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Full text of "The zoology of the voyage of the H.M.S. Erebus & Terror, under the command of Captain Sir James Clark Ross, during the years 1839 to 1843. By authority of the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty"

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THE 



ZOOLOGY 

OF THE 

VOYAGE OF H.M.S. EREBUS & TERROR, 

UNDER THE COMMAND OF CAPTAIN STli JAMES CLARK ROSS, R.N., F.R.S., 

n U in X G T H K Y EARS 

1839 TO 1843. 



Hr AUTHOIUTY OF THE LOHltH COMMl^SIOSERU OF THE A HM 1 1! Al.T Y . 



JOHN HICHAKJ)S()X, .AID, FII.S., kv. 



JOHN I'.DWAHI) GRAY, Esr>., PhD., F.H.S., &r. 



VOL. 11. 
KEPTJLE8, FISHES, CRUSTACEA, INSECTS, MOLLUSCA. 




1. O N 1) O N -. 
K. W. J ANSON, 28, MUSEUM STREET, W.C. 

M. nccc. X I.l V. -M. T)i .n.'. LS XV. 




VOL. II. 

CON T E N T S . 



Title Pat;e. 

Contents. 

Reptiles, by G. U. (Jray, F.R.S., &c., (pp. 1—8), 1815. Conclusion by Albert Guxther, M.A.. 

M.D., Ph.D., F.Il.S,. V.P.Z.S., Keeper of the Zoological Department of the British Museum, 

(pp. 9—19), 1875. 

Fishes, by Sir John Richardson, Kxt.. M.D., F.R.S., &c., (pp. i — viii & 1 — 139), 1811— Is ts. 

Crustacea, by Ebward J. Miehs, Junior Assistant, Zoological Depxrtmeut, British Museum, 
(pp. 1—5), 1875. 

Insects, by Adam White, M.E.S., &c., (p]). 1—21), ls46: and Arthur Gardiner Butler, F.L.S., 
F.Z.S., &c., (pp. 25—51), 1871. 

MoLLUscA, by Edgar A. Smith, F.Z.S., Zoological Department, British Museum, (pp. 1 7), 1S71<. 

P L A T E S . 
Reptiles. I— XX. 

58:)87 

Fishes. I— LX. 
Crustacea. I — IV. 

Insects. I — X. 
Mollusca. I— IV. 



REPTILES. 



I. — THE REPTILES OF AUSTRALIA. 

Dr. Sham-, in.the Appendix to White's 'Journal of a Voyage to New South Wales,' in 1790, first describefl and 
figured some of the Reptiles observed by White in New Holland. Some of the specimens he brought home hav- 
ing been placed in the collection of the British Museum, were more systematically described by the same naturalist 
in his 'General Zoology,' and his work on the Animals of New Holland. 

Lacepede, in the 'Annales du Museum,' (iv. 18), described several Reptiles from the same country, and redescribed 
several of those which had been already noticed by Shaw and White. 

Capt. Flinders, in his 'Voyage to Terra Australis,' 1814, mentions the occurrence of two kinds of Turtles [Chelo- 
nia) one on the north coast of New Holland (ii. 154), and the other on the east coast (ii. 382). 

Peron and liCsueur, during their voyage with Captain Baudin on the coasts of Australia, collected many specimens 
of this class of animals, which were deposited in the Museum of the Garden of Plants, and a few of which were noticed 
by Oppel in preparing the Reptile part of Cuvier's ' Regne Animal.' Others have been described by Messrs. Duine- 
ril and Bibron, in their ' Erpetologie Generale,' now in the course of publication. Some others were described by me 
during my visit to Paris, when I was preparing the Synopsis of Reptiles, which appeared in Griffith's translation of 
Cuvier's ' Animal Kingdom,' which must only be considered as an abstract of the notes prepared for my ' Synopsis 
Reptilium.' 

In the Appendix to Capt. Philip Parker King's ' Voyages in Australia,' 1 described some new species discovered by 
that navigator, especially the very curious Frilled Lizard, which is figured in that work. From time to time, as spe- 
cimens from that country have been kindly presented to the Museum by different collectors, as my late friend Allan 
Cunningham, Mrs. Joseph Wright, and others, I have described the specimens in the ' Proceedings of the Zoological 
Society,' and other scientific periodical publications. 

In the Appendix to His Excellency Ca])t. George Grey's Australia, I attempted to bring together these scattered 
materials, and formed a list of the different species which had been described as coming from Australia, adding to it 
descriptions and figures of the new Australian species, chiefly sent home by Governor Grey and Mr. Gilbert, from 
the west coast, then in our collection ; and since that time 1 have, in my ' Zoological Miscellany,' described several 
additional species, which have, in the mean time, been sent to England from the north coast of Australia by Mr. Gil- 
bert, who is employed by Mr. Gould to collect specimens for him in different parts of that continent. 

In the Zoology of the Voyages of the French ships, 1' Uranie, la Coquille and 1' Astrolabe, some Australian Reptiles 
have been figured and described by MM. Quoy and Gaimard and M. Lesson ; but unfortunately, though the descrip- 
tions of the specimens are long and apparently full, yet they are so general, and the figures of the species, though 
good for artistic effect, are so destitute of scientific detail, that it is often impossible to determine which of the Aus- 
tralian species they are intended to represent ; and the specimens from whence they were described, do not appear to 
be in the collection of the French Museum, for MM. Dumeril and Bibron do not refer to them in their work. 

In the Appendix to Dr. Dieffenbach's New Zealand, I described the Reptiles he had brought from those islands ; 
Mr. Bell, in the ' Zoology of the Beagle,' has described and figured another species from the same country, which 
was brought home by my friend, Mr. Darwin : and another species has since been discovered by my nephew, Lieut. 
Alexander Smith, R.N., who accompanied the Antarctic Expedition. 



Order I. Lizards, (Sauria). 
Mouth not dilatable. Jaws toothed. Tlie lower jaw- 
bones being united by a bony suture in front. Eye with 
distinct eyelids. Drum of the ears generally distinct, 
exposed. Nostrils lateral, nasal cavities separated by a 
long cavity. Limbs 4, distinct, rarely in such a rudimen- 
tary state "as to be hidden under the skin. Toes generally 
distinct, clawed, for walking or climbing. Body elongate, 
rounded, covered with imbricate granular scales. Ribs 
distinct, mobile, and with a distinct sternum. Tail elon- 
gate, tapering, rarely prehensile, generally covered with 
whorls of scales. Egg with a hard skin. Young not un- 
dergoing any metamorphosis. 

The Grtphf, containing the Ichthyosauri, Plesiomiiri, 
the recently discovered Rhtjncosauri, and other Lizard- 
like fossils of the lias and new red sandstone, which have 
nearly the same formation of the skull, the pendant ear- 
bones &c. of the Saurias, are easily distinguished from 
them by their doubly cupped vertebrae and usually paddle- 
like feet, like Cetacea amongst Mammalia. 

Sect. I. Sqcamata. 
Body covered with overlapping or granular scales. 
Nostrils lateral. The skull formed of separate bones. 
The nasal cavities separated by a bony septum. The ear- 
bone external, pendent, and only articulated to the skull. 
Tongue free, elongate, nicked at the tip, often entire. The 
lungs free in the cavity of the thorax. The vent a linear 
cross slit. The male organ and vagina forked. Vertebrae 
with a convex surface fitting into a concave surface in the 
preceding joint. Oviparous, rarely viviparous. The eggs 
when deposited covered with a more or less coriaceous 
shell. 

Sub-order L Leptogloss.e. 

Tribe L Cyclosaura. 

Scales of the belly square (very rarely rhombic, keeled), in 
cross bands, of the back and tail rhombic, imbricate, or cir- 
cular and subgranular, placed in cross rings, of the sides 
generally granular, rarely like the back. Tongue elongate, 
flattened, base sometimes sheathed, generally free, only 
attached to the gullet by a long frenum, with two elongate 
cylindrical homy tips. Tail elongate, with whorls of 
scales, generally conical, tapering, sometimes compressed, 
with two elevated crests above. 

Family. Monitorid.e. 
Head with minute polygonal shields. Teeth adnate to 
the inner side of the jaws. Tongue elongate, slender, re- 
tractile into a sheath at its base. Scales small, roundish, 
placed in cross rings, those of the sides like those of the 
neck. Legs 4, strong. Toes 5-5, compressed, subequal. 
Thighs poreless. Superorbital plate bony. Old World, 
near water. 

The species of this family are confined exclusively to 
the Eastern Worid and Australasia. Of the twenty-two 
species described in the Catalogue of the Lizards in the 
British Museum, the last complete work on the species of 
Reptiles that has appeared, six are peculiar to Australia, 



eleven are found in India, Borneo and New Guinea, and 
five in Africa. 

1. Tail round without any keel above. Terrestrae. 
Odatria, Gray. 

Nostrils ovate, longitudinal, subanterior. Teeth com- 
pressed, acute. Tail elongate, round, not keeled above. 
Scales large, sharply keeled, subspinose. Back with elon- 
gate, narrow, keeled scales. Ventral shield elongate. 
Toes rather unequal, elongate. 

This genus is easily known from the terrestrial Monitors 
of Africa, by the larger size and keeled form of the caudal 
scales. 

Besides the Australian species, there is one, O. Timor- 
en-tis, from the Island of Timor, first described by me in 
Griffith's Animal Kingdom, ix. 36. 

The Dotted Odatria. Odatria punctata. 
Plate I. 

Odatria punctata, Gray, Ann. N. H. ii. 394. Grey's 
Trav. Aiisfr. ii. 422. Cat Rept. B. M. 7. 
Monitor tristis, Schleyel, Abbild. 73. 

Grey olive, with narrow, black, reticulated lines, bearing 
large hexagonal spots; head, limbs and tail blackish, with 
a few pale spots, dark-banded; ventral shield twice as long 
as broad ; tail round; scales over the eye small, granular; 
male ? with a tuft of conical spine-like scales on each side 
of the vent. 

The young is blackish, with cross rings of white spots ; 
head closely white speckled ; limbs white dotted. Very 
young grey, with numerous narrow dark cross bands. 

Inhabits West Australia and Port Essington. 

The Eyed Odatria. Odatria ocellata. 
Plate 2. 

Odatria ocellata. Gray, Cat. Rept. B. M. 8. 

Black, with rather large yellow rings ; limbs and tail 
yellow-spotted ; tail round ; scales of the tail broad, oval, 
spinose; scales over the eyes small, granular; ventral 
shields twice as long as broad. 

Inhabits N.W. coast of Australia. Benjamin Bynoe, 
Esq., R.N. 

Like O. punctata, but the scales of the back, and the 
spinose scales of the tail are much larger. The scales of 
the back are bluntly keeled, of the tail square, nearly as 
broad as long, shaqjly and strongly keeled, spinose; in O. 
punctata they are nearly twice as long as broad, and only 
subspinose. 

2. Tail triangular, compressed, and with a doubly toothed 
crest above. Nostril small, round. 

Monitor, Gray. 
Polydaedalus, Wagler. Uaranus, Fitz. 
Nostrils small, round, in the middle between the apex 
of the muzzle and the front angle of the eye. Tail elon- 
gate, compressed, with a double-edged keel above. Toes 
elongate, unequal, strong. Teeth rounded. 



Gould's Monitor. Monitor Gouldii. 
Plate 3. 

Monitor Gouldii, Schlegel. Gray, Cat. Rept. B. M. 12. 

Hydrosaurus Gouldii, Gray, Ann. N. H. i. 394. Grey's 
Trar. Austr. ii. 422. 

With 2 yellow streaks on the side of the neck ; scales 
over the eyes small, granular, of forehead larger; ventral 
shields small, longer than broad. 

Inhab. Western and North-western coast of Australia. 

Hydrosacrus, Wagler. 
Tupinambis, part, Fitz. 

Nostrils oblong, longitudinal, near the apex of the muz- 
zle. Tail elongated, with a double-edged keel above. 
Toes unequal, elongate. Teeth compressed, shai-p-edged, 
denticulated. 

This genus is divided into two sections; some have the 
scales over the orbit small and equal, others have a series 
of larger ones in the middle of the small ones. All the 
Australian species belong to the former division. The 
second section contains two species ; one, M. bivUtutus, 
found in India, Borneo and the Philippines, the other, M. 
prasinus, at New Guinea. 

* Scales over the orlit equal. Neck with lunate hands. 
The Lace Lizard. Hydrosaurus rarius. 

Lacerta varia, Shaw, White's Journ. N. S. W. 246, t. 3, 
/ 2. Nat. Misc. iii. /. 83. 

Uaranus varius, Merrem, Tent. 58. Dum. et Bib. E. G. 
iii. 491. Gray, King's Voy. ii. 427. 

Tupinambis variegatus, Baud. Rept. iii. 76. Kuhl, 
Beytr. 125. 

Hydrosaurus varius, Wagler, Syst. 164. Gray, Ann. N. 
//.i.'394. Cat. Rept. B. M. 12. 

Grey, with black cross bands, which are lunated over 
the nape ; scales of the orbit very small, equal. 

Inhab. New Holland. 

Bell's Lace Lizard. Hydrosaurus Bellii. 

Uaranus Bellii, Dum. et Bib. E. G. iii. 493, t. ^b, f. 1. 
Gray, in Grey's Trav. Austr. ii. 422. 

Hydrosaurus Bellii, Gray, Cat. Rept. B. M. 13. 

Pale, body and tail with broad black cross bands; scales 
of the orbits dilated, equal. 

Inhab. Austraha ?? 

This species is only known from a .specimen in Mr. 
Bell's collection, and one in the Paris Museum. 

** Scales of the orbit equal, small. Neck spotted like back. 

ITie Gigantic Lace Lizard. Hydrosaurus giganteus. 

Plate 4. 

Hydrosaurus giganteus. Gray, Cat. Rept. B. M. 13. 

Brown, back and tail with cross bands of large black- 
edged white spots; neck and under side of body pale, with 
large black round reticulations; legs white-spotted ; toes 



rather short, strong; shields of the head subequal, con- 
vex, over the orbits very small, granular. 

Inhab. N. coast of New Holland. 

The largest species of the genus. The specimen in the 
British Museum is 78 inches long. It was discovered and 
described by Capt. Stokes, R.N. 

Tribe II. Geissosaura. 
Scales of the belly and (almost always) of the back and 
sides, rounded, quincuncial, imbricate, fonned of a more or 
less thick, vascular, bony plate, covered with a thin epi- 
dermis, often shomng the vessels through it. Sides round- 
ed, covered with scales like those of the back. Tongue 
narrow, short, flat, slightly nicked at the end. Head co- 
vered with regular many-sided shields (rather scale-like in 
[Lialisidtc). Neck not contracted. Body fusiform or 
subcylindrical. Femoral pores none, (except in Pygopus 
and Lialis). 

A. Eyes distinct, exposed. Eyelid rudimentary. Head 
conical. 

Fam. Gymnophthalmid^. 
Nostrils lateral, in a single nasal plate, without any su- 
pranasal above it. Teeth conical, simple. Palate tooth- 
less. Tongue scaly, nicked at the tip. Eyes naked. Eye- 
hds rudimentary, circular, ring-like, and immoveable. 
Ears distinct. Body fusiform. Limbs 4, weak, unequal. 
Femoral pores none. 

Cryptoblephards, Cocleau, Weigmann. 
Ablepharus, part, Dum. et Bib. 
Head pyramidical. Frontoparietal plate single. Nos- 
trils lateral, in a single nasal, supranasal none. Eyelid 
rudimentary, circular. Ears moderate, open, denticulated 
in front. Tongue flat, scaly, nicked at the tip. Palate 
toothless. Body fusiform. Scales smooth, or verv finely 
and indistinctly grooved. Legs 4. Toes 5-5, unequal, 
rather comijressed. Tail roundish, tapering, acute. Pre- 
anal scales in three rows. 

* Eyelid complete, with a series of larger scales above. 
The Pete. Cryptoblepharus Boutonii. 

Scincus plagiocephalus, Peron, Mus. Paris. 

S. Boutonii, Desjard. Ann. Sci. Nat. xxii. 298. 

S. arenarius, and S. furcatus, Schlegel, Mus. Leyd. 

S. aureus, Mus. Paris. 

Cryptoblepharis Peronii, Coct. Scincoides, i. t. Man 
Zool. t. Dum. et Bib. E. G. v. 813. 

C. Leschenaultii, Coct. Scin, i. t. 

C. Boutonii, Gray, Cat. Rept. B. M. 64. 

Ablepharus pcecilopleurus, Weiqm. N. Act. N. Cur xv 
183, /. 8, / 1. Gray, Ann. N. H. ii. 335. Grey's Trav 
Austr. ii. 426. Seha, TJies. ii. t. 2,/ 9-10. 

Tiliqua Buchanani, Gray, Ann. N. H. ii. 291. 

Olive or bronzed, brown-varied. Scales black-streaked. 
Eyelid circular, scaly, with the three upper scales larri-est. 
Ears moderate, suboval, open, simple-edged. Rostral 
plate very large, triangular. Preanal plates 6 or 7, neariv 
equal. 

Inhab. Western Australia, the Isle of France, Timor. 



** Eyelid incomplete, no scales between the eye and 
eyebrow above. 

The Eyed Pete. Ciyptoblepharus lineo-ocellatus. 
Plate 5, fig. 1. 

AblephariLs lineo-ocellatus, Diim. el Bib. v. E. G. 817. 

Cryptoblepharus lineo-ocellatus, Gray, in Greys Trav. 
.4ust'r. ii. 427. Cat. Kept. B. M. 65. 

Back grey or reddish, with 4 series of white-edged black 
spots, and edged with a pale streak, and a black-edged 
white streak on each side. Upper lip white. Eyelid cir- 
cular, covered with small equal scales, without any between 
the eye and superciliary plates. Rostral plate small, very 
broad, 6-sided. Frontal plate broader than long. Ears 
moderate, suboval, with 2 or 3 denticulations in front. 
Head short. 

Inhab. Swan River, W. Australia. 

MoRETHiA, Gray. 

Head pyvamidical. Frontoparietal shields rough. Nos- 
tril lateral, in a small shield with a small supranasal above 
it, and a smaller nasoloreal shield behind it. Eyelid rudi- 
mentary, circular. Ears moderate, open, denticulated in 
front. Body fusiform. Scales smooth. Legs 4, weak. 
Toes 5-5, unequal, rather compressed. Tail roundish, ta- 
pering, acute. Preanal scales rather larger. 

This only differs from Cryptoblepharus in the nasal 
shields. It is as if the nasal shield of that genus was di- 
vided into three small plates. 

The MoRETHiA. Morelhia anomalus. 
Plate 5, fig. 2. 

Morpethia anomalus. Gray, Cat. Kept. B. M. 65. 

Olive bronzed, black-spotted; eyelid scales equal ; cars 
with 3 or 4 small denticulations in front. 

The young have a dark-edged white streak on the sides. 

Inhab. Western Australia. 

Menetia, Gray. 

Head subquadrate. Muzzle rounded. Rostral plate 
moderate. Nostril lateral, in an oblong nasal shield ; su- 
j)ranasal none; frontoparietal shield single, rhombic. Eyes 
moderate ; pu])il round. Eyelid rudimentary, circular. 
Ears small, covered with the scales. Body elongate, fusi- 
form, subcylindrical, rounded on the .sides. Scales smooth. 
Legs 4, weak. Toes 4-5, slender, rather compressed, une- 
qual, clawed. Tail cylindrical, tapering. 

The Menktia. Menetia Greyii. 
Plate 5, fig. 3. 

Menetia Greyii, Gray, Cat. liept. B. M. 66. 

Olive bronzed, with a narrow streak externally edged 
with a very nanow black line. 

Inhab. West Australia. 

I have dedicated this genus to Capt. George Grey, the 
Governor of South Australia, who has exerted himself to 
make us aciiuaiiited with the animals of the Australian 
continunt. 



Miculia, Gray. 

Head conical. Muzzle rounded. Rostral plate rather 
larger, with a straight edge behind. Nostrils lateral in the 
middle of 2 transverse nasal scales, edging the back of the 
rostral ; supemasal none ; frontoparietal shield double. 
Eyes moderate; pupil round. Eyelids rudimentary, cir- 
cular, granular. Ears none visible. Body subcylindrical, 
roimded on the sides. Scales smooth. Legs 4, weak. 
Toes 4-4, slender, rather compressed, simple, unequal, 
clawed, the two middle front subequal, longest, the third 
hinder very long. Tail cylindrical, tapering. 

The Miculia. Miculia elegans. 
Plate 5, fig. 4. 
Miculia elegans, Gray, Cat. Rept. B. M. 66. 

Olive, with a dark streak on each side, with a narrow 
white edge below ; beneath pale whitish ; tail brown-dot- 
ted ; eyelid interrupted above. 

Inhab. Western Australia, Mr. Gilbert. 

b. Head ivedye-shaped. Rostral rather produced. 

Lerista, Bell. 

Muzzle rather wedge-shaped. Rostral plate large, bent 
back on the upj)er and lower part of the muzzle. Nostril 
lateral, in a large nasal plate; supranasal none. Eyelid 
rudimentary, circular, granular. Ears distinct, very small. 
Palate with a slight triangular nick behind. Scales smooth. 
Tail conical. Legs 4. Toes 2-3, unequal, clawed, subcy- 
lindrical, simple. Preanal plates 2. "The ear-hole is so 
small that it was overlooked by Mr. Bell." 

The Lerista. Lerista lineata. 

Lerista lineata, Bell, Pr. Z. Soc. 1833, 99. Zool. Journ. 
v. 393, /. 26, /: 2. Gray, Ann. N. H. ii. 335. Cat. Repl. 
B. M. 66. Duvi. et Bib. E. G. v. 825. 

Greenish grey, with 2 black streaks. 

Inhab. New Holland. 

Only known from a single specimen in the collection of 
Mr. Bell. 

Fam. PvGOPiD.E. 

Head pyramidical, shielded, short, with 2 or 3 pair of 
narrow frontal shields, similar to and behind the nasal 
shield, with 2 large vertebral shields. Nostrils oblong, in 
a ring-like shield, in the lower angle of the band-like trans- 
verse nasal, appearing in the suture between the outer an- 
gle of the nasal, the front loreal shield and the lower labial 
plates. Throat covered with small scales. Teeth conical 
simple. Palate toothless, with a broad longitudinal groove. 
Tongue flat, scaly in front, velvety behind, rounded and 
nicked at the end. Ears distinct, exposed ; tympanum 
sunk. Eyelid rudimentary, circular, immoveable, scaly. 
Body cylindrical, elongate. Ventral shields broad behind, 
in 2 or 4 series. Tail with 3 series of broader shields, the 
central broadest. Limbs 2, posterior, rudimentary, undi- 
vided, scaly, on the sides of the vent. 



Pygoi'IS, Fitz., Merrcm. 
Bipes, Cue. Hysteropus, Dum. et Bib. (!) 

Head short, truncated, rounded. Rostral plate large, 
with 2 parietal and a pair of occipital plates. Pupil cir- 
cular. Scales of the back keeled. Ear ovate. Vent with 
a series of pores in front. Hinder limbs elongate, ovate, 
compressed, scaly. Tail cylindrical, rather tapering. 

The PvGOPUS. Pygopus lepidopodus. 

Pypogus lepidopus, Gray, Cat. Kept. B. 71/. 67. 

Bipes lepidopodus, Lriccp. Ann. Mus. H. N. iv. 193, 
•209, t. bb,f. 1. Schinz, Ahhild, t. 42,/. 2. 

Pygopus lepidopus, Menem, Tent. 77. 

Hysteropus lep. Bory, Res. Erpet. 142, t. 27, f. 2. 

H". Nova? Hollandiw, Dum. et Bib. E. G. v. 828, /. 55. 

Sheltopusik Nova3 Hollandia;, Oppel, Rept. 40. 

Coppery grey, with 5 series of oblong, 4-sided, while- 
edged, black spots and some oblique black streaks on the 
side of the neck ; muzzle with 2 pair of broad transverse 
frontals, similar in shape to the nasals. 

Inhabits Australia. 
The Scaly-faced Pygopus. Pygopus squamiceps. 
Plate 8, fig. 3. Animal and head. 

Pygopus squamiceps, Gray, Cat. Rept. B. M. 68. 

Muzzle with 5 series of frontal jdates ; grey, with a se- 
ries of small spots on each side. 

Inhab. W. Australia. 

I have only seen a single specimen ; it may only prove 
a monstrosity of the former, with which it agrees in most 
characters, except those above mentioned. 

Delma, Gray. 
Pygodactylus, part, IVeigin. 

Head elongate, shielded, with 2 pai-ietal and a pair of 
large occipital shields. Rostral plate transverse, moderate. 
Eye circular ; pupil elliptical, erect. Ears ovate, open, 
simple-edged. Body subcylindrical. Tail tapering. Scales 
smooth. Hinder limbs short, scaly. Vent without any 
pores in front. 

Eraser's Delma. Delma Fraseri. 

Delma Fraseri, Gray, Zool. Misc. 14. Grey's Trav. Aus. 
ii. 427, t. 4,/. 3. Cat. Rept. B. M. 68. 

Olive, head white, with 4 more or less confluent black 
bands ; sides of neck white-spotted, beneath white. 

Inhab. New Holland. 

Fani. Aprasiad.e. 
Nostrils small, in the sutin-e between the top of the front 
upper labial and the anterior frontal. Head small, half 
conic, shielded. Muzzle rather produced, acute. Fron- 
tals large, 2 pair, covering the cheeks. Vertebral shield 
large, elongated, 6- sided. Superciliary shields 2 pair, small. 
Labials few, large. Eyelid rudimentary, circular, edged 
with a series of small scales. Pupil ro\md. Ears hidden 
under the scales. Body and tail cylindrical, tapering, co- 
vered with hexagonal scales and rather broader ventral 
shields. Limbs none. 



Aprasia, Gray. 

Limbs none. Scales smooth. 

By some mistake, the slip containing the description of 
this genus in uiy Sj-nopsis of Slender-tongued Saurians, 
[Ann. N. H. ii. 362), accidentally got into tlie wrong place, 
with Tiliqun, instead of being near Anyuis. 

The Aprasia. Aprasia pulchella, Grai/, Ann. N. H. ii. 
332. Grey's Trav. Austr. ii. 428—438,' t. 4, /'. 2. Cat. 
Rept. B. M. 68. 

Pale brown, with a series of brown spots, one spot in the 
centre of each scale ; sides with the spots more connected, 
fonning interrupted streaks ; lips yellow. 

Lihab. Western Australia. 

Fam. LiALisiD.E. 

Head covered with rather imbricate scales. Cheeks 
scaly. Muzzle flattened in front. Nostrils in the hinder 
edge of a small nasal shield, in front of the face-ridge. 
Eyelid rudimentary, circular, scaly. Pupil elliptical, erect. 
Ears distinct. Body elongate, subcylindrical. Scales 
oval, smooth, imbricate. Belly with 2, tail with 1, series 
of larger shields. Limbs 2, ]Dosterior, short, undivided, 
flat, scaly. Tail rather tapering, elongate. Vent with a 
series of pores in front, each placed in the front edge of a 
scale. 



LiALis, Gray. 



The only genus. 



Burton's Lialis. Lialis Burtoni, Gray, Proc. Z. Soc. 
1834, 134. Grey's Trav. Austr. ii. 437, t. 3, /". 1. Zool. 
Misc. 52. Cat. Rept. B. M. 69. Dum. et Bib. E. G. v. 831. 

Above grey olive, in spirits, with 5 rather interrupted 
brown longitudinal streaks, the central streak divided into 
two over the nape, and united together again over the nose; 
the outer lateral streaks narrowest and more interrupted, 
edged with the two colours ; beneath blackish grey, with 
large white spots ; lips and streak under ear and along the 
side of the neck white. 

Inhab. Western Australia and Houtman's Abrolhos. 

The Two-lined Ll\lis. Lialis bicatenata. 
Plate 7, fig. 1. 

Lialis bicatenata, Gray, Zool. Misc. 52. Cat. Rept. B. 
M. 69. 

Above brown grey, in spirits, with a series of distant 
black spots (one on the centre of each scale) along each 
side of the back ; top of the head and nape with an indis- 
tinct double band, forming an elongated loop ; beneath 
blackl.sh grey, whitish dotted ; chin and throat blackish, 
white-spotted ; lip-shields brown. 

Inhab. Western Australia ? May be only a variety of 
Ij. Burtoni, but very differently coloured. 

The Dotted Lialls. Lialis pimctulata. 
Plate 8, fig. 1. 
Lialis punctulata. Gray, Zool. Misc. 62. Cat. Rent. 
B. M. 69. 



Brownish grey, very minutely black-dotted, beneath 
darker brownish grey, the two colours separated by a very 
narrow brown edge and a distinct white line; side of the 
head and neck dark chocolate brown, edged above with a 
very narrow, and beneath by a broader white band ; front 
upper and side lower labial plates white, the rest dark 
brown. 

Inhab. North Coast of New Holland, Port Essington. 

The body is much thicker and shorter than in either of 
the other species ; the tail is reproduced, so that it is not 
possible to refer to its comparative length. 

I have seen, but cannot procure to examine, what ap- 
peared to be a fourth species of this genus, from Australia, 
with a larger head. 

B. Eyes dislinct, eyelids dis/iiict, valvular. Head conical. 

Fam. SciNCiD.'E. 

Head subquadrangular, regidarly shielded. Rostral 
plate moderate, erect, sometimes rather produced and 
transversely keeled. Nostrils lateral in a more or less large 
nasal shield, with sometimes a su])ranasal over it, between 
the nasal and internasal. Body fusiform aud subcyhndri- 
cal. Tail cylindrical or tapering. Scales smooth, keeled, 
or striated. Limbs 4, more or less strong, sometimes want- 
ing, or rather hidden under the skin. Femoral pores none. 

1. Scales thin, smooth, not striated nor keeled, unarmed. 

Nasal flat, smooth, without any lunate groove behind 

the nostril. Tail round, tapering, tinarmed. 
B. Toes compressed, simple. Head subquadrangular. 

Rostral erect, triangular. Nostril in the middle of 

the nasal shield. Lygosomina. 
a. Supranasal plate none. Body fusiform . Lower eyelid 
covered with scales. Frontoparietal separate. 

HiNDLiA, Gray. 
Lygosoma, part, Dum. et Bib. Le Keneux, part, Cocteau. 

Frontal plate oblong. Rostral erect, triangular. Palate 
toothless, with a deep triangular notch in front. Body fu- 
siform. Scales smooth, thin ; the 2 central preanal scales 
larger than the rest. Tail tapering, roundish. Legs mo- 
derate. Toes 5-5, slender, compressed. Heel of the hind 
feet suiTounded with granules. 

* Ears simple in front, roundish. 
Geruard's Hinulia. Hinulia Gerrardii. 
Plate 9. 
Hinulia Gerrardii, Gray, Cat. Rept. B. M. 75. 
Silvery grey (when dry), with a broad irregular brown 
band across the back of the neck, with a streak to the 
occiput, and a broader one to each fore leg; body with 6, 
tail with 12 or 14 broad crescent-like cross brown bands, 
which are spotted with grey when they cross the side ; 
limbs with brownish streaks ; head brown above, head- 
shields black-edged, with a brown streak on the temple, 
towards the ear ; chin white, brown-lined, belly brown- 
spotted ; ear open, simple in front, partly covered by the 



temple-scales ; supraocular plates 3-3, nasal nearly conti- 
guous, frontoi^arietal contiguous. Length 14 inches. 
Inhab. Australia. 

The Elegant Hinulia. Hinulia elegans. 
Plate 10, fig. 1. 
Hinulia elegans. Gray, Cat. Rept. B. M. 75. 
Pale brown, back varied with black spots, more close, 
forming an irregular broad dark streak on the upper part 
of each side, beneath whitish ; chin varied with black ; 
lips and limbs blackish varied; nasal and frontonasal near- 
ly contiguous ; ears ovate, open, simple-edged. 
Inhab. New Holland. 

The Swan River Hinulia. Hinulia Greyii. 
Plate 10, fig. 2. 

Hinulia Greyii, Gray, Cat. Rept. B. M. 75. 

Olive, black-varied, with a dark-edged yellow streak on 
each side of the back ; sides black-spotted, with a yellow 
streak below; legs brown-streaked; lip-shields black- 
edged ; ears oblong, smooth-edged ; frontal triangular, 
elongate, frontonasal contiguous, frontoparietal and pa- 
rietal small, similar ; body thick, fusiform. 

Inhab. Swan River. 

Named in honour of Capt. George Grey, the Governor 
of South Australia, who discovered the species. 

The Slender Hinulia. Hinulia tenuis. 
Plate 10, fig. 3. 

Tiliqua tenuis, Gray, Griffith, A. K. ii. 71. Ann. N. H. 
ii. 291. 

Scincus erucatus, Peron, Mus. Paris. 

Lygosoma erucata, Dum. et Bib. E. G. v. 726. 

Keneux de Busseuil, Coct. Tab. 

Hinulia tenuis. Gray, Cat. Rept. B. M. 76. 

Pale brown, varied, with an irregulai'-edged brown streak 
on each side ; scales in 8 series ; feet long, toes very 
slender ; muzzle rather short ; supraocular shields 4 ; ears 
round, open, simple-edged ; nostrils lateral, nasal triangu- 
lar, frontonasal nearly contiguous; tail elongate, rather 
compressed. 

Var. with sides white-speckled. 
Inhab. W. Australia, Swan River. 

The Bronzed Hinulia. Hinulia inornata. 
Plate 10, fig. 4. 
llimdia inornata, Gray, Cat. Rept. B. M. 76. 

Pale nearly uniform brown bronze above, back wdth a 
rather nairow bright yellow rather darker-edged streak on 
each side ; the sides pale, with an indistinct yellow streak 
on the lower part of each, both streaks extending along the 
side of the tail ; chin and beneath whitish, with rather 
darker edges to the sides ; ears oblong, with 4 or 5 small 
compressed yellow scales in front. 

Inhab. Swan River. 



The LiNEATED HiNULiA. Iliiiulia twniolala. 

Hiniilia tseniolata, Gray, Cat. Rept. B. M. 78. 

Lacerta tajiiiolata, Shaw, White's Jour. N. H. t. 32,/. 1. 
Gray, Griffith, A. K. ix. 68. Ann. N. H. ii. 289. Dum. ct 
Bib. E. G. V. 734. 

Scincus undecim-striatus, Kuhl, Beytr. 129. 

S. octolineatus, Daud. Rept. iv. 285. 

S. muUilineatiis, Lesson, Voy. Coq. t. 3,/. 2. 

Keneux de Lesueur, Coat. Tab. 

Brown or black, with 6 white streaks, continued and 
margining the shields of the head ; sides brown, with 2 
white streaks ; tail pale, with 3 tapering streaks ; nasals 
contiguous ; scales of the back in 4 series ; ears denticu- 
lated in front ; frontonasal plates contiguous. 

Inhab. Australia. 

In the British Museum there is the specimen first de- 
scribed by Dr. Shaw, which was brought by Capt. White. 

White's Hinulia. Hinulia Whitei. 
Plate 11, fig. 1. 

Hinulia Whitei, Gray, Cat. Rept. B. M. 79. 

Scincus Whitei, Lacep. Ann. Mas. iv. 192. 

S. ocellatus, and S. Lewisiensis, Peron, Miis. Paris. 

S. tseniolatus quadrilineatus, Merrem, Tent. 72. 

S. moniliger, Valenc. Mus. Par. 

Lygosoma moniligera, Dtim. et Bib. E. G. v. 736. 

Keneux de White, Coct. Tab. 

Tiliqua leucopsis. Gray, Ann. N. H. ii. 291. 

Pale olive, back with a central pale streak, and a regular 
white-spotted black streak on each side ; sides white-spot- 
ted; eyelid and ear-lobes white; lips black-varied; scales 
of the back as long as broad, in 8 series ; nasal plates con- 
tiguous ; ears strongly denticulated in front; frontonasal 
plates contiguous. 

Inhab. Houtman's Abrolhos. 

Var. 1. Dorsal streaks each with 2 rows of linear white 
specks. 

Inhab. Swan River. 

A stuffed specimen has a central reddish streak on the 
back. 

The New Zealand Hinulia. Hinulia ornata. 
Plate II, fig. 2. 

Hinulia ornata, Gray, Cat. Rept. B. M. 77. 

Tiliqua ornata. Gray, Dieff. N. Z. ii. 202. 

Bright pale brown, varied with black and white spots ; 
sides with an irregular narrow pale streak above ; scales 
with short black streaks, some black on each side, white 
in the centre ; ears moderate, roundish, simple-edged. 

Brown, with black and white spots. 

Brown, with 3 blackish streaks, sides blackish, edged 
above and below with an irregular edged pale line. 

Inhab. N. Zealand. 



** Ears denticulated in front. 

t Scales moderate, in 4 series. 

Laijillakdiere's Hinulia. Hinulia Labillardieri. 
Plate 11, fig. 3. 

Hinulia Labillardieri, Gra>i, Cat. Rept. B. M. 77. 

Keneux do I.abillardiere, Coct. Tab. 

Tiliqua Labillardieri, Gray, Ann. N. II. ii. 289. Dum. 
et Bib. E. G. v. 734. 

Bronze green, speckled or lined with black ; sides black, 
white-dotted, and with 2 white streaks; nasals rhombic, 
large, nearly contiguous, frontonasal plates separate ; ears 
ovate, slightly denticulated in front; scales of the back 
large, in 4 series. 

Young, in spirits. Bronze green, with a scries of round 
white spots in the black on the sides of the back. 

Inhab. W. Australia. 

The Australian Hinulia. Hinulia australis. 
Plate 11, fig. 4. 

Hinulia australis. Gray, Cat. Rept. B. M. 78. 

Tiliqua australis. Gray, Ann. N. H. ii. 291. 

Lygosoma Lesueurii, Bum. et Bib. E. G. v. 733. Gray, 
Grey's Trav. Atistr. ii. 425. 

Pale brown, with a central white-edged brown streak ; 
sides black, with a narrow white streak above, a series of 
oblong white spots, as if formed of an interrupted streak, 
and a rather wide indistinct pale streak below ; ears half- 
ovate, with 4 strong teeth in front ; temple white, brown- 
spotted ; scales of the back in 4 series. 

Var. I. Back pale, with a while-edged central streak. 
Back with several white-edged streaks. 

Inhab. Houtman's Abrolhos. Mr. Goidd's collection. 

Var. 2. Back brown, without a streak. 

Inhab. W. Australia and Port Essington. 

Gilbert's Hinulia. Hinulia Essingtonii. 
Plate 7, fig. 2. 

Hinulia Essingtonii, Gray, Cat. Rept. B. M. 78. 

Tiliqua Essingtonii, Gray, Zool. Misc. 51. 

Pale brown, nape with 3 indistinct black streaks, with a 
very distinct narrow broadly black-edged silvery streak 
fi-om the back angle of the eye to over the base of the tail, 
and with a broader more indistinct streak from the front to 
the hinder legs; sides of throat brown, white-spotted; chin, 
under side of limbs and beneath, yellow ; tail elongate, 
brown, with 2 narrow black streaks on each side ; limbs 
brown, with 3 indistinct black-dotted fines ; ears large, 
with 3 small scales on the front edge. 

Inhab. Port Essington, North coast of Australia. 

Like the preceding, but it has no white-edged central 
streak, and the lateral streak has indications of a white 
border to its upper edge. 



b. Supraiiaml plate none. Body fusiform. Loiver eyelid 
with a transparent disk. 

MocoA, Gray. 
Lygosoma, part, Dum. et Bib. 

Head subquadrangular. Rostral erect, triangular, con- 
vex. Nasal lateral, nearly contiguous, supranasal none, 
frontoparietal separate or united into one. Palate tooth- 
less, nicked behind. Ears oblong, slightly denticulated in 
front; tympanum deep. Lower eyelid with a central 
transparent disk. Chin with several pairs of large shields. 
Body fusiform. Scales smooth, with 3 or 4 black streaks. 
Limbs 4, strong. Toes 5-5, com|)ressed, unequal. Tail 
round, tapering, unarmed. Central preanal scales rather 
larger than the others. 

* Fronto-parietal plate single, lozenge-shaped. 

t Scales of the back moderate, in 6 series. 

Guichenot's Moco. Mocoa Guichenoti. 
Plate 7, fig. 3. 

Mocoa Guiclienoti, Cat. Kept. B. M. 80. 
Lygosoma Guichenoti, Dum. et Bib. E. G. v. 713. Gray, 
Grey's Trav. Austr. ii. 425. 

Bronze green, with a blackish streak on each side ; 
scales of the neck moderate ; frontoparietal ])late single, 
larger, elongate, lozenge-sha])ed, frontal triangular, equal- 
sided ; nasal plate small, quite lateral, internasal broad, 
truncated in front; ear large, nearly circular, open, simple- 
edged in front ; two of the four scales of the last preanal 
series larger than the rest. 
Inhab. King George's Sound. 

There is, in the British Museum, a specimen of this spe- 
cies which was sent from Paris by M. Bibron, under the 
name of Scincus Duperreyii, the name which he has ap- 
plied to the next species in his work. The same kind of 
error is observable in the other specimen sent at the same 
time. I should not have observed this mistake, if it did 
not explain some of the en'ors into which he has accused 
me of falling, such as considering his Scincus Vosmaeri the 
same as my Hagria, (see Erp. Gen. v. 762) ; my genus 
and species being absolutely described from his specimen 
so named, lent to mo for the purpose by M. Bibron ! 

The Nr:w Holland Moco. Mocoa trilincata. 
Plate 7, fig. 4. 

Mocoa trilincata, Gray, Cat. Repi. B. M. 81. 

Tiliqua trilincata. Gray, Ann. N. H. ii. 29L 

Lygosoma Duperreyii, Dum. et Bib. E. G. v. 715. 

Olive, black-spotted, with a pale streak on each side, 
sides blackish, white-dotted; ears moderate, oval, front 
edge covered with 2 scales ; nasal lateral, nearly contigu- 
ous, frontojiarietal plate single, lozenge-shaped, frontal 
rhombic, short and blunt before, long and acute behind. 

Var. 1. Olive, scales of the back and sides black-edged, 
nut spotted. 



Var. 2. Olive, black and white spotted, sides blackish, 
white-dotted. 

Inhab. S. Australia. 

tt Scales of the back small, in 8 or 10 series. 
The Black-chinned Moco. Mocoa melanopogon. 
Plate 7, fig. 5. 
Mocoa melanopogon, Gray, Cat. Rept. B. M. SO. 
Olive, varied with black, and with 2 or 3 white streaks 
in some of the scales ; side of the head and neck black, 
with a white streak under the eyes from the back edge of 
the ear; chin and throat black, with a central white spot 
on each scale, beneath silvery ; nasal lateral, frontonasal 
contiguous ; scales of the back rather small, in 8 or 10 se- 
ries, of the sides smaller ; disk of lower eyelid very large. 
Inhab. Port Essington. 

ttt Scales of the back very small, in numerous series. 
The Eyed Moco. Mocoa ocellata. 
Plate 7, fig. 1. 
Mocoa ocellata, Gray, Cat. Rept. B. M. 81. 
Olive, varied with numerous sometimes confluent black 
dots, forming rings on the sides, beneath whitish ; scales 
very small, in many series ; nasal rhombic, lateral ; disk 
of lower eyelid large. 
Inliab. Australia. 

** Interparietal plates 2, separate. 
t Ear ovate, partly covered with the scales above. 
Entrecasteaux's Moco. Mocoa Entrecasteauxii. 
Plate 7, fig. 2. 
Mocoa Entrecasteaxii, Gray, Cat. B. M. 82. 
Lygosoma Entrecasteauxii, Dum. et Bib. E. G. v. 717. 
Olive, back with a broad blackish central streak, some- 
times with series of spots on the side, sides blackish, with 
2 narrow white streaks ; nasal plates small, nearly conti- 
guous ; temple covered with large scales; transparent disk 
of the lower eyelid very large ; ears moderately open, near- 
ly equal ; frontoparietal plate double, frontonasal nearly 
contiguous. 

Inhab. Australia. 

The MoKo MoKo. Mocoa Zelandica. 

Plate 7, fig. 3. ] 

]\Iocoa Zelandica, Grai/, Cat. Rept. B. M. 82. 
Tiliqua Zelandica, Gray, Dieff. N. Z. ii. 202. 
Tiliqua Moko, Gray, MSS. Dum. et Bib. E. G. v. 718. 
Pale brown, bronzed, with 2 narrow black-edged bright 
streaks on each side, the lower one continued down the 
front of the legs ; sides blackish ; the ironlonasal nearly 
contiguous, frontoparietal separate, similar to the parietal, 
nasal nearly contiguous ; ears moderate, nearly circular, 
sinqile-edged ; preanal scales nearly equal, larger ; ])alpe- 
bral disk moderate. 

Inhab. Cook's Straits, New Zealand, Bay of Islands. 



J .List of the Saurians of Australia and New Zealand. By Albert Gunther, M.A., M.D., PhD., 
F.R.S., A'.P.Z.S., Keeper of the Zoological Department of the British 3Iuseuni. 

I\ tliH year 184."!, wlic-n tlie ]iulilicatiiin of the Zoology of the " Erelms and Terror" was discontinued, Dr. dray had 
already prepared some of tlie materials for the second part of the account of the Reptiles, and the j)lates intended for it 
had been drawn on stone and the majority of them printed. These plates remained unpublished until the year 18(>7, 
when, considering it a pity that work so beautifully executed and so useful to the Herpetologist should be lost, he 
determined to render them accessible by publishing them as a collection of figures of Australian Lizards. Thus, then, 
appeared a fasciculus under the title "The Lizards of Australia and New Zealand in the collection of the British 
Museum," consisting of a nominal list and eighteen plates. Of these plates, plates 7, 10, 11, and 15 to 19 had not Vieeti 
previously publislied; the others had already appeared in the Zoology of the "Erebus and Terror," with the exception of 
plates 5 and 6, of which proofs only had been printed, the drawings having been afterwards inadvertently effaced by the 
lithographic printer. Having fortunately discovered the proofs of these two plates, with the figures named in Dr. CJray's 
handwriting, in a collection of miscellaneous drawings given to me by him, I induced the publisher of the present edition 
to have them re-lithographed by Mr. Ford (the same artist who had drawn the originals), as the figures had been 
referred to by Dr. Gray in the preceeding pages as well as in the "Catalogue of Lizards." Thus I believe, all the figiiic^; 
of Reptiles executed for the "Zoology of the Erebus and TeiTor," are now before the public. 

After the lapse of nearly thirty years, there were serious difficulties in the way of simply continuing the letterpres.< 
as originally planned and abruptly terminated on p. 8, and it was finally determined to give a complete list of all tin- 
species of Australian and New Zealand Saurians at present known, with references to the principal works and figures 
and indications of their habitats. Descriptions of a few new species lately received by the British Museum have been 
added. 

CROCODILIA. LACERTILIA. 

1. Ckocodilus porosus. Vvrvmdf 

C'rorodilus porosus, (Schneid.), Giinth. Rept. Brit. Ind 
p. 6-2. 

C^hieensland. 



Odatri.v punctata. Plate 1. 



2. Ckocodilus johnstoxi. 



Odatria punctata, Gray, Catal. Liz. p. 7. 
Northern and Western Australia. (Port Essiugton 
Perth). 



Crocodilm jolimtoni, Krefft, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1873, p. .334; 
Gray, f ^V^, 1«74 p. 177, pi 27. 5 Odatria semireme. 

Lardwell, Rockingham Bay. 



RHYNCHOCEPHALIA. 

Hattekia punctata. Plate 20. 



Odatria semireme, Peters, Berl. Monatsljer. ISiJO. p. 6." 
Port Essington, Cape York. 

6. Odatria ocell.\ta. Plate 2. 



Hatteria punctata. Gray, Zool. Misc. p. 72 ; Giinth, Pliil. 
Trans. 1867, pp. 595—629; pis. 26—28. Odatria ordlata. Gray, Catal. Liz. p. 8. 

New Zealand (North Island). Northern and Western Australia. (Nicol Bay). 



7. Monitor gouldii. Plate 3. 

.Uonitor gouldi'i, Gray, Catal. Liz. p. 12. 
Queensland ; Northern and Western Australia, (Port 
l*J5.sington, Shark's Bay) ; Adelaide. 

8. Monitor chlorostigma. 

Monitor Morostiyimt, Schleg. Abbild. neu. Amphib. pi. 
:>■>. fig. 6 (head). 

( elebes, Ceram, Borneo, Solomon Island, Cape York. 



9. Hydrosaurus varius. 

Jfydrosav.rus varius, Gray, Catal. Liz. p. 12. 
Australia. 



15. Menetia greyii. Plate 5, fig. 4. 

Menetia greyii. Gray, Catal. Liz. ]>. 66. 
Western and Southern Au.stralia, (Adelaide). 

16. MiCULlA ELEGANS. Plate 5, tig. 3 

Mieidia elegans, Gray, Catal. Liz. pi. 66. 
Western Australia. 



17. Lerista lineata. 

Lerista lineata, Bell, Zool. Journ. V. p. oL'.'l, tab. 2(1. fig. 

; Dum. & Bibr. Erp. gen. V. p. 82.5. 

Plastern and Western Australia. (Swan IJiver). 



10. Hydrosaurus bellii. 

Hydrosaurus hellii, Dum. & Bibr. Erp. (Jt'iier. IH, p. 
49o, ])1. 35, lig. 1 ; Gray, in Grey, Trav. Austr. II, p. 422. 
North-eastern Australia. 



11. Hydrosaurus giganteus. Plate 4. 

Ilyilriisaiirus (jigantcws, Gray, Catal. Liz. p. 13. 
Xortliern and Southern Australia. 



PYGOPODID/E. 

18. Pygopus lepidopus. Plate 8, hg. 3. 

Pygopus lepidopjis, (Lact^p.), Giinth. Ann. & ]\lag. Nat. 
Hist. 1867, XX, ip. 4:5.=ITysteropus nova-, hollandkr, Dum. 
& Bibr. V. p. 828, pi. 55. = Pygopu.s squamicfps, (uay, (at. 
Liz. p. 68. 

Western, Southern and Eastern Australia. Pare in 
Tasmania. 



CJymxopthalmid.e. 



19. Pygopus gracilis. 



Ckvptoblepharus pcecilopleukus. Plate 5, fig. 2. 



Pygopus gracilis, (Mus. lMgA)^Plethola,i: grariJix, Cojie, 



, , I'roc. Ac. N. Sc. Pliilad. 1874, p. 229. 
Acad. r, ,, , . ^ ,• ^ 



Cn/ntoUrpharus pacilopleitrus, Wiegm. Nov. Act. Acad. ,, ,, ' ' ' ' . \ ' 

. Leo,,. XV. 1835, p. 202, tab. 18, fig. 1 ; Giinth. Proc. ^outh-westem Austn 



('. Leop. XV. 1835, p. 202, tab. 18, fig. 
Zool. Soc. 1874, p. 296. 

South Sea Islands ; Northern, Western and Southern 
Australia. (Adelaide, Swan Paver). 

13. CKYI'TmBLEPHAIU'S lineo-ocei.latus. 

Cryptohlepharus lineo-occllatus, CJray, in Grey's Trav 
Austr. II, p. 427. 

Swan Eiver ; Kangaroo Island. 

14. MoRETHiA anomala. Plate "), fig. 1. 
.Vorr/Iu'n inioniida. Gray, Catal. Liz. p. 65. 
Kastciii, Woiciu and Southern Australia. (Adelaide, 

Sam 111 I list, ilnckhauipton). 

Tliis lizard difiers in nothing from Cryptohlrpharus Aj^rasia piihJiella, Gv^y, in (ivey's Trav. in Austral. 11, 

//.r,wW/../,/,s, except in having the supranasal separated by' p. 438, tab. 4, fig. 2 ; Giinth. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 1873, 

a suture Irom the nasal ; and it appears to me very doubt- Aug. p. 14:5.=Aprasia odolinenta, Peters, MB. Berl. Acad, 

lul whether the presence or absence of a supranasal can be 18(33 p. 233. 



20. Delma eraseri. 

Ihlraa fraseri, Gray, in (irey's Trav. in Austral. H. p. 
427, taV). 4, fig. 3 ; Giinth. Ann! Mag. Nat. Hist. ls7:i._[., 
\4:5.=DelmM grayi, Smith, 111. Zool. S. Afr. Pept. jil. TH. 
fig. '2. = Dclma inolleri, Liitken, Nat. Foren. A'id. ^Icild. 
1862. 

AVestern and Southern Australia, (Perth, Chuiniiiou ISav, 
Nicol Bay, Adelaide). 



Aprasiid^e. 

21. ApRASIA ITLCHELLA. 



il.ways used as a generic character. 



Western and Southern Australia, (Swau River, Adelaide). 



* In the original proof of this j.latp the nainrs iittaehi'il bv'Dr 
tor rr hn,^.„cr/l„lMs, but it i.s «ith„ut any .ioul.t tnk.M, from u 
already in his huuUs. 






i-identlv confuse,! ; 
i-hicl, Jt the tin,.- 



pears to have inteniled fii;. "J 



I-IAUn.-K. 

22. LiALis BVUTONi. Plate 8, fig. 2. 

Lialis hurtonii. Gray in Grey's Jouin. in Austral. II, p. 
437, tab. 3, fig. 1, tab. 5, fig. 4. ' 

Western Australia, (Houtman's Abrolhos, Champion 
Bay, Swan River). 



22a. Li..\.lis leptokiiyncha. 

Lialk Ici/torhi/nchfr, Peters, MB. Berlin Acad. 1873, 
p. 605. 

Port Mackav. 



23. Lialis pu.n'ctul.vta. Plate 8, fig. 1. 

Lialis 2ntnctidata, Gray, Zool. Misc. p. 52, & Cat. Liz. p. 
l>9 ; Giinth. Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. 1867, XX, p. 46 ; 
Dum. Cat. Eept. 1851, p. 195.= Lialis bicatenata, Gray, 
Zool. Misc. p. 52, & Cat. Liz. p. 69. 

Eastern, Xorthern and Western Australia, (Sydney, 
( "ape York, Port Essington). 

SCINCID^. 

24. Hinulia gerrakdi. Plate 9. 

Hinulio (jermrdi. Gray, Cat. Liz. p. 'tb,=Hcm.isphmrio~ 
iio» (jcrrardi, Peters, MB. Berl. Acad. 1867, p. 23. 
(Queensland, (Eockhampton, Clarence River). 

2.".. HiNULiA tenuis. Plate 10, fig. 1 & Plate 11, fig. .3. 

Hiiiiiliii (eauis, Gray in Griff. Ann. Kingd. IX, p. 71, & 
("at. Liz. p. 7G;=Li/gosoma criicata, Dum. Bibr. Erp. Gen. 
V. p. 726 ■,=Hinulia elerjans, Gray, Cat. Liz. p. 76. 

(Plate 10, fig. 1, JI. ekgans; and plate 11, fig. 3, 
H. tenvAs). 

Eastern and Western Australia, (Sydney, Clarence 
River, Nicol Bay). 

26. HixuuA GASTEO.'STiCTA, Giiuth. 

Allied to H. degam, but with much smaller scales which 
form from 38 to 41 longitudinal series round the body, 
there being 82 scales in a series between the chin and 
vent. The anterior and posterior froutals and the vertical 
meet in a point. Ear-ojjening veiy wide, ovate, without 
lobed margin. Tail compressed. A narrow whitish band 
runs from the supraciliary along each side of the back, 
disappearing about the middle of the trunk. Upper parts 
greenish-olive, vnxh scattered black specks of the size of a 
scale irregularly arranged. Sides of the trunk lilack, with 
white specks; sides of the tail black-spotted. Lower parts 
wliitish, with more or less numerous black spots longitu- 
dinally arranged. 



Four specimens from Kangaroo Island, 1 1 inches long. 

Distance of snout from vent 93 mm. 

„ ear • 20 „ 

Lengtii of fore leg 28 „ 

third and fourth fingers 8 „ 

hind leg 43 „ 

tliird toe 9 „ 

„ fourth toe 15 „ 

fifth toe 8 „ 

27. HlNTLIA I.AIilLLARDIEKI. Plate 1 0, fig. 3, (/T. (^fyitj. 

Hinulia labillardieri (Coot.), = Tiliqua lahiUardieTi, 
(iray, Ann. Nat. Hist. II, p. 289,= Lygosoma labillardieri, 
Dum. Bibr. Erp. gen. \. p. 7Sl,=JIinvlia labillardieri, 
(iray, Cat. Liz. p. 77, = Hinulia grei/ii. Gray, I.e. p. 76. 

Eastern and Western Australia, (Kiug tieorge's Sound, 
Swan River). 

28. Hinulia hra.nchialis. 

HiiuiUa hranchiidis, Gltnth. Ann. & -Mag. Nat. Hist. 
18ii7, XX, J). 47. 

Western Australia, (Chanij>ion Bay). 

29. Hinulia fasciolata. 

Hinulia fasciolata, Giinth, Ann. & ^lag. Nat. Hist. 1867, 
XX, p. 47. 

Queensland, (Rockhamptou, Port Curtis). 

30. Hinulia striatula. 

Hinulia striattda, Steindachner, Novara, Eej)t. p. 49, 
{Euprepes striatulus). 

New South Wales and Western Australia, (Sundav 
Island). 



31. Hinulia orn.\t.\. Plate 11, fig. 1. 

Hinulia ornata. Gray, in Dieffenb. N. Z. II, p. 201. 
{Tiliqua) ; and Cat. Liz. p. 77. 
New Zealand. 



32. Hinulia scho.mburgki. 

Himdia schomburgki, Peters, MB. Berl. Acad. 1873, 

p. 231, (Lygosoma). 

Soutli Australia, (Adelaide). 

33. HiNULU AUSTR.U,I3. 

Himdia australis. Gray, Ann. Nat. Hist. II, p. 291, 
{Tiliqiui), and Cat. Liz. p. 77,= Lygosoma lesv.curii, Dum. 
Bibr. Erp. gen. V. p. 733. 

Western and Southern Australia, (Port Essington, 
Houtmau's Abrolhos, Adelaide). 



12 



34. Hjntlia essingtoni. 

ffinulia essingtonii, Gray, Cat. Liz. p. 78. 
Nortli Australia, (Port Essington). 



35. HiNULiA iNOUXAT.v. Plate 10, fig. 2. 

ffinulia inornat'!,,' Gray, Cat. Liz. p. 78. 

Northern anil Western Australia, (Cape York, Swan 
Eiver). 

This species is not always so plainly coloured as the 
typical specimen ; but generally it is ornamented with 
black, white edged bands, similar in arrangement to those 
of ff. australis. It may be considered a variety of this lat- 
ter species, but with somewhat smaller and more numerous 
scales which form 30, and in one specimen even 34 longi- 
tudinal series round the body, whilst in the true H. 
australis they are arranged in 26 series only. 



36. HiNULIA T.EXIOLATA. 

Hinulia tceiiMata, (Sliaw) ; "Wliite. Journ. pi. 32, fig. 1 ; 
Gray, Cat. Liz. p. 78,=Lyi/osoma twniolatum, Dum. Bibr. 
Erp. gen. V. p. lZ^,=Scincus multiiineo.tus, Less. Voy. Coq. 
pi. 3, fig. 2. 

New South Wales. 



37. Hinulia whitii. 

ffinulia ivhitii, (Lac), Gray, Cat. Liz. p. 79, = Li/fjosoma 
monUi(jcruvi, Dum. Bibr. Erp. gen. V. p. 736. 

Australia generally, Tasmania, (Kangaroo Island, Hout- 
man's Abrolhos, Swan River, Adelaide, Sydney, Gayndah, 
Rockluunpton). 



Di.stance of snout from vent . 1 nun 

„ „ „ ear 14 ,. 

Length of fore limb 1 '•-• ,. 

third and fourth fore toes 3 ,. 

„ hind limb 27 „ 

„ third hind toe 6 „ 

fourth „ ;> „ 

fiftli „ _ 4i „ 

One specimen from Nicol Bay, is in the British 

Museum. 



41. MOCOA GUICHENOTI. 

Mocoa guichenoti, Dum. Bibr. Erp. gen. V. p. 713 
{Lygosoma),=Lygosoma duperreyi, Dum. Bibr. 1. c. p. 715, 
= Mocoa guichenoti, Gray, Cat. Liz. p. SO,=Mocoa triUneata, 
Gray, 1. cl p. 81. 

Southern and Western Australia and Tasmania, (Sydney. 
Loyalty Island, Swan Eiver). 

42. Mocoa microtis. Plate 7, fig. 2. 

Mocoa microtis, Gray, Cat. Liz. p. 83. 
Swan liiver. 

43. Mocoa owenii. 

Mocoa owenii. Gray, Cat. Liz. p. 272. 
Hab. ? 



44. Mocoa ceassicauda. 

Mocoa crussicauda, Hombr. & Jacq. Voy. Austi 
pi. 4, fiir. 1 {Lggosoma) ; Dum. Cat. Meth. p. 172. 
New'^Hollanil. 



i;..pt. 



38. Hinulia pantheeina. 

ff inula ■pantlurina, Peters, MB. Berl. Acad. 1866, p. 89. 
Swan River. 

39. Hinulia kiciiakdsonii. Plate 11, fig. 2. 

ffinulia ricJuirdsonii, Gray, Cat. Liz. p. 79. 
Western Australia, (Iloutman's Abrolhos, Champion 
Bay). 



45. Mocoa mustelina. 

Mocoa mustelina, O'Shaughnessy, Ann. & ^lag. Nat. Hist. 
XIII. 1874, p. 299. 
Sydney. 

46. Mocoa ocellata. Plate 7, Hg, 3. 

Mocoa ocellata, Gray, Cat. Liz. ]). 82. 
Tasmania. 



40. Hinulia pallida. Giintli. 
The pricfrontal is in contact with the rostral as well as 
vertical which is much elongate; the anterior and central 
occ.ii)itals similar in shape and size. Seven ujijier labials. 
'IMiirty-tsvo longitudinal scries of scales round the middle 
ol tli(! body. Eighty .scales in a longitudinal series 
lie.twei^n the chin an<l vent. Ear-opening rather small, 
without projecting scales in front. Limbs well developed! 
Upper iiurts liglit brownish-olive, very indistinctly marbled 
Willi darktir. l.uwer parts wliite. 



47. Mocoa entrecasteauxii. Plate 

Mocoa entrecasteauxii, Dum. Bibr. Erp. g( 
(Li/gosoma) ; Gray, Cat. Liz. p. 82. 
Tasmania. 



48. Mocoa metai.lica. 

Mocoa mcto.llica, O'Shaughnessy, Ann. & ilag. 
XIll. 1874, p. 299. 

Tasmania. 



Nat. Misl. 



49. MOCOA MICROLEPIDOTA. 

Mocoa microlepidota, O'Shauglmessy, Ann. & 
Nat. Hist. XIII, 1874, p. 209. 
Tasmania. 



55c. HOMBRONU FASCIOLAUIS. 



Hombronia fasciolaris, Girard in Wilkes Expl. Exp. X 
p. 243, ].l. 27, figs. 25— 32. 



XX. 



50. Mocoa pretiosa. 

Mocoa p}-etiom, O'Shauglmessy, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. 
XIII, 1S74, p. 298. 
Tasmania. 



51. Mocoa pseudotkopi.s. 

Mocoa pscjiclocarinata, O'Shauglmessy, Ann. & Mag. 
Nat. Hist. XIII, 1874, p. 300. 

The name given by ilr. O'Shauglmessy being a "vox 
hi/hrida," I have changed it for a better term. 

Tasmania. 



52. Mocoa zealandica. Plate 7, fig. 4. 

Mocoa zealandica, Gray, in Dieffenb. N. Z. II, p. 202, 
{Tiliqim), and Cat. Liz. p. 82, = L}/gosoma, moco, Dum. 
Bibr. Erp. gen. V, p. 11?<,=Mocoa smithii, Gray, Cat. Liz. 
p. 8'2,^=Lygoso7na lineo-ocdlata, Dum. Cat. nieth. p. 169,= 
Mocoa variegata, Buller, Trans. N. Z. Inst. Ill, p. 6, pi. 2, 
fig. 2, see Hutton, ibid. IV, p. l^'>8,=Mocoa striata, Buller, 
1. c. 

New Zealand. 



53. Mocoa (?) laxa. 

Mocoa (?) laxa, Hutton, Trans. N. Z. Inst. IV, 1872, 
p. 169. 

New Zealand. 

54. Mocoa gkandis. 

Mocoa, grandis, Gray, Cat. Liz. p. 272. 
New Zealand, (Soutli Island). 



56. Carlia melanopogon. Plate 7, fig. 7. 

Car Ha melanopogon, Gray, Cat. Liz. pp. 81 & 272. 
North Australia, (Port Essington). 



561i. Cyclodin-a .'EXea. 

Cyelodina cetua, Girard in Wilkes N. Z. Expl. Exp. XX, 
p. 236, pi. 26, figs. 9—16. 
New Zealand. 

57. Lygosoma .\usti;ai.e. Plate 6, fig. 3. 

Lygosoma australe. Gray, Ann. Nat. Hist. p. 332, & Cat. 
Liz. p. 85,=JIimdia gracilipes, Steindaclmer, S. B. Wien. 
Acad. 1870, LXIL p. '342, tab. 5. 

Swan River, Piockhampton, Cape York and Adelaide. 

58. Lygosoma bougainvillii. 

Lyijosonia bougainvillii, Dum. Bibr. Erp. gen. V. p. 716,= 
Lygosoma laterale, Giinth. Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. 1867, 
XX, p. 46. 

South Australia, (Adelaide, Kangaroo Island). 

59. Lygosoma punctul.vtu.m. 

Lygosoma punctulatum, Peters, MB. Berl. Acad. 1871, p. 
646. 

North Australia, (Port Bowen, Cape York). 

60. LY'GOSOMA SCrilKOSTRUM. 

Lygosoma scutirostrum, Peters, MB. Berl. Acad. 1873, p. 
743. 

Port Bowen. 



54b. Lygosomella /Estuosa. 

Lygosomdla wstuosa, Girard, in AVilkes Explor. Exped. 
XX; p. 251, pL 28, figs. 1—8. 
New Zealand. 



61. COPKOSCIN'CUS obscurus. 

Cophoscincus ohscurus, O'Shaughnessy, Ann. & Mag Nat. 
Hist. XIV, 1874, p. 35. 
Queensland. 



55. MOCOA NIGKOPLAXTARIS. 

Mocoa niqroplantaris, Peters, MB. Berl. Acad. 1873, 
p. 744. 

New Zealand. 

55b. HOMBUONIA r.XDOSA. 

Homhronia mulosa, Girard in Wilkes Expl. Exp. XX, p. 
240, pi. 27, figs. 17—24. 
New Zealand. 



62. Tetkadactylus decresiexsis. Plate 6. fig. 4. 

Tctradartylns dccresiensis, (PA'on), Gray, Cat. Liz. p. 86. 

Western Australia, (Swan Eiver, Champion Bay, 
Kangaroo Island). New South Wales, (King George's 
Sotind). 

63. Hemieugis decuesiexsis. Plate 6, fig. 5. 

Hemiergis dccresiensis, (PA'on), Gray, Cat, Liz. p. 86. 
Swan Eiver and Adelaide. 

c 2 



64. HEMIEKGIS rOLYLEPIS. 

Hemicr'jis 2whjlcpis, Gtintli. Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. 
1867, p. 48. 

Soutli Australia, (Kangaroo Island). 



73. Ehodona punctato-vittata. 

Rhoilona pundato-vittata, Giinth. Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. 
1867, XX, p. 46. 
Queensland. 



65. Chelomeles QUADKiuxEATrs. Plate 6, %. 2. 

Chclomclcs qiuulrilincatus, Dum. Bilir. Erp. gen. V, p. 
774. 

Western Australia, (Houtman's Abrolhos, Champion 
Bay, Swan Eiver). 



74. Ophioscixcus australis. 

Ophioscincus australis, Peters, MB. Berl. Acad. 1873, p. 
747. 

Port Bowen. 



66. C'lIELOMELES nETlCUL.\TUS. 

Chelomeles reticulatus, Giinth. Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. 
1873, p. 146. 



Clarence Paver. 



OMOLEPIDA CASUARINtE. 



Omolejrida casuarince, Dum. Bilir. Erp. gen. V, p. 749. 
Tasmania and South-eastern Australia, (Sydney). 

68. LiSSOLEPIS LUCTUOSA. 

Lissolepis luctuosa, Peters, MB. Berl. Acad. 1866, p. 90, 
■& 1872, p. 776. 

South-western Australia. 



69. SiAPHOS yEqualis. Plate 6, fig. 1. 



Siaplios mqualis, Gray, Cat. Liz. p. 89. 
South-eastern Australia, (Sydney). 



70. Anomalpus vereeauxii. 

Anamdlnpiix rn-rrrnixii, Dum. Cat. m^th. p. 185; Peters, 
Ml;. I'mtI. a. ■;,.!. ISCT, ], 24; Giinth. Ann. & Mag. Nat. 
Hist. 18G7, p. -il — Shi phos simplex, Cope, Proc. Phil. Acad. 
1864, p. 229= A nomalo2ms t/odeftroiji, Peters, 1. c. 

New South Wales and Queensland, (Brisbane, Clarence 
liiver). 



71. PiIIODOXA PUNCTATA. 

Ehodona jmnctata. Gray, Cat. Liz. p. 89 = Eonia 
catcmdata, Gray, in Grey's Trav. Austr. II, ]i. 437, tab. 4, 
fig. 1 = Brachystoijas linco-puncivlatus, (Smitli MS.) Dum. 
Cat. m^th. p. 186. 

Western Australia, (Swan Piiver). 



75. SORIDIA lixeata. 

Soridia lineata. Gray, in Grey's Trav. Austr. II, p. 428, 
tab. 3, fig. 2, & Cat. Liz. p. 92 ■,=zPJwlcq}hilus capemis, 
Smith, 111. Zool. S. Afr. App. p. 15 ; Giinth. Ann. & Mag. 
Nat. Hist. 1873, p. 147. 

Western Australia. 



76. Soridia miopus. 

Soridia miopus, Giinth. Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. 1867, 
XX, p. 370. 
Champion Bay. 



77. Eumeces albofasciolatus. 

Etimeees albofasciolatus, Giinth, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. 
1872, XX, p. 49. 



78. Mabouia hieroglyphica. 

Mahouia hieroglyp)hica, Hombr. & Jacq. Voy. Pole Sud. 
Kept. pi. 5, fig. 1, {Lygosoma) ; Dum. Cat. m^tli. p. 166. 

■Tasmania. 



79. Mabouia iiaci!Ura. 

Mahouia macrura, Giinth. Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. 
1867, p. 48. 
Cape York. 



80. Bkachymeles leuckartii. 

Brachymeks Icvcl-urtii, AYeinland, Abhandl. Senckenb. 
Ges. IV, 1862, p. 140, talj. 5, fig. 3. 
New Holland. 



12. PtIIODOXA GERKARIII. 



80a. NoRBEA (?) ISOLATA. 



Ehodona fjcrrardi, Giinth. Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. 1867, Norlea (?) isolata, Hutton, Trans. N. Z. Inst. IV, 1872. 
XX. p. 46. p. 170. 

\\'estern Australia, (Swan River, Champion Bay). Bay of Plenty. 



81. TR.VCHYDOSAUKUS RUGOSUS. 

Traclujclosaurus rugoms, Gray in King's "Voy. Austr. II, 
p. 424, & Cat. Liz. p. 102. 

Western and Southern Australia, (Houtnian's Abrollios, 
Sydney). 

82. HVDROSAUliUS ASPER. 

Tmchydosaurus aqKr, (Jray, Cat. Liz. p. 103. 
Adelaide. 



83. Cyclodus gigas. 

Cijclodus gigas, (Bodd.), Gray, Cat. Liz. p. lQ'i;=i djclodm 
loddcertii, Dum. Bibr. Erp. gen. V, p. 752. 

Australia generally and Tasmania. (Port Essington, 
Sydney, Adelaide, Gayndah). 



'.»(). Silubosaurus dei'uessus, Giinth. 

Tills new species differs from S. stohesii in having tlie 
liind pait of the body and esijecially the tail strongly 
depressed and flattened. Tlie scales wliich in S. stohesii 
are unispinous on tlie tail, and partly bispiuous ou the 
back, are provided with three spines in the present species 
on tlie back of the tail as well as of the body, the central 
spine of each scale being tlie strongest. Olive-green ^vith 
irregular black narrow tranverse markings or spots. 
Lower spots M-hitish, with small blackish spots. 

Two specimens from Swan Eiver are in the British 
Museum ; the larger is five inches long. 



91. EgERNIA CUNNIXGIIAill. 

Egcrnia cunninghami, Gray in Stokes Trav. Austr. & 
Cat. Liz. p. 105 \=Egcrnia krefftii, Peters, MB. Berl. Acad. 
1871, p. 30. 

Southern and Western Australia, (Adelaide, Sydney). 



84. Cyclodus nigro-luteus. 

Cyclodus nigro-lutevs, (Wagl.), Gray, Cat. Liz. p. 104; 
Quoy & Gaim. Voy. Uran. Kept. pi. 41. (Scincus). 
Tasmania and Houtman's Abrollios. 



85. Cyclodus occipitalis. 

Cyclodus ocajntalis, Peters, MB. Berl. Acad. 1863, ]>. 
231. 

Adelaide and Swan Biver. 



86. Cyclodus adelaidexsis. 

Cyclodus c'.dclaidensis, Peters, MB. Berl. Acad. 1863, p. 
231. 

Adelaide and Swan Eiver. 



92. Tropidolepisma kixgii. Plate 13. 

Tropidolcpisiiia kingii, Gray, Ann. Nat. Hist. II, p. 280, 
& Cat. Liz. p. lQ&;=Tropidolcpisnu(, duinerilii, Dum. Bibr. 
Erp. gen. V. p. 745. 

Western and Southern Australia, (Houtman's Abrollios, 
Swan Eiver). 



93. Tropidolepisma xitidu.m. Plate 12. 

Tro2ndolepisma nitidum, Gray, Cat. Liz. p. 106. 
Western Australia, Queensland, (Swan Eiver, Wide 
Bay). 

04. Tropiikjlepisma majus. Plate 14. 

Tropidolepisma majus, Gray, Cat. Liz. p. 107. 
Eastern Australia, (Sydney, Eockhampton). 



87. Cyclodus petersii. 

Cyclodus 2Ktersii, Strauch, Bull. Acad. St. Petersb. 1866, 
X, p. 449. 
__? 



yo. IIJDPIDOLEPISMA STRIOLATUM. 

Tropidolepisma striulatum, Peters, MB. Berl. Acad. 1870 
p. 787. 

Northern Australia. 



Cyclodus fasciatus. 



96. TliOI'IDOLEPISMA RICHARDI. 



Cyclodus fasciatus, Liitken, Vid. Medd. 1863, p. 292, tab. Tropidolepisma richardii, Peters, MB. Berl. Acad. 1869 

1 & 2, fig. 1. p. 787. 

New HoUand. Northern Australia. 



Silubosaurus stokesii. 



97. Tropidolepisma dorsale. 



Silubosaurus stokesii, Gray in Stokes Trav. Austr. & Cat. Tropidolejiisma dorsale, Peters, JIB. Berl. Acad. 1873 p. 

Liz. p. 104. 642, & 1872, p. 775. 

Western Australia, (Houtman's Abrollios). Port Bowen. 



16 



98. HETERorrs schmkltzii. 
Hrteropis schmdtzn, Teters, MB. Beii. AcaJ. 1867, p. 
23. 

Iiockliampton. 

99. Hkteropus khomboidalis. 

Heterosis rlwmUodalis, Teters, MB. Berl. Acad. 1869, p. 
446. 

North-eastern Australia, (Port Mackay). 

Scarcely distinct from H. fuscus; without separate 
central occipital shield. 

100. Oedura maemorata. 
Plate 16, fig. 1 (juv.), and fig. 4. 

Occhira marmorata, Gray, Cat. Liz. p. 147. 
North-western Australia, (Port P^sington). 

101, Oedura riiombifera. Plate 16, fig. 6. 
Oedura rhovM/era, Gray, Cat. Liz. p. 147 =PJnjUo- 
dactylus Icsueurii, Dum. Bibr. Eqi. gen. Ill, p. 392. 
Western Australia. 

102. Oedctja vekrillii. 

Oedura verriUii, Cope, Proc. Acad. Philad. 1869, p. 318. 
New Holland. 



103. Strophura spixigera. Plate 16, fig. 5. 

Strophura spinvjr.ra, Gray, Cat. Liz. p. liS^Phyllo- 
dadylus strophura, iJum. Eihr. Erp. gen. Ill, p. 307, pi. 
32, fig. 1. 

Western and Southern Australia, (Houtnian's Abrolhos, 
Freeniantle, Champion Bay, Sydney). 



107. Diplodactylus marmoratus. Plate 15, fig. 6. 

Diplodactt/lus marmoratus, Gray, Cat. Liz. p. 149. 

Western, and Northern Australia, (Kangaroo Island,. 
Swan River, Freeniantle, Champion Bay, Houtman's 
Abrolhos, Norfolk Island, Aneiteum). 

108. Diplodactylus polyophthalmus. 

Diplodactylus p>olyophthalmus, Giinth. Ann. & Mag. Nat. 
Hist. 1867, XX, p. 49. 

Western Australia, (Champion Bay, Nicol Bay). 

109. Stenodactylopsis tessellatus. Giinth. 

Back covered with comparatively large flat tessellated 
tubercles, which on the sides are rather smaller, scale-like 
and slightly imlsricate. Ear opening minute. LoM-er parts 
with very small scales. Nine upper and ten lower labials. 
Chin shield longer than broad, whithout larger scutes 
behind. Tail (rejiroduced) witli the scutes in narrow 
verticelli. Limbs slender, the fore-leg, if stretched for- 
ward, reaches to the nostril, the hind-leg to the axil. 
Whitish with faint irregular brownish spots. 
Distance of snout from vent 49 mm. 

eye 6 „ 

ear 13 „ 

Length of fore leg 19 „ 

hind leg 23 „ 

One specimen in the British Museum from Australia. 

110. Stenodactylopsis pulcher. 

Stc7iodact>/lopsis pidcher, Steindachner, SB. Wien. Acad. 
1870, p. 343, pi. 2, figs. 3—5. 
Swan River. 



104. Diplodactylus vittatus. Plate 16, fig. 3. 

Diplodactylus vittatus, Gray, Cat. Liz. p. 148. 
Western and Eastern Australia, (Champion Bay 
Sydney). 

105. Dipdodacytlus orx.itus. Plate 16, fig. 2. 

Diplodactylus ornatus. Gray, Cat. Liz. ]i. 149 = 
Diplodarfylus furcosus, Peters, MB. Bcrl. Acad. 186;'. i) 
22'.i, \- isiiG, p. 446. 

Wrstcni and Southern Australia, (Houtman's Abrolhos, 
Adelaide, New South Wales). 

lOCi. Diplodactylus ocellatus. 
Plate 15, fig. 3, D. Ulineatus; fig. 4. D. ocrUatm. 
Diplodactylus ocellatus, Gray, Cat. Liz. p. 149 = 
Diplodactylus Inlimcdus, Gray, 1. c. Giinth.; Ann. & Mao- 
Nat. Hist. 18G7, XX, p. 49. ^' 
Western Australia, (Champion P.av, Houtman's 
Abrolho.s). ' . 



111. Rhyxchoedura orxata. 

Ehi/nchocdura ornata, CUinth. Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. 
1867," XX, p. 50. 
Nienl Bay. 

112. Phyllodactylus axomalus. 

P/n/llodacti/lus anomalus, Peters, MB. Berl. Acad., 
1867,' p. 14. ' 

Queensland, (Rockhampton). 

This species might be referred to Discodaciylvs (Tschudi. 

113. Hemidactylus depressus. Plate 15, fig. 1. 

Hniiidacti/lvs depressus, Cfray, Cat. Liz. p. 153. 
Hab. ? ' ■ 



114. Hemidactylus brookii. Plate 15, fig. 2. 

Hemidactylus hroolii, Gray, Cat. Liz. p. 153. 
Borneo and Australia. 



17 



115. Hemidactylus vittatus. Tlate 15, fig. 5. 

Hemidactyhis vittatus. Gray, Cat. Liz. p. 155. 
Port Essiugton. 

116. Hemidactylus variegatus. 

Heviidactylus variegatics,D\im. Bibr. Erp. Gen. Ill, p. 353. 
Western Australia, (Houtman's Abrollios, Champion 
Bay). 



125. Naultixus grayi. 

Naultinus grayi, Bell, Voy. Beagle. Eept. p. 27, pi. 14, 
fig. 2. 

New Zealand. 



126. Naultinus punctatus. 

Naultinus punctatus. Gray, Cat. Liz. p. 169. 
New Zealand. 



117. Hemidactylus tusillus. 



127. Naultinus lixeatus. 

Heviidadylus pusilhis. Cope, Proc. Acad. Philad. 1869, Naultinus lincatus. Gray, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. 1869, 
P- ?19-. . .. Ill, p. 243. 

New Zealand. 



South-western Australia. 



118. Pentadactylus brunneus. 

Pcntadactylus bmnneus, Cope, Proc. Acad. Philad. 1869, 
p. 320. 

New Holland. 



128. GONIODACTYLUS AUSTKALIS. 

Goniodactylus a%cstralis. Gray, Cat. Liz. p. 172. 
Hab. ? 



119. Gecko trachyl^emus. 

Gecko trachylcemus, Peters, M.B. Berl. Acad. 1872, p. 774. 
Northern Australia 



120. Gehyra australis. 

Gehyra australis, Gray Cat. Liz. p. 163. 

Western and Northern Australia, (Swan Eiver, Champion 
Bay, Port Essington, Sunday, Loyalty, and Norfolk 
Islands). 



121. Gehyra grayi. 



grayi, Steindachner in Novara, Eept. p. 11. 
New South Wales. 



122. Naultinus pacificus. 

Naultinus pacificus. Gray, Cat. Liz. p. 169. 
New Zealand. 



129. Heteronota 

Hcteronota binoei. Gray, Cat. Liz. p. 174; Giinth. Ann. & 
Mag. Nat. Hist. 1867, XX, p. 50 ■,=EuMepharis derbianus, 
Gray, Cat. Liz. p. 21A i^Hoplodactylus aw^^?-aKs, Steindach- 
ner, Novara, Eept. p. 18, tab. 1, fig. 2. 

Western and Northern Australia, (Champion Bay, Hout- 
man's Abrollios, Port Essington, Queensland). 



130. Phyllurus platurus. Plate 17, fig. 3. 

Phyllurus platurus, Shaw, in White, Journ. N.S. Wales, 
p. 246, tab. 3, fig. 2, (Lacerta). 

Southern and Eastern Australia, (Sydney, Macquarie 
Eiver). 

131. Phyllurus miliusii. Plate 17, fig. 2. 

Phyllurus miliusii, (Bory St. Vincent), Gray, Cat. Liz. 
p. 176. 

Western and Southern Australia, (Houtman's Abrolhus,- 
Champion Bay, Adelaide, Sydney). 



123. Naultinus granulatus. 

Naultinus granulatus, Gray, Cat. Liz. p. 273. 
New Zealand. 



132. Phyllurus inermis. Plate 17, fig. 1. 

Phyllurus inermis, Gray, Cat. Liz. p. 176. 
Sydney. 



124. Naultinus elegans. 

Naultinus elegans, Gray, Cat. Liz. p. 169 ; Buller, Trans. 
N.Z. Inst. Ill, p. 8, pi. 2, fig. l.=Naultinus sulphureus, 
Buller, l.c. 

New Zealand. 



Agamid^. 

133. Gixdalia bennettii. 

Gindalia lennetiii. Gray, Cat. Liz. p. 247. 
North-western Australia. 



ICHTHYOLOGY 



VOYAGE OF H.M.S. EREBUS & TERROR, 



UNDER THE COMMAND OF CAPTAIN SIR JAMES CLARK ROSS, R.N., F.R.S. 



SIR JOHN RICHARDSON, Knt., M.D., P.R.S., &c. 



y'SPECTOI! OF NAVAI, HOSPITALS, ETC., ETC. 



LONDON 



M.DCCC.XLIV. M.DCCC.XLVIII. 



FISHES 



METHODICAL LIST OF SPECIES. 



SC0MBERISID,fi. 

Gasterochisma melampus (Rich.) PI. XXXVII. f. 

1—3 . . . . . .60 

New Zealand. 
Caranx georgianus (C. et V.) PI. LVIII. f. 1—3 . 135 

Australia. 

Caranx paraspistes (Rich.) PI. LVIII. 16,7 . 136 
North Australia. 

Caranx speciosus (Forsk.) PI. LVIII. f. 4, 5 . 136 

Australia. Polynesia. Malay Archipelago. Indian 
Ocean. Red Sea. 

Eqiuila senulifera (Rich.) PI. LIX. f. 12—14 . 137 

Australia. 



Sphyr^nid^. 

Alepisaurus (Lowe) PI. XXII. f. 1— 4 . .34 

Tasmania. 

Zeid,«. 

Zeus australis (Rich.) PI. XXV. f. 1. .36, 138 

Sidney. Western Australia. 
Capros australis (Rich.) PI. LIX., f. 1— .5 . 137 

Tasmania. South Australia. 

N0TACANTHID.E. 

Notacanthus sexspinis (Rich.) PI. XXXII. f. 4—11 54 

Western Australia. 

CVCLOPTERID^. 

Lepidogaster puniceus (Rich.) PI. XLIII. f. 1 — 7 71 
New Zealand. 



Chironectes caudimaculatus (Riipp.) PI. LX. f. 8, 9 125 

Red Sea. Australia. 

Chironectes trisignatus (Rich.) Ph IX. f. 1 .15 

Western Australia. 



Chironectes pictus (Cuv.) var. vittatus, PI. IX. f. 
3, 4 . 

Tropical Atlantic. 

Chironectes politus (Rich.) PI. IX. f. 2 . 
Tasmania. 



Gobius bynoensis (Rich.) PI. I. f. 1,2 

Western Australia. 
Gobius criniger (C. et V.) Pi. I. f. 3, 4 

North-west Australia. 
Gobius lentiginosus (Rich.) PL I. f. 5, 6 

New Zealand. 

Gobius interstinclus (Rich.) PI. V. f. 3 — fi 

North-west Australia. 
Eleotris gobioides (C. et V.) PI. II. f. .5, 6 

New Zealand. 
Eleotris mogurnda (Rich.) PI. II. f. 1, 2 

North Australia. 
Notothenia, genus 

Notothenia corriiceps (Rich.) PI. III. f. 1, 2 

Kerguelen's Laud. Auckland Islands. 

Notothenia cyanobraucha (Rich.) PI. IV. f. 1, 2 

Kerguelen's Land. 
Notothenia purpuriceps (Rich.) PI. II. f. 3, 4 

Kerguelen's Land. 
Notothenia cornucola (Rich.) PI. VIII. f. 4, 5, and 
PL XI. f. 3, 4 . 

Cape Horn, Falklands. 
Notothenia phoca; (Rich.) 

Victoria Land. 
Notothenia magellanica (Forster, Gadm) . 

Tierra del Fuego. 
Notothenia virgata (Rich.) PL XI. f. 5, 6 . 

Falklands. 
Notothenia marginata (Rich.) PL XII. f. I, 2 * 

Falklands. 
Notothenia sima (Rich.) PL XI. f. 1, 2 

Falklands. 
Notothenia tessellata (Rich.) PL XII. f. 3, 4 * 

Falklands. 
Notothenia rossii (Rich.) PL V. f. 1, 2 

Unknown. 
Hemerocaetes acantliorhynchus (Forster), PL LIV 
f. 7—12 .... 

New Zealand. 

* These numbers are quoted incorrectly in pp. 18 and IS). 



Page 
1 

•2 

3 
3 
4 
4 

5 

5 



8, 18 
8 
9 
18 
18 
19 
19 
9 

123 



METHODICAL LIST OF SPECIES. 



Pataecus, geuus . . . . .20 

Patcecus fvonto (Rich.) PI. XIII. f, 1, 2 . . 20 

South Austialia. 

Ch^nichthys, genus (misspelt Chcsnicthys) . 12 

ClifBiiichthys ihinoceratus (Rich.) PI VI. f. 1 — 3 . 13 

Blenniid.e ? 

Gadopsis marmoratus (Rich.) PI. LIX. f. 6—11 . 122 

Rivers, South Australia. 
This fish probably ought to be referred to the Hccmulonidm. 

Batrachid^. 

Batrachus dieniensis (Lesueur), PI. VIII. f. 1, 2 . 17 

North-west Australia. 

Batrachus dubius (White), PI. X. f. 1, 2 . . 16 

South Australia. Sydney. 

Callionymid.f,. 

Callionymus calauroporaus (Rich.) PI. VII. f. 4, 5 10 

Western Australia. 
Harpagifer, genus . . .11 

Harpagifer bispinis (Forster, Callionytntis), PI. 
VII. f. 1—3, PI. XII. f. 8, 9 . ■ 11,19 

Falklands. Cape Horn. 

Harpagifer palliolatus (Rich.) PI. XII. f. 5—7 20 

Falklands. 

Uranoscopid^. 

Uranoscopus maculatus (Forster), PI. XXXIII. f. 
1—3 54 

New Zealand. Australia. Otaheite ? 

Uranoscopus macropygus (Rich.) PI. XXXIII. f. 

4,6 55 

Port Jackson. 

Bovichthys variegatus (Rich.) PI. XXXIV. f. 1 — 4 56 

Sydney. 

Triglid.e. 

Sebastes percoides (Solander, Scornama), PI. XV. 

f. 1, 2 23 

Ta.sraania. Sydney. 
Sebastes pandus (Rich.) PI. XLI. f. 3, 4 . 70 

Weslem Australia. 

Scorpajna militaris (Rich.) PI. XIV. f. 1, 2 . 22 

Tasmania. New Zealand. 
Scorpaena bynocnsis (Rich.) PI. XIV. f. .3—5 . 22 

North-west Australia. 

Platycephalus tasmanius (Rich.) PI. XVIII. f. 1, 2 23 

Tasmania. 

Platycephalus cinonasus (Rich.) PI. LI. f. 7—10 114 
Botany Bay. 

Triglaplcuracanthica (Rich.) PI. XVI. f. 1— 4 23 

Sydney. 

.\griopus leucopaecilus, PI. XXXVII. f. 4, 5 60 

South Australia. 



Page 

Pagetodes, genus incertum, PI. VIII. f. 3 15 

Victoria Land. Lat. 77^" S. 
Xystophorus, genus incertum, PI. XXX. f. 22 52 

Percid^. 

Psammoperca, genus . . . .115 

Psammoperca datnioides (Rich.) PI. LVII. f. 1, 2 116 

Australia. 
Centropristes salar (Rich.) PI. XX. f. 4—6 29 

New Zealand. Tasmania. Norfolk Island. King 
George's Sound, Australia. 
Centropristes georgianus (C. et V.) PI. LIV. f. 3—6 117 
S.E. and .S.W. coasts of Australia. 

ScLEMD^. 

Eleginus falklandicus (Rich.) PI. XX. f. 1—3 . 30 

Falklands. 

Emmelichthys, geuus (Erythrichthys, Schl.) 47 

Eramehchthys nitidus (Rich.) PI. XXIX. f. 7, 8 . 47 
West Australia. 

H.EMULONID.E. 

Diagramma porosa (Rich.) PI. XVI. f. 5, 6 26 

Australia. 

Glaucosoma, genus . .27 

Glaucosoma hebraicum (Rich.) PI. XVII. 27 

Houtman's Abrolhos. Australia. 

Grystes macquariensis (Cuv.) PI. LIII. f. 8, 9 118 

Australian rivers. 

Gadopsis marmoratus (Rich.) PI. LIX. f. 6—11 . 122 

Rivers in South Australia. (Vide Blenniida.) 

SERRANID.E. 

Plectropoma dentex (C. et V.) PI. LVII. f. 3, 5 . 117 
King George's Sound. 

Theraponid.e. 

Datnia caudavittata (Rich.) PI. XVIII. f. 3—5 . 24 

Harvey River, Australia. 
Datnia elliptica (Rich.) PI. LII. f. 4—8 . .118 

Rivers, Australia. 
Datnia ambigua (Rich.) PI. XIX. . 25 

Western Australia. 

Cihrhitid^. 

Latris ciliaris (Forster, Scicena), PI. XXVI. f. 6, 7 37 

Sydney. 

Spaeid^. 

Lethrinus chrysostomus (Rich.) PI. LX. f. 6, 7 . 118 
Norfolk Island. 

Crenidens tephraops (Rich.) PI. XLI. f. 1, 2 69 

West Australia. 

Crenidens triglyphus (Rich.) PI. XXV. f. 2 . 36 

Sydney. 

Crenidens zebra (Rich.) . . .70 

West Australia. 



METHODICAL LIST OF SPECIES. 



Crenidens simplex (Rich.) 
Port Jackson. 



Ch^todontid.«;. 



Histiopterus recurvirostiis (Rich.) PI. XXII. f. 5,6 34 

Tasmania. 
Psettus argenteus ( Lin. Chatodon), PI. XXXV. f. 

1—3 ...... 57 

Australia. China. 
Scatophagus multifasciatus (Rich.) PI. XXXV. f. 
4—6 . . . .57 

Western Australia. 
Scorpis aequipinnis (Rich.) . . . 121 

King George's Sound. 
Scorpis georgianus (Cuv.) . . . 121 

King George's Sound. 

FlSTDLARID^. 

Centiiscus humerosus (Rich.) PI. XXXIV. f. 5, 6 56 

South Australia. 

Mdgilid.e. 

Dajaus diemensis (Rich.) PI. XXVI. f. 1—4 . 37 

Tasmania. Western Australia. 
Dajaus forsteri (C. et V. Mugil), PI. XLIV. f. 20 
—26 . . . . .77 

New Zealand. 
Atherina nigricans (Rich.) PI. XLII. f. 13—18 . 77 
Falklands. 

Gadid^. 

Lota breviuscula (Rich.) PI. XXXVIII. f. 1, 2 . 61 

New Zealaud. 

Ophidid.e. 

Machffirium subducens (Rich.) PI. XLIV. f. 1—6. 72 

Western and Northern Australia. 
Oxybeles, genus . . . .73 

Osybeles homei (Rich.) PI. XLIV. f. 7—18 74 

Australia. Tinia. 
Phucocoetes (Jenyns, Ichth. Voy. of Beagle, p. 

168), PI. XLIX. f. 7—11 . . . viii 

Falkland Islands. 
Iluocoetes (Jenyns, Ichth. Voy. of Beagle, p. 165), 
PI. XLIX. f. 12—16 .... viii 
Falkland Islands. 



Labrid^. 

Labrus (vel Tautoga) tetricus (Rich.) PI. LV. f. 

1—4 126 

Tasmania. 
Labrus fucicola (Rich.) PI. LIV. f. 1, 2 . . 127 

Tasmania. 
Labrus celidotus (Forster), PI. XXXI. f. 1— 5 . 53 

New Zealand. Australia. China. 
Labrus botryocosmus (Rich.) PI. XXXI. f. 6—10 53 

Australia. Tasmania. 



Page, 

Labrus inscriptus (Rich.) PI. LVI, f. 1, 2 . .134 

Norfolk Island. 
Labrus luculentus (Rich.) . . .130 

Eastern and Western coasts of Australia. Norfolk 
Island. 
Labrus psittaculus (Rich.) PI. LVI. f. 7—10 . 129 

Tasmania. 
Labrus laticlavius (Rich.) PI. LVI. f. 3—6 . 128 

Tasmania. South Australia. 
Tautoga melaptera (Bl. Labrus) : . .130 

Java. Torres Straits. North Australia. 
Kielmick . . . . .129 

King George's Sound. 
Miname ..... 129 

King George's Sound. 
Cossyphus (vel Lachnolairaus) gouldii (Rich.) . 132 

Western Australia. 
Lachnolaimus (vel Cossyphus) cyanodus (Rich.) 
PI. LV. f. .5—7 .... 131 

North Australia. 
Scarus acroptilus (Rich.) . . .69 

North Australia. 
Odax lineatus (Quoy et Gaimard, Malacanthm), 
PI, LX. f. ]— 5 . . .137 

King George's Sound. 
Toobitovit . . . . .134 

King George's Sound. 



Chatoessus come (Russell), PI. XXXVIII. f. 7—10 
Western Australia. Indian Ocean. 

GoNORHYNCHiD^. Valenc. Hist, des Poiss. xix. p. 171 
Gonorhynchus (Gronovius, Rhync/tana,Rich.) greyi, 
PI. XXIX. f. 1—6 .... 

New Zealand. Western Australia. 
Lutodeira (Rijppell, Chanos, Lacepede) salmonea 
(Forster, Mugil), PI. XXXVl. f. 1,2. 

Northern and western coasts of Australia. Torres 
Straits. Tanna. 

Elopid^. Valenc. Hist, des Poiss. xix. p. 358. 
Elops saurus, Lin. {Argentina macknata, Forskal), 
PI. XXXVL f. 3— 5 . 

Cosmopolite. Vide Valenc. Hist, des Poiss. xix. p. 374. 

Galaxid.e. 

Galaxias truttaceus (Cuv.) PI. XLII. f. 1—6 

Tasmania. 
Galaxias alepidotus (Forster, Esox) 

Dusky Bay, New Zealand. 
Galaxias scriba (Valenc.) 

Tasmania. Eastern Australia. 
Galaxias fasciatus (Gray) 

New Zealand. 
Galaxias maculatus (Jenyns, Mesites), PI. XLIII 
f. 14—17 . . 

Falklands. Patagonia. 



METHODICAL LIST OF SPECIES. 



Galaxias reticulatus (Rich.) PI. XLII. f. 7—12 

Auckland Islands. 
Galaxias brocchus (Rich.) PI. XLIII. f. 8—13 

Auckland Islands. 



Argentina retropinna (Rich.) PI. LII. f. 1 — 3 

New Zealand. 

SCOPELID^. 

Saurus undosquamis (Rich.) PI. LI. f. 1 — 6 

Noith Australia. 
Myctophum boops (Rich.) PI. XXVII. f. 6—12 . 

New Zealand and Australia. 
Myctophum coruscans (Rich.) PI. XXVII. f. 1—5 

South Atlantic and Australian Seas. 
Myctophum hians (Rich.) PI. XXVII. f. 19—21 . 

Hab. ? 

Myctophum asperum (Rich.) PI. XXVII. f. 13—15 

Hab. ? 

Lampanyctus (vel Myctophum) resplendens (Rich.) 
PI. XXVII. f. 16—18 .... 

Hab. ? 

Macrourid^. 

Macrouvus ( vel Lepidorhynchus ) denticulatus 
(Rich.) PI. XXXII. f. 1— 3 

South Australia. 

SiLURID.E. 

Bagrus venaticus (Rich.) . 

North-west Australia. 
Bagrus vertagus (Rich.) 

North-west Australia. 
Plotosus megastomus (Rich.) PI. XXI. f. 1 — 3 

Sidney. 
Plotosus microceps (Rich.) Ph XXI. f. 4 — 7 

North-west Australia. 

MUR.ENID^. 

Anguilla australis (Rich.) PI. XLV. f. 1—5 

Tasmania. New Zealand. Auckland Islands. 
Anguilla dieffenbachii (Gray) 

New Zealand. 
Anguilla aucklandi (Rich.) PI. XLV. 1. 7-13 

Auckland Islands. 
Anguilla labrosa (Rich.) . 

Polynesia. 
Congrus (vel Conger) genus 
Congrus vulgaris (Auct. Bl. 105) . 

European Seas. 
Congrus leucophaeus (Rich.) 

Bahamas. 
Congrus myrus (Risso .?) . 

Mediterranean. 

Congrus lepturus (Rich. Voy. Sulph. p. 106, PI. 56, 
f.1,6) . 

Chinese Seas. 



137 

39 
40 
41 
41 



33 
33 
31 
31 

112 

113 

113 

113 

107 
107 

108 

108 



Page 

Congrus habenatus (Rich.) PI. L. f. 1—5 . .109 

New Zealand. 
Congrus [Murcenesox, McClelland) tricuspidatus 
(Rich. Voy. Sulph. p. 105, PI. 51, f. 2) . . 110 

Indian and Chinese Seas. 
Congrus protervus (Rich.) . . .110 

Hab. Unknown. 
Congrus angustidens (Rich.) . .110 

China. 

Congrus hamo (Schlegel, Fauna Japonica, PI. 114, 
f. 2) . . . . . .111 

Philippines. Japan. 
Congrus brevicuspis (Rich.) . . .111 

Hab. Unknown. 

Congrus curvidens (Rich.) . . .111 

Hab. Unknown. 

Ophisurus, genus . . . . .97 

Ophisurus cancrivorus (Rich.) PI. L. f. 6 — 9 . 97 

North Australia. 
Ophisurus sinensis (Rich.) . . .98 

China. 
Ophisurus semicinctus (Rich.) .99 

Hab. Unknown. 
Ophisurus boro (Buch.-Hamilt. Gray, 111. Ind. 

Zool. PI. 95, f. 1 ) . . . .99 

India. 
Ophisurus breviceps (Rich.) . .99 

Hab. Unknown. 

Ophisurus pardalis (Valenc. Webb et Berth. Ca- 
naries, PI. 16, f. 2) . . . 100 

Canaries. 
Ojohisurus fasciatus (Thunberg, Murtena, Quoy et 

Gaim. Voy. du Frey. PI. 45, f. 2) . . 100 

Malay Archipelago. Indian Ocean. 
Ophisurus colubrinus (Boddaert, Thunb. t. 1 f. 1) 100 

India. Malay Archipelago. Moluccas. Polynesia. 
Ophisurus pallens (Rich.) . .101 

China. 
Ophisurus haraucha (Buch.-Hamilt. .') . . 101 

China. 
Ophisurus hijala (Buch.-Hamilt. PL 5, f. 5) . 102 

India. 
Ophisurus maculosus (Cuvier, Lacep. 11, PI. 6, f. 2) 102 

Madagascar. 
Ophisurus intertinctus (Rich.) . . . 102 

West Indies. 

Ophisurus spadiceus (Rich.) . . . 103 

China. 
Ophisurus versicolor (Rich.) . . .103 

Moluccas. 
Ophisurus .sugillatus (Rich.) . . 103 

Hab. Unknown. 
Ophisurus ocellatus (Le Sueur, Ac. Phil. v. PI. 4, 
f. .3) . . . . 104 

Gulf of Mexico. 

. 105 



Ophisurus parilis (Rich. 
West Indies. 



Ophisurus dicellurus (Rich. Voy. of Sulph. PI. 48 
f. 2—4) .... 

Chiua. 
Ophisurus rostellatus (Rich.) 

Senegal. 
Ophisurus compar (Rich.) 

Sumatra. 
Ophisurus regius (Shaw, an ophis auct.) 

Hab. Unknown. 
Ophisurus serpens (Lin. Murwna) 

Mediterranean. Atlantic. 
Ophisurus vimineus (Rich. Voy. of Sulph. PI. 52, 
f. 16—20) 

China. 
Muraena, genus 

Murajna helena (Lin.) PI. XLIX. f. 1- 

Mediterraneau. English Channel. North Africa 
Indian Ocean. Australia. 
Muraena nubila (Rich.) PI. XLVI. f. — 10 

Mauritius. Australia. 
Muraena sagenedota (Rich.) 

Mauritius. 
Muraena reticulata (Bl. 416) 

Indian Ocean. Borneo. 
Muraena ocellata (Agass. Gymnothorax, Pise. Br, 
t. L. f. 6-9) . . . . , 

Gulf of Mexico. Brazils. 
Muraena punctata (Bl. Schn. Russell, 32) 

Indian Ocean. 
Murfena similis (Forster) . 

Polynesia. Red Sea. Japan. 

Muraena pratbemon (Quoy et Gaim. Freyc. p. 52 

f. 1) 

Darnley Island, Australia. 

Muraena tenebrosa (Solander) 

Polynesia. 
Murana lita (Rich.) 

Moluccas. 
Muraena siderea (Rich.) PI. XLVIU. f. 1—5 

Western and Northern Australia. New Guinea. 

Muraena atomaria (Solander) 
Society Islands. 

Muraena erythroptera (Solander) . 

Society Islands. 
Muraena isingleena (Rich. Voy. of Sulph. PI 
48, f. 1) 

China. 
Muraena bullata (Rich.) 

Borneo. 

Mur^na stellifer (Rich.) . 

Madagascar. 
Muraena cancellata (Rich.) PI. XLVI. f. 1— 5 

Western Australia. Sumatra. 
Mura;na tessellata (Rich. Voy. of Sulph. PI. 55 
f. 5-8) .... 

Hab. Unknown. 
Muraena colubrina (Commerson) PL XIX. f. 1 

New Britain. Amboyna. Polynesia. 



METHODICAL LIST OF SPECIES. 



105 
105 
105 
106 
106 



Muraena vittata (Solander) 
Society Islands. 

Mura;na moringua (Cuv. Catesby, t. 20) . 

Bermudas. Gulf of Mexico. Caribbean Sea. 
Muraena lineo-pinnis (Rich.) 

Puerto caballo. 

Mura;na griseo-badia (Rich.) 

Tonga Islands. 
Murasna pavonina (Rich. Voy. of Sulph. PI. 53, f. 
1-6) 

Southern Seas. 

Muraena guttata (Solander, Park. 11, f. 1) 

Madeira. Brazils. 
Muraena thyrsoidea (Rich. Voy. of Sulph. PI. 
49, f. 1) 

China. 
Muraena sathete (Hamilt.-Buch.) . 

India. 
Muraena gracilis (Hardw. Icon. 303) 

India. 
Muraena vermiculata (Hardw. Icon. 310) 

India. 



vu 

Page 



Muraena meleagris (Shaw, Voy de Freyc 
f.2) . . . . • 

Southern Ocean. 
Muraena prasina (Rich.) . 

Australia. 
Murasna ophis (Riippell, Atl. 29, f. 2 ?) 

Mauritius. Red Sea. 



PI. 52, 



f. 1—5, 

Polynesia. 
PI. 55, f. 



Muraena variegata (Forster), PI. XLVII. 
11—16 .... 

Indian Ocean. Chinese Sea. Australia. 
Muraena polyzona (Rich. Voy. of Sulph. 
11—14) 

Hab. Unknown. 
Muraena catehata (Bl. 415) 

Bermudas. Caribbean Sea. South America. 



Gymnomuraena zebra (Shaw, Nat. Misc. 101) 
Sumatra. New Britain. 

Ichlhyophis tigrinus (Lesson, Voy. de la Coquille, 

12) 

Oualan. 

Nettastoma vittata (Rich. Voy. of Sulph. PI. 53, f. 

7-9) 

Hab. Uncertain. 

Synbranchus gutturalis (Rich.) PI. XXX. f. 14—17 

Dampier's Archipelago, Australia. 

Cheilobranchus, genus .... 
Cheilobranchus dorsalis (Rich.) PI. XXX. f. 1—5 

North Australia. 
Cheilobranchus aptenodytum (Rich.) 
Penguin Island. Lat. 72" S. 

Leptocephalus altus (Rich.) PI. XXX. f. 8—10 . 
Hab. Unknown. 

Prymnothonus hookeri (Rich.) PI. XXX. f. 6, 7 
Hab. ? 



Balistid^. 

Mouacanlhiis granulatus (White) PI. XL. f. 1, 2 . 

Sidney. 
Monacanthus chinensis (Osbeck, Balistes) PI. XL. 
f. 3, 4 . 

Eastern and western coasts of Australia. Malay Ar- 
chipelago. China. Indian Ocean. 

Monacanthus rudis (Rich.) PI. XL. f. 7, 8 {scaler, 
Forsteri .'') 
Tasmania. 
Monacanthus vittatus (Solander, Balistes) 

Western Australia. 
Monacanthus variabilis (Rich.), Aleuterius errone 
ously, PI. LIIL f. 1—7 . 
Western Australia. 
Aleuterius paragaudatus (Rich.) PI. XXXIX. f. 
1—4 ..... 
Tasmania. Australia. 
Aleuterius maculosus (Rich.) PI. XXIX. f. 5 — 7 
Tasmania. Australia. 

Aleuterius trossiilus (Rich.) PI. XL. f. 5, 6 

Western Australia. 
Aleuterius ? brownii (Rich) 

North Australia. 
Aleuterius ? baueri (Rich.) 

North Australia. 



OSTRACIONTID.E. 

Ostracion boops (Rich.) PI. XXX. f. 18—21 
Southern Atlantic. 



Teteaodontid.e. 

Tetraodon virgatus (Rich.) PI. XXXIX. f. 

Port Jackson. 



METHODICAL LIST OF SPECIES. 

Page 



Tetraodon hamiltoni (Rich.) PI. XXXIX. f. 10, 11 

Australia. Tasmania. New Zealand. 



Syngnathid^. 

Syngnathus hymenolomus (Rich.) PI. XXX. f. 
11—13 ...... 

Falklands. 

SCYLLIID^. 

Hemiscyllium trispeculare (Rich.) PI. XXVIII. f. 

3—7 ...... 

Western Australia. 
Hemiscyllium ocellatum, a scale only, PI. XXVIII. 

f. 8 . 



Acanthias (MiiUer und Henle), PI XXVIII. f. 1, 2* 44 

Australia. 



Raiid^. 

Raia lemprieri (Rich.) PI. XXIII. 

Tasmania. 



Tbygonid^. 

Urolophus ephippiatus (Rich.) PI. XXIV. 

Tasmania. 



Peteomyzontid^. 

Petromyzon mordax (Rich.) PI. XXXVIII. f. 3—6 42 



Misprinted 5 instead of 1 in p. 44. 



Through inadvertence the following omissions were made in the text :- 



Phucoccetes (Jenyns, Ichth. of Voy. of Beagle, p. 168, PI. 
XXIX. f 3). 

Our specimen is not in the best order, and we can add 
nothing to Mr. Jenyn's account of the genus. It is possi- 
ble that the species differs fi-om his latUans; but not 
having his specimen at hand for comparison, we have left 
the matter for future investigation. 

Hab. Falkland Islands and Cape Horn. 



Iluoccetes (Jenyns, Ichth. of Voy. of Beagle, sp. 165, PI. 
XXIX. f 2). 

The above remarks apply also to this fish. Our speci- 
men has a small barbel on each side of the symphysis of 
the lower jaw, which is not shown in Mr. Jenyn's figure of 
I.Jimbriatus, and the dentition seems also to differ, as well 
as the form of the body ; but in the absence of comparison 
of specimens, we have preferred leaving the matter unde- 
termined. 

Hab. Falkland Islands and Cape Horn. 



FISHES. 

BY JOHN RICHARDSON, M.D., F.R.S., &c. 



In no expedition that ever sailed from Europe has more care been taken to collect the zoological productions of the 
sea, than in the pre-eminently scientific one of the Erebus and Terror. The commanding officer, an accomplished 
zoologist, had previously paid much attention to Ichthyology, and, under his fostering superintendence, ample col- 
lections of fish were made at New Zealand, Van Diemen's Land, Australia, Kerguelen's Land, Cape Horn, the 
Falklands, and wherever an opportunity offered of drawing the seine or trawl, or dropping a hook. The specimens 
thus obtained filled many casks, and numerous jars and bottles, and it were greatly to be wished that so much industry 
had met with the full measure of success that it desen'ed ; but we have to regret that, during a voyage protracted for 
upwards of four years and a half, including every possible change of climate, and during which the ships were 
buffeted by many severe gales, and sustained innumerable shocks in forcing their way through the ice-packs of the 
Antarctic Seas, the specimens suffered very severe damage. Owing to the deterioration of the spirits in jars that were 
crowded with fish, and the long continued action of the brine, where that liquid was employed, very many specimens 
entirely perished, or merely fragments of skeletons could be rescued from the mass. Yet the present number, 
which includes only the Gobioid fishes and their allies, is rich in new forms, and will shew the Ichthyologist that enough 
remains to render the collection as interesting as any that has been made, of late years, in any quarter of the globe. 
Except what may be gleaned from the notes and drawings of the Forsters, who accompanied Cook on his second 
voyage, nothing is known of the fish inhabiting the seas beyond the fiftieth parallel of south latitude. Sir James Ross 
merits the warmest thanks of zoologists for having done so much to supply this want. They are due also to 
Dr. Joseph Dalton Hooker for his able co-operation with his commanding officer, and for the excellent sketches and 
notes which he has contributed ; as well as to the other officers who lent their aid in forming the collections. 

Fam. GoBiiD^. venenatus (12, p. 85.) It is not very dissimilar in its 

GoBius BYNOENSis. Richardson. general form to G. niger. The specific name has been 

bestowed in honour of Benj. Bynoe, Esq., Surgeon in the 

Ch. Spec. G. quinque-fasciatus maculatusque, punclis Royal Navy, who, while serving in the Beagle, made 

coloratis, seriatis utrinque in nucha; pitind dorsi extensive collections of Australian animals and plants, 

priori nebulosd, secundd lineatd ; pinnis ceteris uni- which he presented to the Museum of Haslar Hospital.* 

coloribus. The length of the head is contained four times and a 

Radii:— D. 6|—1|16; A. 1|1.5; C 19; P. 21 ; V. lIlO— 1 half in the total length of the fish, caudal fin included ; 

united. ' its width is less than half its length, but equal to its height, 

Plate I., fig. 1 and 2, natural size. » To make the list of Australian species as complete as possible, a few 

rrii,:_ • „ 1 ■„„ ,;„„ . »v, -ii ^ ■ .i undescribed fish from the western coasts of that country, discovered bv 

This species havnig canine teeth, will rank m the group ih^ officers of the Beagle surveying ship, have been added to Sir James 

which IS lieaaeci in the Histoire des Potssons by G. Ross's collection. 



and the cheeks are but little swelled out. The height of 
the body and length of the head are equal, and exceed 
the altitude of the first dorsal. This fin has less of the 
triangular fonn than is usual in the genus, the five foremost 
rays differing little in height; the last ray is shorter. The 
rays of the second dorsal and anal are more than usually 
numerous. The caudal is widely rounded. The mode- 
rately large eyes are the length of the orbit apart from 
each other, the same distance from the edge of the inter- 
maxillary, and twice as far fi-om the gill-opening. The 
scales come forward on the top of the head to the orbits, 
a few clothe the upper border of the gill-cover, but the 
rest of the head is naked. A row of open pores follows 
the course of the temporal groove, and three pores exist on 
the vertical limb of the preojjerculum. A raised mucigenous 
line runs under the eye, and is connected with another, 
which forms a small circle on the cheek. 

The cleft of the mouth scarcely reaches to the fore part 
of the orbit. It is armed above l3y an outer row of subu- 
late, slightly curved teeth, to the number of eight or ten 
on each intermaxillary, and extending about half way to 
the angle of the mouth. The inner teeth are too small to 
be easily seen without the assistance of a lens, and stand 
in a single line, as far as the outer ones extend, but beyond 
them they are two or three rows deep. On the under jaw 
the outer row is similar, and of the same extent with the 
upper ones, but it is terminated on the middle of the jaw 
on each side by a somewhat larger recurved tooth. The 
distribution of the interior teeth of this jaw is the reverse 
of what occurs in the upper one, being in a single row 
towards the corners of the mouth, and in a double one 
behind the outer teeth. The strap-shaped tongue is pro- 
minent and smooth. There is a pretty broad velum to 
both jaws, and the palate is smooth, with a mesial fold of 
membrane. 

The scales are moderately large, there being sixty-five 
in a longitudinal row between the gill opening and caudal 
fin. Their exposed disks, iti situ, are exactly rhomboidal, 
and their borders are finely plaited and ciliated. The 
gill-opening is entirely lateral, being closed beneath by 
the broad and directly transverse attachment of the mem- 
brane to the isthmus. 

The original colours cannot be ascertained from the 
specimens, which have been long macerated in spirits. 
The body is marked by dark patches, which appear to have 
formed about five vertical bands between the gill-opening 
and caudal. There are blotches high on the back between 
the bands, a round dark spot at the base of the middle 
caudal rays, and some dark specks on the snout and 
other parts of the head ; a row of coloured spots runs on 
each side of the hind head, from the eye to the dorsal. 
The first dorsal is marked in a clouded manner, with alter- 
nate waving dark and light bands ; a dark streak traverses 
the bottom of the second dorsal, and the rest of the fin is 
occupied by five lines alternately lighter and darker. The 
extreme edge of the fin is blackish ; the anal has likewise 
a blackish edge, but is without other markings, as are also 
the pectorals, ventrals, and caudal. Length of the speci- 
men, S^ inches. 

Hab. Coasts of Western Australia. 



GoBius CRiNiGER. Cuv. et Valenc, 12, p. 8-2. 

Ch. Spec. G. capite michdque esquamosis ; corpore 
maculoso ; pinnis dor.ti caudcBque seriatim guttatis ; 
genis, operculis nuchdque liiieis mucigenis percursis ; 
pons apertis in preoperculo : deiite caniiio parvo in 
latere utroque maxillce inferioris ; dentibus interioribus 
mandibulorum brecissimis, scobiformibus, stipatis. 

Radii:— Br. 4 ? D. 6| — 1|9 ; A. 1]9 ; C. 25; P. 15; 
V. 1|10— 1 united. 

Plate I., figs. 3 and 4, natural size. 

This goby agrees so well with the description of the 
G. criniger in the Histoire des Poissons, that I have 
referred it to that species, though I have seen neither 
authenticated examples nor figures to confirm this deter- 
mination. The specimen described by M. Valenciennes 
was obtained at Java by MM. Qiioy and Gaimard, and 
had a tall filiform tip to the second ray of the first dorsal. 
M. Valenciennes considers this to be peculiar to the male, 
and refers to the same species an Indian goby which 
wants this prolongation. It is also wanting in our example, 
which was taken on the north-west coast of Australia. 

The head makes a fourth of the total length, caudal 
included, and its width at the gills, which exceeds half 
its length, nearly equals its height. The eyes, large and 
approximated, interfere with the profile. There are three 
orifices in the nasal region, the lower of which has a very 
short tubular lip. The head is entirely scaleless, the 
nakedness extending backwards on the nape to the first 
dorsal, but there are some small remote scales deeply im- 
bedded in the skin of the supra-scapular regions. A 
raised muciferous line, which forks twice, traverses the 
cheek; two similar lines cross the gill- cover, the lower 
one being forked ; and there are also some faint ones on 
the nape. The mouth is cleft to opposite the fore part of 
the eye, and descends obliquely. The teeth are in fine, 
close, even, brush-like plates on the jaws. An exterior 
row of more widely set, slightly taller and curved teeth, 
reaches to the middle of each jaw, and is terminated in 
the lower jaw by a recurved canine of small size. The 
gill-opening is vertical, being closed on the under surface 
of the head. Only four rays sustain its membrane. If 
there be a fifth one, it is imbedded in the part attached 
to the isthmus, and cannot be detected without dissection. 
The last rays of the second dorsal and anal are, as u.sual, 
divided to the base. 

The basal streaks of the scales cross the exposed disk, 
and converge to a point in the middle of the posterior 
edge, which is strongly toothed. 

The dark markings are well described in the Histoire 
des Poissons, but the spots on the caudal fin are not 
noticed. In our specimen there are four rows of round 
spots, similar to those on the second dorsal ; and the 
interstices appear to have been yellow. The whole 
ventrals retain the latter tint, and some streaks of it remain 
on the dorsal and belly. The length of the specimen, 
3^ inches. 

Hab. The North-west coast of Australia. 



3 



GoBius LENTiGiNosus. Ricliardson. 

Ch. Spec. G. gracilis, capite tiimidulo, goiis conve.vi.s 
pit rpu rein, pii)iclii/(if/s,(orpui(' vinrmorato punctatoqne ; 
pinnis dorsi cniidwqiie .scriiilim giittatis, pectoralibus 
basi punctiilatis : dentibus villonis. 

Radii:— D. (i|— 1|10; A. 1|9; C. 22; P. 20; V. 1|10— 1 

united. 

Plate I., figs. 5 and 6, natural size. 

This small species has some resemblance to the last in 
the colours of the body, but it is a more slender fish, and 
the nape is clothed forward to the eyes with scales, nearly 
as large as those of the body, which are of moderate size. 
There are no scales on the gill-covers, or rest of the head. 
The basal grooves are few and parallel, the free edge of 
the scale toothed. The length of the head is twice its 
height, and forms one-fourth of the total length of the 
fish, caudal included. The under jaw is a little more 
prominent than the upper one. The jaw teeth are disposed 
in broad, very close, villiform plates, with an outer row of 
stouter and more widely set teeth, but scarcely taller. 
There are no distinct canines in the middle of the lower 
jaw, or elsewhere, and none of the teeth can be clearly seen 
without the aid of a lens. The gill cover is convex. 
Three mucigenous lines diverge from the upper lip, a little 
above the angle of the mouth, one to run immediately 
beneath the eye, another to cross the middle of the cheek, 
and a third to traverse the lower part of the cheek. A 
fourth line runs from the chin along the limb of the lower 
jaw and the interoperculum, and ascends the vertical 
limb of the preoperculum. A similar line skirts the tem- 
poral groove, and two diverge at a right angle on the gill- 
cover. Open pores exist on the upper border of the orbit 
and vertical limb of the preoperculum. The general 
colours of the specimens in spirits are honey-yellow, 
marbled and spotted with umber and blackish brown, and 
minute white specks exist in longitudinal rows along the 
lower part of the sides. A dark mark is jilaced on the 
tail, close to the base of the caudal fin, and there are 
many dark dots on the snout. The cheeks have a bright 
purplish hue, with numerous whitish specks. The basal 
halves of the jjectorals are also studded with white specks. 
There are four rows of dark dots in the first dorsal, and 
six rows on the second dorsal and caudal. The anal is 
dark on the border, but unspotted, and there are no marks 
on the ventrals. Length of the specimen, \^ inch. 

Hab. Bay of Islands, New Zealand. 

GoBios INTEKSTINCTUS. Richardson. 
Ch. Spec. G. .iiibcy//iidi-iciix,roslrogibbo,ociilisconi/gins; 
squamix iiiajiixcKlis ; hiteribiifi in/id ordinihus duobus 
rectanguloriim riigrorum supraqiie lineoli.s nigris phiri- 
mis percursis, cum punciis albescentibus ordinatis 
interjacentibus ; pinnis omnibus prater ventrales albo 
nigroque alterne liiieatis. 

Radii:— D. 6|— 1|10; A. 1|8; C. 19; P. 16 ; V. 1|10-1 
united. 
Plate v., figs. 3, 4 and 5, natural size ; 6 magnified. 
This goby has much resemblance in general form to the 



preceding one, and, like it, belongs to the division which 
is characterised by the negative characters of the want of 
canine teeth, the absence of free simple rays in the pec- 
torals, or of any other remarkable peculiarity in the fins. 
The snout is very short and gibbous, the eyes rather large, 
and nearly touching above, and the cheeks are not swollen. 
The teeth are in villiform bauds, tapering off nearly to a 
single series towards the corners of the mouth, but having 
considerable breadth at the symphysis, from the addition, 
as it were, of several rows exterior to the general line of 
the dental surface. The exterior ones are a very little 
stouter than the rest, and all are slightly incurved, but 
there are no canines. The eyes are very prominent, and 
the short snout is suddenly rounded off. The preorbitar 
lip is rather full, but it is even, and in no wise lobed or 
notched, as in Perioplit/ialmus,\\\nch this fish much resem- 
bles in the face. The scales of the cranium terminate by 
a rounded outline, which just touches the orbits. The 
snout, the whole of the cheeks, gill-plates and membranes 
are scaleless. Bright yellow muciferous lines branch on 
the cheek, and traverse the temporal furrow. There are 
open pores on the disk of the preoperculum, in the tem- 
poral furrow, on the nape, and other parts of the head. 
The lengths of the head and caudal fin are about equal, 
and each forms one-fifth of the length of the whole 
fish. 

The pectoral is semi-elliptical, or more rounded when 
very fully extended. Its membrane is very delicate, and 
readily disappears ; but in our most perfect specimens, only 
the tips of the upper rays are free. The uppermost ray 
alone is simple. The first and second rays of the first 
dorsal are longer than the rest. The last ray of tlie second 
dorsal and of the anal is divided to the base. The caudal 
is rounded. 

The scales of the body are rather large, and very regu- 
larly placed. Each is five sided: having the lateral sides 
straight and parallel, the base undulated, so as to produce 
a central rounded lobe, and the two free or posterior sides 
meeting in an acute angle, with the apex more or less blunt. 
These free sides are strongly and regularly toothed. About 
twelve fine fan-like lines run from near the posterior tip lo 
the basal lobe. There are twenty-six scales in a row 
between the gill-opening and the caudal fin. 

