossa ; a cavity at the hind part of carapace nearly divided in two by a granulated tongue- 
shaped tubercle, and bounded posteriorly by two-obtuse tubercles of the hind margin ; a solid 
shield-shaped reticulated process arising out of the hind part of the cavity ; a beaded line 
around the margins of both fossae ; lateral regions convex, elevated into large obtuse promi- 
nences ; lateral edges coarsely tuberculated. 

Front thick and rounded, slightly emarginate, rather deeply excavated on the upper 

Fore-legs covered with coarse reticulations, formed of granulated lines. Upper claw 
spatulate, slightly curved downwards, flattened above, narrow beneath, a row of pits on the 
outer and inner margins, under edge tuberculiferous ; upper surface with several rows of 
beaded lines. Under claw horizontally inclined, slightly curved upwards, elongately conical ; 


upper surface sharp and granular ; under surface thin and tuberculated ; inner surface concave, 
with two finely granulated parallel lines ; outer surface convex, with two rows of holes, and 
two series of tuberculated lines. 

Abdomen (of female) convex, wide, divided into about six pits by strong reticulations 
formed of granuliferous lines. 

Hab. Straits of Sunda. 

3. IXA, Leach. 

1. IXA MEGASPIS, Adams Sf White. (Tab. XII. Fig. 1.) 

Thorace subgranuloso, canaliculis dorsaHbus angustis valde profundis, postice linea impressa profunda 
transversa ; lateribus valde productis granulosis retrorsum inclinatis, finibus obtusis, dente terminali parvo 

Hab. Bomeonem. Insulas Philippinas. 

Carapace subgranular, the channelled grooves which separate the middle from the 
lateral regions veiy deep and narrow, a deep transverse posterior groove, the lateral prolonga- 
tions granular, inclined backwards, long and slender, the ends obtuse, and slightly curved 
forwards, the stiliform tooth at their extremities very short and small. 

Hab. Borneo (Tampasook) ; Philippines (Bohol). 

The species, when alive, has the carapace of a light red colour, with dark crimson in the 
middle, the lateral prolongations of the carapace being purple, with orange tips : the legs are 
bright red. It differs from the Lva cylindrica in the lateral prolongations being inclined 
backwards, more slender and longer, the ends more obtuse, and curving forwards, the 
terminal spine is much shorter and smaller, the surface of the carapace is less granular, the 
middle region is not so deeply notched on each side, the dorsal grooves are narrower and 
deeper, and the hind groove is more transverse. 

4. HARROVIA, Adams 8f mite. 

Thorace subpentagono, dense tomentoso, Hneis duabus elevatis, tuberculisque quatuor obtusis ; margi- 
nibus latero anterioribus dentibus tribus obtusis. 

Fronte valde recta in medio einarginata, angulo canthi externe prominente dentiformi. 

Chelis granulosis, brachio supra spinis duabus interne spina, duplicata, carpo tuberculo unico, manu 
cylindricea sulcata, digito ad basin tuberculo parvo externe. 

Carapace subpentagonal, densely tomentose, with two transverse raised lines on the 
upper surface, each ending externally in a prominent blunt tubercle, and two faintly-impressed 
hnes posteriorly ; latero-anterior margins with three obtuse teeth, the anterior small and 
rounded, the middle large and more prominent, and the posterior strong and conical. 

Front very straight, emarginate in the middle, the inner angle of the orbits forming a 
strong tooth in the same line as the front. 


Fore-legs granulose, twice the length of the carapace ; third joint with two spines on the 
upper edge, and a double spine on the inner edge ; fourth joint with a single tubercle above, 
and an elongated simple lobe externaUy ; fifth joint subcylindrical, with two longitudinal 
grooves externally, and a single groove internally. 

Claws short ; upper claw curved, with a single small tubercle, externally, near the base, 
lower edge with numerous teeth ; lower claw triangular, grooved externally, the upper edge 
sharp and dentate. 

Abdomen (of female) seven-jointed, tomentose, the edges fringed with coarse short hairs. 

1. HAEEOVIA ALBO-LLNEATA, Adams % White. (Tab. XII. Fig. 5.) 

Thoraee rubro, lineis pallidis. 

