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Missionary in Zululand and Natal. 



To be had of 

or direct from 



born 17th June, 1901, 
as an incentive to future study and research, 

this work is hopefully dedicated 
by the author. 



AFTER patiently plodding along for a period extending over more than twelve 
years, I am a length enabled to offer the public my Zulu-English Dictionary— 
the result of labours entirely accomplished in the solitude of various remote Na- 
tive missions in Zululand and Natal, with neither a reference-library to consult nor 
the conversation and advice of neighbouring students to profit by. 

I have brought my work to completion; and yet only partially so. For, although 
I have succeeded in amassing a collection of well-nigh 20,000 words, or perhaps 70 
per cent, more than have heretofore appeared in former dictionaries, I have not been 
able to prepare for this present edition all the words at my disposal. Further, this 
large total does not include all the so-called derivative forms; for, had these been 
inserted, inasmuch as every verb in Zulu is capable of adopting anything up to 
twenty -five different forms (causative, reciprocal, objective, inten sitiy e, etc.) and every 
noun at least three other forms (locative, diminutive, prepositional, and often femin- 
ine), and adjectives and adverbs also various modifications; and since about 8,500 of 
the words entered are nouns and about 8,000 verbs, the rest being adjectives, adverbs 
and the like, I might have had something like 150,000 entries instead of only 20,000, 
which, of course, would have so increased the bulk of the book as to render its 
size impracticable and its cost prohibitive. 

That most excellent production of Bishop Colenso which superseded the now anti- 
quated dictionary of Dohne which preceded it, has naturally provided me with ni3 T first 
working basis; but, even so, little of that great scholar's work will be apparent in this 
volume, since every explanation herein contained is the result of original investigation, 
and all old words have had their meanings re-written and, where necessary, amended 
or supplemented. All words have been classified according to the old system followed 
by Colenso; an alteration has been made only where that system was manifestly in 
error, but not where an improvement was merely a matter of opinion or desire. Thus, 
the sound of the hi and s, whenever they immediately follow an n, become changed, 
and adopt a dentalised form. Such a difference of sound should clearly appear in any 
good system of orthography, although Colenso made absolutely no distinction. My- 
self I have followed the X osa plan, using a Tl (instead of an ///) and Ts (instead 
of an s), and all such words" "will be found so entered. On the other hand, where a 
change was merely a matter of opinion, I have refrained from following my own 
desire, until the general opinion is more decidedly in agreement therewith. Thus, in 
regard to the signs dhl and tsh, I should have preferred personally to fall into line 
with the Xosa usage also in this matter, and have used dl and ty in their stead. I 
shall for the present, however, merely recommend the use of these latter signs to all 
writers in Zulu, so that, in a subsequent edition, they may be adopted without demur. 
Words found in Colenso's Dictionary as spoken in Xatal, but which I have 
failed to discover as known or in use in Zululand, have been everywhere marked with 
the sign (C.N.). For the accuracy of this class of words I myself are unable to 
vouch. Many will certainly be genuine specimens of Natal speech, but not a few, I 
fear, are decidedly doubtful, and some manifestly incorrect or else foreign importations. 

For instance, the word ubu-Xayi seems to me to be an obvious corruption of the e 
into an x click — a habit for which the Natal Natives have a characteristic weakness. 
Again, the words lola and u(lu)-Xolo are from the Cape Colony Xosa language and 
are absolutely unknown to the Zulus. Such Xosa words, now exceedingly common 
in Xatal, should be scrupulously avoided by all who desire to speak pure Zulu. 

Considering, then, the magnitude of my task, it will not be surprising to find 
in a first edition, lacking, as it does, that benefit of long use and perusal so helpful 
to tlif perfection of subsequent publications, a considerable sprinkling of author's in- 
accuracies and printer's errors. I have, however, endeavoured to remedy this tem- 
porary defect by supplying an Appendix, to be found at the end of the book, in which 
most of these shortcomings have been made good. 

I have already observed that this Dictionary has been compiled mainly in 
Zululand. It thus contains the pure Zulu language as there spoken — spoken, indeed, 
still as it has been from time immemorial, and uncontaminated by contact with Arab 
or European, or by the subjugation of neighbouring tribes. If, therefore, Natives of 
Xatal be found at times to use words in a sense different to that given here, such 
tb<' may, as a rule, be regarded as a localism peculiar to those parts. Although in- 
digenous only to that small strip of country between the Tukela river and Tongaland, 
the Zulu, la nguage, since the days of Shaka, has become the dominant type of speech, 
and may even be called the hngua_f rajig a throughout all the eastern half of the Afri- 
can continent from the SoutKera^CTceanHto the Zambezi and even far beyond. 

That the present-day speech of Natal Natives is sadly corrupted is patent to 
anyone well acquainted with pure Zulu, and, in the matter of clicks, they can 
scarcely be relied upon for a single word. Such expressions as waziwa cisho bonke 
bakona, though increasingly common in Natal and passing there as perfect gramma- 
tical style, are to the Native of Zululand the veriest kitchen-Kafir. Nor is this to be 
wondered at. The aboriginal inhabitants of Natal were not, unless remotely, of the 
same stock as the Zulus. They were amaLala — another people with another speech. 
Their so-called tekeza language was, previous to~the time of Shaka, considerably different 
to that of the trans-Tukelian clans and was almost unintelligible to them ; and it was only 
after the over-running of Natal and the universal leading into captivity of its peoples 
by the conquering Zulu host, that the ancient tekeza speech died out and all the youth 
of the land grew up knowing and speaking nothing but the language of their con- 
querors. The women-folk, however, were suffered to cling more tenaciously to their 
mother-tongue, and it was they who preserved in Natal that leaven which subse- 
quently tainted the Zulu of their future families. 

Then, in Natal customs concerning marriage, lobola, etc., are so exceedingly 
different from what they are among the pure Zulus, that in a few instances imper- 
fections of explanation have crept into our work ; but most of these have been duly 
amended in the Appendix. There are, again, many words in use in Natal which are 
absolutely unknown in Zululand, some perhaps remnants of the original Lata speech - 
an incident we should most certainly expect — while others are probably importations 
from neighbouring tribes. Many of these localisms not being in vogue in Zululand, 
will undoubtedly have escaped the author's notice; but such as he has come across, 
he has inserted and distinguished by the sign (C.N.) or (N), according as they appear, 
or not, in Colenso's Dictionary. 

I regret that I am unable to attest to the accuracy of many of the Native 
names for birds. Owing to the similarity in colour of so many separated species, to 
tin- changing of the plumage according to different seasons, and to the fact of the 
male birds being frequently so unlike the females, the Natives have become consider- 
ably confused in their nomenclature, so that it has often been impossible for me to 
discover the exact bird for which any particular name has been coined. Careful and 
extensive enquiries have in every case been made, oftentimes only to make the con- 
fusion worse confounded. Howbeit, wherever I have ventured to insert a scientific 
name, I have confidence that it will generally be found accurately affixed. Some 
corrections, however, based on later investigations, will be found in the Appendix. 

The same remark applies also to the Natal names for fishes, as well as to 
words denoting the particular colour-markings and the shape of horns of cattle. The 
names of fishes, as the sign (N) will show, are not pure Zulu words, being mainly con- 
fined to the few fish-eating Natives residing along the Natal coast, mainly about Dur- 
ban, and have probably been invented by them in quite recent times, since they have 
adopted the fish-eating habit, which the Zulus proper have not. 

- 7* - 

The origin of the Zulu language is still shrouded in impenetrable mists. That**"" 
it is one of the most primitive varieties of that great Bantu language spoken by all 
the Negroid tribes south of the Sudan is plain and undeniable; and if we carefully 
study the cognate words, given in this work, from the speech of other Oriental peoples, 
ancient and modern, we must certainly come to regard it, no longer as a theoretical 
supposition, but as a proven fact, that there is also an a nterio r relationship wi th tin ? 
Aryan and Semitic languages. Such a relationship has, of course, bWlTgcnerally as- 
sumed by those philologists who are of opinion that all language was originally one; 
but, strange to say, they have generally ridiculed the efforts of those who have hither- 
to attempted to prove it. We may, in this regard, merely suggest a study of the 
following comparisons, and then draw our own conclusions: — Sanskrit plu (flow), 
Latin flu-ere, Zulu um-fula (river); Skr. can (shine), Lat. candeo, Z. kanya; Lat. 
Ju-piter (the Father above), Z. pe-zu (above), i-zulu (heavens); Skr. bhuj (enjoy), 
Z. jabula; Skr. Jcunta (spear), Z. um-ko?ito; Skr. nag a (snake), Z. i-nyoka; Skr. 
han (strike), Z. is-ando (hammer), is-andhla (hand), am-andhla (strength); Skr. 
dhama (create), Z. dala; Skr. bhanu (sun), Z. ban-eka (shine out); Skr. madhu 
(honey), Z. nxnandi (sweet); Skr. upalla (rock), Z. i-dwala; Skr. dhava (husband), 
Z. in-doda; Skr. vadhu (wife), Z. um-fazi. Or with the Arabic kasar (break), Z. casa; 
Ar. khala (create), Z. dala; Ar. ghala (fault), Z. i-cala; Ar. berd (cold), Z. banda\ 
Ar. ba'ar (cattle), Z. isi-baya (cattle-pen); Ar. khabar (news), Z. in-daba; Ar. khala 
(open country), Z. u-bala; Ar. bayad (garment), Z. ambata (wear clothes); Ar. 
bar" (lightning), Z. u-bani. And so on through a hundred other examples. 

The Zulu language, says Prof. Keane, 'is probably the most typical memberi/ 
of the widespread Bantu family, standing in much the same relation to the other] 
branches of this stock as Sankrit does to those of the Aryan group'; and, writes'' 
Max-Miiller, quoting Bleek, 'it is not too much to say that similar results may 
at present be expected from a deeper study of such primitive forms of language as 
the Kafir and the Hottentot exhibit, as followed, at the beginning of the century, the 
discovery of Sanskrit.' Zulu, further remarks the first-named professor, is of all the 
most primitive and conservative of the oldest forms. We present it in this work in 
its primeval purity. Of the 20,000 words herein contained, not more than a couple of 
dozen will be found to be exotic importations. This may be a startling announcement 
to those who, mindful of the assertion that the daily speech of the average English 
peasant does not embrace more than a total of a few hundred words, had concluded 
that the vocabulary of a savage race must be equally small. The fact shows that the 
brain of the African black, 01 whose thoughts these words are the tangible manifest-.**^ 
ation, is, in so far as language can be a criterion (a point clearly to be noted), not 
a whit less active and capable than that of the average European. Nor docs the 
language show any structural inferiority ; indeed, in this respect it absolutely outclasses \ 
many of our European languages, and, had it been planned by one of our most 
modern inventive geniuses, it could scarcely have been better modelled. In the hands, 
so to say, of one expert in its use, it is capable of expressing anything in the run of 
ordinary life, in a manner as perfect, and oftentimes in an easier and clearer way 
than in English. No reasonable person would expect it to have already made pro- 
vision for all those abstract ideas, scientific facts, and paraphernalia of civilised life, 
which had never yet come within the sphere of its experience. And yet it carries 
within itself ample power and resources for answering all those requirements. Owing 
to its unrivalled onomatopuetic capabilities, it provides both a medium of lifelike ex- 
pression that the cleverest European raconteur could never aspire to, and offers an 
ever-ready means for the coining of endless new words. That a language is possessed 
of abundant inherent qualities allowing the facile coinage of new words is a strong 
and healthy characteristic showing that it is capable of responding to much further 
intellectual growth and material progress on the part of the people speaking it. Now, 
the Zulu possesses this characteristic to a truly rema rkabl e degree. Indeed, in certain 
respects it is probable that irrr living European language, if left only to its own re- 
sources and unable to borrow from other languages, could even compare with it; for, | 
given merely a sound or a peculiarity of motion — and sound and motion include a 
good deal — the Native can coin nouns and verbs with ease and to an unlimited 
degree, dignified in form and expressive to life. Quite a large number of the older 
words have undoubtedly been formed in this way — names of birds, names of beasts, 
names of actions of every description, and a multitude of verbs. Nor is this [tower 
and process already dead. As witness of this, we have the words u-mbuyimbayi 

- 6* - 

(cannon), isi-ntuluntulu (maxim-gun), u-nongqayi ( policeman ), u-noxaka (iron-trap), (shirt-front), and quite a number of other modern and intelligently form- 
ed noun?, invented, not by missionaries, but by the raw, uneducated Native. We 
can safely assert that there is scarcely anything (except in the realm of pure abstract 
thought ) lor which the Zulu language would find itself unable to supply a name. It 
is tu he deeply regretted, however, that the language is being spoilt by just those 
wiio, one would have expected, would have preserved and improved it; for we find 
European missionaries rashly coining new words with the utmost indifference to 
their fitness or necessity. They are rapidly filling the Zulu vocabulary — though few 
.it their inventions have found acceptance in this dictionary — with a ridiculous bastard 
Zulu, which consists frequently of a mere Latin or English, and sometimes even 
German, root, to which one or other of the nominal prefixes has been annexed, and 
tin- result supposed to be a Zulu word. This, generally speaking, is a sure indication 
of ignorance of the language; so that, unable to 'know' and to 'feel' and 'think' in 
it, as does the ordinary Kafir, they are incapable of doing what the most uneducated 
Native, with an unerring natural facility, invariably does, viz. to seek out materials 
from within the natural store of the language and then, by giving them a new and 
suitable form, make them answer to the newer requirements. Had we left the naming 
«it a 'cannon' to an average European linguist, he would, without any doubt, have 
learnedly informed us that this is an article of which the uncivilised barbarian cannot 
possibly have any understanding or idea, much less a name. It may, therefore, rea- 
sonably and properly be called in Zulu an i-kanoni. But the unsophisticated barbari- 
an was wiser than imagined, and with the greatest ease immediately disproved any 
suggestion of his linguistic incapabilities by naming the strange thing, upon hearing 
its boom, as an u-mbayimbayi, which is a word eertainly of purer Zulu and more 
suitable and expressive than i-kanoni, which to the Native would have been as 

The Zulu language, then, is eminently well-stocked and vividly expressive, is 
resourceful and plastic to all demands. It luxuriates in sweet, mellow vowel-sounds, 
and the quaint musical cadence of its flow rivals the most silvery-toned Italian. Its 
most prominent philological feature, however, is that alliterative concord, so ingenious 
as a grammatical scheme, which carries a flow of progressive harmony throughout 
the whole of each sentence; while the feature which gives the language its greatest 
power is its marvellously elaborated verb, which presents, as Prof. Keane observes, 
'no less than 250 different forms, temporal, modal, positive, negative, active, passive, 
causal, augmentative, etc., so that the language is in this respect probably unsur- 
passed even by the intricate verbal systems of the Finno-Tartar group'. 

A tact that showed itself most clearly during my pursuit of new words and their 
meanings, was that the Zulu language is in the keeping of the female sex. I can affirm 
without exaggeration that fully 19,000 of the words entered in this Dictionary were known 
and their meanings understood by an intelligent, though absolutely uneducated adult girl, 
who was a member of my 'court of enquiry' in Zululand to whom all words were sub- 
mitted lor verification or correction previous to entry. And so it was generally found, 
that the ordinary vocabulary and word-knowledge of the women was in marked excess 
of that of the men. This probably arises from the intellect of the X-ative female being 

illy more highly developed, clearer and keener, than that of the males; which in 
its turn may he accounted for by the fact of the females having the main portion of 
the whole work of the land to do. For busy hands must needs develop a busy mind, 
and the indolent will naturally have little to think and consequently also to talk about. 

But while the women have done so much towards the preservation and perhaps 
elaboration of the language, strange to say it is also they who have made the most 
persistent effort, unwittingly, it is true, to' corrupt or destroy it. They have a practice 
universal among them, and common also to many other savage peoples of the world 
I being, in my opinion, identical in origin with that other wide-spread custom of cer- 
tain tribes called taboo) of abstaining from the use of all words wherein is contained 
the root of the names of their male relatives (see hlonipa in text). This is done, of 
• oiii an exhibition of marked respect for those same relations. But, inasmuch 

as other expressions have to be found, or otherwise invented, to replace those thus 
lained From, and since each and every woman throughout the tribe is daily and 
diligently engaged maintaining the custom, we may easily realise what an amount of 
confusion and change tins habit must give rise to in the standard speech. Sometimes 

— 9* — 

even a whole clan, males included, will bo thus involved in the mutation of all words / 
related to the name of their chief. But with this single exception regarding chiefs- l"^ 
the hlonipa custom is confined to the female sex. About a thousand words of this 
women's lingo have been added as a novel appendix to this Dictionary; for, naturally, 
all such expressions have been rigorously excluded from the body of the text Of 
course, a word used for hlonipa purposes is not always a part of the genuine hloni- 
pa language. A single object will oftentimes have two names. In such cases a female 
would not require to coin a new and special term to suit the occasion ; she would 
merely adopt the alternative word as sufficient for her requirements. The hlonipa 
language, then, as here described, includes only such words as are confined in their 
use to hlonipa purposes and otherwise find no place in the standard of speech as 
used by all males and unabstaining women. 

As this is, I believe, the first time the female hlonipa language has been 
brought to publication, it will not only prove of great use to those who, as magistrates 
and such, have to deal with Native women, but will also provide a highly entertaining 
study. For it will be found that this hlonipa custom has not been an unmixed evil. 
Just as the frequently coarse phraseology peculiar to the tribe of English schoolboys 
lias preserved for us many ancient English terms otherwise now entirely out of use, 
so, in the same way, it will be found that the hloyjpa speech of the Zulu women has\" 
preserved words of the ancient Zulji«.language now quite obsolete, as well as many 
other words brought along by them from alien tribes from whom the men in remoter 
times had taken wives, and which words will now provide much elucidation for the 
ethnologist when tracing the origin and ancient history of these Zulu people. 

The people with whose language we are dealing have not only been given another 
colouring of skin, but they have also been gifted with, in many respects, colouring 
of thought entirely different to our own, seeing things, as we say, often in quite a 
different light. This fact has necessitated my abandoning in this work that brevity 
of explanation customary and indeed sufficient in ordinary dictionaries of a foreign, 
though cognate, Aryan language. For example, the Zulu word isi-Hlepu may at times 
be found described' simply as a 'Fragment'. Such an explanation is in truth concise 
and correct enough; but "whether or not the student is a gainer by such brevity will 
immediately appear when we discover that the 'fragment' prominent in the Native 
mind is not that which has been removed from the broken pot but rather that frag- 
mentary portion of the pot which still remains. Indeed, it would seem as though 
these people have many thoughts radically 'foreign' to our minds, as witness the 
words hubuza, juza, kohla, kunga, lumela, uShishi, xatula, and many others. I 
have therefore intentionally sacrificed that otherwise desirable conciseness of style for 
the clearer explication obtainable only at the risk of a greater prolixity; and I feel 
sure such a course will be amply justified by contributing to the greater gain of the 

This work is written, not for children and idle readers, but solely for students 
and persons of a mature mind. The Zulus are a people still in the uncultured state 
of nature, and, with that unconscious frankness significant of innocence, have the habit of 
shamelessly calling a spade a spade. Therefore, though undersignedly on their part, 
it is nevertheless from our point of view to be regretted that their language should 
possess in its daily conversational use such a large number of dicta obscena unsa- 
voury to more refined minds. But inasmuch as magistrates, missionaries, masters, and 
others having to deal intimately with Natives, have an absolute necessity of clearly 
understanding the purport of these expressions, I have been reluctantly compelled 
to insert in my work the more common of such words and phrases, the absence of 
which would have seriously militated against its usefulness and completeness; but in 
doing so, I have always endeavoured so to state the meanings as to be not too 
glaringly offensive to cultured minds. 

One of the most conspicuous defects hitherto, in regard to the Zulu Language, 
has been the very imperfect system of writing it; and one of the most conspicuous 
features of this Dictionary is an attempt to remove that defect by supplying a new 
and original method of orthography based on phonetic principles. I have believed 
that the only reasonable course, acceptable to any thinking people whose duly it may 
become to reduce a barbarous tongue for the first time to writing, is to pen the 
sounds as exactly as possible as they come from the speakers' mouths. Heretofore 
this has not been done — coba, cobha ami chobha; haha and umhhahha\ potoza and 

- 10* - 

phothoea, although each having its own meaning and different pronunciation, have 
all, in their respective groups, been written in the one same way, without any distin- 
guishing mark. There were at least nine different sounds, commonly occurring in 
Zulu speech, left entirely unprovided for in the old system of writing followed by 
bishop Colenso. This deficiency I have attempted to remedy in the present work. 
The word-lists, in order not to introduce confusion right at the start, have been com- 
piled according to the customary or old style of spelling; but wherever this is at 
variance with the actual pronunciation, the corrected orthography, expressive of that 
pronunciation, has been inserted alongside within brackets. My plan has been simply 
to give each separate sound its own distinguishing sign and to use one sign only 
for one sound. 

Towards the attaining of this end two methods were open to me — firstly, the 
adoption of 'special signs' for expressing sounds non-existent in European languages, 
or secondly, the accommodating of the ordinary signs of the Roman alphabet to the 
requirements of the Zulu tongue. The first method I find has been adopted by 
lu. Kropf, in his recent elaborate Dictionary of the Xosa language; but it altogether 
LufeTT" to recommend itself to my mind as impracticable. By its adoption nothing 
could be printed in Zulu without the use of special types, and such special types the 
South-African printers do not possess, nor would it repay itself to have them made. 
The second method, on the contrary, was both simple and feasible. It demanded 
nothing beyond the ordinary lettering of the English alphabet, and with that lettering- 
it was found easily possible, by a judicious combination of the signs, to describe 
every different sound occurring in Zulu speech. My phonotypy was accordingly 
planned so that it serve the double purpose of showing at once the accurate spelling 
and the correct pronunciation of each word. The appearance of the new letter-com- 
binations will naturally be somewhat puzzling at first sight, and perhaps somewhat 
distasteful to those who too conservatively cling to traditional errors; but unbiassed 
beginners will rapidly discover that the puzzling and confusion was rather in the 
antiquated system wherein the same sign frequently represented totally different sounds 
and the same sound was frequently represented by quite different signs; whereby 
some wrote tshala for 'to plant,' others tyala, whereas the sound was one and the 
same, or beka for 'to see' and beka also for 'to place,' although the sounds were 
altogether different. 

I have described my system of orthography as original. It was a coincidence 
truly surprising to the compiler of this work to discover that, while he had been en- 
gaged during so many years in the preparation of this dictionary and the devising of 
an improved system of Zulu orthography, another lexicographer, Dr. Kropf, away in 
the Cape Colony, had been engaged, quite unknowingly and independently, doing pre- 
cisely the same thing for the Xosa language, with the result, moreover, that both 
became driven by the like facts to the same conclusions and adopted theoretically the 
same system of writing — theoretically, though not descriptively the same, for, as 
above observed, the Xosa lexicographer preferred the use of 'special signs' for his 
writing and spelling to the ordinary letters of the alphabet as it stands. 

One oT the peculiar attractions of this Dictionary will undoubtedly be the large 
number of derivations and cognate words sprinkled throughout the text and collected 
from more than 180 languages, ancient and modern. They are the result not of any special 
study in this branch, having been merely picked up casually in the reading of philo- 
logical and other books. The student will therefore guard against supposing that they 
arc given with any pretension to authority. The greater number, it is true, will be 
obvious certainties; but many are simply suggestive, while some are merely fanciful. 
They are given for what they are worth, and I feel convinced will not fail to be of 
great profit to earnest philologists and of interest to all. But I have not overbur- 
dened my space with references to the languages of our immediate neighbours, the 
Xosas and Sutos. The relationship with these being so close and cognate words so 
numerous, had I collected from them, I should have had to include in my text a 
very large portion of their respective dictionaries. I have therefore confined my 
selection to words only of the remoter African languages. Nor have I followed 
Dohne in his habit of analysing the words, as to their primordial particles and the 
intrinsic meaning of such. To attempt this, with our present rudimentary knowledge 
<»t Bantu philology, were, in my opinion, not only futile, but also at times foolish. 

A large collection of clan-names (izibongo) and proper names at the end of the 
book is another useful novelty in this work. Proper names of places have been entered 

- 11* - 

in their locative form, both on account of that being the form almost solely used in daily 
speech, and in order to indicate how that form is really constructed for each word. 

The rule followed in this work for the classification of nouns has been to entei 
each according to its root or radical. But the form of some nouns is so complicated 
and misleading as to render it difficult for one not already expert in the language t<> 
recognise what portion of the whole word constitutes this root. Thus, wo have, the 
words impitimpiti (a commotion) and imfangumfangu (a spongy thing). At first 
sight one would expect to find these words entered under P and P respectively, or 
otherwise both under M. And yet both such manners of entry would he inaccurate; 
for the radical of the former noun begins witli Piti (from the verb pitiza, to move 
about) and, of the latter, with Mfangu (from the verb mfanguza, to squeeze). They 
would accordingly be found entered as i-mPltimpiti and i-Mfangumfangu. 