The general colour of the specimens in spirits is honey- 
yellow. The sides are marked by brownish black inter- 
rupted lines, which in the upper parts are slender and 
approximated. The lowest two, being on a level with the 
lower half of the pectorals, are composed of a series of 
seven or eight oblong, rectangular spots. The fine upper 
lines are most numerous at the shoulders of the fish, pos- 
teriorly they are reduced to about four; between them 
there is an equal number of rows of very minute white 
specks. On the caudal and pectorals there are five or six 
dark transverse lines, alternating with an equal number of 
white ones. On the dorsals and the anal there are also 
alternate black and fine white lines, slightly oblique, and 
inteiTupted by the rays. The mucigenous fines on the 
cheeks are bright yellow, the rest of the head looks jiur- 
plish, but the colour appears to be nearly faded away in 
our specimens. The specimen which is figured had the 
following 

B 2 



DIMENSIONS. 

Length from tip of snout to end of caudal fin 3"25 inches. 

„ „ anus 1-30 „ 

„ „ gill-opening 0-70 „ 

Height of body 0-60 „ 

Thickness of ditto 045 „ 

Length of pectoral fin 0-55 „ 

„ caudal fin 070 „ 

Hab. North-west coast of Australia. 

Eleoteis gobioides. Cuv. et Valenc. 

Eleotris gobioides. Hist, des Poiss. 12, p. 247. 

Radii:— B. 6; D. 6| — 1|11; A. l\\0; C. 22 ; P. 20; 
V. 1|5.* 

Plate II., figs. 5, 6, natural size. 

Many specimens of this fish were procured by the 
expedition in the salt water of the Bay of Islands, and in 
a fresh water lake a short way in the interior. They vary 
considerably in the distinctness of the markings, and the 
pale vertical line on base of the pectoral fin is in some 
scarcely to be perceived. The dark blotches on each side 
of the line always exist. 

The operculum and suboperculum are scaly ; the ante- 
rior corner only of the latter bone, and the interoperculum, 
being naked. The cheek appears to be naked, but scales 
may be detected by scraping off the smooth integument. 
On the top of the head the scales come forward to oppo- 
site the posterior third of the orbits, and are scarcely 
sensibly less than those of the body ; their bounding 
line sweeps round to behind the eye, and there is a 
cluster of small scales on the temple at the upper end of 
the preoperculum. Two open pores exist on the disk 
of this bone, and there are many fine mucigenous lines 
on the head, viz., one running longitudinally along the 
interior border of each nasal region, another beneath the 
eye, a double one along the temporal fuirow, one branching 
on the cheek, one tracing the lower edge of the interoper- 
culum, and continuing up the furrow which marks the 
edge of the preoperculum to the temple, and, lastly, one 
crossing the operculum obliquely. 

dimensions. 

Length from upper lip to tip of caudal fin 5'80 inches. 

„ „ anus 2-90 „ 

„ „ gill-opening 1-65 „ 

Length of caudal 1-05 „ 

Height of body MO „ 

Thickness of body 0!W „ 

„ head at gill plates 1-00 „ 

The largest example measures above seven inches in 
length. 

Hab. Bay of Islands, and adjoining fresh-water lakes 
of New Zealand. 

* The last two rays of the dorsal and anal are separate at the base 
and aie counted here separately, not as branches of one ray, as in the 
Hist, des Poiss. 



Eleotris mogurnda. Richardson. 

Ch. Spec. El. rostro, genlsque sqtiamosis ; fasciis tribus 
obliquis nigrescentibus in operculis, maculis obscuris in 
medio latere; pinnis dorsi, ani et caud<B maculosis. 

Radii:— D. 8|-1|14; A. 1|14; C. 32; P. 16; V. 1|5. 

Plate II., figs. 1 and 2, natural size. 

This species, like the preceding, has much the aspect 
of the common obscure-coloured gobies of the European 
seas, and it differs from the Eleotrides generally, in having 
a greater number of dorsal and anal rays. Its specific 
name is its native appellation at Port Essington. 

The body is highest at the commencement of the first 
dorsal, and it diminishes so gradually posteriorly, that the 
tail is only a third less high. In profile the nape is round, 
and the slope from thence is pretty steep, in a straight or 
slightly hollow line to the nostrils, where the snout, as is 
usual in the genus, bulges a little. The thickness of the 
body is a third less than the height, and the compression 
increases in the tail until the thickness is only a third of 
the height. The sides are flattish, the belly is obtuse, the 
back rather less so. The cheeks and gill-cover are convex, 
and the top of the head is Hat, or somewhat hollow in 
the middle. The temporal groove is deeply impressed, and 
is lined with scales, without the fine line of pores which 
traverses it in many species. Neither are the muciferous 
lines to be traced on the cheek. 

The cheeks and gill-covers are densely scaly, and on 
the top of the head the scales are equal in size to those of 
the body. They run forward nearly to the edge of the 
snout, terminating in an obtuse projection on each side of 
a small scaleless space, covering the intermaxillary pedicles. 
The narrow nasal regions, the small preobitar, the upper 
and under lips, the lower border of the interoperculum, 
the lower jaw, and the gill-membrane, are also scaleless. 
The convex upper border of the orbit is clothed by a triple 
series of densely tiled scales, much smaller than those on 
the cheek, or top of the head. 

The eye is distant one diameter of the orbit from the 
tip of the snout, and two-and-a-half from the gill-opening. 
The head constitutes a third of the length of the fish, 
excluding the caudal fin. The mouth is moderately large, 
and the lowerjaw is longer than the upper one. The teeth 
are in moderately broad villiform bands, with an outer 
row above and below, a little stouter. The tongue and 
palate are studded by minute glandular-looking papillae. 
The gill-membranes join the isthmus far forward, beneath 
the fore part of the orbit, but the opening is restricted by 
a delicate interior fold of membrane, beneath the upper 
limb of the preoperculum. There are three pores on the 
disk of the preoperculum. The anus is posterior to the 
middle of the fish, caudal excluded. The anal papilla is 
small and simple. The general colour of the specimens, 
after long maceration in spirits, is honey-yellow, or pale 
brown, unspotted on the under surface of the head and 
belly, but deepening into dark umber on the back. A 
crowded series of blackish brown blotches runs along the 
middle of the sides, and there are three parallel oblique 
dark streaks on the side of the head. The upper streak 



crosses the operculum and base of the pectoral, the other 
two run from the orbit over the cheek and suboperculuni. 
The vertical fins are spotted. Some specimens measured a 
third more than the one having the following 

DIMENSIONS. 

Length from upper lip to end of caudal fin 4-20 inches. 

„ „ anus 2-00 „ 

„ „ gill-opening 1-15 „ 

Height of body behind the pectorals 0-86 „ 

Thickness there 0o8 „ 

„ at the gill-covers 0t)3 „ 

Height of tail 0-50 „ 

Thickness of tail near base of caudal O'UJ „ 

Length of caudal fin 0-80 „ 

H.\B. Port Essington, north end of Australia. 

NoTOTHENiA. RichardsoH. 

Ch. Gen. Forma Eleotridihus necnon Tradiiiiis rel 

Percibus quodammodo similis. Corpus e capUe turnido 

ventreque prominulo in caudam compressam sensim 

macrescens. 
Os modicum, terminale. Labia tumida, rejlexa. Inter- 

niaxillaria ossa parum prolractiUa. Maxilla sub os 

preorhitale recedeiis, apice tamen lafiori ultra extenso 

hinc ad angulum oris patefacto. 
SquamaB satis magna. 
Linea lateralis ante Jinem pimue dorsi seciindw diffracta, 

infra resumpta denique ad basin pinncc candce desinens. 
Preoperculum porosum, incrme, acie sonicinulari libera. 
Os operculare prope angulum ejus superum emarginatum, 

nee tamen in pisce recenti angulos acutos ostendetis. 
Membrana branchiostega radiis sex sustentata, aperturam 

satis magnam operiens. 
Dentes mandibulorum breves, acerosi, intcquales, slipati. 
Palatum linguaque Iceves. 
Pinna; ventrales jugulares: pectorales magna, rotundata: 

pinna dorsi prior radiis panels Jiexilibus sustentata ; 

dorsi secunda priori approximata, pinnaque ani longa, 

cequales. 
Caeca pylorica circiter quinque. 
Vesica pneumatica nulla. 
Cranium convexum, lave. 

NoTOTHENi.\ coRiicEPs. Richardson. 



Ch. Spec. N. capite coriaceo, papilloso rugosoque ; 
pinna cauda truncatd ; membrana branchiostega 
albidd. 

Radii:— Br. 6; D. 5| — .34; A. -27; C. 12, i.; P. 17; 

V. 1|5. 

Plate III., fig. 1 and 2, natural size. 

Kerguelen's Land, lying in the 49th parallel of south 
latitude, and 70th degree of east longitude, or directly 
southward of the Indian Ocean, and far from other islands 
of any magnitude, is skirted by a belt of sea-weed, among 
which our navigators obtained many examples of three 
different species of fish belonging to the genus charac- 



terised above as a new form. The present species was 
taken also at the Auckland Islands, in the 51st parallel, 
and due south of New Zealand. Other species frequent 
Cape Hora, and one was procured among the ice, within the 
Antarctic circle, near the 155th meridian, west. The de- 
signation* of the genus has reference to its high southern 
habitat, where it is probably represented by one or more 
species in almost every degree of longitude. 

I have not been able satisfactorily to detennine the 
family to which Notothenia belongs. Jn many of its cha- 
racters it coincides with Eleginus, whieh is associated by 
Cuvier with the Scianida. They agree in having jugular 
ventrals, only six gill-rays, and no air-bladder, particulars 
that seem to indicate a want of affinity with the true 
Scianida, which are remarkable for the development of 
their air-bladders, and have cavernous crania, very different 
from the smooth, rounded skull of a Notothenia. The 
flexibility of the spinous rays of this genus, the open pores 
on the preoperculum and lower jaw, and the close simi- 
larity of its ventrals and general habit to Eleotris, induced 
me to place it among the Gobiida, next to the latter genus ; 
but the existence of the aberrant form of Notothenia } 
rossii, which has short, stiff, blunt, though not stout rays, 
in the first dorsal, renders this collocation less satisfactory. 

I have not had access to any specimen of Eleginus, for 
the pmpose of instituting a comparison with Notothenia, 
but judging from the figure in the Histoire des Poissons, 
(plate 115,) and that in the Voyage de la Coquille of 
Eleginus maclorinus, the general habit of the two genera 
is dissimilar. Eleginus has a bluff snout, more like a 
Sciana ; its maxillary, considerably enlarged in the middle, 
glides under a square preorbitar, its head is extensively 
scaly, and its gill-plate is dissimilar in form. The figure 
in the Histoire des Poissons differs from that in the 
Voyage de la Coquille, in the lateral line being repre- 
sented as continuous ; and though the specimens from 
which the fonner drawing M'as made are stated to have 
been imperfect, yet the continuous line seems unques- 
tionably to be proper to Eleginus, for it is assigned in 
the Histoire des Poissons to two other species, closely 
resembling maclorinus, and M. Lesson states that his figure 
is incorrect in this point, and in some others. The inter- 
rupted lateral line, therefore, is a ready mark by which to 
know Notothenia fi'om Eleginus. 

In Notothenia coriiceps the head constitutes exactly a 
fourth part of the length of the fish, caudal fin included, 
and is convexly conical, with all the corners rounded off, 
the snout and upper lip forming the rather obtuse apex. 
The body is thickest at the pectorals, where the height and 
width are about equal, and is much compressed beyond 
the anus, which is in the middle of the fish, caudal ex- 
cluded. Behind the dorsal and anal fins the height of the 
tail is thrice its thickness. The profile descends in a con- 
vex curve from the first dorsal, with a moderate flattening 
of the cranium, and a sudden drooping of the upper lip, 
beneath the end of the snout. The belly is rather tumid, 
and when the blunt tongue is depressed, the integument 
bulges out between the limbs of the lower jaw. The cir- 
cular orbit is situated high up, and as near again to the 



tip of the snout as to the gill-opening. Its diameter is 
one-fifth of the length of the head. The upper rim of the 
orbit is slightly prominent, and the interorbital space, 
whose breadth exceeds the diameter of the eye by a third, 
is flat, the flatness reaching from the hind head to near the 
nostrils. One nasal orifice, with a tubular rim, is situated 
a short way before the eye. The other opening is very 
small, and close to the edge of the snout, but it does not 
differ in appearance from the neighbouring pores. 

The head is almost entirely destitute of scales, and its 
upper surface is rough with innumerable, porous, conical 
papillae. On the side of the head the roughness is 
produced by minute crests, or thin, short, cuticular ridges, 
which occasionally anastomose, or divide. The scales of 
the body terminate on the nape in a convex curve, which 
is on a line with the upper ends of the preopercula, and 
sweeps backwards on each side to the gill-openings. An- 
terior to this there is a small patch of scales on each limb 
of the supra-scapular, and four or five small round scales, 
deeply imbedded in the integument, lie in a line, stretching 
from the inferior edge of the orbit over the temples. Many 
small open pores are scattered over the head, particularly 
on the snout and lips. Five remarkable ones perforate the 
disk of the preoperculum, and there are three on each 
limb of the lower jaw. The preorbitar has an oblong 
rectangular form, and is of moderate size, but its form is 
concealed by the integument which is continuous with the 
cheek. The rest of the suborbitar chain is merely a row 
of small tubes, closely embracing the under half of the 
orbit. 

The mouth is terminal and rather small, extending back- 
wards only to the anterior third of the eye. The tumid 
and roughish lips fold back on the intermaxillaries and 
lower jaw. The teeth on the jaws are short, subulate, and 
slightly curved, and near the symphyses are disposed in 
four or five rows, which on the limbs of the jaws are 
reduced to one. Those forming the exterior row are a little 
stouter than the rest. There is a narrow but firm velum 
behind the teeth on both jaws. The roof of the mouth is 
smooth, and the pharyngeal teeth are a Utile smaller than 
those of the jaws. The rather slender maxillary is con- 
cealed, for the greater part of its length, when the jaws 
are closed, by the edge of the preorbitar. Its lower, wider, 
and truncated end, passes beyond the preorbitar, curves a 
little forwards, and is exposed at the angle of the mouth. 
The preoperculum has an obtusely elliptical outline, 
approaching to the segment of a circle, with a perfectly 
entire edge, which is free, and capable of being elevated. 
The bony operculum has a semi-circular notch in the 
upper part of its posterior edge, the bone there being 
strengthened by two low ribs, whose points form the cor- 
ners of the notch. Two-thirds of a disk of the bone is 
below the notch. The suboperculum is much less high. 
These parts are concealed in the recent fish, but show a 
little as the integument dries. The thin interoperculum 
is rather broad. The gill-raj's ai'e stoutish, and some- 
what curved, and the gill-membrane is a little narrowed at 
the edge, which causes it to swell out when fully extended, 
the play of the pieces of the gill-cover producing a corre- 
sponding bulging out of the sides of the head. The mem- 
branes are united on the throat, and a free edge is left 



where they adhere to the isthmus.* On the rays the 
cuticle is rough, but it is smooth in the folds of the mem- 
brane. The bones of the humeral chain are smooth. 

The scales are moderately large, there being fifty-four 
in a row between the gill-opening and base of the caudal, 
exclusive of two or three small ones on the latter fin, and 
eighteen in a vertical row anteriorly, of which six are 
above the lateral line. Each scale is truncated at the base, 
has two parallel sides, and a rounded free edge, its length 
and breadth being about equal. Ten or twelve diverging 
fuiTows cross the centre of the disk, and end on the basal 
edge, where they produce a corresponding number of cre- 
natures. The semicircular tip is covered with thick epi- 
dermis, which under the lens appears to be dotted with 
stelliform specks. When the integument is removed, little 
pits appear on the scale, but there are no rough points, or 
the slightest indication of teeth. This is the character of 
the scales generally on the back, belly and tail, but on the 
sides behind the pectoral the scales are more truncated at 
the tip, without the membranous edge, and are distinctly 
toothed on the edge. The diff"erence of the two kinds of 
scales is not readily perceptible to the naked eye. The 
lateral line runs near the back, and terminates under the 
thirtieth ray of the second dorsal, recommencing two 
scales lower down, and running along mid-height of the 
tail to end at the base of the caudal. Except two or 
three crowded rows of small scales on the base of the 
caudal, and the patch which encroaches on the base of the 
pectoral anteriorly, there are no scales on the fins. The 
pectoral is naked posteriorly. 

The ventrals, having much resemblance to those of an 
Eleotris, are situated before the bases of the pectorals. 
Their small spine has a flexible tip. The pectorals are 
rather large, and are rounded. They reach beyond the 
anus. The first dorsal commences over the base of the 
pectorals, and is sustained by five flexible rays. The 
second dorsal begins close to the end of the first one, and 
has an even outline. All its rays are jointed, but the first 
is unbranched, though its tip is divided by a dark line. 
The last ray is divided to the base. The anal, similar in 
form to the second dorsal, has no spinous ray. The caudal 
is even at the end, with the corners rounded oflf. 

The colours of the fish appear to have been obscure, but 
they cannot be made out from the specimens. The gill- 
membrane and under surface of the head are white. There 
are some dark marks on the gill-cover, and the whole 
upper surface is darkish. 

The intestines of the specimen examined were some- 
what damaged, but the stomach was distinctly made out 
to be wide, with a short conical pyloric branch going ofT 
laterally at about the third of the height, from the rounded 
fundus. The internal surface, especially towards the 
pylorus, is finely reticulated, and coarsely plaited. The 
pylorus is much contracted, and five obtuse cajca surround 
the gut immediately below it, the longest exceeding an 
inch in length. The gut was filled with Entomostrava, 
and a few small shells. 



* In the Eleoti-is tlie gill-membrane is attached to each side of the 
narrow islhimis, is not united to its fellow, exterior to it, and conse- 
quently has no free edge at the union. 



DIMENSIONS. 
Length from the iutermaxillary symphysis to extremity 

of caudal '. 10-20 inches. 

Length of head to gill-opening 2-5o „ 

„ caudal fin HI „ 

Height of the head at the ocei|iiit IVH 

body at tlie Ills! ,lni^,,l 2-14 „ 

Width of the head at the pro. percula 2-10 „ 

„ of shoulder at tlie liisl dorsad 2-14 „ 

Distance between the eyes 0(i5 „ 

Diameter of the orbit 050 „ 

Hab. The coasts of Kurgueleii's land, anrl of the Auck- 
land Islands. 

NOTOTHENIA CYANOBRANCHA. Richaidson. 

Ch. Spec. N. capite (prater genas, partes siipra-scapv- 
lares et superiores operculi squamosasj, cute levissimd 
tecto ; pinna caudee rotundatd ; pinnis dorsi membrand 
conne.vis ; viemhrand branchiostegd margine cwruleo. 

Radii : -Br. 6 ; D. 4|— 36 ; A. .3-2 ; C. '2-2 ; P. 21 ; V. 1|5. 

Plate IV., figs. 1, -2, natural size. 

This species has a rather smaller and more depressed 
head than the preceding one, the total length of the 
fish being equal to 4^ times that of the head. The width 
of the head is equal to its length, its height is less. The 
top of the head, the preorbitar, suborbitars, and lower parts 
of the gill-plates, are covered with perfectly smooth integu- 
ment, without a vestige of the papillae which are crowded 
over the head of coriiceps. There are, however, two small 
scaly patches on the limbs of the supra scapular on each 
side, and nearly the whole cheek and the upper quarter 
of the operculum are scaly. Pores exist on the preoper- 
culura and lower jaw as in the preceding species, and there 
are also some on the snout, and on the upper margins of the 
orbits. The teeth do not form more than two inegular 
rows at the symphysis of the jaws, and are smaller on the 
pharyngeal bones than those of coriiceps. The two dorsals 
are also joined at the base by membrane ; the numbers of 
the rays differ. In other parts of structure the resemblance 
is close. The lateral line is interrupted under the thirtieth 
ray of the second dorsal, and in recommencing again 
below, it is faintly shown farther forward. A band of deep 
purple, or blue, skirts the edge of the gill-membrane. In 
this species most of the scales of the body are toothed on 
the posterior edge, those having a smooth membraneous 
margin being confined to the summit of the back and 
ventral surface. A scale taken from the side is nearly 
equally foiu'-sided, the posterior edge being convexly 
curved in a slight degree, and finely toothed. The 
bases of teeth which have worn off, produce rounded emi- 
nences on a narrow part of the disk, adjoining the edge. 
Fifteen furrows commence close to this rough border, cross 
the disk, and end on the base, including its rounded corners, 
producing a corresponding number of crenatures. There are 
six rows of small scales on the base of the pectoral, ante- 
riorly. The corresponding part behind is naked. The 
last rays of the second dorsal and anal are divided to the 
base. 

The intestines were damaged, so that their form could 
not be fully ascertained, but four pyloric casca were clearly 



made out, and there may, perhaps, be a fifth. No vestige 
of an air-bladder was seen. 

niMENSIONS. 
Length from intermaxillary symphysis to end of caudal 

(ill ! 1060 inches. 

Length from iutermaxillary symphysis to gill-opening... 255 „ 

„ of caudal fin 1"40 „ 

Thickness at preopercula 2'22 „ 

Height at occiput I'H5 „ 

"„ 1st dorsal 215 „ 

Diameter of orbit OSO „ 

Breadth between orbits 0-50 „ 

Hab. The coasts of Kerguelen's Land. 

Notothenia puiti'UKiCEi's. Richardson. 

Ch. spec. N. pinnis dorsalibus discretis, pinnd priori 
superne nigrd ; genis hemilcpidolis ; capite purpureo. 

Radii:— B. 6; D. 4|— 35 ; A. 31; C. IH; P. 21 ; V. I|.5. 

Plate II., figs. 3 and 4, natural size. 

This species considerably resembles the last one, but it 
is less com]3ressed posteriorly ; its whole head has a purple 
hue, and the edge of the gill-membrane has the dark 
bluish tint of cyunobrnncha ; the first dorsal is not united 
by membrane to the second, and the upper half only of 
the cheek is scaly. There are also some minute differ- 
ences in the form of the scales near the temples. There 
are fifty-two rows of scales between the gill-opening and 
caudal fin. The tail is less compressed than in the other 
two species. The vent is close to the first ray of the anal 
fin, with its orifice facing it, and there is no anal papilla. 
Our examples of the other species had been slit open on the 
belly, so that the non-existence of an anal papilla could not 
be clearly ascertained. In the enumeration of the rays given 
above, the last two of the dorsal and anal are considered 
as separate rays, instead of branches of one ray, as in the 
jjreceding species. The teeth are similar to those of 
cyanobrancha. 

The following anatomical particulars were ascertained. 
The intestines similar to those of coriiceps, the pyloric 
cceca five in number. In the skeleton the top of the skull 
is smooth and rounded, both transversely and longitudi- 
nally, without ridges. The thin papery preorbitar has an 
oblong rectangular form ; the other bones of the suborbitar 
chain are mere narrow tubes which bound the inferior half 
of the orbit. The preopercidum is traversed by canals in 
its substance, which open on the disk by oblique, irregular 
mouths. Its outer edge is thin and entire, and the integu- 
ment which covers it is perforated by pores, as in the 
other species. The operculum has a quadrantal form, 
with a notch occupying the upper quarter of its posterior 
curved edge. The acute points which bound the notch, 
are the tips of two depressed slender ridges, or smooth 
ribs, which strengthen the bone, and meet anteriorly at its 
articidar angle. The suboperculum is narrow, and tapers 
into a thin submembraneous tip. The interoperculura 
is rather wide, oblong, and thin, with an even edge. A 
thin posterior ridge gives strength to the limb of the inter- 
maxillary. There are forty-six vertebrae, fifteen of which 
are abdominal. 



DIMENSIONS. 

Length from upper lip to end of caudal fin 520 inches. 

,, „ gill-opening 1"31 „ 

Length of caudal-fin 0-70 „ 

Width of head 0-90 „ 

Height of hind head 080 „ 

„ first dorsal 0-95 „ 

Thickness of body at the pectorals 085 „ 

Hab. The coasts of Kerguelen's Land. 

NoTOTHENiA coRNUCOLA. Ricliardson. 
Ch. Spec. N. capite nudo, Uevi, poroso ; squamis nullis 

supra-scapularibus, operculis superne sqnamosis. 
Radii :— Br. 6 ; D. 5|— 32 ; A. 27 ; C. 19 ; P. 21, V. \\b. 
Plate VIII., figs. 4, 5, natural size. 
Many specimens of a small Notothenia were collected 
by the expedition, among the sea-weed that lines the 
shores of Cape Horn. These specimens have suffered 
much injury from deterioration of the spirit in which 
they were put, and the figure is the result of a combina- 
tion of the most perfect, one supplying what was wanting 
in another. It is drawn to the dimensions of the largest 
specimen. 

In general form the species resembles N. cyanobrancha. 
The dorsal fins are distinct, but contiguous. There is a 
band of deeply imbedded scales on the upper border of 
the operculum, a few small ones on the temples adjoining 
the upper end of the preoperculum, but none on the space 
enclosed by the limbs of the supra-scapular. The tip of 
that bone is creuated, and looks like a scale through the 
investing skin. A row of pores completely encircles the 
eye, and runs forward along the edge of the snout. Pores 
also trace out the limb of the preoperculum, and run along 
the lower jaw, and there is a single pore on the mesial line, 
between the eyes. The interorbital space is narrower 
than the width of the orbit. The posterior nostril is 
shortly tubular ; the anterior one cannot be distinguished 
from a pore. The scales on the bellj' are very small, and 
between the ventrals they are confined to the middle third 
of the space. On these parts they are not toothed, and 
no teeth are visible on the larger scales above and behind 
the vent. On the sides of the body and tail the scales are 
strongly ciliated. There is no anal tubercle. 

The colours generally have faded. The cheeks and 
bases of the pectorals are dark, the caudal, second dorsal, 
and pectoral fins are finely mottled. The stomach is 
pyriform, with a short, nearly cylindrical pyloric branch 
springing upwards from above its middle. Round the 
pylorus there are seven short cseca, and the intestine, in 
its course to the anus, doubles once. The stomachs of 
those which we opened contained small fish, crabs, and 
crayfish. 

Length, from three to six inches. 
Hab. Cape Horn, Port Louis. 

Notothenia phoc^. Richardson. 
Ch. Spec. A'^. rostro conve.vo, rictu oris ascendenti ; cor- 

pore fusifornii, caudd compressd ; pinna dorsi secundd 

pinndque am arcuatis. 
Radii:— Br. 6; D. 41—25; A. 30; C. ; P. 23; V. \\b. 

On the 14th of January, 1842, when the ships were 



embayed among ice, in the 65th parallel of south latitude, 
and about the 1 55th west meridian, a seal was taken with 
twenty-eight pounds of fish in its stomach. The fish were 
of two kinds, one a Spliyrana, the other a Notothenia, of 
which there were many mutilated individuals. Dr. 
Hooker made a careful drawing of the most perfect, and 
put several examples in spirits, but they have become 
still more deteriorated, though enough remains to leave 
little doubt as to the genus, and even to show that the 
species is distinct from any of the preceding ones, but 
not sufficient to furnish materials for a correct desciiption. 

In the form of the head this fish closely resembles the 
following, N. niagellanica, the orifice of the mouth in 
both being more oblique than in the four species we have 
figured. The dorsal line also is more arched, and there 
is a corresponding curve of the ventral line posterior to 
the anus. Anterior to that orifice, the belly, as in the 
others, is rather protuberant, and, on that account, the 
body is highest at the commencement of the second dorsal 
fin, though the summit of the dorsal curve is so far 
back as the ninth ray of the fin. This ray is, more- 
over, the tallest, and the anterior and posterior ones 
diminish very gradually in height, so as to give a flatly 
curved outline to the fin. The first dorsal appears to be 
as high as any part of the second one, but neither Dr. 
Hooker's sketch, nor the specimens, enable us to deter- 
mine whether the two fins were connected by membrane 
or not. The second ray of the first dorsal is the tallest, 
the form of the fin being the same with that of niagellanica. 
The anal closely resembles the second dorsal, and both 
fins have a slightly prolonged tip to the last ray. The 
pectoral is similar in form and relative size to that of the 
figured species, and the ventrals are also similarly placed. 
The caudal was mutilated in all the specimens. Neither 
the course of the lateral line, nor the presence or absence 
of scales on the head, could be ascertained. The scales 
of the body appear to have been tolerably large. Dr. 
Hooker's notes state that they were deeply imbedded in 
the skin. The jaw teeth are in narrow bands, and near 
the middle of each limb of the lower jaw there is one a 
little larger than the rest, which may be called a small 
canine tooth. The partially digested fragments were 
coloured " azure-blue, mixed with pale pink, the blue 
stronger, brighter, and more silvered about the gill-covers, 
jaws, and cheeks, mottled more or less with large black 
spots, especially about the ujjper aspect of the head, the 
belly, base of the pectorals, and shoulders. The black 
pupil surrounded by a brilliantly iridescent iris, streaked 
with azure-blue, silver, and carmine." Perhaps some of 
the tints mentioned by Dr. Hooker may have been pro- 
duced by the action of the gastric juice. 

The liver is pale red, very large, three lobed, and covers 
the ventral surface of all the intestines, Its breadth above, 
in a fish 6| inches long, is TOSinch. Below, when spread 
out, it measures 2*40 inches. The left lobe, in situ, is 0'70 
in length, the right one hangs down to the anus, and is \'7S 
inch long ; the intermediate lobe is much smaller. The 
vertically kidney-shaped stomach emits from its middle at 
right angles a short cylindrical pyloric branch, 042 inch 
long, and below the pylorus there are five cylindrical 
obtuse caeca, the longest of which measures 035 inch. 



"Tlie surface of the stomach was studded with large chalky- 
looking spots. Intestines white, corrugated, and three 
inches in length. An oblong red spleen lies between the 
pyloric branch and body of the stomach. The urinary 
bladder close to the anus, spha;rical, and in all the speci- 
mens, full of water. There were but few females among 
the specimens, and in these the ova were very large and 
white." The subjoined vignette represents the liver and 
stomach, in nitu fa) ; the stomach and intestine (b), and 
the urinary bladder and lower part of the rectum (ej. 

Dimensions of five of the most complete specimens. 

Females. Male. 

Length, exclusire of caudal... 6-73 6.35 6 27 600 2-.5.T inches. 

from vent to cauilal... 5-72 :V42 .307 .360 1-28 „ 

Greatest depth of hody 1-82 163 1-20 1-.50 048 „ 

breadth of ditto 112 0-98 0-93 103 026 „ 

Length of head to gill-opening 2-00 1-82 182 1'83 059 „ 

Heightofhead 1-21 1-17 1-28 115 045 „ 

Breadth of ditto O'So 0-80 0-91 102 0-25 „ 

Length of pectoral fin 1-60 125 126 1-28 027 „ 

ventrals I'll 107 104 „ 

Average weight, 2j ounces. 

Hab. Antarctic Glacial Ocean, off Victoria Land. 




ventral fins, and a first dorsal similar to that of cyano- 
b ranch a. 

IIab. Among the sublittoral sea-weed of Terra del 
Fuego. 



NOTOTHENIA ? RO.SSII. 

Ch. Spec. N. ? radiis pinnie dc 
iusis, brevibus ; corpore elongat 

Kadii:— Br. 6; D. 7| 



NOTOTHENIA MAGELLANICA. Forster. 

Ch. Spec. N. capite supra piano, dedive, laieribus et 
infra roitindato, sqiiamoso ; preoperciilis, operculisque 
sqvamosis ; pinnis ventral ibiis aciinunalis, pinna dorsi 
secundd el anisensim postice diminuendis ; pinna dorsi 
priori trigond ; pinnis omnibus fuscis. (Forster.) 



Radii 



14; P. 17: 



115. 



-Br. 6; D. 51—31; C. 
(Forster.) 

Gadus magellanicus, I. R. Forsteri, M.S. TV. 46. aj^ud 
Bl. Schn. p. 11. Icon. ined. Bibl. Banks, fig. 178. 
Of this species we have seen no example. The figure 
above referred to represents a fish very similar to the fol- 
lowing in general form, but with a different outline to the 



Richardson. 

irst prioris r/gidis, ob- 



1|32; A. l|-26; C. 11|; P. 22 ; 
V. 11.5. 



Plate v., figs. 1, 2, one-fourth of the natural size. 

This fish is not only of a much larger size than the 
specimens of the preceding species of Notothenia which 
were brought home, but differs from them all in its com- 
paratively low first dorsal, supported by bluntish spines, 
destitute of flexibility, or of filamentous tips. There is, 
moreover, a very short spine at the commencement of the 
dorsal and anal, and the pectoral fin is smaller, and less 
orbicular than in the other NotothenicB. In other respects 
there appears to be no external generic difference. Only 
one specimen exists in the collection, and that is merely 
the stuffed skin, so that we can add no anatomical parti- 
culars to the following description, which, from the aber- 
rant character of the species, is given in detail. 

The head measures more than a fourth part of the whole 
length of the fish, caudal fin excluded. Its height at the 
preoperculum is about one-seventh less than its thickness, 
which is equal to two-thirds of its length. The top of the 
head is flattish, the descent from the hind head to the 
snout is very slight, and the inclination is equally slig:ht 
along the back to the tail. The belly is a little tumid, but its 
profile behind the anus has the same inclination with that of 
the back, in an opposite way. The head is thicker than 
the body. The oval and lateral orbit is rather large, and 
is placed high up in the cheek, at the distance of more 
than its length from the edge of the upper lip, and three 
and a half times as far from the gill-opening. In the 
dried specimen the suborbitar bones show unevenly through 
the skin, but when the fish was recent, they must have 
been entirely concealed. The anterior one covers merely 
the head of the intermaxillary, its edge not being free 
beneath. One nostril is placed on a level with the upper 
edge of the orbit, and midway between the eye and anterior 
comer of the preorbitar, or edge of the snout. This has a 
tubular rim. The other very minute opening is close to 
thatcorner. The preoperculum has its limbs sliglitly curved, 
and meeting at a right angle, but with the corner gra- 
dually rounded off. Its edge is quite smooth, audits very 
narrow disk is perforated with pores, as in the other spe- 
cies, but their number cannot be ascertained from the 
specimens, as both cheeks have been opened along the 
edge of the preoperculum, in its preparation. The upper 
end of this bone is about midway between the eye and the 
gill-opening. The slightly uneven interoperculum is five 
times as long as it is broad. The suboperculum is ante- 
riorly of the same height with the interoperculum, and 
gradually tapers away posteriorly to a thin point, which 



10 



sustains the membranous tip of the gill-flap. The trian- 
gular operculum is more than thrice the height of the 
subopevculuni, and a deep notch or fissure divides the 
border of its upper third. The lower point of the notch 
contiguous to the tip of the suboperculum scarcely shows 
through the dried integument. The upper limb of the 
notch is one-half shorter than the lower one, and has au 
obtuse tip. The notch is filled np and concealed by 
integument. The head is nearly scaleless, the nuchal 
scales ending at the directly transverse edge of the occiput, 
which shows through the skin. The limbs of the supra- 
scapular are naked, but include a scaly patch, which is 
separated from a similar small patch on the side of the 
scull, by the transverse occipital edge above mentioned. 
The junction of the gill-flap to the scull is also protected 
by about four rows of deeply imbedded round scales, and 
a few scales encroach irregularly on the upper part of the 
cheek, behind the eye. On the top of the head the skin 
is slightly roughened by numerous glandular-looking 
specks, regularly dispersed, and the posterior frontal bones 
and the opercula are radiated. The cheeks are smooth. 

The maxillary is cylindrical for three-fourths of its 
length, and becomes thinner and wider at its lower end, 
which is unevenly truncated. There is no enlargement in 
the middle of its upper border, as in Eleginus. The lips 
and tip of the snout are minutely villous. The jaw-teeth 
above and below are villiform, with an outer row of subu- 
late teeth, stouter, and a little taller. 

The gill-rays, six in number, are cylindrical, and increase 
in length from the lowest to the uppermost. The thick 
membrane unites with its fellow a little behind the preoper- 
culum, leaving a free edge where it adheres to the isthmus. 
The ventrals are attached opposite to the tip of the gill- 
flap. Their rays are much divided at the tips, and are 
enveloped in thick membrane, which entirely conceals the 
short spine. The pectoral is rather truncated. The sixth 
and seventh rays are longest. The first dorsal commences 
over the base of the uppermost pectoral ray. It is supported 
by seven short, blunt, but not very stout spines, the last 
two scarcely rising above the skin. The second dorsal 
has a very short spine. Its last two rays are approximated 
at the base, but are reckoned separately in our enumeration. 
The same is the case with the anal. Its spine is very 
short and incumbent on the base of the succeeding ray. 
The caudal is even at the end. 

The scales are round, with the fore and hind edge 
slightly truncated, so as to render them higher than wide. 
There are sixty-two in a line between the gill-opening and 
caudal fin, with four rows above the lateral line anteriorly, 
and about twelve below. They are deeply imbedded in 
the skin, and when in situ, they have a raised, posterior, 
toothed border, which, in the dried fi.sh, is white, and, 
under a lens, appears to be granulated and porous. This 
border is easily detached, coming away with the epidermis. 
The scale, removed from its place, is very thin, and, under 
the microscope, exhibits very tine close concentric lines of 
structure, with six or seven very faint fan-like rays, di- 
verging from a point posterior to the centre, and spreading 
a little, so as to take in but a small part of the basal edge. 
The lateral line is interrupted under the twenty-eighth 
jomted ray of the second dorsal, resumed on the fourth 



row of scales beneath, and ends at the base of the caudal 
fin. There are no scales on the fins, except on the base 
of the caudal, on which there are two rows of deeply 
imbedded ones. 

DIMENSIONS. 

Length from upper lip to end of caudal fin 3420 inches. 

anus 1910 „ 

„ „ second dorsal 13o0 „ 

„ „ first dorsal 930 „ 

„ „ edge of gill-flap 9-00 „ 

Longitudinal diameter of oval orbit 1-40 „ 

Vertical ditto ditto TOO „ 

Height of head posteriorly, and of body at first dorsal.. 6o0 „ 

Width of ditto, about.....' 6-20 „ 

Length of caudal fin 3o5 „ 

„ pectoral 4-53 „ 

Callionymus calauropomus. Richardson. 

Ch. Spec. C. spina preoperculi elongatd, apice sursum 
curvd, bicuspidatd, absque denticulo antico bmali ; pin- 
nis dorsi nebulosis, ventralibus lentiginosis. 

Radii:— D. 4|— 8 ; A. 7 ; C. 10| ; P. 19; V. 1|5. 
Plate Vli., figs. 4, 5. 

This Australian species difl'ers from all that have been 
described, in the form of its preopercular spine, which is 
not only longer than is usual in the genus, but wants the 
basal tooth, and has only two teeth at the summit, the 
interior one being recurved, so that the whole spine has a 
resemblance to a shepherd's crook, [Ka>.au^o-l>). 

In the fullness and roundness of the posterior part of the 
body and tail, this species differs from most of the genus. 
The sides swell out, so as to place the anal and second 
dorsal in a deep furrow, and to give the fish the appear- 
ance of a full bean-pod, or banana. The shoulders, as 
usual, are broader and flatlish, the flatness reaching to the 
orbits. Before the eyes, the profile descends obliquely. 
The mouth is small, and the jaws incline downwards when 
protracted. The eyes are not above a line apart, and are 
about one diameter of the orbit from the tip of the snout, 
and rather more from the gill-opening. The head makes 
rather more than a third of the length of the fish, caudal 
excluded. The lateral line crosses the nape to join its 
fellow, curves over the end of the pectoral, and runs rather 
above the middle of the side to the caudal fin, on the base 
of which it forks. It is formed by a continuous narrow 
crenulated ridge. The teeth are short, villiform, the dental 
surface being widest at the symphyses, reducetl to a single 
row on the limbs of the jaws, and not extending to the 
angle of the mouth. The preopercular spine is long and 
curved, with its very acute tip curved upwards, and a 
stronger tooth above, near the tip, directed upwards and 
forwards. 

The body appears to have been entirely of a rich bronze 
colour, smooth and shining, with, perhaps, some darker 
blotches above. The second dorsal is still clouded by a 
few dark blotches. The membrane of the first is blackish 
above, the ventrals are freckled, and there are some 
whitish specks on the caudal. No note was made of the 
colours of the fish, when recent. 



11 



DIMENSIONS. 

LeiigtL from end of snout to tip of caudal S^S inches. 

„ „ base of ditto 425 „ 

„ of head to edge of operculum 1'50 „ 

I, „ gill-opening 1'20 „ 

firet dorsal 1-25 „ 

Long diaractov of orbit 0-40 „ 

Breadth of head at gill-cover 0!)0 „ 

Height of body at nape 0-55 „ 

Height at middle of second dorsal 055 „ 

Breadth of body there 075 „ 

Geuus Haupagifer. Richardson. 

Ch. Gen. Caput horizonlale, supra planum, triangu- 

lare. 
Corpus in caudam maxime compressam scnsim e hiimero 

attenuatiim. 
Squamas iiiilla. Linea lateralis antlce trans niicham cvm 

pari suo conjugata ram ill urn que ad orlilam utramque 

emUtens in summo dorso cursutn tenens et ad medium 

basis pinna- dorsi secundce dcsinens. 
Os parvinn ierminale. Dentes mandibularum minuii, 

subulati, suljincurii,stipati. Palatum lingitaque laves. 
Oculi viodici, laterales. Ossa siiborbitalia. Preoperculum 

inerme, ellipticum. Interopevculum gracile, spatula- 

forme, preupervnlo occidtum. Operculum spinani ha- 

mifcram sursiim extrudens. Suboperculum spinam 

rectam aque insignem eviHiens. 
Apertura branchiarum satis magna nee tamen sub guld 

extensa. Membrana branchiostega radiis sex sustentata. 
Pinnae dorsalis ducB, quarum prior radiis paucis Jiexi- 

bilibus sustentata. Pinnae ventrales Eleotridum. 
Vesica pneumatica nulla. Caeca pylorica tria. 
Obs. Genus inter CalUonymum et Platypterum collo- 

candum. 

Harpagifer bispinis. Richardson. 

Species unica adhuc cognita. 

Radii:— B. 6; D. 81—24; A. 17; C. 11|; P. ; \.\\b. 

Batrachus bispinis. Bl. Schn. 45. 

Callionyvius bispinis. I. R. Forster. M.S. IV. 45. 

Plate VII., figs. 1, 2, 3, natural size. 

This small fish abounds among the kelp, on the shores 
of Cape Horn. Many specimens were taken, but they 
are all injured by deterioration of the spirit into which 
they were put, so that the true distribution of the dark bars 
or spots cannot be determined, and some uncertainty exists 
with respect to the exact shape of the first dorsal, though 
there is none as to the number of the rays. It seems to 
be, unquestionablj', the fish described by Forster, in the 
notes quoted above. The description, the size of the spe- 
cimens, and the locality, correspond. Forster notes the 
colour of his specimens as being blackish-brown above, 
with an intermixture of orange-red on the head ; the 
second dorsal, pectorals and caudal, as being varied with 
orange-red and brown, and the under surface of the body 
as pale orange, the anal having a deeper tint of the same. 
He enumerates also a ray less in the second dorsal, and 



one more in the anal, than the individual we liave described 
below possesses, but a similar variation exists in Sir James 
Ross's specimens. The course of the lateral line corre- 
sponds with Forster's account of it ; but the line of jjores 
on the middle of the sides could be traced only at the 
base of the caudal fin, owing, most probably, to the skin 
being softened and worn. 

The height and breadth of the fi.sh is greatest at the 
gills, the head being a short pyramid, and the body a 
greatly elongated one, with the plane connecting the tips 
of the opercular and subopercular spines for a common 
base. The top of the head behind the eyes is flat, and 
slightly concave, without ridges. The eyes are placed 
high up, and the snout anterior to them is short and trian- 
gular. The length of the head is contained 3j times in 
the whole length of the fish, and its breadth at the hind 
head, when the gill-covers are open, is equal to its length. 
Before the eyes the profile descends obliquely to the tip 
of the snout. The under surface of the head and breast 
is flat, and the ventral line ascends slightly from the ven- 
trals to the tail, in correspondence with the inclination of 
the back. The height of the tail, at the base of the caudal 
fin, is equal to a third of the height of the nape. The eye 
is 1 diameter of the orbit from the tip of the snout, and 
1^ from the gill-opeuing, Sg^ diameters being equal to the 
length of the head. 

The mouth is small, horizontal, and terminal, the lower 
jaw being just perceptibly longer than the upper one. 
The jaws are very little protractile. The very short teeth 
are subulate, slightly curved, and crowded into a small 
tuft at the symphyses above and below, but reduced almost 
to a single row on the limbs of the jaws. There is a nar- 
row velum behind them on both jaws. The tongue and 
roof of the mouth are smooth. The maxillary increases 
gradually in breadth to its lower end, which is truncated, 
and moves over the limb of the lower jaw. A very short 
part only of its slender upper end glides under the edge 
of the preorbitar. 

Preorbitar narrow, not toothed, but having a cavernous 
or cellular structure, which is concealed by the integument. 
The rest of the suborbitar chain is reduced to a row of 
little eminences, with porous mouths, closely skirting the 
eye beneath and behind, and leaving a large, fleshy, convex 
cheek. The preoperculum has an obtuse semi-elliptical 
curve, with a rather narrow disk, equally wide throughout, 
and without any projection at the curve. In drying, the 
integument permits cavities on the disk to appear. The 
interoperculum is slender and cylindiical, and is concealed 
under the edge of the preoperculum. The end which joins 
the suboperculum is dilated, so as to give the form of a 
spatula to the entire bone. The operculum ends in a strong 
spine, which stands upwards, and a little outwards, and 
gives off' from its inner side, near its tip, a hooked antler- 
like branchlet. The suboperculum ends in a straight hori- 
zontal spine, having a slight notch at its tip. When the 
gill-plates are raised, the spines project laterally, and a 
narrow border of membrane runs between them, to the 
extreme edge of which the branchiostegous membrane is 
united at an acute angle, and several of the rays show 
between the opercular and subopercular spines. The sub- 
operculum also sends off vertically a filiform, flexible, 

c 2 



12 



cartilaginous ray, which lies in the branchiostegous mem- 
brane, above the uppermost ray, and parallel to it, and 
might be easily mistaken for a seventh ray. There is a 
deep notch on the upper edge of the operculum, above 
the spine, which is filled by membrane. The gill-opening 
is pretty large, but mostly vertical. The branchiostegous 
rays are cylindrical and slender, and the membrane, when 
extended, bulges, from the greater narrowness of its 
edge. 

There are no scales ; the skin being smooth, and appa- 
rently destitute of skinny processes. The lateral line com- 
mences at the orbit, unites with its fellow by a transverse 
line on the nape, then runs to the upper angle of the gill- 
opening, and from thence crosses the shoulder to the base 
of the second dorsal, at the middle of which it terminates. 
At first it is traced by a series of contiguous tubes, with 
open mouths, but before it terminates by three or four 
pores only, without the tubes. Two or three pits may be 
seen, with difficulty, at the base of the caudal, on the 
level of its middle rays, as if the line had recommenced 
there. 

The pectoral and caudal fins are rounded in outline. 
The first dorsal is somewhat triangular, and is supported 
by three flexible, filiform, jointless rays. All the rays of 
the second dorsal (twenty-four) are jointed, and the last one 
is divided to the base. The anal contains seventeen rays, 
the last being divided, and all of them jointed. The 
ventrals, in position and form, resemble those of an Eleo- 
tris. They are a little in advance of the pectorals. The 
spine is short, and has a flexible tip. 

The original colours have perished, but the specimens 
still show oblique dark bands on the body and second 
dorsal, and three or four narrow transverse bands on the 
pectorals and caudal. 

The skeleton shows a very short occipital spine, which 
does not rise above the hind head, and is not visible in the 
recent fish. The vertebrae are thirty-five, of which eleven 
are abdominal and twenty-four caudal. The peritoneum 
is silvery, with minute dark brown specks. The liver, 
broad, thin, and rounded, lies on the ventral surface of 
the upper part of the stomach, embracing the oesophagus, 
and having a fissure on the left side, to half its depth, sepa- 
rating a small obtuse tongue-shaped lobe. Stomach nearly 
globular, with a very short pyloric branch on the right 
side. The intestine makes a short convolution on the right 
side of the stomach, not descending to the fundus of that 
viscus, and then runs straight to the anus. Three short 
conical ca;ca surround the pylorus. There is no air- 
bladder. The stomach filled more than half the belly, 
and contained Cruntacea. A parasitic worm was half 
buried in the liver. 



DIMENSIONS. 

Length from tip of snout to end of caudal fin 2-.35 inches. 

„ „ upper angle of gill-opening 0-6.1 „ 

„ ., point of opercular spine ... 075 „ 

Breadth between tips of opercular spines 0-78 „ 

,1 „ subopercular ditto 085 „ 

Height of nape 040 

Length of caudal 040 „ 

Diameier of eye 0-18 ^^ 



Cu^NiCTHYs. Richardson. 
Channicthys, Richardson. Ann. Nat. Hist., June, 1844. 

Caput magnum, cranio scabro, subtetragono, facie hori- 
zontali ante oculos longd, lateraliterque per parietes 
oris membranaceos dilatabiles auctd. 

Faux laxissima, horizontalis, terminalis ; rictu superne 
ab ossibus interniaxillaribiis (satis mobilibus nee tamen 
propter pedicelLorum eximiam brevitatem protract ilibus) 
facto. Os maxillare gracile, paulo in f curvatmn, un- 
guium tantum oris attingens, nee sub aciem ossis preor- 
bitalis reddens. 

Dentes in ambitii oris breves, curvati, slipati. Vomer et 
palatum edentati. Ossa pharyngis denticulata. 

Oculi largiusculi, laterales. 

Narium apertura anteriores ante articulos ossium maxil- 
lariiim posita; a posterioribus remotce. 

Os preorbitale oblique flabelliforme, rostro brevius : ossa 
suborbitalia sequentia minima, scabriuscula, orbitam 
subter cingentia. 

Gena magna, nuda, inermis, nee mode Triglorum osse 
suborbitaU secundo percursa. 

Ossa operculi parva, una cunt tncinhrand rDinicetcnIi cir- 
cumeuntique operculum modicuui triaugulare confi- 
cientia. Os operculare propriuin, tri/nirlilum : pars 
postica ad marginem sublibera et in apicibus quinque 
subspinosis divisa. 

Apertura branchialis amplissima intra ramos maxiUce in- 
ferioris procedens. Membrana branchiostega lata, 
radiis sex gracilibus teretiusculis sustentata. Areas 
branchiarum quatuor, liberi, et lamina una operculo 
adnata. 

Corpus teres, modo Triglorum in caudam gracilem sensim 
attenuatum, ventre tumidiusculo. 

Squamae vera; nullcB. Cutis Iwvis. Linea lateralis post 
Jinem pinnce dorsi secundce diffracta denuoque ad basin 
pinncB caudcB desinens, per totum cursum suuni scutellis 
scabris armata. Scutelli rotundi pauci in medio latere 
spars i. 

Pinnae ventrales ante pectorales positcB. Pinnte ventrales 
jrinnas Triglae simulantes. Dorsales du<B, quarum prior 
alta, triangularis ; secunda longa, radiis setaceis, sim- 
pliciusculis, arlicu'atis sustentata. Radii pinnce ani 
omnes articulati cum apicibus modo Trachinorum de 
membrana extantibus. Pinnee pectorales wajusculw, 
rotundatiB, non pedicellatcB, radiis omnibus divisa. 

Papilla genitalis simplex, parva. 

Vesica aeris nulla. 

Ventriculus oi'a//s, ramo brevi asccndenti ; cceca pglorica 
dua brevia. 

Ods. Genus inter Hmmerocwlem et Comephorum locandum. 
Nomen ab xaira hisco, et Ix^u^ piscis derivatum.* 



* In constructing a generic name from these Greek words., I followed, 
at first, the example of Ovid (De Piscibus), who wrote Channe as the 
Latin derivative from X''"''") l"'' •' l^^s been suggested to me, that the 
conjunction of this adopted Latin word with a Greek one, is not so 
proper as following the Greek orthography in both ; and I have, there- 
fore, altered Channicthtjs to CU(Enicthys. I was precluded from using 
the word Channe alone, from its having been the designation of a Medi- 
terranean fish. 



13 



Ch.ENICTIIYS lUIlNOCKKATUS. Ilicliavilsoii. 

Species uiiica adliuc cognita. 

Rauii :— B. 6 ; D. 7|— 34 vel 35 ; A. 33 ; C. 1 H ; P. -22 ; 
V. l!5. 

Plate VI., figs. 1, 2, and 3. 

This fish has a general resemblance to the Gurnards, or 
Prionotes, in the form of the head, the tapering body, and 
the fins, but is without the free pectoral rays. The head 
makes one-third of the length of the fish, exclusive pf the 
caudal fin, and from its width, its bidk is in still greater 
proportion. Its great size is chiefly owing to the extent 
of the face and mouth. It is wider than the body, and the 
flat top of the somewhat cubical cranium is continuous 
with the straight line of the back : before the eyes the pro- 
file is slightly concave. The snout is formed of the 
fiontal bone, lengthened into two low, transversely rounded 
ridges, separated by a narrow mesial furrow, and is 
enlarged laterally to the full width of the head, by the 
soft, extensible walls of the ample month. Almost all the 
bony parts of the head have a more or less granular or 
radiated surface, as in the Gurnards, but the bony case is 
less complete than in that genus, much smooth integument 
interposing between the plates of bone. The vomer ap- 
pears on the upper surface of the tip of the snout, between 
the ends of the frontal processes, in form of a small circu- 
lar plate, with a central umbo, or horn. This plate is 
flanked on each side by the narrow ends of the nasal 
bones, and the points of the palate bones, which likewise 
show through the integument, marking the breadth of the 
truncated end of the snout. The articulating knob of the 
maxillary is contiguous to the tip of the nasal bone on each 
side. The truncation of the proper snout is not, at first 
sight, evident, for the intermaxillaries, lying at their sym- 
physis in the same place with the frontal processes, con- 
stitute the anterior extremity of the head, which is thin 
vertically, but widely curved laterally. Their pedicles 
being very short, admit of no protrusion, but being con- 
nected by soft parts to the proper extremity of the snout, 
have a vertical hinge-like motion. The limbs of the lower 
jaw meet at the symphysis in a rather acute ellipse, and 
have a small knob beneath. The under jaw is fully equal 
to the upper one in length. Its articulation being under 
the centre of the eye, admits of a very wide gape, but the 
horizontal orifice of the mouth is restricted to about two- 
thirds of the length of the jaw, by membranes, which 
include the maxillaries, and fold up as the mouth closes. 
The surface of the articulating piece of the lower jaw is 
furrowed, and roughl}' granular. 

Both jaws are armed with flat bands of fine card-like 
teeth, the bands narrowing to a point at the corners of the 
mouth. There is a narrow velum immediately behind the 
dental surface, above and below. The roof of the mouth 
is toothless. 

The maxillaries have a slender, cylindrical shape, slightly 
curved, like the italic f, and becoming thinner, and a very 
little wider, towards the end which touches the corner of 
the mouth, and plays along the limb of the lower jaw. 
They are giauulated at the upper end, and striated and 



smooth lower down. Their articulations are entirely pos- 
terior to the intermaxillary pedicles, so that the two bones 
approach only at the corner of the mouth. The very small 
anterior nasal opening is situated close before the articu- 
lating head of the maxillary ; the posterior one is over 
the middle of the preorbitar, and has a short tubular mar- 
gin. The eyes are rather large, the long diameter of the 
orbit being equal to about one-sixth of the length of the 
head. They are two diameters nearer to the tip of the 
gill-cover than to the intermaxillary symphysis. The 
upper edge of the orbits is raised so as to render the inter- 
orbital space concave. The top of the skull is flat, and 
nearly square, and, together with the orbital plates, is 
strongly marked by radiating granular lines. The princi- 
pal centre of radiation on each side is near the base of 
the orbital plate, lines running from it to the edge of the 
orbit, to the occiput, and across the posterior part of tlie 
frontal bone. There are three much smaller radiating 
clusters on the hinder part of the cranium, behind which 
four small rough plates cross the head, and form the pos- 
terior boundary of the skull, while the rough temporal 
bones flank it laterally. A short occipital crest, and two 
roughly striated supra-scajjulars, which pass outwards to 
the humeral chain, are on the same plane with the top of 
the skull and the nape. 

The preorbitar bone has a scalene triangular form, the 
under side being the hypothenuse. It is traversed by fine, 
prominent, smooth, radiating lines, whose tips form teeth 
on the edge of the bone. The preorbitar reaches about 
half way to the intermaxillary symphysis, but there is 
much smooth integument beneath it, and the maxillary 
scarcely touches it, even when the mouth is closed. The 
other bones of the suborbitar chain are small and rough, 
and girdle the under half of the orbit, leaving a large 
naked cheek. The second suborbitar bone has no resem- 
blance, in form or oflrce, to that of the Gurnards. The 
preopercnlum is considerably curved, and has an obtuse 
process, or elbow, a little above the apex of the curve. 
Its disk, including this elbow, is roughly granular. Its 
upper limb is nearly vertical, and is shorter than the under 
one. It is a little distant both fi-om the temporal bone 
and the operculum. The sub-cylindrical intcroperculuni 
is widest at its junction with the suboperculum, and is 
rough and ridged on its surfoce. The bony operculum is 
divided deeply into three diverging parts, exclusive of its 
very short articulating stem. The upper and under parts 
are triangular, and the posterior one is split into five teeth, 
having the spaces between them filled with a notched 
membrane. The posterior and uppermost tooth varies in 
form, being sometimes forked, at otlier times crenated, or 
denticulated. The others point more or less downwards, 
and the lowest and foremost is a little recurved. Thev 
all rise at their tips, with their membrane, from the general 
surface of the gill-cover. The bony part of the suboper- 
culum shows, exteriorly, in form of fine ribs, imbedded in 
the general membrane of the gill-cover, and radiating to- 
wards its edge, beyond which they slightly project. This 
structure approaches to that of the suboperculum of a 
Lophius. The entire gill-cover has a triangular form, 
with an acute tip, which is somewhat curved upwards. 
It is united to tl;e side of the head, at the junction of the 



14 



supra-scapular and humeral bones, and the upper edge of 
the membrane is concave, as is usual with the Scorpienm, 
TrhjUv, &c. 

The gill-opening is ample, extending from the point of 
the supra-scapular obliquely forwards to the throat. The 
membrane is sustained by six roughish, slender raj's. Its 
width is equal to the length of the gill-cover, and its at- 
tachment to the isthmus is opposite to the hinder part of 
the orbit. The bones of the humeral chain are partially 
rough. The large rounded pectorals are remarkably ses- 
sile, having no pedicle whatever. They contain twenty 
rays, exclusive of a short adnate one above, all of which 
are more or less forked. The connecting membrane is 
delicate. The ventrals are attached well before the pec- 
torals. Their first three jointed rays are thickened at the 
tips, and with the shorter spinous ray are enveloped in 
thick integument. The two last rays are branched as 
usual. The first dorsal, high and triangular, is supported 
by slender rays, which are partially roughened by acute 
grains. The second and third rays are the tallest, and 
exceed the height of the body. Its first ray stands over 
the tip of the gill-cover, and a little behind the ventrals. 
The second dorsal, which is lower, longer, and even, is 
supported by thirty-five setaceous rays, covered by rough 
integument. The rays appear to be'simple, but, on close 
examination, they were all found to be jointed, and to 
have a dark line down their middles. The space between 
the fir.st and second dorsals is equal to about two-thirds 
of the base of the former. The anal fin has much resem- 
blance to that of a Traclunus. It is supported by thirty 
jointed rays, whose tips are free, and it has no spine. It 
commences beneath the seventh ray of the second dorsal, 
and reaches a little beyond that fin. The caudal, which 
is rather small, and even at the end, contains twenty-three 
rays, viz., eleven of the full length, and the rest graduated 
above and below. 

The lateral line runs parallel to the back, and very near 
it, and is armed by eighty-three small saddle-shaped 
shields to midway between the end of the second dorsal 
and the base of the caudal. It is there interrupted, the 
short lower portion commencing a little further forward, or 
opposite to the end of the anal fin, and ending at the base 
of the caudal, between the two middle rays. This part is 
armed by twelve shields, making ninety-five in all. All the 
shields are rough, and they diminish gradually, as they 
recede from the shoulder. On the middle line of the side, 
where the muscles decussate, there are four or five round 
shields, of a similar structure, placed at irregular distances, 
and varying in size and number in different specimens. 
There are no other scales. 

The ground colour of a specimen preserved in spirits is 
purplish-brown, varied by numerous round, or oblong, 
anastomosing dark spots. The under surface of the fish, 
including the anal fin, is pale yellow, or white. The 
other vertical fins, and the pectorals, have leaden coloured 
membranes, with dark rays. The ventrals are partially 
dark. 

The stomach is moderately large, and of an ovoid form, 
the fundus being obtuse. An ascending branch, having 
about a quarter of the capacity of the body of the stomach, 
separates from it at its upper third. The walls are thick, 



and, together with the short oesophagus, are coarsely plaited 
interiorly. Close beneath the narrow pylorus there are 
two wide, short C£eca, the lower of which is twice as long 
as the one which rises from the upper side of the gut. The 
canal is wide near the stomach, but gradually diminishes in 
capacity till it comes near the anus, when it widens a 
little again. The gut makes one complete convolution, 
which reaches three-fourths of the distance from the 
pylorus to the anus, and returning back again, takes a 
straight course to the vent. The ovaries are short, wide, 
cordiform sacs, united at the neck, to form the oviduct. 
They contained, in the specimen which was examined, 
man}' small eggs, and a few larger ones, about the size 
of a swan-shot. Dorsad of the neck of the ovary there 
is a short, wide, forked, or breeches-shaped urinary blad- 
der. The genital papilla is small, conical, and entire. The 
liver, after maceration in spirits, was white and soft, and 
as far as could be ascertained, was entire, or merely with 
a small lobe at its upper end. It covers the ventral surface 
of the right half of the stomach. The branchial arches 
are four, aud are armed exteriorly with a row of small, 
sessile, bristly warts. A few scattered warts only are to 
be found on the inner surfaces, near the bend of the arch. 
The lower limb of each arch is by much the longest, and 
runs far forward between the limbs of the lower jaw. The 
upper and under phageal bones are set with small, subu- 
late, curved teeth. The stomach contained a half-digested 
fish. 

Hab. The kelp-weed on the shores of Kerguelen's land. 
The specimens were caught by the hook. 



DIMENSIONS. 

Length froiu intermaxillary symphysis to extremity of 

caudal flu '. 18-20 inches. 

„ „ end of anal 15-50 „ 
„ „ end of se- 
cond dorsal 15-25 „ 

„ „ beginning of 

anal fin 10-25 „ 

„ „ anus 10-15 „ 

„ „ beginning of 

second dorsal 8-50 „ 

„ „ pectorals ... 6-50 „ 

„ „ first dorsal.. 5-70 „ 

„ „ ventrals 5-60 „ 

„ „ tip of gill- 
cover 6-40 „ 

„ „ tip of occi- 
pital spiue 5-00 „ 

„ „ fore edge of 

orbit 3-00 „ 

„ „ articulation 

of lower jaw 4-20 „ 

Diameter of orbit 100 „ 

Breadth betneen eyes 1"22 „ 

„ „ tips of maxillaries, (mouth extended) 4-60 „ 

of hind head 2-20 „ 

„ of shoulder 2-35 „ 

Height of nape 2-80 „ 

„ first dorsal 3-50 „ 

„ second ditto 1-40 „ 

„ anal 100 „ 

Length of pectoral 2-85 „ 

„ ventrals 285 „ 

caudal J-56 „ 



15 



Pagetodks. 

Th. 'jraytTahf, yelu adstriclus. 

Plate VIII., fig. 3, natural size. 

When the ships were in the high latitude of 77° 10' S., 
and long. 1781^", a fish was thrown up by the spray in a 
gale of wind, against the bows of the Terror, and frozen 
there. It was carefully removed, for the purpose of pre- 
servation, and a rough sketch was made of it by the sur- 
geon, John Robertson, Esq., but before it could be put into 
spirits, a cat carried it away from his cabin, and ate it. 
The sketch is not sufficiently detaileH to show either the 
number or nature of the gill and fin rays, or whether the 
skin was scaly or not, so that even the order to which the 
fish belongs is uncertain ; and we have introduced a copy 
of the design, merely to preserve a memorial of what 
appears to be a novel form, discovered under such peculiar 
circumstances. The ground colour of the body is pale 
blue ; much of the head, and the vertical bands are dark 
neutral tint, and minute dark specks are scattered over the 
body and caudal fin. The foUowiug measurements were 
noted. 

Extreme length ei\ inches. 

Length of head to tip of gill-cover 2 „ 

„ mouth li ,, 

„ pectoral fin IJ „ 

Breadth of ditto, when expanded 1 „ 

Length of ventrals 2 „ 

Breadth of caudal fiu Yo n 

Diameter of body, nearly 1 „ 

„ small part of tail ^ „ 



fins. The fin membranes are not thick, and permit the 
slender rays to be easily seen. 

Rays:— D. 3j— 1-2 ; A. 7 ; C. 9 ; P. 11 ;* V. 5. 

All the rays of the second dorsal and .anal arc jointed, 
but the first nine of the former, and only the first one of 
the latter, are simple, the others being forked. The rayed 
part of the pectoral forms an angle with its supporting arm, 
so that the whole length of the fin is only two-thirds of 
the sum of the two parts, separately measured. The gill- 
opening is situated in the axilla of the pectoral arm, on 
its under side. The number and position of the filaments 
may be easily made out from the figure, without a detailed 
description. 

The colours of the specimen in spirits are reddish-white, 
with bluish-black markings, edged and spotted with milk- 
white. In their distribution on the body and tail, they are 
not without resemblance to those of Cheironpcles marino- 
ralun, brought by Lesson from the coast of New Guinea,t 
and are still more like those of the Baudroie Geocjraphique, 
of the Voya<je da Freyciiiet, plnnche 65, Jig. 3. 

DIMENSIONS. 

Length from the upper lip to extremity of caudal fin ... 2-82 inches. 

„ „ anus 1-42 „ 

„ „ edge of preoperculum 110 „ 

Height of the body at the ventrals 1-25 „ 

Thiclness of ditto at the pectorals 0'70 „ 

Length of the pectoral arm 060 „ 

„ „ rays 050 „ 

„ „ caudal fin 082 „ 

Hab. Fields of sea-weed in the Tropical Atlantic. 



Cheironectes pictus. Cuvier. Var. vittatus. 
Plate IX., figs. 3, 4, natural size. 

A single specimen of this fish was obtained in the 
Atlantic, on a field of Sargasso sea-weed, on the 4th of 
August, 1843. It is in excellent preservation, and from 
the rigidity of its expanded fins, and the stiffness of its 
filaments, it was probably plunged, while still alive, into 
strong spirits. This has enabled the artist to make a cor- 
rect delineation of it, and on that account we publish the 
figure, though rating the fish only as a variety of a well- 
known species. 

The body is rather higher than that of pictus, as repre- 
sented in plate 364 of the Histoire des Poissons, and the 
filaments are broader, and much more numerous. It 
agrees with the description of the Cheironectes leevigatus 
of the same work, in the slenderness of the first free dorsal 
ray, which has a small, spongy, globular tip, and in the 
more continuous dark markings of the body, but Dr. 
Mitchill's figure of Lophius yibbits,* which is referred by 
M. Valenciennes to lanigatus, has more resemblance to 
the pictus of the Histoire des Poissons, than to our fish. 

The skin o{ vittatus is smooth to the touch, and appears 
polished to the naked eye, but under a lens of moderate 
power it is seen to be granulated with soft, contiguous, 
rounded eminences, which also exist on the bases of the 

* Phil. Ti-ans. of New York, 1 , pi. 6, f. 9, 



Cheironectes trisignatus. Richardson. 

Ch. Spec. Ch. hispidus, circumscriptione laterale ovato ; 
fascia humerali, et fascia annulari caudte lacteis ; 
pnnctus tribus, rotundis, nigrcscentibus in vtroque 
latere ; pinna Cauda medio fasciatd,fenestratini punc- 
tata. 



Radii:— D.3|— 13; A. 7 ; C. 9; P. 
Plate IX., fig. 1. 



V. 5. 



This is a hispid Cheironectes, which I have not been 
able to refer to any described species. The members of 
this group have a strong likeness to each other, and many 
of them have dark spots on the sides, or fins, but differ- 
ently arranged from those of this fish, which has three on 
each side : one on the base of the dorsal, near its middle ; 
one immediately beneath, over the anus, and the third 
directly above the pectoral arm. In the centre of these 
three there is a milky blotch. There is also an irregular 
white mottled band, which descends with a forward bend, 
from the space between the second dorsal, and the third 
anterior ray to the pectoral arm, which it includes. A 
similar band encircles the stump of the tail, and includes 
the posterior edges of the dorsal and anal. The ground 

* It is by an oversight that twelve rays are given to the pectoral iu 
our figure. 

•)- Voyage de la Coquille. 



16 



colour of the body is greyisli, with a purphsh brown 
shining through, and a minute reticulation of lighter lines. 
A brown band crosses the middle of the caudal, interrupted 
bv a niesh-work of clear, transparent spaces. The whole 
skin is thickly studded with little globular eminences, from 
each of which, two divergent, minute, hair-like spines 
stand out. These spinas are equally conspicuous on all 
the fin membranes. 

The first dorsal ray is very slender, rises from a globular 
base, and terminates in a single lanceolate membranous 
tip. The third ray is closely bound down by the skin. 
The profile is more arched than that of /lispidii.':, and most 
of the species nearly allied to it. The thickness of the 
shoulder is but little more than a fourth of its height. 

DIMENSIONS. 

Length from upper lip to tip of caudal fin 1-55 inches. 

Height at the ventrals 070 „ 

Greatest thickness 018 „ 

Length of the caudal fin 040 ,. 

Cheironectes POLIT0S. Richardsoii. 

Cheironectes potiUts. Richardson, Zool. Trans., vol. iii., part 2, p. 1.33. 

Plate IX., fig. 2, natural size. 

This species belongs to the little group of Cheironectes 
which have the second and third dorsal rays united by 
membrane, to form an anterior fin, and more elongated 
bodies than the other members of the genus. Two exam- 
ples of the same group are made known in the Histoire 
des Puissons ; one having a rough .skin, the other so much 
more smooth that it has received the name of l(Bri.s, yet 
it is said to be furnished with scabrous points, similar to 
those of hirsutus in structure, thongh a little less rude to 
the touch. The subject of the present notice is perfectly 
smooth and soft, and a powerful eye-glass reveals no ine- 
qualities in the skin. It is without skinny appendages, 
at least in the state in which we have received it. The 
gill-opening, with a tubular lip, is situated behind, and 
a little above the level of the pectoral arm. The work 
above referred to contains a description of the fish, but it 
requires the following slight corrections in the account of 
the fins, as I have ascertained by minute examination and 
dissection. 



Ravs:— D. 11 



17; A. 9 ; C. 9; P. 9 ; V. l|4. 



The two anterior rays of the second dorsal are graduated, 
and enclosed in the membrane, so as to look like one ray, 
until dissected. They are a little shorter than the third, 
which is the tallest of all. The fin lowers in the middle 
by a slight curve, rising again near the end, which is 
rounded off. All the rays are single, tapering, and strongly 
jointed. The same is the case in the anal, whose first two 
rays are also enclosed in the same membranous sheath. 
The figure erroneously shows five rays in the ventrals. 
There are but foin-, and an extremely short spine, which is 
discovered with difficulty. 

H.\B. The northern coasts of Van Diemen's Land, Port 
Arthur. 



Batrachus dubius. White } 

Ch. spec. B. nigra, fuscoque variiis, piiinis nigrescenli- 
bus, fiisco-striatis ; denlihus subiilato-conicis nnise- 
rialibns, in npice tantum ma.villcB inferioris diiplicalis ; 
Jilamentis tribus superciliaribus. 

Radii:— Br. 6; D. 3)— 19; A. 18; C. 13; P. 22; V. 1|2. 

Plate X., figs. 1, 2, natural size. 

In the appendix to his ' Journal of a Voyage to New 
South Wales,' by John White, Esq., published in 1790, 
the author notices, very briefly, a fish about six inches long, 
under the title of Lop/iius dubius : nigricans subtiis pal- 
lidus. He says nothing more of it than that the " general 
colour is a very deep brown, almost black ; the mouth is 
extremely wide, and furnished with several rows of very 
sharp teeth. Many ova were found on opening it, which 
were very large in proportion to the fish." The figure 
which accompanies this notice is execrable, and almost 
nseless as a means of determining the species. The 
teeth of the lower jaw are represented as brush-like, or 
villiform, and we find that, in the Histoire des Poissous, 
White's fish is referred to the Batrachus Dussumieri, 
which has villiform teeth. All the specimens, however, of 
Batrachus, which we have seen from the port of Sidney, 
where White procured his, belong to a species having the 
teeth and general form of B. grunniens, with colours ap- 
proaching those of -B. Dussumieri ; and it seems, therefore, 
fair to conclude, until another species be detected in the 
same quarter, that this is the fish figured by White, and 
we have, therefore, given an exact figure, under his specific 
name. 

The Batrachus dubius appears to have a wider and thicker 
body at the pectorals than grunniens, and a shorter head, 
with a larger eye. The teeth are in single rows on the 
jaws and roof of the mouth, except at the symphysis of 
the lower jaw, where they are doubled, bj- the addition of 
an outer row of four or five on each limb. Their form is 
between conical and subulate, much shorter, and more 
slender on the intermaxillaries,* which reach little more 
than half way to the corner of the mouth. The lateral 
ones on the lower jaw are stouter and blunter, and those 
on the arch of the vomer and palatine bones still more so. 
Tw'o narrow villiform bands, rather distant from each other, 
cross the upper pharyngeal bones on each side. A single 
broader band is opposed to those beneath, on each side. 
The lips at the roots of the jaw-teeth, without and within, 
are crenated by minute, soft, black eminences. The fila- 
ments on the head appear to be more ninnerous than in 
grunniens, but from the extreme laxity of the skin some 
address is required in ascertaining their true number and 
form. Mr. Mitchell has exhibited them in the figure very 
acciu'atel}'. There are open pores beneath the eye, two or 
three above the orbit, a cluster at the articulation of the 
lower jaw, and a row along the disk of the preoperculum. 
There is no hole in the cheek, behind the corner of the 
mouth, as in grunniens. The mouth does not open farther 

* In grunniins the iutermaxillarj teeth are Tillifonn. — Histoire da 
Poissons. 



17 



back than the fore part of the orbit, being proportionally 
smaller than that of gnouiieiis. The upper and under 
lateral lines are marked by a double row of pores. The 
upper opercular spine is longer than the under one, which 
equals the subopercular spine in length. A cartilaginous 
ray curves upwards from the upper axil of the suboper- 
cular spine, and supports the membrane beyond the tip of 
the lower opercular spine. 

The dark parts of the fish are ])ilch-black, the light 
parts different shades of brown, approaching on the belly 
to brownish, or purplish-grey. The light spots on the 
pectorals form a net-work, with circular meshes. 

The first ray of the ventrals is thick at the base, 
closely jointed, tapers to a fine point, and is bordered 
with membrane anteriorly. The second is divided and 
branched An extremely short spine, that cannot be 
detected without dissection, is incumbent on the base of 
the first ray. The second dorsal spine is taller than the 
third one. All three are distinct at their bases, and are 
not visible until sought for among the loose skin of the 
back. The last ray of the dorsal and anal is divided to 
the base. The anterior rays of the anal are shorter than 
tlie rest, and not easily found under their flaccid covering, 
so that only about sixteen rays show, as in the figure, but 
there are, in reality, eighteen, all branched at the tips, and 
jointed. The loose skin in the axil of the rounded pec- 
toral is perforated by a hole, in the specimen figured, but 
in others the skin is entire at this place. 

DIMENSIONS. 
Lengdi from upjier lip (letracted) to end of cauilal fin ... 8-20 inches. 

„ ,, anus 3-70 „ 

„ „ tip of gill-cover ... 2-36 „ 

„ „ centre of orbit Oo5 „ 

Breadth between the orbits 0-62 „ 

Height of body at pectorals , 1-88 „ 

Thickness there .' 1-50 „ 

Length of caudal liu 1-35 „ 

„ pectorals 1-75 „ 



Obs. Ad payinam 12, lin. 39, pro " ventrales"' lege " rerticales." 

Bateachus diemensis. Lesueur. 

Ch. Spkc. B. esquamosus, umbrlnus ; nehulis piDictisqiie 
confertis niyro-fuscis ; subopercnlis bispinosis. 

Radii : B. 6 ; D. 3|— 20 ; A. 17 ; C. 15 ; P. 23 ; V. i;2. 

Batrachoides diemensis. Lesueur, Joum. Acad. Nat. Sc. Philad., p. 402. 
Batrachus quadrispinis. Cuv. et Val. xii., p. 487. 

Balrachus diemensis. Richardson, Annals N:it. Hist., x. p. 352, descrip- 
tion of a dried specimen, imperfect. 

Plate VIII., figs. I and 2, natural size. 

In the Journal of the Academy of Sciences of Philadel- 
phia as quoted above, M. Lesueur has described a 5a/ra- 
chus preserved in the gallery of the Jardin des Planles, at 
Paris, in a bottle, marked " C C, No. 1." This is most 
probably the same specimen which is named B. quadri- 
spinis, in the Hisloire des Poissoiis, and is therein stated 
to have been brought from the Indian Ocean, by Peron. 
M. Valenciennes, at least, who has the best opportunity of 
knowing, considers diemen.'iis and quadrispiins to be but 



one species ; and in adopting his opinion, we employ the 
name which has the right of prior publication, though it 
is less characteristic. M. Lesueur's description agrees 
with our specimens, except in the number of superciliary 
cirrhi, of which he counts only two, and of the anal and 
pectoral rays ; the extreme looseness of the integument, 
however, exposes the examiner to error in his enumeration 
of these parts ; and had we not had the advantage of in- 
specting specimens, whose fin-membranes were nearly re- 
moved by putrefaction, our reckoning would have been the 
same as that of the Histoire des Poissons. 

The profile of the comparatively small head is flatly 
arched above, the summit of the dorsal curve being at the 
first dorsal fin, where the body is considerably higher than 
elsewhere. 

The number and position of the cirrhi may be more 
readily ascertained by an inspection of the figures, than 
by any description, however elaborate, and we have only 
to say, that in most cases, if not in all, they are the elon- 
gated margins of pores. There are also open pores, with- 
out elevated edges, on the under border of the orbit, and 
on the disk of the preoperculum. Besides the upper and 
under lateral lines, there is a middle one, with more distant 
cirrhiferous pores, which are less easily discovered. 

The teeth on the jaws, vomer, and palate bones are very 
short, and closely villiform. On the lower jaw the dental 
plate expands forward at the symphysis, and tapers to a 
point at the coiner of the mouth. The intermaxillaries 
form only half the upper border of the mouth, and their 
teeth are in a single row, except at the symphysis where 
the series is doubled or trebled. The pharyngeal teeth are 
longer, more uneven and setaceous than those on the jaws. 
The middle dorsal spine is taller than the third one, and 
they are more separated at the base than they appear to be 
when seen through the membrane, as they are in our figure. 
The last rays of the second dorsal and anal are di\ided 
to the base. All the rays of these fins are jointed, and the 
foremost two or three of the anal are short, graduated, 
and so bound together by membrane, that in the recent 
fish they will be generally reckoned as only one ray. The 
three middle filiform branchiostegous rays are so approxi- 
mated at the base, as to look like branches of one ray, and 
they separate less in the membrane than the other rays. 
The subopercular spines are a little shorter than the oper- 
cular ones, and the under spine of each piece is only half 
the length of the upper one. The anus is in the middle 
of the fish. 

After long maceration in spirits, the colours of the darker 
parts, including the minute dots generally dispersed over 
the body and fins, are deep umber and liver browns, ap- 
proaching to black. The lighter parts, including the belly 
and bars on the tail, are pale broccoli-brown, verging on 
purplish-grey. 

DIMENSIONS. 

Lcnjith from upier lip to end of caudal fin 4-25 inches. 

" „ " „ anus 2-12 „ 

„ „ gill-opening 120 „ 

„ „ centre of eve 037 „ 

Diameter of orbit ". 0-21 „ 

Height of body 1-20 „ 

Thickness of shoulder 095 „ 

Length of caudal fin 084 „ 



18 



Hab. The nortliern and western coasts of Australia, 
Port Essington ; Houtmans Abrolhos, Swan River colony. 
(We have seen no specimen from Van Diemen's Land). 

NOTOTHENIA CORNUCOLA, vide p. 8. 

Ch. spec. N. capite nudo, Icevi, squamis in regioiiihus 
suprascapularihus millis, operculis superue squamosis ; 
pinnis dorsi contiguis ; corpore fusco, vario ; gend 
oblique fasciatd. 

Radii :— Br. 6 ; D. 5|— 32 ; A. 29 ; C. 13|; P. 19; V. 1|5. 

Plate XL, figs. 3, 4, natural size. 

Having, through the kindness of Mr. Gray, had an op- 
portunity of inspecting a collection of Falkland Island 
fish, I am enabled to give a fuller account of the species of 
Notothenia than I could from Sir James Ross's specimens. 
The figures of N. cornucola, in the former fasciculus, having 
been taken from worn and mutilated examples, and the 
ventral fins having, through inadvertence, been altogether 
omitted (in Plate VIIL, fig. 4 and 5), the defect is sup- 
plied by more correct representations. 

The specimens, which are preserved in spirits, have the 
back, sides and head of a clear umber, or chestnut-brown 
colour, varied by a paler yellowish-brown, in a clouded or 
banded pattern. An oblique pale stripe crosses the fore 
part of the cheek, and is defined above and below by dark 
umber brown blotches ; the base of the pectoral is crossed 
by a dark bar, and the hinder part of the first dorsal is 
black, as in most other species. The space between the 
ventrals is more scaly than appeared from the injured spe- 
cimens, but the scales over the whole of that region are 
small, and deeply imbedded in the mucous skin. The 
teeth are subulate, and rather long for the size of the indi- 
vidual, as compared with some of the other species. They 
form two or three rows in the front of the jaws, and merely 
a single series on the sides. The vela are, as in the others, 
large, and covered with tumid-lipped pores. Length, six 
inches. 

Hab. Cape Horn, and the Falkland Islands. 

Notothenia virgata. Richardson. 

Ch. Spec. N. capite oheso, nudo, prater tempora et summa 
opercula f:q>i<uii(isii ; colore corporis purpurea, punctis 
violaceis ; ririja )iiiiliiindlatd et altera in snmmo dorso 
tenuiori, pullldifi, iiilaminatis ; fascia obliqnd in buccd. 

Radii:— Br. G; D. 51—32; A. 29; C.15*; P. 22 ; V. I|5. 
Plate XL, figs. 5, 6, natural size. 
This Notothenia resembles cornucola in its naked jjorous 
head, the distribution of the scales on the upper border of 
the operculum, in the cheek stripe, dark mark on the base 
of the pectoral, and in the numbers of the rays of the ver- 
tical fins. It has, however, a fuller bluff head, with large 
lips, and is well distinguished from it and the other species, 
by a broad, longitudinal, pale, spotless stripe on the side, 
and a narrower one adjoining the base of the dorsal. The 
rest of the side has a plum-purple tint, besprinkled with 
dark, violet-coloured dots. The head has also a purple 
hue, and the oblique, pale stripe on the cheek, is bounded 



above and below with dark marks. The first dorsal is, as 
is most usual, black posteriorly ; there are small obscure 
spots on the second dorsal, and a dark line crosses the 
anal rays near their ends. These colours are described 
from specimens kept in spirits. 

The scales along the middle of the sides are finely and 
equally ciliated ; the teeth of the upper and lower ones 
are more minute, and are nearly concealed by the epider- 
mis ; while, towards the middle of the belly, and on the 
top of the back, the teeth of the scales become quite 
obsolete. 

The jaws are armed with a single series of slightly 
curved subulate teeth, which are tallest in front. In the 
up])er jaw only, there are three or four interior teeth in front, 
as tall as the others. The vela are softly granular and 
porous, as in other species. The head forms a fourth of 
the total length of the fish, caudal included, and the 
height of the body is equal to a fifth of the length. 
Length, b^ inches. 

Hab. The Falkland Islands. 

Notothenia marginata. Richardson. 

Ch. spec. N. capite nudo, heri, squamis iantummodo 
panels, inconspicuis ocuhnn inter aperturamque sum- 
mam branchiarum ; pinnis dorsi conne.vis ; pinna dorsi 
secundd pinndque ani nigro tinctis, marginibus pallidis. 

Radii:— Br. 6; D. 6]— 1|.32; A. 28; C.21; P. 20; V. 1|5. 

Plate* XII., figs. 3, 4, natural size. 

This fish has the same kind of bar on the cheek, and 
line across the base of the pectoral, which we observe in 
N. cornucola and virgata, and the head is even less scaly, 
there being only five or six small deeply imbedded scales 
scattered along the line of junction of the gill-cover with 
the cranium. There are none on the supra-scapular re- 
gions, and the top of the supra-scapular itself can with 
difficulty be traced through the integument. Open pores 
exist on the same parts of the head as in the species 
named above, viz. across the snout and nape, along the 
upper hinge of the gill-cover, round the eye, along the 
limbs of the lower jaw, and up the edge of the preopercu- 
lum. One of the nasal openings has an elevated tubular 
mouth situated just before the eye. If there be a second 
opening, it cannot be distinguished from a pore. The gill 
membranes are united beneath, as in the others, the free 
edge over the isthmus being a segment of a circle. The 
pale borders of the anal and dorsal fins form a ready dis- 
tinctive mark of the species. These fins are otherwise 
blurred or blotched with black, but the colours of the fish 
have faded in the spirits. 

The scales of the body are strongly ciliated, except 
those which are on the top of the back, and on the belly, 
and near the anal fin, where the teeth become obsolete. 
The scales of the lateral line are notched at the tip, and 
have a tube on the disk. There are forty such scales on 
the fore part of the line, and ten on the posterior part. 

* It is due to Mr. Mitchell to say, that from a mistake in preparing 
this plate, which was partly executed in lithotint, the drawings have 
been considerably injured. 



19 



The teeth stand in a single series on both jaws, and are 
short, subulate, slightly incurved, becoming gradually 
smaller towards the corners of the mouth. The vela are 
thickly covered with soft, perforated, granular eminences. 
The length of the head is contained thrice and three quar- 
ters in the total length of the fish, which is 4^ inches. 

Had. The Falkland Islands. 

NOTOTHENIA TESSELLATA. Richardsou. 

Ch. Spec. N. squamis leevissimis : capite squamoso ; cor- 

pore sex-fasciato ; pinnd dorsi tessellatd. 

Radii :— Br. 6; D. C|— 33 ; A. 32 ; C. 21 ; P. 22 ; V. 1|5. 

Plate XII., figs. 1, 2, natural size. 

This species has a more extensively scaly head than any 
of the NotoihehicB described in the preceding pages. The 
scales cover the top of the head forward nearly to the 
nostrils, two-thirds of the cheek, and the whole of the gill- 
cover, except a narrow margin, which is smooth. The 
limb of the preoperculum, the whole interoperculum, the 
preorbitar, end of the snout, maxillaries, jaws, and under 
surface of the head are also smooth. The opercular scales 
are larger than the others on the head. The scales on the 
body are small as compared with those of the other Noio- 
IhenicB, there being about eighty in a row between the gill- 
opening and caudal fin. These scales are quite smooth on 
the edge, no teeth being visible through an eye-glass of 
considerable power. They are bounded by four slightly 
convex curves, and one taken from the middle of the side, 
showed thirteen furrows impressed on the basal half. When 
ill fsitii, they are invested with a tliick epidermis, which 
renders their edges blunt, and they feel smooth to the fin- 
ger drawn either way over them. 

The lateral line is traced on scales which are notched 
at the tip, and have two pores on the disk, without any 
visible tubular ridge. The upjjer line can be traced con- 
siderably past the commencement of the lower one. The 
pores of the head are in the same situations as in the other 
species. The free edge of the united gill-membranes is 
curved in the arc of a circle. The length of the head is 
contained three times and a half in the whole length of 
the fish. Both jaws are armed with a row of subulate 
teeth, similar to those of the other species, with two or 
three much smaller ones behind the front teeth, and curved 
backwards. The tongue, large and smooth, has a free, 
rounded tip. The upper and lower vela are glandular. 

The original tints have perished during the immersion 
of the specimen in spirits, but six irregularly wedge- 
shaped bars can be traced, descending from the back down 
the sides. The fins generally have a dark ground. The 
first dorsal is, as usual, mostly deep black, and the second 
is barred with rows of square spots. 

Length, seven inches. 

Hab. The Falkland Islands. 

NoTOTHENiA siMA. Richardson. 
Ch. SPEC. N. capite depressiiisculo parum convexo, squa- 
moso ; corpore Jasciatim nebuloso ; squamis ciliatis. 
Radii:— Br. 6; D. G|— 28 ; A. 28; C. 13|; V. 1|5. 

Plate XT., figs. 1, 2, natural size. 
This Notothenia\ia.s an extensively scaly depressed head. 



The cheek is thickly covered with small scales, excc])t 
about one-third of it, next to the corner of the mouth, 
which is naked. On the temples and supra-scapular re- 
gions the scales are minute ; on the top of the head and 
opercula they are larger and more deeply imbedded in the 
skin, and their form and disposition are less regular be- 
tween the eyes. Most of the scales on the body are 
ciliated. A row of open pores runs along each limb of 
the lower jaw, round the preoperculum, along the najie, 
across the upper edge of the gill-cover, round the orbits, 
and over the end of the snout, as in most of the other 
species. 

The length of the head is contained thrice and two- 
thirds, and the height of the body five times and three 
quarters in the total length. The space between the eyes 
is narrower than the breadth of the orbit. The teeth are 
all short, and in front of the jaws are disposed in several 
rows. 

The original colours of the fish have faded, but some 
dark marks still exist on the cheek and temples. On the 
upper parts of the body and sides the dark tints have a 
clouded and banded form. There are dark marks on the 
base and towards the extremity of the caudal, and some 
obscure spotting on the other two vertical fins, with a 
darkening of the membrane near the tips of the rays. The 
pectorals are obscurely banded ; a few spots exist on the 
ventrals, and the first dorsal exhibits the usual black mark. 

Length, A\ inches. 

Hab. The Falkland Islands. 

Harpagifer BisriNi>s. Vide Y>. 11. 

Ch. spec. H. corpore auraviiaco, fasciis irihus fuscis 
ciiicio ; capite Jusco. 

Radii :— B. 6; D. 4|— 22vel 24 ; A. 17; C. 114; P. 17; 
V. l;5. 

Plate Vll., figs. 1, 2, 3. Plate XII., fig. 8, natural .size, 
fig. 9, magnified. 

The specimens from which the geneiic characters and 
the detailed description of the species were given in the 
preceding fasciculus, as referred to above, had been much 
injured by immersion in brine, and the patterns of colour 
had nearly perished. Through Mr. Gray's kindness, I have 
had an opportunity of examining specimens well preserved 
in spirits, and of making some additions to the account of 
the species. 

The first dorsal in reality contains four spines, the last 
spine being, in some examples, much more conspicuous 
than in others. By a re-examination of Sir James Ross's 
specimens, I detected the fourth spine concealed under 
the integuments. 1 he last ray of the dorsal and anal is 
bound down to the tail by membrane, which extends nearly 
to the base of the caudal. A row of pores runs along 
each limb of the lower jaw, and round the edge of the 
preoperculum to the temples. Another crosses the end ol' 
the snout, follows the edge of the preorbitar, completely 
encircles the eye, then continues along the union of the 
gill-cover with the skull, and, crossing the nape, unites 
with its fellow. All these pores have elevated tubular 

d2 



20 



mouths forming short cirrhi. The structure of the pores 
on the lateral line is the same. A row of minute and dis- 
tant pores, without tubular lips, can be traced from behind 
the pectoral, along the line of origin of the muscles in the 
middle of the sides, to the caudal fin. The skin on the 
iip])er edge of the orbit is tumid, and a small crest, com- 
posed of united tubes, with open mouths, rises from its 
middle. This crest is not uniform, having a more pahuated 
shape in some individuals, while in others the little tubu- 
lar branchlets stand out on every side. Some variation in 
size and form is, perhaps, owing to the season at which 
the specimens were taken, the examples procured by Sir 
James Ross having but a vestige of the crest, even when the 
skin is perfect in that part ; but it is to be observed, that 
many of them have the integuments broken there, as 
if the tubular projections, having been very tender, had 
worn off more readily than the rest of the integument. 
The top of the head and shoulders is studded with little 
round soft grains, and filamentous points, not very visible 
without the aid of a lens; and a few similar grains exist 
on the integuments investing the dorsal rays. All these 
seem to be the tumid lips of minute pores. 

The body ap])ears to have been orange, with three irre- 
gular dark brown bands desceuding from the back. The 
top of the head is dark ; the belly and the fore part of the 
back showing the orange-coloured ground. The second 
dorsal, pectoral, and caudal, are tessellated by squarish, 
blackish-brown spots, confined to the meuibrane. These 
spots form rows, when the fins are fully extended. There 
are also some dark specks on the edge of the first dorsal, 
and a few blotches on the ventrals. The anal is orange, 
and unspotted. 
Length of the specimens generally about three inches. 

Obs. One specimen is entirely destitute of a first dorsal, 
and bears no mark of the back having received any injury. 
Its second dorsal contains twenty-one articulated rays, and 
the anal fin eighteen rays. 

Hab. The Falkland Islands. 

Harpagifer palliolatus. Richardson. 

Ch. Spec. H. strlgd albescenti ah extreme rostra per sum- 
mum dorsum ad caudam tractd ; laterihus fusvis trans- 
verse hifasclatis I corpore infra auranliaco. 



Radii;— Br. 6; D. 3|- 



A. 17; C. U^; P. 16; V. 1|5. 



Plate XII., figs. 5, 6, 7, natural size.* 

I have seen only one example of this form of Harpagifer, 
and am not convinced of its being specifically distinct 
liom bispinis, notwithstanding the very different way in 
which it is coloured. It may be a sexual dress merely. 

Only three spines can be delected in the first dorsal, and 
the supraorbitar crest seems to be composed of a single 
conical tube. In all other parts of external structure, the 
resemblance to bispinis is extremely close. The suboper- 
cular spine is acutely pointed. In bispinis this spine is 
sometimes acute, sometimes notched at the tip. The only 



reason for giving this fish a distinct name, is the milk- 
white streak which connnences on the symphysis of the 
upper jaw, and runs along the middle of the head and 
back to the tail, sending one band down the side towards 
the anus, and another at the end of the second dorsal. 
The maxillaries are also white. The ground-colour of the 
head and sides is greyish-black, fading on the flanks to 
hair brown. The under surface and the fins are marked 
as in bispinis. 

A small crenated flap projects from the fore edge of the 
anus, rather more conspicuously than in the ordinary ex- 
amples of bispinis, and there is a minute genital tubercle 
behind, as shown in figure 7. 

Length, 2'6-2 inches. Length from tip of upper lip to 
anus, rSO inches. 

Hab. The Falklauds. 

Pat^cus. Richardson, Ann. Nat. Hist, for Oct. 1844, 
vol. xiv. p. -280. 

Ch. Gen. Forma compressissima, circiimscriptioiie laterali 
semiparaboUcd ; facie frontatd oblique retro descen- 
denti. 

Os parvum, rictu fere horizonlali parum decliri. Maxilla 
inferior porosa, cirris minimis jinrr/' pn'ilila. 

Dentes minulissiuii, arciKuei in iiinjillis u/risque, ossi- 
busque pliaryiKjeis stipati. Lingua, vomer, palatum- 
que l(Bves. 

Oculi laterales in summd gena positi. 

Ossa capitis operculorumque inermiu, sulcatim iiisculpla. 

Os preorbitale membro tenui verticali : disco in/'ero dila- 
tato, iiiscnlpto. Catenula suborbilalis memhraiiacco- 
tubulala, iiec ossea, oculo remota, e disco preorbitalis ad 
tempera genam transcurrens. 

Apertura branchialis ampla, postice infraque etiam intra 
ramos nia:r///(e inferioris ad mentem usque externa, 
super opercnhiiii c/aiis/i. Membrana branchiostega su- 
perne apuiildid, infra non isthmo annexa nee cum pari 
suo conjugata, radiis sex sustentata. 

Squamae nulla. Cutis Icevissimus. Linea lateralis pos- 
tice summum dorsum atlingens. Anus niedianus, pa- 
pilla nulla. 

Pinnee pectorales satis magna;, pauciradiatoi, humiles, po- 
sitioiie forsitaiique Juiictione veiilrales pinnas quce 
desunt simulantes ; radiis tenuibus mdivisis omnibus 
urticulatis. 

Pinna dorsi pinnam dorsalem Agriopi referens, per totum 
dorsum ab e.vtremo fronte ante ociilos ad pinuam caudte 
usque cui membrana counexa regnans : radiis iirticu- 
lalis ejus et pinncB ani attenuatis vix a radiis uou arti- 
cular ibus, Jiexilibus, uumerosioribus oculo nudo dig- 
noscendis. 

Pinna ani a pinna caudw discreta. Radii piinne caudcc 
indivisi, tenues, articulati. 

Vertebree circiler 35, quarui/i 18 ad caudam perlinentes. 

Pat.ecus fkonto. Richardson. 

Pat<BCUS fronto, species uuica adliuc coguila. 

Radii:— Br. 6; D. 24ll6; A. 11|15; C. 10; P. 8. 

Plate XIII., figs. 1, 2, natural size. 

We have seen but a single example of this very curious 



21 



fisli, which was dried without any ])ii|)aration whatever. 
From the extreme thinness of ihc body, this phm has an- 
swered pretty well, and there does not ajipear to have been 
any material alteration of the natural form. The specimen 
was presented to the British Museum, by His lilxcellency 
Captain George Grey, Governor of South Australia. On 
account of the flexibility of its spinous rays, it ought pro- 
bably to be ranged with the Gohiidai, among which there 
is already another apodal genus, viz. AinirrliiclKiK, but it 
does not possess a genital papilla, and the internal anatomy 
is unknown. In external form, and in the general appear- 
ance and sculpturing of the bones of the head, Pal<ccus 
has some analogy to Agriopux, just as C/ueiiichi/ii/s re- 
sembles Triyla. The habits of the fish are unknown to us. 
This fish is very much compressed, thinning olT on the 
dorsal line to the mere thickness of the bases of the dorsal 
rays, but being obtuse on the belly, before the anus. The 
up]ier profile is parabolic, the curve rising from the over- 
hanging forehead to its summit at the twelfth ray, which is 
opposite to the base of the pectorals. The descent to the 
caudal fin is longer, and more gradual. The face, in de- 
scending towards the mouth, inclines considerably back- 
wards, in a slightly concave line. The rictus of the 
mouth is nearly horizontal ; the under jaw is equal in 
length to the upper one, and lies nearly in a straight line 
with the thorax and belly, as far as the anus. There is a 
little ascent from the anus to the horizontal under profile 
of the tail. The height of the posterior part of the tail is 
scarcely one-eighth of that of the body at the pectorals. 
The greatest thickness of the fish appears to be at the con- 
vex gill-covers, and the compression to augment posteriorly, 
but as the specimen has been dried, the exact thickness at 
the shoulder cannot be ascertained. 1 he anus is midway 
between the upper lip and the base of the caudal. 

The head, measured iiom the brow to the gill-opening, 
forms nearly a third of the total length, caudal excluded. 
It is extremely narrow, on a front view jircscnting nothing 
but the thin edges of the frontal bones, connected by a 
narrow stri])e of membrane, which, in the dried specimen, 
forms a furrow, the eyes and nostrils being entirely lateral. 
The eyes are high up on the cheeks, and the nostrils, which 
are minute, are nearer the profile. The upper opening is 
between two descending processes of the anterior frontal, 
and the lower one, which has a tubular margin, is about 
half way between the eye and the upper lip. 

The mouth, small and low down, is formed above 
entirely by the intermaxillaries, which are moderately 
protractile, their pedicles being about half as long as the 
limbs. The maxillaries widen gradually towards their 
lower rounded ends, and are longitudinally scul])tured. 
The lower jaw equals the upper one in length, and its 
limbs are porous beneath, several of the pores having pro- 
jecting lips forming minute barbels. The intermaxillaries 
and lower jaw are armed with very minute teeth, like 
gi'ains of sand, densely crowded into a moderately wide 
band. The vomer and palate-bones are smooth. The 
pharyngeal bones and the sessile hemispherical rakers are 
armed with nearly microscopical villifonn teeth. 

The suborbitar chain appears to be a mere row of mem- 
branous tubes, curving across the cheek iiom the temples 
at a considerable distance beneath the eye. The preor- 



bitar is, howe\cr, well developed, and presents, close to 
the mouth, an oval bony disk, sculptured in a stelliform 
manner. A narrow process rises from before the cheek, 
to meet a point of tht; anterior frontal, near the angle of 
the eye ; there is a minute point or tooth on the same side 
of the disk, in connexion with the suborbitar chain ; two 
others, equally small, exist on the other side, next the 
maxillary, and the two ends of the disk are obtuse. The 
bone is level with the integument, and does not cover any 
part of the maxillary. 

The frontal bone is arched over the eye, and is entirely 
lateral, its thin edge only being seen above or anteriorly. 
It is sculptured, as are also the occipital and suprascapular 
bones. The preoperculum is curved cUiptically, its upper 
limb being wiaest, and somewhat triangular ; the narrower 
under limb descends considerably, as it runs forward to 
the angle of the mouth. At the union of the lindjs, ]ios- 
teriorly, there is a small corner, rendered more distinct by 
the course of the lines on its surface. The edge of the 
bone is otherwise entire. The interoperculiim ascends ob- 
liquely as it runs backwards, and widens posteriorly in a spa- 
tulate manner. The operculum comes in forwards for nearly 
half its length above the upper disk of the preoperculum, 
and the lines on its surface run towards two distinct points 
on its posterior margin. The suboperculum is rather over 
than behind the interoperculnm, and has a nearly rectan- 
gular disk. All these bones are sculptured, as is also the 
humeral chain, but none have either pungent teeth, or 
serratures. 

The gill-membrane edges the gill-cover, and ends at 
the upper angle, in a small peak, with a notch anterior 
to it. It is supported by six rays, the upper one 
curving round the opercular bones to the upper angle. 
The 0])ening runs under the throat up to the chin, the mem- 
brane having no attachment to the isthmus, and no con- 
nexion with its lellow, except at the point of attachment 
to the lower jaw. 

The dorsal fin commences at the anterior top of the 
forehead, before the eye, and reaches to the end of the 
tail, being united to the caudal fin. Its spinous rays are 
rather stout at the base, particularly anteriorly, but flexible 
at the tips. The second, third, and fourth are tallest; the 
following ones become gradually shorter to the fifteenth or 
sixteenth, alter which they increase in length on to the 
eighth articulated ray. This gradation of the rays, con- 
joined with the curve of the back, gives an almost straight, 
or slightly concave line to the edge of the fin, with a 
rounding ofi' towards the end of the tail. 

The jointed rays taper, and are notreadily distinguishable 
by the'naked eye from the posterior spinous ones. There 
are two or three pairs of minute membranous processes on 
the side of the second dorsal ray, and one pair on the third 
ray. The caudal fin is slightly rounded at the end, eight 
of its rays being nearly of the same length, while the two 
lower ones are shorter and graduated. 'l"he anal fin, with 
considerably less height than the posterior part of the 
dorsal, apitroaches to it in form. It is not connected with 
the caudal, but the last ray is bound to the tail by mem- 
brane. The pectorals are large, over-reaching the anterior 
third of the anal, and are attached near to the ventral sur- 
face. Their rays are slender and tapering, with the tips 



22 



slightly projecting, particularly the lower ones. The rays 
appear simple at first sight, but are not so, each having 
two closely adhering branches. 

The skin is perfectly smooth, and appears to have been 
mucous when recent. Its colour, when dried, is yellowish- 
brown, and there are three pale spots on each side of the 
back, above the lateral line : one under the sixteenth and 
seventeenth rays, the second under the twenty-seventh and 
twenty-eighth rays, and the third and smallest on the base 
of the thirty-fourth dorsal ray. The dorsal fin is clouded, 
and some minute speckling can be traced on the other 
fins. There are about thirty-four or thirty-five vertebrae, 
as nearly as they can be counted through the integuments. 

DIMENSIONS. 

Lens'tli from upper lip to end of cauflal fin 8 75 inches. 

„ „ base of ditto 700 „ 

„ „ anus 3-70 „ 

Height of body at eleventh dorsal ray 300 „ 

„ second dorsal ray 2-7.5 „ 

Length of pectorals 300 „ 

Hab. South Australia. 

ScoRP^NA MiLiTARis. RichardsoH. 

Ch. Spec. Sc. spinis capitis fere Scorpaenae porci ce/bufo- 
nis ; carinis intra-orbitalihus lavibus, apicibus puiigen- 
t ibus ; operculo summo, temporibus, genisque squam osis ; 
orhHis superne forte tridentatis, cirrho unico parvo ; 
cirrhis qiioque tiasalibus ; colore carmesino ; pinna 
dorsi spinosd rivtilatd cum macula nigra obloiigd ad 
marginem pone medium. 

Radii:— Br. 7; D. 12ll0; A.31.5; C. I24; P. 17; V. 1|5. 

Scnrpana cruenta, Solander, MSS. ? Rich. Annals Nat. Hist, for May, 
1842, p. 217. Scorptena mililaris, Rich. Zool. Trans., iii. p. 90. Scor- 
peena ergastulormn, Idem, Annals of Nat. Hist., May, 1842, p. 217. 
Soldier tish of the colonists of Tasmania. 

Plate XIV., figs. 1, 2, natural size. 

In Solander's MSS., preserved in the Banksian library, 
there is an account of the colours of a Scorp<etia cruenta, 
taken ofi' Cape Kidnappers, New Zealand, on Cook's first 
voyage. This is not accompanied by a figure, or any de- 
scription of form. In June, 1839, I read an account of a 
collection of fish made at Port Van Diemen's Land, before 
the Zoological Society, in which a. Scorpceua niilitaris was 
described from specimens which had lost their markings, 
and had been otherwise injured by deterioration of the 
spirit in which they \vere immersed. From this cause, the 
black mark on the dorsal was effaced, and I did not recog- 
nize it as coiTesponding with Solander's description of 
cruenta. In a paper on Australian fish, published in the 
Annals of Natural History, in 1842 and 1843, I described 
a drawing made by a convict at Port Arthur, of a Scor- 
pcBiia, which I named provisionally ergastulurum, placing 
it in juxtaposition with Solander's cruenta ; but being 
unable, from defects in the drawing, to identify it with 
that or any other species that had been described. A 
more perfect specimen in the present collection is repre- 
sented in Plate XIV., and appears to justify the reference 
of the synonymes above collected, to one species. There 



was no trace left in the specimen of the blood-red mark 
on the soft dorsal, mentioned by Solander, but it may, 
nevertheless, have existed in the recent fish, or may be a 
mark assumed in the spawning season. The following is 
Solander's account of the colours of the living fish : — 

" Corpus saturate sed obscure rubrum, nebulis sub/as- 
ciatis paucis pallide lulesceniibus pictuin, subtus dilute 
sangnineuM. Caput superni; et latere p urpura scent i- 
rubiciindum , subtus dilute sm/i/'i/in'/n//, nch/i/is albis. Iris 
rubro-argentea. Pupilhi iiiijnt. I'iinnc i/i/rsules pars 
prima obscure rubra, rirnlis paucis, suhpcllucidis, postice 
nebula nigra, oblonga ; pars posterior antici', prope basin 
macula intense sanguined notata, alias ruhicuuda macu- 
lis nigricantibus adspersa. Pinna ventralis sa)iguiuea, 
mavulis paucis uiijris. Pinna caudalis rotundata, rubra, 
n/acu/is ii/gr/s in quatuor fasciis per radios disposids or- 
nata : Meinbraiiti connectens immaculata^'' (Solander, 
Pisces Australia;, MSS., jJ. 5). 

The foim of the fish is fully described in the Zoological 
Transactions, as above quoted. 

Length of specimen, six inches. 

Hab. Coasts of Van Diemen's Land, and of New Zea- 
land. 

SCORP.ENA BVNOENSis. Richardson. 

Ch. Spec. Sc. capite breri alio cum carporc cirrhis plu- 
rimis parris ornato ; j/in/ni pcdiinili (jul lis lacleis seri- 
atim Jasciatd ; pinnis aliis, corparv, el capite nebulis 
albis variis. 

Radii:— Br. 7; D. I2|10; A. 3|5 ; C. I24 ; P. 17; \.\\b. 

Plate XIV., figs. 3, 4, 5, natural size. 

This species was discovered by Benjamin Bynoe, Esq., 
while serving as surgeon of the Beagle, on the north-west 
coast of Australia, and seems to diff'er from all the Scor- 
p<en(B that have been hitherto figured. 

The scales on the head are confined to the upper part of 
the gill-cover and temples, the cheeks above the preorbitar 
ridge being smooth and scaleless. There is, perhaps, a 
single row of very minute scales close to the ridge be- 
neath, but the rest of the cheek is perfectly smooth. The 
intra-orbitar ridges are little marked, and are not terminated 
by spinous points ; the middle supra-orbitar tooth, though 
pretty large, is depressed, and inclined inwards. The cirrhi 
are very numerous, but none of them are large. A 
bushy one, and many smaller filaments, rise from the orbit, 
a similar one from the anterior nostril, and many which are 
more or less fringed or lobed from almost all the prominent 
corners of the head. One of the most conspicuous is 
attached to the posterior corner of the preorbitar. The 
lateral line, and the body throughout, are fringed by nu- 
merous simple filaments. The colour in spirits is brown, 
deepening into dark umber on the cheek, the top of the 
head, spots on the gill-cover, and a large patch under the 
second dorsal. The rest of the body is of a lighter brown, 
relieved by white marks, which in some places are opaque 
milk-white, such as the rows on the pectoral, the larger 
spots on the anal, the axilla of the pectoral, and along the 
belly. The filaments also on the head and body are mostly 
opaque white. The distribution of the markings elsewhere 



23 



will be best understood by a reference to the figure. There 
are eleven simple rays in the pectoral. 

Length, 280 inches. 

Hab. North-west coast of Australia. 

Sebastes rERCOiDEs. Richardson. 
Radii :— Br. 7-7 ; D. 12|12 vol 13 ; A.3|5; C. 1I|-: P. II 
et viii. ; V. 1|5. 

Scorpcena perco'ides, Solander, MSS. Parkinson, Icon. ined. Bibl. 
Banks, pi. Hi. Sebastes nuiculatus, Richai'dson, Zoological Transactions, 
iii. p. 93. Sebastes perco'ides, Solander, Annals of Nat. Hist, for July, 
1842, p. 384. 

Plate XV., figs. 1, 2, natural size. 

In the third volume of the Zoological Transactions, I 
described this species at length as to form, referring it to 
the Cape Sebastes maculatiis, which at that time 1 knew 
only from the short notice of the species contained in the 
Histoire des Poissons. A well-preserved specimen, brought 
from New Zealand by Sir James Ross, and still retaining 
much of its proper markings, enables me to identify the fish 
with the Scorpcena percoides of Solander, and the publica- 
tion of Dr. Andrew Smith's figure of Sebastes maculatiis, 
in his ' Zoology of South Africa' (Plate 22, upper figure), 
has shown that I was in error, in supposing that the Aus- 
tralian and Cape Sebastes were the same. I have, there- 
fore, the pleasure of giving a correct figure, under Solan- 
der's original specific name. Some of the bands of dark 
colour, especially one across the head, and another in the 
shoidder, have faded in the spirits, and Solander's account 
of the recent tints ought, therefore, to be referred to in the 
' Annals of Natural History,' as above quoted. 

Sebastes maculatiis has a much lower spinous dorsal, 
and smaller veutrals, a smaller eye, and less acutely spinous 
head, than S percoides. 

Length, 9j inches. 

Hab. New Zealand, Van Diemen's Land, and Port 
Jackson. 

Platycephalus tasmanius. Richardson. 

Char. Spec. PL osse preorbitali unidentato ; orbitd l<evi ; 

spina preoperculi inferiori, longiori ; corpore, pinnisque 

pectoris, dorsi et caudm maculatis. 
Radii :— B. 7 ; D. 1-6|— 14 ; A. 14 ; C. 13|, P. 12 et vi. ; 
V. 1|5. 

Platycephalus tasmanius, Richardson, Zool. Trans., vol. iii. p. 97. 

Plate XVHI., figs. 1, 2, natural size. 

This fish is fully described in the Zoological Transac- 
tions above quoted. I there noticed its near approach to 
Platycephalus basscnsis, characterised in the Histoire des 
Poissons, and figured by Quoy and Gaimard in the ' Zoology 
of the Voyage of the Astrolabe' (Plate 10, fig. 3). It agrees 
with that species in the relative size of the preopercular 
spines, but differs in having only one small spinous point 
on the preorbitar, instead of two ; and no tooth whatever on 
the margin of the orbit. In the skeleton of tasmanius, a 
slight rib is vi.sible in the preorbitar bone, but it does not 
project beyond the edge. These minute differences of 
structure, though not established by an examination of an 



authentic specimen of bassensis, but merely gathered from 
the works referred to, being conjoined with considerable 
discrepancy in the size and distribution of the spots of 
colour, have induced me to keep the species separate. 
With the exception of a slight variation in the numbers of 
the rays, the characters are con.stant in a considerable num- 
ber of examples of tasmanius. 

Size, from eight to eighteen inches in length. 

Had. Coasts of Van Diemen's Land. 

Trigla pleuracanthica. Richardson. 

Ch. spec. Tr. fossa dorsali et lined laterali validd armatis; 
squamis corporis, bast Jlabellatis, latcribus concavis, 
postice cordatis, apiculatis, carinatis ; orbitis antice 
tridenlatis; facie parum concavd. 

Radii :— Br. 7 ; D. 9|— 14 ; A. 14 ; C. Oi ; P. 11 et iii. ; 
V. l|o. 

Plate XVI., figs. 1, 2, natural size ; 3, 4, magnified. 

This gurnard belongs to the same group with Tr if/la 
aspera, or the CaviUone of the Mediterranean ; and of the 
three species of the Indian Ocean, described in the His- 
toire des Poissons, it approaches most closely to the Trigla 
papilio (p. 80, pi. 73). It has the same kind of spinous 
armature at the base of the dorsal fins and on the lateral 
line, with much resemblance in the shape of the other scales, 
and agrees with it in the numbers of the rays. It differs 
fi-om this and the rest of the group, in the greater size of 
the lateral spines, in the form of the air-bladder, and in 
other particulars, which are mentioned in the following 
description. 

The face is not so even as that of papilio, but is slightly 
concave, and has a greater slope. The snout is rounded, 
with a scarcely perceptible notch at the mesial line, antl 
no other points or teeth than the roughness of the bone, 
which, on the head generally, is produced by fine, short, 
parallel ridges. The membranous space over the inter- 
maxillary pedicles is very small. There are three teeth on 
the upper anterior part of the orbit ; the rest of the super- 
ciliary ridge is rough, and just behind the eye the rough 
points are more crowded and bristling. The interorbital 
space is deeply concave, and its bottom, less rough than 
the other parts of the skull, is marked by rows of fine 
round grains. The vault of each orbit is longitudinally 
ridged. There is a deep crevice behind each eye, con- 
nected by a cross fuiTow on the top of the head. The small 
ridges are much crowded on the occiput and snout, so 
that no definite arrangement can be traced ; but on the 
cheek and gill-cover, the ridges are parallel and hori- 
zontal, with various irregular, smooth, nacry lines under 
the eye, and elsewhere. The intcroperculum has a 
squarish projecting process ; the ascending limb of the 
preoperculum is slightly concave on the edge ; the corner 
is angular, and projects slightly, and the under limb is 
convex. There are three or four minute teeth on the cor- 
ner of the bone, but nothing nearly so conspicuous as the 
four preopercular teeth, represented in the figure of Tr. 
papilio {Hist, des Poiss., pi. 73), and the whole form of the 
preoperculum and suboperculum differs in the two species. 
The notch between the angular points of the operculum is 



24 



deeper than in papilio, and the under point only is spinous. 
The supra-scapular and coracoid bones have the same 
form as in papilio, viz., they have a central ridge, which 
ends in an acute point, and the surface is rough, as in the 
other bones of the head. The opercular spines have no 
such ridge proceeding from them. The humeral bone is 
oval, and smoother than any other bones about the gill- 
opening or head. 

The spinous tips of the interosseous bones which arm 
the dorsal furrow, are twenty-two on each side, and are 
acute and trenchant, e.Kcept three or four anterior ones, 
which are more or less compound. The sj^inous scales of 
the lateral line corres])ond with the description given of 
those of Tr. papilio, but the chief spine of each is larger 
and more trenchant than the lateral si)inus of any Trigla 
of which I have seen specimens or representations. In 
plate XVI., figs. 3 and 4, the scales are turned upside down, 
and they belong to the left side of the fish. They cor- 
respond in number with those of papilio, being fifty- five. 
The lateral line forks on the caudal fin very remarkably. 

The scales of the body, when in situ, present small 
rhomboidal or nearly rectangular disks. When detached, 
they have generally a dilated, fan-streaked, five or six- 
lobed base, concavely curved sides, and a heart-shaped, 
apiculaled disk, with an acute line or ridge from the apex 
to the centre. In some parts, near the lateral line for in- 
stance, the scales are oblique, and have more elongated 
tips, and on the back some have two points. The concen- 
tric lines of structure are very indistinct, especially near 
the edges of the scale, which ai-e not toothed, their struc- 
ture being apparently ctenoid* The scales of Tr. pa- 
pilio are described as being nearly like the above, but with 
two points ; those of phalatna and sphinx have rounded, 
not hollow sides. Judging from the figure of papilio, in 
the Hisloire de.s Poissons, the scales on the flanks of pleura- 
cant hi ca are smaller than those of any of the species with 
which we have compared it. 

The first dorsal is less rounded, and has a more parabolic 
outline than that of papilio. The spinous rays are not so 
irregular and suddenly bent. The third spine is the tall- 
est, and the first two are serrated in front by a single row 
of compressed teeth. The last rays of the second dorsal 
and anal are divided to the base. 

The specimens have been greatly injured by the deterio- 
ration of the spirit in which they were immersed, so that 
the fin-membranes have nearly perished, and the tints of 
colour are quite lost; but there appear to be some traces 
left of a black spot on the fourth, fifth, and sixth spines of 
the first dorsal. 

The air-bladder is of an oval form, and of the size of a 
small pea. It is divided for nearly a third of its length 
into two conical lobes, one of which is obtuse, the other 
more pointed. At the other end of the bladder there is a 
short, narrow, cylindrical projection, which divides the two 
lateral muscles that fringe the viscus. 

The specimens are six inches long, of which the head 
forms exactly one-fourth. 



* By mistake, a second spinous scale from the liiteral Hue was drawn, 
instead of one of the smaller ones from the flanks. 



The air-bladder is in length 0'31 inches, and in breadth, 
0.-22. 

Hab. Sidney Cove, Port Jackson. 

Datnia .' CAUDAViTTATA. Richardson. 

Ch Spec. D. dorse lateribnsque macnlis parvis crebris 
nigro-fuscis aspersis ; pimni dorsi guttata et antice ad 
marginem maculo iiigro noiatd ; pinna c<iud<s utrinque 
nigro fascial a. 

Radii:— Br. 6— 6: D. 13|9 ; A. 3|8; C. 13|; P.15;V.li5. 

PlateXVIIl., figs. 3, 4, 5. 

This fish differs from the typical Datnia argentea, in 
having more slender dorsal spines, and a porous lower 
jaw; and from the group of Therapon, Datnia, Pelaf.es 
and Helotes, in its air-bladder being simple, and not di- 
vided by a narrow neck into two parts. The air-bladder 
of our specimen is an inch and a quarter long, very obtuse 
at one end, and tapering to an acute point at the other. 
Its thick end is marked b}' two shallow furrows, producing 
three slightly jirominent rounded lobes. Its coats are 
nacry, and very distinctly fibroins, the outer layer of fibres 
encircling the viscus transversely, and the inner one longi- 
tudinally. In the condition in which the specimen was, 
having been long macerated in spirits, these fibres sepa- 
rated by a touch. The anal orifice is small, with plaited 
lips, and immediately behind it there is a minute tumid 
papilla, not raised above the neighbouring level, but 
bounded posteriorly by a deep sinus. This papilla is 
pierced by an orifice, which permits a bristle to pass into 
the abdomen, but the intestines having perished, the origin 
of its duct could not be ascertained. 

The height of this fish is equal to one-third of its total 
length, being proportionably less than in D. argentea. 
The thickness of the body is about a third of the height, 
and the head forms about a fourth of the whole length. 
The profile ascends obliquely, from the rather acute snout, 
almost in a straight line to the nape, where it rounds off 
into the dorsal line, whose summit is at the fourth or filth 
dorsal spine, and opjiosite to the attachment of the ven- 
trals.* The eyes round, moderately large, and close to 
the profile, without interfering with it, are nearly a 
diameter of the orbit apart from each other. The jaws, 
gill-membrane, preorbitar, and the top of the head, back 
to the temples, are scaleless. Two acute, smooth ridges 
run from the nostrils to the scaly surface on the hind 
head, about as distant from each other as each of them is 
from the edge of the orbit of the same side. A mesial 
ridge commences anteriorly, but sinks to the level of the 
skull between the eyes, reappearing again behind these 
organs, and running well back on the scaly nape. The 
posterior frontal is marked immediately behind the eye by 
some short, branching, elevated lines, turning obliquely 
outwards. These ridges are all smooth, and are nearly- 
concealed by the integuments in the recent fish. 

The intermaxillaries are scarcely protractile ; but the 
raaxillaries, except a very small corner, can be concealed 

* In Datnia argentea, the ventrals are farther forward. 



25 



beneath the preorbitav. The lower jaw is perforated by 
two small pores on each side of the cliiu ; and three clus- 
ters of still smaller ones on cacli limb of the jaw, con- 
taining from five to eight or ten in each cluster. The teeth 
are disposed in pretty broad, densely villiform bands on 
the jaws, divided at the symphyses by a fine smooth line. 
Those of the outer row above and below are subulate, 
a little taller than the rest, incurved at the tips, and pretty 
closely set. There are no teeth on the palate, vomer, or 
tongue. A few very minute papillre are visible on the 
chevron of the vomer, but the roof of the mouth is smooth, 
and without plaits. 

The preorbitar, preoperculum, interoperculum, suboper- 
culum, and supra-axillary plate of the coracoid bone, are 
all regularly serrated on their edges. The cheek, having a 
squai-ish, or slightly rhomboidal form, and a height ex- 
ceeding the diameter of the orbit, is densely covered with 
small scales. The scales on the interoperculum and gill- 
cover are larger. The disk of the preoperculum is a nar- 
row crescent, with the upper limb longer than the lower 
one. The teeth of the lower limb are very minute, and 
incline slightly forwards ; those of the upper one point 
obliquely upwards ; and towards the middle of the curve, 
they become sensibly larger. These teeth, as well as 
those on the other opercular pieces, have intervening acute 
furrows running a short way on the surface of the bone, 
but all this is concealed in the recent fisli, by the nacry 
integument. The operculum is notched at its apex by a 
crescentic sinus, with acute flat tips, the lower of which is 
the largest. There are from seven to ten or more teeth on 
the supra-axillary plate of the coracoid bone, the number 
of teeth varying in different individuals. A patch of scales 
exists in the middle of the plate, the rest of its disk being 
clothed with nacry skin. The scapula is oblong, smooth 
and entire, but the supra-scapular bone is entirely covered 
by the scales, which do not difler from the others. 

The scales are strongly ciliated, and present, when in 
situ, a rhomboidal disk. The lateral line is traced within 
the upper third of the height, and parallel to the back, as 
far as the end of the dorsal, where it makes a short curve 
downwards, and pursues its course along the middle of 
the tail. It is composed of fifty-four scales, exclusive of 
some small ones on the base of the caudal, and there are 
about twenty rows of scales in the vertical height of the 
body. A fillet of scales runs along the base of the dorsal 
and anal fins, spreading more broadly on the jointed rays, 
but not concealing the spines when recumbent. 

The spinous part of the dorsal fin is much arched, the 
fifth and sixth spines being the tallest, and exceeding half 
the height of the body. Tlie spines are alternately right 
and left, and diminish in height from the sixth to the last, 
which is as short as the third one. Their height and 
thickness varies a little in different individuals. The 
soft rays are even, and higher than the posterior spines, 
and the last one is divided to the base. The second 
and third anal spines are equal to each other, and nearly 
twice the height of the first one, but are overtopped 
by the soft part of the fin, which is shaped like the corre- 
sponding part of the dorsal. The ventrals are under the 
middle of the pectorals, or fourth dorsal spine. The 
caudal is shallowly crescentic at the end. 