Clielis carmineis, infra rufescente. 

Hab. Borneonem et Insulas Philippinas. 

Carapace of a red colour, with light transverse markings. 
Fore-legs crimson ; under surface of body rufous. 
Hab. Borneo. Philippine Islands. 

5. IPHIS, Leach. 

1. IPHIS NOVEM-SPINOSA, Adams 8? White. (Tab. XIII. Pig. 1.) 

Thoraee leevi granuloso, granulis antice aggregatis, postice sparsis, marginibus latero-anterioribus spinis 
duabus subobtusis prorsum et extrorsum porrectis ; marginibus latero-posterioribus spinis duabus retrorsum 
et extrorsum directis, infra lias spinis duabus brevis conicis retrorsum et extrorsum porrectis ; margine 
posteriore, spina longa recta in medio retrorsum directa. 

Fronte in lobos duos conicales divergentes divisa. 

Hab. Insulas Philippinas. 

Carapace polished, granular, granules close together in front, more sparsely disposed 
towards the hinder part ; latero-anterior borders with two short, stout, somewhat obtuse 
spines directed forwards and outwards ; latero-posterior borders with two long spines directed 
backwards and a little outwards, with their ends curving upwards, and below these, nearer 
the middle hue, two short conical spines proceeding backwards and outwards ; posterior 
border with a long straight spine in the middle, projecting directly backwards. 

Front ending in two conical diverging lobes. 

Hab. Philippine Islands (Mindoro). 

This species differs from Iphis septem-spinosa of Leach, in the general form of the 
carapace, which is less triangular, more oval, covered with granules, and wants the sharp 
ridge which extends along the middle of the carapace of I. septem-spinosa ; in the lateral 
spines being short and curved ; in the possession of two additional spines placed anteriorly 
to these latter ; in the greater comparative size of the upper posterior pair of spines ; in the 


stouter condition of the prehensile and ambulatory feet ; and in the well-marked peculiarity 
of the front. 

6. IPHICULUS, Adams 8f White. 

Thorax sublatior quam longior, denso tomento spongioso obsitus; marginibus latero-anterioribus 
spinis quatuor fimbriatis ; marginibus latero-posterioribus tuberculis duobus obtusis, parte coarctata lineis 
impressis duabus longitudinalibus, et sulco transverso, postice tuberculo subelevatiusculo. 

From tuberculis duobus depressis, fissa separatis. 

Chela, manu gibbosa, digitis perlongis, gracikbus, multis denticulis longis instructis. 

Abdomen (maris) ad articulum basalem fovea profunda sublongitudinali. 

Carapace rather wider than long, covered with a dense woolly tomentum, resembling 
fine sponge ; latero-anterior margins with four fringed spines, increasing in size from the front 
backwards, the fourth spine, forming the latero-anterior angle, being very strong and prominent ; 
latero-posterior margins with two obtuse tubercles, separated by a sinus ; the coarctate portion 
of carapace marked by two longitudinal and one transverse groove, and ending in a rounded 
slightly-elevated tubercle. 

Front consisting of two very short depressed tubercles, separated by a notch, each 
tubercle rounded in front ; mouth extending beyond the front. 

Fore-legs with the fifth joint gibbous ; the claws very long and slender, with numerous 
fine long sharp teeth. 

Abdomen (of male) with its basial joint with a deep sublongitudinal fovea. 


Thorace fusco, tomento denso spongioso obtecto ; lateribus, anteriore spinis quatuor fimbriatis, pos- 
teriore tubercuks duobus. 

Hab. Insulas Philippinas. 

Carapace brown, covered with a thick sponge-like woolly tomentum ; sides with four 
fringed spines anteriorly, and two tubercles posteriorly. 
Hab. Philippine Islands. 

This genus should properly follow Ceratocarcinus, with which it is closely allied, and 
should be placed in the same group as that Crustacean ; it appears, among the Fartkenopidee, 
to hold the same place as Oreophorus does among the Leucosidce. 

7. TLOS, Adams Sf White. 

Thorax latior quam longior lsevis ; regionibus lateralibus valde excavatis, marginibus lateralibus trilo- 
batis, margine posteriore escavato, lolia bicarinata ; multis tuberculis parvis ad basin circumdatis. 
From integra rotundata deorsum retlexa. 