Other examples, again, are still more complex. Thus, we have cebengela (to 
patch up), ingcebengela (a patching up of an affair), ubung cebengela (such patching- 
up talk); or, gana (marry), ingane (a child), umngane (a friend), ubung ane (child- 
hood, friendship); ttita (carry away), intutwane (an ant), ubuntutwane (character of 
ants). Here we have examples of first and second derivations, of primary and sec- 
ondary roots. In the first instance, it is plain that the noun ingcebengela \* derived 
from the verb cebengela, and that the nominal radical must therefore commence with 
the click (which in this case has become somewhat modified in sound owing to the 
preceding nasal); and it is also plain that the noun ubung cebengela is derived, nol 
from the original root cebengela, but directly from the noun ingcebengela. Unfortun- 
ately no rule has been so far formulated for the regular division of such nouns into 
prefixes and radicals. In this work I have entered them under all possible places 
so as to avoid any inconvenience to those searching for them. Nevertheless, I should 
like to submit as the simplest rule for future general acceptance and applicable alike 
to all derivative nouns, that the portion of a noun to be in future regarded as its 
radical (as distinct from its prefix) should be the radical of the word from which it 
is immediately, not remotely, derived. Thus, cebengela, i-nG 'cebengela, ubu-Ngcebe- 
ngela; gana, i-nGane, um-Ngane, ubu-Ngane; tuta, i-nTutwane, ubu-N tut wane. 

In fine, I are unable to find words adequate to express my deep gratitude to 
all who have so generously assisted me in my difficult task. A special tribute of 
thanks is due to the Ven. Archdeacon Johnson, of Zululand, for several words and 
their meanings; to J. Medley Wood, Esq., director of the Botanic Gardens, .Durban, 
and to J. F. Quekett, Esq., curator of the Durban Museum, for many scientific terms ; 
to A. R. R. Turnbull, Esq., magistrate in Zululand, for much historical information ; 
to J. Stuart, Esq., magistrate in Durban, for the names of fishes, birds, etc.; to the 
Rev. L. O. Feyling, of St. Lucia Bay, and to many other gentlemen of the Civil 
Service and general public. 

And I would still fain solicit the continued support of these and all others 
interested in having a compendium of the Zulu language as complete and perfect as 
possible; that they kindly send to me from time to time any Zulu words they may 
find not appearing on my list, as well as notify me of any errors they may discover 
or improvements they would suggest. 

A. T. Bryant. 
Pinetown, Natal., Feb. 4th., 1905. 


11HE history of the Zulu people is the history of the whole Bantu race, and the 
. history of the Bantu race is the history of half the African continent. Numerous 
scholars, in Germany, in England, and elsewhere, have already given, we might 
almost say, their life to the unravelling of the pages of this puzzling history, but, we 
regret to say, with the poor result that it still remains a closed book. Of deeply 
thought-out theories there have been an amplitude, a few presenting some appearance 
of probability, many merely fanciful, most simply speculative, all unsupported by ab- 
solute proof. 

Hut if, of this great mass of thought and suggestion, we collect the cream; if 
we sift out therefrom that which, according to our own thinking and investigations, 
mis the most acceptable, we shall find the story of the peoples of this African con- 
tinent to run somewhat as follows. 

The external crust of this earth of ours was not always moulded exacthy as it 
at present stands. There was a time when Jobian leviathans and other aquatic fry 
sported along our valleys and swam over our plains; when anthropoid apes chattered 
ami worked out their development in trees now embedded at the bottom of the ocean. 
Starting with this supposition —and we think we may safely say fact, rather than 
supposition the distribution of mankind and the diversification of races throughout 
the globe, otherwise so puzzling, becomes at once clear and understandable. When 
jro ancestors could traval overland from Malaysia to Africa; when the pre-historic 
civilisation of Egypt and Fezzan found a means of spreading uninterrupted as far as 
Mexico that is the period in the world's lifetime to which we must in spirit betake 
"urselves, if we would trace the origin, or at least so much of it as we shall probably 
ever be able to know, of these old-world people in whose midst we live. 

The Negritos of the Phillippine Islands, Andaman and Tasmania, the Papuans 
of New Guinea ami Fiji, the Dravidians of Eastern India and Australia, find them- 
selves to-day planted about the world in isolated localities, separated one from an- 
other and from their cousins, the Negroes of Africa, by hundreds and thousands of 
miles of impassable ocean, each ignorant even of the other's existence, and retaining 
no further trace of mutual connection than that ineradicable identity of physical form 
and character which nature has unerringly continued to mould out of the same pri- 
mordial elements of life and blood. And how did this world-wide separation come 

The question is not difficult to answer with the many-branched elucidation of 
modern investigation. A mere look at the map will suffice to show us that the asser- 
tions of geologists are more than probable All these broken chips of dry land, 
Australia, Papua and Imlo-Cliina, were once one solid continent, extending continuously 
away towards the west, from the Eastern Archipelago to Africa. But gradually, in 
different ages, and perhaps, as Prof. Keane — to whose brilliant writings, by the way, 
we are indebted for so much of our information — thinks probable, during the early 
part or middle of the Tertiary period, the bowels of the earth became convulsed 

( t 

— 13* 


— an occurrence by no means uncommon in those far-off times, when our planet had 
not yet cooled down to her present comparatively sober state and the Indo-Malay- 
sian continent became a wreck. A thousand disconnected islands sprang up in its 
place and the major portion remained permanently submerged beneath the in-running' 7 
floods of the Indian Ocean. Lemuria in the east, as Atlantis in the west, disappeared 
for aye from the cartography of the globe. "That such geological changes have taken 
place in Southern Asia in the very latest geological period is", says Strachey, in 
the Encyclopaedia Brit., "well established." 

In this Lemurian continent, selected by many as the probable cradle ol the I 
human race, — though Darwin himself, it is said, favoured a region about where 
Somaliland now is — lived many prehistoric peoples, and with it the 'missing link', 
the solution of Darwinism, went to the bottom of the sea. Hut from it this African / 
continent was mainly peopled. In the remotest antiquity streams of people wanderedC 
down upon these parts direct from the now-submerged land, while at a much more ^ 
recent date, in all but historical times, other incursions of other races overran her 
more northern parts from what we may call modern Asia. The whole of the inhabi- 
tants of Africa dwelling in those parts to the south of the Sahara region, with the 
exception of the Gallas and Somalis, but including perhaps the Pygmies, the Hush 
men, and the Hottentots, and certainly the Negroes and the Bantus, belong to tin 
former category. When this occupation of Africa originated is unknown, for it is 
unknown when the Lemurian continent became submerged and the peoples of tin 
Eastern Archipelago and Africa were cut asunder by an inrush of impassable ocean 
It is probable that there were several different incursions, according as families oi 
triblets, feeling the pressure at home, wandered abroad, following each other at lorn. 
periods, in all perhaps amounting to thousands of years. We have information of {lie 
Pygmies, the Bushmen and the Negroes, the African aboriginals nearest to the 
ancient seats of literature in Egypt and Greece, more than 5,000 years ago; and, « 
from all we can judge, these races are to-day just as they were then, and we see no 
reason to believe that they were then any different from what they may have been 
yet another 5,000 years before. The submerging of the Indo-Malaysian continent 
must have been an event of the remotest past, for, although a catastrophe attendant 
with such tremendous results to mankind, its occurrence had been practically for- 
gotten by the very oldest of races; but that it took place after man had already entered 
into possession of the globe, would seem to be supported by the evidence of dilu- 
vian traditions among so many ancient peoples, especially among those inhabiting 
the vicinity of the particular region in point. But inasmuch as the Bantus and, we \ 

believe, the Negroes have themselves no such tradition, it would almost seem as 
though they had already left their Lemurian fatherland and become lost among the 
wilds of Africa long before the cataclysm occurred. 

We may here observe, in parenthesis, that the above theory bases itself upon 
the more remote primordial ancestry of the whole human genus from a single original 
mother. Others prefer to start at a more recent date, with the subsequent division of 
that genus into different human species through different original mothers, so that, 
for instance, the Mongolian race may be regarded as of a different origin to that of 
the Negroes. According to this method of speculation, the .Mongolians and the Bush- 
men would still remain intimately related; but their common ancestor dwelt, not in 
the vanished tropical continent, but rather in a more temperate region, and the yellow- 
skinned inhabitants of Africa arrived, not by a route from east to west, but downward 
from the more northern latitudes about Siberia. Signs of pre-historical Bushman life 
which, Petrie tells us, exist in Malta and France, would seem to favour this theory. 
Further, it does strike one as remarkable, though by no means as an insurmount- 
able difficulty, that the yellow races of Africa, notwithstanding that they have been 
subjected to all the same circumstances of climate, life ami general environment as 
the black races throughout a continuous period of at any rate 7,000 years, have never 
yet in the slightest degree exchanged their light yellow colour for a swarthy skin. 

The Pygmies, Bushmen and Hottentots. But should we adopt the hypothesis of 
an eastern origin — as most are inclined to do — then, from the antediluvian land 
there wandered off, in the very earliest of days, towards the Mongolian lands of Asia, 
as towards the present African mainland, first of all, bands of diminutive, yellow- 
skinned men of meagre intelligence, whose roving, homeless life, rude manners, and 
rudimentary forms of speech, likened them more to the animals than to men; whose 



— 14* — 

'pygmy' descendants, are said to be still extant (if they ever existed), though personally 
we prefer to think that there no longer exists any yellow race inferior to the Bushmen. 
Meeting somewhere with the requisite conditions, the diminutive physique and 
rudimentary intellect of this supposed race of Pygmies began to develop, and the 
Troglodytes or Cave-dwellers, the Bushmen of our own times, were evolved. These 
were possessed of a somewhat improved edition ofthe human body and some advance 
in their mode of life in that they preferred the shelter of the cave to the open veldt or 
forest, though they still retained the clucking language and the yellow skin, the high 
cheek-bones, the unusual posterior development, and the scanty tufty hair of their progen- 
itors. In these Bushmen, now, with the Pygmies, destined to die away and give place 
to more vigorous strains, we have the remnants of those ancient emigrants from the 
Indo-Malaysian continent, whose brothers, migrating away to the eastward, subsequently 
produced the great Mongolian race. But in the Mongolian land, the last survivors of 
the original pygmy stock of those parts died out long ago, so that we find there to- 
lay representatives only of the more recently developed scion. 

These primitive people, at a very early period, somehow acquired a strongly 

irtistic bent of mind, which grew in Africa into a natural talent for the graphic art 

- rude pictures of these ancient Bushmen being still extant in the caves in almost 

very district of South-Africa — and into the science of hieroglyphics in Ancient China, 

eliminating later on in their present system of writing. The characteristic weapon of 

..hese unprogressive races still remains, alike in Asia as in Africa, the bow and arrow, 

nd the fact of an abundance of stone arrowheads, axes, and other rude implements 

X this material having been found, according to Oppert and Theal, in the Cape Colony, 

,i Egypt, in Somaliland and Upper Guinea, would seem to point to the presence of 

mese Bushmen peoples all over the continent during the Stone Age, which Oppert 

opines to have been about 12,000 years before our era. But as man is generally held 

to have been present on this earth at least during some part of the Glacial Period, 

and this Glacial Period, according to such great authorities as Geike and Lubbock, is 

held to represent an age of about 200,000 years ago, this calculation of Oppert cannot 

be deemed extravagant. 

From the Bushmen, the aba-Twa of the Zulus, we pass on to a very closely 
allied race, the Hottentots or ama-Lawu. Described in one word, they seem to be 
an improved edition of the former. They have the same dirty -yellow skin; the same 
high-cheeked, steatopygous type of body; a stature on the average taller than the 
Bushmen, though still much below the average of other surrounding African races; a 
mode of life of greater refinement than that of the Bushmen, being inclined rather to 
pastoral and agricultural habits, and yet, like the latter, still preferring the desert 
solitudes and careless of any kind of dwelling; and, finally, a language which, while 
apparently in the main based on that of the Bushmen, abounding in clicks and harsh 
guttural sounds, and presenting some remote resemblance to it in its vocabulary, 
nevertheless exhibits certain important differences from it in structure, which differ- 
ences, strange to say, are marked characteristics of the Hamitic languages far away 
at the other end of the continent, viz, the possession of nominal suffixes, grammatical 
gender, etc. — traits unknown in any languages of the Bantu (as well as in those of 
the Bushmen, for a matter of that), who occupy the whole of the African mainland 
right away to beyond the equator. 

It is on the strength of this linguistic similarity of grammar between the Hot- 
tentots and the Hamitic family that some, like the celebrated Lepsius, have supposed 
that the former, as well as the Bushmen, may be of Hamitic origin. In support of 
this theory they point, further, to the moon-worship of these people, to their use of 
bows and arrows, to their strong resemblance to figures appearing in ancient Egyp- 
tian art. But in our opinion the whole of the above facts taken together do not 
warrant the aforesaid conclusion. The solely structural, not verbal, resemblance 
between so distantly separated languages, marking, too, so strong a divergence from 
anything akin to the all-encompassing Bantu speech, or even to that of their nearest 
relatives or ancestors, the Bushmen, is certainly a surprising and inexplicable puzzle. 
Our own opinion is that the present South-African Hottentots were originally a 
"Bushman" race (or race sprung from Bushman ancestry) resident in the northern 
parts of Africa; that there they came into contact — perhaps as their slaves - 
with the Hamitic tribes, in-streaming by the isthmian route from Asia (suppos- 
edly from the neighbourhood of Mesopotamia, and afterwards followed, as the last 
in the procession, by the so-called Ancient Egyptians), and in so intimate a degree 

— 15* — 

— though without intermarriage — as to adopt, not only some characteristics of 
their speech, hut also their nomadic mode of life and pastoral instincts; and, becoming 
afterwards separated from their neighbours, they wended their way or were pushed 
gradually ever more and more towards the south, until the ocean forbade further pro- 
gress. Their moon-worship — which, if we were more familiarly acquainted with it, 
would probably resolve itself into a few hazy myths or mythical Customs thereanent 

— was picked up on the way, not from the Ancient Egyptians, who more particularly 
worshipped the sun and only in a very slight degree the moon, nor yet from any of 
their Hamitic neighbours, but from the Negro or Bantu tribes among whom they 
passed and with whom they mixed and probably intermarried to such a degree that 
a very considerable proportion of the speech of the South-African Bantu tribes became 
permanently saturated with the 'clicking' elements of their speech; for, as Keith .John- . 
stone remarks, "the most widely spread worship of the Negroes and Negroids is thai ^^C 
of the moon" —and this equally among those tribes whose language knows nothing ^\ 
of clicks and whose customs and traditions show absolutely no sign of Hottentot 
influence. As for their use of bows and arrows, the Pygmies and Bushmen and, 
indeed, most primitive peoples, used this weapon, whether it be in Africa, Asia, or 
Oceania. That figures of people showing their peculiar type of body should have been 
found depicted in Ancient Egyptian art, is only what we should expect; for their 
kindred, the Pygmies and Troglodytes or Bushmen — as witness Herodotus, Ho- 
mer, Hecataeus and others — were well known in Egypt, indeed some of them are even 
to-day and were probably also then dwelling in their immediate vicinity; and, further, 
such representations of "Bushman-like" figures are found, as we have said, not only 

in Egypt, but also in Malta, France and other parts. 

The theory roughly outlined above viz. that the Hottentots at one time in their 
history dwelt in Northern Africa and — as we personally should prefer to believe - 
came originally, not from a directly eastern, but, along with or subsequently to the 
Bushmen, from a northern or north-eastern Asiatic direction, seems to us much more 
plausible than the one given by Keith Johnstone as that now generally held, and 
which seeks to connect the Hottentots rather closely with the Chinese and Malays, and 
to regard them as comparatively recent importations. It is, of course, quite possible 
that the Hottentots may have migrated to this Continent before or at the same time 
as the emigration — if such ever occurred in regard to the aboriginal inhabitants of 
that island — of the Malays to Madagascar, and have eventually become so mixed by 
intermarriage with the South-African Bushmen as to become in physique and speech 
scarcely distinguishable from them, in such a manner, indeed, as the imported Chinese 
might become were they permitted to intermarry indiscriminately with these same 
people. But we imagine were this so, the resulting strain would not be as the Hot- 
tentots really are; would not have lost so completely its original nature and language, 
and become so nearly identical with the foreign mixture. Nor does their chief differ- 
ence with the Bushmen, viz. their pastoral, nomadic trait of character, indicate a 
Malaysian influence. In a word, we see little reason for deeming the Hottentots as 
more deeply Malaysian or Mongolian than the Bushmen themselves, and should con- 
sequently prefer to place their relationship with those races much further back and 
believe that it came through the same channels as did that of the more ancient 
Pygmies and Troglodytes. The Hottentots, indeed, may present signs of being a 
much more recent race than those Cave-dwellers, and yet there be no necessity what- 
ever for our imagining them to have been a transplanting from elsewhere. A species 
so nearly allied to the older Bushmen as are these Hottentots could certainly have 
worked out its evolution on this continent without any special Asiatic aid. They may 
eventually prove to be a 'mixed' race, or at any rate, as we have already surmised, 
one that has, at some period of its existence, come under strong Hamitic or even 
Semitic influence. 

The Negroes. But all this is merely introductory to the more important study 
as to whence the Negroes of Africa, and their near relatives the Bantus, of whom the 
local Zulus are a variety. 

The first pages of African history were written somewhere about 4,000 years 
before Christ, and they consist in the monuments of Ancient Egypt The wonderful 
civilisation of the Ancient Egyptians had already attained its maturity in the so-called 
4th. dynasty of its rulers — a date given by Lepsius as :i,l'24 B.C. and by Mariette as 
4,235 B.C., the period of the 1st. dynasty (commencing with Mena or Menes, the first 

— 16* — 

monarch who ever reigned as king over united Upper and Lower Egypt, there having 
been, previous to his founding of the empire, only numerous small tribes or clans, 
each under its own independent chieftain, scattered throughout the region) being 
placed respectively at 3,892 B.C. and 5,004 B.C. It is at present unknown whether 
this wondrous civilisation was of indigenous or exotic growth; but judged by the 
ethnology of the Ancient Egyptian people, it would seem to have been imported from 
elsewhere, probably from Asiatic regions. For these Ancient Egyptians were not of 
African extraction, and were perhaps the very latest of the primitive races to migrate 
into that continent. They probably entered by the isthmian route from south-western 
Asia, and from their physical features, their dark-brown colour and their language, 
are held to have been a race intermediate between the Semitic and Indo-Germanic 
families. How long it took them, by their own unaided effort, to raise themselves to 
so advanced a state of culture and knowledge can only be surmised. It must certainly 
have required thousands of years; Chabas thinks 4,000 years antecedent to the first 
dynasty would be a space of time sufficiently long for its development. The Gara- 
mantes or Tibus, a Negro-Hamitic tribe inhabiting what is now Fezzan, also exhibited 
a high form of civilisation about this same time; but that it was anterior to that of 
its neighbour Egypt is not proven. That this is a very ancient and primitive people 
is regarded by the great philologist, Reinisch, as certain, and he even makes what 
appears to be a somewhat rash assertion that their language represents the best 
living example of the primitive speech of man. Probably their ancient culture was 
merely an inferior imitation of the arts of their great neighbour on the Nile. How 
the similarity between the civilisation of Egypt and that of Mexico came about were 
a more interesting problem, though one more difficult to explain. 

African history, then, dawned in Egypt nearly 6,000 years ago and threw a light 
upon much that was then existing and going on round about in those regions. We 
find our Negro already well known, for his race provided the Pharoahs with many 
a corps of swarthy warriors. Hebrew, Greek and Roman writers obtained from the 
Eg3 r ptians some knowledge of their other African neighbours, the Pygmies (or 
dwarfs), Troglodytes ( or cave-dwellers ) and Blemmyes (or hideous people). The pyg- 
mies have been re-discovered in recent years by Stanley and Schweinf urth ; the cave- 
dwellers are the Bushmen we almost have in our midst; but who were these 'hideous 
people'? They have been held by some to be distinct from the Negroes, and 
Lepsius supposes them to have been the ancestors of the present-day Bisharis, from 
the fact of this Hamitic or Nubian tribe now inhabiting their old country; but it is 
not without some doubt whether the epithet exactly suits their physiognomy, or might 
not with greater probability have been applied to a purely Negro tribe. At any rate, 
the Negroes or a people very like them, were there; certainly they did not pass in 
through the narrow gate of Suez, nor yet did they come down in ships, at any time 
subsequent to the occupation of northern Africa by the Ancient Egyptians. 

In making a comparative study of races, we have to consider, first of all, their 
respective anatomies or physical features; then, their mental characteristics; thirdly, 
the resultant habits, customs and religion; and, finally, as the quality most open to 
change, their language. Keeping these points in view as our working criteria, we 
shall find that the eastern and western shores of the Indian Ocean are inhabited by 
remarkably similar folks. On the one side we have a dark-skinned family of progna- 
thous Negritos and finer featured Papuans, together with a tawny, broad-faced race of 
Mongols, and, on the other, the blacks of Negro and Bantu-land, and the yellow-skinned 
Bushmen. While the blacks and the yellows on the one side, though mutually distinct 
among themselves, are undoubtedly related to the corresponding blacks and yellows 
on the other side, we may reasonably infer that the two types are respectively de- 
3cended from common mothers, of whom that of the blacks, at any rate, had her home 
somewhere in the now submerged Afro-Malaysian continent. 

In comparing the physiological features of the eastern and western branches of 
the dark-skinned races, none will deny that between the Negroes and the Negritos, 
between the Bantus and the Papuans, there is a pronounced and unmistakable likeness, 
which at once unites them all as children of one family and distinguishes them from 
all other families of mankind. There is throughout the same powerfulness of jaw, 
Fullness of lip, broadness of nose, and woolly frizzly hair in various degrees of inten- 
sity. By passing through a few Kafir kraals, one might easily bring together a very 
passable photographic group of "Papuans", while among the tribes of New-Guinea he 
might as easily collect a troupe of "Zulus" more true to genuine appearance than 


s is/ 

— 17* — 

perhaps some such who have, in years not long past, been placed 'on show ' in Europo 
and America. Da Gama, four hundred years ago, found on tho Quilimane river "many 
who appeared to have Arab blood in them"; and Captain Webster finds to-day, 
in the Papuans of the Admiralty Islands, "strong Hebraic features very prominent.'' 
This constantly recurring resemblance of the Negro-Papuan peoples to the Semites ' 
no doubt due to some admixture of blood, not within historical times nor with 
present-day Semitic peoples, but rather with some long-dead race from which th< 
latter sprang, and in a vanished land. 

The Nubians of Africa, as the Polynesians of Oceania, and may-be too tho In- 
dians of America, are all tribes more or less remotely connected with the archaic race 
of which we are writing; are all younger species subsequently produced by the en- 
grafting of foreign and perhaps more vigorous scions on these primitive stocks. 

The description given by Wallace of the Papuan as "impulsive and demonstra- 
tive in speech and action; his emotions and passions express themselves in shouts 
and laughter, in yells and frantic leapings; he is bold, impetuous, excitable and noisy, 
is joyous and laughter-loving", is a picture exact and life-like of the mental character- 
istics of our South-African Kafir and of the plantation Negro. 

When we turn to the social-system, the customs and the religion of these peoples, 
we find our hypothesis again testified to throughout. The system of clans, which 
among the younger peoples of India have developed into castes and with us into fam- 
ilies of Smiths, Masons and others, reigns everywhere, in the Sudan as in Sawaiori, 
in Basutoland as in Papua. Though each clan has its chief who figures as its head,,'] 
all important matters affecting the tribe must be submitted to the assembly of itsn 
chief men. A Polynesian has a distinguishing name for each clan, which name is'' 
often borne by the head or chief thereof, just as Cetshwayo was often hailed by his 
people as Zulu, as though he were the whole tribe in single personification, or as the 
Swazi king might be called Ngwane — Zulu and Ngwane being really the distin- 
guishing names of the tribes. 

The so-called 'Mosaic' precept has become curiously well known throughout the 
race we are considering, for from top to bottom of Negroland and throughout the 
numberless islands of the Pacific, the untutored gentiles are everywhere scrupulous 
devotees of the practice of circumcision. Nor do they confine themselves to preputial 
clippings for utilitarian purposes. The Tonga of South-Africa, in his pursuit of beau- 
ty, proceeds to hack lumps from his cheeks; the Nigerian Nupe draws a couple of 
gashes radiating down his face from the angle of the eye and the nose; while the 
Papuan and Maori carves artistic designs on his own flesh from head to foot — all of 
which cuttings distinguish the wearer's tribe as eloquently as does its name. The 
Papuan women of the Admiralty Islands have the habit of burning "round indenta- 
tions into the flesh over the body in rows and designs"; the Zulu damsel burns 
round scars in hers, in that she takes a pinch of dry cow-dung, drops it carefully—*"' 
here and there on her arm, surmounts the whole with a tiny live cinder, and receives 
a gradual roasting of the spot of flesh beneath, which, when healed, she calls a beau- 
tiful little iMv iir ^dliza. 

So soon "as the aforesaid Zulu damsel has attained the event of puberty, her\ 
girl-companions from all the surrounding kraals assemble in force, hold a great dance, * 
accompanied by many unspeakable ceremonies; her Polynesian sister celebrates the 
same auspicious occasion, but in a great demonstration of feasting. 

This over, the damsel is saleable, or, as we should say, marriageable. A blush- 
ing Papuan comes along, bearing a pig and some feathers, purchases her right off 
from her father's hands, and takes her home with him. A Zulu swain could only 
obtain the same commodity after a payment of ten head of cattle. Once married, the 
lady-love speedily discovers the contemptuousness of her position, when, both in 
Rantuland and New-Guinea, she is compelled to eat apart from the male thing and 
that which his capacious belly could find no room for. Aye, she is even required, be 
she in Kaffraria or Australia, actually to refrain from ever naming the relations of 
her master — so to be venerated is he and they. Verily, this would be a serious 
taking of the name of the lord in vain. 

