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Full text of "The zoology of the voyage of H.M.S. Beagle ... during the years 1832-1836"

'l.r: K : 






" '"——J 



THE 



ZOOLOGY 



OF 



THE VOYAGE OF H.M.S. BEAGLE, 

UNDER THE COMMAND OF CAPTAIN FITZROY, R.N., 

DURING THE YEARS 

1832 TO 1836. 

PUBLISHED WITH THE APPROVAL OF 
THE LORDS COMMISSIONERS OF HER MAJESTY'S TREASURY. 

iEUtttU avia ^upcrtntcnUeU bg 
CHARLES DARWIN, ESQ. M.A. F.R.S. Sec. G.S. 

NATURALIST TO THE EXPEDITION. 



*^^^^^y\ 




PART. HI. 

BIRDS, 

BY 

JOHN GOULD, ESQ. F.L.S. 



LONDON: 

PUBLISHED BY SMITH, ELDER AND CO. 65, CORNHILL. 

MDCCCXLI. 



O t -is/ J 



AK^H-I 



LONDON : 

PRTNTED nV STEWART AND MURRAY, 

OLD BAILEY. 



B I E D S, 

JOHN GOULD, ESQ. F.L.S. 



A NOTICE OF THEIR HABITS AND RANGES, 

BY CHARLES DARWIN, Esq. JVI.A. F.R.S. Sec. Geolog. Soc. 

AND WITH AN ANATOMICAL APPENDIX, 
BY T. C. EYTON, ESQ, F.L.S. 

ILLUSTRATED BY NUMEROUS COLOURED ENGRAVINGS. 



CORRIGENDA. 



I am indebted to Mr. G. R. Gray for the following remarks and corrections :— 



Page 13, to Milvago ocrocephalus, Spix. add 

Polyborus ocrocephalus, Jard. Sf Selbi/'s III. t. S. 

Alter 7, 8, 9, & 10, to 5, G, 7, & 8. 
Page 15, Milvago leucuius, add 

Falco Australis, Jard. Sf Selbi/'s III. Orn. n. s. 
pi. 24. 
Page 49, Serpophaga, Gould, is probably synonymous with 

Euscarthmus, Pr. Max. 
Page 56, Agriornis, Gould, is synonymous with Dasycephala 
of Swainson, and Tamnolanius, of Lesson ; the 
species therefore should be 
sp. 1. D.Vividas. G.R.Gray. 

Thamnophilus hvidus, Kitll. Voy.de Chili, pi. 1 . 
Tyrannus gutturalis, Eyd. 8f Gerv. Ifc. 
sp. 2. D. striata, G. fi. Gt-ay. 
Agr. striatus, Gould. 
Agr. micropterus, juv. Gould, sp. 3. 
Page 57, sp. 4. D. maritima, G. R- Gray. 

Agr. maritimus, G. R. Gray, Sec. 
Page ()(!. The generic appellation of Opetiorhynchus, was 
adopted after the subjection of Mr. Gould ; since 
its publication, however, I have considered that it 
might cause confusion with Furnarius, of Vieillot, 
as it is Temminck's name for the identical same 
division, therefore only a synonym, and am on 



that ground induced to change and propose the 
name of Cinclodes, which has been adopted by a 
Continental writer. The species should be altered 
thus: — 
Page 66, Sp. 1. Cinclodes vulgaris, G.R. Gray. 
Page 67, sp. 2. C. Patagonicus, G. R. Gray, List of the 
Genera of Birds. 
sp. 3. C. antarcticus, G. R. Gray. 
Cinclodes fuliginosus. Less. 

Page 68, sp. 4. C. nigrofumosus, G. R. Gray. 
Page 69, Eremobius, being previously employed, it is changed 
to Enicornis, G. R. Gray. The species to 
En. phcenicurus, G. R. Gray, List of the Genera 
of Birds. 
Page 70, Rhinomya, being also previously employed ; it is 
therefore changed to Rhinocrypta, G. R. Gray. 
The species to 

R. lanceolata, G. R. Gray. 
Page 76, for Synallaxis major, Gould, read Anumbius acuti- 
caudatus, G.R.Gray. 
Furnarius annumbi, Vieill. 
L'Anumbi, Azara, No. 222. 
Anthus acuticaudatus. Less. 
Anumbius anthoides, D'Orli. Sf Lefr. 
Page 94, Fringilla fruticeti, Kittl. gives place to 

Fringilla erythrorhyncha. Less. Voy. Thetis, ii. p. 324. 



LIST OF PLATES. 



Plate I. 

II. 

III. 

IV. 

V. 

VI. 

VII. 

VIII. 

IX. 

X. 



Milvago albogularis. 
Craxire.x Galapagoensis. 
Otus Galapagoensis. 
Strix punctatissinia. 
Progne modestus. 
Pyrocephalu.s parvirostris. 
nanus. 



Tyrannula magnirostris. 
Liclienops erythropterus. 
Fliivicola Azarrfi. 
^j ( Xolniis variegata, in place of 
\ Tasnioptera variegata. 
XII. Agriomis micropterus. 



XIII. 

XIV. 

XV. 

XVI. 

XVII. 

XVIII. 

XIX 



leucurus. 



Pachyraraphus albescens. 



Mimus trifasciatus. 

melanotis. 

parvulus. 



XX 

XXI. 
XXII. 

XXIII. 
XXIV. 



j Uppucerthia dumctoria, in place of 
i Upercerthia dumctaria. 
f Opetiorhynchus nigrofumosus, 
•< in jAace of 

' Opetiorhynchus lanceolatus. 

Eremobius pha?nicurus. 
I Anumbius acuticaudatus, in place of 
\ Syiiallaxis major. 
Synallaxis rufogularis. 
flavogularis. 



Plate XXV. Limnornis curvirostris. 

XXVI. rectirostris. 

XXVII. Dendrodamus leucostenuis. 
XXVIII. Sylvicola aureola. 
XXIX. Araraodramus longicaudatus. 
■jr-jr-jj / Ammodramus Maninibe, in place of 

i Ammodramus xanthornus. 
XXXI. Passer Jagoensis. 
XXXII. Chlorospiza melanodera. 

XXXIII. xanthogranima. 

XXXTV J •A^gJS'i!* striata, in place of 
\ Tanagra Darwinii. 
XXXV. Pipilo personata. 
XXXVI. Geospiza magnirostris. 

XXX VIJ. strenua. 

XXXVIII. fortis. 

XXXIX. parvula. 

XL. Camarhj^nchus psittacuhis. 

XLI. crassirostris. 

XLII. Cactornis scandens. 

XLIII. assimilis. 

XLIV. Certhidea olivacea. 
XLV. Xanthornus flaviceps. 
XL VI. Zenaida Galapagoensis. 
XLVII. Rhea Darwinii. 
XLVIII. Zapornia notata. 

XLIX. spilonota. 

L. Anser nielanopterus. 



ADVERTISEMENT. 



When I presented my collection of Birds to the Zoological Society, Mr. 
Gould kindly undertook to furnish me with descriptions of the new species and 
names of those already known. This he has performed, but owing to the hurry, 
consequent on his departure for Australia,— -an expedition from which the science 
of Ornithology will derive such great advantages, — he was compelled to leave 
some part of his manuscript so far incomplete, that without the possibility of 
personal communication with him, I was left in doubt on some essential points. 
Mr. George Robert Gray, the ornithological assistant in the Zoological depart- 
ment of the British Museum, has in the most obliging manner undertaken to 
obviate this difficulty, by furnishing me with information with respect to some 
parts of the general arrangement, and likewise on that most intricate subject, — 
the knowledge of what species have already been described, and the use of proper 
generic terms. I shall endeavour in every part of the text to refer to Mr. G. R. 
Gray's assistance, where I have used it. As some of Mr. Gould's descriptions 
appeared to me brief, I have enlarged them, but have always endeavoured to retain 
his specific character; so that, by this means, I trust I shall not throw any 
obscurity on what he considers the essential character in each case ; but at the 
same time, I hope, that these additional remarks may render the work more 
complete. 

The accompanying illustrations, which are fifty in number, were taken from 
sketches made by Mr. Gould himself, and executed on stone by Mrs. Gould, with 

B 



11 ADVERTISEMENT. 

that admirable success, which has attended all her works. They are all of the 
natural size with the exception of four raptorial birds, a goose and a species of 
Rhea. As the dimensions of these latter birds are given, their proportional 
reduction will readily be seen. I had originally intended to have added the initial 
letter of my name to the account of the habits and ranges, and that of Mr. Gould's 
to the description of the genera and species ; but as it may be known that he is 
responsible for the latter, and myself for the former, this appeared to me useless ; 
and I have, therefore, thought it better to incorporate all general remarks in my 
own name, stating on every occasion my authority, so that wherever the personal 
pronoun is used it refers to myself. Finally, I must remark, that after the 
excellent dissertation, now in the course of publication, on the habits and distri- 
bution of the birds of South America by M. Alcide D'Orbigny, in which he has 
combined his own extended observations with those of Azara, my endeavour to 
add anything to our information on this subject, may at first be thought super- 
fluous. But as during the Beagle's voyage, I visited some portions of America 
south of the range of M. D'Orbigny's travels, I shall relate in order the few facts, 
which I have been enabled to collect together ; and these, if not new, may at least 
tend to confirm former accounts. I have, however, thought myself obliged to omit 
some parts, which otherwise I should have given ; and, after having read the pub- 
lished portion of M. D'Orbigny's great work, I have corrected some errors, into 
which I had fallen. I have not, however, altered any thing simply because it 
differs from what that gentleman may have written ; but only where I have been 
convinced that my means of observation were inferior to his. 



BIRDS. 



Family— VULTURIDiE. 

Sarcoramphus gryphus. Bonap. 

Vultur grj'phus, Linn. 

, Hunih. Zoolog. p. 31. 

Sarcoramphus Condor, D'Orhlgny. Voy. Ois. 
Condor of the inhabitants of South America. 

The Condor is known to have a wide range, being found on the west coast of 
South America, from the Strait of Magellan, throughout the range of the Cordil- 
lera, as far, according to M, D'Orbigny, as 8° north latitude. On the Patagonian 
shore, the steep cliff near the mouth of the Rio Negro, in latitude 41°, was the 
most northern point where I ever saw these birds, or heard of their existence ; 
and they have there wandered about four hundred miles from the great central line 
of their habitation in the Andes. Further south, among the bold precipices which 
form the head of Port Desire, they are not uncommon ; yet only a few stragglers 
occasionally visit the sea-coast. A line of cliff near the mouth of the Santa 
Cruz is frequented by these birds, and about eighty miles up the river, where the 
sides of the valley were formed by steep basaltic precipices, the Condor again 
appeared, although in the intermediate space not one had been seen. From 
these and similar facts, I believe that the presence of this bird is chiefly determined 
by the occurrence of perpendicular cliffs. In Patagonia the Condors, either 
by pairs or many together, both sleep and breed on the same overhanging 
ledges. In Chile, however, during the greater part of the year, they haunt the 
lower country, near the shores of the Pacific, and at night several roost in 
one tree ; but in the early part of summer they retire to the most inaccessible 
parts of the inner Cordillera, there to breed in peace. 

B 2 



4 ZOOLOGY OF THE VOYAGE OF THE BEAGLE. 

With respect to their propagation, I was told by the country people in 
Chile, that the Condor makes no sort of nest, but in the months of November 
and December, lays two large white eggs on a shelf of bare rock. Certainly, on 
the Patagonian coast, I could not see any sort of nest among the cliffs, where 
the young ones were standing. I was told that the yoimg Condors could 
not fly for a whole year, but this probably was a mistake, since M. D'Orbigny 
says they take to the wing in about a month and a half after being hatched. 
On the fifth of March (corresponding to our September), I saw a young bird at 
Concepcion, which, though in size only little inferior to a full-grown one, was 
completely covered by down, like that of a gosling, but of a blackish colour. 
I can, however, scarcely believe that this bird could have used, for some months 
subsequently, its wings for flight. After the period when the young Condor 
can fly, apparently as well as the old birds, they yet remain (as 1 observed 
in Patagonia) both roosting at night on the same ledge, and hunting by day 
with their parents : but before the young bird has the ruff round its neck 
white, it may often be seen hunting by itself. At the mouth of the Santa Cruz, 
during part of April and May, a pair of old birds might be seen every day, 
either perched on a certain ledge, or sailing about in company with a single 
young one, which latter, though full fledged, had not its ruff white. 

The Condors generally live by pairs ; but among the basaltic cliffs of the 
plains, high up the river Santa Cruz, I found a spot where scores must usually 
haunt. They were not shy; and on coming suddenly to the brow of the precipice, 
it was a fine sight to see between twenty and thirty of these great* birds start 
heavily from their resting place, and wheel away in majestic circles. From the 
large quantity of dung on the rocks, they must have long frequented this cliff; 
and probably they both roost and breed there. Having gorged themselves with 
carrion on the plains below, they retire to these favourite ledges to digest their 
food in quietness. From these facts, the Condor must, to a certain degree be 
considered, like the Gallinazo {Cathartes atratus), a gregarious bird. In this part 
of the country they live almost entirely on the guanacoes, which either have 
died a natural death, or, as more commonly happens, have been killed by the 
pumas. I believe, from what I saw in Patagonia, that they do not, on ordinary 
occasions, extend their daily excursions to any great distance from their regular 
sleeping places. 

The condors may oftentimes be seen at a great height, soaring over a certain 
spot in the most graceful spires and circles. On some occasions I am sure that they 
do this for their sport ; but on others, the Chileno countryman tells you, that they 
are watching a dying animal, or the puma devouring its prey. If the condors 

* I measured a specimen, which I killed there : it was from tip to tip of wing, eight and a half feet ; and 
from end of beak to end of tail four feet. 



BIRDS. 



glide down, and then suddenly all rise together, the Chileno knows that it is the 
puma, which, watching the carcass, has sprung out to drive away the robbers. 
Besides feeding on carrion, the condors frequently attack young goats and 
lambs. Hence the shepherds train their dogs, the moment the enemy passes 
over, to run out, and looking upwards, to bark violently. The Chilenos destroy 
and catch numbers ; two methods are used : one is to place a carcass within an 
enclosure of sticks on a level piece of ground, and when the condors have gorged 
themselves to gallop up on horseback to the entrance, and thus enclose them : for 
when this bird has not space to run, it cannot give its body sufficient momentum 
to rise from the ground. The second method is to mark the trees in which, fre- 
quently to the number of five or six, they roost together, and then at night to climb 
up and noose them ; they are such heavy sleepers, as I have myself witnessed, that 
this is not a difficult task. At Valparaiso I have seen a living condor sold for 
sixpence, but the common price is eight or ten shillings. One which I saw 
brought in for sale, had been lashed with a rope, and was much injured ; but 
the moment the line was cut by which its bill was secured, it began, although 
surrounded by people, ravenously to tear a piece of carrion. In a garden at the 
same place, between twenty and thirty of these birds were kept alive; they 
were fed only once a week, yet they appeared to be in pretty good health.* 
The Chileno countrymen assert, that the condor will live and retain its powers 
between five and six weeks without eating : I cannot answer for the truth of this 
fact, but it is a cruel experiment, which very likely has been tried. 

When an animal is killed in this country, it is well known that the condors, 
like other carrion vultures, gain the intelligence and congregate in a manner 
which often appears inexplicable. In most cases, it must not be overlooked, 
that the birds have discovered their prey, and have picked the skeleton clean, 
before the flesh is in the least degree tainted. Remembering the opinion of 
M. Audubon on the deficient smelling powers of such birds,! I tried in the above 
mentioned garden, the following experiment. The condors were tied, each by a 
rope, in a long row at the bottom of a wall. Having folded a piece of meat in 
white paper, I walked backwards and forwards, carrying it in my hand at the 

* I noticed that several hours before any of the Condors died, all the lice with which they are infested, 
crawled to the outside feathers. I was told, that this always happened. 

t In the case of the Cathartes Aura, Mr. Owen, in some notes read before the Zoological Society, (See 
Magazine of Nat. Hist. New Ser. vol. i. p. 638.) has demonstrated from the developed form of the olfactory 
nerves, that this bird must possess an acute sense of smell. It was mentioned on the same evening, m a com- 
munication from Mr. Sells, that on two occasions, persons in the West Indies having died, and their bodies not 
being buried till they smelt offensively, these birds congregated in numbers on the roof of the house. This 
instance appears quite conclusive, as it was certain, from the construction of the buildings, that they must have 
gained the intelligence by the sense of smell alone, and not by that of sight. It would appear from the various 
facts recorded, that carrion-feeding hawks possess both senses, in a very high degree. 



6 ZOOLOGY OF THE VOYAGE OF THE BEAGLE. 

distance of about three yards from them ; but no notice whatever was taken of it. I 
then threw it on the ground within one yard of an old cock bird ; he looked at it for a 
moment with attention, but then regarded it no more. With a stick I pushed it 
closer and closer, until at last he touched it with his beak : the paper was then 
instantly torn off with fury, and at the same moment every bird in the long row 
began struggling and flapping its wings. Under the same circumstances, it 
would have been quite impossible to have deceived a dog. 

When the condors in a flock are wheeling round and round any spot, their 
flight is beautiful. Except when they rise from the ground, I do not recollect 
ever to have seen one flap its wings. Near Lima, I watched several of these 
birds for a quarter and half-an-hour, without once taking off my eyes. They 
moved in large curves, sweeping in circles, descending and ascending without 
once flapping. As several glided close over my head, I intently watched, from 
an oblique position, the separate and terminal feathers of the wing ; if there 
had been the least vibratory movement, their outlines would have been blended 
together, but they were seen distinct against the blue sky. The head and neck 
were moved frequently, and apparently with force. If the bird wished to 
descend, the wings were for a moment collapsed ; and then, when again 
expanded with an altered inclination, the momentum gained by the rapid 
descent, seemed to urge the bird upwards, with the even and steady movement 
of a paper kite. It was a beautiful spectacle thus to behold these great vultures 
hour after hour, without any apparent exertion, wheeling and gliding over moun- 
tain and river. 

In the garden at Valparaiso, where so many condors were kept alive, I 
observed that all the hens had the iris of their eyes bright red, but the cocks 
yellowish-brown. In a young bird, whose back was brown, and ruff not white, 
(but which must have been at least nearly a year old, as it was then the spring) I 
observed that the eye was dark brown : upon examination after death, this 
proved to be a female, and therefore I suppose the colour of the iris changes at 
the same time with the plumage. 



BIEDS. 



1. Cathartes atratus. Rich, and Swain. 

Cathartes urubu, UOrhifjny. Voy. Ois. 
Vultur atratus, Bartram, p. 287. 

jota, Jardine's "Wilson, vol. iii. p. 236. 

, Bonaparte's List, p. 1. 

Gallinazo or Cuervo of the Spanish inhabitants of America; and Black Vulture or Carrion Crow of the 
English of that continent. 

These birds, I believe, are never found further south, than the neighbourhood 
of the Rio Negro, in latitude 41°: I never saw one in southern Patagonia, or 
in Tierra del Fuego. They appear to prefer damp places, especially the vicinity 
of rivers ; and thus, although abundant both at the Rio Negro and Colorado, 
they are not found on the intermediate plains. Azara* states, that there existed 
a tradition in his time, that on the first arrival of the Spaniards in the Plata, 
these birds were not found in the neighbourhood of Monte Video, but that 
they subsequently followed the inhabitants from more northern districts. 
M. Al. D'Orbigny, in reference to this statement, observes that these vultures, 
although common on the northern bank of the Plata, and likewise on the 
rivers south of it, are not found in the neighbourhood of Buenos Ayres, where 
the immense slaughtering establishments are attended by infinite numbers of 
Polybori and gulls. M. D'Orbigny supposes that their absence is owing to the 
scarcity of trees and bushes in the Pampas; but this view, I think, will hardly 
hold good, inasmuch as the country near Bahia Blanca, where the Gallinazo 
(together with the carrion-feeding gull) is common, is as bare, if not more so, 
than the plains near Buenos Ayres. I have never seen the Gallinazo in Chile ; 
and Molina, who was aware of the difference between the C. atratus and C. aura, 
has not noticed it ; yet, on the opposite side of the Cordillera, near Mendoza, 
it is common. They do not occur in Chiloe, or on the west coast of the con- 
tinent south of that island. In Wilson's Ornithology it is said that " the carrion 
crow (as this bird is called in the United States) is seldom found on the 
Atlantic to the northward of Newbern, lat. 35° North Carolina." But in 
Richardson's " Fauna Boreali-Americana," it is mentioned, on the authority of 
Mr. David Douglas, that on the Pacific side of the continent, it is common on 
the marshy islands of the Columbia, and in the neighbourhood of Lewis's and 
Clark's rivers (4-5° — 47° N.) It has, therefore, a wider range in the northern 

* Voyage dans TAnierique Meridionale, vol. iii. p. 24. 



8 ZOOLOGY OF THE VOYAGE OF THE BEAGLE. 

than in the southern half of the continent. These vultures certainly are 
gregarious ; for they seem to have pleasure in each other's society, and are not 
solely brought together by the attraction of a common prey. On a fine day, 
a flock may often be seen at a great height ; each bird wheeling round and 
round in the most graceful evolutions. This is evidently done for their sport ; 
or, perhaps, is connected (for a similar habit may sometimes be observed dur- 
ing the breeding season amongst our common rooks) with their matrimonial 
alliances. 

2. Cathartes aura. Illi. 

Vultur aura, Linn. 

, Jardine's Wihon, vol. iii. p. 226. 

Vultur jota, Molina, Compendio de la Hist, del Eeyno de Chile, vol i. p. 296. 
Turkey-buzzard and Carrion Crow of the English in America. 

This bird has a wide geographical range, being found from 55° S. to Nova 
Scotia (according to Wilson, in Jardine's edition, vol. iii. p. 231,) in 45° N. ; 
or exactly one hundred degrees of latitude. Its lesser range in Northern than 
in Southern America is probably due to the more excessive nature of the climate 
in the former hemisphere. It is said to be partly migatory during winter, in the 
Northern and even in the Middle States, and likewise on the shores of the Pacific, 
The C. aura is found in the extreme parts of Tierra del Fuego, and on the 
indented coast, covered with thick forests, of West Patagonia, (but not on the 
arid plains of Eastern Patagonia,) in Chile, where it is called Jote, in Peru, in 
the West Indies ; and, according to Wilson, it remains even during winter, in 
New Jersey and Delaware, latitude 40°. It and one of the family of Polyborinae 
are the only two carrion-feeding hawks, which have found their way to the 
Falkland Islands. The Turkey buzzard, as it is generally called by the English, 
may be recognized at a great distance from its lofty, soaring and most graceful 
flight. It is generally solitary, or, at most, sweeps over the country in pairs. 
In Tierra del Fuego, and on the west coast of Patagonia, it must live exclusively 
on what the sea throws up, and on dead seals : wherever these animals in 
herds were sleeping on the beach, there this vulture might be seen, patiently 
standing on some neighbouring rock. At the Falkland Islands it was tolerably 
common ; but sometimes there would not be a single one near the settlement for 
several days together, and then many would suddenly appear. They were 
usually shy ; a disposition which is remarkable, as being difierent from that 
of almost every other bird in this Archipelago. May we infer from this 
that they are migratory, like those of the northern hemisphere ? In a female 
specimen killed there, the skin of the head was intermediate in colour between 



BIRDS. 9 

" scarlet and cochineal red,"* and the iris dark-coloured. D'Orbigny describes 
the iris as being bright scarlet; whilst Azara says it is "jaune leger." Is this 
difference owing to the sex and age, as certainly is the case with the condors ? 
As a considerable degree of confusion has prevailed in the synonyms of this 
and the foregoing species, caused apparently by a doubt to which of them. 
Molina applied the name of Jote, I would wish to call attention to the fact, that 
at the present time the C. aura in Chile goes by the name of Jote. Moreover, 
I think Molina's description by itself might have decided the question ; he says, 
the head of the Vultur jota is naked, and covered only with a wrinkled and 
reddish (roxiza) skin. 



Family— FALCONID^. 

Sub-Fam. POLYBORIN^, Swains. 
(Caracaridaj, D'Orbigny.) 

PoLYBORus Brasiliensis. Sivuins. 

Polyborus vulgaris, V'u'illot. 

Falco Brasiliensis Auctorum ; Caracara of Azara ; Tharu of Molina ; and Carranciia of the inhabitants of 
La Plata. 

This is one of the commonest birds in South America, and has a wide geographi- 
cal range. It is found in Mexico and in the West Indies. It is also, according 
to M. Audubon, an occasional visitant to the Floridas ; it takes its name from 
Brazil, but is no where so common as on the grassy savannahs of La Plata. 
It generally follows man, but is sometimes found even on the most desert plains 
of Patagonia : in the northern part of that region, numbers constantly attended 
the line of road between the Rio Negro and the Colorado, to devour the carcasses 
of the animals which chanced to perish from fatigue. Although abundant on the 
open plains of this eastern portion of the continent, and likewise on the rocky 
and barren shores of the Pacific, nevertheless it inhabits the borders of the damp and 
impervious forests of Tierra del Fuego and of the broken coast of West Patagonia, 
even as far south as Cape Horn. The Carranchas (as the Polyborus Brasiliensis 
is called in La Plata) together with the P. chimango] , attend in great numbers 
the estancias and slaughtering houses in the neighbourhood of the Plata. If an 

* In this work, whenever the particular name of any colour is given, or it is placed within commas, it 
implies, that it is taken from comparison with Patrick Syme's edition of Werner's Nomenclature of Colours, 
t Mill-ago Chbnanffo of tliis work. 

C 



10 ZOOLOGY OF THE VOYAGE OF THE BEAGLE. 

animal dies in the plain, the Cathartes atratus or Gallinazo commences the feast, 
and then these two carrion-feeding hawks pick the bones clean. Although 
belonging to closely allied genera, and thus commonly feeding together, they are 
far from being friends. When the Carrancha is quietly seated on the branch of a 
tree, or on the ground, the Chimango often continues flying backwards and for- 
wards for a long time, up and down in a semicircle, trying each time, at the bottom 
of the curve, to strike its larger relative. The Carrancha takes little notice, except 
by bobbing its head. Although the Carranchas frequently assemble in numbers, 
they are not gregarious ; for in desert places they may be seen solitary, or more 
commonly by pairs. Besides the carrion of large animals, these birds frequent 
the borders of streams and the sea-beach, for the sake of picking up whatever the 
waters may cast on shore. In Tierra del Fuego, and on the west coast of 
Patagonia, they must live almost exclusively on this last means of supply. 

The Carranchas are said to be very crafty, and to steal great numbers of 
eggs ; they attempt also, together with the Chimango, to pick the scabs oft' the 
sore backs of both horses and mules. On the one hand, the poor animal, 
with its ears down and its back arched ; and, on the other, the hovering bird, 
eyeing at the distance of a yard, the disgusting morsel, form a picture which has 
been described by Captain Head with his own peculiar spirit and accuracy. 
The Carranchas kill wounded animals ; but Mr. Bynoe (the surgeon of the 
Beagle) saw one seize in the air a live partridge, which, however, escaped, and 
was for some time chased on the ground. I believe this circumstance is very 
unusual : at all events there is no doubt that the chief part of their sustenance is 
derived from carrion. A person will discover their necrophagous habits by 
walking out on one of the desolate plains, and there lying down to sleep : when 
he awakes, he will see on each surrounding hillock, one of these birds patiently 
watching him with an evil eye. It is a feature in the landscape of these countries, 
which will be recognised by every one who has wandered over them. If a party 
goes out hunting with dogs and horses, it will be accompanied during the day, by 
several of these attendants. The uncovered craw of the Carrancha, after feeding, 
protrudes from its breast ; at such times it is, and indeed generally, an inactive, 
tame, and cowardly bird. Its flight is generally heavy and slow, like that of the 
English carrion crow, whose place it so well supplies in America. It seldom soars ; 
but I have twice seen one at a great height gliding through the air with much 
ease. It runs (in contradistinction to hopping), but not quite so quickly as some 
of its congeners. At times the Carrancha is noisy, but is not generally so ; its 
cry is loud, very harsh and peculiar, and may be compared to the sound of the 
Spanish guttural g, followed by a rough double r r. Perhaps the Spaniards of 
Buenos Ayres, from this cause, have called it Carrancha, Molina, who says it is 
called Tharu in Chile, states, that when uttering this cry, it elevates its head 



BIRDS. 11 

higher and higher, till at last, with its beak wide open, the crown almost touches 
the lower part of the back. Tliis fact, which has been doubted, is true ; for I have 
myself several times seen them with their heads backwards, in a completely 
inverted position. The Carrancha builds a large coarse nest, either in a 
low clift", or in a bush or lofty tree. To these observations I may add, on 
the high authority of Azara, whose statements have lately been so fully 
confirmed by M. D'Orbigny, that the Carrancha feeds on worms, shells, slugs, 
grasshoppers, and frogs ; that it destroys young lambs by tearing the umbilical 
cord : and that it pursues the Gallinazos and gulls which attend the slaughtering- 
houses, till these birds are compelled to vomit up any carrion they may 
have lately gorged. Lastly, Azara states that several Carranchas, five or six 
together, will unite in chase of large birds, even such as herons. All these facts 
show that it is a bird of very versatile habits and considerable ingenuity. 

I am led to suppose that the young birds of this species sometimes congre- 
gate together. On the plains of Santa Cruz (lat. 50° S. in Patagonia), I saw in 
the month of April, or early autumn, between twenty and thirty Polybori, which 
I at first thought would form a species distinct from P. Brasiliensis. Amongst 
those I killed, there were some of both sexes ; but the ovarium in the hens was 
only slightly granular. The plumage of the different individuals was nearly 
similar ; and in none appeared like that of an adult bird, although certainly 
not of a very young one. Having mentioned these circumstances to Mr. 
Gould, he likewise suspected it would form a new species ; but the differences 
appear so trifling between it and the specimens of young birds in the British 
Museum and in the Museum of the Zoological Society, and likewise of the figure 
of a young bird given by Spix, (Avium Species Novae, vol. i. p. 3.), that I have 
thought it advisable merely to allude to the circumstance. In my specimen, 
which is a cock, the head, instead of being of a dark brown, which is the usual 
character of even very immature birds, is of a pale rusty brown. The bill and 
cere are less produced than in the adult P. Brasiliensis ; and the cere is of a 
brighter colour, than what appears to be usual in the young of this species. In 
other respects there is such a perfect similarity between them, that I do not 
hesitate to consider my specimen as a young bird of the P. Brasiliensis in one 
of its states of change ; — and to be subject to great variation of plumage during 
growth, is known to be a character common to the birds of this sub-family. It 
may, however, possibly be some variety of the P. Brasiliensis, for this bird seems 
subject to variation : Azara (Voyage dans I'Amerique Meridionale, vol. iii. p. 35.) 
remarks, " II y a des individus dont les teintes sont plus faibles, ou d'un brun 
pj\le, avec des taches sur la poitrine, et d'autres qui ont des couleurs plus fonc^es ; 
j'ai d^crit ceux qui tiennent le milieu entre les uns et les autres." 

I have myself more than once observed a single very pale-coloured bird, in 

c 2 



12 ZOOLOGY OF THE VOYAGE OF THE BEAGLE. 

form like the P. Brasiliensis, mingled with the other carrion-feeding hawks on the 
banks of the Plata ; and there is now in the British Museum a specimen, which 
may be considered as partly an albino. Spix, on the other hand, (Avium Species 
Nova3, p. 3.) has described some specimens from the coast of Brazil, as being 
remarkable from the darkness of the plumage of their wings. 



MiLVAGO, Spix. 

Several new genera have lately been established to receive certain species 
of the sub-family of Polyhorince, and consequently great confusion exists in 
their arrangement. Mr. George R. Gray has been kind enough to give me the 
following observations, by which it appears he has clearly made out, that Spix's 
genus Milvago, is that which ought to be retained. M. D'Orbigny has made 
two sections in the genus Polyborus, according as the craw is covered with 
feathers, or is naked, and he states that the P. Brasiliensis is the only species 
which comes within the latter division ; but we shall afterwards see that the^ 
Falco Nov(B Zelandice, Auct. (the Milvago leucurus of this work) has a naked 
craw, which is largely protruded after the bird has eaten. M. D'Orbigny 
has also instituted the genus Phalcohccmis, to receive a bird of this sub-family, 
with the following characters : 

" Bee fortement comprime, sans aucune dent ni sinus, k commissure trcs- 
arquee k son extr^mit^ ; cire alongee et droite ; un large espace nu entourant la 
partie anterieure et inferieure de Tceil, et s'etendant sur toute la mandibule 
inferieure ; tarses emplumes sur un tiers de leur longueur, le reste reticule ; 
doigts longs, semblables k ceux des gallinaces, termines par les ongles longs, 
deprimes et elargis, tr^s-peu arques, toujours i\ extremite obtuse ou fortement 
usee ; ailes de la famille, la troisi^me penne plus longue que les autres." 

Mr. George R. Gray, however, has pointed out to me that Spix, (in his 
Avium Species Novfe) ten years since, made a division in this sub-family, from 
the rounded form of the nostril of one of the species, namely, the M. ochroce- 
phalus of his work, or the Chimacltima of Azara. And Mr. Gray thinks, that all 
the species may be grouped much more nearly in relation to their affinities by 
this character, than by any other : he further adds ; — " The only difference 
which I can discover between this latter genus {Milvago), and D'Orbigny's 
(Phalcobcemis), is, that in the latter the bill is rather longer, and not quite so 
elevated in the culmen as in the former ; and these characters must be considered 
too trivial for the foundation of a generic division. I, therefore, propose to retain 
Spix's genus, Milvago, for all those PolyhorirKe which possess rounded nostrils with 



BIRDS. 13 

an elevated hony tubercle in the centre. They were once considered to form three dis- 
tinct genera, viz. — Milvago, Sjrix. (Polyborus, Vieill. Haliaetus, Cuv. Aquila, Meijen.) 
— Senex, Gray. (Circaetus, Less.) — Phalcobaenus, D'Orh. but a careful com- 
parison of the several species, shows a regular gradation in structure from 
one to the other, which induces me to consider them as only forming two 
sections of one genus. Those which have the bill short, with the culmen 
arched, and are of small size, slender form, and with the tarsi rather long and 
slender, are — 

1. Milvago ochrocephalus, Sjnx. 

Polyborus chimachima ; Vieill. (young). 
Falco degener, Licht. 
Haliaetus chimachima, Less. 

2. Milvago pezoporos, nob. 

Aquila pezopora, Meyen. 

3. Milvago chimango, n. 

Polyborus chimango, Vieill. 
Haliaetus chimango, Less. 

Those which have a buteo-like appearance, and with rather short and stout 
tarsi, are, 

7. Milvago leucurus, n. 

Falco leucurus, Forster's Drawings No. 34. 
Falco Novae Zealandise, Gm. 

Australis, Lath. 

Circaetus antarcticus. Less. 

8. Milvago albogularis, n. 

Polyborus (Phalcobanus ?) albogularis, Gould. 

9. Milvago montanus, n. 

Phalcobaenus montanus, UOrVig. 

10. Milvago megalopterus, n. 

Aquila megaloptera, Meyen. 

1. Milvago pezoporos. 

Aquila pezopora, Meyen. Nov. Act. Phys. Med. Acad. Cees. Leo. Car. Nat. Cur. suppl. ISSJ'. p. 62. pi. VI. 

I obtained two specimens of this bird, one from Port Desire, in Pata- 
gonia, and another at the extreme southern point of Tierra del Fuego. 
Meyen* describes it as common on the plains of Chile, and on the mountains 
to an elevation of 4000 or 5000 feet. As M. D'Orbigny does not notice this 
species, I presume it is not found on the Atlantic side of the continent, so far 
north as the Rio Negro, where he resided for some time. The habits and 
general appearance of M. chimango and this bird are so entirely similar, that 

* Novorum Actorum Academise Caesarlee, Lcopol. vol. xvi. p. 62. Observationes Zoologicas, F. J. Meyenii. 



14 ZOOLOGY OF THE VOYAGE OF THE BEAGLE. 

I did not perceive that the species were different ; hence I cannot speak with 
certainty of their range, but it would appear probable that the M. pezoporus 
replaces in Chile, Tierra del Fuego and Southern Patagonia the 31. chimango 
of La Plata. In the same manner the 31. chimango is replaced between the 
latitudes of Buenos Ayres and Corrientes by a third closely allied species, the 
31. ochrocephalus. D'Orbigny, (p. 614, in the Zoological part of his work) 
speaking of the Chimango, says, " II n'est pas etonnant qu'on ait long-temps 
confondu cette espece avec lefa/co degener, lUiger, (the 31. ochrocephalus) et qu'on 
I'ait cru de sa famille. II est impossible de presenter plus de rapports de 
forme et surtout de couleur. Nous les avions, nous-raeme confondus au pre- 
mier abord ; niais, en remarquant, ulterieurement, que le sujet que nous re- 
gardions comme le male ne se trouvait qu'tl Corrientes, tandis qu'il y avait 
seulement des femelles sur les rives de la Plata, I'etude plus attentive des 
mceurs de ces oiseaux, et les localites respectives qu'habite chacun d'eux, ne 
tarda pas a nous y faire reconnaitre, avec Azara, deux especes vraiment tres- 
distinctes ; mais qui, depuis, ont encore ete confondues, sous la meme nom, par 
M. la Prince Maximilien de Neuwied. *" I may observe that the figure given 
in Meyen's work, has the iris coloured bright red, instead of which it should have 
been brown. 

2. MiLVAGO CHIMANGO, 

Polyborus cliiinango, Vieill. 

Haliaetus chimango, Less. 

Chimango, Azar. Voyage, vol. iii. p. 35. 

My specimen was obtained at Maldonado, on the banks of the Plata. In the 
following short account of the habits of this bird, it must be understood that 
I have confounded together, the 31. chimango and the 31. pezopotus ; but I 
am certain that almost every remark is applicable to both species. From what 
has been said under the last head, it may be inferred, that both of these allied 
birds have comparatively limited ranges, compared with that of the P. Bi-asiliensis. 
Azara says the Chimango (and he first distinguished this species from the 
M. ochrocephalus, or 31. chimachima) is rarely found so far north as Paraguay. 
D'Orbigny saw the Chimango {31. pezoporus ?) at Arica in lat. 16°, and I killed 
the 31. pezoporus in the extreme southern point of America, in lat. 55° 30' south. 

The Chimango, in La Plata, lives chiefly on carrion, and generally is the last 
bird of its tribe which leaves the skeleton, and hence it may frequently be seen 
standing within the ribs of a cow or horse, like a bird in a cage. The Chimango 
often frequents the sea-coast and the borders of lakes and swamps, where it picks 
up small fish. It is truly omnivorous, and will eat even bread, when thrown out 

* Tom. iii. p. 162. 



BIRDS. 15 

of a house with other ofFal. I was also assured that in Chiloe, these birds (pro- 
bably in this district the M. pezoporus) materially injure the potato crops, by 
stocking up the roots when first planted. In the same island, I saw them follow- 
ing by scores the plough, and feeding on worms and larvfe of insects. I do not 
believe that they kill, under any circumstances, even small birds or animals. They 
are more active than the Carranchas, but their flight is heavy ; I never saw one 
soar ; they are very tame ; are not gregarious ; commonly perch on stone 
walls, and not upon trees. They frequently utter a gentle, shrill scream. 

3. MiLVAGO LEUCURUS. 

Falco leucurus, Forster's Drawings, No. 34. MS. 

Novse Zelandiae, Gm. 

australis. Lath. 

Circaetus antarcticus. Less. 

It will be observed in the above list of synonyms, which I have given on the 
authority of Mr. G. R. Gray, that this bird, although possessing well marked 
characters, has received several specific names. Mr. Gray's discovery of 
Forster's original drawing with the name F. leucurus written on it, I consider very 
fortunate, as it was indispensable that the names by which it is mentioned in 
most ornithological works, namely, Falco or Polyhorus Novce Zelandice, should 
be changed. There is not, I believe, the slightest reason for supposing that 
this bird has ever been found in New Zealand. All the specimens which of 
late years have been brought to England have come from the Falkland Islands, 
or the extreme southern portion of South America. The sub-family, moreover, 
to which it belongs, is exclusively American ; and I do not know of any case 
of a land bird being common to this continent and New Zealand. The origin of 
this specific name, which is so singularly inappropriate, as tending to perpetuate 
a belief which would form a strange anomaly in the geographical distribution 
of these birds, may be explained by the circumstance of specimens having been 
first brought to Europe by the naturalists during Captain Cook's second voyage, 
during which New Zealand was visited, and a large collection made there. In 
the homeward voyage, however. Cook anchored in Christmas Sound, in Tierra 
del Fuego, and likewise in Staten Land : describing the latter place he says, 
" I have often observed the eagles and vultures sitting on the hillocks among the 
shags, without the latter, either young or old, being disturbed at their presence. 
It may be asked how these birds of prey live? I suppose on the carcasses of 
seals and birds, which die by various causes ; and probably not few, as they are 
so numerous." From this description I entertain very little doubt that Cook 
referred to the Cathartes aura and Milvago leucurus, both of which birds inhabit 
these latitudes, as we shall hereafter show. 



16 ZOOLOGY OF THE VOYAGE OF THE BEAGLE. 

The plumage in the two sexes of this species differs in a manner unusual in 
the family to which it belongs. The description given in all systematic works is 
applicable, as I ascertained by dissection, only to the old females ; namely, 
back and breast black, with the feathers of the neck having a white central mark 
following the shaft, — tectrices, with a broad white band at extremity ; thighs and 
part of the belly rufous-red ; beak " ash gray," with cere and tarsi " Dutch orange." 

Male of smaller size than female: dark brown ; with tail, pointed feathers of 
shoulders and base of primaries, pale rusty brown. On the breast, that part 
of each feather which is nearly white in the female, is pale brown : bill black, 
cere white, tarsi gray. As may be inferred from this description, the female is a 
much more beautiful bird than the male, and all the tints, both of the dark and 
pale colours, are much more strongly pronounced. From this circumstance, it 
was long before I would believe that the sexes were as here described. But the 
Spaniards, who are employed in hunting wild cattle, and who (like the aboriginal 
inhabitants of every country) are excellent practical observers, constantly assured 
me that the small birds with gray legs were the males of the larger ones with 
legs and cere of an orange colour, and thighs with rufous plumage. 

The Young Male can only be distinguished from the adult bird by its beak 
not being so black, or cere so white ; and likewise in a trifling difference of 
plumage, such as in the markings of the pointed feathers about the head and 
neck, being more like those of the female than of the old cock. One specimen, 
Avhich I obtained at the Falkland Islands, I suppose is a one-year-old female ; 
but its organs of generation were smooth : in size larger than the male ; the tail 
dark brown, with the tip of each feather pale colour, instead of being almost 
black with a white band ; under tail-coverts dark brown, instead of rufous ; 
thighs only partly rufous, and chiefly on the inner sides ; feathers on breast and 
shoulder like those of male, with part near shaft brown ; those on back of head 
with white, like those of adult females. Beak, lower mandible gray, upper 
black and gray (in the old female the whole is pale gray) ; the edge of cere and 
the soles of the feet orange, instead of the whole of the cere, tarsi, and toes being 
thus coloured. The circumstance of the young birds of, at least, one year and a 
half old, as well as of the adult males, being brown coloured, will, I believe, alone 
account for the singular fewness of the individuals with rufous thighs, a fact which 
at first much surprised me. 

The Milvago leucurus is exceedingly numerous at the Falkland Islands, and, 
as an old sealer who had long frequented these seas remarked to me, this Archi- 
pelago appears to be their metropolis. I was informed, by the same authority, 
that they are found on the Diego Ramirez Rocks, the II Defonso islands, and on 
some others, but never on the mainland of Tierra del Fuego. This statement I can 
corroborate to a certain degree, since I never saw one in the southern part of 



BIRDS. 17 

Tierra del Fuego, near Cape Horn, which was twice visited daring our voyage. 
Tliey are not found on Georgia, or on the other antarctic islands. In many 
respects these hawks very closely resemble in their habits the P. Brasi- 
liensis. They live on the flesh of dead animals, and on marine productions. On 
the Ramirez Rocks, which support no vegetation, and therefore no land-animals, 
their entire sustenance must depend upon the sea. At the Falkland Islands 
they were extraordinarily tame and fearless ; and constantly haunted the neigh- 
bourhood of the houses to pick up all kinds of offal. If a hunting party in the 
country killed a beast, these birds immediately congregated from all quarters 
of the horizon ; and standing on the ground in a circle, they patiently awaited 
for their feast to commence. After eating, their uncovered craws are largely 
protruded, giving to them a disgusting appearance. I mention this particularly, 
because M. D'Orbigny says that the P. Brasiliensis is the only bird of this family 
in which the craw is much developed. They readily attack wounded birds ; 
one of the officers of the Beagle told me he saw a cormorant in this state fly 
to the shore, where several of these hawks immediately seized upon it, and 
hastened its death by their repeated blows. I have been told that several have 
been seen to wait together at the mouth of a rabbit hole, and seize on the animal 
as it comes out. This is acting on a principle of union, which is sufficiently 
remarkable in birds of prey; but which is in strict conformity with the fact 
stated by Azara, namely, that several Carranchas unite together in pursuit of 
large birds, even such as herons. 

The Beagle was at the Falkland Islands only during the early autumn 
(March), but the officers of tlie Adventure, who were there in the winter, mentioned 
many extraordinary instances of the boldness and rapacity of these birds. The 
sportsmen had difficulty in preventing the wounded geese from being seized before 
their eyes ; and often, when having cautiously looked round, they thought they 
had succeeded in hiding a fine bird in some crevice of the rocks, on their return, 
they found, when intending to pick up their game, nothing but feathers. One of 
these hawks pounced on a dog which was lying asleep close by a party, who were 
out shooting ; and they repeatedly flew on board the vessel lying in the harbour, 
so that it was necessary to keep a good look-out to prevent the hide used about 
■the ropes, being torn from the rigging, and the meat or game from the stern. 
They are very mischievous and inquisitive ; and they will pick up almost 
anything from the ground : a large black glazed hat was carried nearly a mile, 
as was a pair of heavy balls, used in catching wild cattle. Mr. Usborne 
experienced, during the survey, a severe loss, in a small Kater's-compass, in a 
red morocco case, which was never recovered. These birds are, moreover 
quarrelsome, and extremely passionate ; it was curious to behold them when, 
impatient, tearing up the grass with their bills from rage. They are not truly 

D 



18 ZOOLOGY OF THE VOYAGE OF THE BEAGLE. 

gregarious ; they do not soar, and their flight is heavy and clumsy. On the ground 
they run with extreme quickness, putting out one leg before the other, and 
stretching forward their bodies, very much like pheasants. The sealers, who 
have sometimes, when pressed by hunger, eaten them, say that the flesh when 
cooked is quite white, like that of a fowl, and very good to eat — a fact which I, 
as well as some others of a party from the Beagle, who, owing to a gale of 
wind, were left on shore in northern Patagonia, until we were very hungry, can 
answer for, is far from being the case with the flesh of the Carrancha, or 
Polyhoms Brasiliensis. It is a strange anomaly that any of the Falconidce should 
jjossess such perfect powers of running as is the case with this bird, and likewise 
with the PhalcohcEnus montanus of DOrbigny. It perhaps, indicates an obscure 
relationship with the Gallinaceous order^ — a relation which M. D'Orbigny suggests 
is still more plainly shown in the Secretary Bird, which he believes represents in 
Southern Africa, the PoJyhorince of America. 

The M. leucurus is a noisy bird, and utters several harsh cries ; of which, 
one is so like that of the English rook, that the sealers always call it by this 
name. It is a curious circumstance, as shewing how, in allied species, small 
details of habit accompany similar structure, that these hawks throw their 
heads upwards and backwards, in the same strange manner, as the Carranchas 
(the Tharu of Molina) have been described to do. The M. leucurus, builds on 
the rocky cliffs of the sea-coast, but (as I was informed) only on the small 
outlying islets, and never on the two main islands : this is an odd precaution 
for so fearless a bird. 

4. MiLVAGO ALBOGULARIS. 
Plate I. 
Polyborus, (Phalcoboeuus) albogularis, Gould, Proceedings of Zoolog. Soc. Part V. (Jan. 1837.) p. 9. 
31. Fcem. fuscesceiiti - niger, marginihus plnmarum infer scapulas J'ulvis ; 
jyrimariis secundariisque albo ad apicem notatis ; gula, pectore, corporeque subtus 
alhis ; laterihtis fusco sparsis ; roslro livido, lineis nigris ornato ; cera tarsis- 
que Jlavis. 

Long. tot. 20 unc. i; rostri, 1| ; ala?, 15f ; caudw, 9; tarsi, 3. 

Description of female specimen, believed to be applicable to both sexes. 
Colour. — Head, back, upper wing coverts pitch black, passing into liver 
brown ; feathers on back of neck and shoulders terminating in a yellowish- 
brown tip, of which tint the external portion of the primaries, and nearly 
the whole of the tertiaries partake. Tail liver brown, with a terminal white 
band nearly one inch broad ; base of the tectrices white, irregularly 
marked with brown : upper tail coverts white. All the feathers of the wing 



^iroLs n I 




^^^\ "^ 



Jfdva^o {dSo^Oylatts. 



BIRDS. 19 

tipped with white, their bases irregularly barred with transverse marks of 
brown and white. Undei- surface. — Chin, throat, breast, belly, thighs, under 
tail-coverts, under lining of wings, and edge of shoulders perfectly white. 
On the flanks, however, there are some brown feathers irregularly inter- 
spersed ; and on the lower part of the breast, most of the feathers show 
a most obscure margin of pale brown. Bill horn-colour. Cere and tarsi 
yellow. 
Form. — Cere and nostril as in the M. Leucurus, but the bill not quite so 
strong. Feathers on the sides and back of head narrow and rather stiff; 
those on the shoulders obtusely pointed, — which character of plumage is very 
general in this sub-family. Wing : fourth primary very little longer than 
the third or the fifth, which are equal to each other. First primary three 
inches shorter than the fourth or longest, and more nearly equal to the 
sixth than to the seventh. Extremity of wing reaching to within about an 
inch and a half of the tail. Tarsi reticulated, with four large scales at the 
base : upper part covered with plumose feathers for about three quarters of an 
inch below the knee ; but these feathers hang down and cover nearly half of 
the leg. Middle toe with fifteen scales, outer ones with about nine. Claws 
of nearly the same degree of strength, curvature and breadth as in Polyborus 
Brasiliensis, or in 31. leucurus, but sharper than those of the latter. 