Chela branchio triangulares carpo supra bicarinato, manu carina tuberculifera, digitis ad fines curvatis. 
Abdomen (feminae) articulis septem, ovale tuberculosum. 



Carapace much wider than long, smooth, the lateral regions cup-shaped, with raised 
edges, with an anterior and posterior groove ; lateral edges divided into three lobes, the front 
lobe straight and reflexed backwards, the middle simple and rounded, the posterior elevated 
and wedge-shaped ; the middle region with a strong vertical ridge ending behind in an obtuse 
tubercle, and on each side with two perpendicular three-sided elevations, truncated at their 
apices, with a small tubercle at their fore-bases ; posterior margin of carapace excavated, with 
a large projecting lobe flattened above, with two ridges behind, a rounded elevation in front, 
and numerous small tubercles near the base. 

Front entire, rounded, reflected backwards, showing a central groove on the under 

Fore-legs with the third joint triangular, the edges tuberculiferous ; the fourth joint 
with two tubercular ridges on the upper surface ; fifth joint with a tubercular keel above ; 
claws slightly curved at the ends. 

Abdomen (of female) oval, tuberculated, seven-jointed, surrounded by an elevated ridge. 

It is interesting to see the analogous armature of the carapace with that of Xanthasia 
murigera (White) amongst the Pinnotheridce. The name Tlos is from the town of that name 
in Lycia, so well described by Sir Charles Fellowes in his Asia Minor. It is distinct enough 
from Tylos, another genus of Crustacea, so as not to be confounded with it in sound. 

1. TLOS MURIGER, Adams 8f White. (Tab. XIII. Fig. 2.) 

Thorace lsevi, regionibus lateralibus valcle excavatis ; marginibus lateralibus trilobatis ; margine pos- 
teriore excavato, lobo bicarinato multis parvis tuberculis ad basin. 
Hab. Borneonem. 

Carapace smooth ; lateral regions deeply excavated ; side-margins with three lobes, hind 
margin excavated, a two-ridged lobe with numerous small tubercles at the base. 
Hab. Borneo. 


The genus Trichocera is not uncommon among the islands of the Philippine Archipelago, 
where it is found among the reefs concealed in the coral, or hiding under stones ; it has all 
the habits of the Xantho group ; the Corystes inhabits rather deep water, preferring the same 
localities as the Leucosice, which it likewise resembles in its habits ; a species of Gomeza was 
dredged by Mr. Cuming in the Philippines, but the other genera of this family do not 
appear to be found among the islands of the Eastern Seas. 

1 . TRICHOCERA, Be Haan. 


Parva, pilosa, thorace dilatato, brevi, setoso, tuberculato, tuberculis rnediis planis quinque transversim 
dispositis; lateribus 10-dentatis; fronte 5 -dentate. 


Hab. Japonian. 

Coi'i/stes (Trickocera) gibhomla, De Haan, Faun. Japon. t. %. I. 4; 1. 13. f. 3. 

Small, hairy, the carapace dilated, short, setose, tuberculated, the five middle plane 
tubercles disposed transversely ; sides ten-toothed ; front five-toothed. 
Hab. China Sea. Japan. 


TJiorace depresso lsevi, lineis multis dentieulatis transversis obsito ; lateribus spinis quinque robustis 
a cutis curvatis. 

Fronte valde supra sulcata, lobis duobus obtusis dente magno externe. 

Chelis lgevibus, lineis transversis dentieulatis obsitis ; digito superiore supra dentate- ; digito inferiore 
tuberculis quatuor supra, lineis duabus longitudinalibus infra. 

Pedibus posterioribus lsevibus, pilis longis tinibriatis. 

Hab. Insulas Philippinas. 

Carapace depressed, polished, covered with numerous transverse finely-denticulated 
lines, some interrupted and some continued into the lateral spines ; sides with five sharp 
strong curved spines, the first and last simple, the others with small spines at their bases. 

Front deeply grooved above, with two obtuse denticulated lobes, each with a large 
tooth externally. 