But the burned cicatrices of the Papuan bride, do not commend themselves as 
beautiful to her sister in Polynesia. This latter seeks about for red-ochre and colours 
therewith her flowing tresses, for all the world as though she had learned the trick from 
some red top-knotted Zulu umfazi, or buxom Kafiress from the Old Colony, who, 
however, would prefer to redden her whole body, blanket included. 


Needless to say, the Papuan and African alike sees that most of the work is 
done by the breeding and labour-machine, called a bride, which he has recently pur- 
chased, so to say, for hard cash. With a strange similarity of generous feeling, he 
everywhere condescends to build the hut, to tend any stock where such may be 
possessed, to go a-hunting, and now and then do a little necessary war-waging; but 
the cultivation of the fields, the rearing of the family, the general management of the 
household, even to the making of its eating-pots and sleeping-mats, all pertains to the 
female department. True, a lavish nature often provides Negro and Polynesian alike 
with such an abundance of gourds or calabashes suitable for water and beer-vessels, 
that nothing better requires to be made. The African pottery of to-day is often in 
shape and pattern strongly similar to vessels made in the East, and the simple earthen 
pots nowadays common in every Zulu kraal are almost identical with those used in 
Egypt at a period 6,000 years ago. 

Soon, however, the bride becomes a mother; but that doesn't trouble her much, 
for infanticide is quite an institution throughout Polynesia; and should it be twins 
in Zululand, the mother makes no bones about summarily demolishing the party who 
arrived last. 

The domestic life of the Negro-Papuan family demands no feather beds, but 
what is deemed a suitable substitution has been provided in the shape of rush-mats 
and wooden head-rests, oftentimes strongly reminiscent of such as were used among 
the Ancient Egyptians. Bows and arrows, spears and shields are the universal wea- 
pons of the race. The Papuan fights his enemy by fixing pointed pieces of bamboo 
along the path by which he will travel; the Zulu wages war with the wild-beast by 
fixing sharp-pointed stakes in an upright position at the bottom of a pit into which 
the animal will fall. 

At length one or other of the merry couple gets sick. Everywhere alike is the 

I reason of the break-down ascribed to witchcraft or spirits, for a death occurring at 

any time before the age of senile decay is with these people 'unnatural.' But there 

'■ is an elaborate provision of magic capable of meeting any emergency. Omens in 

endless variety indicate the coming evil beforehand. Diviners are at hand able, for a 

I consideration, to discover the most secret machinations of any evil-one, corporeal or 

spiritual. Charms are purchasable against every ill, to bring every good. Go where 

you will through Africa, Melanesia or the Isles of the Pacific, the same state of things 

prevails. The fetichism of the Negro is the religious abstinence or ukvrzila of the 

. Zulus, and both are other forms of the tabu of the Polynesian. And very often the 

doctor in New Guinea will 'extract' the afflicting disease in a visible form, in the 

shape of tiny particles of wood or stone apparently taken from the flesh of the 

sufferer, as though he and his Zulu confrere had gone through their course in the 

one school of medicine, for this latter also practises similar methods of treatment. 

Yet, generally speaking, in spite of every effort, the party dies. But not as a 
dog; his spirit continues living still. In Kafirland it is supposed to be out on the 
veldt until, some few months after the burial, it is brought or enticed to come home 
by the slaughter of a beast in its honour. In New Guinea there is also a little feast- 
ing to be done after a person's demise. His spirit too comes back; but instead of 
assuming the form of a snake, as it does with the Zulus, it enters, if of a father, 
straight away into the soul of a son, or, if of a mother, into that of a daughter. 

Should, however, a wife have had the fortune to survive her husband, she 
stands a strong chance of being 'entered into', as the Zulu says, by his remaining 
brother, under the pretence of this latter kindly completing on his behalf the duty of 
propagating the species. This is another 'Mosaic' precept that was probably the 
universal custom of the race throughout Africa, Melanesia and Oceania, long before 
iVIoses was born. 

The fear and propitiation of these departed spirits — ancestor worship, as it is 
■often misleadingly called — is the key-stone of the whole religious system of the 
I Bantu, Malaysian, Papuan and Polynesian peoples. The Bantus, as intimated, believe 
these spirits to take up an existence within the body of several kinds of non-ven- 
omous snakes. The Polynesians believe they inhabit certain animals and trees, and 
accordingly such animals and trees become to them as 'gods.' The Papuans have 
located theirs in the moon, where they are said to become unpleasantly active at the 
time of the full moon. The moon strangely, also among the African Negroes and 
Bantus, plays a very important role in their religious observances, although any 
connection thereof with the ancestral-spirits has now become lost, that is, if among 

— 19* — 

them there ever was any. The change of the moon is a sacred period with the Zulus, 
when no work may be done, nor pleasure-seeking indulged in. 

Here, then, we find religion almost in its first beginnings and as conserved 
till to-day in the daily life of the most primitive peoples this present world can ex- 
hibit—a religion that knows no Supreme Being, that recognises only human agencies 
now disembodied, transformed and sometimes quite invisible, by no means divine, 
though capable of working much harm and therefore to be propitiated, and of be- 
stowing many blessings and therefore to be supplicated; a religion in which every : 
paterfamilias is his own priest, every home a temple, and every diviner an oracle. 

In regard to language, true, it appears impossible, with our present small 
knowledge of the subject, to discern any marked traces of similarity between the 
speech of the Malaysian and Polynesian tribes and that of the Negroes and Negroids 
of Africa. But this fact in no wise militates against their common and even close 
relationship; for exactly the same phenomenon, an absolute dissimilarity, exists in 
an equal degree between the various Negro languages among themselves, and yet all 
of these tribes are manifestly most intimately related. As our knowledge increases, 
the whole state of things may change. 

With this we have reached the end of the first chapter in our Negro history, 
and have indicated a relationship, originating before the period of separation, between 
the African race and that of Melanesia and the Pacific Isles. We now enter upon the 
second chapter of our considerations, viz. the story of the African race after its first 
arrival in the continent. As before, we can do no more than speculate, basing our 
theories on the scantiest of facts. 

We cannot suppose that the originally immigrating race that primarily popu- 
lated Africa, was exactly like or identical with any people dwelling there to-day, so that 
we cannot correctly call them by any now-existing name. But as Sclater has found 
it convenient to christen the land from which they probably came, Lemuria, we may 
very properly call the emigrating people themselves, Lemurians. 

Among the earliest to arrive were, we believe, a dark-skinned race whose strongly 
developed simian features marked them as of the lowest among the human kind. Evi- 
dence of such a race we think to see in the extremely coarse features of the Negroes 
of the Guinea Coast, as well as in the dark-skinned pygmies discovered by Schwein- 
furth, Casati and Stanley in Central Africa — a diminutive prognathous race having 
a light-chocolate and sometimes reddish-brown skin, bodies thickly covered with hair, 
in some localities abnormally large heads and faces heavily hung with whiskers, a 
clickless language apparently always a simple corruption of the speech of the parti- 
cular Negro or Bantu people in whose vicinity they may chance to be living (this to 
be used merely as a means for intercommunication with strangers, for we strongly 
suspect they have another national language for use in their own homes ), a race who 
may be regarded as the African counterpart of the Asiatic Negritos. Each little tribe 
of this archaic people wandered independently about the Central African regions, living 
for itself, far separated from and careless of its neighbours, and developing its own 
speech as it went along. There thus came into existence an endless variety of rudi- 
mentary languages, having little similarity one with another. 

At length — when, we know not — there arrived the last in the procession of 
black tribes streaming into these parts from the eastern tropics; for soon the Lemur- 
ian deluge was to cut asunder the east from the west for ever. These last arrivals 
we may call the Bantu. We do not absolutely affirm that they were precisely the 
same folk as those we are accustomed to call by that name to-day ; they may have 
been, or may not; certainly they were the ancestral race from which they sprang. 
One branch of them spread itself abroad in a northerly i. e. Sudanian direction, where 
it met and intermarried with numerous clans of a much older and coarser people 
whom it found there in possession. The Bantu type throughout all this region be- 
came consequently deteriorated according as the admixture of the lower blood was 
greater or less. Yet, while lowering themselves, they were raising the other race; 
for they were the younger and more vigorous strain, and the accession of their su- 
perior blood everywhere tended to improve the resultant cross and bring its physical 
type ever more and more up to its own standard. But inasmuch as the lower race 
was then by far more numerous, its speech everywhere swamped the Bantu out of 
existence, save for a few stray roots here and there assimilated. And as this older 
speech was itself composed of numberless dialects, the language of the new breed be- 
came, not one, but several, according to the number of original clans. This mixed 

— 20* — 

breed of Lemurian Bantus with archaic Africans is represented to-day by the Negro 
tribes of the Sudan and Guinea Coast. 

The great puzzle in connection with these Negro people, and one which has 
ever baffled the comprehension of the most eminent philologists, is their 
language. Cust, the great collector of African and Asiatic languages, has clas- 
sified nearly 250 purely Negro languages and dialects as already fairly well 
known. But while the majority of these appear to present a certain similarity in the 
one solitary fact of their being agglutinative, apart from this each one is distinct, and 
unintelligible to those speaking anoflTer, and presents little or no resemblance, save 
in one or two exceptional cases, to any of the Hamitic languages spoken on their 
northern boundary, or to the Bantu languages on their southern ; so that Prof. Mtiller, 
the celebrated orientalist of Vienna, thinks there to be "sufficient evidence to prove 
beyond a doubt that the Negro languages cannot be derived from a common mother- 
speech, but must have had distinct seed-plots." Others again, like Lepsius, regard 
the Bantu as the original speech of the Negroes and the present medley to have 
arisen as the result of constant crossing and re-crossing with the Hamitic languages. 
The theory that commends itself most to our mind, is that we have outlined above. 

The Bantus. While the one branch of the in-streaming Lemurians went off 
towards the Sudan, the other half spread themselves throughout the remainder of 
the continent to the south. There the} r came across another variety of archaic people, 
dwarfs again, it is true, but now with a much lighter, yellow, hairless skin and a 
clicking language which marked them off as a race radically different from that 

darker-skinned, thick-lipped and hair-covered species found by the other Bantu party 
away north. These they gradually drove before them, some finding concealment in the 
impenetrable forests of the interior, though the majority retreated before the invaders 
into the arid plains of the south. Although the Bantu did not so readily intermarry 
with this strange people, those tribes who, by being always in the van of the march, 
were ever in closest contact with the retreating yellow-skins, often fell victims to the 
beauteous attractions of Bushman Venus, whom they took home in large numbers, 
probably as their slaves. In this way, the more forward or southern Bantu tribes 
had their blood and their language considerably adulterated by Bushman admixture. 
The Bantus, then, are that portion of the Lemurian immigrants who preserved them- 
selves comparatively intact from any intermixture with the very low-type aboriginal Afri- 
cans, save at their southern extremity where they became in a degree tainted with Bush- 
man adulteration. They supplied one half of the parentage of the present-day Negro 
peoples, the aboriginal Africans supplying the other. The Negroes, therefore, are, so 
to say, their first cousins by blood and, in place of habitation, are their next-door 
neighbours, the Bantu occupying the whole of the African continent immediately to 
the south of them. The origin of each and both is not to be sought in the northern 
or trans-Sudanian parts of the continent, nor in any entry thereto by an Asiatic route 

- unless, of course, we be prepared to shift the date of their immigration back be- 
yond untold aeons, which, indeed, considering the probably immense age of man, were 
by no means an impossible or unreasonable proceeding. However, with the means 
and knowledge at our present disposal, we find in all the Asiatic continent neigh- 
bouring on the Red Sea, no people and no language, no religion and no customs, 
with which we may make any plausible comparison. They have, as said, a large 
percentage of consanguineal relationship with the Negj&es, who, as we suppose and 
have noted above, are simply a degenerated congeries of b astard Ba ntus. Along 
the northern borders of the Bantu field, where the pure"" SIM "IWj degenerate 
join, it is naturally difficult to distinguish any clear line of cleavage; but, generally 
aking, the whole of the continent from the equator to the Southern Ocean may be 
regarded as Bantuland. In the northern parts, the ruder Negro type and corrupted 
language gradually disappear as we recede towards the south, and soon merge into 
unadulterated Bantu. It is true that, in more recent times, the languages of the 
north-eastern clans have been considerably affected by Arab contact; but the refinement 
of physical features frequently exhibited among many Bantu clans— and by no means 
only those within the Arab sphere of influence — we ourselves in no wise attribute, 
as many have a thoughtless habit of doing, to intermixture with Semitic blood. We 
find no historical justification whatsoever for supposing that Arab seed was so largely 
and universally scattered throughout the Bantu clans, and prefer to regard the finer 
type- as of purely home development. The same resemblance of features to the Se- 

- 21* - 

mitic type has been frequently observed by travellers also among the Papuan tribes, 
the Bantu's brothers in Melanesia. At the extreme south, on the other hand, we do 
find many plausible traces of Bushman or Hottentot blood, and still more pronounced 
evidence of a considerable Bushman or Hottentot corruption of language. This is to 
be regretted, because otherwise we might have expected to find there the least uncon- 
taminated specimens of so ancient a speech. Howbeit, whatever is of Hottentot deriv- 
ation in those languages is hall-marked with a click, and when eradicated, leaves us 
with a pure residue of beautiful primitive speech — speech used by men long, long 
before the Rig-Veda was written or the incidents recorded in the Shu-Kin;/ had oc- 
curred, back away in the dark impenetrable past of which nobody knows any tiling. 

This ancient and widely scattered Negroid race has no Native name by which 
it distinguishes itself from other races of mankind, for it knows nothing of ethnology 
and is utterly ignorant of any common origin or even mutual relationship. Ethno- 
graphers have, therefore, for their own convenience, been compelled to invent one for 
it, and after many attempts and much confusion, have at length universally adopted 
that first suggested by Bleek, viz. Bantu . This appellation is merely an English adop- 
tation of the Kafir word aba-ntu, denoting simply 'the People'. It is the designation 
each of the Negroid tribes applies when speaking of itself as distinguished from any 
other race or even neighbouring clan. Most primitive races, the Hebrews not ex- 
cepted, seem to have the habit of conceitedly imagining themselves as 'the people' par 
excellence, all others being merely abezizwe, 'those of the (outer) tribes', the gentiles. 

This vast complex of peoples" termed the Bantu, comprises thousands of dif- 
ferent tribes and clans, speaking hundreds of different languages. And yel an un- 
mistakable similarity of physical type as well as of language permeates the whole 
family. These multitudinous tribes are again subdivided into 'groups' presenting 
certain marks of a still closer relationship and a still greater resemblance of speech. 
Each so-called language, not merely a provincialism, resembles its neighbours in a 
greater or less degree according as they become more or less remote from it, and all 
the languages combined in one group have a certain common likeness peculiar to 
themselves. The difference between the several members of one language group, as, 
for instance, the Zulu and Xosa, might be scarcely more than the difference between 
two strongly contrasted county-dialects in England, though here we have not simply 
a divergence of pronunciation of the same speech, but a distinct language, having, it 
is true, the great bulk of the primary or more simple words more or less identical 
with those of the sister-tongue, but a further addition of sixty per cent or more of 
absolutely new expressions, and having a grammatical construction in a slight degree 
peculiarly its own. The difference between the members of one language group and 
those of another contiguous to it might be the difference between German and Dutch 
(European); and the difference between a language at one extremity of the Bantu 
field and that at another, might be the difference between French and Latin. 

Arabs in East Africa. Africa, until the other day ingloriously dubbed 'unknown,' 
and yet so flourishing and renowned before even Greece and Rome were born! Its 
history arises bright in a dawn of gold, and it would fain still lie bathed in this gol- 
den sheen even at the noon of its present prosperity. Four thousand years ago there 
were African gold booms just as to-day. But then the gold-market was along the Red 
Sea, and Pharoahs and Solomons and Sargons came alike to add to their riches from 
the marts of Sabaean merchants. Nor was it solely a gold-market; gold mines there 
were, and gold magnates too. The magnates were the Semite traders, the Hiram s of 
Tyre, whose ships had been crossing and recrossing the Indian main perhaps for 
ages, returning laden with the precious merchandise of China, of Ophir, and of Ind. 
And the mines, they were chiefly at Ophir and at Punt — Punt, probably a strip of 
territory along the shores of the Red Sea, and Ophir, where else if not our 'Africa', 
the Africa south of Libya and Ethiopia, the Africa of the East Coast? 

What an amount of interesting information these Semitic mariners of antiquity 
might have been able to tell us! And all is lost because they could not write; be- 
cause they had no art whereby to preserve their hard-gained knowledge and exper- 
iences, no literature wherein to enshrine it for the profit of future generations. Their 
natural instincts were solely commercial, not philosophic. Yet, necessity is said to lie 
the mother of invention, and commerce perhaps more than any other branch of human 
activity must inevitably force a demand for some means of easy intercommunication; 
so that we are not surprised to find that it was the northern branch of this same 


- 22* - 

Semitic trading race, the Phoenicians of the Mediterranean, who, unable perhaps to 
invent a system of their own, were the first to adopt the hieratic signs of the more 
classical Egyptians to the wider use of universal writing. But it was not born in the 
Semitic race to initiate rapid progress along literary lines; whence it arose that the 
Chinese, the Indians, the Egyptians, the Assyrians, the Greeks, had all, so to say, an 
elaborate literature before the Semites had so much as commenced to read. Masudi, 
the Herodotus of their race, arose no earlier than our own 10th. century, when he 
found them with their traditions of a long-passed antiquity as hopelessly vanished as 
those of an average present-day Kafir tribe. 

That the Semitic people, however, had been already long engaged in maritime 
enterprise along the eastern coast of Africa at the very earliest periods of the histo- 
rical era is abundantly evident from the writings alike of Egyptians, Hebrews, Greeks 
and Romans. These accounts, it is true, are deplorably meagre; but there is such an 
universal agreement in their various parts, such an accuracy in their geographical 
details, such a general probability in their assertions, as to command our accepting 
them as evidence of true facts. When we are told by the Biblical writer of the wealth 
of Sheba and Arabian merchants; of Solomon's large purchases from Hiram of Tyre, 
and of his commissioning him, a thousand years before our era, to organise a Red 
Sea fleet for the fetching of gold from Ophir; when the Greek, Herodotus, in the 
5th. century before Christ, tells us how another such fleet, now in the service of the 
Pharoah Necho, more than one hundred years before his own time, 'had the sun on 
their right hand as they sailed round (the southern coast of) Africa'; when the 
'Periplus' mentions the extreme limit of geographical knowledge being then at Prasum, 
where 'the ocean curves towards sunset, and, stretching along the southern extremities 
of Ethiopia, Libya and Africa, amalgamates with the western sea (or Atlantic)' — all 
these details seem so exactly true, that we feel bound to credit them as a result, not 
of guesswork or fable, but of actual experience, and that experience belonged, not to 
the writers of those narratives, but to the Semite Arabs and Phoenicians alone of 
whom they were telling. Much useful information has been collected for us on this 
point by Bent in his "Ruins of Mashonaland"; and from it — from the historical 
evidence of the Egyptian monuments of the 17th. century before Christ; of the 
Assyrian inscriptions of the 8th. cent b. c. ; from the writings of Herodotus, of Ptole- 
my, and the more elaborated accounts of the anonymous writer of the 'Periplus of 
the Red Sea' in the 1st. cent, of our era; as well as from the eloquent and indisput- 
able testimony of the still-standing ruins in Mashonaland, we find it to be absolutely 
certain that the ancient Semitic people were intimately acquainted with these parts, 
perhaps a couple of thousand years before even the dawn of our own history. While 
another branch of their race, the Phoenicians of Tyre and Sidon, were digging tin in 
Cornwall in Ancient Britain, the Himyaritic Arabs were grubbing for gold in the 
mines of Mashonaland. Egypt, Babyion and Jerusalem were all lavishly supplied by 
them with the precious products of their industry. But with the successive decline 
of those ancient world-powers; with the transference of the centre of wealth and power 
beyond the Mediterranean to Athens and Rome; with the consequent decay of the 
Indian and African trade and collapse of the Red Sea market, the golden days of 
Arabian enterprise were numbered and their name vanished from western knowledge. 
East Africa, the Ophir of antiquity, like a lost invention, had to be discovered again. 

And yet, despite the fact of their activity being no longer so loudly evident to 
European perception and their wares no longer so conspicuous in remote trans- 
Mediterranean markets, these Arabs still continued, though on a lesser scale, their 
old-world commercial communication with the East Coast, with Persia, with India, and 
even with China. In regard to Africa they had now altogether abandoned the hazard- 
ous undertaking of personally extracting the gold in the remote interior, and now 
confined their presence and their trading operations solely to the coast regions, where 
they could easily get sufficient of all they desired brought down and bartered to them 
by the Natives. True, they had lost heavily in point of wealth, but this was amply 
compensated by a rapid increase of knowledge. No longer absorbed so completely in 
the pursuit of mere material pelf, they could now find leisure to think and improve 
their minds in the schools of Greece. A perfect galaxy of great scientists and illus- 
trious philosophers arose to adorn their race, and for a considerable period of the 
Middle A'_'es, their universities almost monopolised the learning of the world. Their 
brilliant historians had not quite forgotten the pristine haunts of their ancestors away 
in far Ophir, and they occasionally give us many a glance at things as they were then 

— 23* — 

progressing in those regions. One traveller, who, about 871 a. d., made a journej'- to 
China and back via East Africa, supplies us with an easily recognisable picture of 
our Kafir um-ngoma, or perhaps an im-bongi — 'preachers', as he says, 'clad in leo- 
pard and monkey skins, who, with a staff in hand, speak of God (probably meaning 
the ama-dhlozi or ancestral spirits) and recite the actions of their countrymen who 
are gone before them'. The historian Masudi, a century later, tells of the coming of 
the Zindj 'down from the north' and over-running the eastern coastal regions not 
long before his own time; but this statement has reference no doubt merely to the 
advent of one or other of the roving hordes of marauders so common at all periods 
among the Bantu tribes. He mentions Sofala, and says that the Natives up inland 
thereabout 'file their teeth (as indeed do the Hereros at the present day, as well as 
other tribes on the Congo, Gaboon and elsewhere) and are cannibals'; that they foughl 
with long lances, hunted for elephants, and wore nought save leopard skins. Edrisi, 
the Arab geographer who lived at the commencement of the 12th. century, makes a 
special remark about these same people being largely engaged in the iron industry 
(which is even to-day a characteristic of the tribes of Mashonaland), and as preferring 
brass rather than gold ornaments, although this latter metal was abundant in their 

The expression Zindj. as applied by Arabic historians of the Middle Ages to 
the East Coast Bantus, reminds us very strongly of the Bantu root ntsundu, meaning 
'dark-brown' and very often applied adjectivally by themselves to describe their own 
colour. Etymologically it would certainly seem to be related to that word, as well as 
to the Arabic sud, plur. of isivid, meaning 'black'. Philologists, however, tell us that 
zindj is really a P ersia n word meaning 'black'; from which fact we may think it 
possible that there were, not only Arab, but~also Persian and Indian colonies along 
the East Coast during the early centuries of our era; although, again, it would seem 
more probable that the word became affixed to the African blacks, not here in their 
own continent, but in Persia itself, where no doubt a considerable slave-trade had 
already been inaugurated by the Arab traders. 

But here the feeble flame of history dies out once more and the African Native 
disappears for a time from the scene. 

Portuguese in South Africa. A few centuries roll by as a day in the life of the 
world ; and the curtain unfolds again and discloses to us a coastal picture showing 
the mouth of a great river, with four large galliots rocking peacefully in the anchorage. 
The white-men from the ships have gone ashore and are busy in a kraal bartering 
with copper for ivory and provisions, surrounded by some hundreds of black-men 
dressed in skin-mantles. It was the 6th. day of January, 1498, and the bushy shores 
of Natal having been passed just twelve days before, the great river may be assumed 
to be the Limpopo. King Manuel's ships were riding in the offing, and Vasco da 
Gama's mariners had re-discovered the Bantus in a Kafir-kraal! 'Sailing again,' con- 
tinues Theal, in his "Portuguese in South Africa," 'Da Gama next put into a river 
which he named the River of Good Tokens, because he found there clothing of Indian 
manufacture and a man who could converse in broken Arabic. Both banks of the 
river were thickly peopled, and among the inhabitants were many who appeared to 
have Arab blood in them. The river is the one now called the Kilimane . . . On the 
first of March the fleet reached the Mozambique, where were found trading vessels 
and a town of Arabs. One of the Portuguese, who could speak Arabic, gathered a 
great deal of information concerning the Indian trade, of Sofala away to the south, 
and of the gold that was to be obtained in commerce there.' Finally, Da Gama con- 
tinued on his way to Melinda, where he obtained an Indian pilot who directed him 
over the ocean to Calicut, and the problem of an all-sea route to India was solved, 
Ophir had been re-discovered, and the Zindj or Bantu again brought to light. 