Inch. Inch. 



Hind claw measured in straight line from 
tip to root ...... 

Claw of middle toe, a twentieth less than that 
of the hind one. 



Total length 20^ 

Tail 9 

Wings when folded . . . . . 15f 

From tip of beak to anterior edge of eye . ki 

Tarsus from soles of feet to knee joint . 3^ 

Habitat, Santa Cruz, 50° S. Patagonia. {April.) 

Mr. Gould, at the time of describing this species, entertained some doubts 
whether it might not eventually prove to be the Phalcohcenus montanus of DOrbigny, 
in a state of change. I have carefully compared it with the description of the 
P. montanus, and certainly, with the exception of the one great difference of 
M. albogularis having a white breast, whilst that part in the P. montanus is 
black, the points of resemblance are numerous and exceedingly close. The 
M. albogularis, appears to be rather larger, and the proportional length of the wing 
feathers are slightly different ; the cere and tarsi are not of so bright a colour; 
the middle toe has fifteen scales on it instead of having sixteen or seven- 
teen. The black shades of the upper surface are pitchy, instead of having 
an obscure metallic gloss, and the feathers of the shoulders are terminated 
with brown, so as to form a collar, which is not represented in the figure of 

d2 



20 ZOOLOGY OF THE VOYAGE OF THE BEAGLE. 

P. moutaims, given by M. D'Oibigny. Although the main difference be- 
tween the two birds, is the colour of their breasts, yet it must be observed, 
that in the 31. albogularis there is some indication of an incipient change 
from white to brown in the plumage of that part. But as M. D'Orbigny, who was 
acquainted with the young birds of the P. montaims, (of which he has given a 
figure), does not mention so remarkable a modification in its plumage, as must 
take place on the supposition of 31. albogularis being an immature bird of that 
species ; and as the geographical range of the two is so very different, I am 
induced to consider them distinct. Moreover, on the plains of Santa Cruz, I saw 
several birds, and they appeared to me similar in their colouring. The 31. albogu- 
laris is remarkable from the confined locality which it appears to frequent. A few 
pair were seen during the ascent of the river Santa Cruz, (Lat. 50° S.) to the Cor- 
dillera ; but not one individual was observed in any other part of Patagonia. 
They appeared to me to resemble, in their gait and manner of flight, the P. Bra- 
siliensis; but they were rather Milder. They lived in pairs, and generally were 
near the river. One day I observed a couple standing with the Carranchas 
and 31. pexoporus, at a short distance from the carcass of a guanaco, on which 
the condors had commenced an attack. These peculiarities of habit are described 
by M, DOrbigny in almost the same words, as occurring with the P. moiitanus; 
both birds frequent desert countries ; the P. moutaims, however, haunts the great 
mountains of Bolivia, and this species, the open plains of Patagonia. 

In the valleys north of 30° in Chile, I saw several pair, either of this species, 
or of the P. montamis of D'Orbigny, (if, as is probable, they are different) or of 
some third kind. From the circumstance of its not extending (as I believe) so 
far south even as the valley of Coquimbo, it is extremely improbable that it 
should be the 31. albogularis, — an inhabitant of a plain country twenty degrees 
further south. On the other hand, the P. montanus lives at a great elevation 
on the mountains of Upper Peru ; and therefore it is probable that it might 
be found in a higher latitude, but at a less elevation. M. DOrbigny says, 
" Elle aime les terrains sees et d6pourvus de grands veg^taux, qui lui seraient 
inutiles ; car il nous est prouve qu'elle ne se perche pas sur les branches." 
In another part he adds, " Elle descend cependant quelquefois jusque pres de 
la mer, sur la cute du P6rou, mais ce n'est que pour peu de temps, et peut- 
Mre afin d'y chercher momentanement une nourriture qui lui manque dans son 
s^jour habituel ; peut-etre aussi la nature du sol I'y attire-t-elle ; car elle y 
trouve les terrains arides qui lui sont propres."* This is so entirely the cha- 
racter of the northern parts of Chile, that, it appears to me extremely pro- 
bable, that the P. montanus, which inhabits the great mountains of Bolivia, 
descends, in Northern Chile, to near the shores of the Pacific ; but that further 

* Voyage dans I'Amerique Meridionale Partie, Oiseaux, p. 52. 



BIRDS. 21 

south, and on the opposite side of the Cordillera, it is replaced by an allied 
species, — the M. albogularis of Santa Cruz. 

5. MiLVAGO MEGALOPTERUS. 

Aquila mcgaloptcra, Mei/en, Nov. Act. Acad. C«s. Suppl. 1834, p. 64. PI. VIII. 

When ascending the Despoblado, a branch of the valley of Copiap6 in 
Northern Chile, I saw several brown-coloured hawks, which at the time appeared 
new to me, but of which I did not procure a specimen. These I have no doubt 
were the A. megaloptera of Meyen. In the British Museum there is a specimen, 
brought from Chile by Mr. Crawley. Mr. G. R. Gray suspects that this bird 
may eventually prove to be the young of the Phalcobcenus montauus of 
D'Orbigny, and as I saw that bird (or another species having a close general re- 
semblance with it) in the valleys of Northern Chile, although not in the immediate 
vicinity, this supposition is by no means improbable. Meyen's figure at first sight 
appears very different from that of the young of the P. montanus, given by M. 
D'Orbigny, for in the latter the feathers over nearly the whole body are more dis- 
tinctly bordered with a pale rufous shade, the thighs barred with the same, and the 
general tint is of a much redder brown. But with the exception of these differences, 
which are only in degree, I can find in M. D'Orbigny's description no other 
distinguishing character, whilst on the other hand, there are numerous points of 
close resemblance between the two birds in the shadings, and even trifling marks 
of their plumage. Meyen, moreover, in describing the habits of his species, says, 
it frequents a region just below the limit of perpetual snow, and that it sometimes 
soars at a great height like a condor. Those which I saw had the general 
manners of a Polyhorus or Milvago, and were flying from rock to rock amongst 
the mountains at a considerable elevation, but far below the snow-line. In these 
several respects, there is a close agreement with the habits of the P. montaims, 
as described by M. D'Orbigny. I will only add that the specimen in the British 
Museum appeared, independently of differences of plumage, distinct from the BI. 
albogularis of Patagonia, from the thinness and greater prolongation of its beak, 
and the slenderness of its tarsi. 



22 ZOOLOGY OF THE VOYAGE OF THE BEAGLE. 



Sub.-Fam.— BUTEONINiE. 
Craxirex. Gould. 
Rostrum Suteonis sed lotigms; mandibulce siiperioris margo rectus; versus 
apicem subitd incurvus. Ales elongate. Cera lata. Nares ferk rotundce, 
apertce. Tarsi mediocres, antici squamis tecti. Digiti magni, fortes; ungues 
ohtusce. 

Mr. Gould was partly led to institute this genus from the facts communicated 
to him by me regarding the habits of the following species, which is found in the 
Galapagos Archipelago, and there supplies the place of the Polybori and Mil- 
vagines of the neighbouring continent of America. If a principle of classification 
founded on habits alone, were admissible, this bird, as will presently be shown, 
undoubtedly would be ranked with more propriety in the sub-family of Poly- 
borinae, than amongst the Buzzards. To the latter it is closely related in the 
form of its nostrils; in the kind of plumage which covers the head, breast, and 
shoulders ; in the reticulation of the scales on its feet and tarsi, and less closely 
in the form of its beak. To the Polyborinae it manifests an affinity in the great 
strength and length of its toes and claws, and in the bluntness of the latter ; 
in the nakedness of the cere, in the perfectly uncovered nostrils, in the pro- 
longation and bulk of the bill, in the straightness of the line of commissure, and 
in the narrow shape of the head. In these several respects, taken conjointly with 
its habits, this bird supplies a most interesting link in the chain of affinities, by 
which the true buzzards pass into the great American sub-family of carrion- 
feeding hawks. I am, indeed, unable to decide, whether I have judged rightly 
in placing this genus, as first of the Buteoninse, instead of last of the Poly- 
borinae. 



/iin/.-- /'/ : 




^. 



(^cux:irea> (Pala^a^oe'f'itSM. 



BIRDS. 23 



Craxirex Galapagoensis. Gould. 

Plate II. 
Polyborus Galapagoensis. Proceedings of the Zoological Society for January, 1837, p. 9. 
C. 3Ias. adult. Intense! fuscus ; jirimariis nigris ; seamdariarum pogoniis internis 
transversim albo et fusco striatis ; caudci cinerascenti-fuscd, transvershn lineis 
angustis et numerosis intense fuscis notatii ; rostro obscure corneo ; pedibus 
olivaceo-Jiavis. 
Long. tot. 20^ unc.; rostri, 1^; alec, 15; camla', 8^; tarsi, 3~. 
Fcem. adidt. /(smince juniori ferd similis, pectoi'e tamen fusco. 

Fcem. juv. Capite corporeque intens^ stramineis, fusco-variegatis ; illo in pec- 
tore et abdomine prcevalente ; priniariis fusco-nigris ; rectricum pogoniis extern^ 
cinerascenti-fuscis, interni pallide rosaceis ; ntrisque lineis angustis et Jrequentibus 
fuscis transversim striatis, apicibus sordide albis ; rostro nigrescent i-fusco ; pedibus 
olivaceo-Jlavis. 
Long. tot. 24 unc; rostri. If; alw, 17^; caudw, 10^; tarsi, 3|. 

Description of adult male. 

Colour. — Entire dorsal aspect umber brown: base of feathers on hind part of 
neck, white ; base of those on back, irregularly banded with pale fulvous, and 
the scapulars with a distinct band of it. The inferior feathers of upper tail co- 
verts banded in like manner to their extremities. Tail dusky clove-brown, 
obscurely marked with darkened transverse narrow bands. Primaries per- 
fectly black towards their extremities, but with the outer edge of their base, 
gray : inner web banded and freckled with gray, brown, and white, which in 
the secondaries takes the form of regular bars. Under surface, entirely umber 
brown, but rather paler than the upper. Lining of wings gray, with irregular 
transverse brown bars : under-side of tail the same, but paler. Thighs of a 
rather yellower brown. Bill and cere horn colour, mottled with pale gray : 
tarsi yellow. 

Form. — Beak, with apex much arched, both longer and more pointed than it is 
in the group of the Polyborinae. Cere naked, with few bristles ; nostrils large, 
quite uncovered, irregularly triangular, with the angles much rounded, and 
situated rather above a central line between the culmen and commissure. 
Fourth primary longest, but third and fifth nearly equal to it; first, four 
inches and a half shorter than fourth, and equal to the eighth; second shorter 
than fifth. Extremities of wing reaching within half an inch of end of tail. 



24 ZOOLOGY OF THE VOYAGE OF THE BEAGLE. 

Tarsi strong, feathered for nearly a third of their length beneath the joint. 
Scales in narrow, undivided (with the exception in some instances of one) 
bands, covering the front of tarsus. Toes very strong and rather long, like 
those of the species of Milcago, and much more so than in the genus Bufeo. 
Hind-toe equal in length to the inner one ; but not placed quite so high on the 
Tarsus as in Pohjborus. Basal joints of middle toe covered with small scales, 
with five large ones towards the extremity. Claws very strong, thick and 
long, and rather more arched, and broader than in Polyhorus Brastlietisis ; 
their extremities obtuse, but not in so great a degree as in some species of 
3Iilvag-o. 

Inches. 
Total length from tip of bill to end of tail following curvature of body ...... 20^ 

Tail 81 

Wing, from elbow-joint to extremity of longest primary . . . . . . . . .15 

Bill, from tip to anterior edge of eye measured in a straight line ....... -^^ 

Tarsus, from soles of feet to centre of joint ........... 3i 

Hind claw from tip to root, measured in straight line ......... l-J^^ 

Claw of middle toe ............... -^J^ 

Old female. 
Colour. — Nearly as in young female, but with the breast dark brown. 

Young female. 

Colour. — Head, back of neck, back, wing coverts and tertiaries barred and 
mottled, both with pale umber brown (of the same tint as in the male bird) 
and with pale fulvous orange. On head and back of neck, each feather is of 
the latter colour, with a mere patch of the brown on its tip ; but in the longer 
feathers, as in the scapulars, upper tail coverts, inner web and part of outer 
of the tertiaries, each is distinctly barred with the dark brown. Tail as in the 
old male. Primaries black as in male, with the inner webs nearly white, and 
marked with short transverse bars. Under surface and thighs of the same 
fulvous orange, but some of the feathers, especially those on the breast, 
are marked with small spots of umber brown on their tips. Some of the 
longer feathers on the flanks, on the under tail coverts, and on the linings 
of the wing, have irregular bars of the same. 

Form and Size. — Larger and more robust than the male. Total length 24 inches. 
Tail ten and a half inches long, and therefore longer in proportion to the 
wings than in the other sex. Wings from joint to end of primaries, n\. 
Habitat, Galapagos Archipelago, (October). 



BIRDS. 25 

Tliis bird is, I believe, confined to the Galapagos Archipelago, where on all 
the islands, it is excessively numerous. It inhabits, indifferently, either the dry 
sterile region near the coast, which, perhaps, is its most general resort, or the 
damp and wooded summits of the volcanic hills. This bird, in most of its habits 
and disposition, resembles the Milvago leucurus, or the Falco Novce Zelandice of older 
authors. It is extremely tame, and frequents the neighbourhood of any building 
inhabited by man. When a tortoise is killed even in the midst of the woods, these 
birds immediately congregate in great numbers, and remain either seated on the 
ground, or on the branches of the stunted trees, patiently waiting to devour the in- 
testines, and to pick the carapace clean, after the meat has been cut away. 
These birds will eat all kinds of offal thrown from the houses, and dead fish 
and marine productions cast up by the sea. They are said to kill young doves, 
and even chickens ; and are very destructive to the little tortoises, as soon as 
they break through the shell. In these respects this bird shows its alliance 
with the buzzards. Its flight is neither elegant nor swift. On the ground it 
is able, like the 31. leucurus and Phalcohcenus montamis of D'Orbigny, to run 
very quickly. This habit which, as before observed, is so anomalous in the 
Falcons, manifests in a very striking manner the relation of this new genus 
with the Polyborince. It is, also, a noisy bird, and utters many different cries, 
one of which was so very like the shrill gentle scream of the 31. chimango, that 
the officers of the "Beagle" generally called it either by this name, or from 
its larger size by that of Carrancha, — both names, however, plainly indicating 
its close and evident relationship with the birds of that family. The craw is 
feathered; and does not, I believe, protrude like that of the P. Brasiliensis 
or 31. leucurus. It builds in trees, and the female was just beginning to lay in 
October. The bird of which the full figure has been given, is a young female, 
but of, at least, one year old. The old male-bird is of a uniform dusky plumage, 
and is seen behind. The adult female resembles the young of the same sex, but 
the breast is dark brown like that of the male. In precisely the same manner as 
was remarked in the case of the M. leucurus, these old females are present in 
singularly few proportional numbers. One day at James' Island, out of thirty 
birds, which I counted standing within a hundred yards of the tents, under which 
we were bivouacked, there was not a single one with the dark brown breast. 
From this circumstance I am led to conclude that the females of this species (as 
with the 31. leucurus) acquire their full plumage late in life. 



26 ZOOLOGY OF THE VOYAGE OF THE BEAGLE. 



1. BUTEO ERYTHRONOTUS. 

Huliaetus erytlironotus, Kinff, in Zoological Journal, vol. iii. p. 424'. 
Butco tricolor, D'OrVigny. 

I obtained specimens of this bird from Chiloe and the Falkland Islands, and 
Captain King who first described it, procui'ed his specimens from Port Famine, 
Lat. 53° 38' in TieiTa del Fuego. M. D'Orbigny states that it has a wide range 
over the provinces of La Plata, central Chile, and even Bolivia ; but in this 
latter country, it occurs only on the mountains, at an elevation of about 12,000 
feet above the sea. The same author states, that it usually frequents open and 
dry countries ; but as we now see that it is found in the dense and humid forests 
of Chiloe and Tierra del Fuego, this remark is not applicable. At the Falk- 
land Islands, it preys chiefly on the rabbits, which have run wild and abound 
over certain parts of the island. This bird was considered by Captain King as a 
Halia'etus ; but Mr. Gould thinks it is more properly placed with the Buzzards. 
Captain King gave it the appropriate specific name of erytlironotus, and, there- 
fore, as Mr. Gould observes, the more recent one of tricolor, given by M. 
D'Orbigny, must be passed over. 

2. BuTEO VARIUS. Gould. 

Buteo varius, Gould, Proceedings of the Zoological Society, Part v. 1837, p. 10. 

H. vertice corporeque supra intensh fuscis, plumis fulvo marginatis vel gut talis ; 
primariis secmidariisr/ue cinereis, lineis immerosis fuscis transversim striatis; 
Cauda cinered, lineis angustis ?iuinerosis fuscis transversim notald ; singulis 
plumis flavescenli-albo ad apicem notatis ; gidd fuliginosu ; pectore fulvo, lined in- 
terrupld nigrescente a guld tendente circumdato ; ahdomine imo lateribusque stra- 
mineo et rufesccnti-fusco variegatis ; femoribus crissoque stramineis lineis transver- 
salibus anfractis rufescenti-fuscis ornutis ; rostro nigro ; cerd tarsisque olivaceis. 

Long. tot. 21^; ate, 16^; caudw, 10; tarsi, 3|-. 

Colour. — Head and back of neck umber brown, with edges of the feathers 
fringed with fulvous, (or buff" orange with some reddish orange) and their 
bases white. Shoulders brown, with the feathers more broadly edged. Back 
the same, with the basal part of the feathers fulvous, with transverse bars 
of the dark brown. Tail blueish gray, with numerous, narrow, transverse, 
faint black bars. Tail-coverts pale fulvous, with irregular bars of dark 
fulvous and brown. Wings: primaries blackish gray, obscurely barred; 
secondaries and tertiaries more plainly barred, and tipped with fulvous. 
Wing coverts, dark umber brown, largely tipped, and marked with large 



BIRDS. '^'^ 



spots, almost forming bars, of pale fulvous. Vnder swr/ace.— Chin black ; 
throat and breast ochre yellow, with a narrow dark brown line on the shafts 
of the feathers, which, in those on the sides of the throat and breast expands 
into a large oval spot. Feathers on belly reddish brown, fringed and marked 
at base with the ochre yellow. Lining of wings ochre yellow, with nume- 
rous transverse bars of dark brown. Under-side of tail, inner webs almost 
white, outer pale gray, with very obscure transverse bars. Thighs, ochre 
yellow, with numerous zigzag transverse bars of pale reddish brown. Bill 
pale blackish ; iris brown ; tarsi gamboge yellow. 
FoRJi. — Fourth primary very little longer than third, and about half an inch 
longer than fifth. First rather shorter than seventh, and longer than eighth. 
Wings when folded reaching within two inches of the extremity of the tail. 



Inches. 
2U 



Total length . • • 

. 10 

Lensrth of tail ....•••••••••"' 

Wings when folded ......•••■•••" ^ 

From tip of beak to within anterior edge of nostril, measured in straight line . . • • Too 

Tarsi from soles of feet to middle of knee joint * 

Middle toe, measured from basal joint to tip of claw ^ 

Habitat, Strait of Magellan, {Februanj,) and Port St. Julian in Southern Pata- 
gonia, (January.) 

3. BUTEO VENTRALIS. Gotlld. 

Buteo ventrahs, Gould, Proceedings of the Zoological Society, Part v. 1837, p. 10. 

B. vert ice corporeque intensh nitide fuscis, pliimis dorsalihus purpurascentihtis ; 
primariis ?iigris ; caudd fused, lineis ohscuriorihus cancellatd numerosis, ad 
apicem sordid^ alba; gidd abdomine medio crissoque stramineo-alhis ; pectoris 
corporisque lateribus fascia abdominali femoribusque flavescenti-alhis fusco notatis, 
notis in feinoribus rufescentibus ; tarsis per mediam partem antich phimosis, rostro 
nigro ; cerd tarsisqueflavis. 

Long. tot. 23 unc. ; alee, 15-| ; caudw, 9| ; tarsi, 3l. 

Colour.— Head, back of neck, back, and wing-coverts, umber brown. Feathers 
on sides of throat edged with fulvous ; those on lower parts of back with 
their basal parts marked with large white spots, edged with fulvous, but 
which do not show, until the feathers are ruffled. Tail of the same dark brown 
as the back, with many bars of pale brown, and extreme points tipped with 
dirty white. Tail-coverts same brown, with the more lateral ones marked with 
white and fulvous. Wings : primaries black, with the inner and basal webs 
brownish; secondaries and tertiaries brown, with obscure traces of paler 

E 2 



28 ZOOLOGY OF THE VOYAGE OF THE BEAGLE. 

transverse bars. Utider surface. — Chin almost white ; throat and breast very 
pale ochre yellow, with narrow brown lines on the shaft of the feathers, which 
expand into large marks on the sides of the upper part of the breast, and into 
regular spots on those of the belly. Lining of wing white, with brown 
spots on the feathers near their tips, like on those of the belly. Thighs 
very pale ochre yellow, with transverse bars of pale brown, appearing like 
inverted wedge-formed marks, with the apex on the shafts. Under tail- 
coverts almost white ; under side of tail pale gray, with darker gray bars on 
the inner side of shafts. Bill blueish black, with base of lower mandible and 
part of upper yellowish. Tarsi pale yellow. 
Form. — Fourth primary very little longer than either the third or fifth, which are 
equal. First nearly equal to the eighth. Extremity of wing when folded 
reaching within two inches and a half of the end of the tail. 



In. 

Total length 23 

Wing when folded 15| 

Tail 9i 



In. 

Tarsi 3^ 

Middle toe from joint to tip of claw , . 3 

From extremity of beak to within nostril . ^ 



Habitat, Santa Cruz, Lat. 50° S. Patagonia, {April.) 

Mr. Gould remarks that "this species has all the characters of a true Btiteo, 
and will rank as one of the finest of this well defined group. In size it rather 
exceeds the Common Buzzard of Europe, which in its general style of colouring it 
somewhat resembles." 



Sub-Fam.— FALCONINA, Vig. 
Falco femoralis. Temm. 

Falco femoralis, Temm. PI. Col. 121 male ; and 3i3 adult male. 
Spix, Av. Sp. Nov. 1. p. 18. 

This specimen was shot in a small valley on the plains of Patagonia, at Port 
Desire, in Lat. 47° 44'. It builds its nest in low bushes, and the female was sitting 
on the eggs in the beginning of January. Egg, 1 -8 of an inch in longer diameter, 
and 1-4 in shorter ; surface rough with white projecting points ; colour nearly uni- 
form dirty " wood brown," thickly freckled with rather a darker tint ; general 
appearance, as if it had been rubbed in brown mud. M. D'Orbigny supposed 
that Latitude 34° was the southern limit of this species ; we now find its range 
three hundred and thirty miles further southward. The same author states that 
this falcon prefers a dry open country with scattered bushes, which answers to 
the character of the valleys, in the plains near Port Desire. 



BIRDS. 29 



TiNNUNCuLus Sparverius. Vieill. 

Falco sparverius, Lin7i. et Auct. 

I obtained specimens both from North and South Patagonia (Rio Negro and 
Santa Cruz), and Captain King found it at Port Famine in Tierra del Fiiego. I 
saw it at Lima in Peru ; and Mr. Macleay (Zoological Journal, vol. iii.) sent 
specimens from Cuba. According to Wilson it is common in the United States, 
and Richardson says its northern range is about 54°. The Tinnunculus therefore, 
ranges throughout both Americas over more than 107 degrees of latitude, or 6420 
geographical miles. It is the only bird, which I saw in South America, that 
hovered over one particular spot, in the same stationary manner, as the common 
English kestrel {Falco tinmmcuhis, Linn.) is so frequently observed to do. 



Sub-Fam.— CIRCIN^. 
1. Circus megaspilus. Gould. 

Circus megaspilus, Gould, in Proceedings of tlie Zoological Society, Part V. 1837, p. 10. 

C. vertice corporeque supra intensh fuscis, lined stramined a narihus supra oculos ad 
occiput tendeide ; hoc rtifescenti-fusco ; primariis intensh ftiscis ad basin cinereis, 
lineis nigris cancellatis ; caudce tectricihus albis ; rectricihus intermediis cinereis, 
externis cinereo-stramineis, omnibus lineis latis fuscis transversim notatis, lined 
ultima latissimd, apice sordidh stramineo ; guld pectoreque stramineis, fusco varie- 
gatis ; corpore subtus stramineo ; plumis pectoris laterumque strid centrali fused 
notatis ; rostro nigro ; cerd tarsisqueflavis. 

Long. tot. 22 unc. ; rostri, \^; alw, 17; caiidw, 10^; tarsi, 3 J. 

Colour. — Head, back of throat, whole back, and wing-coverts umber brown, of 
a nearly uniform tint, and not very dark. Front, over the nostrils, with few 
fulvous bristly feathers ; over the eyes, extending backward, a pale almost 
pure white streak, which joins an irregular band, extending across the nape 
of the neck, from below ear to ear, of brown feathers, edged with pale fulvous, 
giving a streaked appearance to that part. The wing-coverts are just tipped 
with dirty white. Wings : primaries of the same brown as the back, the inner 
ones assuming a gray tinge ; these, and the basal parts of the inner webs of 
all, are obscurely barred ; secondaries and tertiaries of a paler brown than 
the interscapular region. Tail grayish brown, with five well-defined bars, 



30 



ZOOLOGY OF THE VOYAGE OF THE BEAGLE. 



about I of an inch wide, of the same brown, as the rest of the upper sur- 
face ; extremities tipped with very pale dirty brown. Tail-coverts ; upper 
ones brown, and the under ones white, with small brown spots on the shaft 
towards their extremities. Under surface. — Chin, pale fulvous, or ochre 
yellow. Breast, belly, thighs and under tail-coverts the same ; the feathers 
on the lower part of the breast and on the belly have a dark brown mark 
along the shaft, which widens but very little towards the extremity ; the 
brown on those on the upper part of the breast and on the throat is broader, 
and some of the feathers are of a darker fulvous, and as the dark brown of 
the back encroaches on each side, this part is much darker than the rest of 
the under surface. Above this, and just beneath the chin, a kind of collar is 
formed from ear to ear, of short feathers of a more strongly pronounced fulvous 
tint, with a narrow brown streak on their shafts. Lining of wings, and flanks 
almost white, with transverse brown bars. Under side of tail pale gray 
passing into fulvous, with the terminal dark brown bars seen through. Bill, 
horn-coloured, with some white markings towards its base ; tarsi bright 
yellow. 
Form. — Third primary rather longer than fourth, second equal to fifth ; first more 
nearly equal to the sixth than to the seventh. Wings reaching within an 
inch of the end of the tail. Feathers on thighs depend but little below the 
knee. 



Total length 
Wings folded 
Tail 



In. 
22 



17 
10^ 



Tarsi ...... 

Middle toe to end of claw 

From tip of bill to nearest part of cere 



In. 

3i 



21 



Habitat, Maldonado, La Plata, (July.) 



This hawk was not uncommon on the grassy savannahs and hills in the 
neighbourliood of the Rio Plata. Mr. Gould remarks "that in size it fully equals 
the Circus ceruginosiis of Europe, which it doubtless represents in the countries it 
inhabits. This species has a remarkable specific character in the lanceolate and 
conspicuous stripes down its breast." 



2. Circus cinerius. Vieill. 

Circus cinerius, Vieill. Ency. Meth. 

Falco histrionicus, Quoy and Gaim. Voy. autour du monde, Plate 15. 

Circus histrionicus. Vigors, Zoological Journal, vol. iii. p. 425, note. 

My specimens were obtained at the Falkland Islands, and at Concepcion in 
Chile. M. D'Orbigny states that it is a wild bird ; but at the Falkland Islands it 



BIRDS. 31 

was, for one of its order, very tame. The same author gives a curious account of 
its habits : in a different manner from other raptorial birds, when it has killed its 
prey, it does not fly to a neighbouring tree, but devours it on the spot. It roosts on 
the ground, either on the top of a sand hillock, or by the bank of a stream : it 
sometimes walks, instead of hopping, and Avhen doing so, it has some resemblance 
in general habit to the Blilvago chimango. It preys on small quadrupeds, mollus- 
cous animals, and even insects ; and I find in my notes, that I saw one in the 
Falkland Islands, feeding on the carrion of a dead cow. Although in these 
respects this Circus manifests some relation in its habits with the PolyhorincB, 
yet it has the elegant and soaring flight, peculiar to its family ; and in form it 
does not depart from the typical structure. Mr. Gould remarks that " we see in 
this elegant bird as perfect an analogue of the Circus cijaneus of Europe, as in the 
preceding species of the Circus ceruginosus." 



Family.— STRIGID^. 

Sub-Fam.— SURNINiE. 
Athene cunicularia. Bonap. 

Strix cunicularia, Mol. Bonap. Am. Omi. I. 68. pi. 7. f. 2. 

This bird, from its numbers and the striking peculiarities of its habits has 
been mentioned in the works of all travellers, who have crossed the Pampas. In 
Banda Oriental it is its own workman, and excavates its burrow on any level 
spot of sandy soil ; but in the Pampas, or wherever the Bizcacha is found, it uses 
those made by that animal. During the open day, but more especially in the 
evening, these owls may be seen in every direction standing frequently by pairs 
on the hillock near their habitation. If disturbed, they either enter the hole, or, 
uttering a shrill harsli cry, move with a remarkably undulatory flight to a short 
distance, and then turning round, steadily gaze at their pursuer. Occasionally in 
the evening they may be heard hooting. I found in the stomachs of two which I 
opened the remains of mice ; and I saw a small snake killed and carried away by 
one. It is said that reptiles are the common object of their prey during the day 
time. Before I was aware, from the numbers of mice caught in my traps, how 
vastly numerous the small rodents are in these open countries, I felt much sur- 
prise how such infinite numbers of owls could find sufficient means of support. 
I never saw this bird south of the Rio Negro, (Lat. 4 1° S.) In North America 
they frequent only the trans-Mississippian territories in the neighbourhood of the 
Rocky Mountains. The account given by Say of their habits, agrees with what 



32 ZOOLOGY OF THE VOYAGE OF THE BEAGLE. 

may every day be observed in the Pampas ; but in the northern hemisphere they 
inhabit the burrows of the Marmot or Prairie dog, instead of those of the Bizcacha ; 
and it would appear that their food is chiefly derived from insects, instead of from 
small quadrupeds and reptiles. Mr. Gould says he has compared my speci- 
mens from La Plata and Chile, on opposite sides of the Cordillera, with those 
from Mexico and the Rocky Mountains of North America, and he cannot perceive 
the slightest specific difference between them. 



Sub-Fam.— ULULIN^. 
1. Otus Galapagoensis. Gould. 
Plate III. 
Otus (Brachyotus) Galapagoensis, Gould, in Proceedings of the Zoological Society, Part V., 1837, p. 10. 
O. fascia circa ociilos ftiliginosa ; strigd super ciliari, plumis nares tangentibus et circa 
a7igulum oris, guldet disci facialis margine, albis ; vert ice corporeqtie supra intensh 
stranmieo fuscoque variegatis ; primariis adapicem iutens^fuscis, ad basin stramineo 
fasciatis ; corpore subtus stranmieo, notis irregularibus fasciisque fuscis ornato ; 
femoribus tarsisque phimosis rufescenti-stramineis ; rostro unguihisque nigris. 
Long. tot. 13|; rosiri, 1 ; alw, 11 ; cmulw, G; tarsi, 2. 

Colour. — Facial disc ; plumose feathers immediately around the eyes, nearly 
black, tipped with glossy fulvous ; those nearer the margin are white at their 
base, and only slightly tipped with a darker brown. Between the eyes a 
band of small fulvous feathers with a central streak of dark brown, passing 
backward, blends into the plumage of the nape. Back of head and throat 
streaked with fulvous and brown, the centre of each feather being brown, 
and its edge fulvous. Interscapular region and the feathers of the wing, 
coloured in the same manner, but the fulvous part is indented on each 
side of the shaft in the brown, giving an obscurely barred appearance to 
these feathers. Primaries brown, with large rounded marks of fulvous ; 
those on the first feather being smaller, and almost white : wing-coverts brown, 
and but little mottled. Tail with transverse bars of the same brown and 
fulvous, the latter colour much clearer and stronger on the external feathers ; 
in the central ones, the fulvous part includes irregular markings of the dark 
brown. Under surface. — Throat and breast, with center of each feather 
brown, edged with fulvous ; the former colour being predominant. On the 
belly and under tail-coverts the brown coloured marks on the shafts are 
narrow, but lliey are united to narrow transverse bars, which form at the 



Birc/^ n . 




O'iu^ (?alq^a^oen^i^ . 



BIRDS. 



33 



points of intersection marked sometiiing like arrow-heads. The fulvous tint 
is here predominant. Downy feathers on thighs same fulvous colour as rest 
of body. Bill black. 
Form. — Second primary scarcely perceptibly longer than the first, and fourth 
rather longer than first. Tarsi thickly clothed with short feathers to the 
root of the nails. 



In. 

Total length 13-^ 

Wings n 

Tail 6 



Tarsi 2 

Middle toe to root of nail l-jJ^ 

From tip of beak to interior edge of nostril . -/^ 



Habitat, James Island, Galapagos Archipelago, {October). 

Mr. Gould informs me, that "this species has most of the essential characters 
of the common short-eared owl of Europe {Strix brachyota), but differs from 
it, and all the other members of the group, in its smaller size and darker 
colouring." 

The lesser proportional size of the fulvous marks on the first primaries, and 
on the tail, and the peculiar transverse brown marks on the feathers of the belly, 
easily distinguish it from the common short-eared owl. The specimen described 
is a male bird. 



2. Otus palusteis. Gould. 

Strix brachyota. Lath. 

Specimens of this bird were obtained at the Falkland Islands, at Santa Cruz 
in Patagonia, and at Maldonado on the northern bank of the Plata. At the 
latter place it seemed to live in long grass, and took to flight readily in the day. 
At the Falkland Islands it harboured in a similar manner amongst low bushes. 
Mr. Gould says, " So closely do the specimens brought home by Mr. Darwin, 
resemble European individuals, that I can discover no specific difference, b\' 
which they may be distinguished." 

We have, therefore, the same species occurring in lat. 52° S. on the coast of 
South America, and in the northern division of the continent, according to 
Richardson, even as far as the sixty-seventh degree of latitude. Jardine says it 
is found in the Orkney islands (lat. 59°), and in Siberia; and that he has received 
specimens of it from Canton. M. D'Orbigny says it is found in the Sandwich 
and Marianne islands in the Pacific Ocean, and at Bengal in India. This bird, 
therefore, may be considered as a true cosmopolite. 



34 ZOOLOGY OF THE VOYAGE OF THE BEAGLE. 

Ulula rufipes. 

Strix rufipes, King, in Zoological Journal, Vol. iii. p. 426. 

I obtained a specimen of this bird from a party of Fuegians in the extreme 
southern islands of Tierra del Fuego. Owls are not uncommon in this country, 
and as small birds are not plentiful, and the lesser rodents extremely scarce, it at 
first appears difficult to imagine on what they feed. The following fact, perhaps, 
explains the circumstance : Mr. Bynoe, the surgeon to the " Beagle," killed an 
owl in the Chonos Archipelago, where the nature of the country is very similar 
to that of Tierra del Fuego, and, on opening its stomach, he found it filled with 
the remains of large-sized crabs : I conclude, therefore, that these birds here 
likewise subsist chiefly on marine productions. 



Sub.-Fam.— STRIGINiE. 

1. Strix flamme.\. Linn. 

I obtained a specimen of a white owl from Bahia Blanca in Northern Pata- 
(Tonia, and Mr. Gould remarks concerning it, that he only retains the name of 
S. Jiammca provisionally, until all the white owls, from various countries, shall 
have been subjected to a careful examination. Mr. Gould suspects, that when 
this is eftected, the South American white owl will prove to be specifically 
distinct from that of Europe. 

2. Strix punctatissima. G. R. Gray. 

Plate IV. 

S. supra nigricans, Jiavo subnebulosa, minuth albo-punctatissima, macula alba ad apicetn 
plumee, cujusvis; subtus J'ulva,J'asciis iiiten'uplis nigricantibus ; caudu dorso conco- 
lore, nigricanti-fasciata, apice alba ; disco faciali caslaneo-rufo nigricanti-nebuloso 
circumdato, pogoniis internis albis, scapis nigris ; pedibus longis, infra genu 
plumosis ; tarso rcliquo digitisque subpilosis. 

Long. tot. 1 -"^g ; alw, 9\ ; caiida; 4:{ ; tarsi, 2^'^. 

Colour. — Head and feathers within facial disc, glossy ferruginous brown, those 
forming the margin of it, same coloured, with their tips dark brown. Back 



^liKtisn-^. 



\ 




Siruo jfuyicia^oyruv 



BIRDS. 35 

of head and throat smoky brown, mottled with numerous small white dots, 
on the tips of the feathers. Back and wing-coverts the same, with the 
white spots larger and purer. Wings : primaries, same dark brown, mottled 
with dull chesnut red ; the tip of each, with the exception of the three 
first, is marked with a triangular white spot, of the same kind with those 
over the rest of the body, but larger. Tail, transversely barred with 
brown and reddish fulvous, and the extreme points mottled with white. 
Under surface. Breast, belly and lining of wings, fulvous, mottled with 
brown ; — the feathers being transversely barred with narrow brown lines. 
Under side of tail, pale gray, with well defined transverse bars of a darker 
gray. Short downy feathers on tarsi, of a brighter fulvous than the rest of 
the under surface. 
Form. — Third primary rather longer than second; first equal to third. Wing, 
exceeding the tail in length by nearly one inch and a quarter. Short 
feathers on the tarsus, extending about one-third of its length, below the 
knee. Tarsi, elongated. Toes and lower part of tarsi, with few scattered 
brown hairs. 



Total length 13^ 

Wing Qi 

Tail 44 



Tarsi ...... 2^^^ 

Tip of beak to rictus . . . 1 i 

Middle toe, from root of claw to base . l-Jj 



Habitat, James Island, Galapagos Archipelago, {October.) 

I am indebted to Mr. G. R. Gray for the description of this species, which is 
deposited in the British Museum. Only one specimen was obtained during our 
visit to the Galapagos Archipelago ; and this formed part of the collection made 
by the direction of Captain FitzRoy. 

This owl is in every respect a true Strix ; it is fully a third less than the 
common species of Europe, and differs from it in many respects, especially in 
the darker colouring of its plumage. The colouring of the Plate is not perfectly 
accurate in its minuter details. 



36 ZOOLOGY OF THE VOYAGE OF THE BEAGLE. 



Family.— CAPRI MULG ID ^. 

Sub-Fam.— CAPRIMULGIN^. 

1. CaPRIMULGUS BIFASCIATUS. Gould. 
Caprimulgus bifasciatus, GoidJ, in Proceedings of the Zoological Society, February 1837, p. 22. 
C. capite nigro fusco et fulvescente ornatus ; caudd alho hifasciatd, fascia termi- 
nali lata : primd angustd ; primariis nigrescentibusfascid angustd albd ad medium : 
alis spuriis maculd albd notatis ; gutture lunuld albd ; secundariis tectricibusque 
alarum maculd fulvescente ad apicem ; crisso pallid^ rufescente ; rostro pedibusque 
fuscis. 
Long. tot. unc, 9| ; alee, 6j ; caudce, 5 ; tarsi f . 

Front and back of head gray, mottled with black and with little fulvous. The latter 
colour more abundant, and in larger markings in the interscapular region, and 
on the wing-coverts. The black markings give a somewhat streaked appearance 
to the back of head and interscapulars. On the back of throat the fulvous tint 
is so much pronounced, that a collar is formed which is continued under a 
white one round the breast. Wings : primaries brownish-black ; four external 
ones, with a large white mark, forming a band, at about one-third of their 
length from their extremities : these white marks are edged with fulvous, and 
the part on the outer web of the first primary, is wholly so coloured. The 
other primaries are marked with reddish brown, as are the secondaries and 
tertiaries, the marks becoming more numerous and smaller, and the colours 
more mottled, nearer the back. Tail : upper tail-coverts and two central 
feathers of tail marked like those on the back ; the black, however, forming 
narrow interrupted transverse bars. The pair next to these central ones have 
near their extremities a large white mark, but only on the inner shaft. In 
the three succeeding pairs, the white spot extends on both sides of the shaft, 
and in each pair increases somewhat in size ; so that in the external pair, the 
white spot is merely bordered with a very narrow, faint margin, of brown 
and fulvous. At about half their length, all the feathers, with the exception 
of the central pair, have a smaller white mark, but only on the inner side of 
the shaft. This mark is transverse, in the form of a band, and the white 
blends into fulvous on the edges of the webs. Outer web of these same 
external feathers, are transversely barred with black and fulvous. Under 
surface.— Chin, breast, belly, and lining of wings, dirty fulvous, with numerous 



% 



BIRDS. 37 

narrow, irregular, transverse bars of brown. Throat with white collar, 
beneath which the fulvous tint is predominant, forming a kind of under collar, 
which is continued round the whole neck. Under tail-coverts fulvous, — tail 
itself appears almost black, with a great terminal white band, and a narrower 
one at about half its length. 
Wings, an inch and a quarter shorter than the tail. Second primary, scarcely 
perceptibly longer than the third ; the first about an eighth of an inch shorter 
than the second, and s ths longer than the fourth. Feathers on wing, with 
the outer webs, slightly excised. 

In. In. 

Total length 9| 

Wing folded 6^ 

Tail 5 



Tarsi .... 
From tip of beak to rictus 
Of middle toe without the claw- 



Habitat, Valparaiso Chile, (August). 



This species frequents the mountains of central Chile. When bivouacking 
one night on the Bell of Quillota, at an elevation of 0000 feet above the sea, I 
heard a gentle, plaintive cry, which I was told was made by this bird. It is 
regarded with superstitious dread by many of the lower orders. 

Mr, Gould observes, that " this species has a strong resemblance, at the 
first glance, with the Cuprimulgus Europcitis, but may be readily distinguished by 
its shorter wing, more lengthened tarsi, by a conspicuous white band across the 
base of the tail, and by all these feathers, except the two middle ones, having 
another white band near the tip." Mr. Gould then adds, as " I am quite unde- 
cided to which of the sub-genera this and the following species should belong, I 
leave them for the present in the restricted genus, Cuprimulgus, although I certainly 
perceive in it many points of affinity to the group which inhabits the United States 
of North America." 

2. Caprimulgus p.\rvulus. Gould. 

Caprimulgus parvulus, Gould, Proceedings of the Zoological Society, February 183T, p. 22. 

C. capite iiitenshfusco, giittis minulis cinereis oruato ; vittd nifci cerviceni cingente; 
gutture scaptdaribusque ad marginem, secundariis ud apicem stramineis ; pectore 
et abdomiiie lineis fuscis transversis ; primariis nigrescentihus, trihus fasciis ince- 
qualibics pallide rufescentibus ; caudd fasciis pallid^ fulvescentibus et fuscis ornatu. 

Long. tot. unc, 7 5 ; alee, 5 ; caudw, 4 ; tarsi, |. 

Crown of head gray, with black longitudinal streaks. Back of neck with a fulvous 
ring, Avhich extends round the front beneath one of white, as in the C. bifas- 



38 ZOOLOGY OF THE VOYAGE OF THE BEAGLE. 

ciatus. Back, dull gray. Interscapulars, with the central part of each 
feather, black, terminating in a point ; the outer part of the web being broadly 
fringed with a very pale fulvous, the inner with gray. Wings : primaries 
brown, with fulvous marks, forming three irregular transverse bars, which are 
scarcely visible when the wing is closed. Tail and upper tail- coverts, dull 
coloured, very obscurely marked with transverse bars of gray and fulvous, of 
different degrees of darkness. Under surface. — Throat white, edged with 
fulvou.s on lower side. Breast, belly, and under tail-coverts, fulvous, with 
numerous very narrow transverse bars of brown. The pale fulvous marks, 
forming interrupted bars, are more plainly seen on this than on the upper side 
of the tail. 
Third primary, very little longer than second, and second than first. First rather 
longer than fourth. Extremities of wings reaching within an inch and a 
quarter of end of tail. End of tail more rounded than in last species. 

In. I In. 

Total length . . . . . • 7? Tarsi .......§ 

Wings ....... 5 Middle toe, from tip of claw to joint of foot -]% 

Tail ........ 4 I From tip of beak to rictus ... 1 

Habitat, La Plata, (September). 

This species is not uncommon on the wooded banks of the Parana, near 
Santa Fe. If disturbed, it rises from the ground, in the same inactive manner 
as the European species. I saw one alight on a rope diagonally, but not so com- 
pletely in a longitudinal position as does the C. Europceus, nor transversely as 
other birds. Mr. Gould observes, that " this goatsucker is full a third less than 
the Caprimulgus Europceus, and is remarkable for the uniformity of its markings, 
having no distinct white bars, or marks, either on the wings or tail." 



Family.— HIRUNDINID^. 

1. Progne purpurea. Boie. 

Ilirundo purpurea, WUs. 

My specimens were obtained at Monte Video, (November) and Bahia Blanca, 
39° S. (September) how much further southward this species extends I do not 
know. Jardine says, that in North America it migrates during summer as far as 
the Great Bear Lake, in Lat. QQ° N. ; it is mentioned by M. Audubon, at New 
Orleans, 30° N., and by Mr. Swainson, at Pernambuco, in &\° S.; we may, there- 



Jjwds-. J^l d 




/h(fyu- mod'et'f^'U^^ 



BIRDS. 



39 



fore, conclude that it ranges throughout both Americas, but it is not found in the 
Old World. Wilson describes this bird as a great favourite with the inhabitants 
of North America, both European and Indian, who erect boxes and other con- 
trivances near their houses for it to build in. At Bahia Blanca, the females were 
beginning to lay in September, (corresponding to our March) : they had excavated 
deep holes in a cliff of compact earth, close by the side of the larger burrows 
inhabited by the ground parrot of Patagonia, {Psittacara Patagonica.) I noticed 
several times a small flock of these birds, pursuing each other, in a rapid and 
direct course, flying low, and screaming in the manner so characteristic of the 
English Swift, {Ilirimdo Apus, Linn.) 

2. Progne Modesta. Gould. 

Plate V. 

Ilirundo concolor, Gould, in Proceedings of the Zoological Society. 

P. nitide caridescenti- nigra. 

Long. tot. unc ; ala^, a\; caudtr, 2f ; tarsi, |. 

The upper and under surface has not so strongly a marked purple shade, as in 
the P. purpurea. The primaries and feathers of the tail, however, have 
a greenish gloss, perhaps slightly more metallic. 

Tail not so deeply forked as in P. purpurea, which is owing to the two external 
feathers on each side not being so much prolonged and bent outward, as in 
that species. Nostrils of less size than in the latter, although the beaks 
differ but little. Claws and feet are much less strong, than might have 
been anticipated, even proportionally to the less dimensions of this species 
compared with the P. purpurea. 



Inches. 

Total length G 

Wings 5^ 

Tail 23 



Tarsi 

Middle toe from tip of claw to joint 



Habitat, James Island, Galapagos Archipelago, (October). 

Male. 

This swallow was observed only on this one island of the group, and it 
was there very far from common. It frequented a bold cliff of lava overhanging 
the sea. Had not Mr. Gould characterized it as a distinct species, I should 
have considered it only as a small variety, produced by an uncongenial site, of 
the Progne purpurea. I can perceive no difference whatever from that bird. 



40 ZOOLOGY OF THE VOYAGE OF THE BEAGLE. 

excepting in its less size, slenderness of limbs, and less deeply forked tail ; and 
the latter difference may perhaps be owing to youth. 

1. HiRUNDO Leucopygia. Licht. 

My specimens were obtained at Port Famine, in Tierra del Fuego, {February), 
and at Valparaiso, in Chile, (August to September). At Port Famine they build in 
holes in a cliff of earth. Mr. Gould says, " were it not for the bare legs of this 
little Martin, I should have some difficulty in discriminating between it and the 
one so well known as a summer visitor in our island." 

2. HiRUNDO FRONTALIS. Gould. 

H. vertice, plumis auricular i bus, riorso et lunula j^ectorali nitide cceruleo viridescentibus, 
notd alba supra nares, guld corporeque snbtus albicantibus, crisso niveo, alts caudd- 
queftiscis viridi tinclis, rostro nigio, pedibus intenshj'uscis. 

Long. tot. 4f wnc. ala; 4f ; canda; 2 ; tarsi, |. 

Upper surface, wath a greenish blue metallic gloss; which can faintly be perceived 
on the primaries and on the tail feathers. The short feathers over each 
nostril white, thus forming two small white marks ; those over the ridge of 
bill pale brown, giving together the appearance of a narrow white band over 
the upper mandible. Entire under surface and lining of wings pure white. 
Tarsi rather darker than in //. leucopygia. 

Very slightly larger than H. leucopygia ; upper mandible rather broader. 



Inches. 

Total length 4| 

Wings . . ■ 4t 



Inches. 

Tail 2 

Tarsi i 



Habilat, Monte Video, (November). 

Mr. Gould says, "this species is closely allied both to the common martin, 
and to the last species ; from the former bird, however, its bare legs at once dis- 
tinguish it, while it differs from the latter in being rather larger in size, in having 
an obscure white mark on the forehead, at the base of the bill, and in having 
the metallic lustre of the upper surface deep steel green, instead of purple, which 
is the prevailing colour of both Hirundo leucopygia and H. urbica." 

It is abundant on the northern bank of the Plata, and more common than the 
H. purpurea, which frequents the same localities. It probably replaces on the 
eastern side of the continent, the H. leucopygia of Chile. 