Fore-legs polished, covered with short finely-denticulated transverse lines ; claws long, 
with the spatulate extremities abruptly curved, upper claw dentated above, with small 
tubercles below, lower claw with four tubercles above, and two longitudinal denticulated lines 

Hind-legs dilated, smooth, fringed with long hairs. 

Hab. Philippine Islands. 

By Professor De Haan, the most able of modern Crustaceologists, this species would be 
referred to the division which contains Xanlho, and we must confess that in its general 
appearance it has some resemblance to the Chilian genus Faraxantlms of Lucas, of which 
there are specimens in the British Museum ; with the genus Thia of the family Corystidee 
it has some considerable analogy, and may be said, in the group Xantko, to represent that 
family. Like the Cancer (Xantko) integer of M. De Haan, this species is of a bright yellow 
brown, with golden hairs (in the dried state), and both species are found in the Philippine 


The genera which compose this small but very natural group have, so far as I have 
observed, very nearly the same habits. They swim by sudden rapid jerks, like the Galathea, 
and appear to prefer the deep pools of the coral ledges ; they are pre-eminently swimming 
Crustaceans, progressing but badly when taken from the water. An interesting addition to 


our national collection in the form of Noiopus dorsipes, De Haan, was obtained by us in the 
province of Unsang in Borneo, and a new genus {Cosmonotus) also rewarded our exertions 
while examining the same locality. 

1. COSMONOTUS, Adams §r White, 

Thorax ovalis, antice acuminatus, lateribus valde compressis, in linea media carina prominente, later- 
ibus integris, angulo latero-anteriore spina, brevi acuta. 
From profunde incisa, ad latera spina parva acuta. 
Chela trigonales, interne planse, externe convexse. 
Abdomen (maris) articulis septem, articulo ultimo trigonali. 

Carapace oval, very much compressed laterally, especially in front, with a distinct pro- 
minent keel extending down the middle line, very strongly marked in front, but fainter 

Front with a very small spine on each side of a deep angular notch, in which are placed 
the eyes. 

Fore-legs strong, triangular, the upper claw arched, the lower claw small and dentated 
on the edge. 

Abdomen (in the male) seven-jointed. 

1. COSMONOTUS GEAYII, Adams $ White. (Tab. XIII. Kg. 3.) 

Thorace punctis multis depressis obsito. 

Fronte valde incisa externe spina parva acuta. 

Chelis trigonalibus bracliio infra piano, externe convexo lineis multis transversis interruptis, supra carinato 
pilis fimbriato, interne concavo, carpo incurvato subcompresso, externe convexo, interne spina obtusa ; manu 
compressa. aspera, margine superiore arcuato ; digito inferiore angusto, elongato dente robusto prope 
extremitatem, digito inferiore brevissimo incurvato ; pedibus posterioribus gracilibus brevibus. 

Hab. Borneonem. 

Carapace about an inch in length and half an inch wide, covered with numerous minute 
depressed punctures. 

Fore-legs trigonal, the third joint plane on the under surface, the exterior convex with 
transverse, interrupted, engraved or impressed lines, the upper angle covered with long thick 
hairs, the inner surface concave ; the fourth joint incurved, sub-compressed, convex externally, 
less convex internally, ending above and in front in a blunt spine ; fifth joint compressed, 
elevated, with the upper edge arched, but not so sharp as in Notopus ; the sides convex and 
covered with asperities or minutely denticulated ridges, interrupted and transverse ; upper 
claw narrow, compressed, elongated, with a sharp apex, and a strong tooth near the distal 

Feet short and weak as in Notopus ; the first tibia bicarinated ; the tarsus subquadrate, 
anteriorly bicarinate, with a scalpel-shaped claw ; the second tibia one-keeled, with the tarsus 


oblong, and a sharp elongated trigonal claw ; the third tibia subtriangular, the tarsus short, 
flattened, trigonal, with a falcate claw ; the fifth tibia triangular, very short, flattened ; tarsus 
transversely ovate, with a small narrow claw. 

Abdomen (of male) seven-jointed, the joints from the first to the sixth nearly of the same 
width as in Notopus, the last joint trigonal. 