Literature bearing upon our subject now becomes prolific, if indeed not of much 
accuracy or reliability. Amongst a mass of matter irrelevant to our subject, we hoar, 
in the year 1592^ of a certain horde of savages reaching the Zambezi from regions 
beyond. Or tnese, one party, called the ma-Zimb a, is said to have repeatedly over- 
come the Portuguese forces and practically' eTflnguished Portuguese power along the 
lower Zambezi, until these latter, after being thoroughly conquered, were glad to 
accept the terms of peace offered them by the savages. These maZimba are said 
by the Portuguese to have been a race of can_nibals. But inasmuch as the word atna- 
Zimu and its cognates is a common Bantu term in the South-African languages^^x- 

- 24* - 

pressing 'cannibals,' it is just possible that the Portuguese mistook that word for the 
name of a tribe, because we can trace no tribe with an exactly similar name anywhere 
now in South Africa. Yet it may have been some Tonga clan still dwelling in Portu- 
guese territory under some other cognomen, or, if we may make a somewhat fanciful 
suggestion, it may have been the familiar aba-Tembn, in the middle of the 18th. cen- 
tury still sporadically scattered through all the country from St. Lucia Bay to the 
confines of Xosaland. A letter z in the Bantu languages often becomes changed into 
a /, and this especially under tekeza influence, of which speech this transmutation is 
a marked peculiarity. Then, in all the accounts of the Natives left us by the survivors 
of early shipwrecks, we find this people invariably called maTimbe or maTimba, never 
maTembu. The survivors of the "Stavenisse" wrecked in Natal about Alexandra 
county (Lat. 30-31 south) on the 16th. February, 1686, and afterwards found by the 
searchers for them on board the "Noord," about S. Lat. 33°42 (or near the Great Kei 
liver), stated that the chief tribes through which they had passed were the "Magos- 
ses {i.e. amaXosa), the Magrigas (probably a Hottentot tribe — Ngqika, the founder 
of the Cape Colony amaNgqika or Gaika tribe, being then not yet born), the Matimbes 
(the abaTembu), the Mapontes (or amaMpondo) and the Emboas" (or abas'eMbo), 
these last being about 450 miles roughly calculated in a north-easterly direction from 
the Great Kei, that is to say, in Natal in the vicinity of the wreck. Other survivors 
of this same wreck, and rescued by the "Centaur," after having wandered about in 
the same regions, give the names of the tribes as, starting from the place of the wreck, 
"the Temboes (probably the abas'eMbo), the Mapontemousse (the amaMpondomisi), 
the Maponte (or amaMpondo), the Matimbas (or abaTembu), the Maligryghas ( pro- 
lyl hly a Hottentot tribe), and the Magossebe" (probably the amaXosa). We thus 
find our present abaTembu everywhere described in those early days with an i in- 
stead of an e, thus maTimba, which is certainly very suggestive of the Zambezi ma- 

Another of the hosts of savages then, in 1592, recently arrived in Portuguese 
territory, was said to be the muMbos. Here at any rate we have a name that is fairly 
recognisable, for we have to-day in Natal a large tribe bearing that name. This clan, 
prior to the days of Shaka, was resident about the middle Tukela, below its junction 
with the Mzinyati. From its manner of speech at that time, it would seem that, along 
with the other Lala tribes of Natal and the Swazis, north of Zululand, it belonged to 
the tekeza group of the Bantus. These Lala people, among whom the umu-Mbo (plur. 
aba-Mbo) must have been an important clan, occupied the whole of Natal at the time 
' of the Shakan upheaval. Strange to say, the Xosa Kafirs, in the Cape Colony, give 
all the Natives resident immediately north of their own Xosa-speaking enclave, that 
is to say, the Lala clans dwelling in Natal, the generic name of abaMbo, and called 
their land i-Mbo. The Fingo refugees, therefore, were known to them as abas'eMbo 
or People of iMbo. From this we should like to believe that, either all Lala clans 
were originally called abaMbo, or, otherwise, that the present Natal tribe called by 
that name must have been first in possession and have occupied a considerable por- 
tion of the territory previous to the arrival of the hundred other clans afterwards 
found there by Shaka. 

Soon after the reported appearance of the muMbo people on this side of the 
Zambezi, we read, in the year 1594, of a certain va-Mbe tribe living south of St. Lucia 
Hay. The expression 'south of St. Lucia Bay' is misleading, but we think it reason- 
ably applicable to a people resident a hundred miles away, south of the Tukela, in 
Natal; although, if we accept the supposition that the name abaMbo was originally 
applied indiscriminately to all Lala clans, there would be no further necessity for any 
such stretching of the expression, for the Lala people were then probably occupying, 
not only Natal, but also the whole stretch of coast-lands right away as far as Tonga 
or Swazi-land. Theal thinks these vaMbes were 'for a certainty' the present Natal 
abaMbo. Wha1 is certain is that there is no clan nowadays, nor was there in Shaka's 
tin)'', dwelling anywhere near St. Lucia Bay with a name even remotely resembling 
that given. The prefix va which the Portuguese narrators have placed before the 
name of this tribe is interesting, inasmuch as it nowhere exists, as far as we know, 
a- a prefix in any of the East or South-east African languages. But it does exist in the 
ith-west African, where we actually find to-day a tribe, north of the Hereros, calling 
themselves the ova-Mbo. What seems possible is that the ovaMbo of German West 
Africa ami the vaMbe of ancient Zululand, were branches of the same family, and 
that the abaMbo of present-day Natal are the descendants of the latter. These abaMbo 

- 25* - 

in former times, after their first arrival on the south-east coast, may still have called 
themselves by the original prefix ovaMbo, which prefix, through long contact with 
the Zulu-Kafir peoples, may have become changed into thai of these latter people and 
appeared as abaMbo. It is even possible that the muMbo tribe mentioned as crossing 
the Zambezi in 1592, were the same as the vaMbe found in 1594 southwards of St. 
Lucia Bay. The appellations are taken from different documents by different writers; 
one uses a singular prefix mu and the other a plural prefix va; bul in the Bantu, 
omu is the correct singular prefix corresponding with the plural prefix ova. Thus 
we have oimi-Mbo, plur. ova-Mbo, as the actual designation of the tribe now inhabit- 
ing German West Africa. 

In the same year, 1594, we hear in Portuguese accounts, of a Koinala-diin, whose 
country extended from the coast south of Delagoa Bay for about 90 miles inland. 
Though we are unable to identify this tribe, we see the name plainly enough in the 
Komati river, running from the Transvaal into the Crocodile river in Portuguese 
territory. May-be the Portuguese narrators got hold of the name of this river instead 
of that of a tribe living thereabout. 

Early Inhabitants of Natal. From the accounts already referred to as having 
been left us by the survivors of various shipwrecks occurring along the Natal coast, 
it seems probable that, in the 17th. century, that country was inhabited by people, 
not of the Lala, but of the Zulu-Xosa stock, the former — its present occupants ami 
who were found there by Shaka — not having yet arrived from their previous home 
higher up the coast, as well as perhaps also further inland towards Swaziland. A 
declaration made by ten officers and sailors of the "Stavenisse" wrecked about the 
Alexandra county on 16th. February, 1686, informs us that the Natives they there 
found in their neighbourhood, and among whom they dwelt for over a year, 'have 
tobacco, and smoke it, and by good management its quality might be improved.' 
Now, the habit of smoking tobacco is confined, among the South-East African coast 
Natives, to the present Cape Colony or Xosa-speaking tribes. The custom is unknown 
among the Zulus of all clans. It may originally have been a habit with the Lalas, 
and which they only lost during the years of homeless wandering and famine caused 
by their persecution by Shaka. Yet we doubt it, inasmuch as there are absolutely no 
signs of it now visible, nor any tradition that it ever was so. Again, the survivors 
of the English ship "Good Hope" wrecked at Port Natal on the 17th. May, 1685, 
relate of a 'chief there, named Ingoose . ' And on the 4th. December, 1689, the captain 
of the galliot "Noord," acting unaer instructions from the Dutch Government at the 
Cape, purchased the bay of Natal and some surrounding land 'from the chief, or so- 
called Tngo se. ' The word designating 'a chief in the Zulu-Xosa group of languages 
is inkos i; hut such a word is unknown to the speech of the present-day Natal Lalas, 
who belong to another ethnological group, and whose word for 'a chief was ihosi 
and iyosi, which expressions neither an Englishman nor a Dutchman could ever hear 
and then write as ingose. It is, of course, just possible that the abas'eMbo tribe — of 
whose reputed arrival in these parts we have already related — were at that time 
actually inhabiting Natal and that they possessed this word for 'a chief in their 
language; although, if, as we have merely surmised, they had any close relationship 
with the South-Western African tribe of ovaMbo, such a close resemblance of speech 
with the Zulu-Xosa group was scarcely to be expected. And then, again, the Natal 
eMbo tribe does not smoke tobacco; so that all the circumstances combine to lead us 
to the opinion that about the end of the 17th. century, there resided in Natal some 
tribe of Natives, may-be the Tembus, which has since removed into the Cape Colony. 

Another theory — and one equally as feasible — is that the Zulus were then in 
occupation of Natal (the Lalas being in present-day Zululand) on their return course 
northwards from Xosaland; that they subsequently continued on their way, dislodging 
the Lalas, who wheeled southwards along the coast; and that the Zulus since then 
have abandoned the habit of tobacco-smoking, just as they have that of circumcision. 

At the beginning of the 17th. century, we hear much of the inadvalan -a (or as 
some Natives pronounce it, ma-Tvaranga) tribe, dwelling along the- northern side of 
the Zambezi, and with the monomotapa (the designation, now obsolete, meaning 
really in our opinion ' owner of the m ines, ' just as one would say in modem Zulu, 
and with the same meaning, umninvmitapo ) or paramout chief of which the Portu- 
guese, in their eagerness to become eventually possessed of the fabulous wealth sup- 
posed to exist in his country, often came into negotiation and even warlike conflict. 

— 26* — 

But about the year tI59, we are told, the perpetual civil strife that had disturbed this 

tribe, or more probably congeries of tribes, throughout many generations, finally cul- 

I urinated in a total break up of the nation, each clan from henceforth launching out 

ion its own independent account and some even setting forth to exercise their newly 

acquired liberty in newer lands. 

It has been stated by Bent — but with what authority we do not know — that 
certain wandering Kalanga peoples came down into Natal about this time, or as he 
-ays, in the year 1720. Now, in Natal at the present day we find no knowledge what- 
ver of any such immigration. But we do find that territory occupied by numerous 
clans whose origin and speech seems to have been altogether different from that of 
the Zulu clans now north of the Tukela. These are the Lala people who, we have said, 
were, immediately prior to their entering Natal, in residence, or at least a part of 
them, in present-day Zululand, while others perhaps were more inland in territory 
adjoining Swaziland. At any rate, they were the sole occupants of Natal at the time 
of Shaka's invasion at the beginning of last century, and were commonly known to 
the Zulus under the general name of amaLala — a name whose meaning often puzzled 
us, until we were given by old Lala TTTUir'TTTe picturesque explanation that it was a 
term, unknown to themselves, but, contemptuously applied to them by Shaka's people, 
who used to say, ngoba belala benomunwe egolo. Somehow or other, perhaps owing 
to their forefathers having been all but exterminated by the Zulu conqueror Shaka, 
these clans, even though still abundantly in evidence in Natal (notwithstanding that 
they have now entirely lost their original language), no longer possess any tradition 
of their origin or their history prior to the time of the Shakan invasion. What we 
do know is that they were a people famous to the Zulu tribes as workgrjg^in i ron, 
and that their speech, unlike the softer Zulu, belonged to that harsh tekeza varietyST 
the Bantu, common to the Swazi and some other peoples further northT"""But the Ka- 
langa too were, and still are, celebrated precisely in the same manner as great iron- 
workers, and, moreover, many of the clans in the region of Mashonaland seem to us 
to speak a language which, along with that of the Lalas and Swazis, appears to have 
the tekeza characteristics. May, then, the Kalanga heard of by Bent ( probably from 
some Suto or middle African source ) as having emigrated into Natal, have been 
really these same amaLala tribes? South of Mount Wedza, in Mashonaland, we find 
even to-day a tribe, industrious as iron-workers, and calling themselves pa- Mara ra 
(or pa-Mglaia, as some Natives pronounce it), and the particular country inhabited 
by them is known as mu-Tekedza. Is it, then, nothing more than a coincidence that 
there should somewhere be a tradition of Kalangas having come dow r n towards Natal, 
and that we should actually find there tribes commonly known to the Zulus as amalala, 
and their particular speech said to be 'to tekeza''? 

The statement that Kalangas once came down into Natal would be still more 
intelligible and acceptable to us if it could be shown that there was some linguistic 
affinity between the Kalanga and Tonga peoples. For there does seem to be, or ori- 
ginally to have been, some recent intimate connection between the Lalas of Natal and 
>ine of the widely-spread Tonga tribes. Owing to the scarcity of our information, 
we could not indicate at present any likely spot, though we may say we have ob- 
ved a marked similarity between the Shitswa dialect, spoken' by certain Tonga 
Natives in the neighbourhood of Inhambane, and that of the Natal Lalas — thus, 
Shitswa, imbywa (dog), Lala, imbwa; S. tihomo (cattle), L. itiyomo; S. ihosi (chief), 
L. ihosi and iyosi; S. tinyane (birds), L. itinyoni, and so on. The single Lala word 
imbwa for 'dog' is itself evidence of much. So far as we can trace, this root, though 
almost universal in the more northern Bantu languages from the Swahili to the Herero, 
nowhere else exists among the extreme south-eastern tribes save among these Lalas 
and Tongas. Manifestly, then, the former could not have adopted it from any of their 
present neighbours, but must have brought it with them from some more northern 
source and that, to wit, nowhere south of Inhambane. 

Such, then, was the population of Natal, at any rate at the beginning of the 
19th. century — it was occupied solely by Lala tribes. The Cele tribe, under Diba- 
ndhlela, was along the sea-coast about the mouth of the Mvoti. The emaNgangeni 
were further inland, on the same river at its junction with the Hlimbitwa. The ema- 
Tulini, then a large tribe and already long down from Zululand, was spread along 
tin- coast between the M<reni and Mkomazi rivers, and for thirty miles inland. The 
Ngcolosi were about the Kranskop. The Zondi clan was along the Inadi, tributary of 
the Tukela. The Nyuswa tribe, divided into several sections — the Fuzes, the emaQa- 

- 27* - 

dini, and others — covered a considerable district of which the sources of the Mvoti 
was the centre. The Wushes (now Bacas) were another large and much subdivided 
tribe, inhabiting all the country between Maritzburg and the Karkloof range. The 
emaKuzeni under Ngonyama, with their relations the enTlangwini, were aboul the 
Bushman River where it joins the Tukela and thence over ami away towards the M/.\- 
nyati. The Mapumulo were between the Hlimbitwa and the Tukela, ami nearly a hun- 
dred other small clans were scattered everywhere about from the Drakensberg to the 
sea, until at length the infamous Shaka came and destroyed them all. Then they each 
had their own chieftain and all spoke a like tekeza language; and if to-day they all 
speak the Zulu tongue, it is only because it became forced upon their young men. tin- 
grandfathers of the present generation, at the time of their universal captivity and in- 
corporation into the Zulu army by Shaka during the first thirty years of last century. 

General Distribution of the Tribes in South-Africa at the Commencement of Zulu 
History. At the end of the 18th. century, just previous to the general social convulsion 
referred to as having been caused among the tribes by Shaka, the South-African con- 
tinent was peopled roughly as follows. The western portion of the sub-continent, in- 
cluding the further half of the Cape Colony, German West Africa and the Kalahari 
Desert, was inhabited mainly by Hottentot and Bushman tribes. Four groups of sub- 
races of the Bantu stock held the rest of the continent. In the great central plateau, 
including Orangia, Basutoland, the Transvaal, Bechuanaland, parts of Rhodesia, even 
as far away as the Upper Zambezi, were various kindred tribes, all speaking markedly 
similar languages and all classed together as the Suto, or Chwana, group. The re- 
maining eastern portion of the sub-continent was confusedly divided between other 
groups or varieties of the Bantu. In the north-eastern corner was a portion of the 
Tonga race, comprising Tshwekes or Tshopis, Ntlengas, and others — a race found 
scattered sporadically about the continent as far as the western shores of Lake Nyasa 
and the neighbourhood of Rotseland on the Upper Zambezi. Then there was' the 

Igk&ui group (so called from the abundance of dental sounds in its language), in- 
cluding the Swazis, the Hlubis j or i ginally in the eastern T ransvaal), and the numer- 
ous Lala clans of Natal, all probably of the like origin and speaking mere dialects of 

the one tongue. Perhaps only a hundred years before the period here referred to, it 
seems probable that all these £e&«-speaking peoples were united in one solid block 
stretching from Swaziland to the coast and thence away southwards, all along the sea- 
belt, as far as the confines of Kafirland at the Mziinkulu. As witness to this, we 
have the traditions of some of the Natal Lala clans that they really did originally live 
in the coastal districts of what is now Zululand e. g. the tradition of the emaTulini 
tribe of Mnini that they formerly dwelt about the Mhlatuze in Zululand (and who 
are therefore probably responsible for naming the river near Durban, about which 
they subsequently settled, as the Mhlatuzana or Small Mhlatuze), or the tradition 
of the Bacas or Wushes that, upon their expulsion by some enemy from their old 
home in Zululand, they hid in the Ngoj r e forest, north of the Lower Mlalazi. Fin- 
ally, southward of all, and filling the whole eastern half of the present Cape Colony, 
was the Kafir race, including the Ngqikas, the Gcalekas, the Bomvanas, the Tembus, 
the Mpondos, and others. 

The Early Clans of Zululand. In amidst the tekeza enclave, and cut off from 
their next-of-kin, the Kafirs of the Cape, by the Lala clans of Natal, was another 
smaller portion of the last-mentioned Kafir group. These may have been left behind 
by the Xosa or Cape Colonial company on their common downward march from more 
northern parts (the Natal tekeza Natives having meanwhile thrust themselves in be* 
tween the two parties, since we believe the Kafir party was the first on the scene), or 
they may have subsequently returned along their former course and settled down 
amidst the tekeza, tribes, just as others of their family did again in more recent days 
when Mzilikazi conquered Matebeleland and Manukuza gave Central Africa its terrible 
freebooters, the abaNgoni and the waTuta. These Kafir clans, at the period here re- 
ferred to, viz. at the end of the 18th. century, occupied the whole of the country now 
known as Zululand, the Bacas and other tekeza peoples having already long before 
cleared away from the coast-districts there into what is now Natal. There was the 
Zungu clan along the coast beyond the Tukela. Adjoining them, and somewhat inland 
along the Ngoye Hills, were the Qwabes under Pakatwayo. Neighbouring on the Qwabes, 
on the further side of the Mhlatuze, were the emaNgadini people. Along the coast, 

— 28* — 

between the Mhlatuze and Mfolozi rivers, was the large Mtetwa tribe under Dingi- 
swayo, with the Mkwanazi elan (merely an oft'-shoot of the Mtetwas, formed for the 
purposes of intermarriage, and now under Somkele) between the Mfolozi and the sub- 
Tonga emaNcwangeni, Mfekane, Msane, and other clans, beyond the Hluhluwe and the 
Mkuze. Adjoining the Mkwanazis were the Ncubes about St. Lucia Bay; a section of 
the much-scattered Tembus, under Jama, on the upper reaches of the Ntseleni stream; 
the emDhletsneni about Hlabisa; the eLangeni under Bebe, grandfather of Nandi, 
Shaka's mother, north of the middle Mtitatuze, about where Siteku's kraal now is; 
tln> Magwaza elan also in this vicinity; and the Ntulis at the Mpapala. Still further 
inland, in the Nkandhla district, were the emBuyeni clan, the Mavundhla s, and the 
Mnomiyas. Southward of these about the junction of the Ntsuze riv^P'Wilir the Tukela, 
was the Lala Ngongoma clan, and beyond these, further up the Tukela, were the eMbos 
and Mdhlaloses. At the Ntlazatshe mountain were the emaMbateni ; north-eastward of 
them, about Ntabankulu and the upper White Mfolozi, were the emaNgwaneni tribe 
under the renowned Matiwana; and eastward again, beyond the Blood river, between 
the emaNgwaneni people and the Newcastle district of Natal, were the large section 
of the Tembus under Ngoza; while still beyond the Tembus, about the sources of the 
Mzinyati or Buffalo river, were the very large Hlubi tribe of the tekeza stock, related 
to the Swazis, and then under Mtimkulu, Mpangtfflfa^and others. Southward of the 
emaMbateni, between the Baban awgo 4»ill and the White Mfolozi river, were the Bute- 
lezis; while south-east of these latter, off towards the middle Tukela, were the emaCu- 
wini clan under Macingwane. Beyond the Black Mfolozi, from the Ngome forest along 
the Pongolo river towards the coastal districts, were the large tribe of Ndwandwes 
or Nxumalos, with its off-shoot the Kumalos, under the famous chief, Zwide. Nearly 
a hundred other small tribes were scattered here and there over the remaining parts 
of the territory, and one of these, dwelling in the triangular piece of country formed 
by the junction of the White and Black branches of the Mfolozi river, and closed in 
1 "'tween the more powerful Butelezi and Ndwandwe clans, was destined to become the 
greatest and most famous of them all. This was the small clan known as the 'people 
of Zulu' (nearly related to the larger Qwabe clan down near the coast), whose principal 
kraals were situated between the Mkumbane and Nzololo streams running into the 
White Mfolozi, and at that time governed by a little-known chief named Senzangakona. 

How the Zulu Clans were formed. It may be interesting here to note how this 
apparently in the remote past one race of Kafirs became so numerously broken up 
into separate triblets under independent chieftains, and in such a manner as to grow 
in time absolutely ignorant of any common relationship between them. It is, and I 
suppose always has been, the custom of Bantu peoples never to intermarry within 
their own clan, all of whose members, descended from a common ancestor, call them- 
selves by the same cognomen or isibongo (with is generally the name of that ancestor 
or of his kraal), and regard each other as brothers and sisters. After the lapse, how- 
ever, of about a century or more, the descendants of the different sons of an original 
chief, now representing perhaps two or three separate branches of the same ancestral 
stock, begin to perceive that their mutual relationship is becoming sufficiently remote 
to permit of a desire for intermarriage between their respective offspring. It sub- 
Bequently happens that a son of one house does actually become enamoured of a 
daughter of the other house, who, though still a member of the same clan, is already 
his fourth or fifth cousin. In order to facilitate this, and to avoid the aspersion that 
he is marrying his own sister — for, as said, all members of the same clan are re- 
garded mutually as brothers and sisters — a new clan-name or isibongo is coined for 
that branch of the clan into which the chief or his son may be marrying. He will 
thus escape being handed down to posterity with the stigma of having married his 
i', and the particular girl, now possessing a new cognomen, will avoid the dis- 
grace of having married into her own family. The two branches of this originally 
one family will thereafter form different clans with different clan-names, and will 
intermarry as though they were perfect strangers. An example of this we have working 
out before us oven at the present time, when the children and nephews of Cetshwayo of 
Mpande of Senzangakona of Jama, and those of Zibebu of Mapita of Sojiyisa of Jama, 
two branches, therefore, of the house of Jama of the same Zulu stock, are manifesting 
a mutual desire for intermarriage, to facilitate which the offspring of Zibebu and his 
branch of the family are coining to be referred to as abakwa' Biyaha (the people of 
Biyaha), which cognomen, or else that of Mandhlakazi, will ere long assuredly come to 

— 29* — 

replace the isibongo 'Zulu' as far at least as this branch of the tribe is concerned. 
In a similar way in Mpande's time, another section of this same Zulu clan, or rather 
of its emGazini sub-section, cut itself off for similar reasons, and called itself (after 
the name of the kwa'Biyela kraal of a certain important personage named Xoko) the 
'people of Biyela'. Another again called itself the 'people of Ntanzi'; another the 
'people of eGazini', and many more, all of which are now coining to be well known 
as entirely separate, independent, and intermarrying clans. And so it had been going 
on for untold ages, and that not alone with the Zulu clan, but in an equal degree 
with each and every one of the other Bantu clans by which it was surrounded. So 
complete has been this dividing or breaking up of the original Zulu tribe into inde- 
pendent sections, that the isibongo or clan-name of 'people of Zulu' has now become 
in Zululand practically confined to the members of the ancient royal house alone i. e. 
to the immediate descendants of Jama, father of Senzangakona. True it is, that we 
still find a large number of Natives in Natal calling themselves by the cognomen 
'Zulu'; but this arises from the fact of their grandfathers having left the country 
during Shaka and Dingana's time and therefore prior to the formation of the more 
recent sub-clans. These persons have, therefore, virtually 'lost' their caste; for they 
can scarcely claim to belong to the same family as now goes by the name of ' Zulu ' 
in Zululand, which, as said, appears to be composed solely of the immediate de- 
scendants of the chief Jama; nor would it be any longer easy for any of them to 
discover to which sub-division of the tribe they really belong. 

At other times it was private family contentions that broke up the tribe; and 
in this way was it that, about the middle or early part of the 17th. century — if we 
may hazard a guess based on their traditional genealogy — the tribe of which the 
original Zulus themselves formed one branch, became divided. It was then ruled by 
a chief named M alande la. whose wife, Nozidiya, gave birth to two sons, Q wab e and 
Zulu. The mother, as the story runs, arid as is so frequently the case, hadlTprefer- 
etTcIT for her younger boy, and on a particular occasion favoured him in the acqui- 
sition of some stock, fine white cattle, of which the elder and less favoured son, 
Qwabe, soon became jealous. Remarking this, and fearing the evil consequences of 
some sinister talk she had overheard, the mother gave her younger son, Zulu, the 
timely advice to move away into other parts, which he did, going off with his fine 
cattle, and under the care of a certain induna, Mpungose, to dwell in the unoccupied 
locality beyond the White Mfolozi, at Mahlabatini. Being the son of a chief, a few 
retainers would naturally collect around him^-and other members of the family in time 
adhere to him, so that a little tribe would not be long in forming. The elder branch 
of the family remained below; and in order to distinguish one from the other, that 
branch and its offspring went by the name of 'the people of Qwabe' and the up- 
country or younger branch by that of the 'people of Zulu', and in time the 
members of the two branches became scarcely aware of any relationship and 
have long been freely intermarrying. What the original isibongo or clan-name 
of the tribe may have been prior to the time of separation, does not seem 
to be known; but in our opinion it was 'Gumede', nowadays retained — as was the 
usual custom after such separations — as the isi-takazo of the older branch of the 
family, the direct descendants of the o riginal tri be, that is, the Qwabe people. We 
can scarcely believe the old, original tribai-iTaine"T(V have become altogether lost; and 
the fact of the name Gu med e having been assumed, as one of his honourable titles, by 
the Zulu king (and by turn alone in his section of the tribe), would seem to confirm 
us in our belief. 