BIRDS. 4 1 



3. HiRUNUO CYANOLEUCA. Vieill. 

It is nearly allied to the two latter species, but is readily distinguished from 
them by the absence of the white rump. I procured specimens in September, 
both from Valparaiso, and from Bahia Blanca (North Patagonia). At the latter 
place it built in holes in the same bank of earth with P. purpurea. 

Cypselus unicolor. Jard. 

C. unicolor. Jard. et Selhi/, Illust. Ornith. jil. 8.3. 

I obtained a specimen of this bird from St. Jago, Cape de Verd Islands. 
(September). 

It more resembled a swallow than a swift in the manner of its flight. I 
only saw a few of them. Insects occur so scantily over the bare and parched 
plains of basaltic lava, which compose the lower parts of the island of St. Jago, 
that it is surprising how these birds are able to find the means of subsistence. 



Family.— HALCYONIDiE. 

Halcyon erythrorhyncha, Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1837. 

Alcedo Senegalensis var. /j, Lath. 

In January, during the first visit of the Beagle to St. Jago, in the Cape de 
Verd Islands, these birds were numerous. But in our homeward voyage, in the 
beginning of September, I did not see a single individual. As Mr. Gould informs 
me it is an African species ; it is probably only a winter visitant to this archi- 
pelago. It lives in numbers in the arid valleys in the neighbourhood of Porto 
Praya, where it may be generally seen perched on the branch of the castor oil plant. 
I opened the stomachs of several, and found them filled with the wing cases of 
Orthopterous insects, the constant inhabitants of all sterile countries ; and in the 
craw of one there was part of a lizard. It is tame and solitary ; its flight is not swift 
anddirectliketliat of the European kingfisher. In these respects, and especially 

o 



42 ZOOLOGY OF THE VOYAGE OF THE BEAGLE. 

in its abundance in dry rocky valleys where there is not a drop of water, it 
differs widely from the habits of the allied genus Alcedo ; although certainly it 
abounded more in those valleys where streamlets occurred. This Halcyon was 
the only brilliantly coloured bird which I saw on the island of St. Jago. 

1. Ceryle Americana, Boie. 

Alcedo Americana, Gmcl. 

This Kingfisher is common on the banks of the Parana. It frequents the 
borders of lakes and rivers, and sitting on the branch of a tree, or on a stone, 
it thence takes short flights, and dashes into the water to secure its prey. Its 
manner of flying is neither direct nor rapid, which character is so remarkable in 
the flight of the European species ; but it is weak and undulatory, and 
resembles that -of the soft-billed birds. It often arrests itself suddenly in its 
course, and hovers over the surface of the water, preparatory to darting on some 
small fish. When seated on a tw^ig it constantly elevates and depresses its tail ; 
and as might have been expected from its figure, it does not sit in the stiff 
upright position so peculiar to the European Kingfisher. Its note is not unfre- 
quently uttered : it is low, and like the clicking together of two small stones. I 
was informed that it builds in trees. The internal coating of the stomach is of a 
fine orange colour. Mr. Gould has seen specimens of this bird from Mexico ; it 
enjoys, therefore, a very wide range. 

2. Ceryle torquata, Botiap. 

Alcedo torquata. Gmel. 
Ispida torquata. Sicain. 

This bird is common in the south part of Chile, in Chiloe, the Chonos Archi- 
pelago, and on the whole west coast, as far as the extreme southern parts of 
Tierra del Fuego. In these countries, it almost exclusively frequents the retired 
bays and channels of the sea with which the land is intersected ; and lives on 
marine productions. I opened the stomach of one, and found it full of the 
remains of crustaceae, and a part of a small fish. It occurs likewise in La Plata, 
and is very common in Brazil, where it haunts fresh water. It is said (Diet. Class. 
(VHist. Nat.) to occur in the West Indian islands ; it has, therefore, a wider 
range (from the equatorial region to the neighbourhood of Cape Horn) than the 
Ceryle Americana. 



BIRDS. 



43 



Family.— MUSCICAPIDtE. Vieill. 

Sub-Fam.— TYRANNIN.^. Sw. 
Saurophagus sulphuratus. Steams. 

Lanius sulplmratus. Gmcl. 

Tyrannus magnaniinus. Vieill. Eiicy. Metli. p. 850. 

Tyrannus sulphuratus. D'Orh. ot Lafr. Mag. de Zool. 1837, p. 42. 

The habits of this bird are singular. It is very common in the open country, 
on the northern banks of the Plata, where it does not appear to be a bird of 
passage. It obtains its food in many different methods. I have frequently 
observed it, hunting a field, hovering over one spot like a hawk, and then 
proceeding on to another. When seen from a short distance, thus suspended in the 
air, it might very readily be mistaken for one of the rapacious order ; its stoop, 
however, is very inferior in force and rapidity. At other times the Saurophagus 
haunts the neighbourhood of water, and there, remaining stationary, like a 
kingfisher, it catches any small fish which come near the margin. These birds 
not unfrequently are kept, with their wings cut, either in cages or in court-yards. 
They soon become tame, and are very amusing from their cunning odd manners, 
which were described to me, as being similar to those of the common magpie. 
Their flight is undulatory, for the weight of the head and bill appears too great 
for the body. In the evening the Saurophagus takes its stand on a bush, often 
by the road-side, and continually repeats, without change, a shrill and rather 
agreeable cry, which somewhat resembles articulate words. The Spaniards 
say it is like the words, " Bien te veo" (I see you well), and accordingly have 
given it this name. 

MuscivoRA Tyrannus. G. R. Gray. 

Muscicapa Tyrannus. Sw. 

Tyrannus Savana. Vieill. Bonap. Am. Orn. pi. 1. f. I. 

This species belongs to Mr. Swainson's genus Milvulus (more properly 
Milvilus,) but which name Mr. G. R. Gray has altered to Muscivora as the latter 
was proposed for Muse, forfieata as far back as 1801, by Lacep^de. 

It is very common near Buenos Ayres ; but I do not recollect having seen 
many in Banda Oriental. It sits on the bough of a tree, and very frequently on 



44 ZOOLOGY OF THE VOYAGE OF THE BEAGLE. 

the ombu, which is planted in front of many of the farm houses, and thence 
takes short flights in pursuit of insects. From the remarkable structure of its 
tail, the inhabitants of the country call it scissor-tail ; a name very well applied 
from the manner in which it opens and shuts the forked feathers of its tail. Like 
all birds thus constructed, (of which the frigate bird offers a most striking 
example), it has the power of turning very shortly in its flight, at which instant 
it opens and shuts its tail, sometimes, as it appears, in a horizontal and sometimes 
in a vertical plane. When on the wing it presents in its general appearance a 
caricature likeness of the common house swallow {Hirundo rustica). The 
Muscivora, although imquestionably belonging to the family of Muscicapidae 
manifests in its habits an evident relationship with birds of the fissirostral 
structure. 



Sub-Gen. PYROCEPHALUS, Gould. 

MUSCICAPA. Auct. 
MUSCIPETA. CuV. 

Tyrannula. Stvain. 

Rostrum capite brevius, rectum, depressum, basi setis numerosis nigris obsessum ; 
mandibuld superiore emarginata, inferiorem obtegeute ; naribus rotundatis patulis. 
Caput subcristalum. Alee longte ; reniige prima secundum tertiamque longissimas 
subcpquales fere (Bquante. Tarsi mediocres, atUich sciitellali; digitis lateralibus ina- 
qualibus, exteriore longioie. Cauda mcdiocris quadrata. 

Mr. Gould observes, that " the males of nearly all the members of this group 
(which may be considered either as a distinct genus or sub-genus of Myiobius), 
have the crown of the head and greater part of the under surface scarlet. Four 
species were obtained. — Pi/rocephalus parvirostris,( Gould), a.nd Muse icapa cor onata, 
(Auct.), may be taken as types. 

1. Pyrocephalus parvirostris. Gould. 

Plate VI. 

Le Churrinche, Azara. No. 177- 

P. suprhfuscus ; capite et subtus nitide puniceis ; rectricibus exterioribus tectricumquc 
et secundariorum apicibus griseo-marginatis . 

Long. tot. 5J^ unc; ahr, IS-J^; cmidep, -^ '> tarsi, -^ ; rost. ■^-. 

Crown of the head, crest, and all the under surface, bright scarlet ; the remainder 



Bcrdel'le 




J^i/roc€fJial(us jyoj-vircsdrus. 



r 



r 



Bu'o(.^ PI 7 




^r 



lifwcepJicdvo^: nanus. 



BIRDS. 45 

of the plumage, deep brown ; the outer tail-feathers on each side, and the 
edges of the secondaries and wing-covei'ts, margined with grey. 

Habitat, La Plata, {October.) 

This species differs from Pyr. coronatus or Musicapa coronata, of authors, 
chiefly in its size ; in other respects it is very similar. The admeasurements of 
the latter, for comparison (as given me by Mr. G. R. Gray), are : total length, 
5 inches and 8 lines ; bill, between 9 and 10 lines ; wings, .3 inches and 2 lines ; 
tail, 2 inches and 7 lines ; tarsi, 7 or 8 lines. 

During the summer, this bird was common both near Buenos Ayres and 
Maldonado ; but at the latter place, I did not see one in the months of May, 
June, July, (winter) and thei-efore, no doubt it is a bird of passage, migrating 
southward during the summer from Brazil. The birds of this and the allied 
genera, correspond very closely in their habits to certain of the Sylviadae of 
Europe ; some of the species frequenting bushes, like the black-cap, (Sylvia atii- 
capilla) ; others more usually the ground, as the robin (Sylvia rubecula) or hedge- 
sparrow {Accentor modularis). Another group {Synallaxis, Sj-c.) represent those 
European Sylviae, which frequent reeds. 

2. Pyrocephalus obscurus. Gould. 
P. lividus rufotinctus ; prcecipiii in fronte ventrecitie. 

Long. tot. j-j^ line. ; aliv, 3^; cauda; 2-j4r ; tarsi, -f^; rosi. -f-pr- 

All the plumage chocolate-brown, tinged with red, the latter colour predominating 
on the forehead and lower part of the abdomen ; bill and tarsi, black. 
A single specimen was obtained, and it would appear to be either an imma- 
ture bird or a female. 

Habitat, Lima, Peru. {August.) 

3. Pyrocephalus nanus. Gould. 

Plate VII. 
P.fuscus; rectricum exteriorum marginihtis omniumque et s^cunda riorum apicibua 

nitidh griseo-brunneis. 
Femina, brunnca; gutture griseo-alho ; corpore subtus paliidt' Jlavescente; pectoris 

laterumque plumis in medio brunneo-striatis. 

Long. tot. '^W line. ; ala; 'i-f^ ; caada;, 2^ ; tarsi, -^ ; rostri, -^. 

Male. 
Crown of the head, crest, and all the under surface, scarlet ; back, wings, and 



46 ZOOLOGY OF THE VOYAGE OF THE BEAGLE. 

tail, sooty-brown ; the external margin of the outer tail feathers, and the tips 
of all, light greyish brown ; bill and tarsi, black. 

Female. 

All the upper surface, wings, and tail, brown; throat, greyish white; the 
remainder of under surface, pale buff, the feathers of the chest and flanks, 
with an obscure fine stripe of light brown down the centre. 

Habitat, Galapagos Archipelago. {September.) 

There is nothing remarkable in the habits of this bird. It frequents both the 
arid and rocky districts near the coast, and the damp woods in the higher parts of 
several of the islands in the Galapagos Archipelago. 

4. Pyrocephalus DbBius. G'ould. 

P. minor, liviilus ; fronte,siipercilii.s corporeque suhtus stramineis ; teetricibus strmnineo 
marginalis. 

Long. tot. 4-^ line; alcv, 2-^ caudiv, l-j^; to»'si, -^-^•, rost. 

Forehead, stripe over the eye, and all the under surface pale buff ; back of the 
neck and upper surface chocolate brown ; greater and lesser wing coverts 
margined with buff. 

Habitat, Galapagos Archipelago, {September). 

From the appearance of this bird when alive, although closely resembling 
P. natms, I entertained no doubt that it was a distinct species. Mr. G. R. Gray 
informs me that there is a specimen of a male in the British Museum, which differs 
from the male of the precedent species, in having the upper colour of a decided 
brown, and the external margins of the outer tail feathers and tips of the 
secondaries rather reddish white ; also in size as stated by Mr. Gould. 

Myiobius. G. R. Gray. 

TvRANNULA. Stvains. 

Mr. Gould had adopted for the following species Mr. Swainson's generic 
appellation of Tyranmda, but Mr. G. R. Gray has pointed out, that as Tyrannulus 
was proposed and published eleven years before, namely in 1816, by Vieillot, it 
becomes necessary to change the former name, and therefore he proposes 
Myiobius. 



BIRDS. 47 

1. Myiobius albiceps. G. R. Gray. 

Muscipota albiceps. D'Orh. et Lafr. Mag. de Zool. 1837, p. 47. 

This bird is not uncommon in Tierra del Fiiego, and along the western coast 
of the southern part of the continent, where the land is covered with trees ; 
it is occasionally found near Valparaiso in central Chile ; and likewise in Banda 
Oriental on the banks of the Plata, where the country is open, from all of which 
places I procured specimens. At Port Famine and in the islands of the Chonos 
Archipelago, it inhabits the gloomiest recesses of the great forests. It generally 
remains quietly seated high up amongst the tallest trees, whence it constantly 
repeats a very plaintive, gentle whistle, in an uniform tone. The sound can be 
heard at some distance, yet it is ditficult to perceive from which quarter it 
proceeds, and from how far off; and I remained in consequence, for some time 
in doubt, from what bird it proceeded. 

2. Myiobius auriceps. 

Tyrannula auriceps. Gould, MS. 

M. nij'iis ; capite cristato nitidh Jiavo ; plumarum apicibus hrunneis ; alia bniimeis, 
secundariarum marginibus tectricumque apicibus rii/is ; caudd pallid^ brunned, 
plumarum extcrnarum marginibus externis pallidioribns ; gutture rorporeqne 
subtuspallidhjlavescenti-albis; plumis singulis fascia centrali brunned. 

Long. tot. .5-^ unc ; alcn, "2-^ caudn; 2^ tarsi, -^ rost. -^. 

All the upper surface rufous ; the basal portion of the coronal feathers yellow ; 
tail uniform light brown, the external margin of the outer feathers lighter ; 
wings brown, the external margin of the secondaries and the tips of the 
greater and lesser wing-coverts rufous ; throat and all the under surface pale 
huffy white, each feather having a brown mark down the centre; bill brown ; 
feet black. 

Habitat, Buenos Ayres, La Plata, (August). 

This bird is about the size of a sparrow. It is nearly allied to Tyrannula 
ferruginea of Swainson and M. cinnamonea of D'Orbig. and Lafr. 



48 ZOOLOGY OF THE TOY AGE OF THE BEAGLE. 

3. Myiobius parvirostris. 

Tyrannula parvirostris, Gould, MS. 

M. supra rufobrunneus ; pileo, nnclid hnmerisqne obscurh olivaceo-bruiuieis; alls brunneis, 
primariaruta et secundariarum marginibus exterius angusth tectiicumque late 
ferrugineis ; caudd guttnreque griseo-brunneis ; pectore abdomineqne Jiavescenti 
brunneis. 

Long. tot. 4-^ imc. ; al(v, 2-^ ', caudw, 2-^ ; tarsi, -^ ; rost. -f^. 

Crown of the head, back of the neck, and shoulders, dark olive brown ; back 
and upper tail coverts rufous brown ; wings brown ; the external edges of 
the primaries and secondaries finely, and the greater and lesser wing coverts 
broadly margined with ferruginous : tail uniform greyish brown ; throat 
brownish grey ; chest and abdomen sandy brown ; upper mandible dark 
brown ; under mandible yellowish brown ; feet blackish brown. 
Habitat, Tierra del Fuego, Chile, and La Plata. 

This bird inhabits the forests of Tierra del Fuego, and as I procured 
specimens of it in the beginning of winter (June), it probably remains throughout 
the year in the extreme southern part of South America. Other specimens were 
procured on the banks of the Plata, and near Valparaiso in Chile; it has there- 
fore a wide range. 

4. Myiobius magnirostris. 

Plate VIIL 
Tyranmila magnirostris. Oould, MS. 

M. Fofm. Supra olivaceo-bnninen ; caudd bnmnea ; rectricum externarum marginibus 
griseo-brunneis ; gutture pecloreque olivaceo griseis ; abdominc caudceque tectricibus 
inferioribus pallidh Jlavis ; alls saturath brunneis, secundariis tectricibusque late 
griseo marginatis. 

Long tot. 5-^ ; alw, 2^ ; caudw, 2^% ; tarsi, -Li ; rust. ^. 

Crown of the head and back olive brown ; tail brown ; the external margins of 
the two outer feathers greyish brown ; throat and chest olive grey ; abdomen 
and under tail coverts very pale citron yellow ; wings dark brown ; second- 
aries, greater and lesser wing coverts broadly margined with grey : bill and 
feet black. 

Habitat, Chatham Island, Galapagos Archipelago {October). 

This bird and the Pyrocephalus nanus, inhabit the same island. Not very 
uncommon. 



J^tn'- /'Ic^ 




2^?ufmM/a' /^ui'^nwvsdn^ . 



BIRDS. 49 



Genus.— SERPOPHAGA. Gould. 

Rostrum capite multo brevius, rectum, subdepressum ; tomiis rectis ; mandibidd 
superiore subemarghiatd ; naribus basalibus, lateralibus, pilis moUibus cmtich versis 
partimteclis. Alee breves, concav(e, remige quartdlongissimd. Cauda longinscida 
subrotundata. Tarsi mediocres squamis duris annulafi; digitis parvis, postico 
mediano breviore, lateralibus cequalibus, exteriore cum mediano usque ad articidum 
priorem comiatum. 

1. Serpophaga Parulus. Goidd. 

Muscicapa parulus, KitUtz, Mem, L'Acad. Imp. des Sci. St. Peters. 1831. I. p. 190. PI. 9. 

Sylvia Bloxami, Gray's Zool. Misc. 1831. p. 11. 

Culicivora parulus, LfOrhig. & Lafr. Mag. de Zool. 1837, p. 57. 

This bird is common in central Chile, in Patagonia, and although found in 
Tierra del Fuego, it is not numerous there. Its specific name is very well chosen, 
as I saw no bird in South America whose habits approach so near to those of our 
tom-tits {Parus). It frequents bushes in dry places, actively hopping about them, 
and sometimes repeating a shrill cry ; it often moves in small bodies of three and 
four together. In August I found the nest of one in a valley in the Cordillera of 
central Chile ; it was placed in a bush and was simply constructed. 

2. Serpophaga albo-coronata. Gould. 

S. supra olivacco-brunnea, subtus pallidk fiava ; pileo nigrescenti brunneo, in hoc plu- 
marum basibus linedque supra oculos alb is ; alis nigrescenti brunneis, primariis 
august^ olivaceo marginatis, tectricibus lath olivaceo-griseo marginatis, gutture 
griseo. 

Long. tot. 4 Jj ; alcp, 2; caiuhv, 2; tarsi, -^ ; rosi. -^. 

A stripe of white from the nostrds over each eye; crown of the head brown, the 
base of all the feathers pure white ; back of the neck, back and upper tail 
coverts olive brown ; M'ings blackish brown, the external edges of the pri- 
maries finely margined with olive, and the greater and lesser wing coverts 
largely tipped with olive grey; tail uniform brown; throat grey; abdomen 
and under tail coverts pale citron yellow ; bill and feet brown. 

Habitat, Maldonado, La Plata, (June). 



50 ZOOLOGY OF THE VOYAGE OF THE BEAGLE. 

This bird, like the last species, generally moves in very small flocks. Its 
habits, I presume, are also very similar; for I state in my notes that it closely 
approaches to our tit-mice in general manners and appearance. 

3. Serpophaga nigricans. Gould. 

Sylvia nigricans, Vieill. 

Taclmris nigricans, UOrhig. 8)- Lafr. Mag. de Zool. 1837. p. 55. 

Le Petit Taclmris noiratre, Azara, No. 167. 

This bird is common in the neighbourhood of Maldonado, on the banks of the 
Plata. It generally frequents the borders of lakes, ditches, and other moist 
places ; but is related in its general manners with the last species. It often 
alights on aquatic plants, growing in the water. When seated on a twig it occa- 
sionally expands its tail like a fan. 



Sub.-Fam.— TITYRAN^. (Ps.a.rian^, Sw.) 
Pachyramphus, G. H. Gray. 

Pachyrhynchus, Sjnx. 

1. Pachyramphus albescens. 

Pacliyrhynclius albescens, Gould, MS. 
Plate XIV. 

P. olivaceo-griseus ; alls nigrescenti hrunneis, alhescenti marginatis ; gutture corpore- 
que subtus griseo-albis ; alarum teclricibus inferioribus paUidh sulphureis. 

Long. tot. 5^ unc. ; aUe, 2^; caudw, 2^; tarsi, ^•, rost. -f^- 

Head and all the upper surface olive grey ; wings blackish brown, the coverts 
and secondaries broadly margined wnth dull white ; primaries narrowly 
margined with greyish white ; tail blackish brown, the external web of the 
outer feather white; under surface of the shoulder pale sulphur yellow; 
throat and under surface greyish white ; bill and feet black. 

Habitat, Buenos Ayres. 

The generic name of Pachyrhynchus Spix, is changed by Mr. G. R. Gray, 
to Pachyramphus, as the former word is used in entomology. 



^uv^^J'lA. 




J'^o/u/rd'^'opAAM (Ui^MC0)iA9^ 



^ircL- n /^ 




Tou^h/roim^kus mz.?w?niM. 



BIRDS. 51 

2. Pachyramphus minimus. 

Pacliyrhj-nclius minimus, Gould. MS. 
Plate XV. 
P. ntfo brunneus ; capite guttureque hnmneo-7iigris ; plumarum basibus ulbis ; alts 
cauddque brunneis, plumis flavescenti-albo marginatis ; colli lateribus, fascia 
pectorali hypochondriisque fulvis ; jugulo ventreque pallidi flavescentibus. 
Long. tot. S-^77 ; ala\ \\% ; cauda, \-^; tarsi, -f^; rost. -fy. 

Crown of the head, sides of the face and throat blackish brown, each feather 
white at the base; back of the neck black, and upper tail coverts rufous 
brown ; wings and tail dark brown, each feather margined with sandy white ; 
sides of the neck, under surface of the shoulder, band across the chest and 
flanks reddish fawn colour ; lower part of the throat, and centre of the abdo- 
men very pale buff; bill and feet blackish brown. 
Habitat, Monte Video, (November). 



Sub-Fam.— FLUVICOLIN-^, Swain. 
Alfxturus guirayetupa. Vieill. Diet. 

Muscicapa psalura, Temm., PI. Col. t. 286 and 296. 

risoria, Vieill., Gal. des Ois. PI. 131. 

Yetapa psalura, Less., Tr. d'Orn. i. p. 387. 
Le Guirayetupa, Azara, No. 226. 

This bird is not uncommon on the open grassy country near iVIaldonado on the 
banks of the Plata. It sits generally on the top of a thistle ; from which it makes 
short flights and catches its prey in the air. The two long feathers in its tail 
appear quite useless to it. It sometimes feeds on the ground. In the stomach 
of one which I opened there was a spider (Lt/cosa), and some Coleoptera. 

1. LiCHENOPS PERSPICILLATUS. G. R. Gray. 

Sylvia perspiclllata, Gmel. 

CEnantbe perspiclllata, Vieill. 

Ada Commersoni, Less. 

Perspicilla leucoptera, Sicains., Nat. Libr. -\. Flyc. p. 10 j, PI. 9. 

Fhniola perspiclllata, D'Orh. Sf Lafr., Mag. do Zool. 1 837, p. 5.9. 

Le Clignot ou Liclienops, Conim., Sundev. 

Le Bee d'argent, Azara, No. 228. 

This bird belongs to the sub genus, Perspicilla, of Mr. Swainson ; but as Mr. 



52 ZOOLOGY OF THE VOYAGE OF THE BEAGLE. 

G. R. Gray has pointed out that Commerson had previously considered it the type 
of his genus, Lichenops, we have been induced to prefer the latter as the oldest name. 
It is common in the neighbourhood of the Plata, and across the Pampas, as far as 
Mendoza on the eastern foot of the Andes ; it has not, however, crossed those 
mountains and entered Chile. Tt usually sits on the top of a thistle, and like our 
common fly-catchers {Muscicapa grisola), takes short flights in pursuit of insects ; 
but does not, like that bird, return to the same twig. It feeds, also, occasionally 
on the turf: in the stomach of some which I opened, I found Coleopterous insects, 
chiefly Curculionidae. Beak, eye-lid, and iris, beautiful primrose yellow. 

2. Lichenops erythropterus. Gould. 

Plate IX. 

L. supra nigrescent i-hninncus,plu)nis riifo-mnrginatis; primariis secuudariis(jue casta- 
ueis, apicibus pogonia'qne exlernce dimidio apicah bruuneis ; gulture corporeque 
sublus cervinis ; pectore brunneo-marginato. 

Long. tot. 6 line; alw, 3; cauda; 2^; tarsi, 1; rostri, j^^. 

All the upper surface and tail blackish brown, each feather margined with rufous; 
primaries and secondaries reddish chesnut, their tips and their external webs 
forhalf their length from the tip, brown; tertiaries, greater and lesser wing- 
coverts dark-brown, each feather margined with reddish buff"; throat, and 
all the under surface, fawn colour ; the chest spotted with brown ; base of 
the bill, and chiefly of the lower mandible, as well as the iris, bright yellow ; 
eye-lid, blackish yellow; feet, dark brown. 

Habitat, Banks of the Plata. 

This bird is not very common. It frequents damp ground, where rushes 
grow, on the borders of lakes. It feeds on the ground and tcalks. It is certainly 
allied in many respects with the foregoing species, but in its power of walking, 
and in feeding on the ground, there is a marked difference in habits. As it has 
lately been described (Swainson's Nat. Libr. Ornith. x. p. 106.) as the female of the 
L. perspiciUatiis, I will here point out some of its chief distinguishing characters. 
Its beak is slightly more depressed, but with the ridge rather more plainly pro- 
nounced. In the L. perspiciUatiis, the upper mandible is entirely yellow, excepting 
the apex; in the L. erythropterus, it is entirely pale brown, excepting the base. The 
eyelid in the former is bright primrose yellow, in the latter blackish yellow. The tail 
of L. erytltropieras is squarer and contains only ten feathers instead of twelve: the 
wing is A of an inch shorter, and the secondaries relatively to the primaries are also 
shorter. The red colour on the primaries represents, but does not correspond with, the 
white on the black feathers of i./w5/«c///a/it5,- and the secondaries in the two birds 



Jiird^ M.9. 




m^^^-^ 



Zz^ckenqp^ eri/thrqptefTM. 



/krd^ n M 




jF^vI/coIgl ,^!^a/rc0 



BIRDS. 53 

are quite differently marked. In L. enjthropterus, the third, fourth, and fifth 
primaries are the longest, and are equal to each other ; the second is only a little 
shorter than the third. In L. perspicillatns the third is rather shorter than the 
fourth and fifth ; and the second is proportionally shorter relatively to the third, 
so that the outer part of the wing in this species is more pointed than in L. ery- 
thropterus. The hinder claw in the latter is only in an extremely small degree 
straighter than in the former ; and this, considering that the L. perspicillattcs is 
generally perched, and when on the ground, can onlj^ hop ; and that the L. ery- 
tliroptcnis feeds there entirely, and walks, is very remarkable. 

1. Fluvicola icterophrys. D^Orb. 4- Lafr. Mag. de Zool. 1837. p. 59. 

Muscicapa icterophrys, Vieill. Encyc. Meth. p. 832. 
Le Suiriri noiratre et jaune, Azara, No. 183. 

Specimens were found by me both at Monte Video and at Maldonado, on the 
banks of the Plata. I found Coleoptera in their stomachs. 

2. Fluvicola Irupero. G. R. Gray. 

Tyrannus Irupero, Vieill, Ency. Mctli. p. 856. 

Muscicapa nioesta, Licht. Cat. p. 54. 

Muscicapa nivea, Spix, Av. pi. 29. f. 1. 

Pepoaza nivea, D'Orl. 4- Lafr. Mag. de Zool. 1837. p. 62. 

Irupero, Azara, No. 204. 

This elegant bird, which is conspicuous amongst most land species by the 
whiteness of its plumage, is found, though not commonly, (in November) in Banda 
Oriental ; whilst near Santa F^, three degrees of latitude northward, it was com- 
mon during the same time of year. It is rather shy, generally perches on the 
branches of bushes and low trees. 

3. Fluvicola Azar^. Gould. 

Plate X. 

F. alba; alis, caudd caudfpque leclricibus atris, his (dbo-marginatis ; primariis Jlaves- 
centi-aibis, basibus apicibusque nigris ; rostro liedibusque atris. 

liong. tot. 8^V uiic. ; ake, 4^ ; cauJw, 4^V ; tarsi, 1 ; rost. 1 . 

Head, all the upper and under surface white ; wings and tail black ; tail coverts 
black margined with white ; primaries broad and crossed near their extremity 
with sulphur white, and tipped with brown ; bill and legs black. 

Habitat, banks of the Plata. 



54 ZOOLOGY OF THE VOYAGE OF THE BEAGLE. 

This bird is very common in the neighbourhood of Maldonado, where it 
frequents the open grassy plains. It sits on the top of a thistle, or on a twig, 
and catches the greater part of its food on the wing. It is generally quiet in its 
movements and silent. Mr. Gould remarks, that he finds " nearly all the species 
of this peculiar group to difter remarkably in the structure of their wings and 
tail, while in all other respects they closely resemble each other both in form and 
habit ; I have, therefore, hesitated to separate them into so many genera. I have 
assigned the present species to Mr. Swainson's subgenus Fhwicola, considering 
that differences in the form of one organ alone would not be sufficient grounds 
for the institution of a new genus among such closely allied species ; the present 
bird evidently leads oft' to Tcenioptera, a genus proposed many years since, by 
the Prince of Musignano for the Pepoazas of Azara. 

"This species is closely allied to, if not identical with the Pepoazu Do- 
minicana of Azara, but as there is a degree of obscurity in his description, which 
causes some doubt on this point, I have considered it better to pay a just 
tribute of respect to that zealous labourer in the field of natural science, by 
assigning his name to this very elegant bird." 

1. XoLMis coRONATA. G. R. Gray. 

Tyrannus coronatus, Vieill. Ency. Mctli. p. 885. 
Muscicapa vittiger, Licht. Cat. p. .54. 

My specimen was obtained on the wooded banks of the Parana, near Santa 
Fe, in Lat. 31° S. 

Boie's name of Xolmis is adopted by Mr. G. R. Gray, as it was proposed 
some five years anteriorly to that of the Prince of Musignano's. 

2. XoLMLS NENGETA. G. R. Gray. 

Lanius nengeta, Linne, 1. p. 135. 7. 

Tyrannus nengeta, Sicains. Journ. Sci. x.\. p. 279. 

Fluvicola nengeta, Sicains. Nat. Libr. Fly-catchers, p. 102. pi. 8. 

Tyrannus pepoaza, Vieill. Ency. Meth. p. 855. 

Muscicapa polyglotta, Licht. SjM.f. II. pi. 24'. 

Tyrannus polyglottus, Cuv. 

Le Pepoaza proprement dit, Azara, No. 201. 

My specimen was procured at Maldonado, north bank of La Plata, where 
it is not common. Its habits in many respects are like those of the Fluvicola 
Azarce; it appears to catch its prey on the wing. Iris bright red. 



£hrcL^ Fi H 




2(t./owjytt^/ay va/n&gaXAJo 



BIRDS. 55 



3. XoLMls VARIEGATA. G. R. Gray. 

Plate XI. 

Pepoaza variegata. D'Orh. S; Lafr. Mag. de Zool. 1837. p. G-3. Voy. dans I'Amer. Mer. Orn. pi. 39. f. 2. 
Tsenioptera variegata. On plate. 

This bird feeds in small flocks, often mingled with the icteri, plovers, and 
other birds on the ground. Its manner of flight and general appearance never 
failed to call to my recollection our common fieldfares {Turdns pilaris, Linn.) 
and I may observe that its plumage (in accordance with these habits) is different 
from that of the rest of the genus. I opened the stomachs of some specimens 
killed at Maldonado, and found in them seeds and ants. At Bahia Blanca I saw 
these birds catching on the wing large stercovorous Coleoptera ; in this respect it 
follows the habits, although in most others it differs from those of the rest of its 
tribe. Iris rich brown. 

4. XoLMis PYROPE. G. R. Gray. 

Muscicapa pyrope, Kitl'dz. Mem. I'Acad. Imp. des Sci. St. Peters. 1831. p. 191. pi. 10. Vogel von Chili, 

pi. 10. p. 19. 
Pepoaza pyrope, D'Orh. S,- Lafr. Mag. de Zool. 1 837. p. 63. 

This bird is not uncommon near Port Famine in Tierra del Fuego, and 
along the whole western coast (at Chiloe specimens were obtained) even as far 
north as the desert valley of Copiapo. In the thickly wooded countries of Tierra 
del Fuego and Chiloe, where it is more common than further northward, it 
generally takes its station on the branch of a tree, on the outskirts of the forest. 
When thus perched, usually at some height above the ground, it sharply looks out 
for insects passing by, which it takes on the wing. Iris scarlet. It builds a 
coarse nest in bushes. Egg perfectly white, pointed oval ; length one inch, 
breadth 76 of an inch. 



56 ZOOLOGY OF THE VOYAGE OF THE BEAGLE. 



Genus.— AGRIORNIS. Gould. 

Tyrannus, Eyd. 8f Gerv. 
Pepoaza, D'Orh. Sf Lafr. 

Rostrum longitudine capitis, rectum, forte, compressum, abrupt^ deflexum, emargi- 
natiim ; tomiis rectis iiitegris; narihus basalibits, lateralibiis, rotnndis, patulis; 
rictu pilis rigidiusculis obsesso. Alee mediocres, remige prima longd, tertid quartdqtie 
cequalibus, longissimis. Cauda mediocris, quadrata. Tarsi longi, fortes, sqnamis 
crassis annulati ; digito iingueque postico mediano breviore, lateralibus cequalibus, 
liber is. 

Mr. Gould observes that the members of this genus are remarkable for their 
robust form and for their strength and magnitude of their bills ; and their habits 
strictly accord with their structure, as they are fierce and courageous. 

The species are closely allied to those of the preceding genus.* 

1. Agriornis gutturahs. Gould. 

Tyrannus gutturalis, Ei/d. ^- Gerv. Voyage de la Fav. Ois. dans Mag. de Zool. 1836. pi. II. 
Pepoaza gutturalis, D'Orh. Sf Lafr. Mag. de Zool. 1837. p. di- 

My specimens were obtained near Valparaiso in Chile. I saw it as far 
north as the valley of Copiap6. I was assured by the inhabitants that it is a very 
fierce bird, and that it will attack and kill the young of other birds. 

2. Agriornis striatus. Gould. 

A. Fwm. intensh olivaceo-brunnea ; alis caudc'ique fuscis, utriusque phanis marginibus 
apiceque pallidh brunneis ; rectricum externarum pogoniii externa alba; gutture 
facieque lateribus albis, his nigrostriatis ;pectore hypochondriisqiie olivaceo-brunneis ; 
ventre crissoque fiavescentibus. 

Long. tot. 10 unc. ; ala>, 4^; cauda\ 4^; tarsi, l-fW ; rostri, 1^. 

Head, and all the upper surface dark olive brown ; wings and tail dark brown, 
each feather margined and tipped with pale brown, and the outer web of the 
external tail-feather, white ; throat, and sides of the face, white, striated with 

* Perhaps to this genus belong Mascicapa thanmophiloides and cinerea, figured by Spix, in his Aves, 
pi. 2e. f. 1 and 2. G. R. Gray. 



J^ird., /'/.J2. 




u^jnorm-f m,0C'yopt&rii,^' 



iiiri/.<< j^i a 




c^/Zanomizi' lewcMyru^ 



BIRDS. 57 

black ; breast and flanks olive brown ; centre of the abdomen and under 
tail-coverts, buff; bill, horn colour ; feet, black. 

Habitat, Santa Cruz, Patagonia. {April.) 

I am not aware of any difference in habits between this species, and the fol- 
lowing {A. micropterus) ; and the country inhabited by it is similar. From these 
circumstances I am induced to suspect, that it is the same species in an immature 
state. 

3. Agriornis micropterus. Gould. 

Plate XII. 

M.pallidh hrunneus, suhtusjlavescenti-alhiis ; alarum caudceque plumis griseo-margina- 
tis ; giitturis alhis, brunneo-marginatis. 

Long. tot. .9^V unc. ; ala>, 4-i ; caudce, 2^ ; tarsi, X-f^ ; rostri, li. 

Head, all the upper surface, wings and tail, pale brown, each feather of the wings 
and tail margined with greyish brown ; throat, white, striated with dark 
brown ; the remainder of the under surface, buffy white ; bill, dark horn 
colour ; feet brown. 

Habitat, Port Desire, and St. Julian, Patagonia. (January). 

These birds frequent the wild valleys in which a few thickets grow. They 
generally take their stand on the upper twigs. They are shy, solitary, and not 
numerous. Mr. G. R. Gray considers the two specimens which were obtained 
to be immature, and that one is a full-fledged young, and the other a nestling 
of the Agr. striatus. 

4. Agriornis maritimus. G. R. Gray. 

Plate XIII. 

Pepoaza maritima, D'Orb. et Lefr., Mag. de Zool. 1837, p. 65. 
Agriornis leuciirus. Gould's MSS., and on PL xiii. 

Inhabits the coast of Patagonia. It is a scarce, shy, solitary bird, frequent- 
ing the valleys in which thickets grow, but often feeding on the ground. In the 
interior plains of Patagonia, on the banks of the Santa Cruz, I several times saw it 
chasing beetles on the wing, in a peculiar manner, half hopping and half flying ; 
when thus employed, it spreads its tail, and the white feathers in it are displayed 
in a very conspicuous manner. I also met with this species in the lofty and arid 
valleys on the eastern side of the Cordillera of Central Chile, and likewise at 
Copiap6. 



58 ZOOLOGY OF THE VOYAGE OF THE BEAGLE. 



Family.— LAN I A D^. 

Sub-Fam.— LANIAN^, Swains. 
Cyclarhis Guianensis, Stvains. 

C. Guianensis, Sicains., Omith. Draw. PI. 58. ? 

Tanagra Guianensis, Gmel. 

Laniagra Guyanensis, D'Orb. et Lafr. 

Falcunculus Guianensis, Sicains., (1837.) 

Le Sourciroux, Levaill. Ois. D'Afr. PI. 76. f. 2. 

My specimen was obtained at Maldonado, in the latter end of May. I did 
not see another during my residence there. In its stomach were Coleoptera. 



Sub-Fam.— THAMNOPHILINiE. 
Thamnophilus doliatus, Vieill. 

Lanius doliatus, Linne. 

My specimen was obtained at Maldonado, where it is not very common. It 
generally frequents hedge-rows. Cry rather loud, but plaintive and agreeable. 
Iris, reddish orange ; bill, blue, especiuily base of lower mandible. I observed 
individuals (females ?) in which the black and white bands on the breast 
were scarcely visible, and even those on the under tail-coverts but obscurely 
marked. 



BIRDS. 59 



Family.— TURDID^. 

1. TURDUS RUFIVENTER. Licllt. 

T. rufiventer, Licht. Cat. p. 38. 

Vieill. Ency. Meth. p. 639 ? 

Spix, Av. Sp. Nov. torn. 1. p. 70. t. Ixviii. 

D'Orh. et Lafr. Voy. de I'Amer. Mer. Av. p. 203. 

Grive rousse et noiratre, Azara, No. 79. 
Turdus Chochi, Vieill. Ency. Meth. p. 639. 

D'Orh. et Lafr. Mag. de Zool. 1835. p. 17. 

T. leucomelas, Vieill. Ency. Meth. 644. 

T. albiventer, SpLv, Av. Sp. Nov. torn. 1. p. 70. t. Ixi.x. f. l.ni. 2 fem. 

La grive blanche et noiratre, Azara, No. 80. 

The white-bellied thrush, described under the three latter synonyms, accord- 
ing to M. D'Orbigny, (p. 203 of the ornithological part of his work), is the 
female of the 2\ nifiventer. My specimens were obtained at Maldonado and the 
Rio Negro, which latter place, in 41°, is its most southern limit: Spix found it 
near Rio de Janeiro in Brazil. It utters a note of alarm very like that of the 
common English thrush, [Turdus musicus). 

2. Turdus Falklandicus. Quoy et Gaiin. 

T. Falklandicus, Quoi/ et Gaiin. Zool. de I'Uranie, p. 104. 

Pernetti/, Hist, d'un Voy. aux lies Malouines, II. p. 20. 

D'Orb. Sf Lafr., Voy. de I'Amer. Mer. Av. p. 202. 

T. Magellanicus, Ki)i(/, Proc. Zool. Soc. (1830) p. 14. 
lyOrh. Sj- Lafr. Mag. de Zool. 1835. p. 16. 

M. D'Orbigny has pointed out that the Turdus 3IageUanicus of King is only 
the male bird of T'urdus Falklandicus. I obtained specimens from the Rio Negro, 
Falkland Islands, Tierra del Fuego and Chiloe : I believe I saw the same species 
in the valleys of Northern Chile ; I was informed that the thrush there lines 
its nest with mud, in which respect it follows the habits of species of the 
northern hemisphere. In the Falkland Islands it chiefly inhabits the more rocky 
and dryer hills. It haunts also the neighbourhood of the settlement, and very 
frequently may be seen within old sheds. In this respect, and generally in its 
habits, it resembles the English thrush (Turdus musicus) : its cry, however, is 
different. It is tame, silent, and inquisitive. 



60 ZOOLOGY OF THE VOYAGE OF THE BEAGLE. 



]. MiMus Orpheus. G. R. Gi 



ay. 



Orpheus Calandna, D'Orh. S,- Lafr. Mag. de Zool. (1835) p. 17- — Yoy. de 

I'Amer. Mer. Av. 206. pi. x. f. 2. 
Turdus Orpheus, Spix. Av. t. 1. pi. 71. 
Mimus satuminus, P. Max. Beitr. p. 658 ? 
Orpheus modulator, Gould, in Proc. of Zool. Soc. Part lY. (1836) p. 6. 

This bird is described in the Proceedings of the Zoological Society (Part IV. 
J 830, p. 6.) as having come from the Straits of Magellan, which undoubtedly is a 
mistake. It is extremely common on the banks of the Plata; but a few degrees 
south of it, is replaced by the O. Patagotiica of D'Orbigny. In Banda Oriental 
these birds are tame and bold ; they constantly frequent the neighbourhood of the 
country houses to pick the meat, which is generally suspended to the posts and 
walls. If any other small bird joins in the feast, the Calandria (as this species is 
usually called in La Plata) immediately chases him away. In these respects, 
and in its manner of sometimes catching insects, the Mimus is related in its 
habits with that division of the Muscicapida', which includes the genus Xohnis : 
indeed, the general colour of the plumage of A". Netig-efa is so like that of Mimus, 
that it might readily be mistaken for a bird of that genus. The Calandria 
haunts thickets and hedge-rows, where it actively hops about, and in doing so 
often elevates and slightly expands its tail. 

2. Mimus Patagonicus. G. R. Gray. 

Orpheus Patagonicus, D'Orh. S; Lafr. Mag. de Zool. 1836, p. 19.— Yoy. de 
I'Amer. ]\[er. Av. p. 210, pi. xi. f. 2. 

I obtained specimens of this bird at the Rio Negro and at Santa Cruz in 
Southern Patagonia, at both of which places it is common. It is not found in 
Tierra del Fuego, for neither it nor the other species of the genus inhabit forests. 
This species has slightly different habits from the M. Orpheus. It is a shyer 
bird, and frequents the plains and valleys thinly scattered with stunted and thorn- 
bearing trees. It does not appear to move its tail so much. Its cry, like that of 
the rest of the genus, is harsh, but its song is sweet. The M. Patagonicus, 
whilst seated on the highest twig of some low bush, often enlivens the dreariness 
of the surrounding deserts by its varying song. Molina, however, describing 
the song of an allied species, has greatly exaggerated its charms. It maj^ be 
compared to that of the sedge-bird {Motucilla salicai-ia, Linn.), but is much more 
powerful, some harsh notes and some very high ones being mingled with a 
pleasant warbling. The song of the different mocking thrushes certainly is 



BIRDS. 61 

superior to that of any other bird which I heard in South America ; and they are 
ahnost the only ones which formally pei'ch themselves on an elevated twig for the 
purpose of singing. They sing only during the spring of the year. I may here 
mention, as a curious instance of the fine shades of difference in habits between 
very closely allied species, that when I first saw the 31. PatagoTiicus, I concluded 
from habits alone that it was different from M. Orpheus. But having afterwards 
procured a specimen of the former, and comparing the two without particular 
care, they appeared so very similar that I changed my opinion. Mr. Gould, 
however, immediately upon seeing them (and he did not then know that M. 
D'Orbigny had described them as different) pronounced that they were distinct 
species ; a conclusion in conformity with the trifling diff'erence of habit and 
geographical range, of which he was not at the time aware. 



3. MiMUS Thenca. G. R. Gray. 

Turdus Thenca. Mol. 

Orpheus Thenca. D'Orh. Voy. de I'Amer. Mer. Orn. p. 209, pi. f. 3. 

This species seems to be confined to the coast of the Pacific, west of the Cor- 
dillera, where it replaces the 31. Orpheus, and 31. Patagouicus of the Atlantic side 
of the continent. Its southern limit is the neighbourhood of Concepcion, (lat. 
37° S.) where the country changes from thick forests to an open land. The 
Thenca, (which is the name of this species, in the language of the Aboriginal 
Indians,) is common in central and northern Chile, and is likewise found (I 
believe the same species) near Lima, (lat. 12°) on the coast of Peru. The habits 
of the Thenca are similar, as far as I could perceive, to those of the 31. Patago- 
nicus. I observed many individuals, which had their heads stained yellow from 
the pollen of some flower, into which they bury their heads, probably for the 
sake of the small beetles concealed there. Molina describes the nest of 
the Thenca, as having a long passage, but I was assured by the country 
people, that this nest belonged to the Synallaxis (egithaloides, and that the 
Thenca makes a simple nest, built externally of small prickly branches of the 
mimosa. 



62 ZOOLOGY OF THE VOYAGE OF THE BEAGLE. 

4. MiMUS TRiFASciATUs. G. R. Gray. 
Plate XVI. 
Orpheus trifasciatiis. Gould, in Proc. of ZooL Soc. Part v. 1837, p. 2". 
M. vertice, nucha, et dorso nigrescent ihus ; nropygio rufo pallide lavato ; alls nigres- 
centihus, tectricibus notd albescente tenninali fascias tres transversas Jacientibus ; 
rectricibus caudcB dnabus inlermediis nigrescent ibus, reliquis ad apicem pallid ioribus; 
plmnis auricular ibus, strigd superciliari, gulu, et corpore subtus albis, lateribus notis 
guttisque Juscis ornatis ; rostro pedibusque nigris. 

Long. tot. 10| line; rost. If; alw, 5; caitchv, 5i ; tarsi, 1|. 

The vertex, nape of the neck and the back, blackish ; with the lower part of the 
back tinged with pale rufous ; the Avings blackish, with the tips of the wing 
coverts white, forming three transverse bands ; the tail with the two interme- 
diate feathers black, with the tips of the others much paler ; the auricular 
feathers with a streak above the eyes, throat, and beneath the abdomen white; 
the flanks ornamented with fuscous marks and spots. 
Habitat, Charles Island, Galapagos Archipelago. (October). 

5. MiMUS MELANOTis. G. R. Gray. 

Plate XVIL 

Orpheus melanotis, Gould, in Proc. of Zool. Soc. Part v. 1837, p. 27. 

M. vertice, nucha, dorsoque pallidh Juscis; plumis capitis et dorsi ad medium colore 
saturatiore; alis intensh fuscis, singidis plumis ad tnarginem pallid ioribus, secunda- 
riis, tectricibusqiie majoribus tiotd alba terminali, fascias duas transversas facien- 
tibus ; caadce rectricibus nigrescenti-fuscis ad apicem albis, loro, plumisque auricu- 
lar ibus nigrescenti-fuscis; laterum plumis notd fused centrali, abdomine albo ; rostro 
pedibusque nigris. 

Long tot. 9^ unc. ; rost. [\ ; alw, 4 J ; cmtdw, 4 J ; tarsi, Ig. 

The vertex, nape of the neck and the back, pale brown ; the feathers of the head 
and the back, as far as the middle, of a darker colour ; the wings intensely 
brown, with the margins of each of the feathers paler ; the secondaries and the 
greater wing-coverts terminated with white marks, giving the appearance of 
two transverse bands ; the feathers of the tail blackish brown, with the tips 
white; the lores and the feathers of the ears blackish brown, the feathers of the 
sides with a central brown mark, the abdomen white ; the bill and feet black. 
Habitat, Chatham and James's Islands, Galapagos Archipelago. {October.) 




Jtrds .fl ; 



/ifimii^ dr^^ooaiU'S. 



^^rds n^? 




.A{t/mM(f -jnUoyn'Oh'S. 



^,^y<lf J'l /S. 




MiMivUf panfolutf. 



BIRDS. 63 

6. MiMus PARVULUS. G. R. Gray. 
Plate XVIII. 
Orpheus parvulus. GouIJ, in Proc. of Zool. Soc. Part v. 1837, p. 27. 

M. vertice, nucha cmulacpie intensi fuscis, hnjus rectricihus ad apicem alho notatis; alls 
fuscis secundariis tectricibiisque iiold alba apicali Jascias duas tiansversas Jacienti- 
bus ; loi'o plumisque auricularibus nigrescentibiis ; guld, colli lateribus, pectore, et 
abdomiiie albescent ibns; plmnis latei'nin notis fuscis per medium longitudinaliter ex- 
curreutibus. 