Hab. Borneo (Unsang). 

Cosmonotus differs from Notopus, De Haan, in wanting the post-frontal, elevated denti- 
culated ridge; in the dorsal keel ending abruptly in front, instead of terminating in a 
central frontal spine ; in the front being notched, with a single spine on each side ; in the 
carapace being much compressed, more especially in front, and in the produced and angular 
form, while in Notopus it is almost straight across the front ; and in the sides being entire, 
with a short sharp spine at the antero-lateral angle. The species is named in compliment to 
J. E. Gray, Esq., F.R.S., Keeper of the Zoological department in the British Museum. 

xii. pentEid^:. 

A new species of Sicyonia, Edwards, of a scarlet colour, finely variegated with orange 
and yellow, with a greyish pubescence on the dorsal surface near the crest, was obtained in 
the Sooloo Sea together with a few Zocsce. The Stenopus, Sicyonia, and Penmcs, usually 
swim in a slow and deliberate manner forwards, and occasionally with a sudden jerk propel 
themselves backwards. They keep at a considerable distance from the shore and seem 
to love deep still water, never appearing when the surface of the sea is ruffled. 

1. STENOPUS, Latreille. 

1. STENOPUS HISPIDUS, Latreille. (Tab. XII. Fig. 6.) 

Tho-race spinis multis parvis pilisque sparsis obsito. 

Fronte acuminata gracili sursum directa, non ultra articulum basali antennarum superiomm pertinente ; 
antennis perlongis filiformibus. 

C/ielis brevioribus quam paria pedum secunda, longe ultra appendiceal lamellarem antennarum infe- 
riorum porrectis. Pari tertio pedum longiore quam totum corpus multis seriebus longitudinalibus dentinm 
aeutarum, tarsis duorum parium ultimorum pedum bifidis. 

Abdomine lamina media pinnse caudalis in centre- sulcato, supra seriebus duabus spinarum. 

Hab. Insulas Philippinas. 

Stenopus Mspidus, Latr. E. A. vol. iv. p. 93. Cuv. E. N. (Croch), t. 50. f. 2. Edw. Crust, vol. ii. 
p. 407. t. 25. f. 1. Palamon Aispidus, Oliv. Enc. vol. viii. p. 666. Seba, vol. iii. t. 21. f. 617. 

Carapace covered with numerous small spines and scattered hairs. 
Front pointed, slender, elevated, not extending beyond the basal joint of the upper 
antennae ; antenna? very long and filiform. 



Fore-legs not so long as the second pair, but extending considerably beyond the lamellar 
appendage of the lower antennae. Third pair of legs longer than the whole body, with 
many longitudinal rows of pointed teeth ; tarsi of the two last pairs of legs bifid. 

Abdomen with the middle lamina of the caudal fin grooved in the centre, and furnished 
above with two rows of spines. 

Hab. Coast of Borneo, and Philippine Islands. 

Our figure is coloured from a living specimen taken by me in the China Sea. A. A. 

[Additional Species.'] 

CKYPTOSOMA OKLENTIS, Adams Sf White. (Tab. XIII. Kg. 4.) 

Thorace rotundato; marginibus latero-posterioribus rectiusculis. Thorace post frontem et oculos 
sine sulcis. 

Fronte tribus lobis subacutis. 

Pedibus gracilibus ; articulo praetarsali tenui, non incrassato. 

Hab. Maria Orientalia. 

Carapace subcircular, as broad as long, narrowed behind, covered with numerous small 
red tubercles, and five rows of larger tubercles ; latero-anterior margins distinctly dentate ; 
latero-anterior angle with a rather long and sharp spine. 

Front with three subacute lobes ; upper margin of orbit deeply notched in the middle. 

Fore-legs with the third joint armed with two long spines on the outer side near the 
end, the fourth joint tubercular, the fifth joint compressed, with an elevated toothed crest 
above, and covered externally with tubercular spines. 

Hind-legs smooth, slightly compressed, slender, with the pretarsal joints not thickened 
or dilated. 

Abdomen (in the male) four-jointed. 

Hab. Eastern Seas. 