Where the Zulu People originally came from. Now, inasmuch as the above tra- 
dition distinctly states that the separation alluded to took place within the boundaries 
of our present-day Zululand, and since the fact of the two already long independent 
tribes of Qwabe and Zulu being still close beside one another at the commencement 
of the Shakan period, verifies the statement — for, if the separation had occurred else- 
where in any distant region, we should scarcely have expected both tribes to have 
moved about the continent together and, so to say, arm in arm - we may safely 
conclude that, as above assumed, the Zulu clan was already in situ, and not some- 
where away in the 'far north' or remote interior, at least during the middle or early 
part of the 17th. century. And since we hear no suggestion of even Zulu's father, 
Malandela, ever having known any other than the same old country, we may fairly , 
believe that the tribe was still there even a good long while before that date. Pv 

— 30* — 

But where they dwelt anterior to that time; where they came from, together 
with all the other kindred anmNtunaw a clans — for this seems to have been the 
original generic name common to all mose tribes of the 'Kafir' stock inhabiting this 
portion of the sub-continent, as distinguishing them from the tekeza peoples occupying 
the coastal districts and, in a remoter manner, from the amaXosa section of the same 
'Kafir' stock away south in the Cape Colony — where, then, they came from when 
the whole Ntungwa people, as is said, 'came down with a big corn basket (b'ehla 
ngesilulu ), tradition telleth not. Nor is it easy to hazard a guess. Their remoter 
history is no doubt identical with that of the whole Kafir section of the Bantu race, 
with that of the Xosas and the Mpondos and perhaps, though in a less intimate 
degree, with the Swazis and Lalas and other tekeza-spe&king tribes. The Bantu peoples, 
Sir. H. Johnston has thought, came down from the northern parts of the African 
continent less than three thousand years ago. It has been further surmised that the 
original home of the Zulus was within the vicinity of Lake Tanganika; but we are 
not aware of aivy reason sufficiently strong to justify either of these suppositions. 
Ourselves we incline, as already stated, to the Lemurian origin of the Negro and 
Bantu peoples ; and as for the subsequent wanderings and history of that section of 
the Bantu family called the Zulus, we must confess ourselves so far absolutely unable 
to trace anything, unless it be one solitary, though highly interesting, indication that, 
at one time in their career, and that probably immediately prior to their migration 
t<> these parts, they were 'at home' somewhere in the land of the water-goat. Our 
reasons for this opinion will be found more fully explained in the Dictionary under 
the word unijOmi. What may be exactly the limits within which this rare animal is found 
in Africa, we do not know; but we believe it is solely confined to the north-western 
quarter of the southern continent i.e. to the Angola and Upper Zambezi regions. 

Dawn of Zulu History with the Flight of Ngodongwana. —Over the ages, then, of 
impenetrable darkness we much reluctantly pass, and commence our narrative of 
actual Zulu history almost with these our own times. It was towards the close of 
the 18th. century that a quarrel broke out among the members of the royal house of 
the Mtetwa tribe down along the coast. The details of this quarrel, as left us by Sir. 
T. Shepstone and Mr. H. Fynn, though both obtained at first hand from 'reliable' 
Native sources, are regretfully conflicting. According to the former, the Mtetwa chief 
■ ]■'■<■ had, about the years 1785 90, appointed a certain son, Tana, to succeed him 
oil the throne. Being however too impetuous to come into possession of his inheri- 
tance, this son set about intriguing with a younger brother, Ngodongwana, for the 
premature and violent 'removal' of their aged father, who now alone stood between 
him and the attainment of his ambition. But the fates were not propitious, and in- 
formation of their conspiracy found its way to the ears of their father, who, turning 
the tables, immediately ordered their own death. Accordingly their hut was surrounded 
during the night; Tana was duly killed, but Ngodongwana escaped. Severely wounded 
in the back by a barbed assegai, he fled into an adjacent bush, where he was sought 
for and discovered on the morrow by his sister who, after attending to his immediate 
wants, lent him a strange skin-mantle, under the disguise of which he contrived to 
'•-■•ape altogether from the district. He wandered away from tribe to tribe 'to the 
south,' where he came into contact with 'whitepeople' in whose service he engaged 
himself; and ultimately becoming possessed of a couple of horses, he wended his way 
back to Ins people, 'sitting upon one of the horses.' The reigning chief, a brother 
of his, fled before so ominous a return; for a horse in those days was, in Zululand, 
- known and more dreaded than might be a lion. He was, however, eventually 
overtaken and put to death; whereafter Ngodongwana was universally acclaimed chief. 

Another account is that supplied by Henry Francis Fynn, one of the first batch 
of Englishmen to settle at Port Natal in the year 1824. According to him, the Mtetwa 
chief, Jobe, had not yet, at the particular time in point, about the year 1750, formally 
appointed a successor; but two sons, Mawewe and Ngodongwana, of different mothers, 
were both secretly aspiring for the position. The friends of Mawewe, the eldest of 
the two, anxious to ensure success for their candidate, circulated a rumour that Ngo- 
dongwana contemplated assassinating the chief. The latter, upon hearing the rumour, 
immediately struck home at the root and ordered the execution of Ngodongwana. 
But the attempt proved abortive; for in the attack on the kraal wherein this latter 
was residing, he escaped. Being severely wounded, he fled into a neighbouring forest, 
where he >- subsequently discovered, hidden beneath a tree, by a couple of the party 


— 31* — 

sent in pursuit. But these, as a second piece of fortune, were mercifully inclined, 
and, concealing his whereabouts, reported that he had made good his escape. This 
he eventually did, wandering from country to country, his father meanwhile des- 
patching presents and requests to all the neighbouring chiefs that, should he appear, 
they might put him to death. Finally, however, the fugitive reached a tribe ruled In- 
one Pangane, who, although suspecting his identity, afforded him protection. There 
he made himself generally useful, milking cows and so on, until one day he became 
suddenly exalted beyond all expectations. Single-handed he had attacked and killed 
a lioness that had been causing considerable havoc among the cattle, bringing home 
as a trophy a couple of her cubs. He immediately sprang into fame as the 'brave' 
par excellence of his tribe, with the headmanship over a portion of which he was 
forthwith rewarded. A rumour reached him now that his old father, Jobe, was dead, 
and that he had been succeeded by his son, Mawewe. And he had scarcely heard this, 
when a still more exciting occurence startled the whole countryside thereabout. A 
phenomenon having the aspect of a white man had appeared in the neighbourhood ! 
'Its garment, though so small as to be held in the grasp of one hand, when slipped 
over the head, covered the whole body. On its feet there were no toes, and its heel 
was so long as to penetrate the ground. It was mounted on an animal of great speed, 
and carried in its hand a pole which spit fire and thunder and killed all the animals 
it looked at. This was the chief of the diviners from whom all derived their powers. 
At his presence the Natives fled, after having first killed an ox to be consumed by 
him; and whenever he entered a kraal, beads and brass were left behind by him and 
found by the Natives on their return.' But Pangane, the chief, was more knowing 
than his people have been represented to be. He calmly awaited the approach of the 
apparition and got it to perforin a surgical operation on his knee! This piece of 
unparalleled bravery disarmed the apparition of all its awe; and when our ancestor 
sought guides who would conduct him to the coast 'then distant nearly 300 miles', 
Ngodongwana and party were only too willing to accompany him. Such a guide, with 
two birds to kill with the one stone, naturally led the traveller to that part of the coast 
nearest to his own people, who lived along the sea. When already nearing home and 
within view of the sea, he left the traveller among the Qwabe tribe, which was that 
next neighbouring on his own towards the south. There Pakatwayo, the Qwabe chief, 
captured the apparition; 'and regarding it, not as a human being, but as a species of 
s ea-an imal, which traversed the ocean in large shells, feeding on such elephants-tusks 
as' ' Wight be placed for its convenience along the shore and leaving in return beads 
gathered from the bottom of the sea,' he deemed it fair game for destruction. And 
this was the last of the ill-fated u mlurw u. But a happier destiny awaited Ngodongw r ana. 
He, having reached the neighbou s r^robd of his own tribe, was duly reported to the 
chief, Mawewe, his elder brother, who forthwith despatched a councillor to interview 
him. The result of this interview was that the councillor became so hopelessely 
hypnotised by the apparent omnipotence of this strange chief riding against them on 
so marvellous a beast and bearing thunder and lightning within the grasp of his 
right hand, that he unconditionally surrendered. He enlisted himself at once in the 
stranger's service. He returned to the chief Mawewe and advised him to send out a 
force against Ngodongwana. This was done and this particular councillor was placed 
in command. He was thus enabled to arrange that in the rear of Mawewe's force, a 
trusted party of warriors, admitted to the secret, should be retained, who, upon the 
moment of conflict, would attack their former comrades from the rear. An easy 
victory was thus ensured for Ngodongwana, who immediately marched on the capital, 
but found his brother had already fled to the neighbouring Qwabe chief, who, how- 
ever, was ultimately compelled to extradite the royal fugitive, handing him over to 
his brother Ngodongwana, who had him put to death. 

The story as related at the present day by members of the Mtetwa tribe and 
still resident in the Mtetwa country, is that the chief Jobe had ordered his elder son, 
Tana, to adopt the head-ring; this latter refused, whereupon a party was sent out by 
Jobe to kill him and his. The hut in which he was living was surrounded and all 
therein slaughtered, save his younger brother, Ngodongwana, who escaped witli a 
barbed assegai variously located as in the upper part of the left arm, in the right leg, or 
in the loins. Mawewe was another of Jobe's sons, who succeeded him after his death. 

Ngodongwana's return with a Whiteman. Much of the foregoing accounts is mere 
undisguised fiction; but the framework of genuine history, cleared of the embellish- 

— 32* — 

ments and distortions of Native exaggeration, will be readily traceable. What is cer- 
tain is that Ng-odongwana quarrelled with his father Jobe; that this latter consequently 
ordered the death of Ngodongwana, who, however, escaped from the attempt, and, 
after leading the life of a refugee for many years among a strange and distant tribe, 
ultimately, after his father's death, returned, riding upon a horse, and, having killed 
his brother then found reigning, took possession of the Mtetwa throne. 

But the point of central interest to us would seem to be, who this stray white- 
man, or those 'away south,' may have been, with whom Ngodongwana is said to have 
come into contact, and from whom it is supposed he learned so many of those ele- 
vated ideas concerning the advancement of his own and other surrounding Native 
peoples which, as a ruler, he afterwards attempted to put into effect and with such 
tremendous, if unexpected, results? Both explanations, as left us by Fynn and Shep- 
stone, seem unsatisfactory and improbable. The former writer, although correctly, as 
we think, intimating a westerly or up-country flight, has supposed the traveller to 
have been a certain Dr. Cowen, and, as one may conclude from his narrative, for no 
other reason than that a person of this name is reported to have 'travelled from 
Capetown in a N. E. direction in the year 17 — !' But if Dr. Cowen set out from 
'Capetown' and travelled in the simple solitary manner in which this whiteman seems 
to have been travelling, it would seem more than probable that he neither reached 
nor intended to reach these parts. Without a large train of baggage-bearers, without 
even a guide or companion, it remains a mystery how any traveller, much less one 
from Capetown, could have kept himself supplied with ammunition, with raiment and 
other necessaries, over all the hundreds of miles of unknown wilderness through 
which this person is said to have travelled. And yet he had surgical instruments — 
presumably because he was supposed to be a doctor! —and such an abundance of 
ammunition as to be able to supply, not only himself, but also Ngodongwana! But 
the account given by Sir. T. Shepstone is still more improbable, viz. that Ngodongwa- 
na made the acquaintance of white people 'down south beyond the Great Fish River.' 
For really it does seem too 'romantic' to suppose that a solitary Kafir boy, abscond- 
ing from liis kraal, with absolutely no inkling of the mere existence of whitemen in 
any southern region, should have found a necessity, in those lawless times when even 
the bravest of men did never dare to travel alone beyond the narrow limits of his 
own tribal district, to tramp aimlessly along southward over half a thousand miles of 
unknown country, large tracts of which were totally uninhabited, and in which, wherever 
inhabited, a peaceful living with abundance of sour-milk and pi'etty girls might have 
been obtainable as an adopted dependent for the mere asking; to tramp aimlessly 
along through hundreds of foreign, oftentimes unsympathetic and unprincipled tribes, 
too eager to capture or to kill upon the slightest appearance of helplessness or resis- 
tance; along a dreary, endless path which led, goodness knows where, certainly not 
to a greater security and happiness than he might have had anywhere within the first 
hundred miles of his inarch; and then finally, to re-appear at his home, 'upon ahorse 
and with a gun,' and knowing all about Delagoa Bay (of all places in the world!), 
with which Portuguese station he immediately proceeded to enter into an extensive 
trade, 'sending there in the first year of his chieftainship,' as we learn from this same 
Fynn, '100 oxen and a quantity of elephants' tusks in exchange for beads and blankets.' 
According to Native accounts, this historic flight, now made so wonderful in the telling, 
must, as Shepstone thinks, have taken place somewhere about the year 1785 — 1795. 
and Fynn between 1750 — 1780; ourselves we should favour the former date. Now, at 
that time the remotest outskirts of the whiteman's civilisation in a southerly direction 
re far beyond the Great Fish River. Even that was a region then practically un- 
known, save to a handful of solitary Dutch farmers and a few travellers; for the 
whole of the East London and Queenstown districts were at that period still far away 
in unexplored savagedom. The nearest military post, where in 1799 a 'small garrison' 
was stationed, and the only place where anything like civilisation might have been 
met with, was at Graaf Reinet. And this condition of things continued right away 
till the year 1815, and indeed after; but that was a date already too late for our pur- 
pose. And further, having been engaged in deadly warfai*e with Native raiders con- 
tinuously for untold years, it is highly incredible that any whiteman 'down south,' 
British or Dutch, would have had the temerity to allow a Kafir the possession of a 
horse and gun. There is a palpable error in the direction of this Ngodongwana's 
flight. The common Native, by whom these stories are generally spread abroad, had 
gleaned from the crumbs of hearsay falling from the unapproachable royal-kraal's 

— 33* — 

table, that their chief in returning had come back from among some whitemen; and 
whitemen appearing soon afterwards, not from a westerly, hut from a southerly direc- 
tion, he very naturally assumed that these were the same as referred to in Ngodo- 
ngwana's flight. In reality, however, his flight had been more probably in a direction 
that brought him within the sphere of influence of Delagoa Bay. It will he noted thai 
Fynn gives the name of the chief under whom Ngodongwana had been living as 
'Pangane', and the distance of that chief's country from the coast as 'nearly 300 miles.' 
It is our belief that in both of these statements Fynn was very close to actual truth; 
for, in those times and under those circum stances, it was almost impossible to calcu- 
late long distances correctly, and, furthermore, we know from his writings generally 
that his knowledge of the Zulu language, in its then undeveloped form, was not such 
as could enable him to write a Zulu name accurately. Upon making investigations 
among the older members of the Mtetwa royal house still living, we are told that the 
name of the chief under whom Ngodongwana found refuge was IVjD ynkulu . aon of [Jji- 
ngane. Now, Mtimkulu ka'Bungane is a personage about whom lfseems difficult to 
Deneve there could have been any doubt. He was, at that very time, a well-known chief 
of the great HJjjh^jtribo, of the Lala and Sj Wfl f d stoc k. — the first 'foreign' i.e. non 
ribe a fugitive would have come to i 

Zulu tribe a fugitive would have come to if flying from the coast directly inland or 
up-country, in a westerly direction. The Hlubi people were then dwelling about tin; 
sources of the Mzinyati, in the Wakkerstroom district of the Transvaal, and the dis- 
tance of that district from the sea wftufd be a full 200 miles by Native pathways -a 
figure which corresponds very fairly, considering the circumstances, with that conject- 
ured by Fynn. We know, moreover, that there was a brisk trade in elephant tusks, 
hides, brass and copper rings, and beads going on at the time in Portuguese and 
adjoining territory. Numbers of hunters and hawkers, too, were roaming about the 
inland parts in search of sport or trade. What more probable, then, than that such a 
one should have chanced to reach the Hlubi country and there to have sought a guide 
to the coast? But the sea he would wish to reach was, we may believe, rather that 
of his own home at Delagoa Bay, than that washing the shores of the Mtetwa domain. 
Naturally, Ngodongwana would be acquainted with none other than the latter, and 
would consequently, as well as for other and stronger private reasons, lead him to it. 
From the callous way in which his 'guides' seem to have deserted him when approach- 
ing their own destination, we consider it quite likely that they first took care to 
plunder the unfortunate traveller of his horse and gun prior to leaving him stranded 
in Pakatwayo's territory. There is, it is true, some difficulty attached to the fact of 
the Whiteman being in possession of a horse if, as we surmise, he came from Delagoa 
Bay; for it is hard to believe that horses at that time were in existence at that place, 
and still harder to believe that they could wander about the adjoining malarial districts 
without soon succumbing to horse-sickness or the tsetse fly. This drives us to opine 
with Fynn that the Whiteman came up from the Old Colony and was now trying to 
make for Delagoa Bay, or otherwise — and which, in view of subsequent events, seems 
to us more probable — came on foot from Delagoa Bay and purchased the animals 
up-country in order to aid him in his travels; for we think that horses must have 
been already introduced at that time among the Basutos by the Griquas and other 
roaming Natives from the Cape Colony. 

That such a seemingly trivial event as that recorded above should have been 
treated so exhaustively may well cause surprise to our readers. But when they are 
told that this little adventure of the Mtetwa boy marked an epoch in South-African 
history; that it was the insignificant spring from which started forth that cataclysm 
of bloodshed and devastation which overwhelmed all this part of the continent one 
hundred years ago, driving thousands upon thousands to homelessness and misery, 
thousands upon thousands to torture and death; that it was the tiny seed from which 
grew forth that many-branched disturbance of the Bantu race which had as its direct 
results the foundation of the famous Zulu nation, culminating in the Zulu War; the 
foundation of the Basuto nation, leading on to the Basuto War; the foundation of 
the Makololo nation with its early dissolution; the foundation of the Matebele kingdom, 
ending in the Bhodesian War; the driving forth into all quarters of the continent of 
fugitive hordes of lawless marauders whose continuous course of ravage and rapine 
stretched away even to Victoria Nyanza; and finally, that bringing of the Boers from 
over the Drakensberg which resulted in the proclamation of Natal as a British Colony 
when the reader remembers all these things, he will come to see that the Mtetwa 
Kafir boy was answerable for much. Had there been no flight and no return of 


— 34* — 

Ngodongwana and no meeting on his part with an umlungu, there would have been 
no Mtetwa military power; no Mtetwa power, no Shaka compelled to martial and im- 
perial ambitions; no Shaka, no Zulu nation nor Zulu War, no Basuto nation nor 
Basuto War, no Matebele nation nor Matebele War; nor would our own Natalia have 
been born so soon. 

Ngodongwana now Dingiswayo, King and Empire-builder. But wherever he came 
from, this Ngodongwana arrived, not only with the mere novelties of a horse and a 
gun -two wonders hitherto undreamed of in local imagination — but, what was more 
important, with the idea of the civilisation and militarism which those things signified; 
lor he immediately set about busying himself alike with the arts of peace as with the 
arts of war. The stray Whitcman, upon learning that his guide was none other than 
a greal chief, at least prospectively, no doubt conceived the philanthropic desire of 
instilling some more elevated ideals into his savage breast, informing him how coun- 
tries were governed and peoples ruled where he came from, and how much better it 
would be to introduce the same system here. And Ngodongwana, though probably 
utterly thankless for the advice, yet was taking it all in, and, upon the first oppor- 
tunity, proceeded to act upon it. The Whiteman's advice had had reference to com- 
merce, and he had instructed his pupil how a start could be made; it had had refer- 
ence to the army, and he had supplied him with an improved plan of organisation 
and usefulness. Ngodongwana therefore at once set about opening up trade with 
Delagoa Bay ; he established home industries for the dressing of skin-mantles, the 
weaving of baskets and the manufacture of articles of furniture, and generally sought 
to inspire his people with an ambition for a higher social state. But all this was 
subsidiary to the matter of prime importance, the superior military power of his own 
tribe. In his corner of the world, right was only held by virtue of might; and he 
had the greatest peace who was the most powerful. As we have already noted, the 
country thereabout was at that time filled with numerous small independent clans 
who had a natural weakness — no less apparent in their descendants of the present 
day — for submitting all their petty disputes to the arbitrament of arms. True, this 
seldom amounted to a genuine battle, and war-waging on a large scale was, in those 
'good old times', unknown. It was mere faction-fighting, in which a few might meet 
their death, but no atrocities would be committed. Beginning as it did and ending 
in a single day, the victors would consider themselves amply rewarded in having 
dealt their adversaries the merited punishment and enriched themselves with a few 
cattle or prisoners, mostly females, subsequently to be redeemed by a stock-ransom. 
But Ngodongwana — now, since his return, named Dingiswayo, which, being interpreted, 
means 'he who was made be at a loss as to what to do' — regarded this incessant 
petty fighting as a symptom of general unruliness; and, with the object of bringing 
order into chaos, he determined to constitute himself so powerful a policeman, that 
none would be able to dispute his word. He accordingly marshalled the whole dis- 
orderly mass of men over whom he found himself ruling into a systematic fighting- 
force, incorporating them, in quite a novel manner, into separate, picturesquely adorn- 
ed and fancifully named regiments, according to their various ages. Imbued, then, 
with a rejuvenated consciousness of martial superiority, his warriors were not long 
in seeking to try their fortune with the disorganised fighting-crowds of neighbouring 
clans. The success that attended their arms was immediately apparent, and very soon 
Dingiswayo became the most powerful monarch in all those parts. 

The system followed by Dingiswayo differed radically from that of Shaka. Being 
by nature more humane and by training more refined, his policy was not, like that 
of the latter, to incorporate or destroy: it was simply to conquer and then rule in a 
patriarchal fashion in the interests of peace and good order. It sufficed him to bring 
his adversary to subjection, and as a witness thereto, as a chastisement or lesson, to 
allow his warriors to sojourn a while in the enemy's land, living on their crops, 
though leaving their chief, their women and their cattle untouched. It is related that 
'on one occasion he captured the whole of Pakatwayo's (chief of the Qwabe's) house- 
hold, wives, daughters and other woman; he ordered them to be brought before him, 
and directed a dance in their presence, in which he personally performed; he then 
allowed them to go to their homes, telling them he fought with men, not women, and 
when men were obliged to leave their women to the enemy, it was a sign that they 
wejv beaten ! ' 

In this comparatively humane way, he overcame, at times by actual force, at 


times by mere prestige, first the emaNgadini elan in his vicinity; then the Qwabes 
to the south, and, continuing indefinitely forward towards inland, (he eLangeni, the 
emaNtshalini, the Tembus, and almost all those tribes within striking distance of his 
sphere of influence, including the little Zulu elan between the Black and White Mfolozi. 
It might render our narrative" more intelligible it', at this point, we insert a gen- 
ealogical table of the line of Mtctwa chiefs, together with their approximate dates of 
birth —the calculation being made on a basis of twenty-five years to a generation of 
eldest-sons (not great-sons) of chiefs: - 

Simamana-wongwe (b. 1600 A. D.). 



(b. 1625). 
(b. 1650). 

Mkayi or Mkali (b. 1675). 
Jobe (b. 1710). 

Shangana (b. 1735). 

Dingiswayo (b. 1770). 

Madipa Mbiya or Mbila (b. 1760). 

Myandeya or Mlandela (b, 1785). 

Sokwetshata (b. 1850). 

Somveli Ndabayake (b. 1805). 
Mafiti (b. 1840). 

Senzangakona and Shaka, his son. The history of the Zulu people having been 
preserved for us in the every-day conversation of each old man and woman for the 
past century or more, we do not presume to offer our readers anything very original 
and new. Here are no startling novelties and unfamiliar facts to be unearthed by a 
diligent historian from musty folios on the back shelves of mediaeval libraries. The 
Zulu clan or the few kraals comprising it were, as already stated, about the end of the 
18th. century, ruled by a petty chieftain named Se nzangak ona, born probably about 
the year 1760, and a son of Jama, of Ndab a, of Punga, of Mageba, of Zulu, of Mala- 
ndela by his wife Nozidiya. a STthat was in the 'good old times', memories of which 
still linger in the tribal amaHubo, when each clan, numbering but the few families 
gathered round its headman, was self-contented and unambitious; when a periodical 
fight amply satisfied all their warlike proclivities and settled all their mutual mis- 
understandings, 'a day being fixed beforehand when the men of the rival tribes met 
in battle and settled their dispute then and there; when they did not fight to shed 
blood, or burn houses, or capture cattle, or destroy each other, but to settle a quarrel 
and see which was the strongest; when the women looked on while the men fought, 
and the young warriors, whose addresses had been paid to the girls of the other 
tribe, sent home their shields from the field of battle by their friends, and returned 
with their late foes to prosecnte their love suits; when an army never slept away 
from its home, and the sun that saw tribes fight never set till their quarrel was end- 
ed.' Senzangakona would have the audacity to lead his little force against his neigh- 
bours the Butelezis. Pungashe, their chieftain, would capture him and immediately 
release him for a ransom. Macingwane, of the emaCunwini clan, would have a passage 
at arms with the Zulus, would as before carry off their chief, whereupon the faithful 
men of Senzangakona would repair with an offering of cattle to their enemy's kraal 
and bring home their stolen chief. 