Long. tot. 8f unc. ; rost. 1 ; al(e, 3|; caudce, 3| ; tarsi, \\. 

The vertex, the nape of the neck, and the tail intensely black ; with the tips of the 
tail feathers marked with white ; the wings brown with the secondaries and 
coverts tipped with white marks, giving the appearance of two transverse 
bands ; the lores and the feathers of the ears black ; the throat, the sides of 
the neck, breast, and the abdomen white ; the flanks marked longitudinally 
with brown. 

Habitat, Albemarle Island, Galapagos Archipelago. {October.) 

It will be seen, that the three last species of the genus Mimus, were procured from 
the Galapagos Archipelago; and as there is a fact, connected with their geographi- 
cal distribution, which appears to me of the highest interest, I have had these three 
figured. There are five large islands in this Archipelago, and several smaller ones. 
I fortunately happened to observe, that the specimens which I collected in the two 
first islands we visited, differed from each other, and this made me pay particular 
attention to their collection. I found that all in Charles Island belonged to M. tri- 
fasciatus ; all in Albemarle Island to 31. parvulus, and all in Chatham and James's 
Islands to 31. melanotus. I do not rest this fact solely on my own observation, 
but several specimens were brought home in the Beagle, and they were found, ac- 
cording to their species, to have come from the islands as above named. Charles 
Island is distant fifty miles from Chatham Island, and thirty-two from Albemarle 
Island. This latter is only ten miles from James Island, yet the many specimens 
procured from both belonged respectively to different species. James and Chat- 
ham, which possess the same species, are seventy miles apart, but Indefatigable 
Island is situated between them, which perhaps, has afforded a means of commu- 
nication. The fact, that islands in sight of each other, should thus possess pecu- 
liar species, would be scarcely credible, if it were not supported by some others of 
an analogous nature, which I have mentioned in my Journal of the Voyage of the 
Beagle. I may observe, that as some naturalists may be inclined to attribute 
these differences to local varieties ; that if birds so different as O. trifasciatus, and 



64 ZOOLOGY OF THE VOYAGE OF THE BEAGLE. 

O. parvulus, can be considered as varieties of one species, then the experience of 
all the best ornithologists must be given up, and whole genera must be blended 
into one species. I cannot myself doubt that J/. lr{fasciatus, and i>/. parvulus are 
as distinct species as any that can be named in one restricted genus. 

The habits of these three species are similar, and they evidently replace each 
other in the natural economy of the different islands ; nor can I point out any differ- 
ence between their habits and those of 31. Tlienca of Chile ; I imagined, however, 
that the tone of their voice was slightly different. They are lively, inquisitive, 
active birds, and run fast ; (I cannot assert, positively, that M. Thenca runs). They 
are so extremely tame, a character in common with the other birds of this Archipe- 
lago, that one alighted on a cup of water which I held in my hand, and drank out 
of it. They sing pleasantly ; their nest is said to be simple and open. They seem 
to prefer the dry sterile regions nearer the coast, but they are likewise found in 
the higher, damper and more fertile parts of the islands. To these latter situ- 
ations, however, they seem chiefly attracted by the houses and cleared ground of 
the colonists. I repeatedly saw the M. melanotis at James Island, tearing bits of 
meat from the flesh of the tortoise, which was cut into strips and suspended to 
dry, precisely in the same manner as I have so often observed the M. Orpheus^ in 
La Plata, attacking the meat hung up near the Estancias. 

1. FURNAKIUS RUFUS. Vieill. 

Funiarius rufus, Vieill. , Ency. Metli. 513. 

Jlcrops rufus, Gmel. PI. enl. 739. 

Opetiorhvnchus rufus. Tern. Man. 

Turdus vadius, Licht. Cat. 

Figulus .albogularis, Spix. Av. pi. Ixxviii. f. 1 & 2. 

Fournicr, Buff., Azara, Xo. 221. 

This bird is common in Banda Oriental, on the banks of the Plata ; but 1 
did not see it further southward. It is called by the Spaniards Casaro, or house- 
builder, from the very singular nest which it constructs. The most exposed 
situation, as on the top of a post, the stem of an opuntia, or bare rock, is chosen. 
The nest consists of mud and bits of straw ; it is very strong, and the sides are 
thick ; in shape it resembles a depressed beehive or oven, and hence the name of 
the genus. Directly in front of the mouth of the nest, which is large and arched, 
there is a partition, which reaches nearly to the roof, thus forming a passage or 
ante-chamber to the true nest. At Maldonado, in the end of May, the bird was 
busy in building. The Furnarius is very common in Banda Oriental ; it often 
haunts the bushes in the neighbourhood of houses ; it is an active bird, and 
both walks and runs quickly, and generally by starts ; it feeds chiefly on Coleop- 
tera ; it often utters a peculiar, loud, shrill, and quickly reiterated cry. 



BIRDS. 65 

2. FuRNAUius cuNicuLARius. G. R. Gray. 

Alauda cunicularia, Vieill. 

Alauda fissirostra, Kittl. Mem. I'Acad. St. Peters, ii. j)l. -3. 

Certhilauda cunicularia, D'Orl. Sf Lafr. Mag. de Zool. 

This bird has a considerable geographical range. On the eastern side of 
the continent it is found from about 40° (for I never saw one in the southern 
districts of Patagonia) northward to at least 30°, and perhaps much further. On 
the western side its southern limit is the neighbourhood of Concepcion, where 
the country becomes dry and open, and it ranges throughout Chile (specimens 
were procured from Valparaiso) to at least as far north as Lima, in lat. 12°, on the 
coast of Peru. I may here observe, that the northern limit of all birds, which are 
lovers of dry countries, such as this Furnarius and some of the species of Mimus, 
is not probably at Lima but near Cape Blanco, 10° south of the Equator, where 
the open and parched land of Peru blends (as it was described to me) rather 
suddenly into the magnificent forests of Guayaquil. This Furnarius constantly 
haunts the driest and most open districts; and hence sand-dunes near the coast 
afford it a favourite resort. In La Plata, in Northern Patagonia, and in 
Central Chile, it is abundant: in the former country it is called Casarita, a name 
which has evidently been given from its relationship with the Casaro, or Fur- 
narius rufus, for, as we shall see, its nidification is very different. It is a very 
tame, most quiet, solitary little bird, and like the English robin {Sylvia rubecula) 
it is usually most active early in the morning and late in the evening. When 
disturbed it flies only to a short distance ; it is fond of dusting itself on the 
roads ; it walks and runs (but not very quickly), and generally by starts. I 
opened the stomachs of some, and found in them remains of Coleoptera, and 
chiefly Carabidae. At certain seasons it frequently utters a peculiar, shrill but 
gentle, reiterated cry, which is so quickly repeated as to produce one running 
sound. In this respect, and in its manner of walking on the ground, and in its 
food, this species closely resembles the Casaro, but in its quiet manners it diff'ers 
widely from that active bird. Its nidification is likewise different, for it builds its 
nest at the bottom of a narrow cylindrical hole, which is said to extend horizon- 
tally to nearly six feet under ground. Several of the country people told me, 
that when boys, they had attempted to dig out the nest, but had scarcely ever 
succeeded in getting to the end. The bird chooses any low bank of firm sandy 
soil by the side of a road or stream. At the settlement of Bahia Blanca the walls 
are built of hardened mud ; and I noticed one, enclosing a courtyard, where I 
lodged, which was penetrated by round holes in a score of places. On asking 
the owner the cause of this, he bitterly complained of the little Casarita, several 

K 



66 ZOOLOGY OF THE VOYAGE OF THE BEAGLE. 

of which I afterwards observed at work. It is rather curious, that as these birds 
were constantly flitting backwards and forwards over the low wall, they must be 
quite incapable of judging of distance or thickness even after the shortest circui- 
tous route, for otherwise they would not have made so many vain attempts. 

Uppucerthia dumetoria. /. Geoffr. ^- D'Orb. 

Plate XIX. 

Uppucerthia dumetoria, J. Geoffr. S)- D'Orl. Ann. clu Mus. i, 393 and 394. 

Furnarius dumetorum, D'Orh. MS. 

Uppucerthia dumetorum, D'Orl. Sf Lafr. Mag. de ZooL 1838, p. 20. 

This bird is an inhabitant of extremely sterile regions. I saw several at the 
Rio Negro, but at Port Desire they were, perhaps, more numerous. I did not 
observe it near Valparaiso, in Central Chile, but I procured specimens of it from 
Coquimbo, where the country is more desert. It frequents open places, in which 
a few l)ushes grow. It hops very quickly, and often flies quietly from one place 
to another. It may often be seen turning over and picking dry pieces of dung. 
It is a remarkable circumstance, that in the three specimens which I brought 
home, from diff"erent localities, namely the Rio Negro, Port Desire, and Co- 
quimbo, the beak varies considerably in length : in that from Port Desire in 
Patagonia it is three-eighths of an inch shorter than in that from Coquimbo in 
Chile; whilst the Rio Negro specimen is intermediate between them. Mr. G. R. 
Gray has pointed out to me that Latham long since observed a great variation in 
the beak of the Patagonian warbler, Opcliorhynchus Palago)iiais. 

1. Opetiorhynchus vulgaris. G. R. Gray. 

Ujipueertliia vulgaris, UOrh'ig. S^- Lafr. Mag. de Zool. 1838, p. 23. 

This bird in general habits has several points of resemblance with the Fur- 
narius cunicularitis, but differs in some other respects. Its flight is somewhat 
similar, but it shows two red bands on its wings, instead of one, by w^hich it 
can be distinguished at a distance : instead of walking it only hops ; it feeds 
entirely on the ground, and in its stomach I found scarcely anything but Coleop- 
terous insects, and of these many were fungi feeders. It often frequents the 
borders of lakes, where the water has throwui up leaves and other refuse. It 
likewise may be met with in all parts of the open grassy plains of Banda Oriental, 
where (like the Uppucerthia at the Rio Negro) it often turns over dry dung. Its 
note is very like that of the F. cunicularius, but more acute, and consists of a 
shrill cry, quickly reiterated so as to make a running sound. I was informed 
that, like that bird, it builds its nest at the bottom of a deep burrow. This species 



M7'd.^ J'l /.9 




ITjt^ercer^vunj dum^ei<X/rca/. 



BIRDS. 67 

is common in La Plata, the Falkland Islands, and Tierra del Fuego ; in the latter 
it frequents the higher parts of the mountains, or those exposed to the western 
gales, which are free from forests, for it is a bird that exclusively lives in open 
countries and on the ground. I believe it is not found in Chile ; nor is it common 
on the coast of Patagonia. This species in its habits is very different from the 
three following closely allied ones, since the latter never, or most rarely, leave the 
sea beach, whilst this bird, excepting by chance, is never seen there, but always 
in the interior country. Nevertheless with this marked difference in habits, (there 
are several other points beside that of the station frequented), if the preserved 
skins of O. purvulus and O. vulgaris were placed in the hands of any one, even 
perhaps of a practised ornithologist, he would at first hesitate to consider them 
distinct, although upon closer examination he would find many points of differ- 
ence, — of which the much greater strength of the feet and the greater length of 
the tarsus are conspicuous in those species, which live amongst the stones on the 
sea beach. 

2, Opetiorhynchus Patagonicus. G. R. Gray. 

Patagonian Warbler, Lath. Syn. iv. p. ^S-i. 
Jlotacilla Patagoiiica, Gmel. 
Motacilla Gracula, Forst. Draw. No. ICO. 
Sylvia Patagonica, Lath. Index, ii. 517. 
Furnarlus Lessonii, Diimont. 

Cliilensis, Less. Voy. de la Coqu. i. p. 671, n. Tr. d'Omith. p. 307, pi. 73, f. 1. 

Opetiorhynchus rupestris, Kittl. Mem. de I'Acad. St. Petersb. i. p. 188, pi. viii. 
Uppucerthia rupestris, D'Orh. Sf Lafr. Mag. de Zool. 1838, p. 21. 

This bird is extremely common on the sea shore of all the bays and channels 
of Tierra del Fuego ; on the western coast it is replaced in Northern Chile by the 
O. nigrofumosiis, and in the Falkland Islands by the O. antarcticus. As the 
habits of this species and those just named are quite similar, I shall describe 
them all together under the head of O. nigrofumosiis. A specimen of O. Pata- 
gonicus from Chiloe has a bill rather more than two-tenths of an inch longer than 
in those from Tierra del Fuego ; but as no other difference can be perceived, I 
cannot allow that this is a specific character any more than in the case of the 
Uppucerthia. 

3. Opetiorhynchus antarcticus. G. R. Gray. 

Certhia antarctica, Gam. Ann. des Sc. Nat. 1826. 
Furnarius fuliginosus, Less. Voy. de la Coqu. Zool. i. p. 670. 
Patagonian Warbler, Xafh. $ in Dixon's Voy. App. No. 1, 359 and pi. 

This species inhabits the Falkland Islands. My specimens were procured at 



68 ZOOLOGY OF THE VOYAGE OF THE BEAGLE. 

the east island, from which, also, those described by the French naturalists came, 
and likewise that given in the Appendix to Dixon's Voyage. I have no doubt 
that it is peculiar to this group, for the foregoing species, which in the neighbour- 
ing mainland of Tierra del Fuego supplies its place and has precisely the same 
habits, has been examined by Mr. Gould and is considered distinct. The O. au- 
tarcticus has long been noticed by voyagers to the Falkland Islands from its 
extreme tameness : in the year 1763 Pernety states it was so tame that it would 
almost perch on his finger, and that in half an hour he killed ten with a wand. 

4. Opetiorhynchus nigrofumosus. G. R. Gray. 

Plate XX. 

Uppucertliia nigrofumosa, D'Orb. et Lafr. Mag. de Zool. 1838, p. 23. 
Opetiorhynchus lanceolatiis, Gould, MS. and on plate XX. 

My specimen was killed at Coquimbo, on the coast of Chile. It differs from 
O. Patagonicus in its larger size, much stronger feet and bill, and more dusky 
plumage, and in the white streak over the eye being less plainly marked. In this 
species the red band, which extends from the body obliquely across the wings in 
all the species, reaches to the third primary, whereas in O. Patagonicus, O. vitlgaris, 
and O. anlarcticus, that feather is not marked, or so faintly, as scarcely to be 
distinguishable. In the genus Furnarius, the wing feathers are marked in an 
analogous manner. I saw this species (as I believe) on the coast near the mouth 
of the valley of Copiapo. 

I Avill now make a few remarks on the habits of these three coast species. 
The first, O. antarcticus, is confined, as I have every reason to believe, to the 
Falkland Islands. The second inhabits Tierra del Fuego, and in Chiloe and 
Central Chile is replaced by the local variety with a long beak, and this still 
further northward by the O. nigrofumosus. On the east side of the continent I do 
not believe these marine species extend so far northward. I never saw one on the 
shores of the Plata, but they occur in Central Patagonia. These birds live 
almost exclusively on the sea beach, whether formed of shingle or rock, and feed 
just above the surf on the matter thrown up by the waves. The pebbly beds of 
large rivers sometimes tempt a solitary pair to wander far from the coast. Thus 
at Santa Cruz I saw one at least one hundred miles inland, and I several times 
observed the same thing in Chile, which has likewise been remarked by Kittlitz, 
who has given a very faithful account of the habits of O. Patagonicus. I must 
add that I also saw this bird in the stony and arid valleys in the Cordillera, at a 
height of at least 8000 feet. In Tierra del Fuego I scarcely ever saw one twenty 
yards from the beach, and both there and at the Falkland Islands they may fre- 



BiroL^^ ri- 20^ 




OpeioorAyno/vu^,- loM'Ceola^u^. 



V 



Mrcls-T{ 2^ 




>'\^ 



En)noku<s- j^jmjuciiru^'! 



BIRDS. 69 

quently be seen walking on the buoyant leaves of the Fucus giganteus, at some 
little distance from the shore. In these respects, the birds of this genus entirely 
replace in habits many species of Tringa. In the stomachs of those I opened I 
found small crabs and little shells, and one Buccinum even a quarter of an inch 
long : Kittlitz says, he found in one, besides such objects, some small seeds. 
They are very quiet, tame and solitary, but they may not unfrequently be seen in 
pairs. They hop and likewise run quickly ; in which latter respect, and likewise 
in their greater tameness, they differ from the O. vulgaris. Their cry is seldom 
uttered, but is a quick repetition of a shrill note, like that of the last named bird, 
and of several species of Furnarius. 

On the 20tli of September, I found, near Valparaiso, the nest of O. Patago- 
nicus, with young birds in it: it was placed in a small hole in the roof of a deep 
cavern, not far from the bank of a pebbly stream. Three months later in the 
summer I found, in the Chonos Archipelago (Lat. 45°), a nest of this species, 
placed in a small hole beneath an old tree, close to the sea-beach. The nest 
was composed of coai'se grass and was untidily built. The egg rather elongated ; 
length I'll of an inch, width in broadest part "8 of an inch ; perfectly white. 

Genus. — Eremobius. Gould. 

Rostrum capitis longitudine seu longius, fere rectum, ad apicem deorsum curvatum, 
haud emarginatum; naribus parvis, basalibus, oblougis, in sulco positis ; Alae breves, 
remigibus priinariis secundariisque fere (equalibus, plumis 4, 5, 6-que subcequalibus 
longissimisque ; Cauda mediocris apice rotundato ; Tarsi sublongi antice squamis 
ferh obsoletis induti, halluce digito medio breviore, digitis lateralibus iucequalibus, 
in ternis brevioribus . 



Eremobius phcenicurus. Gould. 

Plate XXI. 

E. fuscus, remigibus cinereo fusco marginatis, stria superciliai'i pone oculos extensd 
cinereo-albd ; caudd nigro-fuscd basi castaneo fused ; gidd abdomineque medio 
cinereo albis ; hypochomlriis tectricib usque caudalibus infer ioribus pallide Jlaves- 
centibus. 

Long. tot. 6-f^ line. ; rost. 1 ; ahv, 2-^ ; cawhe, 3 ; tarsi, -^. 

Head and all the upper surface brown ; the primaries margined with greyish 
brown ; stripe over and behind the eye greyish white ; tail feathers chestnut 
brown at the base, and blackish brown for the remainder of their length ; 



70 ZOOLOGY OF THE VOYAGE OF THE BEAGLE. 

throat and centre of the abdomen greyish white, passing into pale buff on the 
flanks and under tail-coverts ; bill and feet blackish brown. 
Habitat, Patagonia. 

This bird, though forming a well-marked genus, is in many respects, even in 
plumage, allied to Furnarius and Opetiorhynchus, — for instance, in the streak over 
its eyes, in the red band on its wings extending obliquely from the body to the 
third primary, and to some of the species of these genera in its rather plumose 
feathers. In its general manners, the same resemblance, together with some 
differences, always struck me. It lives entirely on the ground, and generally in 
dry sterile situations, where it haunts the scattered thickets, and often flies 
from one to another. When skulking about the bushes it cocks up its tail, 
imitating in this respect Pteroptochos and Rhinomya. Its cry is shrill, quickly 
reiterated, and very similar to that of several species of Furnarius and Opetio- 
rhynchus. The stomach of one which I opened was full of Coleoptera. I procured 
specimens from three places on the coast of Patagonia ; namely. Port Desire, 
St. Julian, and Santa Cruz ; but it is nowhere common. I likewise saw it at a 
considerable elevation in the eastern valleys of the barren Cordillera, near Mendoza. 

Rhinomya lanceolata. Is. Geoffr. ^ D'Orb. 

Rhinomya lanceolata. Is. Gmffr. Sf D'Orh. Voy. de I'Amcr. Mcr. pi. 7. f. 1. 1832, cl. 11. pi. 3. id.— Mag. dc 
Zool. 1832, 11. pi. 3. and 1837, p. 15. 

I procured a specimen of this bird from the Rio Negro in Northern Patagonia, 
and I never saw one any where else ; and M. D'Orbigny makes the same remark. 
On the Atlantic side of the continent, it replaces the several species of Pteroptochos 
which live on the shores of the Pacific. Its habits, in some respects, are similar ; it 
lives at the bottom of hedges or thickets, where it runs with such quickness, that 
it might easily be mistaken for a rat. It is very unwilling to take flight, so that, 
I was assured by some of the inhabitants, that it could not fly, which, however, 
is a mistake. It frequently utters a loud and very singular cry. The Rhinomya. 
is distantly allied to the Eremohius pha'nicurus, which is found in Southern Pata- 
gonia, whose habits in some respects are similar. 

1. Pteroptochos Tarnii. G. R. Gray. 

Hylaetcs Tarnii. Vigors, Proc. Zool. 1830. 

Megalonyx ruficcps. D'Orh. Sf Lafr. Mag. de Zool. 1837. p. 15. 

Leptonyx Tarnii. D'Orh. 8f Lafr. Voy. de I'Amer. Mer. Av. p. 198, pi. viii. f. 1. 

This species, as well as several others of the genus, and likewise of Scytalopus 
are confined to the west coast of South America. The P. Tarnii ranges from the 



BIRDS. 7 1 

neighbourhood of Concepcion, lat. 37°, to south of the Peninsula of Tres Montes, 
between 41° and 50°. It is not found in Tierra del Fuego, where the climate pro- 
bably is too cold for it, for in other resj^ects, the great forests of that country 
appear admirably adapted to its habits. Its limit, northward of the province of 
Concepcion, is evidently due to the change which there takes place, from dense 
forests to an open and dry country. The P. Tarnii is abundant in all parts of the 
Island of Chiloe, where it is called by the native Indians, guid-guid; but by the 
English sailors, the barking-bird. This latter name is very well applied, for the 
noise which it utters is precisely like the yelping of a small dog. When a person 
is walking along a pathway within the forest, or on the sea-beach, he will often be 
surprised to hear on a sudden, close by him, the barking of the guid-gtiid. He 
may often watch in vain the thicket, whence the sound proceeds, in hopes of see- 
ing its author, and if he endeavour, by beating the bushes, to drive it out, his 
chance of success will be still smaller. At other times, by standing quietly within 
the forest, the guid-guid will fearlessly hop close to him, and will stand on the 
trunk of some dead tree, with its tail erect, and strange figure full in view. It 
feeds exclusively on the ground, in the thickest and most entangled parts of the 
forest. It rarely takes w ing, and then only for short distances. It has the power 
of hopping quickly and with great vigour; when thus awkwardly proceeding, it 
carries its short tail in a nearly erect position. I was informed that \.he guid-guid, 
builds a nest amongst rotten sticks, close to the ground. 



2. Pteroptochos megapodius. Kittl. 

Pteroptochos megapodius. K'lttl, 1830, Mem. de I'Acad. 1, pi. iv. et Vogel. von Chili, p. 10, pi. iv. 
Megalonyx rufiis. Less. Cent. Zool. 18-31, pi. G6. 

- — ■ D'Orh. S; Lafr. 

Leptonyx macropiis. Stcains. Zool. 111. pi. 117. 

D'Orh. Sf Lafr. Voy. de I'Amer. Mer. Av. 197. 

This bird is common in the dry country of central and northern Chile, where 
it replaces the P. Tarnii of the thickly wooded southern regions. The P. mega- 
podius, is called by the Chilenos, " El Turco ;" it lives on the ground amongst 
the bushes which are sparingly scattered over the stony hills. With its tail erect, 
every now and then it may be seen popping on its stilt-like legs from one bush to 
another with uncommon celerity. Its appearance is very strange and almost ludi- 
crous, and the bird seems always anxious to hide itself. It does not run, but hops, 
and can hardly be compelled to take flight. The various loud cries which it utters, 
when concealed in the bushes, are as strange as its appearance. I opened the ex- 
tremely muscular gizzards of several of these birds, and found them tilled with 
beetles, vegetable fibres, and pebbles. Observing the structure of tlie gizzard, the 



72 ZOOLOGY OF THE VOYAGE OF THE BEAGLE. 

fleshy covering to the nostrils, and the arched, rounded wing, and great scratching 
claws, it was easy to imagine some distant kind of relationship hetween these birds 
and those of the Gallinaceous order. I was informed that the Turco makes its 
nest at the bottom of a deep burrow which it excavates in the ground. 

3. Pteroptochos albicollis. Kittl. 

Pteroptochos albicollis. Kittl. Mem. de I'Acad. Petersb. 1. pi. iii. Vogel von Chili ; p. 8. pi. iii. 

Megalonyx medius. Less. III. Zool. pi. Ix. 

Megalon)-x albicollis. D'Orb. and Lafr. Mag. de Zool. (1636,) Aves, p. 15. 

Leptonyx albicollis. D'Orb. Voy. de I'Anier. Mer. Av. p. 196, pi. viii. f. 2. 

This species is called by the Chilenos " Tapacolo," or cover your posteriors. 
The name is well applied, as the Tapacolo generally carries its short tail more 
than erect, that is, inclined backward and toward the head. It is extremely 
common in central Chile ; and in the same manner as the Turco replaces the 
Barking-bird of the southern forest-land, so does the Tapacolo replace a fourth 
species (P. ruhecnla), which is an inhabitant of the same forests. The Tapacolo 
frequents hedge-rows, and the bushes which are scattered at a considerable eleva- 
tion over the sterile hills, where scarcely another bird can exist : hence it plays 
a conspicuous part in the ornithology of Chile. In its manner of feeding, and 
quickly hopping out of a thicket and back again, in its desire of concealment, un- 
willingness to take flight, and nidification, it manifests a close resemblance with 
the P. megapodius ; its appearance is not, however, so strange, and (as if in con- 
sequence) it exposes itself more readily to view. The Tapacolo is very crafty; 
when frightened by any person, it will remain motionless at the bottom of a bush, 
and will then, after a little while, try with much address to crawl away on the 
opposite side. It is also an active bird, and continually making a noise ; these 
noises are various and strangely odd; one is like the cooing of doves, another like 
the bubbling of water, and many defy all similes. The country people say it 
changes its cry five times in the year, which is according, I suppose, to some 
change of season. I was told that the Tapacolo builds its nest at the bottom 
of a deep burrow, like the Turco ; whereas the P. Tarnii, (as well as the P. ru- 
hecula, an inhabitant of the same districts,) makes its nest amongst the sticks just 
above the ground. This difference in the nidification, of the southern and northern 
species, is probably due to the nature of the damp forests inhabited by the former 
in which a burrow could hardly be made dry. I maj^ here observe, that travelling 
northward from Valparaiso to Coquimbo, I met near Illapel with a bird closely 
allied to the Tapacolo, but which, from some slight difi:erence in manners, I 
believed was a distinct species. The range of this supposed species, is from 
between Coquimbo and Valparaiso, to at least as far north as the valley of 
Copiapo. 



BIRDS. 73 



4. Pteroptochos rubecula. Kif.tl. 

Pteroptochos rubecula, Kiltl. Vog. von Cliili, p. 7. pi. ii. 
Megalonyx rubecula, D'Orh. 8^- Lafr. Mag. de Zool. 1837, p. 16. 
Megalonyx rufogularis, D'Orh. <5' Lafr. Voy. de I'Amer. Mar. pi. 7, f. 2. 
Leptonyx rubecula, D'Orh. 8^- Lafr. Voy. de I'Amer. Mer. Av. p. 1 96. 

This species appears to have nearly the same range with the P. Tarnii: its 
southern limit certainly extends as far as 47° south, but northward, where the 
forests cease, near Concepcion, I was unable to ascertain that this bird is ever 
met with, and Kittlitz has made the same remark. In Chiloe, where it is com- 
mon, it is called by the Indian inhabitants the " Cheucau." It frequents the 
most gloomy and retired spots within tiie damp forests. Sometimes, although 
the cry of the Cheucau is heard close by, a person may watch attentively and yet 
in vain ; at other times, if he stands motionless, the red-breasted little bird will 
approach within a few feet, in the most familiar manner. It then busily hops 
about the entangled mass of rotting canes and branches, with its little tail cocked 
upwards. I opened the gizzard of several specimens ; it was very muscular, and 
contained hard seeds, buds of plants, occasionally some insects, and vegetable 
fibres mixed with small stones. The Cheucau is held in superstitious fear by the 
Chilotans, on account of its strange and varied cries, There are three very 
distinct kinds : — one is called " chiduco," and is an omen of good ; another " hui- 
treu," which is extremely unfavourable; and a third, which I have forgotten. 
The.se words are given in imitation of its cries, and the natives are in some things 
absolutely governed by them. I have already stated that I was informed by the 
inhabitants that the Cheucau builds its nest amongst sticks close to the ground. 

o. Pteroptochos paradoxus. G. R. Gray. 

Troglodytes paradoxus, Kittl. Yog. von Chili, p. 12, pi. 5. — Id. Mem. de I'Acad. St. Peters. 1833, i. pi. 5. 
Malacorhynchus Chilensis, Kittl. Mem. de I'Acad. St. Peters. 1835, p. 527. 
Leptonyx paradoxus, D'Orh. Voy. de I'Amer. Mer. Av. p. 197. 

This species differs in a small degree from all the others of the genus : its 
claws are longer, tarsi shorter, and bill flattened at the top : in these, and some 
other respects, it approaches to Scytalopus. I may add, that from a greater 
degree of resemblance, especially in the feet, P. Tarnii and megapodius may be 
ranked in one section, and P. albicollis and rubecula in another. 

I procured specimens of the P. paradoxus both from Valdivia and Chiloe ; 
like the P. Tarnii and P. rubecula it is confined to the regions of forest. Its 
habits are closely similar to those of the last species. I opened the gizzard of 
one at Valdivia, and found it full of large seeds and the remnants of insects. In 

L 



74 ZOOLOGY OF THE VOYAGE OF THE BEAGLE. 

Chiloe, where it is much less common than the Cheucau, it is called by the inha- 
bitants Cheuqui. Kittlitz procured specimens from Concepcion. He describes 
the cry which it utters over and over again, in the same high tone, as very 
singular, and more like that of a frog than of a bird. 

ScYTALOPUs Magellanicus. G. R. Gray. 

Sylvia Magellanica, Lath. Index, ii. p. 528. 5 Forst. Dr. No. 163. ? 
Scytalopus fuscus, Gould, in Proc. of Zool. Soc. Part iv. 1836, p. 39. $ 

Jard. and Sell. 111. Orn. New Ser. pi. 19. $ 

Platyurus niger. Swains., Two Cent, and a Quarter, p. 323. $ 

This bird has a wider range than the species of the foregoing and closely 
allied genus. It is common near Port Famine in Tierra del Fuego, and on the 
west coast in the thickly wooded islets of the Chonos Archipelago. I was assured 
by an intelligent collector that this bird is met with, though rarely, in central 
Chile ; and Mr. Gould informs me, that he has received specimens from that 
country. It has found its way over to the Falkland Islands, where, instead of in- 
habiting forests, it frequents the coarse herbage and low bushes, which in most 
parts conceal the peaty surface of that island. In general appearance the Scy- 
talopus fuscus might at first be mistaken for a Troglodytes, but in habits it is 
closely allied to the several species of Pteroptochos. In a skulking manner, with 
its little tail erect, it hops about the most entangled parts of the forests of Tierra 
del Fuego; but when near the outskirts, it every now and then pops out, and 
then quickly back again. It utters many loud and strange cries: to obtain a good 
view of it is not always easy, and still less so to make it fly. A specimen I pro- 
cured at Chiloe had its upper mandible stronger and more arched, but differed 
in no other respect. 

1. Troglodytes Magellanicus. Gotdd. 

T. Magellanicus, Gould, in Proc. of Zool. Soc. Part iv. 1836, p. 88. 

This bird has a considerable range. I procured specimens of it near Rio de 
Janeiro, on the banks of the Plata, throughout Patagonia, in Tierra del Fuego, 
where it is one of the commonest birds, and likewise in Central Chile : its habits 
resemble very closely those of the common Troglodytes of England. In the open 
country near Bahia Blanca it lived amongst the thickets and coarse herbage in the 
valleys ; in Tierra del Fuego, in the outskirts of the forest. Its chirp is harsh. 
In Chile I saw one in October building its nest in a hole in a stone wall, in a 
situation such as would have been chosen by our Troglodytes. 



BIRDS. 75 



2. Troglodytes platensis. Gmel. 

I procured specimens of this bird from Bahia Blanca, in Northern Patagonia, 
and likewise from the Falkland Islands, where it is not uncommon. When first 
killed, its legs and beak appear of larger size, compared to its body, than in other 
species of this genus. In the Falkland Islands it lives, almost exclusively, close 
to the ground, in the coarse grass which springs from the peaty soil. I do not 
think I ever saw a bird which, when it chose to remain concealed, was so difficult 
to disturb. I have frequently marked one down to within a yard on the open 
grassy plain, and afterwards have endeavoured, quite in vain, by walking back- 
wards and forwards, over the same spot, to obtain another sight of it. 

1. SVNALLAXIS HUMICOLA. Kitll. 

S. humicola, Kittl. Mem. de I'Acad. St. Peters, i. pi. 6. — Id. Yog. von Chili, p. 13, pi. vi. 

Not uncommon in the neighbourhood of Valparaiso. Kittlitz has well de- 
scribed its habits. He says it lives on the ground under thickets, that it is active 
in running about, and that it readily flies from bush to bush. It holds its tail 
upright; utters a shrill, quickly reiterated cry; feeds on insects; but Kittlitz 
found in the stomach chiefly grains and berries, with little stones. From these 
circumstances, he conceives that this bird shews some affinity with Pteropto- 
chos, but I feel no doubt that in the form of its beak, wings, tail, manner of 
carrying the latter, kind of plumage, sound of voice and habits, the relationship 
is much closer with Eremobius, which perhaps it may be considered as represent- 
ing on the Pacific side of the Cordillera. Its tongue is furnished with bristly 
points, but apparently is less deeply bifid than in the other species of Synallaxis 
or Limnornis. I obtained both sexes, but there is no difference in their plumage. 

For the reason just given, I have put this species at the head of its genus, 
and therefore nearest to Eremobius, although it is impossible to represent by a 
linear arrangement, the multiplied relations between the following genera — 
Furnarius, Uppucerthia, Opetiorhynchus, Eremobius, Anumbius, Synallaxis, 
Limnornis, Oxyurus ; and again, Rhynomya, Pteroptochos, Scytalopus, and 
Troglodytes, which, with the exception of the last, are strictly South American 
forms. 



76 ZOOLOGY OF THE VOYAGE OF THE BEAGLE. 

2. Synallaxis major. Gould. 

Plate XXII. 

S. oUvaceo fuscus ; infra fulvus albo distiiicth maculatus ; plumis singulis stria ob- 
scura centrali nolatis ; fronte rufo, remigibusfuscis, cinereo-fusco externh maculatis, 
tertiariis nigro J'uscis apice margineque late cinereo-fuscis ; guld alba, plumarum 
Jiavescentium seriefusco maculatarum circumdatd. 

Long. tot. 8 unc. ; rost. 1 ; alee, 3j ; miida; 4; tarsi, 1. 

Forehead rufous ; crown of the head, back of the neck, and back olive brown, 
with a conspicuous stripe of blackish brown down the centre of each feather; 
wing-coverts and lower part of the back olive brown, with a faint trace of the 
dark patch in the centre of each feather ; primaries brown, margined exter- 
nally with greyish brown ; spurious wing and secondaries rufous tipped with 
brown ; tertiaries blackish brown broadly margined and tipped with greyish 
brown ; two centre tail feathers dark olive brown ; the remainder blackish 
brown largely tipped with white ; throat white encircled with a series of 
feathers of a buff colour spotted with dark brown ; breast and all the under 
surface tawny indistinctly blotched with white ; tarsi with a very pale blue 
tinge. 

Habitat, Maldonado, north bank of La Plata. (June). 

This bird is not very common. Those which I saw lived on the ground in 
dry and open places, and did not frequent the neighbourhood of lakes abounding 
with rushes or thickets, like the greater number of species of Synallaxis, and the 
allied genus Limnornis. The flight of this bird is peculiar, which seems chiefly 
due to the length of its elegantly acuminated tail. It sometimes alights and 
rests on the summit of a thistle or twig, a habit diflerent from that of any species 
of the genus which 1 have seen. Its manner of living and feeding on the ground 
might have been suspected, from the length of the soft secondaries, like those of a 
lark or of Furnarius cuniculariits. The claws also of the front toes are produced 
and perhaps they are rather straighter than in other members of the family. The 
tongue is bifid and divided into bristly points. The nest, of which I have seen 
two, is very peculiar. It is cylindrical, about two feet long, and placed vertically 
in the middle of a thick bush in an exposed situation. It is made externally of 
prickly branches, and is very large compared with the size of the bird. The 
opening is at the upper extremity, from which a passage leads to the true nest, 
which is lined with feathers and hairs. There is a slight bend in the passage 
both at its exit and where it enters the nest. 




^ 



c- 



BvrcL' n 23. 




Sif hmIuU)x<s- ■rafociiila.nt?. 



BIRDS. 77 

3. Synallaxis rufogularis. Gould. 

Plate XXIII. 

S . olivaceo fusctis plumis singulis macula oblongci fusco nigra; remigihus primariis 
secundar Usque hasi ferrugineo fuscis, apice nigro fuscis, Jiavescenti albo marginatis ; 
lined superciliari, mento abdomineque medio Jiavescenti albis ; gulci ferrugineo fused ; 
pectore fulvescenti fusco, plumis singulis stria paUidiore centrali ornatis. 

Long. tot. 6^ unc ; rost. i ; ala\ 3 ; caudw, S\ ; tarsi, 1 . 

Head and all the upper surface and two centre tail feathers, brown, with a large ob- 
long patch of brownish black down the centre of each feather ; primaries, except 
the three outer ones, bounded posteriorly with an irregular line of black ; secon- 
daries, rusty brown at the base, and brown for the remainder of their length, 
margined all round with greyish olive ; lateral tail feathers brownish black, 
largely tipped with tawny white ; stripe from the nostrils over each eye, chin, 
and centre of the abdomen, pale buff; sides of the face and throat grey, with 
a spot of dark brown down the centre of each feather ; in the centre of the 
throat, a patch of ferruginous brown ; chest, pale brownish buff, with a fine 
pale stripe down each feather ; bill and feet brown. 
Habitat, Patagonia. {April.) Valparaiso. {September.) 
These birds are not uncommon on the dry rocky mountains near Valparaiso, 

and in the valleys of southern Patagonia, where a few thickets grow. They hop 

actively about the withered herbage and low thickets, and often feed on the ground. 

The hind claw is weaker and straighter than in most of the other species of this 

genus. 

4. Synallaxis maluroides. 

S. maluroides. D'Orb. Sf- Lafr. Voy de I'Amer. Mer. Ois. pi. xiv, f. 2. Mag. de Zool. 1837, CI. 11, pi. 22. 

My specimenswere shot near Maldonado. Iris yellow ; tarsi very pale coloured. 

This species, as well as some others of Synallaxis, Anumbius, and Limnornis, 
live amongst reeds and other aquatic plants on the borders of lakes, and have 
the same general habits. I will, therefore, here describe them. They all have the 
power of crawling very quickly by the aid of their powerful claws and feet, 
as I soon discovered when they were not killed at once, for then it was scarcely 
possilde to catch them. Their soft tail-feathers show signs of being used, but 
they never apply them, as the Certhias do, as a means of supporting their bodies. 
The tail-feathers were (at least during June) so loosely attached, that I seldom 
procured a specimen with all of them perfect ; and 1 saw many (especially of 
S. maluroides), flying about with no tail. All the species, or nearly all, utter an 



78 ZOOLOGY OF THE VOYAGE OF THE BEAGLE. 

acute, but not loud, rapidly reiterated cry. They are active and busily seek for 
small insects, chiefly Coleoptera, in the coarse herbage. The iris in all is rusty 
red; the tongue is divided and terminates in bristly points. These reed birds, 
which are very numerous both in species and individuals, on the borders of lakes 
in the provinces north of the Plata, appear to supply in South America, the 
various Sylvise, which frequent similar stations in Europe. 

5. SVNALLAXIS FLAVOGULARIS. GouM. 
Plate XXIV. 

S. supra fuscescenti cinereus, infra cinereo-fuscus ; remigihus ohscurhfuscis, hasiohscurh 
rnfis ; caudcB plumis sex mediis nigro-fuscis, externis ferrugineis ; genis guldque 
Jlavescentibus, plumis singtdis apice obscurhjuscis. 

Long. tot. 6| unc ; rost. | ; alw, 2| ; caudw, 3g ; tarsi, f ; 

Head and all the upper surface, brown ; primaries, dark brown, with the basal 
portions rufous ; six central tail-feathers, blackish brown ; the remainder fer- 
ruginous ; sides of the face and throat yellowish, with the tip of each feather 
dark brown ; the remainder of the under surface, greyish brown ; bill and 
feet, dark brown. 
Habitat, Patagonia. 

My specimens were obtained at Bahia Blanca and at Santa Cruz, two extreme 

parts of Patagonia. It frequents the thinly scattered thickets on the arid plains : 

the hind claw of its foot is not produced as in S. rnfogularis, and it lives less on 

the ground. 

6. Synallaxis brunnea. Gould. 

S. pallide ruhrofuscu ; primariis secundariisque rujis apice fuscis ; caudte plumis qua- 
tuor mediis nigrescenti fuscis, duabus proximis ferrugineo fuscis iuternh nigres- 
centi-marginalis, duabus extimis ferrugiueo fuscis ; geuis, guld abdomineque medio 
albesceutibus ; hi/poc/ioudriis ciuereis. 

Long. tot. 5j*T ; unc. rost. -^ ; ala; 2-^^ ; caudw, | ; tarsi, \%. 

Head and all the upper surface pale reddish brown ; primaries and secondaries, 
brown at the tip and rufous at the base ; four central tail feathers, blackish 
brown ; the next on each side rusty brown, margined internally with black- 
ish brown ; the two lateral feathers wholly rusty brown ; sides of the face, 
throat, and centre of the abdomen, whitish ; flanks cinereous ; bill and feet 
brown. 
Habitat, Port Desire, Patagonia. {January.) 




Birds ri iV: 



<!)(/r/aloLa>[^Jlaivo^ul(in^. 



BIRDS. 79 

This little bird frequents the thickets in the dry valleys near Port Desire. It 
often flies from bush to bush, and its habits are nearly like those of the rest of the 
genus. From its tail feathers, however, being little used, and the tarsi being slightly 
elongated, I suppose it lives chiefly on the ground. I may observe, that this species 
conies nearest to S.JJavogularis, but that in the form of its tail, straightness of bill, 
and kind of plumage, it departs from Synallaxis, and approaches Eremobius. 

7. Synallaxis jEgithaloides. Kittl. 

S. jEgithaloides. Kittl. Mem. de I'Acad. 11. pi. vii. — Vog. von Chili, p. 15, pi. vii. 

This bird is common throughout Patagonia and Central Chile, being found 
wherever thickets grow on a rocky or dry soil. It sometimes moves about in small 
flocks. Its habits, as Kittlitz remarks, resemble in many respects, those of a 
titmouse (Parus):, but there is one remarkable point of difference, namely, that 
this bird is able to run very quickly on the ground. It does not always do so, but 
often hops about with great activity ; nevertheless, I repeat, I have distinctly seen 
it running very quickly amongst the thickets. When hopping from twig to twig, 
it does not use its long tail, any more than the long-tailed titmouse {Panis cau- 
datus) of Europe. It utters a harsh, shrill, quickly reiterated cry, like so many 
other species of this genus and the allied ones. In Chile, I several times saw a 
very large cylindrical nest, built of prickly twigs of the mimosa, and placed in the 
middle of a thorn-bearing bush, with its mouth at the upper extremity ; I was 
assured by the country people, that although so very large, it belonged to this 
little bird.* This kind of nidification, the habit of feeding on the ground, and the 
length of acuminated tail, are points of resemblance with S. major. 

8. Synallaxis ruficapilla. Vieill. 

Synallaxis ruficapilla. Vieill. Gal. des Ois. pi. Ixxiv. 

Parulus ruficeps. SpLx. Av. Sp. Nov. torn. 1. p. 84, t. Ixxxvi. f. 1. m. f. 2. fern. 

Sphenura ruficeps. Licht. Ver. p. 42. 

My specimens were obtained at Maldonado, (June) where it was rare, and at 
Buenos Ayres. Near Santa F^, in Entre Rios, 3° northward, it was common : 
Spix found it near the Rio San Francisco in Brazil. Iris yellowish red ; legs 
with faint tinge of blue ; tongue terminated in bristly points, not deeply bifid. 
This Synallaxis approaches in character Anumhins ruber. Habits similar to those 
of S. maluroides. 

* Molina, in his account of Chile, attributes tiiis nest, I believe, through an error, to Miinus thenca. 



80 ZOOLOGY OF THE VOYAGE OF THE BEAGLE. 



Anumbius ruber. D'Orh. and Lafr. 

Anumbius ruber. D'Orh. Sf Laf. Mag de Zool, 1838, p. 18. 
Furnarius ruber. Vieill. Ency. Mcth. 514. 
Anunibi rouge. Azara, No. 220. 

Frequents reeds on the borders of lakes near Maldonado. Habits very 
similar to those of Synalluxis maluroides, and likewise of the two species of Lira- 
nornis ; to one of which L.cutviroslris, it is most closely allied in structure. Iris 
bright yellowish orange ; tarsi, with faint tinge of blue ; tongue divided on each 
side a little below the extreme point. 

Genus— LIMNORNIS. Gould. 

Rostrum capitis lougitudine seu longitis,leviter a basi ad apicem arciiatum, lateraliter 
compressum, hand emarginatum ; narihus magiiis basalibus linearibus apertis aut 
partim opercido tectis : dX?ebrevissimcB rotunda, plumis qiiarta, quinta sextaqueferh 
(equalibus et longissimis ; cauda rotnndata et graduata, scapis aliquanto ultra 
I'adios productis ; tarsi mediocres, for titer scntellati ; halluce digito medio breviore, ro- 
busto, ungue robusto armuto, digitis lateralibus fori (equalibus, intermediis aliquantd 
brevioribus. 

1. LlMNORMS RECTIROSTRIS. Gould. 

Plate XXVL 

L. pallidejlavescentifusca ; cervice nigrescentifusco ; caudd rufa ; teclricihus prima- 
riis secundar Usque fuse is rufo lath marginatis ; fascia pone oculos, guld abdomineqiie 
flavescenti albis ; hypochondriis fulvis. 

Long. tot. G^ unc ; rost. -^, alw, 2^ cauclie, 2^ tarsi, ^. 

Crown of the head brown ; the remainder of the upper surface, pale yellowish 
brown ; tail rufous and acutely pointed ; wing coverts, primaries and secon- 
daries brown, broadly margined with rufous ; stripe behind the eye, throat, 
and all the under surface buft'y white ; flanks tawny ; bill lengthened, orange 
at the base, dark brown at the tip ; iris rusty red ; feet very pale coloured ; 
claws whitish. 

Habitat, Maldonado, La Plata. (June.) 

This bird lives amongst the reeds on the borders of lakes. It often alights 
vertically on stems of plants, but in climbing does not use its tail : habits, gene- 
rally similar to those of Synallaxis maluroides. 



Bird,i n 'M\ 




Lc/n,nvyfii6' re€ti.r(',stn>s 



A- 



Thirds Tl 25. 




■Zimrourius curfirOrStyi^: 



BIRDS. 81 

2. LiMNORNIS CURVIROSTRIS. GouM. 

Plate XXV. 

L. rufescenti-fusca ; caudc'i, remigiumque hasibus pallida castaneo-fuscis, lined superci- 
liari, genis, guld abdomineque albis ; hypochondriis cervhio tinctis. 

Long. tot. 7 unc, rost. 1 1 ; alcv, 2-^^ ; caiidcc, 3-^ ; tarsi, \^. 

Head, all the upper surface, and wings reddish brown ; tail and basal portion of 
the outer margins of the primaries and secondaries reddish chesnut brown ; 
stripe over the eye, throat, and all the under surface white, tinged, especially 
on the flanks, with fawn colour ; bill orange at the base, the tip brown ; legs 
pale bluish ; claws white ; tongue bristled on the sides ; near the extremity 
it is divided into little bristly points. 

Habitat, Maldonado, La Plata. {June.) 

This species frequents the same localities with the last, and I am unable to 
point out any difference in its habits. Of the two specimens collected, the beak 
of one is very nearly one-tenth of an inch longer than that of the other; but this 
is almost wholly due to the sharp point of the upper mandible projecting beyond 
the lower mandible in the one, whereas they are nearly equal in the other. 

1. OXYURUS TUPINIERI. Gould. 

Synallaxis tupinieri. Less. Zool. de la Coqu. pi. 29. f. ]. 
Oxyurus ornatus. Sicains. 2 Cent, and ^. p. 324. 

This bird is perhaps the most abundant of any land species inhabiting Tierra 
del Fuego. It is common along the west coast, (and numerous in Chiloe,) even as 
far north as a degree south of Valparaiso ; but the dry country and stunted woods 
of central Chile are not favourable to its increase. In the dark forests of Tierra 
del Fuego, both high up and low down, in the most gloomy, wet, and scarcely 
penetrable ravines, this little bird may be met with. No doubt, it appears more 
common than it really is, from its habit of following, with seeming curiosity, every 
person who enters these silent woods ; continually uttering a harsh twitter, it flutters 
from tree to tree, within a few feet of the intruder's face. It is far from wishing 
for the modest concealment of the creeper {Certhiafamiliaris); nor does it, like 
that bird, run up the trunks of trees, but industriously, after the manner of a 
willow wren, hops about and searches for insects on every twig and branch. 



82 ZOOLOGY OF THE VOYAGE OF THE BEAGLE. 



2. OXYURUS? DORSO-MACULATUS. Gould. 

Synallaxis dorso-maculata. D'Orh. and Lafr. Voy. de I'Amer. Mer. Ois. pi. 14. f. 1. 
Mag. de Zool. 1837, CI. 11. p. 21. 

My specimen was procured from Maldonado, (June), where it was not common. 
It frequents the same localities with Synallaxis vialuroides, and the two species of 
Liimiornis, and has very similar habits with them. In structure, and in the general 
shade of its plumage, it is closely allied to the foregoing species, although differing 
from it in habits. 