The colours of the fish have, doid)tless, undergone con- 
siderable alteration from maceration in spirits, but the 
scales still retain a bright silvery lustre, with lines cor- 
resjjonding to the number of rows. This silvery hue is 
unstained on the belly. The top of the head, back, and 
upper part of the sides, have a brownish tinge, and are 
thickly speckled with darker brown spots, which become 
gradually effaced on the sides. There is a dark mark under 
the eye, and two or three rows of brown spots exist on the 
dorsal and base of the caudal. The upper edge of the 
soft dorsal is marked anteriorly by a dark patch,* and a 
broad jet-black bar crosses each horn of the crescent of 
the tail obliquely. There are also two brown longitudinal 
bars in the middle of the tail. 

The length of the longest specimen is six inches. 

Hab. Harvey River (fresh water), Western Australia. 
Good specimens were presented to the Museum at Haslar, 
by Mr. Bynoe, and also by J. Gould, Esq., the author of 
the Ornithology of Australia. 

Datnia ? AMBIGUA. Richardsou. 

Radii:— Br. 6; D. lO;— 11 ; A. .3|'J ; C. 15^; P. 16; 
V. 1|5. 

Plate XIX., natural size. 

I have had much doubt as to whether this fish should be 
placed in the genus Dules, or Dalnia. It agrees with the 
group of Dules which have two opercular points, in the 
number of dorsal rays, and in the presence of palatine 
teeth, but in general habit it is more like Dnliiiit, strongly 
resembling it in the strength of its dorsal and anal spines, 
and in the number of rays in the anal. The only two 
specimens that I have had an opportunity of examining 
are dried, and are both mutilated in the caudal fin, so that 
I am unable to describe the form of that member, and can 
give no anatomical details. 

Form compressed, the thickness of the body being 
about half the height, which is greatest at the commence- 
ment of the dorsal, and a little exceeds one-third of the 
length of the body, caudal excluded. The back is more 
acute than the belly, and the pelvic region is flat. In 
profile the upper cui-ve much exceeds the ventral one. 
The shoulder is rounded, the face concave, and the descent 
of the profile, from the dorsal fin, considerable, the mouth 
being in the lower third of the height. 

The length of the head equals the height of the body, 
and the lip of the gill-cover is in the line of mid-height. 
The nape is considerably elevated above the scapular 
regions. The small round orbit, having a diameter of 
only one-sixth of the length of the head, is close to the 
profile, and its diameter is one-third less than the slightly 
convex space between the eyes. The anterior and smaller 
nostril is placed midway between the eye and the tip of 
the snout. The top of the head is scaleless, and the bones 
of the cranium show through the dried skin, but exhibit 
no peculiar sculpture. The maxillary is wide and tmn- 
cated at its lower end, and narrows gradually to its articu- 
lating extremity. The lips fold back on the jaws, and 



This patch is omitted in the figure. 



26 



do not appear to have been thick. The teeth are short, 
and densely villifonu in rather broad bands on the jaws, 
vomer, and palate bones, without canines. 

The under jaw shows a small pore on each side of the 
symphysis, and three larger ones on each limb. This bone, 
the jaws, the preorbitar, the very narrow suborbitar chain, 
and the top of the head, are scaleless. The oblong pre- 
orbitar is rounded anteriorly, and has a wide shallow curve 
on its lower edge, which is regularly serrated. The cheek 
is densely scaly forwards to the maxillary, having thirteen 
rows of scales between the eye and the curve of the pre- 
operculum, and there is a cluster of small scales behind 
the eye, adjoining the naiTow suborbitar chain. The disk 
of the preoperculum is bounded towards the cheek by a 
smooth narrow ridge, or line, but is clothed by some 
minute scales, and its outer edge is serrated. The teeth of 
the upper limb are small and regular, while those at the 
slightly rounded corner, and on the under limb, ai-e large, 
inclined forwards, and divided into three or four groups. 
Tlie scales on the gill-cover are larger than those on the 
cheek, and hide the union of the operculum and suboper- 
culum. The spinous point of the operculum is flat and 
acute, and does not reach beyond the membranous edging 
of the gill-cover. The bone is sloped away above it by an 
oblique shallow notch, which ends in a smaller spinous 
point, situated further forward than the under one. There 
is a notch at the meeting of the interoperculum and sub- 
operculum. The scaly supra-scapular space is bounded 
by a smooth line, the scapula is toothed on the edge, and 
the octangular disk of the coracoid bone above the pec- 
toral is scaly, and its edge toothed. The gill-membrane 
is partially scaly. 

The scales are reticulated on the exterior border, and 
finely ciliated, but they feel only slightly rough when the 
finger is drawn forwards over them. Fifty-two scales, dis- 
tinguished by a small tube on each, compose the lateral 
line, as far as the base of the caudal, but smaller scales 
extend half way up that fin. 

The strong dorsal and anal spines are alternately right 
and left. The third anal spine is rather longer, but scarcely 
so stout as the second. The last soft rays of both fins are 
divided to the base, the fins move in scaly grooves, and are 
also clothed with scales for some way up. The base of 
the pectoral is also scaly. The ventrals end in filamentous 
tips, and have an elongated scale in the axilla. 

The smaller specimen is figured of the natural size on 
the plate, and has the following 

DIMENSIONS. 

Length from tip of snout to base of caudal fin 8'50 inches. 

„ „ anus 5-50 „ 

Greatest height of body 330 „ 

The larger specimen is fourteen inches long, has a more 
abruptly notched preorbitar, a proportionally longer face, 
stronger dorsal and anal spines, and a ray fewer in the 
pectoral, but does not seem to be specifically distinct. 

Hab. Western Australia. 



Djagramma poi 



Richardson. 



Ch. Spec. D. parte piniKe dorsi spinosd humili ; pinna 
aiii longd ; roslro maxllldque inferior i porosis. 

Radii:— B. 7; D. 9(20; A.3|15; C. 15| ; P. 1|20; V. 1|5. 

Plate XVI., figs. 5, 6, natural size. 

This fish differs from the typical Diagrammte in several 
respects, and especially in the lowness of the spinous part 
of the dorsal, which, when contrasted with the higher, 
even, soft rays, almost gives it a claim to be ranked among 
the Scisenoids, with two dorsals. The rays of the anal are 
twice as numerous as those of any species of Diagramina 
mentioned in the Histoire des Poissons. Some of the 
PristipomcB approach it in this respect, but in that genus 
there are no scales on the dorsal or anal. 

Form compressed, the greatest height, which is at the 
ventrals, being nearly thrice the thickness. The profile, 
exclusive of the trunk of the tail, is luiequally ovate, the 
head forming the obtuse end, and the belly being consider- 
ably less arched than the back. The head makes one- 
third of the total length, caudal excluded. The eye is 
rather large, and is placed high up, but yet a little removed 
from the profile, one diameter of the orbit distant from the 
end of the snout, and two fi-om the tip of the gill-cover. 
The mouth has a moderately large vertical gape, but is 
cleft only a short way backwards. The teeth are very 
small, setaceous, of irregular height, widely set, and in a 
single row, without canines. There is a narrow velum 
above and below, which, with the whole inside of the 
mouth, are studded with glandular points, looking like rows 
of teeth, but there are, in fact, no teeth on the vomer, or 
palate. The integuments on the roof of the mouth show a 
deep narrow mesial furrow, boimded on each side by an acute 
membranous ridge, on the outside of which there is a shal- 
lower groove. These parts are fringed with glands. The 
pharyngeal teeth are villiform, and somewhat acerose. The 
outer rakers are slender and setaceous, the others narrow 
crests, all of them rough. The preorbitar has a straight, 
inferior, serrated edge, which covers a little of the maxil- 
lary. The much rounded preoperculum, and the inter- 
operculum and suboperculum, both of which are convex 
on the edge, are also serrated. The operculum has two 
minute, thin, obtuse points, with an oblique angular notch 
between, all of which are concealed by the scales. The 
gill-cover is triangular, with a somewhat obtuse tip. The 
gill-opening is large, and the membrane is supported by 
seven strongish rays. The cheek, interoperculum, gill- 
cover and supra-scapulars, are densely covered with small 
scales ; the disk of the preoperculum, ]5reorbitar, lower jaw 
and rest of the head, including the lines which surround 
the supra-scapular patches, are covered with porous inte- 
gument. The two small pores on each side of the sym- 
physis, and the two larger ones on the limb of the lower 
jaw, which characterise the genus, cannot be distinguished 
from the rest. There is no pit under the chin, as in Pris- 
tipoma. 

The ventrals, pectorals, and commencement of the dor- 
sal, are in the same vertical line. The fourth dorsal spine 
is the tallest, and the penultiuiate one is much shorter than 



27 



ihe last one. The soft rays are longer than any of the 
spines, and the difference is still greater in the anal, which ' 
has also small spines. The fins and the candal are scaly 
at the base, and there is a patch of scales on the pectoral. 
The caudal is notched. 

The lateral line curves downwards from its commence- 
ment, but not evenly, and becomes horizontal on reaching 
the end of the dorsal. The scales of the body are con- 
centrically ridged on the uncovered disk. The specimen 
has entirely lost its original colours during its immersion 
in spirits, and no markings can be traced, except three 
rows of alternate dark and light specks on the dorsal, 
which are not shown in the figure. 

Length, 5|- inches. 

H.\B. Coasts of Australia. 

GiAUCOsoMA ? HEBRAicuM. Ricliardsou. 

Ch. Spkc. Gl. nigro varium, facie convexd ; radio quarto 
articulato pinrKe dorsi elongate. 

Radii:— Br. 7; D. 8|11 ; A. 3|9; C. 17^; P. 16; V. \\b. 

Plate XVII., one-third the natural size. 

The ichtbyological part of Siebold's Fauna Japonica, 
written by Messrs. C. J. Temminck and H. Schlegel 
(p. 62, pi. 27), contains an engraving, with a short notice, 
of a fish of which they had seen no specimen, and knew 
only from a drawing and description forwarded to them by 
Mr. Burger. They stale that the fish is taken occasionally 
in the bays of the south-west coast of Japan, and is much 
esteemed for its excellent flavour as an article of food. It 
attains a good size, the individual drawn by Mr. Burger 
being two feet in length. Thej' name it Glaucosoma from 
the general tint of the body, and give the numbers of its 
rays as follows :— Br. 7 ; D. gjll ; A. 3)9 ; C. 18 ; P. 18 ; 
V. 1|5. The western coast of Australia is frequented by 
a fish having preciselj' the same form of the gill-cover, 
the same unusual distribution of the scales on the snout, 
preorbitar, maxillaries and lower jaw, and a similar spinous 
dorsal, remarkable for its lowness and for the gradual in- 
crease in the length of its spines from the first to the last, 
which is much overtopped by the succeeding soft rays.* 
In the character of the anal spines, the shape and size of 
the scales of the body, and in general aspect, the resem- 
blance between the Japanese and Australian species holds 
good, and we have therefore referred the latter also to the 
genus Glaucosoma, though a few particulars of structure 
remain to be determined by future observation before this 

* With the exception of Latilus, and a few other genera, most of the 
Percidm and Scitmid(E with single dorsals have the spinous pavt of that 
fin more or less arched by a gradual shortening of the posterior ones 
either to the last one or to the penultimate one, thus making an approach 
to a notched dorsal. Indeed the division of the Percida into those 
having double or deeply notched dorsals, and those having single ones, 
would be artificial, were it fully carried out, which it is not in the His- 
taire des Poissnns, greater regard being generally had in Cuvier's ar- 
rangements to the assemblage of generic characters, than to any isolated 
feature in a fish. Thus we have some DiagrammtE with a dorsal more 
deeply notched, than in Sciwnoids which are ranked with those having 
double dorsals, and like instances mav be readily adduced from the 
Percid^r. 



allocation can be final. The .\ustralian fish has two flat 
bony obtuse points in the ojierculum, separated by a deep 
notch, and so buried among the scales that they are not 
readily seen. No such points are shown in Mr. Biirger's 
figure of Glaucoso7na, nor indeed are they distinguished 
from scales in our plate. A still greater reason for doubt 
is the silence of Mr. Burger on the subject of teeth on 
the vomer and palate. The Australian fish has even a 
more decidedly Scisnoid aspect than the Japanese one, 
and it may be that Messrs. Temminck and Schlegel 
ranked Glaucosoma in that family more from general cha- 
racter than from precise information of the palate being 
toothless, as they say nothing about it in the text. Should 
it eventually prove that the one fish has the roof of the 
mouth smooth, while the other has it toothed, it will either 
show that this character must in some cases be dispensed 
with, if we wish to make families natural assemblages of 
species, or we must admit that it is the only character by 
which some Percidce can be distinguished from ScicBuida, 
and of this it is not difficult to find examples among the 
Mesopriones, Diagramma: and their allies. Another point 
on which we lack information is the nature of the pharyn- 
geal teeth of the Australian fish. The specimens are 
merely sections, in which the parts about the throat have 
been "cut away. Mr. Biirger describes the pharyngeal 
teeth of his fish as being en pave. This gentleman's 
drawing shows scales between the rays of the anal fin, but 
none on the dorsal, which is most probably an omission. 
Both fins of the Australian fish are scaly at the base, and 
it is rare that a fish has the anal scaly, and the dorsal 
smooth. 

No specific name has been assigned to the Japanese 
fish, but the existence of a second species renders it neces- 
sary to supply one, for the convenience of reference, and 
we propose to do so, by naming it, in honour of its dis- 
coverer, Glaucosoma biirgeri. The appellation of the 
Australian species, Glaucosoma hebraicum, was suggested 
by its colonial designation of Jew-fish. In some English 
possessions fish of small estimation are termed Jew-fish ; but 
we do not know that this is the origin of its trivial name 
in Western Australia, as we have not received any account 
of the qualities of the fish, whose size gives it importance, 
our specimen, from Houtman's Abrolhos, exceeding two 
feet and a half in length. 

According to Cuvier's system of arrangement, Glauco- 
soma hebraicum being a percoid fish with five articulated 
ventral rays, seven branchostegous rays, a single dorsal, 
villiform teeth without canines, and a serrated preopercii- 
lum, would enter the genus Centropristes, but its habit is 
totally distinct from that of the typical species, nor does it 
correspond with any of the other genera, viz. Grijstes, 
Polyprion,Pentaceros, Acerina and Rliypticus placedin the 
same grouj) with Centropristes in the Histoire des Poissons.* 

* In this work the genus Centropristes presents an incongruous assem- 
blage of species. The Rev. Leonard Jenyns has properly removed 
C. yeorgianus and the species resembling it to a separate genus, which 
he has named Arripis. These species are much like a J/u</t7 with a 
single dorsal, a likeness which Solander seized when he named one of 
them Mulloides. The Centropristes scorpenmdes, another Australian fish, 
is also vei-y unlike the American types of the genus. It has the under 
limb of the preopercuhnn anned with three strong acute spines, curved 

E 2 



28 



The following genera] characters assigned to Glaucosoma 

lor the present, may be amended when the structure of the 

fish shall be more fully ascertained. 

Aspectus scicenoideus. Circumscriptio lateralis oblongo- 
elliptica. 

Caput satis viagmim, ohtusiusculum, fere totum squamo- 
sum. Labia membranaeque branchiostegoi laves. Os 
modicum. Fori nulli in maxillA inferiori. 

Dentes breres, carminiformes ; exteriores intermaxilla- 
riutn et interiores maxillcB inferioris pauld majores. 
Dentes vomeris et palati conformes sed adhuc minores. 
Dentes pltaryngis paviti ? 

Oculi fnajusculi later ales, ante medium caput. 

Nares oculis approximate, aperturis magnis rotundis 
contiguis. 

Os preorbitale subgrande genam asquans, margine integer- 
rimo. Preoperculum obtuse curvatum, crenulatum. 
Suboperculum margine concavum. Operculum obtu- 
sissimum apicibus osseis duobus plants, obtusis, vix 
conspicuis. Scapula semi-rotundata squamosa, cre- 
tiulata. 

Squamae corporis majusculm ctenoidea minutissime stri- 
ata : rostri et verticis parva; maxillce et gence majores; 
operculi interoperculiqve adhuc majores, nee tumen 
squamas corporis cequantes. 

Linea lateralis fere recta. 

Pinnae pectorales parrce. Pinnae ventrales sub axillis pin- 
naruni pectoralium positic. Pinna dorsalis lurica ; 
sjiincB rudiis arlicularibus breviores : pars articutaris 
ejus pinnrnque ani ad basin squamosa. Membrana 
branchiostega radiis septem vel interdum octo sustentata. 

The profile of Glaucosoma hebraicum is bounded above 
and below bj- nearly similar segments of a Hat elliptical 
curve which meet in a bluntish apex at the mouth. 
These curves are lost posteriorly in the trunk of the tail. 
The greatest height of the body is just behind the ven- 
trals, and equals a third of the entire length, caudal in- 
cluded. The height of the trunk of the tail again, where 
narrowest, is a third of that of the body, and its length is 
considerable, forming behind the dorsal nearly a fifth of 
the whole length, but behind the anal scarcely a sixth. 

The length of the head and its height at the nape are 
about equal, and are contained upwards of three times in 
the length of the fish. The opening of the mouth scarcely 
extends backwards to beneath the nostrils, and it descends 
nearly at an angle of 45° when closed, its apex then being 
on a level with the middle height of the head and body. 
The maxillary, which is densely scaly, dilates gradually 
to its wide and truncated lower end. Its lower corner 
reaches to beneath the posterior third of the eye. The 
intermaxillaiies are but slightly protractile, and the lower 
jaw, when depressed, projects beyond them. The dental 



forwards, as in some species of Perco-labrax or Plectropoma, and lis spi- 
nous dorsal is l)oldly arclied, forming a deep notch al tlie origin of tlie 
jointed jiart, so that it might with m^re propriety be rauged with Perca 
or Perco-labrax than left in Centropristes. Aulacorephalus is a Japanese 
lormwliich alsowould technically] all into Centropristes, bulwhich Messrs. 
Teniminck and Schlegel have kept separate ou account of its dissimilar 
aspect. It has a strong resemblance to Serratms or Plectropoma. 



surface is broadest towards the apex of the jaws, narrows 
at the corners of the mouth, and is interrupted by a nar- 
row smooth space at the symphyses above and below. 
The dentition may be described as card-like, the indivi- 
dual teeth being subulate, curved backwards, and short, the 
exterior rows above and the interior ones below being just 
perceptibly larger. On the limbs of the jaws the dental 
surface is about five teeth wide above, and three or four 
below. A narrow velum exists in both jaws. The vome- 
rine and palatine teeth are more minute, but otherwise 
similar. The palatine teeth form a very narrow band on 
the edge of the bone. 

The nostrils are two round contiguous openings on each 
side, situated close before the eye in a narrow membranous 
space. The posterior opening is the largest, and is of con- 
siderable size. 

The large, round eye is situated high on the cheek, 
but does not touch on the profile, the frontal region 
above it being convex both transversely and longitudinally. 
The preorbitar is well developed, having a vertical height 
equal to the diameter of the orbit, and a length two and a 
half times greater. It is densely scaly, and is ou a level 
with the cheek, so that its posterior boundary cannot be 
defined. Its anterior edge is thin, curved with a slight 
convexity, entire and slightly free, but does not cover more 
than the mere edge of the maxillary. The space at the 
corner of the mouth, over which the limb of the maxillary 
passes, is smooth and scaleless. The scales of the cheek 
advance to the edge of the orbit, and completely conceal 
the suborbitar chain ; and they extend over the temples to 
the side of the head, and cover the disk of the preopercu- 
lum, without any change in their character. 

The preoperculum has its upper limb slightly inclined 
forwards, and is greatly rounded off at the corner, the curve 
extending to the whole under limb, which is shorter than 
the upper one. A very shallow notch at the corner is 
filled with membrane, the upper limb is minutely serrated, 
and the lower one finely gnawed, or irregularly crenated. 
Fine streaks appear obscurely among the scales which end 
irregularly close to the edge of the bone.* 

The interoperculum is entire on the edge, and covered on 
the surface with scales larger than those of the cheek. 
Near its articulation with the lower jaw it is edged by a 
slip of membrane, on which the scales are much smaller. 
At its junction with the suboperculum, opposite to the 
notch of the preoperculum, and in the usual site of the 
knob of Diacope, it swells up slightly. The under edge of 
the suboperculum is curved like a reversed italic /, which 
produces a lobe anteriorly, that is wider than the interoper- 
culum, and has its margin finely streaked or plaited. This 
bone has precisely the same shape in Glaucosoma biir- 
geri. The bony operculum ends in two flat, thin, obtuse, 
striated tips, which are almost lost among the scales, and 
are separated by a deep angular notch. This notch is 
concealed by scales, and the membrane which edges the 
bone is covered with small scales, the posterior edge of the 
gill- cover being very obtuse. Above the upjrer angle of 
the gill-opening the scapular bone exists with a iiee, 

* This bone makes no approach in form to that of Lobotes, in wliich 
the preoperculum has an angular, serrated, projecting corner. 



scarcely cvenated, semicircular edge, and a disk covered 
wilh small scales. The surface of the coracoid bone is 
partially scaly above the pectoral fin. It is not toothed. 
The supra-scapular is not visible, nor is there a peculiar 
row of scales crossing the nape, as in most of the Sparidai. 
There is, however, a sudden transition from the small 
scales which cover the hind head to the much larger ones 
of the body, which are tiled in regular oblique rows. The 
scales of the head are smallest on the snout. They are 
pretty large on the under surface of the lower jaw, and on 
the raaxillaries. 

The scales of the body have their exposed disks minutely 
striated, with thin slightly undulated edges. They are 
disposed in oblique rows, one of which that runs from the 
fifth dorsal spine to the second anal ray, contains thirty 
scales on a side, eleven of them above the lateral line. The 
lateral line is very slightly arched, or almost straight, and 
traverses forty-eight scales between the gill-opening and 
the base of the caudal. Each of these scales has a simple 
flat tube on the basal half of its disk, and many of them 
are notched at the tip. The size of the scales diminishes 
towards the top of the back ; there is a large patch of 
smaller scales under the soft dorsal, and fillets of small 
scales run up between the rays of that fin and of the anal. 
The caudal is also clothed towards the base with small 
scales. 

The gill-membrane is supported by seven flattish stout 
rays, which decrease in size gradually towards the isthmus. 
In a specimen preserved in the Haslar Museum tliere is a 
supplemental eighth ray, which does not exist in examples 
belonging to the British Museum. In the allied genus of 
Grijsles the gill-rays vary in number from six to seven. 
The pectoral fins are small, obliquely rounded, and are 
attached far beneath the lateral line. The ventrals, the 
axillaj of the pectorals, and the third dorsal spine, are in 
the same vertical line. The spine of the ventrals is half 
the length of the jointed rays. The dorsal spines lengthen 
very gradually from the third to the last, the two first are 
more steeply graduated. Their membrane is deeply 
notched. The fourth articulated ray is greatly elongated, 
with a tapering, almost filamentous tip. The third anal 
spine, which is the longest, is much shorter than the soft 
rays. This fin is rounded, and is considerably nearer to 
the end of the tail than the dorsal. The caudal fin does 
not spread much, and is truncated or slightly convex at 
the end. It contains seventeen visible rays, and there are 
some short ones above and below, concealed by the scales. 

The specimen being a dried section, much of the ori- 
ginal markings must have disappeared. In its present 
state many of the scales of the body above the middle 
height have their disks partially, rarely wholly, of a shining 
pitch-black colour. These dark disks are assembled in ill 
defined patches, or bands, particularly beneath the spinous 
dorsal. Lower down the sides, the scales are dark at their 
bases, but not so black as the ujiper ones. Similar black 
bauds appear on the head : one crossing between the eyes, 
one running along the middle of the crown, another run- 
ning forwards from the supra- scapular region to the tem- 
ples, one descending the preoperculum, one from the eye 
down the cheek, one filling the opercular notch, and run- 
ning forward to the temples ; and there is, in addition, a 



roundish blotch on the posterior end of the intcroper- 
culuui. None of these dark blotches have definite outlines. 
All the fins, except the pectorals, appear to have been 
narrowly edged anteriorly by while or orange. The cau- 
dal is edged above and below with the same colour, and 
in the dorsal this tint includes the tops of the s])ines, 
and the fore edge of the filamentous soft ray.* The lower 
parts of the spines and their membranes are black. 

DIMENSIONS. 
Lengtli from intermaxillary symphysis to end of candal 

•i" •. 31-50 inches. 

„ „ hase of ditto. . 27-00 „ 

„ pill-opening j-oo 

Height behind pectorals 10-25 „ 

Hab. Houtmans Abrolhos, south-western coast of Aus- 
tralia. 

Centropkistes (Auripis) s.-iLAR. Richardson. 

Sciana IriUta. J. R. Forsler apud Bloch, Schn. ? et in Descript. ,\ii 
edit. H. Licht. p. 147,279? Tab. 211 Icon. ined. Georgio I'orsterJ 
pict. in Bib. Banks, serv. ? 

Centropristes salar, Richardson, Zool. Proceed, for Jnnc, l.s.'Ji) Meni 
Zool. Trans, iii." p. 78. 

Radii :— Br. 7 : D. 9\16 aut 17 ; A. 3110 ; C 17^ : P. 1« • 

V. 1|5. 

Plate XX., figs. 4, -5, 6. 

The naturalists who accompanied Cook on his first and 
second voyages, procured in the Australian seas one or 
more species of fish closely resembling the one we have 
figured. Two figures of these were executed by Parkin- 
son, and two by George Forster, one or both of the latter 
being referred to by J. R. Forster, in his notes on Sciceiia 
trutta, which were published in an abridged form in 
Schneider's edition of Bloch (p. 542), and at full length in 
the present year by Lichtenstein.f In the second volume 
of the Histoire des Poissons (p. 54), the species is briefly 
mentioned under the designation of Perca trutta, by 
Cuvier, who then knew it only by Forster's notes, and a 
tracing of one of the figures, which are all preserved in 
the Banksian library. Subsequently MM. Quoy and Gai- 
mard procured a fish in Bass's Straits, which is described 
in the third volume of the Histoire des Poissons, by the 
name of Centropristes ? truttaceus, with the remark that 
it diff'ers from the other Centropristes in having the phy- 
siognomy of a Casio or Smarts, and may, therefore, be one 
day considered as the type of a peculiar genus. It is at 
the same time conjectured that it may be identical witli 
the Perca trutta of the former volume, which in such ti 
case ought to be suppressed. 

In the description of a collection of fish made at Port 
Arthur, in Van Diemen's Land, which was read before the 
Zoological Society in June, 1839, and published in the 
third volume of their Transactions in 1842, I gave a de- 
tailed account of Centropristes salar, which I ventured to 
name as distinct from triitluceus, almost solely because the 
lower pieces of the gill-covers were scaly, while ot tnitta- 

* These pale edges are not indicated in the figure. 

f Descrifliones Animaiium qua in Itinere ad Maris Austratis Terras per 
a7inos 1772 — 1674 susceptn, observavil Joannes Reinoldus Forster, curante 
Henrico Lichtenstein. Berolini. 1844, 



30 



ceiis it is said " L'opercule est etroit, et il y a quelques 
ecailles sur sa surface, tandis que le sous-opercule et I'in- 
teropercule en sont tout-a-fait depourvus :" [Hist, des 
Poiss. iii. p. 52). If the specimens were uninjured, this 
seems to be a sufficient distinctive character, but there 
does not exist an equally strong reason for considering 
salar as specifically distinct from Forster's trutta, though 
the figures are not sufficiently detailed to prove their iden- 
tity. I consider it, therefore, safer to retain the name of 
salar, until the ichthyology of South Australia and New 
Zealand has been more fully investigated, especially as the 
authority of the Histoire des Poissons has consecrated a very 
similar appellation to trutta, to a distinct species. Of G. 
Forster's figures, the one numbered 211 in the volume, and 
marked Scicena trutta (3, closely resembles salar in form, 
and in the spots of the back forming transverse bars. 
Number 210, which, like the preceding, is an unfinished 
pencil sketch, was executed from a specimen taken in 
Queen Charlotte's Sound on the 7lh of November, 1774, 
and represents a more slender fish than our salar, with the 
spots above the lateral line less uniformly round, and not 
disposed in transverse rows. It shows also a longer soft 
dorsal, with its last ray and that of the anal more ab- 
ruptly produced ; the latter fin also is longer and more 
even. Parkinson's figure, number 67, executed at Opoo- 
ragee, in New Zealand, and 68, drawn in Queen Char- 
lotte's Sound, seem to have been taken from fishes pre- 
cisely similar in form to Forster's fig. 210, and therefore, 
it may be concluded, of the same species, but differing in 
the characters above-mentioned, from his 211. The names 
inscribed on Parkinson's drawings are MuUoides sapidis- 
simus, and Scicena inulloides, bestowed upon them by 
Solander, whose notes on the species are referred to and 
partly quoted in the Zoological Transactions (iii. p. 79). 
Our figure of salar, which is very correct, will enable ich- 
thyologists who may have an opportunity of examining 
good collections of Australian fish, to clear up the obscurity 
in which these species are still involved. 

We have elsewhere (p. 27) noticed the somewhat incon- 
gruous assemblage of species in the Histoire des Poissons, 
under the generic appellation of C'entropristes ; and the 
authors of that work, as we have said above, mention the 
Maenoid aspect of truttaceus, as an indicaUon of its being 
the type of a distinct genus. Solander terms it, or a very simi- 
lar species, MuUoides, and Forster says that trutta has many 
claims to rank with the Mugiles, but taking the whole of 
its characters into consideration, he was induced to place 
it in the genus Scicena, which, in his time, was more com- 
prehensive than it is now. The Centropristes georgianus, 
which bears a close affinity to salar, has been chosen by 
the Rev. Leonard Jenyns as the type of his genus Arripis, 
so named because the scales of the body are destitute of 
the usual fan-shaped furrows on their covered bases. In 
salar the scales show distinct though not strong traces of 
these furrows, as may be observed in the magnified figure 
of a lateral scale (Plate XX. fig. 6), but we have, neverthe- 
less, thought it right to place it in the same group with 
f/eorgiamis, employing the word Arripis for the present, 
merely as the name of a subgenus, from not being able to 
determme satisfactorily the part of the system to which 
the group ought to be referred. 



The form of Centropristes salar is described in the 
Zoological Transactions as quoted above, and our figures 
supply ample means of comparison with other species. 
All our specimens have a space before and behind the eye 
covered with a thick mucous deposit, resembling, in that 
respect, certain states of the common mackarel, and the 
disk of the preojjerculum is also veined in a manner not 
very dissimilar to the same part in that fish. The speci- 
mens vary from six inches to a foot in length. 

Hab. Bay of Islands, New Zealand (Sir James Ross) ; 
Port Arthur, Van Diemen's Land (F. J. Lempriere, Esq.) ; 
Queen Charlotte's Sound and Norfolk Island (J. R. Forster). 

Eleginds falklandicus. Richardson. 

Ch. Spec. El. preoperculo sub- an g id at o, pinna caudte 
margins concavd. 

Radii:— Br. 6; D. 7|— 1|25; A. 1|2.3; C. 15|; P. 23; 

V. ijs. 

Plate XX., figs. 1, 2, natural size ; fig. 3 magnified. 

This Eleginus is the object of a considerable fishery at 
the Falkland Islands, whence it is exported, after being 
cured, to South America. In the forward position of the 
ventrals and the pores on the jaw and head, this fish is 
analogous to Notothenia, but its dentition is dissimilar, 
and its lateral line continuous. The characters by which 
the genus is discriminated from the other Scitenidce, 
with which it is ranged in the Histoire des Poissons, are 
there stated to be, — the entire preoperculum, small mouth, 
long anal, very large pectorals, and jugular ventrals. Our 
fish has these characters, and indeed auswers pretty closely 
to the whole description of Eleginus niaclovinus, in the 
work alluded to, but it differs from that and the other two 
described species, in having fewer spines in the first dorsal. 
I have had no opportunity of examining specimens of the 
known species, but the plate of E. niaclovinus in the 
Voyage de la Coquille (No. 17), fails entirely in giving the 
generic aspect, and is manifestly inaccurate in the lateral 
line, and in other particulars. The figure of the same 
species, in the Histoire des Poissons (t. 115), gives the 
general as])ect with more success, but differs from falk- 
landicus in the distribution of the scales on the lower 
limb of the preoperculum, in the form of the pectoral, which 
does not coincide with the description in the text, in the 
first three ra_vs of each of the vertical fins not being ap- 
proximated to the other, and in the want of pores on the 
head. We have no means of judging whether these dis- 
crepancies be specific, or merely omissions arising from 
inattention in the artist. 

Form compressed, fusiform, snout gibbous, head small. 
Eye rather small. Posterior nasal opening placed nearer 
to the end of the snout than to the eye. Anterior opening 
very minute, and considerably before the hinder one. 
Jaws moderately protractile. Maxillary small, and capa- 
ble of being all retracted under the preorbitar, except the 
lower corner. Mouth cleft about half way to the eye. 
Teeth short, slender, rather obtuse, and erect, forming 
narrow, not crowded villiform plates on the jaws. Tongue 
and roof of the mouth smooth. Preorbitar and snout 



31 



scaleless, as are also the corner of the cheek next the 
mouth, the lower limb of the preoperculum, the interoper- 
culum, fore part of the siiboperculum, and all the jaws. 
The scales on the top of the head are small, and run for- 
ward to the posterior nostrils. The scaly cheek is level 
with the upper limb of the preoperculum, and the scales 
become minute inferiorly, and terniinat(! very unevenly. 
The limbs of the preoperculum are entire. The operculum 
ends in an obtuse flat point, beyond which the membranous 
lobe of the inleroperculum extends. A wide shallow notch 
slopes forwards above the opercular point, having its ante- 
rior corner also rounded. The form of the entire gill- 
cover is triangular, with a bluntish tip. The gill-mem- 
branes are united beneath, and are supported by six rays 
on each side. 

The scales of the body in situ show concentric folds of 
cuticle, and have strongly toothed edges. The lateral line 
is traced in the upper third of the height, and is nearly 
straight, or very slightly arched. It is formed by a simple 
tube on each scale, which, when the specimen is removed 
from the spirits, speedily shrinks into a narrow furrow. 
There are fifty-eight scales in the lateral line. A line of 
similar tubes or furrovrs is continued forwards from the 
lateral line along the temples to the eye, and there are, 
as in Mufjil macrolepidotus, eight tubiferous scales on the 
cranium, whose arrangement is shown in fig. 2, Plate XX. 
A series of pores also exists along each limb of the lower 
jaw, and round the edges of the preopercula. Small scales 
are densely tiled on the lower half of the caudal, and on 
one-third of the pectoral. A clear streak coincides with 
each row of scales on the body, as in the mullets. 

The ventrals are attached under the middle of the sub- 
operculum, before the pectorals. The form of the pectoral 
is triangular, the fifth and sixth rays being the longest, 
and the superior ones closely incumbent. The tip of the 
fin, when turned back, reaches to the eighth dorsal ray, or 
sixth anal one. The caudal is slightly crescentic at the 
end. 

The specimens in the collection are numerous, and vary 
in length from five to fourteen inches. 

Hab. The Falkland Islands. 

Plotosus miceoceps. Richardson. 

Ch. Spec. PI. pallide gidtatus marmoratusqtie, macula 
uhloin/d supra pinuam pcctoialpiH ; capite octavam par- 
tiin loiKjHudinis iotiiis ccqiianti. 

Radii :— D. 1 16— 92 ; A. 8G ; C. 8 ; (= 186) ; P. 1 19 ; V. 9. 

Plate XXL, figs. 4, 5, natural size ; figs. 6, 7, magnified. 

This Plotosus, for which we are indebted to the industry 
of Mr. Bynoe, is remarkable for the smallness of its head, 
which does not exceed the eighth part of the entire length 
of the fish. The breadth of the head is superior to its 
height at the nape, and about one quarter shorter than its 
length to the gill-opening. The body is highest near the 
middle of its length, and there its thickness is only half 
its height. The tapering from thence to the acute point of 
the tail is gradual. The moulh is of moderate size, the 
lips thickish and granulated, especially the lower one. 



where the soft grains are in distinct rows, two in the middle 
and three or four laterally. The teeth on the jaws arc 
conical, with the tips truncated, and stand in three rows, 
of which the outer row is tallest. There is a narrow tooth- 
less space at the symphysis of the lower jaw, but in the 
upper one the dental plates are contiguous. The vela are 
very narrow, delicate, and waved or crenated on the edge. 
The teeth on the vomer are in five or six rows, more worn 
generally than those on the jaws, and the middle ones are 
the highest. 

The barbels are in four pairs, the nasal ones being the 
longest, and reaching beyond the middle of the jieclorals. 
The maxillary barbels next in length reach to th(; gill- 
opening. The barbels of the lower jaw are shorter, par- 
ticularly the interior pair. The posterior nostril on the 
base of the barbel could alone be made out, the anterior 
one being imperceptible. 

The top of the head is studded with pores, whose tumid 
lips form little round, soft grains. The lateral line is 
straight and fine, but very conspicuous, and is formed of a 
chain of small pores or tubes raised above the surface. 
There is no perforation in the integuments of the axilla of 
the pectoral. The specimen has the genital papilla and 
cauliflower-like appendage usual in the genus. 

The rays of the fins are enveloped in thick membrane, 
and were reckoned with difficulty. The spines of the 
pectoral and first dorsal are shorter than the soft rays, and 
are serrated, the ])ectoral si^ine on one side only, the dorsal 
one on both. They are enveloped in skin, but pierce it 
when handled (figs. 6, 7). The first dorsal is tall, and 
tapers to a filamentous point. 

In spirits the specimen has a light brownish or yellowish- 
grey tint, thickly mottled, fins included, with round 
spots and indefinite blotches of pale lead-grey. There is 
an oblong mark on the side above the pectoral. 

The liver of our specimen had perished, but the recesses 
on each side of the first vertebra for the reception of its 
upper lobes exist. The peritoneum has a silvery lustre. 
The gut, small for the size of the fish, is gathered in folds 
round the margin of the mesentery, and becomes gradually 
of less caliber from the oesophagus to near the anus. Its 
upper end was blackish, having been probably stained by 
the food. A small quantity of very soft %vell-digested 
matter was contained in the intestinal canal. 

DIMENSIONS. 

Length of the specimen 9"20 inches. 

„ fiom snout to anus 'l-bd „ 

Hab. North-west coast of Australia. 

Plotosus megastomus. Richardson. 

Ch. Spec. PI. fuscus, obscure parciterque guttat us ; capite 
quartam partem longitudinis iotius efficiente, ore la.vo, 
cirrhis decent. 

Radii : — Br. 11 ; D. 1|4— 82 ; C. 16 ; A. 76. (= 174) ; 
P. l|y; V. 11. 

Plate XXI., figs. 1, 2, 3, half the natural size. 

The difference of aspect between this fish and other Plo- 
iosi arises chiefly from the length of the head, and the large- 



32 



ness of the orifice of the mouth. The upper lip has an 
additional barbel, and the lower one is greatly developed. 
The collection contains but one specimen, which was 
procured at Sidney, the most southern locality that has 
been named for a Siluroid fish. This individual appears 
to have been injured on the end of the tail during life, 
as the last vertebrae are anchylosed, uneven and not sym- 
metrical. The ordinary form of the tail may, therefore, be 
difl'erent from our figure, and most probably more pointed. 
The proportionally large head constitutes a fourth part 
of the total length of the fish. Its breadth is one quarter 
less, and does not quite equal twice its height. It is flat 
above, with a wide snout, and its profile does not descend 
much below the level of the back. The eyes are rather 
nearer to the end of the snout than to the gill-opening, 
and the distance between them is nearly equal to that 
between the orbits and posterior nostrils. The mouth is 
very wide, the gape being enlarged at the sides by a fold 
of thick dilatable skin. The under lip is broad, has a free 
posterior four-lobed edge between the interior submaxillary 
barbels, and is studded on its inner surface by rows of 
minute, soft, brown, fringed eminences. The upper lip is 
minutely crenated on the edge, and there is a row 
of the same brown papilla3 round the front of the roof of 
the mouth, before the vomerine teeth. These are probably 
organs of touch, as they are too small to be of service in 
retaining the food. 

The somewhat conical but obtuse intermaxillary teeth 
are disposed in two small patches, not very precise in out- 
line, being oval on one side of the symphysis and quadran- 
gular on the other. The patches of teeth on the lower 
jaw are much larger, and of a triangular form, and the 
leeth of the outer row only have the form of the upper 
ones, the rest being closely set, flat and round, in fact 
pavement-like. The vomerine teeth are wholly of this 
pavement form, and constitute a pretty large heart-shaped 
patch, with the apex in front. The much smaller, cylin- 
drical, and blunt pharyngeal teeth stand in three rows 
above and below, presenting a narrow dental surface. The 
interior rakers are subulate, but with obtuse tips, and the 
others are soft crenated ridges lying across the arches. 

The nasal barbel reaches just past the eye. One nos- 
tril is pierced close behind its base, the other is some 
way before it on the extreme edge of the lip. The maxil- 
lary barbel is slightly shorter, and beneath it is a still 
shorter one, springing from near the corner of the mouth, 
above the jjale, pendant fold of the lip; making, with the 
four submaxillary barbels, ten in all. 

The integuments of the head, body and fins arc soft, 
smooth, and lax. A cluster of pores exists on the top of 
the head posteriorly ; there is another on each supra-sca- 
pular region, and a few solitary pores may be detected 
elsewhere. The lateral line is extremely indistinct. A 
round hole, opening through the integuments and fascia, 
exists in the upper angle of the axilla of each pectoral fin. 
It leads to a sac of some size, spreading towards the 
interparietal bone, the hollow of the humeral chain, and 
also posteriorly ; but there appears to be no communica- 
tion with the gills, or any interior cavity, such as exists in 
some other Siluroids. The conical genital papilla over- 
tops the cauliflower-looking appendage behind it. The 



latter rises by a slender stem, forming a deep pit, and 
spreads out, dividing midway into many blunt processes, 
which give it the cauliflower form. A small frsenura runs 
from the base of the genital papilla to the root of the ap- 
pendage, and a minute pore was observed on the posterior 
surface of the papilla, but I could not detect the orifice in 
front. 

The first dorsal is less lofty and tapering than in the 
other species, and is connected to the second by a loose 
fold of skin. Its spine, and that of the pectoral fin, are 
serrated, as usual, but they are enveloped and completely 
concealed by thick integument. 

The fish, as preserved in spirits, has a dark brown 
colour, with very faint, indications of small spots on the 
body and fins. 

On opening the belly, two lobes only of the liver are 
seen at the upper part of the cavity, with the fundus of a 
large gall-bladder projecting from beneath an undulation 
of the right lobe, which may be considered as a lobiiliis 
Spigelu. On moving the intestine, however, a long nar- 
row process of the right lobe is discovered running down 
the side of the cavity nearly to the pelvis. When the liver is 
raised, two large lobes are withdrawn through an oval open- 
ing, from a cavity on each side of the large first vertebra. 
This cavity is lined by a process of the peritoneum, and 
the sides of the opening leading to it are strengthened by 
an almost tendinous thickening of the peritoneum. The 
septum or diaphragm, which separates the thorax from the 
belly, is unusually strong, with a shining tendinous lustre. 
The liver is attached to it by a coronary membrane, which 
is pierced in the centre by a large vessel, leading to the 
heart. Besides the four principal lobes, which form, as it 
were, the corners of the liver, there is a smaller lobe on its 
under surface, above its middle, and there are several small 
projections from the circumference of the visciis. The 
left lower lobe is tapering, pointed, but is not so long as 
the right one. The liver is wholly dotted by minute black 
points. The gall-bladder is more than an inch and a half 
long in our specimen. 

The intestinal canal runs from the oesophagus to the 
anus, without much change of caliber, and without caeca, 
or stomachal dilatation. On entering the cavity of the 
belly, the gut is rather on the left side of the spine, but 
it crosses over to the right directly, and in its course to the 
vent being thickly puckered on the margin of a strong 
mesentery. The lower half of the gut is regularly speckled 
on its peritoneal surface with minute black dots, and within 
an inch and a half of the anus the coats of the gut are 
thickened, and it acquires a dark colour internally. 

When the intestines are removed, two long, narrow, un- 
divided bodies {testes) are seen lying along the spine in 
the peritoneum, and between them, near the anus, is the 
urinary bladder. The peritoneum seemed to cover a cavity 
in our specimen, and on raising it, much brown decayed 
matter was observed, the remains evidently of the broken 
down kidneys, mixed with fragments of a very thick glis- 
tening membrane, rcseuibling patches of asbestos. This 
must have been the broken capsule of the air-bladder. 
The air-bladder itself was entire, but collapsed, and being 
examined under water, was found to be composed of four 
large lobes, two of which lay in the hollows of the first 



33 



vertebra, and the other two projected downwards nearly 
half way to the anus. The cavities for lodging the upper 
lobes were separated from those which contained the upper 
portions of the liver by the peritoneum, and were lined by 
pieces of the thick capsule, showing that this invested all 
the four sections of the air-bladder. The sides of the large 
first vertebra are concave, with an acute dividing line facing 
ventrad. 

No information was furnished to us as to the habits of 
the fish, or how it was captured. A small quantity of 
fi^agments of minute Pinn<e and Crustacea was contained in 
the gut, about two inches from the oesophagus. 

DIMENSIONS. 

Length of the specimen, nearly 2000 inches. 

„ from snout to vent 820 „ 

„ from ventto end of tail lltjO „ 

Hab. Sidney Cove ; Australia. 

Bagrus VENATicus. Richardsou. 

The north-west coasts of Australia nourish two species 
of Bagrus, a single example of each having been procured 
there by Benjamin Bynoe, Esq., surgeon of the Beagle. 
Both specimens are much injured by the spoiling of the 
spirits in which they were immersed, and most of the 
barbels have perished, but many of their characters can 
still be made out. They belong to the same group with 
B. bilineatus, in which the nasal barbel is replaced by a 
small lid. In general form they approach the gogora of 
Buchanan-Hamilton pretty closely, but the upper lip is 
not so prominent as in his figure, and the caudal is more 
deeply forked. The rays of the anal fin are more nu- 
merous than in any species of the group described in the 
Histoire des Poissons. 

The larger specimen is 8j inches long, and for the sake 
of reference, it is named leitalicns, in allusion to the Bea- 
gle, though we cannot, fi-om its condition, give a correct 
description of it. Its casque is strongly granulated, and 
has the form of that oi gogora, except that the apex of the 
inteiparietal process, where it meets the small crescentic 
buckler of the dorsal fin, is slightly rounded. The width 
of the base of this process is nearly equal to its length. 
The granulations of the casque extend forwards to the 
middle of the orbit, and the mesial membranous space is 
very narrow and tapering behind, having its greatest 
breadth exactly between the eyes. The lateral process of 
the supra-scapular is broad at the base and triangular, and is 
covered with a granular skin, but no granulations of the 
bone show through the integument. The lateral line is 
distinctly marked from the apex of this space to the tail. 
The triangular plate of the humeral chain, which furnishes 
a socket for the head of the pectoral spine, is roughly and 
deeply sculptured, and its posterior corner is acute and 
pungent. A part of the operculum at its articular angle 
is marked by radiating rough lines, but the preoperculum 
and interoperculum are smooth. 

The two-edged acute dorsal spine is in height equal to 
the length of the granulated casque, including its inter- 
parietal process, and is granulated in front from the base 
to its middle, and acutely serrated from thence to the tip. 
It is a little undulated posteriorly, uear the tip. The pec- 



toral .spine is equal in length to the dorsal one, and is 
strongly serrated on both sides, from the tip downwards, 
the serratures ceasing posteriorly about one-third of the 
length from the base, and giving ))lace to granulations 
near the base anteriorly. The jointed rays of the fins are 
considerably injured, and cannot be correctly made out, 
but the numbers, as nearly as can be ascertained, are as 
follows : — 

Radii:— D. \\d, or more; —0; A. about 30; C. 17|; 
P. 1!I3; V. about 8. 

The upper lobe of the caudal is rather the longest. 

The teeth are short, villiform. The front of the vomer 
supports two small roundish dental plates, which adhere 
to each other. The palatine plates are both broader and 
longer. 

The points of the ribs show through the skin, as in bili- 
neatus, and the allied species. 

The colours are dark greyish-blue on the back, and 
white on the belly, — the tints of the fins are totally lost. 

Hab. N. W. coast of Australia. 

Bagrus veetagds. Richardson. 
Radii:— B. 6; D. 1|6 vel 7—0; A. 28; P. I|9; V. 9? 

This fish was discovered by the officers of the same 
ship who found the preceding one, and its specific name 
has a similar origin. The only specimen we have received 
was unfortunately too much injured to admit of a correct 
figure being drawn, and the description must likewise be 
considered as imperfect. It belongs to the same group 
of Bagri with venaticus. 

The dorsal spine is proportionally shorter than that of 
the species just named, being merely equal in length to 
the space between its base and the orbit, or to the casque, 
excluding the interparietal process. The pectoral spine 
is strongly serrated on both sides, and exceeds the dorsal 
one in length. The adipose fin is rather larger than that 
of B. gogora, and is nearly of the same shape, but its fore 
edge is a little waved, at the spot where it sinks to the 
level of the back. The tail is deeply forked. 

The casque, less granulated than that of B. venaticus, 
has the same general form. It is shallowly sculptured, as 
far forward as the orbits, in a pattern similar to what is 
named rustic work by builders. The apex of the inter- 
parietal process is crescentic, and thus fits more exactly to 
the curve of the buckler than that of venaticus. The 
subulate process of the supra-scapular is clothed with 
smooth integument. The surface of the humeral chain 
above the pectoral is more smooth, and not so distinctly 
seen as that of venaticus, nor is its angle so pungent. 

The vomerine teeth are disposed in two small separate 
plates, and the palatine teeth form a still smaller plate 
near each corner of the mouth. The barbels are six in 
number, but they were too much injured in the specimen 
to admit of their length being ascertained. 

The lints of the specimen, as far as its state permits us 
to judge, are sky-blue on the back, with silvery sides and 
belly. No spots now exist. 

Length, three inches. 

Hab. North-west coast of Australia. 

F 



34 



HisTioPTERUS RECURViRosTKis. Richardson. 
Plate XXIL, figs. 5, 6. 

Of this fish I have received merely a mutilated head 
from Dr. W. P. Jones, Surgeon in the Royal Navy, to 
whom it was presented by Mr. Moriarty, of Hobart Town. 
The subopercula, interopercula, and most of the opercula 
have been broken away, but the parts which remain agree 
so perfectly with the corresponding parts of Histiopterus 
typus, figured in the forty-fifth plate of the Faima Japo- 
nica, that I have no hesitation in assigning it to that genus. 
It is a very distinct species from typus, having a much 
more elongated and concave muzzle. In typus, the pro- 
file ascends fi-om the upper lip to the gibbous orbital plate 
of the frontal bone, at an angle of 45°, and the propor- 
tionally smaller eye is directly over the lower limb of the 
preoperculum, the posterior limb of that bone being ver- 
tical, whereas in recurvirostris it slopes greatly forwards 
in descending from the temple. The relative position of 
the nostrils is the same in both, as are also the bony plates 
and intermediate cuticular, or scaly spaces, but in typus 
the granulations of the plates run in coarse, radiating, 
concentric, or parallel ridges, while in recurvirostris, the 
rough points preserve no determinate order, except on the 
preoperculum, where they are obscurely radiate, and on 
the operculum, where their course appears to be in parallel 
lines, but the patterns are very different from those of 
typus. The shagginess of the tip of the chin of the 
latter is not perceptible in recurvirostris. The teeth of 
our species are coarsely setaceous, in broad, densely- 
crowded bands, and are easily broken, when each is seen 
to be traversed by a fine central canal. I received no other 
information respecting the form of the species, except that 
it was a very extraordinary fish. 

Hab. Coast of Van Diemen's Land ; very rare. The 
specimen was caught in a net in one of the inlets of Storm 
Bay, by some fishermen, and carried by them to Mr. Mo- 
riarty, as a fish which they had never seen before. 

Alepisaurus. Lowe. 
Plate XXIL, figs. 1, 2, 3, 4. 

The Rev. Mr. Lowe, of Madeira, has described and 
figured a Scomberoid fish, taken on the coasts of that 
island, under the name of Alepisaurus fero.v. I have had 
an opportunity of examining the head of one of his spe- 
cimens, preserved in the museum of the Philosophical 
Institution of Cambridge, and have been thereby enabled 
to assign to the same genus a fragment of a skull, obtained 
by Dr. Hooker from Mr. Gunn, of Van Diemen's Land, 
and said to belong to a fish which was taken on the coasts 
of that colony. It is a distinct species from fero.v, from 
which it differs in the more backward position of the eye, 
the gibbosity of the profile before the orbit, and the gene- 
rally greater height of the upper jaw. 

The bones of the skull are thin, transparent and papery, 
as is the case in general among the Scornberida. The 
frontal bone looks almost membranaceous from its delicacy 
and transparency, but it is strengthened by acute ribs, 
which radiate from a point over the middle of the orbit, 



and near to its edge. The shortest rays proceed directly to 
the edge of the orbit, the longest run forwards towards the 
nostrils, while those of medium length go inwards to the 
mesial line, and backwards to the occiput. The two frontals 
meet in a straight mesial line on the top of the head, and the 
space between the orbits is fiattish, with a slight declination 
of the edge of the orbit. The other bones of the head are 
similarly formed of ribs running through their transparent 
plates. Slender intermaxillaries form the whole upper 
border of the mouth, and are armed from end to end with 
small subulate teeth, which are slightly unequal in height, 
and do not lie exactly in one line. The palate bones 
sustain long, thin, lancet-shaped teeth, slightly curved 
backwards, one pair on each bone standing well forwards 
near the nostrils, and another pair farther backwards, but 
before the eye. There is a toothless space between these 
pairs, and also before the first pair, there being no teeth on 
the chevron of the vomer. Behind the second pair there 
are ten shorter lanceolate teeth on each palate bone, in- 
creasing a little in size towards the corner of the mouth. 
The lower jaw is armed with a pair of long lanceolate 
teeth, fitting to the toothless space between the pairs of 
the upper jaw, and behind, by twelve short ones. Ante- 
riorly this jaw is furnislied with subulate teeth, consi- 
derably larger and more widely set than those of the inter- 
maxillaries. A pair of still taller subulate teeth stands 
close to the symphysis. The long lanceolate teeth have 
slightly convex lateral surfaces, with a thin border, appa- 
rently of more compact bone, which shows a feeble crena- 
ture on the edge, when examined through a lens. The 
surface of the tooth, except the extreme edge, seems to be 
reticulated. All these teeth are at first recumbent along 
the jaw, and assume the erect position as the older teeth 
are broken, and require to be replaced. In figure 2, the two 
anterior subulate teeth are represented in this position, as 
they actually existed in the specimen, while in figure 1 
they are shown erect, because the adjoining ones were 
broken. Several lanceolate teeth, both long and short, 
were also laid along the jaw when the specimen was first 
examined. The preoperculum is vertical, with a slight 
curve, and without any horizontal limb. Its fore edge is 
a strong, ribbed ridge, its disk thin, papery, and radiated, 
as in the figure. The rest of the opercular bones were 
broken off. The gill-membrane lies between the limbs of 
the lower jaw, and contains seven rays. 
Hab, Coast of Van Diemen's Land. 

Raia LEMPRIERI. Richardson. 

Plate XXIII., half the natural size. 

This ray has received its specific name in compliment 
to Deputy Assistant Commissary-General F. J. Lempriere, 
to whose exertions the Ichthyology of Van Diemen's Land 
is much indebted. It is nearly allied to the Raia nasuta, 
of which a figure by Parkinson exists in the collection 
of drawings formed by Sir Joseph Banks, on Cook's first 
voyage, and now in the British Museum. The most strik- 
ing difference between them is in the shorter snout of 
lemprieri, forming merely the apex of the rhomboidal 
anterior half of the disk, and not tapering to a point, as in 
nasuta, whose disk is bounded anteriorly by concave lines. 



36 



In this also the lateral caudal spines are nearly as uniformly 
large as the medial ones, thus forming three rows, which 
run farther up the back than in lemprieri. 

Disk rhomboido-ovate : the snout not projecting beyond 
the angle of the rhomb, but slightly pointed through an 
undulation in the foi'e edge of the disk, which rounds off 
laterally into the ovate posterior half Its breadth is in 
proportion to its length, exclusive of the ventrals, as 6 to 
55. Tail depressed, flat beneath, rounded above, with a 
faint indication of a blunt mesial ridge, the sides sloping 
into a thin cuticular edge. 

The dorsal fins, of equal size and height, are closely 
approximated to each other, and to the lip of the tail, the 
posterior one being joined to the very small caudal hy a 
minute fold of skin. The tip of the tail is acute, and is 
rendered three-edged by its lajleral cuticular margins, and 
the scarely more developed caudal fin on its upjjer surface. 
This fin is highest in the middle, but even there its height 
does not equal the breath of the tip of the tail. The ven- 
trals are folded, and irregularly toothed on the edge by 
cuticular points corresponding with the rays. A narrow 
anterior obtuse lobe is separated from the rest of the fin 
by a notch, which penetrates nearly half way to the base; 
the margin of the posterior portion is rounded, with a 
somewhat acute hinder comer. The claspers are fusiform, 
and are overlapped at the base, together with part of the 
fore lobe of the ventrals, by tlie posterior corners of the 
pectorals. 

The tip of the snout, a patch before each eye, part of 
the cheeks, the anterior borders of the disk, the top of the 
head, middle line of the back, and upper surface of the 
tail, with the dorsal fins, are thickly set with fine prickles, 
which point backwards. The cuticular space between 
the pectorals and snout, the flanks, the posterior half of 
pectorals, with the exception of a small patch, the ventrals, 
and the whole under surface of the fish, are smooth. 
About seven stronger spines arm the supra-orbitar ridge, 
others are scattered near the anterior edge of the disk, op- 
posite to the eyes, seven or eight occupy the mesial line 
between the head and humeral cartilage, and a row, begin- 
ning at the pelvis, runs down the middle of the tail, having 
an alternate direction to right and left, not shown in the 
figure. There are also some scattered larger .spines on the 
sides of the tail among the smaller ones, but no continuous 
lateral rows, such as appear in the figure of Raia nasuta, 
above referred to. Our specimen exhibits two rows of 
very acute spines, each enclosed in a sheath and pointing 
niesiad, situated in the widest part of the disk, a little way 
from the edge. These are probably peculiar to the male 
in the spawning season. The nasal flap, as is usual in the 
genus, is adnate in the middle, with a free rounded lobe at 
each nostril, set with a short fringe. The nostril is capable 
of being closed by the expansion of a loose fold from its 
outer border. Cleft of the mouth moderatelj' arched for- 
wards, and pretty wide. The teeth are round disks, with 
a central conical cusp, but on the lower jaw many of the 
cusps are worn away. Both these forms of teeth are 
shown magnified in the plate. 

The tip of the snout above and below, and the point of 
the tail beneath, are black : the general colour of the 
upper surface of the fish is blackish-grey ; the lateral 



regions of the snout and the edges of the pectorals are 
flesh-coloured, and the under surface is almost wholly 
white. 

Length of specimen, nineteen inches. 

Hab. Port Arthur, Van Diemen's Land. 

Urolopiius ephippiatus. Richardson. 

Plate XXIV., about two-thirds of the natural size. 

Outline of the disk rhomboido-oval, somewhat broader 
than long, and much like that of U. aurantiacus, but less 
wide, and bounded anteriorly, not by convex lines, but by 
straight ones, which round broadly ofiF into the oval poste- 
rior portion of the disk. The hinder corner of the pec- 
toral is more decided than in aurantiacus, being nearly as 
conspicuous as in the Torpedos. The tip of the snout is 
an obtuse angle, without the apiculus of auranliacm. 
Ventrals rounded, united beneath, so that their conjoined 
margins form a dee\> curve. Caudal fin oval, both lobes 
nearly equally high, and the under one scarcely running 
farther forward than the upper one. About thirty carti- 
laginous rays shine through the integuments of each lobe. 
The caudal spine occupies more than two-thirds of the 
width of the tail at its insertion, tapers to a very acute 
point, is striated on its anterior surface, and strengthened 
behind by a rounded keel, which fits a depression in the 
tail. Its edges are serrated by very acute reverted teeth. 

The greatest thickness of the disk is at the junction of 
the shoulder-girdle with the spine, and from this place the 
vertical diameter lessens both longitudinally and laterally. 
The eyes are of moderate size, and have rather a lateral 
aspect. Their posterior halves are embraced externally by 
the spout holes, which exceed the orbits in size, and are 
widest behind. A small valvular fold projects within the 
spout-hole from its orbital wall, the rest of its lining is 
smooth. The united nasal fla]) has a straight free edge, 
and is fringed by obtuse cuticular processes, invisible to 
the naked eye. The base of the flap is slightly narrower 
than its free border, and its bridle springs from the middle 
of the upper lip. In the plate the flap is shown in two 
positions, when hanging down, and when drawn up. A 
small rounded lobe projects into the nasal opening from 
its under border. Folds or streaks are disposed in a 
doubly pectinated order on the lining of the nostrils. 

When the mouth is gently open, the dental plates occupy 
the entire borders of the transverse or slightly arched 
rictus, the teeth rolling a little farther out in the middle of 
the lower jaw. Individually the teeth are rhomboidal, 
with the transverse diameter rather exceeding the longi- 
tudinal one, and having a flat or slightly tumid disk, with- 
out ridges. Edge of the upper velum straight, and finely 
fringed, like the nasal flap. Lower velum furni.shed with 
three or more soft, smooth, conical papilla;, which di.sap- 
pear as the integuments are moved or stretched. Many 
pores which exist in the disk and tail are shown in their 
proper positions in the figure. 

Genital canal transversely plaited, the tapering cornua of 
the uterus shaggy, with long, filamentous, crowded villi. 
Liver large, and when the belly is slit up, nearly concealing 
the intestines, granular, and divided into two oval lobes by 

F 2 



a fissure penetrating through three-fourths of its depth. 
The right lobe is the thickest and largest. There are no 
lobules. The stomach being tender, was torn in the exa- 
mination, but appears to have been an oblong wide sac, 
terminating in a narrow intestine, somewhat longer than 
itself. To this succeeds a valvular colon, which is about 
as long as the stomach, but rather wider, and lastly, a 
smooth rectum, a little shorter than the valvular part of 
the gut. 

The specimen, after being kept in spirits, is reddish- 
brown on the upper surface, with dark lines, disposed 
somewhat like the harness of a cart-horse, whence the 
specific name of ephippiatus. Their exact form may be 
ascertained more correctly by turning to the figure, than 
from any description. 

DIMENSIONS. 

Length from snout to tip of tail W7b inches. 

„ „ base of caudal spine 9'26 „ 

„ „ crescentic edge of ventrals be- 
neath 7-75 „ 

„ „ hinder angles of pectorals 7-52 „ 

axilla of ditto 692 „ 

„ „ fore point of vent 6-55 „ 

„ „ posterior gill-opening 5'65 „ 

„ „ first ditto 2-70 „ 

„ „ mouth 1'68 „ 

„ „ middle of nostrils 1'28 „ 

„ „ centres of spout-holes 2-25 „ 

„ „ centres of orbits 1'90 „ 

Width of free edge of nasal flap 075 „ 

„ between anterior pair of gill-openings 1*82 „ 

„ between posterior ditto 1"19 „ 

Longitudinal diameter of eyes 0-45 „ 

„ „ spout-holes 0-72 „ 

Distance between ditto 1"10 „ 

Breadth of disk 800 „ 

Hab. Storm Bay, Van Diemen's Land. 

Zeus australis. Richardson. 

Radii :— Br. 7 ; D. 10|23 ; A. 4l22 ; C. 134- ; P. 14 ; V. 1 15. 

Plate XXV., fig. 1. 

A single specimen of this fish, in very bad condition, 
was brought home. The pectoral, ventral and caudal fins 
are mutilated, and much of the membrane and filaments 
of the spinous dorsal have disappeared, so that these parts 
are not to be considered as exactly represented in the 
figure. 

On comparing the specimen carefully with examples of 
Zeusfaher, the resemblance of the two species is found to 
be very great. The Australian fish has, however, propor- 
tionally shorter and stouter dorsal spines, the soft part of 
the fin occupying rather more space. The fourth spine is 
the tallest, while in Zeus faher it is the third. The shields 
at the bases of the dorsal and anal are more numerous, 
but much less acutely spinous in Zeus austialis, which 
possesses seven shields under the soft dorsal, and eight 
along the corresponding part of the anal, besides angular 
points at the root of the spines. The thoracic and abdo- 
minal shields are also scarcely spiniferous, while in faher 
the thoracic shields have thin, acute, falcate points, and 
the ventral ones support acute spines. The supra-scapular 
spine is nearly obsolete in australis, and the coracoid pro- 



cess, above the pectoral, as well as the other angular bones 
about the head, are less acute. 

The surfaces of the preoperculuin, and of the frontal 
bones are flat and striated. In Z. faber the former of 
these bones is strengthened by a smooth, elevated, central 
rib, and the frontal bones show a thin edge on the upper 
surface of the head, forming keels, which end in a small 
spine on each side of the occiput. This point is smooth 
and flat in australis. 

Length, fourteen inches. 

The specimen is too much decayed to possess any re- 
mains of colour, and there is no vestige of a lateral spot. 

In the third volume of the ' Zoological Journal,' I de- 
scribed a Van Diemen's Land fish under the name of Ca- 
pros australis, from a coloured drawing, executed by a 
convict in that colony. It is possible that he had the spe- 
cies described above before him, in which case he has 
omitted the spinous shields, and thrown the dorsal fin too 
far back. The drawing was rose-coloured, without a late- 
ral spot. 

Hab. Port Jackson, Australia. 

Crenidens triglyphus. Richardson. 

Cu. Spec. Cr. dentibus tricuspidatis ; radiis articulari- 

bus pinued dorsi spinas altitudine excedentibus. 

Radii:— Br. 6; D. 15ll2; A. 3|12 ; C. 154; P. 16 ; V. 1|5. 

Plate XXV., fig. 2. 

This fish has the physiognomy of Crenidens forskalii, 
with the same proportion of height to length, but with a 
rather less convex profile, and somewhat thinner jaws. 
The outline of the dorsal fin, and the number of rays of 
the two species, do not correspond, and there are other 
diff"erences. 

The suborbitar of Cr. triglyphus is square, with nearly 
straight edges, and without the small notch at the head of 
the maxillary which forskalii shows. The scales of the 
cheek are small, and disappear on the disk of the preoper- 
culuin and upper border of the gill-cover; the suboper- 
culum, interoperculum, most of the preoperculuin, and 
lower part of the operculum, are covered with smooth 
skin, thickly sprinkled with minute black dots. In the 
figure of Cr. forskalii, in the Histoire des Poissons (pi. 
162 quater), the whole operculum, suboperculum, and in- 
teroperculum, are covered with pretty large scales. The 
disk of the preoperculum is smooth, and in both species 
the edge of this bone is transversely furrowed, producing 
wide, obtuse crenatures. The operculum of Cr. trir/li/phus 
ends in a thin, flat, acute point, above which the bone 
slopes away with a slightly concave curve. In oiu- figure, 
this bony point is represented rather too much like a spine. 
A row of pretty large scales crosses the supra-scapular 
region, as in forskalii, but their disks are covered with 
smaller scales, so that they are rendered inconspicuous. 

There are forty-six scales in a row, between the gill- 
opening and caudal fin, which are generally oblong, with the 
base truncated, the two sides parallel to each other, and the 
apex rounded. A meniscoid segment of the tip of the scale 
is rough with teeth, the outer ones very acute, and ciliating 
the edge. Behind this there is a small, smooth rectangle. 



37 



or square, from which the fan-like funows, varying in 
number from fifteen to twenty-two, radiate sharply, and 
take in the whole basal edge. Fine lines of structure are 
visible parallel to the lateral edges of the scale, ceasing at 
the flat disk. The lateral line is composed of scales 
traversed by a simple tube, and covered by the scales 
above and below, so that, comparatively, little of their 
disk is seen. Many small scales are crowded on the shoul- 
der at the commencement of the lateral line, mingling 
imperceptibly with the small ones on the head. The 
scales behind the ventrals on the under surface of the 
belly are longer and naiTower. The dorsal and anal fins 
are embraced at the base by scaly fillets, which Forskal 
indicates when he says "fossuld in dorso ;" the soft parts 
of these fins are scaly between the rays, half-way up, and 
there are also scaly fillets at the base of the spinous rays, 
not at every ra}', nor exactly alternately. No scales are 
shown in the fins of Cr. forskalii, in the figure above 
referred to, nor is mention made of them in the text of the 
Histoire des Puissons, but those of the body are said to be 
" tniiices et tisses,,'" so that if there be no mistake, they 
differ widely from those of Cr. triglyphus. 

The branchiostegous rays are six in number.* The first 
five dorsal spines are rather abruptly graduated, the five 
following ones are all of one length, and the last four are 
again graduated, but very slightly, the last one being as 
tall as the fifth one. The first short spine touches the 
second at its base, but is separated from it by membrane 
at the tip. The soft part of the fin is higher than the 
spines, and the last ray is divided to the base. The se- 
cond and third anal spines are equal to each oilier, and in 
some specimens, are as tall as the longest dorsal spines, 
but in the one from which our figure was taken, they are a 
little shorter. The basal half of the caudal is scaly. This 
fin is concave on the edge, especially in the smaller spe- 
cimens, but in the larger ones, when the fin is stretched 
out it becomes almost even. 

In the Histoire des Poissons, the dentition of Cr. fors- 
kalii is described in the following terms : — 

" II y a deu.v rangees de dents incisives a chaque md- 
choire, Ve.vteriie de di.v dents, Vinterne de vingt. Ces 
dents sont larges, aplaties, inserees terticalement sur la 
mdclioire ; leur bord est festonn6 et denteU par cinq 
deniicides, dont les trois du milieu depassent de beancoup 
les laterales. Derriere ces incisives il y a de petites dents 
grenues et arrondies sur plusieurs rangs. Les pharyn- 
giennes sont en cardes tres-Jines." 

The outer teeth of Cr. triglyphus are arranged nearly as 
above-mentioned, viz., about twenty-two on each limb of 
each jaw, and here and there the row is doubled, or even 
trebled, but not in a regular manner. But the inner teeth, 
though much shorter than the outer ones, are exactly 
alike in form, pressed closely within each other in five or 
six rows, so that only the extreme tips project beyond the 
gum, and give the appearance of a close villiform surface, 
which is separated by a furrow from the longer teeth on 
the edge of the jaw, produced by the forward inclination 
of the latter. It is evident that, as the longer teeth wear 

* The text of the Histoire des Poissons mentions five gill-rays, while 
the formula, a few lines lower, marks six. 



away, their place is supplied by a row from the posterior 
ones. Each tooth has three blunt lips. The tongue is 
soft and granular. The roof of the mouth is toothless. 

The specimens, which have been long preserved in 
spirits, are dark coloured, with faint lines in the direction 
of the scales. 

Length, from five to sixteen inches. 

Hab. Port Jackson, Australia. 

Dajaus diemensis. Richardson. 

Dajaus diemensis. Bich. Zool. Tr. iii. p. 123. 

Radii:— Br. 6; D.4]— 10; A.31I2; C. 14^; P. 15; V. IjS. 

Plate XXVI., figs. 1, 2. 

This mullet is fully described, and the characters which 
distinguish it from the previously discovered Australian 
mullets, pointed out in the work above quoted. It was 
placed in the genus Dajaus, on account of its vomerine 
and palatine teeth, but its mouth does not exactly corre- 
spond with that of Dajaus monticola, and differs little 
from that of some true mullets. The greater number of 
its anal rays distinguishes it readily from the other mullets 
of the Australian seas. Many of the scales had dropped 
fi-om the operculum of our specimens, before they formed 
the subject of the artist's skill, so that their exact size and 
distribution on that part may not be quite correctly repre- 
sented ; the figure is excellent in other parts. 

Length, from ten to fourteen inches. 

Hab. Van Diemen's Land and West Australia ; King 
George's Sound ; Port Arthur. 

Latris ciliaris. 

Ch. Spec. L. capite quintam partem longitudiiiis piscis 
totius ejfficiente ; radiis sex inferioribus pinnai pectoris 
indivisis ; caudd emarginatd lobis inaqualibus. 

Radii:— B. 6; D. 17|39; A. SjSS; C. 13|; V.UetG; 
A. 1|5.* 

Sciana ciliaris, Descr. An. J. R. Forsteri, cura H. Licht. p. 138, pars 
descr. 

Icon Ined. Georg. Forst. No. 209 in Bibl. Banks, serv. 

Plate XXVI., fig. 6, one-third nat. size, fig. 7, magnified. 

In the 'Transactions of the Zoological Society' (vol. iii. 
p. 106), I gave an account of the characters of Latris, 
which may be considered either as a subdivision of Chei- 
lodactylus, or as a proper genus, according to the different 
views of systematic writers. A detailed account of a 
striped species, named Latris hecateia, accompanied by a 
con-ect figure, is there given. This is the " Trumpeter" of 
Van Diemen's Land, the fish w'hich is most prized in the 
colony lor its edible qualities. Fish of the same genus 
had been observed on the coast of New Zealand, by the 
naturalists who accompanied Cook on his first and second 
voyages. One species was taken in Queen Charlotte's 
Sound, and named by Solander Scixna salmonea, but he 
left no description of it, and all that remains for its identi- 



Thei 



represents one dorsal spine too many. 



fication is an unfinished pencil sketch by Parkinson, pre- 
served in the Banksian Library. This exhibits only fifteen 
dorsal spines, and does not agree, in that respect, with any 
specimen we have seen. Another species, procured in 
Dusky Bay, was named by J. R. Forster Sciana lineata, 
and his description of it published in Schneider's Bloch, 
under the appellation of Cichla litieata, and also in the 
edition of his notes, brought out by Lichtenstein (p. 134). 
George Forster's sketch of the fish, No. 204, in the Bank- 
sian Library, differs so much in outline from Latris he- 
cateia, that I have not thought it expedient to refer both 
to the same species, though no decided character is no- 
ticed in the description by which they can be distinguished. 
A comparison of Dusky Bay and Van Diemen's Land spe- 
cimens is required to decide the point. 

There are two other figures by George Forster, which 
have a closer bearing on the subject of this article than the 
preceding ones. One numbered 205* in the Banksian 
collection, is a coloured drawing of a fish taken in Dusky 
Bay, and named by the natives Moghee. This presents 
very nearly the outline of Latris hecateia, but wants the 
lateral stripes of that species, and also the yellow tail of 
Latris lineuta. It is entitled Latris ciliaris. The other, 
also inscribed Latris ciliaris, is a pencil sketch of a fish, 
obtained in Queen Charlotte's Sound on the 25th of Octo- 
ber, 1774. A description of Latris ciliaris is contained 
in Lichtenstein's edition of J. R. Forster's notesf (p. 137), 
and reference is made to a figure by George Forster, but it 
is not said which of the two is meant, and the exact locality 
is not noted in this work as it is generally on the drawing, 
so that we receive no assistance from that consideration, + 
but we may suppose that figure (No. 205) is the one in- 
tended, since its dimensions (nine inches in total length), 
correspond with those given in the text. The rays of the 
dorsal and anal fins are stated in one paragraph to be, 
D. 16|43; A. 2,36; and in another to be, D. 16|38; 
A. 2|32. Such a difference in numbers rarely occurs in 
the same species, and I think it probable that the descrip- 
tion was made at different dates, and of two distinct spe- 
cies. It is with the sketch 209, and the rays enumerated 
in the last paragraph, as well as in the size, which is stated 
to be thirty inches, that Sir James Ross's specimen, figured 
in Plate 26, so nearly corresponds, that 1 have considered 
them to belong to one species, to which I have applied 
Forster's name of ciliaris, being unwilling to add to the 
number of specific names, where it can be avoided. If 
Forster be supposed to have overlooked the first short and 
incumbent spine of the dorsal and anal spines, there is no 
material discrepancy between the rays of our specimen 
and those enumerated in his concluding paragraph. As 
to George Forster's figures, no great endeavour at accuracy 
of numbers has been made, if we may judge by com- 
paring them with his father's descriptions," but they render 



* In the comments I made on this figure in the ' Zooh)};ical Tran- 
sactions,' iii. p. 115, the number of it is erroneously printed 204 instead 
of 205. 

t Anthias ciliaris, Schn. Bl p. 

X In Lichtenstein's work, the pages containing Scicma ciliaris and 
hneata are headed Nova Hollandia, though in the text the species are 
said to inhabit the sea of Nova Zeelandia. 



the generic aspect of the fish, for the most part, very 
happily. 

One sentence in J. R. Forster's notes occasioned me 
some difficulty, " Tubercula bina supra oculos, ciliaria," 
but I now think that this merely refers to the convexity 
of the anterior frontal producing an obtuse superciliary 
ridge. The figiu-es show no other protuberance, although 
fi-om the conical supra-orbitar projections of the frontal 
bone, observed in some Cheilodactyli, we might be led to 
look for something similar in the allied group of Latris. 

Sir James Ross's specimen, measuring thirty inches in 
length, was procured at Sidney, and being put into brine, 
which spoiled during the voyage, reached this country in 
very bad condition. On this account our figure cannot 
pretend to perfect accuracy of outline or markings, but in 
other respects it may be relied upon. 

The head forms a fifth of the whole length to the tip of 
the lower lobe of the caudal-fin, and its height at the nape 
is one-sixth less than its length. The ej'e is high up, and 
midway between the tip of the snout and apex of the gill- 
flap. The convex space between the two eyes is less than 
two diameters of the orbit. The anterior frontal is convex 
and bulging. The maxillaries are moderately pi-otractile, 
their pedicels exceeding their dental limbs in length. The 
limbs of the lower jaw are unusuallj- broad and short, the 
jaw being articulated oppo.site to the fore edge of the rec- 
tangular preorbitar. The under lip folds broadly back 
laterally. The teeth, small, short, and slenderly subidate, 
are loosely set on both jaws, to the depth of five or six 
at the symphysis, diminishing to a single one at the corners 
of the mouth. Their tips are black in the specimen. There 
are none on the roof of the mouth. 

The preoperculum has a wide smooth disk, and its outer 
edge is curved parabolically. The upper limb, which is 
slightly concave, is finely serrated, the teeth becoming 
obsolete on the rounded corner. The operculum is large, 
and permits only a narrow subopercidum to appear beneath 
it. The disk of the interoperculum is comparatively broad. 
All these bones have entire edges. An occipital crest runs 
back on the nape, rendering it acute. The distance from 
its ridge to the ujjper edge of the gill-cover, exceeds a 
third of the height of the head. The belly is said to be 
keeled in Forster's notes. We cannot make out its true 
form from the specimen, but in Latris lineata the sides 
are compressed, and the belly acute behind the ventrals, 
yet there is a flattish under surface before these fins, and 
it is probable that ciliaris resembles it in these respects. 

The scales are arranged much as in the Scicciiidee. 
Those which compose the lateral line are traversed by a 
simple slender tube, and are notched at the tip. They 
are smaller than the others, and being overlapped by the 
adjoining scales both above and below, very little of their 
disk is seen. They amount to about eighty-four in num- 
ber, and diminish considerably in size towards the base of 
the caudal fin. There are twenty-four or twenty-five scales 
in a vertical row over the ventrals. The scaly fillets along 
the bases of the dorsal and anal fins exist, as is usual in 
the genus. The first dorsal .spine is incumbent on the 
lower half of the second one, and when invested with soft 
integument, they would naturally be reckoned only as a 
single spine, as Forster seems to have done. The two 



posterior articulated rays of this fin are approximated, and 
might also be enumerated as one. The first anal spine is 
so minute, that it can scarcely be found without dissection. 
The second one is also very short, but it is thicker, and 
obtuse. The third one scarcely exceeds a third of the 
height of the succeeding articulated ray, and is slender 
and tapering. The last anal ray is divided to the base, 
and might be reckoned as two. The ventrals are placed 
under the fifth and sixth dorsal spines, and the posterior 
third of the pectorals. The lobes of the caudal are une- 
qual, the lower one being largest. This form of the caudal 
is very general with the Cheilodactyll and Latres. 
Hab. Sidney Cove, Australia. 

Myctophum boops. Richardson. 

Ch. Spec. Myct. altitudine corporis vel longitudine ca- 
pitis quintam partem longitudinis piscis totius tequaitte ; 
oculo mag)io spatium interocularem e.vcedenti ; appa- 
ratu lucido, cariiinto f route valde conspicuo ; pinnd 
dorsi supra veiitralcs aiilepositas incipienti ; pinnis 
pectoris aitum aitiiigevtibiis. 

Radii : — D. U— 0; A. 20 ; C. 17| ; P. 1.5 ; V. 8. 

Plate XXVII., figs. 6-12. 

Many Mediterranean fish of the natural family of Sal- 
tnonid<e, and heretofore comprised in the genus Scopelus, 
have been investigated by Dr. Cotto, of Messina, and 
distributed into various new genera. The Prince of Mu- 
signano, in the Fauna Italica, has pursued the investiga- 
tion still farther, added another genus, and given figures 
and descriptions of the several species, grouping the whole 
into the subfamily of Scopolin<B. Fish of the same family 
exist abundantly in the ocean, and the specimens brought 
home by Sir James Ross enable us to describe and figure 
a few of the species. If sought for, many more might, 
doubtless, be added to the list, but they ought to be fished 
for with a gauze net, and in the night time, when they 
come to the surface in search of the small Crustacea on 
which they feed. They are brilliant objects, their large 
scales being resplendent with prismatic colours, and they 
are, moreover, studded with rows of pearly points, situated 
in the integument beneath the scales, but shining through 
them. Great care should be taken in their preservation, 
as, owing to their scales being very deciduous, they are 
injured by the slightest friction. 

The first species we have to notice belongs to the genus 
Myctophum of Cocco, and Dr. Hooker's sketch. No. 89, 
presents a figure of it, drawn from the recent fish, cap- 
tured on the 19th of January. Unfortunately, the notes 
made at the time have been mislaid. Examples of the 
same species were collected by Sir Edward Belcher, in the 
China seas, but no note was taken of the exact place of 
their capture. 

The genus Myctophum was first established by Ra- 
finesque, but he assigned to it erroneous characters. Cocco 
sums up its generic marks as consisting of " the minute 
clustered or bundled teeth,* a claviform body, covered by 

* " GH sottUissimi denti si dispomjenu a fascetti.'' — Bon. 



large scales, among which those of the lateral line are 
con.spicuous, the mouth cleft to opposite the hinder edge 
of the orbit, the first dorsal opposed to the ventrals, and a 
shining ajjparatus on the forehead, between the eyes." 
To these the Prince of Musignano adds—" Very oblique 
opercular pieces, short pectoral fins, and bluff' snouts." 
The Oceanic species which we have to describe, do not 
exhibit any clustering in the distribution of their teeth, 
and their pectorals are not uniformly short, as in the 
Mediterranean Myctophi. 

Myctophum boops received its specific appellation from 
its large round eye, which fills about half the space be- 
tween the tip of the snout and edge of the gill-cover, being, 
however, greatly nearer to the former. The exact extent 
of the shining frontal apparatus cannot be ascertained from 
our specimens, which are injured, but there remains a soft 
yellowish substance, that goes as far back between the 
eyes as the anterior third of the orbit, and forwards round 
the nostrils. Thin plates from the frontal and the edge 
of the narrow preorbitar rise up to sustain it. A fine me- 
sial crest of bone also springs from between the fore parts 
of the orbits, and runs down to meet the thin edge of the 
preorbitar, which curves upwards round the nostrils. 

Fig. 11, in plate 27, is executed from a sketch of the 
recent fish, by Dr. Hooker, and shows this glandular body 
in a more entire state than in our specimens.* The nos- 
trils are well developed interiorly, exhibiting a turbinate 
bone, composed of ten or twelve radiating leaves. 

The mouth is cleft horizontally backwards, to opposite 
the posterior border of the orbit, but the dental surface of 
the intermaxillary reaches still farther. The maxillary 
dilates gradually to its end, which is obliquely truncated, 
with the corners slightly rounded ; and is strengthened 
from one end to the other by a smooth ridge. It is covered 
nearly to its end by the preorbitar, and when the mouth is 
shut, it reaches almost to the preoperculum. The inter- 
maxillary extends to the extremity of the maxillary, so 
that the latter forms no part of the margin of the mouth. 
An even, not crowded, row of fine, short, subulate teeth, 
crowns the edge of the intermaxillary throughout. They 
are not clustered, and appear to be so only when one or 
two are broken off" here and there, leaving the others in 
small groups. These teeth are visible to the naked eye, 
but on the outside of the row, on both jaws, there is" a 
nan-ow, convex, dental surface, composed of very short, 
minute, acute teeth, which can be distinguished only 
through the aid of a microscope. The chevron of the 
vomer, and edges of the palate bones, are furnished with 
teeth, similar to the principal row on the jaws ; there 
is a stripe of minute ones close within them on the palate 
bones, and the convex disks of these bones are covered 
with very minute granular teeth. The long, subulate 
rakers of the outer branchial arch project forward into the 
mouth, over the base of the very short, triangular tongue, 
and are covered with minute, acute teeth. 

The suborbitar bones are thin, papery, and smooth, the 
second one, situated directly under the eye, being the 

* In figure 6, the small eminence behind the eye, on ihe hiud henil 
and nape, is added from Dr. Hooker's figure, there being no remains of 
any glandular matter so far back in the specimens. 



40 



largest. The pveopercnlutn is vertical, curved in the arc 
of a circle, without any under limb. The interoperculum, 
triangular and small, lies wholly behind the limb of the 
preoperculum. The gill-cover is large. The operculum 
is semi-orbicular, approaching to heart-shaped, and is 
crossed by a furrow above its middle. The suboper- 
culum is not quite two-thirds less, and forms, as usual, the 
tip of the gill-plate. Its apex is marked by five minute 
teeth, with furrows running backward from between them 
for a short distance. The disk of the gill-plate is covered 
by large scales, but some appear to have fallen from our 
specimens. 

The head makes one-fourth of the total length of the 
fish, and the height of the head measures about one-fifth 
of the same distance. The thickness of the body is equal 
to about two-thirds of its height anteriorly. The com- 
pression augments posteriorly. The back is rounded off, 
but the dorsal stands on a small ridge. There is a flat 
space behind the adipose fin, which seems to have been 
occupied by a soft glandular substance, like that on the 
forehead. The belly is also obtuse, and a flattish space 
exists before the ventrals. 

The pectoral fins reach to the anus, being larger than 
those of any Mediterranean Mijctophum described by the 
Prince of Musignano. The ventrals are placed midway 
between the tip of the snout and end of the anal, and the 
first dorsal commences immediately over them. The adi- 
pose fin is fibrous, but does not possess the rudiments of 
true rays. 

The scales composing the lateral line are oval, with a 
short projection in the middle of one edge, and a simple 
tube on the disk. The axis of the oval is vertical, and 
the scales are conspicuous among the others ; there are 
about thirty-five in all, the number between the anus and 
caudal being exactly twenty-three. The other scales are 
irregularly orbicular, and more or less oblique, according 
to their position. Their free edges are entire, and their 
bases show two or three slight lobes, with a coiTesponding 
number of faint diverging furrows. 

The body is ornamented with many spots, each of which 
is composed of a round opal-looking dot, set in a black 
border, and they shine with much lustre through the 
scales that cover them. A row, containing five of these 
spots, crosses the najje from one supra-scapular to the 
other. There is one solitary spot in the gill-plate, where 
the operculum overlaps the suboperculum, and another one 
on the interoperculum. On a level with this last there 
follows one on the coracoid bone, another on the base 
of the pectoral, and three more on the flanks behind that 
fin, the row terminating over the anus. Two spots occur 
on the scales of the lateral line, beneath the tubes, one of 
Ihem over the anus, and the other over the middle of the 
anal fin. Twelve exist on each side of the ventral surface of 
the fish, beginning at the lower jaw, which has three on 
each limb, and ending at the anus. There are seventeen 
or eighteen in a row, which runs along the base of the 
anal, and a short way beyond it. Also two close to the base 
of the lower lobe of the caudal on each side. Lastly, there 
is a single mesial one on the upper surface of the tail, 
contiguous to the caudal. 

Four species are described in the Fauna Italtca, and 



with none of these is this species likely to be confounded. 
Its pectorals exceed theirs considerably in size. The eye 
is likewise much larger, and the dorsal more on the sum- 
mit of the dorsal curve than in Myctophum punctatum, 
while the forehead is much less high and precipitous than 
the faces of the three others. 

Length, A^ inches. 

Hab. The sea between Australia and New Zealand. 

Myctophum coruscans. Richardson. 

Ch. spec. Myct. valde compressum ; longitudine capitis 
altiliidineque. corporis <equalibus quartam partem longi- 
tudiuis ad inilium pinncB caiid<B (Bqiiantibus ; ocnlo 
modico super medium rictum oris grandiuscidum posito; 
apparatii Iticido fronlali vix iillo vel ad regiones 
nariiim restricio, ibique carina ossed mediand diviso. 



Radii: — D. 12; A. 20; C. 
Plate XXVIL, figs 1- 



17|; P. 17; V. 8. 
-5 inclusive. 



On a drawing of this species, by Dr. Hooker, there is a 
note, stating that it was taken, at intervals, between St. 
Helena and the Island of Ascension, in the evening, or 
during the night ; and in the journal of the same observer, 
I find a record of this, and Myctophntn boops, having been 
taken on the 10th of August, 1841, between Australia and 
New Zealand, in the night time, only when the Entomos- 
traca and other marine Crustacea on which they feed 
come most abundantly to the surface. 

The Mediterranean species to which this fish bears the 
nearest resemblance, is the Myctophum puuctatum, both 
in general form, and in the smallness of the shining frontal 
apparatus. It is a much more compressed fish than the 
preceding, particularly posteriorly, where it tapers much 
into the very slender tail. The eye is a little removed 
from the profile, and is placed rather before the middle of 
the cleft of the mouth. The interorbital space is convex, 
without any appearance of the glandular substance, which 
seems to be confined to the immediate border of each 
nostril. An elevated acute mesial line separates one nasal 
prominence from the othei-. The preoperculum slopes 
moderately backwards. The ventrals are attached at the 
commencement of the second third oi' the length of the 
fish, caudal excluded. The dorsal commences a little 
behind them ; and the upper surface of the tail, behind the 
adipose fin, is covered by six convex scales, without the 
flat surface or glandular apparatus of the preceding spe- 
cies. The posterior rays of the dorsal and anal are divided 
to the base. There are no spines at the base of the 
caudal, nor apparently any glandular substance on the 
upper edge of the tail between the adipose and caudal 
fins. The scales are undulated, and very irregularly and 
sparingly toothed on the free edge, and have about three 
basal furrows. Those which compose the lateral line, being 
thirty-eight in number, are conspicuous, from their different 
shape {vide figs. 3, 4, 5). 

The spots are distributed nearly as in Myctophum boops. 
There are eighteen over the anal, exclusive of the two at 
the base of the caudal. 

Only a single row of minute teeth can be seen on the 



edge of the jaws; the exterior granular or short villiform 
stripe, if it exists, being invisible to the eye, aided by a 
good lens. The teeth on the chevron of the vomer and 
edges of the palate bones are more distinct than those on 
the jaws, and form a broader line, as if there were two or 
three rows. No granular patches can be discovered on the 
disk of the palate bone. 

Length, 2| inches. 

Hab. The Southern Atlantic and Australian Oceans. 



Myctophum asperum. Richardson, 

Cii. Spec. Mycl. compressum, caudd gracili, superne post 
phniam udiposam plana ; rirtii oris grmidlusculo pa- 
rum ultra ocuhiin mo</nH)n ^fisso ; apparatu lucido 
e narihus in medium spatium interocularein extenso ; 
allitudine corporis quintam partem longitudinis totius 
(squanti; squamis eroso-denticulatis. 

Radii:— D. 14; A. 18; C. 19|; P. 16; V. 8. 

Plate XXVII., figs. 13, 14, 15. 

Profile very obtuse in front. Shoulders not so much 
compressed as those of Alyct. coruscans ; their thickness 
is about half their height, which again is equal to about 
one-fifth of the total length. The length of the head is 
greater than the height of the body. The eye is large, 
and is more than its own diameter removed from the gill- 
opening, being near the profile of the snout. Its diameter 
is contained two-and-a-half times in the length of the 
head. The large gape passes a little beyond the eye, and 
the preoperculum inclines slightly backwards. 

Minute setaceous teeth form an even row on the margin 
of both jaws, and by the help of a lens, two or three rows 
of very minute acute teeth may be seen on the conve.x 
surface, exterior to the principal row. The same micro- 
scopical teeth are seen, but much less distinctly, on the 
upper jaw. Several rows of setaceous teeth are visible to 
the naked eye on the chevron of the vomer and edges of 
the palate bones, and a patch of granular microscopical 
teeth covers the convex plate of the palate bones. 

The shining apparatus reaches from the middle of the 
orbits forward to round the nostrils. It is supported by 
thin plates of bone, which rise from the os frontis, and by 
others which form cells in the nasal regions ; there is also 
a low mesial keel between the nostrils. 

The ventrals are attached well before the middle of the 
fish, being midway between the snout and end of the anal 
fin. The dorsal commences over them. 

The lateral line contains thirty-seven or thirty-eight 
scales, which are slightly toothed on the exterior edge. 
The other scales are more deeply toothed, the teeth being 
readily visible to the naked eye, and rendering the fish 
rough to the touch. [Vide figs. 14 and 15). 

The opal or pearly dots are distributed as in the two 
species already mentioned, except that there are only four- 
teen above the anal fin, exclusive of the usual two on the 
lower base of the caudal fin. 

Length, If inch. 

Hab. >. 



Myctophum hians. Richardson. 

Ch. Spec. Myct. ore laxissimo ; pinnd dorsi post ven- 
trales incipienti ; pinnd ani longd ; allitudine corporis 
quintam partem longitudinis totius aquanti ; caudd 
gracillimd, elongatd. 

Radii. — D. 14; A. 22; C. 22; P. 15; V. 8. 

Plate XXVJI., figs. 19, 20, 21. 

This species has a gape as wide as Lampanyclus, and 
the dorsal placed farther back than is usual in Myctophum, 
with a longer anal. It possesses the common clavate out- 
line, with an obtuse forehead, and very slender tail. The 
height of the body equals one-fifth of the total length, 
caudal included. The short dorsal stands between the 
ventrals and anal, and the top of the tail, behind the 
minute adipose fin, is flattish, and exhibits a row of bright 
specks laterally, corresponding to the number of the scales 
that cover it. The anal fin is proportionally long. 

One half of the gape is behind the eye, and the preoper- 
culum has a corresponding inclination backwards. The 
maxillaries are very slender, with merely a slight oval 
dilatation at their ends. Teeth on the jaws subulate, 
slender, and acute; three rows on the lower jaw, and two 
on the intermaxillaries. There is not much difference in 
their height, but the row which is on the edge of the jaw 
appears taller when held up to the light. There is a single 
row on the edge of the palate bones, like those of the jaw, 
and two or three irregular rows of granular teeth at its 
base. None were discovered on the chevron of the 
vomer. 

The scales of the lateral line are narrower, higher, and 
more numerous than in the other species, being forty-one, 
and there is only one complete row above them, while in 
the preceding Myctophi there are two. The rest of the 
scales are roundish, with the base less curved, and crossed 
by four or five furrows. (Fig. 20, 21.) 

I am unable to describe the shining apparatus on the 
forehead, the jaws having come away while the specimen 
was in the artist's hands, before I had properly examined 
them. There seemed to be, however, a small mesial crest 
between the eyes, and anotlier between the nostrils ; and 
it is probable that the glandular matter was deposited on 
each side of them. The top of the tail between the adi- 
pose fin and caudal is flat, and is covered with a nacry 
matter. 

There are nineteen bright opal dots over the anal, two, 
as usual, on the lower base of the caudal, and the others 
which we observe in the rest of the Oceanic Myctophi. 
Length, two inches. 

I examined the intestines of one of the small specimens, 
but it was too much decayed for me to ascertain the spe- 
cies. The gullet is narrow, below which a wider cyhn- 
drical tube descends, to unite with an ascending pyloric 
branch of equal size. More than half the length of the 
stomach lies beneath their junction, in form of a conical 
sac, which was very dark-coloured, from its contents. 
The gut, on the contrary, is thin, delicate, transparent, 
and slightly puckered, but not convoluted. There are 
about six pyloric caeca, of unequal lengths. The air- 

G 



42 



bladder had broken down, and appeared to be small and 
nacry. The vertebrae of this species are thirty-nine in 
number. 

Hab. This Myctophum was put up along with the 
others, and was most likely taken in the same parts of 
the Ocean. 



Lampanyctus eesplendens. Richardson. 

Ch. spec. L. pinna pectorali longd ; pinndque dorsi 
magna ; ossibus preorbitalibus, niandihularibusque 
lineis scabris percursis. 

Radii:— B. 6 vel 8 ; D. 23—0; A. 18; C. 17| + | 
spines ; P. 13 ; V. 8. 

Plate XXVII,, figs. 16, 17,18. 

The Prince of Musignano separated this genus from 
Myctophum, on account of the greater length of the pec- 
torals, and the somewhat pike-like depressed snout, giving 
the fish altogether a diff'erent physiognomy. The species 
that we have to describe differs considerably from the 
Myctophi in the profile of the head, and in the size of 
the dorsal, but the pectorals are more like those of that 
genus than of Lampamjcius bonapartii. 

Form more spindle-like, and less clavate, than that of 
IMyctoplmm. Height of body contained five or six times 
in the total length, while the length of the head is con- 
tained only four times. The thickness of the body for- 
wards, and the height of the tail behind the adipose fin, 
are each about equal to half the height of the shoulder. 
The profile slopes with a slight convexity up to the dorsal 
line, which is very moderately arched ; and the belly is 
still more flat. 

The rather large eye is placed well forwards near the 
snout, and the preo])erculum, consequently, has a large 
backward slope. The hinder edge of the preoperculum 
is parallel to the preoperculum, but has a wide, shallow 
concavity ; while the suboperculum, which forms, as usual, 
the apex of the gill-cover, slopes in the opposite direction, 
giving to the entire flap a very difterent form to the nearly 
vertical convex edge which it exhibits in the Myctophi. 

The nostrils are rather peculiar, one orifice being a short 
vertical slit, separated from the orbit by a thin, vertical, 
cartilaginous crest or valve. The other orifice is a round 
opening, with slightly elevated edges, and lies conti- 
guously and on the inside of the other. An obtuse me- 
sial ridge separates the pairs of nostrils, and behind the 
ridge, between the eyes, there is a small shallow depres- 
sion. The skin lining it is entire and granular, but whe- 
ther any of the glandular substance seen on the foreheads 
of the Myctophi was deposited in this spot, cannot be 
made out from the specimens, which have been long in 
spirits. The top of the head is scaly up to this depression, 
which does not go farther back than the anterior third of 
the orbit. 

The circumference of the nostrils is rough, and the 
suborbitar bones and lower jaw are crossed by parallel 
rough lines. The cheeks and gill-plates are covered by a 
few large oblique scales, which are very deciduous, and as 



the specimens were all more or less injured, their exact 
number and disposition could not be ascertained. They 
are represented in fig. 16, as well as they could be made 
out from the inspection of six examples. The preorbitar 
and fore part of the operculum and suboperculum are mi- 
nutely grooved. 

The large dorsal extends from before the ventrals to past 
the middle of the anal. The adipose fin is small. The 
tail is armed on its upper edge, close to the base of the 
caudal, by seven short spines, and below by nine, which 
are distinctly visible to the naked eye. All the fins have 
been more or less injured on the tips, but the figure is 
completed from the aggregate of the specimens. The nar- 
row scaly gill-membranes fringe the limbs of the lower 
jaw, and are supported by six (or perhaps eight) gill- 
rays.* 

An even band of very short villiform teeth arms both 
jaws, exterior to the acute edge. The row which crowns 
the edge is not actually taller than the others, but appears 
so from its position. A similar band arms the edge of 
each palate bone, and there is a large oval patch of very 
minute granular teeth, nearly covering the convex disk of 
that bone. There are no teeth on the chevron of the 
vomer. The gills come forward within the limbs of the 
jaw, close to the chin, leaving no tongue, except the 
very narrow union of their arches. A prominent mesial 
ridge, armed with minute teeth, separates these arches 
below, and it is flanked on each side by slender rough 
rakers, whose tips project into the cavity of the mouth. 
The upper pharyngeals make two distinct prominent 
cushions on each side, bristling with minute, acute teeth. 
The lower pharyngeals are armed with still finer teeth. 

There are thirty-seven scales on the lateral line, all of 
them fissured or notched in the middle of their free edge, 
and furnished with a wide tube towards their base. The 
other scales are suborbicular, and have five or six fan-like 
furrows on the base, with a few faint lines radiating from 
the centre, across the rest of their disk. 

The pearly dots are distributed nearly as in the Mycto- 
phi, there being fourteen of them over the anal. There 
is, besides, a row of oblique, orange-coloured or shining 
specks, running backwards from the supra-scapulars over 
the shoulders. The row is interrupted, and recommences 
higher up, beneath the fourth or fifth dorsal rays, and is 
continued to the end of that fin. There are similar specks 
on the small rays at the base of the caudal, above and 
below, and the flat upper surface of the tail, behind the 
adipose fin, is covered with the same yellowish matter. 
There are also a few specks of it on the flanks. These 
pale or yellowish specks are very distinct from the opal 
dots, and are more superficial. 

The stomach of this fish is a pretty large cylindrical 
sac, with an obtusely conical apex, and a short, ascending, 
pyloric branch springing from near its middle. The gullet 
is more contracted. The pyloric creca lie in two clusters, 
one of four, and the other of three, unequal in length, 
the longest exceeding that of the pyloric fork of the sto- 
mach. The stomach is black, like the inside of the mouth, 

* I could only obsene six, but it may be that one or two escaped ray 
search. 



43 



Ihe gut is white, thin, and delicate, a little flexuosc, but 
not convoluted, and it is twice the length of the stomach. 

Length, four inches. 

IIab. The exact localities where this fish was taken are 
unknown ; but it is supposed to be, like the Myctophi, an 
inhabitant generally of the warmer parts of both oceans. 

Hemiscyllium trispeculaue. Richardson. 

Plate XXVIII. 

Hemiscyllium trispeculare, Richardsou, Icones Piscium. Lond. 1843, 
p. 5, Plale I., fig. 3. 

This species was first made known in the work above 
quoted, wherein a coloured figure is given from a drawing 
by Lieutenant Emery, of Her Majesty's ship Beagle, of a 
specimen taken at Turtle Island, on the north-west coast 
of Australia. A specimen, in perfect condition, obtained 
by Benjamin Bynoe, Esq., Surgeon of the Royal Navy, 
on the same coast, has entirely removed the doubts I en- 
tertained of this fish being a variety of the previously 
known species Hemiscyllium ocellatum. In general form 
the two differ little ; but in trispeculare the pectoral, 
dorsal and anal are somewhat more distant from the tip of 
the snout, and more definite discrepances exist in the shape 
of the scales, and the form and distribution of the spots 
on the body. 

H. trispeculare has an obtuse snout, from whence the 
profile rises in a convex cun'e, to blend with the dorsal 
line opposite to the pectorals. It then descends a little 
to the first dorsal, and runs straight from thence to the 
caudal fin, whose upper border is slightly arched. The 
ventral line is more nearly straight, the belly being only 
moderately prominent. Between the pectorals and ven- 
trals, where the body is thickest, the vertical and trans- 
verse diameters are equal, and measure two inches in our 
specimen. The belly is wider and flatter than the back, 
and the fish tapers gi'adnally to the beginning of the anal 
fin, at which place the height has diminished to one-third. 
Behind the second dorsal, the compression of the tail be- 
comes evident, and goes on increasing to the tip. 

On its upper surface the head is flatly rounded trans- 
versely, varied by a slight prominence of the eyebrows. 
From above the pectorals, to the first dorsal, the muscles, 
swelling on the top of the back, produce a mesial furrow, 
which is replaced by a low, rounded ridge between the 
dorsals, the narrower top of the back there being flatfish. 
The same form extends for a space behind the second 
dorsal, but in the increased compression of the tail, at the 
origin of the caudal fin, the flatness above is wholly lost, 
and the blunt upper edge of the fin appears as a continua- 
tion merely of the mesial ridge. The tip of the caudal is 
rounded, with a minute notch at the point of the spine, 
dividing it into two lobes, the lower of which is largest. 
In our specimen of ocellatum, this small notch is wanting. 
The belly is flattish below, and the swelling of the side 
muscles between the claspers and anal forms a mesial 
furrow. 

The spiracles, which are curved and rather oblique, have 
the same relative position as in ocellatuui , and the folds 
about the nostrils and mouth are also essentially the same 



as in that species. The inner nasal flap ends squarely on 
the edge of the mouth, and is flanked exteriorly by a 
thickish, tapering barbel, which originates at the anterior 
end of the nasal furrow. A middle .space separates the 
nasal flap of one nostril from that of the other, and the 
outer border of each nostril swells into a thick roll, which 
also reaches the orifice of the mouth, and is there sepa- 
rated by a deep scalcless fissure from the large rolls at the 
corner of the mouth, or, as they may be considered, the late- 
ral lips. At first sight, the lower lip seems to consist of three 
lobes, and the side lobes have actually free edges, and are 
bounded by scaleless membranous fissures, but the middle 
lobe is merely a pouting of the part continuous with the 
scaly integument of the throat. The surfaces of all the 
flaps or lips which have been mentioned are scaly, but the 
fissures are smooth and membranous, and when the outer 
lobes of the lower lip are raised, they seem to be retained 
by a membranous bridle. 

The teeth are three-lobed, all the lobes being obtuse in 
such teeth as have advanced to the edge of the jaw, but 
the posterior and newer ones have the middle or hinder 
lobe more elongated and pointed. In the upper jaw, be- 
hind the dental plates, there is a thickish, plaited velum, 
having a shaggy surface. In the lower jaw, a central 
bridle runs to the tip of the tongue, dividing, in its course, 
two concentric folds of membrane, looking like two rela, 
and, when the tongue is raised, forming two cells on each 
side of the bridle. 

The last three gill-openings are over the pectoral, and 
the last two are nearer to one another than any other pair, 
contrary to a remark of Miiller and Henle, that in this 
genus the last two openings are not approximated. We 
observe the same thing in our specimen of ocellatum. 

The skin has a peculiarly neat, smooth, shining, though 
granular aspect, and feels rough only when the finger is 
drawn towards the head. Figure 7 represents a scale of 
trispeculare, and figure 8, one of ocellatum, showing their 
difl"erence of form. 

Although there is a general resemblance in the bands 
and distribution of the black patches on the fins of the 
two species, the markings on the body differ very greatly. 
In trispeculare, the spots, having a dark and rich brown 
colour, are in clusters of three or four, united into a larger 
spot by a lighter brown tint ; while in ocellatum they are 
single, fewer, and more scattered. The black spot with 
a pale border, behind the gill-opening, is oblong in ocel- 
latum ; but in trispeculare it is perfectly round, and two 
of the compound spots behind it being much darker than 
the rest, form, as it were, two additional ocelli, but not so 
perfect as the principal one. Much smaller spots thickly 
cover the top and sides of the head of trispeculare, and 
the ground-colour of the fish is represented in Lieutenant 
Emery's drawing as yellow. The belly is spotless in both 
species. As the figure gives the form and distriburion of 
the spots and bands with much accuracy, it is unnecessary 
to describe them at gi-cater length. 

On opening the belly, the liver is seen hiding the intes- 
tines. A deep cleft divides it into two lobes, the right one, 
ending in an acute lanceolate tip, being the longest. The 
left lobe is broader, and from beneath its obliquely trun- 
cated end, the fundus of the stomach appears, having the 

G 2 



44 




spleen, shaped like the head of an arrow, attached to its 
beud. These parts are represented in the first woodcut, 
a little separated, that their form may be better seen. On 
removing the liver, the intestines come into view, as in the 
second cut. A thick, dark purple, muscular oesophagus 
opens into a wide, white, ovate stomach, with a narrow gut 
passing from the right of its fundus, making a short sig- 
moid flexure, and entering a wide colon, which is traversed 
by a spiral valve. An ample rectum completes the canal, 
and is shown in the cut, suspended by a portion of the 
mesentery, with a gland close to it. The testes are drawn 
to the right, that they may be seen, and above them there 
is a glandular body, composed of large compressed acini, 
which separate from each other when the containing cap- 
sule is ruptured. The cuts show the viscera of their 
proper size, and we have used the terms right and left in 
reference to their natural position in the fish, with its belly 
downwards. 

DIMENSIONS. 

Length from the end of the suout to the tip of the tail ... 22-50 inches. 

„ „ first dorsal 8-25 „ 

„ „ anus 6-88 „ 

,. „ ventrals 6-40 „ 

n „ last gill-opening.. 3'50 „ 

„ „ first ditto 2-50 „ 

1. „ pectorals 2-73 „ 

)t „ spiracles 1-50 „ 

eye 1-35 „ 

I) „ mouth 038 „ 

Distance between the anus and tail fin 11-35 „ 

Length of claspers along their interior edges 270 „ 

„ tail fin, two under lobes 3-80 




AcANTHiAS. Miiller and Henle. 

Plate XXVIII., fig. -5. 

This figure is copied from a drawing of a foetal shark by 
Dr. Hooker, executed on the Australian coast. Miiller 
and Henle state that the Acanthias vulgaris is an inha- 
bitant of the southern seas, and that the young are spotted 
with white. They say nothing, however, of the black 
patches on the fins, and we have, therefore, introduced the 
figure, that it may be compared with equally young exam- 
ples of that species. 

Rynch.\na greyi. Richardson. 

Species nnica adhuc detecta. 

Radii: — Br. 3; D. 3|11 ; A. 21?; C. 19| ; P. 11; V. 9. 
Plate XXIX., figs. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6. 

We owe this remarkable Cyprinoid to His Excellency 
Captain George Grey, Lieutenant-Governor of West Aus- 
tralia, whose exertions in the cause of Zoology have been 
productive of several important discoveries. One Cypri- 
noid [Ptycholepis) had been previously detected at the 
northern extremity of Australia, and the existence of 
another in the south-western corner of that land, now as- 
certained, is an important fact in the history of the geo- 
graphical distribution of fish. Further researches will 
probably show, that the absence, or even rarity of mem- 



45 



bers of this family in that district of the world, has been 
erroneously asserted ; and when one reflects that the Cy- 
prinidie are numerous in Java, and the adjoining chain of 
islands, a reasonable hope is naturally excited, of the 
existence of similar species on the opposite, and not far 
distant north-western coasts of Australia. A family which 
is almost wholly located in fresh waters, cannot be very 
abundant in the small islands of Polynesia ; but the ma- 
rine species above alluded to traverses Torres Straits to 
the island of Tanna. The rivers of the southern parts of 
Australia, being more like morasses, or strings of ponds of 
impure water, than healthy streams, are unsuitable for the 
nourishment of many kinds of fish ; but within the tro- 
jncs, where periodical and abundant rains fall, the rivers, 
whether small or large, are likely to be of a very different 
character, and to nourish many kinds of fish. Ichthyology 
has hitherto been considered as so secondary an object, 
that few or none of our surveying officers have pursued 
the search for fish with proper nets, and in a suitable 
manner ; yet, in a new colony especially, a knowledge of 
the neighbouring fishing-banks is of the first importance, 
and may be turned to good account. 

Sir James Ross's success in the discovery of novel and 
interesting forms offish, may be attributed to the constant 
employment of a towing net, and to his use of a dredge 
whenever practicable. The stomachs of seals and sea- 
birds were explored with success by him and Dr. Hooker. 

The Cypriuoid we have at present to describe, is quite 
a new form, and when the figures in Plate 29 were drawn, 
our only materials were two dried specimens from West 
Australia ; but within a few days we have had, through the 
kindness of Professor Owen, an opportunity of inspecting 
a specimen, very perfectly preserved in spirits, sent from 
New Zealand by Captain Sir Everard Home, of the North 
Star. We are thereby enabled to give some anatomical 
particulars, and to amend the description of the lips, which 
is not quite correctly given in fig. .3, owing to the contrac- 
tion of the parts in drying. This is remedied by the intro- 
duction nt I wo il tut ( \liiliiting the mouth, when closed.* 



e 



^^""f^ 



The stninadi cniitained some blackish matter, mixed 
with grains of sand, and between the gills were fragments 
of a turbinated shell, old and worn, which had been long 
dead and evidently taken into the mouth along with the 
matters on which the fish preyed. The fragments were 
much too large to pass the oesophagus. Tins seems to be 
evidence of the fish finding its food among the sand or 
mud of the bottom, as indeed its form and position, so 
similar to the mouths of the sturgeons, would lead us 
naturally to infer. 

* Even this cut does not exhibit the rostral barbel and the labial 
papillee so clearly as I could have wished. 



The following is a summary of its most remarkable 
external characters. 

Rynchana, i. p. ^i^vxava, vasuia. 

Forma elotigala, inter C'yprinidas lovf/issima. 

Caput cotiinini i)hi(/iie jira'tcr iit1>ia .siiiuniiosiin). 

Rostrum vlha osrii/in/i iiroduci inn, co/iirin/i, nriilum, infrit 
cirrho parvido, wediaiio, so/ihirio .sitp/x'dilii/uni. 

Osculum in/eruin, ad suyeiidum apt ion, riclii palulo semi- 
rotmido. Labia trnnsrcrsini .sulcata papulosa ciliata. 
Lahiinn siiperiiin ad angulum oris lobulatuni . Labium 
infer inn tri-lohiilatinn. 

Dentes pharyngei, hreres, gracilenti, cylitidrici, iruncati, 
siihpavimentnti. 

Radii branchiostegi Ires. Membrana branchiostega cum 
ijiilo coalescens et aperturam solummodo verticalem 
iimitans. 

Pinna dorsi brevis, ventrales valde reiropositas oppo- 
nens : spinis validis nullis. Pinna ani in medio inter 
pinnas dorsi caudmqne posita. Pinna omnes inter 
radios squamosa. Appendices long<B acuminata squa- 
mosa supra pinnas pectorales et ventrales protenste. 

Squamae parva lalide ciliata. 

Linea lateralis recta, dorso parallela. 

Caeca pylorica circiier quinque. Vesica pneuniatica 
nulla Y 

Form linear, sub-quadrilateral, with the corners much 
rounded, the tail behind the dorsal tapering, and at the 
same time becoming compressed, and quite thin at the 
origin of the caudal. At the base of this fin, above and 
below, there is a short acute keel. The height anteriorly 
and the thickness are equal to one another, and to one- 
twelfth part of the whole length. 

The head forms a seventh of the length, is conical, 
much rounded above and flattish beneath, and on the gill- 
plates. It tapers gradually to the tip of the acute snout. 
The eye, oval and rather large, is situated midway beween 
the tip of the snout and the gill-opening, and its axis 
equals a fourth of the length of the head. It encroaches 
on the profile, and the space between the orbits exceeds 
the vertical diameter of the eye. Before the eye, and at a 
greater distance from it than from the tip of the snout, are 
the two small and quite contiguous openings of the nos- 
tril, on each side. A small barbel depends from the 
middle line of the snout beneath, before the nostrils. 

Midway between the eye and rip of the snout is the 
mouth, enrirely on the under surface of the head, and 
opening downwards. Its small orifice, when fully ex- 
tended, is semi-oval, approaching to a semicircle, the upper 
lip being vaulted and the lower one transverse. The lips 
are thick, and softly granular, or papillose, and are ciliated. 
On the upper lip the soft grains are in rows, and the 
cirrhi are merely the papilla3 in an elongated, tapering 
form, being longest at the corners of the mouth, where the 
lip ends in a loose lobe, or lappet. Except at this place, 
the cirrhi of the upper lip arc on its interior edge, and 
somewhat resemble a row of teeth, as in the genus Nandina 
of Gray, {Cirrhinus, McLellan ; Rohita, Valenciennes). 
On the lower lip, the cirrhi are a minute fringe to its 



46 



posterior or outer edge, and form three small tapering 
lobes, of which the middle one is the smallest. The gra- 
nulations of the surface of this lip extend inwards to the 
cavity of the mouth, without any defined edge of tennina- 
tiou. Figure 3, Plate 29, shows the orifice of the mouth 
too round, the lobes at the corner of the mouth too small, 
and without fringes, and the lower lip also incorrect in out- 
line. The wood-cut is introduced to remedy these defects, 
and exhibits the mouth nearly closed. The mouth opens 
simply by the depression of the lower jaw, bringing forward 
the lowerend of the maxillaries. The intermaxillaries,being 
slender, straight bones, without pedicles, are incapable of 
protraction. Their length corresponds to the breadth of the 
lip, which they cross with some obliquity, and they are 
articulated to a small bony tubercle, posterior to the nasal 
barbel. The maxillary descends from near the tip of the 
snout, concealed by the integuments, to the articulation of 
the intermaxillary, and there makes a bend, when its slen- 
der limb becomes visible, and gradually widens into a flat, 
yet nanow disk, which reaches the corner of the mouth. 
Between the rostral barbel and the middle of the upper lip 
there is a a smooth mesial furrow, and on each side of it, 
inclining towards the corners of the mouth, a short, 
rounded, scaly ridge. A deep fold runs back from the 
snout along the under edge of the preorbitar and cheek, 
to the articulation of the lower jaw, under the middle of 
the orbit. This fold entirely covers the retracted maxil- 
lary. It is scaly, as are all the parts on the head, except 
the lips and the angles of the mouth and lower jaw, which 
fold inwards when the orifice is shut. Within the upper 
lip there is a broad thick velum ; the inside of the mouth 
is lined with purplish-black smooth membrane ; the vomer 
shows a narrow, smooth surface, running to the end of the 
snout, and on each side of it is the vaulted palate-bone. The 
basilar bone joins the vomer evenly, and there is no thick 
cushion on the upper surface of the fauces, such as may 
be observed in the Carps, neither does the gorget-shaped 
basilar process of the Catastomi exist, its office being per- 
formed by a group of teeth on each side of the mesial 
line, connected to the basilar bone by the intervention of 
soft parts. These teeth aie short, cylindrical, and trun- 
cated or worn on the tips, nineteen in each group above, 
and twenty-four in the single mesial cluster below. Four 
branchial arches lie entirely behind these teeth, remote 
from the orifice of the mouth, and furaished with long, 
slenderly subulate, interior rakers. 

The three gill-rays are inserted contiguously into the 
extremity of the os hyoides, the upper one, which lies be- 
neath the suboperculum, being much broader than the 
other two, particularly towards its end. The gill-mem- 
brane is scaly, with smooth, longitudinal lines on the 
throat where it folds, and, in fact, the whole head is densely 
scaly, except the few smooth parts that have been men- 
tioned. The hinder edge of the operculum is curved in 
the segment of a circle, but a small scaly flap attached to 
the round of the suboperculum renders the opening verti- 
cal, the gill-membrane being blended with the throat un- 
derneath. In the dried specimen, the preopercuhnn shows 
a horizontal under limb, considerably longer than the ver- 
tical one, which it meets at a right angle. The inner edge 
of the disk is more prominent than the outer one, and lies 



in the same horizontal line with the lower edge of the pre- 
orbitar. The corner of the bone is shortly rounded. In 
the recent fish the scaly integument entirely conceals the 
bones. 

The pectorals, about equal to the head in length, are 
attached beneath the middle height, close to the gill- 
opening, and are oblique on the margin, their lower rays 
becoming gradually shorter. All the rays, eleven in num- 
ber, are much branched, except the uppermost and lower- 
most, which are nearly simple, but jointed like the rest, 
and they are all scaly for more than half their length. 
Above the fin there is a long, triangular, tapering, acute, 
scaly appendage. There is no free appendage beneath 
the fin, but the lower ray is edged by a slip of scaly inte- 
gument. The truncated ventrals, containing nine rays, 
the last one deeply divided, are placed fully one-half of 
the entire length of the fish behind the attachment of the 
pectorals. They are scaly to an equal extent with these 
fins, and have a similar appendage above, and none below. 
The dorsal is opposite to the ventrals, and contains eleven 
jointed rays, which decrease in length from the second one 
backwards. The first, which is as tall as the second one, 
is the only unbranched one; and incumbent on its base 
there are three very short, thin, unjointed rays. This fin 
is covered at the base by small scales, which rise from the 
back with the forward movement of the rays, leaving a 
smooth line underneath posteriorly. Minute scales also 
run up between the rays beyond the middle of the fin. 
The anal, placed midway between the caudal and dorsal, 
is smaller than the latter fin, but of similar form, and con- 
tains seven jointed rays, all branched but the first one, 
before the base of which there are two tapering rays, with- 
out joints, but apparently with flexible tips. The scales 
are disposed on this fin in the same way as on the dorsal. 
The caudal does not exceed a tenth of the length of the 
fish, is nearly even at the end when fully extended, and is 
composed of nineteen rays, with thi'ee short ones above 
and below. 

The scales are oblong, with nearly parallel sides, a 
truncated base, and the free end curved in the segment of 
a circle, and strongly ciliated. The basal part is marked 
by fan-like furrows, which radiate from a point considera- 
bly beyond the middle of the scale. When in s/lii, a 
large part of the scale is covered, the circular tip only 
being exposed. There are about 178 scales between the 
gill-opening and caudal fin, and twenty-eight or thirty in 
a vertical line. 

The upper part of the specimens have a glaucous-grey 
hue, the lower part being reddish, and the two tints meet 
without mixing in a straight line below the middle. The 
lateral line is straight, with a scarcely perceptible bend 
over the ventrals. When examined with a lens, the unco- 
vered disk of a scale appears to be lead grey, studded with 
black dots. 

There are large black patches on all the fins, except 
the anal, in which the posterior coj-ner merely of the fin 
appears to have been darkish. 

The intestinal canal descends in form of a slender tube 
for an inch and three quarters in the specimen we exa- 
mined, and then joins an oval muscular stomach of the 
size of a kidney-bean, close to its fundus, or lower end. 



47 



The pylorus is at the eud of the stomach, next the head, 
and the gut runs from thence straight to the anus, slender, 
and without dilatations. Five caeca are clustered round 
the pylorus, and tied down to that end of the stomach by 
membrane. They are unequal in length, and the tip of 
the longest passes the fundus of the stomach by half its 
length. The whole intestinal canal is blackish. The liver, 
on the contrary, is pale, and is divided transversely on the 
surface, which is exposed, when the belly is opened, for 
two-thirds of its thickness, into three unequal slices, that 
lie upon each other like the leaves of a book. It covers 
the stomach in that position, but not the tip of the long 
caecum. 

DIMENSIONS 

OF THE SPECIMEN IN SPIRITS. 

Length from lip of snout to eud of caudal-fin 12-45 inches. 

„ „ edge of gill-flap 2-22 „ 

„ „ mouth 0'52 „ 

„ „ eye OSo „ 

„ „ vent 8!'2 „ 

„ „ base of caudal 11-20 „ 

Thickness, and also height of body 1-00 „ 

Height of tail 0.50 „ 

Distance between ventrals 0-25 „ 

Length of stomach 0-80 „ 

Width of ditto 0-40 „ 

The other specimens are a few inches longer. 
Hab. West Australia and Port Nicholson, Cook's Strait, 
New Zealand. 

Emmelichthys NiTiDUS. Richardson. 

Radii: — B. 7; D. 13j — 9 vel 10; A. SjlO; C. 17| ; 
P. 19et 3; V. 1|5. 

Plate XXIX., figs. 7, 8. 

This fish is also a discovery of Sir George Grey's, in 
West Australia. I feel at a loss as to the genus, or even 
family, to which it properlj' belongs ; and the specimens 
being merely dried skins, furnish external characters only. 
Judging from these, I am inclined to think that it has the 
nearest affinity with the Mtenidce, and with Ccesio particu- 
larly ; but from this it differs in having seven gill-rays, a 
deeply and widely-notched dorsal, scaly sheaths to the 
fins of a different character, and the snout, gill-pieces, and 
maxillaries, more extensively and closely scaly. It is not 
without a general resemblance to some Ceniropristes of 
the Arripis group, but here again the toothless roof of the 
mouth, and the very peculiar arrangement of the scales on 
the head, are sufficient to keep it distinct. It has little 
resemblance to the true ScicBnidce, with double dorsals 
and cancellated, convex skulls, while the absence of pores 
on the lower jaw dissevers it from Hcemiilon, Prislipotna, 
Diac/ramma, &c. In the extent of the scales of the 
head, and some other characters, it resembles Glauco- 
soMia, but diflers from it widely in general aspect, in 
dentition, the protractile mouth, and many other particvi- 
lars. The want of teeth is a significant character, which 
it has in common with Maquaria, but the latter has only 
five gill-rays. Under these circumstances, I have distin- 
guished the fish by a new generic name, constructed, in 
allusion to its peculiarly neat aspect, from e/^iUeXus concin- 



nu.s, and tx^u;. The three short, slender, lower rays of the 
pectoral are not branched, but it differs in aspect, as well 
as in the nature of its scales, from Latris, in which this 
peculiarity in the form of the pectoral extends to a greater 
number of rays. 