The home of this latter was at a place called Nobamba, between the Ntuzuma 
and Nzololo streams, running into the White Mfolozi. Senzangakona is reported by 
Natives intimately related with the family, to have had 'about ten' formally mar- 
ried wives, notwithstanding that Isaacs, one of the pioneers of Port Natal, asserts, 
with the usual weakness for exaggeration, that he was blessed, or otherwise, with 
'thirty wives and innumerable concubines.' His first wife, Fudukazi, daughter of Cele, 
was the mother of Mzintlanga, the crown-princess of Senzangakona, but had no male 

— 36* — 

offspring (subsequently a younger bride— the fifth in order of marriage — named Mpi- 
kase, of the emaQungubeni clan, and mother of Dingana, was affiliated to this first 
wife, who, already so obese as to be incapable of parturiating, required the help of a 
deputy to raise up a family for her). The second wife was a girl named Nandi, a 
daughter of Mbengi, chief of the eLangeni clan, by his wife Mfunda, who herself 
was the inkosazana or crown-princess of Pakatwayo, chief of the Qwabes. The third 
wife was Langazana, daughter of Gubeshe, of the emaNzimeleni clan, who died so 
recently as 1882. The fourth was Mzondwase, the mother of Mhlangana, and the fifth, 
as said, the mother of Dingana. Magulana, Bibi, Mangcengeza, Mntuli, Songiya (the 
mother of Mpande), and a couple of others complete the harem of actual wives. 

The most famous of these wives must ever remain Nandi, the mother of Shaka, 
who. as ' Xada the Lily', was destined to furnish a romance for antipodean posterity 
and have her name, though somewhat disguised, pi-eserved so long as the fame of 
Rider Haggard shall endure. Senzangakona died before having chosen a great-wife ; 
which fact would lead us to believe that, at the time of his death, he was still a man 
below middle age. Some say his heart was strongly inclined towards Nandi, and that, 
had his councillors not objected, saying, 'we do not want so short a girl as the great- 
wife of our tribe', he might have appointed her. But this statement does not appear 
to be without some doubt. At any rate to Nandi a child was born, and he was named 
by his father, Shaka — the derivation of which name, in spite of many altogether 
fanciful guesses, must be declai'ed as unknown and unapparent. When about a year 
old, the boy was taken, according to custom, to his mother's home down country, 
there 'to be weaned'. Leaving him there, Nandi returned to her husband to whom 
she bore a second child, a daughter named Nomcoba — two other children of hers are 
said to have been miscarried. Shaka grew up with his mother's people of the eLangeni 
clan until he reached the age of puberty. Here for some reason or other, probably be- 
cause of his own disagreeable character, he does not seem to have been regarded as 
a very desirable acquisition, and his days of childhood do not appear to have been 
the proverbial 'happy times'. The bullies of the family, it is saicl, found great fun 
in burning the end of the porridge-stirer and, when red with fire, offering him the 
live cinder to eat, saying, Eat this, that we may see whether thou be indeed a chief; 
or, when he might return from herding the cattle to obtain his midday meal, they 
would force him to hold out both hands, extended side by side like a saucer, into 
which they would pour boiling collops, and then compel him to eat, or threaten him 
with punishment if he allowed the food to drop! The marked stumpiness of a cer- 
tain bodily organ was also ever a source of persistent ridicule among his companions, 
and their taunts in this regard so rankled within his breast, that he grew up hai*- 
bouring a deadly hatred against all the eLangeni people, which hatred found its re- 
venge when, now supreme, he attempted their extermination by impaling per rectum 
upon tall sharpened stakes all such as he could conveniently lay hands on, and then 
caused fires to be lighted below their wriggling bodies. 

Hitherto, then, the boy Shaka had paraded, according to Zulu custom, in puris 
naturalibus; but now, having attained the age of puberty, he must go home once 
mure to be presented by his father with his first umutsha or loin -caver jng of skin. 
This was a great event with Zulu youngsters and corresponded to that auspicious 
occasion among our own, when they are permitted to assume for the first time the 
glory of a pair of breeches. But Shaka even at this age must have shown himself of 
a particularly unlovable nature; and appearing now in his father's kraal, after so many 
years of absence, as a virtual stranger, he succeeded in getting himself so generally 
disliked among the various wives and among his own brothers and sisters, as to 
make his presence there no longer desired; and when he actually rejected with disdain 
the new umutsha provided for him by his father, his insubordination appeared so 
complete as to compel his mother to return with him to her own people down country. 
He had, however, had enough of the eLangeni people, so she took him to her own 
mother's home in the kraal of Pakatwayo, the Qwabe chief. But even there he was 
not welcomed, and as a last resource she sought an asylum for him, possibly about 
the year 1805, in the kraal of Dingiswayo, of the Mtetwa tribe, and at that time para- 
mount chief of all the country round about. Here he was offered and, sobered by 
past experiences, gladly accepted the regulation umutsha, and here he grew up in 
comparative peace, advancing in bravery as in years. 

In the old home-kraal at Nobamba, life seems to have been no longer pleasant 
for the mother. Two of her four children having, as some say, died at birth, and 

- 37* - 

the only child, Nomcoba, now remaining at home, having at length got married 
to Mlandela, a great-nephew of Dingiswayo's, and subsequently, in more modern times, 
chief of the Mtetwa tribe, Nandi herself also bid a last farewell to the kraal of Senza- 
ngakona and went to dwell down-country among her own people, where Bhe would 
ever be within easy visiting distance of her two remaining children. Although Nom- 
coba begat no offspring by her marriage witli Mlandela, her mother, Nandi, would 
seem, perhaps before and perhaps after Senzangakona's death, to have given birth to 
another son, Ngwadi, by a commoner of small repute named Ngendeyana, and by 
some said to have belonged to the Zulu clan. This Ngwadi followed on the heels of 
his half-brother, Shaka, into a premature grave; for no sooner had Dingana completed 
the assassination of the latter, than he despatched a party likewise to murder Ngwadi, 
lest perchance he be tempted with revengeful or ambitious pretensions. 

Much gratuitous romance has been woven round this early history of Shaka 
and his mother; but the above account, as more normal and natural, and as that still 
preserved in the traditions of Nandi' a own tribe, having been given to the writer by 
a grandson, still living, of Mbengi her father, probably reflects a truer picture than 
do those stories of illicit concubinage, illegitimate birth, expulsion of Nandi from tin- 
Zulu king's kraal while still enceinte or immediately after childbirth, and so on, as 
supplied us by many other writers. Thus Sir T. Shepstone tells how Shaka, although 
acknowledged to have been an illegitimate child, was suffered, along with his mother, 
to remain in the Zulu chief's kraal, where he grew up to be a young man. But 
owing to his arrogant manners, he made himself intolerable to the other of the chief's 
sons, and, along with his mother, was forced to fly 'for his life.' He betook himself 
for protection to the paramount chief, Dingiswayo, whose army he entered. 

Fynn gives us still another story. He says, before the days of Dingiswaj'o, 
circumcision was the universal custom among all Zulu tribes. But Diugisatayo, he 
proceeds, ordered the periodical performance of this custom to be lfiLfaJJ in abeyance, 
until he should have completed his plan of campaign and brought the whole of the 
surrounding unruly tribes into order and subjection to himself. Subject to this or- 
dinance was also the petty chief of the Zulu clan. Now, one requirement of the 
common circumcision law was that no man, much less a chief, should marry before 
the operation had been performed; so that the ordinance of Dingiswayo demanded 
an unusual amount of self-restraint on the part of the young-men, and was particularly 
irksome to such as, like Senzangakona, were madly in love. We are, therefore, not 
surprised that weak nature succumbed to unnatural laws, and that in spite of them 
his paramour became enceinte, 'much to the surprise' — says the account somewhat 
naively — of Senzangakona himself. A son was in due time forthcoming — against 
the law, of course — and was called Shaka; but his mother, developing so 'ferocious' 
a temper, was driven away, and returned to her own country 'among the Amola (sic) 

The above story, in making Senzangakona, the Zulu chieftain, subject to the 
Dingiswayan prohibition concerning circumcision, consequently assumes that he was 
at that time a very young man of at the most 20 years of age, which obvious de- 
duction seems, in our eyes, to throw considerable doubt upon the accuracy of Fynn's 
account, for we can scarcely believe the Zulu chief to have been so j r oung, at the 
time of Shaka's birth; and then, even before his meeting with Nandi, he had already 
taken another wife, the mother of Mzintlanga, which, again and alone, is difficult to 
reconcile with his not having yet been circumcised. 

The truth of the matter would seem to be — and this is the tradition as known 
to the older members of the tribes concerned still living -that the practice of cir- 
cumcision fell into desuetude in the times of Jobe, Dingiswayo's father, and Jam a, 
father of Senzangakona, and not through any action of Dingiswayo, much less through 
any still more recent prohibition by Shaka, as is frequently stated; and, further, thai 
Nandi was not a concubine, but a legal wife formally taken by Senzangakona, and 
Shaka a son honestly born in wedlock, probably about the year 1785. 

Senzangakona visits Dingiswayo, and dies. —Now, Dingiswayo, the chief of the 
Mtetwas, under whose protection the youthful Shaka was then growing up, was also 
the paramount over-lord of the Zulu clan; so that from time to time its chief was re- 
quired to make his subjection evident by sending tribute or by a personal visit to 
his liege-lord. Senzangakona had already at home heard much of the exceptional 
bravery of his son at Dingiswayo's; how single-handed he had attacked and killed a 


— 38* — 


fiendish madman who had insph-ed the whole district with terror, had for a long time 
continued to play sad havoc with the king's cattle and, having securely established 
himself on a hill-top, had succeeded in driving off any force that had been sent 
against him; how he was the wonder of the whole army, in that while they, in their 
battles, would stand afar off and hurl their assegais at the foe, he, Shaka, would rush 
wildly upon them and work multiplied destruction at close-quarters — an action at 
that time so uncannily supernatural that the enemy, filled with dread, would invari- 
ably become panic-stricken and fly. By such exhibitions of prowess, Shaka became 
admiringly nicknamed by his comrades uNodumehlezi (he who causes things to hum 
without oven stirring), uSigidi (he who does for untold numbers), and so on. 

Although Senzangakona had not yet been called upon by his tribe to formally 
elect a great^wife for the provision of a legal heir-apparent to the throne, or perhaps 
had not yet attained the customary age for so doing, his heart, it is said, remained 
ever firm in its old love for Nandi of the eLangeni clan, and he often informally 
declared, in the society of his men, 'I have made my successor that young bull of 
mine' with the little curled-up ears (meaning his son Shaka); he it is who will rip 
out the tendons from the necks of the other bulls' —referring to the emaCunwini and 
Butelezi chiefs whose people abutted on those of Senzangakona and, in their little 
tights, generally got the better of him. 

At length the time was ripe for Senzangakona to pay a personal visit to the 
paramount chief. This he did and found, as rumour had stated, his boy the favourite 
of the king and the pride of his army. Among other festivities, a dance was arranged 
in honour of the Zulu chieftain, in which his boy went through a wild and astonishing 
pas-seul before him. So delighted was the father that he made open deposition before 
the paramount chief that 'this is my great-son who shall govern my people after me.' 
The heart of Senzangakona — if it had ever really given expression to such a wish 
In -fore the paramount chief — was now at rest as to having fairly secured the succes- 
Bion for his own and perhaps Dingiswayo's favourite. After a few more days' pleasant 
stay with the Mtetwa chief, Senzangakona returned home; but a short while after, he 
fell sick and dj^ed, probably about the year 1810. 

Below we give a genealogical table of the line of Zulu chiefs, with their approx- 
imate dates of birth, reckoned on a basis of forty years to a generation of a great- 
son (not eldest sons) of chiefs: — 

Malandela (b. A. D. 1520). 

Qwabe {b. 1555). 





Zulu (b. 1560). 
Mageba (b. 1G00). 

Punga (b. 1640). 

Ndaba (b. 1680). 

Jama (b. 1720). 

Pakatwayo Mafongonyana 

Senzangakona (b. 1760). 

Soji} r isa 



Shaka, Dingana, Mpande (b. 1804). Mapita 

Cetshwayo {b. 1829). 


Dinuzulu (b. 1870). Konela 

This table is not given as authoritatively final. There is some doubt as to 
whether Punga was really a son or a brother of Mageba; also as to whether Mageba 
was the son of Zulu and immediately followed him in the succession. From Ndaba 
awards the genealogy is certain. 

Accession of Shaka. Senzangakona had died without any formal appointment of 
a great-wife and onsequently also of an heir-apparent as known to, and such as would 

— 39* — 

be legally recognised by, the tribe. The consensus of opinion among the headmen of 
the tribe was altogether in favour of recognising Dintrun a. the child of the first 
wife having been a female, and Dingana's mother having been affiliated to that wifi 
hut, so that, by Native custom, he now held the superior position in the family. There 
may have been a small minority, who, for personal reasons of respecl for the wishes 
of the deceased chief or of private dislike for Dingana, may have favoured the more 
unpopular candidate away in the Mtetwa country. But that enfant terrible did nol 
deem even their patronage necessary; for, collecting such a small escort as with 
Dingiswayo's sanction he could gather together, and accompanied by Ngomane, of the 
emDhletsheni clan, an induna of Dingiswayo's, whom this latter had appointed to !><• 
guardian over 'his child' —knowing, no doubt, of the opposition that was possible on 
the part of his other brothers at Nobamba— Shaka, taking with him his mother Nandi, 
set out for the Zulu home he had left so many years before, and, arrived there, without 
further parley, assumed the dignit} r of kingship and, for about a couple of years, reign- 
ed in comparative quiet and peacefulness with his own people and the world at lar 

Another account, left us by Fynn, tells us that, although Shaka, upon his lather's 
decease, sought the favour of Dingiswaj^o to instal him as chief, this latter refused, 
saying, that he himself was now in authority over the Zulu clan, and, further, there 
was Mfokazi {sic), an elder and legitimate son of Senzangakona, who had a prior right. 
Not to be so easily defeated, Shaka at once conceived a plan for clearing from his 
waj r this apparently the only obstacle to the attainment of his ambition. He accord- 
ingly employed his half-brother Ngwadi, to assassinate Mfokazi; which accomplished, 
the way was clear. 

War with the amaNgwana and Flight of Matiwana. Dingiswayo, as the paramount 
chief, naturally required that tributaiw tribes should from time to time help to fight 
their liege's battles ; and it was in this way that, about the year 1812, we find the 
Zulu forces, either with the sanction of or with express orders from Dingiswa}'o, 
attacking the powerful Ngwana clan under Matiwana, whom they caused to fly en 
masse from their aboriginal home about the Ntabankulu mountain in the Vryheid 
district. The terrible Shaka had commenced to move, and this was his first act that 
set the ball a-rolling; with it began that awful wave of bloodshed and devastation 
which cast the whole of South- African savagedom into a universal turmoil of mutual 
conflict and extermination. 

The havoc caused throughout South-Africa by the ravages of this petty Attila, 
Matiwana, was second only to that of Shaka himself. To follow him and his tribe of 
roving freebooters throughout all their wanderings will cause us to deviate somewhat 
from our course, leading us away, as it will, from the days of Dingiswayo, through 
those of Shaka, even into the times of his successor, Dingana. Howbeit, it may best 
be done, by way of parenthesis, at this point. 

One's home is one's castle; and this tribe, once ejected from its own aboriginal 
abode, had to fight for its existence. In its flight towards the south, it first found 
the way barred by the very large Hhibi tribe, of S wazi o rigin, and then dwelling 
throughout the whole district watered by the upper Buffalo river and its branches. 
This tribe the Ngwanas in their desperation succeeded in routing, sending them flying, 
some southward towards the Sand River, others over the Drakensberg into Orangia 
and thence far away into the Cape Colony itself. Themselves the Ngwanas continued 
their victorious march through the Newcastle division of Natal, putting to flight or 
sadly mauling as they went, still other less powerful Lala clans of those parts, as the 
Bele clan about Uinsinga, the Zizis along the Drakensberg at the sources of the 
Tukela, the Nyamvus and Njilos about the Little Tukela, until, themselves tii 
out and in a comparatively safe and secluded country, they thought to rest and build 
in peace. But it was in vain; for Dingiswayo being dead, Shaka had usurped the 
paramount power behind, and his sleuthhouiuls were even then on their track. < >nce 
more, then, up and a-doing. Over the desolate Drakensberg flew the JJgwana hordes 
in among the Suto clans beyond. There, on the Orangia side of the Caledon, they met 
their old foes the Illubis, or a portion of them under Mpangaxita, whom they had 
some years before "driven from their home on the Buffalo river. As was inevitable, 
they engaged them in battle near Ladybrand, on the banks of the Caledon, overcame 
them once more and killed their chief. The mountain tribes of Basutoland and the 
neighbourhood were filled with dismay before this powerful invader. They consisted 
mainly of about half a dozen independent clans — the Monageng, the Khwakhwa, the 

- 40*.-- 

Tlokwana, the Ramokhele, the Phuti and others — and each fell an easy prey to the 
conquering Ngwanas. It is said to have been their custom, as it was subsequently 
of Mzilikazi, 'to attack a kraal a short time before day-break, set fire to the huts, 
ami stah the defenceless inhabitants as they rushed out.' One tribe, from this 
eastern side of Orangia, bordering on Basutoland, after having had to suffer much 
humiliation from these Zulu hordes, afterwards, about 1821, taking a leaf out of its 
enemy's book, set up the same kind of freebooter life itself among its own kindred, 
and became famous. This was the Ntati tribe, under Sebetwane, who in the year 
182o, having been routed by Matiwana ana driven beyond TTie" - Vaal, clashed together 
with the Griquas near Kuruman, who drove them north, until after fighting their 
course continuously through nearly a thousand miles of other Suto and Chwana tribes, 
they eventually reached the upper Zambezi, where they built up the Kololo nation, 
celebrated in Livingstone's writings. Sebetwane became the terror of all the sur- 
rounding clans, whom he conquered and incorporated with his own people. He was 
succeeded by his son, Sekeletu, who, however, died of leprosy; and, lacking a royal 
head strong enough to keep all the numerous parts together, the nation, under Mpo- 
roro, son of Sekeletu, fell to pieces. One of those fragments is the present well-known 
I people. 

But the Ngwanas remained victors only until another more powerful than they 
- their old enemy, Shaka — appeared on the scene. He sent an army against them, 
which, with its almost charmed good-fortune, had little trouble in freeing Basutoland 
for ever from the plague of these marauders. From being vassals of Matiwana, the 
Sutos henceforth acknowledged the Zulu king as their liege-lord and were wise 
enough to send regularly forward an humble tribute. But the castigation suffered at 
the hands of a despicable horde of vagabonds had not been without its salutary lesson 
to the hitherto independent and mutually contending Suto mountain-clans. It showed 
them that alone, they stand to fall, one and all; united, they might hold their own 
against any foe. A leader and organiser was wauted and forthcoming in the great 
and good man named Moshweshwe, himself not of high birth, who immediately pro- 
ceeded to amalgamate the scattered elements, now sadly damaged and diminished, into 
the one solid and powerful Suto nation we now behold. And none too soon; for 
other hordes, equally warlike and strong — those of the terrible Mzilikazi — were 
already on the war-path hastening towards them. 

With Matiwana discretion was the better part of valour, and when he had to 
deal with those stronger than himself, he never waited long enough to be appreciably 
harmed. He could lead to a fight and direct a good retreat. Thus it was, after his 
last rout by the Zulu army, his tribe escaped almost without feeling any weakness 
from the attack. They crossed Basutoland into Griqualand East, and skirting along 
the Drakensberg, came at length to the upper basin of the Mtata river, whence they 
sent a thrill of dismay throughout the whole of Xosaland. The consternation they 
caused among blacks and whites alike may be judged from a work written soon after 
by Mr. Godlonton, editor of the Grahamstown Journal. He writes that 'in May, 
1S2S, alarming reports reached the Colony, purporting that an immense horde of sav- 
ages were approaching the boundary from the north-eastward; that the most sweeping- 
destruction had hitherto marked their progress, and that it appeared very probable 
the Kafir tribes would either be driven upon the Colony, or be speedily extirpated, 
unless succoured by the Colonial power. These reports soon created some uneasiness 
at the seat of government; and at length Major Dundas, and subsequently Lt. Col. 
Somerset, were despatched against them.' Joined by the Tembus under Vusani, and 
another powerful chief, Hintza, with a great number of his warriors, the British troops 
moved against the dreaded and formidable foe. The Ngwana here received their first 
ami last baptism of fire; for never having seen or heard a rifle attack before, 'they', 
as the report says, 'were evidently unprepared for this destructive weapon, and hence, 
amazed at its report, and terrified at its effects, some instantly fled, while others 
threw themselves on the ground in a paroxysm of fear.' Safe behind the mountains, 
after the battle, the redoubtable Matiwana, still bold as ever, though now a leader 
without a host, is said to have addressed the few remnants of his wreck as follows: 
"When we have fought with men, we have beaten them; but to-day we have had to 
bank- with thunder and lightning. It is no disgrace to be conquered by them." But 
tin- Ngwana power was broken, and Matiwana, like another prodigal son, set out, 
humbled and alone, to return to his former allegiance. For nigh five hundred miles 
he tramped disconsolate on through East Griqualand and Natal, through such deso- 



— 41* — 

lation and misery as he himself had been bringing to the poor and the weak for 
fourteen years — to seek reconciliation and forgiveness! He had outlived Shaka, whose 
days had ended in a fitting doom; and now, led on by a relentless fate, he marcheth 
to his own. He found Dingana at his Mgungundhlovu kraal, and 'tendered his sub- 
mission in abject tones, saying that he had now no cloak but the king to shelter 
him.' Dingana having heard him unmoved, it was not long before he too was led 
across the Nzololo stream and up the ridge on the further side, where the land was 
quickly ridden of his unhallowed presence. As he had sown, so did he reap. This 
ridge was ever afterwards known to the Zulus as 'Matiwana's' (kwa 'Matiwana 
and immortalised in the vulgar curse 'Go to Matiwana's!' (yana Jcwa? Matiwana 
that is 'Go to perdition!' 

Shaka's new Method of Attack, and Conquest of the Butelezi Clan. But while the 
banished Matiwana was spreading the first wave of disruption and mutual conflict 
among the hitherto peaceful Lala tribes south of the Buffalo river and Tukela, Shaka, 
the youthful Zulu chief who had been instrumental in banishing him, was equally 
busy rousing up other strife on the northern side. He had learned much in the new 
military school of Dingiswayo; but the methods and tactics there followed did not 
commend themselves to his keener mind. The custom of hurling an assegai, mostly 
without any effect, at a distant foe, was to him as though merely throwing one's 
weapons away. This antiquated practice must disappear from an army so 'up-to-date' 
as his own. To give his warriors an ocular demonstration of his new fighting-method, 
he ordered two divisions of his army to supply themselves with reeds and then engage 
in a sham-fight, one party hurling their reeds, the other charging upon them with a 
single stabbing weapon. The onrush of this latter division was naturally irresistible, 
an immediate and complete victory demonstrating beyond any doubt the superiority 
of the new charging method of attack. The Zulu warriors would therefore henceforth 
carry but one stout assegai (i-rrwa), and with this, under pain of death, they must 
return from the fight, or alternatively remain a corpse on the field. Then, again, the 
plan of fighting an enemy, as did Dingiswayo, merely for the satisfaction of exercising 
a momentary jurisdiction over him by a display of one's present superiority, while 
he, the adversary, was left easily capable of recuperation and future retaliation, was, 
in Shaka's view, altogether deficient of any adequate gain, and imperfect, even dan- 
gerous, as lacking finality. If a foe was worth conquering at all, he was worth crushing 
out of existence once and for all. Whatever was to fear in the tribe must be eternally 
removed ; whatever was of good and serviceable must be appropriated by the victors 
as a reward of triumph and applied as a further strengthening of their own position. 
In this way something could be gained and then held securely. Shaka's army, there- 
fore, would charge the enemy, and when it fled in panic, as inevitably it would, they 
would follow it vigorously home, kill its chief, and return with its cattle and women 
as booty. Thus reduced, without a head, without women, without cattle, a vanquished 
clan had no recourse but to avail itself of the 'clemency' offered it of securing a bare 
existence by incorporation with the victor's own people. 

Herein laid the secret of all Shaka's military success. And now a chief with a 
little army all of his own, he was enabled to formulate plans and put them to the test 
at will. He found himself hemmed in among tribes much larger and more powerful 
than his own; and before a way was opened between these, he could never hope to 
get through to those more his equals beyond. So he selected the weakest of those 
surrounding him, though even this was a clan much larger than his own ; for he was 
convinced that, not the biggest but the best battalions would prevail. The first step 
was to pick a quarrel, which presented little difficulty; for the Butelezi clan was the 
hereditary foe of his own, and its chief Pungashe had taken his father prisoner and 
released him over and over again to quite a ridiculous extent. The armies accord- 
ingly met. Shaka generalling his troops, as he was wont to do, in person, saw that 
his system of attack was carried out. The result was a magnificent success. The 
Butelezis were driven fleeing to their kraals; but what was their dismay when they 
saw the enemy hastening down upon them even into the sanctuary of their very 
homes? True, their chief was not captured, but he was forced to leave his tribe in 
the enemy's hands and himself to seek refuge at the court of the very powerful neigh- 
bouring chief, Zwide, of the Ndwandwe tribe, who only repaid his confidence with death. 