Genus.— DENDRODRAMUS. Goidd. 

Rostrum capitis lotigiludine, out longius, culmine recto, gonide ascendente, per omnes 
partes lateraliter compressum, durum et apice inemarginatum, narihus hasalibus lon- 
gitudinalibusque ; alee mediocres et suhacuminattE , plumis tertia, quarta et quinta 
cequalihus longissimisque ; cauda mediocris, scapis ultra radios in spinas acutas pro- 
duct is ; tarsi sub-breves, digitis imgtiibusque longis, his multum curvatis, digito 
externo valido et ferh digiti medii longitudine, digitis lateralibus incequalibus, 
internis multum brevioribus. 

Dendrouramus leucosternus. Gould. 

Plate XXVII. 
D. capite, dorsi parte supcriore alisque nigrescenti fuscis, rubro-tinctis ; primariis 
secundariisque subjeri-ngineo fiisco irrcgulariter marginatis, uropygio cauddque 
nitidi J'errugineis, gidd pccloreque albis, abdomine medio rufescenti fusco, singulis 
plumis ad apicem macula magna ovali alba ; hypochondriis saturate riifis ,• rostro 
basi corneo, apice pedibusque nigro fuscis. 

Long. tot. 6~^ unc. ; rostri, l-jV ; alw, 3; caiiJcc, 2-^ ; tarsi, ■^. 

Head, upper part of the back and wings blackish brown, tinged with red ; pri- 
maries and secondaries irregularly margined with dull rusty brown ; rump 
and tail rich ferruginous ; throat and chest white ; feathers of the centre of 
the abdomen reddish brown, with a large oval spot of white near the tip of 
each feather ; flanks deep rufous ; bill horny at the base, the remainder and 
the feet blackish brown. 

Habitat, Chiloe and Southern Chile. 

This bird is common in the forests of Chiloe, where, differently from the Oxy- 
urus iupinieri, it may constantly be seen running up the trunks of the lofty forest 



Bud>- /"/ '^7. 



/* 




ZUndrndramUc'^ l(:u<x>iS(xryiU(^ 



BIRDS. 83 

trees. Its manners appeared to me to resemble those of Certhia familiaris. I 
found Coleopterous insects in its stomach. Its range does not appear to be 
extensive ; Chiloe to the south, and some woods near Rancagua (a degree south 
of Valparaiso) were the extreme points where I met with it. The Dendrodramus 
is not found in Tierra del Fuego, where the O. tupinieri is so numerous. Mr. G. 
R. Gray remarks that this genus is very nearly allied to Dendroplex of Mr. 
Swainson. 



Family.— S Y L V I A D ^. 
Sub-Fam.— MOTACILLIN^. 

1. MuSCISAXICOLA MENTALIS. D'Oih. 6^- Lafr. 

M. mentalis, UOrh. Sf Lafr. Mag. de Zool. 1S37, p. CC. 
Voy. dans I'Amer. Mer. Ornitli. pi. 40, f. 1. 

I procured specimens of this bird from Bahia Blanca, in Northern Patagonia, 
from Tierra del Fuego, from Chiloe, and from Central and Northern Chile. It is 
everywhere common. It frequents open places ; so that in the wooded countries 
it lives entirely on the sea-beaches, or near the summits of mountains, where trees 
do not grow. In the excessively sterile upper valleys of the Cordillera of Northern 
Chile I met with this bird, even at a height of little less than ten thousand feet, 
where the last traces of vegetation occur, and where no other bird lives. It gene- 
rally moves about in very small flocks, and frequents rocky streams and marshy 
ground : it hops and flies from stone to stone, very much after the manner of our 
whinchat {Motacilla rubetra), but when alighting it frequently expands its tail 
like a fan. The sexes are exactly similar in size and plumage. 

Mr. G. R. Gray observes, that the genus Muscisaxicola is probably synony- 
mous with Lessonia of Mr. Swainson ; but the latter name cannot be used, as it 
has already been twice employed in other branches of Natural History. 

2. Muscisaxicola macloviana. G. R. Gray. 

Sylvia macloviana, Gam. Voy. de la Coqu. Zool. p. 663. 
Curruca macloviana. Less. 

I brought home only one specimen of this bird ; it came from East Falkland 
Island, whence also those described by Messrs. Lesson and Garnot were procured. 
Mr. Gould considered it a distinct species, but having carefully compared it with 
M. mentalis, I can see not the smallest difference in any point, excepting that it 



84 ZOOLOGY OF THE VOYAGE OF THE BEAGLE. 

is somewhat larger in all its dimensions. The length of the whole body is .6 of 
an inch greater, of wing when folded .45, of tarsus .2, greater than in the forego- 
ing species. I can scarcely hesitate in thinking it a large-sized local variety, 
from some favourable condition in the Falkland Islands to its growth. 

3. MUSCISAXICOLA BRUNNEA. Gould. 

M. griseo-fusca ; gutture ahdomineque alhis fiavescenti tinctis, pectore ohscuro ; alis 
cauddque obscure fuscis, singulis phimis rufescenti Jtcsco marginalis ; rectricmn ex- 
ternai'um radiis lateralihus Jlavescentibus. 

Long. tot. 5 line; rostri, -f J- ; ate, 3j; caudw, 2^; tarsi, 1. 

Head, and all the upper surface greyish brown ; wings and tail dark brown, each 
feather margined with reddish brown ; the outer webs of the external tail 
feathers bufty white; throat and all the under surface white, slightly tinged 
with buff; bill and feet blackish brown. 

Habitat, Port St. Julian, Patagonia. (Jamiari/). 

The only specimen I procured was immature. 

4. MuSCISAXICOLA NIGRA. G. R. Gray. 

Alauda nigra, Boddater. 

rufa, Gmel. 

fulva, Lath. Index. 

Anthus fulvus, Vicill. Ency. Meth. p. 309. 

variegatus, Gerv. Sf Ei/dutix, Mag. de Zool. 1836, p. 2C. 

Sylvia dorsalis. King, 

Lossonia erylhronotus. Swains. Class, of Birds. 
Alouette noire k dos fauve, PL eiil. 738. 
L'Alouette a dos rouge, Azara, No. 149, 

This bird has a wide geographical range. It is found in La Plata, Pata- 
gonia, Tierra del Fuego, and on the west coast at least as far north as the valley 
of Copiapo, in Northern Chile. It is every where common : it is a quiet, tame, 
inoffensive little bird : it lives on the ground, and frequents sand-dunes, beaches, 
and rocky coasts, which it seldom leaves : the broad shingly beds of the rivers in 
Chile have, however, tempted it inland, together with the Opetiorhynchus. I was 
told that it builds in low bushes. 



BIRDS. 85 



1. Anthus correndera. Vieill. 

Antlius correndera, Vieill. Ency. Meth. i. p. 325. 
La correndera, A:iara, No. 145. 

This titlark is found in La Plata, Chile, and the Falkland Islands. I was 
informed by an intelligent sealer, that it is the only land-bird on Georgia and 
South Orkney (lat. 61° S.) : it has, therefore, probably a further range southward 
than any other land-bird in the southern hemisphere. It does not live in flocks, 
is very common, and resembles a true Alauda in most of its habits. This species 
(as well as the following) is so closely allied to our meadow pipit, Anthus pratetisis, 
that Latham considered it only as a variety ; the latter has a high northern range, as 
the former has a southern one. There can be little doubt that the bird alluded to 
by Mr. Yarrell (British Birds, p. 392, vol. i.) as having been caught in the Southern 
Atlantic Ocean, nine hundred miles from Georgia, was this species, which was 
mistaken, owing to its close similarity, for the true Anthus pratensis. 

2. Anthus furcatus. D'Orb. (^- Lafr. 

A. furcatus, D'Orb. Sf Lafr. Mag. de Zool. 1836, p. 27. Voy. de I'Amer. Mer. Av. p. 22T. 

My specimens were procured on the northern bank of the Plata. It is more 
common there than the foregoing species, to which it is most closely allied : its chief 
distinguishing character appears to be the greater shortness of its toes and of the 
hind claw. I have seen this species alight on twigs. In the breeding season it 
flies upward, and then falls to the ground, with raised wings, in the peculiar 
manner common to the Anthus arhoreus of England. It builds on the ground ; 
nest simple; egg \% of an inch in length, and .Jj in width; colour dirty white, with 
small specks and blotches of dull red and obscurer ones df purple. This species, 
both in habits and structure, appears to be an analogue of A. arboreus of the 
northern hemisphere, as A. correndera is oi A. pratensis. Mr. Yarrell informs 
me that the egg of Anthus furcatus is very different from that of A. arboreus, 
although the parent birds are so similar. 

3. Anthus Chii. Licht. 

A. Chii, Licht. Spix. Av. Sp. No. i. t. l.xxvi. fig. 2. p. 75. 
Le Chii, Azara, No. 146. 



My specimen was procured at Rio de Janeiro, in Brazil. 



86 ZOOLOGY OF THE VOYAGE OF THE BEAGLE. 

Sylvicola aureola. Goiild. 

Plate XXVIII. 

S. supra Jlavescenti olivacea ; fronte cerviceque nitidejiavis, singulis plumis ad apicem 
rufesceuti castaneis ; occipite griseo ; alis cauddque 7iigrescentibus, lath flavo-margi- 
natis ; genis guttureque nitidh Jiavis ; pectore concolori sed singulis plumis in medio 
pallida castaneo notatis ; ahdomine albescenti. 

Long. tot. 5 unc. ; rostri, -^ ; alee, 2-^ ; caudw, 2-^ ; tarsi, if. 

The nape of the neck, back and tail-coverts yellowish olive ; the wings and tail 
blackish, broadly margined with yellow ; the front and crown yellow, with 
the tips of the feathers reddish castaneous ; the hind head grey mixed with 
yellow, the cheeks and the throat bright yellow ; the breast of the same 
colour, but each feather is marked down the middle with pale reddish casta- 
neous, the sides and middle of the abdomen whitish. 

Habitat, Galapagos Archipelago. {September). 

This bird is not uncommon on these islands. It has the habits of our Sylviae. 
It frequents the thickets in the lower, dry and rocky parts of the island, and 
especially a peculiar bush, with thick foliage, which grows only near the sea- 
coast. 

Cyanotis omnicolor. Swains. 

Regiilus omnicolor, Vieill. Gal. pi. 166. 
Sylvia rubrigastra, Vieill. 

Regulus Byronensis, Gray, Griff. An. King. pi. 
Tachuris omnicolor, D'Orh. Sf Lafr. 
Tachuris roi, Azara, No. 161. 

My specimens were obtained at Maldonado in June, and therefore probably 
it is not a bird of passage. It frequented reeds on the borders of a lake, but 
was exceedingly rare. I likewise saw one in Northern Patagonia, and in a 
collection of birds at Santiago, in Chile, made there by an inhabitant of the 
place. The soles of the feet of this exquisitely beautiful little bird are bright 



^ircLs Tl 26. 




■SuIvumIh aU'reolo/. 



BIRDS. 87 

Trichas velata. G. R. Gray, 

Sylvia velata, Vieill. Ois. de I'Amer. Sept. ii. pi. 74. 

D'Orb. Sf Lafr. Mag. de Zool. 1836, p. 20. 

Tanagra canicapilla, Swains. 111. Orn. pi. 174. 
Trichas canicapiUa, Sicains. 

My specimen was procured at Maldonado in June. 

Family.— FRINGILLID^. 

Sub-Fam.— ALAUDIN^. 

Melanocorypha cinctura. Gould. 

M. Fcem.fuscescenti rufa ; guld abdomineque medio pallidioribus ; remigihus ad apicem 
nigrescenti fuscis ; rectricibus singulis maculd alba ovatd nigrescenti fused ad apicem 
notatis. 

Long. tot. 5f unc. ; alee, Q\ ; cmidw, 2\ ; tarsi., | ; rost. |. 

The whole of the plumage, bill, and feet, sandy rufous brown, which is lightest on 
the throat and centre of the abdomen; primaries near their extremities pass- 
ing into blackish-brown ; and each of the tail feathers with a large oval 
spot of blackish-brown near the tip. 

Habitat, St. Jago, Cape Verde Islands. (September.) 

This bird inhabits the most arid plains of lava ; it runs, and in its habits resem- 
bles, in many respects, a lark. 

Pyrrhalauda nigriceps. Gould. 

P. supra fuscescenti alba, pluniis medio obscurioribus ; fronte, genis linedque pectoris 
utrinque albis ; corpore infra lineuque d basi rostri supra oculos ad occiput transiente 
nigris ; caudce plumis mediis nigrescentibus fuscescenti albo marginatis, plumis 
externis atris. 

Long. tot. 4| unc, alee, 2| ; cauihv, 1-| ; tarsi, -£^ ; rost. -^. 

Upper surface brownish-white, with the middle of the feathers darker ; the front, 
cheeks, and a line on each side of the breast white ; beneath the body, and 
aline from the bill passing over the eyes to the hind head, black; the tail 
with the middle feathers blackish, margined with brownish-white, the outer 
feathers deep black ; the bill and feet pale. 



88 ZOOLOGY OF THE VOYAGE OF THE BEAGLE. 

Habitat, St. Jago, Cape Verde Islands. (September and January.) 

Like the last species, this bird inhabits sterile lava plains ; it runs like a lark, 
and generally goes in small flocks. 

Sub-Fam.— PYRRHULINiE. 
Spermophila nigrogularis. Gould, 

S. capite corporeqne supra, alls cauddque fusco cinereis ; loris guldque nigris ; lineis a 
rostri angidis per collum tilrinque descendentibus, pectore abdomineque mediis, tegmi- 
nibusque caudalibus iriferioribus cinereo albis. 

Fern. ? supra olivaceo Jusca, subtus pallidior. 

Long. tot. 3 unc. ; alw, 2\ ; caudw, 2 ; tarsi, | ; >-ostrl, -^^. 

Male. — Head, all the upper surface, wings and tail, brownish-grey ; lores and 
throat black ; lines from the angle of the bill down each side of the neck, 
centre of the chest and abdomen, and the under tail coverts greyish-white ; 
bill light horn colour ; feet dark-brown. 

Female? — The whole of the plumage olive-brown above, and lighter beneath ; bill 
and feet brown. 

Habitat, Monte Video. (November.) 

1. Crithagra? brasiliexsis. 

Fringilla Brasilicnsis, Spu-. Av. Sp. Nov. ii. t. Ixi. f. 1. m. 2. fcm. p. 47. 

My specimens were obtained from the northern bank of the Plata, in the 
months of June and November. 

2. Crithagra? brevirostris. Gould. 

C. vertice dorsoque puUidh olivaceo fuscis, plumis singidis stria angustd media nigro- 
fuscd, pennis scapularibus alis cauddque nigrofuscis cinereo olivaceo late maiginatis ; 
uropiigio virescentijlavo ; loris, guld, pectore humero infra, abdomine, tegminibusque 
caiidcB inj'crioribus latk flavis. 

Long. tot. 5 unc; rostri, -^ ; alee, 2g ; Cauda; 2j; ta}~si, §. 

Crown of the head and back, light olive-brown, with a narrow stripe of blackish - 
brown in the centre of each feather ; scapularies, wings and tail, blackish- 
brown, broadly margined with greyish olive; rump greenish-yellow; lores, 



BIRDS. 89 

throat, chest, under surface of the shoulders, abdomen, and under tail-coverts 
briglit yellow : bill and feet brown. 

Habitat, Maldonado {May), and Valparaiso {September). 

Near Maldonado, I saw very large flocks of this species feeding on the open 
grassy plains. When the whole flock rises, these birds utter a low but shrill chirp. 
In Chile J obtained only one specimen. 



Sub-Fam.— EMBERIZIN^. 
1. Emberiza gubernatrix. Tcmm. 

Emberiza gubernatrix, Temm., PI. Col. 63 & 64. 

cristata, Sicains, Zool. 111. pi. 148. 

cristatella, Vieill. Gal. des Ois. pi. 67. 

Yellow crested grosbeak, Lath. Hist. 
La huppe jaune, Azara, No. 129. 

My specimen was procured on the banks of the Parana, near Santa Fe, in 
latitude 31° S. 

2. Emberiza luteoventris. G. R. Gray. 

Fringilla luteoYcntris, Meyen, Nov. Act. 1880, pi. 12. f. 3. 

This bird was procured at Santa Cruz, in Southern Patagonia ; it was rare 
there. 

Chrvsometris campestris. Gould. 

Fringilla canlpes^tris, Spix. Avium Nov. Sp. ii. p. 47, pi. 59. f. 3. $ 

C. Mas: olivacetis; dorsi plumis singulis flavo marginatis, uropygii prcBsertim ; vertice, 
guld, alis caudaque nigris, alis caudcique /;Zm5 minusve Jiavo-marginatis ; capitis 
laterihus corporeque infra lathjiavis. 

Long. tot. 4 unc. 1 1 lin. ; rost. 5 lin. ; alw, 2| ; caudcv, 2^ ; tarsi, 7 lin. 

Male ; olivaceous, with each feather of the back margined with yellow, especially 
on the rump; the top of the head, throat, wings and tail, black, the two latter 
margined more or less with yellow ; the sides of the head and beneath the 
body bright yellow. 

Habitat, forests of Tierra del Fuego {February), Valparaiso {September). 



90 ZOOLOGY OF THE VOYAGE OF THE BEAGLE. 

Sub-Fam.— FRINGILLTNiE. 

1. Ammodramus longicaudatus. Gould. 

Plate XXIX. 

A. vertice hmneroque cinereqfuscis, dorso pallescenti Jusco, uropygio rufescetiti fusco 
tincto, plumis singulis strigd media fused ; tectricibus alarum majoribus, remigibus 
primariis secundariisque et caudu nigrescentibus, cinereo albo externe marginatis ; 
fronle, strigd superciliari corpureque infra Jlavescentibus. 

Long. tot. .5f unc. ; alw, 2f ; caiidcr, 3 ; tarsi, f ; rostri, -^g. 

Crown of the head and shoulder, greyish brown ; back, light brown, tinged with 
reddish brown on the rump, and with a stripe of dark brown down the centre 
of each feather; greater wing-coverts, primaries, secondaries, and tail blackish, 
margined externally with greyish white ; forehead, stripe over the eye, and 
all the under surface, buft"; bill black ; feet brown. Young, or a bird after 
gaining its new plumage, differs in having the whole of the upper surface rich 
brown, with a tinge of olive and with a stripe of dark brown down each feather, 
and in having the wing coverts margined with reddish instead of greyish brown. 

Habitat, Monte Video {November), Maldonado {June). 

At Maldonado this bird frequented, in small flocks, reeds and other aquatic 
plants bordering lakes. In general habits, as well as in place of resort, it resem- 
bles those species of Synallaxis and Limnornis, with which it is often associated. 
It appears to live entirely on insects, and I found in the stomach of one which I 
opened various minute Coleoptera. Mr. Gould remarks, that the structure of this 
Ammodramus is very remarkable, for that it has a great general resemblance both 
in form and colouring to Synallaxis, although the thickness of its bill shows its 
relation to the Fringillinse. In its habits it certainly is more allied to the former 
genus, than to its own family. 

2. Ammodramus Manimbe, G. R. Gray. 

Plate XXX. 

Ammodramus xanthornus, in Plate, and in Gould's MS. 
Fringilla ManimW, Licht., Cat. No. 253. 
Emberiza Manimbe, UOrh. Sf Lafr., Syn. p. 77. 
Manimbe, Azara, No. 141. 

My specimen was obtained from Maldonado. 




£jrcLyFl2&' 



^rybm.o'dramM^ /■oTU^icazidaMs. 




IkrdsFUO. 




j^mmodranmM axMttkomius. 



BIRDS. yi 



1. ZoNOTRicHiA MATUTiNA. G. R. Gray. 

Fringilla matutina, Lidtt , Cat. 25. 

■ Kittl. Kupfertafeln der Togel, pi. 23. f. 3. 

Tanagra ruficollis, Spix^ Av. Sp. Nov. ii. t. liii, f. 3. p. 39. 
Chingolo, Azara, No. 135. Chingolo Bunting, Lath. Hist. 

I procured specimens of this species from the banks of the Plata, Bahia 
Blanca in Northern Patagonia, and from Valparaiso in Chile : in these countries it 
is perhaps the commonest bird. In the Cordillera, I have seen it at an elevation of 
at least 8000 feet. It generally prefers inhabited places, but it has not attained 
the air of domestication of the English sparrow, which bird in habits and general 
appearance it represents. It does not go in flpcks, although several may be fre- 
quently seen feeding together. At Monte Video I found on the ground the nest 
of this species. It contained three eggs; these were .75 of an inch in length; 
form, rather rounded ; colour, dirty white, with numerous small spots of chesnut 
and blackish brown, almost confluent towards the broadest end. It was in this 
nest that I found the parasitic egg, supposed to belong to a species of Molothrus, 
described in my journal.* 

2. ZONOTRICHIA CANICAPILLA. GoilUl. 

Z. vert ice cinereo ; loris rcgioiieque paroticd obscure fuscis: dorso colUque later ibiis rufis, 
dorso siiperiori et nropygio fuscis ; dorso medio nigrescenti fusco, plumis singulis pal- 
lido fusco marginatis ; teclricibus alarum nigrescenti fuscis, rufescente fusco margin- 
atis, apice albis, duasfascias obliquas trans alarum for mantibus. 

Long. tot. 5| unc. ; alw, 2g ; caudcr, 2}^; tarsi, | ; rostri, J. 

Crown of the head grey ; lores and ear-coverts dark brown ; back and sides of 
the neck rufous ; upper part of the back and rump brown ; centre of the back 
blackish brown, each feather margined with light brown ; wing-coverts 
blackish brown, margined with reddish brown, and tipped with white, forming 
two oblique bands across the wing ; primaries, secondaries, and tail, dark 
brown, margined with greyish brown ; throat and all the under surface 
brownish grey ; and feet brown. 

Habitat, Port Desire in Patagonia, and Tierra del Fuego. 

This species is not uncommon in Tierra del Fuego, wherever there is any open 

* Journal of Researches during tlie Voyage of the Beagle, p. CO. 



92 ZOOLOGY OF THE VOYAGE OF THE BEAGLE. 

space. Of the few birds inhabiting the desert plains of Patagonia, this is the most 
abundant. At Port Desire I found its nest : egg, about .83 in length ; form some- 
what more elongated than in that of the last species ; colour, pale green, almost 
obscured by minute freckles and clouds of pale dull red. 

3. ZONOTRICHIA STRIGICEPS. Goul(L 

Z. capite castaneo, lined media obscure diviso, plumis singulis stria medid nigrofuscd, 
humeri flexurd rufd ; corpore supra fuscescente, plumis singulis strid laid medid 
ohscure fused ; remigihus, primnriis cauddque nigro-fuscis pallidd fiisco marginatis ; 
strigd siqierciliari, faciei coll icpie lateribus, guld pectore ahdomineque medio cinereis ; 
hypochondriis legminibusque caudoe infer ior ibus flavescentibus. 

Long. tot. 5f unc. ; rostri, | ; alee, 2^ ; caudw, 2| ; tarsi, |. 

Head chestnut, divided down the middle by a line of deep grey, each feather with 
a stripe of hlackish brown down the centre ; point of the shoulder rufous ; the 
remainder of the upper surface light brown, with a broad stripe of dark brown 
down the centre of each feather ; primaries and tail brown ; secondaries 
blackish brown, margined all round with pale brown ; stripe over each eye, 
sides of the face and neck, throat, breast, and centre of the abdomen, grey ; 
flanks and under tail-coverts buff; upper mandible black ; under mandible 
light horn colour ; feet brown. 

Habitat, Santa Fe. Lat. 31° S. {October.) 

This species appears to replace in this latitude the Z. matutina, which is so 
abundant on the banks of the Plata and in Chile, as that species does the Z. cani- 
capilla of Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego. 

Passerin.4 jacarina. Vieill. 

Tanagra jacarina, Linn. 

Passerina jacarina, Vieill. Ency. Meth. p. 933. 

Emberiza jacarina, D'Orh. Sf Lafr., Syn. 

Le Sauteur, Azara, No. 138. 

Eupbone jacarina, Licht. Cat. p. 30. 

Fringilla splendens, Vieill. Ency. j). 981 ? 

I procured a specimen of this bird at Rio de Janeiro. 



BIRDS. 93 

t. Fringilla Diuca. Mol. 

Fringilla Diuca, Kittl. Mem. de St. Petersb. t. i. pi. 11. 

Mag. de Zool. 1S37, pi. 69. 

Eniberiza Diuca, D'Orh. et Lafr. Syn. Mag. of Zool. 1838, f. 77. 

This bird is very common on the coast of Chile, from the humid forests of 
Chiloe to the desert mountains of Copiapo. In Chiloe it is perhaps the most 
abundant of the land birds ; south of Chiloe I never saw it, although the nature of 
the country does not change them. On the eastern side of the continent, I met 
with this bird only at the Rio Negro, in northern Patagonia. I do not believe 
it inhabits the shores of the Plata, although so common in the open country, 
under corresponding latitudes west of the Cordillera. The Diuca, as this 
Fringilla is called in Chile, generally moves in small flocks, and frequents, al- 
though not exclusively, cultivated ground in the neighbourhood of houses : habits 
very similar to those of the Zonotrichia matiitina. During incubation, the male 
utters two or three pleasing notes, which Molina has in an exaggerated de- 
scription called a fine song. In October, at Valparaiso, I found the nest of this 
bird in the trellis-work of a vineyard, close by a much frequented path. The 
nest is shallow, and about six inches across ; the outer part is very coarse, and 
composed of the thin stalks of twining plants, strengthened by the husky calices 
of a composite flower ; this outside part is lined by many pieces of rag, thread, 
string, tow, and a few feathers. Eggs rather pointed, oval, -94 of an inch in 
length ; colour, pale dirty green, thickly blotched by rather pale dull-brown, which 
small blotches and spots become confluent, and entirely colour the broad end. 

2. Fringilla Gayi. Eyd. ^' Gerv. 

Fringilla Gayi, Ei/d. ^-^ Gerv. Mag. de Zool. 1834. pi. 23. 
Emberiza Gayi, var. D'Orh. Sf Lafr. Syn. p. 76. 

This Fringilla, which was first brought from Chile, is abundant in the southern 
parts of Patagonia. 

3. Fringilla Formosa. Gould. 

F.fronte lorisque nigris; vertice, gents, gidd, alarum tegminibus ccendeo griseis, leg- 
minibus primariis, secundariis rectricibusque griseo-nigris, c(eridescenti-griseo mar- 
ginatis, dorso Jlavescenti castaneo ; tegminibus caudalibus infer ioiibns pallid^ griseis; 
uropygio pectore abdomine hypochondr Usque saturalh fiavis. 

Long. tot. 5g unc. ; ala\ Z\ ; cauda; 2| ; tarsi, | ; rostri, ^. 

Forehead and lores black ; crown of the head, sides of the face, throat, wing 



94 ZOOLOGY OF THE VOYAGE OF THE BEAGLE 

coverts, and the margins of the primaries, secondaries, and tail feathers, blue 
grey ; the remainder of the primaries, secondaries, and tail feathers, greyish- 
black ; back yellowish-chestnut ; under tail coverts light-grey ; rump, breast, 
abdomen and flanks, deep wax-yellow ; bill bluish horn-colour ; feet light 
brown. 

Habitat, Tierra del Fuego (December and February). 

This finch is common on the outskirts of the forests in Tierra del Fuego. 
Mr. Gould remarks, that it is nearly allied to F. Gwji, but it is much smaller, 
and is richer in its colouring. 

4. Fringilla fruticeti, Kiltl. 

Fringilla fruticeti, Kittl. Kupf. der Vogel, pi. 23. f. 1 . 
Emberiza luctuosa, Eyd. et Gerv. Mag. de Zool. 1831. CI. II. pi. 71. 
D'Orl. et La/r. Syn. p. 80. 

I obtained specimens of this bird from Northern Chile, and Southern Pata- 
gonia, I saw it also in the Cordillera of Central Chile, at an elevation of at least 
eight thousand feet, near the upper limit of vegetation. In Patagonia it is not 
common, it frequents bushy valleys in small flocks, from six to ten in number. 
These birds sometimes move from thicket to thicket with a peculiar soaring flight: 
they occasionally utter very singular and pleasing notes. 

5. Fringilla carbonaria. G. R. Gray. 

Emberiza carbonaria, D'Orh. ct Lafr. Synop. p. 79. 

I never saw this bird but once, and then it was in small flocks, on the most 
desert parts of the plains between the rivers Negro and Colorado, in Northern 
Patagonia. 

6. Fringilla alaudina. Kittl. 

Fringilla alaudina, Kupf. der Vbgel, pi. 23. f. 2. 
Emberiza guttata, Meyen, Nov. Act. Cur. xvii. pi. 12. 

D'Orh. S)- Lafr. Syn. p. 78: Adult. 

Passerina guttata, Eyd. Sf Gerv. Mag. de Zool. 1834. pi. 70. p. 22. 

My specimens were obtained from the neighbourhood of Valparaiso. 



3ir<lsFl3l 




loufs&r Ja^oensus 



J]o-vlf fl32 




f'/i/iTi -yv 'M nulaiwdfra, 



BIRDS. 95 

1. Passer Jagoensis. Gould. 
Plate XXXI. 
Pyrgita Jagoensis, GoulJ, Proc. of Zool. Soc. 1837. p. 77. 
P. summo capite, et macula parvd gulari intense nigrescenti-fuscis ; strigd superciliari, 
collo, humeris dorsoque intens^ castaneis, hujus plumis strigd J'uscd centrali notatis ; 
alis cauddque brunneis, tectricibus alarum minoribus albis, qui color fasciam trans- 
versam efficit : lined angustd albd a nare ad oculum ; genis corporeque subtus albis, 
hoc colore in cinereum ad lalera transeunte : rostro, pcdibusquefiiscis. 

Long. tot. 5 unc; caudev, 2^; alee, 2i ; rost. \; tarsi, ^. 

Crown of the head and a small mark on the throat intense blackish brown, with a 
stripe on the eyebrows, the neck, shoulders and back bright chestnut, the 
feathers of the latter marked with a central dusky streak ; wings and tail 
brown, with the smaller wing coverts white, forming a transverse bar ; a nar- 
row white line from the nostrils to the eye ; cheeks and under side of body 
white, this colour passing into grey on the sides ; beak and feet dusky. 

Habitat, St. Jago, Cape Verde Islands (Jajiuary). 

This is the commonest bird in the island ; it frequents, generally in small flocks, 
both the neighboui'hood of houses and vvild uninhabited spots. It was building 
its nest towards the end of August. 

2. Passer Hispaniolensis. G. R. Gray. 

Fringilla Hispaniolensis, Tanm. Man. i. 353. 

In the month of January I obtained a specimen of this bird from St. Jago, 
one of the Cape Verde Islands, where it was not common. 

1. Chlorospiza? melanodera. G. R. Gray. 

Plate XXXII, 

Emberiza melanodera, Qiioy Sf Gaim. Voy. de L'Uranie, Zool. i. p. 109. 

C. Jlavescenti olivacea ; dorso superiori cinereo rtifoque mixto ; vertice, auribus, colli 
lateribus pectoreque cinereis rufomixtis; lined d naribus pone oculos transiente genisque 
albis ; plumis inter rostrum et oculos guldque atris; remigibus primariis et secundariis 
nigrescentibus Jiavo marginatis: caudd rcctricibus mediis olivaceo-fuscis, tribus ex- 
ternisjere toto pallide jlavis ; abdomine medio Jlavescenti albo, lateribus obscurioribus. 

Long. tot. 6^ unc. ; aliv, 3^ ; caudce, 2f ; tarsi, 10 lines ; rostri, 5 lin. 

Adult. Yellowish olive, mixed with grey and rufous on the upper part of the back ; 



96 ZOOLOGY OF THE VOYAGE OF THE BEAGLE. 

top of the head, ears, sides of the neck and breast, grey mixed with rufous ; 
the lines from the nostrils reaching behind the eyes and cheeks, white ; the 
space between the bill and eye, and the throat, deep black ; the primaries 
and secondaries blackish, margined with yellow ; the tail, with the middle 
feathers, olivaceous black, with the three external nearly wholly pale yellow; 
the middle of the abdomen yellowish white, with the flanks darker. 
Young : Upper surface brownish white, with the middle of each feather black ; 
the throat lighter ; the wing coverts and secondaries margined with white 
and brown ; the primaries with yellow ; the tail blackish, with their outer 
margins yellow, and the external feather wholly pale yellow white; beneath the 
body pale yellowish white, streaked on the breast and flanks with a darker tint. 

Habitat, East Falkland Island {March), and Santa Cruz, Patagonia (April). 

This bird is extremely abundant in large scattered flocks in the Falkland 
Islands. 

2. Chlouospiza? xanthogramma. G. It. Grcn/. 

Plate XXXIIL 

C. cinerascenti olivacea, 7-uJ'o paiilo tincta ; linen t. nnribus pone oculos transiente 
genisque Jlavis ; plumis inter rostrum et oculos guMqiie atris ; remigibus secundariis 
ni<rrescentihus, cinereo et olivaceo lati marginatis ; priinariis iiigrescenlibus, fiavo 
angtislh marginatis ; caudu cinerascenti nigra, plumis externis albis ; corpore infra 
flavescenti albo, hypochondriis obscurioribus. 

Long. tot. 7f unc. ; alw, 3j ; cimdw, 3; tarsi, 1 ; roslri, 7 lin. 

Adult : Greyish olive, very slightly mixed with rufous, a line from the nostrils 
reaching behind the eyes and cheeks, yellow; the space between the bill and 
eye, and the entire throat, deep black ; the secondaries blackish, broadly 
margined w ith grey and olive ; the primaries blackish, slightly margined 
with yellow; the tail greyish black, with the outer feathers white ; beneath 
the body yellowish white, darker on the flanks. 

Female : Upper surface brownish white, with each feather blackish brown in the 
middle, the head and throat paler ; the wing-coverts and secondaries blackish, 
margined with brownish white; the primaries blackish, slightly margined 
with yellow ; the tail blackish white-margined, with the outer feathers nearly 
wholly white ; beneath the body yellowish white, streaked with brown on 
the breast and flanks: and the space from the nostrils reaching to behind the 
eyes and cheeks, yellowish. 

Habitat, East Falkland Island {March), and Tierra del Fuego (Februari/). 



Mnc^ns^ 




6Moro6j7i/Za.' '^ayiMoqroyfn'yitiZ/- 



^u-c^.^Tl S4 




TiUKi^m Dcum'uu 



BIRDS. 97 

This species is common at the Falkland Islands, and it often occurs mingled 
in the same flock with the last one. I suspect, however, it more commonly 
frequents higher parts of the hills. These species have a very close general 
resemblance ; but the marks about the head, which are white in the C. melanodcra, 
are yellow in the C. xantltogramma, while the parts of the tail-feathers which are 
white in the latter, are yellow in the C. melanodera : this difference of colours 
does not hold in tlie females, but they may be at once distinguished by the 
greater length of wing, when folded, of the C. xantliogramma. 

Chrysomitris Magellanica. JBonap. 

Fringilla Magellanica, VicilL Eucy. Meth. 983 ; Ois. Chant, de la Zone Torride, pi. 30 ; 

Audubon, Birds of Am. pi. 394, f. 2. 
Gafarron, ^c^ara. No. 134. 
Fringilla icterica, Licht. Cat. p. 2G. 

This bird was very abundant in large flocks during May, at Maldonado ; 
I found it also at the Rio Nearo. 



Sub-Family.— TAN AGRlNiE. 

PiTYLUS SUPERCILIARIS. 

Tanagra superciliaris, Spix. Av. Sp. Nov. 2, t. Ivii. fig. 1. p. 44. 

My specimen was procured from Santa F6, in Lat. 31° S. 

1. Aglaia STRIATA. D'Ofb. (Sf Lofr. 
Plate XXXIV. 
$ Tanagra striata, Gmel. Syst. 1. 899 ; Ency. Meth. 776 ; Licht. Cat. p. 31. Sp. 347 ; 
Proc. Zool. Soc. 1837, p. 121, pi. 34 of this work. 
L'Onglet, Bitf. iv. p. 256. 
Le Lindobleu, dore et noir, Azara, No. 94. 
? Tanagra Darwinii, Bonap. ; Proc. Zool. Soc. 1837, p. 121. 

I saw the only specimen, which I procured, feeding on the fruit of an opuntia 
at Maldonado. 

Mr. G. R. Gray is induced to consider the species figured under the name 
of 7\ Darwinii, as the T. striata, Gm. and the T. Darwinii of the Zoological 
Society's Proceedings, as the female of the same species, while the young birds 
may be described as following : 
Brown, with the margins of the dorsal feathers greenish-brown, those of the 

wings and tail margined brownish-white ; head and neck greyish-green ; 

o 



98 ZOOLOGY OF THE VOYAGE OF THE BEAGLE. 

beneath the body pale dusky green, somewhat darker on the breast and 
sides ; uropygium yellowish-green. 

Three specimens of this species are contained in the British Museum, ex- 
hibiting male, female, and young. 

2. Aglaia Vittata. 

Tanagra vittata, Temm. PL col. 

Maldonado; not common. 

PiPiLLO PERSONATA. Swains. 
Plate XXXV. 
P. personata, Swains. Two cent, and a quart, p. 311. 

Maldonado; not common. The stomach of one, which I shot, contained 
seeds. 

EmBERIZOIDES POLIOCEPHALUS. G. R. Gruxj. 

E. olivaceus, ilorsi plumis medio nigro strialis ; capite gulc'tqtie cinereis, priore phmiis 
singulis, medio nigrostriutis ; corpore infra rnj'esccnti albo; hypocliondriis tectricibtis 
caudce inferiorihus obscuriorihus ; alarum margine late Jiava, remigibus primuriis 
secundariisque nigris ; prior ibus pallide olivaceo, posterioribus olivascente Jlavo lath 
marginatis. 

Long. tot. 7f line. ; alw, 3h ; cmidcv, 4 ; tarsi, l\; rostri, 8 lin. 

Olivaceous, with the feathers of the back marked down the middle with black ; the 
head and throat cinereous, with each feather of the former streaked down the 
middle with black ; beneath the body rufous white, darker on the flanks 
and under tail coverts : the border of the wings bright yellow ; the secon- 
daries and primaries black, the former broadly margined with pale olive, the 
latter with bright olivaceous yellow ; base of bill dusky orange. 

Habitat, northern shore of the Plata. {May and August.) 

This bird is common both near Monte Video and Maldonado, in swamps. 

Stomach full of seeds : it makes a shrill loud cry : its flight is clumsy, as if its 

tail were disjointed. 



Fam.— COCCOTHRAUSTIN^. 

Genus, Geospiza, Gould. 
Corporis Jigura brevissima et robusla. 
Rostrum magnum, robustum, validum, altituditie longitudinem prcestante ; culmine 

arctiato et capitis verticem superante, apice sine denticulo, lateribus tumidis. 
Naribus basalibus et semitectis plumis frontalibus. 



£ird^ /"I SS 




lipUo jH'r^omUa 



BIRDS. 99 

Mandibuld sitpez-iori tomiis medmm versus siuum exhibentibus, ad mandibulcE inferioris 

processum recipiendum. Mandibula inferior ad basin lata, hoc infra oculos tendente. 

Alee mediocres remige primo paulo breviore secundo, hoc longissimo. 
Cauda brevissima et aqualis. 
Tarsi magni et validi, digito postico, cum nngue robusto et digito intermedia breviore ; 

digitis externis inter se tequalibus at digito postico brevioribus. Color in maribus 

7iiger, infcem.fuscus. 

This singular genus* appears to be confined to the islands of the Galapagos 
Archipelago. It is very numerous, both in individuals and in species, so that 
it forms the most striking feature in their ornithology. The characters of the 
species of Geospiza, as well as of the following allied subgenera, run closely into 
each other in a most remarkable manner. 

In my Journal of Researches, p. 475, I have given my reasons for believing that 
in some cases the separate islands possess their own representatives of the different 
species, and this almost necessarily would cause a fine gradation in their characters. 
Unfortunately I did not suspect this fact until it was too late to distinguish the spe- 
cimens from the different islands of the group ; but from the collection made for 
Captain FitzRoy, I have been able in some small measure to rectify this omission. 
In each species of these genera a perfect gradation in colouring might, 
I think, be formed from one jet black to another pale brown. My observations 
showed that the former were invariably the males ; but Mr. Bynoe, the surgeon of 
the Beagle, who opened many specimens, assured me that he found two quite 
black specimens of one of the smaller species of Geospiza, which certainly were 
females : this, however, undoubtedly is an exception to the general fact ; and is 
analogous to those cases, which Mr. Blytb* has recorded of female linnets and 
some other birds, in a state of high constitutional vigour, assuming the brighter 
plumage of the male. The jet black birds, in cases where there could be no doubt 
in regard to the species, were in singularly few proportional numbers to the 
brown ones: I can only account for this by the supposition that the intense black 
colour is attained only by three-year-old birds. I may here mention, that the 
time of year (beginning of October) in which my collection was made, probably 
corresponds, as far as the purposes of incubation are concerned, with our autumn. 
The several species of Geospiza are undistinguishable from each other in habits ; 
they often form, together with the species of the following subgenera, and likewise 
with doves, large irregular flocks. They frequent the rocky and extremely arid 
parts of the land sparingly covered with almost naked bushes, near the coasts ; 

• This genus, and the following sub-genera, were named by Mr. Gould at a meeting of the Zool. Soc. Jan. 10 
1837, p. 4. of Proceedings. 

t Remarks on the Plumage of Birds, Charlsworth's Mag. of Nat. History, vol. i. p. 480. 



100 ZOOLOGY OF THE VOYAGE OF THE BEAGLE. 

for here they find, by scratching in the cindery soil with their powerful beaks and 
claws, the seeds of grasses and other plants, which rapidly spring up during the 
short rainy season, and as rapidly disappear. They often eat small portions of 
the succulent leaves of the Opuntia Galapageia, probably for the sake of the 
moisture contained in them : in this dry climate the birds suffer much from the 
want of water, and these finches, as well as others, daily crowd round the small 
and scanty wells, which are found on sovne of the islands. I seldom, however, 
saw these birds in the upper and damp region, which supports a thriving vege- 
tation ; excepting on the cleared and cultivated fields near the houses in Charles 
Island, where, as I was informed by the colonists, they do much injury by digging 
up roots and seeds from a depth of even six inches. 

1 . Geospiza magnirostris. Gould. 
Plate XXXVI. 

G.fuliginosa, crisso cinerascoiti-albo ; roslro nigro-hrunnescente lavato ; pedibus 

nigris. 
Long. tot. G Tiiic. ; aid', 3^ ; cai(da; 2 ; tarsi, 1 ; ro.ftri, f ; alt. 7-ost. 1 . 

Foem. vel IMas jun.; corpora intensh fusco sinoulis plumis olivaceo cine f is ; ahdomine 

pallidiore; crisso citicrascenfi-albo ; pedibus el roslro, nt in mare adulto. 
Sooty black ; with the vent cinereous white, the bill black, washed with brownish, 

and the feet black. 
Female, or young male : Deep fuscous, with each feather margined with olive, the 

abdomen much paler, with the under tail-coverts cinereous white, the feet 

and bill like those of the male. 
Habitat, Galapagos Archipelago. (Charles and Chatham Islands.) 

I have strong reasons for believing this species is not found in James's 
Island. Mr. Gould considers the G. magniroslris as the type of the genus. 

2- Geospiza strenua. Gould. 
Plate XXXVIL 

G. fidiginosa, crisso albo, roslro fusco et nigro tinclo ; pedibus nigris. 
Long. tot. 51 line. ; a/o?, 3 ; cautlce, if ; tarsi, | ; rostri, | ; alt. rost. f. 

Fcem. Summo corpora fusco singulis plumis alarum caudceque plumis exceplis, pallide 
cinerascenti-olivaceo cinctis ; gnld et pectore fuscis ; abdomine laleribus el crisso 
pallide cinerascenli-fuscis ; roslro brunnesccnte. 
Sooty black, with the under tail coverts white ; the bill brown, tinged with black, 

and the feet black. 
Female : Upper part of the body fuscous, with the margins of each feather, 
except those of the wings and tail, pale cinereous-olive ; the throat and breast 



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BIRDS. 101 

fuscous : the abdomen, sides, and under tail-coverts pale cinereous-fuscous ; 
the bill brownish. 
Habitat, Galapagos Archipelago (James and Chatham Islands.) 

Geospiza fortis. Gould. 
Plate XXVIII. 

G. intense fuliginosa, crisso albo ; rostro 7'ufescenti-brunneo, tincto nigro ; pedibus 

nigris. 
Foem. (vel Masjun.) Corpore suprd pectore et gutture inteiish Juscis, singulis plumis 

cinerascenti-olivaceo marginatis ; abdomine crissoque pcdlid^ cinerascenti-brunneis ; 

rostro rufescenti-fusco ad apicem flavescente ; pedibus ut in mare. 

Long. tot. 4f unc. ; aho, 3 ; caicdw, 1^; tarsi, ]^ ; rostri,-^. 

Deep sooty black ; with the under tail-coverts and the bill reddish brown tinged 
with black ; the feet black. 

Female (or young male) : The body above, breast and throat, deep fuscous, with 
each feather margined with cinereous-olive: the abdomen, and under tail- 
coverts pale cinereous-brown ; the bill reddish fuscous, with the apex yellowish, 
and the feet like those in the male. 
Habitat, Galapagos Archipelago, (Charles and Chatham Islands.) 

4. Geospiza nebulosa. Gotdd. 
G. summo capita et corpore nigrescent i-fuscis ; singulis plumis cinerascenti-olivaceo 
marginatis ; corpore subtus pallidiore, abdomine imo crissoque cinerascentibus ; 
rostro et pedibus intenshfuscis. 

Long. tot. 5 unc. ; alix>, 2| ; caiuhi', 1| ; tarsi, J ; rostri, § ; alt. rost. i. 

Male. — Upper part of the head and body blackish fuscous, with each feather 
margined with cinereous olive ; the body beneath paler, with the lowe.st part 
of the abdomen and under tail-coverts ashy ; the bill and feet deep fuscous. 
Habitat, Galapagos Archipelago, (Charles Island.) 

5. Geospiza fuliginosa. Gould. 

G. intense Juliginosa, crisso albo, rostro Jusco ; pedibus nigrescenti-fuscis. 

Long. tot. 4 J unc. ; alee, 2| ; caudce, 1| ; tarsi, | ; rostri, 1^ ; alt. rostri, f. 

Foem. Summo corpore, alis, caitddque intensh Juscis ; singulis plumis cinerascenti- 
ferrugineo marginatis ; corpore infra cinereo, singulis plumis medium versus obscu- 
rioribus ; rostro brunneo ; pedibus nigrescent i-brun?ieis. 

Deep sooty black, with the under tail coverts white ; the bill fuscous, and the feet 
blackish fuscous. 



102 ZOOLOGY OF THE VOYAGE OF THE BEAGLE. 

Female: Upper part of the body; the wings and tail deep fuscous, with each 
feather margined with ashy ferrugineous ; beneath the body cinereous, with 
each feather towards the middle darker ; the bill brown, and the feet blackish 
brown. 
Habitat, Galapagos Archipelago. (Chatham and James' Island.) 

6. GeOSPIZA DENTIROSTRIS. Gould. 

G^. (Foem. vel Mas jun.) ijiundibulce siiperioris margine in dentem producto, vertice cor- 
poreque supra fuscis ; siiigidis plumis medium versus ohscurioribus ; secundariis tec- 
tricibusque alarum ad marginem stramineis ; guiture et pectore pallide brunneis, 
singulis plumis medium versus obscurioribus, imo abdomine crissoque cinerascenti- 
albis ; rostro rufo-fusco ; pedibus obscure plumbeis. 

Long. tot. 4| unc. ; alw, 2| ; cauda; ]|; rostri, | ; alt. rost. f . 

The margin of the upper mandible produced into a tooth ; the vertex and above 
the body fuscous, with each feather towards the middle darker ; the margins 
of the secondaries and wing coverts straw colour ; the throat and breast pale 
brown, darker towards the middle of each feather ; the sides and under tail- 
coverts cinereous white ; the bill rufous fuscous, and the feet obscure lead 
colour. 
Habitat, Galapagos Archipelago. 

Mr. Gould considered this specimen a female, from the appearance of its 

plumage ; but from dissection, I thought it was a male. 

7. Geospiza parvula. Gould. 
Plate XXXIX. 
G. (Mas) capite, guttnre, et dorso fuliginosis; uropijgio cinerascenti-olivaceo; caudd 
et alis nigrescenti brunneis ; singulis plumis caudce et alarum, cinereo-marginatis ; 
latcribus olivaceis,fusco guttatis ; abdomine et crisso albis, rostro et pedibus nigres- 
centi-brunneis . 

Long. tot. 4 unc. ; ala', 2f ; cauda', 1| ; tarsi, f ; rostri, f ; alt. rost. -fg. 

FcEm. Summo capite et dorso cinerascenti-brunneis, gutture, pectore, abdomine crissoque 
pallide cinereis, stramineo tinctis. 

The head, throat, and back, sooty black ; the lower part of the back cinereous 
olive ; the tail and wings blackish brown, margined with cinereous ; the sides 
olive with fuscous spots ; the abdomen and under tail-coverts white ; the bill 
and feet blackish brown. 

Female : The upper surface cinereous brown ; the throat, breast, abdomen, and 
the under tail coverts, pale cinereous tinged with straw colour. 
Habitat, Galapagos Archipelago. (James' Island.) 



Birds n 'V^ 







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CaiTvctrh^n'cJtU'S cra/hrosdrus. 



BIRDS. 103 

8. Geospiza dubia. Gould. 

G. (Fcem. Mas ignot.) snmmo capite et corpore supra fuse is, singulis plumis cinera- 
scenti-olivaceo marginatis ; strigd superciliari, genis, gutture, corpoi'e infra cinera- 
scenti-olivaceis, singulis plumis notd centrali fused ; alis caiicldque brunneis singulis 
plumis olivaceo-cinereo marginatis ; rostra sordicU alba, pedibus obscurhfxtscis. 