This species comes very near to Cryptosomu cristatum, figured by Brulle in Webb and 
Berthelot's Hist, des lies Canaries (Tab. Crust, fig. 2). The Mursia cristata, Leach j Cycloes 
granulosa, De Haan, Faun. Jap. 1. 19. f . 3 ; Thealia acanthophora, Lucas, Ann. Soc. Ent. Er. 
1839, p. 579. t. 21. f. 1 {Mursia armata, De Haan, Faun. Jap. p. 73. t. 19. f. 2) ; and this 
species, belong to a group of Calappidce which seems very widely distributed. 




Thorace punctulato, sulcis duobus longitudinalibus ab oculis porrectis, lateribus antice ciliatis. 

Pedibus articulis ciliatis. 

Hab. Insulas Philippinas. 

Xenophthalmm pinnotheroides, White, Annals and Mag. Nat. Hist. 

Carapace with the sides, in front, having a sharp ciliated edge ; carapace punctured ; 
two slight waved longitudinal grooves, one extending from each eye over the back of the 
carapace ; most of the joints of the legs ciliated. 

Hab. Philippine Islands. 

We figure this curious genus on account of our being able to give a coloured repre- 
sentation from a drawing made from life in the Eastern Seas. A. A. 

RHABDOSOMA, Adams 8f White. 
Oxycephalous, M. Edwards. 

We regret that the state of the only specimen in the British Museum is such that we 
cannot give the generic character with that detail which we should wish. It is founded on 
the third species of Professor Milne Edwards, indeed Mr. White has the authority of that 
eminent Crustaceologist that it is his very species : it is so different from the Oxyceplialus 
piscator, M.Edwards (Crust. III. p. 100. t. 30. f. 10), that we have traced the figure of 
O.piscator, and added it below that of the 0. armatus, to show the difference. Some day 
it may be proved to be a sexual character, when of course our name will sink, but as yet we 
know of no such discrepancies in the sexes of these Crustacea. 

The head is as long as the rest of the body, and ends in a very long beak ; from the 
state of our specimen we cannot describe this, but indicate it on the plate from a drawing 
made at the time of capture. The immense length of the body and the beak would 
sufficiently mark this generic form. The first two pairs of legs are shown in the figure, which 
must serve till we can procure further specimens, when we hope to give ample details of this 
very singular crustaceans and to analyse its characters at length. It forms a singularly 
interesting link between the Amphipoda and Lcemodipoda, uniting, as it were, the two ; we 
should like to have this form examined particularly by Prof. M. Edwards or Dr. Kroyer. 

EHAPDOSOMA AEMATUM, Adams Sf White. (Tab. XIII. Fig. 7.) 
Oxycephalous armatus, M. Edw. Crust. III. p. 101. pi. 30. f. 10, copied. (Tab. XIII. Fig. 8.) 
The specimen described by Professor Milne Edwards was found by MM. Quoy and 
Gaimard in the ocean between Amboina and Van Dieman's Land, and is now in the Paris 
Museum. Ours was taken during a calm, floating on the surface of the South Atlantic 






AcHjEDS Japonicus , 5 

Actsea nodulosa (Tab. VIII. Fig. 4) 39 

Mg\e rugata (Tab. YIII. Pig. 5) 43 

Atergatis insularis (Tab. VIII. Kg. 2) 38 

lateralis (Tab. VIII. Fig* 1) 39 

sinuatifrons 38 

subdirisns (Tab. VIII. Fig. 3) ib. 

Arctopsis Styx 10 

Camposcia retusa 6 

Carpilius cinctimanus (Tab. VII. Fig. 4) 37 

signatus (Tab. X. Fig. 1) ib. 

Ceratocarcinus longimanus (Tab. VI. Fig. 6) . . . 34 

Charybdis dura 48 

Chasmagnatkus convexus 52 

Chlorodius fragifer (Tab. XL Fig. Z) 40 

hirtipes (Tab. XL Fig. 4) ib. 

areolatus (Tab. XL Fig. 3) 41 

pilumnoides (Tab. IX. Fig. 3) ib. 