Emmelichthys. 

Forma corporis Smaris rel Caesionis. 

Os terminale, rede antrorsum protractile onmino eden- 
tatum. Denies pharyngei setacei. Maxillae dense 
squamoscB. Intermaxillaria labiaque nuda. 

Preorbitale disco undo, iiKeqiiali, semiovali, margine infe- 
riori concavo vi.v creiiiilaio. 

Preopercidum paraholicum margine gracillimo tenuiter 
sulcato rix crenulato. Suboperculum margine arcto, 
submembranaceo tenuissimd costaio, hinc eiliato-den- 
tato. Operculum emarginatum, anguUs planis acutis. 

Scapula squamiformis, eroso-deutata, sqitamis parvis 
tecta. 

Apertiua branchialis ampla infra ante medios oculosjissa. 
Radii branchiostegi septem. 

Pinnas ventrales sub anticd parte pinnm pectoris affixes. 
Pinna dorsi langa eeque ac pinna ani in sulco squamoso 
movens. Pars ejus spinosa esquamosa. In parte altera 
et in pinna ani, tlieca squamosa fere ad apices poste- 
riores altcnuatos excurrit. Pinnm omnes alicB usque 
ad viedias squamosee. 

Anus pone medium piscem. 

Squamre clenoidetc, viediocres, caput undique prater dis- 
cuin preurhilalix, labia, partes memhranaceas oris et 
membranam hranchiostegam tegentes. Squamee genw 
temporum operculorumque ordine quodam peculiari, 
circulari concinniter itistructa. 

In general form this fish has much of the neat aspect of 
a Smaris. The body tapers gradually to the base of the 
caudal, the profile of the tail being merely a continuation 
of the curve of the dorsal line, and the lateral line, which 
is traced at three quarters of the height, runs parallel to 
the back in a very flat arc, without the usual change to a 
horizontal direction after passing the dorsal and anal fins.* 
The profile descends considerably in a very slightly con- 
vex line from the front of the dorsal to the end of the 
snout, which is opposite to the pectoral fin, and below the 
middle height of the fish. The head, when the jaws are 
retracted, forms less than a fourth of the whole length of 
the fish. Its height at the nape is between one-fourth and 
one-fifth less than its length, and its thickness at the gill- 
covers, where it is greatest, is equal to half its length. The 
nape and hind head are much rounded transversely. The 
large and perfectly circular eye is situated high up, without 
touching the profile, one diameter of the orbit distant from 
the upper lip and two from the gill-opening. The space 
between the eyes is equal to one diameter, and is flattish. 
The circumference of the orbit is scaly close to the ball, the 
scales concealing the whole suborbitar chain, and covering 
the base of the preorbitar. But the anterior disk of this bone 

* The specimens, being merely dried skins, do not show the thickness 
of the body correctly, nor the comparative acuteness of the back and 
belly, but the profile "seems to be completely preserved. 



48 



is naked and uneven, from the prominence of canals in tlie 
bone, whose apertures show through the integument as it 
dries. The fore part of the bone is semi-oval,andits infe- 
rior edge, where it joins the fest of the suborbitar chain, 
is widely concave, with a slight waving, or crenature. 
The nostrils are two small, round, approximated openings, 
in a short and naiTow scaleless space above and near to 
the anterior canthus of the eye. 

The mouth is situated at the extremity of the head, and, 
though differently constructed, has much resemblance to 
that of a Coregoniis. Its orifice, moderately open when 
viewed in front, is semi-ovate, the horizontal lower jaw 
being narrower at the tip than the arch of the intermaxil- 
laries. The latter bones are protractile, their pedicles 
being longer than their oral limbs, and reaching, when 
retracted, nearly to the posterior part of the orbits. The 
maxillaries have a broad disk, rounded at the end, and 
densely covered with scales, nearly equalling those of the 
cheek in size. The end of the bone passes the corner of 
the mouth, plays over the broad, scaleless coracoid process 
of the post-mandibularbone, and reaches under the anterior 
third of the eye. The narrow, sloping, posterior edge of 
the maxillary only is received under the preorbitar. The 
imder surface of the lower jaw is closely covered with 
minute scales. The jaws and roof of the mouth are 
wholly destitute of teeth, and the narrow, but rather free 
tongue is also quite smooth. The pharyngeal teeth, above 
and below, are fine, setaceous, and crowded, and the outer 
branchial arch is fringed with a single row of long, com- 
pressed, subulate rakers ; the other rakers are short, semi- 
lanceolate, and all are rough, with very minute teeth. 

The side of the head is convex, the summit of the con- 
vexity being at the temples. It is densely scaly, so that 
no bone is seen. The edge of the preoperculum is curved 
parabolicallj', and its border is faintly furrowed, producing 
slight crenatures, but the scales come to the very edge, 
concealing the inequalities. The disk of the bone is broad, 
exceeding the width of the cheek, and being inclined in 
a different direction, its inner edge shows through the 
scales. The interoperculum is also broad, being widest 
opposite the bend of the preoperculum, where it is rounded, 
and it also is scaly to the edge.* There are eighteen or 
twenty rows of scales between the orbit and corner of the 
preoperculum, and half as many on the disk of the inter- 
operculum. 

The gill-cover is very obtuse, with scarcely any soft 
border. The operculum is situated high up, in respect of 
the curve of the preoperculum, and is indented by a semi- 
elliptical notch, with acute corners. This notch is filled 
with integument, clothed with small scales. The suboper- 
culum slopes downwards, and a little forwards, to meet the 
interoperculum, but not being so broad, there is a slight 
notch at the point of junction. Its edge is rather con- 
cave, and is bordered by a narrow membrane, which is 
crossed by fine ribs in a pectinated manner. These are 
scarcely perceptible to the naked eye, and the very narrow, 
transparent edge is the only part of the gill-cover which is 
not scaly. The scapula is visible at the upper angle of 

* 111 Casio, the circumference of the orbit, the suborbitars, the snout, 
interval Lelween the eyes, and disk of the pvcopercuhim, are scaleless. 



the gill-opening, in form of a large scale, witii a toothed 
edge, and its disk is covered by scales, smaller than the 
others in the neighbourhood. A row of scales, having 
their disks strongly impressed by five or six furrows, 
crosses the nape in the same way as the unctial circle of 
Cmfsio ; but in Emmelichthi/s these scales are not very ob- 
vious to the eye, and the smaller scales of the top of the 
head pass gradually into the larger ones of the body. 
The gill-opening is large, and extends from the scapula 
perpendicularly, to near the ventral line, and then hori- 
zontally forwards to opposite the middle of the orbit. The 
membrane is sustained by seven thin flat rays, of which 
the three lower ones are shorter, and graduated. The 
fourth ray projects as far back as the remaining three, 
which are more curved upwai-ds, an arrangement that 
gives a peculiar squareness to the posterior edge of the 
membrane. The humeral chain of bones is clothed with 
scales up to the inner edge. 

The lateral line is composed of ninety-six scales up to 
the base of the caudal, there being a forked patch of 
smaller scales covering the middle rays to near their tips, 
not included in the reckoning. Each of the scales of the 
lateral row is marked with two little pits at the end of a 
short tube. A vertical line contains about thirty scales, of 
which only eight are above the lateral line, and they are 
of rather smaller size than those lower on the sides. The 
scales are truncated at tlie base, furrowed and crenated, 
and ciliated at the tip, and roughened by radiating rows of 
grains or woi-n teeth to near the middle of the disk. Fi- 
gure 8 shows a scale from below the lateral line. A patch 
of small scales covers the bones which support the pectoral 
rays, extending in a semi-circular manner over part of the 
fin, and delicate scales extend half way up these fins, as 
well as up the ventrals. A long tapering scale lies over 
the ventrals, and there probably existed one between these 
fins, but if so, it has been destroyed in the preparation of 
the specimen. The spinous part of the dorsal moves in a 
furrow, composed of a single row of oblique narrow scales, 
and a dense patch of scales runs obliquely over the base 
of the soft rays, up nearly to the ti}3s of the posterior ones. 
A similar scaly band covers the anal fin to an equal extent. 
On the caudal the scales extend between the rays to two- 
thirds of their length, and a more dense scaly patch, al- 
ready noticed, covers part of the middle rays, as well as 
their membrane. 

The pectorals, triangular and pointed, but not falcate, 
nor so large as is usual with the Sparoids, are attached 
obliquely below the middle of the height. The fifth ray 
is the longest, and the lowest three, which are very short, 
are not branched like the others. The ventrals, attached 
under the fore third of the pectorals, have a slender spine, 
two-thirds of the length of the branched rays. They do 
not reach beyond the pectorals. The dorsal spines are 
slender. The first one stands a little posterior to the 
axilla of the ventrals, or over the middle of the pectorals, 
and, with the two following ones, is graduated. The 
fourth is the tallest, being about half as high as the body, 
the next five decrease rapidly in height, and, at the same 
time, beconie more remote from each other than the ante- 
rior ones. The remaining four also become shorter in 
succession, but much more gradually, and in our speci- 



49 



mens, are detached, having a triangular piece of mem- 
brane, as is represented in the figure, but in the recent 
fish the membrane may have been continuous. The last 
ray of the soft part of the fin has its posterior branch ta- 
pering out into a fine point. The anal is similar in form 
to the jointed part of the dorsal. Its spines are slender, 
graduated, and comparatively short. The caudal is forked, 
with acute tips. Its middle rays are much branched to 
the base. 

The whole fish appears to have had considerable silvery 
lustre, with little or no colour on the inferior parts, but with 
a bluish or grey tinge above the lateral line, reticulated, 
perhaps, by the paler edges of the scales. T?here are no 
remains of spots, or other markings, either on the head, 
body, or fins, except that the membrane between the limbs 
of the lower jaw lias a sooty colour, 

Length of one specimen, lOj inches ; of the other, 
fourteen. 

Hab. West Australia. 



Synbranchus gdtturalis. Richardson. 

Ch. Spec. S. cylindricus, caudd compressa attenuatd ; 
colore hepatico-hrunneo subtus paulo dilutiore, facie 
gutiureque griseis, brunneo marmoratis ; dentibus 
acerosis. 



Radii ; 



■C. 7. 



Plate XXX., figs. 14—17. 

This small fish evidently appertains to the genus Syn- 
branchus of Bloch, and Cuvier's Regne Animal (ii. p. .364). 
It is truly monopterigian, a few rays being perceptible in 
the caudal only, while the anal and dorsal are merely 
low, cutaneous seams, or, as Cuvier says, adipose fins. 
The Dondoo-paum of Russell, pi. 85, wants even these 
seams, and has a still more tapering tail. It is further 
distinguished by being universally black, and the furrows 
of the lateral line, if they actually exist, are not shown 
in the figure. The Unibranc/iaperiiira cuchia of Bu- 
chanan-Hamilton (p. 16 and 363, pi. 16, fig. 4) is dotted all 
over with black, and is marked on the shoulders and pec- 
toral regions of each side, by three pale lines of difi'erent 
lengths. A fish so coloured can scarcely be the same with 
the uniformly black one of Russell, and indeed there is a 
well marked difference in their forms, as represented in 
the plates we have quoted, yet if there be not an error in 
the pointing of a paragraph in the Regne Animal (ii. p. 3-54, 
foot-note 2), Cuvier considers both these figures as being 
referrible to the Synbranchus immaculatus of Bloch. In 
his characters of the genus, he states the teeth to be ob- 
tuse, but in our species the teeth are decidedly acute, and 
under a lens appear subulate. They are disposed in a 
single row on tlie limbs of the jaws, but crowded together 
for some breadth on the tip of the lower one, and being 
continued from the limbs of the lower one, along the tip 
of the upper jaw, they become parallel and almost con- 
tiguous, and in that form run forwards for a short space. 
This kind of dentition is similar to what is represented in 
the 'Calcutta Journal of Natural History' (iv. p. 411, 
a.d. 1844), by J. McClelland, Esq., in his account of a 



Chinese species, named by him Pneumabranchus cinereus. 
In that the palatine teeth are in a single row, but in ours 
they form two or more rows; The species are further dis- 
tinguished by their colour, and by the Chinese one having 
the membranous edge of the tail, or the adipose dorsal, not 
extending so far forwards. 

Synbranchus gutturalis is slender and cylindrical from 
the head to the anus, it then becomes sensibly compressed, 
and gradually terminates in a thin tapering tail, almost 
filiform at the tip. The head swells out a little, the snout 
is depressed and obtuse, being terminated by a thicki.sh, 
reverted lip, which projects very sliglitly beyond the lower 
jaw, also obtuse, and edged by a thick lip. Tlie mouth is 
cleft more than half its length beyond the small eye. The 
posterior aperture of the nostrils is immediately above the 
middle of the eye, and the anterior one, which is smaller, 
is over the inner angle of the eye, but it is not easy to dis- 
tinguish the nostril of so small a fish from some pores on 
the snout. None of the openings have tubular margins. 

A transverse slit on the throat, without a septum, and 
distant nearly an eleventh part of the whole length of the 
fish from the snout, is the only branchial opening. Its 
hinder edge is smooth and even with the adjoining integu- 
ment. The thin gill-membranes, united evenly in the 
middle, form the anterior lip of the opening, and are tra- 
versed longitudinally by nine furrows. Their rays cannot 
be traced without dissection. 

A deep even furrow marks out the lateral line at the 
middle of the height, and there is a fainter mesial furrow 
on the top of the fore part of the back, extending to the 
hind head, both being the effect of the swelling of the 
muscles. The anus is less than a third of the whole 
length distant fi'om the tip of the tail. 

The dorsal is a mere skinny hem, without rays, com- 
mencing about midway between the gill-opening and anus, 
at first very low, but rising a little as the tail becomes 
more slender, and reaching to the extremity of the caudal 
rays. The anal, beginning close to the anus, is similar to 
the dorsal, and also reaches to the end of the caudal. lu 
the caudal fin, seven unbranched jointed rays can be per- 
ceived with the aid of a lens. There is not the slightest 
vestige of pectorals. 

In colour the fish is uniformly liver-brown, slightlj- 
paler along the ventral line, and darker towards the tip of 
the tail. The throat and cheeks, with the snout, are bluish- 
grey, mottled thickly with brown spots and lines. I have 
been unable to detect scales with a lens, but very minute 
ones may nevertheless exist, as^ Mr. McClelland states 
that his China species is covered with minute scales. This 
fish being, if we may judge from the figure, 13|^ inches 
long, may be expected to show the scales more distinctly 
than our small one, which is little more than a third of that 
length. 

DIMENSIONS. 

Length from end of snout to tip of tail 5-22 incLes. 

„ „ anus 3-60 „ 

dorsal fin 2 85 „ 

„ „ gill-opening 0'60 „ 

Length of cleft of mouth 0-14 „ 

Distance between anus and tip of tail 1'58 „ 

Hab. Dampier's Archipelago. 

H 



50 



Cheilobranchus dorsalis. Richardson. 

Ch. Spec. Ch. nigrescenU-fuscus, lined mediand dorsali, 
pinnisque dorsi et ani pallidis. 

Radii: — Br. 3; C. 9. 

Plate XXX., figs. 1—5. 

The Synhranchi hitherto described have the anal aper- 
ture situated at the distance of more than two-thirds of the 
whole length of the fish, from the end of the snout; cvlin- 
dvical, or round and slightly tapering bodies, compressed 
only at the tail; a swelling head; a mouth cleft beyond 
the eye ; and they inhabit the warmer parts of the ocean. 
We have now to desci'ibe a fish, possessing many of the 
technical characters of Synhranchus, but with a head 
almost as small as Leptocephalus, the body compressed 
throughout, and the vent before the middle. Such a dif- 
ference in form from that of the typical Synhranchi, can- 
not but be attended with some dissimilarity in the habits 
of the fish, and seems to justify the imposition of a new 
generic or sub-generic name, though from the want of a 
sufficient number of specimens, I am unable to describe 
the anatomical structure with suflicient fulness and correct- 
ness. The term Cheilohranchus is derived from xf'^"", 
labruni in ambitum diico, and Ppayxta, and has reference to 
a small peculiarity in .structure, which we have not ob- 
served in the Synhranchi, viz., the existence of a little 
roll or lip on the hinder edge of the gill-opening. 

Cheilobranchus. 

Forma compressa postice lineari-laiiceolata. 

Caput minimum ; rostro ohtusiusculo, maxillis (Bqualihus. 

Radii branchiostegi Ires. Apertura branchiarum unica, 

mediana, suh gutture. 
Osculum terminale, rictu ante oculos desinenti. 
Denies suhulati acuti vel ohlusi, una serie dispositi. 
Pinnae dorsi et ani humiles, memhranaceoR non radiis 

sustentatcB cum pinnd caudcd radiatd coalescentes. 

PinncB pectoris nulla. 
Linea lateralis porosa. Papilla genitahs minuta (fig. 5). 
Squamaj minima vix oculo armato dignoscendee. 
Intestina cceco parvulo munita. 

A very small head, sloping upwards from the rounded 
snout, attains an equal width and height posteriorly, but is 
still inferior in both these dimensions to the fore part of 
the body. The thickness is greatest at the shoulder, from 
whence it diminishes gradually to the extremity of the 
tail ; the height of the body increases to a little behind 
the anus, where it exceeds twice the thickness of the same 
part. The hinder part is linear-lanceolate in profile, and 
acute. 

Mouth tcrmhial, with equal jaws, and a very small gape, 
not extending so far back as the eye. The upper jaw is, 
perhaps, somewhat protractile, but this could not be clearly 
made out. A single row of teeth runs round each jaw ; 
eight on each limb. In very young specimens they are 
subulate, and incurved at the tips, but in the largest, which 
IS the one that is figured, they are obtuse, and nearly cy- 



lindrical. They are covered by the rather loose, but not 
tumid lips. 

The nostrils are close above the tumid, lateral eyes ; 
one immediately over the centre of the orbit, and the other, 
which has a tubular orifice, over the anterior angle of the 
eye. 

The gill-opening is a small transverse slit on the middle 
of the throat, and distant from the tip of the lower jaw, 
exactly a tenth of the entire length of the fish. There is 
no division in the opening, and three slender gill-rays 
support the membrane on each side. A transverse lip, 
which rises above the adjoining integument, and has its 
outer ends free, forms the posterior edge of the orifice, and 
appears to be capable of closing it very completely, when 
the inflected edge of the membrane is pressed against it. A 
little more than a third of the whole length of the fish is 
anterior to the anus. The dorsal and anal fins show more 
conspicuously, from being much paler than the rest of the 
fin. The anal reaches from the vent to the tip of the caudal, 
and is broadest at about two-thirds of its length from the 
vent. The dorsal is also highest in the same quarter, but 
sinks to the level of the back before it comes opposite to 
the anus, though a pale stripe is continued from it along 
the middle of the back to the head. Not a vestige of a ray 
can be discovered in these fins, nor did I, in making the ske- 
leton of a small specimen, observe any traces of interspinous 
bones, excejjt a single, flat, triangular one at the tip of the 
tail. This supports nine jointed rays, which are not 
branched. The united caudal, dorsal, and anal, form an 
acute tip to the tail. 

A straight furrow runs from the head to the base of the 
caudal, coincident with the spine, and pale lines sloping 
backwards, ascend and descend from it to the margins of 
the body, being apparently the tendinous divisions of the 
muscles, as in Leptocephalus, the body being otherwise of 
an uniformly dark liver-brown colour in the specimens, 
whicli have been kept in spirits. The fins are of a much 
paler brown. I have not been able to make out scales 
satisfactorily, with a microscope of considerable power, but 
with a single lens, of half an inch focus, the skin is seen 
to be closely studded with little round pits, which, iiom 
the way that they reflect prismatic rays of light, are most 
probably formed by depressed, but extremely minute 
scales. 

The skeleton of a small specimen contains seventy- 
three vertebrae, of which twenty-one are abdominal. The 
superior spinous processes increase very gradually in 
length from the head to halfway between the vent and the 
end of the tail, where they are tallest, after which they 
diminish, giving the lanceolate form to the tail. The last 
vertebra, small and conical, turns up a little at its tip, to 
which an obcuneate interspinous bone is attached, for the 
support of the caudal rays. The under spinous processes 
posterior to the vent are similar to the upper ones. Each 
of the abdominal vertebrae has two transverse processes, 
which diminish in length as they recede from the head, 
and all the vertebraj have a short acute process inclining 
forwards from the upper anteriorpart of their bodies before 
the origin of the upper spinous processes. The vertebrae 
are of the usual hour-glass shape, and are fully ossified. 
No interspinous bones were discovered, except the caudal 



51 



one. The examination of the intestines was not satisfac- 
tory, but the intestinal canal a])peared to be straight, with 
a stomachal dilatation, and a small obtnse cajcum issuing 
fiom the upper third or fourth of the canal. The orifice 
of the anus is wrinkled anteriorly, and has a minute 
papilla on its hinder border. 

DIMENSIONS. 

Length from end of snout to tip of tail 3-50 inches. 

„ „ anus 1-38 „ 

„ „ gill-openiiig 035 „ 

Some specimens do not measure above half this length. 

Hab. North-west coast of Australia. 



Cheilobuanchus aptenodytum. Richardson. 

Ch. Spec. Ch. concolor. 

Radii: — C. 7. 

This species possesses much interest, from its high 
southern habitat, having been found above high-water 
mark on Penguin Island, in seventy-two degrees of South 
latitude. It has an uniform pale reddish-brown colour, 
and its true tint may be, perhaps, changed, by the action 
of the dung of the Penguins. It is, however, in a very 
perfect state, and does not appear to have been submitted 
to the process of digestion in the stomach of anj^ of these 
birds. It is very similar in form to the preceding species, 
and the vent has the same relative position. The body is, 
however, less compressed, and is highest midway between 
the tip of the snout and anus. The upper profile slopes 
gradually from thence to the end of the snout, the top of 
the head being broadish, and flatly rounded. Both the 
back and belly are more obtuse than in the preceding spe- 
cies, particularly the belly, whose thickness exceeds half 
the height. The nostrils are situated as described above, 
and the opening, which is over the angle of the eye, has a 
tubular \\^. 

The gill-opening is more distant from the snout than in 
the preceding species, and has a crescentic form, with the 
curve forwards. Its hinder lip approaches to the head of 
an arrow in form, its free ends forming the barbs. A thin 
fold of the gill-membrane fits closely within, so as to close 
the orifice perfectly. 

The little pits or scales are more readily seen in this 
than in the other, being easily discovered by aid of a lens 
with an inch focus. The teeth, disposed in a single row, 
are truncated, and somewhat compressed or incisorial, and 
a velum spreads over the roof of the mouth, from behind 
the upper ones. 

DIMENSIONS. 

Length from end of snout to tip of tail 1-54 inches. 

„ „ anus 0-98 „ 

„ „ gill-opening 0'29 „ 

Height of body 0-28 „ 



PiiYMNOTnoNus HOOKERi. Richardson. 

Plate XXX., figs. 6, 7. 

The figure here introduced is copied from a pencil draw- 
ing (No. 217) by Dr. Hooker, and we can give little more 
information than the sketch conveys, the notes made at the 
time by Dr. Hooker having been mislaid. The specimen 
measured an inch and a quarter in length, but it has pe- 
rished, not having been found in the collection. It is evi- 
dently a Muraanoid fish, closely allied to the Congers, but 
is remarkable in that family for the shortness of the belly, 
the vent being only a fourth of the whole length distant 
from the snout. The gill-oi^enings are lateral, but their 
position will be unusual, if the oblong white mark before 
and below them be meant to represent a pectoral fin. It 
seems to be placed too far forward for that member. The 
generic name is derived from the backward position of the 
dorsal, from Trpuf^va, puppis, and oSovn, velum, i. e. mizen- 
sail. The caudal and part of the anal are marked as 
rayed, and a note subjoined to the drawing, states that 
rays were not perceptible in other parts of the fins. It 
would be unwise to attempt drawing up a generic charac- 
ter, without further information, but it appeared advisable 
to give the figure a name, for the sake of reference. Seve- 
ral other variations in the distributions of the fins of the 
Muranidai have been published since the appearance of 
Cuvier's arrangement of the family in the Regne Animal, 
among the most remarkable of which are the Rataiboura 
of Gray, in Hardwicke's ' Illustrations of Indian Zoology,' 
and the Uraptera of Riippell [Neue Wirblethiere). 

Leptocephalus altus. Richardson. 

Plate XXX., figs. 8—10. 

This figure is in the same predicament with the last- 
mentioned, the specimen not having been found in the 
collection. There can be no doubt about the genus, I 
think, though the species differs from the European one, 
in the greater depth of its body, and the verj' backward 
position of its vent. When the fish was caught, it was 
transparent, so that the course of the intestine along the 
under edge of the body could be readily seen, and a sto- 
machal dilatation was perceived at about a sixth of the 
whole length behind the head ; but as soon as it was put 
in spirits it changed throughout into opake white, and 
rolled into a ball. Another species of the same relative 
height with Leptocephalus morisii was taken by the Expe- 
dition to the North of St. Helena ; and Cuvier mentions, in 
the Regue Animal, that he is acquainted with several 
species from the tropical seas, but we are not aware of 
figures having been published of any but the European 
one, which is common to the English Channel and to the 
Mediterranean. We received a .specimen of it from the 
temporary volcanic island off Sicily, named Graham's 
Island, on which it was found dead. 

Hab. Dr. Hooker's drawing is numbered 166, and dated 
April 11, but neither the year nor locality are noted. 



52 



Xystophords. Richardson. 

Plate XXX., fig. 22. 

We here exhibit another of Dr. Hooker's drawings 
(No. 90), representing a small fish taken at sea. It ap- 
pears to be a fish of the Cottoid family, and is named from 
the armature of its head. Judging from the figure, the 
formula for the fin-rays appears to be D. 5]24 ; A. 3|16, 
&c., and the fish would seem to be scaleless, from the way 
in which the muscular fibres are shown. 

OsTKACiON Boops. Richardson. 

Radii: — C. 12; A. 14; P. 14. (Dr. Hooker). 

Plate XXX., figs. 18—21. 

Being unwilling that any of the novel forms of fish 
sketched by Dr. Hooker should be altogether lost to sci- 
ence, though the specimens from which they were designed 
have perished, we here present an Ostracion, in which the 
chief novelty appears to be the want of a dorsal fin. Dr. 
Hooker has given four views of this little fish in different 
positions, viz., 18, a lateral view, 19, a view of the back, 
terminated at each end by a long spine, and with tsvo 
smaller intermediate eminences, which seem to replace the 
dorsal fin. Fig. 20 shows the under surface, when the fish 
is turned, so as to bring the mouth and frontal spine into 
view ; and 21, the posterior surface, looking from the vent 
over the anal and caudal fin to the long caudal spine. 
The drawings are numbered 34 by Dr. Hooker. 

Hab. Taken in the South Atlantic, in a tow net. 

Syngnathus hymenolomus. Richardson. 

Ch. Spec. Syvgn. corpore valde compresso, superne iii- 
/erneque memhrand lata marginato ; caudd quoque 
superne antice marginatd. 

Radii :— D. 41 ; C. 8. Scutelli i— corporis 30 ; cauda; 67. 
Plate XXX., figs. 11, 12, 13. 

Baron Cuvier, in the Regne Animal, divides the Syn- 
gnathi into four groups, characterized by the number of fins 
they possess. The species we have figured having merely 
a dorsal and anal, would enter the third group, of which 
Syngn. ccquoreus of Montagu (Trans, of the Wern. Soc. 
i. pi. 4, fig. 1) is the type, but it has also a broad, thickish, 
membranous border, or adipose fin, not noticed in any 
described member of the genus, which may be considei-ed 
as giving it a claim to be ranked as the type of a separate 
group. It is not, however, advisable to attempt giving its 
distinctive characters in this point of view, until the whole 
fainily shall have been revised, for the purpose of fully 
discriminating the various groups which it comprises, and 
arranging the known species, now become numerous. My 
friend Mr. Gray has made some progress in this task, which 
coidd not be in better hands ; in the meantime, I have 
given the fish a specific name, indicating its most sticking 
pecidiarity, and which may be employed as a generic 



appellation hereafter, if need be. It is compiled from uix-tv, 
membrana, and xaiMoi, margo. The British Museum pos- 
sesses many specimens brought from the Falklands, by 
Mr. Wright, which Mr. Gray has kindly permitted me to 
examine, and they would appear to be all females, or at 
least they show no traces of pits on the belly, for the re- 
ception of the eggs, such as we observe in the male Syngn. 
(Bquoreus, nor of a pouch under the tail, as in the gi-oups 
which have four or five fins. 

In this Syngnalhus, the vent is a very little posterior to 
the middle, and the body is much compressed, with flatly 
convex sides, edged on the dorsal and ventral line by 
broad, thickish, opake folds of skin, which double its 
height. The shields by which the body is protected, 
show very slightly through the integument, and are not 
angular. The upper cutaneous border is interrupted on 
the twenty-first shield, on the hinder part of which the 
dorsal begins, and is continued to the thirty-third shield. 
On the thirty-fourth shield the border again appears, but 
not so broad, and it goes on decreasing in height to the 
eighty-eighth, where it ends, the tail at the same time 
growing more and more slender, and ending in a narrow 
point, but supporting a very small caudal, with eight sim- 
ple jointed rays. The under cutaneous border ends just 
before the anus, around which there is a dense patch of 
villi, which conceal the orifice, and cover a space of the 
length of a shield and a half. 

The snout, measured to the fore part of the orbit, is 
one twenty-fourth part of the entire length of the fish, and 
the head, from the tip of the snout to the end of the oper- 
culum, forms between the twelfth and thirteenth part. The 
snout is compressed, obtuse above, and more acute below. 
A flattish space, with a faint mesial ridge equal to a dia- 
meter of the orbit, separates the eyes above. A smooth, 
somewhat elevated, superciliary ridge on each side of this 
space, and extending to the nostrils, renders it concave. 
The opercidum is obtusely oval, and it shows little pits on 
its surface, disposed in lines. Other parts of the head 
and snout show similar pits as the fish dries, but in the 
recent stale, the bones must be tolerably well covered by 
the integuments, and there are no rough ridges, or angular 
points, except a projection, apparently of the subopercu- 
lum, which is joined to its fellow underneath, and points 
directly downwards, below the short vertical limb of the 
preoperculum. The gill-opening is very minute, and is 
pierced over the posterior quarter of the operculum. 

All the specimens have been kept long in spirits, and 
have a dull brownish tint, without spots. 

DIMENSIONS. 

Length from end of snout to tip of iLiil 12-05 inches. 

vent 6-15 „ 

„ „ end of gill-plale 095 „ 

„ ,, gill-opening 0'9I „ 

eye 050 „ 

Length from vent to tip of tail 5-90 „ 

Some specimens measure five or six inches more in 
length. 

Hab. The harbours of the Falkland Islands. 



53 



Labrus celidotus. Forster. 
Radii:— D. 9110; A. 3|10; C.l^■, P. 12; V. IjS. 

Labrus celidotus. Forster, apud Schneid. p. 265. Id. Dese. Anim. 
curA Licht.x>. 133. 

Plate XXXI., fig. 1, 2, 3, 5, natural size., fig. 4 magnified. 

The form of this fish is pretty regular, the central and 
dorsal curves differing but little from each other. The 
slope from the upper lip to the dorsal is gradual, and simi- 
lar to the posterior curve of the back, and the height of the 
body, which is greatest under the fifth dorsal spine, is equal 
to the length of the head, and is contained three times and 
a half in the total length of the fish. Forster makes the 
head one-sixth of the total length, but his measurement is 
evidently made on the crown of the head, and not to the 
tip of the gill-cover. The thickness of the body is inferior 
to half its height. 

A small canine tooth stands forward at the angle of the 
mouth, being implanted in the upper jaw ; and behind the 
single visible row of teeth in both jaws there are much small- 
er ones similar to them in form nearly hidden by the soft 
parts. Other Lahri have also these interior teeth, and the 
dorsal and anal fins are quite destitute of the scaly sheaths 
of the Cosyphi, neither is there any enlargement of the 
jaws. There are many pores on the preorbitar, the subor- 
bitar bones, the preoperculura, temples, upper surface of 
the cranium, and first row of nuchal scales. The cheeks 
are covered by five or six rows of small scales, but on the 
gill-cover the scales are as large as those of the body. The 
lateral line is traced on twenty- eight scales, and descends 
suddenly behind the dorsal and anal fins for the breadth of 
a scale. Its muciferous canals on the anterior scales make 
a single fork like the letter Y, but are more branched on the 
posterior ones. Each scale is obscurely three-lobed at 
the base, with numerous fan-like furrows, and there are 
also some less regular diverging lines on the exposed part 
of the disk. The spines of the dorsal and anal are rather 
slender, and the caudal is even at the end. 

Forster describes the colours as follows : forehead and 
back deep reddish brown, the sides green, and the belly 
silvery white. Caudal fin and gill-covers greenish brown, 
a roundish black spot an inch and a half in diameter, high 
on the side opposite to the anus, and three obsolete brown- 
ish black streaks towards the tail. The pectoral, ventral, 
and anal fins are yellow ; the latter being marked by 
two or three black spots, and the dorsal by more scattered 
ones. Our specimens have lost their original tints by long 
maceration in spirits, but the lateral spot is still con- 
spicuous, though of a smaller size than it is described to 
be by Forster. It is crossed by the lateral line. The disks 
of the scales are much darker than their margins, especially 
on the flanks ; there are two dark streaks on the temples, 
a few spots on the anal, and the dorsal is clouded by ill-de- 
fined spots. 

Obs. The Spams notatus of Solander (Mss. Pise. Austr. ; 
Parkinson 37, Icon ined. Bibl. Banks ; Richardson, Ann. 
and Mag. of Nat. Hist. xi. p. 425), has considerable re- 



semblance to this species in the distribution of its dark 
tints, as well as in its external form, but the large, oval, 
black spot is situated some distance below the lateral line. 
The Labrus pcecilopleura of New Zealand, as far as we 
can judge from the description of it in the ' Histoire des 
Poissons,' (p. 13, 95), does not differ specifically from 
Solander's notatus. These species, and several other Aus- 
tralian Lahri, viz. L. tetricus, fucicola, laticlavius, and 
psittaculus (Richardson, Zool. Trans.) ; and also the L. 
ephippiuni and gayi of the ' Histoire des Poissons,' agree 
with celidotus in the numbers of the dorsal and anal 
spines, and differ widely in that character from the Eu- 
ropean Lahri. 

Hab. Seas of New Zealand and Australia, Southern Is- 
land of New Zealand, (Forster) ; Woosung, North of China, 
(Sir Everard Home). 

Labrus botryocosmus. Richardson. 

Radii :— D. 9|11 ; A. 3|10 ; C. 12| ; P. 12 ; V. 1|5. 

Plate XXXI., figs. C, 7, 8, & 10. natural size ; 9 magnified. 

This Labrus is very much like the preceding one, the 
most palpable difference being the existence of a cluster of 
black dots above the lateral line and under the posterior 
dorsal spines, with a longitudinal bar on the dorsal and 
another on the anal, in place of the lateral s])ot and other 
markings of celidotus. There is also a pale blue streak 
running up the posterior border of the preorbitar and along 
the suborbitar chain. The dentition does not differ from 
that of celidotus, and there is a similar minute canine at the 
angle of the mouth. On comparing the specimens closely 
with one another, the following differences were detected in 
form. The profile of the snout of botryocosmus is gibbous, 
its snout is wider, and the curve formed by the junction of 
the cranium with the scaly nape is more contracted than in 
celidotus. The posterior limb of the preoperculum is 
nearly erect, and meets the lower limb at a right angle, 
while in celidotus the angle is much more open. The 
scales of botryocosmus are in general more elongated, and 
the tubes which mark out the lateral line are simply forked 
in the tail, and move branched anteriorly, contrary to what 
is observed in celidotus. 

Hab. Coasts of South Australia and Van Diemen's 
Land. 

Macrourus, vel Lepidorhynchus denticolatus. 
Richardson. 

Ch. Spec. M. squamis ovalibus rotundatisve nan carina- 
tis postice spinuloso-hirtis ; radio pinnte dorsi antico 
submutico ; piiitid dorsi secundd lonyius pone anum 
incipienti. 

Radii: — D. 12—? A.—? P. 18. 

Plate XXXII., fig. 1. natural size ; 2, 3, magnified. 

About eight species of this genus are now known ; viz. 
two which inhabit the Greenland seas, two belonging to 



54 



the Mediterranean and adjoining districts of the Atlantic, 
one to the Canaries, one to the sea of Japan, and two to 
the seas of Australia. The chief peculiarities of the spe- 
cies now first named are indicated in the specific character 
given above. It agrees with M. stromii of E,heinhardt, and 
the M.calorrhynchus of the Mediterranean and Madeira, in 
the scales being armed on the exposed part of their disk 
by slender subulate or setaceous spines, not disposed in any 
definite order. M. fabricii (Sundevall), M. sclerorhynchus 
(Valenciennes), and M. australis (Richai'dson, Zool. iii. p. 
151, pi. 8, & 1) have the scales armed with spines ranged 
in rows and incumbent on each other, forming toothed 
ridges. The trachyrhynchus of the Mediterranean, and 
japonicus (Temni. et Schleg; Krusenstern, t. 60, f. 8, 9), 
differ from the others, in having tapering acute snouts. 

Our specimen of M. detiticukitus was thrown up on the 
beach of South Australia, and has lost the end of its tail. 
It was dried, and the soft parts about the snout have shri- 
velled away, so that the true form of that part is still 
unknown. The mouth appears to be more nearly terminal 
than in the other species, and is certainly much more so 
than in M. amiralis. The eye also is larger, and the flat 
cheek and sloping disk of the preoperculum do not taper to 
a point as in that species. There is a thin temporal ridge ; 
the first dorsal is tall, the second one low, and commen- 
cing a good way behind the anus. The first ventral ray ter- 
minates in a slender filament, and the upper jaw is armed 
by longer and more widely set teeth than that of aus- 
tralis. A scale from the lateral line is shown in pi. 32, fig. 
3, and one from another place on the side in fig. 4. 

Hab. Coasts of South Australia. 



NoTACANTHUS SEXSPiNis. RichardsoH. 

Ch. Spec. N. capite conico, rostra obtnso ; apicibus den- 
iium lanceolatis ; pinnis pectoris ad aperturam bran- 
chiarum approximatis. 

Radii : — D. 6|1 ; A. ]4|— ? P. 13 vel 14 ; V. 2'{J, cum 
pari suo coiijuyatd. 

Plate XXXII., figs. 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, nat. size ; 6, 10, 11, magn. 

The specimen from which our figure was made, was 
thrown ashore in King George's Sound, and has lost part 
of its tail. It was prepared simply by drying, and on soak- 
ing it well in water it resumed its former dimensions, in 
which state it was drawn by the artist. In general form it 
resembles A^. nasus,* but the snout, though blunt at the 
point, is more exactly conical, and the profile, instead of 
being gibbous just behind the eye, has a gentle straight 
declivity which unites imperceptibly with the dorsal line. 
The mouth is farther back than in nasus, the front part of 
the cleft being under the nostrils and the posterior corner 
opposite to the middle of the eye. The maxillary forks at 
the lower end, its upper prong being an acute subulate 

Not. nasus ; fronte yibho ; dentibits subulatis parum compressis ; 
pinnis pectoris ub aperturd branchiarum remolis. 

Radii ;— D. 11—; A. C. 13 136 ; P. 16 ; V. 3l8. 



spine, and the lower one a thin linear slip of bone which 
curves slightly round the corner of the mouth, and is con- 
cealed in the thickness of the lip. In N. nasus, the upper 
lip forms an obtuse pendulous lobe at the corner of the 
mouth, and the maxillary has also a spinous point, which is 
represented in pi. 55, fig. 2 of the new French edition of the 
' Regne Animal,' but omitted by Bloch. Judging from the 
French figure, the naked parts about the mouth seem to be 
more extensive in nasus. In se.vspiiiis the scaly integu- 
ment comes close to the upper teeth, but the lower lip is 
naked : the rest of the head is densely scaly, so that the 
forms of the bones cannot be made out. 

The upper teeth (fig. 10) are compressed, with lanceolate, 
acute tips, which point obliquely backwards. The under 
ones (fig. 11) are closely set, and have hair-like erect stems 
with acute slightly incurved tips. The palatine and vo- 
merine teeth ai'e smaller and more subulate than those of 
the lower jaw, and are ranged in a single series, forming 
an arc within those of the upper jaw. There are about 
twenty or twenty-one on each side of the upper jaw, and 
twenty-four on each limb of the lower one. The scales are 
small, oval, and impressed by fine furrows, which radiate 
from an eccentric point. The lateral line is nearly straight 
and runs above the middle of the height. 

The first dorsal spine stands opposite to the posterior 
third of the ventrals, as in nasus, and the third one is op- 
posite to the first anal spine. A small, forked, jointed ray 
stands in the axilla of the last dorsal spine. Both the ven- 
tral spines and the last two dorsal ones are obsoletely 
jointed, though they are stiff and pungent. The ventrals 
are completely united to each other, so as to form but one 
fin, as represented by fig. 5. The anal commences with 
fourteen acute, pungent spines, but joints are distinctly 
perceptible in three or four of the ]50sterior ones. The tail 
being mutilated, we cannot state the number of the soft 
anal rays, but the form of the portion of fin which remains 
is much like that of nasus. The series of glandular points 
represented as running along the base of the anal, in the fi- 
gure of nasus, published in the ' Regne Animal,' were not 
apparent in the specimen of sexspiiiis. Our fish, when en- 
tire, must have been upwards of thirteen inches long. 

Hab. King George's Sound, Australia. 



Uranoscopus maculatus. Forster. 



Radii:— D. 18 vel 19; A. 17 vel 18; C. 

V. 1|5. 



P. 1( 



Uranoscopus maculosus, Solander, Pise. AusU. MSS., p. 21, An. 
1770. Ur. maculatus, J. R. Forster, apud Schn. p. 49, An. 1801. Icon, 
G. Forster, 176, 177, Bib. Banks. ; Richardson, An. and Mag. of Nat. 
Hist. ix. p. 207, An. 1842 ; Forster, Descript. Anim. cura Lioht. p. 118, 
1844. I7r. monopteri/gius, Schn. Ur. cirrhosus, C. et V. iii. p. 314, 
An. 1829. Ur. Forsteri, Id. iii. p. 318. Ur. Kouripouia, Less. Voy. par 
M. Duperry, pi. 18, An. 1830. 

Plate XXXIII., figs. 1—3, natural size. 

Solander detected and described this fish, but his notes 
remaining in manuscript, the species was first made known 
by Schneider from the papers of Forster. As there are 
several Uranoscopcs with single dorsals, Cuvier hasjustly 



65 



objected to the specific name of tnonopterygitis, as not be- 
ing discriminative, but as this fault is common to very 
man}' of the scientific appellations given to fish, the rule of 
adhering to the earliest published name, if not preoccupied, 
seems to be preferable to the introduction of the very nu- 
merous changes which would result from an attempt to rec- 
tify all objectionable names, and we have, therefore, ad- 
hered to Forster's name of macitlatns, which was published 
by Schneider simultaneously with the newer and even less 
distinctive appellation invented by himself, especially as 
Forster's differs little from that of maculosus bestowed on 
the fish by Solander, its first describer. We have seen 
several specimens, both from New Zealand and Van Die- 
men's Land, and have figured one of them, because Lesson's 
plate does not appear to us to be a satisfactory representa- 
tion of the species. 

The top of the head is quite flat, from the occiput to the 
end of the snout, and transversely as far as the temples 
and outer edges of the orbits. A square membranous 
space is bounded laterally by the rough borders of the 
orbits, and behind by a cross ridge of bone connecting 
these borders ; the fore edge of the membrane that crosses 
the pedicles of the intermaxillaries is cut away in a shal- 
low curve, and is the anterior boundary of the square 
space. The intermaxillaries lie in the same plane with 
the snout, and descend very slightly when protruded. 
Cuvier describes the granulations of the cranial plates, as 
being arranged in lines radiating from nine centres like so 
many stars, viz., in two rows of four each, and a single 
roundish occipital plate on the mesial line. It is not easy 
to make out the nine centres here mentioned. The exact 
forms of the plates are shown in fig. 2, and most of them 
are roughened by minute points crowded without order. 
The outermost posterior plates, however, and two middle 
pairs, show some radiating lines. The borders of the orbits 
are very slightly raised, and the granulations of the super- 
ciliary plates show a tendency to run in lines. The preor- 
bitar projects two acute points over the limb of the maxil- 
lary ; and the three suborbitars which follow occupy but a 
small part of the cheek, and are all irregularly gi-anulated. 
The preoperculum is curved in the arc of a circle, is coarsely 
granulated at its upper end, and covered elsewhere with 
smooth integument, which is perforated by a double row of 
pores. Vertical granular lines mark the operculum, with 
a few coarser grains at its upper angle, but in the recent 
fish these rough parts are mostly concealed by the integu- 
ment. The supra-scapulars are densely granulated oblong 
plates, which in conjunction with the mesial occipital plate 
form the boundary of the nape. The scapular (or humeral) 
bone emits a strong spine over the upper angle of the gill- 
opening ; it is slightly curved at the point, and half an 
inch long in a fish which measures seven inches, though 
the tips only protrude through the skin. Forster describes 
it as ^^ spina valida horizontalis, apice extrorsum fiexd, 
polUcaris" in a specimen which measured twenty-two 
inches. The lips are closely fringed with very short slen- 
der cirrhi, just visible to the naked eye, and there is a short 
thick barbel on the chin, which seems to have escaped 
Forster's notice, and is not indeed very readily discovered 
unless it be looked for. A slender filament protrudes from 
within the velum of the lower jaw. The dental plates are 



coarsely and thinly villiform at the symphyses and taper 
away on the limbs of the jaws. The vomerine teeth are 
minutely villiform, being scarcely visible to the naked eye, 
and a cluster of three or four somewhat larger ones, crowded 
together, exists on the fore part of each palate bone, these 
bones being otherwise toothless. A row of pores runs 
along the limb of tlie lower jaw to the preoperculum. The 
eye is fringed by a narrow toothed membrane, which is not 
easily seen unless the eyeball be protruded. The lateral 
line curves gradually from the outer end of the suprasca- 
pular towards the beginning of the dorsal, and then runs 
near the base of that fin, approaching it gradually and 
slightly in its course ; when it arrives at the base of the 
caudal it bends suddenly downwards to pass between the 
middle rays of the fin. Throughout its length short lateral 
branches fringe it beneath, each ending in a muciferous 
pore. The scales of the body are similar and of an oblong 
shape. None exist above the lateral lines, nor on the 
other parts mentioned as being naked in the ' Histoire des 
Poissons.' All the rays of the dorsal are jointed, the spi- 
nous fin being deficient, but in the dried specimen four ob- 
tuse points press up the skin, like so many interspinous 
bones before the first ray. 

The markings are represented in the figure as they exist 
in a specimen which has been long macerated in spirits, 
but the following is Solander's desciuption of a recent fish. 
" Piscis superiie virescenti-griseus maculis rotundis dilute 
et sordide Jlavicantibus ; subtus e virescente albus. Ca- 
put supra cavernosum, pallide ejlavicante et griseo nebu- 
losum. Oculi parvi. Iris griseo et albido inarmorata. 
Pupilla nigra, superne et inferne lobulo griseo uotata. 
Pinna dorsalis subglauca : vittd infra medium lata, al- 
bidcl : radiis supra vittam fuscis, apicibus rubicundis. 
PinncB pectorales extus olivacea;, maculis rotundis e vires- 
cente albidis fulvo marmoratis, interne obscuriores ; basi 
colore pectoris ; margines anteriores et posteriores albidce. 
PinncB ventrales et anales colore pectoris. Pinna caudaiis 
e rubicundo griscescens, fascia ante medium sub-inter- 
ruptd, lata, sordide ex albido virescenti ; margo posticus 
Tubescitr Forster merely says in regard to colour, " Cor- 
pus supra pallide fuscum, maculis pallidioribus [in qui- 
busdam albis seu arge7iteis), subtus candicanti argenteumP 
" Pupilla nigra, iride aurea ; membrand nictilante in- 
tegrd."* 

Forster's specimens measured twenty-two inches, and 
are mostly about seven or eight inches long. 

Hab. Seas of New Zealand and Australia. (Also Ota- 
heiti, Forster). 



Uranoscopds macropygus. Richardson. 

R.\Dii :— D. 30 ; A. 37; C. 8| ; P. 19 ; V. 1|5. 

Ch. Spec. U. capite laevi inermi ; ano sub axilla pinnce 
pectoris magnm posilo ; pinnd ani longissimd ante pin- 
nam dorsi unicam incipienti et ad pinnam caudte 



* This seems to have been an oversight, arising from the eye being 
examined wlien retracted, for the eye-ball is surrounded by a denticulated 
fringe. 



56 



usque exlensd ; squamis mediocriius ; lined lateralis 
mediand recta, squamis majusculis tectd. 

Plate XXXIII., figs. 4—6, natural size. 

This Uranoscope differs widely from others of the genus 
in aspect and several well marked characters. The for- 
ward position of its vent, under the lower pectoral rays, 
and at the beginning of the second quarter of the 
length of the fish, is remarkable, and distinguishes it at 
once from maculosus and Icevis, the other two Australian 
Uranoscopes with one dorsal. It has a genital papilla like 
the other species. The head is covered with smooth skin, 
through v^'hich the form of the bones, similar to those of 
mnciilattis, can be made out, but no granulations are visible. 
The lips are finely fimbriated, and the teeth are villiforni. 

The eye-ball, which is not ciliated, is retractile, as is 
usual in the genus. A row of pores traverses the lower 
jaw and disk of the preojjerculum ; the operculum is tri- 
angular and ciliated on its upper edge and round its point. 
There is no scapular spine. The pelvic bones are each 
terminated anteriorly by a spinous point which penetrates 
the skin. The straight lateral line is traced in the middle 
of the height on a series of scales larger than the others, 
which are of moderate size, but much larger than those of 
maculosus. There is no vestige of a spinous dorsal, and the 
soft fin commences over the space between the sixth and 
seventh anal rays. Its rays and those of the anal are 
all jointed and unbranched. The membranes of the fins 
generally are more delicate than in the other Uranoscopes, 
and the rays, especially of the pectorals, have more slender 
tips. The dorsal and anal terminate by a point of membrane 
exactly at the base of the caudal, which is rounded at its 
extremity. Pectoral large, and supported by rays which 
are all forked except the upper one. No barbel on 
the chin, nor any filament from within the lower jaw. 
Length of the specimen 9^ inches. The original tints of 
colour have perished in the spirits, but the dark markings 
which remain may be ascertained by consulting the figure. 
The caudal has a rather remarkable distribution of colour, 
the upper and lower parts being black and the middle 
third pale or whitish. 

Hab. Port Jackson. 



BovicTHYS VARiEGATDS. Richardsou. 

Radii:— B. 7; D. 8]— 18^/19; A. 13 re/ 14; C. 115; 
P. lOetV. ; V. 1|5. 

Plate XXXIV., fig. 1—4, natural size. 

Except in a few particulars noted below, this fish an- 
swers exactly to the description of Bovichthys diacanthus 
in the ' Histoire des Poissons,' but it agrees less perfectly 
with the figure in that work (pi. 244). In general form it 
approaches nearer to Captain Carmichael's representation 
of his CaUionymus diacaiif/ius (Lin. Trans, xii. p. 501, 
pi. 26), which is considered to be the same species with 
the Chili fish described in the ' Histoire des Poissons'. It 
may indeed be merely a more perfect example of diacaii- 



thtis, or a variety, but as it differs a little in the numbers of 
the rays,* and to all appearance, considerably in the mark- 
ings, I have thought it expedient to figure and name it as 
a new sjiecies. 

On reading over the description of diacanthus, with the 
specimens of variegatus before me, the only discrepancies 
I could detect were the following. The preoperculum did 
not appear through the integuments to be either remarkably 
large or cavernous, but a series of open ]jores runs round 
its border. Its edge is even and not undulated. The pec- 
toral overlaps the anal more than in the figures in the Lin- 
nean Transactions or ' Histoire des Poissons,' the penulti- 
mate anal ray is not so abruptly larger than the preceding 
ones, and the pectorals and ventrals are more approxi- 
mated. Five porous lines with short transverse branches 
are disposed on the gill covers, temples, and scapular re- 
gion of each side. They are probably what Carmichael 
denominates " tortuous streaks." The lateral line is com- 
posed of a series of raised, flat, triangular eminences, turned 
alternately upwards and downwards. They appear to be 
composed of soft integument, and there are no scales on 
the body, but the skin is studded with microscopical pores 
which give it a rough appearance, even to the naked eye, 
yet are not perceptible to the finger. The markings will be 
best understood from an examination of the figure, with 
the explanation that after long maceration in spirits the 
dark portions are blackish brown, and the lighter ones 
dingy, little or no pure white being visible, except on the 
throat. One specimen is eight inches long and another 
five inches. 

Hab. Port Jackson. 



Centriscus humerosus. Richardson. 

Radii:— D. 6|— 17; A. 18 ; C.9|; P. 16; V. 1|5. 

Plate XXXIV., figs. 5, 6, natural size. 

We have seen only a dried specimen of this fish, which 
differs from the common MediteiTanean species, chiefly in 
its high and gibbous shoulder. It has eight radiated plates 
en each side of the humeral apparatus which supports the 
large dorsal spine, besides a mesial row of smaller ones ; 
also three rows of plates on the thorax between the gill- 
opening and ventrals, and some smaller plates between the 
ventrals and anal fin. A radiated plate also exists above 
the posterior half of the orbit. The scales are small. The 
dorsal spine is stout, and has several acute curved teeth at 
its base in front, and many serratures and denticulations 
throughout its length on its posterior face. It is followed 
by five short spines not connected by membrane ; the last 
of these spines is at the base of the second dorsal, which 
has an obliquely conical outline. The anal is less high, 
but has a longer base than the dorsal. 

The height of the shoulder is contained twice and one 
half in the total length, and the thickness there is one- 
sixth of the height. The length of the head and snout ex- 

* Bovichthys diacanthus, D. 8! — 20 ; A. 14 {Hist, des Poissons). Cal- 
lionymus diacanthus, D. 81 — 20 ; A. 16. (Carmich.) 



ceeds the height at the shouhler. The height between the 
vent and base of the dorsal is one-tenth less than the 
height at the shoulder. 

Hab. Sea of South Australia. Specimen in the British 
Museum. 



PsETTUS AEGENTEUs. Linn. {C/icctodon). 

Chtrtndnn nrijenteus, Linn. Cbinens. Lagerstrffim. Anioen. Acad. 
Dec. 17.') 1, iv. p. 4-2!>. ; Foist. Faun. Sin.; Bloch. Sclin. p. 230. Icon. 
Keeves, J 10; Hanlw. Acanth. 226. Chinese name, Yin Win tsang, 
" Silver scale Imni/,'' (Birch) ; Yen lin tsong, " Silver scaled tsang," 
(Reeves). 

Radii:— B. 6; D. 8|29; A. 3|29; C. 17|; P. 17; V. 1|5. 
(Spec. Hasl. Museum). 

Plate XXXV., figs. 1, 2, natural size ; 3, magnified. 

This fish was first described by Linnaeus as a Chcetodon, 
and its true position in the genus Psettus is pointed out in 
the ' Histoire des Poissons,' (vii. p. 2-31), where all that is 
said of it in the ' Amcenitates Academica: ' is transcribed. 
Its agreement in many characters \vith Psettus commer- 
sonii is there shown, but the height of the body, it is justly 
remarked, brings it nearer to Psettus rhonibeus. We are 
inclined, however, to keep it separate on account of its pro- 
portionally larger eye, taller and more obtuse dorsal and 
anal fins, and from its wanting the black lines which de- 
scend from the fore part of the dorsal to the face in rhom- 
beus. We possess two specimens, which were taken at 
Sidney, and which agree closely with Mr. Reeves's drawing, 
though the latter is a representation of a larger individual. 

The height of the body is equal to the distance between 
the fore part of the orbit and the end of the dorsal and anal 
fins ; and is in proportion to the total length as 27 to 46. 
The distance between the tips of the dorsal and anal rather 
exceeds the total length when the fins are fully spread out ;* 
and the thickness of the body is about a sixth of its height, 
or less than a tenth of the height, fins included. The 
scales are small, and cover the whole head and dorsal and 
anal fins up to the tips of the rays. They are either very 
deciduous on the caudal, or they only clothe its base. The 
scales are delicate and feel smoothish to the finger, even 
when drawn backwards, but under the microscope, the pos- 
terior triangular portion of their disks is seen to be studded 
with minute teeth. A magnified representation of a scale 
from the lateral line is given in fig. 3. The caudal is 
nearly even at the end when fully expanded, but seems 
crescentic when suffered to collapse a little. The spines 
of the dorsal are drawn in the figure as they appear when 
elevated ; when lying flatly against the front of the fin the 
anterior ones are scarcely perceptible, and the summits 
both of the soft dorsal and anal appear more acute and 
stand out more abruptly from the posterior rays when suf- 
fered to fall back a little. The teeth are those of a Chato- 

* In the figure of Psettus rhombeus in the new edition of ' Kegne 
Animal,' ii. pi. XLIT., fig. 2, the height between the tips of the dorsal 
and anal fins does not exceed the length from the snout to the trunk of the 
tail, and the eye is less, and further from the profile than in argenteus. 



don, and the eye is larger and nearer the profile than that 
of Psettus sebcc or rhombeus. The orbit is only its own 
diameter distant from the gill-opening, excluding the small 
peak of the gill-cover. 

Mr. Reeves's drawing is eight inches long, and is colored 
duck-green on the back, fading away at the lateral line into 
the silvery and very slightly rosaceous scales. The verti- 
cal fins are duck-green at the base, and pass into oil-green 
and sulphur-yellow towai-ds the ends, the anterior summits 
of the dorsal and anal being dark purplish brown, shaded 
off in the latter by crimson. The upper parts of the head 
and gill-cover are blackish green mixed with crimson ; and 
the pectoral is straw-yellow, with an aurora-red tint at its 
base. Iris silvery and brown. 

Hab. Seas of Australia and China. 



ScATOPHAGUS MULTIFASCIATUS. Richaxdson. 

Ch. Spec. Sc. fronte concavd ad nares gibbd ; dorsofas- 
ciis plurimis, nigris, transversis notato ; lateribus ma- 
culatis ; post singulas spinas pimi(B dorsi unique vitto 
nigra. 



Radii ; 



-B. 6; D. 111-1116; A. 4|16; C. 15|; P. 17 ; 
V. IjS. 



Plate XXXV., 



4, 5, natural size ; 6, magnified. 



The body is much compressed, with a short, oblate-oval 
outline, beyond which the .snout and trunk of the tail pro- 
ject. The summit of the back, which is occupied by the spi- 
nous dorsal, and the opposite part of the belly, are bounded 
by nearly horizontal lines. The soft dorsal and anal 
occupy the whole of the posterior curves. The head foims 
nearly one-fourth of the whole length, caudal included, and 
the diameter of the orbit rather exceeds the fourth part of 
the length of the head. The border of the orbit is obtusely 
prominent at the upper anterior angle behind the nostril. 
The preorbitar is considerably wider than the rest of the 
suborbitar chain, and an obtuse notch is formed by their 
junction. The upper limb of the preoperculum is vertical, 
the corner shortly rounded, and the lower one completely 
overlies the interoperculum, only a small crescentic part of 
that bone showing behind the angle of the preoperculum. 
The edge of the gill-cover is nearly an arc of a circle 
without any notch, but the upper comer of the operculum 
makes a scarcely visible prominence. It is rough with 
microscopical teeth. 

The fine brush-like dental plates on the jaws are com- 
posed of closely set slender teeth, each of which is tiicus- 
pid, with the middle cusp taller than the lateral ones. 
There are no teeth on the roof of the mouth. 

The scales are small and densely tiled, only a small ob- 
lique rhomboidal segment of the disk being visible, which 
is armed with several parallel acutely toothed ridges. 
The base is undulated, producing three or four indistinct 
lobes. The general form of the scales is semi-oval with 
one side shorter. The lateral line runs in the upper 
quarter of the height until it reaches the posterior third of 



53 



the dorsal, when it takes a straight course through the mid- 
dle of the tail. 

Tlie dorsal spines have their broad sides turned alter- 
nately to the right and left ; the first two spines are short, 
and the third and fourth are the longest, the succeeding ones 
decreasing rapidly in height. The spine of the second dor- 
sal is buried in its front, so that only its tip shows. The 
first and second anal spines arc longer than the following 
two. The soft dorsal and anal are alike, both having 
a rounded lobe in front higher than the rest of the fin, and 
the posterior corner also rounded. The caudal is slightly 
crescentic. This fin and the soft dorsal and anal are 
rough with minute scales. 

The specimen here described is a dried one, and the co- 
lours have consequently perished, but the scales retain a 
peculiar satiny lustre, and sixteen or eighteen narrow black 
bands remain visible on the back, descending a little below 
the lateral line, together with many roundish spots lower on 
the sides. The top of the head and nape are dark, and 
there is a broad black stripe behind each dorsal spine, and 
also, but more faint, behind each anal spine. The soft 
dorsal and anal are also very finely edged with black, but 
the rest of the fins appear to be colourless. 

This species differs in profile from the Chfstodon ietra- 
cantlms of Lacepede (iii. pi. XXV., fig. 2, et iv. p. 727), or 
Scatophagus fasciatus, C. et V. vii. p. 144. The vertical 
bands are of a different description, and th-jre is no trace 
of the pectorals having been black. 

Length of the specimen \Q\ inches. 

Hai3. King George's Sound, Australia. 



LuTODEiRA SALMONEA. J. R. Forster, {Mugll). 

Mugil salmoneus, J. R. Forster, apud Bl. Schneid. p. 121. Leuciscus 
(Ptycholepis) salinoneus, Richardson, Ann. and Mag. of Nat. Hist. xi. p. 
489, July, 1843. Mugil salmoneus, Forst. Descr. An. cura Lichtenst. 
p. 299. An. 1844- Icon. Georg. Forster, in Bib. Banks. No. 237. Mu- 
gil lavaretoides, Solander, Pise. Austr. p. 15 ? Names given to it by 
the native tribes near Port Essington, Mirle-mirle, and Orgurkhud. 
Genus, Lutodeira, Van Hasselt, Riippell. 

Radii:— B. 4; D. 15; A. 11 ; C. 19f ; P. 17 ; V. 11. 

Plate XXXVI., fig. 1, natural size ; 2, magnified. 

The synomyms above quoted, show that much difference 
of opinion has been entertained respecting the proper place 
of this fish in the system. Cuvier, and subsequently 
M. Valenciennes, considered it to be the same with the 
Elops machnata. This mistake is well exposed by Dr. 
Riippell in his Atlas, p. 18, and Neue Wirlbethiere, p. 80, 
but he also is in error in supposing that the species is the 
same with the Mugil chanos of Forskal. Van Hasselt in 
the year 1822 noticed the Magil chanos in Ferussac's 
' Bulletin des Sciences,' (ii. p. 92), under the appellation of 
Lutodeira, and Riippell in his Atlas gives the generic cha- 
racters at length, with a full description and figure of the 
species, identifying it with the palah-bontah of Russell, 
207. The toolelo, No. 208, of the latter author is a second 
species of Lutodeira, and Forster's fish is a third one. In 



the ' Annals and Magazine of Natural History ' I gave a 
full description of Forster's species from the dried skin of 
an individual which was taken in the harbour of Port Es- 
sington. Having overlooked Dr. RuppelFs able exposition 
of the genus, I fell into the error of taking the fish for a 
Cyprinoid, and named it Leuciscus (Ptgcholepis*) salmo- 
neus. This mistake is strongly animadverted upon in a 
note appended to page 300 of Forster's ' Descriptiones 
Auimalium,' recently published by Lichtenstein, which I 
refer to chiefly because Mr. Gray's name is there associated 
with my own, but the error was wholly mine.t 

If great authorities can excuse a mistake of the kind, the 
first of modern ichthyologists may be adduced in the fol- 
lowing sentence, " le Alugil chanos de Forskal est de 
la famille des Cyprins." (Cuv. Reg. An. ii. p. 23-3) : and in 
recognising the connexion between Forster's fish and Rus- 
sell's palah-bontah and toolelo, which he considers to be 
Cyprini, I followed him without due consideration. I could 
not ascertain the form of the pharyngeals from the dried 
specimen, the back part of the skull having been cut away, 
but the head exteriorly exhibits none of the characters 
which have been indicated by M. Agassiz, as characteriz- 
ing the skull of a Clupeoid. The parietal crests do not 
show at all, and are not prolonged, nor is there a deep 
notch in which the occipital crest stands. No crests run 
from this notch to the middle of the orbit, there are no tem- 
poral grooves, nor does the triangular depression of the 
forehead, so conspicuous in most Clupeoids, appear. It is 
possible that some indications of these generic peculiarities 
might be traced in a properlj' prepared skull, but they do 
not show through the dried integument. The composition 
of the orifice of the mouth, however, is clupeoid. 

This Lutodeira has the general aspect and neat appear- 
ance of a Coregouus. The length of the head, which some- 
what exceeds the height of the body under the dorsal, is 
contained five times and a half in the total length of the 
fish, caudal included. The profile is a narrow ellipse, the 
back and belly being bounded by equal curves, rising re- 
gularly from the mouth to the front of the dorsal, which is 
the middle of the length, caudal excluded. At the base of 
the caudal the height is less than one-third of that before 
the dorsal. The head is covered with a smooth nacry skin, 
which is continued evenly over the cheeks and gill-covers, 
so that the limits of the opercular pieces can scarcely be 
distinguished even in the dried specimens, the under bor- 
der of the preoperculum alone being marked out by a fold 
of skin. The disk of this bone is acutely crescentic, with 
an obtuse notch on its edge beneath the curve, and its un- 



* The name of Pti/cholepis could not in any case have stood, as it 
had, togetliev with almost every Greek compound that can be devised to 
signify sculpture of the scales, been appropriated by M. Agassiz to fossil 
genera, though I was not aware of that fact when in search of a charac- 
teristic generic name. 

:J; The passage is " Maxime autem Graij us et Richardsonius nobis viden- 
tur vituperandi, qui eundem piscem Leuciscuui (Ptycholepin) salmoneum 
nuncupant, priini inter omiies Cypnnmn in Oceana piscaturi." On this I 
would further observe that the Cyprini are not absolutely confined to 
fresh waters, some of the Caiastomi frequent the salt estuaries of the nor- 
thern rivers of America, and in page 44 of this work I have described a 
purely marine fish, the Rliynchana greyi, which, if it be not a Cyprinoid, 
seems to be more nearly related to that family than to any other. 



59 



der limb, which is very long and narrow, is obscurely marked 
by a series of pores. The suboperculum shows a smooth, 
shining, slightly convex linear disk, seven or eight times 
less in height than the operculum. The eye is large, near 
the profile, half the diameter of the orbit from the orifice 
of the mouth, and a diameter and a half from the edge of 
the gill-cover. The mouth is small and terminal ; the in- 
termaxillary thickish, convex, and without protractility. 
The maxillary is stout and semi-oval, its upper end fits in- 
to a notch in the intermaxillary, its lower and wider end 
plays on the limb of the lower jaw, and only a small part 
of its shoulder enters into the composition of the orifice of 
the mouth. There is a slight fold of skin on the edge of 
the lower jaw, but on the upper jaw the integuments 
adhere closely to the bones. The four gill-rays are strap- 
shaped, very thin and flat. There are no scales on the 
head, which is flatfish above and gi-adually narrows from the 
nape to the snout. On the occiput the sides of the head 
are much rounded off laterally, but the upper border of the 
orbit is prominent and rounded. 

The scales are of moderate size, there being eighty-seven 
on the lateral line, and about twenty-three or twenty-four 
rows in the height. They are suborbicular, of a delicate 
texture, and are divided at the base into two or three lobes 
by shallow obtuse notches, and have none of the usual fur- 
rows. The exposed disk is marked by fi-om twenty to 
forty slightly divergent grooves, producing a corresponding 
number of rounded ridges, which terminate on the edge in 
acute points. 

A long, pointed scale lies above, and another below the 
pectoral, which is small and placed low down. The dorsal 
fin commences exactly midway between the tip of the 
snout and end of the scales on the base of the caudal fin ; 
its three anterior rays are short, graduated, and closely in- 
cumbent, without visible joints ; and the margin of the fin 
is crescentic with acute points, the anterior point being 
much higher than the posterior one. A scaly fillet em- 
braces the base of the fin like a sheath, and nearlj^ covers 
the rays, when they are recumbent. The ventrals are at- 
tached opposite to the middle of the dorsal. A long acute 
scale exists above the fin, and a broader and shorter one 
between it and its fellow. The anal is shaped like the dor- 
sal, but is smaller, and it has a similar scaly sheath which 
nearly conceals the rays when they are laid flatly back. 
The caudal fin is very deeply forked, with acute lobes, of 
which the upper one is rather the longest. Two scaly fil- 
lets separate the four central rays from the lobes. 

Forster describes the colour as bluish on the back and 
silvery on the body, the head also shining and silvery, with 
an ultramarine tint round the eyes and on the fore part of 
the gill-cover. 

The specimen from which our figure is taken was pro- 
cured in a brackish lagoon near Point Smith, Port Essing- 
ton, in November, 1844. The one described in the 
' Annals and Magazine of Natural History' was speared 
near the same point, but the natives state that it generally 
inhabits deep water, and rarely approaches the shore. 
Length 19 inches. 

Hab. Noi-th and west coasts of Australia, Torres Straits, 
Island of Tanna. 



Elops machnata. Forskal, No. 100. 

Elops machnata, Riippell. Neue Wirlb. 80—84 ; Richardson, Report 
on the Ichth. of the seas of China and Japan made to the Brit. Assoc, 
vol. xiv. p. 310. An. 1845. Jinagoiv, Rnssell, 179. 

Radii:— B. .32; D. 24; A. 17; C. 19|; P. 17; V. 14. 
Plate XXXVI., fig. 3, natural size ; 4, 5, magnified. 

This fish has already been well represented by Russell, 
and the specimen from which our figure is taken being a 
Chinese one, has no direct claim for admission into a work 
devoted to the publication of Sir James Ross's collection, 
but when the plate was executed some months ago, I was 
desirous, by directly contrasting the Elops with Forster's 
Muffil salmo)ieus, of placing beyond doubt Cuvier's mis- 
take, in considering the two fish to be one species, not be- 
ing then aware that this task had previously been per- 
formed by Riippell in his ' Neue Wirlbethiere,' as has been 
stated above. 

The figure is drawn from a dried specimen, which has 
lost most of its original tints of colour. The suborbitar 
chain including the preorbitar is narrow and linear beneath 
the eyes, and its upper edge is raised in form of a smooth 
even ridge, which becomes more distinctly tubular, and un- 
even on the posterior margin of the orbit. The cheek, 
which is moderately large, is wholly behind the orbit, and 
the disk of the preoperculum, which is thin, wide, and 
smooth, has a parabolic outline. One third part of the 
maxillary passes the orbit, and its whole fi-ont edge up to 
the rounded tip, and the edges also of the intermaxillaries 
and lower jaw, are rough with small granular teeth ; the 
dental plates widening towards the symphyses, and the in- 
terior row of teeth ' being there rather longer and more 
acute, since less worn. The teeth on the vomer and palate 
bones are disposed in considerably broader brush-like 
plates with a more even flat surface. A smooth low ridge 
running from the nostrils traverses the anterior frontal bone 
and disappears on the upper border of the orbit. Another 
(the lateral ridge) rising also at the nostrils, runs directly 
backwards in the intra-orbital space, but sinks again to the 
level of the skull op])osite the posterior part of the orbit. 
The space between this ridge and its fellow is concave ; 
outside of it the skull is convex and rises above it, so that 
it must be wholly concealed in the recent fish. The tem- 
poral ridge is smooth and slightly elevated, though con- 
spicuous enough in the dried specimen. The occiput is 
convex. 

The scales are tolerably large, but being much tiled only 
a small rhomboidal portion of the disk is visible. Their 
exterior edges are thin, delicate, and being easily tora, are 
for the most part irregular. These edges are undulated, pro- 
ducing when ill situ the semblance of fine teeth or streaks, 
but when the scales are wet and placed in the microscope 
the streaks disappear, hence they are not shown in the 
drawing of the magnified scale, fig. 4. Russell indicates 
them in his plate, but such fine lines not being suited for 
lithography, they could not be introduced into our figure 
without rendering it darker than it ought to be. There are 



60 



ninety-two scales in a longitudinal row between the gill- 
opening and caudal fin, and eighteen or twenty rows in the 
vertical height under the dorsal. The lateral line is com- 
posed of a series of simple tubes, and with a very slight de- 
curvature at its commencement runs nearly straight a little 
above the middle of the height of the body. The ventrals 
are attached under the beginning of the dorsal, and in the 
middle of the length between the tip of the snout and ex- 
tremities of the central caudal rays. The first five dorsal 
rays are closely incumbent and graduated, and the upper 
joints of the third, fourth, and fifth are oblique. The first 
three anal rays are also short and closely incumbent, and 
two or three of the following ones have oblique joints. This 
peculiar obliquity of the joints is well seen in the longest 
upper and under caudal rays, which are much compressed 
and broader than the others. Several of the adjacent rays 
are compressed, with oblique joints in a less degree, and 
the first of the incumbent basal ones both above and below 
is thin, white and bony, with a lanceolate outline and very 
acute tip. It is not jointed, but several which immediately 
follow it, though less broad and shewing vestiges of joints, 
have similarly acute tips. 

In Mr. Reeves's drawing the scales of the body are re- 
presented as brightly silvery, with leek-green shadings from 
their bases above the lateral line, and pale pearl-gray be- 
low. The membranes of the dorsal and caudal are moun- 
tain-green with darker rays, a bar along the base of 
the caudal being also darker ; and the central part of the 
caudal is light bluish gray, without any indication of the 
black stripe exhibited in Bloch's figure of Elops saurus, 
493. The upper parts of the head are sap-green mixed 
with oil-green ; the lower parts silvery. The pectoral is 
gamboge-yellow with a blackish tip ; the ventrals and anal 
dull saffron-yellow in front and colourless posteriorly. 

Mr. Reeves figures another Chinese Elops [purpurascens), 
which is briefly noticed in the ' Report on the Ichthy- 
ology of the Seas of China and Japan,' quoted above. 

Hab. Seas of China and India. The Red Sea. 



Gasterochisma melampus. Richardson. 

Gasterochisma melampiis, Richardson, Anu. and Mag. of Nat. Hist. 
XV. p. 346. May, 1845. 

Radii:— B. 5; D. 17|— 1|10 et VI ; A. 2|10etVI; 
C. 174^; P. 20; V. 1|5. 

Plate XXXVIT., figs. 1—3, natural size. 

This fish is most closely allied to Notneus, of which it 
possesses many of the characters, but its larger mouth, the 
form of the jaws approaching much more nearly to that of 
Scomber, the great compression of the body, and above all, 
the free pinnules of the dorsal and anal, justify its being 
placed in a separate genus, in accordance with the manner 
in which the Scomheridce have been hitherto subdivided. 

The profile bears considerable resemblance to that of a 
common mackerel, and the tail at the base of the caudal is 
very slender, but has no vestige of a keel. The length of 
the head, which equals the height of the body, is contained 
four times and a half in the total length, and the thickness 



of the body is less than one-third of its height, the back and 
belly being both acute. The nape is more broadly round- 
ed, but the top of the head is traversed by a smooth, acute, 
mesial keel, which is continued to the tip of the narrow, 
acute snout. The lower jaw is also acute, and the cleft of 
the mouth is half the length of the head. The maxillary 
reaches rather beyond the middle of the eye, and its slen- 
der middle part only is covered by the preorbitar when the 
mouth is closed. The jaw-teeth are finely subulate, acute, 
slightly curved, and rather widely set in a single row. The 
vomerine and palatine teeth are more delicate and not 
so evenly set. 

The cheek is scaly, and there is a scaly patch on the su- 
pra-scapulars ; but the top of the head, jaws, preorbitar, 
disk of the preoperculum, and gill-membranes are smooth. 
There are no scales on the gill-covers in the specimen, but 
as the integument clothing these bones is injured, it is pos- 
sible that they may be more or less scaly in the recent fish. 
The lateral line is moderately arched till it comes opposite 
to the first separate pinnule, when it takes a straight course 
through the tail. The scales are moderately large. The 
belly is deeply fissured to form a sheath for the reception 
of the large ventrals, in which they can be completely con- 
cealed. The inside of this sheath is lined with delicate 
membrane, and the small tubular orifice of the anus is 
situated near its posterior end. The ventral, equal in length 
to one-third of the whole fish, is attached under the base 
of the pectoral as in Nomeus. It is probable that their 
last ray is attached throughout to the mesial line of the 
sheath by a wide membrane, as in the genus just named, 
but if so, the membrane has been torn away in our speci- 
men. The pectorals are in proportion considerably smaller 
than in Nomeus mauritii. The first dorsal is arched, and is 
supported by slender, brittle rays, which are half the height 
of the body. The membrane of the posterior part of the 
dorsal and anal is either altogether wanting or perishes 
early, leaving six or seven detached pinnules behind each 
fin. There is no vestige of any separate spines before the 
anal, and the first spine of this fin is a mere point. The 
ventrals retain their intense black colour, but the original 
tints of the other fins and rest of the fish cannot be traced 
in the specimen, which has suffered froiu long maceration 
in spirits. 

Length 8 inches. 

Hab. Port Nicholson, New Zealand. 



Ageiopus LEUCOP.ECILUS. Richardsou. 

Ch. Spec. Agr. cute Imvissimo ; corpora maculis irregu- 
larihiis castanets cum labecuUs purpurascenti-albidis in 
humero linedque laterali alternantibus variegato ; parte 
spinosd pinncB dorsi nigra marginatd, parte articulatd 
fascid nigra percursd. 

Radii:— D. 17| 13; A. 9;C. 12|; P. 8 ; V. 1|5. 

Plate XXXVII., figs. 4, 5, natural size. 

The genus Agriopus presents the peculiar character from 
which the Joues cuirass6es of Cuvier derive their appella- 



61 



tion, in a less marked degree than most of the other form s 
included in the group. The inlia-orbitar chain abuts 
against the upper end of the preoperculum only, instead of 
sending a strong branch across the middle of the cheek to 
the bend of the bone. Trachinus lipera, retained by Cuvier 
among the Perciihe, shows a more distinct bony extension 
of the suborbitars which crosses the temples to the tip of 
the preoperculum, and in the Uranoscopi the cheeks are 
largely covered by the suborbitar plates. In fact the Tra- 
chini and Uranoscopi associate more naturally with the 
family to which Agrioptis belongs than with the Perciche. 
Most of the Joues cuimssees live habitually at the bottom 
of the sea and travel over the sand or mud in search of their 
food. The Trighe possess simple, free rays under the pec- 
torals, which they use as feet, and perhaps also as organs 
of touch. The projecting thick tips of the lower rays of 
the pectorals, and frequently also of the ventrals and anals, 
so evident in the majority of the members of the group, are 
most likely formed for similar uses, and in this structure the 
Trachini and Uranoscopi agree, as well as in the copious- 
ness of their mucigenous glands. Most of the tish that 
dwell at the bottom of the sea and burrow^ in the sand re- 
quire to have their skins well lubricated, a fact which may 
be gathered from an examination of the Batrac/iid<e, Mu- 
r<Bnid(e, Siluridw, Gohiidce, and of the family now under 
consideration. 

As far as I have been able to ascertain, the Agriopi exist 
in the southern hemisphere only ; and of the five species 
that have been described, three frequent the Cape of Good 
Hope and two the coasts of Chili and Peru. Three have 
bristly or warty skins, viz. Ag. verrucosus (Cuv.), Agr. 
spinifer, (Smith, South Afr. Zool.), and Agr. hispidus, 
(Jenyns, Zool. of Voy. of Beagle) ; while two, Agr. torvus 
and Agr. peruvianus have smooth skins : Agr. leucopcecilus 
being also quite smooth, brings the numbers of the smooth 
and rough-skinned species that are known, to an equality. 

This fish differs from other species, in being rather less 
tapering posteriorly. The height of the body is one-third 
of the total length, and is greatest at the attachment of the 
ventrals, where the thickness is less than half the height. 
The head forms one-fourth of the entire length. The pel- 
vic bones being depressed, makes the height at the nape 
considerable, and brings not only the ventrals, but even 
the pectorals beneath the level of the under part of the 
bead. The small terminal mouth is rather above the level 
of the lower third of the body. The orbit having a some- 
what ovate fonn and encroaching upon the profile, is mid- 
way between the orifice of the mouth and gill-opening, be- 
ing rather more than the length of its own diameter from 
each. Its upper border being a little elevated, renders the 
interorbital .space slightly concave. This space is broadest 
behind, where it equals the vertical diameter of the eye. 
There are no spinous points whatever on the head, but the 
bony surfaces are granidated, the grains being ranged on 
the disks of the preoperculum and parietal bones in radiat- 
ing lines, and in two parallel lines in the interorbital space. 
Faint streaks not gi'anular are perceptible on the opercu- 
lum, which is clothed with smooth integument. An 
elevated, linear, granulated disk of one of the bones of the 
humeral chain lies behind the small vertical gill-opening. 
The gill-membrane is continuous with the adjoining inte- 



gument, and only three gill-rays shew through it in the 
dried specimen. The teeth on the jaws are crowded and 
setaceous, higher on the lower jaw, and not forming broad 
dental plates on either. The vomer appears to be quite 
smooth. 

The dorsal is shaped like that of the rest of the genus, 
but is not so steeply arched as in some species. The fifth 
spine is the highest, and considerably exceeds half the 
height of the body. The last spine is considerably taller 
than the penultimate one, and the soft part of the fin rises 
above the nine posterior spines. The ventrals arc attached 
a little posterior to the pectorals and opposite to the 
seventh dorsal spine. This spine is striated, stout, and 
one-third shorter than the jointed rays which are un- 
branched. The pectoral rays, eight in number, are also 
unbranched, and the lower four have the membrane deeply 
notched between their tips. There is no vestige of a spine 
in the anal fin. Length of the specimen about nine and a 
half inches. 

Hab. South-.Australian Sea. 



Lota breviuscula. Richardson. 

Radii:— B. 7; D. 8— 48; A. 50; C. ]7|; V.-2-2; V. 6. 

Plate XXXVIII., figs. 1, 2, natural size. 

This small ling approaches the Lota bacchus of Forster, 
[rubiginosa, Solauder?) in its form and characters, and in a 
less degree the L. magellanica and rhacina of the same 
naturalist, but we cannot venture to refer it to any of these 
species on account of the difference in the numbers of its 
rays.* 

The length of the head, which scarcely equals the height 
of the body, forms a fourth of the whole length of the fish, 
and the thickness before the first dorsal is equal to two- 
thirds of the height. The profile rises gently with a slight 
convexity from the obtuse snout to the first dorsal. The 
eyes are a diameter of the orbit apart, and are placed at the 
same distance from the tip of the snout, but fully two dia- 
meters from the edge of the gill-cover. The mouth is be- 
neath and rather behind the end of the snout. The jaws 
are armed by villifonn bands of teeth of even height, and 
the pharyngeals are rough with minute teeth, but the front 
of the vomer, the palate-bones, and rest of the mouth are 
covered with smooth white integument. The scales ai-e of 
moderate size compared with those of other Gadida, there 
being only seventy-two rows between the gill-opening and 
caudal fin. They cover all the head except the preorbitar, 
jaws, inter-operculura and gill-membrane. The first dor- 
sal, having a triangular form, stands as high as the second 
one and contiguous to it. The vent is under its posterior 
rays. The ventrals are slender and are split at the tip into 
two unequal filaments. Caudal rounded. Length of spe- 
cimen nearly seven inches ; its colour faded. 

Hab. Bay of Islands in New Zealand. 

* Gadw rubigimms, Sol. B. 7 ; D. 10— A.— C— P.— V.— 

„ 6acp/jMS, Forst. 7; 10—42; 40; 26; 22; 6. 

„ magellanicns,Yoxii. 6; 5—31; 25; 14; 17; 6. 

„ rAacint/i, Fovst. 7; 5—68; 62; 28; 22; 6. 

L 



62 



Petromyzon moedax. Richardson. 

Radii:— D. 53—80; C ? 

Plate XXXVIII., figs. 3—5 natural size ; 6 magnified. 

In this lamprey the vent is one-seventh of the whole 
length of the fish distant from the tip of the tail, and 
the first gill-opening is at an equal distance from the end 
of the snout. The first dorsal, short and rounded, is con- 
siderably behind the middle of the fish, and is widely sepa- 
rated from the second one, which is much longer and 
passes the vent by a quarter of its length. The caudal 
is divided into an upper and under lobe, which vanish at the 
lip of the tail. Delicate rays support these fins, but the 
thickness of the skin prevented me from reckoning them. 
None exist at the extreme tip of the tail, nor in a low mem- 
brane which connects the upper caudal lobe with the second 
dorsal. There is also a short membrane destitute of rays 
before the under lobe, and a pale mesial stripe extends from 
it to the vent. The rest of the fi.sh is coloured dark umber 
brown, paler on the belly, and there is a pale spot between 
the eyes, behind the solitary nasal tube. 

The orifice of the mouth is a longitudinal slit, armed on 
the edges by acute teeth set altei'uately in two rows, as re- 
presented in figure 5. Figure 6 exhibits the inside of the 
mouth with the lips shaved off, and shows a circle of about 
thirty small acute teeth, with a solitary one in front. More 
within before the oesophagus there is a horny plate on each 
side of the mesial line, having three conical, acute cusps ; 
and beneath the oesophagus there are five teeth ranged in 
a transverse curve terminated at each, end by a larger tooth 
having two acute cusps. The tongue is represented by the 
artist as projecting forwards and nearly concealing the ori- 
fice of the gullet, but the exact form of the two large 
teeth on its fore edge is not well shown. Though these 
teeth appear conical when viewed in front, they have, in 
fact, a crescentic, serrated, cutting edge, and they are 
inclined to each other, so as to meet on the mesial line in 
an acute angle : behind them there is a row of small teeth 
like a saw, on each side of the tongue, which are not shown 
in the figure. The P. tridentifer of the Fauna Boreali- 
Amerivana, another species from the Pacific Ocean, has 
the teeth very difierently arranged. 

Length of the only specimen of P. mordax in the collec- 
tion, lOj inches. 

Hab. Seas of Van Diemen's Land. 



viduals of the same species in this genus, I have not ven- 
tured to consider them as distinct. The Clupea nastts of 
Bloch (429, fig. I.), is a more slender fish, whose height, if 
we may judge from the drawing, does not exceed one- 
fourth of the total length. Cuvier considers come and na- 
sus as the same species, and Russell on the other hand 
refers come to the Clupea thrissa of Bloch, but we do not 
think that either of these approximations can be supported 
by the figures. 

This fish is greatly compressed, its thickness being little 
more than one-fifth of its greatest height, which again 
is equal to one-third of the length including the tips of the 
caudal fin. The profile excluding the tail is a regular oval. 
The belly is serrated and very acute, and the edge of the 
shoulder from the fin to the cranial plate is also very 
acute. The head forms about one-fifth or rather more of 
the total length, and it has the usual cranial plate, covered 
with smooth skin. This plate has an almost obsolete cen- 
tral ridge, from whence it slopes very gently to each side. 
It is bounded laterally by the orbit, and a groove running 
backward and tenninating on the side of the occiput in six 
or seven short fuiTows, as shown in figure 8. The nose 
projects a little beyond the small, toothless mouth, whose 
orifice when viewed in front is triangular, and the tip of 
the lower jaw fits into a smooth notch in the middle of the 
upper one. The small, slender, linear maxillary is not con- 
cealed by the preorbitar when the mouth is closed. There 
are about forty scales in a longitudinal row and fifteen 
or sixteen rows in height. Faint impressions on the 
scales, give the appearance of as many lateral lines as 
there are rows, but there is no well-marked lateral line. 
The exposed disks of the scales are narrow, vertical rhombs 
with sharp angles. A detached scale is transversely oval 
with obtuse ends, without fan-like streaks on the base, and 
having the uncovered edge rather deeply crenated. Scaly 
sheaths exist at the bottom of the dorsal and anal ; and 
long scales lie over the pectoral and ventrals and also be- 
tween the latter fins. The caudal is deeply forked, with 
acute lobes. The ventrals are under the middle of the dor- 
sal. The colour of the fish in spirits is silvery with a 
bluish gray tint on the back. 

Length of specimen 4j inches. 

Hab. Western Australia. Indian Ocean. 



Tetrodon virgatus. Richardson. 
Radii :— D. 9 : A. 10 ; C. 9 ; P. 16. 



Chatoesus come. Russell. 

Clupea thrissa, Russell, Coromand. Fishes, ii. p. 76, pi. 196. (Kome). 

Radii:— B. 4; D. 17; A. 22; C. 19|; P. 15; V. 8. 

Plate XXXVIII., figs. 7—10, natural size. 

Our specimen of this fish is rather higher in proportion 
to its length than Russell's figure, but as in other respects 
there is no marked discrejjancy, and the numbers of the 
rays do not differ more than often happens among indi- 



Plate XXXIX., figs. 8—9, natural size. 

This Tetrodon seems to be nearly allied in form and 
markings to T. Uneatus of Linnaeus and Bl. 141, but there 
is some difference in the distribution of the stripes as well 
as in their breadth, so that we can scarcely venture to con- 
sider them as belonging to the same species, and their very 
distant habitats is a further presumption against uniting 
them. The form of this fish when distended is ovate, with- 
out a beak, the teeth only and edges of the lips projecting 
out of the general profile. The nasal orifices are at the ex- 
tremities of a pair of tubes on each side, resembling bifid 



63 



barbels. Slender acute spines stud the whole integument 
except the lips, a narrow ring round the eye, the fins and 
their bases, with the greater part of the trunk of the tail. 
The ground colour is blackish gray on the back, and paler 
on the sides and belly, and nine or ten blackish longitudi- 
nal streaks traverse the whole body. The caudal is dark- 
ish, and there are some dark shades on the dorsal and anal, 
but the original tints of colour have perished through the 
long immersion of the specimen in spirits. 

Length 4i^ inches. 

Hab. Port Jackson. 

Tetrodon hamiltoni. Hichardsou. 

Radii :— D. 9 ; A. 6 ; C. 7| ; P. 15. 

Tetrodon hamiltoni, Ricliardson, MS. Cat. of Hasl. Mus. ; List of 
New Zealand Fishes, DieiFenbach's Travels, &c. Appendix. 

Plate XXXIX., figs. 10 and 11, natural size. 

Specimens of this Tetrodon have long existed in the 
Museum of Haslar, to which they were presented by Sur- 
geon Hamilton of the Royal Navy, who procured them in 
Port Jackson. It appears to be an abundant species iu 
that locality, as the examples of it are numerous in Sir 
James Ross's collection. 

The belly is capable of moderate distention, so as to ac- 
quire a considerably greater convexity than the back, but 
so that the height and width of the body are equal, and 
then the profile is oblong-oval, the height being one-third 
of the total length. The nasal orifices are seated in a pout- 
ing papilla, and the inner surface of the lips is fringed by- 
short skinny processes. The skin is rough with short sim- 
ple spines on the back from the nostrils to the caudal, and 
also on the under surface for the same distance. The 
flanks are partially rough, minute spines existing on the 
cheeks, a space behind the pectorals connecting the upper 
and under spinous surfaces, and also an arch of the tail. 
The smooth parts are, all the fins and a circle round their 
bases, including the axilla of the pectoral, the lips and 
snout back to the nostrils, the chin, circle round the or- 
bit, margin of the gill-opeuing and the middle of the flanks 
back to the caudal fin, — the smooth space naiTovving consi- 
derably posterior to the anus, and being bounded beneath 
on the tail by a kind of raised porous seam or lateral line. 
The back is thickly mottled with round spots and minute 
specks in the interstices. The larger spots on the fore part 
of the back are ranged in transverse rows, more distinctly 
in some individuals than in others. The flanks are 
marked by a series of oval black blotches from the mouth 
to the tail ; and the under surface is white. 

The specimens vary from three to five inches in size. 

Mrs. Meredith in her ' Notes of New South Wales,'* 
speaks of this Tetrodon in the following terms. " A dis- 
gusting tenant of most of the shores around Sydney, is the 
toad-fish : most admirably named ; it looks precisely like 
a toad elongated into a fish, with a tough, leathery, scale- 
less skin, and a bloated body, dark mottled brown above, 

* London, Murray, 1844. 



and white beneath. It is usually about five inches long, 
and disproportionately broad, but swims very swiftly, and 
is for its size, as bold and voracious as the shark. When 
I said Mr. Meredith did not fish with the rod, I might have 
added that he could not, for the toad-fish, which swarm 
everywhere, no sooner see anything dropped in the water, 
than they dart towards it by dozens, and fight among 
themselves for the honour of swallowing your hook, gene- 
rally taking the precaution to bite off your line at the same 
time. This extreme anxiety to be caught might perhaps 
be pardoned, were the greedy little wretches fit to eat, but 
they are highly poisonous ; and although I should have 
thought their disgusting appearance sufficient to prevent 
their being tried, I know one instance at least, of their fatal 
effects ; a lady with whose family I am intimate having 
died in consequence of eating them. As they thus effectu- 
ally put a stop to our angling by biting off every hook 
drop]3ed in the water before any other fish had time to look 
at it, they especially enjoyed the benefit of the fishing 
spear, upon which many hundreds, if not thousands, must 
have been impaled in succession. This sounds very wan- 
tonly cruel, but let no one pronounce it so who is not well 
acquainted with the toad-fish ; from those who are, I fear 
no reproof. When speared, they directly inflate their 
leathery skins like a balloon, and eject a stream of liquid 
from their mouths, with a report as if they had burst. If 
flung again into the water, however wounded, they instantly 
swim about and begin eating ; and should one be a little 
less active than his fellows, they forthwith attack and eat 
him up. Even my poor little harmless friends, the crabs, 
become their victims ; when those usually well-armed 
troops have just got their soft new coats on, and are almost 
defenceless, then come the cowardly, ravenous toad-fish, 
and make terrible onslaughts among them, an attention 
which I believe the crabs eventually repay with interest." 
(p. 15.5). 

Hab. Sea-coasts of Austraha, Van Diemen's Land, and 
New Zealand. 

MoxACANTHUs GRANULATUs. White [BaUstes). 

Radii :— D. 2|— 30 ; A. 28 ; C. 12 ; P. 11. 

BaUstes granulatus, White, Voy. New South Wales, p. 295, pi. at p. 
254, lower figure. 

Plate XL., fig. 1, natural size ; 2, magnified. 

Mr. White's figures of fish are in general rudely drawn, 
and in this one there is a want of detail for the proper dis- 
crimination of tlie species. We are, however, induced to 
consider a Monacanthus obtained by Sir James Ross at 
Sydney as the same with White's, because the ground co- 
lour, the grains by which the body appears to be studded, 
the profile and the place of capture are the same. 

All that White says of his fish is included in the follow- 
ing sentences. " Batistes pinna dorsali anteriore bira- 
diatd, corpore granoso. Valde affinis B. papilloso Linnaii. 
Corpus albido-cinerascens, papillis parvulis aspersum. 
Thorax relut in sacculum productns." 

Schneider refers White's fish to the BaUstes papillosus 



64 



of Linnaeus ; and Cuvier in the ' Regne Animal ' has inadver- 
tently retained the specific name oi papillosus for the Port 
Jackson fish, though he separates it from the species de- 
scribed by Linna3us, which he considers to be the same with 
the B. monoceros of Lacepede, i. pp. 336, 386, pi. 17, 
fig. 3. In this, the rays are as follows : D. 1| — 48 ; A. 51 ; 
C. 12; P. 15. 

Sir James Ross's specimen of granulatus has suffered 
considerable injury from maceration in deteriorated spirit, 
and perhaps some of the dark patches represented in the 
figure arise from this, and may not exist in the recent 
fish. The profile rises to the dorsal spine at an angle of 
30°, with a slight concavity behind the lips, giving a 
somewhat beaked appearance to the fish. The space be- 
tween the dorsals has a horizontal or slightly concave pro- 
file, and the slopes on which the second dorsal and anal 
are imposed are slightly convex and similar to each other. 
When the pelvic bone is extended forward to the utmost, 
the dewlap has a conical bag-like form, and the height of 
the body, from its apex to the dorsal line, is but little less 
than half the total length, while the height at the anus is 
just equal to a third of that length, caudal included. The 
dorsal spine stands over the posterior third of the eye and 
the gill-opening, and its length is equal nearly to half the 
extreme height of the body and dewlap. It is roundish 
in front, finely granulated, and armed by two rows of 
.short depressed teeth. Behind, it is armed by two rows of 
stronger acute recurved spinous teeth, with the interval be- 
tween the rows flat and furrowed. The trigger ray in its 
axilla is short and bluntish. The second dorsal commences 
rather before the anus. The point of the pelvic bone is a 
small knob, studded with twelve or fourteen spinous points 
diverging in all directions There are no rays in the 
dewlap behind it. 

The whole skin is studded with spines, enveloped in soft 
integument, and looking to the naked eye like tubercles or 
papillae, which are fully better represented in White's figure 
than in ours. With a common lens, however, and even when 
examined with a good light by the naked eye, each little 
tubercle is seen to contain a spine shaped as represented 
in fig. 2, the angular shoulder being as sharp as a lancet. 
On the edge of the dewlap the spines are subulate, and not 
larger than the others, but they might be mistaken as shown 
in our figure for points of rays. The skin between the 
spines has a bluish gray colour after maceration in spirits. 
The dark markings existing in the specimen may be best 
learnt by consulting the figure. There is a faint appear- 
ance of bars on the caudal. Length, 74 inches. 
Hab. Port Jackson. 

Among Dep. Assistant Commissary General Neill's draw- 
ings of King George's Sound fish, No. 51, having the native 
name of " Tabaduck," much resembles M. granulatvs in 
profile, and also in the stellate point of the pelvic bone, 
nor does it differ much in the numbers of the rays, which 
are reckoned by Mr. Neill as follows: D. I|— 28 ; A. 26 ; C. 
12 ; P. 12. It is tinted of a mountain-green colour, with the 
top of the head darker, and the caudal almost blackish 
green, especially near its extremity, but no spots are indi- 
cated nor is the roughness of the integument shown, yet I 
am inclined to attribute the absence of these, merely 
to want of finish in the drawing, and to consider the 



Tabaduck of King George's Sound as the same species with 
Mo)iacanthus grctnulatus of Sidney Cove. 

The Bag Balistes of Latham may be intended for this 
species, but it is too rudely drawn for identification. 
It differs, also, in two short rays following the dorsal spine. 

MoN.\CANTHrs CHiNENSis. Osbeck, [Balistes). 

Radii:— D. 1|— 32; A. 30; C. 12; P. 1-3. 

Balistes chlnensis, Osbeck, Voy. i. p. 177, Eng. tr. ; Bl. 152. fig. 1 ; 
Schu. p. 4(58 ; Mon. megalurus, Richardson, Icon. Pise. p. 5, pi. 1, fig.3 ; 
Icon. Reeves, 89 ; Hardw. Cartil. 31, et ab India, 28? Richardson, Ichth. 
of China, Report to B. Ass. in 1845, p. 201. Chinese name, Hih pe yang, 
" Black-skinned goat," (Birch) ; " Black-skinned sheep," (Reeves) ; Hah 
pe yeang, (Bridgem. Chrestomathy, 50). 

Plate XL., fig. 3, natural size ; 4 magnified. 

A characteristic figure of this species is given by Bloch, 
and it is well described by Schneider, but we have 
thought it desirable to figure Sir James Ross's specimen, 
that naturalists may be enabled to judge of the identity of 
the Australian and Chinese fish, and also to have an oppor- 
tunity of correcting an error, that I fell into, in describing 
Lieutenant Emery's drawings of Australian fish, when I 
named this Monacanthus as a new species. The proportions 
are not exactly kept in the drawing, and the caudal fin is 
much exaggerated in size, but the general profile leaves 
little doubt of Lieutenant Emery's having had a specimen 
of M. chhiensis before him. The profile of the face in 
chinemis is concave, giving a more beaked form to 
the muzzle than in gra)ntlafus, and the dorsal line inclines 
upwards to the commencement of the second dorsal, which 
is the highest point of the back, from whence it descends 
in a slope to the tail. The ascending slope to which the 
anal is attached has a corresponding form and inclination. 
The dewlap is thin, with a membranous edge, which is 
supported by fine rays, mostly simple, but occasionally 
forked. The tips of many of these rays project beyond 
the margin of the membrane, which has a rounded outline. 
At the extremity of the pelvic bone there is a cylindrical 
process, ribbed and granulated on the surface, and armed 
at each end by about four small, acute spines. The mem- 
brane of the dewlap descends beyond this process. The 
height from the first dorsal to the lowest part of the dew- 
lap is contained once and a half in the total length of the 
fish. The dorsal spine stands over the posterior half of the 
orbit, and is ribbed and granulated or hispid in front, and 
armed on each side behind, by a row of strong spines. The 
small trigger ray does not rise above the margin of the ax- 
illary pit of the spine. This pit is small, and becoming 
obsolete in the dried specimen, or being filled by mem- 
brane in the wet one, its existence is denied by Schneider. 
The lower end of the gill-opening is even with the upper 
edge of the base of the pectoral. The skin is thickly stud- 
ded by acute spines, which curve backwards and spring 
from a swelling base. The curved and flexuose lateral 
line is marked by a series of geminate spines, as noticed by 
Schneider. There are six and sometimes more larger 
spines disposed in two rows on each side of the tail, which 
is also studded with small ones. 



65 



Mv. Emery's drawing is colourcd chestnut-brou'ii, with 
darker blotches of umber and minute specks of orange- 
brown. The dewlap is surrounded by three rows of flax- 
flower blue dots, behind which are three rows of brown 
spots. The dorsal and anal have two orange-coloured 
stripes near their edges, two rows of pale dots beneath them, 
and three rows of brown spots towards the bases of the 
fins. On the caudal there are three blue stripes across the 
end of the fin, and four or five brown spotted bands be- 
tween them and the base. In Mr. Reeves's figure of the 
Chinese fish, the colours and aiTangement of the spots are 
similar, though not quite the same, and there is a differ- 
ence in the rings of colour on the caudal. The extreme 
edge of this fin is yellow, then follow two brownish-black 
bands, next two orange-brown ones, then two black ones, 
succeeded again by two brown ones, and lastly two black 
ones which are on the base of the fin. The spots on the 
dorsal and anal are only partially shown. 

Hab. Australian seas. Port Jackson, Houtman's Abrol- 
hos, Chinese Sea, Canton, Indian Ocean. 

MoNACANTHUS EUDis. Richardson. 



R.\Dii :— D. 



-35; A. 34; C. 12; P. 14. 



M. rudis, Richardson, Zool. Tr. iii. p. 166, An. 1841. Zool. Proceed. 
March 10th, 1840. 

Plate XL., fig. 7, half the natural size ; 6, magnified. 

In describing this Monacanthus in the Zoological Tran- 
sactions, I remarked its agreement in general aspect with 
G. Forster's figure of Balistes scaber, preserved in the 
Banksian Library, but I was deten-ed from referring it to 
that species, because the figure showed some spinous ser- 
ratures behind the pelvic bone on the edge of the abdomen, 
which do not exist in the specimen of rudis, but now that 
1 have had an opportunity of examining a greater number 
of Australian Monacanthi, I feel more inclined than before 
to consider rudis and scaber as one species. Forster's de- 
scription is unfortunately mostly confined to generic cha- 
racters, and gives little assistance in clearing up the mat- 
ter. The only points of discrepancy that I can detect, are 
his stating scaber to be " beaked," which rudis can scarcely 
be said to be, and his describing the branchial opening as 
very small and situated above the pectoral fin, whereas in 
rudis the inferior end of the aperture descends lower in 
front of the base of the fin than in most of the Australian 
Monacauthi which we have seen. It ought to be stated in 
regard to this, that in figures 1 and 3 of Plate 40, the ar- 
tist has brought the gill-opeuings further down than they 
actually are in the specimens. The diff"erences I have in- 
dicated are too slight to form grounds for the establish- 
ment of a second species, but the evil of a superfluous 
name having been already peqjetrated, I have allowed it 
to remain attached to a figure of the Van Diemen's Land 
Monacautlius until specimens from Queen Charlotte's 
Sound, New Zealand, of Forster's fish, shall place the 
necessity of merging rudis in the prior appellation of 
scaber beyond a doubt. 



In rudis, the profile of the face is straight or very slightly 
convex. It reaches its summit at the dorsal spine, from 
whence the back is horizontal to the second dorsal, and 
then descends obliquely to the tail. The height measured 
from the point of the pelvic bone is contained twice and a 
half in the total length, and the thickness is equal to one- 
third of the height. The dorsal spine stands over the pos- 
terior half of the eye and above the gill-opening. It is 
rounded, tapering, and acute, with a groove behind, on 
each edge of which there is a row of spinous teeth inclined 
downwards ; its sides are thickly studded with minute 
rounded tubercles, and on the front are two rows of larger, 
smooth tubercles resembling spines worn down. The trig- 
ger ray is very short and inconspicuous. The point of the 
pelvic bone is a small knob studded with obtuse grains ; the 
integuments of the belly behind it, are lax enough to allow of 
a little play, but there is no thin dewlap supported by rays 
as in 71/. chiiiensis. The rays of all the fins are rough at 
the base, but less so in the pectorals than in the others. 

The whole of the integument is studded with short ob- 
tuse bristles (fig. 8), which, when examined by a lens, ajipear 
to be ranged on the sides in short, oblique rows, five or six 
in a row or scale, with a few solitary ones between. In some 
places these groups are more easily made out, owing to the 
inter\ als being wider ; but round the eye, the gill-o])enings, 
and on the head generally, the bristles are shorter, more ob- 
tuse, and either solitary, or so closely set, that their distri- 
bution in separate groups or scales cannot be discerned. 
To the naked eye, the skin appears to be finely gra- 
nulated. 

The upper jaw is armed by ten broad chisel-shaped teeth, 
more or less acuminated, and the posterior one on each 
side having a thin rounded edge which overlaps the lower 
tooth opposed to it. On the under jaw the teeth have 
crescentic cutting edges, and are six in number. The cen- 
tral pair, both above and below, converge at their tips. 

Forster mentions that scaber has eight teeth in each jaw, 
and he enumerates the fin rays as follows, D.2| — 34 ; A. 34 ; 
C. 12; P. 12. (Forster's Descript. An. p. 152). 

We have no certain information respecting the colours 
of rudis, when recent. 

Length of the specimen, 10 inches ; height at the pelvis, 
4*4 inches ; vertebrae, 18. 

Hab. Port Arthur, Van Diemen's Land. 

Solander describes a New Zealand Monacanthus as fol- 
lows. " Balistes scabrosus, cinereus pintut dorsali pos- 
teriori, pectoralibus et aiiali luteis immaculatis ; piund 
caudali cinered in medio e virescente Jiavescenti. Pinna 
dorsalis antica 2-radiaia, cinerea : radio postico minuto. 
Apertura branchiarum, pallide violacea. Labium supe- 
rius griseo-pluinbeum. Dentium maxillarum apices fus- 
ca. Habitat in oceano Australia prope Motuaro {Norm 
Zelandi(c)r Solander MSS. p. 36. It is noted as the 
same with Batistes unicornu totus e cinereo plumbeus, sub- 
tits palUdior sub-Jlavicans. Habitat in oceano prope Cap 
Kidnappers." Solander, MSS., p. 9. These colours agree 
with those of Forster's B. scaber as far as he has described 
them. There are no particulars of form recorded, by 
which we can identify Solander's fish with M. rudis. 



66 



MoNACANTHUs viTTATUs. Solauder, {Balistes). 



Aleuterius paragaudatus. Richardson. 



Radii : — D. Qj— 32 ; A. 31 ; C. 12 ; P. 13 ; V. 1 1. 

(Solander). 

Ch. Spec. M. cute temiisshne scabrd, capite longo obtitso, 
octilis supra pinnas pectoris ; spina dorsi transversim 
ancipiti, lateribus retrorsum aculeatis ; pinnis dorsi 
unique antice acuminatis ; corpore quadrivittato, vittis 
alhescentibus. 



Radii :— B. 6 ; D. 2|— 30 ad 34 ; A. 28 ad 32 ; C. 12 ; 
P. 10 ad 12. 

Aleuterius paragaudatus, Kichardson, Zool. Proceed. March lOth, 
1840. Zool. Trans, iii. p. 172. 

Plate XXXIX., fig. 1, natural size ; 2 — 4, magnified. 



Balistes vittatus, Solander, Pisces Novae Hollandije, MSS., p. 1 ; 
Icon. 48, Fish of King George's Sound, drawn by Dept. Assist. Coram. 
Gen. Neill, in Mus. Brit. 

Various Australian BalisfidcB were named by Solander, 
Forster, and others, but owing to the descriptions they 
have left being confined to colour or to the generic 
characters, the determination of the species they allude to 
is difficult. The figures we have given in the present fasci- 
culus will facilitate this task to future ichthyologists, and 
as a further assistance, we subjoin Solander's account of a 
well-marked species, which is sketched in Mr. Neill's 
book. 

" Corpus ovato-lanceolatum, compressum, cute tenuis- 
sime retrorsum scabra tectum. Totus piscis pallide cine- 
reus, vittis quatuor albescentibus : dtice inJimcB obsoletcB. 
Caput longius quam in plurimis, obtusum, latere et in- 
ferne sordide lutescens. Anus valde magnus. Oculi su- 
pra pinnas pectorales. Iris alba. Pupilla nigra. Carina 
abdominis ad unum ducta, radio unico scabriusculo termi- 
nata. Pinna dorsalis prima e radio unico magno trans- 
versim ancipiti, lateribus retrorsum aculeatis, sesquiun- 
ciali [in pisce 18 unciarum) luteo et altero minuto albido, 
vi.v nisi oculis attentioribus perceptibili. Pinna dorsalis 
posterior lutea, pone medium, antice alitor. PinncB pec- 
torales lutecB, parv(B oblique ovatcB, sursum seu angulo su- 
periori parum acuminata. Pinna ventrales e carina 
descriptd abdomine vix coloratior. Pinna analis lutea, 
similis pinna dorsali secundd. Pinna caudalis a basi ex- 
tra medium cinerea, apice lutescens, truncata, radii 
extimi cmteris pauld longiores. Os parvum. Denies va- 
lidi acuti." 

" Villa prima prope dorsum ; secunda ab oculis ad 
initium caudce paulb supra medium ; tertia a pitinis pec- 
toralibus infra medium ad Jinem cauda ducta; quarta 
obsoleta in abdomine.^'' (Solander, 1. c). 

Mr. Neill's drawing exhibits the profile of the fish as a 
pretty regular ellipse, of which the vertical diameter is con- 
tained thrice and a half in the total length. The anterior 
apex is foi-med by the lower jaw and is acute, and the 
length of the head to the pectoral, equals the greatest height 
of the body. The dorsal spine is shorter than one-third of 
the height. The third white band is the broadest and 
brightest, and the fourth, agreeable to the description, is lost 
in the pale tint of the belly. 

Hab. King George's Sound, rare. (Neill). In sinu—} 
Novce Hollandite, Aprilis iSl/i, 1770, (Solander). 



This gaily ornamented Aleuterius is common in the har- 
bours of Van Diemen's Land and the southern coasts of 
New South Wales up to Port Jackson. Its form is 
elliptic-oblong, the greatest height of the body being con- 
tained thrice and one-third in the total length ; and 
the thickness being a fourth of the height. The mouth 
turns obliquely upwards, as is usual in the genus, the chin 
being more prominent than the upper jaw. The cutting 
edges of the teeth are even, not lunated. The dorsal spine 
stands over the hinder third of the orbit and the gill-open- 
ing ; and when depressed, is received completely into the 
furrow behind it, which reaches only half way to the 
second dorsal. It is four-sided, tapering, and acute, and 
is armed by acute teeth on each angle. Figure 2 is an en- 
larged front view of the spine ; 3 a posterior view ; and 4 
a lateral one. The whole body is densely covered with 
very short, acute bristles, springing from globular bases. 
They are invisible to the naked eye, and feel rough only 
when the finger is drawn forwards. The original tints of 
colour have been effaced by long maceration of the speci- 
mens in spirits, but the following markings remain. The 
general hue is olive-brown, becoming silvery towards the 
belly. A black streak runs from the eye along the side of 
the nose and encircles the mouth. A pale stripe com- 
mences further back on the lower jaw, and ascending to 
the lower third of the orbit, is continued from behind the 
eye to the middle of the flank where it terminates. It has 
a bluish silvery hue in spirits, and is edged above and be- 
low with black. A similar stripe rises close to the pre- 
ceding one on the chin, and running backwards under the 
edge of the pectoral ends in a row of spots. Above it, is a 
broader stripe, retaining a yellowish tinge which may be 
traced over the pectoral and some way along the flank. 
These stripes vary slightly in their course in different spe- 
cimens. Roimd greyish-blue, or pearly spots ornament all 
the body below the inferior stripe, also the tail as far for- 
ward as the middle of the dorsal and the side of the back 
to the front of that fin. These spots are elongated into 
short bars along the pelvic bone. In some specimens 
there are a few spots in the space, which is destitute 
of them in the specimen which is figured. A dark bar 
crosses the caudal near its end, and there are some dark 
blotches on the back under the second dorsal. These spe- 
cimens vary in length from 5 to 6 inches. Vertebrae 20. 
Hab. Port Arthur, Van Diemen's Land. Port Jackson, 
Australia. 



67 



Aleuterius maculosus. Richardson. 

Radii :— D. 2|— 30 ad 34 ; A. 29 ad 32 ; C. 12 ; 
P. 10 ad 12. 

Aleuterius maculosus, Richardson, Zool. Proceed., March lOth, 1840. 
Zool. Trans, iii. p. 170. 

Plate XXIX., fig. 5, natural size ; G, 7, magnified. 

This Aleuterius has a higher body than paragaudatus, 
and its face is slightly concave in profile, not flatly arched. 
The greatest height is nearly a third of the total length. 
The dorsal spine is similarly placed to that of paragmida- 
tus, but is proportionally taller, and is somewhat curved at 
its base. It has, in like manner, four angles which are 
armed by rougher stronger teeth. Figure 6 is a lateral 
view of the spine, and 7 a front view, which does not differ 
fi'om the posterior one. The dermal bristles resemble those 
of paragaudatus, and when examined through a lens, the 
integument between them is seen to be finely spotted. 

The ground colour of the specimens in spirits is olive- 
brown, densely spotted, and clouded by darker tints. The 
under parts are more silvery, and the caudal fin is crossed 
by a bar near its end. Length, 4 or 5 inches. 

Hab. Harbours of Van Diemen's Land and New South 



Dep. Assist. Commissary General Neill has drawn a 
King George's Sound Aleuterius, which we are inclined to 
consider as the same with maculosus, though, as occurs in 
some others of his sketches, the peculiar mottling of 
the body is omitted. It is number 15 of his collection, and 
is named " Candiey " by the Aborigines, some of them call- 
ing it also " Tabaduck," which seems to be a generic appel- 
lation. He says that it inhabits deep water, where the bot- 
tom is rocky, and is good to eat. 

Aleuterius variabilis. Richardson. 

Radii :— D. 2|— 35 ; A. 33 ; P. 13 ; V. ; C. 12, rounded. 
(Spec. Br. Mus.) 

/(■on. 31, Neill's drawings of King George's Sound Fishes in Brit. 
Mus. (unpublished). Native name, Tabaduck. 



Plate LIII., figs. 1, 2 and 5, natural size : 
magnified. 



3,7, 



Mr. Neill informs us that this fish is very common in 
deep water on the rocky coasts of King George's Sound, 
and is much esteemed by the Aborigines as an article of 
food. Like the Aleuteres, it is infested by Isopoda, and 
Mr. Neill states that the fish, which are suffering from the 
attacks of that crustacean, are bright yellow on the lower 
parts, while the others are of a beautiful purple colour. The 
specimen figured by Mr. Neill has the yellow colour, and a 
large Isopode has burrowed in the side of the belly near 
the vent. 

The top of the back, the dorsal, and anal fins are moun- 
tain-green, the sides and belly are bright gamboge-yellow. 
There are eight or nine flax-flower streaks on the lower lip 



and chin, one of them encircling the muzzle behind the 
lips ; also five or six of the same tint on each side of tlie 
pelvic bone, the three lowest of which unite on the mesial 
line with the corresponding streaks of the o]jposite side. 
A blue stripe runs beneatli the base of Uie second dorsal, 
and another extends from the anus to the caudal, running 
near the anal. The bases of the dorsal and anal are also 
marked by a row of blue spots. The rays of the caudal are 
yellowisli, and the membrane between them is striped 
with blue. The fin is crossed by two black bars, one 
on the base of the rays, and the other which is broader near 
their extremities. 

The specimen is nine inclies long, including the caudal 
fin, and its height at the point of the pelvis exceeds a third 
of the length. Its profile is an irregular ellipse, obtuse 
before and more tapering behind, with the ventral curve 
more prominent than the dorsal one. The mouth is tunied 
a little upwards, and the lips project somewhat, but the 
snout has not a beaked form. The facial line rises with a 
slight convexity at an angle of 40° to the dorsal spine, whicli 
stands over the posterior half of the orbit : from thence to 
the second dorsal, the outline of the back is horizontal. 
The eye, placed high on the cheek, is three diameters and 
a half of the orbit distant from the edge of the upper lip ; 
and the oblique gill-opening commencing a diameter of tlie 
orbit lower down, and exactly beneath its hinder edge de- 
scends to opposite the middle of the pectoral, its lengtli 
being equal to a diameter and a half of the orbit. The 
skin is studded every where with short, recurved subulate 
bristles, and when examined through a lens, it appears to be 
divided into narrow rhomboidal compartments or scales, 
each of them armed b}', from one to four bristles united to 
one another at the base (fig. 4). On looking at the inte- 
rior surface of the skin, the scales have the ordinary tiled 
appearance represented in figure 5. The point of the pelvic 
bone is a small, convex knob scarcely rising above the 
level of the surrounding skin, granulated on the disk ; and 
armed by a circle of incumbent spines, (fig. 7, magnified). 
The side of the tail is armed by four short, lanceolate 
spines, disposed in two rows, and round their bases the fine 
bristles of the integument are a little longer and more slen- 
der than elsewhere. The dorsal spine is equal in height to 
the space between its base and the upper angle of the gill- 
opening. It is convex and granulated in front with two 
rows of blunt incumbent teeth, which become pungent at 
the tip only of the ray. Posteriorly the dorsal spine is flat, 
and furrowed with a row of strong, acute, reverted sjjinous 
teeth on each edge. The trigger ray is minute. The in- 
terval between the first and second dorsal fins is greater 
than the length of the dorsal spine. The rays of the dor- 
sal, anal, and pectorals are compressed in one direction at 
the base, and in another towards their tips. They are rough 
on the lower third of their height, but not quite down to 
their bases, which are smootli. The caudal rays are rough 
to near their tips. The markings of the dried specimen are 
shown in the figure and are black, though many of the cor- 
responding lines in Mr. Neill's drawing are light blue. The 
dark colour is more intense in the spines than in the sub- 
jacent skin of the part. 

Hab. King George's Sound. 



68 



Aleuterius? brownii. Richardson. 



Aleuterius trossulus. Richardson. 



Radii:— D. 2]— 33; A.30; C. 11 ; P. 11. 
(Bauer's drawing). 

Daring Captain Flinder's voyage of discovery round 
Australia, Mr. Ferdinand Bauer made highly finished co- 
loured drawings of fish which are now in the possession of 
Dr. Robert Brown, and which this gentleman has kindly 
permitted me repeatedly to examine. One of thera repre- 
sents a very handsome species, having entirely the aspect of 
a Monncanthus, except that there is no indication of the 
protrusion of the point of the pelvic bone through the in- 
tegument. In Monacanthus variabilis described above, 
the rough point of the pelvic bone might, by a less correct 
observer than Mr. Bauer, have been overlooked, as being 
merely a part of the common scabrous surface, it is 
conceivable that this point may be even less perceptible in 
other species, and some doubt must therefore exist, until 
the fish be again discovered, as to whether it ought to be 
considered as a Monacanthus, having a minute tip to the 
pelvic bone, or an Aleuterius, with the coarse coat and ex- 
ternal aspect of a Monacanthus. The specific name is in- 
tended as a small tribute of respect to the distinguished 
naturalist, who laid the foundation of his fame by his re- 
searches on the voyage on which this fish was discovered. 

The drawing is 12|- inches long, and represents an oval 
fish, blunt in front without any projecting snout, and 
the height contained rather more than thrice in the total 
lengtli, caudal included. The integuments are covered 
with lanceolate, apiculate spines or bristles, mixed with 
much more minute asperities represented in a magnified 
drawing of a portion of the skin. The sides of the tail are 
also armed by four long, curved, cylindrical spines, placed 
one pair over the other. The teeth, similar to those oi Mo- 
nacanthus, are more conical and acute than usual, with deep 
notches between the cusps. The dorsal spine is toothed 
behind and before ; the anterior teeth ranged in two rows, 
being shorter than those which arm the hinder edges of the 
spine. The gill opening is oblique, and is eight-tenths of 
an inch long. 

The ground tint of the fish is pistachio, or sap-green, 
and azure-blue dots are scattered over the whole body. 
The spots are replaced by blue lines on the top of the back 
anteriorly, round the mouth, between the pectorals, on the 
temples and under part of the cheek. The scaly fillets 
along the bases of the dorsal and anal are blue, and there 
is a blue line near to the anal, parallel to its base. Six 
short blue bars radiate from the eye, and the nasal region 
is spotted with blue. The side of the tail is a bright saf- 
fron-yellow, shading off towards its middle into a rich 
orange-brown. The four lateral spines of the tail are 
placed in this orange patch, each having a green circle 
round its base. The anal and dorsal fins and the rays of 
the caudal are sap-green. The iris is prussian-blue, 
encircled by yellow. 

Hab. Coasts of Austraha. 



Radii:— D. 1|— 28; A. 26; C. 12 ; P. 11. 
Plate XL., fig. 5, natural size ; 6, magnified. 

This fish has the aspect of a Monacanthus, but if the 
total concealment of the pelvic bone by the integuments 
without any vestige of a protruding point be held, with 
Cuvier, as the essential character of Aleuterius, it must be 
ranked in this genus. 

It differs from the known species of Aleuteres in the 
high and short form of the body. The highest part of the 
profile is at the commencement of the second dorsal, fi-om 
whence it descends to the mouth, with a curvature resem- 
bling the italic y reversed. The abdomen hangs down like 
a dewlap, but it is filled to the lowest point with the intes- 
tines, and has no thin membranous edge, being as thick 
before the anus as the back is. The height from the second 
dorsal to the point of the pelvic bone is equal to the length 
from the mouth to the tail. The dorsal spine stands over 
the middle of the orbit, and is roundish, with the tips 
scarcely pungent. Its height is not above one-fourth of 
the extreme height of the body, and it is densely covered 
with minute grains, which lengthen into very fine acicular 
bristles near the membrane. There is no vestige of a trig- 
ger ray to be detected externally. Both the dorsal spine 
and pelvic bone are flexible in our specimen. The gill- 
opening is exactly over the base of the pectoral. The skin 
is densely covered with slender, flexible, acute bristles, 
(fig. 6) which are so delicate as to give a velvety feel to the 
finger. The colour of the specimen, which has been long 
in spirits, is blackish-green, with some minute darker 
specks and dots of a pale colour scattered over the body, 
and most crowded on the face and flanks. Along the pel- 
vic bone, and near the belly the dots run into streaks. The 
rays of the caudal are also speckled with black, the other 
colours are effaced. Length of specimen, 2j inches. 

Hab. Sea-coasts of Western Australia. 



Aleuterius ? baceri. Richardson. 



Radii :— D. 1 1 



-26 vel 27 ; A. 21 ; C. 9 : 
(Bauer's drawing). 