Long. tot. 3f unc. ; alec, 2| ; caudw, 1 1 ; tarsi, \ ; rostri, § : alt. rostri, |. 

Upper surface fuscous, with each feather margined with cinereous olive ; the 
streak above the eye, cheeks, throat, and beneath the body, cinereous olive, 
with the middle of each feather fuscous ; the wings and tail brown, with each 
feather margined with cinereous ash ; the bill white, and the feet obscure 
fuscous. 
Habitat, Galapagos Archipelago, (Chatham Island.) 

Sub-Genus.— CAMARHYNCHUS. Gould. 
Camarhynchus dijfert a genere Geospiza, rostra debiliore, margine mandibulce supe- 
rioris miniis indentata ; cuhnine ininiis elevato in frontem et plus arcuato ; lateribus 
tumidioribus ; mandibuld inferiore mi?ius in genas tendente. 
Camarhynchus psittaculus is the typical species. 

1. Camarhynchus psittaculus. Gould. 

Plate XL. 
C. (Fcem.) summa capite corporeque siqieriore fuscis ; alis cauddque abscurioribus ; 
gutture corporeque inferiore, cinerascenti-albis, straminea tinctis ; rostro pallide 
flavescentifusco ; pedibus fuscis. 

Long. tot. 4f unc. ; alw, 2f : caudw, 1| ; tarsi, | ; rostri g ; alt. rostri, J. 

The upper part of the head and body fuscous ; the wing and tail darker ; the 
throat, and beneath the body cinereous white, tinged with straw-colour ; 
the bill pale yellowish fuscous, and the feet fuscous. 
Habitat, Galapagos Archipelago, (James' Island.) 

The species of Camarhynchus do not differ in habits from those of Geospiza ; 
and the C. psittaculus might often be seen mingled in considerable numbers in the 
same flock with the latter. Mr. Bynoe procured a blackish specimen, which, 
doubtless, was an old male ; I saw several somewhat dusky, especially about 
the head. 

2. Camarhynchus crassirostris. Gould. 

Plate XLI. 
C. (Mas jun.et Fcem.) corpore superiore intensh brunneo, singulis plumis cinerascenti- 



104 ZOOLOGY OF THE VOYAGE OF THE BEAGLE. 

olivaceo marginatis ; gutture pectoreque cinerascenti-olivaceis, shigulis in medio 
plumis ohscurioribus ; abdomine, lateiihus crissoque cinereis stramineo tinctis. 

Long. tot. 5\ line. ; ate, 3J ; caudre, 2 ; torx/, li ; rostri, ^; alt. rostri, ^. 

Upper part of the body deep brown, with each feather margined with cinereous 
olive ; the throat and breast cinereous olive, with the middle of each feather 
darker ; the abdomen, sides, and under tail coverts cinereous tinged with 
straw colour. 
Habitat, Galapagos Archipelago, (Charles Island ?) 

I am nearly certain that this species is not found in James Island. I believe 
it came from Charles Island, and probably there replaces the C. psiitaculus of 
James Island. I obtained three specimens, one male, and two females ; from the 
analogy of so many species in this group, I do not doubt the old male would 
be black. 



Sub-Genus.— CACTORN IS. Gould 

Cactornis differt a genere Geospiza rostro elongalo, acuta, compresso, longitudine 
altitudinem excellente ; maiidibulce superioris margine vix indentato; naribus 
basalibus et vix tectis ; taisis brevioribus, unguibus majoribus et plus curvatis. 
Cactornis scandens is the typical species. 



1. Cactornis scandens. Gould. 
Plate XLII. 
C. intensh fuliginosa, crisso albo; rostro et pedibus 7iigrescenti-brunneis. 

Long. tot. 5 unc. ; rostri, | ; ala', 2^ ; caiuiw, 1| ; tarsi, |. 

Foem. Corpore superiore, gutture pectoreque intense brunneis, singulis plumis palli- 
diorh marginatis; abdomine crissoque cinereis, stramineo tinctis; rostro pallidh 
J'usco ; pedibus nigrescenti-fuscis. 

Deep sooty black, with the under tail-coverts white ; the bill and feet blackish- 
brown. 

Female : Upper surface of the body, throat and breast intensely brown, with the 
margins of each feather paler ; the abdomen and the under tail coverts 
cinereous, tinged with straw-colour; the bill pale fuscous, and the feet blackish 
fuscous. 

Habitat, Galapagos Archipelago, (James' Island.) 

The species of this sub-genus alone can be distinguished in habits from the 

several foregoing ones belonging to Geospiza and Camarhynchus. Their most 



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BIRDS. 1 05 

frequent resort is the Opuntia Galapageia, about the fleshy leaves of which they 
hop and climb, even with their back downwards, whilst feeding with their sharp 
beaks, both on the fruit and flowers. Often, however, they alight on the ground, 
and mingled with the flock of the above mentioned species, they search for seeds 
in the parched volcanic soil. The extreme scarceness of the jet-black specimens, 
which I mentioned under the head of the genus Geospiza, is well exemplified in 
the case of the C scandens, for although I daily saw many brown-coloured ones, 
(and two collectors were looking out for them), only one, besides that which is 
figured, was procured, and I did not see a second. 

2. Cactornis assimilis. Gould. 

Plate XLIII. 
TissERiN DES Gallapagos, (lie St. Charles,) NehoiM, Revue Zoologique, 1840, p. 291. 
C Mas ( jun ?) corpore suprd, fuliginoso, {gutlure ahdomineque except is,) cinereo 
marginatis ; rostro pallidh rufescenti-hi-unneo ; pedibus nigrescenti-hrufineis. 

Long. tot. 5i unc. ; rostri, | ; alw, 2f ; cauda; 1 J ; tarsi, |. 

Upper surface of the body sooty black, margined with cinereous, as well as the 
throat and abdomen ; the bill pale rufous brown ; the feet blackish brown. 
Habitat, Galapagos Archipelago. 

I do not know from which island of the group this species was procured ; 
almost certainly not from James Island. Analogy would in this case, as in that 
of Camarhynchus crassirostris, lead to the belief that the old male would be jet 
black. By a mistake this bird has been figured standing on the Opuntia Darwinii, 
a plant from Patagonia, instead of the O. Galapageia. I may here mention that a 
third and well characterized species of Cactornis has lately been sent by Captain 
Belcher, R.N. to the Zoological Society ; as Capt. Belcher visited Cocos Island, 
which is the nearest land to the Galapagos Archipelago, being less than 400 miles 
distant, it is very probable that the species came thence. 

Sub-Genus.— CERTHIDEA. Gould. 

Certhidea differt a genere Geospiza rostio gracilioie et acutiore; naribus basalibus 
et non tectis; mandibulce snperioris margine recto; tar sis longioribus et gracilioribus. 
Of the foregoing sub-genera, Geospiza, Camarhynchus and Cactornis belong to 
one type, but with regard to Certhidea, although Mr. Gould confidently believes it 
should also be referred to the same division, yet as in its slighter form and weaker 
bill, it has so much the appearance of a member of the Sylviadte, he would by no 
means insist upon the above view being adopted, until the matter shall have been 
more fully investigated. 

p 



106 ZOOLOGY OF THE VOYAGE OF THE BEAGLE. 

Certhidea olivacea. Gould. 
PLATE XLIV. 
C. summo capite, corpore superiore, alls cauddque olivaceo-brunneis ; gutture et corpore 
infra cinereis ; rostro pedibusque pallidh hrunneis. 

Long. tot. 4 unc. ; rostri, I ; alee, 2 ; caudw, \\; tarsi, f. 

Upper part of the head, body, wings and tail, olivaceous brown ; the throat, and 
beneath the body, cinereous ; the bill and feet pale brown. 
Habitat, Galapagos Archipelago. (Chatham and James Island). 

I believe my specimens, which include both sexes, were procured from Chat- 
ham and James Islands ; it is certainly found at the latter. 

Phytotoma rara. Mol. 

P. Bloxami, Children, Jard. and Selby's 111. 

P. rutUa, Vicill. Mag. de Zool. 1832, ii. pi. 5. 

P. silens, Kittl. Mem. de I'Acad. des Sci. de St. Petersb. 

This is not a very uncommon bird in Central Chile : the farmers complain 
that it is very destructive to the buds of fruit trees. It is quiet and solitary, and 
haunts hedge-rows or bushes ; its manners are similar to those of our bulllinch, 
{Loxia Pyrrhula). Iris bright scarlet. Mr. Eyton lias given an anatomical 
description of this bird in the Appendix. 

DOLICHONYX ORYZIVORUS. Sivaiiis. 

Dolichonyx oryzivorus. Swains. Faun. Bor. Am. 2. 278. 
Emberiza oryzivorus, Linn. 

This one specimen only was seen at James Island, in the Galapagos Ar- 
chipelago, during the beginning of October. It is remarkable that a bird 
migrating, according to Richardson, as far as 54° N. in North America, and 
generally inhabiting marshy grounds, should be found on these dry rocky islands 
under the equator. Mr. Gray and myself carefully compared this specimen 
with one from North America, and we could not perceive the slightest difference. 

1. Xanthornus chrysopterus. G. R. Gray. 

Oriolus cayennensis, Linn. Syst. 1. 168 ? 

Agolaius chrysopterus, Vieill. 

Psarocolius chrysopterus, Wagl Syst. Av. p. 

This bird generally frequents marshy grounds. I procured specimens from 
La Plata and from Chile ; in the latter country it extends at least as far north 
as the valley of Copiapo, in 27° 20' : on the eastern plains it does not range, 
according to Azara, north of 28°. It builds in reeds. Molina says it is called 
by the Indians Thili, or Chile — hence he derives the name of the country. 



A 



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BIRDS. 107 

2. Xanthornus flavus. G. R. Gray. 

Plate XLV. 
Oriolus flavus, Gtncl. 

Psarocolius flaviceps, Wagl. Syst. Avium. 
Troupiale k t^te jaune, Azara, No. 66. 

This species is common at Maldonado in large flocks. 
Leistes anticus. G. R. Gray. 

Icterus anticus, Licht. Cat. p. 19. 
Agelaius virescens, Vieill. Ency. Meth. 5-13. 
Psarocolius anticus, Wagl. 
Le Dragon, Azara, No. Q5. 

This bird is exceedingly abundant in large flocks on the grassy plains of La 
Plata. It is noisy, and in its habits resembles our starling. 

I. Agelaius fringillarius. G. R. Gray. 

Icterus fringillarius, /Sj9J.r, Av. Sp. No. 1. t. Ixv. fig. 1 & 2. p. 68. 
Psarocolius sericeus, juv., Wagl. 

This species is rare at Maldonado, but appears more common on the banks 
of Parana in Lat. 31°. S. Spix says (vol. i. p. 68, Birds of Brazil), it is found 
in Minas Geraes. 

2. Agelaius chopi. Vieill. 

Turdus curseus, Gmcl. 

Le Chopi, Azai-a, No. 62. 

Icterus unicolor, Licht. 

Icterus sulcirostris, Spix, Av. Br. pi. 6i. f. 2. 

This species is common in flocks on the pasture grounds of Chile, and along 
the whole western shore of the southern part of the continent. In Chile it is 
called, according to Molina, " cureu." It is a noisy, chattering bird, and runs 
in the manner of our starlings. It can be taught to speak, and is sometimes 
kept in cages. It builds in bushes. 

MOLOTHRUS NIGER. Gould. 

Tanagra bonariensis, Gtnel. 
Icterus niger, Band. 
Passerina discolor, Vieill. 
Icterus maxillaris, D'Orh. Sf Lafr. 
Icterus sericeus, Licht. 
Psarocolius sericeus, Wagl. 

This Molothrus is common in large flocks on the grassy plains of La Plata, 
and is often mingled with the Leistes aiiticus, and other birds. In the same flock 



108 ZOOLOGY OF THE VOYAGE OF THE BEAGLE. 

with the usual black kind, there were generally a few dull brown coloured ones, 
{Icterus sericeus of Licht.) which I presume are the young. Azara states that 
the brown-coloured birds are smaller than the black glossy ones, and that they 
sometimes form one-tenth of the whole number in a flock. In the single specimen 
which I brought home, the size, with the exception of the length of the wing, is 
only a very little less. Sonnini, in his notes to Azara, considers the brown birds 
as the females ; I can, however, scarcely believe that so obvious a solution of the 
difficulty could have escaped so accurate an observer as Azara, These birds 
in La Plata often may be seen standing on the back of a cow or horse. While 
perched on a hedge, and pluming themselves in the sun, they sometimes attempt 
to sing or rather to hiss : the noise is very peculiar ; it resembles that of bubbles 
of air passing rapidly from a small orifice under water, so as to produce an acute 
sound. Azara states that this bird, like the cuckoo, deposits its eggs in other 
birds' nests. I was several times told by the country people, that there was some 
bird which had this habit; and my assistant in collecting, who is a very accurate 
person, found in the nest of the Zonotrichia i-uJicollis (a bird which occupies in 
the ornithology of S. America the place of the common sparrow of Europe), 
one egg larger than the others, and of a different colour and shape. This 
egg is rather less than that of the missel-thrush, being -93 of an inch in 
length, and '78 in breadth ; it is of a bulky form, thick in the middle. The 
ground colour is a pale pinkish-white, with irregular spots and blotches of a 
bright reddish-brown, and others less distinct of a greyish hue. This species is 
evidently a very close analogue of the 31. pecoris of North America, from which, 
however it may at once be distinguished by the absence of the glossy brown on 
the head, neck, and upper breast, — by the metallic blueness of its plumage in 
the place of a green tinge, and by its somewhat greater size in all its proportions. 
The young or brown-coloured specimens of these Molothri resemble each other 
more closely ; that of the M. pecoris is of a lighter brown, especially under the 
throat, and the small feathers on its breast and abdomen have each an obscure 
dark central streak. The eggs of the Molothri, although having the same 
general character, differ considerably ; that of the M. pecoris being smaller 
and less swollen in the middle ; it is -85 of an inch in length, and '78 in breadth. 
Its colour cannot be better described than in the words of Dr. Richardson* — it is 
" of a greenish white, with rather small crowded and confluent irregular spots of 
pale liver-brown, intermixed with others of subdued purplish grey." From this 

• Fauna Borealis, Birds, p. 278. Dr. Richardson states that the egg is only seven lines and a half in length. 
I presume the measure of eight lines, instead of twelve to the inch, must in this case have been used. I am 
much indebted to the kindness of Mr. Yarrell for lending me an egg of the Mohthrus pecoris, forming part of a 
collection of North American eggs in his possession. 



BIRDS. 109 

description it is obvious that the egg of 31. niger is larger and of a much redder 
tint ; the more prominent spots also are larger, the subdued grey being quite 
similar in both. 

If we were to judge from habits alone, the specific difference between these 
two species of Molothrus might well be doubted ; they seem closely to resemble 
each other in general habits, — in manner of feeding, — in associating in the same 
flock with other birds, and even in such peculiarities as often alighting on the backs 
of cattle. The M. pecoris, like the 31. niger, utters strange noises, which Wilson* 
describes " as a low spluttering note as if proceeding from the belly." It appears 
to me very interesting thus to find so close an agreement in structure, and in 
habits, between allied species coming from opposite parts of a great continent. 
Mr. Swainsont has remarked that with the exception of the 3Iolothrus, the 
cuckoos are the only birds which can be called truly parasitical ; namely, such 
as " fasten themselves, as it were, on another living animal, whose animal heat 
brings their young into life, whose food they alone live upon, and whose death 
would cause theirs during the period of infancy." It is very remarkable, that 
the cuckoos and the molothri, although opposed to each other in almost every 
habit, should agree in this strange one of their parasitical propagation : the 
habit moreover is not universal in the species of either tribe. The Molothrus, 
like our starling, is eminently sociable, and lives on the open plains without art 
or disguise ::|: the cuckoo, as every one knows, is a singularly shy bird; it 
frequents the most retired thickets, and feeds on fruit and caterpillars.§ 

Amblyramphus ruber. G. R. Gray. 

Oriolus ruber, Gmcl. 

Amblyramphus bicolor. Leach. 

Sturnus pyrrliocephalus, Licht. 

Stumella rubra, Vicill. 

Leistes erythrocephala. Swains. Class. Birds. 

This bird frequented marshy places in the neighbourhood of Maldonado, but 
it was not common there. It is more solitary than the following allied species ; I 
have, however, seen it in a flock. Seated on a twig, with its beak widely open, it 
often makes a shrill, but plaintive and agreeable cry, which is sometimes single 

* Wilson's American Ornithology, vol. ii. p. 1 62. 

t Magazine of Zoology and Botany, vol. i. p. 217. J See Azara, vol. iii. p. 170. 

S It appears that the eggs in the same nest with that of the Molothrus pecoris, are turned out by the parent 
birds before they arc hatched, owing to the egg of the M. pecoris being hatched in an unusually short time ; in 
the case of the young cuckoo, as is well known, the young bird itself throws out its foster-brothers. Jlr. C. Fox, 
however, (SiUiman's American Journal, vol. xxix. p. 292), relates an instance of three young sparrows having 
been found alive with a Molothrus. 



1 10 ZOOLOGY OF THE VOYAGE OF THE BEAGLE. 

and sometimes reiterated. Its flight is heavy. The young have their heads and 
thighs merely mottled with scarlet. 

Sturnella militaris. Vieill. 

Sturnus militaris, Gmd. 

Etounieau des terres Magellanique, PI. eul. 1 1 3. 

I met with specimens of this bird on the east coast of the continent from the 
Falkland Islands to 31° S., and on the western coast from the Strait of Magellan 
to Lima, a space of forty degrees of latitude. 



Family.— TROCHILID^. 

1. Trochilus flavifrons. 
Monte Video. — November. Not abundant. 

2. Trochilus forficatus. Lath. 

Edtranh' Gleanings. 

Vieill. Ois. dores, t. 1. 

Ornismya Kingii, Less. Trochilidces, pi. 38. 

This species is found over a space of 2,500 miles on the west coast, from the 
hot dry country of Lima to the forests of Terra del Fuego, where it has been 
described by Captain King as flitting about in a snow-storm. In the wooded 
island of Chiloe, which has an extremely damp climate, this little bird, skipping 
from side to side amidst the humid foliage, and uttering its acute chirp, is 
perhaps more abundant than any other kind. It there very commonly 
frequents open marshy ground, where a kind of bromelia grows : hovering near 
the edge of the thick beds, it every now and then dashes in close to the ground ; 
but I could not see whether it ever actually alighted. At that time of the year 
there were very few flowers, and none whatever near the beds of bromelia. 
Hence, I was quite sure that they did not live on honey ; and on opening the 
stomach and upper intestine, by the aid of a lens, I could plainly distinguish in a 
yellow fluid, morsels of the wings of diptera, — probably Tipulidae. It is evident 
that these birds search for minute insects in their winter quarters under the thick 
foliage. I opened the stomachs of several specimens which were shot in different 
parts of the continent, and in all remains of insects were numerous, forming a 
black comminuted mass. In one killed at Valparaiso, I found portions of an ant. 
Amongst the Chonos Islands, at a season when there were flowers in open places, 
yet the damp recesses of the forests appeared their favourite haunt. In central 



BIRDS. Ill 

Chile these birds are migratory ; they make their appearance there in autumn ; 
the first arrival which I observed was on the 14th of April (corresponding to our 
October) but by the 20th they were numerous. They stay throughout the winter, 
and begin to disappear in September : on October 12th, in the course of a long 
walk, I saw only one individual. During the period of their summer migration, 
nests were very common in Chiloe and the Chonos Island, countries south of 
Chile. When this species of Trochilus migrates southward, it is replaced in Chile 
by a larger kind, which will be presently described. The migration of the 
humming birds on both the east* and west coasts of North America, exactly 
corresponds to that which takes place in the southern half of the continent. In 
both they move towards the tropic during the colder parts of the year, and retreat 
poleward before the returning heat. Some, however, remain during the whole 
year in Tierra del Fuego ; and in northern California, — which in the northern 
hemisphere, has this same relative position which Tierra del Fuego has in the 
southern, — some, according to Beechey, likewise remain. Near the south end of 
Chiloe, I found on the 8th of December, a nest with eggs nearly hatched. It was 
of the ordinary form of nests ; rather more than an inch in internal diameter, and 
not deep, composed externally of coarse and fine moss, neatly woven together, 
and lined with dried confervse, now forming a very fine reddish fibrous mass. 
I feel no doubt regarding the nature of this latter substance, as the transverse 
septa are yet quite distinct : hence this humming bird builds its nest entirely 
of cryptogamic plants. Egg perfectly white, elongated, or rather almost 
cylindrical, with rounded ends ; length -557 of an inch, and transverse diameter 
•352 of an inch. In January, at the Chonos Islands, when there were young in 
the nest, a considerable number of old birds were shot ; of these, however, few or 
scarcely any had the shining crest of the male. In the only specimen, which I 
carefully examined, the metallic tips of the young feathers of the crest, were just 
beginning to protrude. Several of these males without their crest, had a yellowish 
gorge ; and I saw some with a few light brown feathers on their backs. I 
presume these appearances are connected with their state of moult. 

3. Trochilus Gigas, Vieill. 

Orsimya tristis, Less., Oiseaux Moiiclies, jjI. 3. 

This species is common in central Chile. It is a large bird for the delicate 
family to which it belongs. At Valparaiso, in the year 1834, I saw several of 
these birds in the middle of August, and I was informed they had only lately 
arrived from the parched deserts of the north. Towards the middle of September 

* Humboldt, Pers. Narr. vol. v. part 1. p. 352. Cook's Third Voyage, vol. ii. and Beechey 's Voyage. 



1 1 2 ZOOLOGY OF THE VOYAGE OF THE BEAGLE. 

(the vernal equinox) their numbers were greatly increased. They breed in central 
Chile, and replace, as I have before said, the foregoing species, which migrates 
southward for the same purpose. The nest is deep in proportion to its width ; 
externally tliree inches and a half deep ; internal depth a little under one inch 
and three quarters ; width within one inch and two-tenths ; mouth slightly con- 
tracted. Externally it is formed of fine fibrous grass woven together, and attached 
by one side and bottom to some thin upright twigs ; internally it is thickly lined 
with a felt, formed of the pappus of some composite flower. When on the wing, 
the appearance of this bird is singular. Like others of the genus, it moves from 
place to place, with a rapidity which may be compared to that of Syrphus 
amongst diptera, and Sphinx among moths ; but whilst hovering over a flower, 
it flaps its wings with a very slow and powerful movement, totally different from 
that vibratory one common to most of the species, which produces the humming 
noise. I never saw any other bird, where the force of its wings appeared (as in a 
butterfly) so powerful in proportion to the weight of its body. When hovering by 
a flower, its tail is constantly expanded and shut like a fan, the body being kept 
in a nearly vertical position. This action appears to steady and support the bird, 
between the slow movements of its wings. Although flying from flower to 
flower in search of food, its stomach generally contained abundant remains of 
insects, which, I suspect, are much more the object of its search than honey is. 
The note of this species, like that of nearly the whole family, is extremely shrill. 

In the Appendix an anatomical description of this bird by Mr. Eyton is 
given. 

Order— SCANSORES. 

1. CONURUS MURINUS, Ktl/ll. 

Psittacus murinus, Gtnel. 
Perruche, Pernet, voy. 1. p. 312. 

This parrot feeds in large flocks on the grassy plains of Banda Oriental, where 
not a tree can be seen. They are very destructive to the corn-fields. I was 
assured that in one year, near Colonia del Sacramiento, on the north bank of the 
Plata, 2,500 were killed, a reward being given for each dozen heads. Many ot 
these birds build their nests close together in trees, the whole composing a vast 
mass of sticks. I saw several of their compound nests on the islands in the river 
Parana. 

1 



BIRDS. 113 

2. CONURUS PATACHONICUS. 

Psittacus Patagonus, Vieill. Ency. Meth. p. 

Psittacara Patagonica, Less. Voy. de la Coquille Zool. pi. 35 bis. 

Psittacara Pataclionica, Lear's 111. Psitt. 

Le Patagon, Azara, No. 277. 

Pattagonian maccaw, Lath. Hist. 1 1, 105. 

I obtained specimens of this bird at Bahia Blanca in Northern Patagonia, 
where there is not a single tree, and the country is dry and very sterile. I did 
not meet with this species in the southern parts of Patagonia, but it is common 
near Concepcion in Chile, in nearly the same latitude. They build their nests in 
holes in cliffs of earth or gravel, together with the Hirundo cyanoleuca. In 
September, at Bahia Blanca, they were laying : their eggs are quite white, and 
small in proportion to the bird. Several usually rush forth from their holes at 
the same instant, and utter a noisy scream. 

Pious kingii. G. R. Gray. 

Picus melanocephalus, iTjn^, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1830, p. 14. 

I procured specimens at Valparaiso, and at the Peninsula of Tres Montes 
(Lat. 46° S.) At the latter place, I killed in January a pair, male and female. 
Captain King's specimens were obtained from Chiloe. The male has its whole 
head scarlet with only the nape black, so that Captain King's specific name 
is unfortunately not applicable for the species ; therefore Mr. G. R. Gray thinks 
it should be named after the first describer. The head of the female is black, 
with some short reddish-brown feathers over nostrils. There appears to be no 
other difference in the plumage of the sexes. 



Chrysoptilus campestris. Swai7is. 

Picus campestris, Lickt. Cat. p. Spix, Av. Br. pi. 116. 
Le charpentier des champs, Azara, No. 253. 

My specimens were obtained from Banda Oriental and Buenos Ayres; I saw 
it no further southward. Spix says (Birds of Brazil, vol. i. p. 51.) it inhabits 
Minas Geraes. They frequent open plains and especially rocky ground. They 
are rather wild, and generally live three or four together. The tail of these ground 
woodpeckers seems but little used ; their beaks, however, were generally muddy 
to the base : in the stomach of one I found only ants. Their flight is undulatory 
like that of the English woodpecker, and their loud cry is likewise similar, but 

Q 



1 14 ZOOLOGY OF THE VOYAGE OF THE BEAGLE. 

each note more separate. They alight on the branch of a tree, horizontally, in 
the manner of ordinary birds ; but occasionally I have seen one clinging in an 
upright position to a post. They appear to feed exclusively on the ground. 

CoLAPTES Chilensis. Vigors. 

Picus Chilensis, Garnot, Voy. de la CoquUle, Zool. pi. 52. 

This bird frequents the dry stony hills of central Chile, on which only a few 
bushes and trees grow. It is closely related in habits and structure to the fore- 
going species, and appears to be its representative on the western side of the 
Cordillera ; hence I cannot but think the institution of the above two genera 
unfortunate. It is the "P«7wt" of Molina, which name, I imagine, it derives from 
its peculiar cry. Molina states, that it builds its nest in holes in banks. 

1. DiPLOPTERus N^iiVius. Boie. 

Cuculus naevius, Lath. Ind. 220. 

Rio de Janeiro. April. 

2. DiPLOPTERUS GUIRA. G.R.Gray. 

Cuculus guira, Linn. 

Crotophaga Piririgua, Vieil. Gal. des Ois. pi. 44. 

Ptiloleptus cristatus, Swains. 

Buenos Ayres, In small flocks ; a noisy, chattering bird. 
Crotophaga ani. Litin. 

Petit Bout-de-Petun, pi. enl. 102. f. 2. 

Rio de Janeiro. May. The stomach of several specimens contained remains 
of numerous Orthopterous, and some Coleopterous insects. 



Order GYRATONES. Bonap. 

1. COLUMBA FiTZROYII. King. 

Columba Fitzroyii, Alwy., in Proc. of Zool. Soc. part 1, 1830, p. 14. 

Coluniba denisea, Temm. pi. col. 502. 

Columba araucana, Less. Voy. de Coqu. pi. 40. ? 

Peninsula of Tres Montes. Lat. 46° S. January. Captain King's speci- 
mens were obtained at Chiloe, three degrees northward. I procured other speci- 
mens near Valparaiso. This bird therefore frequents dry rocky land, and damp 
impervious forests. 



Bz,rd.^ M 4^6. 




'^^^^. 




Zenuida' (^ala^6i^oen<sus 



BIRDS. 1 15 

2. CoLUMBA. LORicATA. LicJit. Vog. Vcrz. s. 67. 

Columba gymnoplithalmus, Temni.^ Pig. i. 18. 

leucoptera, Pr. Max. Reise, 2, p. 2-i2. 

picazuro, Temm.Vig. p. 111. 

Picaziiro, Azara, Voy. No. 317. 

Frequents in large flocks the fields of Indian corn in the neighbourhood of 
Maldonado. Legs dull "carmine red." This, probably, is the representative on 
the eastern side of the Andes of the foregoing or Chilian species. 

1. Zenaida aurita. G. R. Gray. 

Columba aurita, Temm. Pig. p. 60. Wagl. sp. 70. 

I procured specimens of this bird at Maldonado (where it was very abundant) 
in La Plata, and at Valparaiso in Chile. 

2. Zenaida Galapagoensis. Gould. 

Plate XLVI. 

Z. vertice, cervice, dorso caudceque tegminibus obscurh fuscis vinaceo-tinctis ; dorso 
nigro-guttato ; alarum tegminibus Jusc is, plumd singula pallidh vinaceo-fusco ter- 
minata, pogonii ulriusque margine, macidd oblongd magna nigra, lined alba 
separata ; remigibus primariis et secundariis nigrescenti-fuscis, cinerascenti-albo 
anguste marginatis ; caudd fuscescenti cinereo ad apicem fascia latd irregulari 
nigra ; loris linedque angustd supra et infra oculari nigris pallida fusco mixtis ; 
guld pectoreque vinaceis, colli lateribus arato tinctis ; crisso, caudceque tegminibus 
inferioribus cinerascentibus, rostro nigro, pedibus rufescenti aurantiacis. 

Long. tot. SJ unc. ; alee, 5\ ; caudw, 3j ; tarsi, ^ ; rosfri, 1. 

Crown of the head and back of the neck, dark chocolate brown, with a vinous 
tinge ; back and tail-coverts the same, the former spotted with black ; wing- 
coverts brown, each feather having a large oblong spot of black on the 
margin of either web, separated by a line of white, and tipped with light 
vinous brown, the white predominating on the larger coverts, primaries and 
secondaries blackish-brown, finely edged with greyish-white ; tail brownish- 
grey, crossed near the extremity with a broad irregular band of black ; lores 
and a narrow line above and beneath the eye black, interrupted with light 
brown : throat and chest rich vinous, glossed on the sides of the neck with 
metallic bronze, and fading into greyish on the vent and under tail-coverts : 
bill black ; feet reddish-orange. 



] 16 ZOOLOGY OF THE VOYAGE OF THE BEAGLE. 

Habitat, Galapagos Archipelago. (Sept. and Oct.) 

This species may at once be distinguished from the Z. aurila, by the redder 
tint of its breast, — the greater number of black marks on the wing coverts and 
back — the outer half of some of the feathers on the wing coverts being white — 
the marks on the under side of the tail being grey (instead of white as in the 
Z. aurila) and by the larger size of its beak. 

This dove is one of the most abundant birds in the Archipelago. It frequents 
the dry rocky soil of the low country, and often feeds in the same flock with the 
several species of Geospiza. It is exceedingly tame, and may be killed in 
numbers. Formerly it appears to have been much tamer than at present. 
Cowley,* in 1684, says that the " Turtle doves were so tame that they would often 
alight upon our hats and arms, so as that we could take them alive : they not 
fearing man, until such time as some of our company did fire at them, whereby 
they were rendered more shy." Dampierf (in the same year) also says that a 
man in a morning's walk might kill six or seven dozen of these birds. At the 
present time, although certainly very tame, they do not alight on people's arms; nor 
do they suffer themselves to be killed in such numbers. It is surprising that the 
change has not been greater; — for these islands during the last hundred and fifty 
years, have been frequented by buccaneers and whalers ; and the sailors, 
wandering through the woods in search of tortoises, take delight in knocking 
down the little birds. 

3. Zenaida Boliviana. G. R. Gray. 

Columba Boliviana, D'Orb. SfLafr. Mag. de Zool. 1836. Ois. p. 33. pi. 75. 

My specimen was obtained (end of August) at Valparaiso. 
1. Columbina strepitans. Spix. 

(Av. pi. 75, f. 1.) 

I procured specimens at Maldonado (where it was not common), on the banks 
of the Plata, and at Rio Negro, in Northern Patagonia. 

2. Columbina talpacoti. G. R. Gray. 

Columba Talpacoti, Temtn. Pig. p. 22. t. 12. 
Columbina Cabocolo, Spix, A v. pi. 75a. f. 1. 
Le Pigeon rougeatre, Aznra, No. 323. 

My specimens were obtained at Rio de Janeiro. 

* Cowley's Voyage, p. 10, in Dampier's Collection of Voyages. 

t Dampier's Voyage, vol. i. p. 103. For some further observations on the tameness of the birds on thU and 
some other islands, see my Journal of Researches, p. 475. 



BIRDS. 117 

1. Attagis Falklandica. G. R. Gray. 

Tetrao Falklandicus, Gmelin, Syst. 1. 762. 
La Caille dea Isles Malouines, Buff. pi. enl. 222. 
Coturnix Falklandica, Bonn. Ency. Meth. Orn. 220. 
Perdix Falklandica, Lath. Ind. Orn. 11, 652. 
Ortyx Falklandica, Steph. Shaw's Zool. xi. 386. 

This bird is not uncommon on the mountains in the extreme southern parts 
of Tierra del Fuego. It frequents, either in pairs or small coveys, the zone of 
alpine plants above the region of forest. It is not very wild, and lies very close 
on the bare ground. 

2. Attagis gayii. Less. 

Attagis Gayii, Less. Cent. Zool. pi. 47, p. 155. 

A specimen was given me, which was shot on the lofty Cordillera of Coquimbo, 
only a little below the snow-line. At a similar height, on the Andes, behind 
Copiapo, which appear so entirely destitute of vegetation, that any one would have 
thought that no living creature could have found subsistence there, I saw a covey. 
Five birds rose together, and uttered noisy cries ; they flew like grouse, and were 
very wild. I was told that this species never descends to the lower Cordillera. 
These two species, in their respective countries, occupy the place of the ptarmigan 
of the northern hemisphere. 

TiNOCHORUS RUMICIVORUS. EscllScJl. 

Thinocorus runiicivorus, Esch>ch. Zool. Atl. pi. 2. 
Tinochorus Eschscholtzii, Less. Cent. Zool. pi. 50. 

This very singular bird, which in its habits and appearance partakes of the 
character both of a wader and one of the gallinaceous order, is found wherever 
there are sterile plains, or open dry pasture land, in southern South America. 
We saw it as far south as the inland plains of Patagonia at Santa Cruz, in lat. 50°. 
On the western side of the Cordillera, near Concepcion, where the forest land 
changes into an open country, I saw this bird, but did not procure a specimen of 
it: from that point throughout Chile, as far as Copiapo, it frequents the most 
desolate places, where scarcely another living creature can exist : it thus ranges 
over at least twenty-three degrees of latitude. It is found either in pairs or in 
small flocks of five or six ; but near the Sierra Ventana I saw as many as thirty and 
forty together. Upon being approached they lie close, and then are very difficult 
to be distinguished from the ground ; so that they often rise quite unexpectedly. 
When feeding they walk rather slowly, with their legs wide apart. They dust 
themselves in roads and sandy places. They frequent particular spots, and may 



118 ZOOLOGY OF THE VOYAGE OF THE BEAGLE. 

be found there day after day. When a pair are together, if one is shot, the other 
seldom rises; for these birds, like partridges, only take wing in a flock. In all 
these respects, in the muscular gizzard adapted for vegetable food, in the arched 
beak and fleshy nostrils, short legs, and form of foot, the Tinochorus has a close 
affinity with quails. But directly the bird is seen flying, one's opinion is changed; 
the long pointed wings, so different from those in the gallinaceous order, the high 
irregular flight, and plaintive cry uttered at the moment of rising, recall the idea 
of a snipe. Occasionally they soar like partridges when on the wing in a flock. 
The sportsmen of the Beagle unanimously called it the short-billed snipe. To 
this genus, or rather to that of the sandpiper, it approaches, as Mr. Gould informs 
me, in the sliape of its wing, the length of the scapulars, the form of the tail, which 
closely resembles that of Tringa hxjpoleucos, and in the general colour of the 
plumage. The male bird, however, has a black mark on its breast, in the form of 
a yoke, which may be compared to the red horseshoe on the breast of the English 
partridge. Its nest is said to be placed on the borders of lakes, although the bird 
itself is an inhabitant of the parched desert. I was told that the female lays five 
or six white eggs, spotted with red. I opened the stomachs of many specimens 
at Maldonado, and found only vegetable matter, which consisted of chopped pieces 
of a thick rushy grass, and leaves of some plant, mixed with grains of quartz. 
The contents of the intestine and the dung were of a very bright green colour. 
At another season of the year, and further south, I found the craw of one full of 
small seeds and a single ant. Those which I shot were exceedingly fat, and had 
a strong offensive game odour ; but they are said to be very good eating, when 
cooked. Pointers will stand to them. In the Appendix Mr. Eyton has given an 
anatomical description of this bird, which partly confirms that affinity both to the 
Grallatores and Razores, which is so remarkable in its habits and external 
appearance. 

Chionis alba. Forst. 

S/iaw's'Na.t. Miscel. pi. •181. 

I opened the stomach of a specimen killed at the Falkland Islands, and found 
in it small shells, chiefly Patella, pieces of sea-weed, and several pebbles. The 
contents of the stomach and body smelt most off"ensively. Forster remarked this 
circumstance; but since his time, other observers, namely, Anderson, Quoy, 
Gaimard, and Lesson (Manuel d'Ornithologie, tom ii, p. 342) have found that this 
is not always the case, and they state that they have actually eaten the Chionis. 
I was not aware of these observations, but independently was much surprised at 
the extraordinary odour exhaled. We, like other voyagers in the Antarctic seas, 
were struck at the great distance from land, at which this bird is found in the 



BIRDS. 119 

open ocean. Its feet are not webbed, its flight is not like that of other pelagic 
birds, and the contents of its stomach, and structure of legs, show that it is a coast- 
feeder. Does it frequent the floating icebergs of the Antarctic ocean, on which 
sea-weed and other refuse is sometimes cast ? 

I. NOTHURA MAJOR. Wagl. 

Nothura major, Waffl. Syst. Av. p. sp. 4. 
Tinamus major, Sjhx. Av. pi. 80. 

These birds are very common on the northern shores of the Plata. They do 
not rise in coveys, but generally by pairs. They do not conceal themselves nearly 
so closely as the English partridge, and hence great numbers may be seen in 
riding across the open grassy plains. Note, a shrill whistle. It appears a very 
silly bird : a man on horseback, by riding round and round in a circle, or rather 
in a spire, so as to approach closer each time, may knock on the head almost as 
many as he pleases. The more common method is to catch them with a running 
noose, or little lazo, made of the stem of an ostrich's feather, fastened to the end 
of a long stick,* A boy on a quiet old horse will frequently thus catch thirty 
or forty in a day. The flesh of this bird, when cooked, is most delicately white, 
but rather tasteless. 

The egg of this species, I believe, closely resembles that of the two following. 

2. Nothura minor. Wagl. 

Nothura minor, Wagl. Syst. Av. p. sp. 4. 
Tinamus minor, Sjnx, Av. Br. pi. 82. 

I procured a specimen of this bird at Bahia Blanca, in northern Patagonia, 
where it frequented the sand-dunes and the surrounding sterile plains. Its habits 
appear similar to those of the N. major, but it lies closer and does not so readily 
take to the wing. It is the smallest of the species mentioned in this work, and its 
plumage is less distinctly spotted. The egg of this bird is described below. 
Spix's specimens were obtained at Tijuco in Brazil. The figure in his work on the 
Birds of Brazil, differs slightly from mine, in being less marked on the breast. 

3. Nothura perdicaria G. R. Gray. 

Crypturus perdicarius, Kittlit:, Vogel von Chili. 

This species closely resembles, in its general appearance and habits, the 

* In Ilearne's Travels in North America, (p. 383), it is stated that the Northern Indians shoot the varymg 
haje, which will not bear to be approached in a straight line, in an analogous manner, by walking round it in a 
spire. The middle of the day is the best time, when the shadow of the hunter is not very long. 



120 ZOOLOGY OF THE VOYAGE OF THE BEAGLE. 

N. major, of which probably it is the analogue on the western side of the Cor- 
dillera. It is larger and has a considerably longer beak than the N. major ; its 
breast is not spotted, and its abdomen has a less fulvous tinge. The iV. perdica- 
rius runs on the open ground, generally a pair together, in the same unconcealed 
manner, as its analogue, and does not readily lie close. Flight similar, but on 
rising it utters a shriller whistle, of a different tone. It does not appear to be 
so easily caught as the Plata species. It is tolerably abundant in all parts of Chile, 
as far north as the valley of Guasco ; but I was assured, that it has never been 
seen in the valley of Copiapo, although only seventy miles north of Guasco, and 
of a similar character. The egg is very glossy and of a peculiar colour, which, 
according to Werner's nomenclature, is a palish chocolate red : length in longer 
axis 2-07 of an inch; shorter axis 1*495 of an inch. The egg of the N. minor is 
of a similar colour, but a shade paler, and rather smaller; its length being 
r815, and its transverse diameter rs of an inch. 

Rhynchotus rufescens. Wagl. 

Rhynchotus rufescens, Wagl. Av. Syst. 
Tinamus rufescens. Temm. Gall. iii. p. 552. 
Rhynchotus fasciatus. Spix. Av. Br. pi. 76. 
Cryptura Guaza. Vieill. 
Crypturus rufescens. Licht. Vog. Verz. s. 67- 

My specimens were procured at Maldonado, where it is a much rarer bird 
than the Nothura major ; I met with it also in the sterile country near Bahia 
Blanca. At Maldonado it frequented swampy thickets on the borders of lakes. 
It lies very close, and is unwilling to rise, but often utters, whilst on the ground, 
a very shrill whistle. When on the wing, it flies to a considerable distance. Seve- 
ral are generally found together, but they do not rise at the same instant, like a 
covey of partridges. Flesh, when cooked, perfectly white. Spix's specimens 
were procured in the country between St. Paul's and Minas Geraes ; so that this 
bird, as well as the Nothura minor, has a considerable range. 



Order— CURSORES. Temm. 

1. Rhea Americana. Lath. 
This bird is well known to abound on the plains of La Plata. To the north it 
is found, according to Azara, in Paraguay, where, however, it is not common ; to the 
south its limit appears to be from 42° to 43°. It has not crossed the Cordillera; but 
1 



BIRDS. 121 

I have seen it within the first range of mountains on the Uspallata plain, elevated 
between six and seven thousand feet. The ordinary habits of the ostrich are well 
known. They feed on vegetable matter, such as roots and grass ; but at Bahia 
Blanca, I have repeatedly seen three or four come down at low water to the 
extensive mud-banks which are then dry, for the sake, as the Gauchos say, of 
catching small fish. Although the ostrich in its habits is so shy, wary, and 
solitary, and although so fleet in its pace, it falls a prey, without much difficulty, 
to the Indian or Gaucho armed with the bolas. When several horsemen appear 
in a semicircle, it becomes confounded, and does not know which way to escape. 
They generally prefer running against the wind; yet at the first start they expand 
their wings, and like a vessel make all sail. On one fine hot day I saw several 
ostriches enter a bed of tall rushes, where they squatted concealed, till quite 
closely approached. It is not generally known that ostriches readily take to the 
water. Mr. King informs me that in Patagonia, at the Bay of San Bias and at 
Port Valdes, he saw these birds swimming several times from island to island. 
They ran into the water, both when driven down to a point, and likewise of their 
own accord, when not frightened : the distance crossed was about 200 yards. 
When swimming, very little of their bodies appear above water, and their necks 
are extiended a little forward : their progress is slow. On two occasions, I saw 
some ostriches swimming across the Santa Cruz river, where it was about four 
hundred yards wide, and the stream rapid. Captain Start,* when descending the 
Murrumbidgee, in Australia, saw two emus in the act of swimming. 

The inhabitants who live in the country readily distinguish, even at a distance, 
the male bird from the female. The former is larger and darker coloured,! and 
has a larger head. The ostrich, I believe the cock, emits a singular, deep-toned, 
hissing note. When first I heard it, standing in the midst of some sand-hillocks, 
I thought it was made by some wild beast, for it is a sound that one cannot tell 
whence it comes, or from how far distant. When we were at Bahia Blanca in the 
months of September and October, the eggs were found, in extraordinary num- 
bers, all over the country. They either lie scattered single, in which case they 
are never hatched, and are called by the Spaniards, huachos, or they are collected 
together into a shallow excavation, which forms the nest. Out of the four nests 
which I saw, three contained twenty-two eggs each, and the fourth twenty-seven. 
In one day's hunting on horseback sixty-four eggs were found ; forty-four of these 
were in two nests, and the remaining twenty scattered huachos. The Gauchos 
unanimously affirm, and there is no reason to doubt their statement, that the male 

* Sturt's Travels, vol. ii. p. 74. 

t A Gaucho assured me that he had ouce seen a snow-white, or Albino variety, and that it was a most 
beautiful bird. 



122 ZOOLOGY OF THE VOYAGE OF THE BEAGLE. 

bird alone hatches the eggs, and for some time afterwards accompanies the young. 
The cock when on the nest lies very close ; I have myself almost ridden over 
one. It is asserted that at such times they are occasionally fierce, and even 
dangerous, and that they have been known to attack a man on horseback, trying 
to kick and leap on him. My informer pointed out to me an old man, whom he 
had seen much terrified by one chasing him. I observe, in Burchell's Travels in 
South Africa, that he remarks, " having killed a male ostrich, and the feathers 
being dirty, it was said by the Hottentots to be a nest bird." I understand that 
the male emu, in the Zoological Gardens, takes care of the nest : this habit there- 
fore is common to the family.* 

The Gauchos unanimously affirm that several females lay in one nest. I have 
been positively told, that four or five hen birds have been actually watched and 
seen to go, in the middle of the day, one after the other, to the same nest. I may 
add, also, that it is believed in Africa, that two or more females lay in one nest.f 
Although this habit at first appears very strange, I think the cause may be 
explained in a simple manner. The number of eggs in the nest varies from 
twenty to forty, and even to fifty ; and according to Azara to seventy or eighty. 
Now although it is most probable, from the number of eggs found in one district 
being so extraordinarily great, in proportion to that of the parent birds, and like- 
wise from the state of the ovarium of the hen, that she may in the course of the 
season lay a large number, yet the time required must be very long. Azara 
states,:}: that a female in a state of domestication laid seventeen eggs, each at the 
interval of three days one from another. If the hen were obliged to hatch her 
own eggs, before the last was laid, the first probably would be addled ; but if 
each laid a few eggs at successive periods, in different nests, and several 
hens, as is stated to be the case, combined together, then the eggs in one 
collection would be nearly of the same age. If the number of eggs in one of 
these nests is, as I believe, not greater on an average than the number laid by one 
female in the season, then there must be as many nests as females, and each cock 
bird will have its fair share of the labour of incubation ; and this during a period 
■when the females probably could not sit, on account of not having finished 
laying.§ I have before mentioned the great numbers of huachos, or scattered 

* It appears, also, from Mv. Gould's late most interesting discoveries regarding tlie habits of the Taleffalla 
Lathami, (an Australian bird, one of the Rasores,) that several females lay in one nest, and that the eggs are 
hatched by the heat engendered by a mass of decaying vegetable matter. It appears that the males assist the 
females in scratching together the leaves and earth, of which the great conical mound or nest is composed. 

t Burchell's Travels, vol. i. p. 280. % Azara, vol. iv. p. 173. 

§ Lichtenstein, however, (Travels, vol. ii. p. 25.) states, that the hens begin to sit when ten or twelve eggs 
are laid, and that they afterwards continue laying. He affirms that by day the hens take turns in sitting, but 
that the cock sits all night. 



£ir-aL'n 4^7 




JiA€'(i- Z^ooryvvjtoo. 



BIRDS. 123 

eggs ; so that in one day's hunting the third part found were in this state. 
It appears odd that so many should be wasted. Does it not arise from some 
difficulty in several females associating together, and in finding a male ready to 
undertake the office of incubation ? It is evident that there must at first be some 
degree of association, between at least two females ; otherwise the eggs would 
remain scattered at distances far too great to allow of the male collecting them 
into one nest. Some authors believe that the scattered eggs are deposited for the 
young birds to feed on. This can hardly be the case in America, because the 
huachos, although often found addled and putrid, are generally whole. 

2. Rhea Darwinii. Gould. 

Plate XL VII. 
Gould, in Proceedings of Zoological See. 1837, p. 35. 

R. jmllide fusca, plumd singula distinctd semilunari notd Candida terminutd ; capite 
collo, Jemoribusqne pallidiorihus : rostri culmine augusti, adapicem latiore, frontes 
plumis parvis setosis antich directis et supra nares extensis ; tarsi lateribus in 
dimidiam jxirtem plumis parvis mollibus tectis ; tarso f antice posticeque toto, 
squamis reticulatis tecto. 

Long. tot. 52 unc ; ate, 30; tarsi, 11 ; rostri, 2. 

The whole of the plumage light brown, each feather with a decided crescent- 
shaped mark of pure white at the extremity ; head, neck, and thighs lighter; 
base of the neck blackish; culmen of the bill narrow, becoming a little 
broader towards apex ; front with small bristly feathers, pointing forwards 
and reaching over the nostrils. Tarsus with small downy feathers on sides, 
extending half way downwards; upper two-thirds of front of tarsus, and 
whole hinder side, with reticulated scales. 

Habitat, Eastern Patagonia (Lat. 40° S. to 54° S.) 

This species, which Mr. Gould, in briefly characterizing it at a meeting of 
the Zoological Society, has done me the honour of calling after my name, differs 
in many respects from the Rhea Americana. It is smaller, and the general tinge 
of the plumage is a light brown in place of grey; each feather being conspicuously 
tipped with white. The bill is considerably smaller, and especially less broad at 
its base ; the culmen is less than half as wide, and becomes slightly broader 
towards the apex, whereas in the R. Americana it becomes slightly narrower; the 
extremity, however, of both the upper and the lower mandible, is more tumid in 
the latter, than in the R. Darwinii. 