Flight of the Tembus. Subject to the vanquished Butelezi chief was another 
clan, residing south of them along both banks of the Buffalo river. These were the 

- 42* - 

Tembus under Ngoza, who suddenly finding their protecting chief, Pungashe, so 
ignominiously defeated, considered it the wiser policy to place a greater distance 
between themselves and this terrible up-start in the Zulu country. So they launched 
out on a little course all of their own. They attacked the Lala emaKuzeni clan dwell- 
ing immediately along their southern borders. The Lalas were defeated, their 
chief Nomagaga killed, and their country annexed by the Tembus. These had hoped 
to remain now for a time in peace and safety, and watch developments up north. But 
the unexpected development was the appearance of the very Zulu army they so 
i treaded actually bearing clown upon them; for the emaKuzeni people, wiser in their 
generation, had, after their defeat, immediately set out to curry favour and protection 
with the Zulu chief, whom they found only too ready to be given another tribe to 
conquer. Curious to relate, however, the Zulu force was repulsed; but not before 
Ngoza had learned that a repetition of their meeting were best avoided. He therefore 
at once moved off southward, fighting his way as he went, straight through Natal 
towards the Mzimkulu, scattering on his way the Wushes on the Karkloof, the 
Ncwabes on the Nyamvubu, tributary of the Mooi River, and afterwards the Xa- 
sibes about the sources of the Mpanza, and absorbing, as he did so, as many of 
the remnants as he could pick up, until reaching the Pondo country, he dared to 
attack their chief Faku, by whom he was completely overcome and himself killed. 
This was the second disturbing wave that spread over Natal consequent upon the 
unrest caused in Zululand by Shaka. 

Having signally defeated the Butelezi clan, Shaka' s next course was the in- 
corporation of that tribe with his own. The last of the independent Butelezi chiefs 
had been extinguished and his people only escaped extermination by submissively 
becoming menials in the Zulu chief's service. 

Flight and Rout of the emaCunwini Clan. Elated by such encouraging good 
Fortune and with an army now almost doubled, Shaka looked around for further con- 
quests. He fixed his eyes on the still larger and more powerful emaCunwini tribe, 
under Macingwane, dwelling in his southern vicinity. A casus belli was sought and 
found, followed, of course, by the usual defeat, albeit the major portion of the tribe, 
along with its chief, succeeded in escaping. They too passed over into and through 
Xatal, taking a course still more towards the coast than that of their predecessors, 
the Tembus. They drove the eNyamvwini clan from the Isikoto, a tributary of the 
Mvoti, scattered the Ntambos from the northern side of the Mkomazi beyond 
Richmond and the Yobos from the upper Ilovu, sent the Tshwawus, from 
beyond Ixobo, flying before them into Fingoland, and finally cleared the Dronk Vlei, 
above the middle Mzimkulu, of the Cekwanes there residing, and settled down 
on the flat themselves. Here they were joined by the Bacas under Madikane, who 
had been driven from their former home between Maritzburg and the Mgeni by a 
confederacy of the eNtlangwini under Baleni and Nombewu, the Dunges under 
Boyiya (afterwards eaten by his own people when they had become cannibals), the 
Fuzes under Mahawule, the Beles under Mdingi, and the Gwenyanes under Noca- 
ndambedu, this strong confederacy having been formed so as to ensure for the 
confederates a successful escape to the south out of the way of the Zulu terror 
impending from the north, and the first experience of which had been felt in the 
forced flight of the emaCunwini under Macingwane. 

But Shaka' s policy was opposed to half victories. He had fought and over- 
come, but had failed to demolish the chief who had dared to kick against him, and 
to eat up to his own fortification the remaining members of his tribe. This was al- 
together unsatisfactory, and a Zulu army was forthwith despatched to pursue the 
retreating foe. This force entertained itself on the way by working havoc among 
the already sadly damaged Lala triblets through which it passed in Natal. 

It finally came upon the fugitive enemy about the Ntsikeni Hill, over the Mzi- 
mkulu, in Gnqualand P^ast, where the emaCunwini were thoroughly routed and their 
cattle, their women and their 'very beautiful' royal girls, all captured and laid 
at Shaka's feet. The chief, it is true, escaped once more, but this didn't matter, for 
he was duly eaten on his flight by the cannibals at Elenge in Natal. His beautiful 
daughters, Ntanyana and others, were alone a prize worth fighting for, and were 
accordingly duly embodied in Shaka's already large 'concubinarium.' The question- 
able pleasure of Shaka's company was, however, not long theirs, for ere long he 
gratified himself by killing them off and so giving new cause to an undying hatred 

— 43* — 

in the hearts of the emaCunwini people against the Zulus. Pakade, the son of Macingwa- 
ne, after the death of his father tendered his submission to Shaka, in whose army- 
he was compelled to servo, and subsequently gave birth to his two sons, Mbelebele 
and Gabangaye. 

With these powerful tribes removed from his neighbourhood, a free passage 
for Shaka's forces was now open into Natal. But it was just at this period thai 
another piece of good-fortune, no doubt so long desired by Shaka, took place Dingi - 
swayo, his own paramount chief, died. 

Murder of Dingiswayo. It would seem that Zwide, the Ndwandwe chief, had sent 
down some of his more attractive damsels, ostensibly with the purpose of seeking the 
love of Dingiswayo, but really, as it was afterwards believed, to obtain semen vir- 
ile, by the possession of which Zwide had hoped to gain a certain occult ascendancy 
(according to universal Native belief) over the Mtetwa chief. For no sooner had the 
maidens obtained the object of their visit, than they vanished and were heard of no 
more in Mtetwaland. But in Ndwandweland the charm was immediately set a-working, 
and inspired by its infallible powers, Zwide at once initiated an attack on Dingiswayo, 
who was absolutely unaware of any such hostile intention, until Zwide's army was 
announced as having already arrived at Hlabisa, on the Mtetwa north-western boundary. 

Such is the tradition in the Mtetwa tribe; but other informants give another 
account. They relate of a certain Malusi, a headman of the Ndwandwe clan, who had 
had a grievance against his chief, Zwide, and had sought the protection of Dingi- 
swayo. Some steps were taken by this latter for redressing the grievance, which inter- 
ference, however, the pride of Zwide resented. Foreseeing a recourse to arms on the 
part of Dingiswayo, the Ndwandwe chief anticipated the attack by immediately mobi- 
lising his forces at Hlabisa. 

However it may have been, Dingiswayo was taken unawares. He hastily sum- 
moned his army, as well as that of his allies, the Zulus; but while these latter were 
still on their march, at the Mayiwane pass, and his own army still a considerable 
distance behind, he himself had rashly ventured forward accompanied by only an in- 
significant escort. Here he was easily surprised by the Ndwandwes — some say, as 
Fynn observes, upon information deceitfully supplied by Shaka to the Ndwandwe 
chief. Howbeit, both armies received tidings of the disaster before coming in touch 
with the enemy and returned sorrowfully home. The Ndwandwes had often enough 
before been punished by the Mtetwas and had had their chief captured; but, in accord- 
ance with Dingiswayo's humaner policy, he had been as often released; for, as this 
latter would remark, 'he was my father's companion', and, indeed, Zwide had 
even then as wife one of Dingiswayo's sisters. Now was a grand opportunity 
for a reciprocation of his generosity, but — cherchez la femme ! — he hearkened to the 
counsels of a crueller mother, Ntombazi; and after having lain for three days ignomin- 
iously bound with cords in a hut in Zwide's kraal, not far from the present Nongo- 
ma magistracy, Dingiswayo, the best and most enlightened chief of his race, was killed 
about the year 1818. The charm of the damsels had worked; old Adam had ag'ain 
succumbed to Eve! 

Its great chief gone and the dreaded Zulu power looming ominously above the 
western horizon, the Mtetwa nation felt its weakness and fell at once into disinte- 
gration. Mondiso, the late king's brother, made a vain attempt to hold the pieces to- 
gether, but he was speedily disillusioned by the appearance of Shaka himself, who, 
after little resistance from the now leaderless Mtetwa warriors, incorporated them bo- 
dily into his own force. 

With no longer a paramount chief to check his course and with a combined 
nation such as he now ruled over, Shaka was at length unapproachably great and his 
army irresistible. He had attained to the fullness of his destiny and now commenced 
the reign that was all 'his own'. Three great campaigns stand out conspicuously in 
this reign, set amidst a countless array of lesser wars, massacres, and other exhibi- 
tions of bloodshed. The first of these was the Ndwandwe war, with its sequel that 
against Sikunyana. 

Ndwandwe War— first Attack. The powerful Ndwandwe tribe, before which Shaka 
had hitherto lived in constant awe, could now be dealt with without fear of failure 
However, the initiative was taken by Zwide himself. Hearing that the Zulu army had 
also been on its way to aid Dingiswayo in his last abortive attempt against the Ndwa- 

— 44* — 

ndwes, Zwide became considerably incensed against them, and feeling himself now to 
have won by conquest the paramountcy over all adjacent tribes formerly recognising 
Dingiswayo, at once despatched a punitive expedition against the Zulus. But Shaka 
was not to be caught napping. His army was in readiness to meet the foe; and, 
having inspired his warriors, Manyosi of the emaMbateni, Nkayishana of the Ku- 
zwayo clan, Mdindwa 'the wild buffalo of the ridge', Ncozana of Moni, Nobanda, Msa- 
Bane and others, with unusual bravery, he attacked the approaching enemy whose 
numbers were 'as many as the bits of rubbish lying about'. Zwide himself, unlike 
Shaka, was no longer generalling his own armies, but his brother Nqabeni, and his heir, 
Xomahlanjana, and his other sons, Mpepa, Dayingubo, and Nojnjyngjila, were present, 
and it was chiefly against these that the centre of the Zulu attack was directed. All 
were killed, and the Nd wand we put to flight, leaving their cattle in the enemy's hands. 

Ndwandwe War— second Attack and Rout of Zwide. When Zwide heard of this 
sail and ignominious defeat, he waited a short time to recoup and then ordered his 
army to betake itself once more to the Zulu country to make there the i-hlambo (see 
Dictionary) for his deceased sons. For a second time, then, they went forth in full 
force to give battle to Shaka. But this master of strategy had his plans well laid. 
All crops and food supplies throughout the land were immediately destroyed, and the 
whole Zulu clan, accompanied by their women and cattle, betook themselves to the 
broken country about Nkandhla, south of the Mhlatuze. The enemy, said Shaka, 
trusting in our cattle and crops for food and finding nothing there, will be necessi- 
tated to make a still longer journey to meet us here, where they will arrive complete- 
ly exhausted with hunger. And so indeed it happened. The Zwidean host, at the 
end of a fatiguing march, found nothing in store for itself, and was thus compelled 
to undertake a further march of a couple of days over trying country on an empty 
stomach. They found the Zulus at rest about Nkandhla; and to rob them of what 
little energy might still be left them, Shaka set upon them his inferior regiments to 
harass them continously until sunset. Thoroughly worn out, the Ndwandwe army 
found its only consolation was a very needful sleep in their hastily constructed night- 
shelters. But the wily Shaka was just then very much awake, and his young-men 
stole upon the sleeping foe and worked merciless massacre. The host of Zwide was 
only saved from the fate of that of Sennacherib by a direction from Shaka that his 
(h-ath-dealing 'angels' should desist from their slaugther and return home before the 
break of day. Yet on the morrow the hungry Ndwandwe warriors rallied for a last 
decisive coup. But the flower of the Zulu army, till this moment kept continuously 
in reserve, fresh and irresistible, now charged down upon them like an avalanche. 
The Ndwandwes found no possibility of withstanding, and fled as far as the Mhlatuze, 
where they were completely routed. Following up his success, Shaka pursued the fu- 
gitives of the enemy right into their own country, for their conquest was not com- 
plete without the destruction of their chief. His warriors were instructed, upon nearing 
a Ndwandwe kraal, to approach chanting the Ndwandwe war-song. Deceived by this 
artifice, and as there was little difference of dress recognisable by them between the 
men of one clan and those of another, the Ndwandwe women trooped everywhere forth 
to 'welcome', as they thought, their own returning warriors, only to find themselves 
hopelessly entrapped. But their chief had the fortune to receive timely warning and 
hastily abandoned his throne for a nook in the reeds. Thus he escaped with his life; 
but whatever remained of the once great Ndwandwe tribe, in the shape of fat kine or 
buxom women, returned with the victorious Zulus, and it is stated that the booty 
captured on this occasion exceeded that of any other, and was 'the making' of the 
Zulu people. 

Shaka's Chivalry. The combined fighting forces of many tribes, now incorporated 
into one vast army and generalled by such a martial genius as Shaka, stood arrayed, 
invincible and supreme, before the whole of the little world of South-African Kafir- 
dom. By his sole tremendous effort he had succeeded in turning most of Black 
South-Africa upside-down, and it now lay helpless in his gory clutches. However, the 
first overwhelming shock of the social cataclysm was over, and those who had sur- 
vived, having at length somewhat recovered their scattered senses, were preparing 
themselves for a peaceful submission to the inevitable. 

Shaka was thus well able to rest awhile on his laurels, and, just for one moment, 
indulge the weary mind in a little healthy 'divarshun'. The mighty hero of a nun- 

— 45* — 

dred battles, he was at length to succumb to a mere intombV. He was at this period 
in the prime of his manhood, perhaps about thirty-five years of age. Having from 
the beginning resolved within him never to burden his life with the effeminating 
barnacles of matrimony — and he valiantly kept the resolution till the abrupt cud of 
his days — nor leave a child behind who might perchance rejoice at his loss, this gory 
celibate now felt his heart being conquered by recollections of the enrapturing beauty 
of the daughters of Kondhlo. 

Pakatwayo, the son of Kondhlo, was chief of the Qwabc tribe living away near 
the coast, and was by descent a remote cousin of Shaka's. His charming sisters, 
much younger, we will hope, than himself, Shaka had often feasted his eyes upon 
while still a growing youth in the adjoining territory of Dingiswayo. But now, by 
fair means or foul, he would have them all as his own. 

When the wolf has once made up its mind to devour the lamb, and is too cow- 
ardly to openly avow it, he proceeds to pick a quarrel with the unhappy object of his 
intentions. So it was devised that an i-Jadu (see text) should be arranged at which 
both chiefs, Shaka and Pakatwayo, with their respective parties of young-men and 
marriageable maidens should be present. The i-Jadu met, and all went merrily as 
wedding-bells, until Shaka was chagrined to find himself utterly out-classed by the 
fascinating dancing of his rival. "Well!" said the Wolf; "you may beat me at dancing, 
but you couldn't beat me in a fight." And with this ominous remark, the parties 
separated for their respective homes. 

Pakatwayo's Death. Now, when Shaka reached home, he called together a small 
body of his warriors and informed them that it was his wish they should go and 
build a kraal for themselves down country, and, further, that they should take espe- 
cial care that it be placed just within the boundary of Pakatwayo's territory. "Should 
the people of the latter chief", he continued, "seek to molest you, offer them no resis- 
tance, simply run away; but on the morrow quietly return and start building again. 
Should the warriors of Pakatwayo return to molest you, simply throw down your 
weapons and run to meet them, crying Umbandama! umbandamu!" Shaka's braves 
thereupon set out, wondering, no doubt, what such strange directions meant. With 
the nicety of a fairy-tale, everything happened just as Shaka had anticipated and 
everything was done as he had ordained, with the result that the famed Zulu war- 
riors rapidly gained for themselves in Pakatwayo's land the reputation of being, not 
only clumsy dunces at the dance, but also num skulled old women at the fight. "With 
a little bit of a bead-string that won't even go round one's neck (ucivana olungahla- 
ngani nas'e?ita?iyeni)," said Pakatwayo sneeringly, "I'm not going to bother myself 
fighting." But the ears of Shaka were long and heard far, so that such insulting 
remarks of Pakatwayo found their way thereto in due curse; whereupon, quite as we 
should have expected, Shaka became 'very angry', and organised a punitive expe- 
dition forthwith under his own personal leadership. Encamped at the Lower Mhla- 
tuze, he ordered his warriors to gather with their mouths some ears of Kafir-corn, 
eating it as cattle do, and not touching it with their hands, 'for it is not my day to- 
day, but to-morrow I shall give battle'. Pakatwayo having been apprised of the ap- 
proach of the Zulus, immediately proceeded to reconnoitre. He hastily mobilised his 
own forces, and on the morrow the two armies met. The Zulus, it is said, 'boiled 
like mambas in the long dry grass', and soon drove the Qwabe lines back upon their 
chief, who had been surveying the scene from a safe point of vantage in the rear. 
At this most inopportune moment, Pakatwayo was suddenly put himself hors de com- 
bat by an attack of wry-neck! Now, picture to yourself, gentle reader, the super- 
stitious horror of these dusky warriors when, just at the critical moment, instead of 
rallying them back to the fray, their leader becomes afflicted with a ridiculous crick 
in the neck! Verily it was the evil omen fated to extinguish within them what little 
nerve was still left, and the unfortunate Pakatwayo was captured where he lay. Then 
was it that runners were despatched to Shaka to inform him that they had taken the 
chief prisoner, but that his neck had become twisted and 'his head now looked to- 
wards behind!' "Do him no harm, this brother of mine," said the crafty one; "bear 
him gently away to yon kraal of his; and I must keep away from him, lest perchance 
the weight of my presence should overwhelm him, and he die — but be sure and 
bring back his cattle." Not only his cattle was it that was im mediately collected and 
brought to Shaka, but a bewildering bevy of young girls and royal sisters — beautiful 
daughters of Kondhlo, whom Shaka had "loved long before, from the time he had 

— 46* — 

seen them on the day of the ijadu, but who had scorned his attentions until the day 
of the battle." Now, poor things! they no doubt found it a wiser plan to vie with 
(Mh 1 another in winning his loving regard. In their agreeable company Shaka at once 
proceeded to his emTandeni kraal (which — curious coincidence! — was known as the 
Love-him kraal). In the evening, Shaka enquired how his royal patient was progress- 
ing, and was informed that he was better, that he had regained his voice and his 
head was straight once more. "Then", said the crafty one, "if so it be, let So-and- 
so, his brothers" (who had also been captured in the fight) "be sent to watch him 
in the night. May he recover, this child of my fathers; we have quarrelled forsooth, 
I nit we had not been minded to kill." And the particular brothers of Pakatwayo 
whom Shaka selected to go and watch over him throughout the night, were precisely 
those who had already long been estranged from him through family contentions and 
were now at mortal enmity with him. It was the opportunity they had so long 
sought in vain, and in the night they did their duty well, twisting their brother's 
head now in such a way as to prevent all possibility of return, and on the morrow 
they reported him as dead. "Ala?! alas!" wailed the crafty one, "and by his own 
hath lie been killed!" In such away was it that this wily master of strategy formed 
the world to his own liking. Jason had at last removed the dragon from the grove, 
and secured the coveted hide of a score of swarthy damsels. In love, as in war, 
Shaka conquered all. 

More Gallantry. To call this unholy mixture of blood-spilling and brutal passion, 
love, would be little short of profanity. The best of the Bantus can rarely rise 
to anything higher than mere affection; but "the monstrosity here considered could 
certainly have known no more of that highest of emotions than the cruellest of beasts. 
When, then, we speak of love in Shaka's regard, we must understand mere unpurified 
sexual gratification. 

So time went on, perhaps years, since the development just related of love 
into war, and now were we to be treated to a reverse of the picture and war was 
to culminate in love. Shaka had fought with a certain Lala chief, named Tondo- 
lozi, and had taken him prisoner. An idea was then broached of buying the prisoner 
out; but the Lala men had much past history to impress upon them the risks of 
<ucli an undertaking, and, regarding self-preservation as the first law of nature, 
politely declined the invitation to test the magnanimity of this king of beasts. But 
there were certain simple maidens in the land, daughters of Tayi, brother of Tondo- 
lozi, who, ignorant as doves of this wicked world's knavery, laughed lightly at this 
timidity of their brothers and determined themselves to set out and win their uncle's 
release. They accordingly donned their prettiest dress, and wore their most bewitch- 
ing smiles, and so, driving a herd of fine white kine before them, they dared to 
tempt tli<' ogre in his den. To see a bevy of charming damsels filing up a kraal, 
come to implore the release of their chief, was a spectacle quite novel in Shaka's 
experience. Even his obdurate heart was melted at the pretty sight; and on the 
morrow he not only most graciously suffered the release of Tondolozi, but treated 
him and his enchanting nieces to a magnificent feast, and presented him with a gift 
of cattle and a royal guard to escort him back to his home. 

But this was merely to pave the way for further manoeuvres; for, to tell the 
truth, Shaka himself had now been taken captive no less truly than had Tondolozi, 
and his heart was even then being carried away by artless maidens into Lalaland. 
lie hastily chose from all the land the handsomest young-men, who should go as 
a mission to select for him mistresses from among the lovely daughters of Tayi. 
That an humble Lala clan should be thus honoured by a special embassy imploring 
Favours lor tin- dreaded Shah-jehan himself, would have sufficed to throw many greater 
• pies into a frenzy of delight. But in this case it misled into contrary excesses. 
It was something altogether too good to be genuine. It was a clever trick, and the 
courteous ambassadors were common spies. So they formed a plot whereby they 
Bhould rid themselves of the whole party at one fell swoop. The plans were complet- 
ed, and the conspiracy would have turned out a glorious success — had it not lacked 
that fii-t essential, secrecy. For there was an innocent old woman pottering about 
the kraal. She was, it is true, also a daughter of Tayi, but she had been married to 
zangakona, and Shaka was therefore 'her child' and his people were her people. 
Imprudent whisperings were overheard by her, and she was not long in conveying 
the- information to her Zulu friends. 

— 47* — 

The sun rose on the morrow and found the kraal, where the embassy was 
housed, surrounded l>y masses of howling savages. Boldly and bravely they approach- 
ed to victory; for had they not caught the rat in its hole? True, they found the 
hole — in the kraal fence, by which the rats had noiselessly vanished for Guam the 
night before! And the old woman knew nothing at all about it! Nor does history 
tell us what was the hair-tearing frenzy of the Shah-jehan when he espied the flower 
of Zulu manhood sneaking ignominiously home, and without the redeeming feature 
of a solitary bride. Without any doubt some unfortunate mortals had to pay the 

Slaughter of the Innocents. From sexual instinct sprang love; love begat jealousy, 
then revenge and murder. A strange sequence of emotions, virtues and vices ; but a 
fact too often true in experience. Shaka was nothing if not a ladies' man. His many 
kraals were overflowing with a multitude of nubile maidens, collected as tribute from 
almost every kraal of importance in the land (see um-Ndhlunkulu). But woe to any 
other who should presume to gratify his natural instincts against the wishes of the 
king! No man in the land was permitted to marry until well beyond his prime, and 
no longer of use as a fighting instrument. Yet the ancient fire burnt still in the 
breast of each, and Shaka knew it, and this knowledge was his penalty, for it kept his 
mind racked with fears and suspicion. He had 'dreams,' he said once, that the youths 
and maidens, of whom there might have been hundreds dwelling at the Bulawayq 
kraal, were continually misbehaving themselves in his absence. Such an action Would 
always have constituted a capital offence; but in this instance there was no further 
evidence of the fact than Shaka's dreams. He therefore devised a plan for bringing 
the two young sexes together and so 'catching them in flagrante delicto.' He ordered 
a new kraal to be built at a certain spot. Now, the building of a kraal necessitated 
the presence of a great number of young-men for wattle-chopping and building, and 
of girls for grass-cutting and mat-making. In obedience to their king's orders, the 
requisite parties went dutifully off to their allotted tasks. After a time, when the 
work was probably in full activity, the king also wended his way towards the spot, 
accompanied by another large body of men, to whom he related his dreams and made 
heart-rending complaints about the wickedness of the young people in the Bulawayo 
kraal. Moved by the imploring misery of their king, 'then let them be killed!' cried 
out the indignant escort unanimously. 'But how will you manage it,' asked the crafty 
one helplessly, 'so that none may escape?' and then immediately proceeded to tell 
them himself how it should be done. While he approached from the front, other 
parties should appear on both sides and so completely invest the kraal. And so it 
happened. The whole body of youthful builders, caught in the height of their animation 
and merriment, were hurdled like sheep in the cattlefold, tremblingly awaiting their 
slaughter. Nor did they need wait long. The personification of death appeared at the 
gateway, and, picking out a number 'of the worst,' commanded that their heads be 
wrenched by their own brothers. After this fiendish prelude, followed a general and 
indiscriminate butchery of all. A happy spot on God's earth, a moment before sparkling 
with youthful vivacity, now became a hell of moans and pain, and, with the golden 
sunshine as their pall, one hundred and seventy battered corpses, like withered wild 
flowers, were cast away on the green veldt. So in the midst of life was death. 