P. 6 vel 7. 



This species is named in honour of Mr. Ferdinand 
Bauer, being founded on one of his admirable drawings in 
Dr. Brown's possession. The figure presents the careful 
execution and felicity of touch which characterize Mr. 
Bauer's pencil, and looking to his known scrupulous accu- 
racy in details, it may be considered as the representation 
of a generic form not yet described, in which the charac- 
ters of several groups of Plectognathi are combined. It 
exhibits the undivided dental plate of Diodon, the in- 
flated body and dermal spines of Tetrodon, and the fins 
of Aleuterius. We shall not venture upon the formation 
of a new generic name without having seen a specimen of 
the fish, and it is therefore placed provisionally in Aleute- 
rius, with which, on the whole, it best agrees. 



69 



Two magnified views of the jaws are sketched in out- 
line on a separate piece of paper, in which each jaw is re- 
presented as forming only one piece, as in Diodon, but the 
cutting edge instead of being even or only slightly crenated, 
is deeply notched, producing conical cusps resembling those 
of the Balistkl(e. Two rounded notches in the upper jaw 
form one mesial cusp, and an angular point on each side. 
On the lower jaw there are three conical cusps, slightly 
blunted. The body is inflated like that of one of the most 
distensible Tetrodoiites, and the snout is short and slen- 
der. The belly is rounded and prominent, without any 
indication of a pelvic keel or projecting point of the bone. 
The dorsal spine stands as is usual in Aleiderius over the 
orbit, and has the common triangular slip of membrane be- 
hind it. The second dorsal and anal fins are highest an- 
teriorly, but with rounded summits, and terminate so as to 
leave a rather slender trunk of the tail between them and 
the caudal, which is convex at the end. The branchial 
opening is a little above the base of tlie pectoral. An en- 
larged view is given of the spines, which cover the body 
thickly, in which they are represented as having semi-lan- 
ceolate bases with slender hair-like tips, and as being closely 
tiled on each other in a quincuncial manner. The length 
of the figure is 4 inches, and the height of the body 
2-| inches. 

The ground colour is emerald-green or bright grass- 
green, which is traversed longitudinally by seven inter- 
rupted dark brown stripes, two of which unite anteriorly ; 
nine short bars radiate from all sides of the orbit, and on 
the belly and flanks beneath the lowest lateral stripe there 
are many white specks. The rays of the caudal are grass- 
green, spotted in cross rows with umber-brown ; the pecto- 
rals have a neutral tint. The dorsal and anal are yellow, 
with three rows of black specks between the bases of the 
rays, and four rows of pale specks disposed in pairs be- 
tween the tips of the rays. 

Hab. Coast of Australia. 



ScARUS ACROPTILUS. Richardson. 
Radii:— D. 24; A. 13; C. 12. (Bauer's drawing). 

For the knowledge of this very handsome fish we are in- 
debted to the pencil of Mr. Bauer, not having seen any 
account of it in the ichthyological works we have con- 
sulted. It differs from other Scari, in the first three rays 
of the dorsal being higher than the rest, and the second 
ray taller than the other two. The rays of the dorsal and 
anal are also more numerous than in the other Scari, and 
they are all represented as tapering to a point, no distinction 
being shown between the spinous and articulated rays, the 
thickness of the membrane probably having prevented the 
difference from being evident. The last rays of both fins 
are divided to the base. The jaws have the usual form of 
Scariis, with a slight, in-egular crenature on the edge and 
without any spinous or tiled teeth. 

The body has a very regular elliptic form, its height be- 
ing contained thrice and one-third in the length, caudal 



included. The upper and under profile of the head are alike 
and enter regularly into the curves of the ellipse, the head 
being moderately blunt. The ground colour of the body 
is green, with two rows of oblong purplish black blotches 
forming interrupted bars on the sides. The cheek is lilac, 
and a stripe of the same hue, with yellow and blue edges, 
passes over the gill-cover. Three azure stripes cross 
the temples. The under jaw is yellow, with a broad black 
mark which extends under the green pectoral. The dor- 
sal is orange-yellow, traversed by a lake-red stripe with 
carmine edges, the extreme edge of the fin being green ; 
an oval bluish black spot reaches from the third to 
the sixth ray. The ventrals are yellow, with green rays, 
and have each a large violaceous mark with blue edges in 
the centre. The anal is green at the base, then yellow tra- 
versed by a red stripe and marked by oblique lake bars 
near the edge, which is yellow. The caudal, which is even 
or slightly convex at the end, has a lake-coloured mem- 
brane marked with red bars or spots and green rays. The 
eye is green, with a black pupil and yellow iris. 
Hab. Coasts of Australia. 



Crenidens tephe^ops. Richardson. 

Radii:— B.6; D.14|13; A. 3|11; C.15f ; P. 17; V.l|5. 

Kowelany, Aboriginal appellation at King George's Sound. Icon. 
Drawings of Fish of King George's Sound, by D. Assist. Comm. Gen. 
Neill, in Br. Mas. No. 10. Drawing lOj inches long. 

Plate XLI., fig. 1, half natural size ; 2, magnified. 

One member of this genus [Cr. triglyphus), has been al- 
ready described at page 36, and represented on plate 35, 
fig. 2. The species now under consideration, has less of 
the physiognomy of Cr.forskalii, and more resembles the 
Melauichthys of the ' Fauna Japonica' (tab. 39),* which does 
not appear to me to be a distinct generic form from Creiii- 
dens. Cr. tephra-ops is stated by Mr. Neill to be an inha- 
bitant of rocky places in King George's Sound, where it is 
occasionally taken by the hook. Our figure and the follow- 
ing description are executed from a dried specimen, which 
is 11 inches long. 

Form elliptical, with the profile of the face arched and 
gibbous before the nostrils. The head foi-ms one quarter 
of the length, excluding the caudal, and is equal to three 
diameters and a quarter of the round bony orbit. The eye, 
placed near the profile, is equi-distant from the upper lip 
and tip of the gill-cover. The nostrils are pierced imme- 
diately before the anterior angle of the orbit. The cleft of 
the mouth, which is moderately wide transversely and 
arched, does not reach so far back as the nostrils. When 
viewed in front, the upper jaw has somewhat of a horse- 
shoe fonn, which is imparted to it by a foi-ward curvature 
of the limbs of tlie intermaxillaries. These bones are to- 
lerably stout and convex at the symphysis, and their tips 
move on the outside of the post-mandibulars, completely 

* Crenidens melanichlhys, Richardson on the Ichlh. of the Seas of 
China and Japan, Report of Brit. Assoc, for 1845, p. 243. 

N 



70 



excluding the raaxillavies from any share in the composi- 
tion of the mouth. Their pedicles are about half as long 
as the limbs, but give sufficient protractility to the jaw to 
produce a deep, narrow furrow betwixt it and the preorbi- 
tar. In the bottom of this iiirrow is the maxillary, which 
glides in part under the edge of the preorbitar and cheek, 
and is completely shut in and concealed when the jaw is 
retracted. The intermaxillaries, up to their extreme tips, 
and the lower jaw, are armed on their edges by a single se- 
ries of vertical, incurved, chisel-shaped teeth, with rounded 
tricuspid points, the side cusps being smaller, and consider- 
ably shorter than the middle one. Twenty-one or twenty- 
two of these teeth belong to each intermaxillary, and a 
smaller number to the opposing limbs of the lower jaw. 
The side cusps of the teeth implanted in the extremities of 
the intermaxillaries are obsolete. Separated from the 
outer row by a narrow furrow or interval, is a dense brush- 
like band on each jaw, composed of teeth of similar form, 
but much finer and shorter. The vomer and palate bone 
are toothless. Cr. forskalii has five cusps to the teeth, 
and in triglyphus and melanichthys, which have tricuspid 
teeth, the cusps are equal. 

In tephraops the length of the preorbitar is equal to the 
diameter of the bony orbit, its height is one-third less, and 
its surface is scaleless ; as are also the circumference of the 
orbit and the top of the head back to the posterior third of 
the orbits. In the dried specimen the skin of these parts 
and of the lips and lower jaw is crowded with minute pits. 
The cheek is entirely covered with scales, which spread 
over the temples and upper quarter of the gill-cover ; the 
remaining part of the gill-cover, the interoperculum, and 
disk of the preoperculum are covered with smooth skin. 
Nearly the same distribution of scales on the head occurs 
in Cr. triglyphus, but in the hgure of melaiiicht/iys in plate 
39 of the ' Fauna Japonica,' the upper limb of the preoper- 
culum and the whole operculum are represented as scaly. 
In tephrwops the disk of the preoperculum is wide and 
rounded at the angle, and becomes gradually narrow as it 
ascends the upper limb. It is crenated on the edge, and in 
the dried specimen presents an uneven surface. The inter- 
operculum and suboperculum are entire and even, and the 
operculum is cut by a shallow lunate notch, having a round- 
ed upper corner and more acute inferior one. A smooth 
membrane fills up the notch and forms a narrow edging to 
the bone. 

The scales are small and oblong, with parallel sides, 
truncated bases, and rounded ciliated extremities. An ob- 
long central portion of the disk is smooth, the lines of 
structure are parallel to the sides, about thirteen furrows 
impress the base, and a small part of the tip adjoining the 
marginal teeth is rough. The number of scales in a row 
between the gill-opening and caudal fin is about 116, but 
their exact number could not be determined owing to the 
specimen having been varnished. Minute, closely ap- 
pressed scales cover the membranes of the vertical fins al- 
most to their extreme edges, a triangular slip behind the 
tip of each of the dorsal spines being the only smooth part. 
The spinous dorsal of triglyphua has merely a small fillet 
of scales before the spines on alternate sides of the mem- 
brane. In melnniclithys the scales generally are much 
larger. 



The dorsal of tephraops commences over the axilla of 
the pectorals, opposite to the ventrals, and occupies most 
of the back. Its anterior spines are graduated, the first be- 
ing half as high as the seventh ; the remaining seven are 
equal in height to each other and to the soft part of the fin, 
which is rounded posteriorly. The anal differs from that 
of melanichthys, in being somewhat pointed and highest 
in its anterior third, while the posterior part is rounded like 
the end of the dorsal. Its spines are slender, and the third 
one is considerably taller than the second, being equal to 
half the length of the longest soft ray. The second anal 
spine of Cr. triglyphus is rather taller than the third one. 
The caudal of tephraiops is lunate at the end with acute 
tips. 

Mr. Neill's drawing is black, deeper on the back and 
fins, and more dilute towards the belly. A very dark speck 
is placed behind the tip of the last dorsal spine. The eye 
is stated to be gray, and it is on this account that we have 
given the species the name of tephrcBops, as the others 
have for the most part green or blue eyes. 

Hab. King George's Sound, Australia. 

Crenidens zebra is another species named by the Abori- 
gines Kgnmmul or Karraway, "The Striped," and by the 
sealers the " Zebra-fish." It differs from tephrwops, in hav- 
ing nine blackish brown bars descending from the back, 
and tapering off to a point on the whitish bell}'. The fore- 
most stripe descends behind the pectorals, and the last one 
crossses the trunk of the tail. The anal is not peaked an- 
teriorly, and the three spines of that fin are nearly equal in 
length to the soft rays. A single scale attached to Mr. 
Neill's drawing of this fish (number 8), is even smaller than 
the scales in general of tephrceops, and has a narrower 
rounded base, but is otherwise similar. The drawing is 
nearly a foot long. Mr. Neill reckons the rays as follow : 
D. 11|15; A. 3|11; V. Ijo. He also states that the fish 
has a bluish gray eye, that it inhabits rocky places, is a 
gross feeder, and bad eating. It takes a baited hook. 



Sebastes pandus. Richardson. 

Radii :— B. 6 ; D. 12|— IjS ; A. 3|5 ; C. 13^ ; P. 16 et 
IV; V. Ii5. 

Scorpxna panda, Richardson, Annals and Mag. of Nat. Hist. ix. p. 
216. An. 1842. Tylyuck or Teluck, " Big-head," Native Australian 
names. Icon. Drawings of the Fish of King George's Sound, by De- 
puty Asst. Comin. Gen. Neill, No. 53, Br. Mus. Length of drawing, 13 
inches. Length of specimen 13 inches. 

Plate XLI., figs. 3, 4, natural size. 

This species was first described in the Annals of Natural 
History, quoted above, from a drawing of the recent fish 
made at Houtman's Abrolhos, by Lieut. Emery of the Royal 
Navy. The transverse depression of the skull behind the 
orbits is somewhat exaggerated in his figure, but it is, 
nevertheless, deep enough to make the appellation oi pan- 
das appropriate. In this character it resembles the Scor- 
paina nova: guinea;, but it differs from that fish in the ab- 
sence of cutaneous filaments on the head and body, 



71 



the form of the spines of the head, the height of the dorsal 
spines, and in other characters. The existence of scales on 
almost all parts of the head is introduced into the ' Histoire 
des Poissons,' as one of the marks by which Seha-ttes may 
be distinguished from Scorpmna, but the figure of .S'. nooa 
guinece, published in the ' Zoology of the Voyage of L' As- 
trolabe,' represents it as scaly round the eye, on the tem- 
ples, gill-cover, the whole cheek, and the maxillary : the 
snout, lower jaw, and gill-membrane, being in fact the only 
naked parts. It would, therefore, appear that the presence 
of cutaneous filaments in Scorpwiia is the only character 
by which it is separated fi-om Sehastes. 

Our figure and the following description of S. pandus 
are dependant upon a single dried specimen which was 
prepared at King George's Sound, and corresponds closely 
with Mr. Neill's drawing which we have quoted. The 
length of the head is contained three times and nearly a 
half in the total length, caudal included. The back is 
moderately arched, and the tail is more slender than 
is usual in the genus. The edge of the orbit rises boldly 
above the profile, producing a deep, acute furrow on the 
summit of the cranium, (fig. 4). The usual intraorbital 
ridges are quite obsolete, and the orbital plates are scaly. 
One small tooth exists on the anterior quarter of the edge 
of the orbit, and four on the posterior quarter. They are 
much less prominent and acute than the corresponding 
teeth of S. novce guinea;. The diameter of the orbit is equal 
to one-third of the length of the head. A deep, rounded, 
transverse furrow separates the orbits from the supra-scapu- 
lar region. The bony projections on the head generally, 
are short thin crests ending in a posterior corner, more or 
less acute, not in rounded spinous points. Such is 
the character of the short nasal points. The preorbitar has 
four acute teeth on its under edge, the first being higher up 
than the other three ; its upper edge is thin, elevated and 
undulating. The suborbitar ridge which crosses the cheek 
close to the orbit has four thin crest-like prominences ; this 
ridge abuts against the preoperculum high on the upper 
limb, and not as usual against the curve of the bone oppo- 
site to the principal spine. The disk of the preoperculum 
is granulated by little bony eminences, and there is a flat 
triangular projection at its angle, which is crested by two 
small spines, one incumbent on the other. Three acute 
spinous points exist on the lower limb of the bone, being 
fewer than usual. A thin ridge armed by two acute points 
crosses the middle of the operculum, and a flat spine ter- 
minates the upper curve of the bone, and overlies the base 
of the scaly tip of the gill-cover. The temporal groove is 
marked by two bony points at its anterior end, standing 
crossvvays, with their flat surfaces turned towards the orbit, 
and a short indented crest lying longitudinally a little far- 
ther back. The supra-scapular and scapular have each a 
thin crest similar to the temporal one. The maxillaries, 
preorbitars, snout, orbital plates, cheeks, preoperculum, in- 
teroperculuin, and whole gill-covei-, with the temples and 
nape are scaly. No vestiges of filaments can be detected 
on the head or body, nor are any represented in Mr. Neill's 
or Lieutenant Emery's drawings. The scales are ciliato- 
dentate, and rough to the touch. About fifty-eight exist in 
a row between the scapular bone and caudal fin. The 



lateral line is arched and acutely keeled, but not spinous at 
its commencement. It approaches close to the base of the 
fourth dorsal spine, but descends again opposite the tentli 
to the upper quarter of the height, and in the tail to a little 
above the middle. The keel is confined to the anterior 
arched part. The dorsal spines are tall, the third one be- 
ing nearly equal in height to the body. The anterior ones 
have a considerable curvature. The spinous part of the 
fin is joined to the base of the spine of the soft part 
by membrane. The second anal spine is strong and fully a 
third longer than the following one, which is but a Utile taller 
than the first. The pectoral fin is large, its tip when laid 
back reaching to the middle of the anal. The pectoral of 
Sc. novce guinece falls short of the anus. The rays of the 
pectoral are more divided than usual, and even the inferior 
ones are spHt at the point. Judging solely fiom the dried 
specimen, it does not appear that more than four could 
have shown the thick, simple tips in the recent state which 
are common to the inferior pectoral rays of the Scorptc/tcv 
and Sebnstes. There is httle or no emargination of 
the membrane. The inferior rays of the gill-membrane are 
much concealed, so that only five are apparent. Fine vil- 
liform teeth arm the jaws and chevron of the vomer. 

The markings which remain on the dried specimen have 
been transferred to the figure. In Mr. Neill's drawing, the 
lips, maxillary, ventral spines, and some spots on the anal 
are orange, and the pectoral region has a yellow hue. The 
dark parts are coloured with neutral tint, and the pale band 
which crosses the caudal is omitted. In Lieutenant 
Emery's figure, the head and body have a vermilion color, 
with "a tapering, hyacinth-red band, descending from 
the spinous dorsal behind the pectoral, and a narrower one 
extending from the soft dorsal nearly to the anal. Round 
drops of dark orange-brown are spread regulariy over the 
body but do not extend to the belly. Smaller drops of the 
same hue are scattered on the sides of the head, lower jaw 
and gill-membrane, being intermixed in the latter localities 
with whitish spots. All the fins except the ventrals and 
spinous dorsal are reddish brown, and are spotted like the 

Hab. West coasts of Australia, King George's Sound. 
Houtman's Abrolhos. 



Lepadogaster puniceus. Richardson. 

Radii :— D. 10 ; A. 4 ; C. 10| ; P. 19 et IV ; V.-- 

Plate XLIII., figs. 1—4, natural size ; 5—7, magnified. 

Body considerably arched, both transversely and in pro- 
file, flat underneath. A groove runs along the middle of 
the back from the hind head to the dorsal fin ; the sides 
are strongly furrowed vertically from the contraction of the 
muscles, and on each side of the tail at the middle height 
there is a furrow at the insertion of the muscles. The 
snout is rather shorter and steeper in profile than the ar- 
rist has shown it in figure 1 ; its length being somewhat 
less than the diameter of the orbit. The eyes are scarcely 



72 



a diameter apart, and as they are tumid, they interfere 
slightly with the arch of the profile. Viewed from above, 
the fish seems to be composed of the sections of two cones 
joined by their bases ; the head being a shorter and wider 
one, with a truncated apex, and the body more slender and 
tapering acutely into the caudal fin. At the point of the 
gill-cover the height is one-fifth of the total length, and the 
width is rather less than twice the height, or it is contained 
twice and two-thirds in the total length, caudal included. 
The sliin is quite smooth and scaleless, but when examined 
by a lens, it exhibits a minutely reticulated surface. There 
are a few scattered pores on the snout and temples. The 
nostrils are two small orifices with tumid lips, which swell 
into a little flap on one side of the anterior opening; the 
posterior aperture is contiguous to the eye. There are no 
furrows on the head. The orifice of the mouth is small, and 
placed beneath and slightly behind the extreme end of the 
snout; it is not cleft quite so far back as the fore part of 
the eye. The jaws are armed by truncated incisor teeth, 
four or five deep in front, but thinning off" to a single row 
towards the angle of the mouth ; the exterior ones are 
taller, and are ranged in an even, pectinated series, as re- 
presented in figures 4 and 5. Figure 6 shows the teeth of 
the lower jaw, in which the interior ones are more con- 
spicuous than in the upper jaw. The suboperculum ends 
in an acute, spinous point, which is enveloped in soft inte- 
gument. The form of the operculum does not show 
through the soft parts, and it has no prominent bony cor- 
ners, but its soft membranous ti]> forms a kind of lid to the 
gill-opening, which is restricted below by an inward turn of 
the gill-membrane. 

The sucking apparatus is divided into two concave disks 
by a deep, transverse depression. Tlie anterior or pectoral 
disk is wider, has a semilunate shape, and is completed on 
the sides by four enlarged rays of the pectoral. The rest 
of the pectoral has a rounded outline, with fine rays, and 
the usual position of that fin. On the base of the fin, in 
the angle between its vertical and horizontal parts, there is 
a prominent and somewhat loose fleshy lobe. The pos- 
terior or ventral disk is transversely oval, and is saiTounded 
by a membranous border, which is free throughout, and 
anteriorly overlies and conceals the depression behind the 
pectoral disk. No rays can be delected in this border, but 
its posterior half is furnished with a single row of flat emi- 
nences such as stud the surface of both disks. The ven- 
trals are small, and a])plied to the sides behind the 
pectorals. Their i-ays are so fine that they can scarcely be 
perceived with the aid of a lens, through the thick 
membrane. The dorsal commences behind the anus, and 
its last ray is bound to the back by membrane through- 
out its length, but is not joined to the caudal. The 
anal is smaller, and reaches a little further back, but 
neither is it joined to the caudal. The front ray of both 
these fins is very slender and cannot be seen by the naked 
eye. The caudal is enlarged at the base by a narrow 
membranous edge, which embraces the end of the tail, and 
approaches close to the dorsal and anal. Three short 
rays in tliis membrane above, and as many below, are as 
fine as hairs. The anus is as nearly as possible in the mid- 
dle of the total length, and behind it there is a small 



genital papilla on the verge of another opening. The co- 
lour of the specimen, after long maceration in spirits, is a 
pure red, very pale on some parts, and more intense 
in others. There is a mottling of darker red patches on 
the back, but it -is not easy to determine whether it be 
caused by original markings, or be merely the remains of 
the general tint which has faded less on those spots. The 
eye is a bright carmine. Length 2j inches. 

Hab. New Zealand, where it was detected by Dr. 
Hooker. 



Mach^eidm subducens. Richardson. 

Radii :— B. 6 ; D. 72 ; A. 60 ; C. 9 ; P. 10 ; V. 0. 

Marh<Brium sui(iuce»s,Richardson, Annals and Mag. of Nat. Hist, for 
September, 1843, xii. p. 175, pi. 6. 

Plate XLIV., figs. 1 — 4, natural size ; 5, 6, magnified. 

This fish was originally described from a dried specimen 
in the work above quoted, and the figure being indiff'erent, 
another is now given of a specimen which has been kept in 
spirits, and has lost much of its original colour. We shall 
transcribe the general characters of the fish as recorded in 
that work, making such slight alterations and additions as 
we are enabled to do fiom the more perfect state of the 
specimens now before us. 

Ch. Gen. Piscis malacopterygius, apodus, ensiformis, 
squamosus. Caput antice compressum. Os modice exten- 
sivum. Labia amjyla, tumida. Denies parvi, uiiiser tales, 
pectinati, incisores in acuta acie intermaxillarinm max- 
illceque inferior is ordinati. Denies pJiarync/ei acerosi, 
stipaii. Apertura hranchialis satis magna. Radii hran- 
chiosiegee ieretes memhranam largiusculam siisicntanies. 
Gena et regiones suprascapulares sqnamosce. Pinna ver- 
iicales coaliiie, spinis nullis. Pinna dorsi per maximam 
dorsi partem regnans. Anus ante medium piscem. Linea 
lateralis brevis ante anum desinens. Squama cycloidem 
parvte. 

Form elongated and compressed, like that of a Gunnel- 
lus or Ophidium, and similar to a straight sword or 
butcher's knife, whence its generic appellation. The height 
of the body is one-tenth of the total length, and its thick- 
ness one-fifteenth. The compression is much greater be- 
hind the anus, and augments up to the tip of the tail, which 
is not acute. The head, which forms a seventh of the total 
length, is also compressed, especially before the eyes, the 
snout being acute when viewed from above but the swell- 
ing of the lips renders it less sharp than it would otherwise 
be. The cranium is rounded and smooth traversely, but 
appears straight and horizontal in profile up to the eye, 
and a little concave in front of it. The eye, moderately 
large, is near the profile, and is one diameter of the orbit 
nearer to the tip of the snout than to the posterior edge of 
the gill-opening. The nostrils lie immediately before it, 
the hinder opening being larger than the anterior one. The 
cleft of the mouth descends obliquely as it runs backwards, 
and does not reach to the fore edge of the orbit. The in- 
termaxillaries and lower jaw having their edges, which are 



73 



very acute, set with a single, compact, even series of com- 
pressed cutting teeth, of which there arc ahout forty-six 
on each limb of each jaw, and though they are suffi- 
ciently compressed to give them an incisorial character, 
their tips are a little rounded. The jaws, of equal length, 
have internal semi-elliptical areas, which are bounded by 
the teeth. The chevron of the vomer, rather prominent, 
acute-edged, and having a concave disk, is perfectly tooth- 
less, and the palate bones are also smooth. Two pharyn- 
geal bones on each side above the gullet are densely 
crowded with short, conical, acute teeth, the outer row on 
each bone being taller than the rest of the dental surface. 
No teeth were detected on the lower union of the branchial 
arches. Each of the four arches is furnished with two 
rows of rather widely set, subulate, soft, cartilaginous pro- 
cesses, but with no rigid teeth. The tongue, narrow, long 
and free, has a dilated, spoon-shaped tip, formed by thin, 
membranous edges. 

Both jaws have a broad, crescentic velum, and the ex- 
terior lips above and below are much developed. The 
horizontal extent of the upper lip when expanded is 
shown, but not fully, by dotted lines in figure 2. The ex- 
act form of the lip in this position is truncated on a line 
with the apex of the intermaxillaries, where it is broadest, 
and from tlience it gradually narrows to the angle of the 
mouth, its outline being triangular. The under lips are 
similar in form and extent; and both fold back above and 
below on their respective jaws. The intermaxillary pedi- 
cles equal the dental limb of the bone in length, and reach 
back over the centre of the orbit, but are not protractile 
beyond one-third of their length. The maxillary bone 
forms no part of the circumference of the mouth, though its 
lower end descends a little below the angle of the mouth, 
passing close to it. The articulation of the lower jaw is 
far back, posterior to tlie eye and contiguous to the lower 
end of the preoperculum. The very narrow suborbitar 
chain is perforated b^- a row of small pores, which reaches 
from the nostrils round two-thirds of the orbit to the 
temples. The large cheek is covered with small oblong 
tiled scales, eleven or twelve rows in height ; the 
scaly surface being bounded ])osteriorl\' by the mode- 
rately curved, narrow, smooth disk of the preoperculum. 
This bone inclines but slightly forward as it descends, and 
its upper end is separated from the orbit by a scaly space 
equal to the height of the cheek. The interoperculum lies 
wholly behind the preoperculum, and the projecting heel 
of the lower jaw moves against its inferior angle. The 
operculum having an area scarcely equal to that of the in- 
teroperculum, is triangular, its ))osterior angle being acute, 
but not pungent. It is equalled in size by the subopercu- 
lura, which has a curved edge, and gives a blunt form to 
the gill-flap. All the gill-pieces are covered wilh Smooth 
skin, as is also the top of the head backwards to the occi- 
put, the only scaly parts being the cheek and supra-sca- 
pular region. The gill-0])enings do not reach above the 
point of the operculum, and curve a little forwards as they 
descend to the isthnuis. The gill-membranes are united 
to each other beneath, and are supported on each side by 
six cylindrical, slightly curved rays. 

The scales of the body, elliptical or oval, are firmly im- 



bedded in the skin, and jiresent a roundish disk when in 
situ. There are about 200 in a longitudinal row, and be- 
tween 40 and 50 in height. Their structure is cycloid. 
The lateral line runs backwards to beneath the tenth 
dorsal ray, where it terminates.* It is composed of a 
transparent, small elevation or tube on each scale. 
The anus terminates the first third of the length of the 
fish. 

Rays:— Br. 6; P. 10; D. 71; CIO; A. 60. All the 
rays are articulated. In the specimen described in the 
'Annals of Natural History' the caudal rays were more 
readily distinguished, owing to their shortness and slen- 
derness, from the anal and dorsal, than in the specimen 
now before me, and each of these fins had a ray fewer, 
but there are no other characters which lead rao to sup- 
pose that they are distinct species. Each vertical ray has 
a small fillet of scales in front, reaching about half-way 
up. Some of the anterior rays of the dorsal and anal are 
simple, though jointed, and all the rest are divided at the 
tips once or twice. 

The intestinal canal, about four inches long, is a simjile 
tube, with a single flexure. Its upper half is wider and 
more plaited and wrinkled interiorly ; the under half be- 
becomes gradually more slender and also more delicate in 
its coats. There are no caica and no air-bladder. The 
liver of the specimen which was opened had perished. 
Its stomach contained fragments of a small, scaly fish, 
nearly digested. 

Length 11 inches. To anus 3-4 inch. To gill-opening 
r4 inch. To occiput I'l inch. Height of body Tl inch. 
The dried specimen figured in the 'Annals of Nat. History' 
measured nearly 14 inches. It was caught at Port Essing- 
ton, where it is known to the aborigines by the name of 
" Ambeetunbeet." 

Hab. Western and northern coasts of Australia. 

OxYBELEs. Richardson. 

Two examples of a novel generic form of fish exist in 
Sir James Ross's collection. The place of their capture 
was not recorded, but judging from the species associated 
with them in the same jar, they would appear to have been 
obtained on the coast of Tasmania or of the more southern 
islands. The College of Surgeons received from Sir Eve- 
rard Home, Bart., a third individual of the genus. It 
was vomited by a Holothuria that was dredged up at Co- 
pang, in the island of Timor. The following is a summary 
of the general features of the genus : — 

Piscis apodiis; squamis carens. 

Corpus compressum, pngioniforme, caitdd acutissimu. 

Cutis polilus auro argeiiloque hie illic renilens. 

Anus gularis. Oculus innjiisciihis. 

Rictus oris w//? ampins pone ociiliim ^/issus, lerminalis, 
ex iutervia-villis //i,i.rl/lin/iic infcriori coiis/riictus. 

Denies iiiten/iii.ill/ui//i/i, nia.vilUe inferiorifs oxsiumque 
palati acerosi, conjerli ; itoitiiulli caiiiiii. Dentes ronie- 
ris majores. Lingua laris. 

* In the pl.ite the line has been inath erteutly indicated all the way 
down the side of the fish. 



74 



Membrana branchiostega aperturam amplam iegens, 
radiis septem sustentaia. 

Pinnte reiitris caudaive nulla. Pinnce dorsi anique in 
apicem acufissimam cmid<e coalita, radiis tenuissimis, se- 
taceis,Jle.vilibiis susfentat(B. 

Operculum osseum stellatim tripartitum, uno ramo 
ereclo, nliero descendenti, tertio postico, longiori, subulato, 
subspinoso, in pisce recentl celato. Cv Anmm foi-nicatum, 
liBve, sine carinis vel cristis. Vertebrae circit^r centum, 
qiiarum novemdecim abdominales. 

Ventriculus magnus, ccBcatus. Intestinum bis prope 
cesophagmn Jlexum ; ccscis pyloricis nullis. Vesicula 
aeris ampla, longe post amim extensa. 

OxYBELES HOMEi. Richardsoii. 

Plate XLIV., fig. 7—18. 

R.ADII : — Br. 7 ; D. et A. non numerand. P. 19; C. 0. 

The specific name is intended as a tribute of acknow- 
ledgement to the zeal of Sir Everard Home in collecting 
objects of Natural History on the coa.sts of China and 
Australia. When the specimens were cursorily examined 
before they were placed in tlie artist's hands to be drawn, 
they appeared to represent two species, differing in the 
relative thickness of the body, and in the commencement 
of the dorsal fin, but on a more careful inspection after due 
maceration in water, the characters of all three examples 
])roved to be nearly identical, the dissimilarity having been 
caused by two of them being placed in strong spirits, 
whereby they had become shrivelled, and a fold of skin 
between the shoulders made to look like a forward prolon- 
gation of the dorsal fin. This is mentioned to account 
for two figures of the same species. 

Body stiletto-shaped, tapering, and becoming thinner 
gradually from the head to the acute point of the tail. 
Snout rounded obtusely ; the profile from tlie eye to the 
shoulder slightly convex. Head thicker than the body, 
forming one-seventh of the total length of the fi.sh. Mouth 
terminal, cleft beyond the eye, under jaw a little longer 
than the upper one. Upper half of the margin of the 
mouth formed by the long, slender, non-protractile in- 
termaxillaries. The maxillary is also slender, but di- 
lates gradually towards its tip, which passes behind 
the corner of the mouth. The teeth are minute, and are 
not readily seen without the aid of a good eye-glass. They 
are individually subulate, slightly recurved, and ranged in 
level, villiform bands on the intermaxillaries, lower jaw and 
edges of the palate-bones ; the dental surfaces being nar- 
rower on the upper jaw, than on the under one or palate, 
where they stand in four or five rows. Near the symphj'- 
sis on both jaws a few of the teeth are higher, and two or 
three of the anterior lateral ones in the lower jaw are tall 
enough to merit the appellation of canines. The conical 
knob of the vomer projects considerably, and is armed by 
a comparatively stout central tooth, with a ring of smaller 
ones surrounding its base. Tongue rather conical, smooth 
and rounded. Nostrils, two orifices with tumid lips pier- 
cing a soft membrane which occupies much of the space 



between the eye and the obtuse end of the snout. Three 
pores stand in a transverse row between the fore parts of 
the orbits. Preoperculum marked by a groove, which 
crosses the top of the head, and is there perforated by 
three pores. Cranium rounded smoothly off on the sides. 
Gill-cover very porous, with an acute, soft tip, extending 
beyond the subulate tip of the tripartite bony operculum. 
Eye lateral, pretty large, bright and silvery. The gill- 
opening extending beneath as far forward as the preoper- 
culum. The snout, operculum and cheek are minutely 
porous. 

Lateral line a continuous ridge standing in a furrow, 
extending from the temporal groove to the tip of the tail, 
and running nearer to the back than to the belly. Skin of 
the body quite smooth. Anus situated before the pectoral 
fin, under the upper angle of the gill-opening. An acute 
seam or ridge runs forwards from it into the isthmus be- 
tween the gills. M. Agassiz, to whom I showed the spe- 
cimens, informed me that this was an indication of the 
individual's being young. Pectorals narrow and pointed, 
having a length equal to about one-tenth of the whole fish. 
The anal is wider than the dorsal, but both are very low, 
and the rays cannot be very easily counted, owing to the 
thickness of the integument and the difficulty of keeping 
the fins extended. The fins meet in an acute point at 
the tip of the tail, but when they are examined through a 
good lens it may be seen that no rays emanate from the 
apex of the tail, those of the dorsal and anal converging 
beyond it, and leaving a minute, triangular membrane be- 
tween. The rays are unbranched, tapering and flexible, 
with long joints towards their lips, which can be jierceived 
only under a considerable magnifying power, and then 
each ray appears to have a midrib with a thin anterior and 
posterior edge. The anterior rays are not apparently dif- 
ferent from the others, but I have been unable to ascertain 
clearly whether the joints are not quite obsolete in the rays 
of the fore part of the dorsal. The dorsal begins at less 
than a quarter of the length of the fish from the end of the 
snout; the anal commences close to the anus, and is con- 
sequently longer than the dorsal. 

I dissected one of Sir James Ross's specimens, but the 
intestines were not in a very good condition for examina- 
tion. The liver had perished. The peritoneum is thick, 
tough, and of a shining, silvery hue, with black, star-like 
specks. QEsophagus thin and membranous. Stomach a 
large, conical, ca;cal sack, longitudinally plaited within, 
with the pylorus near the oesophagus, leaving most of the 
viscus beneath. Intestine delicate, forming two deep loops. 
No pyloric coBca were detected. A roundish and rather 
large spleen is attached to the posterior tip of the stomach, 
and lies dorsad of the remains of the liver. In this indivi- 
dual the air-bladder appeared to be a long tube, with alter- 
nate dilatations and contractions, but in another specimen, 
which is somewhat diaphanous, a wider air-bladder can be 
seen running a good way behind the anus without any visi- 
ble contractions. The vertebras amount to 99, of which 19 
have two inferior divergent processes, affording space 
for the viscera. The others have a single inferior and su- 
perior process, whose tips are much compressed and very 
thin. 



75 



Length of the fish 4^ inches. Length of head O'tio inch. 
Distance between the tip of the snout and the anus O'oi). 
Distance between the tip of the snout and beginning of 
dorsal r05 inch. 

H.-iB. Seas of Australia ? and Timor. 



Galaxias truttaceus. Cuvicr. 



Galaxias truttaceus, Cuv. Regiie .\n. ii. p. '283. C'uv. ct \al. Hist, 
ties Poiss. xviii. p. 344, " (. 543." 

Radii:— B. 9; D. 11; A. 15; C. l(jf ; P. 14; V. 7. 

Plate XLIL, figs. 1 — 6. 

Since the plates for the present fasciculus were printed, 
the XVIIItli volume of the Histoire des Poissoiis has ap- 
peared, containing a full description of this species, and 
rendering a detailed account of our specimens unnecessary. 
We have received this fish only from Van Diemen's Land, 
where it appears to abound. The individual figured in 
plate xlii. was taken in the Derwent River. 

The body is flattened above, especially near the nape 
and on the sides, the width thinning off" gradually to the 
tail, which is much compressed. The height of the body 
is contained six times and a half in the length, and the 
thickness at the shoulder is equal to four-fifths of the 
height. The head forms just a fifth of the whole length of 
the fish. 

The gape of the mouth extends backwards to beneath 
the anterior quarter of the eye. Two-thirds of its upper 
border is formed by the premaxillaries* which bear acicu- 
lar teeth in one series, the tallest being at the beginning of 
the posterior third of the bone, or where it curves from the 
transverse to the longitudinal direction. The maxillary 
which completes the upper border of the mouth is without 
teeth. Each limb of the mandible is armed by about 12 
teeth in one row, the pair next the symphysis and those 
near the middle of the bone being rather the tallest. The 
palatine teeth are more subulate, acute and recurved, and 
are ranged in a single straight row of seven on each bone, 
the rows receding slightly from each other as they run 
backwards. The tongue is armed by still stronger and 
more recurved teeth set round its edge in a semi-elliptical 
curve, the foremost tooth being the stoutest, the others di- 
minishing gradually as they run backwards. There are 
five on each side of the tongue exclusive of the front one. 
The branchial arches are each armed with two rows of de- 
licate, subulate, acute teeth. 

The dorsal is as high but shorter than the anal, and be- 
gins before that fin, and consequently ends before it. The 
caudal is a little hollowed at the end, and at its base 
above and below there is an acute, membranous edge, 
supported by short rays. 

General tint of the best preserved specimens in spirits 
a delicate wood-brown, approaching to yellowish gray. 



* Professor Owen's 
lowing pages. 



lature of the bones is ailopted in the fo 



paler on the ventral surface, with scattered, minute, black 
dots, and about seventeen vertical rows of dark-eyed spots, 
the size of a pin's head. These rows bend en chevron in 
the middle of the sides, and the three rows on the shoul- 
der are replaced by bars. A series of faint, short, oblique 
bars is also formed on the belly and flanks by clusters of 
the finer points. The .snout is blackish ; there is an oblique 
bar on the cheek and a roundish mark on the operculum. 
The ends of the dorsal, anal and ventrals are blackish. 
The skin generally is smooth and polished, and the 
muscles show less distinctly on the flanks than in other 
species. The very oily flesh of this fish spoils rapidly, 
and most of the specimens we have seen are soft, and of a 
dark purplish red colour. The individuals we have re- 
ceived from the Derwent River are paler than those which 
have been sent to us from Port Arthur. Mr. Leni]iriere 
describes the latter as having, when recent, "a dark olive 
colour, with red spots, but some of a darker colour will 
weigh nine ounces, and are excellent for the table." 

Length of our specimens about 4 inches. 

Hab. Fresh waters of Van Diemen's Land. It is 
named locally " the trout." 

Galaxias maculatus. Jenyns [Mesites). 

Mesites maculatus, .Jenyns, Zool. of Beagle, p. 119, PI. 22, fig. 4. 
Galaxias truttaceus, Regiie An. edit. Crochard, PI. 97, fig. 2. 
Galaxias maculatus, Cuv. et Val. xviii. p. 365. 

Radii:— D. 11; A. 14 ad 16; C. 16|; P. 11 ad 13; 

V. 7 (.3 specimens). 

Plate XLIIL, figs. 14-17. 

This species is remarkable for the smallness of its 
mouth, its short round pectorals, twice their own length 
distant from the ventrals, and for being considerably less 
flat or more rounded on the back than truttaceus, brocchus 
or reticulatus. It is a slender fish when not di.stended 
with roe, but its shape alters toivards the spawning season. 
The end of its intestinal canal protrudes from between the 
edges of a fissure in the belly, shown by the different tex- 
ture of the parts, for the surface is continuous ; a small 
opening succeeds it, to which, just before the anal fin, the 
end of the gut acts as a valve, closing it when the tail is 
depressed. 

The general colour in s])irils is pale yellowish or wood- 
brown, with many oblong and irregular spots formed by 
clusters of small purple dots, scattered over the back and 
sides. The top of the back is also generally sprinkled 
with these dots, and on the sides the ground colour is 
powdered with dots so minute as to be totally invisible to 
the unassisted eye. The under surface is spotless, and 
has very few dots. The head fonns the seventh of the total 
length in two specimens, and is proportionally a little 
longer in the third. Anal larger than the dorsal. Teeth 
as represented in figures 16 and 17. In one specimen the 
anterior pair on the tongue are smaller than the next pair. 
The rows of palatine teeth are nearly straight and parallel. 

Length from 3^ to 4:^ inches. 

Hab. The Falklands. Patagonia. 

o 2 



76 



Galaxias sckiba. Valenciennes. 

Galuxias scriba, Cuv. et Val. Hist, des Poiss. xviii. p. 347. 

Radii:— D. 11; A. 17; C. 16*-; P. 12; V. 7. 

A solitary specimen from the Derwent River seems to 
possess the chai-acters ascribed to scriba in the 'Histoire 
den Poissons.'' It has the most elongated form of any spe- 
cies we have seen, its height being contained nine times 
and a half in its total length. The body is rounded on 
the sides as in mnculatus, but is flatter on the back, and 
the dorsal groove is occupied by two rounded ridges or 
iblds, which reach from the occiput to the dorsal fin. The 
mesial groove on the belly is also more distinctly seen, 
but a mesial ventral line is marked out in all the species, 
either by the greater thinness and transparency of the in- 
teguments, a fine furrow, or, as in triittaceus, by a series 
of minute, dark dots. The head is similar in form to that 
of maciilatus, and forms less than a sixth of the whole 
length, caudal included. The mouth is scarcely so small 
as that of the species just named, and is consequently still 
larger than the mouth oi attenuattts. The teeth are simi- 
lar to those of maculatus, but the lingual ones are less 
stout in proportion to the size of the fish. Eye rather 
large. 

The dorsal and anal commence opposite to each other, 
but the latter being larger, though not higher, extends 
further back ; the caudal fin is forked at the end. 

Colour a pale yellowish gray, powdered on the back 
and sides with minute purplish dots, which are individu- 
ally imperceptible to the naked eye. Towards the tail, 
clusters of the same minute dots produce many faint, 
roundi.sh spots above the lateral line. On the top of the 
back there are two or three groups of spots large enough 
to be visible to the naked eye, but not crowded so as to 
produce any definite spots. On the sides there are seve- 
ral arborescent lines of a purplish pigment, resembling 
fine vessels filled with dark venous blood, which, for the 
most part, but not always, issue from the lateral line, and 
follow the interstices of the muscular fasciculi. Tiie under 
surface and the ventrals are pale or flesh-coloured, without 
markings, and the vertical fins are grayish, traces of a 
darker blotch existing on the base of the caudal. The 
top of the head and snout are dark. The oblique muscles 
of the sides show strongly through the skin. Length 6^ 
inches. 

Hab. Derwent River, Van Diemen's Land. Port Jack- 
son, Australia. 

Galaxias brocchus. Richard.son. 

Radii:— D. 11; A. 14; C. 16f ; P. 1:3; V. 7. 

Plate XLIIL, figs. 8—1.3. 

Height of the body equal to about one-si.Kth of the 
length, caudal included, and the thickness to about the 
seventh. The back is wide, with an obtuse furrow, which 
extends backwards to the dorsal, gradually narrowing with 
the decreasing width. The head forms one-fifth of the 



length ; the snout is broad and the gape is large, extend- 
ing to beneath the middle of the eye. 

The jaw-teeth are mostlj- acicular, the posterior ones on 
the premaxillaries being small, and one or two near the 
symphysis with four or five towards the middle of the 
bone more subulate and rather taller. Four or five in the 
lateral curve of the mandible are taller, subulate and re- 
curved, and the three anterior pairs on the tongue are more 
approximated and much stouter than the posterior ones 
(figs. 12, 13). There are nine on each side of the tongue, 
all more or less recurved. The palatine teeth stand in a 
curved line, which recedes from its fellow posteriorly (fig. 
10). 

Pectoral fin much rounded. First ray of the ventral, 
which is also rounded, opposite to the middle point be- 
tween the end of the snout and base of the middle caudal 
rays. Vertical fins rounded. Anal deeper and longer 
than the dorsal, commencing opposite to its fore-quarter, 
and extending farther back than its termination. 

The skin of this fish is smooth, and permits the strongly- 
marked muscular fasciculi to be seen through it. Its co- 
lours appear to have altered in spirits, the general hue of 
the upper parts especially being a dingy brown, with some 
ill-defined specks scattered over it. The sides are marked 
by a series of seven pale, compressed and irregular rings. 
The fins are obscurely spotted and clouded, and the bor- 
ders of the dorsal and anal and the whole caudal are dark. 

Length 8j inches. Only two individuals exist in the 
collection, the smaller one measuring 41- inches in length. 

Hab. Auckland Islands. 



Galaxias reticulatus. Richardson. 

Radii:— D. 12; A. 15; C. \6^; P. 13; V. 7. 

Plate XLI I., figs. 7—12. 

This species has much resemblance to brocchus, being 
very similar in its general form and in its dentition. Its 
snout, however, is more rounded, and its head proportion- 
ally, somewhat larger. The pectoral fin is also shorter, 
and the gape of the mouth a very little smaller. 

Three or four of the lateral premaxillary teeth are more 
perceptibly taller than the rest, while those in the corre- 
sponding jjart of the lower jaw are less stout and tall than 
in the brocchus. The palatine teeth are similarly ar- 
ranged, as are also the teeth on the tongue, but the pas- 
sage is more gradual in size from the anterior to the 
posterior ones. The vertical fins are scarcely so much 
rounded as in brocchus, but are similar in position and re- 
lative extent. They are paler, and with the ventrals, are 
covered with more numerous, smaller and better defined 
specks. The upper parts and sides of the fish are black- 
ish green, reticulated by white lines, the meshes anteriorly 
being oblong and high, and more wide and angular poste- 
riorly. A blue mark crosses the lower part of the shoul- 
der to the axilla of the jiectoral fin, which is not percepti- 
ble in brocchus, but a similar mark exists in fasciatus. 
The whole skin is rough with innumerable small, pouting 



77 



pores, in which it differs from brocchim. The specimen 

figured rather exceeds six inches in length, but there are 

others somewhat larger, and one only about half the size. 

Hab. Auckland ' 



Galaxias FASCIATUS. Gray. 

. Galaxias fasciatus, Giav, Dieffenbacb's New Zealaud, Append, p. 
219. An. 1842. Cuv. et Val. xviii. p. 350. An. 1846. 

This species was described briefly by Mr. Gray, in the 
work above quoted, and subsequently in the '■Histoire des 
Poissoiis;' fortunately under the same specific designation, 
though M. Valenciennes does not seem to have been at all 
aware of Mr. Gray's prior notice of the species. 

Hab. River Thames. Bay of Islands. 

Galaxias alepidotus. Forster [Esoj:). 

Esox alepidotus, J. R. Forster, MSS. II, 62, apud Bl. Schn. p. 
395, An. 1801 ; Desciipt. Aniin. ciiia Lichtenst. p. 142, An. 1844 ; G. 
Forster, fig-, pict. 2, t. 235 in Bib. Banks. 

Galaxias alepidotus, Cuv. Reg. An. 2, p. 283 ; Ricbardson, Dieffenb. 
Xew Zealand, App. p. 219, An. 1842. 

Galaxias forsleri, Cuv. et Val. xviii. p. 351, 1847. 

This fish being an inhabitant of Dusky Bay, in the 
southern pai't of New Zealand, which is seldom visited, 
does not appear to have been brought to Europe since 
Forster's time. The figure represents a fish having the 
general form of G. retictilntus, but differing in its mark- 
ings. The ground tint of the drawing is greenish black, 
with waved spots of various sizes, none of them large. 
They are most numerous, rounder and smaller on the tail ; 
congregated, lunate and irregular on the flanks ; rounder 
again on the shoulder, and one of them over the pectoral 
forms a ring, with a spot in the centre. A few small, 
round spots exist on the side of the head and base of the 
dorsal. All beneath the spots which do not reach the 
belly is whitish. The spots are yellow and the ventral 
fins blackish. The second dorsal is high, commences be- 
fore the anal, but does not reach nearly so far back. 

Length 9 inches. 

Hab. Dusky Bay, New Zealand. Named " He-para " 
by the natives, and "Rock-trout" by Cook's sailors. 

Atherina nigricans. Richardson. 

Radii:— Br. 5.?; D. 7— 1|13; A. \\\b; C. 17 ; P. 15; 
V. 1|5. 

Plate XLl I., figs. 13—18. 

This is an elongated species, the height of the body, 
which is greatest near the veutrals, being contained about 
eight times in the total length, while the thickness consi- 
derably exceeds half the height. Head forming rather 
more than a sixth of the total length, slightly convex in 
profile and also transversely. Mouth small, the gape 
scarcely reaching half-way to the eye. Jaws equal. Pre- 
maxillaries moderately protractile, the maxillary remain- 
ing near the edge of the preorbitar, but in no way con- 



cealed by it. This bone is straight and slightly dilated 
towards its lower end, which plays over the limb of the 
lower jaw. The appearance of curvature given to it in 
figure 14 is caused by the projection of the snout or pos- 
terior lip at its head and an edging of membrane at its ti]). 
It is, however, rather pointed than truncated at the end, 
but differs widely in its shape from the maxilla of A. liep- 
selu.s. The side of the head is densely scaly up to the 
margin of the gill-opening, the snout, jaws and gill-mcni- 
brane being scaleless. Rows of pores run along the edge 
of the preorbitar, the lower jaw, under limb of the preo- 
pevculum and immediately beneath the orbit. 

The upper and under jaws are armed with plates of 
short, villiform teeth, visible to the naked eye ; the whole 
surface of the tongue is densely rough with still shorter 
teeth, but the roof of the mouth is toothless. I could de- 
tect only five rays in the gill-membrane, but it is possible 
that a minute, interior one may have escaped me. The 
pectoral is attached about the middle of the height, and 
equals a sixth of the length of the fi.sh. The first dorsal 
is small, being only half the height of the body, and its 
last ray stands about midway between the tip of the snout 
and end of the caudal fin. Its first ray is opposed to the 
ventrals. The second dorsal begins a .short way behind 
the middle of the fish, caudal included, and its first ray is 
short and flexible, the others being jointed and branched. 
The anal is longer and deeper than the second dorsal, 
reaching rather farther back and beginning before it and 
not far from the anus by a short, flexible, simple ray. The 
ventrals ai'e small, with a pointed, scaly fillet between and 
above them. They are attached not far from the com- 
mencement of the second third of the fish. The caudal is 
excavated at the end, and consists of seventeen rays, with 
an acute, membranous edge at the base above and below, 
supported by several short rays. 

There are about eighty-eight scales in a row, between 
the gill-opening and caudal ; the individual scales are ver- 
tically and obtusely oval, with a rounded lobe forming the 
apex of the free edge. The covered part is marked by 
coarse lines of structure, with no radiating fuiTows, and 
having entire edges. 

The general colour is a smoky black, with a silvery 
stripe along the middle, and the nacre of the scales shin- 
ing partially through the black elsewhere. 

Length 7 inches. 

Hab. The Falkland Islands. 

Dajaus forsteri. 

Mugil albula, J. R. Forster, Descripl. Aniin. cuni Lichtenst. p. 145. 
Icon. pict. G. R. Forster, Bibl. Banks. No. 237. 
Mugil forsteri, Cuv. et Val. 

Radii:— B. 6; D. 4|— 1|9; A. 3111; C. 14f. 

Plate XLIV., figs. 20— 2G. 

This species is nearly related to the Dajaus diemensis, 
of plate 26, figures 1 —5, but it has still less of the massive 
proportions of the head which characterize a true Mugil, 
and has much of the general aspect of a clupeoid fish. It 



78 



differs from diemensis also in wanting the posterior sca- 
brous plates on the palate, and in the different arrange- 
ment of those on the tongue, as may be perceived by con- 
sulting figure 4, plate 26, and figure 25, plate 44. Forster 
obtained his fish in Dusky Bay, New Zealand, and as Sir 
James Ross's specimens were obtained on the same islands, 
are tolerably well represented by George Forster's draw- 
ing, and possess the kw special characters included in 
J. R. Forster's description, I have considered them to belong 
to his species. They have indeed lost their original tints 
and markings by long maceration in spirits, so that we 
cannot avail ourselves of his description of the colours 
of the recent fish for comparison, but he mentions the — 
thin lips, toothed jaws, minute teeth on the tongue, the 
roughness or villiform dentition of the palate, the straight- 
ness of the back, the profile of the head, " caput vix de- 
clire" and the numbers of the fin-rays, all of which cor- 
respond tolerably nearly, though not exactly with our spe- 
cimens. He enumerates, however, only five branchioste- 
gous rays, when there are in fact six, but the lowest ray is 
small, and would escape detection except on dissection. 

The species differs from Mugil peronii, acutus and/er- 
rmidi, from the same quarters of the world, in wanting the 
acute keel on the tongue. 

M. Valenciennes states the length of head of /orsferi as 
being contained five times and a half in the length of the 
body, having taken these proportions from George Forster's 
drawing, but on referring to J. R. Forster's measurements, 
the number is found to be more nearly four times and nine- 
tenths, which corresponds sufficiently with the specimens, 
though not so well with our figure, in which the head is a 
trifle too long. 

The teeth are arranged in narrow and finely villiform 
plates on both jaws, and on the mandible there is, in ad- 
dition, a row of short, horizontal ones, penetrating the 
thin lip. Tlie vomer and edges of the palate bones are 
rough with very fine and short teeth, as represented in 
figure 23, and the scabrous plates on the tongue will be 
best understood by referring to figure 25. 

The outer gills are furnished with rakers, composed of a 
setaceous ray and a thin, tapering, membranous border, 
armed on its edge with a series of hair-like teeth, stand- 
ing in pairs. The other arches are furnished with shorter 
compressed processes, joined at their bases by membrane, 
and having thin, obtuse summits, bristling on all sides 
with setaceous teeth. The upper pharyngeal bones are 
rather large, convex and rough with minute teeth. Each 
conceals a small cavity, which opens into the fauces and 
has a soft, tortuous roof. 

The scales are truncated at the base, with about seven 
slightly divergent furrows, forming as many marginal cre- 
natures. No teeth are visible on the disk or free edge, 
but there are some inequalities in the lines of structure. 
The branching fin-rays are finely dotted, as represented 
in figure 20. Figure 22 shows the pores on the head. 

Forster describes the colours as azure-brown on the 
back, and silvery white elsewhere ; the second dorsal and 
anal marked on the tips by a brown spot, the pectorals 
brown, and the caudal yellowish brown. He also informs 
us that this nuillet is gregarious in the month of April, 



enters fresh-water streams, and may be taken either with 
the hook or net. 

Length 8g- inches, caudal included. Length of head 
If inch (Forster). Our specimens measure generally 
about 45- inches. 

Hab. New Zealand. 

MUR.ENA. 

Pisces anguillifonnes, squamis omnino carentes, cute 
Isevi mucigena tecti. 

Caput parvum, cute porosa ita obductum ut nee cra- 
nium, nee operculum, nee radii branchiostegi extus cer- 
nendi sint. 

Gula magis minusve extensiva plicata. Apertura bran- 
chialis minima, lateralis, in sacculura branchiis proprium 
a tergo intrans. Sacculus hie lateri utrique pertinens, 
branchiasque quatuor includens foraminibus quinque par- 
vis rotundis intus aperit. Branchiae rastellis vel processi- 
bus dentiferis carent. 

Rostrum obtiisum. Rictus oris ratione capitis longissi- 
mus, horizontalis, terminalis; maxillis fere semper aequali- 
bus, rarius subajqualibus. 

Nares anticw in rostro extremo utrinque positae, tubu- 
losae; postica3 supra anguUnn oculi anteriorem patentes, 
ssepius planoE, interdum tubulosae. Oculi super medium 
oris rictum locati. Fori conspicui rictum supra subtus- 
que ambientes, in rostro summo quoque dispositi. 

Ossa cranii valida, solida, multum per anchylosin coa- 
lita. Ossa premaxillaria maxillaeque desunt. Os nasi 
cum vomere ethmoideque in unum coalitum, dentiferum, 
munus ossium premaxillarium sustinens ; os palati antice 
ad cohimnam orbitce anteriorem ossi nasi per symphysin 
inhferens, postice per tendinem pedicello imo mandibulae 
connexum ; cumque osse nasi rictum oris superiorem con- 
ficiens. Mandibula longa, occiput postice aequans vel 
transiens. Ejus pedicellum tympanicum os unicum, va- 
lidum, triangulare in latere cranii late inhserens. 

Operculum cranio infra remotum pedicello mandibulae 
adhaerens. Rami branchiostegi octo vel decern filiformes, 
longissimi circa operculum curvati. Dentes in ambitu oris 
et in vomere seriebus variis instruct! ; aut acuti, vel subu- 
lati, vel pugioniformes (i. e. compresso-subulati, aciebus 
acutis), vel lanceolati ; aut obtusiores vel conici vel grani- 
formes. Ossa pharyngea duo superiora duo inferiora, 
linearia, dentibus recurvis armata. 

Ventriculus longus super medium suum pyloro arcto 
pertusus. In Muraita siderea valvulam spiralem in imo 
intestino elaboratam, inveni : alteras species non rite ex- 
aminavi. Vesicula aeris breviuscula, ovalis, pone partem 
superiorem ventriculi. 

DuEe costarum series in utroque latere usque ad extre- 
mam caudani attinentes ; series superior paulo pone caput 
incipiens, series inferior ad anum ; ambae validiores pone 
anum, dein versus apicem caudte sensim decrescentes. 

Having, through the kindness of Mr. Gray, an opportu- 
nity of carefully inspecting the Mitrtoia; belonging to the 
British Museum, I subjoin the results of my examinations 
in preference to giving isolated descriptions of the species 
figured in this work, as being the most effectual way of 



79 



showing the relations of the latter to the other species to 
which I have had access. The nomenclature of the bones 
of the skull in this genus I found to be a subject of no 
little difficulty, and I have been glad to avail myself of 
that proposed by Professor Owen, in his recent lectures on 
the Vertebraia. Previous to their publication I had sup- 
posed that the border of the upper jaw of the Murance 
was formed of the premaxillaries and maxillie arranged 
nearly as in the salmon, but that the premaxillaries were 
intimately anchylosed with the nasal and ethmoid bones, 
forming the jaw and roof of the mouth back to the interior 
pillar of the orbit, where the disk is embraced by the fore 
part of the vomer. The maxillary also 1 considered as 
united to the palate bones, these forming the interior 
plates, which are more or less developed in different species, 
and only occasionally dentigerous, and then generally sup- 
porting tall, subulate teeth, like those on the mesial line of 
the premaxillary disk. Finding on the strong mandibular 
pedicle the small socket for the joint of the operculum, 
and the symplectic knob for the pivot of the lower jaw, 1 
had supposed this bone to be composed of the union of 
the several parts constituting the Systema ptenjyoideo 
temporale of Cuvier. 

The vertebra; next the head of the Muiieiue have a short, 
neural spine, a horizontal parapophysial process on each 
side, and a thin crest from the under surface of the cen- 
trum, op]>osed to the neural spine, and which I might have 
taken for a hismal spine but for the authority of Mr. 
Owen, who denies that process to the fish. About the tenth 
vertebra (in M. Helena, and not far from it in other spe- 
cies) the mesial inferior crest divides and diverges on the 
three succeeding vertebra; until it joins the transverse, 
parapophysial process, to the extremity of which it adds 
height by giving it a second angular corner. As the ver- 
tebrae approach the anus the angular corners of the extre- 
mities of the parapophysial processes separate more and 
more from each other, the upper one remaining nearly 
horizontal and the other turning more and more directly 
downwards, until, with its fellow of the o]5posite side, it 
forms a deep canal. Finally, at the end of the abdominal 
cavity, and a considerable way past the anus, the canal is 
closed beneath by the union of its sides, and a spine is 
added to the arch of the ha;mal passage, very similar to 
the neural one of the same vertebra, so that the vertebrae 
of the posterior two-thirds of the tail possess a strong, 
compressed neural spine, a horizontal parapophysis and 
a haemal canal and spine, seemingly formed of the inferior 
members of the parapophysis. Also there is a ridge at 
the base of the neural spines, and another at the base of 
the haemal ones, for the attachment of the membranes in 
which the inferior and superior series of ribs lie. The up- 
per row of ribs runs from the fifth or sixth vertebra to the 
point of the tail, and the under one from the anus also to 
the tip of the tail. Each rib is forked at the end next the 
centrum, the shorter process having a small round head, 
and the body of the rib being thickest in the middle, or 
spindle-shaped. The stoutest ribs are situated a short 
way behind the anus. 

The teeth are of two kinds, viz., slender or compressed, 
and very acute, breaking in the using and dropping out; 



or conical and rounded on the summits, wearing flatter. 
Some of the acute teeth are simply subulate ; others are 
compressed-subulate, with an acute, diaphanous edge 
before and behind, or they may be termed stiletto-shaped ; 
such are the front teeth generally. In most species the 
outer teeth on both jaws, posterior to the front of the or- 
bit, are considerably reflex, and have a narrowly-lanceo- 
late shape, also with acute edges. In a very few species 
the teeth are serrated on the edge. The teeth stand on 
the edge and disk of the nasal bone, the palatines, man- 
dibles and vomer, sometimes in a single series on all these 
bones, sometimes double on all, or in double and single 
series variously combined on the several bones. 

In the following table the species are arranged in ac- 
cordance with their dentition. 



A. Teeth acute, subulate, stiletto-shajjed. Gape large. 

a. Uiiiserial palatine teeth. 

1. Uniserial teeth on all the dentiferous bones. 

M. helena ; mibila ; sat/enedota ; reticulata ; ocel- 
lata ; punctata ; similis. 

2. Teeth biserial in the front of the mandible, uniserial 

on the sides of the mandible and on the other 

bones. 
M. pratbernon ; tenebrosa. 
•3. Biserial teeth in the front of the mandible and hind 

part of the vomer; uniserial teeth on the other 

bones. 
M. lita. 
4. Biserial teeth on the nasal bone, on the front of the 

lower jaw and on the vomer. 
M. siderea. 

b. Biserial palatine teeth. 

1. Uniserial nasal, mandibular and vomerine teeth. 
M. isingleena ; bullata ; stellifer ; cancellata ; tes- 

sellata ; colubrina ; moringua. 
Obs. — When the inner palatine teeth are only one or 
two in number they are easily broken away, and the den- 
tition then is similar to that of group A. I. 

2. Front mandibular teeth biserial ; vomerine and na- 

sal teeth uniserial. 
M. griseo-badia ; pavonina. 

3. Nasal teeth pluriserial ; vomerine and mandibular 

teeth uniserial. 
M. guttata. 

4. Teeth biserial on the front of the mandible and on 

the vomer; uniserial on the nasal bone and sides 
of the mandible. 
M. thgrsoidea ; sathete. 

5. Biserial on all the bones except the sides of the 

mandible. 
M. gracilis ; vermiculata ; meleagris ; viridis. 

B. Gape moderate. Teeth conical, subacute or round- 
ed. MOLARII. 

a. Palatine teeth uniserial, subacute. 
M.ophis; variegata. 

b. Palatine teeth biserial, obtuse. 
M. polgzona ; calennta. 



The following species have uot come under ray inspec- 
tion, and I have not therefore been able to place them in 
the above table. 

Murtciia unicolor, Laroche, Ann. Mus. xiii. 15. Low, 
Tr. Gaol. Soc. 2, p. 192. M. picta, Thunberg, Spec. 
Ichlh. 7, t. 1, f. 2, or Murwnophis pant/ierina, Lacep. v. 
641. Murcenop/iis griaea, Lacep. v. 644, pi. 19, f. 1. 
Murcena soidida, Cuv. Regne An. 2, p. 352. Seba 11, 69, 
4. Murana reevesn, Richardson, Ichth. of Voy. of Sul- 
jjhur, p. 109, pi. 49, f. 2. Gymnothorax roslrntiis, Agas- 
siz. Pise. Bras. 50, a. Murcena (/eometrica, Riippel, All. 
118, t. 30, f 1. M. tigrina, Tdera,'t. .30, f 2. M.Jlavimar- 
ginata, Idem, t. 30, f. 3. M. hepatica, Idem, p. 120. M. 
cinerasceiis. Idem, p. 120. M. hiliiieala, Idem, p. 120. 
Muramophis linenta, Lesson, Voy. de la Coqiiille, t. 11, f. 

1. M.Jlaveola, Idem, f. 1. M. anathin. Low, Tr. Zool. Soc. 

2, p. 192. Gymnotliorax fava(jineus, Bl. Schn. t. 105, p. 
323. G. afer, BI. 417, Schn. p. 326. G. wihoni, Schn. 
p. 329. G. scriptus, Schn. p. 329. G. braziliemis, Schn. 
p. 329. Strophidon Utcratuiii, J. M'Clelland, Calc. Journ. 
of Nat. Hist. 1844, t. vii. fig. 2. Strophidon pundatum. 
Idem, t. vii. f. 3 (nee M. punctata, Bl.). Tlncrodontis 
reticulata, Idem, vii. f. 1 (non Gymnotliorax reticulatus, 
Bl. 416, an M. iessellata, Richardson?) Gymnomnrana 
viarniorata, Lacep. v. pp. 648, 650. Nettastoma melanu- 
ra. Raff. Caratt. \A. 10, f. 1, or Alurana saga, Risso, prem. 
ed. f. 39, and many others scattered in different works. 

MuR.ENA IJELKNA. Linn. 

Mumna helena, Bl. I. 153. La flutte, Eneycl. Melh. t. 23, f. 79. 

Radii:— B. 8; D. 332; A. 220 == 552 (Gibraltar spec). 

Plate XLIX., figs. 1 — 6 (Australian spec). 

Considerable variety exists in the shades of colour and 
in the size and distinctness of the spots in different exam- 
ples of this fish from the same locality, much exceeding 
any peculiarity that I could detect on a careful compari- 
son of the Australian specimen figured in plate 49, with 
several others from Malta and Gibraltar. 

The teeth are subulate, more or less compressed, and 
very acute, with thin, cutting edges towards the tip, the 
nasal teeth, however, and the anterior mandibular ones 
being considerably rounded in front towards the base. 
All are inclined backwards. The posterior nasal and ad- 
joining palatine tooth are the tallest of the series, and 
these, with some of the neighbouring ones, and also a few 
on the lower jaw, have an acute notch on the posterior 
edge, with a slight basal lobe beneath it. Nasal teeth 
about twelve, exclusive of about ten very short ones, alter- 
nating with them, but rather exterior to their bases, so 
that the marginal nasal teeth may be considered as making 
an approach to a biserial arrangement. Three teeth on the 
mesial line of the nasal disk long, slender and very acute, 
the posterior pair being the tallest in the mouth. Eight 
or nine small, acute, uniserial vomerine teeth. Palatine 
teeth about ten, uniserial. There are about sixteen or 



seventeen conspicuous teeth on each limb of the mandible, 
exclusive of small ones at the bases of the front teeth 
as on the nasal bone. 

Posterior nostrils shortly tubular. Eye moderately 
large, rather posterior to the middle of the rictus. The 
upper and lower jaw are bordered by a row of large pores, 
and there are also six on the top of the snout, arranged as 
shown in figure 2. Vent one twenty-fourth part of the 
whole length before the middle of the fish. Dorsal fin 
commencing before the gill-opening, gradually increasing 
in height until it attains its greatest elevation beyond the 
vent. Both it and the anal are conspicuous towards the 
lip of the tail, which is considerably compressed. 

The ground colour of the fish is dark, or blackish 
brown, and is varied by white, oval, roundish, or irregular 
marks of various sizes ; larger on the fore part of the fish, 
and so crowded on the head as to produce merely a brown 
and white mottling ; becoming gradually smaller and more 
distinct posteriorly, and towards the tip of the tail arranged 
so as to jjroduce a distant banded appearance. The white 
marks include oval and roundish blackish spots, generally 
darker than the ground colour. The throat and belly are 
pale, with a more minute mottling, and the folds of the 
throat, the corners of the mouth and the gill-openings are 
black. Snout and lower jaw less spotted. 

The edges of the dorsal and anal are marked by a series 
of small white dots, most crowded on the anal, and the 
bases of these fins are spotted on each side by a less dense 
series (vide fig. 5, giving a front view of part of the anal). 

The colours and spots of the Australian specimen de- 
scribed above, are extremely similar to those of one ob- 
tained at Gibraltar. Having had the skeleton of this latter 
one made, I ascertained, by repeated and careful enume- 
ration, that the rays of the dorsal were 332, and of the 
anal 220, or 552 in all. The rays appear simple, and are 
williout jierceptible joints, but most of them can be split 
at the ti])s into two branchlets. There are 142 vertebras, 
71 of which are abdominal, but the anal fin extends for- 
wards to the sixty-third. The air-bladder is oval, and 
about Ij inch in length. 

A second Gibraltar specimen differs slightly in the pale 
parts, having a dilute orange tint, and in the mottling of 
the belly being more resolvable into spots, like those on 
the sides. 

The British Museum possesses a variety from the Bay 
of Naples, in which the pale colour is reduced to roundish 
and angular white specks, about the size of a pin's head, 
placed at the corners of the black spots, and at first sight 
the fish appears to be dark liver-brown, speckled with 
white, but on a closer examination the figures of the dark 
spots may be traced. Towards the end of the tail the 
whitish dots are arranged in vertical bars, five or six in 
each bar. The white specks on the edges of the fins are 
more remote than in the more common variety. 

An example from Malta, in the Haslar Museum, has 
fewer and smaller white dots. 

inches. inches. 

Length of two Australian examples 25 Gibraltar do. 30'0 

Distance between snout and anus 12 14'1 

„ „ gill-opening 2'86 3*6 



81 



Hab. Mediterranean. English Channel. North Afri- 
can coast. Indian Ocean (Bloch). Australian seas. 



Mdk^na nubila. Richardson. 
Plate XLVI., fig. 6—1 0. 

Teeth uniserial, compressed-subulate, tapering and very 
acute, (or stiletto-shaped). Nasal teeth twelve, widely set 
and moderately tall, with a minute subulate one between 
each pair. Two teeth placed well forward on the mesial 
line of the disk, the second one being the tallest in the 
mouth. Twelve conico-subulate, sharjj-pointed, very short 
vomerine teeth, the anterior one standing a little out of 
line. Palatine teeth twelve, slightly reflex, the two ante- 
rior ones smaller than the rest, which diminish slightly in 
size from the third to the corner of the mouth. Mandible 
armed by fifteen or sixteen teeth on each limb, the ante- 
rior ones taller, more remote, and having one or two mi- 
nute, subulate ones in their intervals. 

The head of this species is considerably compressed, 
the jaws equal, and the snout obtuse, with a sloping profile, 
concave at the eye. The fold of skin which envelopes the 
dorsal is less thick than in man}- species, and rises sud- 
denly, with little slope, about half-way between the eye 
and gill-o])ening. The fin continues high and very con- 
spicuous throughout the back to near the end of the tail, 
where it narrows a little. The posterior nostrils are not 
tubular, the eye is rather large, the gape also large, and 
the distance from the tip of the snout to the gill-opening 
is about one-eighth of the whole length of the fish, while 
the anus is a fourteenth of that length before the middle of 
the fish. The usual pores exist on the snout and upper 
and lower lips, and the lateral line consisting of a series 
of small pores is sufficiently evident. Three black tapering 
streaks are conspicuous on the throat, the uppermost run- 
ning back from the corner of the mouth. The body is 
marked by cloud-like spots, forming a series of irregular, 
and iu some places, confluent bars. The spots commence 
on the lower part of the dorsal, and descend over two- 
thirds of the height. The ground colour is brownish on 
the back and pale or whitish on the belly. The dorsal 
and anal are bordered by a well-defined, deep black stripe, 
which is very narrowly edged exteriorly with white. 

Caecal stomach not reaching down to the anus. Pylo- 
ric orifice neai-er to the gullet than to the point of the sac. 
Liver placed beneath and rather to the right of the sto- 
mach. An oblong oval air-bladder lies behind the (Eso- 
phagus. The spiral valve of the lower intestine was not 
made out, owing to the state of the parts. 

Length of the specimen 2r5 inches. Distance between 
tip of the snout and the anus 10 inches. Distance from 
ditto to the gill-opening -2 6. 

This fish was obtained at Norfolk Island, by Dr. M' 
William, of the Royal Navy, Surgeon to the Board of 
Customs. A dried skin of a murrey, belonging to the Bri- 
tish Museum, which was procured by ISIr. Gilbert at 
Houtman's Abrolhos is probably the same species, which 
in that case inhabits both coasts of Australia. The small 
intermediate teeth among the intermaxillaries do not exist 



in this latter example, and the larger ones have rounded, 
compressed, posterior basal lobes not observable in the 
Norfolk Island specimen, being, perhaps, concealed by the 
soft ])arts, but there is no other remarkable difference in 
dentition. The anal has a whitish edge surmounting a 
black stripe, and there are spots on the sides, but much 
defaced by the drying of the specimen. It measures 
twenty-two inches in length. 

A third specimen, like the last, a dried one, and also ex- 
isting in the British Museum, was prepared by Dr. Janvier 
at the Mauritius. It has the same dentition with the Nor- 
folk Island fish, except that a third tall tooth is present 
on the mesial line of the nasal disk, and from the speci- 
men being dried the alternate arrangement of the vomerine 
teeth is perceptible, though they appear on a cursory 
examination to be in one series. Some of the spots or 
bars descend over the belly, and there are traces of six or 
seven black streaks on each side of the throat. Length 
44'3 inches. To anus 2.3. To gill-opening 6'4. 

Hab. Seas of Australia and of the Mauritius. 



MuR.'ENA SAGENOUETA. Richardsou. 

The only example of this species which we have seen is 
a dried one in the British Museum, which was prepared 
by Dr. Janvier at the Mauritius. 

' There is considerable resemblance between it and M. 
nubila, but it appears to have a thicker body, particulariy 
about the throat, while the vent is a little farther forward. 
The uniserial teeth are comparatively stouter, with less 
acute edges, and stand in a closer series both anteriorly 
and posteriorly. The highest on the edge of the upper 
jaw are the posterior nasal ones and adjoining palatines, 
whence they decrease gradually in both directions. Many 
of them have a minute notch near the middle of the ante- 
rior edge, and most have a conspicuous posterior basal 
lobe. There are about nineteen between the symphysis 
and corner of the mouth on the ujiper jaw and a corre- 
sponding number below, there being no small intermedi- 
ate ones on the fore part of either jaw. The mesial teeth 
on the nasal disk are entirely absent in the specimen, and 
the disk itself is rather long and concave, without any pits. 
The vomerine teeth are minute, and do not exceed three 
iu number. 

Posterior nostrils not tubular. Eye moderate-sized, 
and rather before the middle of the gape of the mouth. 
Dorsal commencing about half-way between the corner of 
the mouth and the gill-opening. Anus as neariy as pos- 
sible in the middle of the fish. Distance between the tip 
of the snout and the gill-opening neariy one-seventh of 
the total length. 

Ground colour of the dried skin brownish, varied by thirty- 
two or thirty-four irregular, blackish vertical bars, which 
descend from the dorsal fin and branch and anastomose 
about the gill-opening, so as to produce five or six meshes 
in the height, the bar-like arrangement not being percep- 
tible there ; more posteriorly the meshes are larger, and 
not above three or four in the height ; at the anus they 
increase in size and diminish to two in the height, while to- 
wards the end of the tail the meshes are wholly superseded 

P 



82 



by bars. The areas throughout are traversed by fine, dark 
lines, like veins in marble, and on the head and throat the 
mesh-like arrangement gives place to a fine mottling of the 
dark brown, with a paler colour in smaller quantity. No 
traces of this mottling are perceptible in any of the exam- 
ples of M. «M6<7a. In the specimen the dorsal fin ends 
abruptly about an inch from the point of the tail, the anal 
being perfect. The defect appears to have arisen from 
mutilation before death. 

Length of the fish (dried) .... .... 4r50 inch. 

From tip of snout to anus .... .... 10"75 

From ditto to gill-opening .... 6*01 

Hab. Coasts of the Mauritius. 



MUR^NA RETICULATA. Bl., 416. 
Gymnolhorax reticulalus, Bl. Schn. p. 528. Bl. 416. 

Teeth compressed-subulate, disposed in a single series 
on both jaws. The nasal teeth, about fourteen in number, 
are a little more remote, and the palatine ones are more 
compressed, closer, more reflex, and diminish in size as 
they approach the corner of the mouth, but there is no 
sudden change in the series, either of form or height. The 
palatine teeth number about ten, and the series on the 
mandible corresponds generally with that of the upper 
jaw. The usual three mesial teeth exist on the nasal disk, 
and there are about seven small, acute vomerine teeth in 
one row. When the teeth are examined with a lens the 
maxillary ones and those on the anterior part of the lower 
jaw are seen to be minutely crenated towards the base 
posteriorly, and beneath the crenatures is a compressed, 
rounded lobe, which is inserted into the gum. 

Eye moderate-sized. Posterior nostrils not tubular. 
Snout obtuse. Profile full, slightly arched. Gape mode- 
rate. Dorsal commencing before the gill-opening. Throat 
plaited, distensible. Anus one-twelfth part of the whole 
length before the middle of the fish. 

Ground colour pale honey-yellow, with about twenty 
dark, hair-brown bands, encircling the body and dorsal 
fin. The intervals are about equal to the bands in 
breadth, and are marked with round, brown dots, inter- 
mixed with many minute brown specks. The upper parts 
of the bands are formed of a close assemblage of dots and 
spots, but the belly parts are homogeneous. The head 
and lower jaw are spotted with brown, the ground co- 
lour of tlie lower jaw and throat approaches to white, and 
three of the bands which belong to the nape and throat 
are less complete, being decomposed more or less into ir- 
regular spots. The intervals between the bands on the 
belly are nearly aurora red, while the intervals on the dor- 
sal and anal are white on the edge. The anal is banded 
like the dorsal, but not spotted as that fin is. 

Length 12-5 inches. Distance between the tip of the 
snout and the anus 55 inches. Distance between ditto 
and the gill-opening 1'5. 

Hab. Indian Ocean (Bloch). Sea of Borneo (Sir E. 
Belcher). 



MuE^NA OCELLATA. Agassiz (Gymnothorax). 

Murana tricolor. Banks et Soland. MSS. Parkins. Icon, in Bibl. 
Banks, 2. Broussonnet MSS. Gymnothorax ocellatus,h^.'P'\ii:. linxa. 
Spixii, p. 91, t. L. b. figs. 6—9. 

Plate XLVII., figs. 6—10. 

The individual figured in the plates was obtained some- 
where in the Atlantic, but the exact locality was not noted. 
A Brazilian specimen exists in the British Museum, and 
there is another in the Museum at Haslar. 

The teeth, which stand in a single series on all the 
bones, are much compressed, with sharp edges, tapering, 
and very acute, most of them finely serrated behind and 
before, the serratures being most readily seen near the 
base behind. The highest teeth stand on the palatines 
and fore part of the mandible, and they are there more 
widely set. On the palatines their outline is narrowly 
lanceolate, as are also the lateral ones on the mandible. 
The three mesial teeth exist, as usual, on the nasal disk, 
and they are serrated like the others, but they are scarcely 
so high as the front marginal teeth, and having been partly 
broken away in the specimen which we have figured, they 
have been omitted by the artist in plan, figure 3. The 
vomerine teeth, small and acute, are hidden by the soft 
parts. 

This murrey has a blunt snout, a large eye, and a 
more than usually tapering tail, with a narrow tip. The 
dorsal commences a little before the gill-opening, and 
rises very gradually, but is not high anywhere. The po- 
sition of the anus varies in different individuals. The 
specimen which is figured has the vent one-fourteenth 
part of the whole length before the middle, two others 
have it respectively at the twelfth and the nineteenth part. 
The posterior nasal openings are not tubular. The lateral 
line formed by a series of pores in the middle of the 
height is conspicuous. The ground colour after long ma- 
ceration in spirits is hair-brown, which, on close exami- 
nation, is found to be produced by a minute reticulation 
of darker and paler lines. It is thickly studded by round- 
ish and oval spots of various sizes, on the back and sides, 
none of the spots exceeding a pea in magnitude. About 
thirty black spots on the dorsal and fifteen on the anal, 
alternate with white marks. Towards the end of the tail 
the spots are larger, and form bars. 



All. spec. 

Total length 175 

From snout to anus .... 7'5 
„ gill-opening 2;35 



2n(l do. Braz. spec. 
12-5 19-5 

5-5 9-25 

1-42 2-58 



Hab, Western side of North Atlantic Ocean. Coast of 
Brazil. 

A murrey taken in the Gulf of Mexico by Assistant-Sur- 
geon Rayner, of the Royal Navy, and presented to the 
Museum at Haslar, appears to be a slight variet3' of the 
above. It has the same form and dentition, but the spots 
on the body are much more numerous, and the fins, in- 
stead of being distinctly banded, have a continuous black 



83 



edge, with a while stripe beneath it. The white stripe 
approaches the edge of the fin at intervals, so as to give it 
somewhat of a banded appearance when folded. Length 
15 inches. Length from snont to vent 7 inches. Length 
from ditto to gill-opening 19 inch. 
Hab. Gulf of Mexico. 



MUR^NA PUNCTATA. Bl. Schn. 

Gymnothnrax punctatus, Bl. Schn. p. 52t). Calamaia patim, Russell, 
xxxii. 

A dried, overstuffed, and not quite perfect example of a 
Murwiia exists in the British Museum, which possesses 
the characters ascribed by Schneider to pnnctata.* It 
was purchased from a dealer, and its place of capture can- 
not be ascertained. Russell's figure is a pretty good re- 
presentation of the fish. 

Teeth in a single series on the several bones. On the 
border of the nasal bone there are fourteen, which are 
compressed, with acute edges and points. Three tall, 
subulate, slender ones on the mesial line of the disk, and 
five short, slender, and very acute ones on the line of the 
vomer, the series commencing at some distance from the 
nasal disk. Ten or eleven on each palatine bone shorter, 
and scarcely wider than the nasal ones, reflex, more 
closely set, and diminishing in size towards the corner of 
the mouth. Eleven or twelve lateral teeth on the mandible 
closely set, equal in size, compressed, acute and reflex, 
with two much stouter and a little taller widely set in the 
same series on each side of the symphysis. 

Eye rather large, over the middle of the gape of the 
mouth, which is of moderate size. Nose straight, with 
the hinder part of the head apparently rising suddenly. 
Posterior nostrils not tubular. Dorsal commencing a little 
before the gill-opening. Anus in the dried specimen very 
little before the middle of the fish. 

In the spotting this Murceiia most resembles parointia, 
but the spots are smaller, more numerous and less regidar, 
several of them in various parts being oblong. They have 
their borders similarly darkened, are about the size of par- 
tridge shot, and are pretty i-egularly scattered over the 
head, body, belly and fins ; towards the top of the tail 
they are smaller and less crowded. The rays of the dor- 
sal are short at the commencement, and increase gradually 
to opposite the vent, where they are in the specimen here 
described about an inch long, and they lose little of their 
length till within three inches of the tip of the tail. 

Length .34-25 inches. Distance from tip of snout to 
anus 16'75 inches. Distance from ditto to gill-opening 
4'2 inches. 

Hab. Indian Ocean. 



* Schneider's account of the species is " Gymn. punctatus, ( Dentium. 
palatinorum longa seriej corpore comprcsso, colore brunnen, maculis parvis 
auranliacis, ovalibus, limbo brunneo, pinnA dorsi ante spiracula exortd, 
rictu angusliore antecedentibus, naribus tubnlosis, maxilla superiore lon- 
giore. Lonyus 2\ ped. Variat punctis fiavis ; b. punctis et macvlis 
brunneis. 



MUR.ENA SIMILIS. 



Spec, altera, kc. Foister, J. R. Descr. An. p. 18.3. 
" Muroenophis. Faun. Jap." 



Nasal teeth eight or ten, moderately tall and very acute, 
with three taller and more slender teeth on the mesial line 
of the disk; succeeded by eight or nine short, acute vo- 
merine teeth, standing in a single series. The palatine 
teeth, also uniserial, are reflex, and more closely set than 
the nasal ones, but not broad enough to be termed lance- 
olate : all are acutely two-edged towards the tips. The 
mandible is armed by ten lateral teeth, similar to the nasal 
ones, but taller, also by two stoutly subulate ones on each 
side near the symphysis, standing in the same row. 

The gape of the mouth is rather large, the eye mode- 
rately so, the posterior nostril is not tubular, and the dor- 
sal commences before the gill-opening (about half an inch 
in the specimen described). The anus is situated about 
one-sixteenth of the whole length before the middle of the 
fish. 

Colour pale wood-brown, finely mottled with irregular, 
star-like specks, of dark hair-brown. The specks are 
scattered generally over the ground tint, and are also 
densely aggregated in patches, producing about twenty or 
more large spots, which run along the sides, and ex- 
tend to the dorsal fin. A narrow line along the middle 
of the throat connects a series of the small specks, 
and the folds of the gill-membrane are traced on each 
side by similar lines. The anal fin is marked out by a 
black line surmounted with a white edging. The dorsal 
is not so edged. Lining of the mouth blackish and mot- 
tled. Length 24 inches. To anus 10-5 inches. To gill- 
opening 27. 

Hab. Polynesia. Red Sea. Sea of Japan. 

This Munoia has a pretty close resemblance to M. va- 
riegaia, but the spots do not branch off in a radiated 
way, and the dentition is widely dissimilar. It agrees in 
its large gape, sharp teeth, five parallel dark lines on the 
gill-membranes, and in colours with the specimen obtain- 
ed at Otaheite by Forster, and noticed after his account 
of Echidna rariegata. It is probable that the native 
name of "Boohee" is restricted to this species, as the 
name of "Pipiro" only, is written on George Forster's 
drawing of M. variegata. Riippell's plate of M. ophis 
has a still closer resemblance in colour and markings to 
similis than variegata has, but the shortness of the gape 
distinguishes ophis from the present species. The speci- 
men in the British Museum, from which the above de- 
scription was taken, is from Japan, and is marked "Muree- 
nophis. Faun. Jap." Not knowing what appellation the 
authors of the Faima Japonica mean to give it, I have 
termed it similis, to denote its general close resemblance 
to tnriegala and ophis. I would gladly have adopted 
Forster's name echidna as a specific appellation for this 
species, but it has been applied by Schneider to variegata, 
and would lead to confusion if used to designate another 
species. Lacepede's Murcenophis echidna, which, he 
says, has a very large gape, bristling with many teeth, 
cannot be variegata. He refers to Ellis, in Cook's third 

p 2 



84 



voyage, as his authority, but on turning to that work I 
find only the following sentence : " Amongst these were 
some large eels, beautifully spotted, which, when followed, 
would raise themselves out of the water, and endeavour 
with an open mouth, to bite their pursuers." (Voy. to 
Pacif by Capt. Cook, Gierke and Gore, 1776-80, vol. i. p. 
219. Lond. 1784). 



MuR.ENA PRATBERNON, Quoy et Gaimard. 



Muricna prathemon, Qiioy et Gaimard, Voy. de Freycinet, PI. 52, 



fig- 



Fourteen marginal nasal teeth of a stoutly subulate form, 
with much smaller ones not forming a regular exterior se- 
ries, but mostly standing in the intervals of the taller ones. 
Two strong, stoutly subulate mesial teeth in the fore part 
of the disk; followed at an interval by three small, com- 
pressed, and not veiy pungent vomerine teeth in one row. 
Palatine teeth uniserial, nineteen or twenty on each side, 
lanceolate, reflex, and moderately acute. Mandibular 
teeth at the end of the jaw, about six on each side, simi- 
lar to the principal nasal ones, with much smaller teeth of 
several sizes exterior to their bases, in two or three rows, 
being nine or ten in number on each limb. The lateral 
mandibular teeth are like the palatine ones. 

Snout obtuse. Eye rather small, and situated somewhat 
before the middle of the gape. Posterior nostrils not tu- 
bular. The origin of the dorsal, some of whose rays are 
an inch-and-a-half long, cannot be ascertained, owing to 
the state of the specimen. Ground colour of the skin pur- 
pli.sh brown, with numerous round, black dots, the size of 
a small pea on the upper part of the head. Round the 
gill-opening the spots assume various forms from the con- 
fluence of two, three, or more. Farther back the dark 
marks have the shape of imperfect rings or stars, and to- 
wards the tail the size of the compound spots increases. 
In the middle of the tail they have considerable resem- 
blance to the spots of M. Helena, the purplish ground co- 
lour forming a mesh work round the spots, and perforating 
their disks. The under jaw and fore part of the belly have 
the ground colour varied by only a kw faint, small spots. 
There is, however, no white on the fish, nor any pale 
spots on the edges of the fins, such as exist in M. helena, 
to which the species nearly approaches in many respects. 
A large black ring surrounds the gill-opening, and the 
corners of the mouth are also black, the palate and gullet 
being dark brown. The specimen in the British Museum 
measures 74 inches, but it has been skinned in such a 
way that the exact position of the vent cannot be ascer- 
tained. The following measurements of a recent example 
were taken by J. B. Jukes, Esq. " Length 57 inches. 
From the snout to the anus 30 inches. From anus to tip 
of tail 28 inches. Girth at the gill-opening 13 inches. 
Girth of the body where thickest 17 inches. Girth at 
the vent ISg^ inches. 

Hab. Darnley Island (Jukes). (Quoy el Gaimard). 



MUR.ENA TENEBROSA, Solander. 
Murmna tenehrosa. Banks et Solander, MSS. 

The British Museum possesses a specimen of this fish 
preserved in spirits, which was obtained from the College 
of Surgeons, and was most probably the individual taken 
on Cook's first voyage, at the Society Islands. The na- 
tive name is written " Epui,''' or " Ebui." 

Nasal teeth pretty tall, rather widely set, subulate, and 
very acute, in one series forming a semicircle round the 
end of the jaw, the front teeth being the lowest. Three 
tall, subulate and slightly recurved mesial teeth on the 
disk. Followed after an interval by nine short, acute vo- 
merine teeth, disposed in one slightly irregular row. Pa- 
latine teeth 17, uniserial, tapering, and very acute ; the 
four anterior ones shortest, the middle of the series tallest, 
and all slightly reflex. Each limb of the mandible is 
armed by sixteen or eighteen teeth, resembling the pala- 
tine ones, with three tall subulate interior ones at the fore 
end, making there two rows. 

This is a slender, considerably compressed Mureena, 
has plain posterior nostrils, the dorsal commencing well 
forward on the nape before the gill-openings, and the anus 
situated about one twenty-sixth part the whole length 
before the middle of the fish. The tail is acute. The 
colours have totally faded. Solander's short description 
which mentions them is as follows : — 

" Iris castanea. Pupilla nigra, annulo luteo. Pori 
capitis concolores cum corpore. Tola e sordide purpurea 
fusca,fasciis macitlisque traiisversalihus, latis, numerosis, 
nigricantibus ; tarn obscurus est piscis tit prima intuitu 
via; inter color em corporis et fascias differentia videtur. 
Denies in ma.villis et fauce uti in antecedente fM. ato- 
mariayi. Nullum autem labia faucis videre licuit." — 
Solander, 1. c. 

Length 13'5 inches. To anus 622. To gill-opening 
1-62. 

Hab. Polynesia. 



MUR.ENA LiTA, Richardson. 

Nasal marginal teeth fourteen, increasing gradually in 
height as they recede from the symphysis. A single me- 
sial tooth only is left on the disk, which has perhaps 
received injury, and a second marginal row may have ori- 
ginally existed to correspond with the double row at the 
end of the mandible. Vomerine teeth short and rather 
obtuse, disposed in a single row anteriorly, but the two 
last pairs are in two uneven rows. Palatine teeth eleven, 
uniserial, compressed, subulate, very acute, and moderately 
reflex, diminishing gradually from the second, which is 
the tallest, to the corner of the mouth. Mandibular 
teeth partially biserial. There are fourteen on each limb, 
compressed, subulate and acute, tallest and more widely 
set near tlie symphysis, and decreasing gradually as they 
approach the corner of the mouth. At the fore end of the 
jaw thei-e is an exterior row of six sliort, rather closely set, 
more obtuse cutting teeth. 



85 



Posterior nostrils very close to the eye, not tubular. 
Dorsal commencing a very little before the gill-opening. 
Anus rather behind the middle of the fish. 

Colour generally a dark, dingy brown, but when closely 
examined the prevailing hue is found to be produced by 
roundish, liver-brown specks, of the size of a pin's head, 
crowded so densely towards the back as almost to exclude 
the pale ground tint, but which separate on the side.s, so 
that the ground colour forms reticular lines. On the belly 
the spots are comparatively widely set, and much of the 
groimd tint appears. An obscure reticulation on a larger 
scale can also be made out, dividing the side of the fish 
into about four rows of spots as big as a pistol bullet, set 
alternately. On the head and throat are many small, 
brown spots, occupying less space than the pale orange- 
tinted ground colour. Fins a little whitish on the edges. 

Length 18'5 inches. To anus 9-6. To gill-opening 2 6 
inches. From anus to tip of tail 89 inches. 

Hab. The Moluccas. (Spec, in the British Museum, 
received from Berlin, labelled M. varieijatu). 



MuR^NA siDEKEA. Richardson. 



Radii :— Br. 8 ; D. 306 ; A. 192 = 



Plate XLVIII., fig. 1—5. 

Principal series of nasal teeth about twelve in number, 
compressed-subulate, with acute edges, or narrowly lan- 
ceolate, and moderately tall, vrith an equal number of 
short, conico-subulate, bluntish, angular, or furrowed teeth, 
ranged close to their bases exteriorly, most crowded at 
the symphysis, where they form two rows, or three in all. 
On the mesial line one stout, conico-subulate tooth is 
placed well forward, the two more posterior ones usually 
seen in the Murcence, being either wanting in this species, 
or more likely broken oft' in the three specimens that we 
have examined. The vomerine teeth are in two rows, the 
rows commencing on the anterior corner of the bone on 
each side of the nasal disk, and gradually approaching 
each other, so as to coalesce in the back part of the mouth. 
This disposition of the teeth is not very happily represent- 
ed in plate 48. These teeth are very small and short, 
with acutely compressed, but not pointed tips. 

Palatine teeth eight, uniserial, close set, reflex, nar- 
rowly lanceolate, and diminishing in size as they ap- 
proach the corner of the mouth. Each limb of the 
mandible is armed from the symphysis to the corner of 
the mouth with a series of fourteen or fifteen narrowly lan- 
ceolate, very acute, and moderately reflex teeth ; and at 
the end of the jaw there is an exterior row of seven close 
set, short, conical, furrowed teeth, almost concealed by 
integument ; there is also a small tooth close to the 
symphysis still more exterior than this row, making the 
teeth three deep at that spot. 

The snout is obtuse, the eye moderately large, the pos- 
terior nostrils are not tubular, and the gill-opening is 
larger than usual, and placed at a considerable distance 



from the corner of the mouth. The fold of skin investing 
the dorsal is very lax, and comes forward to the eyes, from 
behind which it rises in a high and abrupt curve. The 
dorsal commences a little way before the gill-opening, or 
about half an inch in a specimen measuring twenty-seven 
inches ; and its first rays are short, the succeeding ones 
increasing rapidly until they attain the full height of the 
fin, which is even for the greatest part of its length. The 
anus in one specimen is about a fiftieth part of the whole 
length beyond the middle, while in another it is a thir- 
teenth part, the tail being comparatively short in the lat- 
ter. This is an instance of the danger of relying solely on 
such measurements for the establishment of specific cha- 
racters in this genus. 

The heart is situated between the gill-openings and 
four gills are placed in a bag on each side of the throat. 
Each gill-opening enters its proper bag at the pos- 
terior part, and there are five round holes by which the 
bag communicates with the gullet, four of the holes perfo- 
rating the bases of the four gills, and the fifth the mem- 
brane behind the last gill. No part of the gills adheres 
to the walls of the sac, and there are no rakers on the an- 
terior borders of the gill-plates. 

On opening the belly the liver is seen lying to the right 
of the stomach, but not exceeding one-third of the length 
of that viscus, which is a long, conical bag, reaching 
downwards to the anus. The pyloric orifice is a small, 
round, lateral opening, situated midway between the gul- 
let and the tip of the stomach, which in a specimen mea- 
suring twenty-seven inches is ten inches and a quarter 
long. The internal coat of the stomach is plaited longi- 
tudinally. The gut descends from the pylorus behind the 
liver, parallel to and in contact with the stomach, and 
near the anus there is a dilated part, which contains a 
complete spiral valve, formed by transverse septa, each 
having a semilunar notch, which is alternately turned to 
the right and left. Two or three valves are strengthened 
by longitudinal folds of membrane from the side of the 
gut. There are in all six transverse valves, and a smooth 
piece of gut intervenes between the valvular part and the 
anus. 

The ground colour is white on tlie throat and belly, with 
a purplish gray or slightly brownish tint towards the back, 
interspersed with innumerable roundish, dark, blackish 
purple specks, about the size of a pin's head. The spots 
are more rare on the middle line of the belly towards the 
vent, numerous on the cheeks and sides, and densely 
crowded and more or less confluent on the back and fins. 
They are aggregated and blacker in oval and roundish 
patches disposed in three or four rows along the fish. 
The specks are not represented round enough in the 
figure. The fins are slightly edged with white towards 
the tip of the tail. 

Length .... .... .... 28-25 26-75 inches. 

„ from snout to anus .... 14-60 1500 

„ „ to gill-opening 390 4-25 

Height of body .... .... 190 2-00 

Thickness of ditto .... TOO MO 

Hab. The western and northern shores of Australia and 
the coasts of New Guinea. 



Solaiider describes a Murcena which he observed among 
the Society Islands, where it is named "Eaulha" or 
"Eawr'ha," which may prove to be this fish. I am, how- 
ever, prevented from adopting his specific name by the 
spots in our fish haying no transverse elongation nor any 
bar-like arrangement. His description is : — 

" MuE;ENA ATOMARiA. P. pect. nulltB. Tola glauca 
irrorata atoitiis fuscis fasciisque mimerosissimis interrup- 
iis sen maculis transversalibus dorsalibus, lateralibus et 
(ibdomitialibiis seriatim dispositis. Macul<B pinnis ex- 
tendunttir. Nares tubulosce. Puncta in capite aliquot 
alba, porosa : 2 inter ociilos, 2 supra nares, pauca nirinque 
prope latera maxillae superioris ; circiter 6 ulrinque se- 
cunda maxillam inferiorem. Denies lanceolati fin max- 
illisj parum rejlexi, compressi acutissimi, Jixi ; ires vel 
quatuor in exieriori parte palati, rejlexibiles ; nulli in 
fauce, sed ad interiores fauces quasi lahra dua antrorsum 
atienuata, supra et inferne ambo dentibus obsiia. Iris 
ex argenieo plumbea. Pupilla nigra antiulo atireo.''' — 
Solander, MSS., p. 28. 

The same naturalist mentions another Murxna, taken 
in the same neighbourhood, named " Epui," which he 
thinks may be a variety of atoniaria. 

" MuR^NA ERYTHROPTERA, ociiU parvi plumbeo-fusci. 
Pupilla nigra. Annulus htius intense miniatus. Iris 
griseo-ccerulescens. Macula nigra circa orbitas, postice 
latior. Totus piscisfuscus immaculatus. Pori laterales 
capiiis prope maxillam plures ; tres ulrinque albi et 
puncii 2 porosi albi inter oculos. Pinna sordide rnbes- 
cenies. Forte var. M. atomariae p. 28, nullce autem ato- 
?»<^p."— Solander, MSS., p. 102. 



MuE^NA isiNGLEEXA. Richardson. 

Muieetia isingleena, Richardson, Iclith. of Voy. of Sulphur, p. 108, 
pi. xlviii. fig. 1. Idem, Report on the Fishes of China to the Br. Assoc. 
Icon .—Reeves, 237, Hardw. ined. 305, in Mus. Brit. 

About ten uniserial, marginal nasal teeth, subulate and 
acute, with no small ones intervening. Three tall ones on 
the mesial line of the disk, and one row of very short, 
acute vomerine teeth. Eleven or twelve reflex palatine 
teeth, the three heading the series smaller, and within 
tliem two taller, slender teeth, forming the second row. 
The mandible has ten or eleven lateral teeth, with four 
larger ones more widely set at the fore end of the limb. 

The specimen after maceration in spirits has a dilute 
brown ground colour, paler on the belly, and is marked 
with blackish spots, varying in size from that of a pea to a 
small bean, mostly round, but in many places, from aggre- 
gation of several spots, of an irregular form. The head is 
covered with spots of the size of a pea, in which it diff'ers 
from bill lata, which has only a few small dots on the 
head. The furrows on the throat are not black, and the 
spots are scattered over the belly, in which respect also it 
differs from bullata. No white edges to the fins. 

Eye rather small. Posterior nostril not tubular. Gape 
of the mouth moderate. Dorsal commencing before the 
gill-opening, and the fold of the skin which encloses it 



extending along the nape. Anns very little before the 
middle of the fish. 

Length of the specimen in spirits 16'4 inches. To anus 
8 inches. To gill-opening 2 inches. Length of a dried 
skin 47 inches. 

Had. Sea of China, near Canton. 



MuR^NA bullata. Richardson. 

Marginal nasal teeth about eight tall, subulate ones, 
with several small ones between each pair ; three teeth as 
usual on the mesial line, and a series of acute vomerine 
teeth, mostly concealed by the swelling of the soft parts. 
Palatine teeth sixteen compressed-subulate, very acute, 
reflex, the four anterior ones smaller, and within them, in 
a second series, three tall, setaceous teeth. Sixteen late- 
ral teeth on each limb of the mandible, resembling the pa- 
latine ones, and three tall, subulate ones next the sym- 
physis, in the same row. 

Eye moderately large. Posterior nostrils not tubular. 
Dorsal commencing before the gill-opening. Anus about 
one-fourteenth of the whole length before the middle of 
the fish. 

General colour of the fish after maceration in spirits, 
lavender purple, varied by about four rows of round, black 
.spots, as big as swan shot, one of the rows being on the 
dorsal : the lowest row is of smaller spots than the others, 
and none of them are perfectly regular in their distribu- 
tion. Some of the spots are conjugate, and at the tip of 
the tail they form bars. The inside of the mouth is pur- 
ple. The furrows of the throat and cheeks are black. 
Edges of the dorsal and anal pale. Belly not spotted. 

This fish is spotted much like M. isingleena, and it may 
be merely the young of that species, or a local variety', the 
dentition being similar, but as there is a diff'erence in the 
general tint, and the spots are fewer, more simple and re- 
gular, the gape of the mouth larger, and the anus a little 
farther forward, I have given it a specific name. Length 
12"4 inches. To anus 535. To gill-opening r46 inches. 
Hab. Sea of Borneo (Sir Edward Belcher). 



MuR^NA STELLiFER. Richardson. 

Nasal teeth ten in one series, subulate, very acute, 
slightly compressed at the tips, and pretty tall. Three 
slender mesial teeth, the second and third very tall. One 
row of very short, moderately acute vomerine teeth. Pala- 
tine teeth biserial, twelve in the outer row, gradually aug- 
menting in size towards the comer of the mouth, acute, 
lanceolate : inner row four or five slender, tall teeth. 
Mandible furnished on each limb with a series of about 
twenty or twenty-one lanceolate and very acute teeth, all 
reflex, the anterior ones smaller, but as closely set as the 
lateral ones. 

Anus about one-twenty-fourth part of the length ante- 
terior to the middle of the fish. Fins conspicuous. Dor- 
sal commencing before the gill-opening. Tail compressed, 
tapering, rather acute. 



87 



Colour of the specimen in spirits liver-brown, with four 
rows of rather widely-placed, pale bluish or whitish, round 
dots, a little radiated on their margins. The upper row is 
at the base of the dorsal, and is not very conspicuous un- 
less when the fin is raised, the under one on the belly 
is regular, and the spots on the sides are very uniform in 
their sizes and distances. The dorsal and anal ai-e very 
narrowly fringed with white or pale blue. Length 7'1 
inches. To anus 33 inches. 

This species differs from hullata in the spots being 
smaller, more regular aud pale on a dark ground. Their 
serial arrangement and lesser number distinguish it from 
punctata. M. tigriita of Ruppell has ocellated dark spots 
on a pale ground. 

Hab. Madagascar. 



MuR.ENA CANCELLATA. Richardsou. 

Radii:— Br. 10; D. 345 ; A. 236 = 581. Australian Spec. 

Plate XLVI., figs. 1—5. 

Schneider's description of Gymnothora^c favagineus 
might be applied to this Mui<ena, but his figure accords 
so ill with it in form, that I have not ventured to consider 
them to be the same species. McClelland's Therodontis re- 
ticulata agrees, however, with favaffineus, both in general 
shape and in the character of the meshes, but it possesses 
two rows of vomerine teeth, whereas favagineus is ranged 
by Cuvier with the J\Iur<en(B, having only one row, — but for 
this circumstance 1 should have been inclined, in the ab- 
sence of authentic specimens, to have considered them as 
of the same species. 

The specimen of cancellata which we have figured was 
procured on the coast of western Australia, by Surgeon 
Bynoe, of the Royal Navy. The British Museum posses- 
ses another from Cape Upstart, and also one from Suma- 
tra. 

Nasal marginal teeth ten, pretty tall, compressed, subu- 
late and acute, with two minute ones between each pair. 
Three tall subulate and not compressed teeth stand on the 
mesial line overtopping the marginal ones. All the larger 
nasal teeth are attached to the orifices of deep holes in the 
bone. Six short-conical acute teeth form a single short 
series on tiie vomer. Palatine teeth about seventeen, 
close set, and much reflexed forming an outer series. They 
are narrowly lanceolate and compressed, with entire, acute 
edges. Two larger ones stand close within the commence- 
ment of the series, making a very short interior row. The 
mandible is armed by about twenty or twenty-one lateral 
teeth, similar to the palatine ones, and also by two or three 
on each limb near the symphysis, stouter and taller than 
the opposing marginal nasal teeth ; and between each pair 
there are one or two minute, acute teeth, a little exterior 
to the centres of the large ones, as in the upper jaw. 

This Murtena is more compressed throughout than 
many others, and the compression increases as usual to- 
wards the tail. Tlie dorsal is not enveloped in so thick a 



fold of skin as in most, and is therefore more conspicuous. 
The posterior rays are longer than the height of the part 
of the body on which they stand, but owing to their ob- 
lique position the fin is not so broad. The dorsal at its 
origin before the gill-opening, above the fourth vertebra, 
rises in a low curve. The snout is obtuse, but being de- 
pressed below the swelling nape seems slender. Poste- 
rior nostrils not tubular. Eye moderately large. Lower 
jaw scarcely perceptibly longer than the upper one. Ten 
long, slender, or thread-like branchiostegous rays curve 
round the wafer-like operculum. 

Body, tail and fins reticulated by white meshes, enclos- 
ing brown di.sks, which are mostly hexagonal, and number 
anteriorly five or six in the height of the body and fin, 
becoming gradually fewer as the fish tapers off in the tail. 
The Sumatran specimen in the British Museum, which 
was received from the College of Surgeons, has more regu- 
lar and continuous meshes than are shown in our figure. 
The lines are wider at the angles of the meshes, and the 
brown colour of the areas is produced by microscopical, 
wavy bars on a paler ground. The belly is whitish, with 
a slight clouding. 

The skull of this fish has a very slight, acute mesial 
crest, extending from the hinder point of the nasal bone 
to the occipital spine, and nowhere rising above its gene- 
ral level. The margin of the orbit is completed behind 
by rather stout, tubular, suborbital bones, but under the 
orbit and before it these bones remain membranous. The 
turbinate bones, as in the other Murcence, are long, narrow 
and thin, flanking the nasal ridge. The nasal disk is per- 
forated by numerous holes, on which the teeth stand, and 
seems as if it had a double floor. 

There are fifty vertebrae anterior to the beginning of the 
anal, and about seventy-seven posterior to it, or about 127 
in all. Twelve next the cranium have, in addition to the 
transverse parapophysis, a thin spine descending from the 
under mesial line of the centrum. This spine or crest is 
highest at the third or fourth vertebra, and diminishes 
gradually to the twelfth. Posterior to that the under an- 
gles of the parapophysis gradually approach each other 
beneath, forming a deep htemal canal, aud at the termina- 
tion of the abdominal cavity a central, under-process is 
formed as it were by the union of the under angles of the 
parapophyses, while the upper angles retain their horizon- 
tal direction, and gradually diminish in size as they ap- 
proach the end of the tail. A long series of ribs reaching 
from the cranium nearly to the tip of the tail, is attached 
to the centra of the vertebra; above the parapophysis, 
through the medium of membrane ; and from the begin- 
ning of the anal to the end of the tail a similar series is 
attached to the centra between the lateral and inferior 
parts of the parapophyses. These ribs are stoutest about 
the middle of the tail, and have each a forked end next 
the centrum, the short limb of the fork forming a knob or 
head. The interneural ]3rocesses correspond in number 
with the dorsal rays, and the rays of both fins, though fis- 
sile at their tips, are not jointed. 

Stomach a long, wide, ca;cal tube (measuring in the 
specimen here described 50 inches from the gullet to the 
point of the sac), plaited longitudinally within, in about ten 



88 



fine folds. Pyloric orifice lateral, near the oesophagus, 
opening directly into a much more slender intestine, 
which lies parallel to the stomach. The intestine is reti- 
culated interiorly, the wrinkles becoming gradually more 
delicate, and disappearing in the lower part of the ca- 
nal. At the junction of the small intestine with the wider 
rectum its inner coat projects so as to form a circular 
valve, but the gut was not in a condition to enable me to 
ascertain whether a complete spiral valve existed or not. 
Air-bladder of a long-oval form, an inch in length. 

Length 1 7'5 inches. To anus 8 inches. To gill-opening 
•2'45 inches. 

Obs. — McClelland characterises his Tlimrodontis reticu- 
lata (which we have supposed may prove to be identical 
with the Gymiwthorax furagiiieus of Bloch), as follows : 
" Teeth sharp and hooked, consisting of a single row on 
the edges of both jaws, and a double row on the centre 
of the back part of the palate, with three moveable fangs 
near the apex of the upper jaw. Crown high and rounded, 
every part of the body marked with black, pentangular 
spots, separated by narrow white lines." (Calcutta Journ. 
of Nat. Hist. July, 1844). 



MuR^NA TESSELLATA. Richardson. 



Murtsna tessellata, Richardson, Icbth. of Vov. of .Sulpliuv, p. 109. 
Plate Iv. fig. 5—8. 



Nasal teeth twelve, uniserial, subulate, very acute, not 
tall. Three teeth on the mesial line of the disk, the pos- 
terior one being the tallest in the mouth, stoutish at the 
base and very acute. Vomerine teeth uniserial, short, 
acute. Palatine teeth ten in the outer series, more com- 
pressed than the nasal ones, very acute and reflex, form- 
ing a slightly arched row ; inner row of two taller ones at 
the fore end of the bone. Each limb of the mandible is 
armed anteriorly by three tall teeth, like the nasal ones, 
the second being the stoutest and tallest, and in the same 
line, by fourteen lateral teeth, which are subulate and re- 
flex, the foremost being smaller than the rest. The man- 
dible is slightly concave or recurved. 

This Murcena has a different form from canceUata, a more 
obtuse snout, a full and not concave profile, a shorter 
gape, smaller eye, lower dorsal fin, and different colour, 
with fewer and larger meshes formed by the white lines. 
The me-shes are much less numerous than those of y^jw/^r/- 
nea. The dorsal commences before the gill-opening, and 
the vent is about one-fiftieth of the whole length before the 
middle of the fish. The posterior openings are not tubular. 

One specimen exists in the Museum of Haslar Hospital 
and another was presented to the British Museum by the 
College of Surgeons. They are supposed to have come 
from the southern seas, but the place of capture of either 
is unknown. 



Length, total 
„ to anus 
„ to gill-opening 



904 
4-20 
1-00 



l;3-5 
6-5 

0-82 



MuR^NA COLUBRINA. Commerson apud Lacep. 

Murana fasciata, Backs et Solander, MSS. p. 68 ? 
La Murenopliis colubrine, Lacep. v. p. 641. 642. 

Plate XIX., fig. I. 

A Murxna taken among the Society Islands on Cook's 
first voyage is briefly noticed in Solander's notes, as fol- 
lows : MuR/ENA FASCiATA, lota fasciata, fasciis latis ex 
albido cinerascentihtts,fascite dum in capile lute^centibus. 
Iris argenteo-fuscescens. Pupilla nigra. Fascics per 
pinnas extend untiir.'" Native names " Epui-earhu." Ex- 
cept in the existence of the bands there is little in this no- 
tice to identify it with a banded Mnrtena which the Bri- 
tish Museum received from the College of Surgeons. 
The origin of the specimen is not recorded, but it was as- 
sociated in the collection with some fish collected on 
Cook's voyage. Lacepede's figure of M. colubriiia repre- 
sents our fish pretty well, and shows the fins fringing the 
point of the tail, yet in the ' Regne Animal ' it is quoted 
as specifically the same with the Murwna annnlata of 
Thunberg, which is an Ophisurus with double the number 
of black rings on the body. 

Nasal teeth twelve, slenderly subulate and very acute, 
in one series. Three taller ones on the mesial line of the 
disk, and nine very low, small, bluntish teeth in a single 
row on the vomer. Palatine teeth biserial, outer row of 
twelve or thirteen teeth, which are narrowly lanceolate, 
very acute, low, and much reflexed : the inner row con- 
sists of four tall, slender teeth, standing opposite to the com- 
mencement of the outer row. Each limb of the mandible 
is armed by twenty-four acute, compressed teeth ; three of 
which near the symphysis are set alternately with two mi- 
nute ones : the following teeth are similar in height, regu- 
larity and inclination to the outer palatine ones. 

Jaws equal. Posterior nasal opening with tumid lips, 
placed very near the superior anterior margin of the orbit. 
The anterior ones end in rather long tubes. Body consi- 
derably compressed, particularly posteriorly, the tail taper- 
ing, and ending very acutely. Anus about one-fourteenth 
of the whole length before the middle of the fish. The 
dorsal fin is very conspicuous, and the fold of skin in 
which it lies is thinner than usual in the Murance, so that 
the rays can be readily seen when it is held up to the 
light. They are not, however, easily reckoned, owing to 
their tenuity, and they are shorter at the tip of the tail 
than on the back. The reticulations of the skin produced 
by the muscular fasciculi ai-e very fine, and the lateral line 
is imperceptible, though there is a furrow where the 
muscles of the side meet. 

The ground colour of the specimen, which has been 
long macerated in spirits, is brownish, that of the fins 
being pale yellow or soiled white : both are crossed by 
fifteen very regular and neatly-defined black bars, not so 
wide as the interspaces. The first bar includes the eye, 
the second is immediately behind the mouth, the third 
passes over the gill-opening, the seventh is just before the 
anus, and the last is on the end of the tail, leaving only 
the white tip of the fin beyond. 



89 



The bars contrast more strongly with the pale fins than 
with the browner body. Length 8-4 inches. To anus 3-6. 
To gill-opening 1 inch. 

Hab. New Britain, Aniboyna (Coinmerson apud Lace- 
pede). Polynesia? (Solander). 

Solander also describes a M. rillala, but this derives its 
name from a longitudinal stripe. 

" MuR/ENA viTTATA. Piscis siiprd intense e/mco brun- 
neiis, vitta secundum medium dorsum e Jlavo albida, a 
capite usque ad Jinem caiidce, subtus infra lined laterali 
tolus sordide e luteo albescens. Oculi miuuii. Irisjla- 
veo-aurea. Pupil/a nigra.'" " Eualha'''' aboriginorum. 
(Banks et Solander, MSS. p. 78.) 

Hab. Society Islands. 



MUR.ENA MORINGUA, Cuv. 

Mureena maculata, nigra et viridis, Catesliy, t. 20. 
Murtena morinyua, Cuv. Keg. An. 2. p. 

Radii :— D. .323 ; A. 232 = .5.55 (Jamaica spec). 

Nasal teeth twelve, tall, stoutly subulate, compressed, 
with sharp edges, and generally two minute teeth between 
each pair, all in one row. Three mesial teeth, and nine 
very acute, shortly subulate vomerine teeth in one row. 
Palatine teeth eighteen or nineteen, much compressed, 
acute and reflex, the anterior three small, and succeeded 
immediately by the tallest in the row, the following ones 
decreasing as usual towards the corner of the mouth. In 
one specimen there is a tall, slender tooth within the com- 
mencement of the outer row, but this is absent in five or 
six other specimens, having probably been broken away. 
The mandible is armed anteriorly by three tall, stout, su- 
bulate teeth on each limb, with two or three minute ones 
between them, and laterally by about nineteen compressed, 
acute teeth, forming an even, low series. 

Dorsal commencing between the nape and gill-opening. 
Anus about a twenty-fourth part of the total length before 
the middle of the fish. Gape of the mouth large. 

Ground colour pale, with dark, liver-brown spots of va- 
rious sizes, from that of a pea downwards, and more or 
less confluent, but generally retaining a roundish form. 
The spots are smaller, rounder, and more distinct on the 
head and more confluent near the end of tail, the pale 
ground colour occupying, however, everywhere except on 
the cheeks less space than the spots. The tint of the 
spots is less deep on the bellj'. 

Length 23-5 inches. To anus 10-75 inches. To gill- 
opening 3'4 inches. The species attains the length of 
upwards of three feet. 

Cuvier refers to the Murcena maculata, nigra of Catesby, 
t. 21, as the type of his moringua, but t. 20 agrees best 
with most of the specimens we have examined. There is, 
however, no very marked difference between the figures, 
both being coarsely drawn. The British Museum possesses 
a dried skin in which the pale inters]iaces are narrower, 
and reduced nearly to the winding reticulations of M. thyr- 
soidea. 



Hab. The Bermudas, Gulf of Mexico, and Caribbean 



MuR/ENA LiNEO-riNNis. Ilichard.son. 
Radii -.—circiter D. 320; A. 100; = 480. 

Since the preceding sheet went to press, the British 
Museum has purchased from Herr Brant, of Hamburgh, a 
South American Murtena, labelled Munenophis snya, but 
which is evidently widely different from the Nettastoma 
saga of Rafinesque and Risso (vide p. 96). 

About ten pretty tall, compressed-subulate, very acute, 
nniserial nasal teeth, and an equal number of small teeth 
in the intervals. Three taller mesial teeth, and seven or 
eight small acute vomerine ones, set alternately a little to 
the right and left, so as to approach abiserial arrangement. 
Fourteen narrowly lanceolate palatine teeth, the three an- 
terior ones being small, the middle ones larger, and the 
posterior ones decreasing gradually as they approach the 
corner of the mouth. A single very slender, and not tall, 
moveable interior tooth, at the fore part of the bone, renders 
the arrangement biserial. The fore part of the mandible is 
armed, on each limb, by four or five tall stout teeth, with 
a small and rather more exterior one in each interval. 
These are followed on the sides of the bone by six small, 
close set, acute compressed teeth, and in succession by 
ten larger reflex, narrowly lanceolate ones, which are sensi- 
bly larger the nearer they are to the corner of the mouth. 

This MurcBua is considerably compressed, with a swell- 
ing throat, a pretty large gape, and the dorsal commencing 
by an abrupt curve about midway between the eye and the 
gill-opening. The fin is high, and the investing told of 
skin being rather thin its rays are more than usually visi- 
ble. The anus is one-eleventh of the whole length of the 
fish anterior to the middle. Colour, after maceration in 
spirits, purplish- or brownish-black, without spots, the 
ventral surface being paler. The dorsal is traversed by 
fine oblique lines of a darker hue, for the most part 
seven or eight in the height at any one point. The anal, 
which is l(jw, has fewer lines, and the two fins are narrow- 
est at their union round the tip of the tail. The folds of 
throat are marked out by fine black lines. 

Length 22 inches. To anus 105 inches. To gill- 
opening 2 inches. Height of body r25 inch. Circum- 
ference 3 inches. Height of dorsal fin 075 inch. 

Hab. Puerto Caballo. 



MuR.«i\A GRISEO-BADIA. Richardsou. 

One row of close set, conico-subulate, nasal teeth, four- 
teen or sixteen in number, the four posterior ones on each 
side bent backwards at their middles. Two tall, slightly 
recurved, moderately acute teeth on the mesial line ; and 
about eleven small, round and obtuse vomerine teeth in 
one row, but two of them standing a little out of line. 
Palatine teeth biserial : the outer row composed of four- 
teen close set, low, even, bluntish teeth ; the inner one of 

Q 



90 



eleven taller, more distant, slenderly subulate, but not very 
acute teeth. Fore half of the mandible armed by two 
rows of teeth ; the outer row consisting of ten or eleven 
close set low teeth, having compressed but not pointed 
tips ; the inner row of five or six taller ones, of which the 
two or three posterior ones are bent back and are more 
acute. The posterior half of the jaw is set with low blunt- 
ish teeth, alternating with others a little taller, somewhat 
recurved, and standing a little within ; but the two sets 
are so close that until very narrowly examined they appear 
to form one uneven row. 

A slender species. Posterior nostrils not tubular. Un- 
der jaw shorter than the upper one. Anus exactly in the 
middle of the length. Colour liver-brown, finely reticu- 
lated by grayish-white lines, forming small meshes, which 
are roundish near the head and squarish elsewhere, but 
they are not very visible unless when examined with the 
aid of a lens, the general tint appearing to the naked eye 
grayish-brown. 

Length C"2 inches. Distance between the end of the 
snout and the anus 31 inches. Distance from ditto to 
gill-opening 0"7;3 inch. 

Hab. Tonga Islands (Dr. Mc William). 

The only spotless Miirteua, mentioned in Solander's 
notes of the fish observed by him in the South Sea, is the 
M. erythroptera quoted below. 



MuR/ENA PAVONINA. Richardsou. 
Miirana pnvonina, Ricliaidson, Voy. of Sulphur, p. 1 10, pi. 53, f. 1-6. 

Ten or twelve moderately tall, slightly recurved, acute, 
uniserial, nasal teeth, with a minute tooth in each intei'val. 
Three teeth on the mesial line, the posterior two being, as 
usual, the tallest in the mouth. The vomerine series, com- 
mencing at a considerable distance behind these, is com- 
posed of five or six acute teeth. Palatine teeth biserial; 
sixteen or seventeen in the outer row, compressed, subu- 
late and acute ; with six tall, slender and acute ones, more 
widely set in the interior row, which reaches about half- 
way along the outer series. Each limb of the mandible is 
armed by about nineteen subulate, slightly recurved teeth, 
forming the exterior row, with a second row at the fore 
end of the limb, composed of four tall, slender, acute 
teeth. 

Body high and much compressed, with a broad dorsal, 
which commences at a considerable distance before the 
gill-opening, and becomes comparatively very narrow as it 
rounds the end of the tail to join the anal. The gill- 
opening is one-seventh of the whole length distant from 
the end of the snout, and the vent is one-twentieth of the 
length before the middle of the fish. The posterior open- 
ings are tubular, forming long barbels ; the anterior ones 
are more shortly so, and two ])ores at the ends of both 
jaws are also prolonged into short tubes. 

Colour pitch-black, varied by regular oval spots, shaded 
with brown. The spots are smaller on the head and fins. 

Length 9-6 inches. To anus 4-4. To gill-opening P4 
inch. 



Hab. Southern Seas. 

This species would be readily distinguished from the 
Calamnia pauin of Russell, or punctata of Schneider, by 
the form of the spots, were they uniformly as large and 
regularly oval, as in the example figured in the ' Ichthy- 
ology of the Voyage of the Sulphur.' But the British 
Museum possesses a dried skin of a murrey measuring 27^ 
inches, which has small round spots, like Russell's fish 
and the high barbels at the eyes of pavouina. Its general 
appearance corresponds with that of the latter, but there 
is only one row of palatine teeth, though the mouth being 
injured makes it probable that the interior row may have 
been broken away. 



[UR^NA GUTTATA. Solander. 



Murcena yuttata. Banks et Solander, MSS. Icon. pict. Parkinson, 
1. Bib. Banks. Low, Fishes of Madeira, Tr. Zool. Soc. ii. p. 192. 