124 ZOOLOGY OF THE VOYAGE OF THE BEAGLE. 



Length of beak, from edge of membrane at base to the apex 

Length, from anterior margin of eye to apex 

Width of upper mandible, measured across middle of nostrils 



R. Darwinii. 


R. 


Americana. 


inches 




inches 


2 




2| 


3A 




5^ 


lA 




h% 



The skin round and in front of the eyes is less bare in R. Darwinii; and 
small bristly feathers, directed forwards, reach over the nostrils. The feet and 
tarsi are nearly of the same size in the two species. In the R. JDarwinii, short 
plumose feathers extend downwards in a point on the sides of the tarsus, for about 
half its length. The upper two-thirds of the tarsus, in front, is covered with 
reticulated scales in place of the broad transverse band-like scales of the R.Ameri- 
cana ; and the scales of the lower third are not so large as in the latter. In the 
R. Darwinii the entire length of the back of the tarsus is covered with reticulated 
scales, which increase in size from the heel upwards : in the common Rhea, the 
scales on the hinder side of the tarsus are reticulated only on the heel, and about 
an inch above it ; all the upper part consisting of transverse bands, similar to 
those in front. 

The first notice I received of this species was at the Rio Negro, in Northern 
Patagonia, where I repeatedly heard the Gauchos talking of a very rare bird, 
called Aveslruz Pelise. They described it as being less than the common ostrich 
(which is there abundant), but with a very close general resemblance. They 
said its colour was dark and mottled, and that its legs were shorter, and feathered 
lower down than those of the common ostrich. It is more easily caught by the 
bolas than the other species. The few inhabitants who had seen both kinds, 
affirmed that they could distinguish them apart, from a long distance. The eggs, 
however, of the small species appeared more generally known, and it was 
remarked with surprise, that they were very little less than those of the common 
Rhea, but of a slightly difterent form, and with a tinge of pale blue. Some eggs 
which I picked up on the plains of Patagonia, agree pretty well with this descrip- 
tion ; and I do not doubt are those of the Petise. This species occurs most rarely 
in the neighbourhood of the Rio Negro ; but about a degree and a half further 
south they are tolerably abundant. One Gaucho, however, told me he distinctly 
recollected having seen one, many years before, near the mouth of the Rio 
Colorado, which is north of the Rio Negro. They are said to prefer the plains 
near the sea. When at Port Desire in Patagonia (Lat. 48°), Mr. Martens shot an 
ostrich ; I looked at it, and from most unfortunately forgetting at the moment, 
the whole subject of the Petises, thought it was a two-third grown one of the 
common sort. The bird was skinned and cooked before my memory returned. 
But the head, neck, legs, wings, many of the larger feathers, and a large part of 
the skin, had been preserved. From these a very nearly perfect specimen has 



BIRDS. 125 

been put together, and is now exhibited in the museum of the Zoological 
Society. M. A. D'Orbigny, a distinguished French naturalist, when at the Rio 
Negro, made great exertions to procure this bird, but had not the good fortune to 
succeed. He mentions it in his Travels (vol. ii. p. 7fi.) and proposes (in case, I 
presume, of his obtaining a specimen at some future time, and thus being able to 
characterize it,) to call it Rhea pennata. A notice of this species was given long 
since (A.D. 1749) by DobrizhofFer, in his account of the Abipones (vol. i. Eng. 
Trans, p. 314). He says, "You must know, moreover, that Emus differ in size 
and habits in difterent tracts of land; for those that inhabit the plains of Buenos 
Ayres and Tucuman are larger, and have black, white, and grey feathers ; those 
near to the Strait of Magellan are smaller, and more beautiful, for their white 
feathers are tipped with black at the extremity, and their black ones in like 
manner terminate in white." 

Among the Patagonian Indians in the Strait of Magellan, we found a half- 
bred Indian, who had lived some years with this tribe, but had been born in the 
northern provinces. I asked him if he had ever heard of the Avestruz Petise ? He 
answered by saying, "Why there are none others in these southern countries." 
He informed me that the number of eggs in the nest of the Petise is considerably 
less than with the other kind, namely, not more than fifteen on an average ; but 
he asserted that more than one female deposited them. At Santa Cruz we saw 
several of these birds. They were excessively wary : I think they could see a 
person approaching, when he was so far off as not to distinguish the ostrich. In 
ascending the river iii^ were seen ; but in our quiet and rapid descent, many, in 
pairs and by fours or fives, were observed. It was remarked by some of the 
officers, and I think with truth, that this bird did not expand its wings, when first 
starting at full speed, after the manner of the northern kind. The fact of these 
ostriches swimming across the river has been mentioned. In conclusion, I may 
repeat that the R. Americana inhabits the eastern plains of S. America as far as 
a little south of the Rio Negro, in lat. 41°, and that the R. Darwinii takes its 
place in Southern Patagonia ; the part about the Rio Negro being neutral territory. 
Wallis saw ostriches at Bachelor's river (lat 53° 54'), in the Strait of Magellan, 
which must be the extreme southern possible range of the Petise. 

Order -GRALLATORES. 

OrEOPHILUS TOTANIROSTRIS. Jai'd. 8^' Selb. 

Oreophilus totanirostris, Jard. S,- Selb. Illustr. of Orn. iii. pi. 151. 

My specimens were obtained at Maldonado and at Valparaiso, At the 
former, it was common, feeding on the open grassy plains in small flocks, 
mingled with the icteri and the thrush-like Xolmis variegata. When these birds 



126 ZOOLOGY OF THE VOYAGE OF THE BEAGLE. 

rise Oil the wing, they utter a plaintive cry. Legs "crimson red;" toes leaden 
colour, with their under surface remarkably soft and fleshy. Iris dark brown. 

Charadrius virgininus. Borkh. 

Charadrius virgiuiuus, Borkh. Act. Acad. Caes. Leop. Car. Nat. Cur. 1834. xvi. pi. 18. 
Charadrius marnioratus, Wagl. 

This representative of the golden plover of Europe and North America, is 
common on the banks of the Plata in large and small flocks. It is found also, 
according to Meyer, in Chile. 

1. Squatarola cincta. Jard. Sf Selhy. 

Tringa UrvilJii, Garnot, Ann. Ic. Nat. Jan. 1826. 
Vanellus cinctus, Less. Voy. do la Coqu. Zool. p. 720. pi. xliii. 
Squatarola cincta, Jard. 4" Selby's lUust. Orn. pi. 110. 
Charadrius rubccola, Viff. Journ. iv. p. 96, 

I obtained specimens of this bird in Tierra del Fuego, where it inhabited 
both the sea shore and the bare stony summits of the mountains ; at the Falkland 
Islands, where it frequented the upland marshes ; and at Chiloe, where I met 
with large flocks in the fields, not near the coast. 

2. Squatarola fusca. Gould. 

S. vert ice corporeque supra fuscis, dorsi parapterique plumis pallidiore marginatis ; 
remigibns primariis nigrescenti fuscis, pogoniis cvternis albo angustb marginatis 
rhachihus albis ; uropygio cauddque obscurb fuscis, remigibus externis albo lath mar- 
ginatis et terminatis ; fronte, genis, guld, abdomine postico, caudaque tegminibus 
inferioribus flavescenti albis, colli pectorisque lateribus fuscis, colli plumis fusco 
pallido terminatis ; pedibus 7iigris. 

Long. tot. 8 unc. alec, 5| ; caudce, 3 ; tarsi, If ; rostri, |. 

Crown of the head, all the upper surface brown, the feathers of the back and the 
scapularies, margined with paler ; primaries blackish brown, finely edged on 
their inner margins with white, and with white shafts ; rump and tail dark 
brown, the outer feathers largely margined and tipped with white ; forehead 
and sides of the face sandy white ; throat, lower part of the abdomen, and 
under tail coverts, buffy white ; sides of the neck and chest brown ; the 
feathers of the latter tipped with still lighter brown ; bill and feet black. 
Habitat, Maldonado ; inland glassy plains. 

This species is most closely allied to the foregoing. I obtained only one 
specimen, which, on comparison with several of the S. cincta, appears a little larger 
in all its dimensions, especially in the length of the tarsi. Its back and scapu- 



BIRDS. 127 

laries are of a more uniform brown, the feathers being less edged with pale brown. 
Its feet are black, whereas those of S. cincta are brown. 

Philomachus Cayanus. G. R. Gray. 

Cliaradrius Cayanus, Lath. Ind. Orn. 11. 748. 

I met with this bird from latitude 30° to 45° S. on both sides of S. America. 
In La Plata it is called " Terii-tero," in imitation of its cry ; and in Chile, according 
to Molina, "Theghel." These birds, which in many respects resemble in habits our 
peewits (Vanelliis cristatus), frequent, generally in pairs, open grassy land, and 
especially the neighbourhood of lakes. As the peewit ta!c3s its name from the 
sound of its voice, so does the teru-tero. While riding over the grassy plains, 
one is constantly pursued by these birds, which appear to hate mankind, and I 
am sure deserve to be hated, for their never-ceasing, unvaried, harsh screams. 
The stillness of the night is often disturbed by them. To the sportsman they are 
most annoying, by announcing to every other bird and animal his approach : to 
the traveller in the country, they may possibly, as Molina says, do good, by 
warning him of the midnight robber. During the breeding season, they attempt, 
like our peewits, by feigning to be wounded, to draw away from their nests dogs 
and other enemies. Their eggs are of a pointed oval form ; of a brownish olive 
colour, thickly spotted with dark brown. Their eggs, like those of the peewit, 
are esteemed particularly good eating. 

1. HiATicuLA AzAR«. G. R. Gray. 

Charadrius AzarBB, Temm. pi. col. IS-t. 

collaris, Vieill. 

Albatuitui a collier noir, Azara, No. 392. 

My specimens were obtained on the banks of the Plata and at Valparaiso. 
The specimen from the latter country differs from those procured at the former, 
in the absence of the black collar on the breast, of the black streak running from 
the eye to the corner of the mouth; in the plumage of the back and back of head 
having a lesser tinge of red ; and especially in the feet being black, and tarsi 
blackish, instead of both being orange, as is the case with those killed on the 
shores of the Plata. I have not, however, thought it desirable to make two 
species of these birds, not having a larger series of specimens for comparison. 

2. HiATICULA TRIFASCIATUS. G. R. Gray. 

Charadrius bifasciatus, Z«c/(<. Vog. Verz. p. 71. 

trifasciatus, Wagl. Syst. Av. sp. 31. 

I procured two specimens of this bird at Bahia Blanca, in Northern 
Patagonia. 



128 ZOOLOGY OF THE VOYAGE OF THE BEAGLE. 

3. HiATICULA SEMIPALMATA. G. R. Gray. 

Tringa semipalniata, Temm. 

Charadrius semipalmatus, Caup. Isis. 1825, p. 1375, t. 14. Wagl. Syst. Av. sp. 23. 
Bonap. Am. Orn. iv. pi. 25, f. 4. 

Galapagos Archipelago. 

HjEmatopus palliatus. Temm. 

Rio Plata. 

Eg R ETTA LEucE. Bonup. 

Ardea Leuce, 111. 

Ardea Egretta, Wih. Am. Orn. pi. 61, f. 4. 

My specimen was procured at Maldonado. I saw it also in Patagonia. 

Ardea herodias. Linn. 
Galapagos Archipelago. Frequents the sea-coast and salt-lagoons. There 
are no fresh water pools in any of these islands. 

1. Nycticorax violaceus. Bonap. 

Ardea violacca, Linn. 

Ardea calloccpliala, Wagl. Syst. Av. 

Mr. G. R. Gray has thought it advisable to give the following description of 
this specimen, from the Gallapagos Archipelago. It appears to be a young bird, 
and is small in all its dimensions. 

Upper part blackish-grey ; each feather marked down the middle with a broad 
stripe of black, and tinged on the margins with shining bronze-brown ; 
beneath the body blueish-grey, with the front of the neck, top of the head, 
and margins of the feathers on the thighs rufous ; the sides of the head and 
throat deep black, the former divided in the middle on each side with a patch 
of white ; the bill black, and feet of a pale reddish colour. 

2. Nycticorax americanus. Bonap. 

Ardea nycticorax, Wils. (young bird.) 

Valparaiso, Chile. 

Theristicus melanops. Wagl. 

Ibis melanops, Lath. Hist. Is. pi. 150. 

This bird frequents the desert gravelly plains of Patagonia, as far south as 
lat. 48° : in the British Museum there are specimens which Captain Clapperton 
brought from central Africa ; so that this bird has an extraordinarily wide range. 
It generally lives in pairs, but during part of the year in small flocks. Its cry 
is very singular and loud : when it is heard at a distance it closely resembles the 
neighing of the guanaco. I opened the stomach of two specimens, and found in 
them remains of lizards, cicadae, and scorpions. It builds in rocky cliffs on the 



BIRDS. 129 

sea-shore : egg dirty white, freckled with pale reddish-brown ; its circumference 
over longer axis is seven inches. The legs are carmine and scarlet-red : iris 
scarlet-red. 

Ibis (falcinellus) Ordi. Bonap. 

Tantalus Jlexicanus, Ord. Joum. Acad. Phil. 

Tantalus clialcopterus ? Temm. 

Ibis Falcinellus, Bonap. Am. Orn. iii. 

My specimen was obtained at the Rio Negro : it is very numerous in large 
flocks on the vast swampy plains between Bahia Blanca and Buenos Ayres. Its 
flight when soaring is singularly graceful ; the whole flock moving in precise 
concert. 

1. NUMENIUS HUDSONICUS. Lath. 

Numenius Hudsonicus, Lath, Ind. Orn. ii. 712. 

This curlew is very abundant on the tidal mud-banks of Chiloe. When the 
flock rises, each bird utters a shrill note. 

2. Numenius brevirostris. Licht. 

Numenius brevirostris, Licht. Cat. 75, sp. 774 a. 

Buenos Ayres. 

LiMOSA HuDSONicA. Swains. 

Scolopax Hudsonica, Lath. Ind. Oni. ii. 720. 

My specimens were obtained from the Falkland Islands and from Chiloe, 
where it frequented the tidal mud-banks in flocks. 

1. ToTANUS FLAViPES. Vieill. 

Totanus flavipes, Vieill. Ency. Meth. 1106. 
Yellow shanks snipe, Pcnn. Arct. Zool. ii. 468. 
Wills. Am. Orn. pi. 58. f. 4. 

Monte Video, Rio Plata. 

2. Totanus macropterus. G. R. Gray. 

Tringa macroptera, Sjji.t. Av. n. sp. pi. 92. 

Monte Video, Rio Plata. 



130 ZOOLOGY OF THE VOYAGE OF THE BEAGLE. 

3. ToTANus MELANOLEUcos. Licht. et Vieill. 

Scolopax melanoleuca, Gmel. 

Scolopax vociferus, Wils. Am. Orn. pi. 58, f. 5. 

Chorllto a croupion blanc, Azara, No. SO*. 

Totanus solitarius, Vieill. 

White-nimpt d snipe, Lath. 

Maldonado, Rio Plata. 

4. Totanus fuligikosus. Gould. 

T. corpoi-e supra caudaque fuliginoso-griseis ; alis fiiscis ; gutture albo ; pectore 
liypochondriisque plumbeo-griseis ; abdomine medio, caudce tegminibus inferioribus 
albis, illis obscure, his jilane grisescenti Jusco fusciatis ; rostri rubescenti fusco ; 
pedibus obscurh olivaceofuscis. 

Long. tot. 9^ unc. aloe, e| ; caudce, 3 ; tarsi, 1| ; rostri, f . 

The whole of the upper surface and tail sooty-grey ; wings dull brown ; throat 
white ; chest and flanks leaden grey ; centre of the abdomen and under 
tail coverts white, the former indistinctly, and the latter distinctly, barred 
with greyish brown ; bill, reddish-brown ; feet, dark olive-brown. 
Habitat, Galapagos Archipelago (October). 

This species appear quite distinct from any described one. 

HiMANTOPUS NIGRICOLLIS. Vieill. 

Hiniantopus nigricollis, Vieill. Ency. Bleth. 340. 
Recurvirostra himantopus, Wils. Am. Orn. pi. 58. f. 2. 

My specimens were obtained from the provinces bordering the Plata. On 
the great swampy plains and fens which lie between Buenos Ayres and Bahia 
Blanca, it is very numerous in small, and occasionally, in large flocks. This 
plover, which appears as if mounted on stilts, has been wrongfully accused of 
inelegance ; when wading about in shallow water, which is its favourite resort, its 
gait is far from awkward. In a flock it utters a noise, which singularly resem- 
bles the cry of a pack of small dogs in full chase : when I travelled across the 
above mentioned plains, I was more than once startled, when lying awake at 
night, at the distant sound, and thought the wild Indians were coming. 

Tringa rufescens. Vieill. 

Tringa rufescens, Vieill., N. Diet. d'Hist. Nat. 34. p. 4?0. 

Ency. Meth. Orn. p. 1090. 

Gal. des Ois. pi. 238. 

Yarrel, Lin. Trans. 

Gould; Birds of Europe, pi. 

Monte Video, Rio Plata. 



BIRDS. 131 

1. Pelidna Schinzii. Bonap. 

Tringa Schinzii, Brclim. Bonap, Am. Orn. iv. pi. 2-i. f. 2. 
Pelidna cinclus, var. Say. 

Flocks of this species were common on the shores of the inland bays in the 
southern parts of Tierra del Fuego. 

2. Pelidna minutilla. Gould. 

Tringa miniitilla, Vieill. ^ncy. Meth. 1089. 

Galapagos Archipelago. Both the specimens which I procured here are 
smaller than the ordinary size of this bird, but do not differ in other respects. 
Vieillot says it ranges from the Antilles to Canada. 

RhyncHvEA semicollaris. G. R. Gray. 

Totanus semicollaris, Vieill., Ency. Meth. p. 1100. 
Rhynchaea Hilairea, Valenc. Less. 111. de Zool. pi. 18. 
Rhynchsea occidentalis, King, Zool. Joum. iv. 9-1. 
Le chorlito a demi colliers blanc et noiratre, Azara, No. 409. 

Monte Video, Rio Plata. Frequents swamps ; habits like the Scolopax 
Gallinago. 

1. Scolopax (Telmatias) Paraguai.^. Vieill. 

Scolopax Paraguai, Veicll. Ency. Jleth. p. 1160. 

Brasiliensis, Stcains. Faun. Bor. Am. Birds, p. 400. 

Becassiue 1st Espece, Azara. 

Valparaiso and Maldonado, Rio Plata. 

2. Scolopax (Telmetias) Magellan icus. King. 

Scolopax JMagcllanicus, Kmg, Zool. Joum. 

My specimens were obtained from Maldonado and East Falkland Island. 
Flight a very little less irregular and rapid than the English snipe. I several 
times in May observed this, as well as the foregoing species, flying in lofty circles, 
and suddenly stooping downwards, at the same time that it uttered a peculiar 
drumming noise, similar to that made by the English snipe in summer, when 
breeding. This species is most closely allied to the foregoing, but I have no 
doubt it is distinct ; because at the time when I procured specimens of both at 
Maldonado, I perceived a difference between them. This species is there more 
abundant than the (S*. Paraguaia;. Its beak is nearly three-tenths of an inch 
shorter, and the culmen rather broader. The plumage of its back is of a decidedly 
less dark tint ; each separate feather having much less black in it. 



132 ZOOLOGY OF THE VOYAGE OF THE BEAGLE. 

Strepsilas inteepres. ///. 

Tringa Morincllus, L. 

I obtained specimens from Iquique, on the coast of Peru, and from the 
Galapagos Archipelago. 

Crex lateralis. Licht. 

Crex lateralis, Licht., Cat. p. 
Griff". An. King. Aves. 

Maldonado, Rio Plata. On being disturbed readily takes wing. Base of 
the bill, especially of the lower mandible, bright green. 

1. Zapornia notata. Gould. 

Plate XL VIII. 

Z. corpore toto supra nigrescenti-fusco, plumd singula medio albo-gjittatd et olivaceo- 
fusco lath marginatd ; remigibus J'uscis, mento albo, corpore infra fuscescenti-nigro, 
gutture pectoreque albo-striatis ; abdomine tegminibusque caudcB injerioribus albo 
irregulariter transversa strigato ; rostro obscure corneo ; pedibus olivaceo-viridibus. 

Long. tot. 5^ unc. ; alee, Sj ; caiulw, If ; tarsi, i ; rostri, J. 

The whole of the upper surface blackish brown, each feather spotted with white 
down the centre, and largely margined with olive brown ; quills plain brown ; 
chin white ; the remainder of the under surface brownish black, striated with 
white on the throat and chest, and crossed by irregular bars of the same on 
the abdomen and under tail coverts ; bill dark horn colour ; feet olive green. 

Habitat, Rio Plata. (Shot on board the Beagle.) 

2. Zapornia spilonota. Gould. 

Plate XLIX. 
Z. capite corporeque infra, nigrescenti-griseis ; corpore supra obscure rubrofusco, 
la-opygio obscurh grisescenti-nigro ; alis hypockondriis postice, tegminibusque caudcE 
inferioribus albo parciter sparsis ; rostro nigrofusco; pedibits rubescentibus ; iridibus 
carmineis. 

Long. tot. 5\ unc. ; altr, 2| ; caiidw, 1 ; tarsi, | ; rostri, |. 

Head and all the under surface blackish grey ; all the upper surface dark reddish 
brown, fading off on the rump into deep greyish black ; the wings, hinder 
part of the flanks, and under tail coverts slightly sprinkled with white; bill, 
blackish brown ; feet, reddish ; iris, bright scarlet. 
Habitat, Galapagos Archipelago. 



1 




I 






BIRDS. 133 

This bird frequents in large numbers the high and damp summits of the 
islands. It lives in the thick beds of carex and other plants, which, from the 
condensed vapour of the clouds, are constantly kept rather humid. It is tame, 
but lives concealed ; it often utters a loud and peculiar cry. The female is said to 
lay from eight to twelve eggs. It is, I believe, the only bird in this archipelago 
which is exclusively confined to the upper parts of the islands. With respect to 
the specific description, I must observe, that in one of the specimens, the few and 
small white spots on the wings and abdomen are wanting. This is not a sexual 
distinction, but possibly may be owing to immaturity. 

1. Rallus Phillipensis. Linn. 
Common on the low coral islets, forming the Keeling or Cocos Atoll in the 
Indian ocean. With the exception of a snipe, this was the only bird without web- 
feet which inhabited this group. 

2. Rallus ypecaha. Vieill. 

Rallus ypecaha, Vieill. Ency. Meth. p. 1071. 



Buenos Ayres. 



Valparaiso. 



Crex melanipyga, Licht. Cat. Sp. 
L'Ypacaha, Azara, No. 367. 



3. Rallus sanguinolentus. Swains. 

Rallus sanguinolentus, Stcai7is, 2 cent, and a quart. 



Gallinula crassirostris. J. E. Gray. 

Gallinula crassirostris, J.E. Gray, in Griff". An. Kingd. 

I obtained specimens on the banks of the Plata and at Valparaiso. 
FuLicA GALEATA. G. R. Gray. 

Crex galeata, Licht, Cat. 80. sp. 826. 
Yahana proprement dit, Azara, No. 379. 
Gallinula galeata, Bonap. 

Concepcion, Chile. 

PORPHYRIO SIMPLEX. Gould. 

p. vertice, remigibtis primariis obscurh olivaceo-viridibus, harum apicibus fiavescenti 
albo anguste marginatis ; corpore supra obscure olivaceo-viridi, plumd singulci 



i-U ZOOLOGY OF THE VOYAGE OF THE BEAGLE. 

obscurh fulvo late marginatd; geuis gutture, corporeque infra Jlavescentibus ; rostro 
rubra ; pedihus viridescenti-flavis. 

Long. tot. 9 unc. ; alw, 5^ ; caudce, 2i; tarsi, IJ ; rostrio, |. 

Habitat, Ascension Island, Atlantic Ocean. (July.) 

This specimen was killed with a stick near the summit of the Island. It 
was evidently a straggler, which had not long arrived. There is no aboriginal 
land bird at Ascension. 

Order— PALMIPEDES. 

Anser melanopterus. Eyton. 

Anser melanopterus, Eyton, Monog. Anatidae, p. 93. 
Plate L. 

Captain FitzRoy purchased a skin of this fine goose at Valparaiso, which he 
has presented to the British Museum. There is another specimen at the Zoologi- 
cal Society, which Mr. Pentland procured from the lake of Titicaca, in Bolivia. 

Chloephaga Magellanica. Eyton. 

Anas Magellanica, Gmel. Syst. i. 505. 

Cliloepliaga Magellanica, Eyton, Monog. AnatidtD, p. S2. 

Bernicla Icucoptera, Less. Trait d'Ornith. G27. 

This goose is found in Tierra del Fuego, and at the Falkland Islands ; at the 
latter it is common. They live in pairs and in small flocks throughout the interior 
of the island, being rarely or never found on the sea-coast, and seldom even near 
fresh-water lakes. I believe this bird does not migrate from the Falkland Islands ; 
it builds on the small outlying islets. This latter circumstance is supposed to be 
owing to the fear of the foxes ; and it is perhaps from the same cause, that 
although very tame by day, they are much the contrary in the dusk of the 
evening. These geese live entirely on vegetable matter ; they are called by the 
seamen, the " upland geese," Mr. Eyton, in his excellent Monograph on the 
Anatidfe, has described the trachea of this bird, which I brought home in spirits. 

Bernicla Antarctica. Steph. 

Bernicla antarctica, Steph. Sh. Zool. xii. 59. 

El/ton, Monograph, p. 84. 

Anas Antarctica, Gmel. Syst. i. 505. 

This goose is common in Tierra del Fuego, the Falkland Islands, and on the 
western coast, as far north as Chiloe. It is called by the sailors the " rock goose," 
as it lives exclusively on the rocky parts of the sea-coast. In the deep and retired 






d 

t 




§h 



Ss 



^ 



BIRDS. 135 

channels of Tierra del Fuego, the snow-white male, invariably accompanied by 
his darker consort, and standing close by each other on some distant rocky point, 
is a common feature in the landscape. Mr. Eyton has described the treachea of 
this species, which I brought home. 

P^ciLONiTTA Bahamensis. Eyton. 

Psecilonitta Bahamensis, Eyton, Monog. p. 116. 

Anas Bahamensis, Linn. Syst. i. 199. 

Mareca Bahamensis, Stcpli. Gen. Zool. xii. p. 137. 

A specimen was procured from a small salt-water lagoon in the Galapagos 
Archipelago (October.) 

It was a male ; bill, lead colour ; base of superior mandible purple, with a black 
mark in the upper part. 

Dafila urophasianus. Eyton. 

Dafila urophasianus, Eyton, Monog. Anatidse. p. 112. 
Anas urophasianus, King, Zool, Journ. iv. 351. 

Bahia Blanca, Northern Patagonia. 

Rhynchaspis maculatus. Gould. 

Rhynchaspis maculatus, Gould, in Jard. & Selby lUust. Orn. p. 147. pi. 147. 

Mr. Gould observes that, " A good figure of this beautiful shoveller may be 
found in the 3rd vol. of Messrs. Jardine and Selby's Illustrations of Ornithology. 
Their figure was taken from an example which I forwarded to those gentlemen 
with the name o{ maculata attached: my specimen was received from the Rio Plata, 
and this is also the locality whence (in October) Mr. Darwin's specimen was 
procured. The numerous and conspicuous spots distributed over the body, 
renders this species readily distinguishable from all the other members of the 
genus." 

I. Querquedula erythrorhyncha. Eyton. 

Querquedula erythrorhyncha, Eyton, Monog. Anatidse, p. 127. 
Anas erytlirorhyncha, Spix, Av. Nov. sp. pi. 

My specimens were obtained from Buenos Ayres {October) and the Straits 
of Magellan {February.) 

2. Querquedui-a CRECcoiDES. Eyton. 

Querquedula creccoi'des, Eyton, Monog. Anatidte, p. 128. 
Anas creccoides, Kiny, Zool. Journ. iv. 99. 

Mr. Gould observes that, " This species was first described by Mr. Vigors, 



136 ZOOLOGY OF THE VOYAGE OF THE BEAGLE. 

from a specimen in the collection brought from the Straits of Magellan, by Capt. 
P. P. King. It is a true teal, and in size and form closely assimilates to the 
common teal of Europe, and to the species inhabiting North America {Querqicedula 
Carolinensis , Bonap.) to both of which it is evidently an analogue, and doubt- 
less represents those birds in the southern half of the American continent." 
My specimens were procured from the Rio Plata, and from the Straits of 
Magellan. 

MiCROPTERUS BRACHYPTERUS. Eljton. 

Micropterus brachypterus, Eyton, Monog. Anat. p. 144. 
Anas brachytera, Lath. Ind. Orn. ii. 834. 

These great logger-headed ducks, which sometimes weigh as much as twenty- 
two pounds, were called by the old navigators, from their extraordinary manner 
of paddling and splashing over the water, race-horses, but now much more 
properly steamers. Their wings are too small and weak to allow of flight, but by 
their aid, partly swimming and partly flapping the surface of the water, they move 
very quickly. The manner is something like that by which the common house 
duck escapes, when pursued by a dog ; but I am nearly sure that the steamer 
moves its wings alternately, instead of, as in other birds, both together. These 
clumsy birds make such a noise and splashing, that the effect is most curious. 
The steamer is able to dive but a very short distance. It feeds entirely on shell- 
fish from the floating kelp and tidal rocks ; hence the beak and head are sur- 
prisingly heavy and strong, for the purpose of breaking them. So strong is the 
head, that I have sometimes scarcely been able to fracture it with my geological 
hammer; and all our sportsmen soon discovered how tenacious these birds were 
of life. When pluming themselves in the evening in a flock they make an odd 
mixture of sounds, somewhat like bull-frogs within the tropics. 

1. PoDicEPS KALiPAREus. Quoy ^ Gaivi. 
My specimens were obtained from Bahia Blanca (September), Northern 
Patagonia, and the Falkland Islands. In the former place it lived in small flocks 
in the salt-water channels, extending between the great marshes at the head of 
the harbour. At the Falkland Islands I saw (March) very few individuals ; and 
these only in one small fresh-water lake. Tarsi of the same colour as the plumage 
of the back ; iris of a beautiful tint, between " scarlet and carmine red ;" pupil 
black. Mr. Gould remarks that, " This beautiful species of Podiceps is equal in 
size, and has many of the characters of the P.auritus, but is at once distinguished 
from that species by the silvery colouring of the plumes that adorn the sides of 
the head ; which in P.auritus are deep chestnut." 
1 



BIRDS. 137 

2. PoDiCEPS ROLLANDii. Quoi/ €t Gaim. 

Podiceps Eolland, Qiioj/ et Gaim. Toy. cle I'Uranie, pi. 36. p. 133. 

I obtained specimens from the Falkland Islands (March), where it was common 
at the head of the tortuous bays which intersect those islands ; from a fresh water 
lake near the Strait of Magellan (February); and from the eastern coast of Chiloe. 
The male and female have the same plumage. Iris of a fine red colour. Mr. 
Gould adds that, " this species appears to be as nearly related to the Podiceps 
cornutus, as the preceding species is to P. nuritns, but is readily distinguishable 
from it, by the white spot in the centre of the tuft of feathers that spring from the 
sides of the face." 

3. Podiceps Chilensis. Ganwt. 

Le macas comu, ^c^arrt, No. 443. 

This specimen was procured in a fresh-water lake near Buenos Ayres. 
Capt. P. King brought home specimens from the salt-water channels in Tierra 
del Fuego, where it is excessively numerous. It often makes a very melancholy 
cry, which suits the gloomy climate of those desolate shores. 

SpHENiscus HuMBOLDTii. Meycn. 

Spheniscus Humboldtii, Mei/cn. Nov. Act. Acad. Caes. Leop. Car. Nat. Cur. 1834, 110. pi. 21. 

My specimen was obtained near Valparaiso. Meyen, who first described 
this bird, procured it from the coast of Peru. 

Puffin us cinereus. Steph. 

Puffinus cinereus, Steph. Gen. Zool. xiii. p. 227. 
Procellaria puffinus, Linn. 

This bird frequents the seas on the whole coast of South America. I 
obtained specimens from Tierra del Fuego, Chiloe, the mouth of the Plata, and Cal- 
lao Bay on the coast of Peru. It is likewise known to be common in the Northern 
Hemisphere ; this species, therefore, has a most extensive range. It generally 
frequents the retired inland sounds in very large flocks ; although, occasional!}', 
two or three may be seen out at sea. I do not think I ever saw so many birds of 
any other sort together, as I once saw of these petrels, behind the Island of 
Chiloe. Hundreds of thousands flew in an irregular line, for several hours in one 
direction. When part of the flock settled on the water, the surface was blackened ; 
and a cackling noise proceeded from them, as of human beings talking in the 
distance. At this time, the water was in parts coloured by clouds of small 
Crustacea. The inhabitants of Chiloe told me that this petrel was very irregular 

T 



138 ZOOLOGY OF THE VOYAGE OF THE BEAGLE. 

in its movements ; — sometimes they appeared in vast numbers, and on the next 
day not one was to be seen. At Port Famine, every morning and evening, a long 
band of these birds continued to fly with extreme rapidity, up and down the 
central parts of the channel, close to the surface of the water. Their flight was 
direct and vigorous, and they seldom glided with extended wings in graceful 
curves, like most other members of this family. Occasionally, they settled for a 
short time on the water ; and they thus remained at rest during nearly the whole 
of the middle of the day. When flying backwards and forwards, at a 
distance from the shore, they evidently were fishing : but it was rare to see them 
seize any prey. They are very wary, and seldom approach within gun-shot of a 
boat or of a ship; — a disposition strikingly different from that of most of the other 
species. The stomach of one, killed near Port Famine, was distended with seven 
prawn-like crabs, and a small fish. In another, killed off" the Plata, there was 
the beak of a small cuttle-fish. I observed that these birds, when only slightly 
winged, were quite incapable of diving. There is no difference in the plumage of 
the sexes. The web between the inner toes, with the exception of the margin, is 
" reddish-lilac-purple ;" the rest being blackish. Legs and half of the lower man- 
dible blackish purple. From accounts which I have received, the individuals of 
this species, which live in the Northern Hemisphere, appear to have exactly 
the same habits as those above described. 

1. Pelecanoides Berardi. G. R. Gray. 

Puffinuria Berardi, Less. Tr. d'Orn. p. G14. 
Procellaria Berardi, Quoy et Gaim. Voy. dej)!. 31 

This bird is common in the deep and quiet creeks and inland seas of Tierra 
del Fuego, and on the west coast of Patagonia, as far north as the Chonos 
Archipelago. I never saw but one in the open sea, and that was between Tierra 
del Fuego and the Falkland Islands. This bird is a complete auk in its habits, 
although from its structure it must be classed with the Petrels. To the latter Mr. 
Gould informs me, its affinity is clearly shewn by the form of its beak and 
nostrils, length of foot, and even by the general colouring of its plumage. To the 
auks it is related in the general form of its body, its short wings, shape of tail, 
and absence of hind-toe to the foot. When seen from a distance and undisturbed, 
it would almost certainly be mistaken, from its manner of swimming and frequent 
diving, for a grebe. When approached in a boat, it generally dives to a distance, 
and on coming to the surface, with the same movement takes flight : having flown 
some way, it drops like a stone on the M^ater, as if struck dead, and instan- 
taneously dives again. No one seeing this bird for the first time, thus diving 



BIRDS. . 139 

like a grebe and flying in a straight line by the rapid movement of its short wings 
like an auk, would be willing to believe that it was a member of the family 
of petrels ; — the greater number of which are eminently pelagic in their habits, 
do not dive, and whose flight is usually most graceful and continuous. 1 
observed at Port Famine, that these birds, in the evening, sometimes flew in 
straight lines from one part of the sound to another ; but during the day, 
they scarcely ever, I believe, take wing, if undisturbed. They are not very wild : 
if they had been so, from their habit of diving and flying, it would have been 
extremely difficult to have procured a specimen. The legs of this bird are of a 
" flax-flower blue." 

2. Pelecanoides Garnotii. G. R. Gray. 

Puffinuria Garnotii, Less. Yoy. de TCoqu. pi. 46. 
Procellaria urinatrix, Gm. ? 

My specimen was obtained at Iquique (lat. 20° 12'), on the coast of Peru. 
M. Lesson, who first described this species, says (Manuel d'Ornithologie, vol. ii. 
p. 394.), " l^e puffinure de Garnot habite par grandes troupes le long des cotes du 
Perou. II vole mediocrement bien, d'une maniere pr^cipitee et en rasant la 
mer ; mais il prefers se tenir en repos sur la surface des eaux, et plonge tres 
frequemment a la maniere des grebes, sans doute pour saisir les petits poissons 
qui forment sa pature." An anatomical description of this bird is there given. 

1. Procellaria gigantea. Gmel. 
This bird, which is called by the English, " Nelly," and by the Spaniards, 
" Quebranta-huesos," (properly an osprey,) is common in the southern latitudes of 
South America. It frequents both the inland sounds, and the open ocean far 
from the coast. It often settles and rests on the water. The Nelly, in its flight 
and general appearance on the wing, has many points of resemblance with the 
Albatross ; but, as in the case of that bird, it is in vain to attempt observing on 
what it feeds ; both seem to hunt the waters for days together, in sweeping 
circles, with no success. In the stomach, however, of one which I opened, there 
was the beak of a large cuttle-fish. The Nelly, moreover, is a bird of prey : it was 
observed at Port St. Antonio, by some of the officers of the Beagle, to kill a diver. 
The latter tried to escape, both by diving and flying, but was continually struck 
down, and at last was killed by a blow on its head. At Port St. Julian, also, 
these great petrels were seen killing and devouring young gulls. The Nelly breeds 
on several of the small islands off" the coast of Patagonia ; for instance, Sea-Lion 
Island, in the mouth of the Santa Cruz. Most other species of the family retire 
for the purpose of breeding to the Antarctic Islands. 



140 ZOOLOGY OF THE VOYAGE OF THE BEAGLE. 

I have often observed in the southern seas, a bird similar in every respect to the 
Nelly, excepting in its plumage, being of a much more intense black, and its bill 
rather whiter. I procured a specimen thus coloured, at Port Famine, and had 
concluded that it veas a distinct species, until Mr. Low, (an excellent practical 
observer, long acquainted during his sealing voyages with the productions of 
these seas,) assured me that he positively knew, that these black varieties were 
the one-year-old birds of the common greyish black Nelly. 

2. Procellaria GLACiALoiDES. A. Smith. 

Procellaria glacialo'ides, A. Smith, Illust. of Zool. of S. Africa, Aves, pi. .51. 

I saw this petrel on both sides of the Continent south of lat. 30° ; but seldom 
more than two or three together. I am informed that it arrives in Georgia in 
September for the purpose of breeding, and that it lays its eggs in holes in the 
precipices overhanging the sea. On the approach of winter it is said to retire 
from that island. My specimen was caught in the Bay of St. Mathias (lat. 43° S.) 
by a line and bent pin, baited with a small piece of pork ; the same means by 
which the Pintado {Dapl. Capeusis)is so easily caught. It is a tame, sociable, and 
silent bird ; and often settles on the water: when thus resting it might from a dis- 
tance be mistaken, owing to the general colour of its plumage, for a gull. One or 
two often approached close to the stern of the Beagle, and mingled with the 
Pintados, the constant attendants on vessels traversing these southern seas. 

Daption Capensis. Steph. 

Procellaria Capensis, Linn. Syst. i. 213. 

This petrel is extremely numerous over the whole southern ocean, south of the 
Tropic of Capricorn. On the coast, however, of Peru, I saw them in lat. from 16° to 1 7° 
S., which is considerably farther north than they are found on the shores of Brazil. 
Cook, in sailing south in the meridian of New Zealand, first met this bird 
in lat. 43° 30'. The Pintados slightly differ in some of their habits from 
the rest of their congeners, but, perhaps, approach in this respect nearest to 
P. glacialoldes. They are very tame and sociable, and follow vessels navigating 
these seas for many days together : when the ship is becalmed, or is moving slowly, 
they often alight on the surface of the water, and in doing this they expand their 
tails like a fan. I think they always take their food, when thus swimming. 
When offal is thrown overboard, they frequently dive to the depth of a foot or two. 
They are very apt to quarrel over their food, and they then utter many harsh but 
not loud cries. Their flight is not rapid, but extremely elegant ; and as these 
prettily mottled birds skim the surface of the water in graceful curves, constantly 
following the vessel as she drives onward in her course, they afford a spectacle 



BIRDS. 141 

which is beheld by every one with interest. Although often spending the whole 
day on the wing, yet on a fine moonlight night, I have repeatedly seen these birds 
following the wake of the vessel, with their usual graceful evolutions. I am 
informed that the Pintado arrives in Georgia for the purpose of breeding, and 
leaves it, at the same time with the P. glacialoides. The sealers do not know 
any other island in the Antarctic ocean excepting Georgia, where these two birds 
(as well as the Thalassidroma oceanicd) resort to breed. 

Thalassidkoma oceanica. Bonap. 

Thalassidroma oceauica, Bonap. Journ. Acad. Nat. Scien., Tliiladelpliia, vol. iii. p. 233. 
Procellaria oceanica, Forster. 
Petrel echasse. Temm. 

I obtained this bird at Maldonado, near the mouth of the Plata, where it was 
blown on shore by a gale of wind. These birds, although seeming to prefer on most 
occasions the open ocean, and to be most active, walking with their wings 
expanded on the crest of the waves, when the gale is heaviest, yet sometimes visit 
quiet harbours, in considerable numbers. At Bahia Blanca I saw many, when 
there was nothing in the weather to explain their appearance. I was informed 
Ijy a sealer, that they build in holes on the sea cliffs of Georgia, where they arrive 
very regularly in the month of September. No other place is known to be 
frequented by them for the purpose of breeding. 

Prion vittatus. Cuv. 

Procellaria Vittata, Gnielin. Syst. i. 560. 

I did not procure a specimen of this bird, although I saw numbers on both 
sides of the Continent from about lat. .35° S. to Cape Horn. It is a wild solitary 
bird, appears always to be on the wing : flight extreraelj' rapid. Mr. Stokes 
(Assistant surveyor of the Beagle) informs me that they build in great numbers on 
Landfall Island, on the west coast of Tierra del Fuego. Their burrows are about 
a yard deep : they are excavated on the hill-sides, at a distance even of 
half a mile from the sea shore. If a person stamps on the ground over their 
nests, many fly out of the same hole. Mr. Stokes says the eggs are white, 
elongated, and of the size of those of a pigeon. 

1. LaRUS FULIGINOSUS. Goilld. 

L. Mas. corpore toto obscure plumbeo-griseo, tegminibus cauda superioribus inferion- 
busque pallidioribus ; rostro bust rubro, apice iiigro ; pedibus nigris. 

Long. tot. 10' J unc. ; alee, \S\ : cauda\ 6 ; tarsi, 1\ ; rostri 2f . 



142 ZOOLOGY OF THE VOYAGE OF THE BEAGLE. 

The whole of the plumage deep leaden-grey ; the upper and under tail coverts 
being lightest ; bill red at the base, black at the tip ; feet black. 
Habitat, Galapagos Archipelago {October). 

This species of gull has many characters in common with the Larus hcemato- 
rhyncJms of King, from the continent of S. America; but may at once be distin- 
guished from it by the general extreme duskiness of its plumage, feet, tarsi, and 
bill ; and by the more elongated form of the latter. My specimen was killed at 
James Island. I observed nothing particular in its habits. It is the only species 
of gull frequenting this Archipelago. 

2. Larus HjEMATOrhynchus. King. 

Larus liffimatorliynchus, King, Zool. Joum. iv. 103. 
, Jard. Sf Sell. lU. Orn. p. 106. 

This bird was killed at Port St. Julian on the coast of Patagonia. Beak 
(when fresh killed) of a pale " arterial blood red," legs •' vermilion red." 

3. Larus dominicanus. Licht. 

Larus dominicanus, Licht. Cat. 82. sp. S46. 
Grande Mouette, Azara, No. 409. 

This gull abounds in flocks on the Pampas, sometimes even as much as fifty 
and sixty miles inland. Near Buenos Ayres, and at Bahia Blanca, it attends 
the slaughtering-houses, and feeds, together with the Polybori and Cathartes, on 
the garbage and offal. The noise which it utters is very like that of the common 
English gull (Larus canus, Linn.) 

Xema (Chroicocephalus) cirrocephalum. G. R. Gray. 

Larus cirrocephalus, Vicill. Nov. Diet. d'Histoire, 21. p. 502. 
Larus niaculipennis, Licht. Cat. 83. sp. 855. 
Larus glaucodes, Meyen, Nov. Act. 1839, p. 115. pi. 24. 
Mouette cendree, Azara, No. 410. 

This species so closely resembles the Xema ridihundum, Boi^, that Mr. Gould 
observes, he should have hardly ventured to have characterized it as distinct ; 
but as M. Vieillot and Meyen have deemed this necessary, he adopts their view. 
I have compared a suite of specimens, which I procured from the Rio Plata, the 
coast of Patagonia, and the Straits of Magellan, with several specimens of the 
Xema ridihundum ; the only difference which appears to me constant, is that the 
primaries of the X. cirrocephalum, in the adult winter plumage, both of male and 
female, are tipped with a white spot (a character common to some other species), 
whereas in the A', ridihundum the points are black. The beak of the latter species. 



BIRDS. i^a 

especially the lower mandible, is also a little less strong, or high in proportion to 
its length. In the immature stage, I could perceive no difference whatever in the 
plumage of these birds. The proportional quantity of black and white in the 
primaries, given by Meyen as the essential character, varies in the different states 
of plumage. The specimens described by this author were procured from Chile.* 
The soles of the feet of my specimens were coloured, deep " reddish orange," 
and the bill dull "arterial blood-red" of Werner's nomenclature. 

In the plains south of Buenos Ayres I saw some of these birds far inland, 
and I was told that they bred in the marshes. It is well known that the black- 
headed gull (Xema ridibtmdum), which we have seen comes so near the X. cirroce- 
phalum, frequents the inland marshes to breed. It appears to me a very inter- 
esting circumstance thus to find birds of two closely allied species preserving the 
same peculiarities of habits in Europe and in the wide plains of S. America. 
Near Buenos Ayres this gull as well as the L. dominicanus sometimes attends 
the slaughter-houses to pick up bits of meat. 

Rhynchops nigra. Linn. 

I saw this bird both on the East and West coast of South America, between 
latitudes 30° and 45°. It frequents either fresh or salt water. Near Maldonado 
(in May), on the borders of a lake, which had been nearly drained, and which 
in consequence swarmed with small fry, I watched many of these birds flying 
backwards and forwards for hours together, close to its surface. They kept their 
bills wide open, and with the lower mandible half buried in the water. Thus 
skimming the surface, generally in small flocks, they ploughed it in their course ; 
the water was quite smooth, and it formed a most curious spectacle, to behold a 
flock, each bird leaving its narrow wake on the mirror-like surface. In their 
flight they often twisted about with extreme rapidity, and so dexterously managed, 
that they ploughed up small fish with their projecting lower mandibles, and 
secured them with the upper half of their scissor-like bills. This fact I repeatedly 
witnessed, as, like swallows, they continued to fly backwards and forwards, close 
before me. Occasionally, when leaving the surface of the w^ater, their flight was 
wild, irregular, and rapid ; they then also uttered loud harsh cries. When these 
birds were seen fishing, it was obvious that the length of the primary feathers 
was quite necessary in order to keep their wings dry. When thus employed, their 
forms resembled the symbol, by ■which many artists represent marine birds. The 
tail is much used in steering their irregular course. 

These birds are common far inland, along the course of the Rio Parana ; and 

* The naturalists in Lutke's voyage, vol. iii. p. 255, seem to consider a gull, which they obtained at Con- 
cepciou, as the Lams Franklbui of North America. 



H4 ZOOLOGY OF THE VOYAGE OF THE BEAGLE. 

it is said they remain there during the whole year, and that they breed in the 
marshes. During the day they rest in flocks on the grassy plains, at some 
distance from the water. Being at anchor in a small vessel, in one of the deep 
creeks between the islands in the Parana, as the evening drew to a close, one of 
these scissor-beaks suddenly appeared. The water was quite still, and many 
little fish were rising. The bird continued for a long time to skim the surface; 
flying in its wild and irregular manner up and down the narrow canal, now dark 
with the growing night and the shadows of the overhanging trees. At Monte 
Video, I observed that large flocks remained during the day on the mud banks, 
at the head of the harbour; in the same manner as those which I observed on the 
grassy plains near the Parana. Every evening they took flight in a straight line 
seaward. From these facts, I suspect, that the Rhynchops frequently fislies by 
night, at M'hich time, many of the lower animals come more abundantly to the 
surface than during the day. T was led by these facts to speculate on the 
possibility of the bill of the Rhynchops, which is so pliable, being a delicate organ 
of touch. But Mr. Owen, who was kind enough to examine the head of one, 
which I brought home in spirits, writes to me, (August 7, 1837,) that — 

" The result of the dissection of the head of the Rhynchops, comparatively with 
that of the head of the duck, is not what you anticipated. The facial, or sensitive 
branches of the fifth pair of nerves, are very small ; the third division in particular, 
is filamentary, and I have not been able to trace it beyond the soft integument at 
the angles of the mouth. After removing with care, the thin horny covering of 
the beak, I cannot perceive any trace of those nervous expansions M'hich are so 
remarkable in the lamelli-rostral aquatic birds ; and which in them supply the 
tooth-like process, and soft marginal covering of the mandibles. Nevertheless; 
when we remember how sensitive a hair is, through the nerve situated at its 
base, though without any in its substance, it would not be safe to deny 
altogether, a sensitive faculty in the beak of the Rhynchops." 