Chorinus acanthonotus (Tab. I. Fig. 1) 11 

aculeatus 13 

■ longispina 12 

verrucosipes 13 

Cosmonotus Grayii (Tab. XIII. Fig. 3) 60 

Cryptopodia dorsalis (Tab. V. Fig. 6) 30 

fornicata (Tab. VI. Fig. 4) 32 

Cryptosoma orientis (Tab. XIII. Fig. 4) 62 

Dione affinis 15 

Doclea calcitrapa (Tab. I. Fig. 2) 7 

hybrida ib. 

muricata 8 

ovis 7 

Egeria Indica 6 

longipes 7 

Galene ochtodes (Tab. X. Fig. 2) 43 

Gelasimus bellator 49 

crassipes ib. 

cultrimanus ib. 

forcipatus 50 

porcellanus ib. 

Gonatonotus pentagonus (Tab. VI. Fig. 7) 33 

Halirmis auritus 23 

Harrovia albolineata (Tab. XII. Fig. 5) 56 

Huenia frontalis (Tab. IV. Fig. 3) 20 

Proteus (Tab. IV. Fig. 4-7) 21 

Proteus, var. tenuipes (Tab. IV. Fig. 5) . . 22 

Hyastenus Sebse 11 

Inachus lorina (Tab. II. Fig. 2) 3 

Iphiculus spongiosus 57 

Iphis novemspinosa (Tab. XIII. Fig. 1) 56 

Ixa megaspis (Tab. XII. Fig. 1) 55 

Lambrus carinatus (Tab. V. Fig. 3) 27 

diacantha 30 

harpax (Tab. VI. Fig. 3) 25 

hoplonotus (Tab. VII. Fig. 3) 35 

laciniatus 29 

lamellifrons (Tab. V. Fig. 1) 26 

- longimanus 30 

pisoides (Tab. V. Fig. 4) 28 

serratus 30 

turriger (Tab. V. Fig. 2) 26 

validus 29 

Latreillia phalangium 5 

valida ib. 

Leueosia hsematosticta (Tab. XII. Fig. 2) 54 

Lissocarcinus polybioides (Tab. XL Fig. 5) . . . . 46 

Lupocyclus rotundatus (Tab. XII. Fig. 4) 47 

Maia spinigera 15 

Macroelieira Kaempferi 5 

Macropkthalmus definitus 51 

Japonicus ib. 

serratus ib. 

Mengethius incisus 20 

poreellus 19 

quadridens 20 

subserratus (Tab. IV. Fig. 1, 2) 18 

tuberculatus 19 

Micippa bicarinata 16 

cristata ib. 




Micippa philyra 15 

Thalia 15 

Mithrax dichotomus 13 

Naxia diacantha 10 

Oncinopus aranea 3 

Neptunus (Tab. II. Fig. 1) 1 

Oreophorus reticularis (Tab. VI. Fig. 1) 54 

Panopeus Caystrus (Tab. IX. Fig. 2) 42 

dentatus (Tab. XI. Fig. 1) 41 

formio (Tab. IX. Fig. 1) 42 

Pararuithrax Edwardsii 14 

Partlienope calappoides (Tab. V. Fig. 5) 34 

Tarpeius (Tab. VII. Fig. 2) 35 

Pericera cornigera 18 

setigera 17 

tiarata id. 

Pilumnus dilatipes (Tab. IX. Fig. 4) 44 

scabriusculus (Tab. IX. Fig. 5) id. 


Pilumnus ursulus (Tab. IX. Fig. 6.) 45 

Pisa planasia (Tab. II. Fig. 4, 5) 9 

Sinope 8 

Khabdosoma armatum (Tab. XIII. Fig. 7) 63 

Schizophrys serratus 16 

spiniger 17 

Stenopus hispidus (Tab. XII. Fig. 6) 61 

Teknessus serratus (Tab. III.) 14 

Tlos muriger (Tab. XIII. Fig. 2) 58 

Tricliocera gibbosula id. 

porcellana 59 

Utica gracilipes (Tab. XIII. Fig. 6) 53 

Xantho cultrimanus 39 

depressa ib. 

lamelligera 40 

Xerophthalmus pinnotheroides (Tab. XII. Fig. 3) 63 

Zebrida Adamsii (Tab. VII. Fig. 1) „ 24 

lab I. 




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