Solander, on Cook's first voyage, observed this fish at 
Madeira and Rio Janeiro, and drew up the description 
which is transcribed below, and Parkinson made a drawing, 
which is preserved in the Banksian Library. The species 
does not appear, however, to have been admitted into our 
systematic works until the Rev. Mr. Low published it in 
the Zoological Transactions, under a specific appellation, 
which, though borrowed from Risso, is happily the same 
with that originally given by Solander. Risso's guttata is, 
according to the Prince of Canino, a variety of helena, 
from which Solander's fish differs in its biserial palatine 
teeth. The Muraua guttata of Forskal and Schneider 
has pectorals, and is the Haliophis guttatus of Riippell. 

" M. GVTTATA, pinnis pectoralibus nullis, pinna dorsali 
prope caput incipietite, corpore spadiceo punctis albis gut- 
tata. ' Morea' Lusitanis Maderensibus. Habitat ad in- 
sulam Maderam Oceano Allantico, etiam in Portu Fluvii 
Sancti Januarii in Brasilia.'''' — " Corpus longum, parutn 
coinpressum, nudum pone caput tumidiusculum. Caput 
parvuut, conicum, antice compressum. Dentes in maxillis 
et palato omnes discreti conico-subulati, acutissiini, majus- 
culi, inaqnales : ma.vilhe inferioris unico ordine dispositi, 
Jixi : maxiUcc superioris dupUci serie coUocati, e.iteriores 
Jixi, interiores jlexiles. Palati pauci majores, Jie.viles. 
Oculi inajusculi cute capitis communi tecti. Pupilla ni- 
gra. Iris griseo-argentea. Annulus marginalis, glaucus. 
Nares ex uno utrinque foramine parvo, rostro propriore, 
tubuloso. Tentdcu/a quatuor laiiceolata, compressa, bre- 
via, duo in apice rostri, duo supra ungulos anticos oculo- 
rum. Pori seu foramina parva d utrinque in mandibula 
superiore. Primus sub angulo postico oculi; secundus 
sub angulo antico ; teriius sub nare ; quart us sub basi ten- 
taculi ; ufi sextus prope apicem rustri. Pori sex in max- 
illa iuferiore, fere in eodem ordine dispositi et prater hos 
porulis plurimi ad ipsam marginem viaxill(B" 

" Spiraculum unicuui utrinque in medio latere, mox 
pone caput, ohionguin, horizoutali. Linea lateralis recta, 
dorso paulo propior. Anus ctipite paulo propior. Pinna 
unica in toto pisce, carnosa, crassiuscula, cute tenaci in- 
duta, ambiens (a pinnis dorsi, cauda, unique coadu- 



91 



natisj, mo.v pone caput incipiflnx, dein per totmn dorsum 
extenditur, cui adiiectiliir el itentiit subtiis ad aman us- 
que revertiiur : ipsa caiida valde coitipressa est et obtusi- 
nscula." 

" Color totiits piscis spadiceus, maculis parvis obscurio- 
ribus inequaUbus sed non transversalibm, et punctis sen 
guttis albis numerosis undiqne adspersis." 

" Diani. Long. 30 unc. Perpend. 2^. Horizont. U." 

Nasal teeth in two series, so closely approximated that 
they appear, until narrowly examined, to be in but one. 
The outer row is composed of about nine, very short, 
stoutly subulate acute teeth, alternating with an inner row 
of eight taller, conico-subulate, very acute ones, which are 
irregular in height, and variously recurved and reflex. 
The mesial line of the disk supports three tall stoutly sub- 
ulate teeth, and on each side of the hindmost of these 
there is a tooth equally tall, and almost filling the space 
between it and the marginal rows. There are also seve- 
ral smaller and shorter teeth scattered over the disk, so 
that in this species the nasal bone is pre-eminently denli- 
ferous. Vomerine teeth eleven, uniserial, short, and com- 
pressed at the tips, but not pointed. Palatine teeth 
biserial; the outer row consisting of fom-teen short, slightl}' 
recurved and reflex teeth, which diminish gradually in size 
from the fifth or tallest to the corner of the mouth : the in- 
ner row is some distance from the outer one, and reaches 
nearly as far back ; it is formed by eight taller and more 
distant subulate teeth. Each limb of the mandible is 
armed by about twenty-one acute teeth, all in one row, 
mostly recurved and slightly reflex. The anterior teeth 
are rather the longest, but there is no abrupt transition in 
the series. 

Head small, gape large, with the eye placed decidedly 
before its middle. Posterior nostrils not tubular. Anus 
exactly in the middle of the length. The specimen is so 
much stuffed that the origin of the dorsal cannot be made 
out, but posteriorly the fin appears to have been high. 
The anal is sufficiently conspicuous. 

The ground colour of the dried skin is dark purplish- 
brown, and it is regularly marked by pale round dots, the 
largest not exceeding the size of the head of a small pin. 
The dots are biggest and most crowded on the head and 
fore part of the body, where they occupy fully more space 
than the ground colour. Posteriorly they are farther apart, 
and are surrounded by dark borders, and towards the end 
of the tail they are not only more distant but also decidedly- 
less. They are smaller throughout than the spots of 
punctata of Schneider, and still more so than those of 
pavonina. 

Length 40-25 inches. To anus 20-15 inches. To gill- 
opening 5-5 inches. 

Hab. Madeira. Brazils. 



MuR.ENA THYRSOiDEA. Piichardson. 



MurtBna thyrsoidea, Richardson, Ichth. of Voy. of Sulphur, p. Ill, 
pi. xlix. fig. 1. Report on the Fishes of China, lo Brit. Association. 

Twelve nasal teeth in one series, moderately high, rather 
"closely set, conico-subulate, not very acute. Three tall, 



slender teeth on the mesial line. Vomerine teeth biserial, 
short, not very acute ; first tooth of each row the largest. 
The rows arc farthest apart anteriorly, and approximate 
posteriorly. Palatine teeth biserial ; the outer row consti- 
tuted by ten much shorter compressed teeth ; the inner row 
by eight more slender and taller subulate ones, which ex- 
tend as far as the outer row. Each limb of the mandible 
is armed by eighteen or nineteen conical acute teeth, with 
an interior row at the fore end of the jaw. 

Body high and considerably compressed, with a deep 
dorsal which commences before the gill-opening, the loose 
fold of skin which invests it extending forwards to the 
head. End of the tail rounded. Posterior nostrils not 
tubular. The reticulations of the skin are coarser than in 
most other species. Anus one-thirteenth part of the whole 
length before the middle of the fish. 

The colour is a dark purplish-brown, with irregular zig- 
zag lines of a pale colour, forming reticulations. The 
figure in the Ichthyology of the Voyage of the Sulphur 
was taken from a drawing executed under the eye of Mr. 
Reeves, at Canton, but the specimen presented by that 
gentleman to the British Museum has much coarser pale 
lines, with dilatations at the points of intersection. 

Length 26 inches. To anus 11 inches. To gill-opening 
2-6 inches. 

Hab. Sea of China. Estuaries. 



MuR^NA SATHETE. Hamilt. Buchan. 

Murdiia sathete, Hamilton Buch., Ganges p. 17 et p. .303. Icon. 
Harchv. iued. No. 308, upper figure. 

Nasal teeth twelve or fourteen in one marginal series, 
each curved backwards so acutely as to form a slight notch 
in the middle of the posterior side ; their cusps being 
compressed but not pointed. Two stout conical and not 
acute teeth stand on the mesial line of the disk, and the 
vomerine teeth are disposed in two lines, which coalesce 
behind, each line containing six or seven small rounded 
teeth, headed by one larger than the rest. Palatine teeth 
in two rows ; the outer row composed of twelve, smaller 
than the nasal teeth, and more closely set, but of similar 
form and curvature, having their cusps, however, more 
compressed and acute edged : the inner row contains ten 
or eleven taller and more slender cylindrical teeth, with 
acute but somewhat oblique cusps. The mandible is armed 
on the two posterior thirds of each limb by eleven or 
twelve similar to the exterior palatines, and on the anterior 
third by two rows; the outer row consisting of eight coni- 
cal or cylindrical and rather obtuse teeth on each limb, 
smaller than the lateral ones ; and the inner row of about 
five rather longer than the latter, but similar in form. 

Tip of the tail rounded. Dorsal commencing about 
half-way between the gill-opening and the nape. The co- 
lours of the specimen in the British Museum, which is a 
dried skin, have faded, but the drawing exhibits a brown 
fish with dull yellow throat and belly. The lateral line is 
strongly shown by a series of silvery dots, and the dorsal is 
grayish-purple. In the dried skin some of the pores 

Q 2 



92 



have become deep black dots, of which one series can be 
traced over the gill-opening, and a short way along the 
side, in the course of the lateral line; another row runs 
from the angle of the mouth over the branchial membrane, 
and there are a few pores under the jaw. 

Length 32-5 inches. To anus about 15-3 inches. To 
gill-opening 3-6 inches. 

H.^B. India. 



are of a dark neutral tint speckled with yellow. We have 
seen no specimens corresponding with this drawing. 
Slropltidoii punctatum and .S7. lUeratnm of Mc Clelland 
have their dorsals commencing nearer the head than in 
(/racilis, vermiciihita, or tile. 



MUR.ENA VICKMICDLAT.^. 



MUR^NA GRACILIS. 

Two examples of this fish in the British Museum accord 
well with drawing 303 in Hardwicke's collection. 

Nasal teeth subulate and acute, in two rows ; those of 
the outer row very small, and situated at the bases of the 
inner row, which are taller and stouter. Three subulate 
teeth on the mesial line of the disk, and two rows of short, 
conical, tapering acute vomerine teeth, set alternately. 
Palatine teeth in two rows ; those of the outer row about 
nineteen or twenty in number, short, erect, compressed ; 
the inner row consisting of about ten taller, slender, 
slightly recurved and acute teeth. About nineteen rather 
acute lateral mandibular teeth are arranged in an even, 
crowded series, with two rows at the end of the jaw; the 
outer row being composed of teeth smaller than the lateral 
ones; and the inner row of about six on each limb, a 
little taller and stouter than the nasal ones, and in- 
creasing gradually in height as they recede from the sym- 
physis. 

This is a slender species, with a rather small mouth, and 
the under jaw somewhat shorter than the upper one. 
Several Indian species have similar mouths. The snout 
is obtuse, the profile rather hollow at the eye, the hind 
head full and convex, and the tail considerably com- 
pressed, the body only moderately so. The dorsal com- 
mences over, or a very little before, the gill-opening. 
The anus is placed just before the middle. The colour 
of the specimens in spirits is brownish, with pale round 
dots, not so big as the head of the smallest-sized pin, scat- 
tered over the body and fins, and one of them has also a 
few paler blotches, about the size of a very small pea. 

Length, total . . . 11-25 100 

„ to anus . . 5-86 49 

„ to gill-opening 1-35 12 

The specimens were brought from India by General 
Hardwicke, and his drawing appears, from the style of its 
execution, seems to have been made by one of Hamilton 
Buchanan's artists. 

Hab. India. 

Another drawing in General Hardwicke's collection (No. 
308 under figure) is marked " M. H. B. Octr. 3, 18, M. 
tile bairn," and is doubtless a rejiresentation of the M. tile 
of Hamilton Buchanan. It is a compressed and rather 
deep-bodied species, with the reticulations of the skin 
stronger than usual ; hence they are noticed in the charac- 
ter of the species given in the Gangetic fishes. The 
dorsal commences before the gill-opening, and the anus is 
a little behind the middle. The fins are rather high, and 



Miirana. Icon. Hiudw. ined. .310. 

Marghial nasal teeth in two series, so closely situated as 
to look like one. Outer row composed of twelve or four- 
teen very short acute teeth ; inner row forming a semicircle, 
at the end of the jaw, of conico-subulate very acute teeth ; 
the tooth on each side of the symphysis smaller than the 
rest. Three subulate teeth on the mesial line of the nasal 
disk ; and about twenty-two short, stoutish but acute vo- 
merine teeth, set alternately a little to the right or left, so 
as to make two irregular rows. Two rows of palatine 
teeth ; those of the outer row, which does not reach to the 
corner of the mouth, nineteen in number, closely set, short, 
even, compressed and moderately acute ; inner row con- 
sisting of nine taller, subulate, and very acute teeth, set 
nKjre widely, but not extending beyond two-thirds of the 
length of the outer row. Each limb of the mandible is 
armed by about twenty-four teeth, the lateral ones disposed 
in an even series : at the end of the jaw there are two 
rows, the outer one composed of numerous low teeth, and 
the inner one of taller and more widely .set teeth ; but this 
part of the jaw having been injured in both specimens, 
their exact number cannot be ascertained. 

This fish is slightly compressed anteriorly, but be- 
comes considerably more so in the tail, which has an ob- 
tuse lip. The snout is blunt, and a little longer than the 
lower jaw ; the nose horizontal, with a concavity in the 
profile over the eye, and a sudden rise in the back of the 
head and nape. There is also much fullness in the throat. 
The dorsal which commences over the gill-opening is low 
anteriorly, and highest in the tail, but is sufficiently con- 
spicuous throughout. The anus is placed about the 
thirty-second part of the whole length before the middle of 
the fish. 

In colour and markings this species has some resem- 
blance to M. meleagris, but the spots are smaller. The 
general tint is between dark hair-brown and wood-brown, 
studded with little grey specks of angular, round, oblong, 
conjugated or crescentic forms, mixed with others so mi- 
nute as to be scarcely perceptible to the naked eye. The 
throat and fore part of the belly are of a livid white colour, 
without sjiots, but towards the vent the white is faintly 
mottled with pale gray. 

A specimen of this Muraina which was bequeathed by 
General Hardwicke to the British Museum agrees with 
M. fpacilis in its dentition, and differs from it chiefly in 
being thicker about the throat and head, tapering more in 
the tail. The patterns of the spots are also diff"erent. It 
may, however, be that species better fed and grown to a 
greater size. I am not altogether convinced that this 
MurceiHi and (/racilis are distinct from Buchanan's tile,' 



93 



yet I cannot reconcile them with the drawing of tile, 308, 
which is authenticated by a reference to Buchanan. 

Length 17'8 inches. To anus 9-25 inches. To gill- 
opening 2"2 inches. 

Hab. India. 



MUR.ENA MELEAGRIS. Shaw. 

Murcena nieleagris, Shaw, Nat. Misc. pi. 220. Gen. Zool. p. .32. 
MurtBHU pintAde, Quoy et Gairaard, Voy. de Freycenet, pi. 52, f. 2. 

Nasal teeth stoutly subulate, biserial ; the outer row 
composed of teeth unequal in height, but none of them 
very tall ; the inner row consisting of taller teeth ranged 
in a semicircle. Three teeth on the mesial line of the 
disk, the foremost being the tallest, and ranging with the 
interior marginal row. Vomerine teeth conico-snbulate, 
short and acute, disposed in one row anteriorly, but sepa- 
rating into two posteriorly. Palatine teeth about fifteen 
in the outer series, close set and reflex ; the first four aug- 
ment successively in height, the fourth being the tallest in 
the series ; the succeeding ones are considerably shorter, 
and diminish gradually in size as they approach the corner 
of the mouth. Tlie inner series stands at some distance 
from the outer one, and is composed of eight tall widely 
set teeth. At the fore part of the bone there are two teeth, 
of intermediate height, between the rows, making three 
I'ows there. Mandible a little recurved, and armed on 
each limb by twenty-eight acute, slightly recurved teeth, 
of unequal height, the inequality being greatest among the 
anterior ones. At the end of the jaw there is an inner 
semicircle of taller teeth, not far removed from the outer 
one. 

Eye rather before the middle of the gape. Snout blunt- 
ish, with the head apparently gibbous in front. Body 
high and compressed. Posterior nostrils not tubular. 
Dorsal commencing a very little before the gill-opening. 
Anus one-thirteenth of the whole length, before the middle 
of the fish. 

The colours of the specimen have partially perished, but 
where they remain the ground tint is a rich chestnut- 
brown, thickly studded with small pale spots, placed at 
pretty regular distances in each locality. On the fore part 
of the body they are mostly angular, lunate, or oblong ; on 
the tail rounder and more distant, and none of them exceed 
the head of the smallest pin in size. They extend to the 
end of the snout. 

Length 20 inches. Length from end of snout to anus 
9'35. Length from ditto to gill-opening 

This description is drawn up from Shaw's specimen pre- 
served in the British Museum. 

Hab. Southern Ocean (Shaw). 



This gentleman says that it frequents " weedy pools 
among the rocks on tlie north side of Bondy Bay, near 
Sidney. It is very savage when irritated, and once while 
I was collecting corallines in that locality a large indivi- 
dual made a dart at my arm, and returned repeatedly to 
the attack, swimming slowly about, winding among the 
sea-weed, and raising its snout to the surface. This one 
measured '31^ inches to the tip of the tail, 15^ to the anus. 
Its depth behind the head was 2 inches, its breadth 1^, 
and its circumference 5h'' (Mc Gillivray). 

Eye moderately large over the middle of the gape. 
Teeth acute. Nasal ones biserial, but some are broken in 
the specimen. Outer series consisting of about twelve 
small acute ones; inner series of about seven or eight tall, 
stoutly subulate, and much compressed teeth, the two rows 
contiguous and partially blended. Mesial row slender and 
subulate, not acute edged, the third one very tall and re- 
curved. Vomerine teeth biserial in front, about six in 
each row, uniting to form a single row of about seven, all 
small and cylindrical, with conico-subulate cusps. Pala- 
tine teeth biserial ; outer row composed of about fourteen 
reflex, lanceolate teeth, with acute oblique tips. The inner 
row is constituted by three tall, slender, subulate and re- 
curved teeth, standing opposite to the fore part of the 
outer row. On the fore quarter of the mandible there are 
on each limb seven or eight small exterior teeth, with four 
or five tall, recurved, stoutly subulate, interior ones, the 
penultimate one of these being the largest. Most of the 
larger teeth of the jaws have a minute notch in the middle 
of their posterior edge, and some have also a notch in 
front. The dorsal fin is not high, commences about half- 
way between the occiput and gill-opening, and contains 
3.56 rays to the apex of the tail. The rays at the end of 
the tail are short, very slendei-, and much crowded. The 
anal fin has been removed from the specimen. 

Mr. Mc Gillivray says that the colour was a " nearly 
uniform pale green, changing after death to dark brown. 
Several long interrupted dark streaks run along the throat, 
which, together with the neck, is minutely marked, for the 
most part perpendicularly, with short waved striae of pale 
brown." 

Length 23|- inches. 

Hab. Australia. 

Obs. — The Miirene lineolee and M. Jiaveolee of Lesson 
are represented as having much higher dorsals. (La Co- 
quille, Plate 11, f I and 2). The Gijmnothorax wilsoni 
of Schneider (p. 529), which is a New Holland species, 
locally known by the name of " Banning," is ornamented 
with broad roseate spots. 



MuR^NA OPHis. Riippell i 



MuR.ENA PRASINA. Richardson. 



Murana ophis, Riippell, Atl. 



About ten marginal nasal teeth, conical, subacute, and 

A dried skin of this species, existing in the British Mu- hooked backwards, with a posterior basal lobe, all slightly 

seam, was brought from Australia by Mr. Mc Gillivray. compressed, but having rounded edges. Mesial teeth ab- 



94 



sent in the specimen. Palatine teeth nine, in one unusually 
short row, the three central ones hooked and shaped like the 
nasal ones, but much smaller ; the three anterior and three 
posterior ones still smaller and cylindrical, with not very 
acute points. Vomerine teeth in two rows, well separated 
anteriorly, but meeting behind ; each row containing about 
nine short cylindrical teeth, with rounded cusps. These 
rows are twice as long as the palatine row. The lower jaw 
is armed with two rows of teeth, the outer one consisting 
of small low teeth with flatly rounded cusps. The inner 
row commences anteriorly with two taller and stouter cy- 
lindrical teeth, having slightly compressed cusps, followed 
by two teeth still more tall, which are strongly hooked 
back, and have acute cusps and posterior basal lobes ; 
after which there is a close set, even series of cylindrical 
teeth, having rounded or slightly compressed cusps, con- 
siderably above those of the outer row. The dentition of 
this species has a resemblance to that of M. variegata, 
but differs in having the strongly hooked acute teeth. The 
corresponding teeth oi variegata are more obtuse, and but 
very slightly curved. In the only specimen we have seen, 
which is a dried one, the vent is about one twenty-fourth 
part of the whole length past the middle. 

The markings are well represented in Rlippell's figure 
of M. ophif:, but as he describes the teeth as cutting, which 
scarcely agrees with our specimen, I cannot feel confident 
in quoting him. M. similis, p. 83, which has subulate and 
lanceolate teeth, closely resembles both this fish and Riip- 
jjell's drawing in its markings, but its gape is considerably 
larger. The ground colour of the dried skin of the British 
Museum specimen has a yellowish tint, and is mottled 
with small brownish-black specks, of various forms and 
often confluent, and by two rows of large black marks, 
which are more or less dotted with specks of the pale 
ground colour. There are about twenty-one or twenty-two 
spots in each row, the rows touching those of the opposite 
sides of the fish on its dorsal and ventral surfaces. The 
edge of the anal is pale. The vent is about a twenty- 
fourth part of the whole length past the middle. 

Length 25 J inches. 

Hab. Mauritius. Red Sea ? 



MUR.ENA VARIEGATA. J. R. Forstcr. 



Seha Thes. fi9, f. 1, 17. 



Muraiia r/eof/raphica, Banks et Solander, MSS., 176S), Icon. Pict. 
Pjrkinsonii, 3. (" Pepedlio.") 

Echidna rariegata. Icon. ined. Georg. Forster, Bibl. Banks. 172. 
An. 1777. 

" Echidna variegata, J. R Forster, Enchiridion, 31, Genus 5. An. 
1788." Id. Animal cura Liclitenst. p. 181. An. 1844. 

Murana nebnlosa, Tliunb. dissert, p. 7, tab. 1, f. 2. An. 1789. 

Gymnothorax nebulosus, Bl. Scbn. p. 528. An. 1801. 

Gymnothorax echidna. Id. p. 626. 

Murana, Hardw. Icon. ined. Mus. Brit. pi. 300. 

Plate XLVII., figs. 1^5, and figs. 11— IG. 

About twelve marginal, scarcely acute nasal teeth, some 
of them very slightly curved backwards, ranged in an oval, 
which is completed behind by the voiuerine teeth. The 



mesial line of the disk is occupied by two stout, conical, 
subacute teeth, rather taller than the others ; and the vomer 
is armed by two rows of low teeth, having slightly com- 
pressed cusps. The rows meet in a point posteriorly, and 
diverge anteriorly, on the angles of the vomer, so as to fill 
up the posterior part of the nasal oval. Palatine teeth 
about nine, small, very closely set, in a short even row, 
and having somewhat compressed or bluntly chisel-shaped, 
somewhat oblique cusps. Mandible armed laterally, on 
each limb, by twelve or thirteen even teeth, with flattish 
or rounded crowns and cylindrical bodies. In some spe- 
cimens an exterior row runs along the whole limb, in 
others it is shorter, and in others again it can be traced 
only in the anterior quarter of the jaw. The tooth next 
the symphysis, standing in this exterior row, is larger than 
the rest, and is followed by two or three taller conical in- 
ner teeth, seemingly a continuation of the principal lateral 
row, but placed wider apart. 

This is either an abundant species, or from its beauty it 
is sought for by collectors, for many examples of it exist 
in Museums. Great variety exists in the form and distri- 
bution of the spots in different individuals. The specimen 
figured in Plate 47, fig. 1, after long maceration in spirits, 
has a pale yellowish-gray or cream-coloured ground tint, 
with two rows of purplish-brown spots. These spots radiate 
into irregularly tortuous, divaricating, forked branchlets, 
and their disks are pierced by one or many dots of the 
ground colour. The upper row, consisting of smaller 
spots, runs on the dorsal fin and top of the back, the lower 
one on the sides, and they coalesce in a solitary spot at 
the end of the tail. Their number varies from twenty to 
twenty-four in each row, and in the specimen we have 
figured a third row is indicated by two or three spots on 
the belly. The ground colour is further varied on the 
back by many detached lines and specks, bearing some 
resemblance to Arabic characters. Solander observed this 
variety in the sea, at Ulhietea, and describes its colours as 
follows : " M. GEOGRAPHiCA, tota alba, pnnclis maculis li- 
nearibus rinilisijue oniaia. Rivuli cotijluentes in areas 
rotundas Jiavedine intmixtas. Caput supra gibbosum. 
Iris aureo-lutea. Piipilla nigra. Maxlllce circa os al- 
b(c immaculatte. Foramina superne in naso tubulosa, 
Ititea : foramina eliant interocularia lutescentia. Piscis 
certe pulvher.'''' Parkinson's figure is unfinished, but suffi- 
ciently characteristic. The name, in the language of the 
Society Isles, is written in the MSS., "Pi]jirho," " Pipiro," 
and " Pipirha." Hardwicke's drawing also represents this 
variety. 

The individual represented in figure 1 1 has three rows 
of spots, the lower row, which ceases about half-way be- 
tween the vent and the point of the tail, being composed 
of spots which do not branch like the others. The ground 
colour is also everywhere thicklj- marked with black 
specks, except on the belly, where the specks are kyf. 
The under surface of the belly, before and behind the vent, 
is represented in figure 15. The Forster's observed this 
variety at Otaheitee, and George Forster's drawing differs 
only in showing fewer ventral spots. The native naiue of 
" Pipiro " is written on the drawing, and in the Descript. 
Animal, it is said to be also called " Boohee." The colour 
is described thus : " Color totius corporis littescenti albus. 



95 



lineis, piinctis, maculisque fiisco-nigris variegatus. Ab- 
domen album, maculis fuscis sub/asciatum.^' (Forster 
lib. citat.) 

Of fourteen specimens of these varieties, no two ex- 
actly resemble one another in their markings. The dorsal 
begins before the gill-opening in all, and the anus is nearly 
median, being in one a little before tlie middle of the fish, 
but in most a little behind, not however exceeding a 
twenty-fourth part of the whole length. As in all the blunt- 
toothed Mur<eti(B, the gape of the mouth is comparatively 
small. 

The length of the specimens varies from 5 to 20 inches. 

Hab. Indian Ocean (Hardw.) Chinese Sea (Belcher). 
Coasts of Australia (Bynoe). Poylynesian Archipelago 
(Solander, Forster). 



MUR.ENA POLYZONA. Richardson. 



Murana polyzona, Richards^ 
pi. 55, f. 11-14. 



Ichth. of Voy. of Sulplmv, p. 112, 



teeth biserial; the outer row composed of minute 
rounded teeth ; the inner one of taller, rather bluntish, co- 
nical ones. Two conical teeth on the mesial line of the 
disk, somewhat taller than the marginal ones. Vomerine 
teeth anteriorly biserial, posteriorly covering a wider sur- 
face, with three or more irregular rows. Palatine teeth 
biserial, the rows coalescing behind : outer row consisting 
of very minute, low, flattish teeth ; inner one of taller, 
slenderly cylindrical teeth, having moderately acnte cusps : 
there are seven or eight in each row. Mandibular teeth 
biserial ; the teeth of the outer row being by much the 
smallest, and gradually becoming less as they approach 
the corner of the month ; those which form the inner row 
taller, with conical cusps, two or three near the fore end of 
the jaw being larger than the rest. The outer row of each 
limb contains eighteen or nineteen teeth, the inner one 
about twelve. 

Gape small ; margin of the posterior nostril tumid, the 
anterior nostril being, as usual, tubular : body much com- 
pressed, and the anus situated about the thirty-fifth part of 
the whole length before the middle of the fish. 

The ground colour is black, with from twenty-six to 
twenl3'-nine yellow rings, which dilate a little on the ven- 
tral surface, but do not actually close there. 

Length 9;35 inches. To anus 4-41 inches. To gill- 
opening 115. 

Hab. Unknown. 



MUR.ENA catenata. Bloch. 

Gymnothorax catenatus, Bl. t. 415. Schn. p. 528. 

Nasal teeth biserial, conical, bluntish, about twelve in 
each row, set alternately, and inclosing a horse-shoe-shaped 
area, the posterior ones being the stoutest, but none of them 
high. From two to four stout conical teeth on the mesial 
line ; and in one colourless specimen, these teeth, and 



those of the inner marginal row, are so stout as nearly to 
fill the entire disk. Vomerine teeth biserial, small and 
rounded, of different sizes. Palatine teeth also biserial, 
twelve or thirteen in each row ; the outer ones low, even, 
and bluntish, scarcely rising above the soft parts ; the in- 
ner ones higher, conical or conico-subulate, and not so 
closely set : the teeth of both rows smaller than the nasal 
ones. Mandibular teeth likewise biserial, each limb having 
twenty-two in the outer row, which are closely set, and 
deeply imbedded in the soft parts ; those of the inner row 
are a little higher, but equally blunt. The two rows are 
contiguous posteriorly, but separate a little towards the 
front of the jaw, where the inner teeth are stouter, and 
somewhat wider apart. 

Posterior nostrils having slightly raised borders. Anus 
a little posterior to the middle of the fish. Dorsal com- 
mencing a short way before the gill-opening. 

The fish is crossed by about twenty-six narrow yellow 
stripes, which pass over the dorsal and down the sides. 
Three of the stripes placed before the gill-opening form 
meshes with each other, and some of the posterior ones 
are interrupted, their upper and under halves alternating. 
They are most regular before the anus, where they slope 
forwards as they descend to the belly, and more irregular 
and wider on the tail. All of them are more or less spot- 
ted with the blackish ground colour. 

Length •24'5 inches. To anus 13'5 inches. To gill- 
opening .3"5 inches. 

Hab. Bermudas. Caribbean Sea. South America. 



GYMNOMURiENA ZEBRA. Shaw. 



Zebra eel, Shaw Nat. Misc. 101. 

Gymnothorax zebra, Bl. Schn. p. 528. 

La qymnomurwne cercUe, Lac. v. p. 649, pi. 19, f. 4. An. 1803. 

All the teeth low and flatly rounded, the larger ones 
having generally one or two grooves, with an intervening, 
acute, transverse ridge on their crowns. Nasal teeth bi- 
serial ; the outer row composed of fourteen or sixteen very 
low teeth; the inner row of twelve or fourteen consider- 
ably larger and more prominent ones. These rows enclose 
a circular area, which is filled by six round teeth in two 
rows. The dental surface of the vomer has an oval shape, 
and there are eight rows of teeth in its middle, which nar- 
row off to two before and behind. The anterior ones are 
in contact with the mesial nasal ones. The palatine teeth 
reach only about half-way to the corner of the mouth, the 
space beyond them being filled by a smooth thick fold of 
skin. On the mandible the teeth extend to the extreme 
corner of the mouth, being opposed posteriorly to the fold 
of skin just mentioned. They stand in four rows before the 
comer of the mouth, narrow to three near the middle of the 
limb, and on the anterior third of the jaw form only two dis- 
tinct rows, though some very minute teeth may be detected 
at the base of the outer row. The inner row at the end of 
the jaw is composed of seven teeth on each limb, larger 
than the rest, and rendered still more prominent by a curve 
of the jaw. In this part of the jaw the inner rows of the 



two limbs are in close contact, and cannot be separated. 
When the mouth is closed, these teeth are pressed against 
the equally prominent nasal ones, the posterior teeth of 
the two jaws being kept thereby some distance apart. 

Eye small, considerably before the luiddle of the gape. 
Posterior nasal orifice having an elevated border, and 
])laced a little before the eye. Anterior one shortly tubu- 
lar. Dorsal fold of loose skin extending forward to the 
nostrils, too thick to allow the rays to be either seen or 
felt. Body compressed, the compression augmenting to- 
wards the tip of the tail, which is not acute though it 
tapers. Anus in the posterior third of the length. 

Ground colour brown, with seventy-four white rings, 
some of which are not complete, and some unite before 
they reach the ventral surface, but the greater part are 
regular, and are all nearly of the same width. 

This description is taken from Shaw's specimen, which 
was presented by the College of Surgeons to the British 
Museum. The backward position of its anus and other 
characters seem to point it out as a distinct generic form 
from Murcena. 

Length 30 inches. To anus 21 inches. To gill-opening 
■2 6 inches. 

Hab. Sumatra (Shaw). New Britain (Commerson). 



ICHTHYOPHIS TIGRINUS. LeSSOn. 
Ichthyophis tigrinus, Lesson, Voy. de la Coquille, pi. 12. 

All the teeth slenderly subulate, rather tall and thinly 
set. Nasal ones uniserial, about twelve on the margin. 
Two rows of three each on the disk. Vomerine teeth six 
or seven, uniserial, with two abreast at the commencement 
of the series. Palatine teeth biserial ; the outer series of 
twelve more reflex teeth ; the inner series of six or seven 
taller ones. On the anterior third of the mandible the 
teeth are biserial, the inner row being composed on each 
limb of six or seven taller ones. Lateral mandibular teeth 
like the outer row of palatines. 

Eye small. Anterior nostrils tubular. Posterior ones 
injured. Gill-opening nearer to the dorsal than to the 
ventral surface. Body nearly cylindrical, destitute of a 
loose dorsal fold. Tail a little compressed at the tip, 
which tapers, but is blunlish. No vestige of a fin exte- 
riorly. 

Length 29 inches. To anus 195 inches. To gill-open- 
ing 1-85 inch. 

The great length of this fish in proportion to its diame- 
ter, its cylindrical form, and the want of fins, give it a 
character distinct from the MuiceiKe, and from the Gymiw- 
murieniB of Lacepede, which are compressed. 

Hab. " Oualan." 



Nettastoma vittata. Richardson. 

h-hthynphis viltaius, Ricbardsoii, Iclith. of Voy. of Sulphur, p. 114, 
pl. 53, f. 7 !). 

Since I described this species, in the work above quoted. 



from a dried skin, said to have been brought from China, 
1 have examined a specimen in spirits in the British Mu- 
seum, which is labelled as having been brought from the 
West Indies, and purchased of a dealer. I have also had 
an opportunity of inspecting an example of the Ichthyo- 
phis tic/riniis of Lesson, preserved in the same collection, 
and find that it differs totally in its dentition from the 
present species, so that in any dismemberment of the genus 
Murcena they must be placed in widely different groups. 
I have now referred it to Rafinesque's genus Netiasioi/ia 
(Duck-mouth), on account of the similarity of its dentition 
to that of N. soya, though I have not had an opportunity 
of seeing the latter species, which differs from vittata in 
having conspicuous fins, and may prove on examination 
to be a distinct form, in which case the appellation of 
Chaiuw-mura'na vittata may be given to this one, its ver}' 
large mouth distinguishing it obviously from the Minuena. 

It has four large double-leaved gills enclosed in a sack 
on each side, and communicating with the pharynx by five 
round openings. There is no half-gill adherent to the side 
of the sack. The heart is situated rather behind the gill- 
openings, and at a considerable distance from the gills, 
and is tied to the pericardium by many tendinous threads. 
There is no tongue, but the under margin of the gullet 
forms a projecting soft fold, which falls back over the oeso- 
phagus like a valve. Pharyngeals presenting two linear 
dental surfaces above and below, widely separated from 
each other, and set with two rows of acute reflex teeth. 

All the teeth on the jaws are slenderly subulate, and are 
disposed in even card-like plates. On the palatines they 
are about four rows wide, just behind the eyes, but thin off 
to three rows towards the extremities of these bones. On 
the lower jaw the dental surface is broadest near the sym- 
physis, where there are three rows of teeth, but there are 
only two rows more posteriorly, which end in a point at 
the corner of the mouth. The nasal and vomerine teeth 
are not separated, or perhaps the latter do not exist, in 
which case the nasal dental plate is broadly oval, and com- 
posed anteriorly of about six rows in the width, but poste- 
riorly contracts to two rows, which meet in a point a little 
behind the eye. The capacious roof of the mouth is lined 
with smooth skin. The corners of the mouth extend as 
far behind the occiput as that is distant from the tip of the 
snout. The small eye is situated over the fore part of the 
gape. The anterior nostrils are tubulai-, and the posterior 
ones have raised borders, and are placed above and just 
before the eyes. 

The head is depressed, the nose acute, and the mandible 
longer than the snout: its limbs are capable of sepa- 
rating widely, and, owing to their length, of being greatly 
depressed, so as to expand the mouth enormously. The 
gill-openings are rather below mid-height, and far behind 
the skull. The body is nearly cylindrical, without any 
appearance of the loose dorsal fold which contains the fin- 
rays in the Murwnic ; but behind the anus the tail is some- 
what compressed, becoming thinner towards the tip. Rays 
actually exist near the end of the tail, but they can be 
seen only by dissection, and I could not ascertain how far 
forward they extend without injuring the specimen. The 
anus is in the posterior third of the fish. The skin is 
loosely attached to the muscular fascia. 



97 



Ground coloin- (in spirits) brown, the darkness of llie 
tint being produced by short oblong specks. The body is 
crossed by about sixteen pale rings, occupying nearly as 
much space as the dark colour. The rings are not all 
complete. 

Length 28 inches. To anus 18 inches. To gill-open- 
ing 4.3 inches. 

This is the description of the British Museum specimen 
preserved in spirits. The dried one figured in the Zoology 
of the Sulphur has rather wider dental plates, owing pro- 
bably to its gi-eater age. It measured 48^^ inches. 

Hab. Gulf of Mexico ? Sea of China"? 



Ophisurus 



I have had no opportunity of examining the skeletons of 
the Ophisuri, nor of comparing the viscera of the different 
groups, and cannot therefore enumerate the principal cha- 
racteristics of the genus, as I did with the Miircena: in 
page 78, but I have given short descriptions of the exter- 
nal characters of all the species that have come under my 
notice. 

M. Valenciennes characterises the genus by the elon- 
gated cylindrical body tapering towards the tail, clothed 
with naked skin, destitute of scales ; the moderate gape ; 
compressed knife-like [denies cultrati) teeth, or rounded 
obtuse ones ; the dorsal reaching from the occiput to the 
naked conical point of the tail ; the anal like to it, but 
shorter ; the pectoral fins more or less flabellate ; the gill- 
rays thirty in number. Cuvier divides the species into two 
groups ; one having pectorals of the ordinary size, and 
sharp and trenchant teeth ; the other having pectorals ex- 
ceedingly small, so much so as to have been overlooked by 
some observers altogether, and obtuse teeth. The disco- 
very of additional species since the publication of the 
Reyne Animal has rendered this subdivision less exact, for 
the Oph. cancrivorns presents the combination of pretty 
large pectorals with obtuse teeth ; and we shall also 
describe species that have almost rudimentary pectorals 
with acute teeth. In fact, the gradation from acute or 
acicular teeth to small rounded grinding ones is almost 
imperceptible, and there is a similar passage from the large 
to the minute pectorals. I have seen no species with 
teeth so trenchant as the stiletto-pointed teeth of some of 
the Mur(B)i<e, — certainly none meriting the designation of 
denies cultrati. The following artificial arrangement, 
founded on the dentition and size of the pectorals, may be 
useful to the student in the discrimination of species. 

A. Teeth short, conic, more or less blunt. 

a. Pectorals comparatiiely large. 

Teeth triserial or pluriserial on the several bones. 
O. cancrivorus ; sinensis; semicinctus ; boro. 

b. Pectorals small or rudimentary. 

1. Vomerine teeth tri- or pluriserial ; palatine and man- 
dibular teeth biserial. 
O. breviceps ; pardalis. 



2. Vomerine teeth biserial ; palatine teeth uniserial ; 
mandibular teeth uniserial or sub-biserial. 
O.fasciatus ; colubrinus. 

B. Teeth acute, conico-subulate, subulate or acicular. 

a. Pectorals small atid delicate, moderate sized 

or rather large. 

1. Vomerine teeth triserial ; palatine and mandibular 

teeth biserial. 
O. pallens. 

2. Vomerine teeth biserial ; palatine and mandibular 

teeth biserial. 
O. hijala ; maculosus ; intertinctus. 
.3. Vomerine teeth sub-biserial or uniserial ; palatine 
and mandibular teeth uniserial. 
O. .tpadiceus ; versicolor. 

4. Vomerine teeth uniserial ; palatine and mandibular 

teeth biserial 
O. sugillatus; ocellatus ; par His ; dicellurus ; ros- 
tellatus. 

5. Vomerine teeth uniserial ; palatine teeth uniserial ; 

mandibular teeth biserial. 
O. compar. 

6. Vomerine teeth uniserial ; palatine teeth biserial ; 

mandibular teeth uniserial. 
O. regius fvel ophis ? ); serpens. 

b. Pectorals minute, no vertical Jins. 
Teeth on the several bones uniserial. 

O. vimineus. 

Obs.— Ophisurus cancrivorus, breviceps, compar and 
parilis, have a close external resemblance, and may be 
confounded if attention be not paid to the dentition, and 
some other comparative characters included in the descrip- 
tions. In like manner, there is a general similarity in the 
markings of semicinctus, pardalis, maculosus, intertinctus 
and sugillatus. O. harancha, pallens, spadiceus, versicolor 
and hijala, form a small group, of a peculiar aspect, which 
belongs to India and China. O.fasciatus and colubrinus 
are remarkable for the length of their long, compressed 
banded bodies ; versicolor, which is also banded, is more 
cylindrical; and serpens and regius, agreeing in the 
nacry lustre of their bodies, differ from one another and 
from all the rest in the forms of their laterally expansible 
jaws. O. vimineus differs from the other species in the ab- 
sence of vertical fins, just as the Ichthyophis of Lesson 
does from the Murcence. 



Ophisurus cancrivorus. Richardson. 

Plate L., figs. 6—9. 

Nasal disk circular, armed with about fifteen crowded, 
round, rather flat-crowned teeth, of different sizes, sepa- 
rated from the dental surface of the vomer by a mem- 
branous line. The vomerine teeth stand about five abreast 
throughout, but the anterior part of the dental band, being 
composed of larger teeth, is wider. The swelling folds of 



the soft palate partly overlie the posterior teeth of the 
vomer, which is the cause of the artist having reprcseuted, 
in fig. 8, the dental surface as tapering more towards the 
gullet than it actually does. Palatine teeth smaller than the 
nasal ones, not quite so flat on the crown.s, and disposed 
so as to form an elliptical dental plate, which has also been 
dran'n in figure 8 as tapering too much, owing to the pout- 
ing of the lips. There are six or seven teeth abreast in 
the widest part of the plate, and two or three posteriorly. 
The dental plates on the limbs of the lower jaw contain 
about five teeth in the middle, and taper off gradually to- 
wards the corner of the moutli. They are separated from 
one another at the symphysis by a smooth line. The up- 
per jaw projects so much beyond the mandible, that the 
whole nasal disk is anterior to the tip of the latter ; and 
when the mouth is closed, the convex dental surface of the 
fore end of the mandible applies to the anterior vomerine 
teeth, which correspond with them in size, and are larger 
than the other teeth. 

The head is conical, the snout small and acute, with a 
thick short tubular nostril on each side of it, but a little 
posterior to the extreme tip, and having an inclination 
downwards. The posterior nostril is under the eye, rather 
on the inner border of the lip, and is covered by a valve 
which gives a downward aspect to the opening. A small 
acute papilla overlies a minute notch on the edge of the 
lip, between the nasal openings of each side, and behind 
the posterior nostril there exists a more minute papilla, all 
of which contribute to give a character to the orifice of the 
mouth different from that of Aiiguilla or Miirwna. The 
eye is rather small. There are four conspicuous pores on 
each limb of the mandible, several on the under lip, and 
three on each side of the snout above and before the eye. 
The nape and throat, being elastic, bulge out, and are the 
thickest parts of the fish : they are marked on each side 
by about twenty-four fine longitudinal furrows, which run 
back to the gill-openings. The elasticity of these parts is 
maintained by thirty-three gill-rays, which spring from 
each branch of the os liyoides : they are as fine as horse 
hairs, and are very curiously arranged in two layers. The 
rays of the left branch make an abrupt curve across the 
throat, and then return to circle round the left operculum 
to the nape. On the right side, the twenty uppermost or 
posterior rays run ventrad of the left rays, curving more 
than half-way across the throat, and returning over the oper- 
culum to the right side of the nape; while the thirteen an- 
terior ones sweep at once to the left side, in contact with 
the left gill-sac, and consequently above or dorsad of the 
rays which spring from the left branch ; they then curve 
backwards across the throat to the right side, where they 
protrude a little from beneath the edge of the other rays. 

Gill-openings wider than those of Miir(cmt, and lower 
down, being similar in appearance to those of AiiguiUa. 
Branchia; four, with five openings at their bases into the 
gullet. Pharyngeal bones armed with acute teeth. Heart 
posterior to the branchiae, and placed between the hinder 
lips of the gill-openings. The humeral arch is composed 
of two slender bones on each side, which do not meet 
their fellows on the ventral line. Pectoral fin oval, of mo- 
derate size, sustained by sixteen branching rays. 



Body nearly cylindrical, the back carrying its roundness 
far past the anus, and the tail, which is more compressed 
towards the tip, retaining its lateral convexity, its extreme 
tip being conical. The dorsal commences just behind the 
base of the pectoral, and carries its width well down the 
tail, as does also the anal. A slight increase in the breadth 
of the fins takes place just before they suddenly slope off, 
leaving the extreme point of the tail destitute of rays, but 
edged above and below with a scarcely perceptible cuta- 
neous seam. The anus is placed at about one-twelfth of 
the whole length of the fish before the middle. The skin 
is smooth, without scales, and there is no perceptible late- 
ral line. The specimen, after long immersion in spirits, 
has a dusky brown colour, darker on the back, paler on the 
belly, and without spots. 

The cojcal stomach tapers to a point, and the pylorus 
opens obliquely through its coasts, at its upper end, so as 
to form a valvular obstruction to the return of matter from 
the gut. A spiral valve exists in the lower part of the gut, 
like that which occurs in the Murce/ia;. The long and 
slender air-bladder is thickest at its lower end near the 
anus, and tapers upwards to a hair-like point. It is 3y 
inches long, and sends an air-duct from its middle to the 
oesophagus. 

Length of the fish 24 inches. To anus 1 05 inches. 
To gill-opening 2'6 inches. 

Hab. Port Essington. 

Cuvier notices only two groups of Ophisuri in his Regne 
Animal, one having acute cutting teeth and pectorals of 
the ordinary size, and the other blunt teeth and extremely 
small pectorals ; but he mentions none which have pecto- 
rals as large as in Aiujnilla combined with small flat- 
crowned teeth, like to those of cancrlvorus. Two other 
Ophisuri of the same gi-oup exist in the British Museum, 
one of which, procured from Sincapore, resembles cancri- 
vorus closely, except that the snout is comparatively 
shorter, and the dorsal begins a very little farther forward, 
viz., opposite to the basal third of the pectoral, and also 
that the pectoral itself is a little larger. The length of the 
fish is 14 inches. The anus is only 14 inches from the tip 
of the snout, or rather farther forward than in cancrivonts. 
To the gill-opening 3'1 inches. The colour is a purer 
chestnut brown, paler below the middle, and resolvable 
there, when viewed through a lens, into minute specks. 
The fins are dark, and the lateral line is marked by a series 
of minute, distant pores. The differences I have pointed 
out may perhaps be only individual variations, and without 
access to a series of specimens it would be unsafe to name 
this fish as a species distinct from cancrirorus. The other 
specimen was procured at the Philippine Islands b}^ Mr. 
Cuming, and is larger, but without any marked difference 
in form. 



Ophisurus sinensis. Richardson. 

In the Cambridge Philosophical Institution there is an 
Ophisunis, brought from China by the Rev. George 
Vachell, which has so great an external resemblance to 



cancrivoriis, that it might readily be confounded with it. 
The following differences, however, appear to exist, if the 
notes I made at Cambridge be correct, for I have not com- 
pared the specimens. The dorsal and anal lower more 
posteriorly before they swell out gradually, and contract 
again as gradually for an inch anterior to their termination, 
close to the apex of the tail. The bands of teeth on the 
several bones are narrower. 

Length 19^ inches. To anus 7f inches. To gill-open- 
ing 205 inches. 

Hab. Canton. 

Without further examination, I cannot confidently pro- 
pose this as a species distinct from cancrirorits or the 
varieties noticed above as inhabiting the seas of the Mo- 
luccas and Straits of Sincapore. 

Another species resembling cancrivoriis in its dentition, 
pectorals and general form, is the 



Ophisukus semicinctus. Richardson. 



The nasal teeth, about thirty-three in number, are dis- 
posed in a convex oblong-oval disk, which is not separated 
by a distinct line liom the vomerine teeth. The latter run 
far back, and are placed two deep anteriorly, four in the 
middle parts, and two again posteriorly. The palatine 
teeth form two or three irregular rows, and the teeth of the 
mandible are mostly ranged in three rows, which increase 
to four near the symphysis. The dorsal commences about 
an inch before the gill-opening, and, together with the 
anal, carries most of its breadth to near the tip of the tail, 
where both fins slope suddenly away. The extreme tip of 
the tail is roundish, conical and rigid, but not pungent. 
Pectoral fin moderately large, sustained by twelve rays, 
and tipped with brown. 

Colours much faded. A black spot, flanked by two 
others, marks the hind head, and the top and sides of the 
jaws are covered with brown dots of the size of swan-shot. 
The body is banded by eighteen large deep purplish-brown 
spots or bars, that fade away a little below the lateral line, 
except the three last, which encircle the tail. The dorsal 
and anal are edged with blackish-brown. 

Length 2875 inches. To anus 12'25 inches. To gill- 
opening 312 inches. 

The origin of this specimen is unknown. It was sent 
from the College of Surgeons to the British Museum, and 
is labelled 813, and 2, 45, 29, 15. Some verdigris in 
the spirit in which ihe specimen has been kept has tinged 
the teeth a rich green. Another specimen, which is dried, 
was brought by one of the Earl of Derby's collector* from 
Western Africa, and presented by his lordship to the 
British Museum. Its teeth are white, and its length 28 
inches. 

This species differs from pardalis in having considerably 
larger pectorals ; and from maciilosus, intertinctiis and 
siigillatiis in having blunt teeth. In its markings it bears 
a more or less close resemblance to all these. 

Hab. Western Africa, north of the Equator. 



Ophisuri's boro. Buchanan-Hamilton 



Ophisurus boro, Buchanan - Hamilton, Fish of Ganges, p. 20, 363. 
Gray, 111. Inil. Zoul. i. PI. 95, f. 1. Haidw. Icon. ined. 301 in Museo 
Brit. serv. 



This Ojiliisiiriis agrees with cnncrirortis in having a 
conspicuous pectoral and blunt teeth, but it is a more 
slender species, with a smaller head. The specimen 
described below is certainly the one figured in the ' Illus- 
trations of Indian Zoology,' and agrees with Hardwicke's 
drawing above quoted, which is probably a copy of one of 
Hamilton-Buchanan's, being marked M. H. B. 335, but 
its pectoral, though small, cannot be said to be " minute," 
as stated in the specific character given by the latter 
author. It is probable, however, that he had not observed 
the rudimentary pectorals of the Ophisuri of the next 
group, and by the word ' minute' meant merely to denote 
the comparatively small size of the pectorals, as contrasted 
with those of some others of the Aii(juillidai. 

Its dentition is similar to that of caiicrivorns, but the 
bands are narrower, and the teeth smaller and more uniform 
in size, except the centi'al nasal ones, which are a little 
larger. The nasal cluster contains in one specimen only 
three teeth, and there are generally about three irregular 
rows in the vomer, palatines and mandible. The dorsal 
commences nearly an inch behind the gill-opening, and, 
together with the anal, gradually narrows, until it can no 
longer be traced very near the tip of the tail, which is 
edged to the apex by a cutaneous fold above and below. 

This specimen, which has been long immersed in spirits, 
is pale brown. The belly is lighter, and the fins whitish. 
The drawing is coloured dark green, with minute specks. 

Length 24-6 inches. To anus 99 inches. To gill- 
opening 2'1 inches. 

Hab. Indian Ocean. JDstuaries of rivers and salt-water 
lakes. 



Ophisurus breviceps. Richardson. 

An Opiiisiiriis in the British Museum, remarkable for 
its short blunt head, but having the lower jaw, as usual, 
shorter than the upper one ; may be considered as inter- 
mediate between the preceding species and the group 
mentioned below, — agreeing with the former in dentition 
and general aspect, and with the latter in its very small 
pectoral, attached like a valve to the lip of the gill-open- 
ing. This pectoral contains twelve rays. The dorsal 
commences near the occiput before the gill-opening, and 
tapers gradually away, so as to become nearly impercepti- 
ble before it actually terminates, about five lines from the 
tip of the tail, which is more compressed than it usually 
is in this genus. The anal vanishes in a similar way op- 
posite to the end of the dorsal. Head short and thick, with 
a comparatively wide snout. Eye and gape both small. 

Group of bluntish teeth on the nasal bone circular, se- 
parated from the triserial vomerine ones, which run far 
back and end in a single row. The palatine teeth are 

R 2 



100 



small, biserial and blunt, and form a short row in accord- 
ance with the small gape. 

Length 38 inches. To anus 18'75 inches. To gill- 



opening 



3 inches. 



This specimen came from the College of Surgeons, 
where it was numbered 812. 
Hab. Unknown. 



spots, of various sizes, fading into the ground tint, and 
forming two principal rows on the flanks. The belly is 
more white, the spots smaller and fainter. 

Hab. Rocky basins at Lancerolta, among sea-weeds. 



Ophisurus fasciatus. Thunberg. [Murwtia). 



Ophisurus pardalis. Valenciennes. 

Ophisurus pardatis, Valenc. Webb, et Bertli. Canaries, p. 90, PI. 16, 
tig. 2. 

Though I have not seen a specimen of this fish, yet, to 
render the account of the species more complete, I have 
transferred the subjoined description of it from M. Valen- 
ciennes' able account published in Webb and Bertholet's 
book on the Canaries. 

It belongs to the group of OpJiisuri, which have blunt 
teeth and rudimentary pectorals. Its cylindrical body be- 
comes gradually conical at the end. The mean height of 
the trunk is contained thirty-seven times and a half in the 
whole length ; and the distance from the end of the snout 
to the base of the pectoral is contained twelve times in the 
same entire length, but only five limes up to the anus. 
The head and cheeks are moderately swollen, owing to the 
size of the crotaphite muscles. The mouth is cleft beyond 
the eye, whose diameter is contained twice between its 
anterior border and the lip of the snout, four times in the 
length of the orifice of the mouth, and twice and a half 
between the eyes. The region of the gills bulges consi- 
derably ; the opening is small. The obtuse teeth are 
ranked in two series along the intermaxillary (palate-bone 
of Owen), which is articulated, as in the Aiiffuilliformes, to 
the posterior border of the chevron of the vomer (nasal- 
bone, Owen), which projects to the end of the snout. This 
whole extremity of the vomer (nasal, Owen) and its body 
(vomer, Owen), are covered with many rows of small obtuse 
teeth. There is also a band on the limb of the mandible. 
The two openings of the nostrils are tubular, and pierce 
the edge of the jaw : the anterior one is near the extremity 
of the snout, and its tube hangs down on one side like a 
small barbel ; the posterior one opens under the middle of 
the eye, and its orifice is covered by a tubular papilla 
placed on its outer border. When the skin is removed, 
one perceives a large nasal sac, which is covered by the 
great nasal-bone (turbinate bone, Owen), which is vaulted 
to make room for the nostril; beneath the sub-orbitar, in 
form of a thin plate, edges the intermaxillary (palatine, 
Owen). On raising the soft parts of the palate, we may per- 
ceive a very thin palatine, succeeded by very small alar 
bones, wholly rudimentary, which nevertheless form the 
arch connected with the limb of the mandible. The dorsal 
begins at the nape, ami appears to become higher and 
lower several times in the course of its length. The anal 
is more equal. The pectorals are very small, but yet their 
rays are perceptible. The only vestige of a lateral line is 
a series of distant pores, not easily traced. 

The ground colour is whitish, dotted with round brown 



Muriena fasciata, Thunberg, Spec. Ichtb. t. 2, f. 1. An. 1789—94. 

Gymnotkorax fasciatus, Bl. Schn. 529. 

Op/ihiswus alternan-s, Quoy et Gaini. Voy. du Freyc. PI. 45, f. 2. 



Teeth small, short-conical and bluntish. The oval nasal 
disk is covered by eight or nine of them, which are conti- 
guous to the commencement of the biserial vomerine ones. 
The palatine teeth are uniserial, but they stand alternately 
a little to the right and left. Mandibular teeth also uni- 
serial. Pectoral minute, like a roll of skin, with no per- 
ceptible rays under a common lens. Fins low, the anal 
ending 3 inches from the tip of the tail, but a furrow, 
pierced by a series of fine pores, occupies the interval. 
Dorsal disappearing about f of an inch from the tip of the 
tail. It is sufficiently distinct at the occiput, and, like the 
anal, it lowers gradually before it ceases to be traceable. 
The skin round the mouth is papular. The head is small, 
the snout blunt, and the mandible shorter. The gape 
small. The body compressed. 

The colour is bluish-gray, varied by thirty-three pale 
chestnut-brown rings, which cross the fins, and in the in- 
tervals there is generally one round brown sjiot, but occa- 
sionally two, and then one of them is placed over the other. 
Lateral line distinct. 

Length 2C'5 inches. To gill-opening IS inch. To 
anus 12 inches. 

Tliree specimens exist in the British Museum, and there 
is one in the Leyden Museum, from India, labelled Ophi- 
surus colubrimis. 

Hab. Malay Archipelago. Indian Ocean. 



Ophisurus coutbrinus. Boddaert. 

Murmna colnbrina, Boddaert, apud Pall. Bevtr. xi. p. 5(3, t. 2, f. 3. 
Au. 1781—90. 

Murmna aiinulala, Thunberg, Spec. Ichtb. viii. t. 1 , f . I. An. 
1789—94. 

Gymnotkorax unnuhUus, Bl. Scbn. p. 527. 

Lacepede (v. p. 642, PI. 19, f 1) describes and figures a 
Mureenophis colubriua, which he refers erroneously to the 
Murcena coluhrbm of Boddaert, Thunberg and Gmelin. 
The latter fish has about sixty rings of colour on the body, 
which are alternately black and white ; whereas Lacepede's 
figure, besides representing the fin as surrounding the 
point of the tail, shows only about half that number of 
rings. Having found a Murana in the British Museum, 
which corresponds with I-acepede's figure above quoted, I 
described it above at page 88, under the specific name of 
colubrina, quoting Commerson as the discoverer, under the 



101 



authoritj of Lacepede,but rejecting the synonyms of Bod- 
daevt and Thunberg, which relate to a true Ophisurus, of 
which a specimen exists in the Museum at Ilaslar, and tiie 
description follows. 

Teeth short-conical, blimtish, small. Nasal teeth about 
six, ranged in two rows, and alternating so that there is an 
odd one in front. Vomerine teeth uuiserial in front, bi- 
serial posteriorly. There are about eight in each row pos- 
teriorly, and four single ones anteriorly, between which and 
the vomerine disk there is a smooth space. The palatine 
teeth commence posterior to the beginning of the vomerine 
teeth, and consequently at some distance from the nasal 
ones, but reach rather past the angle of the mouth. There 
are fourteen or fifteen on each side, and two or three anterior 
pairs, being set alternately, make the series double there, 
but the nine posterior ones stand in a single row. The 
mandibular teeth are placed in a single row on the lateral 
limbs of the bone, but at the symphysis the teeth are a 
little larger, and two interior ones on each side give a 
clustered appearance to the dentition at the end of the 
jaw. 

This Ophisurus is a long slender species, with a small 
head, closely resembling Ophisurus fasciatus in form. 
The head is narrow, but the upper jaw is obtuse, with a 
tubular nostril sticking out on each side. The other nos- 
tril and upper lip have likewise the generic character. 
Lower jaw considerably shorter than the upper one. Body 
compressed, becoming gradually more so towards the tail. 
Fins low. Pectoral very small and delicate, but the rays 
are nevertheless perceptible by the aid of a common lens. 
Dorsal fold commencing over the angle of the mouth, and 
ending half an inch from the point of the tail, having pre- 
viously gradually lowered, so as to be visible only by aid 
of a lens. Anal ending about three quarters of an inch 
from the point of the tail, which is compressed, and tapers 
gradually. Lateral line evident to the naked eye, and 
composed of an almost continuous waving tube, with a 
pore at each flexure. Body marked by a series of 
bluish-gray, almost white, rings, alternating with as many 
blackish-brown ones, occupying nearly equal spaces. In 
the specimen here described there are twenty-eight rings 
of each colour, not reckoning the white speck covering the 
tip of the nose. The first pale ring encircles the hind 
head, and just touches the eye and the angle of the mouth ; 
the last one includes the end of the tail. The first black 
bar reaches from the anterior nostril to the eye, and takes 
in most of the lower jaw. 

Length 18' 5 inches. To anus 8"5 inches. To gill- 
opening 1 inch. Height of body 0"2 inch. 

A specimen in the British Museum, measuring 26 inches 
in total length, and 12'5 inches from tip of snout to anus, 
has thirty rings of each colour; and the anal can scarcely 
be traced beyond two inches and a half from the tip of the 
tail, though its existence farther on a little way is indicated 
by a furrow. A specimen in the Museum at Leyden re- 
sembles the one described above in having twenty-eight 
black rings : this individual was obtained in India. Ano- 
ther, taken at the Moluccas, and preserved in the same 
Museum, has thirty-two dark or blackish bands, which do 
not meet on the belly. The ground colour is whitish. 



These fish being kept in jars closed by bladder and varnish, 
no examination of their teeth, &c., could be instituted. A 
third specimen at Leyden has been named as the alternaus 
of Quoy and Gaimard, but it wants the intermediate 
spots. 

Hab. Malay Archipelago. Moluccas. Polynesia. 
India. 



Ophisurus fallens. Richardson. 

Nasal teeth five in number, the odd one in front. Vo- 
merine teeth triserial. Palatine teeth biserial, meeting the 
vomerine ones immediately behind the nasal disk. Man- 
dibular teeth biserial in Iront, uniserial posteriorly. All 
the teeth are short and conico-subulate or conic and acute; 
the nasal and front mandibular ones are stouter and more 
prominent than the others. Dorsal and anal ending opposite 
to each other, within two lines of the tip of the tail. The 
general appearance of this Ophisurus is like that of Iiijalu. 
Its lateral line is similar, and the pectoral consideraV/iy 
smaller. The vertical fins are low, and taper gradually 
away. The dorsal commences as far behind the gill- opening 
as that is distant from the ti]5 of the snout. The colour is 
a pale honey-yellow or faint wood-brown, lighter on the 
belly, and without spots. The specimen was brought from 
China, and presented to the British Museum by John 
Reeves, Esq. It has been immersed in spirits for some 
years. 

Length lit) inches. To anus 4'4 inches. To gill- 
opening 085 inch. Length of pectoral 0'40 inch. Gape 
0-35 inch. 

Hab. China. 

Obs. — I described this specimen in the ' Report on the 
Ichthyology of China,' p. 313, as referrible, though with 
doubt, to the Ophisurus harancha of Buchanan-Hamilton, 
but on further consideration I think it safer to give a pro- 
per name to the Chinese specimen, which, had it been ori- 
ginally as dark as the harancha is represented to be in 
number 302 of Hardwicke's Indian drawings, could 
scarcely have become so pale by simple maceration in 
spirits as it is now. I suspect that an eiTor has crept into 
my notes with regard to the specimen of harancha from 
India, which I have mentioned in my Report on Chinese 
Fish as existing in the British Museum, since I could not 
find it on my recent examination of the species in that col- 
lection, and I cannot therefore speak of the characters of 
harancha from the actual inspection of a specimen. 

In the Museum of the Cambridge Philosophical Institu- 
tion there is an Ophisurus, procured at Canton by the Rev. 
George Vachell, which, on inspecting it there, but without 
a comparison with the specimens in the British Museum, 
seemed to me to possess the characters ascribed by Bu- 
chanan-Hamilton to harancha. I find that I have noted 
it as a slender species with very low fins, having a pecto- 
ral of an elliptical form, supported by thirteen rays, with 
its lip just passing the small depression or pit which marks 
the origin of the dorsal. The termination of the dorsal 
and anal could not be distinctly made out, but the lip of 



102 



the tail shows an edge of sliin above and below without 
rays. The mouth is cleft past the eye. The teeth are 
stoutly subulate. The nasal ones taller than the rest. 
Palatine ones biserial, the rows short. Mandibular ones 
uniserial posteriorly, biserial in front, the rows farther 
apart than the palatine ones. Vomerine teeth biserial in 
front, uniserial posteriorly. It thus differs from pallens in 
the vomerine teeth. Its colour is brown on the back, pale 
beneath. Length 14^^ inches. To anus 5*3 inches. To 
dorsal 19 inch. To gill-opening 5'55 inches. Length of 
pectoral ^ an inch. Hab. Chinese Seas. 



Ophisurus hijala. Buchanan-Hamilton. 



Ophisurvs hijala, Bticli. -Hamilton, Ganges, p. 20 and 263, PI. 5, 
f. .5. Hardw. Icon. ined. Brit. Mas. 300. 



This is a vermiform s]iecics, with a rather small, but not 
a rudimentary, pectoral. The specimen described below 
was bequeathed to the British Museum by General Hard- 
wicke. 

The teeth are short, conico- subulate and acute, stoutest 
on the nasal bone and in front of the mandible. There are 
five on the nasal disk, viz., two on each side and an odd 
one in front. The vomerine teeth are biserial, and com- 
mence in contact with the nasal disk. The palatine teeth 
are also biserial, and the mandibular ones biserial in front 
but uniserial laterally. 

The head is small ; the body long, roundish and slender, 
the conical tip of the tail being compressed, but yet convex 
on the sides. The dorsal commences behind the tip of 
the pectoral, and, like the anal, gradually lowers till very 
near the tip of the tail, where they terminate. In Buchanan- 
Hamilton's figure, the dorsal approaches a little nearer to 
the tip than the anal, M'hich is usual in the genus, but this 
part of the form could not be clearly made out in the spe- 
cimen, owing to the lowness of the fins and their contrac- 
tion in the spirit. The lateral line is marked by a groove, 
which was probably a tube in the recent fish, with pores 
at distant intervals descending from it. 

Length 14-8 inches. To anus 5-7 inches. To gill- 
opening 1'15 inch. 

Buchanan-Hamilton describes this Ophisurus as being 
of a whitish hue beneath and thickly covered with green 
dots above, the dots descending below the lateral line be- 
fore the vent, but terminating at it posteriorly. There is 
also a series of pale round contiguous spots on the lateral 
line before the vent. He states the rays as " P. 8 ; D. 
from 230 to 240 ; A. 170." General Hardwicke's drawing 
is coloured very pale green on the back, with minute 
specks, whitish on the belly, and aurora-red on the vertical 
fins. In the Retjiie Animal (ii. p. 351, note) the hijala of 
Buchanan-Hamilton is quoted as a synonym of the Oph. 
ophis, Bl. 1.54, but, evidently by a typographical error, the 
line separating distinct species'haviug been omitted. 

Hab. India. General Hardwicke's specimen was pro- 
cured from a salt-water lake. 



Ophisurus maculosus. Cuvier .? 



Ophisurus maculosus, Cuv. Eegne Anim. ii. p. 351, i 
Ophisure ophis, Lacep. ii. PI. 6, tig. 2. 



The fish described below agrees with Lacepede's figure 
above quoted, which does not represent the Miircetia ophis 
of Bloch, but his description (ii. p. 196), which notices 
" dents recourbees," most probably refers to Bloch's fish. 
Not having seen an authenticated specimen of Cuvier's 
maculosus, the only reason 1 have for supposing tliis to be 
the same is that author's reference to Lacepede's figure. 
It has much resemblance to the Ophisurus pardalis of 
Valenciennes, and without a comparison of specimens, 
which I have not the means of instituting, I cannot point 
out the difl'erences clearly. They are, however, inhabitants 
of different oceans. 

The teeth are all small, conic and acute ; eight stand ir- 
regularly on the oval disk of the nasal bone. The vomerine, 
palatine and mandibular teeth are biserial. Valenciennes 
mentions " de dents obtuses sur plusieurs rangs" as existing 
in his similarly-marked pardalis on the nasal bone and vo- 
mer, or, as he names these bones, the chevron and body of 
the vomer. The fish is slender, becoming compressed to- 
wards the tip of the tail. The pectoral is of a semicircular 
form, small and delicate, but easily visible to the naked 
eye, and is supported by fifteen rays. Only twelve rays 
are described as belonging to the pectoral of pardalis. 
The distance from the tip of the snout to the gill-opening 
is contained eight times in the distance between the snout 
and anus, and eighteen times in the total length of the 
fish, which places the gill-opening farther forward than in 
pardalis. The dorsal begins at the occiput, and, in com- 
mon with the anal, gradually lowers towards the end of the 
tail. They terminate opposite to each other, very near the 
extreme tip of the tail. The body is marked with round 
brown spots, disposed in three rows in a quincnncial man- 
ner. The spots of pardalis are more oblong and less 
regular. 

Length 22 inches. To anus 9'25 inches. To gill-open- 
ing r25 inch. 

Two specimens exist in the British Museum. 

Hab. Madagascar.' 



Ophisurus intertinctus. Richardson. 

The teeth generally are subulate and acute, more or less 
slender, and mostly inclined backwards. The nasal disk 
is set round the edge with five small ones, the odd one be- 
ing at the point of the rather acute snout, and there are 
three larger teeth on the mesial line, the foremost of which 
is stoutly subulate, but not so tall as the second one. The 
biserial vomerine teeth commence close to the nasal disk, 
and run backwards for two-thirds of the way to the angle 
of the mouth. The palatine teeth are biserial in the mid- 
dle, where the inner row is composed of thirteen teeth, not 
so tall as the outer ones. There are four tall ones anteri- 
orly in a single row, and four small ones at the corner of 



103 



the mouth, following the double rows. The mandibular 
teeth are biserial on the sides of the bone, the outer row 
being taller and more widely set, the inner row being close, 
even and move numerous. In front there are six longer 
teeth in a single row on each limb, the posterior of these 
being the tallest, the others gradually lessening towards 
the symphysis. 

This Ophisitrus resembles ocellatus in the snout not 
being truncated between the anterior tubular nostrils, but 
projecting in a conical form beyond these organs, and in 
the lower jaw not being conspicuously shorter. The gape 
is also prett}' large, in accordance with its well-developed 
prehensile teeth, and the pectoral visible enough, though 
not large. The dorsal commences some little way behind 
the tip of the moderately large pectoral, or three quarters 
of an inch behind the gill-opening, and ends opposite to 
the end of the anal, about a quarter of an inch from the 
apex of the tail. Both fins, having previously become 
verj' low, dilate a little gradually before they terminate. 

The head is brownish above, with small dark spots and 
specks, and there are minute dots on the lower jaw. There 
are about sixteen large oval or round blackish-brown spots 
on the sides, mostly above the lateral line ; one or two 
only come below the line, and a few on the dorsal alternate 
with the others. 

Length 12'7 inches. To anus 5'9 inches. To gill- 
opening 1'4 inches. 

Hab. West Indies. The specimen described is in the 
British Museum. 

Obs. — An OphisHJUs labelled rnaculatus in the Leyden 
Museum, and noted as having come from Surinam, is, I 
suspect, this species ; but being enclosed in a permanently 
covered jar, I could examine it only through the glass. I 
have had no opportunity of knowing what the Ophisurus 
yuttcdus of Cuvier is like, and consequently run the hazard 
of its being one of the species 1 have described. A spe- 
cimen in the Leyden Museum, labelled " Ophisunis gut- 
tatus, Valenciennes," is marked with large white spots, and 
has pale fins, and may probably be a variety of Le Sueur's 
ocellatus. Another individual, from Cura^oa, in the same 
Museum, labelled " Oph. guttatus, Cuvier," has black 
spots with white centres. 



Ophisurds spadiceus. Richardson. 



Ophisurus spadiceus, Richaidsou, Fishes of China, Report to Brit, 
see. for 1845, p. 313. 



Teeth short, even, conico-subulate, acute. Nasal disk 
armed by five, disposed in a row on each side, with the odd 
one in front. Vomerine teeth alternate or sub-biserial an- 
teriorly, but ranged more exactly in one line posteriorly. 
Palatine teeth uniserial and close set, extending from the 
comer of the mouth to the commencement of the vomerine 
series, and with those of the opposite bone, giving the ap- 
pearance of a cluster at the point of contact of the three 
rows. There are twenty-two in each palatine bone. 
Mandibular teeth uniserial, without doubling at the sym- 
physis. 



Body vermiform. Head small. Snout narrow, but 
truncated at the tip, with short tubular nostrils on its sides; 
the posterior nostrils minute, with the usual lobulets on 
the edge of the lip. Lower jaw considerably .shorter than 
the upper one, rounded at the end. Throat plaited and 
swelling. Pectorals lanceolate, acute, moderately large, 
supported by eleven rays. Dorsal and anal fins low, de- 
creasing on the tail, but becoming gradually a little higher, 
and again lowering just before terminating verj' near the 
tip of the tail. The dorsal commences behind the tip of 
the pectoral. The rays of the fins can be readily seen. 
Lateral line a conspicuous fold of skin. 

The colour of the .specimen, after some years of macera- 
tion in spirits, is darkish wood-brown above the lateral 
line, and whitish beneath, without any defined spotting. 

Length I Si- inches. To anus 4-8 inches. Length of 
pectoral 0'5.5 inch. Height of body 0'4 inch. In the Re- 
port to the British Association above quoted, the distance 
between the tip of the snout and the anus has been errone- 
ously given as 5'8 inches. 

Hab. Canton. The specimen was presented to the 
British Museum by John Reeves, Esq. 



Ophisurds versicolor. Richardson. 

This is a banded species, like coliibriinis and fasciatitu, 
though its acute subulate teeth place it in a different sec- 
tion. The nasal disk is armed with nine slender reflex 
teeth, viz., four in each row and an odd one in front. The 
vomerine teeth are seventeen in number, a few of the an- 
terior ones being inclined alternately to the right and left, 
and the remainder strictly uniserial. Palatine teeth uni- 
serial, anteriorly biserial in the middle after the sixth, and 
then uniserial again towards the corner of the mouth, where 
they are of equal height, close, reflex, and, like the others, 
acutely subulate. Mandibular teeth uniserial, about nine- 
teen on each limb, all reflex and subulate, with a broadisli 
toothless interval at the symphysis. 

The body of this species is less slender and more rounded 
than that oi fascial us or coluhriiius, the pectoral is more 
conspicuous, and the dorsal and anal increase gradually in 
height to a small extent before they begin to slope away 
and disappear about a quarter of an inch from the end of 
the tail. The dorsal is low, and commences immediately 
behind the gill-opening. The body is varied by twenty- 
seven purplish-brown rings, considerably broader than the 
intervals between them ; most of the rings are further di- 
vided more or less completely by narrower white lines or 
imperfect circles. Tips of the snout and tail white. 

Length 20"8 inches. To anus lO'l inches. 

Hab. Moluccas. Specimen in the British Museum pur- 
chased of Franks, who had it from the Leyden Museum. 



Ophisurus sugillatus. Richardson. 

The Ophisurus semicinctus and pardalis, which are 
spotted much like sugillatus, differ in their much smaller 
pectorals and conical-obtuse teeth, with smaller mouths : 



104 



maculosm and intertbictus, which are spotted in a similar 
way, have also smaller pectorals. 

Gape of the mouth moderately large, exceeding one 
third of the distance between the point of the snout and 
the gill-opening, and equal to the greatest height of the 
body. Eye midway between the tubular anterior nostrils 
and angle of the mouth, small. Snout narrow and projecting 
some way beyond the nostrils, but not acute. Second 
nasal opening on the edge of the lip, under the eye, with the 
usual lobulets. Lower jaw rounded at the end, a very little 
shorter than the upper one. The integuments of the head, 
above and below, including the jaws, the neck, the throat, 
and the belly half-way to the anus, are wrinkled by short 
furrows, which for the most part run longitudinally and 
parallel to each other. The height of the body equals the 
twenty -eighth part of the whole length. The pectoral is 
moderately large, equalling in length the distance from the 
jjosterior part of the orbit to the point of the snout. The 
dorsal commences a short way farther back than the tip of the 
pectoral, and terminates within half an inch of the acute point 
of the tail, oppo.site to the end of the anal, both fins having 
previously gradually lowered. The lateral line, consisting 
of a continuous series of short tubes with porous openings, 
is conspicuous enough. The jaws and nape are covered with 
large black blotches, sepai'ated by smaller pale, probably 
yellowish, intervals. The nuchal black patch descends like 
a ring a little way behind the mouth, and runs forward on 
llie under surface between the limbs of the mandible, and 
backwards nearly to the gill-opening. There is a yellow- 
ish patch at the corner of the mouth, and another on the 
side of the throat. The top of the head and temples, and 
the back and sides of the neck, have a bluish-gray colour, 
with many round black dots the size of swan-shot. The 
back and sides are marked by many large brownish-black 
roundish or oval spots, from the size of a chestnut down to 
that of a pea, irregularly disposed, but with three principal 
rows, the middle one being on the lateral line and num- 
bering about twenty-seven spots : these mostly alternate 
with the series on the top of the back. The spots on the 
belly are small and distant. The colours are described 
from the dried specimen, and have faded on the fins, which, 
however, retain traces of spots. 

Teeth rather stoutly subulate, longish and considerably 
recurved. The small and narrow nasal disk is ai-med by 
five, one in front, one on each side, and two in contact 
with the commencement of the vomerine series, which is 
strictly single, and contains ten or eleven larger than the 
nasal ones, and more recui'ved. Palatine teeth biserial, 
the two rows differing little in the size of the teeth, and the 
outer one being less crowded. There are three small teeth 
in a single series before the beginning of the two rows, and 
perhaps some also behind ; but the mode in which the 
specimen has been prepared prevents me from seeing dis- 
tinctly the dentition at the corner of the mouth. The 
mandibular teeth are also biserial. 

Length 56 inches. To anus 26 inches. To gill-open- 
ing .5'6 inches. Length of gape 2 inches. Height of body 
about 2 inches. 

The origin of the specimen deposited in the Museum at 



Haslar is unknown, but it is supposed to have come from 
the West Indies. 



Ophisurus ocellatus. Le Sueur. 



MurtBtwpsis ncellaia, Le Sueur, Jt 
phia, V. PI. 4, f. 3. 



Acad. Nat. Sc. of Philadel- 



All the teeth slenderly subulate or acicular, except the 
five marginal nasal teeth, which are subulate and acute. 
Twelve or fourteen uniserial vomerine teeth commence 
close to the small nasal disk. Palatine teeth biserial, Irom 
eighteen to twenty in each row ; the outer ones inclined to- 
wards the corner of the mouth, acicular, not coming quite 
forward enough to meet the vomerine teeth ; inner row a 
little taller, and inclined towards the mesial line. Mandi- 
bular teeth also biserial ; the inner row not so tall as the 
outer one ; both rows inclined the same way as the corre- 
sponding palatine ones. Gape of the mouth pretty large, 
and the jaws possess considerable lateral extensibility. 
Snout depressed, but when seen from above appearing 
conical and acute. The short tubular anterior nostrils 
have a very small acute snout projecting between them. 
Under jaw shorter and more rounded at the tip. A con- 
spicuous row of pores on the limbs of the mandible, and 
many pores on the upper lip and snout. Eye over the 
middle of the gape. 

Pectoral rather large, lanceolate, and supported by sixteen 
rays. Other fins low throughout. The dorsal commences 
over the tip of the pectoral, and ends, together with the 
anal, about two lines from the tip of the slender conical 
point of the tail. Lateral line a raised tube, with a series 
of pores beneath it. A fine white porous line crosses the 
occiput, makes a sudden rectangular flexure forwards on 
the temples, and then descends to the corner of the mouth. 
When the skin is viewed through an eye-glass, it appears 
to be finely furrowed longitudinally, both on the back and 
belly. The general colour is grayish-brown, which is due 
to a multitude of microscopical blackish dots on a fawn- 
coloured ground. The belly is whitish. There are from 
nineteen to twenty-one round milk-white spots on the 
lateral line, about the size of peas ; the first one placed 
over the gill-opening, and five small white dots on the top 
of the neck over this lateral spot. A pale brown stripe 
runs on each side of the anal. 

Length I3'5 inches. To anus 6"1 inches. To gill- 
opening 16 inch. Length of gape 0-65 inch. 

Hab. Gulf of Mexico. 

A specimen exists in the Museum at Haslar, and there 
is another in the British Museum. An Op/iisiirux in the 
Leyden Museum, labelled as having belonged to " L'ancien 
cabinet," is most likely referrible to this species. The in- 
dividual, in the same Museum, which is labelled " Oph. 
gutlatus of Valenciennes," has larger white spots and a 
less acute tail ; but 1 write from imperfect recollection, 
not having made descriptions or drawings of the Leyden 
fish. 



105 



Ophisdrus PARiLis. Ricliurtlsoii. 



Opiiisurus rostellatus. Ricliavdson. 



Teeth slenderly subulate or acieular ; the nasal ones 
standing on so narrow a disk as to appear clustered, with an 
odd one in front; about nine in all. Vomerine teeth bi- 
serial, numerous. Palatine teeth also biserial ; both the 
rows even and pretty closely set ; those of the outer row 
rather shorter, and inclined towards the corner of the 
mouth ; the inner ones considerably inclined towards the 
mesial line, and extending forwards to meet the vomerine 
series at its commencement close to the nasal disk. Man- 
dibular teeth biserial, extending from the symphysis to the 
corner of the mouth ; the teeth in both rows inclined back- 
wards ; those of the inner row more closely set, and even. 

Pectoral rather long, elliptical, acute. Dorsal com- 
mencing over the posterior quarter of the pectoral, ending 
with the anal close to the tip of the tail, both having pre- 
viously expanded slightly, and being low throughout. 
Lower jaw a little shorter than the u]iper one. Eye placed 
over the middle of the mouth. Colour an unii'orm dull 
brown, paler beneath. ( In spirits). 

Length 19 inches. To anus 615 inches. To gill-open- 
ing ry inch. Length of gape 08 inch. 

Hai3. West Indies. Specimen in British Museum. 



Ophisurus dicellurus. Richardson. 



Ophhtirxs dicelhirm, Ricliardsoii, Ichtli. Voy. nf Sulph. p. 106, PI. 
48, f. 2, 3, 4. Ee|iort to Brit. Ass. Ami. 1845, p. 312. 



The head is about as high as it is wide, but the body 
becomes gradually more compressed towards the tail. 
Snout bluntish, and very slightly passing the tip of the 
lower jaw. Gill-openings lax, and approaching nearer 
than usual in the genus to each other beneath. Teeth 
slenderly subulate, not long, inclined backwards. Vomer- 
ine teeth uniserial, larger, three in number. Palatine 
teeth biserial. Mandibular ones biserial in front, uniserial 
laterally. Pectoral ovate, acute, moderately large, sup- 
ported by foin-teen rays : dorsal commencing over its tip, 
and keeping at an equal height until near the end of the 
tail, where it lowers, and then dilates, so as to form with 
the anal, which is similar, an oval lobe, that rounds off 
at the tip of the tail more suddenly than it rises. The last 
rays of both fins are very short, and approach as near as 
possible to the extreme point of the tail, but do not go 
round it. The colour has faded in spirits, and if any 
markings existed they are no longer discernible. Lateral 
line distinct. 

Length 9'55 inches. To anus .3'84 inches. To gill- 
opening 132 inch. 

Hab. Estuary of the Yang tze keang, China. 

I have not seen the Ophtsaius remiger of D'Orbigny, 
which is a West Indian species, and resembles this one 
much in the form of the tail. (D'Orbigny, Voy. dans 
rAmerique merid. PI. 12, f. 2). 



The snout is narrow, but rounded and slightly dilated at 
the end, exceeding the lower jaw very little. The nasal 
disk is bordered anteriorly by five small, subulate, acute 
teeth : a little farther back, on the mesial line, there is a 
stouter tooth, which is very acute, and in front of it two 
small subulate ones. The vomerine teeth are uniserial, 
the row commencing by two tall subulate teeth like the 
mesial vomerine one, with a small interval between them, 
and followed by seven closer set, recurved, subulate teeth. 
Palatine teeth biserial, the outer row being composed of 
about eighteen widely set subulate teeth, which are tallest 
near the middle of the gape, and become shorter and closer 
near the corner of the mouth. The inner row consists of 
twenty-eight more slender and very acute teeth, much in- 
clined towards the mesial line and a little backwards, and 
not reaching so far posteriorly as the outer row, but going 
forwards to the nasal disk. Mandibular teeth biserial ; the 
outer row more widely set, taller, and reaching from the 
symphysis to the angle of the mouth ; the inner row re- 
sembling the inner palatine one, but confined to the fore 
quarter of the jaw, and terminating opposite the com- 
mencement of the outer palatine row. The jaws are nar- 
row and expand laterally, like those of inferlinciua, and in a 
much less degree than those oiregius. The eyes are placed 
in the middle of the large gape, and the interval between 
them and the top of the head does not exceed the diameter 
of the orbit. 7'he gill-openings are large. The pectoral 
is oval and large : the dorsal commences just behind its 
tip, is nowhere high, and lowers gradually to within three 
lines of the tip of the tail, where it terminates. The anal 
ends two lines from the tip, there being no previous ex- 
pansion of either fin. Colour of the specimen kept in 
spirits chestnut-brown. 

Length 3.3 inches. To anus 14-4 inches. To gill-open- 
ing 3-50 inches. Length of gape ISo inch. 

Hab. Senegal. The Earl of Derby presented a speci- 
men to the British Museum. 



Ophisurus compar. Richardson. 

The uniform brown colour of this species and of the fol- 
lowing one, after immersion in spirits, and their general 
form, renders them so like O. cancrivorus that an exami- 
nation of the dentition becomes necessary for their dis- 
crimination. 

Nasal disk armed with five short acute teeth, the odd 
one in front. Vomerine teeth uniserial, the row somewhat 
uneven, and the front pair close to the nasal disk standing 
abreast. Twenty-two conico-subidate, acute, palatine 
teeth, even and close set, ranged in a single somewhat un- 
dulating series. Mandibular teeth small and low, also 
conico-subulate and acute, numbering twenty-six on each 
limb, uniserial laterally, biserial in front. The mouth is 
small, the snout bluntish, and the lower jaw a little shorter. 
Eye nearer to the angle of the mouth than to the tip of 



106 



the snout. Pectorals large : the dorsal commences be- 
tween their tips, and terminates with the anal close to the 
extreme tip of the tail. Both fins are very low posteriorly, 
but expand gradually and .slightly before they slope away 
to the point of the tail. Colour of the fish, in spirits, an 
uniform brown. 

Length lOS inches. To anus 7-5 inches. To gill- 
opening 2 inches. 

Hab. Sumatra. A si:)ecimen in British Museum. 



Length 35 inches. To anus 18'5 inches. To gill-open- 
ing 4 inches. Length of gape 17 inch. 

1 think it probable that this may be the O. ophis of 
authors, but in that case Bloch's figure differs in the rela- 
tive position of the anus and the greater length of naked 
tail, and fails in giving the characters of the dejnessed 
conical head and jaws. 



Ophisokus serpens. Linn. (Muraiia). 



Ophisurus REGIUS. Shaw. 
" An. Ophisurus ophis ? Auctorum." 



An Ophisurus in the British Museum, labelled as above, 
has the following characters. 

Seven nasal teeth, ranged round the terminal border of 
the acute snout, and on the mesial line ; more ])0£teriorly 
there is a double row of six, set alternately tliree in each 
row, as in some Mnrtente. These are succeeded by a sin- 
gle row of thirteen on the vomer, both nasal and vomerine 
teeth being subulate, acute and recurved. The palatine 
teeth ai-e biserial, and are all pretty long, subulate, more 
slender and very acute ; the outer row is inclined back- 
wards towards the corner of the mouth ; and the inner one, 
which are rather taller, is inclined to the mesial line, and 
is preceded by a single row of four teeth, by which they 
are connected with the mesial nasal row. Mandibular 
teeth iniiscrial, curved backwards and inwards. 

Head greatly de])ressed, so that the very small eye is 
on the U])per surface. The breadth is great at the angles 
of the mouth, and diminishes evenly to the acute end of 
the jaws, which are of equal length, and are laterally very 
extensible. Anterior nostrils tubular, as usual, and jdaced 
on the side of the snout. Posterior nostril j)laced before 
the eye, preceded by a conical papilla on the edge of the 
lip, and covered by a membranous lid. 

Body thickish for an Ophisurus, round throughout, and 
tapering towards the end of the tail. The lateral Hne, 
formed by an elevated tube with pores beneath at intervals, 
is conspicuous. The pectoral, supported by fifteen rays, 
is of moderate size, measuring six lines in length ; and the 
dorsal, beginning half an inch behind its tip, ends a 
quarter of an inch from the end of the tail, while the anal 
ends a quarter of an inch farther forwards, or half an inch 
from the tip of the tail. The fins are tolerably high ante- 
riorly, with conspicuous rays, and lower gradually towards 
their termination. 

The specimen has been immersed in spirits many years, 
and many of its markings have doubtless disappeared. 
The tint of the upper parts appears to have been reddish 
or brownish. Twenty-three large pale brown spots or 
bars still exist on the lateral line ; dots and lines of the 
ground colour traverse the spots; and the whole space, 
from the summit of the back to some way below the lateral 
line, is marbled by small round pale brown spots, which 
occupy as much space as the ground colour. 



Five marginal teeth at the extremity of the nasal bone, 
and nine longer, acute, subulate mesial ones, all posterior 
to the marginal ones. Thirteen short, acute, reflex, uni- 
serial vomerine teeth. Palatine bone armed by an outer 
row of sixty short, compressed, acute, inclined teeth, which 
commence at the sixth mesial nasal tooth ; and by an in- 
terior row of about twelve short, conical, acute teeth, just 
showing through the soft i)arts, set widely apart and not 
in a straight line. Under jaw armed laterally by a single 
even row of close-set, reflex, subulate teeth, like the ex- 
terior palatine ones. 

Snout slender and pointed. Gill-rays, according to Cu- 
vier, only twenty. Pectoral tolerably large. Body having 
a silvery or nacry aspect, like many of the Scoiiibrisidee. 

Two specimens exist in the British Museum ; one of 
them taken in the Bay of Naples, and the other in the At- 
lantic. In the Leyden Museum there is an Ophisurus 
from Ja])an, labelled serpens, but I had no means of insti- 
tuting a comparison between it and the Mediterranean 
fish. Another similarly named, in the same Museum, is 
noted as having been captured at tlie Cape of Good Hope. 

Hab. Mediterranean. Atlantic Ocean. 

The Ophisurus roslratiis, or Ophisure long museau of 
Quoy and Gaimard, Voy. du Freycenet, PI. 51, f. 1, seems 
to be allied to serpens, but I have seen no example of it, 
and can therefore add nothing to the description to be 
found in the work above quoted. There is a considerable 
length of naked tail, the dorsal ending before the anal : the 
])ectoral is pretty long, and the gape large, with the eye 
placed nearer to the angle of the mouth than to the end of 
the snout. 



Ophisurus vimineus. Richardson. 



Op/iisuruK vimineus, RieliavrlsdU, Iclitli. of Suliiluir, p. 107, PI. ivi. 
f. 16—20. Repurl ou Fish of China, p. 311. 

This Ophisurus stands by itself in the genus, in having 
an elongated acute snout, minute pectorals, and no visible 
vertical fins. The teeth are short, subulate and very acute. 
Four are placed alternately in two rows on the narrow 
nasal disk. The palatine teeth are uniserial, recurved, and 
meet in front behind the nasal disk. Mandibular teeth 
also uniserial. No vomerine teeth could be perceived, but 
this was probably owing to their minuteness, and the roof 
of the mouth having been injured. 



107 



Head small. Snout slender, acute, projecting much be- 
yond the mandible. The tubular anterior nostrils placed 
on each side near the tip. Throat elastic, from the inter- 
lacing of the gill-rays, of which at least twejity-two can be 
made out through the integuments, but it is jirobable that 
the correct number is more. Gill-openings small, lateral. 

Body slender, round, vermiform, tapering a little towards 
the acute point of the tail, which is very slightly com- 
pressed. Pectoral minute, transparent, and scarcely visi- 
ble, except by aid of a lens. It is supported by eight 
rays. Thirty-three chestnut-brown bands, not quite meet- 
ing on the belly, alternate with an equal number of rather 
narrower white ones, the tip of the tail being dark. 

Length 8 incbes. To anus S'S inches. To gill-opening 
0'5 inch. Height of body O'lS inch. 

Hab. China. 



CONGRUS. 

The British Museum possesses comparatively few Con- 
gers, and I have not had an opportunity of examining an 
extensive series elsewhere, but, as far as I have ascertained, 
the genus differs from Aiiguilla by the definite character 
of the absence of dermal scales, as well as by those noticed 
by Cuvier in the Regiie Animal, — the more prominent 
snout and forward origin of the dorsal fin. 

The species which I have seen maybe arranged by their 
dentition as follows. 

1. Palatine and mandibular teeth slender, but chisel- 

shaped at the points, and arranged so closely as 
to produce an incisorial edge. 
Congrus vulgaris; C. leucophmus. 

2. Palatine and mandibular teeth acerose or acicular, 

and villiform. 
C. ntyrus ; C. leptiirus. 

3. Teeth mostly conical, and more or less blunt. 
C. habettatus. 

4. Vomerine teeth strong, compressed, sharp-edged 

and tricuspid. Mandibular teeth resembling the 
. vomerine ones. (Mur.enesox, Mc Clelland). 
C. jirolernis ; C. iriciispiclatus ; C. atigustidens ; C. 
hrevicmpis ; C. hanio. 

5. Vomerine teeth tricuspid. Mandibular teeth like 

the palatine ones. (Mdr^nesox, Mc Clelland). 
C. curvidens. 



Congrus vulgaris. Auctorum. 

MurcEiia coiir/er, Blocli, 1.55. 

The skull of the common conger of the British Channel 
has much the same shape posteriorly with that of Murama, 
but the hypotympanic pedicle of the lower jaw inclines 
forwards, so that the strong bony preoperculum, and 
equally large but thinner interoperculum, do not project 



backwards beyond the occiput. The operculum, which is 
also strong and moderately large, has a deep crescenlic 
notch in its upper border, embracing more than a quarter 
of the otherwise circular circumference of the bone. Tiie 
narrow meniscoid suboperculum borders the under half of 
the operculum. Taken together, the gill-plates and the 
branchiostegous rays are not inferior in size and strength to 
those of many acanthopterygian fishes, and far exceed the 
delicate and diminutive opercula of the MuramcB. A bone, 
which may be considered as the confluent pterygoid and 
entopterygoid, and which does not exist in A^urce na,haiS the 
shape of a long plate, forming the floor of the orbit. Its 
anterior end joins the prefrontal process of the vomer un- 
derneath the groove, for lodging the olfactory nerve, and 
its posterior end is ])artly confluent with the hypotymjjanic, 
partly joined to it by suture. The palatine, as in Miirteini, 
performs the ordinary function of the maxillary bone, but 
it is shorter and stronger than in that genus, and is articu- 
lated by a flat head to the side of the vomer and hinder 
part of the small nasal disk, at the fore part of the olfactory 
sac, close to the end of the snout, the prominent tip of the 
snout being formed by the nasal disk or chevron. In Mu- 
rcena, the articulation of the end of the palatine with the 
preorbital process of the confluent vomerine and nasal 
bones is just at the border of the orbit. In the common 
conger, the large triangular preorbitar flanks the end of the 
snout, covering the anterior third of the palatine. The 
rest of the suborbitar chain remains in the condition of a 
cartilaginous tube, except a short piece at the posterior in- 
ferior angle of the orbit, which is ossified. The integu- 
ments of the side of the snout, and part of the upper lip, 
are strengthened by a tough ligamentous substance, ap- 
proaching to cartilage in firmness. The Congrus mystax 
is described by Laroche as having two transverse bony 
rays in the upper lip of each side, but I cannot help sus- 
pecting that he alludes to the preorbitar and the posterior 
ossified portion of the suborbitar chain. In Congrus com- 
munis, the uro-hyal is a strong bone, nearly cyliudiical in 
the middle, dilated anteriorly, where it is attached to the 
basi-hyals, which are confluent with the stout cerato-hyals, 
and compressed posteriorly at its connection with the 
lower points of the firm well-developed coracoid bones. 
The gill-rays, nine in number, are also strong and rigid, 
except towards their points, and all the pai-ts of the hyoid 
bone and humeral arch are much firmer and stronger than 
in Murcena or Ophisurus. The stomach is a long, thick, 
cylindrical sac, with a short, narrow, slightly tapering, ob- 
tuse, coecal process at its fundus. The pyloric orifice is 
near the top, leaving eleven parts of twelve in the length 
of the viscus beneath it, and the canal passes obliquely 
through the coats of the stomach, ascending till it reaches 
externally thejimction of the oesophagus; it then makes a 
sudden turn, and runs downwards along the back of the 
stomach, a valve being formed at the curve by an inflection 
of the inner coat of the gut. At the lower quarter of the 
stomach, the gut, still tied down to it by a short mesentery, 
makes three loops, which, together with five or six valvular 
inflections of the inner coat at the several curves, perform 
in some degree the functions of a spiral valve, by detaining 
the ali-nentary matters in their passage, and giving in- 

S 2 



108 



creased surface for absorption. The gut ends in a short, 
straight and rather wider canal, which arrives at the anus 
very soon alter passing the ccecal point of the stomach. 

The end of the snout is formed by the rounded extremity 
of the nasal bone, whose dental disk, nearly twice as broad 
as it is long, is closely set with small, short, stoutly subu- 
late, acute, somesvhat recurved teeth. A smooth furrow 
separates this disk from the ratlier prominent elliptical 
dental surface of the vomer, which is armed with similar 
teeth, but which are less crowded on the mesial line. The 
vomerine teeth do not go so far back as the prefrontal pro- 
cess. The principal series of teeth on the palatines, when 
looked at in situ, appear to be slenderly cylindrical, some- 
what like the teeth of a Clnelodon, but they are in fact 
wedge-shaped, being transversely wider at the base, and 
obliquely chisel-shaped and acute on the edge. Being very 
closely and evenly set, the series as a whole is incisorial. 
Close to their roots interiorly a ievf minute teeth may be 
detected, situated so as to be ready to replace any of the 
main series that may be injured; and at a very small in- 
terval there is a very low, even row, forming an interior 
acute ridge, just visible above the soft parts. Near the 
symphysis this ridge terminates in a narrow band or cluster. 
On the outside, near the anterior end of the palatine bone, 
the main dental ridge is supported by a villiform band of 
small subulate teetli, which is broadest where it touches 
the nasal disk, and tapers off to a point posteriorly, not 
reaching above one-third of the length of the bone. The 
mandibular teeth arc similar to the palatine ones, but the 
outer villiform cluster at the symphysis is broader. The 
small inner teeth of both jaws are concealed by the soft 
parts in the recent fish. The upper and under pharyngeals 
are densely covered with very fine villiform teeth, which 
are slightly coarser on the inner borders of the bones. 

The pretty large, ovate pectoral is supported by seven- 
teen rays. The dorsal commences over the last quarter of 
the pectoral, and contains about three hundi-ed rays, while 
the anal is supported by two hundred and fifty. They are 
bordered with black, as is the case in the majority of Con- 
gers. The lateral line has a series of white pores be- 
neath it. 

Length from 5 to 7 or 8 feet. 

IIab. European Seas. 



CoNGRDS LEUCOPH.EUS. Richardsou. 

Small subacute teeth, densely crowded at the end of the 
ujjper jaw, the cluster ending posteriorly in a short acute 
point, just behind the articulation of the palatine bones to 
the nasal di.sk, that is, extending a very short way on the 
vomer. Palatine and mandibular teeth uniserial, and 
evenly and closely set, producing an incisorial ridge, as in 
the common conger. Their cusps are compressed, acute- 
edged, or chisel-shaped, and oblique enough to form an 
angle or point posteriorly. A few at the fore end of the 
mandible are more pointed, and not so closely and evenly 
set. The head is depressed and flattish above, tlie snout 
rounded. The dorsal begins just behind the tip of the 



pectoral, and, with the anal, is of a pale colour, distinctly 
bordered with black. The body, after maceration in spi- 
rits, is brownish. 

Length \Q\ inches. To anus 7\ inches. To gill-open- 
ing 2'2 inches. 

The specimen exists in the British Museum, but with- 
out any record of its native place. 



CONGRUS MYRUS. RisSO > 



Mureena mi/rus, Risso, Ichtli. de Nice, p. 20? 



I have referred the conger whose description follows to 
the nii/nis of authors, chiefly because of the white lines 
about the occiput, and on account of its habitat. It does 
not agree at all with Lacepede's figure 2, PI. 3, f. 3, in the 
position and size of the eye. 

Roundish or slightly oval nasal disk, armed with short, 
conical, acute teeth, biscrial on the border, the outer series 
formed of about fifteen, and the inner one of eight ; in ad- 
dition to which there are two on the mesial line larger 
than the others, the posterior one being placed a little be- 
hind the circle of the disk. Dental surface of the vomer 
elliptical, and acute at both ends, armed with small teeth 
of various sizes, some of them flattish and rounded, others 
more acute. About six stand abreast in the middle of the 
ellipse. Palatine teeth acerose or short, slender, cylin- 
drical and more or less acute, crowded without order, but 
standing four or five in the width of the bone, which abuts 
anteriorly against the nasal di.sk. The mandibular teeth 
are similar to the palatine ones, but form a slightly nar- 
rower band. 

The body of this conger tapers considerably. The head 
is longish and narrow. The snout is obtuse when seen 
from above, but being rather depressed looks acute in pro- 
file. The eyes are large, and placed rather more than a 
vertical diameter of the orbit apart, over the posterior an- 
gle of the mouth. The gape is large, exceeding the mode- 
rate-sized pectoral in length. The lateral line is formed 
by a series or chaplet of little elliptical elevations, with 
white dots at intervals. The dorsal begins over the tip of 
the pectoral. The fins are pale, with black edges. The 
body is brownish-gray above, after maceration in spirits, 
the colom- being partly produced by densely-crowded very 
minute dark ash-gray dots ; and the belly is whitish, with 
thinly set blackish dots. A porous white band crosses the 
occiput ; another runs along the temples, over the base of 
the pectorals : one passes under the eye, and the pores 
form variously figured lines on the snout. There are also 
three short longitudinal white bars on the top of the head, 
before the transverse occipital band. 

Length 23j inches. To anus 9? inches. To gill-open- 
ing 2j inches. 

Hah. Bay of Najjles. Specimen presented to the Bri- 
tish Museum by J. Pratt, Esq. 



109 



CoNGRUs LEPTura's. Richardson. 

Congrus Icpturus, Richardson, Ichlli. Voy. of Suliihuv, p. 10(5, PI. 
oti, fig.'l-(i 

Teeth acicular. The nasal ones disposed in two vows 
of five each, the posterior outer one on each side being 
the tallest. The vomer is armed in front by two teelh, 
like the latter one, one before the other. The palatine teeth 
are biserial, the rows being regular, with a space between 
them, and the inner row rather taller and abutting against 
the nasal disk before the vomerine teeth. Mandibular teeth 
like the palatine ones, and biserial, but at the symphysis 
there are three rows, the posterior row being formed by 
four acicular teeth behind the other two rows. 

Tail tapering and slender, and more acute than in most 
congers. Lower jaw nearly as long as the obtuse snout. 
Dorsal commencing over the axilla of the pectoral. Gill- 
openings rather large, the space between them on the 
throat about equal to the length of one opening. 

Colour bluish-gray above, pale or whitish below ; the fins 
pale and edged with black. 

Length 9 inches. To gill-opening TOo inch. To anus 
2"7 inches. To dorsal I'lo inch. 

Hab. China Seas. 



Congrus habenatus. Richardson. 

Radii:— B. 8; D. 184; A. l-2-2; = .306; P. 10. 

Plate L., figs. 1—5. 

This species differs from the preceding ones in its denti- 
tion, the teeth on the roof of the mouth being fitted for 
crushing or grinding the food. 

Body thicker than the head, nearly cylindrical, its height 
exceeding its transverse diameter only by one-fifth (fig. 5), 
the compi-ession augmenting rapidly betvveen the anus and 
tip of the tail. The muscular flakes are very visible 
through the smooth, shining, silvery skin ; and the lateral 
line, which gradually descends from the nape to the middle 
height, which it attains some way behind the anus, is 
marked out by a series of pores, commencing at the 
occiput. A depression, descending from the occiput, se- 
parates the muscles of the cheek from the gill-cover. The 
eye is large, encroaches on the profile, and is contained 
rather less than four times and a half in the distance be- 
tween the end of the snout and the gill-opening. The 
space between the eyes is less than the vertical diameter 
of the eye-ball. Snout rather broad and obtuse. A mesial 
fold of loose skin, uniting with the upper lip, gives a 
bridled appearance to the snout. The posterior nostril is 
open, and is situated just before the eye; the anterior one 
is a short tube, placed on one side of the tip of the snout. 
The under jaw is shorter than the upper one, and the gape 
of the mouth is cleft to beneath the centre of the eye. 
The upper lip, commencing just behind the tubular an- 



terior nostril, runs back to the angle of the mouth, where 
it curves over the end of the lower lip to be inserted into 
the lower jaw. It is continuous with the integuments 
which cover the preorbitar and suborbitar chain, and is 
separated interiorly by a deep furrow from an inner lip or 
swelling gum, which runs along the base of the jialatine 
teeth. Three small cartilaginous bodies are imbedded in 
that part of it which is attached to the preorbitar, and are 
seemingly connected with pores on the edge of the lip. 
The \mder lip is broader and folds back on the sides of the 
lower jaw, but runs evenly to the roots of the teeth, with- 
out any interior furrow as in the upper lip. Conspicuous 
pores exist on the end and top of the snout, on the upper 
lip, the suborbitar chain, across the head behind the orbits, 
on the hinder part of the mandible, and across the occiput, 
where they connect the lateral lines with each other. 

The nasal teeth are conico-subulate, short and acute, and 
stand in a small, dense, triangular cluster, on the jjoint of 
the jaw, anterior to the apex of the mandible when the 
mouth is closed. They are followed, without an interval, 
by four rows of flatly-rounded vomerine teeth, the middle 
rows containing the largest ones. The vomerine teeth 
extend as far back as the front of the eye. The palatine 
bones are armed by an even, outer series of somewhat 
subulate, but not veiy acute teeth, with interior, rounded, 
granular ones considerably lower, and about three deep, 
but not ranged in determinate rows. The mandibular 
teeth are similar to the palatine ones, but the dental surface 
increases gradually in width from the corner of the mouth 
to the symphysis, where the teeth are five or six deep (figs. 
4 and 5). Tongue smooth. 

The distance between the end of the snout and the gill- 
opening is equal to one-sixth of the total length, and the 
anus is a little anterior to the middle of the fish. The 
dorsal commences over the axil of the pectoral or lower 
angle of the gill-opening, and its rays are more delicate 
and crowded towards the end of the tail, where it unites 
with the anal. The pectoral is rather small. 

The stomach is ccecal, wide and obtuse, and, in the in- 
dividual here described, was completely filled by a large 
shrimp, which was doubled up, and but little broken. It 
has no small appendix such as exists at the fundus of the 
stomach of the Congrus vulgaris. The gut goes off from 
a funnel-like recess at the upper end of the stomach, and 
descends straight to the anus, being bound to the stomach 
by membrane as far as that viscus extends. The 
stomach and rather more than half the gut were of a pur- 
plish-black colour, apparently proceeding from their con- 
tents, the under part of the canal, below the fundus of the 
stomach, being pale. The air-bladder, long and slender, 
descends as low as the anus : its lower end tapers, and its 
upper one divides into two tapering branches, one of the 
branches being continuous with the tube which communi- 
cates with the cesophagus, The heart and pericardium 
have a shining nacry appearance, and are connected to 
each other by strong membranous bands. This individual 
was killed when spawning, its belly being full of roe, and 
the eggs were in the act of passing through the distended 
anus. 

Length 12-7 inches. To anus 57 inches. To gill- 



no 



opening 21 inches. Height of body 0'75 inch. Thick- 
ness 0'60 inch. 

Hab. Cook's Strait, New Zealand. 



CoNGUUS PEOTERvus. Richardson. 



The head only of this species is preserved in the Bri- 
tish Museum, and the locality where it was taken is un- 
known. It belongs, with those that follow, to Mc Clelland's 
genus, Murteiiesox, but I have not been able to identify 
any of the specimens that I have seen with the species which 
he has figured and described in the Calcutta Journal of 
Science. 

Nasal disk a nearly circular dilatation at the end of the 
narrow upper jaw, set round its anterior half with four sub- 
ulate acute teeth, inclined backwards, and a smaller tooth 
enveloped in the soft parts lietween eacli pair. There is a 
deep smooth cavity on each side of the mesial ridge behind 
the nasal disk; the ridge itself is undulated, being first 
depressed in a curve and then arched. The descending 
curve behind the nasal disk is armed by a row of four 
acute conical teeth, scarcely visible to the naked eye; and 
after a small interval follow fifteen tricuspid and pretty 
large teeth, on the arched part of the vomerine ridge. 
These teeth are compressed, with an acute anterior and 
posterior edge, and very sharp central cusps. The lateral 
cusps are small and rounded, and placed near the roots of 
the teeth : they are largest on the ])osterior teeth. The 
seventh, eighth and ninth of the tricus]3id teeth are the 
largest, the anterior and posterior ones diminishing gra- 
dually as they recede fiom them. The series is flanked on 
each side by many small, compressed, but obtuse and 
rounded teeth, not set in regular order, Ijut in some ])laces 
phiced three or four dee]i, in others only one. Palatine 
dental surface a long narrow ellipsis, acute at each end, 
and covered with many small teeth, like the lateral vomerine 
ones, the outer marginal ones being larger, atjd rising above 
the rest ; and in the middle of the concave dental plate there 
is a smooth, irregularly wide, line, on which the teeth are not 
developed. Tiie palatine teeth come in contact with tlie 
vomerine series at the seventh vomerine tooth, just before 
the posterior nostril. The lateral mandibular teeth are 
like the mesial vomerine ones, but tlie series is more even, 
and the basal lobes less evident. Minute compressed and 
blunt teeth flank each side of the principal series, mostly, 
but not wholly, arranged in one row. The symphysial 
apex of the mandible forms an oval disk, which is armed, 
on the margin on each side of the symphysis, by nine 
small, acute, subulate teeth ; and there are on each side 
williin the disk three tall, stout, subulate, very acute teeth, 
the middle one of each side being the tallest. 

Anterior nasal-openings small, tubular, on each side 
of the snout ; posterior ones before the eyes, midway be- 
tween the mouth and top of the forehead. Eyes, over the 
posterior third of the mouth, silvery. Head brownish and 
mottled. 

Hab. Unknown. 



CoNGRUS TRicusPiDATUs. McClelland. [Murainesox) . 



Murctnesox tricuspidata, McClelland, Calcutta Jouin, iv. t. 21, f. 1. 
Eicliaidson, Iclitli. Vov. of Sulphur, p. 105, PI. 51. (. 2. Icon. Reeves, 
a. 41. Hardvv. 295, Brit. Mus. 



Nasal teeth long and strong, three on each side of the 
symphysis. Vomerine teeth uniserial, tricuspid, the mid- 
dle cusp being much larger and taller than the lateral ones. 
The largest tooth is the third from the last, and the others 
gradually diminish in size as they recede from it. In 
some of the small anterior ones the lateral cusps are obso- 
lete, but they are sufficiently distinct in the nine posterior 
ones. Palatine teeth uniserial, small, sharp-edged, but not 
pointed, ranged in an even cutting series. When examined 
by a lens, these teeth show a slight indication of side lobes. 
Mandibular teeth, like the palatine ones, with an outer 
row of small, acute and closely-set teeth. At the end of 
tlje jaw there are three tall subulate teeth on each side of 
the symphysis. The dorsal commences over the gill- 
o]jening. Lateral line marked by a series of oval white 
spots. In the recent fish the colour of the upper parts is 
oil-green, with a glazing of duck-green along the lateral 
line and top of the head. The vertical fins edged with 
black. 

Length 15f inches. To anus 5'4 inches. To gill- 
opening 2'1 inches. 

Hab. Coasts of China and India. The Chinese name 
it the " hook-nosed " or " stork eel." 



CoNGRUS ANGU3TIDENS. Richardsou. 

Nasal disk armed by eight tall, subulate, marginal teeth, 
and three small subulate ones on the mesial line. Vomer- 
ine teeth eight, distantly set, taller and much narrower 
than those of proferi-tis, with sharp edges, and a very acute 
tapering point, the lateral cusps being small, narrow and 
obtuse. In front of these, on the mesial line, close to the 
nasal disk, there are three small acute teeth ; and on each 
side an irregular row of compressed teeth, of various sizes 
and heights, the bigger ones ap]jroaching the large tricuspid 
ones in form. Palatine teeth small, ranged exteriorly in an 
even row composed of lanceolate, rather acute, cutting teeth, 
witli small ones at the base of the row outside, standing for 
the most part, but not regularly, two deep ; and interiorly 
forming a band of short, slender, cylindrical obtuse teeth, 
placed two or three deep. Mandibular teeth, like the prin- 
cipal vomerine ones, not much smaller, but very slightly in- 
clined backwards and close set. They are highest in the 
, middle of the limb of the jaw, and become gradually lower 
in each direction. There are one or two irregular rows of 
minute granular teeth within, and on the outside of the chief 
series there is a very even row of small, rounded, compressed 
teeth. The disk at the end of the jaw is bordered with 
acute and subulate teeth, and there are on each side within, 
four stout, subulate, tall and very acute teeth. The lower 
jaw is conspicuously' shorter than the upper one. Eye 



Ill 



three diameters from the tip of the snout, and three- 
quarters of a diameter from tlie corner of the mouth, whose 
gape is equal to four diameters and three quarters. Pec- 
toral very long, equal to three-fourths of the length of the 
gape. 

Length 37 inches. To anus 16 inches. 

Hab. China. The British Museum possesses a dried 
specimen which was presented to it by John Reeves, Esq. 



CoNGRUS BREVicusi'is. llichardson. 

Nasal disk bordered on its anterior half by about ten 
moderately tall and sli-ong subulate acute teeth, and in the 
middle of the disk there are nine small conical acute ones, 
placed so as to represent a cross witli short lateral arms. 
The depression of the vomerine ridge next the nasal bone 
is considerable. Tlie nine principal vomerine teeth have 
short acute middle cusps, with larger rounded lateral ones 
than in protervus, and they are ilanked on each side by a 
row of compressed, rounded, oblique cutting ones, neither 
closely nor evenly set. The outer row of palatine teeth is 
composed of evenly-set, conqjressed, obtuse cutting teeth. 
The long elliptical dental plate is wholly covered uitli in- 
numerable minute rounded teeth, without any snio')t]i 
space in the middle. The palatine teeth abut against the 
vomer at tlie sixth tuoth. The mandibular teeth are like 
the vomerine ones, but they are not so regular, the alternate 
ones being often, but not uniformly, lower. The outer 
row is composed of even, close-set, semicircidar, sharj}- 
edged small ones, applied to the base of the chief row, and 
the inner ones can scarcely be detected. The disk at the 
end of the mandible is armed by five or six acute, subulate, 
marginal teeth, and three taller ones within on each side, 
the posterior pair being high and stout. 

The eye is placed three diameters of the orbit from the 
end of the snout, and a diameter before the corner of the 
mouth, whose gape is equal to five diameters of the orbit. 
The space between the eyes is transversely convex, and 
its breadth rather exceeds the vertical diameter of the 
orbit. The pectoral is elliptical and long, and the dorsal 
commences over the gill-opening. 

Colour, in spirits, pale brown above, silvery beneath. 
The fins silvery and black-edged. 

Length 23 inches. To anus Q\ inches. To gill-open- 
ing 3'4 inches. Sjiecimen in the British Museum. 

Hab. Unknown. 



CoNGRUs HAMo. Schlegel. 

Conyrus hamo, Tenim. et Selil. Fauna Jap. p. 202, PI. 114, fig. 2. 

Jaws generally similar to those oi' protervus, but the na- 
sal disk is less dilated, and the vomerine arch not so 
curved. Nasal teeth about six, with small ones in the solt 
parts between. Vomerine teeth, four or five small mesial 
ones on the slightly depressed part of the ridge next the 



vomer. Six conspicuous tricuspid mesial ones on the 
arch of the ridge, having small obtuse basal lobes. The 
small teeth on each side of the mesial ones are close-set 
and uniserial, but not very regularly so. Palatine dental 
surface a long narrow ellipsis, as in protervus, and the 
teeth very similar ; an outer regular row, a smooth space 
in the middle, and an inner band two or three deep where 
widest. The palatine teeth meet the vomer at the third 
tooth. Mandibidar teeth like the vomerine ones, but the 
principal series uneven, that is, there is a lower and less 
shar]) tooth generally, but not uniformly, between each ]3air 
of taller ones. The outer series of minute ones have chisel- 
shaped, acute, oblique cusps, and form an incisorial row. 
The inner ones are in a single row very close to the 
bases of the principal series. The rounded dilatation at 
the end of the mandible is armed on the margin by a series 
of small teeth, and on each side within by three subulate 
ones, the posterior one being the tallest. The dorsal be- 
gins before the gill-opening. The snout is slender, and the 
eyes are ]ilaced about two diameters and a quarter of the 
orbit from the tip of the snout, and half a diameter anterior 
to the corner of the mouth. Gill-rays about twelve in 
number. Tlie colour of the specimen, which is preserved 
in spirits, is jiale brown, minutely dotted with black ; the 
sides and belly silvery. The fins also silvery, with black 
edges. Lateral line a series of short tubes, with intervals 
between them. 

Hab. Philippines. Specimen in the British Museum 
obtained from Mr. Cuming. South-west coasts of Japan 
[Fauna Japon.) 



CoNGRUS CURVIDENS. Ricliardson. 

Nasal teeth stoutly subulate, strouger than in other spe- 
cies, ranged in a cluster without order, the tallest in the 
middle, followed on the mesial line by four minute round 
ones in two rows, which may be considered as the anterior 
vomerine ones. The mesial row of tricuspid vomerine 
teeth, placed on the ridge of the bone, which is arched, 
have oblique curved cusps, and are close set. The lateral 
cusps are small, round, and at the root of the tooth. Li 
the posterior teeth the central cusps are worn down to the 
level of the lateral ones. Small teeth on each side of the 
principal series, rounded, not compressed, and of unequal 
sizes, not disposed in rows, and seldom more than two 
abreast. Palatine teeth of the principal row rounded on 
the crowns, but generally with a mesial acute line : there 
is an irregular row of minute granular teeth on the outside, 
and a band of two or three on the inside, with a furrow be- 
tween thein and the main series. The palatines abut 
against the vomer at the sixth tooth. The mandibidar 
teeth, instead of being like the vomerine ones, as in the 
preceding species, more resemble the palatine teeth in the 
]irincipal series ; and there is also a row of uneven granu- 
lar teeth on the outside, and two irregular rows on the in- 
side. Twelve subulate but not very acute teeth border 
the end of the mandible, and there are two taller subulate 
ones within the half circle on each side. 

Eye large, placed a diameter and a half of the orbit from 



112 



the end of the snout, and half a diameter from the corner 
of the mouth. Lateral line a series of short tubes, each 
having a porous mouth posteriorly, and beneath an oblong 
mark. The gill-rays are seventeen, and the dorsal com- 
mences over the gill-opening. 

Length Q7 inches. To anus ]3'5 inches. Length of 
rictus of mouth .3 5 inches. 

A dried skin preserved in British Museum. 

Hab. Unknown. 

We must refer to Dr. Mc Clelland's able paper so often 
quoted for the Indian species of Murceneso.v, of which he 
describes six species, viz., il/. iriciispulatn, above noticed ; 
M. laiiceolata, which has biserial mandibular teeth, and 
the vomerine teeth with a single lanceolate cusp, the lateral 
cusps being absent, or at least obsolete; M. exoJentata, 
with triserial mandibular teeth, the points of the exterior 
row directed horizontally outwards ; M. serridenlata, dis- 
tinguished by serrated vomerine teeth. Dr. Mc Clelland 
considers this species to be the Ophidiiim tulnbon of 
Russell (38) ; and among Hardwicke's drawings of Indian 
fish, preserved in the British Museum (No. 292), I find 
one marked Congriis talahon (Gray), with a reference to 
Russell, which shows the dorsal commencing far before the 
gill-opening, and a tapering jioinled tail. Its colour is 
darkened by minute crowded black dots. No. 294 in the 
same collection of drawings is named the "Jungle conger," 
and is of a pale greenish and silvery hue. Its rays are 
stated to be Br. 7, D. 138 ; A. 108, C. 24 = 270. An en- 
larged sketch of the jaws in figure 296 shows it to be a 
]\Iirncneso.v, probably allied to ciirvidens. The Chinese 
Coii</riis fascialtis of Gray ( Richardson's Report on 
the Ichtli. of China) is figured in Nos. 291 and 293 of the 
same collection. Il has an ochre-yellow ground, but with 
irregular purplish-black blotches descending from the dor- 
sal fin to the middle of the sides, several of them en- 
closing spots of the ground colour. The top of the head 
is black, with three dark spots on the hind head. The 
cheeks, under surface of the head and the anal, have the 
bright ochraceous ground tint, the fin being edged with 
black. The dorsal and pectorals are mountain-green. I 
have seen no specimen of this fish. 

Since this sheet was set up in type the fifteenth decade 
of the FaimaJnpoiiica, containing the Congers, has reached 
me. !M. Schlegel enumerates Congrus luh/aris among the 
Japanese fish, but says, at the same time, that having only a 
dried specimen to judge from he cannot be certain of its ab- 
solute specific identity with the common conger of Europe. 
The next species, Coiigrus aiwgo, PI. cxiii, fig. 1, differs in 
aspect from any that we have described, and is considered 
by M. Schlegel as the analogue or representative of the 
Mnrcena balearica of Delaroche, Ann. da Miisee, tome 13, 
p. 327, PI. 20, fig. 3. Congrus hamo belongs to Dr. 
Mc Clelland's genus Muranpsox, and seems to be identical 
with a conger in the British Museum, which was discovered 
in the Phili]5pines by Mr. Cuming. I had given this spe- 
cimen a ]irovisional specific ajjpcllation, which I have 
changed liu- Iniiiin since the fortunate arrival of the decade 
of the FaiiiKi .Idjiiiiiica before the sheet was printed off. 
M. Schlegel states ihat the talahon is the common species of 
the equatorial seas, and mentions the Straits of Sunda as 



one of its habitats, but none of the specimens from the 
Malay Archipelago which I have seen show the character- 
istic serratures of the teeth which have been noticed by 
Dr. Mc Clelland, whose excellent opportunities lor study- 
ing the fish described by Russell and Buchanan-Hamilton 
give great weight to his authority in the determination of 
their species. 

As to Conger urolophus and C. tiropterus of the Fauna 
Japon/ca, they are evidently Ophisttri, having the naked 
tip of the tail, the lobed upper lip, form of the gape, and 
comparatively small eye, which distinguish the Uphisiiri 
from the Congri; and I doubt not but dissection would 
show the numerous hair-like gill-rays of the genus. Ophi- 
siinis urolophus seems to be distinct from any that we 
have described, but O. nropterus is perhaps identical with 
O. sinensis of this work, p. 98. O. porphyrus is quite dis- 
tinct from any species in the British Museum, and it ap- 
pears to have small teeth on the entopterygoid,* as well as 
on the u.sual dentiferous bones, for so I understand M. 
Schlegel when he says " II existe des dents dans I'inter- 
maxillaii-e, dans les machoires, dans le vomer, et dans les 
palafins, et elles sont dans tons ces os distribue sur un 
seule rangee, pointues, un pen comprimees et un pen diri- 
gees en arriere. Celles des deux tiers anterieurs du vomer 
sont au nombre de trois, et assez vigoureuses et grandes, 
leur largueur egalant le diametre de Toeil ; celles de deux 
tiers anterieurs de la machoire inferieure sont au nombre 
de trois a quatre, et de plus de moitie plus petites que ces 
grandes dents vomerieuses ; les dents des autres parties 
sont plus petites encore, et peu serrees." 

Murtcna Iddako, p. 266, Plf cxvii., and M. albimargi- 
iiafa, p. 267, PI. cxviii., differ from any that we have 
described ; but it is probable that il/. pordalis will prove 
to be merely the adult of M. paronina, p. 90 (Ichth. of 
Voy. of Sulphur, p. 110, PI. 53, f. 1—6), and also the 
'^ calamaia pawn'" of Russell, xxxii., and perhaps the 
M. punctata of Schneider, though there are some diffe- 
rences in the figures and descriptions to reconcile. The 
figure in the Fauna Japonica wants the elongated tubular 
pores on the points of the snout and mandible, which were 
conspicuous in our smaller specimen. 