M. Lesson (Manuel d'Ornithologie, vol. ii. p. 385.) has stated, that he has 
seen these birds opening the shells of the Mactrae, buried in the sandbanks on the 
coast of Chile. From their weak bills, with the lower mandible so much 
produced, their short legs and long wings, it seems very improbable that this can 
be a general habit, although it may sometimes be resorted to. Wilson, who was 
well acquainted with this bird, does not believe " the report of its frequenting 
oyster beds, and feeding on these fish." The existence, however, of this same 
report in the United States, makes the question, whether the Rhynchops does not 
sometimes turn the peculiar structure of its beak to this purpose, worthy of further 
investigation. 

3 



BIRDS. 145 

ViRALVA ARANEA. G. R. Gray. 

Sterna aranea, Wils. Am. Orn. pi. 72. f. C. 

My specimen was procured at Bahia Blanca, in Northern Patagonia. I may 
here observe, that many navigators have supposed that terns, when met with out 
at sea, are a sure indication of land. But these birds seem not unfrequently to be 
lost in the open ocean ; thus one (3Iegaloptencs stoUdus) flew on board the Beagle 
in the Pacific, when several hundred miles from the Galapagos Archipelago. No 
doubt, the remark made by navigators, with respect to the proximity of land where 
terns are seen, refers to birds in a flock, fishing, or otherwise showing that they 
are familiar with that part of the sea. I, therefore, more particularly mention, 
that off" the mouth of the Rio Negro, on the Patagonian shore, I saw a flock 
(probably the Viralva aranea) fishing seventy miles from land : and off the coast 
of Brazil a flock of another species, 120 from the nearest part of the coast. The 
latter birds were in numbers, and were busily engaged in dashing at their 
prey. 

Megalopterus stolidus. Boie. 

Sterna stolida, Linn. Syst. i. 227. 

My specimens were procured from the Galapagos Archipelago. It is well 
known to be an inhabitant of the seas in the warmer latitudes over the whole 
world. The Rocks of St. Paul's, nearly under the equator, in the Atlantic ocean, 
were almost covered with the rude and simple nests of this bird, made with a few 
pieces of sea-weed. The females were sitting upon their eggs (in February), and 
by the side of many of their nests, parts of flying-fish were placed, I suppose, by 
the male bird for his partner to feed on during the labour of incubation. 

Phalacrocorax carunculatus. Stephens. 

Phalacrocorax carunculatus, Steph. Gen. Zool. 

Pelecanus carunculatus, Gm. Syst. i. 576. 

Phalacrocorax imperialis, Kinp, Zool. Proc, vol. i. pt. 1. 30. 

I procured a specimen of this bird at Port St. Julian, on the coast of 
Patagonia, where, during January, many were building. I merely mention it 
here, for the purpose of describing the singularly bright colours of the naked skin 
about its head. Skin round the eyes " campanula blue ;" cockles at the base of 
the upper mandible, "saffron mixed with gamboge-yellow." Marks between the 
eye and the corner of the mouth, " orpiment orange ;" tarsi scarlet. 

u 



146 ZOOLOGY OF THE VOYAGE OF THE BEAGLE. 

Fregata Aquila. Cuv. 

Pelecanus Aquilus, Linn. 

I had an opportunity, at the Galapagos Archipelago, of watching, on several 
occasions, the habits of this bird, which are very interesting in relation to its 
peculiar structure. The Frigate bird, when it sees any object on the surface of 
the water, descends from a great height, in an inclined plane, head foremost, with 
the swiftness of an arrow; and at the instant of seizing with its long beak and 
outstretched neck, the floating morsel, it turns upwards, with extraordinary dex- 
terity, by the aid of its forked tail, and long, powerful wings. It never touches 
the water with its wings, or even with its feet ; indeed I have never heard of one 
having been seen on the surface of the sea ; and it appears that the deeply 
indented web between its toes is of no more use to it, than are the shrivelled wings 
beneath the wing-cases of some coleopterous beetles. The Frigate bird has a 
noble appearance when seen soaring in a flock at a stupendous height (at which 
time it merits the name of the Condor of the ocean), or when many together are 
dashing, in complicated evolutions, but with the most admirable skill, at the same 
floating object. They seem to scorn to take their food quietly, for between each 
descent they raise themselves on high, and descend again with a swift and true 
aim. If the object (such as ofial thrown overboard) sink more than six or eight 
inches beneath the surface, it is lost to the Frigate bird. I was informed at 
Ascension, that when the little turtles break through their shells, and run to the 
water's edge, these birds attend in numbers, and pick up the little animals (being 
thus very injurious to the turtle fishery) off" the sand, in the same manner as they 
would from the sea. 



APPENDIX. 



Anatomical description of Serpophaga albocoronata, Furnarms cunicularius, Uppu- 
certliia dumetoria, Opetiorhynchus vulgaris, O. anturcticus, O. Patagonicus, 
Pteroptochos Tarnii, P. albicollis, Synallaxis maluroides, Phytotoma rara, 
Trochilus gigcis, Tinochorus riimicivnrus.* 

BY T. C. EYTON, Esq., F.L.S.. &c. 



SERPOPHAGA ALBOCORONATA. Gould. (Male.) 

Tongue pointed, furnished with a few short bristles at the sides near the base. Trachea with the 
same muscles as among the warblers generally. ^Esophagus slightly funnel-shaped ; proven- 
triculus much expanded at its entrance into the gizzard, which is rounded, not very muscular, 
inner coat slightly hardened, smooth. Intestine of moderate size, furnished with two rudi- 
mentary caeca. 



Length of oesophagus, including proventriculus 1 

of gizzard I 

Breadth of ditto is 



Length of intestine from gizzard to cloaca 3^ 

from cseea to cloaca ^ 



The skeleton of this bird is precisely that of the smaller and weaker species of Laniadae. 



Lengtli of sternum 5 

Breadth anteriorly 3 

posteriorly 43 

Width of fissures 1 

Depth of ditto \\ 

Depth of keel 2 

Length of pelvis !>\ 

Width anteriorly 2J 

posteriorly 5^ 

Length from occiput to point of bill 12 

Breadth of head 5^ 

Length of coracoids 4^ 



No of cervical vertebrae 11 

dorsal ditto 7 

sacral ditto 9 

caudal ditto 6 

Total 33 



No. of false ribs 1 1 i 

true ditto 5 



I am much indebted to Mr. Eyton for these observations, which greatly add to the value of the previous descriptions 



148 APPENDIX. 

FURNARIUS CUNICULARIUS. G. R. Gray. (Male.) 
Tongue, trachea, and CESophagus, as in Uppucertkia. Proventriculus longer, and slightly contracted 
at its entrance into the gizzard, which is large, flattened, and muscular, more rounded than in 
Opetiorhi/nchus, lined with a rugose hardened coat, and filled with small seeds, and the remains 
of insects ; intestines of small diameter, and furnished with two rudimentary casca. 



inches 



inches 



Length from gizzard to ca;ca 5 

caeca to cloaca J 1 



Length of oesophagus, including proventriculus 1^ 

of gizzard ^ 

Breadth of ditto I 

Sternum of nearly equal breadth, both posteriorly and anteriorly, but much narrowed in the 
middle, the portion to which the ribs are attached much elongated beyond their junction ; 
posterior margin furnished with two deep fissures, slightly narrowed at their exit ; keel deep, 
slightly rounded on its inferior edge, and much scolloped out anteriorly; pelvis broad and short, 
the OS pubis projecting far backwards; the ischium terminating posteriorly in an acute process. 

Os furcatum thin, much arched, furnished with a flattened reflexed process at its junction with the 
sternum ; the points of the rami bent forwards at their junction with the coracoids. 

Coracoids of moderate size and length, inserted deeply into the sternum ; scapula of moderate size, 
broader near the extremity. 

lines 

Length of sternum 11 

Breadth anteriorly 6\ 

posteriorly 8J 

Depth of keel 4J 

Length of pelvis 12 

Width anteriorly 4J 

posteriorly H 

Length from occiput to point of bill 19 

Breadth of cranium 7J 

Length of coracoids 8 



No. of cervical vertebrae 12 

dorsal ditto 7 

sacral ditto 10 

caudal ditto 7 

Total 36 



No. of true ribs 5 

false ditto 2-1 



UPPUCERTHIA DUMETORIA. Geoff. ^- B' Orb. (Female.) 
Tongue short, compared with the length of the bill, pointed, armed with a few spines at the base ; 
trachea of moderate size, acted upon by one pair of sterno-tracheal muscles, which go off' to 
the sternum, about ^ of an inch above the inferior larynx ; from the upper ring of the bronchia 
on each side, a process proceeds upwards to the point from which the muscles diverge, to 
which point only the rings of the trachea are continued, two spaces therefore, one on the 
anterior, the other on the posterior side of the trachea, immediately above the bronchiee, are 
left devoid of osseous matter, being bounded laterally by the process above mentioned, inferiorly 
by the upper rings of the bronchioe, and superiorly by the lower ring of the trachea, which is 
slightly enlarged ; oesophagus small, slightly dilated a little above the proventriculus, which 
is of moderate size, and not contracted before entering the gizzard ; gizzard large, oval, very 
muscular, inner coat hardened, deeply furrowed longitudinally, and filled with the remains of 
insects; intestinal canal of moderate size, without cffica; rectum very slightly enlarged ; 
liver bilobed. 

inches Inches 

Length of oesophagus, including proventiculus 2 Breadth of ditto J 

of gizzard J I Length of intestinal canal 10 



BIRDS. 



149 



With the exception of being larger than Furnarius cunicularius, and in having the bill more 
bent and longer, the skeleton presents no material difference from that of the above-named bird. 



Length of sternum 13 

Breadth anteriorly 6 

posteriorly 7J 

Depth of keel 4 

of fissures 4 

Breadth of ditto 1 

Length of pelvis I4J 

Breadth anteriorly 4 

posteriorly 9 J 

Length from occiput to point of bill 27 

Breadth of cranium 8 

Length of coracoids 11 



No. of cervical vertebrse n 

dorsal ditto ^ 

sacral ditto 1 1 

caudal ditto 6 

Total 35 

No. of true ribs 5 

false ditto 2-1 



OPETIORHYNCHUS VULGARIS. Gray. (Male.) 

The structure of the soft parts, both in this species of Opetiorhynchus, and the two following 
ones?, so closely resemble that of Furnarius and Uppucerthia, that one description will almost serve 
for the whole ; those differences that do exist being not more than are generally found in species of 
the same genus ; the external characters also being slight, I cannot but doubt the propriety of 
separating them ; the ca?,ca are slightly developed in this species, measuring 1 inch in length. 



inches 

Length of oesophagus, proventriculus included 2^ 

of gizzard g 

Breadth of ditto i 



inches 
Length of intestinal canal from gizzard to the cloaca . . 7J 
from caica to cloaca \ 



Skeleton similar in form to that oi Furnarius cunicularius. 



Length of sternum 11^ 

Breadth anteriorly 5J 

posteriorly 1\ 

Depth of keel 3^ 

of fissures 5 

Breadth of ditto \\ 

Length of pelvis 12^ 

Breadth anteriorly 4 

posteriorly OJ 

Length from occiput to point of bill 17 

Breadth of cranium 7 

Length of coracoids 8,5 



No. of cervical vertebras 11 

dorsal ditto 7 

sacral ditto 11 

caudal ditto 7 

Total 36 



No. of true ribs . 
false ditto 



OPETIORHYi\CHUS ANTARCTICUS. G. E. Gray. (Male.) 

Structure of the soft parts as in O. vulgaris, but with the rectum of rather larger diameter, and the 
CEeca very minute ; gizzard filled with the remains of insects. 



Length of oesophagus, including proventriculus 
gizzard 



inches 

Breadtli of gizzard J 

Length of intestinal canal from gizzard to cloaca 7 



150 



APPENDIX. 



Skeleton similar in form to Furnarins cunicularius, and the other species of this genus. 



Length of sternum 1 1 

Breadth anteriorly " 

posteriorly ''h 

Depth of keel '^ 

of fissures ■* 

Breadth of ditto 1 j 

Length of pelvis 12 

Breadth anteriorly 3^ 

posteriorly 10| 

Length from occiput to point of hill 18 

Breadth of cranium 7^ 

Length of coracoids 9 



No. of cervical vertebrie 11 

dorsal ditto 7 

sacral ditto 12 

caudal ditto 7 

Total 37 



No. of true ribs 6 

false ditto 21 



Total 8 



OPETIORHYNCHUS PATAGONICUS. G. R. Gray. (Male.) 
No difference in the structure of the soft parts from the other species of the genus before spoken of 
The trachea, however, does not differ from the ordinary simple form found in most birds, but 
differs from O. vulgaris and O. antarcticus, in having the lower rings continued to the bronchiaj 
it is acted upon by one pair of muscles ; no caeca are apparent. 



Length of oesophagu?, including proventriculus 2J 

gizzard \ 



Breadth of gizzard | 

Length of cutis from gizzard to cloaca b\ 



Skeleton in form similar to that of Furnarius cxinicularius, and the other species of 
this genus. 



No. of cervical vertebra! 11 

dorsal ditto 7 

sacral ditto 9 

caudal ditto 6 

Total 33 



Length of sternum 13 

Breadth anteiiorly 6J 

posteriorly 8J 

Depth of keel 5 

fissures 4 

Breadth of ditto 1} 

Length of pelvis 1 3^ 

Breadth anteriorly 5 

posteriorly 10^ 

Length from occiput to point of bill 19 

Breadth of cranium 8 

Length of coracoids 10 

Remarks : — the last five species approach so nearly, that I doubt the propriety of separating 
them generically. The skeletons are only distinguishable with the exception of the form of the 
bill, by the proportions between the different admeasurements. 



No. of true ribs 5 

false ditto 2-1 



PTEROPTOCHOS TARNII. G.R.Gray. (Female.) 
Tongue pointed, armed with two strong lateral spines, and a few intermediate smaller ones at the 
base ; cEsophagus largest at the upper extremity, and gradually becoming smaller towards the 
proventriculus ; no vestige of a craw ; proventriculus of moderate size, not much contracted 
towards the gizzard, which is also of moderate size, and much flattened ; not very muscular, 
and lined with a hardened coat, rugose longitudinally; the gizzard was filled with small 
1 



BIRDS. 1<'>I 

pebbles, and a coarse black powder, probably the remains of insects ; intestinal canal small ; 
ceeca rudimental ; rectum large, becoming more expanded towards the cloaca, which is also 
large ; trachea of equal diameter throughout, furnished with one pair of stemo-tracheal 
muscles, a portion of each of which is continued downwards to the upper rings of the bronchiae, 
on which it expands ; liver two-lobed. 



inciies 



Length of oesopha^s, including proventriculua 3\ 

of intestinal canal, from gizzard to cloaca .^.... 18 



inches 

Diameter of gizzard ^ 

Length of ditto 1 



The pelvis and ribs of this bird were much damaged ; sternum of equal breadth posteriorly and 
anteriorly, slightly contracted on its lateral edge, near the middle indented on its posterior 
maroin with four deep fissures, the outer ones largest ; a large triangular process projecting 
forwards between the junctions of the coracoids, bifid at the apex ; the coracoids themselves 
very strongly articulated to the sternum, the sides of the sternum to which the ribs aie arti- 
culated projecting in the form of a process far beyond the junction of the coracoids ; the 
sternal keel is narrow, and has its edge straight; the coracoids are long, thin, with very 
slight external lateral processes at their junction with the sternum; os furcatum very thin, 
roundish, a very slight process on the point at which it approaches nearest to the sternum, very 
slightly arched. 

Scapula broad, flattened, much widened at about one-third of its length from the hinder extremity ; 
wino- bones short, and weak ; leg bones long, and strong; the fibula much developed. 



Length of sternum 15 

Greatest breadth of sternum 9J 

Breadth at the narrowest part 7 

Width of external fissure I3 

Depth of ditto 6 

Width of internal ditto 1| 

Depth of ditto % 

Depth of keel 3 



Length from occiput to point of bill 2'2j 

Breadth of cranium 101 

Length of coracoids 11 

Breadth of scapula in the broadest part 2 

Cervical vertebroe 12 

Dorsal ditto 6 

Sacral, damaged. 
Caudal, damaged. 



Length of gizzard 
Breadth of ditto . . 



PTEROTOCHOS ALBICOLLIS. Kittl. (Male.) 
Trachea, tongue, oesophagus, gizzard, and liver of the same form as in Pterotochos Tarnii. The 
contents of the gizzard also did not differ. 

inches 

Length of intestinal canal 14i 

from caeca to cloaca -\ 

Only the body, after skinning, of the species, was brought home by Mr. Darwin. 
The skeleton of this species does not differ in anything but admeasurements from that of 
Pterotochos Tarnii ; the pelvis, however, being so much damaged in that species, that I was not 
able to make many notes upon it, I shall give a description of that part in the present one. 
Pelvis of moderate size ; the ossa pubis and ischium much expanded, and elongated posteriorly, and 
placed nearly perpendicular to the plane of the ilium, ischiatic foramina large; two large 
processes arise on the ilium on each side of the junction of the caudal vertebra for the attach- 
ment of the levator muscles of the tail. 



152 



APPENDIX. 



No. of cervical vertebr:e, wanting, 
dorsal ditto, wanting. 

Bacral ditto 9 

caudal ditto, wanting. 



lines 

Length of pelvis 14 

Breadth posteriorly 8J 

anteriorly i 

Length of sternum 9J 

Breadth of ditto 7 

in the narrowest part 5^ 

Depth of keel ^ 

Length of coracoids 7J 

Breadth of scapula in the widest part 1 



Remarks: — Both this and the foregoing bird are most curious; it is difficult to say in what 
order they ought to be placed, the e.xternal form being equally ambiguous with the internal 
structure. 

The digestive organs nearly agree with that of many insessorial birds ; the pelvis also approaches 
nearly in form to that of the thrush; the sternum, however, differs altogether from any form found 
in that order, and is precisely that of a Picus. The coracoids are lengthened ; the os furcatum is 
furnished with only a slight process where it approaches the sternum, in which particulars, also in 
the form of the ribs, it agrees with the Picida. 

Having found the internal structure so curious, and so contrary to what I expected, I was led 
to examine the external more minutely than I had before done. The same form of claw is found 
in several species among the cuckoos, in the genus Pelophilus, for instance ; the two outer toes 
are zygodactyle, being united together as far as the first joint ; the bill, at first sight, might be 
taken for that of a gallinaceous bird ; but in searching among the order Scansores, for some resem- 
blance, I find the same structure in several of the cuckoo family, with the exception of the nostrils 
being nearer to the apex of the bill in Pterotochos. The Australian genus Menura is, probably, 
allied to this, but differs in the structure of the nostrils.* 



SYNALLAXIS MALUROIDES. D'Orh. (Female.) 
Tongue pointed, furnished at the base with two strong spines, the sides of which are armed with 
smaller ones ; trachea, oesophagus, and proventriculus as in Furnarius and UppucertJda ; gizzard 
rounded, not very muscular, lined with a slightly hardened smooth coat, and filled with the 
remains of insects ; intestinal canal of moderate size and length, furnished with two rudimentary 
caeca. 

Inches inches 

Length of (Esophagus and proventriculus IJ Length of intestinal canal from gizzard to cloaca 4^ 

gizzard | from caeca to cloaca J 

Breadth of ditto ^ 

The parts of the skeleton of this bird which I was able to preserve, were more closely allied 
to the corresponding ones of Troglodytes than to those of any other genus in my possession, but 
differ in the following particulars : the lateral processes of the sternum bounding the posterior 
fissures are not so much expanded, consequently the fissures themselves are smaller ; the keel is 
rather deeper ; the portion to which the ribs are attached does not project so far forwards, but the 

* Since the above was in type, I have had, through the kindness of Mr. Gould, an opportunity of examining Menura lyra, 
and find my former supposition to be correct ; but neither of these genera can be placed among the gallinaceous birds where the 
latter bird has been arranged by some authors. 



BIRDS, 



153 



process between the coracoids is rather longer ; the interocular portion of the cranium is also rather 
broader than in the above-mentioned genus ; the pelvis, coracoids, and scapula agree both in 
shape and size with Troglodytes. 



Lenth of sternum 6J 

Breadth anteriorly 4 

posteriorly 4^ 

Greatest width of fissures J 

Depth of ditto 2J 

Length of occiput to point of bill 14^ 



Breadth of cranium 6} 

Length of pelvis 9 

Breadth of ditto posteriorly 5 

anteriorly 1^ 

No. of cervical vertebrae 12 



PHYTOTOMA KARA. Molina. 
This bird being injured about the sexual organs, I could not ascertain the sex. Tongue pointed, 
armed at the base on each side with a flattened tricuspid spine ; trachea small, of uniform 
diameter throughout its whole length, acted upon by one pair of sterno-tracheal muscles ; 
oesophagus funnel-shaped at the upper extremity, when distended capable of containing a 
common pencil, at its junction with the proventriculus much smaller ; proventriculus scarcely 
perceptible ; gizzard small, consisting of little more than a thick skin, inner coat hardened ; 
the entrance of the oesophagus, and the exit of the intestine placed very near together at the 
upper extremity of it ; intestinal canal very short, and of large diameter, entirely devoid of 
cseca ; the whole length with the gizzard and oesophagus distended with a stringy substance, 
resembling coarse spun cotton cut into short lengths. 



Length of gizzard 
Breadth of ditto 



Length of oesophagus, including proventriculus 3 

of intestinal canal 7^ | Breadth of ditto J 

Sternum of nearly equal breadth, both posteriorly and anteriorly, much narrowed near tlie middle ; 
posterior margin nearly straight, indented with two large fissures, narrowed at their exit ; 
between the junctions of the coracoids furnished with a bifid process; the portion of the 
sternum to which the ribs are attached, continued anteriorly beyond the junction of the 
coracoids ; keel of moderate size ; coracoids long, not very strong ; os furcatum long, 
slightly arched, furnished with a flattened process, turned inwards at the point it approaches 
the sternum. 

Pelvis broad, and short, narrowest anteriorly, the os pubis and ischium continued far backwards, 
beyond the junction of the caudal vertebrae ; ribs strong, and flattened ; posterior process 
large ; scapula long, broadest near the extremity ; legs of moderate strength, the internal 
pi'ocesses of the tibia large, and flattened; bones of the cranium strong. 



Length of sternum 12^ 

Breadth anteriorly 6^ 

posteriorly 9J 

Width of fissures Ij 

Depth of ditto 4 

keel 4^ 

Length of pelvis 13^ 

Width anteriorly 5 

posteriorly 11 

Length from occiput to point of bill IG 

Breadth of head 8 

Length of coracoids 9 



No. of cervical vertebrae 11 

dorsal ditto 7 

sacral ditto 10 

caudal ditto 7 



Total. 



35 



No. of true ribs 5 

false ribs 2-1 



154 APPENDIX. 

Remarks : — The skeleton and soft parts of this bird very nearly resemble those of the genus 
Loxia, but differ in their superior size, in having the fissures on the posterior margin of the 
sternum not so deep, and in the margin itself being straighter, the coracoids larger, and in having the 
process at the end of the os furcatum approaching the sternum smaller than in that genus. The 
ribs also are stronger. 

TROCHILUS GIGAS. Vieill. (Male.) 
Tongue bifid, each division pointed; hyoids very long, in their position resembling those in the 
Picida ; trachea of uniform diameter ; destitute of muscles of voice ; bronchia very long ; 
oesophagus funnel-shaped, slightly contracted on approaching the proventriculus, which is 
small, and scarcely perceptible ; gizzard small, moderately muscular, the inner coat slightly 
hardened, and filled with the remains of insects ; intestine largest near the gizzard ; I could 
not perceive a vestige of caeca. 

inches inches 

Length of oesophagus, including proventriculus If Length of gizzard } 

intestinal canal ^ \ Breadth of ditto J 

Sternum with the keel very deep, its edge rounded, and projecting anteriorly; posterior margin 
rounded, and destitute of indentation or fissure ; the ridges to which the pectoral muscles 
have their attachment, large and prominent, the horizontal portion much narrowed anteriorly, 
consequently the junctions of the coracoids are very near together. 

Pelvis short, very broad ; os pubis long, curved upwards at the extremities, projecting far down- 
wards, and posteriorly beyond the termination of the caudal vertebrae ; the ischiatic foramen 
small, and linear ; femora placed far backwards ; coracoids short, very strong, their extremities 
much diverging ; os furcatum short, slightly arched near the extremities of the rami, which are 
far apart, furnished with only a small process on its approach to the sternum ; scapula flattened, 
long, broadest near the extremity ; humerus, radius, and ulna short, the metacarpal bones 
longer than either ; the former furnished with ridges much elevated for the attachment of the 
pectoral muscles ; caudal and dorsal vertebrae with the transverse processes long, and ex- 
panded ; cranium of moderate strength, the occipital portion indented with two furrows, which 
pass over the vertex, and in which the hyoids lie ; orbits large, divided by a complete bony 
septum; the lachrymal bones large, causing an expansion of the bill near the nostrils. 



No. of cervical vertebrae 10 

dorsal ditto 6 

sacral ditto 9 

caudal ditto 5 

Total 30 



Length of sternum 13J 

Breadth anteriorly 4 

posteriorly 7J 

Depth of keel 6J 

Length of pelvis 6J 

Width anteriorly SJ 

posteriorly 7 

Length from occiput to point of bill STrJ 

Breadth of cranium 6^ 

Length of coracoids 6 Total 9 

Remarks :— The skeleton of this bird does not differ in form from that of TrocUlus pella, figured 
at page 270 of the Cyclopaedia of Anatomy and Physiology. The whole of the group are more 
nearly allied to fissirostral birds than any other. 



No. of true ribs 5 

false ditto 1'3 



BIRDS. 



155 



TINOCHORUS RUMICIVORUS. Eschsch. (Male.) 
Trachea of uniform diameter, furnished with one pair of steruo-tracheal muscles, from which a few 
fibres descend on each side to the upper rings of the bronchiae ; oesophagus of large diameter 
to about half its length, where it is furnished with a craw, and afterwards contracted to the 
proventriculus ; the craw where it is connected with the CESophagus is much contracted, after- 
wards it expands into a large sac ; proventriculus small ; gizzard large, and very muscular ; 
the grinding surfaces hard, concave in the middle, and furnished with longitudinal grooves 
in the concave part ; the intestinal canal is of moderate length, small next the gizzard, largest 
at the entrance of the caeca, from whence it slightly tapers to the cloaca, which is small ; cffica 
long, of greatest diameter at the opposite extremity to their entrance into the rectum ; the 
gizzard and oesophagus were filled with reeds, mixed with very small pebbles ; liver bilobed. 



Length of oesophagus from glottis to gizzard 3 inch. 

from oesophagus to outer extremity of craw J inch. 

Perpendicular diameter of craw 7 lines 

Greatest diameter of gizzard obliquely to the grind- 
ing surfaces 1 inch. 



inches 

Diameter parallel to the grinding surfaces \ 

Length of intestine from gizzard to cloaca 13 

from cceca to cloaca 1\ 

of caeca 3 



A second specimen, a female, did not differ, except in sex. Skeleton light; bones in general thin. 
Steinum broadest posteriorly, and indented on its posterior margin with two large fissures; keel 

deep, its inferior edge rounded, much scolloped out anteriorly ; a moderate-size bifid manubrial 

process between the junction of the coracoids. 
Pelvis broad, of moderate length, similar to that found among the genus Strepsilas. 
Os furcatum much arched, furnished with a small flattened process, where the ligament unites it to 

the sternum ; coracoid of moderate length, strong, furnished with a large process externally 

near their junction with the sternum ; ribs flattened, posterior process long, slightly curved, 

and narrow. 



No. of cervical vertebrae 14 

dorsal 6 

sacral 12 

caudal 7 

Total 39 



Length of sternum 16 

Breadtli anteriorly 7 

posteriorly 11 

Width of fissures 4 

Depth of ditto 6 

keel 7 

Length of pelvis 16J 

Width anteriorly 6 

posteriorly 12 

Length from occiput to point of bill 16 

Breadth of head C| 

Length of coracoids 7^ 

Remarks. The bill of this curious bird much resembles that of the genus Glareola, but the 
soft skin covering the nostrils is more developed, in which respect it resembles the quails, and other 
gallinaceous birds. The structure of the tarsi, feet, and nails approach near to that of Strepsilas, 
but differ in the latter being sharper, and in the scales on the feet and tarsi being more apparent, 
which may, perhaps, have been caused to a certain degree by the bird having been for a long 
while in spirits. 



No. of true ribs 6 

false ditto 2 

Total 8 



156 APPENDIX. 

The wing has precisely the same structure as in Glareola, and some of the plovers. 

The tail is more lengthened than among the plovers, but not more so than in Glareola pra- 
ticola, which species has, however, the tail forked, but some of the same genus, as the last named 
bird, although it is not so long in them, have it in the same shape as in Tinochorus, — as Glarecola 
Australis. 

The structure of the digestive organs is altogether that of a gallinaceous bird ; the skeleton, 
however, agrees scarcely in any particular with that order, approaching closely to that of the 
waders. The sternum differs from any gallinaceous bird with which 1 am acquainted, in wanting 
entirely the strong lateral process, and in the fissures on the posterior margin being much smaller ; 
the nearest approach in form which I have been able to find, is that of Machetes, from which, if it 
were not for the superior size of the latter, it could scarcely be distinguished. 

The pelvis agrees so perfectly with that of Strepsilas interpres, and the CharadriidcB in general, 
as not to require farther remark. 

The remainder of the skeleton resembles both the plovers and sandpipers. 

I much regret that I have never had an opportunity of dissecting a specimen of Glareola, to 
which the genus, Tinochorus, appears closely allied, and I believe that they will form a connecting 
link between the orders Grallatores and Razores ■ 




INDEX TO THE SPECIES. 



N.B. The Synonyms are in Italics. 



Ada Commersoni 
Agelaius cliopi 

fringillarius 

chrysopterus 

virescens 

Aglaia striata 

vittata 

Agriornis 

gutturalis 

striatus 

micropterus 

maritimtis 

Ai/rioniis leucurtis 
Alaudina3 

Alauda cunicidaria 

nigra 

rufa . 

fulva 

Alhatuitui a coUiernoir 
Alcedo torqiiata 
A mericana 



Alecturus guirayetupa 
Alouette noire a. dosfatwe . 
——^ d dos rouge 
Amhlgramphus hicolor 

ruber 

Ammodranius Manimb^ . 

xanthornus 

longicaudatus 



Anas Antarctica 

hrachyptera 

■ erytlirorhrjncha . 

creccoides 



Page 

51 

107 

IOC 

106 

107 

97 

98 

55 

56 

56 

57 

57 

57 

87 

65 

84. 

84 

81. 

127 

42 

42 

41 

51 

84 

84 

109 

109 

90 

90 

90 

134 

136 

135 

135 



Anas Magellanica 

urophasiamis 

Bakamensis 

Anscr melanopterus 
Anthus furcatus 

Cliii 

/ulcus 

variegatus 

correndera 

Anundii rouge 
Anumbius ruber 
Aquila pezopora . 

megaloptera 

Ardea leuce 

Egretta 

llerodias 

nycticorax 

violacea 

callocephala 

Athene cunicularia 
Attagis Ga3-ii . 

Falklandica 

Bccassine, 1" Espece 
Bee d'argent 
Bernicla leucoptera 

antarctica 

Butco tricolor 

varius 

vcutralis 

erythronotus 

Buteoninse 
Cactornis assimilis 

scandens 

Caille des Isles Malouines 



. 134 
. 135 
. 135 
. 134 
. 85 
. 85 
. 84 
. 84 
. 85 
. 80 
. 80 
. 13 
. 21 
. 128 
. 7 28 
. 128 
. 128 
. )28 
. 128 
. 31 
. 117 
. 117 
. 131 
. 51 
. 134 
. 134 
. 26 
. 26 
. 26 
. 26 
. 22 
. 105 
. 104 
. 117 



INDEX TO THE SPECIES. 



Camarhynchus psittaculus 

crassirostris 

Caprimulgidae 
Caprimulgus bifasciatus 

parvulus 

Cathartes aura 

atratiis 

urubu . 

Certhia antarctlca 
Certhidea olivacea 
Certhilauda cunicularia 
Ceryle torquata 

Americana 

Gharadrius virgiiiius 

marmoratus 

semipalmatus . 

bifasciatus 

trifasciatus 

ruhecola 

Azarci! 

collaris 

Cayanus 

Charpentier des champs 
Chii 

Chingolo 
Chionis alba 
Chloephaga Magellanica 
Chlorospiza xanthogramnia 

melanodera 

C'hopi 

Chrysometris campestris 

Magellanica 

Chrysoptilus campestris 

Churrincke 

Circaetus antarclicus . 

Circinae . 

Circus histrionicus 

mcgaspilus 

cinereus 

Clignot ou Lichenops 
Cocoothraustinffi 
Colaptes Chilensis 
Columba Fitzroyii 



araucana 
loricata 



103 

103 

36 

30 

37 

8 

7 

7 

67 

lOG 

65 

42 

42 

126 

126 

128 

127 

127 

126 

127 

127 

127 

113 

85 

91 

lis 

134 

96 

95 

107 

89 

97 

113 

44 

15 

29 

50 

29 

30 

51 

98 

114 

114 

114 

114 

115 



Columha gymnopthalmus 

leucoptera 

pica: II ro 

Talpacoti 

Boliviana 

aiirita 



Columbina strepitans 

talpacoti 

Cahocolo 



Condor 
Conurus murinus 

Pataclionicus 

La Correndera 
Coturnix Falklandica 
Craxirex Galapagoensis 
Crex lateralis . 

galcata 

melampiiga 

Critliagra ? brevirostris 

BrazUiensis . 

Crotophaga ani 

Piririqua . 

Cri/ptura Guaza 
Cri/pturiis rufescens 

perdicarius 

Cucidus guira 

nocvius . 

Culicivora jMrulus 
Curruca macloeiana 
Cursores 

Cyanotis onmicolor 
Cyclarhis Guianensis . 
Cypselus unicolor 
Dafila uropliasianus 
Daption Capensis 
Dendrodramus 

leucosternus 

Diplopterus nsevius 

guira 

Dolichonyx oryzivorus 
Dragon 
Egretta leuce 
Emheriza melanodera 

carbonaria 

guttata 

Manimhe 



Page 
115 
115 
115 
116 
116 
115 
116 
116 
116 
3 
112 
113 

85 
117 

23 
132 
133 
133 

88 

88 
114 
114 
120 
120 
119 
114 
114 

49 

83 
120 

86 

58 

41 
135 
140 

82 

82 . 
114 
114 
106 
107 
128 

95 

94 

94 

90 



INDEX TO THE SPECIES. 



Emherha D'mca 

Gai/i 

oryivorus 

luteoventris 



jacarina 

gubernatrix 

cristata 

cristatella 



Emberizina 

Embcrizoides poliocepbalus 

Eremobius 



■pi 



iCEnicurus 



Etourneau des terres 

Euphone jacarina 

Falconidae 

Falconina 

Falco sparverius . 

Falco femoralis 

deyener 

leucurus 

Noece Zoalandiw 

Australis 

Brasiiiensis 

histrionicus 

Falcunculus Guianensis 
Figulus alhogxdaris 
Fluvicolinas 
Fluvicola nengeta 

icterophrys 

Azaraa 

Irupero 

perspicillata 

Fournier 
Fregata Aquila 
Fringilla Gayi 

carbonaria 

cainpestris 

formosa 

fruticeti 

icttrlca 

Hispaniolensis 

matutina 

alaiulina 

splendcns 

Diuca 



92 
92 
lOG 
88 
94 
92 
88 



69 
IJO 
92 
9 
28 
29 
28 
13 
15 
15 
15 
9 
50 
58 
64 
51 
54 
53 
53 
50 
53 
64 
146 
92 
94 
89 
92 
94 
97 
95 
91 
94 
92 
92 



Fringilla Manimbe 
■ Magellanica 

luteoventris . 

Fringillidse . . . . 

Friiigillinse . • . . 

Fulica galeata .... 
Furnarius C/iilensis 

Lessonii 

cunicularius, Aiiat. Descript. of 

fuliginosHS 

rufus 

cunicularius 

(himetorium 

. ruber .... 

Gafarron .... 
Gallinula crassirostris 

galeata 

Geospiza niagnirostris 

strenua 

parvula 

nebulosa 

— fortis .... 

crassirostris 

deutirostris 

fuliginosa 

dubia . 



Grallatores 
Grande Mouette . 
Grive rousse et noirdtre 

llancke et noirdtre 

Guirayetupa . 

Gyratones 

Hsematopus palliatus . 

Halcyonida? 

Halcyon crythrorbyncha 

HaHa'dtuschinmchima 

erythrotiotus 

ch imango 

Hiaticula Azarae 

scmipalmata 

trifasciatus 

riiniant(ii>us nigricoUis 
IIirundinid;\! . 
Hirundo purpurea 

concolor 

Icucopygia 



, 90 

97 

. 88 

. 87 

90 

133 

67 

, 67 

148 

67 

64 

65 

66 

80 

97 

133 

133 

100 

100 

102 

101 

101 

103 

102 

101 

103 

125 

142 

59 

59 

51 

114 

128 

41 

41 

13 

26 

14 

127 

128 

127 

130 

37 

38 

39 

40 



y2 



INDEX TO THE SPECIES. 



IliruiRlo frontalis 

cyanoleiica 

Hujjjie jaune . 
Hylactes Tamil . 
Ibis melanops 

Ordi 

Falcinellm 

Icterua fringillarius 

niger 

anticus 

maxillaris 



■ sericeus 

- unicolor 

- sulcirostris 



Irwpero 

Ispida torquata 

Laniadee 

Laniagra Ouianensis 

LaniansB 

Lanius doliatus 

nengeta 

sulphiiratus 

liarus fuliginosus 

lueniatorhyncliiis 

dominicamis 

cirrocep/ialus 

maculipennis 

glaucodes 

Leistes ergthrocephala 

■ anticus 

Leptonyx macropus 

Tarnii 

albicoUis 

paradoxus . 

ruhecula 

Lcssonia err/thronotu< 
Lichenops erytliropterus 

perspicillatus 

Limosa Iludsonica 
Limnoriiis 

rectirostris 

curvirostris 

Lindo bleu dore et noir 
Macas cornu 

MaJacorhgnchus Chilends 
Manimbe 



Page 

40 

41 

88 

70 

128 

129 

129 

107 

107 

107 

107 

107 

107 

107 

53 

42 



58 

58 

54 

43 

141 

142 

142 

142 

142 

142 

109 

107 

71 

70 

72 

73 

73 

84 

52 

51 

129 

80 

80 

81 

97 

137 

78 

90 



Marcca Bakamensis . 
Megalongx mediiis 

rti/us 

albicoUis 

riificcps 

ruhecula 

rufogularis 

Megalopterus stolidus 
Melanocory])lia cinctura 
Merops rufus 
Microptcriis bracliyptenis 
Milvago pezoporos 

• montanus 

ocliroccplialus 

cliimango 

megalopterus 

leucurus 

albogularis 

IMimus Patagonicus 

Orpheus . 

parvulus 

Tlienca 

saturninus 

inclanotis 

trifasciatus 

Molothrus niger . 
Motacilla Patagonica 

Gracula 

Mouctte cendrie 
Muscicapa psalura 

risoria 

mcesta 

nivea 

parulus 

icterophrgs 

2igrope 

■ p'olgglotta . 



- Tgrannits 
vittiger 



Miiscicapidse 
Muscipeta albiceps 
Muscisaxicola bnmnea 



nigra 

mentalis 

macloviana 



Muscivora Tyrannus 



135 
72 
71 
72 
70 
73 
73 

145 
87 
64 

136 
13 
19 
13 
14 
21 
15 
18 
60 
CO 
63 
61 
60 
62 

'62 

107 
67 
67 

142 
51 
51 
53 
53 
49 
53 
55 
54 
43 
54 
42 
47 
84 
84 
83 
83 
34 



INDEX TO THE SPECIES. 



Myiobius parvirostris . 

niagnirostris 

■ — ■ albiceps 

■ auriceps 

Nothura minor 

perdicaria 

major 

Nuraenius Hudsonicus 

brevirostris 

Nycticorax violaceus 

American us 

(Enanthe perspicillata 
L'OngUt 

Opetiorhynchus rufus 
antarcticus. 



of 



Anat. Descript. 



lanceolatus 

nigro-fumosus 

antarcticus 

Patagonicus 

vulgaris, Anat. Descript. of . 

Patagonicus, Anat. Descript. 



vulgaris 
rtipeHris 



Oreophilus totanirostris 
Oriolus Jlaviis 

cayannensts 

ruber 

Ornisnii/a Kingii 

tristis . 

Orpheus Thenca 

melanotis 

irifasciatus 

Patar/onicHS 

modulator 



calandria 

Ortyx Falklandica 
Otu8 Galapagoensis 

palustris 

Oxyiirus ornatus 

dorso-maculatus 

tupinicri 

Pachyramphus albescens 
minimus 



48 

48 

47 

47 

119 

119 

119 

129 

129 

128 

128 

.ll 

97 

C4 

149 

C8 
68 
67 
67 
149 

150 

GG 

67 

125 

107 

106 

109 

110 

111 

61 

62 

62 

60 

60 

63 

60 

117 

32 

33 

81 

82 

81 

50 

51 



Palmipedes 
Parulus riificeps 
Passerina discolor 
jacarina 

ffiitiata 



Passer Hispaniolensis , 

Jagoensis 

Patac/on . 
Pattaffonian maccaio . 

tcarhlcr 

Pelecanoides Berardi . 

Garnotii 

Pelccan us carunculatus 

aquilus 

Pelidna cinclus 

minutilla 

Scliinzii 

Le Pepoaza propremeiit dit 
Pepouza variegata 

pyrope 

maritima . 

gutturalis 

7iwea 

Perdix Falklandica 
Perruche 

Perspicilla leiicoptcra 
Petit Bout-de-Pctun . 
Petrel eckasse 
Phalacrocora.r imperial is 

■ carunculatus 

Pkalcolwnus tnontanus 
Philomachus Cayanus 
Pkyfotoma Blcrami 

riitila 

silens 

- — rara, Anat. Descript. of 

rara 

Picasuro 

Picas campestris 

Ckilensis 

Kingii 

melanocephalus 

Pigeon rougeatre 
Pipillo persouata 
Pitylus superciliaris 
Platyurus nigcr 



134 

79 

107 

92 

94 

95 

95 

113 

113 

67 

138 

139 

145 

146 

131 

131 

131 

54 

55 

ba 

57 

56 

53 

117 

112 

51 

114 

141 

145 

145 

19 

127 

106 

106 

106 

153 

106 

115 

113 

114 

113 

113 

lie 

98 
97 
74 



INDEX TO THE SPECIES. 



Podiceps kalipatcus 

Rollandii 

Chilensis 

Poecilonitta Bahamensis 

Polyborinse 

Polyhorus Galapagoensis 

chimango 

Brasiliensis 

vulgaris 

alhogularis 

chimachima 

Porpliyrio simplex 
Prion vittatus 
Procdlaria occanica . 
C'ajjensis 

Berardi . 

vittata 

urinatrix 

gigantea 

glacialoides 

in'ffinns 



Progne purpurea 

niodesta . 

Psarocolius sericeus 
anticus 

chrysopterus 

Jlaviceps 

Psittacara Patachonica 
Psittacus Patagonus . 

niurinus 

Pteroptochos albicollis 



albicollis, Aiiat. Descript. of 

Tarnii 

Tarnii, Anat. Descript of . 

rubecula 

megapodius 

paradoxus 



Ptiloleptus cristatus 
Puffinuria Berardi 

Garnotii 

Puffinus cinereus 
Pyrocephalus 



parvirostns 
obscurus 
nanus 
dubius . 



Pyrgita Jagoensis 



136 
IS- 
IS? 
1S5 

23 
14 
9 
9 
18 
13 
133 
141 
141 
140 
138 
141 
139 
ISO 
140 
137 
38 
39 
107 
107 
106 
107 

lis 

113 

112 

72 

151 

70 

150 

7S 

71 

73 

114 

138 

139 

137 

44 

44 

45 

45 

46 

95 



Pyrrhulauda nigriceps 
Pyrrhulina; 
Querquedula creccoides 

erythrorbyncba 

Rallus Philippensis 

ypecaha 

sanguinolentus 

Recurviroitra himantopus 
Ri'gulus omnicolor 

Bgroncnsis 

Rhea Americana . 

Darvvinii 

Rhinomya lancoolata 
Rbynchaspis maculatus 
Rhynchsea semicollaris 

Hilairea 

—— occidentalis 

Rbynchops nigra 
Rhynchotus fasciatus 

rufescens 

Sarcoramphus gryphus 

. Condor 

Sauropbagus suli)huratus 

Sauteur 

Scansores 

Scolopax melanoleuca 

■ vociferus 

Magellanicus 

Hudsonica 

Paraguaite 

Brasiliensis 

Scytalopus fit^cus 

• Magellanicus 

Serpophaga 

parulus 

nigricans 

albo-coronata 

— ■ albo-coronata, Anat. D 

Siuriri noirdtre et jaunc 
Soiirciroux 

Spermophila nigrogularis 
Spheniscus Humboldtii 
Spheniira riificeps 
Squatarola fusca 

cincta 

Sterna aranea 
stolida 



escript. 



87 

88 

135 

135 

133 

133 

133 

130 

86 

86 

120 

123 

70 

135 

131 

131 

131 

143 

120 

120 

3 

3 

43 

92 

112 

180 

130 

131 

129 

131 

131 

74 

74 

48 

49 

50 

49 

147 

53 

58 

88 

137 

79 

126 

126 

145 

145 



INDEX TO THE SPECIES. 



Strepsilas interpres 

Strigidaj 

Striginee 

Strix cunicularia 

flammea 

punctatissima 

hrachyoia 

ru/ipes 

Sturnella rubra. 

militaris 

Sturnus pyrrhocephalus 

■ militaris 

Suminse 

Sylvia Magellanica 

vclata 

Bloxami . 

macloviana 

nigricans . 

Patagonica 

dorsalis 

perspicillata 



Sylvicola aureola 
Synallaxis humicola 
major 



rufogularis 

maluroides 

maluroides, Anat. Descript 

flavogularis 

brunnea 

ffigithaloides 

nificapilla 

dorso-maculata 

tupinieri 



Tachuris omnicolor 



nigricans 

Le Petit Tachuris noiratre 
Tanagra riificollis 

Guianensis 

vittata . 

canicapilla . 

■ Darwinii 

Bonariensis 



jacarma 



Page 






rage 


132 


Tanagra striata . 




. 97 


31 


Tanagrinse 




. 97 


34 


Tantalus Mexicanus 




. 129 


31 


chalcopterus 




. 129 


34. 


Tctrao FalMandicus 




. 117 


34 


Thalassidroma oceanica 




. 141 


33 


Thamnophilinee 




. 58 


34 


Thamnophilus doliatus 




. 58 


109 


Theristicus melanops 




. 128 


110 


Tinamus minor 




. 119 


109 


.™«,*,^^ 




. 119 






110 


'i'llfpscCllS • 




. 120 






31 


Tinnunculus Sparverius 




. 29 


74 


Tinochorus rumicivorus 




. 117 


87 


. rumicivorus, i\nat. 


Descript. of 


. 155 


49 


Eschscholtzii 




. 117 


83 


Tisserin des Galapagos 




. 105 


50 


Tityranse 




. 50 


67 


Twnioptera tariegata 




. 55 


84 


Totanus semicollaris 




. 131 


51 


fuliginosus 




. 130 


86 


■ flavipes 




. 129 


86 


macropterus 




. 129 


75 


melanoleucos 




. 130 


76 

77 






130 


Trichas canicapilla . 




. 87 


77 


velata 




. 87 


152 


Tringa Morinellus 




. 132 


78 


minutilla 




. 131 


78 


Urvillii 




. 126 


79 


rufescens 




. 130 


79 


semipalmata . 




. 128 


82 






. 129 






81 


Schinzii 




. 131 


86 


Trochilid* 




. 110 


86 


Trochilus flavifrons . 




. 110 


50 
50 






. 110 






. Ill 


gigas 




91 

58 


ri^an Anati P'^cnj-ipf 


. of 


. 154 


Troglodytes Magellanicus 




. 74 


98 


Platensis . 




. 75 








. 73 


8/ 






97 


Troupiale a tetejaune 




. 107 


107 


Turdidae . 




. 59 


97 


Turdus Falklandicus . 




. 59 


92 


Turdus Magellanicus 




. 59 



INDEX TO THE SPECIES. 



Tiirdus Thenca 

rufiventer 

varius 

curcBUS 

Chochi 

leucomelas 

albiventer 

Orpheus 

Tyranninse 

Tyrannula magnirostris 

aiiriceps 

parvirostris 

Tyr annus Irupero 

pepoaza 

polyijloltus 

nengeta 

magnanimus 

■ sulpilmratus 

giitturalis 

coronatus 

Savana 

Ulula rufipes 

Ululina! 

Ujipucerthia dumetoria . 

dumetoria, Anat 

dumetorum 

UppiKerthia vulgaris 

rupestris 

Uppucerthia nigro-fumosa 



Descript. of 



Page 

61 

59 

(U 

107 

50 

59 

59 

60 

4.2 

48 

47 

48 

53 

54 

54 

54 

43 

. 43 

, 56 

. 54 

. 43 

. 34 

. 32 

. CG 

. 148 

. CG 

. G6 

. G7 

. 68 



Vanellus cinctus 
Viralva aranea 
Vultur gryphus 

aura 

atratus 

jota 

Vulturidse 

White rumped snipe 

Xanthornus chrysopterus 

• flavus 

Xema cirroceplialum 
Xolmis nengeta 

coronata 

■ variegata 

Pyrope 

Yahana proprement dit 

Ypacaha 

Yellow crested grosbeak 

Yellow shanks snipe 

Yetapa psalura 

Zaporina notata 

spilonota 

Zenaida aurita 

Galapagocnsis 

Boliviana 

Zonotrichia strigiceps 

canicapilla 

matutina . 



126 

145 

3 



3 

130 

106 

107 

142 

54 

54 

55 

55 

133 

133 

88 

129 

51 

132 

132 

115 

115 

lie 

92 
91 
91 



/ 



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