Anguilla australis. Richardson. 

Ai!f/uilla australis, Richardson, Zool. Trans, iii. p. 157. 

Plate XL v., figs. 1—5. 

This eel is ]iroporlionally a more slender species than 
lahrosa, and its lips, which have the same structure, are 
less thick and large. Its profile is depressed or slightly 
concave before the eye, and its snout rounded at the end. 
The eye is moderately large for an Anguilla, and is placed 
over tiie angle of the mouth. The anus is before the mid- 

* TLat is, if this hone exists in the genns, which I do not know for 
certain, as 1 have not seen a skeleton of an Ophisunis. 



113 



die of the fish, and the distance between it and the gill- 
opening falls a little short of one-third of the whole length 
of the fish. The dorsal commences about the eighth of an 
inch before the vent in the specimen here described, which 
is equal to a fifth or sixth part of the vertical height there. 
In the figure (Plate XLV.), owing to the bend given to the 
body by the artist, the dorsal appears to come farther for- 
ward than it actually does. The whole integument of the 
body, fins and head, is covered with minute delicate scales, 
arranged in the same lettice-work way as in Inbrosa, the 
individual scales being oblong, oval and more obtuse at 
one end, but not tapering so much towards the apex as in 
that species. Under the microscope the scales appear 
to be entire at the edges, and their disks show concen- 
tric rows of cells. The lateral line is a continued porous 
tube, and is conspicuous enough from the gill-opening 
to the end of the tail. The whole skin is perforated by 
innumerable minute raised pores, which are particularly 
conspicuous on the inside of the upper lip, the tongue 
and roof of the mouth, looking through a lens like villi. 
The pores of the upper lip terminate near the teeth by a 
well-defined line, which appears as if fringed by them. 
The dental surfaces of the several b(5nes are slightly convex, 
and set densely in a villiform manner with short, slender, 
cylindrical, acute teeth, not ranged in definite rows. The 
dental plates are broadest at the symphyses of the jaws, 
and taper gradually towards the corners of the mouth, but 
not so much as represented in figures 3 and 4, nor do they 
end so acutely. The palatine bones flank the nasal bone 
to the edge of the snout, but, owing to their lateral position 
and the rounded form of the snout, they do not run quite 
so far forward as the end of the nasal bone. The lower 
jaw is slightly longer than the upper one. Pectoral small. 

Length of the Tasmanian specimen, which is figured in 
Plate XLV., 17^ inches. To anus 7|- inches. To gill- 
opening 2 inches. Another specimen, from Auckland 
Islands, measures 19 inches. To anus 8't) inches. To 
gill-opening 2'4 inches. And one from New Zealand, 
which was presented to the British Museum by Dr. Sin- 
clair, Colonial Secretary, measures 18 inches in length, 
8"2 inches to the anus, and 2'3 inches to the gill-opening. 
This example is proportionally thicker in the body, and its 
dorsal commences half an inch before the anus, which is 
farther forward than in the others. Its eyes are not sym- 
metrically placed, the left one being over the comer of the 
mouth, and the right one a little farther forward, but its 
dentition corresponds with australis, and I can detect no 
specific differences. 

Hab. Tasmania. New Zealand Auckland Islands. 



Anguilla dieffenbachii. Gray. 

Anguilla dieffenbachii, J. E. Gray, Dieffenbach's Travels in New 
Zealand. Append, p. 225. 

This eel has a larger pectoral than australis, and its 
dorsal begins an inch before the anus in a specimen 
17 inches long, but, on examining the individual contained 



in the British Museum, I detected no other difference be- 
tween it and australis. 



Anguilla aucklandii. Richardson. 
Plate XLV., figs. 7—13. 

In this species the height of the body, and especially of 
the tail, is greater than in australis; and the end of the 
tail with the fins spread out is more rounded, the lips are 
less porous, and the tongue more pointed. The teeth also 
are disposed in narrower bands, and the vomerine patch 
tapers more and runs farther back. The most tangil)le 
difference, however, is in the origin of the dorsal, which is 
considerably farther forward. The eye also is placed 
rather before the corner of the mouth, not over it. The 
profile of the forehead is more concave, and the two jaws 
are more nearly equal in length. 

Length of the fish 20 inches. To anus 9 inches. To 
gill-opening Sg- inches. To beginning of dorsal GS inches. 
Distance between gill-opening and anus 6j inches. The 
dorsal begins before the anus almost 2 inches, or 4^ inches 
posterior to the gill-opening. 

Hab. Auckland Islands. 



Anguilla labkosa. Richardson. 

The eel described below was taken by K. L. Sutherland, 
Esq., Paymaster and Purser of the ' North Star,' in the 
South Seas, but the exact locality is not recorded, and we 
do not know whether it be a fresh-water or marine fish. 
It has the general aspect of an eel, and also the conspicu- 
ous tessellated scales which many of the true Aiiguillw 
jjossess ; but its dorsal, commencing rather nearer to the 
gill-opening than to the anus, excites a doubt as to 
whether it ought not to be classed with the Congers, which 
are artificially separated from the Anguilla; by the more 
anterior commencement of the dorsal. In the nature of 
the dentition lahrosa is allied to Anguilla hrevirostris of 
McClelland (Calc. Journ. t. 5, f. 1), but the forms of the 
dental plates are not precisely the same. 

The skin is clothed throughout, except on the lips, with 
narrow oblong scales, which taper considerably at one end, 
but are not absolutely acute. When examined with a mi- 
croscope, their edges are perceived to be quite entire, and 
their whole disks to be densely studded with oval and 
rounded cells. In situ the scales are ranged in short 
rows, which meet each other nearly at right angles, and, 
being covered with a darker pigment than the dusky brown 
integument, are very conspicuous, giving a tesselated or 
interwoven appearance to the surface of the skin. The 
scales cover the fins, as well as the body and head. The 
head is depressed, flatly rounded on the top, and wider at 
the gill-openings than it is high. The compression of the 
body begins immediately behind the pectorals, and in- 
creases to the end of the tail, which, with its investing fins. 



114 



is much rounded in the outline of the tip. The depression 
of the head augments to the end of the snout, which has 
very little vertical height, and is obtuse transversely : it 
nearly equals the lower jaw in length, and its breadth 
is augmented by thick scaleless lips, that can be made 
to stand out laterally like wings. lu this position the 
breadth of a single lip is equal to three-fourths of the 
width of the snout, and it gradually narrows off to the 
corner of the mouth, just in the same proportion that the 
width of the jaw increases. The under jaw is furnished 
with a lip of similar shape and size, pierced by rows of 
large pores, and the scaly integument, ending abruptly at 
the bases of both lips, produces at first sight the appearance 
of an exterior lip, but there is not actually a distinct fold 
of the skin there. The short tubular anterior nostrils are 
placed on the margin of the snout, just where the lip joins 
it, and the naked circular orifice of the posterior one is on 
a level with the upper mai-gin of the orbit, and about one- 
third as far before it as the eye is distant from the anterior 
nostril. Eye small, and situated over the posterior third of 
the mouth, which is of the usual size in the A nguilla, hni 
small if compared with the Congri. The distance between 
the eyes equals the distance between the orbit and end of the 
snout, aud is contained four times in the distance between 
the end of the snout and the gill-opening. The length of 
the gape is contained thrice and one half in the last-men- 
tioned distance. 

Vomerine and nasal teeth in one cluster, without any 
perceptible line of separation, forming a brush-like plate, 
which tapers to a point on the roof of the mouth, and does 
not extend so far back by one quarter as the palatines. 
The individual teeth are short, sleudcr, cylindrical and 
slightly recurved, with small, compressed, acute tips. 
The palatine bones are armed witli a main series of teeth, 
resembling those of the common conger in being chisel- 
shaped and somewhat oblique at the tips, and, from their 
uniform height and close arrangement, fitting the series for 
an iucisorial fiuiction. On the inside of this row there is 
a lower even range of more pointed teeth, whose tips ai-e 
inclined inwards towards the mesial line. A deep smooth 
furrow separates the two rows. On the outside, close to 
the root of the main palatine series, there is a row of 
shorter acute teeth, resembling the nasal ones. Anteriorly 
these acute teeth increase in number to three or four deep 
on the outside, aud also fill up the furrow between the 
principal rows, which there becomes wider, so that the 
fore end of the palatine bones presents a dental surface al- 
together similar to that of the nasal and vomerine bones ; 
and the ends of the palatines, instead of articulating to the 
posterior edge of the nasal disk, as in most of the congers, 
go forward to the end of the snout, flanking the nasal bone, 
on which they have a slight lateral motion, so that the line 
separating their dental surfaces can be traced. The man- 
dibular teeth are like the palatine ones, and there are about 
nine teeth in the width of the dental surface near the sym- 
physis. 

The gill-openings are rather large, and the pectorals 
small and rounded. Their length about equals the dis- 
tance from the posterior edge of the orbit to the end of the 
snout ; and the dorsal commences at the distance of thrice 
the length of the i)ectoral from the gill-opening. 



Length 36 inches. To anus 16^ inches. To gill-open- 
ing 4'8 inches. Height of body behind the pectorals 
3 inches. Thickness 2 inches. 

In Anguilla brevirostris the anterior interior palatine 
teeth are represented as forming an obtuse cluster on the 
side of the vomerine teeth. The dental plate, though wide 
anteriorly in labrosa, does not form the same lobe-hke 
cluster, aud the vomerine teeth taper more regularly and 
rapidly to an acute point. 



Platycephalus cirronasus. Richardson. 

Radii :— -B. 7 ; D. 9|— 12 ; A. 11 ; C. 9i ; P. 20 ; V. 1|5. 

Plate LI., figs. 7—10. 

The body of this Plalycephalus is thickest where it joins 
the head. At that place its width exceeds its height by a 
fourth or fifth part, and its back rounds imperceptibly 
down to the belly, which is flat. It tapers gradually from 
the shoulders to the base of the caudal fin. The head, 
when the upper jaw is retracted, forms just one-third of the 
total length of the fish, and its breadth at the gill-covers 
exceeds its height by a third part. Viewed from above its 
outline is semi-elliptical, the snout being rounded. In 
profile the snout is almost horizontal, with an abrupt rise 
from the nostrils, produced by the prominence of the 
orbits, and a more gentle ascent from the eyes to the 
dorsal. The under jaw is the width of its lip longer than 
the upper one, but the latter can be protracted so as to 
equal the mandible. The anterior nostril is furnished 
with a pointed thin membranous barbel, and the posterior 
one has a lower semi-tubular margin. The eyes are oval, 
approaching to round, being only slightly longer than thej' 
are high. In figure 7 they have a more oblong shape, 
fi-om their upper parts being seen in perspective. Their 
diameter is contained about five times and a half in the 
length of the head, and the distance between their orbits 
is equal to half a diameter. The superior margins of the 
orbits are tliin, elevated and acute, producing a semicircu- 
lar canal between the eyes. In the fore part of this canal, 
before the orbits, there is a very slight obtuse mesial ridge, 
which entirely disappears between the eyes. There is no 
vestige of an orbitar barbel such as exists in P. ientacula- 
tus of Iviippcll, from which this species also differs in its 
shorter and more depressed snout aud larger eye. The 
following are the spines with which the head is armed. 
The prefrontal shows a small blunt point, covered with in- 
tegument on the outside of the posterior nostril. There is 
one acute spinous point at the anterior end of the orbital 
border, and two posteriorly, the last one being wholly be- 
hind the orbit, and rather exterior to the one which pre- 
cedes it ; a low ridge leading from the last orbitar spine, 
inclining slightly to the mesial line, and, augmenting in 
height as it runs back, ends in an acute point on the hinder 
part of the cranium. On the tenqiles there is a small acute 
spine immediately behind the orbit, and a short acute ridge 
which springs from its base, and inclines a little outwards. 



115 



terminates in another. The supra-scapular furnishes one 
small acute spine, and the superior bone of the humeral 
chain forms an elevated thin ridge at the upper border of 
the gill-opening, which ends posteriori^' in a pungent an- 
gle. Immediately posterior to this, at the commencement 
of the lateral line, there are two moveable pungent points, 
like spinous scales, being the only armature percepti- 
ble on the line. The upper extremity of the maxillary 
forms a small bluntish point at the end of the snout on 
each side, but the preorbitar appears to be wholly without 
any angular points that are perceptible through the integu- 
ments. The second suborbitar is traversed by a thin, pro- 
minent, perfectly smooth ridge, which abuts against the 
base of the upper preopercular spine. In the figure, the 
under edge of the disk of the suborbitar is also shown, but 
this becomes visible only when the integuments are allowed 
to shrivel by drying, and is not prominent. The preoper- 
culum has three small spines, of which the upper one pro- 
jects farthest back, and the lowest one is minute, but none 
of them are readily found in the thick integument unless 
sought for. In the presence of these sjiines the species 
resembles P. pristiger of Quoy and Gaimard, but none of 
the bony ridges of the head are rough, either to touch or 
sight ; neither can any angular points be detected on the 
inter-operculum. The operculum is armed by two small 
spines, the upper one, which is the most posterior, termi- 
nating the upper edge of the bone. The flexible cartilagi- 
nous point of the suboperculum projects far bej'ond them, 
and is bordered by a thin membrane above, which restricts 
the gill-opening there, and by the gill-membrane beneath. 
The head is mostly covered with a spongy integument, like 
that which prevails among the Scorpcoice, and the same 
kind of covering envelopes the scales of the back and 
sides, being the part on which the brilliant colours of the 
fish depend. None of the streaks or sculptures on the 
cranium, which exist in some PlatycephaU, are to be seen 
in this species. 

The teeth, disposed in smooth shaven villiform bands, 
arm the premaxillaries, mandible and palatines. The 
bands are broadest on the premaxillaries, and very nar- 
row on the palatines. There are also two small oval 
patches on the prominent chevron of the vomer, separated 
from each other by a deep smooth mesial furrow. The 
wide, thin, serai-cartilaginous, truncated tongue is smooth. 

The lateral line, which runs parallel to the back, on a 
level with the upper part of the gill-opening, is traced on 
fifty-eight scales, and is keeled particularly posteriorly, 
but not strongly even there. One of these scales, with its 
short tubes diverging laterally from the central one, is re- 
presented at figure 9 ; and an ordinary scale, with its pte- 
noid disk, at figure 10. They are all clothed with thick 
integument. 

The first dorsal spine stands above the posterior lobe of 
the gill-cover, and behind the attachment of the pectoral ; 
the third dorsal spine is opposite to the base of the 
ventrals ; and the last spine is so closely tied down to the 
back as not to be very obvious. It requires to be forcibly 
raised to be seen as represented in figure 7. There are no 
spines in the second dorsal or anal. 

The patterns of colour which are to be traced on the 



specimen after long maceration in spirits will be best un- 
derstood by consulting the figure. Most of the shaded 
parts on the head, body and fins are aurora-red : the 
cross bars on the lips, however, some spots on the maxil- 
lary, others immediately beneath the eye, a few minute 
specks on the top and sides of the head, a large patch on 
the gill-membrane including the upper two rays, and the 
border of the first dorsal, are brown. Some spots on the 
upper plate of the coracoid bone, others in the axilla; of 
the pectorals and ventrals, and a series of round ones at 
the bases of the rays of the first and second dorsal, are 
brownish-black. A large saddle-shaped patch, which 
descends from the whole length of the first dorsal well 
down the sides, is red, mixed and outlined with black. 
The bars on the tail have also some dark or blackish 
shadings. The ground colour is generally gray. The 
transverse lines on the caudal, ventrals and pectorals, and 
the oblique ones on the two dorsals and anal, are aurora- 
red. 

Length 9j inches. Length of head 3 inches. Length 
from end of snout to anus 4-6 inches. Height at shoulder 
1-2 inch. 

Hab. Botany Bay. 



PsAMMOPERCA. Richardson. 

This name has been devised to express one of the cha- 
racters by which an Australian fish may be distinguished 
from the other PEECiDiE, namely, the granular form of its 
teeth ; the term being compounded of ^aa/x/xuS'ni, areiiatus 
and CTifxa. The depth of the notch between the spinous 
and jointed portions of the dorsal fin induces us to com- 
pare this fish with the " Perches proprement dites " of the 
' Histoire des Poissons," but it difi'ers from Perca not only 
in its dentition, but also in the want of a well-marked pre- 
opercular disk, in the dorsals being rather more connected, 
and in general aspect ; from Lates in the absence of large 
angular teeth on the lower limb of the preoperculum, and 
in the perfectly entire preorbitar; from Perca-labrux in 
its smooth tongue and its solitary opercular spine ; and 
from the other described forms of this group by still more 
obvious characters. Among the Percoids with a single 
dorsal, Ceniropristes is the only genus with which it assi- 
milates ; and indeed it has an equal claim to be placed in 
the genus with Centropristes scorpenoides, which has a pre- 
operculum aimed beneath with recurved spinous teeth, 
and in that respect differs from the rest of the group as 
much as Plectropoma does from Serraxus. It has been 
already remarked, in pages 27 and 30, that the admission 
of these anomalous species among the Centropristes makes 
the group unnalural, and it would be better to separate 
both them and the Australian Cetitrojrristes — truttaceus, 
sahir, georgianns, &c. — which have the even dorsals and 
general habit of a Casio or Smaris,* from the typical mem- 
bers of the genus. On this account, therefore, and in ac- 
cordance with the present practice of ichthyologists, we 



Vide Hist des Poiss. iii. 



T 2 



116 



keep Psammoperca distinct, without venturing to decide 
whether the group ought to be considered as of generic 
value, or, as Cuvier has done in similar cases, merely as a 
minor division. The blunt granular form of the minute 
teeth, the form and structure of the preopercukim, the 
scaliness of its imperfect inferior disk, and the deep notch 
of its dorsal, are its most obvious external differences from 
Centropristes. 

The following is a summary of the principal characters 
of Psammoperca. 

Piscis acanthopterygius efamilid Percidarum. 

Dentes premaxillarmn, mandibulce, vomeris, ossiumque 
palati minuti, rofundati, numerosissimi, conferti: canini 
nullL 

Os preorbitale integerrirnum, simul ac nasus et man- 
dibula iioromm, squamisque carens. Maxillae partim 
squamis minutis iectcs. Genae operculaque prorsus squa- 
inosce. 

Prteoperculum disco inferiori arclo squamis exiguis te- 
neris iecto, margiiieque integei riiim niiiiii/iim.; anguloque 
ejus in spinavi acutam decurrenti ; liiiihoqite erecto acute 
pectiimto-dentato. Operculum spina gracdi, solitarid ar- 
vtatum, lobo memhranaceo desinens. 

Anus medianiis. 

Squamae ptenoidea, basi flabellaiim sulcaUe. Linea la- 
teralis aritice arcuata. 

Corpus compresstim, a latere ellipticum. 

Os humile, terminale. 

Membrana branchiostega radiis septem sustentata. 

Pinna dorsi profunde emarginata, spinis validis, (sque 
ac pinna ani in thecd squamosa movens. Pinnae ventris 
sub-axiUas pinnarmn pectoris positce ; squamis longis, 
compositis extra interque fuUce. Pinna caudae valde ro- 
tundata. Membranae omnium pinnaruni squamis teneris 
arete appressis obrelatcB ; prwter membranam spinas dorsi 
interpositam in qua squamce ordinatce juxta spinas tan- 
tum adsunt. 



Psammoperca datnioides. Richardson. 

Radii:— B. 7; D. 8|12; A. 3|9 ; C. 15|; P. 15; V. 1|5. 

Plate LVII., figs. 1, 2. 

Body compressed, profile elliptical, its height about the 
middle rather exceeding a fourth of the length of the en- 
tire fish. The length of the head is more exactly a quarter 
of the total length. Orifice of the mouth rather small, low 
and terminal. The profile rises evenly, and with a slight 
convexity, at an angle of .37° from the tip of the snout to 
the beginning of the dorsal, which is at the first third of 
the whole length of the fish ; and gradually joins the arch 
of the back, whose summit is towards the end of the 
spinous dorsal, or a very little before the middle of the 
fish, caudal included. The curve of the belly is much 



more flat anteriorly, but posterior to the anus the ascent 
to the trunk of the tail is equal to the descent of the back. 
Height of the tail between the three vertical fins contained 
twice and one half in the greatest height of the body. 
Orbit placed near the profile, oval and rather large, its 
greater axis being equal in length to one-fourth part of the 
length of the head. Forehead between the orbits flat, not 
equal in width to the vertical diameter of the eye. Nos- 
trils, two round openings on each side, in a smooth mem- 
brane, which reaches from the orbit to the end of the 
snout, the posterior and larger opening being close to the 
eye, and the anterior one near the fore comer of the pre- 
orbitar. Mouth rather small, cleft horizontally to beneath 
the fore part of the eye. Premaxillaries slightly pro- 
tractile. Maxillary stouti.sh, dilating gradually towards 
the lower end, which is truncated, passes the corner of the 
mouth, and moves over the limb of the lower jaw : it does 
not glide under the preorbitar, and its posterior corner is 
clothed with minute scales. Even flattish bands of minute 
roundish or granular teeth arm the jaws, vomer, and edges 
of the palate bones. The dental band of the inter-maxil- 
laries is broadest, and a little convex, and the more exterior 
teeth are a little larger than the interior ones. On the un- 
der jaw the band is much narrower, while on the small 
three-cornered clievron of the vomer, and the edges of the 
palate bones, the teeth are still more minute, but have the 
same granular form. Roof of the mouth plaited poste- 
riorly. 

Preorbitar meniscoid, with a slightly convex entire edge ; 
its disk is widest under the posterior nostril. Rest of the 
suborbitar chain very narrow. The scaly integument ter- 
minates in a convex line between the eyes; the .snout, 
whole of the suborbitar chain and lower jaw being covered 
by porous skin. The cheek and gill-j)ieces are wholly 
seal}'. Between the curve of the preoperculum and the 
eye there are about eight rows of scales, and also several 
rows on the inter-operculum, which graduate into smaller 
scales on the adjoining bases of the gill-rays. The scales 
of the operculum almost equal those of the body in size. 
Small tender scales cover the lower limb of the preoper- 
culum, a very narrow line of membrane showing obscurely 
beneath them. When the integument is removed, the un- 
der limb of this bone is seen to be composed of two thin, 
even, edges of bone, with a deep furrow between, and 
some pits in the bottom of the furrow. The upper limb of 
the bone is strongly and acutely toothed in a very regular 
pectinate manner, the teeth decreasing gradually in size as 
they recede both ways from the middle of the series. The 
angle of the bone is prolonged into a short, flat, spinous 
point, between which and the lowest tooth of the upper limb 
there is a small rounded notch filled with membrane. A 
solitary, slender, subulate spine projects from among the 
scales of the upper part of the operculum, the lobular tip 
of the gill-cover and the narrow edge of the suboperculum 
being membranous. Gill-opening pretty large, cleft for- 
ward to beneath the middle of the eye. Gill-membrane 
narrow, sustained by seven moderately long curved rays. 
Disk of supra-scapular covered by small scales, its border 



17 



being a line of porous integument, except at the crenated 
posterior bonj' tip. A scaleless temporal furrow runs from 
the eye to the upper angle of the gill-opening. Supra-ax- 
illarj- plate of the coracoid bone bicuspidate. Lateral line 
arched, and traced on about fifty scales, exclusive of small 
ones on the base of the caudal, the line being continued 
past the middle of the fin ; and there are about fifteen or 
sixteen scales in the height of the body, seven of them be- 
ing above the lateral line. 

Pectorals small. Ventrals attached rather behind the 
pectoral axilla, and beneath the first dorsal spine. Third 
dorsal spine rather the tallest, but scarcelj^ exceeding the 
fourth. The eighth spine nearly equals the seventh, but is 
only about one-third of the length of the longest spine, or 
of the soft rays.* Anal more rounded than the soft dorsal, 
and embraced like it at the base by a scaly sheath. The 
anal spines are short and rather stout, the second being 
the thickest, and nearly as long as the third. Caudal 
much rounded. A tapering row of scales is applied to the 
front of each dorsal spine on alternate sides of the mem- 
brane. The rest of the fin-membranes are covered with 
appressed, tender, tiled scales. A tapering, tiled, com- 
pound scale flanks the outside of each pectoral, and there 
is a broader, loose, scaly -pointed plate between these fins. 

Length of the specimen 9 inches ; of the head 2"4 inches. 
Height of the body 2'38 inches. Diameters of the orbit 
5'8 and 4"5 inches. Width between the eyes 0'4 inch. 

Figure 1, Plate LVIL, is a view of a dried section of the 
fish preserved in the British Museum. Figure 2 is a scale 
from the middle of the lateral line. 

Hab. Australia. 



Plectropoma dentex. Cuv. et Val. 
Radii:— B. 7; D. 10|18; A. 318; C. 17 ; P. 15; V. 1|5. 



Plectropoma dentex, C. et V. ii. p. 394 ; Quoy. et Gaim. Voy de 
I'Astrol. p. 660, PI. 4, f. 2 ; Neills Australian Fish, MSS. Br. Mus., 
No. 23, PI. 23. Specimen iu British Museum numbered 46, I, 31, 71. 



without an angle. Its disk narrow, its upper limb minutely 
toothed ; lower one irregularly crenated, with the anterior 
toothlet near the articulation of the lower jaw turned for- 
wards. Three flat opercular s])ines, the middle one farther 
back and larger. Second anal spine stouter, and as long 
as the third one. 

One strong and long canine tooth is implanted into each 
intermaxillary not far from the symphysis (vide fig. 4), and 
on the limb of the bone there is an exterior row of short 
subulate teeth, with a narrow irregular baud of minute vil- 
liform teeth at their bases within. The dental band at the 
symphysis is broader and coarse, resembling the dentition 
of a Sen-anus. Five tall and very strong canine teeth arm 
each I'imb of the lower jaw, the anterior tooth and the two 
posterior ones being larger than the intermediate ones. 
The villiform teeth occupy less space at the symphysis 
than in the upper jaw, and on the sides of the bone they 
are reduced almost to a single series, but behind the last 
canine they again increase to two or three rows. Chevron 
of the vomer acute. The villiform teeth which arm it, 
and the very narrow bands on the palatine bones, are 
finer than those on the jaws. 

The original colours cannot be described from the dried 
specimen, but the forms of the markings seem to be very 
perfectly preserved. Along the back there remains a double 
row of dark or blackish cloud-like spots, mixed with oval 
and roundish white ones, which exist also on the sides and 
belly, and are there larger. There are also on the back 
and upper half of the sides three or four rows of narrow 
longish spots, which have still a bluish colour. The 
spinous dorsal and scaly base of the soil part of the fin are 
marked like the back. On the head the three kinds of 
markings also exist, but the spots are smaller much more 
crowded, and the black spots extend to both jaws and the 
whole side of the head. A few black spots exist on the 
basal half of the pectoral and base of the caudal. The ar- 
ticulated portions of the vertical fins are rather broadly 
bordered with black, the anal, especially one half of it, 
being of that tint. The tip of the ventral is also black. 

Length of fish 17'25 inches. Length of head 4-8 inches. 

Hab. King George's Sound. 



Plate LVIL, figs. 3—5. 



Centropristes georgianus. Cuv. et Val. 



This fish is stated by Assistant-Commissary-General 
Neill to be good eating, but not a common species in 
Western Australia. It is caught with a hook, and if the 
fisherman be not on his guard it is apt to use its remarka- 
bly strong canine teeth very effectively, and to bite him 
severely. It derives its native name, 'Taang' or ' Taa,' 
from these teeth, but the sealers name it ' the perch.' 
Though the species has been already figured, I have 
thought it advisable to give another representation of it, 
executed fi-om a dried specimen in a very good condition. 

Under jaw and maxillary minutely scaly. Preopercu- 
lum curved in an arc rather greater than a third of a circle, 

* There is no recumbent spine in front of the dorsal. 



Centropristes georgianus, Cuv. et Val. vii. p. 451 
Arripis georgianus, Jenyns, Zool. Beagle, p. 14. 



Radii:— B. 7; D. OjlO, interdum 14 ; A. 3|10, vel 11 ; 
C. 17^; P. 15; V. 1|5. 

Plate LIV., figs. 3—6. 

Full descriptions of this fish are contained in the His- 
toire des Poissons, and in the Rev. L. Jenyn's account of 
the Ichthyology of the Voyage of the Beagle. Its resem- 
blance to the C.salar, noticed above at p. 29, and described 
in the third volume of the Zoological Transactions, and 



Hi 



figured on Plate XX., is very great. It is, however, rather 
more compressed, and the scales are somewhat smaller, the 
snout shorter, the eye large, so as exactly to equal the 
breadth of the flat forehead between the edges of the 
orbits, and the anal has a much slighter curve or notch. 
The row of scales on the maxillary, being very deciduous, 
has fallen from the specimens, and was omitted by the 
artist in his drawing, but traces of it exist on the fish. 
There are fifty-four scales, with tubes on the lateral line, 
and five or six rows on the base of the caudal, making 
about sixty in all between the gill-opening and caudal. 

Length 5j inches. 

Hab. The south-eastern and south-western coasts of 
Australia. Norfolk Island. Port Jackson. King George's 
Sound. 



Grystes macquariensis. Cuvier. 

Grysles mncquariensis, Cuv. et Viil. Hist, ties Poissons, iii. p. 58. 



Radii:— B. 7; D. 10|15, vel 11|1(5; A. 3|13; C. 18^; 
P. 17, vel 19; V. 1|5. 



Plate LII I., figs. 8, 9, 

In Mitchell's Expeditions in Australia, PI. 6, f. 1 repre- 
sents a fish locally named ' cod perch,' and to which the 
author has given the specific name of Grystes peelii, be- 
cause it varies in some respects from the description of G. 
macquariensis in the Histoire des Poissons, and does not 
correspond with Guerin's figure in the Iconographie de 
Regne Animal. Our specimens have the pale margins to 
the dorsal and anal, which exist in macquariensis, but 
which peelii is said to want. Their form, however, is that 
of Mitchell's fish, and as they agree sufficiently with the 
detailed description in the Histoire des Poissons, the pro- 
bability seems to be that macquariensis and peelii are but 
one species, and that Guerin's figure, as in many other in- 
stances, has been carelessly drawn. The account oi mac- 
quariensis in the Histoire des Poissons is sufficiently 
detailed ; and we shall merely add, that the scales are 
small, deeply imbedded in a mucous skin, and cover almost 
every part of the surface of the fish : they exist on the pec- 
torals, ventrals, caudal and first dorsal, and entirely clothe 
the second dorsal and anal. They are found, though mi- 
nute, even on the membrane joining the limbs of the lower 
jaw ; also on the gill-rays, snout, preorbitar, maxillary, 
disk of the preoperculum, as well as on the gill-plates and 
rest of the head. 

Mitchell desci'ibes the colour of peelii as being " light 
yellow, covered with small, irregular, du.sky spots, which 
get more confluent towards the back. The throat is pink- 
ish, and the belly white." The original tints of our speci- 
mens have been altered. 

Length from 6 inches to 18 inches. 

Hab. The Macquarrie, and several other Australian 
rivers. 



Datxia elliptica, Richardson. 

Radii:— B. 6; D. 12|13; A. 3|8 ; C. 15^; P. 15; V. 1|5. 

Plate LII., figs. 4—8. 

At page 24, and in Plate XVIIL, fig. 3, 1 have described 
and figured a fresh-water fish which differs from the group 
of Therapon, Datnia, Pelates and Helotes, in having an 
undivided air-bladder, and fi-om each of these genera in 
some other peculiarity of structure. On the whole it agrees 
best with Datnia. In Plate LII. we have given a repre- 
sentation of another fresh-water species very similar to D. 
caiidavittata of Plate XVIIL, but differing from it in its 
more oblong form, its less elevated cheek and broader 
operculum, which is covered by nine rows of scales. Its 
teeth are villiform on both jaws, the outer row being a little 
stronger, but still small. The teeth stand at the symphy- 
sis about six or seven deep. There are none on the vomer 
or palate bones. The prcorbitars are finely striated in 
correspondence with minute marginal crenatures. The 
preoperculum is strongly serrated at its rounded corner, 
and becomes gradually less so towards the extremities of 
both its limbs ; and the small, flat, opercular spines are 
grooved at their tips so as to appear double. The hume- 
ral bone and supra-axillary plate of the coracoid are fur- 
rowed and crenated like the preorbitar. 

Length 65- inches. 

Hab. Rivers in Western Australia. 



Lethrinus cheysostomus. Richardson. 



Radii:— B. 6; D. 10|8; A. 3|8; C. 174; ?• ^ J V. 1|5. 



Nearly fifty species of Lethrinus are described in the 
Histoire des Poissons, but as they are not characterised by 
any well-marked peculiarities of structure, description fails 
to convey such an idea of each species as will render it 
easily recognizable. The comparative notices in that ex- 
cellent work are chiefly of use when the ichthyological 
student has a good series of specimens for his guide, but 
do not suffice for the determination of isolated examples, 
particularly when the colours of the fish have perished ; 
and we have not access to more than seven or eight figures 
which may help in this process. The specimen described 
below was taken at Norfolk Island, and except as to colour, 
which has doubtless changed by immersion in spirits, is in 
excellent condition. In drawing up the description, I have 
been very particular as to the position of the eye, and the 
relative proportions of the parts of the head, especially in 
regard to the dimensions of the preorbitar, whose size 
greatly influences the physiognomy of the Lethrini. And I 
have also attended to the teeth, that the species may be 
the more easily identified when it is examined on the 
coasts of Australia. 

The profile resembles that of genivittatus more nearly 



19 



than that of any of the figures given in the Histoirc des 
Poissons, Riippell's Neiic WirlhcHiiore, or by Russell, 
but it has a higher body, shorter dorsal sijines, and its eye 
is placed proportionally farther from the end of the snout, 
being fully three longitudinal diameters of the orbit from 
the extremity of the upper jaw when closely retracted, and 
only one diameter from the nuchal scales. The Lethrinus 
harak of Rlippell has a shorter snout, a more concave pro- 
file of the face, and a more delicate and less strongly 
arched spinous dorsal. 

Our fish has a profile ascending fi-om the snout, with a 
scarcely perceptible concavity, to the lower nostril, and 
then straightly, or rather couvexly, to the nape, where it 
passes without abruptness into the longitudinal curve of 
the back. The face makes an angle of 45° with the hori- 
zontal rictus of the mouth ; the back is moderately convex, 
and the belly less so ; the throat and under surface of the 
mandible having a slight ascent when the mouth is closed. 
The head is considerably compressed, its thickness at the 
orbits being rather less than one-third of its height there, 
and at the nape, which is a little thicker, the proportion to 
the height is nearly the same. The top of the head and 
snout is rounded off; the sides of the head are flat and 
vertical. The distance from the anterior edge of the pre- 
orbitar lip to the first dorsal spine is exactly equal to one- 
third the length of the fish, caudal included, and the long 
diameter of the eye forms one-fifth of this same distance, 
and also of the length of the head, measured from the front 
of the intermaxillary lip to the apex of the gill-cover. 
Again, the long diameter of the eye is contained thrice in 
the height of the cheek between the orbit and inferior edge 
of the interoperculum, and the height of the head at the 
nuchal scales is equal to the distance from these scales to 
the intermaxillary lip with retracted jaws, but is less than 
the length of the head measured to the hinder edge of the 
gill-flap. The whole head, except the operculum, is 
covered with thick porous skin, which projects beyond the 
edges of the opercular pieces, forming acute, but very 
smooth, flaps. The preoperculum is free, or capable of 
being raised round its whole posterior and under border, 
no part of the bone appearing through the integument; and 
the depth of the flap at its rounded comer is about a quar- 
ter of an inch. The nearly vertical posterior edge is 
slightly concave. The integument is continued evenly 
over the disk of the bone, the cheek, preorbitar, and across 
the snout, its inferior edge forming the preorbitar lip, 
whose flap is a quarter of an inch dee]) : its edge is quite 
even. The height of the intero])ercnlum is likewise in- 
creased by an even and rather firm cutaneous border. 
The operculum is covered on the disk with six rows of 
scales, and behind the last row the rounded, thin, flat edge 
of the bone appears covered with smooth skin. The flex- 
ible cartilaginous point of the interoperculum underlies 
this bony process, and the soft skinny border of the gill- 
flap forms a rounded corner or lobe behind all. There are 
no points such as exist on the bony operculum oi genivit- 
tatus, luljaitus, and some others. 

The mandible is articulated under the posterior nostril, 
and when the mouth is fully open it is depressed so as to 
form an angle of about 100° with the throat, the premax- 



illaries being at the same time protruded about half an 
inch. In this state the flat, broadly rounded, lower end of 
the maxillary, enveloped infolds of skin, comes from under 
the preorbitar, which wholly conceals it when the mouth is 
closed. The lips are densely studded with small, soft, 
smooth, roundish papillas, and towards the roots of the 
teeth are lined with folds of soft fringe-like villi. The 
jaws, when the mouth is closed, are of equal length, and 
each armed at the extremity by four canine teeth, that is, 
two on each premaxillary and limb of the mandible : 
they are of moderate size, and the intermediate pair is 
smaller than the outer ones, particularly on the mandibles; 
but they are followed on the limbs of the upper jaw, and 
about a tooth's breadth more interiorly, by a row of ten or 
eleven smaller, stoutly subulate teeth, which increase 
slightly in size and become more conical from the first to 
the seventh : this one equals the middle pair of canines, 
and the last three lateral teeth are smaller, lower and more 
blunt, but not actually flat-crowned. Behind the canines 
there is a band of densely villiform teeth, which tapers off 
on the sides of the jaw, and ends at the seventh lateral 
tooth. The limbs of the lower jaw are armed by twelve 
teeth similar to the premaxillary ones, but a little larger : 
they augment in size from the first to the ninth, and the 
last three are lower and blunter. The tongue is narrow, 
pointed and smooth. 

The supra-scapulars are each covered by a cluster of six 
scales, whose disks are clothed with porous skin ; and a 
row of five or six similar scales descends on the temples 
before the upper end of the preoperculinn. The nuchal or 
first row of scales are also invested with porous integument, 
and the first bone of the humeral chain takes its place 
among them, being distinguishable chiefly by its somewhat 
greater size. There are forty-six scales in a row between the 
gill-o])ening and the caudal fin, excluding the band of small 
ones which invest the bases of the rays, and about eighteen 
rows on the height behind the axilla of the pectoral. The 
species is one of the highest and stoutest among the Lethrini, 
the height of the body being equal to the length of the head 
or one-third of the total length of the fish, agreeing in this 
respect with abbreviatus and some others described in the 
Histoire des Poissons. The first dorsal spine stands over 
the space between the gill-opeuing and base of the pecto- 
ral, and is a trifle too far forwards in our figure.* It is 
scarcely half the height of the third spine, which is the 
tallest : the following ones gradually decrease to the 
eighth, which is about one-fourth shorter than the third 
one, and is very slightly exceeded in height by the ninth 
and tenth. The solt rays are about equal in length to the 
third spine. The spines of the dorsal and anal are set 
with their broad sides turned alternately to the right and 
left. The third anal spine is the tallest. The pointed 
scales above and between the ventrals are three-cornered, 
and possess considerable rigidity. The caudal when ex- 
tended is notched to about a third of the length of its mid- 
dle rays, and its corners are rather acute. 

The colours in a fresh state were not recorded, but the 

* The artist has inadvertently represented eleven spines instead often, 
and this error has advanced the commencement of the tin a little. 



120 



(laik parts in the plate have a deep brown hue in the spe- 
cimen, which has been long in spirits ; and the inside of 
the mouth is of a bright reddish-orange, which also tinges, 
though not so deeply, the corner of the mouth and the 
parts which are exposed by the protraction of the inter- 
maxillaries. 

Length of the specimen 13j inches. 

Hab. Norfolk Island. 



Crenidens simplex. Richardson. 
Radii :— B. 6 ? D. 15|12 ; A. 3ll2 ; C. 15| ; P. 16 ; V. 1|5. 

Only one member of this genus is described in the His- 
toire des Poissons, namely, the Crenidens forskaUi, which 
has the cutting edge of each tooth divided by notches into 
five even cusps. Several other members of the group in- 
habit the seas of China and Australia. One of these, C. 
punctata (Richardson, Rep. of Br. Assoc, for 1845, p. 242 ; 
Girelln pitnciata, Gray, 111. Ind. Zool., PI. 98, figs. 3, 4) 
has tricuspid teeth, as has also C. triglyphus (page 36 of 
the present work, and Plate XXV., fig. 2) and C.melanich- 
thyn (Temm. et Schl. Faun. Jap. p. 75, PI. 39; Rep. Br. 
Assoc, p. 243). The teeth of C. tephrteops of King 
George's Sound, described above in page 69, and figured 
on Plate XLL, fig. 1, are also tricuspid ; but the cusps, 
instead of being equal as in the preceding species, have 
tlie middle one considerably wider and longer than the 
side ones. C. zebra (p. 70 mipra) and C. leoniniis are 
described from drawings, and the forms of their teeth are 
unknown to me ; but one species which, like triffli/phtis, 
is an inhabitant of Port Jackson, has all the external cha- 
racters of the genus, except that the teeth are entire, and 
not in accordance therefore with the scientific appellation 
of the group. The following description was drawn up 
iiom a dried specimen, numbered 46, 10, 22, 11, in the 
British Museum. 

The general form is not very dissiiTiilar to that of C. 
forskalU or trif/lyphus, but the profile of the forehead is 
more sloping. The height of the body is contained thrice 
and one-third in the total length of the fish. The head 
forms a fifth part of the whole length. The diameter of 
the eye is equal to a quarter of the length of the head. 
Two small round nostrils are placed immediately before 
the eye on each side. The maxillary is slender, and lies 
in a deep furrow behind the premaxillaries, being hidden 
when they are retracted : the dilated end is visible behind 
the corner of the month, and glides under the edge of the 
preorbitar. The premaxillaries and lower jaw are armed 
with many rows of teeth, which have narrow bases, and 
dilate gradually towards their truncated, entire, cutting 
edges. The four outer rows on the edges of the jaws are 
slightly incurved, and in consequence of their position are 
separated by a gap from a dense cluster of much smaller, 
but otherwise similar teeth, covering the more interior sur- 
face of the jaws. In the recent fish these inner teeth, ow- 
ing to their tips only being visible, may be mistaken for 



granular teeth, but they have the same form with the larger 
outer ones, and are evidently destined to replace them 
when they are worn down, in the same manner that the in- 
ner teeth of a shark roll outwards on the edge of the jaw 
as they are needed. The four outer rows are obliquely 
tiled, the innermost of them being the highest. A circular 
plate on the vomer is rough with minute teeth, invisible to 
the naked eye ; and there is a smaller plate of the same 
kind on the fore end of each palate bone, which is sepa- 
rated from the vomerine plate by a narrow interval. The 
tongue is porous, the isthmus smooth ; the under pharyn- 
geals are armed by short, subulate, recurved, densely 
crowded teeth. The branchial arches are each furnished 
by two rows of thin crests placed transversely, and bristly 
with minute hair-like teeth. Jaws, snout, preorbitar, nar- 
row snborbitar chain, temples, disk of preoperculum, inter- 
operculum, suboperculum and lower half of operculum, 
with the scapular, scaleless. Seven rows of scales cover 
the cheek between the curve of the preoperculum and the 
orbit, and there are about as many on the upper half of the 
operculum. Bony operculum widely notched ; the upper 
corner of the notch greatly rounded oft', the lower part of 
the curve much more sudden, and terminated by an acute 
corner, which is passed by the narrow tip of the suboper- 
culum. The notch is filled in the recent fish by smooth 
membrane. The scales of the body have the same oblong 
form with those of the other species described in this work. 
A meniscoid segment of the exposed disk of each scale is 
traversed by rough radiating lines, which end in minute 
marginal teeth. The middle of the disk is smooth and 
shining, and more posteriorly the lines of structure are lon- 
gitudinal and parallel. Fifty-five scales complete the 
lateral line, and there are about ten rows of scales above 
it, and twenty below, where the height of the body is 
greatest. The scales are smallest on the nape, breast and 
belly, and largest on the sides below the lateral line, and 
on the tail generally. A fillet of small scales runs along 
the base of the dorsal, and another along the anal. Small 
scales also cover the base of the caudal, and there are mi- 
nute scales on the membranes of the solt dorsal and anal, 
with narrow tapeiing fillets running up behind the alternate 
sjjines, as in the triglyphus. Lateral line considerably 
above the middle of the height, following the curve of the 
back, and unbroken. Ventral spine slender, one-third 
shorter than the soft rays, and standing under the third dor- 
sal spine and attachment of the lowest pectoral ray. In 
triglyphus and tephrxops the ventral spine is under the be- 
ginning of the dorsal. Dorsal spines rather slender, very 
acute, and about equal in height to the soft rays. Anal 
spines stouter, the third scarcely taller than the second, 
and about one-third longer than the first one, which stands 
under the last dorsal spine. Soft part of the fin higher 
than the dorsal and much rounded. Caudal moderately 
concave at the end. 

Length of specimen 12 inches. 

Hab. Port Jackson. 



121 



SCOKPIS GEORGIANUS. Ciiv. et Val. 

Scorpis geoi-jjianus, Cuv. et Val. viii. p. 503, PI. 245. 

Radii:— "B. 7;D. 10|23; A. 3|-25 ; C. 17; P. 15; V. 1|5." 
— Histoiie des Poissoiis. 

This fish is represented in Mr. Neill's drawings (No. 6), 
and is stated by him to be a very common inhabitant of 
rocky shores, and to take the hook readily. He says that 
it is a gross feeder, but is an agreeable article of food. It 
is the " striped sweep " of the sealers, the " pomfret " of 
the settlers of King George's Sound, and the " mudeur" of 
the Aborigines, who also name it " teutuck " or " karloch," 
from the shape of the fins. The drawing measures 12j 
inches in length, and the body is 7j inches high. The 
colour is blackish-brown, deepening to brownish-black on 
the snout, back, edges of the dorsal and anal, and on the 
whole of the other fins. There is a dai'k bar on the gill- 
cover and temples, another broad one descends from the 
whole length of the spinous dorsal to the belly, and two 
from the soit part of the dorsal. The lips, lower jaw and 
ej'e are yellowish. 

I have seen no example of this species. 

Hab. King George's Sound, Australia. 



ScoKris ^QUiPiNNis. Richardson. 



" The Sweep," Neill's drawings of the Fish of King George's Sound 
(inMus. Brit.), No. 43. 



Radii:— D. 10|27; A. 3|26 ; C. 17| ; P. 19; V. 1|5. 



The premaxillary teeth are short, and disposed in dense 
villiforni bands, the outer row being a little stronger and 
longer than the others, but apparently not so much so as 
in (jeorgicmiis. The villiform bands cease about midway to 
the angle of the mouth, and the exterior row, gradually di- 
minishing in the size of its teeth, disappears a little farther 
on. The mandibular teeth are similar, but reach to the 
corner of the mouth, the interior band thinning off to a 
point. The chevron of the vomer and edges of the palatine 
bones are armed with rather stronger villiform teeth. The 
teeth on the pterygoid bones are scarcely to be detected, 
even in the younger specimens, with a good lens. The 
preoperculum is finely and acutely toothed along its lower 
limb and round the angle, the teeth being visible to the 
naked eye, but on the edge of the lirab there is merely a 
slight irregularity. The operculum is elliptically notched on 
its edge, without pungent angles. The cheek, suborbitar 
chain, disk of the preoperculum, rest of the opercular 
pieces, lower jaw, gill-cover, throat, and most of the head, 
are scaly ; the lips, membranous parts about the mouth 
and nostrils, and the maxillary, being smooth. The 
spinous parts of the dorsal and anal have scaly sheaths at 
their bases; the rest of the vertical fins are covered with 
minute scales. The scales of the body seem to have a 
more convex free edge than those oi georgianus : they are 
strongly toothed on the edge, and most of them have three 
or four raised lines near to the free edge and parallel to it. 

The drawing is coloured neutral tint, fading to pale blue 
or bluish-gray on the lower parts, and deepening on the 
caudal, dorsal and edge of the anal almost to black. The 
top of the head and back are also blackish, and the mem- 
branes of the pectorals and ventrals. The lips and eye are 
yellow. 

Length of the specimens from 4 to 10 inches ; of Mr. 
Neill's drawing I65- inches. 

Hab. King George's Sound, Australia. 



This fish is the " sweep " of the Sealers, the "memon" 
or " meemon" of the Aborigines of King George's Sound. 
It is ver}' common on the rocky shores, and is stated by 
Mr. Neill to be a bold voracious fish, easily speared or 
taken by the hook. " The method employed by the na- 
tives for spearing the fish is extremely simple. They gene- 
rally select a rock jutting far out into the sea, and sitting 
there on their haras, with a little stone before them, beat 
crabs to fragments and throw them into the water ; then 
the fish, coming to seize upon the bait, is transfixed by 
the spear, which the native holds ready and poised in his 
hand. He rarely throws it without securing a prey on its 
barbed point." (Neill /. c.) This species is but a poor 
article of food. 

This is a more oblong fish than S. georgianus, and the 
summits of its dorsal and anal are not falcate, or very 
slightly so, even in the largest individuals. The height of 
the body is contained nearly thrice in the total length, in- 
stead of only twice and a half as in georgianus. The 
length of the head is contained five times and a quarter in 
the whole length, and the diameter of the eye thrice and a 
half in the length of the head. 



Argentina retropinna. Richardson. 



Radii:— B. 6; D. 11; A. 20; P. 11 ; V. 6. 
Plate LIT., figs. 1—3. 



Form fusiform and compressed, so that the height, which 
is one-seventh of the length, is nearly twice the thickness. 
The sides are flattish, the back obtuse, and the belly also 
rounded, but with a low, acute, mesial cutaneous seam, 
which runs from the pectorals to the anal, and is most visi- 
ble posterior to the ventrals. The profile ascends in an 
arc to the occiput, and from thence to the dorsal, which is 
far back, it is horizontal, with a slight convexity. The 
under profile nearly corresponds with the upper one, except 
that when the fish is full of roe, as in the specimen which 
is figured, the belly is rather more convex. The length 
of the head is one-fifth of the whole length of the fish. 
The scales are very delicate, of an obtusely oval form, the 



122 



outline undulating inegulailj'. The lines of structure cor- 
respond with the outline, and are remote from each other, 
being few in number. There are no diverging fan-like 
furrows. As they are very deciduous but few remain on 
any of the specimens, and the number of their rows cannot 
be stated. The lateral line, which has been omitted in 
figure 1, is straight, and rather above the mid-height. 

On opening the belly of a specimen, laid upon its back, 
much roe became visible, and beneath it lay the remains of 
the liver covering the upper half of the stomach. The 
stomach, which is not black like that of Argentina sphy- 
r(e/ia, and lias an obtuse fundus, is divided more than half- 
way down into the a3sophageal and pyloric branches. The 
pylorus, which is close to the diaphragm, is much con- 
tracted, and the intestine descends from it in a straight 
line to the anus, there being neither coeca nor convolutions. 
No air-bladder was discovered on inspection of three or four 
specimens, none of them in perfect condition. The abdo- 
men and the inside of the gill-plates are lined with a bright 
silvery membrane sprinkled with black dots, which are raised 
above the surface as if they were formed by drops of some 
thick pigment. A stripe along the spine, within the abdomen, 
which appears when the intestines are removed, is honey- 
yellow with black dots. The intestines contained frag- 
ments of minute marine Crustacea, and there were many 
small parasitical worms. The pectorals are attached near 
the ventral surface, and below the level of the eye. They 
are supported by eleven rays, of which the upper one is 
longest. The ventrals are attached about a tenth of the 
whole length before the middle of the fish, caudal included. 
The fore part of the dorsal is about as much behind the 
middle. The anal commences immediately behind the 
anus, and under the middle of the dorsal, ending opposite 
to the adipose fin. It is slightly excavated on its margin. 
Its front ray, like that of the dorsal, is short, and incumbent 
on the second one. The caudal is considerably forked, 
and is supported by eighteen rays, which are divided into 
two equal groups by a well-marked mesial membranous 
line. The outer ray, above and below, is unbranched, and 
broader than the others, which are forked. Tlie end of the 
tail is embraced, for a little space, by thirteen short and 
successively decreasing rays above, and as many below. 
The rays of all the fins are jointed. 

The length of the head is comprised five times and one 
half in the total length. The lower jaw is conspicuously 
longer than the upper one, and, when the jaws are closed, 
ascends considerably, with the gape of the mouth, which 
reaches nearly to the eye, but from the great shortness of 
the snout is small. The general a.spect of the head and 
of the fish generally, irrespective of the backward position 
of the dorsal, is that of a young trout. The top of the 
head and snout are smooth and rounded, but the snout is 
not obtuse. The eye is large, touching the profile, but 
scarcely rising above it, one diameter and a half distant 
from the gill-opening, and less than a diameter from the 
end of the snout. Nostrils two contiguous round openings, 
with raised margins, placed nearer the end of the snout 
than to the orbit. Preorbitar and rest of suborbitar very 
narrow. Cheek nacry, but soft, and not naked or bony as 
in Hydrocijon. Preopercnlum with a narrow nacry disk, 



and the two limbs meeting in the rectangular corner. Gill- 
cover shaped as in Salmo, nacry ; the suboperculum hori- 
zontal, and not having more than the fifth of the height of 
the operculum. Gill-opening amply cleft, the membranes 
uniting to the narrow isthmus opposite to the hinder part 
of the eye. Membranes nanow, supported by six flat, thin 
rays; which become gradually narrower towards their con- 
nection with the hyoid bone. The premaxillaries form 
one half of the upper border of the mouth, and are armed 
with fourteen or sixteen setaceous teeth in a single row. 
They are moderately curved, corresponding with the arc of 
the upper lip, and have no pedicle, but merely an increase of 
width to their mesial halves. The maxillary is narrowly do- 
labriform, the posterior and thicker border being straight. 
Its wider end plays over the limb of the lower jaw, while 
the middle part of its fore edge, for more than one-third of 
its length, completes the upper margin of the mouth, and 
is armed with about fifteen teeth like the premaxillary 
ones. Mandibular teeth similar and uniserial. The vo- 
merine teeth are rather larger, and the palatine ones slightly 
smaller. Both sets are uniserial, but they are slightly 
moveable, and, being inclined alternately to right and left, 
they appear to be biserial, except in the skeleton, when 
the palatine is seen to be a very narrow bone, and the teeth 
strictly uniserial. The vomerine teeth, about six in num- 
ber, are ranged transversely, close to the premaxillaries 
and parallel to them. The entopterygoid, which forms the 
floor of the orbit, is armed with three crowded rows of short 
subulate teeth, the interior row projecting conspicuously 
from the roof of the mouth. The soft parts adjoining these 
teeth and the palatines are studded with minute papillae, 
looking like additional rows of teeth. The tongue is 
armed by two rows of curved teeth stronger than any of 
the others, and the isthmus of the branchial arches is co- 
vered with a crowd of minute ones. The upper pharyn- 
geals are small cushions studded with microscopical teeth. 
There are four branchial arches, furnished with two rows of 
rakers, the anterior row of each arch being long and subu- 
late. 

The original colours of the specimen must have been 
considerably altered by the decadence of most of the scales. 
In their present state the back has a honey-yellow hue, with 
many black dots, and a broad stripe on the sides is silvery. 

Length Irom 2 to 83^ inches. 

Hab. Bay of Islands, New Zealand. 

The specimens were taken in a net. 



Gadopsis marmoratus. Richardson. 

Radii :— B. 6 ; D. 10|2.5, vel 26 ; .\. 3|19 ; P. 17 ; V. 1. 

Plate LIX., figs. 6—11. 

I have seen only a single dried skin of this fish, and 
cannot therefore venture to otter a full description of its 
generic peculiarities. It appears to belong to the Blenni- 
oid family, and to be a form hitherto undescribcd. 



123 



The general shape of the body, its rather prominent bell)-, 
large head, obtuse snout, projecting conspicuously beyond 
the lower jaw; and its slender jugular ventrals give it a 
good deal the aspect of a codfish, whence its generic name. 
The body tapers gradually towards the tail, whose height 
between the three vertical fins is contained about twice 
and one half in the height of the fish at the shoulders. 
The head forms one quarter of the whole length, caudal fin 
included : it is obtuse on the crown and rounded on the 
sides, the height before the eyes scarcely exceeding its 
width, but augmenting in proportion posteriorly, where the 
compression increases. The profile rises from the obtuse 
end of the snout, with a very gentle convexity to the com- 
mencement of the dorsal ; and the curve of the opposing 
ventral surface is similar to the upper profile. The eye, 
placed laterally and near the profile, is of moderate size, 
and a little nearer to the end of the snout than to the gill- 
opening. The anterior nostrils, opening through short 
tubes, are on the sides of the snout near its end ; the pos- 
terior ones are plain openings near the eye. The gape of 
the mouth reaches to the fore part of the eye. The preor- 
bitar does not show, but the hinder edge of the maxillary 
slips a short way under the fold of the scaly integument 
which covers it. The maxillary is slender, and dilates gra- 
dually towards its lower extremity, which is always ex- 
posed, and lies on the lower jaw behind the corner of the 
mouth. It is scaleless, like the lips and top of the snout 
back to the posterior nostrils. The slender premaxilla- 
ries, lengthened out by membrane, form the upper margin 
of the mouth, and are not at all protractile at the symphy- 
sis. The curved, unarmed preoperculum has a narrow 
disk covered with scaly integument, like the cheek and 
rest of the gill-cover. It is pierced by a row of conspicu- 
ous pores, which are continued forwards along the limb of 
the lower jaw. The triangular operculum ends in a flat, 
acute point, which does not rise through the integument, 
and is underlaid by the flexible tip and bordering mem- 
brane of the suboperculum. The interoperculum and gill- 
membrane are also scaly. Gill-opening large, the division 
of the membranes extending forwards to beneath the eye. 
The gill-membranes are supported by six rays. 

The scales are all small, cycloid and oval, those taken 
from the body having generally about six furrows diverging 
from the centre like the sticks of a fan, and producing five 
crenatures or lobes on the margin. The scales extend to 
the fins, and all parts of the head, except the lips, maxil- 
lary and end of the snout. The lateral line runs near the 
back, following its curvature. The dorsal fin, commencing 
over the axilla of the pectoral, occupies most of the back, 
and has an even, horizontal outline, the greater length of 
the posterior rays compensating for the descending curve 
of the back. It is supported anteriorly by ten slender, but 
rigid and pungent spines, which are followed by simple, 
flexible and jointed rays. In the posterior part of the fin 
the soft rays split at their tips into two branches, which do 
not however separate. The anal commences a little before 
the middle of the fish by three slender spines, of which the 
third one is the tallest, and equals the soft rays in height : 
it ends a little before the end of the dorsal, leaving more of 
the tail naked, and its posterior rays are not quite so high 



as the dorsal ones : neither of the fins liave their posterior 
rays bound to the tail by membrane. The caudal is round, 
and embraces the obtuse end of the tail by short rays 
above and below. Pectoral rounded. The ventrals are 
jugulai-, and are attached beneath the preoperculum and 
well before the pectorals. Only a single jointed ray, with 
a forked tip, can be detected on each, and no spine ; nei- 
ther is there any spine in the pectoral. 

The teeth are in fine narrow, card-like plates, on the 
premaxillaries, vomer, palatines and mandible, and are un- 
equal in height: about six on each limb of each jaw, in 
the exterior row, appear so much taller than the others 
when examined through a lens, as almost to deserve the 
appellation of canines. The few teeth on the chevron of 
the vomer are taller than the crowded ones on the edge of 
the palate bones. The pharyngeal bones and all the vis- 
cera have been removed from the specimen. 

Length of fish nearly 4 inches. 

Hab. Rivers in the southern parts of Australia. 

The colour of the dried skin is pale brown, marked on 
the dorsal and caudal fins, head, back and sides, with irre- 
gular spots of liver-brown. The spots on the tail assume 
somewhat of a banded arrangement. The anal is edged 
with dark brown. 



Hemeroccetes acanthorhynchus. Forster. 
{Callionymus). 

Callionymus acanthorhtjnchus, J. R. Forster, MSS. ii. 30, apud BI. 
Scbn. p. 41. Idem, Descr. An. Licht. edit. p. 117. G. Forster, tig. 
pict. 2, t. 175 in Bibl. Banks. 

C monopterygiiis, Bl. Schn. 1. c. 

Hemeroccetes acanthor/iipiclws, Cuv. et Val. xii. p. 311. Richardson, 
App. to Dieffenbach's New Zeal. p. 212. 

Radii:— B. 7; D. 39 ad 41 ; A. 36, vel 37 ; C. 8| ; P. 21 ; 
V. 1|5. 



Plate LIV., figs. 7—12. 

In the zoological appendix to the narrative of Dr. Dief- 
fenbach's Travels in New Zealand, I described, at consi- 
derable length, a specimen of this fish, brought by that 
gentleman from Wangaroa Bay, in New Zealand. The 
figure in Plate LIV. was drawn from an individual obtained 
by Captain Sir Everard Home, Bart., in Cook's Straits; 
and a few particulars of the splanchnology and osteology 
are added from a third example, which was greatly de- 
cayed. The following description is a revised copy of the 
one mentioned above. 

Form elongated, the height not exceeding one- thirteenth 
of the whole length : the width at the gill-covers, where it 
is greatest, exceeds the height. The outline of the de- 
pressed head slopes gradually to the end of the snout ; 
the jaws when closed form the thin extremity of the head 
when seen in profile (fig. 7). Viewed from above (fig. 8) the 
head has a semi-lanceolate form : it is flatly convex, trans- 
versely, and the same depressed rounded form extends 

i: 2 



124 



backwards to the dorsal, with an acute, though not ele- 
vated, mesial, scaly ridge, extending from the fin to the 
occiput. At the beginning of the dorsal the body is round, 
and from thence it tapers gradually to the base of the cau- 
dal fin, the tail being slightly compressed. The muscles 
of the back and belly swell so as to place the dorsal and 
anal fins in grooves. The length of the head is comprised 
four times and three quarters in the total length, caudal 
included, and its height at the eyes is less than a third of 
its own length. The large oval orbits, being very near 
each other, have a vertical and outward aspect. Their 
margins are smooth and slightly raised above the narrow- 
isthmus between them, and the full eyes swell above the 
line of the profile. The integument round the ball of the 
eye forms a loose fold, and I can detect no other a]ipear- 
ance of the nictitating membrane mentioned by Forster. 
The preorbitar, large and triangular, with its apex pointing 
forward, has a smooth, even edge, with some low smooth 
ridges radiating forward on its surface. The preorbitar lip, 
stretching over the pedicles of the premaxillaries, is cor- 
rectly described by Forster, " C. labia siiinmo semilunaio, 
aiitrorsiim bispiiioso," the spiny tips of the crescent being 
the subulate shoulders of the maxillaries (figs. 8, 9). The 
maxillary comes into view when the jaws are fully ex- 
tended, but when the mouth is closely shut it is retracted 
entirely under the preorbitar and scaly edge of the cheek. 
The premaxillaries, with very slight development of lip, 
form the entire upper jaw, and play beneath the preorbitar 
lip, descending when protruded, but not altering the hori- 
zontality of the gape. The mandible is rather more acute 
and a very little shorter : it is bordered by a thin mem- 
branous lip, which widens towards the corner of the 
mouth, and folds back when the jaws are closed. The 
gape extends back to the front of the orbit. The nostrils 
are situated a short way before the eye, close to the upper 
edge of the preorbitar. Forster says, " A'ares inter oculos 
minimcB, orbiculnres, coutiguce" but he evidently mistook 
for them a small cluster of pores (fig. 10). The preorbitars 
are bordered with pores, and there are clusters of others on 
the mandible and disk of the preoperculum (vide figs. 8,9, 
10). These parts, the gill-membrane, and the isthmus be- 
tween the eye, are scaleless. Moderately large scales co- 
ver the entire cheek, except the very narrow suborbitar 
chain : the operculum, suboperculum and interoperculum 
are also densely scaly. The bones of the gill-cover are 
thin, smooth and transparent. The operculum is triangu- 
lar, and tapers posteriorly to a point, which shows like a 
minute spine among the scales, at the upper part of the 
gill-cover, close to the supra-scapulars. The subopercu- 
lum is considerably larger in all its dimensions, and has a 
smooth convex surface, with a tapering point, forming the 
apex of the gill-cover, and is not scaly like the rest of the 
gill-fiap (fig. 9). The gill-opening is ample, running for- 
ward on each side of the nape, and also beneath, to the 
root of the tongue. The gill-membrane, which is tolerably 
large, is completely concealed when the jaws are closed by 
the approaching limbs of the mandible and scaly inter- 
operculum. Its rays are long, slender and curved. 

The teeth are short and setaceous. They stand in a 
band four or five deep on the premaxillaries and mandibu- 



lar bones ; also in a small irregular tuft on each exterior 
corner of the end of the vomer, the mesial space being 
smooth. They are crowded on the pharyngeals, forming a 
hemispherical cluster on each upper bone, and a more flat 
dental surface on the lower ones. There are no teeth on 
the isthmus of the gills or on the tongue. The rakers of the 
branchial arches are sessile knobs. Within the mouth, be- 
fore the vomer, there are two prominent knobs, which are 
each formed by a cushion of integument, covering a short 
tubular process of the maxillary which runs beneath the 
premaxillary pedicle. 

The scales are moderately large, and of an irregular, 
semi-ovate form, most of them having an acute point in 
the middle of the free edge, and being cut transversely at 
the base by a waving line, which produces a very shallow 
middle lobe. There are from eighteen to twelve fan-like 
striae on the base, which do not produce crenatures on the 
margin. The free edge is perfectly entire. The lines of 
structure are nearly obsolete on the disk, fine and trans- 
verse behind, and longitudinal in a triangular space on the 
sides, where they are also more evident. The scales of the 
lateral line (fig. 12), which is straight or with a slight 
descent in the humeral region, have a short mesial tube, 
and their free edges are laciniated : there are from forty- 
four to forty-eight scales on this line, the specimen figured 
having forty-four. 

The pectorals are oval and rounded. The elliptical, 
acute pointed ventrals are attached before the ventrals un- 
der the superior angle of the gill-opening : their short 
slender spine has a flexible tip. The scaly space between 
them exceeds the width of one of their bases in breadth, 
and their tips when laid back touch the first anal ray. 
The dorsal, commencing nearly over the middle of the 
pectorals, and extending to within a short distance of the 
caudal fin, has an even outline ; the posterior rays, how- 
ever, becoming gradually somewhat shorter. The third or 
fourth ray stands over the anus. All the rays are jointed, 
tapering and flexible, except one or two of the middle 
ones, which are split at the tip, and the last, which is 
forked. The anal commences close to the anus, is not 
quite so high as the dorsal, and is also supported by jointed 
rays, the first one being unbranched, and the others uni- 
laterally branched at their tips. The membrane of both 
fins is very delicate and readily torn, and was not complete 
in any of our specimens. The caudal is composed of eight 
forked rays, and four graduated unbranched ones above 
and three below. The rays being very brittle the fin is 
easily mutilated, and consequently some uncertainty exists 
as to its proper form. Forster drew it as being lunate at 
the end ; Dr. Dicflenbach as being truncated, with an 
elongation of the upper angle ; and in our specimens it ap- 
pears round, but is not perfect. 

Forster describes the body as being coloured of a livid 
red ; the dorsal as being marked with scattered red spots, 
and the other fins as reddish ; the iris reddish and silvery. 
Dr. Dieffenbach's sketch, which is unfinished, is coloured 
wax-yellow, with five oblique blue streaks on the cheek, 
and some blue streaks in blotches on the sides ; purplish 
and red lines on the dorsal and edge of the anal ; the rest 
of the latter fin, the pectorals and ventrals,being aurora-red. 



125 



The stomach is an oval sac, with the pyloric orifice of 
the intestine situated one-third of its height from the fun- 
dus. The gut is short, folding onl}' once in its way to the 
anus, and there are no coeca. The supra-occipital has a 
thin crest hehind, extending as far back as the corners of 
the par-occipitals, which project so as to produce an angu- 
lar notch in the occiput. The top of the skull is smooth 
and flatly rounded. The large oval orbits are sepai-ated 
by a narrow bridge, which is concave, forming a furrow ; 
and the margin of the orbit beneath is completed by the 
narrow, tubular, suborbitar chain. The nearly quadrantal 
preorbitar is traversed by several radiating flat elevations, 
which are hollow beneath. The preoperculum is curved 
to rather less than a right angle : its lower limb is some- 
what longer than the upper one, and its edge is perfectly 
smooth. There are ten abdominal vertebrae and thirty- 
seven caudal ones : the pleurapophysial processes of the 
former are mere angles. The inferior processes in the 
caudal vertebrae are slender and subulate, like the neural 
spines, of all the column. 

Length from 6 to 8 or 9 inches. 

Hab. Coasts of New Zealand. Wangaroa Bay. Cook's 
Strait. Queen Charlotte Sound. 



Chironectes caudimaculatus. Riippell. 



Chirniiectes caudimaculatm, Ruppell, Neue VVirlb. p. 141, Tab. 33, 
fig. 2. 

Radii :— D. 1-1-1-13 ; A. 7 ; C. 9 ; P. 9 ; V. 5. 



Plate LX., figs. 8, 9. 



Notwithstanding some slight differences in form, as 
shown by the drawings, I have ventured to refer this fish 
to the candimaculaius of Ruppell, on account of the close 
accordance of his description, and the general resemblance 
of his figure. The differences to which I allude are, the 
different positions of the first dorsal ray, which in our 
specimen is very near the upper lip, and decidedly before 
the eye, while in the Neue IVirlebel/iiere it is represented as 
over the orbit, and close to the base of the second ray. If 
this be not an error in the delineation of the Arabian fish, 
it may be considered as an indication of a specific distinc- 
tion. The membranous filament was broken in the speci- 
men Ruppell has figured, so that the form of that part in 
our figure is to be considered as the correct one. A 
slighter difference of form is the greater height of the 
second and third dorsal rays in Riippell's fish, but this I 
attribute to these parts being shrivelled in our example, 
which is a dried one. The anal and dorsal are connected 
by membrane close to the base of the caudal in the Aus- 
tralian fish, while there is a portion of the trunk of the tail 
free in the Arabian one ; and the spots are represented as 
mere points, instead of the meandering and anastomosing 



lines well exhibited in onr figure. As there is great vari- 
ety in the markings of individuals of the same species in 
this genus, I have not separated the Australian fish from 
caudimaculatus, on the latter account ; and some of tlie 
other differences may be fairly attributed to the different 
condition of the individuals when sketched, as the laxity 
of the integuments in a fresh specimen admits of the form 
being varied, by their stretching in different directions. 
The distribution of the dark lines and other markings is 
different from that which chai-acterises C. hispidus and 
other Indian species described in the Histoire des Poissons. 
C. furcipilis has two spots on the fins. 

in our example of caudimaculatm, the first free dorsal 
ray is slender, flexible, smooth, unjointed, and tipped 
with a thin bifid membrane. It springs from a small tu- 
bercle situated above the nostrils, and rough like the ad- 
joining integuments. The second and third rays are 
covered with the prickly skin, which entirely conceals 
them, and forms of them two obtuse ridges or humps, 
rough like the adjoining parts of the back. The foremost 
of these humps is a little free at the top ; the other is 
bound down to the back its whole length. The forms of 
the other fins will be easily understood from the figures. 
The skin is rough to the touch over the whole fish, and 
when examined closely appears to be equally studded with 
very small hemispherical eminences, which, along the la- 
teral line, the space between it and the dorsal, on the top 
of the head, the snout, upper jaw, preoperculum, round the 
orbits and on the rays of the fins, each support a minute, 
rigid, bifid spine, very rarely a trifid one. Along the back, 
these minute spinules look like short hairs to the naked 
eye. Below the lateral line, only a very few spines can be 
detected, but the little eminences are many of them sur- 
mounted by a point of membrane. By dissection each 
eminence is found to be based on a thin circular scale, 
with an excentric umbo, from which a few wrinkles radiate; 
but there are no fan-like furrows, and the lines of structure 
cannot be made out with a simple lens of high power. 
The margin of the scale is quite entire. The lateral line 
runs, as described in the Neue JViilbetJdere, from the 
symphysis of the upper jaw, over the eye and along the 
back, in an undulating manner, to the middle of the dor- 
sal, where it ends. Throughout its whole lenglli it emits 
short vertical branches, which are most conspicuous on 
the face and scapular region, and it is also furnished 
with short filaments ; a few membranous barbels are scat- 
tered over the sides, and one is appended to the chin or 
external projection between the limbs of the mandible, 
produced by the depression of the tongue. There is a 
prominence at the symphysis of the mandible, which is 
mentioned by Dr. Ruppell. The teeth on the jaws, vomer 
and upper and under pharyngeals are in card-like patches, 
the pharyngeals being best armed, and the vomer least so. 
The chevron of the latter is saddle-shaped, the mesial hol- 
low being smooth, and the side eminences furnished with 
small patches of teeth. The eyed spots on the tail are 
transparent in tlie dried fish. 

Length 4:^ inches. 

Hab. Coasts of Australia. Red Sea. 



126 



Labrus teteicus, vel Tautoga tetrica. Richardson. 

Labnis tetricus, Richardson, Zool. Trans, iii. p. 136. 

Radii:— B. 6; D. 9|11 ; A. 3ll0; C. 14 ; P. 13 ; V \\o. 

Plate LV., figs. 1—4. 

In the Zoological Transactions, as above quoted, I 
described this species and three other Lahri forming part 
of a collection of fish made at Port Arthur, Van Diemen's 
Land, by Assistant-Commissary-General Lempriere. Of 
these four fi.sh I there remarked, that " they are all true 
Ijubri, and bear a general resemblance to the L. bergylta 
of the Hifstoire des Poissoiis, but the scales which clothe 
their opercula, though in fact much larger than in that 
species, being imbedded in a mucous skin, are scarcely 
discernible in the recent specimen. The opercular scales 
overlie the junction of the suboperculum, as in many Eu- 
ropean species, leaving however the greater part of the 
latter bone naked. There are no scales whatever on the 
interoperculum, in which respect these wrasses differ from 
L. bergylta, mixtim, irimaculat;ts and titrdus. The scales 
of the cheek are small, and as their distribution varies they 
furnish us with a ready means of distinguishing the species 
from each other. In all the four, the teeth are longer and 
stronger at the symphyses of the jaws than in L. bergylta 
or niLvtus ; and the posterior ones being small, their dimi- 
nution is more rapid, as in the genus Julis. They resem- 
ble Tautoga in possessing a pretty regular interior row of 
minute teeth. All have a canine tooth at the angle of the 
mouth directed forwards. The preorbitar lips are not 
greatly developed, and do not conceal the swelling plaited 
ones of the upper jaw. The lower lip folds back in a 
rounded plait on each limb of the jaw. The maxillaries 
lie under the preorbitars, their lower ends coming out when 
the mouth is open. In the number of their fin rays they 
agree nearly with L. pmcilopleura of New Zealand, and 
their dorsal fins have more soft rays than spines, in which 
respect they differ from the European wrasses." 

Labrus tetricus has a short and rather bluflfhead, which 
is only one-fourth of the total length, caudal included. 
The height of the occiput equals the length of the head, 
and that of the tail between the three vertical fins is nearly 
one half of the height of the body at the pectorals. The 
greatest height of the body is contained thrice and four- 
fifths in the whole length, or less than four times. The 
head is clothed with a porous skin, which conceals the 
bones and scales in the recent fish ; but as the integu- 
ments dry, the cranium, preorbitar, margin of the orbit and 
preopercular disk, become prominent, rough and irregular. 
Four vertical rows of large thin scales, about half the size 
of the scales of the body, cover the operculum and two- 
thirds of the suboperculum : the large interoperculum, 
which is rendered wider by a membranous edge, and the 
broad disk of the preo])ercuIum, which has also a thin 
membranous free border, are naked ; with the exception 
of three rows of very small deeply-imbedded scales, which 



descend from the temples, close to the inner edge of the 
preopercular disk, as far as its curve : the large cheek is 
also scaleless, but very porous. The preorbitar, with its 
membranous border or lip, is but little inferior in width to 
the space between the orbit and upper angle of the gill- 
opening. The preorbitar lips have a free edge at their 
union over the premaxillary pedicles. The premaxil- 
lary lips are thick, and plaited into seven or eight shallow 
folds, the inner fold being studded with minute wart-like 
papillae. 

There are eleven teeth on each premaxillary bone, ex- 
clusive of a stout canine tooth standing forwards from the 
angle of the mouth, and implanted into the tip of the same 
bone. The mandibular teeth are also eleven in each 
limb ; and on both jaws there is a single series of minute 
interior teeth, which are visible enough in the dried spe- 
cimen, but can scarcely be detected in the recent one. 
Interior teeth of the same description exist in many of the 
European Labri, but they are seldom disposed in such 
regular rows ; and as this inner dental series is one of the 
principal characters of Tautoga, the Australian Labroids 
here described ought perhaps to be referred to that genus. 
It is to be observed, however, that the species we shall 
have to notice have the gill-covers more extensively scaly 
than the Tautogw of the Histoire des Poissons, and differ 
from the European Labri chiefly in the interoperculum 
being naked. The teeth of tetricus are disposed in 
straight lines, so that when the open mouth is viewed in 
front they form a rectilinear rhomb, differing in this 
respect from L. fucicola, in which the lines of teeth are 
convex. There are about thirty-six lower pharyngeal 
teeth, six composing the anterior group, being conical- 
subulate ; the rest are smooth and rounded grinders, of 
which the biggest is the posterior mesial one. There are 
about twenty-two on each upper pharyngeal bone, the exte- 
rior ones being more conical and less worn than the interior 
ones. The scales covering the body are large and thin, 
with membranous edges. There are twenty-six rows be- 
tween the gill-opening and caudal, besides three rows more 
crowded on the bases of the caudal rays, and a fillet of 
small scales running a short way on the membrane between 
the rays. The lateral line makes an abrupt downward 
descent, a little beyond the dorsal and anal, tor the entire 
breadth of a scale, and then i-esumes its straight course 
through the centre of the tail. It is marked on each scale 
by a slender undulating tube, which suddenly branches by 
three or four successive bifurcations in an arbuscular man- 
ner. The number of bi-anchlets' diminishes on the poste- 
rior scales. The fine fan-like streaks on the scales are 
about thirty in number. 

The ventral fins are pointed. The eleventh dorsal spine 
exceeds the first in length by nearly one-third, the others 
being of intermediate height : they are all overtopped by 
little strips of membrane. The soft portion of the fin has 
a slightly-arched outline, somewhat higher than the spines ; 
and the anal, similar in form, has shorter spines. The 
spines of both fins are slender, subulate and acute. The 
caudal is even at the end, or, when fully spread out, a lit- 
tle rounded. 

When the specimen was taken from the spirits, the soft 



127 



dorsal and anal appeared very dark, the other fins yellow- 
ish or orange. The body also looked dark, but on detach- 
ing a scale from the back, the membranous pouch which 
enclosed it, was found to be of a lively purplish-red. All 
traces of coloured zones or spots, if any ever existed, had 
disappeared. The skin and membranes generally were 
very tough, and the fin-membranes thick and opaque. 

The intestinal canal is a wide tube, the stomach being 
of a larger diamet«r than the rest, and having its internal 
coat densely villous. The villous plaits are reticulated, 
and become more and more delicate, until they disappear 
altogether, leaving the fourth part of the tube next the 
anus smooth. The first caudal vertebra has a narrowly 
linear-lanceolate inferior process, with a broad thin shoul- 
der or plate on each side where it joins the body of the 
vertebra. Two holes for the passage of vessels exist in 
this process : each of the succeeding inferior processes of 
the spine have only one hole. 

Mr. Lempriere informs me that this wrasse and the fol- 
lowing one form a coarse food, disagreeable to some 
palates, but not unwholesome. Judging from the contents 
of their stomachs their food consists chiefly of Crustacea. 

Length 18 inches. 

In a manuscript account of the fish of Albany, King 
George's Sound, with drawings by Deputy Assistant-Com- 
missary-General Patrick Neill, belonging to the British 
Museum, I observed a Labroid which is named " brown 
rock fish " by the sealers, and " pokong " by the natives, 
which has much resemblance in form to L. tetricus. The 
drawing is coloured dark blackish -green on the upper 
parts and chestnut-brown below, with about nine obscure 
dark bands crossing the back, and three or four on the 
head. The pectorals and caudal are dark ; the ventrals, 
anal and dorsal brownish. The drawing is not finished 
minutely. 

Hab. Tasmania. 

Labrus fucicola, rel Tautoga fucicoi^\. Richardson. 



: fucicola, Richardson, Zoo!. Proceed., June 25, 
p. 137. 



Radii:— B. 6; D. 9|11; A. 3|10; C. 14; P. 13; V. 1\o. 

PlateLIV., figs. 1,2. 

In this species the bones of the head are less uneven 
than in L. tetricus, and the opercular scales are more irre- 
gular, some small round ones being scattered among the 
larger ones. The cheek, as far forward as the fore part of 
the eye, and near to the angle of the mouth, is protected 
by four rows of small scales, the uppermost of which runs 
close to the narrow suborbitar chain, and the lower one is 
more distant from the preopercular disk than in tetricus. 
As the scales rise before the vertical limb of the preoper- 
culum towards the temples they are restricted to three 
rows. The scales covering the body are a little smaller 
than in the species just named, and the lateral line, which 



makes the same almost vertical dip at the end of the dor- 
sal, is traced on twenty-seven scales, in addition to which 
there are four rows on the base of the caudal rays, exclu- 
sive of the short scaly fillets between the rays. The divi- 
sions of the mucous tube on the scales of the lateral line 
(fig. 2) are less numerous and bush-like than in tetricus: 
The teeth are comparatively stronger, and are disposed in 
very slightly convex, not straight lines, which gives a 
greater fullness to the upper jaw when viewed in front or 
from above, and less of the rectilinear rhomboid form which 
characterises the dental arrangement of tetricus and many 
species of Julis. The canine tooth at the angle of the 
mouth is slightly curved, and the interior rows of small 
teeth are more evident than in tetricus. The caudal is 
considerably rounded at the end, the anal is somewhat 
arched, and the fore part of the soft dorsal is a little higher 
than its posterior part. The dorsal and anal spines are 
similar in form and proportions to those of tetricus. 

The only traces of the original markings remaining in 
the specimens when received were some faint lines curving 
over the cheek and nose, a dark bar crossing the pectoral 
at a third of its length, and a black spot at the base of that 
fin and on its first ray. 

This species possesses nine abdominal vertebrse and six- 
teen caudal ones. The first of the latter differs from the 
corresponding one of the preceding species in its inferior 
process, having an acute shoulder instead of a rounded 
one, in its limb being narrowly linear, not lanceolate, and 
in its lower opening being elliptical and much larger than 
the round one next the centrum of the vertebra. 

Length of two specimens procured at Port Arthur, 11 ^ 
and 15 inches. 

A drawing of a wrasse, made at the port just named, by 
a convict under Dr. Lhotsky's inspection, and closely re- 
sembling this species, represents the general colour of the 
upper parts as dark plum-purple, the belly fading to bufi', 
with four pale spots on the back, one of them on the supra- 
scapular, another close to the eighth Spinous ray of the 
dorsal, and two others touching the base of the soft dorsal, 
the distances between the three posterior ones being equal. 
Our figure in Plate LIV., being executed from a dried 
specimen, shows the lips less fully developed, especially 
the preorbitar ones, than in the recent fish ; and the artist, 
fancying that he could distinguish the pale spots under 
the dorsal, has introduced them, but he has omitted the 
bar on the pectoral which remains in the dried fish. 

The Labroid represented in No. 9 of D. A. C. G. Neill's 
drawings, already quoted, is probably this species. It is 
called by the sealers the " common rock fish," by the na- 
tives " paril," and is said to be very common on rocky 
shores and to take the hook readily. 

Hab. Coasts of Tasmania and South Australia. 

Another of Mr. Neill's drawings may also be noticed 
here. It is numbered 37, and is named " black fish " by 
the sealers, and " paril," " kuhoul " or " bimburn " by the 
natives. It is considered by Mr. Neill to be a variety of 
the " common paril " above mentioned, is stated by him to 
be also an inhabitant of rocky shores, and to grow to some 
size. It is most probably a distinct species of the genus 
Labrus or Tautoga. Mr. Neill's figure is coloured dark 



128 



neutral tint, paler towards the belly, and nearly black on 
the top of the head, sides and fins. It is thickly and irre- 
gularly speckled down to the middle of the height of the 
body and head with rust-coloured dots, which are largest 
on the back, and much smaller on the sides, there being 
many on each scale. There are no spots on the fins. The 
spotting of this fish corresponds in some respects with the 
L. fiecilopleura of New Zealand {Hht. des Poiss. xiii. 
p. 95), and it is possible that the drawing may be designed 
to represent that species, but the general tint appears to 
be much darker. 

Hab. King George's Sound. 



Labrus laticlavids, vel Tautoga laticlavia. 
Richardson. 



Labrus laticlavins, Richardson, Zool. Proceed., March 10, 1840. 
Zool. Trans, iii. p. 139. 



Radii :— B. 5 ; D. 9| 11 ; A. 3| 10 ; C. I24 ; P. 12 ; V. 1 15. 



Plate LVI., figs. 3—6. 



This very handsome wrasse seldom exceeds a foot in 
length, has a more elegant form than the three species 
we have already described, and comes nearer to Tautoya 
in having fewer scales on the cheek. Its general aspect is 
that of a Julis. The head is neat and small, its length be- 
ing contained four times and nearly one half in the total 
length, caudal included. The membranous flap of the 
gill-cover is produced so as to form a rounded lobe, which 
extends nearly its own breadth beyond the supeiior at- 
tachment of the operculum. In L. (etricus, fiicicola and 
iiiscriphis, the operculum is joined to the shoulder by a 
membranous production, which reduces the gill-opening to 
a vertical slit, not a curved one as in the present species. 

The scales which cover the operculum and part of the 
suboperculum are thin and large, and a vertical row of six 
small scales descends from the temples, before the limb 
of the preoperculum, not quite to its curve, the rest of 
the cheek being naked. The integuments of the head 
are less spongy and porous than in the Labri already 
described, and the gill-membrane is narrow. There are 
eleven teeth on each side of each jaw, with a tolerably 
strong canine tooth at the angle of the mouth : the inner 
row of small teeth is about as numerous as the outer one, 
and in the dried specimen they are tolerably prominent, 
especially in the upper jaw. There are about forty-five 
teeth in the lower pharyngeal bone, and twenty in each of 
the upper ones (figs. 5, 6). 

Tile scales of the body have equally thin membranous 
edges with those of tetricus and fiwicola, but their fan-like 
streaks are more strongly developed. The lateral line is 
composed of twenty-six scales, exclusive of two without 
tubular elevations on the base of the caudal, aud the short 



fillets of scales between the rays, and it curves as usual 
opposite to the end of the dorsal to the depth of one entire 
scale. Its tubular elevations have a compact arbuscular 
form, springing first fi-om the central tube in a palmated 
manner, and dividing into simple and forked tubes. Most 
of the tubes are pierced by pores or lateral openings. The 
spinous dorsal is even, and a little lower than the soft part. 
The ventrals are acute pointed ; and their membranes, and 
those of the pectorals, are delicate and transparent. The 
pectorals and caudal are rounded. 

A drawing, made by a convict at Port Arthur, of this 
species, presents the following colours. Ground tint of 
the head, back and sides dark green. A lake-red stripe 
commencing at the supra- scapular, and another beginning 
above the base of the pectorals, run parallel to the back, 
and unite behind the dorsal into a single stripe, which runs 
to the extremity of the caudal. Over the beginning of the 
anal a large blotch from the under stripe, but of a deeper 
colour, descends nearly to the ventral surface. The breast, 
belly and sides of the tail along the base of the anal, are 
tinged with a more dilute and purplish lobe. All these 
stripes are bounded by Berlin-blue lines, composed of a 
series of streaks, one on each scale. The cheek is blue, 
and the rest of the head green, traversed by lake-red lines. 
The pectorals and ventrals are carmine, the dorsal purplish- 
red, with many small blue dots between the summits of the 
rays, a narrow vermilion border, and an extreme edging of 
clear blue. The anal has a narrow stripe of vermilion 
along its base, then a broad bar of primrose-yellow, edged 
above and below with blue, and, lastly, a band of purple 
as broad as the yellow one, spotted thickly with blue and 
edged with the same. The caudal is plum-purple, dotted 
with pale blue at the end. The specimens, though long 
kept in spirits, still show some of these markings, and the 
lake-red lines maybe enumerated more precisely from them 
than from the drawing, viz., two of them cross the preorbitar, 
three descend from the orbit over the cheek, and two cross 
the temples to the nape, besides some undulating lines on 
the interoperculum. I'hese lines are blue in the specimens 
and red in the drawings, but a similar change of colour is 
common among the Labri after death. The specimens 
also show five short plum-blue lines on each side beneath 
the pectorals, and three such lines on each side of the 
anal, not shown in the drawing. Mr. Lempriere states, 
that when newly taken this fish exhibits all the colours of 
the rainbow. 

The vertebrae are nine abdominal and sixteen caudal 
ones. The first caudal one has its descending process com- 
posed of two slender arms, which spring directly from the 
centrum, and meet only at their tips, enclosing a single, 
wide, elliptical arch. The contents of the stomach were 
small Crustacea, mixed with littoral sea-weeds. 

In Deputy Assistant-Commissary-General Neill's draw- 
ings of the fish of King George's Sound, there is a repre- 
sentation (No. 47) of this fi.sh, under the name of " kanup- 
parill " or green fish. He states it to inhabit the rocky 
shores of that locality, and to be rare. Mr. Lempriere 
says, that at Port Arthur it is prized as an article of food. 

Length 11 inches. 

Hab. Coasts of Tasmania and South Australia. 



129 



Labrus psittaculus, vel Tadtoga psittacula 
Richardson. 



Labrus psittaculus, Bichardson, Zool. Proceed., March 10, 1840. 
Zool. Trans. Hi. p. 141. 



Radii:— B. 5; D. 9|11; A. 3|10; C. 1-2| ; P. 1.3; V. 1|5. 



ing ])rocess of the next succeeding veitebra is also broad, 
and perforated by two holes. 

The specimen in spirits had an uniform hyacinth-red co- 
lour, without any other spots tlian five or six rows of 
honey-yellow dots on the soft dorsal and anal, and a few 
streaks behind the corner of the mouth. 

Length lOj inches. 

Hab. Shores of Tasmania. 



Plate LVI., figs. 7—10. 

In this species there are about fourteen or fifteen teeth 
on each side of each jaw, and the pair next the symphysis 
are proportionally larger than in the species already 
described. The canine at the angb of the mouth is 
slightly curved, the inner row of small teeth is con- 
spicuous on the front third of the jaws, but fails posteriorly 
altogether on the lower jaw, and there are merely some 
obscure indications of interior teeth on the posterior halves 
of the premaxillaries. The pharyngeal teeth are repre- 
sented in figures 9 and 10. 

The body is more compressed than is usual in a Labius: 
the greatest depth of the body a little exceeds the length 
of the head, which forms one-fourth of the total length. 
The operculum and half of the suboperculum are covered 
with large round scales, and there are four rows of scales 
on the cheek, which cover nearly as much of it as in L. in- 
scriptiis. The lobular tip of the gill-cover is narrower 
than that of X. Itjticlariiis, hut the gill-opening is as much 
closed by membrane at the shoulder as in inscriptus. 

The lateral line, containing twenty-six scales, curves at 
the nineteenth, to be continued straight through the tail. 
There is one scale in addition on the base of the caudal 
rays without the tubular eminence, making twenty-seven in 
all, and small scaly fillets exist as usual between the rays. 
The central tube branches in a palmate mannei-, but the 
forks are generally fewer than in latidavius, the ultimate 
branchlets seldom exceeding eight or nine on the anterior 
scales, or half that number on the tail, nor are they perfo- 
rated by pores as in latidavius. 

The dorsal spines increase gradually in height from the 
first to the ninth, which is one-third taller. The soft dor- 
sal is rather higher, and its rays increase slightly in length 
to the penultimate one, which is the tallest. The soft rays 
of the anal are nearly all of one length, and its shorter 
spines, and those of the dorsal, are overtopped by mem- 
branous points. In this species and latidavius the anal 
and dorsal are oppo.site to each other, while in L. tetricus, 
fucicola and inscriptus the anal ends a little further from 
the base of the caudal. The caudal has its lower angle 
rounded slightly, and its upper one pointed and projecting 
a little. L. psittaculus and latidavius have a gill-ray 
fewer than tetricus, fucicola or inscriptus. The European 
Lahri and American Tautoga are noted in the Histoire 
des Poissoiis as having five gill-rays like psittaculus. 

The spine is composed of nine cervical and sixteen 
caudal vertebrae. The first caudal one differs from that of 
latidavius in the limbs of the elliptical arch, formed by its 
pleurapophyses, being broader, and uniting above so as to 
enclose a small opening next the centrum. The descend- 



The " KNELMICK," " MINAME " Or " MINAMEN " of the 

natives of King George's Sound, which is named " parrot 
fish" or " common rock fish " by the sealers of the same 
locality, seems to be another species of this group, and to 
resemble L. psittaculus closely in the form of its body 
and caudal fin. Its soft dorsal appears, however, to be 
more pointed. I have seen no specimen, but a drawing of 
it by Deputy Assistant-Commissary-General Neill (No. 18) 
enables me to describe the colours. Some scales are ob- 
scurely indicated on the cheek and gill-cover, and from one 
scale taken from the back, and another from the belly, which 
accompanies the drawing, the scales generally appear to 
be rather smaller than those of psittaculus. The ground 
tints of the head and body are green, with faint longitudi- 
nal lines of lake corresponding to the rows of scales. The 
spinous part of the dorsal and basal half of the soft portion 
are dark green : the upper part of the latter and all the 
other fins are deep lake-red. Mr. Neill numbers the rays 
as follows: " D. 8|11; A. 2|10; P. 12; V. 1|.5." It is 
probable that a short spine at the beginning of the dorsal 
and one at the anal have been overlooked. Length of 
drawing 7j inches. 

Hab. King George's Sound. 

The "KNELMICK," "kielmick" or "kielnmick" of the 
natives of King George's Sound, is evidently another spe- 
cies of this group, much resembling L. latidavius in its 
profile. Deputy Assistant-Commissary-General Neill, by 
whose drawing alone the species is known to us, enumerates 
the rays as follows : " D. 2-2 ; A. 14 ; P. 1:3 ; V. 5." He 
says that it is a common inhabitant of rocky coasts, and is 
a very indifferent article of food. It is taken with the 
hook. The scales are smaller than those of any of the 
species described above, and the drawing represents them 
as covering the entire gill-covering, including the inter- 
operculum, but it is possible that this may have been an 
oversight. The dorsal, anal and back are coloured brown- 
ish-red, the head shows a more dilute tint of the same, and 
the caudal is reddish-orange. The body and vertical fins 
are traversed by stout blue bars, forming horizontal rows, 
about three in number on each of the fins, and ten on the 
body. The blue lines on the back are oblique ; in the 
middle of the tail they are replaced by round spots ; and 
on the caudal they run throughout the fin between the 
rays. Three blue lines descend from the eye and snout 
over both jaws, and three curve downwards from a large 
blue patch on the preoperculum over the cheek and inter- 
operculum. There is also a blue chevron on the supra- 
scapular. The pectorals and ventrals are pale, with reddish 
rays. The drawing is 9| inches long. 

Hab. King George's Sound. 

X 



130 



Labrus luculentus, vel Tautoga l0culenta. 
Richardson. 



Radii:— B. 5; D. 9|11 ; A. 3|10; C. 11, vel 1-2|; P. 12; 

V. 1|5. 



T am indebted to Dr. Mc William, so well known by his 
humane exertions on the Niger Expedition, for five speci- 
mens of a Labrus from Norfolk Island, closely allied to 
the preceding species. A dried specimen in the British 
Museum, which was brought from Western Australia by 
Mr. Gould, shows that its range is extensive. 

The profile is elliptical, the jaws forming the acute apex 
anteriorly, while behind the ellipse ends in the trunk of the 
tail, whose height is contained twice and one-third in the 
height of the body, and this again thrice and one-third in 
the total length, caudal included. The descent from the 
dorsal to the mouth is an even, long slope, with a slight 
convexity : the belly is rather more convex than the back, 
and the compression of the body is considerable, its thick- 
ness being contained twice and two-thirds in its height. 

The head forms two-sevenths of the whole length of the 
fish, caudal included. The eye is of moderate size, and 
the diameter of the perfectly round orbit is equal to one- 
fifth of the length of the head, measured to the extreme 
edge of gill-flap. It is situated near the profile, and two 
diameters from the symphysis of the intermaxillaries. The 
breadth of the preorbitar is greater than the diameter of 
the eye, and the preorbitar lip is developed about as much 
as in the Australian species already described. The cheek 
is protected by small tiled scales, which fill up the curve 
of the preoperculum, where there are six rows : they come 
close to the disk of the preoperculum, but leave a broad 
smooth margin beneath the orbit, and also a space at the 
corner of the mouth. The preorbitar, mandible, snout and 
whole top of the head are also smooth, as is likewise the 
broad, thin and flexible interoperculum. When this bone 
is complete it laps over its fellow, and completely conceals 
the gill-membrane ; but it is more or less deficient in 
four of the specimens out of five, either on sides of the 
fish or on one only. The operculum and subopercu- 
lum are covered by three or four vertical rows of large 
scales, which are, however, smaller than those of the body. 
There are twenty-seven scales on the lateral line, with 
three rows above it and seven or eight below. On the an- 
terior scales the lateral line is formed by a small sparingly- 
divided cluster of branchlets at the end of a long tube. 
The branchlets are mostly above the tubular line, and di- 
minish in number posteriorly, so that at the flexure under 
the end of the dorsal only one upward branchlet remains. 
The scales are nearly as strongly striated on their unco- 
vered disks as on their bases, the striae embracing all the 
circumference except a very small triangular portion on 
each side. The base of the dorsal, and in a less degree 
that of the anal, is protected by a scaly sheath. The base 
of the caudal is also sheathed. The dorsal and anal spines 
arc slender, round, pungent, and tipped behind with small 
membranous processes. The soft rays are a little longer, 
but the outline of each of these fins is even, and they end 



acutely, though not by prolonged points. The pectoral is 
acute above and rounded beneath. The ventrals are rather 
small, and, when fully s])read, obtuse. The membranes 
of the fins generally, and especially of the ventrals and 
pectorals, are delicate and transparent. 

The tooth next the symphysis on both jaws is about 
twice the size of the second one, and the rest diminish re- 
gularly to the corner of the mouth. They are subulate 
and acute, and about twelve in number on each premax- 
illary and limb of the mandible. There is also a small 
canine at the corner of the mouth. The inner small teeth 
are very distinct, particularly the mandibular ones, but 
the}- are confined to a single series on the front of the jaws, 
and do not run farther back than the third exterior tooth. 

The following tracings of colouring and markings re- 
main, after several years of maceration in spirits. A faint 
reddish tint prevails on the body, strongest along the dor- 
sal and lateral line, giving indications of stripes. Below 
the lateral line each scale is marked at its base by a some- 
what oblique descending silvery bar: this mark belongs to 
the integument beneath the scale and shines through. 
One dark purple line runs from the orbit, along the upper 
edge of the preorbitar, to the tip of the snout. Another 
runs beneath the preorbitar, along the under margin of the 
orbit, to the tip of the gill-cover. A series of purple dots 
trace out the line of the occiput, and there is a row on the 
temples. The tip of the gill-cover appears to have been 
coloured, and the cheek to have been brighter than the 
rest of the head. The pectoral shows a purplish-black 
ring at its base, with a silvery and reddish axilla. A black 
mark embraces the first two dorsal spines, and there is a 
black spot on the scaly sheath embracing the two first soft 
dorsal rays, with indications of a smaller spot at the fillh 
and sixth soft rays. 

Length 6 inches. 

Hab. Eastern and western coasts of Australia. Norfolk 
Island. 



Tautoga melaptera. Bloch. {Labrus.) 



Labrus melamptems, Bl. 285, Sclm. 247. 

Tautoga melapterus, Cnv. et Val. xiii. p. 311. Richardson, Aunals 
and Mag of Nat. Hist. xi. p. 358. 



Radii 



-B. 5; D. 9|10; A. 2|10; C. 13f; P, 13; V. 1|.5. 



This species is known to the natives round Port Essing- 
ton by the name of " ardilga." The reader is referred to 
the Histoire des Poissons and the Annals of Natural His 
lory as above quoted for an account of it. 

Length I3|^ inches. 

Hab. Sea of Java, Torres Straits and the coasts of 
North Australia. 



131 



Lachnolaimus, rel Cossyphus cyanodus. Richardson. 



I.abnis ci/anodus, Richardson, Ann. and Mag. of Nat. Hist. xi. 
p. 355. 



Radii:— B. 6; D. 1.3|7 ; A. 3|10; C. 12|; P. 15 ; V. l|5. 
Platu LV., figs. 5—7. {L. arilca.) 

This fish wants the flexible filamentous prolongations of 
the anterior dorsal spines, which give such a peculiar cha- 
racter to the Lac/inolaimi of the Caribbean Sea; and it 
differs from them in its more elevated profile, and conse- 
quently in its general physiognomy, which is more like 
that of Noracula, especially in the face. It has the preor- 
bilar lips, the scaly gill-covers and cheeks, with the conti- 
nuous lateral line, and other general characters of Lahnis, 
but it differs from that genus in the dentition both of the 
jaws and pharyngeals, in which it agrees with Lachno- 
laimus. In the structure of its jaws, the upper one es- 
pecially, it corresponds nearly with Cosayphus atrolumbiis, 
and most likely with some others of that genus, the Cos- 
syphi merely having the teeth on the edge of the jaw a little 
more prominent, and those incorporated with the bone in- 
teriorly so much developed as to render the surface granu- 
lar. Though the vertical fins of our fish move in scaly 
sheaths, they are much less evident than in Cossyphus, and 
enclose only the bases of the fins. It seems to have the 
closest aflinitj' to the Lahrtis macrodontus and Japouicus, 
and to the Cossyphus schwnleinii of the Histoire des 
Poissons, diff'ering from them rather in specific characters 
than generic ones, and agreeing with them in dentition 
and in the number of the fin rays.* 

This fish obtains the names of" 'nguvmin" and " arilka" 
from the native tribes in the vicinity of Port Essington. 
The specimen we have figured was taken in Endeavour 
Straits, on the reef which surrounds Bramble Island. 

The profile of the snout rises at an angle of 45°, with a 
slight concavity opposite the preorbitars, and a convexity 
at the nostrils, where it begins to round gradually over 
the eye into the nearly horizontal curve of the nape. 
Along the whole extent of the dorsal, the outline of the 
back descends to join the concave sweep of the trunk of 
the tail. The outline of the belly wants the bold convex- 
ity of the forehead and nape, but is otherwise nearly simi- 
lar to the dorsal line. The height of the trunk of the tail 
exceeds one-third of the greatest height of the body, and 
its length between the dorsal and caudal is nearly one- 
sixth of the total length of the fish. 

The length of the head is contained thrice and two- 
thirds in the length of the fish, and its height is not above 
a ninth or tenth part less than its length. The eye, of a 
moderate size and round, is situated above the level of the 

* See also Cossyphus cyannstolus and onunoplcrns of ' The Report on 
the Ichthyology of China,' p. 256, 257, which agree generically with the 
species named above, and in the numbers of the rays. Labrus reticula- 
ris of the Fauna Japonica has a different number of dorsal rays, but si- 
milar construction of the jaws with the other species of this group. 



angle of the gill-cover, having a very high cheek and in- 
teroperculum beneath it, and a large preorbitar descending 
obliquely before it. It is two diameters of the orbit from 
the end of the snout, and rather farther from the tip of 
the gill-cover. The nostrils arc very small simple ojjcn- 
ings, situated nearer to the eye than to the edge of the 
snout. The preorbitar lip is wide, and contiiuious over 
the premaxillary pedicles and cheek, forming a covering 
for the whole of the maxillary and the outer half of the 
premaxillary when the jaws are retracted. The obtuse 
end of the maxillary just appears at the corner of the 
iiiouth when the jaws are extended. The premaxillary 
lips are full and plaited, and the mandibular one folds 
back on the limb of the jaw. The gape of the mouth 
is low down, and scarcely extends as far back as the 
anterior nostril. The mandible when depressed is equal 
in length to the premaxillary when fully protracted, and 
ascends a little when the jaws are retracted. The preraaxil- 
laries are moderately protractile : each is armed anteriorly 
by two strong canines, the one next the symphysis being 
the largest : they are conical, slightly curved, directed for- 
wards and downwards, and both are closely incorporated 
with the bone, so that there appears to be no line of sepa- 
ration between the root of the tooth and substance of the 
bone. The jaw interiorly is naked and polished, as if 
worn or enamelled, for a considerable breadth, and its 
edge, which is rather obtuse throughout, is a little swollen 
behind the canines ; and close to the symphysis there is a 
small conical tooth immediately behind the largest canine, 
and two or three minute granular ones appear as if passing 
out of the bone on the lateral edge of the jaw. The man- 
dible exhibits the same polished edge and interior surface 
as the premaxillary, and is also armed with two stout ca- 
nines directed forwards and upwards. There is no small 
interior conical tooth at the symphysis, but a series of very 
small granular teeth on the edge of the jaw is visible to 
the naked eye, particularly two or three of them behind its 
middle. There is no canine at the corner of the mouth. 
The upper pharyngeals (fig. 6) are two small bones with 
flat granular disks, and the teeth shining through, as on 
the jaws of a Scar us. The teeth and jaws are greenish. 

The cheek is protected by small, remote, round scales, 
forming five or six rows between the orbit and curve of the 
preopercular disk. There are six in a single series on the 
interoperculum, and the operculum and suboperculum are 
covered by six rows of larger ones closel}' tiled. The disk 
of the preopercuhim is naked, and the interoperculum is 
very broad, its edge being membranous. The gill-cover is 
also bordered with smooth membrane, beneath whose edge 
the rather narrow gill-membrane folds. The rays of the 
latter are long, slender, curved and flexible. The tip of 
the gill-cover is a rounded lobe, rendered more prominent 
by a wide curve narrowing the suboperculum. 

The lateral line is traced on twenty-nine or thirty scales, 
the last two of which are as large as the others, and sheath 
the base of the caudal rays. The exposed disks of the 
scales are without striae; their bases are marked by twenty- 
five or thirty, diverging in a fan-like way. The scales 
forming the lateral line have each a long tube, with six or 
seven spreading divisions at the end. On the posterior 



132 



scales the branches are rather fewer and spread less 
(fig. 7). 

The dorsal spines are slender, subulate and acute, and 
increase gradually in height to the last or thirteenth, which 
is nearly twice as tall as the first : a small point of mem- 
brane overtops each of them. The soft rays rise above the 
last spine nearly in the same degree that it exceeds the 
first one. The anal is similar to the posterior part of the 
dorsal, and ends a little nearer to the caudal. The latter 
is truncated at the end, with a slight acute projection of 
the upper corner. The pectoral is rather large and trian- 
gular, the ventrals comparatively small and pointed. There 
are no small scales on the fins. 

The specimen here described, and figured in Plate LV., 
is a dried one, and measures 8j inches. Another, mea- 
suring I2j inches, was taken at Port Essington, and has the 
dorsal and anal more pointed.* One example in the Haslar 
Museum, presented by John Gould, Esq., is twenty-two 
inches long, and differs from the preceding in its teeth and 
jaws not being green, and in having a stout canine directed 
outwards from the angle of the mouth. The upper limb 
of its preopercuhim is finely and acutely serrated, the ser- 
ratures pointing upwards. This is most probably a dis- 
tinct species, and the British Museum possesses a large 
mounted specimen of it which was also obtained from 
Mr. Gould. 

Hab. Northern coasts of Australia. 



CossYPHUs, vel Lachnolaimds gouldii. Richardson. 

Lahrus gouldii, Richardson, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. xi. p. 353. 

Radii:— D. lljlO; A. 3|10; C. 14|; P. 17; V. I|5. 

In the Annals and Magazine of Natural History, as 
above quoted, I described a Western Australian fish, which 
in its dentition makes a near approach to L. cijfuiodus. I 
stated there that the specimen consisted of the dried skin 
of one side of the fish, with the bones of the head 
cut away, so that the pro])er form of the profile could 
not be ascertained ; but since that was written I have re- 

* In the specimen which is figured the colours were effaced. The 
one described in the Annals and Magazine of Natural History (ix. 355) 
retained some indications of the darker tints, viz., " The top and sides 
of the head have a dark brownish hue, which is separated from the in- 
ferior orange or reddish-yellow parts by an even line running beneath 
the pectoral fin and preopercuhim to the angle of the mouth. There is 
a purplish-brown patch on the chin. The light tints of the under sur- 
face rise in the axilla of the pectoral to the middle of the side, and are 
continued at that height to the caudal. The upper parts have a leaden 
hue, not very unif(mn. Three dark bars descend from the spinous part 
of the dorsal to the lateral line, there is a fourth before the fin, and a 
fifth is more obscurely seen at the end of the soft part of the fin, all 
these bars being broader than the intermediate paler spaces. There are 
no markings on the dorsal, though the colour of the spinous part is 
somewhat deeper than that of the soft part. Two diaphanous lines tra- 
verse the middle of the anal, and five similar ones cross the caudal, fol- 
lowed by dots on the end of the fin.'' The length of this specimen was 
10 inches. 



cognized the species among D. A. C. G. Neill's drawings 
of the fish of King George's Sound. It bears among the 
natives the various names of " koojemick," " quejiumuck" 
or " know]," and grows to a large size. Mr. Neill men- 
tions one weighing 28 tt>s., which was speared by a native, 
but not killed till after a long struggle, the fish being very 
powerful. 

In the drawing the profile from the snout to the nape is 
a low arc, but in the specimen it forms about the sixth of 
a circle. The head is short, the belly more arched than 
the back, and the trunk of the tail thick, the fish being 
clumsily made. The preorbitar lip is simple, the premax- 
illary one thick and plaited. Each premaxillary and limb 
of the mandible is armed in front with two stout, conical, 
bluntish teeth, whose roots are incorporated with the 
bone, all of them having a narrower stem or neck, which 
is evidently covered by the soft parts in the recent 
fish. The tooth next the symphysis above and below 
points obliquely forwards ; the other one outwards and 
downwards or upwards, as it is above or below. The sur- 
faces of both jaws are smooth and naked, and the bone 
swells out slightly behind the canines, but forms a flattish 
ridge on the lateral parts of the jaw. On the intermaxil- 
lary there is a small blunt tooth, no bigger than a pin's 
head, immediately behind the front canine, and many still 
more minute rounded teeth appear as if ready to burst 
from the bone all over its surface, but are scarcely promi- 
nent enough to render it uneven : the outer edge of the 
ridge is a little uneven, but only two minute angles can 
be considered as teeth. There is no canine at the corner 
of the mouth. On the mandible there are two small gra- 
nular teeth at the symphysis behind the front canine ; 
minute rounded teeth incorporated with the bone all 
over its surface, and merely shining through ; and also an 
exterior range of nine or ten small conical or rounded 
teeth : of these the middle ones are the most prominent, 
and are the only ones that rise above the edge of the 
grinding ridge. The snout, mandible, top of the head to 
the occiput, preorbitar, a considerable space bordering the 
eye beneath, broad disk of the preopercuhim, and lines 
surrounding the supra-scapular and temporal clusters of 
scales, are naked. The preoperculum has its free edge 
augmented by an even membranous border, without any 
visible serratures. The cheek is furnished with small, ver- 
tically oval, remote, impressed scales, which form seven or 
eight rows in the curve of the preopercular disk, but di- 
minish to two towards the temples, where the scales are 
larger. The operculum is covered by five rows of scales, 
which increase rapidly in size towards the edge of the gill- 
flap. One row of larger scales conceals the suboper- 
cuhun ; and five rows of smaller ones, though not so small 
as those on the cheek, cover the interoperculum, the lower 
edge of this bone being smooth. The scales of the body 
are large, there being only forty on the lateral line, and 
six rows above it. The scales of the nape and breast, and 
those covering the supra-scapulars, are smaller : the 
largest are on the flanks ; and one taken from that part of 
the individual mentioned by Mr. Neill as having weighed 
28 tbs., measures 1'3 inch in length and Tl in width. It 
is boimded by three nearly straight sides and an elliptical 



133 



curve on the free edge, and is oblique angled. The base 
is marked by about thirty-three slightly-radiating striic, 
many of them terminating short of the edge, and the sides 
are bordered by some elevated lines, the greater part of the 
disk being smooth, except the exposed part, which is co- 
vered by integument that becomes somewhat granular in 
drying. The scales of the back, and those on the base of 
the caudal, are more oblong, with fewer radiating stria;, 
more numerous lateral lines and a less smooth disk. The 
scales composing the lateral line show much smaller disks 
in situ than those above and below them, and a raised tube 
on each scale ends in a bushy cluster, the branches of 
which are not very distinct in the dried specimen. The 
line is very slightly arched anteriorly, and becomes quite 
straight in the trunk of the tail. 

The spinous part of the dorsal is moderately arched, 
and is lower than the articulated portion, which ends in a 
point formed by the penultimate and two preceding rays, 
the eighth soft ray being the longest. The spines are of 
a very unusual form, being very strong, but compressed, 
like the blade of a knife with a blunt or rounded point, the 
last three, however, being more cylindrical and acute. 
The membrane is deeply notched behind each spine. The 
soft part of the anal corresponds with the dorsal, bat the 
spines are even broader and more obtuse than the dorsal 
ones. It would appear from Mr. NeilFs observations, that 
some individuals have only one, others but two anal 
spines. A few small scales exist on the bases of the jointed 
portions of the anal and dorsal ; and these fins seem to 
move in a low furrow, not nearly so much developed as 
the usual scaly sheaths of the Cossyphi. The ventral is 
pointed ; and its greatly compressed, wide, blunt spine, is 
only half as long as the second and third jointed rays, 
which form the point of the fin. The pectoral is ranch 
rounded, and the anal is even with the angles rounded. 
Mr. Gould reports the colour as an uniform dark olive tint, 
and Mr. Neill's drawing is coloured with a dark neutral 
tint, approaching to grayish or purplish-black along the 
dorsal aspect and on the fins, and fading to blackish-gray 
on the sides. 

Length .38^ inches. 

Hab. Western Australia. 



Odax lineatds. Quoy et Gaimard. {Malacanthus). 

Malacanthe rayi, Quoy et Gaimard, Zool. de rAstrul. p. 717, PI. 19, 
f.2. 

Cheilio lineatus, Cuv. et Val. xiii. p. 354. 

Radii:— B. 5; D. 20|10; A. 4|9; C. 25; P. 12; V. 1|5. 

Plate LX., figs. 1—5. 

This fish has hitherto been known to ichthyologists only 
by the figure published by Quoy and Gaimard, the speci- 
men having been lost after the drawing was made by M. 
Gressien, an officer of the Astrolabe, who presented it to 
M. Quoy. It is probable, from the terms in which this is 



mentioned by M. Quoy, that he never saw the fish, but 
described it from the drawing, which would account for 
the errors in the account of the jaws, dentition, gill-cover, 
&c., and his not discriminating the simple from the jointed 
rays of the dorsal and anal. A very perfect and beautifully 
coloured drawing of the species, now in the possession of 
Robert Brown, Esq., had been made long before, on Flin- 
ders' voyage, by Mr. Bauer ; and a specimen in tolerable 
preservation, from which our figure was taken, enables us 
to give the following description. 

This fish is moderately compressed, with a fusiform pro- 
file, the tail becoming gradually higher at the base of the 
widely elliptical and acute caudal. The height, which is 
greatest under the middle of the dorsal, is about equal to 
one-seventh of the whole length of the fish, and the nar- 
rowest part of the tail is equal to half that height. The 
length of the head, including the tip of the gill-cover, forms 
less than one-third of the total length, caudal included. 
The eye is equidistant from the extremity of the upper jaw 
and ti]) of the gill-cover, and is near the upper profile, but 
does not actually touch it : its diameter is about one-fifth 
of the length of the head, and equals exactly the distance 
between the orbits. The thickness at the nape is one 
quarter less than the height there. 

The posterior nostril, which is close to the eye, is a 
small open orifice ; the anterior one can be closed by a 
valvular lip. The scales on the top of the head are not 
much smaller than those of the body, and are separated 
from the nape and supra-scapular scales by a smooth 
transverse line, which is bent at each temple to run back- 
wards to the upper angle of the gill-opening. The mar- 
gins of the orbits are smooth, but the scales come forward 
between them to the posterior nasal-opening. The oper- 
culum, most of the suboperculum and the cheek are scaly 
(fig. 2), and there is also a row of scales on ihe iuteroper- 
culum ; but the snout, jaws and disk of the preoperculuni 
are more or less porous. The thin and flexible interoper- 
culum is quite entire, but when held up to the light it ap- 
pears striated on its edge. The border of the suboper- 
culum is smooth, and its cartilaginous strap-shaped tip 
projects over the axilla of the pectoral. This process is 
fissile, and splits into sixteen or eighteen pointed teeth. 
The operculum is, as is common in the Labri, connected 
by its upper edge to the shoulder, but the gill-opening ex- 
tends well forwards below. 

The mouth is cleft horizontally as far back as the 
anterior nostril. The preorbitar, of a semi-lanceolate 
form, covers a space into which the side of the jaw glides, 
but there is no preorbitar lip, the integuments of the snout 
being continuous with the well-developed premaxillary 
lips. These and the lower lip fold back over their respective 
jaws, even at the symphyses. The jaws have the usual 
narrow spoon-shaped form peculiar to Oda.v, with the 
quincuncial incorporated teeth shining through. The thin 
edges of the jaws are irregularly and minutely crenated ; a 
few of the projections, particularly four or five on the up- 
per jaw, at the angle of the mouth, appearing like minute 
teeth. There are also five small, conical, acute teeth, 
springing from the outside of the upper jaw posteriorly 
(figs. 2, 3). The upper pharyngeals are small, but thick, 
triangular, five-sided bones, one of the sides only attached 



134 



to the roof of the gullet, the others showing the incorpo- 
rated teeth, which form a snioothish, granular surface, as 
in Cossjjphus or Lachnolainins. The under pharyngeals 
have the general shape of the same bone in Labrus, but 
the teeth are incorporated with it, and merely produce the 
same kind of granular surface that exists in the upper pha- 
ryngeals. 

The scales are of moderate size, of various breadth in 
different parts, but generally have the free edge curved 
in the arc of a circle, the sides straight and parallel, and 
the bases, which show a slight indication of a middle lobe, 
are marked by from twelve to twenty-two fan-like furrows. 
The lines of structure on the sides are longitudinal, and 
the free edge is striated with minute corresponding teeth 
or crenatures on the edge. There are about thirty-eight 
scales on the lateral line, each with a simple sti'aight tube 
(fig. 5) : this line makes a descending curve over the end 
of the pectoral, and then runs straight. The dorsal com- 
mences over the base of the pectoral : its spinous rays are 
slender, and become as fine and flexible as hairs at their 
tips : the first one is the tallest, and rather exceeds the 
height of the body ; the others decrease rapidly to the 
fourth, which is almost one half shorter, and then in- 
crease more gradually to the fifteenth, diminishing again 
slightly to the soft rays, which also decrease a little, 
giving an undulated outline to the fin. The anterior 
jointed rays are unbranched, the ]5osterior ones merely 
forked at the tips. The anal has four unjointed rays, the 
first one being short and closely incumbent on the second, 
but having also a hair-like tip. The last jointed ray is di- 
vided quite to the base ; the anterior ones are unbranched. 
The fin ends farther from the caudal than the anal. The 
caudal is widely elliptical, with an acute tip like some of 
the Gobioids, and embraces the rounded end of the tail by 
its short lateral rays. The pectorals are rounded, and the 
ventrals, which are attached under the third and fourth 
dorsal spines, have the first and second jointed rays pro- 
longed. The spinous ray ends in a fine hair-like point, like 
those of the dorsal and anal : it is represented in the figure 
as jointed, through oversight. 

In Mr. Bauer's drawing the ground colour of the body 
is mountain-green, with three orange-red lines running 
along the back, and seven deep yellow streaks on the sides. 
The uppermost of these streaks includes the fore part of 
the lateral line, and rises above it posteriorly. The lateral 
line is orange throughout. The head is yellow, with blue 
lines, which posteriorly pass into the green of the body. 
The dorsal is green, marked by four reddish -yellow lines, 
and an oblong deep blue stripe at the base, traversed by a 
yellow line. The anal is green, with two reddish-yellow 
streaks ; and the rays of the caudal are orange, with blue 
tips. The ventrals are green, without markings; and the 
pectorals are reddish. The lines shown on the figure are 
drawn from the specimen in which the colours have 
changed, the lines on the back to carmine, the large spot 
on the back to black with carmine hues, and the caudal to 
brown.* 

* I suspect that Mr. Gvessein's figure was painted from a specimen 
which had ah'eady begun to decay, so that its green had changed to 
blue, &c. 



The stomach is a straight tube, passing evenly into a 
delicate and more slender intestine, but too much decayed 
in the specimen for exact examination. The air-bladder 
is large, with an obtuse end touching the diaphragm, and 
the other extremity tapering to a fine point, which runs a 
little past the anus. 

Length 7|- inches. 

Hab. King George's Sound. 



The "toobitooit" or "toobetoobit" of the natives near 
Albany, King Geoi-ge's Sound, seems to be allied either to 
Oda.v or Scants. Dep. Ass. Comm. Gen. Neill, from 
whose drawing alone the species is known to us, reckons 
the rays as follows: "D. 17 soft and 11 fleshy; A. 11 
fleshy ; P. 11 ; V. 4 strong rays." His figure (No. 3-3 lib. 
citat.) represents a subfusiform fish, tapering gradually 
from the pectoral region to the tail, which is about half the 
height of the nape. The back is less convex than the 
belly, the head less obtuse than a Scarus,hni more so than 
is usual in Oda.v. The lateral line straight and continuous. 
The jaws scaroid. Ventrals under the middle of the pec- 
torals, and beginning of the dorsal. Dorsal spinous rays, 
which would appear from Mr. Neill's note above quoted to 
be flexible, decreasing in height from the first to the seven- 
teenth, which is less than half as high. The jointed por- 
tion of the fin rises abruptly to a greater height than any 
of the spinous rays, and the anal is like to it. The naked 
trunk of the tail forms a fifth of the whole length of the 
fish. The caudal has the upper and under angles pro- 
jecting considerably, but is otherwise even at the end. 
The fish is black, with a greenish tinge on the belly. A 
spot round the anterior nostril, the inner part of first pec- 
toral ray, and a stripe next the upper and under caudal 
rays, of a brilliant blue. The scales, of which three ac- 
company the drawing, are moderately large, oblong, and 
rounded at both ends. Their bases are marked by ten or 
twelve fan-like lines, and their exposed disks covered with 
thick epidermis. This fish is an inhabitant of rocky 
shores, and is rare. The specimen was speared by a na- 
tive, and as it is said to be unknown to the sealers it most 
likely does not take a hook. From the form of its jaws it 
feeds most probably either on sea-weeds or corallines. 
Length of drawing 13 inches. 

Hab. King George's Sound. 



Labros inscriptus, vel Tautoga inscripta. Richardson. 

Radii:— B. ; D. 9|14; A. 3|10; C. 12|; P. 13; V. 1|5. 

Plate LVL, figs. 1, 2. 



The profile of this fish, when its jaws are fully retracted, 
is a regular ellipse, with a vertical diameter equal to one- 
third of the transverse one. The head is acute in profile, but 
the ellipse is lost in the trunk of the tail, whose height is 



135 



contained twice and a quarter in the height of the body. 
The total length of the fish, caudal included, is three times 
and a half greater than its height, and four times greater 
than the length of the head. The thickness is rather less 
than half the height. The jaws are considerably pro- 
tractile, the premaxillary pedicles going as far back as the 
middle of the orbit. The premaxillary lips are well deve- 
loped and plaited, and, together with the mandibular ones, 
are lax, and capable of being turned back even at the sym- 
physes of the jaTes. Each limb of each jaw is armed by 
about twelve teeth in the principal series, strongest as 
usual, and longest next the symphysis, and diminishing 
rapidly towards the corners of the mouth. Tliere is also a 
canine tooth at the corner of the mouth, implanted in the 
tip of the premaxillary, and a distinct interior row of small 
teeth above and below. The jaws can be so retracted un- 
der the preorbitar that even the lower parts of the premax- 
illaries are covered. The eye, small, round and near the 
profile, is two diameters of the orbit from the point of the 
head, with the jaws fully retracted, and three diameters 
from the edge of the gill-opening. The latter is restricted 
above by membrane, which connects the whole upper edge 
of the operculum to the shoulder. Three rows of round 
scales cover the operculum and suboperculum, except the 
lower angle of the latter, which, with the broad semi-mem- 
branous interoperculum and disk of the preoperculum, are 
clothed with smooth skin. The cheek, as far forward as 
the front of the orbit and hind corner of the preorbitar, is 
protected by small round scales, which descend from the 
narrow suborbitars to the border of the preopercular disk. 
There are seven or eight rows under the eye, which di- 
minish on the temples to two or three. The upper range 
of scales show a longer disk, and the supra-scapular, as the 
integuments dry, shows like a large scale on the side of the 
nape. The skin of the top of the head and round the eye 
is full of pores. The lateral line is traced on twenty-five 
scales, exclusive of two or three without tubes on the base 
of the caudal, and the usual fillets between the rays. The 
small tubes are divided by three successive bifurcations, 
and generally diverge considerably, few being close or 
bushy ; but there is considerable variety in the number of 
branches on the different scales, without any regular dimi- 
nution in their number either towards the head or tail. 

The dorsal spines are subulate and very acute, witli the 
membranous fillets behind them, as in the preceding spe- 
cies. The soft rays are somewhat taller. The pectorals 
are rounded, the ventrals acute, and the caudal even, with 
the corners rounded off. 

The colours are, in spirits, generally of a dull and dark 
brown tint, with a pale mark on each scale, bearing some 
resemblance to the characters of the Persian alphabet. 
There are some dark marks on the cheek and preopercu- 
lum, one on the base of the pectoral, and the membrane 
connecting the first three dorsal spines is blackish, with 
pale specks. There are also many pale specks on the anal. 

I have suspected that this fish may be the Otaheitian 
Inlis boryii of Lesson ( Voij. de la Coquille, PI. 36), from 
the similarity of the markings, but his figure shows no 
scales on the cheek or lower half of tlie operculum, and all 
the fins have different forms from those of our fish. No 



traces remain in the latter of the black crescent on the oc- 
ciput, nor of the markings on the dorsal, ])cctorals, ven- 
trals and caudal, which are shown in Lesson's figm-e. It 
is to be observed, however, that after a sketch of Lesson's 
specimen was taken, the fish was eaten, so that no compa- 
rative examination of the species has yet been made. 

Length lOg- inches. 

Hab. Norfolk Island. (Polynesia.?) 



Caranx georgianus. Cuv. et Val. 



Scomber micans, Solaiider, Pise. Austr. MS. p. 27. An Parkinson's 
fig. No. 88 ? 

Caranx georgianus, Cuv. et Val. ix. p. 85. Jcnyns, Zool. of Beagle, 
p. 71. Richardson, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. x. p. 14. 

" Madavvick," Neill's Drawings of Fishes of King George's Sound, 
No. 32. 



Radii :— B. 7 



D. 8|— l|-27; A. -2 
P. 1119; V. 1|.5. 



1|23; C. 19| 



Plate LVllI., figs. 1—3. 

This species was discovered at Opooragi, in New Zea- 
land, on Cook's first voyage, and a drawing made of it by 
Sidney Parkinson, which is preserved, along with the rest 
of the Natural-History sketches taken on that voyage, in 
the Banksian Library. Solander's description is published 
in the Annals and Magazine of Natural History as above 
quoted. The specimen described in the Hisloire des 
Poissoiis was procured by MM. Quoy and Gaimard in 
King George's Sound. We have had specimens from that 
locality also, and from the north-west coasts of Australia, 
collected by Surgeon Bynoe of the Royal Navy ; also from 
Norfolk island, through the kindness of Dr. Mc William ; 
besides some from New Zealand, in Sir James Ross's col- 
lection. Mr. Neill mentions that this fish is the " skip- 
jack " of the sealers, the "madawick " of the aborigines; 
that it is a very common inhabitant of shallow sandy bays, 
and forms a staple article of food for the natives, who as- 
semble in fine calm days and drive the fish into weirs 
formed of branches of trees and shrubs. It is occasionally 
taken by the hook. The close resemblance of the species 
to C. lima and plalessa is noticed in the Hisloire des 
Poissons. The specimen we have figured has a ray fewer 
in the dorsal and anal than the numbers stated by Solan- 
der, Cuvier, Jenyns and Neill. The scales are small, and 
exist on the interoperculum, preoperculum, suboperculum 
and breast. There are forty-one or Ibrty-two scales on the 
straight posterior part of the lateral line, twenty-two of 
which are decidedly keeled and cuspidate. The cuspidate 
scales pass gradually into the smaller, soft, round ones, 
both on the base of the caudal and anteriorly. The tallest 
dorsal spine measures nearly one-third of the height of the 
bodj' at the ventrals, and the free spines are close to the 
anus. The acute occijjital ridge lowers a little as it ap- 
proaches the point of the recumbent dorsal spine, and does 



130 



not actually touch it. From the anterior third of the orbit 
the ridge is less prominent, and more obtuse forward to the 
nostrils (fig. 3). The teeth arc small, and just visible to 
the naked eye: viewed through a lens they do not appear 
acute, and are seen to form one row on the upper jaw, and 
two irregular crowded rows on the fore part of the mandi- 
ble. The length of the head is contained four times and 
one third in the total length of the fish. 

Length from 4 inches to 20 and more. 

Hab. New Zealand and Australia. 



of the ventrals. The accessory keels on the base of the 
caudal are conspicuous. The caudal is deeply forked, the 
dorsal and anal falcate at their t^^s. There is no recum- 
bent spine before the dorsal. The scaleless edges of the 
interspinous bones project strongly at the bases of the anal 
rays. The pectoral reaches to the third or fourth soft anal 
ray. 

Length 17'5 inches. 

Hab. Northern coasts of Australia and Torres Straits. 



Caranx paraspistes. Richardson. 



Radii :— B. 7, vel 8 : 



D. 8|— I|21 ; A. 21— 1116; C. 18^; 
P. 1121; V. 1]5. 



Plate LVIII., figs. 6, 7. 

I have been unable to refer this fish to any described 
species. It approaches most closely to the Caranx djed- 
daba of Riippell (Atlas 25, f 3), but the caudal keel, though 
strongly shielded, tapers more posteriorly, and the points 
of the dorsal and anal are not falcate. C. hajad (Idem) 
has a smaller first dorsal, and C.fiilvo-guitatus (Idem, 25, 
f. 7), has a less armed lateral "line, and the free spines 
closer to the anal. C. chryHophrys (C. et V. ix. p. 37) has 
a conspicuous recumbent dorsal spine and more delicate 
caudal shields : the height of body and profile are also 
different. 

C. paraspistes frequents brackish lagoons at Port Essing- 
ton, and is known to the aborigines by the name of " ork- 
budbood." Its upper jaw is armed on each side by seven 
rather stoutly subulate, but not tall teeth, which stand some- 
what widely, and reach from the symphysis to the middle 
of the premaxillaries, within which there is a narrow band 
of minute recurved teeth, extending onwards to the corner 
of the mouth. The mandible presents a single row of 
short, subulate, curved teeth, reaching to the corner of 
the mouth, without any interior band. They are somewhat 
taller near the symphysis, but are not above half the size 
of the exterior premaxillary teeth. A very narrow stripe 
of minute teeth is visible on the edge of the palate-bone, 
in the dried specimen, by aid of a lens. The vomer is 
toothless. 

The breast, temples and cheek are scaly ; but the oper- 
cular pieces, preorbitar, maxillary and lovver jaw are scale- 
less. The supra-scapular region and nape are scaly, and a 
smooth crest, emitting some scaleless lines, having short 
lateral branches, runs back to the first dorsal. The tail 
is strongly keeled, and a lateral view of the keel, of the 
natural size, is represented in fig. 7. There are thirty- 
three shields, the anterior ones gradually diminishing, but 
the first of them, though small, is distinctly keeled, so 
that there is no gradual passage into the soft scales of 
the curved part of the line. It is situated over the 
axdla of the second free anal spine. The anus is re- 
mote from the free spines, and lies between the points 



Caranx speciosus. Forskal. {Scomber). 

Scomber speciosus, Forskal, p. 54 

Caranx tres-beau, Lacepede, 111, p. 72, PI. 1, f. 1. 

Scomber poloosoo, Russell, 149. 

Caranx speciosus (Lacep.), Riippell, All. p. 96, yonnfj. 

Caranx petaurista (Geoffr.), Riippell, All. p. 95, PI 25, f. 2, adult. 

Caranx speciosus, Cuv. et Val. 9, p. 130. 



Radii:— D. 7|— 1|19; A. 2]— ljl6; C. 17|.; P. 1|20; 
V. 1|5. 

Plate LVIII., figs. 4, 5. (C. poloosoo). 

The various sj'nonyms of this widely-spread species are 
quoted above on the authority of the Histuire des Poissons, 
and the figure of a fish that has been so frequently repre- 
sented has been given partly to balance the plate, by filling a 
corner, and partly to add, as f\ir as our limits will allow, to 
the illustrations of Australian fish. A coloured drawing 
which we possess, of a specimen captured at Houtman's 
Abrolhos, on the western coast of Australia, represents the 
dark bars as traced on a bright yellow ground. We are in- 
formed, in the Histoire des Poissons, that the older speci- 
mens lose their yellow tints and dark bars, and become 
silvery. The bars, however, are strongly traced in Rus- 
sell's figure of the "poloosoo," which measures 10 inches, 
and the profile of tliis figure agrees better with our fish 
than the petaurista of Riippell does. The latter has, 
moreover, stronger shields * on the tail, even taking its 
greater size into consideration, than our specimen, on which 
they are small and tender. In the Histoire des Poissons 
the teeth are said to be entirely wanting in the adult. In 
our specimen the jaws, particularly the lower one, are per- 
ceptibly rough to the touch, and the teeth can be seen by 
aid of a common lens. There is a recumbent spine be- 
fore the dorsal. 

Length of specimen 2'7 inches. 

Hab. Coasts of Australia. Polynesia. Malay Archipe- 
lago. Indian Ocean. Mauritius. Red Sea. M. Bus- 
seuil, the naturalist attached to Bougainville's Expedition, 
first found it on the coasts of New Holland. (Hist, des 



* Russell's figure is noted in the Histoire des Poissons as represent- 
ing the shields too small, and is therefore quoted with some doubt as a 
synonym of speciosus. It ap^rees better with the Australian fish, as I 
have stated above, than any of the other plates quoted in the Histoire 
des Poissons. 



137 



Eqdiila SEERrLiFERA. Ricliavclsoii. 



Capros austrai.is. Richardson. 



Radii:— B. 5; D. 8|17; A. 2|14; V. 1|5; P. 15. 



Capros amlmlis, Richardson, Zoo). Trans, 
to Austr. Iclith. Annals of Nat. Hist. xi. p. 171. 



Idem, Contr. 



Plate LIX., figs. 12—14. 



Radii:— B. 8; D. 9|.30; A. 2|31 ; C. 13| ; P. 11 ; V. 1|6. 



I have many doubts of this fish being a distinct species 
from the Eqitula ensifera of the Histoire des Poissons, 
which is the Scomber edenttilus of Bloch, pi. 428. Capt. 
Ross procured seven or eight specimens at Sidney, but 
they are all more or less mutilated in the rajs or mem- 
branes of the fins ; and some deficiencies in the largest 
example, which is figured in Plate LIX., have been sup- 
plied from the smaller ones. 

The profile is steeper between the nose and first dorsal 
than that of e)isifera, and the second dorsal spine is some- 
what taller, if i31och's figure be correct. It has a thin 
crest in front of its whole length, which M. Valenciennes 
compares to the blade of a sword; but the posterior face 
of the spine, instead of being equally trenchant, is rounded 
with a scarcely perceptible crest. The length of this spine 
exceeds half the height of the body. The third and fourth 
dorsal spines and the third anal spine have broader ante- 
rior crests than the second one ; but these crests, instead 
of being quite entire as in the latter, are strongly serrated. 
M. Valenciennes does not notice these serrated blades or 
crests in his descriptions of the spines of any of the spe- 
cies, but they are represented in Buchanan-Hamilton's 
figure of Equida rticonia (Plate 12), and exist also in 
E. iiucJialis of the Fauna Japonica, whence I am led 
to conjecture that they may possess a generic character. 
The second anal spine is shaped like the second dorsal, 
but has a rather more evident posterior crest. All the 
spines in both fins are wrinkled on the sides in a pe- 
culiar manner. In other particulars of structure M. Va- 
lenciennes' minute description of ensifera applies to this 
fish. The pectoral and ventral fins differ in our figure 
from Bloch's representation of ensifera, but from the 
state of the specimens I cannot be certain that they are 
absolutely correct ; and, from the integuments having 
shrunk, the artist has represented the interspinous bone 
as projecting before the anal spines in a manner which 
it does not do in the recent fish. The teeth are very 
fine and densely crowded, and take the curve of the 
edge of the jaw in a peculiar manner. Indications of 
nine or ten vertical bars, descending from the back down 
the upper half of the sides, may be traced in certain lights, 
and I suspect that a dark spot existed on the spinous dor- 
sal. One of the small specimens shows such a spot dis- 
tinctly, but the height of the body of this individual is not 
quite so great in proportion as in the one figured. Another 
small specimen has the front crest of the second dorsal 
spine serrated, so that there is either some variety in this 
respect or more than one species in Sir James Ross's col- 
lection, which the imperfect condition of the specimens 
will not allow me to determine. 
Length 3g- inches. 
Hab. Coasts of Australia. 



Plate LIX , figs. 1—5. 

In the Zoological Transactions, as tpioted above, I 
named this fish from a drawing made by a convict in Tas- 
mania for Dr. Lhotsky ;* and in the Annals and Magazine 
of Natural History, as above quoted, I gave a full account 
of this drawing, which proves to be erroneous in the num- 
bers of the gill and fin-rays, and in some minor points. 
The specimen brought home by Captain Ross, which was 
procured by him at Sidney, enables me to give the figure 
in Plate LIX. and the subjoined description, though the 
tips of some of the soft dorsal and anal rays, and those of 
the pectorals, having been mutilated, I cannot be certain 
of the exact form of these fins. In the number of branchi- 
ostegous rays, the form and structure of the scales, and in 
some other particulars which will be noticed in the follow- 
ing description, Capros aiislralis differs from aper. 

Its body, which is fully as much compressed as that of 
aper, has a more regularly-elliptical profile, whose vertical 
diameter, under the commencement of the dorsal, is equal 
to two-thirds of the longitudinal one, measuring the latter 
from the tip of the lower jaw, with the mouth shut, to the 
setting on of the trunk of the tail behind the dorsal and 
anal. The face is not concave over the eye, except 
when the protrusion of the jaws depresses the profile, 
by the withdrawal of the pedicles of the intermaxillaries. 
The eye is smaller than that of aper, the preorbitar is 
rounde"d and quite entire on the edge, instead of being 
crenulated or lobed, and the maxillaries descend when the 
mouth is projected. When the mouth is closed the lower 
jaw ascends,' and forms the rather acute apex of the ellipse. 
The length of the head in that condition is contained 
thrice and a half in the entire length of the fish, caudal 
included. The preoperculnm, instead of resembling that 
of aper, is more like that of Zeus faber, and is even longer, 
with a moderate curvature, a narrow disk, a minutely and 
irregularly crenated thin posterior edge, and no posterior 
rectangular expansion at the bend as in aper. The scaly 
cheek is high and oblique, like that of faber, in conse- 
quence of the length and inclination of the preoperculnm. 
The bony operculum and suboperculum together are twice 
as high as long, and are truncated at the tips ; but an addition 
of membrane gives a somewhat triangular but obtuse form 
to the gill-plate. The suboperculum nearly equals the oper- 
culum in size, and the long interoperculum shows behind 
the preoperculnm, both above and below its bend. The 
jaws are armed with fine microscopical teeth, as are also 
the chevron of the vomer and edge of the palatine bones. 



* The conjecture hazarded in page 36 as to this drawing probably re- 
ferring to Zeus auslralis proves to be erroneous. 



The nostrils are similar to those of aper. The superior 
border of the orbit is thin, elevated and finely crenulated. 
Between the orbits there is a triangular space filled with 
smooth membrane, which covers the ends of the intermax- 
illary pedicles when the mouth is retracted, and then it is 
raised into an acute ridge, but when the mouth is pro- 
truded a depression is produced there by the sinking of the 
membrane. A small smooth space is continued from this 
membrane bordering the orbit down to the temples, but no 
stri« are perceptible on the cranium such as exist in aper. 
Behind the membranous spaces the head is densely scaly. 
The ridges on the mandible are quite smooth and rounded, 
and its posterior articular corner is rectangular, and, with 
the limb of the bone, is separable to a considerable depth 
from the isthmus, forming a flap. The gill-rays are eight 
in number, while in aper they are staled by M. Valenciennes 
to be only five. No scales exist on the gill-membrane. 
The nape is much compressed, but not absolutely acute 
on the edge, and it is less curved than that oi aper, being 
nearly straight. 

The first dorsal, consisting of nine tall, slender spines, 
with fine flexible tips, commences a little before the anal. 
Its first spine is very short, the second is the tallest, and 
its height is equal to three-fourths of that of thebodj'; the 
others decrease gradually to the ninth, which has not above 
the fifth part of the height of the second. This fin stands 
on much less space than that of aper. The soft fin has 
comparatively short rays and a greatly arched outline. 
The anal is nearly similar to it, and commences with two 
little spines, the second one being the most diminutive. 
The naked part of the tail behind these fins is more slen- 
der than that of aper. Each ventral is supported in front 
by a long slender spine, with a flexible tip, and is followed 
by six jointed rays, which are forked at the end, the last 
two rays being as much separated at the base as the others. 
Behind these fins there is a deep smooth fissure, in which 
they lie when depressed, their tips projecting, one on each 
side of the anal spines. The walls of the fissure are made 
rigid by the scales which edge them, and the anus opens 
into its fore part near the axilla of the fins. The scales of 
the body are small and densely tiled, and feel very rough 
to the finger when drawn from the tail towards the head. 
This roughness is caused by a few short conical points, 
very different from the dense villosity of the scales oi aper. 
The basal half of the scale is transversely striated by the 
lines of structure (see figures 4 and 5). The lateral line is 
conspicuous enough, and follows nearly the curve of the 
back. The membrane of the first dorsal and of the ven- 
trals retains a blackish tint. The drawing above alluded 
to represents the fish generally as having a deep roseate 
hue. 

Length 5 inches. 

Hab. Coasts of Tasmania and southern parts of Aus- 
tralia. 

Since the description of Zeus australis (p. 36, PI. 
XXV., f. 1) was written, I have seen a more perfect speci- 
men from Western Australia, now in the British Aluseum, 
which enables me to make some additions to the account 
of the species. The black lateral spot exists; the last rays 
of the dorsal and anal are divided to the base, so that the 



formula for these fins may be D. 10| — 23 or 24; A. 4|22 
or 23. The two anterior anal spines are in contact with 
each other, and spring from the same interspinous bone, 
without the membranous space between them, which is 
represented in our figure. There is a flat membranous 
space between the orbits, bounded on each side by a low 



Saurus undosquamis. Richardson. 

Radii:— 12— 12; D. 11—0; A. 11; C. 17|; V. 9. 

Plate LI., figs. 1—6. 

1 have been unable to reconcile this species with any 
described one, but having only the insuflficient figures and 
descriptions of Bloch, Lacepede and Russell to refer to for 
assistance, in coming to this conclusion, it may possibly 
prove to be one of the species alluded to by Cuvier in 
the Rec/ne Animal, but of which I have seen no account. 
The few members of the genus that I have had an oppor- 
tunity of examining, and which are described in the 
' Report of the Ichthyology of China, &c.," already quoted 
frequently, differ from each other considerably in their 
dentition, which, if duly attended to, may probably furnish 
useful characters for the distribution of the species into 
groups. 

The height and thickness of S. undosquamis are about 
equal at the shoulders : the back is flatly rounded from 
the dorsal to the occiput, and the breast is flat from the 
ventrals to the isthmus, while the sides are convex and 
more prominent. From the dorsal to the caudal fin tlie 
compression is decided, though not great, and the sides 
are flattened, the back remaining rounded. Posterior to 
the anal the height is about one-third greater than the 
tliickness. The head forms a fourth of the length of the 
fish, excluding the caudal, or rather more than a fifth if 
that fin be included. Its height and breadth at the tem- 
ples are equal, its sides are flat and vertical, and it is also 
flat above, but excavated by a wide shallow groove be- 
tween the orbits. When viewed from above (fig. 2) the 
upper bone of the humeral chain appears like a tapering, 
but not acute scale, at the angle of the gill-opening ; the 
borders of the orbits are seen to be prominent, and the 
eyes to encroach much less upon the upper aspect than 
in a Saurus obtained by Sir Edward Belcher, which J 
have described in the Report alluded to, under the name 
of .S'. ar</!/rophanes. S. undosquamis further differs from 
this species in having the snout considerably rounded in- 
stead of very acute and more elongated, and in having a 
small mesial conical point rising near its end, being seem- 
ingly a projection of the symphysis or pedicles of the in- 
termaxillaries. The profile forms a low arc from the end 
of the snout to the orbits, and from thence to the dorsal the 
line is nearly straight, with a very slight ascent. The di- 
ameter of the eye is equal to the length of the snout before 
the orbit, or to about one-fifth of the length of the head. 



139 



and it is about one-third less than the space between the 
orbits. In the shortness of the snout this species resem- 
bles Salmo fa'tens of Bloch, 384, {. 2, 5'. varius of Lace- 
pede, V. iii. f 3, Osmertis lenuiiscatus. Idem, v. vi. f. 1, and 
Salmo badimottah of Russell, 172, but its form is not 
identical with any of these figures. 

The cleft of the mouth is equal to two-thirds of the 
length of the head, and its middle, when viewed laterally, 
corresponds to the centre of the eye. The jaw teeth are 
slenderly subulate, with thin, two-edged, very acute and 
transparent points, none of them being barbed or hastate.* 
The premaxillary teeth are arranged in four rows, in a 
quincunnial order, but not very regularly, and they are 
rather remotely placed in their respective rows. The teeth 
of the outer row are very short, those of the inner one are 
much taller, the intermediate rows being of intermediate 
height. The anterior teeth of the inner row are curved in- 
wards and backwards, while the posterior ones are inclined 
a little forwards. The mandibular teeth are similar, but in 
five rows. The palatine teeth are more crowded and regu- 
larly set, in two rows, all inclined towards the mesial line, 
the inner row being tallest, but scarcely equalling the 
third row of the intermaxillaries in height. There is also 
an elliptical patch of teeth within the palatine ridge, appa- 
rently implanted on the ento-pterygoid, in which there are 
five rows, all inclined inwards, and increasing in height 
from the outermost to the innermost.f There are no teeth 
on Jhe vomer. The teeth on the tongue are short, densely 

* Saurus nehereus of Buchanan-Hamilton (.S". ophiodon, Cuv.) has 
long, slender, hastate teeth on the hrauchial arches ; and the fish which 
I have considered to be the S. mriegatus of Commeison, in the ' Report 
on the Ichthyology of China,' has hastate mandibular teeth. 

f Saurus argijrnphanes wants this dental plate, but has four rows of 
palatine teeth. 



crowded, and scarcely visible to the naked eye, but by the 
aid of a lens they are seen to bo stoutly subulate, acute, 
and directed backwards. The teeth which cover the gular 
surfaces of the branchial arches are more visible, and they 
are similar in form and larger on the pharyngeals, but even 
there they are not taller than the second and third rows on 
the jaws.* 

The front ray of the ventrals stands a little before the 
dorsal, and midway between the end of the snout and first 
anal ray. The tip of the pectorals reaches as far back as 
the first dorsal ray. The rays of the dorsal, anal and pec- 
toral are connected at their bases to the body of the fish 
by small slips of membrane, which are represented in 
figure 1. The caudal is deeply forked. 

There are about fifty-seven rows of scales between the 
gill-opening and caudal fin, and the scales of the lateral 
line are bent in the middle, so as to form a ridge, not very 
apparent anteriorly, but well marked, even and continuous, 
though not high on the tail. The scales generally are ir- 
regularly semicircular or semioval, the chord or base being 
divided by three furrows into four lobes, and the free mar- 
gins, with the adjoining parts of the disk, being undulated 
(fig. 6). A scale from the lateral line (fig. 5) had only two 
furrows, with a short wide central tube. A range of'more 
elongated scales flanks the dorsal and anal, and there are 
long pointed scales above and between the ventrals. 

The colours have been effaced by maceration in spirits, 
but a series of small brown spots can still be traced on 
the upper caudal ray. 

Length 8^ inches. Length of head 1-65 inch. 

Hab. Coast of North-west Australia. 

* Salmo variegaius, Commerson (Rich. Report, &c., p. 30) has verr 
strong teeth on the tongue. 



THE 



ZOOLOGY 

OF THE 

YOYAGE OF H.M.S. EREBUS & TERROR, 

UNDER THE COMMAND OF CAPTAIN SIR JAMES CLARK ROSS, R.N., F.R.S., 

DURING THE YEARS 
1839 TO 1843. 

BY AUTHORITY OF THE LORDS COMMISSIONERS OF THE ADMIRALTY. 

EDITED BY 

JOHN RICHARDSON, M.D., F.R.S., &c. ; 

AND 

JOHN EDWARD GRAY, Esq, Ph.D., F.R.S., &c. 



CRUSTACEA. 

BY 

EDWARD -T. MIERS, Junior Assistant, Zoological Department, British Museum. 



LONDON: 

E. W. JANSON, 28, MUSEUM STREET, W.C. 

M.DCCC.LXXIV. 



CRUSTACEA 



By EDWAPiD J. MIEES, Junior Assistant, ZooloCxICAl Department, British Museum. 



The greater number of the Crustacea here figured have been described by Mr. Adam White. The plates having 
been printed off many years since, and the stones destroyed, it has not been possible to alter their lettering, and bring 
it into correspondence with the nomenclature adopted in the text ; but whenever I have adopted for any species a 
different generic or specific name from that used by Mr. Wliite, and printed on the plate, a reference has been made 
to the latter in the synonyma of the species. 



Decapoda Brachyura. 

Sub-tribe Maioidea, Dana. 
Wilke's U. S. Explor. Exped. XIII., Crtist. I., p. 66 (1852). 

Genus Xenocarcinus, White. 

App. Juke's Voy. H. M. S. Fhj (1847) ; Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 

119 (1847). 

(Huenioides, Milne-Edwards, Ann. Soc. Entom. de France, 
(ser. 4) V. p. 144 (1865). 

This genus is referred by Dana to his Family Periceradce, 
of which the distinctive characters are, the non-retractile 
eyes, and moderate legs, but it will probably be necessary 
in future systematic arrangements to unite this Family 
and the Euryjwdidce, Dana, or to modify the characters, for 
the eyes are often slightly retractile in the Periceradce, and 
the genus Oregonia, placed by Dana in the Eurypodidce, has 
shorter legs than Eurypodius, approaching in this respect 
the genera of Periceradm. 

The genus Huenioides, Milne-Edwards, is certainly 
synonjTBOus with Xenocarcinus. It agrees with it in the 
narrow elongate form of the carapace and rostrum, in the 
eyes, antennte, and outer maxillipeds : also in having the 
beak covered with close short hair, and in the tarsi being 
finely denticulated below. X. tuberculatus, White, may 
be at once distinguished from X. (Huenioides) conicus, 
ililne-Edwards, /. c. p. 144, by its more oblong form, 
shorter, stouter rostrum, and strongly tuberculated carapace. 



Xenocarcinus tuberculatus. Tcth. 2, Jij. 1, a-e. 

Xenocarcinus tuberculatus, A. White, Append. Jukes' 
Voy. Fly, p. 336 (1847) ; Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 119 (1847) ; 
List Crust. Brit. Mus., p. 123 (1847) ; A. & M. N. H. {ser. 
2) I.,_p. 221 (1848). 

Hab. Cumberland Group. Type. B.M. 

Tab. 2, fig. 1. Animal twice nat. size. \a Side view 
of carapace and rostrum, nat. size. Ih. Under surface, 
twice nat. size. Ic. Outer mxped. Id. Outer antenna. 
If. Tarsus, all more enlarged. 

In the British Museum there are five specimens (three 
male and two female) of a species of Xenocarcinus, -which 
I believe is undescribed, and propose to call Xenocarcinus 
deprcssus, in allusion to its flattened carapace. 

Xenocarcinus depressus, sp. n. 

Carapace to base of rostrum, when viewed from above, 
regularly oval in outline ; the uppersurface flattened. 
There are several small granules behind and between the 
eyes at the base of the rostrum, and irregular indistinct 
granulated elevations in the middle line, and on either side 
of the carapace, occupying nearly the same positions as the 
conical tubercles of X. tuberculatus. Eostrum subcylin- 
drical, densely pubescent, terminating in two spines and 
deeply excavated between them. Eyes, antennae and outer 
maxillipeds as in X. tuhercxdatus. First pair of legs want- 
ing in the females, in the males they are shorter than tlie 



second pair, the palms of the hands oblong, smooth, the 
fingers short, slender, curved, touching only at the ex- 
tremities when closed. Second pair of legs longer than 
any of the succeeding pairs. Tarsi stout, curved, spinulose 
beneath. Abdomen of male seven-jointed ; of female very 
broad five-jointed, the three basal segments and the ter- 
minal segment free or nearly so, the intervening seg- 
ments coalescing and much enlarged. Length of the largest 
female 1 inch, of the largest male f inch. 

Hab. Cape Howe, Australia. Type. B.M. 

This species differs from the two mentioned above : in 
its broader carapace, stouter limbs, and cylindrical rostrum 
which is excavated at the end. The flattened granulations 
and tubercles are very different from the high conical 
tubercles of X. tuberailatus, the female abdomen of which 
is only three-jointed, all the segments coalescing, except a 
single basal and the terminal one. 

Sub-tribe Cancroidea, Dana. 
U.S. Explor. Exped. XIIL, Crust. I., p. 142 (1852). 

Genus Nectocaecinus, Milne-Edwards. 
ArcUv. Mus. Hist. Nat. X.,p. 404 (1861). 

Nectocaecinus antaecticus. 

Portunus antarcticus, Romh. & Jacq. Voy. Pole Sud. III., 
Crvst. p. 51, tah. 5, /. 1 (1853) ; White, Lid Crust. Brit. 
Mis., p. 25 (1847) ; Zool. Erebus and Terror, tah. l,f.2 
(1874). 

Nectocarcinus antarcticus, Milne-Edw. Archiv. Mus. 
Hist. Nat. X., p. mi (1861). 

Hab. South Seas. B.JI. 



jSTectocaecixus integeifeoxs. 

Portunus integrifrons, Latr. Encyel. Mdth. X, p. 192 : 
Milne-EdvMrds, Hist. Nat. Crust. 1., p. 445 (1834); White, 
List Crust. Brit. Mus., p. 26 (1847) ; Zool. Erebus and 
Terror, tab. l,f. 3 (1874). Young. 

Nectocarcinus integrifrons, A. Milne-Edw. Ann. Sci. 
Nat. {ser. 4) XIV., p. 220 ; Archiv. dn Museum X., p. 406, 
pi. 38 (1861). 

Hab. New Zealand ; Australia, Port Jackson. B.M. 

The young specimens in the Museum vary much in the 
pubescence of the carapace, which is sometimes covered 
with hairs, at others, quite destitute of them, but they are 
all much smaller than the one figured by M. A. Milne- 
Edwards Q.c.) which is represented as quite glabrous. 



Nectocaecinus tubeeculosus. 

Nectocarcinus tuberculosus, A. Milne Edw. Ann. Sci. 
Nat. {ser. 4) XIV., p. 220 ; Archiv. du Museum X., p. 405, 
pi. 37 (1861). 

Portunus integrifrons jun., Zool. V. Erebus and Terror, 
tah. 1,/. 4 (1874). Young. 

Hab. Van Diemeu's Land {Young). B.M. 



Genus Platyonychus, Latreille. 

Eneijcl. MMh. X., p. 152 {part.) ; Bell, Brit. Crust., p. 83 

(1853). 

It appears better to restrict the name Platyonychus to 
the species with a carapace broader than long, the tarsal 
joint of the fifth pair of legs broad, oval and rounded at 
the end ; and elongated hands, e.g., Platyonychus ocellatus, 
Herbst, and P. hipustulatus, Milne-Edwards, and to retain 
Dr. Leach's earlier name, Portumnus, for the species with 
a carapace about as broad as long, an elongated, acute, 
lanceolate tarsal joint to the fifth pair of legs, and small 
hands, Portumnus latipes (Pennant) Leach, P. nasutus, Latr., 
and P. africanus, A. Milne-Edw., as was first proposed by 
Professor Bell, British Crustacea, p. 83, but where the 
characters of the tarsi of the fifth pair of legs have been 
inadvertently transposed. M. Milne-Edwards, in the 
Histoire Naturelle des Crustacis, confounds Dr. Leach's 
original name Portumnus, with Portunus, Fabr., and refers 
all the species to Platyonychus. 



Platyonychus bipustulatus. 

Platyonychus hipustulatus, Milne-Edw. Hist. Nat. Crust. 
l.,p. 437, pi. 17, /. 7-10, (1834) ; White, List Crust. Brit. 
Mus., p. 24 (1847) ; A. Milne-Edw., Archiv. du Museum's.., 
p. 413 (1861). 

Portunus catharus, White, in Bieffenb. New Zealand II., 
p>. 264 (1843) ; Zool. Erch. a^id Terror, tab. l,f. 1 (1874). 

Corystes (Anisopus) punctata. Be Haan Faun. Japan, p. 
U,pl. 2,f. 1 (1850). 

Platyonychus purpureas, Bana, U. S. Explor. Exped. 
XWl.,' Crust. I., p. 291, pi. 18,/. 3 (1852). 

Hab. Australasia, Chili. B.M. 

The specimen figured is the type of Portunus Cathams, 
White, whirli M. A. ]\[ilne-Edwards, in his paper in the 
Archiv. du ^Museum aliove (iuuted, rightly considers synony- 
mous with I'lati/oiti/chus hipustulatus, Milne-Edwards. 



Genus Caxcer, Linnasus. 

Syst. Nat. I. 2, p. 1038 (1767) ; Leach, Malac. Pod. Brit., 

tab. 10 (1815). 

Platvcarcinus, Latr., Milne-Eclwd., Hist. Nat. Crust. 1., p. 
412 (1834). 

CANCEE NOV.E-ZELANDLi). 

Platycarcinus novre-zealandijB, Lucas in Hombr. and 
Jacq. Voy. Pole Sud., p. :U, pi. 3,/. 6. 

Cancer Novii? Zi'al;iiiili:i', White, List Crust. Brit. Mus., p. 
20 (1847); Zool. Jurhus and Terror, tab. 1,/. 5 (1874). 

Cancer Nova'-Zelandiffi, A. Milne-Edw., Nouv. Archiv. dio 
Museum I., p. 189 (1865). 

Hab. New Zealand. B.M. 

This species is very probably identical with the C. 
pleheius, Poeppig, from Chili. The granulated ridges on the 
claws, and the shape of the teeth on the latero-anterior 



margin vary much in the specimens in the JIuseum, from 
both localities, but M. A. Milne-Edwards in his monograph 
above (quoted, considers the species distinct. 

Decapoda Anomoura. 

Sub-tribe Porcellanidea, Dana. 
U.S. Ej-plor. Exped. XIII., Crust. I., p. 400 (1852). 

Genus Petrolisthes, Stimpson. 
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. X., p. 227 (1858). 

Petrolisthes elongatus. 

PorceUana elongata, Milne-Edw., Hist. Nat. Crust. II., 
p. 251 (1837) ; White, List Crust. Brit. Mus.,i)- 62 (1847) ; 
Zool. Erebus and Terror, tah. 3,/. 3 (1874). 

Hab. New Zealand. B.M. 



Sub-tribe Paguridea, Dana. 

U.S. Explor. Exped. XIII., Crxist. I., p. 432 (1852). 

Genus Pagurus, Fabricius. 

Ent. Sijst. II., 2^- 468 (1793) ; Milne-Edw. ; Dana, U.S. 

Explor. Exped. XIII., Ctos<. I., p. 449 (1852). 

Pagurus deformis. 

Pagurus deformis, Milne-Edw. Ann. Sri. Nat. (ser. 2) 
VI., ^. 272; 2^1- 13,/ 4 (1836); Hist. Nat. Crust. II., ^J. 
222 (1837). 

Pagurus cavipes, White, Proc. Zool. Soc., p. 122 (1847) ; 
List Cmst.Brit. Mies., p. 60 (1847) : A. & M. N H. {ser. 2) 
l.,2J. 223 (1848) ; Zool. Erebus and Terror, tab. 2,f. 3 (1874). 

Pagurus cultratus, White, List Crust. Brit. Mus.,p. 60 
(1848). 

Pagurus diftbrmis, Dana, U.S. Ex2)lor. Exjxd. XIII., 
Crust. I., p. 449 (1852). 

Hab. Philippine Is. ; Samoa ; Australia ; Bramble Key. 

B.M. 

I have no doubt froin the figure and descriptions above 
quoted that P. cavipes and P. cultratus. White, are the 
same species aS' P. dcfoi-mis, Milne-Edwards. The pro- 
minent ridge on the third left leg gives it an excavated 
appearance. I can find no characters by which to distin- 
guish the single specimen of Pagurus cultratus. White, in 
the British Museum, from the Philippines, from the 
younger specimens of P. eavipics, from Australia. The 
largest specimen of P. cavi2)cs (the one figured) has the 
larger liand more distinctly tubercular and granulated, 
and the tarsus of the third leg on the right side pro- 
portionately longer, but these peculiarities seem due to the 
age of the specimen. The figure badly represents the 
excavated tarsus of the third leg on the left side. 

Genus Eupagurus, Brandt. 
Middcndorf's Sibirische Rcise Zool. I., p. 105 (1851). 

Bernhardus, Da7ia, U.S. Explor. Exped. XIII., Crust. I., 
p. 440 (1852). 



Eupagurus comptus. 

Pagurus comptus, Wliite, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 122 (1847) ; 
List Crust. Brit. Mus., p. 59 (1847) : A. & M. N. If. (ser. 2) 
l.,p. 224 (1848); Zool. Erebus and Terror, tab. 2, / 5, 5rt 
(1874). 

Hab. Falkland Islands. Type. B.M. 

Fig. 5, animal, oa, hand enlarged. 

Genus Clibanarius, Dana. 
U.S. Expilor. Exped. XIII, Crust. I., p. 461 (1852). 

Clibanarius strigimanus. 

Pagurus strigimanus, White, Proc. Zool. Soc., p. 121, 
(1847); List Crust. Brit. Mus., p. 60 (1847); A. & M. 
N. H. {ser. 2) I., p. 224 (1848) ; Zool. Erebus and Terror, 
tab. 2,/. 4 (1874). 

Hab. Van Diemen's Land. Tyi^e. B.M. 

This species is very different in appearance from most of 
the genus, but agi-ees in the generic characters. 

Sub-tribe Galatheidea, Dana. 
U.S. Explor. Exped. XIII., Crust. I., p. 401 (1852). 

Genus Muxida, Leach. 
Diet. Sci. Nat. XVIII.,_p. 52. 

MUNIDA SUBRUGOSA. 

Galathea subrugosa, Wliite, List Crust. Brit. Mus., p. '<>'o 
(1847) ; Zool. Erebus and Terror, tab. 3,/. 2 (1874). 

Carapace oblong, the sides slightly curved, the lateral 
margins with seven teeth. Front three-spined, the middle 
spine projecting considerably beyond the eyes, the lateral 
ones not quite half as long as the middle spine, and not 
projecting beyond the eyes. A second smaller spine behind 
each of the lateral frontal spines. A spine on either side 
of the middle line in the gastric region. Second third and 
fourth abdominal segments with a spine on either side of 
the middle line. The arms are now wanting in both the 
specimens in the Museum. 

Hab. Auckland Islands, Eendezvous Cove. Type. B.M. 

The specimens obtained in the U.S. Explor. Exped. at 
Terra del Fuego, and referred by Dana with doubt to this 
species (U.S. Explor. Exped. XIII., p. 479, pi. 30, f. 7) 
differ in the number and arrangement of the spines on the 
carapace, and the sliape of the hands, and are no doubt 
specifically distinct. 

Sub-tribe Dromidea ? Dana. 
U.S. Explor. Exped. XIIL, Crust. \.,p. 400 (1852). 

Genus Cymopolu, Eoux. 

Crust, de la Mcditerran^e (1827) ; Milne-Edwd. Hist. Nat. 

Crust, p. 158 (1837). 

Cymopolia jukesii. Tab. 3, /. 4, 4 a-c. 

Cymopolia Jukesii, White, App. Jukes Voy. Fly, p. 338, 
pi. 2,/. 1 (1847) ; List Crust. Brit. Mus., p. 54 (1847). 



Hab. Torres Straits, Sir C. Hardy's Island. Type. B.M. 

Tlie true position of the genus Gymopolia is very doubt- 
ful. M. Milue-Edwd., in tlie Hist. Nat. Crust., considered 
it as intermediate between the Dori])pidae and Crrapsidac, 
l)ut the square buccal opening (which however is im- 
perfectly closed in front) is very different from that of the 
O.rAj^toviata, to which the Borippidae belong. It has a great 
e.xternal resemblance to the Grapsidce, and, I think, should 
constitute a distinct group among the Anomoura Grapsidica 
in Dana's arrangement, although the articulation of the 
fourth joint of the outer maxiUipeds is Maioid and not 
Gmpsoid in character, as De Haan has shown (Faun. 
Japou., p. 113) on which account Dana placed the genus 
with the Dromictdae among the Anomoura Maioidea, but 
he had not seen any specimens. 



Degapoda Macrouea. 

Sub-tribe Thalassinidea, Dana. 
U.S. Explor. Expal. XIII., Crust. I., p. 500 (1852). 

Genus Gebia, Leach. 
Malac. Pod. Brit, tab. XXXI (1815). 

Gebia hirtifrons. Tab. 3, Jir/. 5, 5a. 

Gebia hirtifrons, White, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 122 (1847) : 
List Crust. Brit. Mus., p. 71 (1847) ; A. and M. N. H. (scr. 
2) l.,p. 225 (1848). 

Hab. South Seas. 

Sub-tribe Astacidea, Dana. 
U.S. Explor. Expcd. XIII., Crust. I., p. 501 (1852). 

Genus Paranephrops, White. 
Graij, Zool. Misccll. II., p. 79 (1842). 

Paranephrops planifkons. Tab. 2>,fig. 1. 

Paranephrops planifrons. White, Gray, Zool. Misccll. 
II., p. 79 (1842) ; Bieffenb., New Zeal. II.', ^). 267 (1843) ; 
List Crust. Brit. Mus., p. 72 (1847). 

Paranephrops teuuicornis, Bana, U.S. Explor. Expcd. 
XIII., Crust. I., p. 527, pi. 33,/. 4 (1852). 

Hab. New Zealand. Type. B.M. 

There is a specimen named P. tcnuicornis in the British 
Museum, from New Zealand, presented by the Smithsonian 
Institution, "Washington, which appears to have been 
wrongly determined, for the rostrum is three-toothed on 
each side as in P. planifrons, whereas P. tcnuicornis is 
described and figured by Dana as having four teeth on 
each side of the rostrum. 

I have no doubt, however, that P. tenuicornis is identical 
with P. planifrons, or at most only a variety of it, for the 
number of teeth on the sides of the rostrum is liable to 
variation in the latter species, there being sometimes three 
ou one side and four on the other, in the same specimen. 



Paranephrops zelandicus. 

Astacus Zealandicus, Wliite, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 123 
(1847) ; List Crust. Brit. Mus., p. 72 (1847) ; A. and M. 
N. H. {scr. 2) I., p. 223 (1848) ; Zool. Erebus and Terror, 
tab. 2,/. 2 (1874). 

Hab. New Zealand. Type. B.M. 

This species must be referred to Paranephrops. The 
antennary scales are not so much developed and the arms 
are not so elongated as in P. p)lanifrons, but the hands are 
covered with spines, like those of the other species of the 
genus, and are very different from the smooth hands of 
Potamobius (Astacus), all the species of which inhabit the 
northern hemisphere. Moreover the supplementary ab- 
dominal legs which are characteristic of the males of 
Potamobius and some other genera, are absent in this, as 
well as in the other species of Paro.nephrops, in the British 
Museum. 

Sub-tribe Caridea, Dana. 
U.S. Explor. Exped. XIIL, Crust. l.,p. 501 (1852). 

Genus Alope, Wliite. 

Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 123 (1847) ; List Crmt. Brit. Mus., p. 

75 (1847) ; A. and M. N. H. (ser. 2) I., p. 225 (1848). 

Alope palpaiis. Tc(h. 4:, fig. 1. 

Alope palpaiis, White, Proc Zool. Soc, p. 124 (1847) ; 
List Cr%ist. Brit. Mus., p. 75 (1847) ; A. and M. JV. H. 
{scr. 2) I.,^. 226 (1848). 

Hab. New Zealand. Type. B.M. 

Alpheus, Fabricius. 
Ent. Syst. Suppl, p. 404 (1798) ; Mibic-Echcd. Hist. Nat. 
Cr2ist. ll.,p. 349 {jKirt) ; Bana, U.S. Explor. Exped. XIIL, 
Crust. I., p. 534. 

* Beak linear, rising from front margin of carapace. 
(Inferior margin of larger hand notched at base of finger. 
Orbits over eyes entire. Fingers of smaller hand not 
longer than the hand itself) 

Alpheus edwardsil 

Alplieus Neptunus, White, List Crust. Brit. Mus., p. 74 
(1847) ; Zool. Erebus and Terror, tab. 4,f. 3 (1874). 

Athanasus Edwardsii, Aud&uin, in Savigny Beser. de 
I'Egypfe, pi. 10, f. 1 ; not Alpheus Edwardsii, Milne-Edwd., 
Hist. Nat. Crust. II., ^. 352 ; Bana, U.S. Explor. Exped. 
XIIL, Crust. I., p. 542, p. 34, / 2. _ 

Carapace more inflated than in Alpheus strenuus. 
Hand larger, similar to that of A. strenuus, but the 
fingers are narrower compared with the palm. The first 
joint of the carpus of the second pair of legs is longer than 
the second, the second joint longer than either the third or 
fourth and about as long as the fifth joint. The smaller 
hand is wanting. 

The Alpheus Neptunus described by Dana, U.S. Explor. 
Exped. XIIL Crust. I., p. 553, pi. 35, f 5, has a three- 



s})ined front, like tliat of Alpkcus mi mi.';, Say, and has 
nothing to do with the Alplieus Neptttnus of White. 
Hab. Port Essington. B.M. 

Alpheus strexuus. 

Alpheus Doris, IVhitc, List Crust. Brit. Mus., p. 75 
(1847) ; Zool. Erebus and Terror, tab. 4,/. 2 (1874). 

Alpheus Ehode, White, List Crust. Brit. 3fus.,p. 75 (1874). 

Alpheus strenuus, Dana, U.S. Explor. E.rpcd. XIII., 
Crust. I., p. 545, pi. 34, /. 2 (1852). 

Larger hand hairy, especially towards the fingers, with a 
longitudinal groove above on the inner surface close to tiie 
upper margin and an oblique groove on the outer surface 
of the palm. Smaller hand opening nearly horizontally, 
the outer (moveable) finger flattened, with an oblique ridge 
at its base on the outer surface, the margins thickly ciliated. 
The two first joints of the carpus of the second pair of legs 
equal in length and each longer than either of the three 
following joints. 

Hab. Philippine Islands. Torres Straits. B.M. 



Alpheus galathea. Tab, 4, Jij. 4. 
Alpheus Galathea, White, Lint Crust. Brit. Mus., p. 75 
(1847). 

Hab. Port Essington. Type. B.M. 



Alpheus alope. Ted). ■^,fi(j. 6. 

Alpheus Alope, White, LUt Crust. Brit. Mus., p. 75 (1847). 

Hab. Australia, Port Stephen. Type. B.M. 

The types of Alpheus galathea and Aljilnns n/Dpem the 
British Museum belong to this section df ilic uciius, but are 
in too bad a condition to be distinctively cliaracterised. 



** Beak triangular, rising beliind the front margin of the 
carapace. (Orbits with spines over the eyes.) 

Alpheus doto. Tub. 4, Jig. 5. 

Alpheus Doto, White, List Crust. Brit. Mus., p. 75 (1847). 

Eostrum narrow, triangular, scarcely projecting beyond 
the front of the carai)ace. Upper mai-gins of the orbits 
with a minute s\nne. Hands (in the figure, the left hand 
is now wanting in the type) similar, the left the smallest. 
Kight liand smooth, witli scattered yellowish hairs, the 
lower margin straight entire, the upper convex. Fingers 
very small. The first joint of the carpus of the second 
pair of legs longer than the second, the second joint about 
as long as the third and fourth together. 

Hab. Sir C. Hardy's Island. Type. B.M. 



Alpheus thetis. Tab. A, fig. 7. 

Alpheus Thetis, White, List Crust. Brit. J/«.s., p. 75 
(1847). 

Hab. New Holland. Type. B.M. 

The specimens of this species in the British Museum 
are in too imperfect a condition to be well distinguished 
from other species of the same section of the genus. The 
hands are wanting. The beak projects beyond the front 
margin of the carapace ; the first joint of the carpus of the 
second pair of legs is longer than any of the succeeding. 
In these respects A. thetis resembles the Alpheiis lacvis, 
Randall, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. VIII., p. 141, 
figured by Dana, U.S. P^x'plor. Exped. Crust, pi. 35, fig. 8, 
with which it may be identical. 



THE 



ZOOLOGY 



VOYAGE OF H.M.S. EREBUS & TERROR, 

UNDER THE COMMAND OF CAPTAIN SIE JAMES CLARK ROSS, R.N., F.R.S., 

DURING THE YEARS 

1839 TO 1843. 

By AUTHORITY OF THE LORDS COMMISSIONERS OF THE ADMIRALTY. 

EDITED UY 

JOHN RICHARDSON, M.D., F.R.S., &c. ; 
JOHN EDWARD GRAY, Esq., Ph.D., F.R.S., &c. 



I N S E (J T S . 

HY 

ADAM WHITE, M.KS., &c., 
ARTHUR GARDINER BUTLER, F.L.S., F.Z.S., &c. 



LONDON: 

E. W. JANSON, 28, MUSEUM STREET, W.C. 

M.DCCC.XLVI.— M.DCCC.LXXIV. 



INSECTS 



1. — INSECTS OF NEW ZEALAND. 



The following catalogue contains a list of the insects hitherto recorded as having been found in New Zealand 
and the Auckland Islands, to which is added a description of the new species brought home by the officers of the 
Expedition, and of others since obtained from Dr. Sinclair, Mr. Earl, and other persons, and are either contained in 
the collection of the British Museum or in those of Capt. PaiTy and W. W. Saunders, Esq., who have kindly placed 
their collections at our disposal for the purpose of their being described and figured. 



Family Cicindelid,^:. 

CiCINDELA TUBERCULATA. 

Cicindela tuberculata, Fahr. Sijst. Eleuth. I. 238, 32 
Oliv. t. 3 f. 28. Dejean. spec. gen. II. 431. Gueriu. Voy. 
Coquille t. 1. /". 4 

Subcylindrical, obscure bronze. Elytra spotted with 
green ; shoulder and base of the side of elytra with a yel- 
lowish lunule, connected at the end with a spot in the 
middle, forming a transverse band, which extends nearly 
to the suture and is bent downwards at the end ; on the 
outer edge it is dilated, especially towards the upper lu- 
nule ; at the lower part it is but slightly attached to the 
terminal lunule of elytra, which is narrowest in the middle ; 
the other parts of elytra are of a blackish pui-ple, with 
many minute greenish dots ; an interrupted line on each 
elytron near the suture of larger spots ; scutellum with the 
sides nearly straight. 

Hab. New Zedand. 



Cicindela Douei. 

Cicindela Douei, Chenu. Guerin Mag. de ZooL, 1840, 
t. 4.5. 

Elongated, bronzed above; labium and mandibles on 
the sides yellow ; thorax quadrate, somewhat flattened, 
deeply impressed with two transverse bluish furrows ; ely- 



tra with anterior margin, lunules on shoulder and subapi- 
cal point, yellow. Body beneath greenish blue, with 
white hairs. 

Hab. New Zealand. 

Cicindela Late-cincta. PI. 1/. 1. 

Elytra bordered all round with a widish yellow band, 
which extends close to the edge ; the inner edge has four 
slight sinuosities and three lobes, the middle one largest, 
forming a shortish band, not quite reaching to the suture. 
Head, thorax and rest of elytra of a dark, bronzy brown. 
Elytra much elongated. 

Length 7 lines. 

Hab. New Zealand (Waikouaiti), Mr. Earl. 

Cicindela Parryi. PI. 1./. 2. 
Obscure bronze ; elytra with a slight isolated lunule on 
the basal edge of a pale yellow, with many brown dots, a wid- 
ish line on the margin next to this, from the front of which 
a shaipish spot directed backwards does not nearly attain 
the suture. This, and a wide, straightish spot at the end 
of the elytra are pale yellow, thickly dotted with brown, 
rest of elytra of a bronzy hue, very much pustuled, with 
many largish, irregularly placed gieenish spots, and two 
deep velvet-like, somewhat sagittate marks near the suture ; 
scutellum large, with the sides rounded, antennae with the 
first joint green, the other joints ferruginous, fi:om the 2nd 

B 



to the 4th paler; head narrowish; thorax with the two lobes 
forming upper part uot so distinct as in C. tuberculata, 
tibiae and tarsi paler than in C. tuberculata; the elytra 
also are wider and less long than in that species. 

Length, 5 to b^ lines. 

Hab. New Zealand (Port Nicholson), Capt. Parry. Mus. 
Brit., from Mr. Earl's collection. 

Family Carabid^e. 
Cymindis dieffenbachii. 

Cymindis Dieffenbachii, White. Dieff. Neiv Zeal. II. 
273. 

C. australis, Honihr. and Jacq., Voy.au Pole Sud.t. 1. 
/7. 

Of a brownish black, with the antennae and legs tawny ; 
the C. australis, Dej. Spec. Gen, II. 449, is a very different 
insect, distinguished from this by its size, colour and form ; 
it is a native of Port Jackson. 

Hab., New Zealand (Otago), Hombron and Jacquinot. 

Lebia binotata. 

Lebia binotata, Hombron and Jacq., Voy. an Pole Sud. 
t. \.f. 8. 

Head and elytra of a deep brown, each of the latter with 
a longish testaceous spot, widest in the middle ; thorax, 
antennae and legs rufo-testaceous ; apes of elytra very 
slightly tinged with testaceous ; elytra have several slight- 
ly raised lines. 

Length, 3 lines. 

Hab., New Zealand, (Port Nicholson and Waikouaiti). 

Demetrida, White. 

Head as wide as thorax, narrowed behind the eyes, 
which are very prominent ; last joint of the paljii oval and 
pointed ; thorax longer than wide, narrower than elytra, 
straight in front, gradually rounded and narrowed at the 
end ; side margined, a deep groove down the middle ; ely- 
tra narrow at base, gradually wider towards the end, flat- 
tened above ; abdomen considerably longer than elytra ; 
tarsi with the claws small and serrated on the edge ; first 
three joints triangular, fourth joint strongly bilobed. 

Demetrias (Demetrida) lineella, PI. I.y!3. 

Head smooth, but somewhat rugose in front of eyes, 
with the antennae and cibarial organs testaceous, behind 
the eyes brownish ; thorax testaceous, sides of it above 
with a brownish band and finely striated across ; thoracic 
groove in front divided into three ; elytra testaceous, with 
nine longitudinal punctato-striated lines, some of them 
connected at base and tip ; a longish brown line near the 
outer margin of each elytron ; one or two spots near the 
end of two or three of the inner striae ; legs and under side 
testaceous. 

Length, 4 lines. 

Hab., New Zealand (Port Nicholson), Mus. Parry. 



Demetrida nasuta. 

Head produced in fi-ont, with the antennae rufo-testa- 
ceous ; thorax rufo-fuscous ; groove down the middle, sim- 
ple in front, the upper ]3art with many delicate transverse 
.striae ; elytra rather deeply striated, deep fuscous ; longish 
spot on each shoulder ; narrow side margin of each ely- 
tron, and oblique spot at the tip of each serrated above, 
of a yellowish colour ; under side deep brown ; legs yel- 
lowish. 

Length, 3 lines. 

Hab., New Zealand. Mus. Parry. 

Dromius fossulatus. 

Dromius fossulatus, Homhr. and Jacq., Voy. Pole Sud. 
t. 3/. 16. 

Hab., New Zealand (Akaroa). 

AcTENONYX. White. 

Head nearly as wide as the thorax, with large, but not 
very prominent eyes ; antennae longish, with oblong joints ; 
thorax nearly as wide as long, straightish in front, and 
behind, where it is slightly narrowed ; elytra very wide 
and depressed, obliquely truncated at the end ; tarsi with 
claws slender and not serrated ; a genus in form approach- 
in Calleida. 

ACTENONYX BeMBIDIOIDES. 

Entirely bronzed ; head and thorax greenish ; elytra 
with longitudinal shallow strife ; some of striae near suture 
with two or three punctures ; sides of head striated, in the 
middle quite smooth ; two or three short rufescent hairs 
above the eyes ; thorax finely striated on the sides of the 
groove. 

Length, 4 lines. 

Hab., New Zealand. 

CoLPODES SDBMETALLICnS. 

Bronzy brown ; thorax with the side margins yel- 
lowish ; the side margins of elytra very slightly yellow ; 
Head in front, with the sides with two deepish longitudi- 
nal impressions ; the edge slightly recurved, scarcely 
grooved in the middle ; elytra with straight grooves not 
punctured ; the 2nd groove (fi'om the suture), near the end 
with a transverse, very short impressed hue on the outside ; 
near the margin a row of impressed points, closest near 
the end ; an impressed point near the end of 7lh stria ; 
legs yellowish ; antennae brownish ; under side of abdomen 
greenish. 

Length 4f lines. 

Hab., New Zealand. 



Pristonychus castaneus. 

Pristonyclius castaneus, Honihr. and Jticq. Joy. an Pole 
Slid. t.2./. I. 

Hab., Auckland Islands. 



Pristonychus brevis. 
Pristonychus brevis, Homhr. and Jacq., Voy. au Pole 
Slid. t. 2. f. 2 

Hab., Auckland Islands. 

Calathus rubro-marginatus. 
Calathus rubro-marginatus, Hombr. and Jacq., Voy. au 
Pole Slid. t. 2./. 3. 

Hab., Auckland Islands. 

Anchomenus elevatus. 

Anchomenus elevatus. Parry, Mss. 

Head in front, with a very obscure impression on one 
side ; antennae and palpi ferruginous ; thorax, with a deep- 
ish groove down the middle, not reaching the fore or hind 
margin ; the side-margin hollowed out, and a longish bent 
groove on each side behind, fading away in front ; elytra 
with the grooves very deep ; 3rd and 4th, and 5th and 6th 
connected at the end ; between the 8th and 9lh a row 
of impressed points, closest behind ; tibi» and tarsi .slight- 
ly ferruginous. 

Length, 6j lines. 

Hab., New Zealand (Port Nicholson) 

Anchomenus (Ctenognathus) Nov^ Zeelandi.e. 

Anchomenus (Ctenognathus) Novse Zeelandiee, L. Fairm. 
Ann. Soc. Ent., 1843, 12. 

Wingless, black, carapace cordate, grooved ; margin 
somewhat reflexed ; elytra ovate, striated ; antennae, pal- 
pi and tarsi of a pitchy red. 

Length, 5f lines. 

Hab., New Zealand, Bay of Islands. 

Anchomenus Colensonis. 

Head with very .slight grooves in front, very smooth be- 
hind ; antennae of a brownish yellow, the first joint j^alest; 
thorax in the middle, with three grooves, the outer curved ; 
head and thorax of a deep brown, the latter ferruginous ; 
angle of thorax behind quite smooth ; elytra very much 
depressed, with very distinct longitudinal striae, third and 
fourth and fifth and sixth united at the end ; between the 
eighth and ninth is a row of impressed points ; they are 
of a reddish brown ; the legs are of a pale yellow. 

Length, 5j lines. 

Hab., New Zealand, — Colenso Esq. 

Anchomenus deplanatus. 

Head and thorax shining black ; elytra dull black ; 
head with some rather large impressed points on the sides 
in front, and a transverse impressed line behind the eyes ; 
thorax in the middle, behind and in front with many close 
striae, placed longitudinally ; a deejjish groove in the middle 
and two very distinct, longish fossae behind, one on each 
.side; elytra above depressed; the grooves not very deep; 
the second, seventh and eighth bent at the end ; a row of 
dots near the margin ; legs black ; tarsi reddish. 

Length, 5 lines. 

Hab., New Zealand, Ca])t. Parry. 



Anchomenus atratus. 
Anchomenus atratus, Hombr. and Jacq. Voy. au Pole 
Sud. t. \.f. 15. 

Hab., New Zealand, Hombron and Jacquinot. 

Feronia (Platvsma) planiuscula. pi. 1 / 7. 

Very deep black ; the palpi deep ferruginous ; fourth 
to eleventh joints of antennae covered with short brown 
hairs ; front part of head above with an H-shaped impress- 
ed mark ; thorax with a transverse, impressed line in front ; 
another down the middle, deepest behind ; two very deep, 
impressed spots near the posterior angles, from each of 
which proceeds a ferruginous hair ; elytra with seven lon- 
gitudinal, straight punctured striae ; the lateral deepest ; 
the space between each very flat and smooth, except be- 
hind, where each is narrowed and raised ; the striae there 
being widened and more coarsely punctured ; the sides of 
elytra rather deeply sunk and with a row of catenulate 
points ; hairs on tibiae and tarsi ferruginous. 

Length, 12^ to 13 lines. 

Hab., New Zealand (Wellington) Capt. Parry, Mus. Brit. 
(? var. Mr. Earl. 

Feronia (Platysma) vigil. 

Very deep black ; hairs on antennae, tibiae and tarsi 
ferruginous ; head and thorax very delicately and irregu- 
larly striated ; head with an H-shaped impressed mark in 
front; thorax with an impressed, transverse, somewhat 
bent line in front ; a straight one down the middle, deep- 
est behind, but not reaching the posterior margin ; two 
deep impressions near the posterior angle of thorax ; elj'tra 
short, with seven longitudinal striae, the spaces between 
slightly raised ; the lateral margin depressed with a ca- 
tenulate row of points. 

Length, lOj lines. 

Hab., Port Nicholson, New Zealand. Capt. Parry. 

Feronia (Platysma ?) Australasia. 

Feronia (Platysma?) Au.stralasiee, Giierin Rev. Zool. Cm: 
1841, 121. 

Abax Australasiae, Hombr. and Jacq. Voy. au Pole Sud. 
t. 2./. 1.3. 

Obscure bronze colour above, black beneath ; head 
smooth, with two feeble impressions in iiont between 
the antennae ; palpi elongated, with the last joint quite 
cylindrical and somewhat obliquely truncated at the end ; 
antennae with four first joints smooth and black, the others 
hairy and brownish towards the end ; thorax somewhat 
flattened, wider than the head, smooth, margined ; con- 
tracted and somewhat sinuated behind ; very .slightly 
notched on the hind margin, with a longitudinal groove in 
the middle and a large fossa on each side behind ; scutel- 
lum triangular, much wider than long, with longitudinal 
wrinkles at the base ; elytra rather wider than the thorax, 
at their base slightly widened ; rounded on the sides to- 
wards the middle ; very feebly sinuated towards the end ; 
each has nine punctured stria;, the spaces between consi- 
derably raised ; two or three large impressed points be- 
tween the second and third, fourth and fifth and sixth and 



seventh striae ; eighth and ninth are not distinct, and fur- 
nished with large, deep points, which end at the outer 
border ; beneath smooth ; legs black, strong, spiny. 

Length, 10 lines. 

New Zealand. Mus. Brit. Pany. 

FeRONIA (PlATYSMA ?) SDB^NEA. 

Feronia (Platysma?) suhadxiea., Guerin, Rev.Zool. Cuv. 
1841. 122. 

Slightly bronzed black above, deep black beneath ; 
body elongated, nearly parallel ; head smooth, with two 
short, slight impressions in front ; thorax nearly as long as 
wide, somewhat cordate, smooth, margined, with a longitu- 
dinal median groove, slightly widened behind, and not 
reaching the hind margin, or rather wide fossa near the 
hind angles ; scutellum triangulai-, somewhat wider than 
long, with four or five longitudinal grooves at the base ; 
elytra wider than the thorax behind ; nearly twice as long 
as wide ; rather strongly sinuated behind, the side slightly 
rounded ; each has eight striae of large elongated points, 
connected, and fonning short grooves in different parts ; 
the spaces between slightly raised ; the spaces between 
the second and third, fourth and fifth, sixth and seventh 
striae are wider and more raised ; the points forming the 
eighth stria are much larger and more distant ; legs are 
black and strong. 

Hab., New Zealand. 

Feronia (Platysma) capito. 

Head nearly as wide as the thorax, with two rather long, 
deep impressed lines on front between antennae, with the 
joints from the fourth to the eleventh hairy ; thorax with a 
very distinct, transverse, impressed line in fi-ont, and at 
the end of the middle longitudinal thoracic line ; head and 
thorax with a greenish hue, strongest on the margins and 
posterior angles of thorax ; elytra with a very few scatter- 
ed, longish hairs ; elytra with a greenish hue, marked simi- 
larly to F. Australasiae ; the sides of elytra somewhat 
angiilated instead of being flat as in that species. 

Length, ^ to 9^ lines. 

Hab., New Zealand, — Colenso Esq. 

A species allied to F. Australasiae, but distinguished 
readily by the size of its head, narrower thorax, colour and 
hairs on elytra ; the insect also is somewhat smaller ; both 
of these come near the genus Omalosoma of Hope. 

Feronia (Platysma) politissima. 

Very deep black ; head with an H-shaped impres- 
sion in front : thorax with two deep, somewhat curved 
fossffi behind, one on each side ; elytra with very deep, 
longitudinal punctured striae, the fifth and sixth united at 
the end ; side with a row of catenulate punctures. 

Length, 6 lines. 

Hab., New Zealand (Port Nicholson), Mr. Earl. 

Feronia (Pterostichds) vagepuncta. 
Deep black ; head with two deep, impressed lines 
in front ; thorax with a longitudinal line down middle, 
ending both before and behind in a deepish fossa ; behind 



on each side a deep fossa connected with the hind margin; 
elytra with longitudinal strise marked with somewhat 
intennpted, longish impressions. 

Length, 7 to 8 lines. 

Hab., New Zealand (Port Nicholson), Mr. Earl. 

Feronia (Cophosus) elongella. 

Head with an H-shaped impression in fi-ont ; thorax 
slightly convex, with a very deep, pyriform impression on 
each side ; a deep groove, distinctly striated across, and 
ending in a deepish fossa both in fi-ont and behind ; elytra 
rather convex ; considerably sinuated on the outside at 
the end ; longitudinally striated, the striae with interrupted 
punctures, especially behind. 

Length, G^ lines. 

Hab., New Zealand, Capt. Parry. 

Omaseus sylvaticus. 

Omaseus sylvaticus, Hombr. and Jacq. Voy. mi Pole 
Slid. t. 2./. 5. 

Hab., New Zealand (Akarao). 

Argutor pantomelas. 

Argutor pantomelas, Homb. and Jacq. Voy. au Pole Sud. 
t. '2.f. 6. 

Hab., New Zealand (Akaroa). 

Argutor erythropus. 
Argutor erythropus, Hombr. and Jacq. Voy. au Pole 
Sud. t. 2./. 7. 

Hab., New Zealand (Akaroa). 



Argutor piceus. 

Argutor piceus, Hombr. and Jacq. Voy. 
1. 2./. 8. 

Hab., New Zealand (Akaroa). 



Pole Sud. 



Broscds Carenoides. pi. 1./. 6. 

Very deep black ; head in front, near the base of man- 
dibles with two or three deep punctures on each side ; 
thorax very narrow behind and transversely gi-ooved ; a 
slight, straight stria down the middle, across irregularly 
striated ; on the lateral margin are some points, from 
which proceed longish, reddish hairs ; elytra smooth, with 
very faint indications of grooves, which behind are more 
distinct ; the spaces between somewhat granulated ; two 
or three punctures on the shoulders of the elytra, with 
reddish hairs in them ; one or two very distant points on 
the elytra from the shoulder to the tip of elytra ; femora 
and palpi rufescent. 

Length, 13:^ lines. 

Hab., New Zealand, Capt. Parry. 

The greater part of the legs and antennae are broken off 
in the specimen described. In the Museum collection 
there is a closely alhed species from Australia. 



BROSCUS (PROMECODERUS ?) ^REUS. PI. \.f. 8. 

Head above in front of the eyes with several bent strias ; 
thorax verj- convex above, gradually narrower behind, a 
k^- distant, longish hairs on the margin, a deepish groove 
down the middle, not reaching to the fore or hind mar- 
gins, in front, on each side before its termination is a 
slight, transverse line, a very slight point near each of the 
hind angles ; scutellura not visible ; elytra together of a 
longish oval, slightly striated, the striae with rather dis- 
tant punctures, near the edge is a row of rather larger 
punctures ; tibiae and tarsi with a few deep ferruginous 
hairs. 

Length, 9 lines. 

Hab. New Zealand (Port Nicholson). 

Promecoderus Lottini. 
Promecoderiis Lottini, Brulle, Hist. Nat. Insectes, IV. 
4-50, t. 18,/. 4. 

Hab. New Zealand. 

Mecodema sculpturatum. 
Mecodema sculpturatum, Homhr. and Jacq. Voy. au 
Pole Slid, t. 2,/. 14. 

Hab. New Zealand (Otago). 

Heterodactylus, Guerin. 
Labrum transverse, entire ; mandibles not very promi- 
nent, bent, without teeth on the inside, much widened at 
the base and ha\Hng on the outer side a wide fossa which 
receives the first joint of antennae; palpi elongated, fili- 
form, last joint cylindrical and scarcely swollen in the 
middle, obliquely truncated at the end ; meotum with the 
notch wide, in the middle with a rounded projection ; 
tongue wide, very prominent between the labial palpi ; 
antennae filiform ; anterior tibiae strongly notched beneath 
only, with the four first joints of the tarsi strongly dilated 
in the males, rounded on the sides, much contracted be- 
hind and very distinctly cordate, the fourth having the 
inner lobe much more elongated than the outer ; interme- 
diate tarsi with triangular joints not so much dilated as 
the anterior, but wider than those of hind legs ; these four 
tarsi have their fourth joint much prolonged on the outer 
side ; thorax cordate ; body apterous. 

Heterodactylus nebrioides. 

Heterodactylus nebrioides, Guerin, Rev. Zool. Cuv. 
1841,214. 

Shining black ; head smooth, with two wide fossae 
in front ; mandibles with one tooth, margins widened, 
reddish and slightly transparent ; antennae longer than the 
head and thorax, the four first joints smooth and shin- 
ing, the second shortest and the others downy ; thorax 
cordate, truncated in front and behind, smooth, finely mar- 
gined with a longitudinal groove in the middle, a feeble 
transverse impression in front and two rather deep fossae 
behind, near the hind angles ; scutellum rounded, slightly 
rugose ; elytra oval, of the width of thorax at base, without 



humeral projections, feebly margined, widest in the middle, 
smooth, and with nine stria3, distinct on the disk but nearly 
obliterated on the sides ; these striae do not all reach the 
end, the second, especially, stops a little beyond the middle, 
and on the outer margin are some impressions most marked 
behind; beneath and legs smooth. 

Length, 7^ to 8 lines. 

Hab. Auckland Islands. 



Hel.eotrechus, White 
Head much wider than thorax ; eyes very large and 
prominent ; thorax in front rounded, the anterior angles 
rounded, behind narrowed ; elytra rather wider behind 
than in front, behind obliquely truncated ; antennae short, 
somewhat hairy. One of the Subulipalpi with trun- 
cated elytra in general appearance with a conside- 
rable resemblance to Scopodes boops, one of the Pericali- 
dae, described by Erichson, Arch. 1842, p. 123, t. 4,/. 1. 

Hel^otrechus elaphroides, pi. \,f. b. 

Head longitudinally striated between the eyes ; thorax 
with a short groove down the middle, not extending to 
hind edge ; elytra with large, coarse, irregular punctures : 
the insect is of a deep black ; legs yellow; middle of femo- 
ra and the tips with a brownish band. 

Length, 2|- lines. 

Hab. New Zealand (marshes). Dr. Hooker. 

OoPTERDS, Guerin. 
Palpi ending in a conical joint, which is sharp at the 
end ; the penultimate joint of maxillary palpi as long as 
the last; four first joints of anterior tarsi dilated in the 
males, the two first joints wider, somewhat elongated on 
the inner side ; antennae short, submoniliform, with the 
last seven joints scarcely longer than wide ; body thick, 



OOPTERUS CLIVINOIDES. 

Oopterus clivinoides, Guerin, Rev. Zool. Cuv. 1841, 123. 
Homhr. and Jacq. Voy. au Pole Sud, t. %f. 16. 

Of a deep shining brown colour; head oblong, narrower 
than the thorax, smooth, with two wide longitudinal grooves 
between the insertion of antennae about twice the length 
of the eyes ; antennae and palpi yellowish brown ; thorax 
convex, cordate, finely margined, smooth, with slight, 
transverse, short striae towards the sides and hind margin ; 
groove in middle of thorax indistinct ; on each side, near 
the hind angles, a short and rather wide fossa, and in the 
middle of hind margin some short, longitudinal striae ; scu- 
tellum very small, triangular ; elytra at least twice the 
width of thorax, about the middle much arched, forming 
a short oval, smooth and shining, with longitudinal, very 
feebly punctured striae, the spaces between flattened, the 
side stria almost effaced ; margins of elytra and suture of 
a somewhat fulvous brown, especially behind, black be ■ 
neath ; legs of a brownish, fulvous yellow. 

Hab. Auckland Islands. 



OOPTERUS PLICATICOLLIS. 

Oopterus plicaticollis, Homhr. andJacq., Voij.au Pole 
Slid, t. 2,/. 15. 

Hab. Auckland Islands. 

Oopterus rotundicollis. 

Thorax rounded, without any groove, near the posterior 
margin depressed and closelj' punctured ; elytra with su- 
perficial striae formed by rows of closely placed points ; 
whole insect of a pitchy brown ; the palpi and legs of a 
lighter colour. 

Length, 2j lines. 

Hab. New Zealand (Bay of Islands), Dr. Sinclair, Chas. 
Darwin, Esq. 

MoLOPSiDA, White. 
Head large; last joint of palpi sharp-pointed ; antennae 
with the joints somewhat moniliform and bristly ; thorax 
without margin, much wider behind than in front, sides 
considerably rounded, behind quite straight, the posterior 
angles nearly rectangular ; elytra ovate, truncated in front, 
considerably convex. 

MOLOPSIDA POLITA. 

Deep, shining black; elytra with longitudinal rows 
of shallow striae rather closelj' punctured, the margin with 
two deep grooves connected in many places by short, 
transverse grooves ; antennae and palpi ferruginous ; legs 
deep rufous. 

Hab. New Zealand (Waikouaiti), Mr. Earl. 

Family SxAPHYLiNiDiE. 
Staphylinds oculatds. 
Staphylinus oculatus, Fab.Ent. Syst. II. 521, 10. Boisd. 
Voy. Astral. II. 54, t. 9,/. 1 Erichso?i, Staj)h. 352. 

Entirely of a deep, smooth, shining black ; head on 
each side with a large fulvous spot, forming a band on the 
under side of head. 
Hab. New Zealand. 

Staphylinus (Gyrohypnus ?) quadri-impressus. 

Black; elytra somewhat brown; head very lai'ge, squai*e, 
with two deep points between the eyes ; antennae with first 
joint very long, clubbed at the end, third joint very 
narrow at the base ; thorax somewhat narrowed behind, 
rounded in front, with two deepish points; elytra and 
abdomen above finely punctured ; wings shaded with 
brown. 

Length, 6 lines. 

Hab. New Zealand. 

Staphylinus (Cafius) puncticeps. 
Head on the sides behind the eyes and on the back part 
coarsely punctured, two large dots between the eyes ; 
head and thorax with some scattered, longish hairs ; tho- 
rax with two longitudinal lines of impressed dots ; elytra 



minutely punctured and covered with short hairs ; head 
and thorax black ; elytra, abdomen and legs brownish. 

Length, 4 lines. 

Hab. New Zealand, — Colenso, Esq. 

Family Dyticid.*:. 
Cybister hookeri. 

Front of head with two impressed dots; thorax be- 
hind with a band of short, closely placed striae, and a few 
dots along the front and close to the margin ; outer mar- 
gin of elytra with many impressed dots and three distant 
rows of dots on the back of the elytra, the dots far from 
each other, especially on the two outside rows ; clypeus 
and front of head yellow ; lateral margin of thorax and ely- 
tra yellow, the yellow reaching the outer edge, other 
parts of a very deep olive-brown ; some ferruginous- 
brown on two fore legs ; antenna; fenuginous and brown 
mixed. 

Length, 12 lines, greatest width, Q^ lines. 

Hab. Hutt River, Port Nicholson. 

Colymbetes notatus. 

Dytiscus notatus, Fahr. Ent. Syst. I. 195, 38. 

Brown ; thorax yellowish, with four black points and 
sometimes an abbreviated black band ; sutural stria of 
elytra yellow, margin of elytra yellowish. 

A specimen of Colymbetes from New Zealand in the 
collection of Mr. Saunders exactly agrees with a British 
example of the above-named species in the Museum col- 
lection. 

Colymbetes rufimanus. 

Head narrow, between the eyes black, with a transverse 
reddish line ; clypeus reddish ; thorax reddish, with a lo- 
zenge-shaped black spot in the middle ; elytra yellowish, 
thickly spotted with brown, margin without spots, suture 
brownish, with a narrow yellow line on each side ; under- 
side deep blackish brown ; two first pairs of legs light 
rufous. 

Length, b^ lines, breadth, 3 lines. 

Hab. New Zealand. 

This species comes near C. pacificus, Boisd. Voy. Astrol. 
50. Aube. Spec. Gen. Hydroc. VI. 268. 

Family Buprestid.*:. 
Buprestis (Trachyides) eremita. 

Head, thorax and elytra very closely punctured and 
slightly downy ; green, sometimes with a coppery hue ; 
thorax in front with the sides slightly compressed. 

Length, 2j lines. 

Hab. New Zealand (Port Nicholson). 

This small Buprestis, the only representative of the fa- 
mily that I have seen from New Zealand, resembles much 
in form the Australian genus Diphucrania. The head, 
however, is not notched in front. 



Family Elateriu.e. 
Elater acutipennis. pi. \,f. 9. 

Elater acutipennis, Parry, MSS. 

Head with a triangular impression between the eyes, 
and slightly punctured ; thorax with the sides above hol- 
lowed out, with greyish hairs, the posterior angles large 
and sharp, the hind edge lobed in the middle, just before 
the scutellum ; elytra gradually tapering to the end, with 
four longitudinal, wide vittae, sparingly covered with gray- 
ish hairs ; whole insect of a rich, deep brown ; the ex- 
treme tip of elytra ferruginous ; underside of body and legs 
sparingly covered with greyish hairs. 

Length, 9 to W^ lines. 

Hab. New Zealand (Port Nicholson). 

Elater (Limonius) Zealandicus. 

Head, thorax and elytra brownish black, finely punc- 
tured ; the elytra with nine rows of punctured striae on 
each, the marginal row deepest. 

Length, 8j to \Q^ lines. 

Hab. New Zealand (Port Nicholson). 



Elater approximans. 

Head having the clypeus with two deep impressions ; 
thorax finely punctured ; each of the sides with a wid- 
ish row of grey hairs placed in a slight depression ; elytra 
sulcato-striated, gradually tapering to the end ; thorax dull 
brown ; elytra ferruginous brown. 

Length, 7f lines. 

Hab. New Zealand. 

Elater lineicollis. 

Elater lineicollis, Parry, MSS. 

Reddish ochrey, with a brown line down the middle of 
thorax ; head somewhat depressed between the eyes, 
brown, yellowish in front, with ochrey hairs ; antennae 
brown ; thorax dotted, with an impressed line down the 
middle and a few short ochrey hairs ; elytra rather deeply 
punctato-striate ; side of antennal thoracic groove and the 
margin of metathorax black. 

Length, 5 lines. 

Hab. New Zealand (Port Nicholson). 

Elater cinctiger. PI. \,f. IL 
Deep reddish brown ; the side margins of thorax and 
elytra with a widish yellow band ; head punctured, with 
two shallow impressions in front ; thorax elongated, rich 
brown, shining, closely punctured, a widish yellow band on 
each side free from dots ; elytra elongated, attenuated 
gradually to the end, fen-uginous brown, punctato-striated, 
a widish yellow line near the margin of each ; under- 
side rufous brown. 
Length, 6 to 7 lines. 
Hab. New Zealand (Port Nicholson). 

Elater lateristrigatus. 
Deep black ; the side of elytra with a long red vitta. 



highly polished and minutely punctulate ; elytra with ob- 
scure punctured striae and a few short hairs, the apex of 
elytra bluntish. 

Length, 3| lines. 

Hab. New Zealand (Port Nicholson), Capt. Parry. 

Elater (Drasterius) nigellus. 

Thorax and elytra closely punctured ; thorax with a 
depression on each side in middle behind; elytra distinctly 
longitudinally striated. 

liength, 2J to 2| lines. 

Hab. New Zealand (Port Nicholson), Capt. Parry. 

Elater olivascens. 

Head, thorax, elytra and abdomen of an olive green, 
with scattered gray hairs ; antenna; and legs yellowish ; 
elytra with longitudinal striae. 

Length, 4 lines. 

Hab. New Zealand. 



Elater strangclatus. 

Thorax long, about the middle on the side strangulated ; 
the whole insect of a dull brown, thickly clothed with 
short yellowish-brown hairs. 

Length, 8 lines. 

Hab. New Zealand, Capt. Parry. 

Elater megops. 

Eyes very large ; thorax naiTower than the elytra, with 
the sides nearly parallel, finely j^unctured, and sparingly 
covered with short hairs ; elytra very long, punctato-stri- 
ated, dullish brown ; suture of elytra with purplish gloss. 

Length, 7 lines. 

Hab. New Zealand (Bay of Islands). 

Elater (Ctenicerus) punctithorax. 

Head impressed in the middle and sprinkled with hairs ; 
antennae with second and third joints very small, joints 
fourth to tenth on the inside at the end with a longish lobe, 
the terminal one longest, with a slight tooth near the end ; 
thorax very smooth, with scattered points, two deep, lon- 
gitudinal impressions before the middle, and two lunated 
impressions behind, and a short impressed line on the pos- 
terior margin ; elytra depressed at the end and somewhat 
blimt, with nine striae on each, in some places deeper than 
others, near the suture, at the tip, and near the side mar- 
gin. 

Length, 8 lines. 

Hab. New Zealand (Port Nicholson), Capt. Parry. 

Elater (Ctenicerus) l/evithorax. PI. 1,/. 10. 
Very similar to the last ; the thorax has not the deep 
punctures. 

Length, Bf lines. 
Hab. New Zealand. 



8 



Family Cebrionid.e. 
Atopida, White. 

Head with the jaws produced, on the outside gradually 
rounded ; antennae very long, filiform, first joint somewhat 
thickened and flattened, the second joint small and 
rounded ; the other joints nearly of one size, very slightly 
thickened at the end ; eyes rather large and prominent ; 
head nearly as wide as thorax ; thorax in front somewhat 
wider than behind, but not so wide as the elytra, wider 
than long, anterior angles sharpish, posterior rounded ; 
scutellum short, pointed at the end ; elytra much elon- 
gated, sides parallel, shoulders and tips of elytra rounded ; 
legs moderate ; edge of tibis sharp. 

This genus approaches closely to Atopa. 

Atopida castanea. 

Deep chestnut brown ; finely punctured with short hairs 
proceeding from the punctures ; antennae and legs testa- 
ceous. 

Length, 4 lines. 

Hab. New Zealand (on Kaudi). 

Family Clerid^. 

OpILUS VIOLACEUS. 

Opilus violaceus, Khig, Abh. Berl. 1840, 391. 

Notoxus violaceus, Fair. Enf. Syst. I. 210, 2. 

Pubescent, blackish, violaceous, shining ; elytra smooth, 
with three yellow spots, one at the base, two approximat- 
ing near the middle ; legs feiTuginous ; femora black, fer- 
ruginous at the base. 

Hab. New Zealand. 

Opilus pantomelas. 

Notoxus pantomelas Boisd. Voy. Astr. t. G,f. 14. 

Deep black, with a greenish hue on some parts ; in 
some specimens there is a small yellowish spot about 
the middle of each elytron. 

Hab. New Zealand (Port Nicholson), Mr. Earl. 

Family Ptinid,*:. 
Anobium tricostellum. 

Antennae very long, with the last eight joints filiform ; 
brownish, testaceous, covered above with a waved, short 
golden silky pubescence ; each of the elytra with three 
slightly raised, longitudinal costao ; thorax narrowest on 
the sides, somewhat rounded behind and slightly hol- 
lowed down the middle. 

Length, 4 lines. 

Hab. New Zealand, Mus. Saunders. 

Ptinus suturalis. 
Pitchy brown ; closely punctured with shorti.sh hairs ; 
the suture with a pinkish hue ; legs pale yellow. 
Length, 2| lines. 
Hab. New Zealand (on flowers of Leptospermum). 



lar longish patches 



Ptinds murinus. 
Ptinus murinus, Pariy, MSS. 
Very deep brown, with many irregi 
of yellowish hairs. 
Length, 2j lines. 
Hab. New Zealand (Port Nicholson), Capt. Parry. 

Ptinus pilosus. 
Elytra nearly parallel ; light ash colour, with short, yel- 
lowish hairs ; thorax behind as wide as elytra. 
Length, Ij line. 
Hab. New Zealand (Port Nicholson). 

Family Nitidulid.^. 

NiTIDULA ANTARCTICA. 

Very dark brown, with the elytra on each side of the 
scutellum with a somewhat lighter spot; legs with the 
femora yellowish. 

Length, 1^ line. 

Hab. New Zealand (Port Nicholson), Capt. Parry. 

NiTIDULA LATERALIS. 

Of a pitchy brown, closely punctured ; sides of thorax 
widely, and sides of elytra narrowly, margined with yellow- 
ish ; base of elytra near the scutellum yellowish. 

Hab. New Zealand (Kaudi Wood). 

NiTIDULA ABBREVIATA. 

Nitidula abbreviata, Fabr. Syst. El. I. 348, 5. 
Hab. New Zealand. 



Family Histerid^e. 
Saprinus pseudo-cyaneus. 

Head black ; thorax purplish ; elyti-a and abdomen 
deep green ; thorax near the margin closely punctured, 
the points thickest in front, behind free from points, pos- 
terior edge with a few punctures ; elytra near the shoulder 
with two or three oblique, impressed striae and several dis- 
tinct punctures at the base, behind with a lunar mark 
of minute punctures suture, except at the base, with an 
impressed line on each side. 

Length, 2j lines. 

Hab. New Zealand. 

Hister cinnamomeus. 

Smooth, deep, rich, purplish brown ; head in front con- 
siderably hollowed out ; elytra near the sides with three 
slightly curved, deeply impressed lines, and three shallow 
impressed lines at the end of each elytron between these 
and the suture. 

Length, If line. 

Hab. New Zealand, Capt. Parry. 



Family Lucanid.«. 
Dendroblax, White. 

Head narrow, narrowest behinil, in front widened and 
truncated ; mandibles, viewed from above, somewhat ovate 
and bent at the end, hollowed, on the outside somewhat 
angled at the end ; eyes very large, well seen from above ; 
antenniE longish, ten-jointed, basal joint nearly as long as 
the other joints taken together, the joints from the se- 
cond to the sixth short and roundish, somewhat angular 
about the middle, the three last joints forming a roundish 
head, the last rather the largest ; thorax not so wide as 
elytra, with the sides in front rounded, in the middle con- 
siderably notched for the reception of the head, side 
angled in the middle, behind rather straight, middle 
slightly convex ; elytra very wide, edge slightly margined ; 
legs with the anterior tibiae wide and strongly toothed on 
the outside, tibiae of middle pair toothed on the outside, 
of hind pair much thickened at the end and hollowed 
out where the tarsi are inserted, two long lobes on the 
inside ; tarsi slender. 

This genus comes near Lamprima and Ryssonotus. 



Dendroblax Earlii. 
Dendrobius Earlianus. 



PI. 2,/. 9, 10. 



Deep blackish brown ; head, thorax and elytra deeply 
punctured ; head above, thorax above, in front and behind 
with ferruginous, silky hairs ; scutellum with ferruginous 
hairs ; elytra with four longitudinal flattish ridges, the outer 
obsolete ; under side of thorax and legs with many ferrugi- 
nous, silky hairs. 

Length, 9;^ to \2\ lines. 

Hab. New Zealand, on the Hutt River, Port Nicholson, 
Mr. Earl. 

MiTOPHYLLDS IRRORATUS, PI. 2,/ 3, 4. 

Mitophyllus irroratus, Parry, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 
IV. 56, /."l,/. 4. 

Pitchy red, with dull black spots scattered over the 
whole body ; mandibles porrect, recurved, in front sharp 
and behind denticulate ; antennae with the three last leaflets 
very much elongated and pilose ; thorax quadrate, not mar- 
gined ; elytra nearly thrice the length of the thorax, of a 
pitchy brown, reddish, punctate, with dull black spots 
sprinkled over the disk ; femora thickened ; tibiae one- 
spined, serrated on the outside ; prosternum and meso- 
sternum simple, not produced. <? 

In the female the three last leaflets of antennae are of 
moderate size ; mandibles small, not much porrect, one- 
toothed at the base ; body and thorax more rounded than 
in the male. 

Length, ^h lines, breadth, Ij line. 

Hab. New Zealand (Port Nicholson). 

DORCUS PUNCTULATUS. 

Covered over above with minute punctures ; elytra with 
four indistinct, longitudinal lines, with fewer punctures on 
them ; scutellum punctured ; anterior femora with six teeth 
on the outside. 

Length, 6 to 7 lines. 

Hab. New Zealand (Wellington.) 



DoRCUS SQUAMIDORSIS. PI. 2,/. 2. 

Black ; a lunated spot midway between the eyes and 
another on the side of and behind the eyes, with deep 
punctures and some yellowish scales on them ; thorax 
with lateral and posterior mai-gins and the side of anterior 
margin with impressed punctures and yellowish scales in 
them, and four spots on the back, the posterior running 
into the hind margin; the elytra with a widish band round 
each, formed by deep punctures and scales in them, and 
four large spots similarly impressed filling up most of 
the surface of elytra ; scutellum with a smooth edge be- 
hind ; anterior tibiae with four widish teeth on the edge, 
the edge itself impressed. 

Length, 7 to 7j lines. 

Hab. New Zealand (Port Nicholson). 

LUCANUS RETIC0LATUS. 

Lucanus reticulatus, Buqvet MSS. Westwood, Proc. 
Ent. Soc. April 1, 1844, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. XVII. 
p. 59. 

Mandibles short, thick, bluntly toothed within, some- 
what depressed ; black, thorax subquadrate ; thorax and 
elytra reticulated with scales. 

Length, 6 lines. 

Hab. New Zealand, Mus. Buquet. 

Family Aphodiid^. 

OXYOMUS EXSCULPTUS. 

Oxyomus exsculptus. Parry, MSS. 

Very deep brownish black ; the lateral margin of a rich, 
deep reddish brown ; head widely notched in front, above 
smooth ; thorax punctured, especially behind, in front 
and spot on sides smooth; elytra with the striaj very 
deeply punctured ; anterior tibiae with three sharp teeth. 

Family Dynastid^. 
Cheiroplatys Kirby, Hope. 
Cheiroplatys truncatus. PL 2,f. 6. 
Cheiroplatys truncatus, Hope, Col. Man. I. 85. 
Scarabaius truncatus, Fabr. Ent. Syst. 1.7, 16. Oliv.f. 
11,/. 103. 

Elytra near the suture hollowed out, smooth, with 
a few slightly impressed lines running in different 
directions ; scutellum with a row of rather coarse punc- 
tures parallel to the edge ; under side of thorax with deep 
ferruginous hairs. 
Hab. New Zealand. 

Cheiroplatys punctatus. PL 2,/. 11. 
Head with a flatti.sh, somewhat triangular projection on 
the crown, behind which are two rather coarsely punctured 
depressions ; thorax with a protuberance in the middle of 
the fore edge, depressed behind ; the sides of thorax with 
two depressions on each side, the posterior largest ; scutel- 
lum smooth ; elytra covered with punctures, some of them 
arranged in lines ; the whole of the upper side very deep 
blackish brown, the suture pitchy ; front of the head, un- 
der side of body and legs pitchy brown ; under side of 

D 



10 



thorax covered with long, pale ferruginous, silky hairs ; 
raeso-tibisB and meta-tibite behind with a row of longish 
ferruginous hairs. 

Length, 9j lines. 

Hab. New Zealand (Waikouaiti), Mr. Earl. 

Family Melolonthid.e. 
Rhisotrogus Zealandicus. 

Head dark brown punctured, smooth behind ; clypeus 
yellowish punctured ; thorax dark brown in the middle, 
the sides yellowish, a smooth impression on each side ; 
elytra bulging much on the .side, with four longitudinal 
lines, the sutiu-e smooth ; head, thorax and margins of ely- 
tra with scattered brownish hairs ; legs yellowish ; fore- 
tibiae on the outside with three largish brown teeth ; un- 
der side of abdomen yellowLsh. 

In one variety the back of thorax is free from hairs ; in 
another the margin of elytra is brownish. 

Length, 5 to 5^ lines. 

Hab. New Zealand (Port Nicholson). 



Odontria, White. 

Head large ; clypeus rounded on the sides, in front 
somewhat straight, the edge slightly turned up ; antennae 
eight-jointed, first joint as long as next two taken together, 
considerably bent and clubbed at the end, with some stiff- 
ish bristles directed outwardly and a fringe of delicate hairs 
on the opposite side, second joint short, inserted on upper 
part of first before the end, thickened and truncated at the 
lip, third longish, sides almost parallel, a strong tooth di- 
rected backwards at the base on the outside, head formed 
of five leaf-like plates, first the shortest, next three equal in 
length and thickness, third thickest, somewhat convex on 
outside ; elytra almost covering the abdomen, sides close 
to the base slightly bulging ; legs with the fore-tibise with 
three teeth on the outside, at the end very oblique ; tibia; 
of hind-legs with two long spines on outside at the end, 
in the middle hollowed out and on the outside crested 
round with sharpish spines ; tarsi elongated, each joint 
with several spines at the end. 

A genus of Melolonthidse not far from Rhisotrogus. 
Described from a male. 

Odontria striata. PI. 2, /'. 5. 

Head brown, deeply punctured, behind smooth and yel- 
low ; clypeus yellow, with a brown spot behind ; thorax 
deep brown, the sides and some other spots yellowish, co- 
vered with longish yellow hairs, with some black inter- 
mixed ; elytra yellowish brown, with nine rows of blackish 
punctured lines and a few blackish spots placed irregularly 
between some of these rows, a few longish scattered hairs 
on the upper surface ; under parts of thorax covered with 
soft yellowish hairs ; under-side of abdomen yellow, varied 
with black ; legs yellow, with some blackish hairs and 
spines on tibiae ; tarsi blackish. 

Length, 1^ lines. 

Hab. New Zealand (Otago), sides of hills on flowers. 



Odontria xanthosticta. 

Head deep brown, coarsely punctured ; clypeus brown- 
ish yellow ; thorax and elytra covered with close-pressed, 
yellowish brown, silky hairs, the surface beneath which is 
deep brown, with numerous small yellow spots ; under- 
side light brown ; legs paler. 

Length, 6 lines. 

Hab. New Zealand. 



Odontria cinnamomea. 

Head deep brown ; clypeus yellowish, both sparingly 
])unctured ; the head behind with a smooth transverse line ; 
thorax and elytra of an almost uniform cinnamon brown, 
covered with yellowish brown silky hairs ; under-side of 
legs of a pale yellow ; fore-tibiae with three bluntish teeth 
at the end. 

Length, 6 lines. 

Hab. New Zealand, on bushes. 



EusoMA, White. 

Head rather large ; clypeus rounded, with the edge 
slightly turned up ; last joint of palpi the largest, oblong- 
ovate ; antennae eight-jointed, first two joints thick and 
rounded, third longish, very slightly thicker at the end, 
fourth oblong, four last joints leaf-like, the fifth the short- 
est, the last three nearly equal in length and thickness ; 
thorax transverse, about the same width as elytra, the sides 
somewhat rounded ; elytra covering the abdomen, sides 
nearly parallel ; scutellum longish ; legs long ; tarsi very 
long; claws simple ; front tibife on the outside with three 
teeth. 

A beautiful little Lamellicorn insect near Dichelony- 
cha, Kirby. 



Edsoma Rossii. pi. 2,f. 1. 

Clypeus yellow ; head in front and spot on vertex yel- 
low, space before and to the side of the eyes deep brown ; 
thorax yellow, with three longitudinal lines in the middle 
not touching the front margin, the middle straight and 
narrow, the side-lines wider and somewhat waved ; ely- 
tra yellow, with widish, deep brown reticulations ; head 
and thorax with irregular punctures ; elytra with at least 
nine rows of longitudinal stria; ; legs and under-side pale 
yellow. 

Length, 3;^ lines. 

Hab. New Zealand (Kaudi). 

Pyronota, Boisd. Calonqta, Hope. 
Pyronota festiva. 
Pyronota festiva, Boisd. Faune de VOc. II. 214. 
Melolontha festiva, Fahr. Enf. Si/.it. II. 166, 48. Olir. 
t. 5,/. 48. 

Calonota festiva, Hope, Col. Man. I. 40. 

Head green ; clypeus notched ; antennas ferruginous. 



11 



with a black club ; thorax smooth, green, shining, with a 
brown dorsal line ; elytra green, smooth, with nine striaj, 
suture brown ; body beneath testaceous, covered with 
white hairs ■ sternum porrect, somewhat horned. 

Var. Melol. laeta, Fabr. Ent. Syst. II. 166, 49, Oliv. t. 
6,f. 56. 

Above of a golden colour ; line on thorax and scutellum 
of a red colour. 

Hab. New Zealand. 

Stethaspis, Hope. Micronyx, Boisd. 
Stethaspis suturalis. pi. 2,Jiff. 7. 

Stethaspis suturalis, Hope, Col. Man. I. 104. 

Melolontha suturalis, Fabr. Ent. Si/st. II. 161, -25. Olii: 
t. 7,f. 85. 

Micronyx chlorophyllus, Boisd. Voy. Asirol. II. 189. 

Rutele chlorophylle, Boisd. I. c. Atlas, t. 6,f. 18. 

Head green, unspotted, margin raised ; thorax smooth, 
green, the margin slightly yellowish, behind bluntly an- 
gled ; elytra smooth, somewhat striated, green, suture 
yellowish ; breast and abdomen covered with white hairs ; 
legs green ; tarsi ferruginous. 

Hab. New Zealand. 

Family Tenebrionid^. 
Prioscelida, White. 
Head small, transverse ; antennae with the last six joints 
transverse and considerably wider than the others ; tho- 
rax as wide as elytra, somewhat narrower in front ; ante- 
rior tibiae at base very uan-ow and somewhat cylindrical, 
on the inside dilated, on the outer edge serrated ; nieso- 
tibiae on the outside with many short spines ; meta-tibiae 
quite smooth ; femora of anterior legs thicker than the 
others. 

Prioscelida tenebrionoides. 

Pitchy brown ; thorax very slightly margined, polished 
and very delicately punctulated ; elytra with eight longi- 
tudinal striae on each, the striae distinctly punctured ; un- 
der-side and legs rather lighter in colour than upper part. 

Length, Q^ to 7 lines. 

Hab. New Zealand (Waikouaiti), in sand and under 
stones. 

CiLIBE granulosus. 

Cilibe granulosus, Breiiie, Co.ssyph. p. 39, t. 7,f. 5. 

Clouded brown, elongated, pointed at the end, smooth ; 
head porrect, rounded ; thorax not sinuated, somewhat 
convex, rugose, with the disk narrow, rugose ; elytra gra- 
nuled, with many slight ribs ; the disk nearly obsolete. 

Hab. New Zealand, Capt. Parry. 

CiLIBE PHOSPHUGOIDES. 

Very deep brownish black ; antennae and legs slightly 
ferruginous ; head and thorax very closely punctured ; 
thorax margined ; elytra very irregularly punctured, and 
with many very obscure longitudinal striae. 

Hab. New Zealand. 

A species resembling the preceding in many respects, 
but considerably wider. 



Opatrum tuberculicostatum. pi. \,J. 1.3. 

Covered with a light brown, sponge-like matter ; thorax 
with the side-margin in front slightly sinuated; elytra at the 
base depressed, gradually elevated to beyond the middle, 
then somewhat suddenly inclined to the tip, each with four 
longitudinal costae in addition to one close to the suture, 
on which are some warts wider than the ribs, beyond the 
middle of each is a tubercle higher than the rest, one next 
the suture with this tubercle farther back than on the 
others ; antennae with the third joint longest. 

Length, 6 lines. 

Hab. New Zealand, Mus. Saunders. 

Opatrum l^vigatum. 
Opatrum Ijevigatum, Fabr. Ent. Si/st. I. 89, 5. 
Hab. New Zealand, Banks' Cabinet. 

Family Helopid^. 
Adelium harpaloides. PL \,f. 14. 
Greenish olive brown, shining ; antennae and legs ferru- 
ginous ; head and thorax very finely punctured ; the head 
with two longitudinal distant grooves, connected in front 
by a shallow transverse line ; thorax scarcely as wide as 
the elytra, very finely margined ; middle and hind femora 
with feiTuginous hairs behind. 
Hab. New Zealand (Waikouaiti). 

PsEtiDHELOPS, Guerin. 
Pseudhelops tukerculatus. 

Pseudhelops tuberculatus, Guerin, Rev. Zool. 1841, 125. 

Obscure bronze colour above, of a blackish colour be- 
neath, in form very closely approaching Helops caraboides, 
but smaller, and a little more contracted behind ; head 
and thorax very finely punctured ; two very feeble, trans- 
verse impressions on the head ; scutellum small, triangu- 
lar ; elytra oval, convex, somewhat pointed behind, very 
finely punctured, with striae of deep and oblong points ra- 
ther close to each other ; each elytron has behind and 
near the end four oblong tubercles which seem to be form- 
ed by the termination of the costaj, effaced on the disk of 
the elytra. 

Hab. Auckland Islands. 

Rygmodus, White. 

Of an oval shape, very convex ; the head and thorax 
bent down ; elytra longer and wider than the abdomen ; 
legs longish and somewhat flattened; clypeus subquadrate, 
slightly notched at the end ; antennae apparently eight- 
jointed, the first long and slender, second roundish, third, 
fourth and fifth small, appearing to form but one joint, 
sixth, seventh and eighth flattened and widened, forming a 
longish club. 

Near Amarygmus. 

Rygmodus modestus. 
Head, thorax, scutellum, under-side and legs black ; ely- 
tra of a deep metallic green, with ten longitudinal, finely 



12 



punctured striae, the marginal not reaching the base, those 
nearest the suture deepest ; head in front of eyes with two 
impressed dots, above very finely punctured ; thorax with 
the side-margin somewhat hollowed above, hind-margin 
with two distant impressed points. 

Hab. New Zealand (Port Nicholson), Capt. Parry. 

Rygmodus Pedinoides. 

Bronzy black ; elytra with ten longitudinal striae, rather 
deeply grooved, finely punctured and running up close to 
the base ; clypeus straight in front ; thorax somewhat flat- 
tened on the sides, with two distant impressed points be- 
hind. 

In this species the legs are shorter than in R. modestus, 
and the elytra are less attenuated behind. 

Hab. New Zealand (under stones). 

TlT^NA. 

Titajna, Erichson, Archiv. F. Nat. 1842, 178. 

TiT.ENA ErICHSONII. 

Head, thorax, legs and under-side of a deep black ; the 
elytra purple ; antennaj, palpi and tarsi ferruginous ; head 
and thorax ratter finely punctured, the latter with four im- 
pressed points on the disk ; each elytron with eight rows 
of punctured striaj which are greenish, the spaces between 
are somewhat raised and divided into oblong tubercles by 
short transverse grooves, which are green, but not punc- 
tured like the striae. 

Hab. New Zealand, Capt. Parry. 

Tanychilus, Newman, Ent. Mag. V. 
Tanychilus metallicus. 

Above of a deep, metallic, shining green, darkest on the 
head and thorax ; under-side of body and legs deep black- 
ish brown ; head with the eyes distant, above finely punc- 
tured, a small, smooth space in the middle ; thorax very 
smooth, with two or three impressions behind ; elytra with 
eight longitudinal, closely punctured striaj, and one much 
abbreviated close to the scutellum ; the five inner rather 
deeply grooved, the three outer quite sui)erficial. 

Hab. New Zealand (Wellington), Capt. Parry. 

Family Diaperid,«. 
Ch.erodes, White. 

Head small, wider than long ; antenna3 twelve-jointed, 
first joint thickest, oblong, second joint very smallj almost 
concealed, third joint rounded, fourth to ninth joints close 
together, somewhat cup-shaped, gradually larger ; three 
terminal joints wide, cup-shaped, nearly equal in size ; 
thoraxt ransverse, very convex across, sides rounded, some- 
what angulated at the side behind ; scutellum very small ; 
elytra ovato-quadrate, sharp-pointed at the end, much 
arched ; legs strong ; anterior tibije somewhat flattened, 
deeply sinuated on the outside and ending in a longish 
blunt lobe ; front tarsi with five hairy joints, the terminal 
widest ; tarsi of middle legs with five somewhat elongated 
joints, the basal the largest ; hind legs with four somewhat 
cylindrical joints, the basal largest and thickest ; tibia3 of 
middle and hind legs with two blunt spines at the end. 

Near Phaleria. 



Ch^rodes Trachyscelides. pi. ^,fi(j. 12. 

Pale yellowish, thickly punctured ; two large obscure 
spots on thorax ; the greater part of disk of elytra with 
small obscure spots, in some specimens confluent ; tibiae of 
middle and hind legs at the end thickly covered with short, 
somewhat rufous bristles. 

Length, 3j lines. 

Hab. New Zealand (Wellington), Mus. Saunders. 

BOLITOPHAGOS ANTARCTICUS. PI. \,f. 12. 

Thorax on the sides with three strong projecting teeth, 
the fore and hind angles also sharp, six pointed tubercles 
on the disk in two longitudinal rows, the disk itself cover- 
ed with closely placed warts ; elytra with three rows of 
distant pointed tubercles on each, the side-margin at the 
end with two or three teeth ; each elytron with eight rows 
of punctured striae. The whole insect is of a rich brown 
colour. 

Length, Sg- lines. 

Hab. New Zealand (Port Nicholson), Mus. Saunders, 
Parry. 

Pristoderus scaber. 

Pristoderus scaber, Hope, Col. Man. III. 181, &. p. 81. 
Dermestes scaber, Fabr. Syst. Ent. 57, 16. 
Hab. N. Zealand. 

Family Mordellid^. 

MORDELLA ANTARCTICA. 

Deep black ; a small spot on the edge close to the base, 
and a waved transverse band beyond the middle of each, 
white, the shoulder with a raised ridge ; imder-side of ab- 
domen v^'ith a few whitish spots ; head slightly hollowed 
in the middle in front. 

Hab. New Zealand (Port Nicholson), Capt. Parry. 

Family Melandryid^. 
Dry-ops lineata. 

Dryops lineata, Fabr. Ent. Syst. II. 75, 4. 

Lagria lineata. Fabr. Syst. Ent. 124, 3. 

Pale ochrey ; head with an obscure roundish spot on 
the vertex ; thorax with three brown lines ; elytra smooth, 
pale ochrey, with a wide brown vitta not reaching the tip ; 
beneath pale ochrey. 

Hab. New Zealand. 

This species varies much in size ; in some specimens 
there is only one bend down the middle of thorax, in 
others there is a brownish dot on each side behind. 



Dry'op.s strigipennis. 

Very pale yellowish ; tips of the mandibles black, be- 
tween the eyes brownish ; thorax with a blackish streak 
down the middle ; elytra with two longitudinal ribs down 
each, not reaching the tip. 

Hab. New Zealand, Mr. Colenso. 



13 



Family CEdemerid.e. 

Selenopalpus, White. 

Palpi of male with the last joint very large, subfalcale 
and lunate at end ; head depressed and somewhat elon- 
gated; mandibles sharp, curved, without teeth on the edge; 
antennsc eleven-jointed; second joint shortest, the other 
joints cylindrical, the terminal somewhat thickened about 
the middle and pointed at the end ; thorax somewhat lon- 
ger than broad, rather depressed above, bulging out before 
the middle ; elytra elongated ; hind legs with the femora 
bent and thickened and grooved beneath ; tibia; flattened 
posterior edge undulated ; in the female the last joint of 
palpi is not much wider than the preceding, and the 
hind-legs are simple like the preceding. 

Selenopalpus chalybeus. 

Deep steel blue ; the antennae, palpi and jaws black ; 
thorax in front and behind slightly turned up ; on the back 
with two or three depressions ; elytra finely punctured 
with two longitudinal ribs near the suture. 

Hab. New Zealand (,y $). 

Selenopalpus subviridis. 

Bluish-green ; the elytra with short depressed hairs ; 
thorax above even. 

Hab. New Zealand ( 2 ) Waimate. 

The Dryops cyanea, Fabr. Ent. Syst. II. 76. 5, seems 
closely allied to this. 

Family Bruchid^e. 
Anthribus incertus. pi. 3,Ji(/. 6. 

Thorax slightly rounded and ridged behind, in front 
pointed in the middle ; above minutely and thickly punc- 
tured and slightly grooved down the middle, sprinkled 
with greyish hairs ; elytra with nine longitudinal stria; 
deeply punctured, nearly obsolete at the end ; both the 
elytra and thorax in unrubbed specimens are most likely 
covered with grayish scaly hairs ; under-side of body 
closely covered with ash-coloured hairs ; antennfe with 
three terminal joints flattened and much dilated, the first 
eight somewhat moniliform. 

Length, 2f lines. 

Hab. N. Zealand (Port Nicholson). 



Family Brentid^. 
Brentus cylinbricornis. 

Brentus cylindricomis, Fabr. Ent. Si/st. II. 494. 9. 

Beak dull ferruginous; antennne twice the length of the 
thorax, dull ferruginous, with cylindrical joints ; thorax 
rounded, bronzy black, very much polished, not chanelled; 
elytra blunt, striated, ferruginous, with numerous short yel- 
low lines, which at the base and tip nearly form a band ; 
femora toothed. 

Hab. New Zealand. 



Brentus barbicounis. 

Brentus barbicomis, Fabr. Ent. Si/st. II. 491. 1. ^ 
Brentus assimilLs, Fabr. Ent. Syst. II. 491. 2. S 

Male. Beak very long, with a line of close-set hairs 
beneath : elytra elongated, clubbed at the end. 

Female. Beak short, smooth below. 

Hab. in the wood of Kaudi Pine. Dr. Hooker, Dr. 
Sinclair. 



Rhinaria sex-tuberculata. pi. S,Jiff. 8. 

Black, covered with gray hairs lying in different direc- 
tions ; two black streaks on thorax parallel with the sides ; 
elytra varied with black spots, continuous on the margin 
and sutures ; each of the elytra ^vith three large, somewhat 
compressed tubercles, one near the base close to the suture, 
one near the middle and rather closer to the suture than 
the side-margin, the last near the tip and closer to the mar- 
gin than the suture ; elytra with a slight tail and notch be- 
tween the suture and tail ; beak from the eye to the end 
as long as thorax, slightly thickened at the end ; antennae 
as long as the head and thorax, situated midway near the 
lower part; third joint the longest and most slender; fifth 
joint slightly thickened at the end ; the next five joints 
more so and flattened ; the terminal joint conical at the 
end ; thorax narrow in front ; legs with gray scales and 
hairs ; two rings of whitish hairs on the tibia;. 

Length, 6|- lines. 

Hab. Port Nicholson, Mr. Earl. 

This species is nearly allied to another New Zealand 
species in the Banksian cabinet, the Curculio tridens, 
Fabr. Syst. El. II. 537, 186. Oliv. Col. t. 13,/. 154 (Rhi- 
naria tridens). 



Family Curculionid^. 
Brachyolus, White. 

Antennae longish, rather stout, funiculus seven-jointed ; 
basal joint of antenna; as long as the head, but not the 
length of the other joints taken together; club ovate, 
pointed, indistinctly jointed ; beak short, considerably 
thickened ; eyes oblong, not very prominent ; thorax near- 
ly square, rather wider in front than behind ; scutellum 
not visible ; elytra taken together cordate ; at the base of 
each in the middle a tubercle directed backwards ; at the 
tip bluntish ; legs short and stout. 

This genus comes near Cyclomus and Otiorhynchus : it 
is densely covered with scales. 

Brachyolus punctatus. PL 3,Jig 5. 

Pale ochrey yellow ; thorax above rather deeply pitted, 
behind brownish yellow ; elytra with a transverse yellow- 
ish brown band, with many longitudinal lines of rather 
deep points ; on each elytron near the end are two protu- 
berances, the innermost largest. 

Length, 2^ to 3 lines. 

Hab. New Zealand (Port Nicholson), Capt. Parrj'. 



14 



Platyomida, White. 

Antennae long, slender, basal joint nearly reaching the 
front of thorax ; funiculus seven-jointed, first two joints 
longest, all the joints thickened at the end and furnished 
with longish hairs; club elongated, three-jointed, last joint 
pointed ; thorax not much wider than the head, nearly as 
wide as long ; scutellum small, rounded at the end ; ely- 
tra widest just beyond the middle, each elytron pointed at 
the end ; legs longish, femora somewhat clubbed near the 
end ; tibiae of fore and middle legs slightly bent at the end ; 
tarsi with the second joint small. 

This new genus approaches some of the species of Pla- 
tyoraus. 



Hoplocnp:me cinnamomea. 

Rich chestnut brown ; head gi-adually wider behind, 
beak ferruginous, between the eyes some fulvous, chestnut 
scales ; thorax thickly clothed with fulvous chestnut 
scales, with a few blackish hairs intermixed ; scutellum 
pale yellow ; elytra covered with fulvous chestnut scales, 
the sides ferruginous, the back with many shallow, longi- 
tudinal lines, with impressed points ; many elongated, 
palish hairs, running somewhat in lines and mixed with 
the scales on the upper part of the elytra ; legs ferrugi- 
nous, smooth. 

Length, 2^ lines. 

Hab. New Zealand, — Colenso Esq. 



Platyomida binodis. 

Grayish, with pink and purplish reflections ; thorax 
grooved in the middle, somewhat warty above ; elytra with 
many longitudinal rows of deepish points, each with a 
large, somewhat compressed tubercle near the suture, be- 
yond the middle. 

Length, 5 J lines. 

Hab. New Zealand, Capt. Parry. 



Otiorhvnchus guiseus. 

Grayish ; beak in the middle above with a short, smooth 
keel ; thorax somewhat rounded, rather deeply punctured, 
deep brown, with gi-ayish scales ; elytra covered with 
small, gray scales, the shoulder somewhat bluntly keeled, 
the back with longitudinal rows of punctures placed some- 
what in pairs, and with small hairs proceeding from the in- 
terstices ; tibiae with longish, white hairs. 

Length, S^ lines. 

Hab. New Zealand, — Colenso Esq. 

Rhadinosomus acuminatus. 

Rhadinosomus acuminatus, Schonh. Cure. VI. 473. 

Curculio acuminatus, Fabr. Syst. Ent. 152, 132. Oliv. 
PL 11,/. 139. 

Leptosomus acuminatus, Schonh. Cure. l\. 169. Waterh. 
Trans. Ent. Soc. U. 192. PL 17,/. 2. 

Hab. New Zealand. 



HoPLOCNEME, White. 

Antennas moderate, scape reaching to beyond the eye, 
somewhat beut, very little thickened at the end ; funiculus 
six-jointed, first joint thickest, the next five somewhat cup- 
shaped, the club nearly as long as the funiculus, four- 
jointed, two first joints cup-shaped, last joint bluntish ; 
beak shortish, thick, depressed, antennal groove short, 
transverso-oblique, beginning near the end of beak ; eyes 
largish and prominent ; thorax somewhat strangulated in 
front, sides rather straight ; scutellum distinct, sides paral- 
lel, end rounded ; elytra straightish at the base, elongated, 
sides nearly parallel ; intermediate and hind pairs of legs 
with a strong, compressed tooth near the end of the femo- 
ra ; tibia; slightly curved. 

Not far removed from Orchestes. 



HOPLOCNEME HOOKEEI. 

Bluish black, with ferruginous legs ; head behind the 
eyes wider than the thorax in front, beak smoothish ; 
head thickly punctured above ; scape of antennas pale fer- 
ruginous ; thorax thickly punctured above, below on each 
side with a widish line of white, close-pressed hairs ; ely- 
tra without scales or hairs, with many longitudinal lines 
with impressed dots, the interstices with short, transverse 
lines. 

Length, 2 lines. 

Hab. New Zealand. 

Okopterus, White. 
Antennae longish, scape just reaching to the eye, straight- 
ish ; funiculus seven-jointed, the last joints nearly equal in 
thickness and close together, club ovate, joints indistinct; 
beak long, considerably curved, cylindrical, a groove on 
the sides for the scape of antennas; thorax gradually wider 
behind, the sides nearly straight, in front and behind ab- 
rupt ; elytra at the base straight, with a conical protube- 
rance in the middle, elytra rounded at the end ; legs long- 
ish ; femora very slightly thickened near the end ; tibiiE 
straight. 

Okopterus coniger. PL S,Jig. 15. 

Pale ferruginous ; beak and head punctured ; thorax 
finely striated transversely ; elytra rather coarsely punc- 
tured in lines, with a strong, conical, pointed protuberance 
nearer the margin than the suture, smooth and free fi'om 
hairs ; legs paler than upper parts. 

Length, 2 lines 

Hab. N. Zealand. 

ScoLOPTERUs, White. 
Antennae situated in a slight depression on the side of 
beak near the tip, moderate, slender, scape reaching be- 
yond the eyes, as long as the rest of the antennae ; funicu- 
lus seven-jointed, first joint equal to the following two 
taken together, very distinct from them and thickened at 
the end, the others gradually larger as they approach the 
club, which is very long and very distinctly three-jointed, 
the first two joints cup-shaped ; beak slightly bent, some- 
what depressed ; eyes flattened ; thorax gradually wider 
behind, the sides perfectly straight, in fi-ont and behind 



15 



truncated, longer than wide ; elytra spined ; femora of 
hind legs with a strong, compressed spine on the under- 
side near the end ; tibiae considerably bent at the base. 

SCOLOPTERDS TETRACANTHUS. 

Head and thorax deep black ; elytra greenish bronze, 
the spines pui-phsh black, the femora purplish black, the 
remainder of the legs purplish feiTUginous ; head and tho- 
rax quite smooth ; elytra very deeply punctured in lines, 
the shoulders produced into a thick angular spine directed 
outwards and very slightly upwards ; each elytron about 
the middle with a strong spine near the suture directed 
somewhat backwards and tufted with hair at the end ; the 
intermediate femora with a compressed spine below near 
the end. 

Length, 3f lines. 

Hab. New Zealand (Port Nicholson). 

SCOLOPTERUS PENICILLATUS. PI. 3,^(/. 10. 

Head and thorax black, the latter with a fine purplish 
hue ; elytra of a glossy olive brown ; legs all black ; head 
and thorax very smooth ; elytra punctured in lines, but 
not deeply, the shoulder with a bluntish, not very promi- 
nent angle ; about the middle of the elytra a high, regular 
conical protuberance, blunt at the top and with a pointed 
tuft of black hairs ; middle femora with a distinct tooth 
near the end. 

Length, 2i lines. 

Hab. New Zealand (Port Nicholson). 

SCOLOPTERUS BIDENS. PL S,Jll/. 12. 

Curculio bidens, Fahr. Syst. Ent. 136, 51. Oliv. Col. 
t. 10,/. 113. 

Hab. New Zealand. 

Ancistropterus, White. 
Head and thorax much nan-ower than the elytra at the 
base ; eyes verj- large ; beak long, very slightly curved, 
somewhat thickened at the end ; mandibles prominent, 
thick and somewhat bent at the end; antennae very long, 
springing from a depression on the upper side of the 
back near the end, the scape reaching a little beyond 
the eyes, nearly as long as the rest of antennas, se- 
cond joint as long as third and fourth together, and 
at the end double their thickness, club long, somewhat 
pointed at the end, formed apparently of three joints, 
the two last closely united ; elytra together triangular, the 
shoulders hooked, the hook standing out, each elytron 
about the middle with a strong, somewhat erect spine, 
bristly at the end ; legs long, femora slightly clavate, with 
a small tooth below near the end. 

Ancistropterus qcadrispinosos. PI. i,fig. 14. 
Head and thorax black, rather coarsely puncttired ; au- 
tennce obscm-e, scape ferruginous ; thorax down the mid- 
dle with a band of yellowish hairs ; elytra brownish red, 
with longitudinal lines formed of deepish dots, the spines 



black, a narrow, straight line of white hairs runs from 
behind the middle spines to the tip of each elytron ; under 
side of body black ; legs light ferruginous. 

Length, 2| lines. 

Hab. Port Nicholson, New Zealand, Capt. Parry. 

PSEPHOLAX. 

Psepholax, White, DieffenbaclCs New Zeal. H. 27.5. 

Beak short, perpendicularly bent down, wide, somewhat 
dilated at the end ; antennae spring from the end of a deep 
groove, twelve -jointed, first joint as long as the next seven 
joints taken together, the tip nearly, if not quite, reaching 
the eye, very smooth and gradually thickened to the end, the 
second joint minute, the five preceding the club some- 
what moniliform, club large, oval, pointed at the end (of 
four joints ?), covered with minute hairs ; eyes roundish, 
of an ovate elhptical form ; thorax behind nearly as wide 
as the elytra at the base ; elytra widest a little behind the 
base ; legs rather stout, femora thickened, those of the 
first pair with the margin sinuated, bulging into a broad, 
blunt tooth ; tibiae of second pair with a strong tooth near 
the end. 

Psepholax sulcatus. PI. 3, Jig. 1. 

Psepholax sulcatus, Wliite, I. c. 

Deep pitchy, brownish black ; thorax above with three 
distinct, brownish ashy lines, the lateral ones broadest and 
somewhat irregular, these lines are formed by distinct, co- 
loured scales ; elytra ribbed, each with at least six raised 
ribs, two of which meet at the end, some of them have 
erect scales along the irregular edge, between each is a 
line of impressed points, the sides of the elytra at the 
broadest part are very hairy ; legs punctate and like the 
under surface of the body, with brownish ashy hairs, long- 
est on the posterior part of the tibiee and tarsi. 

Length, about 4 lines. 

Hab. New Zealand, Dr. Sinclair. 

Psepholax barbifrons. 

Beak with two longitudinal rows of ferruginous hairs on 
the margin directed forwards ; thorax thickly punctured ; 
elytra narrower than in P. sulcatus, with eight longitudinal 
striae, the intervening spaces flat at the base, two of these 
at the tip raised and crested with light brown scales; whole 
insect deep brown, mixed with lighter coloured scales. 

Length, 4 lines. 

Hab. New Zealand, Mr. Earl. 

Psepholax coron.atus. PI. 3, Jig. 4. 

Black ; thorax punctured, with three interrupted lines 
of grayish scales ; elytra very slightly grooved, the base 
with many slight, transverse rugosities, on the posterior 
half a circle of erect spines, behind which are two or three 
rows of shorter spines, near the base a transverse band of 
grayish scales, under side of body covered with short, 
gi-ayish hairs. 

Length, 4 lines. 

Hab. New Zealand (Waikouaiti), in the centre of a tree, 
Mr. Earl. 



16 



Oreda, White. 

Antennae with the first joint scarcely reaching to the eye, 
somewhat bent and with a longish club at the end, second 
joint small, rounded (others broken off) ; head not so long 
as the thorax, beak depressed, with two very distinct, broad 
mandibles at the end ; antennae spring from the end of a 
groove, which begins before the middle of the beak and ex- 
tends to the eye ; eyes round, moderate, flattened, situated 
at the base of beak in an angle, and slightly directed for- 
wards ; under part of head large, bulging and rounded ; 
thorax in front above nan-owed and tubular, sides much 
rounded, behind truncated and somewhat bisinuated ; ely- 
tra in front of about the same width as the thorax behind, 
near the a