And of these poor girls how many were the monster's paramours of days before! 
But to become a prey to Shaka's lust, was ever one's condemnation to death. For to 
bear a child to this parent was a heinous offence, and when such a misfortune did 
occur, says universal report, both mother and child were butchered together. Indeed, 
this was the rock upon which Nandi, Shaka's own mother, was destined to come to 
grief and pay the common penalty. And if the slaying hand scrupled not to fall upon 
his own mother, we no longer wonder that, in his war with Zwide, he should have 
caused some poor, helpless, old women, who had unhappily fallen into his hands and 
from whom he had first of all coaxed all the information he desired, afterwards to be 
enwrapt in grass and matting, and then, having been set on fire, to be driven, shriek- 
ing amidst the flames, back to their own people. 

Yet the men of the nation had still more to suffer; death stared each and every 
one of them daily in the face. The first whitemen to visit Shaka found it quite a 
common occurrence for an individual alongside whom they had been sitting in the 
gathering and perhaps peacefully gossiping a moment before, to be now, without a 
trial or warning, suddenly pounced upon at a motion from the king, and caught by 

- 48* — 

the crown and chin, to have their necks wrenched on the spot, and then be dragged 
away battered with sticks until life became extinct. That many should have been 
condemned, like Mashongwe, to suffer nothing worse than a plucking out of the 
eves and then be left to grope in darkness to their graves, was deemed an expression 
of the royal clemency. 

The Whiteman appears in Natal. Amidst such scenes was it that the first White- 
men visitors to Zululand appeared. It was on the 1st. of May, 1824, that Lieut. Fare- 
well, who had been coasting as far as Delagoa Bay in search of new trade-markets, 
reported to Lieut. Col. Somerset, Governor of the Cape, that he had 'found a port 
where a small vessel could lie perfectly secure.' Soon afterwards, with a party of 
about forty all told, and including Fynn, Isaacs, King and others, Lieut. Farewell 
chartered two vessels from Capetown to this newly-found Port Natal. The party in 
the 'Julia' led by Fynn, arrived first, the remainder, under Farewell, following six 
weeks afterwards in the 'Ann'. These were the pioneers of what ten years later became 
the township of D'Urban, so called after the then Governor of the Cape. 

Although Farewell stated quite correctly that he had 'found' Port Natal, he was 
far from having been the discoverer of it. On the 25th. of December, 1497, the Por- 
tuguese navigator, Vasco da Gama, passed the bay and called the surrounding country 
Natal. In 1683 the sailors of the shipwrecked English vessel, the 'Johanna', tramped 
through this land on their way to the Cape. The English ship, the 'Good Hope', was 
wrecked in Natal Bay on the 17th. of May, 1685, soon after following the Dutch ship, 
the ' Stavenisse', wrecked further along the coast in Alexandra county. Through the 
survivors of these and other wrecks we have been furnished with much interesting 
information concerning the land and its early inhabitants. These continuous wrecks, 
too, was it that furnished the Zulu people with their first acquaintance with the 
pale-skinned variety of their species. Not imagining that there could be any land 
beyond the sea, the only home and origin of the whitemen was universally supposed 
to lie the ocean, upon which they dwelt in floating troughs, and were very keen on 
elephants' tusks which they would buy with tiny coloured stones fished up from the sea. 

So well known did Natal become by means of these sailors' narratives, that in 
December, 1689, the Dutch Government of the Cape, through the officers of the galiot 
'DeNoord ', solemnly purchased the bay of Natal and the adjoining land from the local 
'ingose ' (sic), named, according to Fynn, Nyangesa, for a quantity of "copper arm and 
neck rings and other articles." But the solemnity of the purchase seems to have 
worn off, at least in the Native eyes, so soon as the copper arm-rings lost their ser- 
viceability. The master of the 'DeNoord', Johannes Gerbrantzer, returned to Natal in 
1705 and found another king reigning 'who knew not Joseph'. He ventured to suggest 
the deed of conveyance, but the young monarch closed the debate by curtly stating 
that 'my father is dead and buried— and the copper rings with him'. Thus ended 
the Dutch possession of the Bay of Natal. 

More than a hundred years passed by before Farewell and company arrived and 
came to stay. By that time Nyangesa and his tribe had trekked away, probably 
to the south into Kaffraria, and another variety of Bantu, now of the tekeza or 
Lala stock, had entered in and possessed themselves of the land. From the Tukela 
to the Mzimkulu, from the sea to the Drakensberg, was approximately the length 
and breadth of Lalaland. Within these boundaries were gathered together more than 
a hundred clans, each independent of its neighbours and with its own hereditary line 
of chieftains. 

A devastated Wilderness. It was now the eighth year of the reign of Shaka when 
Farewell and Fynn stepped on the Natalian shore ; and how had the face of Lalaland 
changed! Where were the hundred clans and their long ancient lines of hereditary 
chiefs? Where, this Arcadia of peaceful bee-hive kraals dotting the green sunny hill- 
sides, surrounded by fields of reddening millet and lowing herds? Fynn was able to 
travel through the breadth of the land, from the Tongati to the Mzimkulu and see 
rcely a sign of human life, save 'thirty Natives residing near the Bluff, under the 
chief Blatubane, of the emaTulini tribe. There were neither kraals, huts, Kafirs, nor 
porn. Occasionally I saw a few stragglers, mere living skeletons, obtaining a precar- 
ious tence on roots and shell-fish'. Three successive waves of destruction, like the 
molten torrent from some volcanic eruption, had rolled from the Zulu country over 
the face of Natal, obliterating in their course all signs of human life. Thrice had the 

— 49* — 

land been submerged beneath a flood of blood and death rushing away towards the 
the south, wrecking all before it, bearing the refuse away on its crest, leaving only 
naked desolation behind. Then, to make the destruction complete, organised bands 
of Zulu murderers regularly patrolled the waste, hunting for any stray men and run- 
ning them down like wild-pig. Thus, struggling in the hood, the hundred Lata dans 
were borne off to the south and got lost among the Kafir tribes between the M/.i- 
mkulu and the Great Fish River, then the southern-most boundary <>I Xosaland. There. 
without leaders, without homes, they wandered about (to )nt'mumza, as the Xosa called 
it), each for himself, seeking acceptance as menials in tln^Xosa families, l>y whom 
they were contemptuously called ama-Mfejuiy. or va grant s, and by the White Colon- 
ists, Fingoes. «•"■"■ 

And away behind? Yes, some few had merely been hurled aside by the on-rush, 
had seen the beauty of the land swept away before their eyes, and found themselves 
stranded in one vast interminable wilderness. These lived in ones and twos, hidden 
away in woods and inaccessible mountain-parts, none knowing what had become of 
his friend, his chief, his father, his child, his mother; none knowing a neighbour, and 
each with his hand ever raised against the stranger who might have discovered his 
whereabouts. For years no sod had been turned in the fields. The winter-season 
came. The berries in the woods shrivelled up and fell, and the herbs on the veldt 
withered away and drew in their heads from sight; for the night-time of nature had 
come. And now at length shall starvation bring sleep and rest to miserable man. 
Yet some preferred to live. Was not their brother's flesh sweeter than death ? They 
will then fight for it and hunger no more. So Mday a and his adherents, of the 
Dunge .cla n, set out to hunt men as game, and soorr round their own chieftain, Bo- 
yfya, a toothsome morsel. The idea spread, and death in still another form was added 
to wretched life in Lalaland. And yet quite 10,000 miserable beings had been able to 
survive all these sufferings and persistent efforts to erase them from the face of the 
earth, clinging to their life as to their land, if not to their homes, until the dark day 
of trial was over and the fiend in Zululand was himself laid low, safely and eter- 
nally imprisoned beneath six feet of earth. 

Even before the tyrant's death, 4,000 refugees from the surrounding country and 
from suffering Zululand, had thrown themselves for protection at the feet of the pow- 
erless but humane handful of Whitemen settled at Port Natal. Shaka himself had 
soon learned to value the acquisition of these strange new-comers, for, on their fre- 
quent visits to him, he had discovered them to be an altogether wonderful variety of 
mankind. So, from policy or from fear, he would regard kindly their proteges, saying, 
"They have gone to my friends, not to my enemies; take care of them, as of your 
own." Ten years later, in 1834, and when Dingana, his successor, had already become 
conscious of the menace of the growing power at Port Natal, the number of Lala and 
Zulu refugees gathered together under allegiance to the White settlers was fully 6,000. 

The Pioneers visit Shaka. Almost immediately after their arrival in Natal, the 
English pioneers deemed it prudent to make a friendly acquaintance with the terrible 
potentate whose subjects they were making themselves. Farewell, Fynn, Petersen, 
Davis and others accordingly set out for Zululand, and eventually arrived at the royal 
kraal, an immense accumulation of hundreds of bee-hive huts massed together in a 
circle two-thirds of a mile in diameter. There happened at the time to be a great 
festival in course of proceeding — perhaps the annual umKosi feast, held towards 
Christmas time — which lasted three days, and in winch, as they calculated, some 30,000 
people, male and female, were participating. And there for the first time they found 
themselves in the awful presence of the Satanic Majesty. On its head was a circlet 
of otter-skin, the inner space being filled out with bunches of scarlet loury-feathers, 
while one great feather of the blue-crane, two feet long, stood erect in front. A dan- 
gling mass of tails, made of the twisted fur of the blue-monkey and spotted-genet, hang 
like a cape over the shoulders. Another dangled from the breast to the loins, and a 
third depended like a kilt from above the buttocks to the knees (see um-Qubula). 
Round the legs, below the knees and reaching to the ankles, as also round the arms 
below the shoulder-cape, waved a silvery fringe formed of the long white brushes 
from cows'-tails (see i(li)-Shoba). White ivory-like studs, an inch in diameter, made 
of dried sugar-cane (?), filled the ample holes cut in the lobe of each ear. In the left 
hand was carried a white cow-hide shield marked by a single black spot, and in the 
right was held an assegai. Twelve thousand savages, similarly though more plainly 


— 50* — 

attired, danced on each flank of their king. At times a dash of barbaric beauty would 
enhance the picture as hundreds of dusky ballet girls, with their plump chocolate 
bodies gaily bedecked in variegated beadwork, would appear and dance upon the 
scene. Then, again, vast herds of wildly frolicking cattle would be driven about the 
dancing place, each herd distinguished by its particular colour and by the shape of 
its horns, these latter in many instances having been artificially twisted in their 
growth into the most fantastic shapes. Yet even here a gory smear would be now 
and then drawn across the pleasing picture, as some miserable being was pounced 
upon and dragged off to a violent death before the very eyes of the European spec- 
tators and the beaded ballet-girls. 

Shaka wounded. The evening was come, and brought an agreeable transforma- 
tion of the scene. The bright variegated gaiety of the day had now become set in a 
background of jetty darkness, and, lit up by the lurid glow of bonfires of dried reeds, 
presented a weird and fascinating study in light and shade. It was a serenade in 
which the great chief was himself taking a part. Suddenly a terrifying shriek rent 
the air; and the fires went mysteriously out! The multitude was plunged in dark- 
ness, and confusion reigned supreme. Shaka the Terrible, Shaka the Divine, had 
himself been stabbed! Verily now hath come the end for many there present. What 
shall be done? The gathering wrath must be appeased somehow, else unhappy arc 
they whose misfortune it must be to have to come near the wounded despot; for, 
says the adage, the wild-beast bites those who approach it. Now, the enemy whom 
Shaka just at that moment had uppermost in his mind was the Ndwandwe king, Zwide, 
whose power had not yet been broken and whose adherents, under Sikunyana, were 
even then threatening the northern boundary. Were there any of his people among the 
assembled masses? There had been; but they had 'gone out' as mysteriously as had 
the fires, and could not be found. Plainly these were they who had done the deed. So 
two companies of warriors were sent out in hot pursuit along the northern road. On 
the fifth day the party returned, bringing with them the bodies of three unfortunate 
and perhaps innocent individuals, whom they reported to have found and killed in 
the bush. The bodies were laid on the ground at about a mile from the kraal. Then, 
the ears having been cut off from the right side of the head, the whole multitude of 
30,000 men and women filed along, screaming and wailing, each one as he or she 
passed, battering the bodies with a stick, which was afterwards dropped on the spot. 
Needless to say, the bodies were already invisible beneath a pile of sticks before many 
hundreds of the people had passed. Nevertheless the formality must be duly per- 
formed, if only to save one's own person from suspicion of any sympathy with the 
criminals; so tliey went by vigorously whacking the pile of sticks. Finally, the whole 
multitude collected again about the kraal. Three men appeared, bearing the ears of 
the unfortunate individuals at the end of long sticks. The ears were publicly burnt 
in a great fire kindled in the centre of the kraal and in the presence of Shaka, whose 
wound was now considerably healed. As though to furnish pretexts for further 
slaughters, new crimes were invented. Immediately following the stabbing, had gone 
forth a prohibition that none should wear any body-ornaments, nor shave their heads, 
and no man whose wife was pregnant should approach the king. Transgressors in 
abundance were rapidly forthcoming, the thought of whose cold-blooded murder the 
gory monarch found 'soothing' during the days of confinement to his hut! Further, 
a force of 1,000 strong was despatched as a punitive expedition against the suspected 
tribe, returning in a few days, after having valiantly set fire to several unsuspecting 
kraals and then relieved them of some 800 head of cattle. 

Ndwandwe War third Attack and Death of Sikunyana. Years had passed by 
since the last great campaign, and the Zulus were enjoying comparatively peaceful 
times in their homes. Their chief was sitting at ease in the cattle-fold along with his 
more familiar headmen, when suddenly a runner appeared, bi'eathless and sweating, 
and announced that the Ndwandwe army, accompanied by its women and cattle, were 
already over-running the upper districts, coming, as they said, to retake possession 
of their father's land. 

It had happened that the old chief Zwide, after emerging from the reed-bed, 
had fled inland to about where the town of Wakkerstroom now is. There, with his 
two surviving sons, Sikunyana and Somapunga. he settled down and gradually collect- 
ed around him whatever stragglers of - his tribe might from time to time arrive. 

- 51* - 

Seeing that the old chief was not to live much longer, his wives requested him to 
appoint a successor; hut that he might have peace at least in his days, he gave them 
nothing but an ambiguous sign. Upon his death, the partisans of Sikunyana urged 
upon their nominee the necessity of rendering his position secure by the riddance of 
his rival, Somapunga. This latter saved his head by flight, and found protection 
under the Zulu king Shaka, who kindly furnished him with a wife 'to take care of 
him.' And now at length about the year 1826, Sikunyana, grown strong and in un- 
disputed possession of the chieftainship, followed his brother, not as a refugee, but 
as an invader, 'coming to regain the land of his inheritance.' 

The whole Zulu land was thus once more aflame with the excitement of the 
coming fun. 'Hurray! hurray!' flew the password through the restful land, 'the bride 
is already dancing in the court-yard ! Sikui^ana, your sweetheart, has come to marry 
you!' It chanced that just at that time Mr. Fynn was at Port-Natal, and being already 
well-known to Shaka, he too was called out for active service against the common 
invader. He found Shaka's army already on the war-path — warriors, cattle-boys and 
baggage-bearers 'few of whom were above the age of twelve years', and girls carry- 
ing beer, corn and amasi for the refreshment of the more important men — in all a 
host of about 50,000 souls. The movement of so vast a multitude marching in close 
formation was traced only by a great rolling cloud of dust. Parched with thirst, they 
reached a swamp, where each fought wildly with the other for one drop of the saving 
liquid, with the result that the whole became at once transformed into a field of mud, 
and 'yet this mud was swallowed with avidity,' and within its soft embrace were left 
the corpses of many men and boys, who, in the mad rush, had been actually trampled 
down to death. Several days were occupied on this wretched march ; and so sore 
did Shaka's bare feet become on the endless stony plains, that Fynn's Hottentot 
servants were commanded to manufacture sandals for him out of raw cow-hide. 

However, the conflicting armies eventually met in the valley below the Endolo- 
lwane mountain. After several fierce engagements, 'lasting altogether not more than 
an hour and a half ' and yet sufficiently long to leave heaps of corpses covering the 
field, the Ndwandwes were vanquished. Many sought refuge in an adjacent wood, 
others beneath**flie heaps of deaft" bodies, but were diligentby sought out and killed, 
after which the women and children, who had been mustered together high up on 
the aforesaid mountain, were likewise ruthlessly butchered. About 60,000 cattle are 
stated to have been captured. 

After such excellent work, one would have expected the Zulu general to have 
had some meed of praise for his troops. Not so with this human monster called 
Shaka. For early the next morning, we are told, he had the regiments assembled 
before him for an angry harangue and for the customary 'picking out of the cowards' 
— several unhappy captains, whose only offence, no doubt, was the disfavour of their 
chief, and several poor soldiers who had the misfortune to be disliked of their head- 
men, or who were indiscriminately pointed out by these merely to please their cruel 
master and so save their own skins — brave men all, who but yesterday had fought 
valiantly for their lord and country, and were now butchered before him for his 
delectation ! In the afternoon the last act of this bloody performance consisted in 
the bringing before the king of a woman and a child, of about ten years of age, of 
the defeated tribe. For some time he found pleasure in gossiping with this woman, 
entertaining her with a pot of beer and a dish of beef, and then ordered both mother 
and child off to instant death! The life of the child was spared on the intercession 
of Fynn who was present. 

From the woman's account, it was learned that once again the defeated chief 
had succeeded in effecting his escape. He fled to the Tonga country, accompanied 
by a few of his people. A. party were immediately despatched in hot pursuit. Upon 
entering a certain Tonga kraal they found the inmates in apparent readiness for some 
festivity. On enquiry, they were told that Sikunyana, the Ndwandwe chief, was in a 
neighbouring kraal, where he had slaughtered a beast presented to him by the local 
Tonga potentate. With little trouble the quarry was duly bagged, and the last flicker- 
ing light of the Ndwandwe power put out. 

Mzilikazi, Founder of the Matebele Nation. The break-up of the Ndwandwe nation 
under Zwide and under his successor, Sikunyana, was replete with far-reaching con- 
sequences to the whole of Africa. Small clans, hitherto tributary to the Ndwandwean 
paramountcy, were now thrown on their own resources. Some found it more discreet 



— 52* — 

not to kick against the pricks, but others were more recalcitrant. Among these latter, 
were a section of the people united under certain headmen, as Beja, brother of Sosha- 
ngane, of the Nxumalos, and Mlotshwa of the Kumalos, who, not content with the 
overthrow of Zwide, had themselves to be conquered again. They too at length 
were Forced to bow before the Zulu monarch, from whom they at first received a 
measure of diplomatic favour, though ultimately the usual requital of this relentless 
tyrant, death. But more resolute and more successful than these was a certain induna 
named Mzilikazi (corrupted by the Suto and Chwana peoples into Moselekatze), son 
of Mashobana (of the Kumalo clan), by his wife Nompetu, daughter of his erstwhile 
sovereign, Zwide. 

Upon "THe demolition of the Zwidean power, this headman assumed for a time a 
feigned submission and was quartered with the Zulu regiment stationed at the Bula- 
wayo military-kraal beyond Eshowe, between the Mlalazi and Mhlatuze rivers. But 
life there was not after his taste, and, gathering together a small band of three or 
four hundred trusted followers (with whom, it is said, he had been sent on a raiding 
expedition by Shaka), he cut himself loose from his enforced allegiance and commenced 
wandering about the upper districts, burning whatever kraals he came across and 
forcing their inmates into his own service. In this way and by means of the ceaseless 
addition of fugitives from Shaka's thraldom, he ere long, perhaps about the year 1826, 
succeeding in amassing a very formidable army of freebooters, a motley crowd from 
the Kumalo, Nxumalo, Mtetwa, and almost every other of the hundred original clans 
of Zululand. With this vast crowd of waifs and strays, he hastened towards the 
Transvaal, in the hope of building there a new kingdom all his own. But the wily 
Shaka met him on the Drakensberg with a force hastily sent to intercept him. The 
Zulu force was repulsed, and Mzilikazi hastened the quicker on his course ahead. 
Knowing that he would not be allowed to escape so lightly and that a further punitive 
expedition would be rapidly following behind him, he took the precaution to lay waste 
the whole country through which he passed, leaving neither people, nor stock, nor 
kraals, nor crops behind him. This method of destruction and wholesale pressure 
into his service became from now on his settled policy, so that when the Boer farm- 
ers trekked up in 1836, they found the greater part of Orangia and the Transvaal a 
miserable wilderness. 

Mzilikazi first established himself at a place he somewhat prematurely named 
Khupumuleni or the Place of Rest. 'For three months', says a Native account, 'they 
haanb rain and suffered keenly from want of water. The chief thereupon ordered 
all rain-doctors to be brought before him. All made up some medicine, but the heavens 
were unwilling, and the doctors failed to procure rain. The chief therefore ordered 
their execution. They were bound and thrown into the river' (or possibly where a 
river ought to have been). An exploring party having already previously reported a 
fine land 'of much water and green grass even during the dry season' away north, 
Mzilikazi forthwith determined to remove to those parts. 

After several days' travelling, the armed warriors going on ahead, the women 
bearing the household gods and the boys driving the cattle behind, they came into 
touch with another band of refugees flying like themselves from the tyrant Shaka. 
Although these were marching under the headship of a clansman of Mzilikazi's named 
Nqaba, son of Mbekwane, of the Kumalo clan, nevertheless for some reason or other 
the two parties fought. Nqaba being defeated, fled eastward into the Portuguese 
territory, where he subsequently met with and for a time united himself to the re- 
nowned Soshangane, near the Sabi river. The followers of No^aJba. afterwards became 
famous themselves as the ab aNgo ni of Central Africa. 

Having reached a promising spot in the Marico district, Mzilikazi next proceeded 
to erect a large military-kraal in the Mosika Valley, but he subsequently removed his 
own private kraal to a still more pleasing sight, at Kapaying, fifty miles to the north. 
From this centre raiding parties were sent out to scour the country in every direction. 
They swept the land clean from the Drakensberg to the Kalahari, and in 1831 reached 
ar >outh as Thaba Bosigo, the mountain-stronghold upon which Moshweshwe, the 
paramount chief of the newly united Suto nation, had established himself after their 
Bad experiences with Matiwana, the Ngwana chief. 'The Matebele,' writes Wid- 
dicombe, halted under the willow-trees which lined the banks of the Putiatsana, a 
pntty little stream not far from the foot of Thaba Bosigo. There they sat down 
and rested alter the fatigue of their long three-hundred-mile journey, bathing them- 
selves daily in the cool, limpid water, sharpening their assegais, arranging their head- 

- 53* — 

plumes, and dancing their war-dance preparatory to investing Hip Btronghold of the 
man they were sent to conquer. The Basutos watched it all from the heights above. 
They barricaded the few entries to their stronghold with huge boulders, and erected 
strong and substantial schanzen at any point where an ascent seemed possible;' bo 
when the Matebele came rushing on simultaneously from two different directions, 
they were met by such an avalanche of rocks and showers of spears raining down 
upon them from an invisible and unapproachable foe above, that they were compelled 
to reti-eat by the way they came. The Khatla tribe, however, the Harutse and 
several others, were less successful and had to submit to Mzilikazi. Even the Griqua 
chief, Berend Berend, who had dared to attack the latter in his new kingdom, was 
defeated and himself killed. 

It was about this time that Mzilikazi made his first acquaintance with Whitemeu, 
at least during his own independent career. Mr. Moffat, the celebrated missionary, 
was then at Kuruman. He was quickly discovered by Mzilikazi's raiding parties, 
and eventually became so great a friend of this latter, that the Matebele chief after- 
wards named one of his sons Kurumana, in honour of the missionary. When, then, 
in June of the year 1836, certain American evangelists, the Bev. Dr. Wilson, with the 
Bevs. Lindley and Venable, appeared in the Mosika Valley, they were graciously wel- 
comed and allowed to settle in the military-kraal. But it was not long before the 
warlike chief discovered that the principles they preached were hostile to his own 
practices, and he prohibited further exercise of their profession. 

They had not been many months at Mosika, when, towards the end of that 
same year, the first wave of the Great Boer Trek from the Cape Colouy reached them. 
These farmers had serious brushes with roving Matebele between the Vet and Vaal 
rivers, where several Boers were killed and two girls captured and sent along as 
acceptable booty to Mzilikazi up north. Subsequently the Boers were attacked again, 
when in laager at Vechtkop, near the sources of the Bhenoster river, by a Matebele 
impi of 5,000 warriors, under their induna Mkalipi, of whom, after a short but fierce 
contest, 430 were left dead on the veldt, though the rest managed to depart with all 
the farmers' cattle. The Boers, getting exasperated at this kind of harassment, re- 
solved upon a combined attack on the lion in his den. One hundred and seven farmers, 
reinforced by another hundred of Griquas and Natives, assembled under Potgieter 
and Maritz, and, on the 17th. January, 1837, they surprised the Matebele army en- 
kraaled in the Mosika Valley, and hunted them down like a herd of game until mid- 
day. The kraal was burnt, 6,000 cattle captured, and several of their own wagons 
recovered, whereafter, accompanied by the disheartened American missionaries before 
mentioned, the farmers returned to their head-quarters at Thaba Nchu, near the 

About the middle of this same year 1837, occurred Dingana's campaign against 
Mzilikazi. Since Shaka's demise, the Zulu army, through almost constant inactivity, 
had already lost much of its pristine verve. True, they were the victors in the fight, 
though their returning home in August with one at least of their regiments almost 
totally annihilated, can scarcely be deemed a triumph. However, the saving feature 
was that an unusually large number of cattle were taken, including many that had 
previously been stolen from the Boers; but the Matebele rallying, re-captured a great 
number. It was here that the Zulus made their first acquaintance with the compara- 
tively huge, long-horned Afrikander cattle, about which so many exaggerated tales 
are told, and which became Dingana's favourite breed. 

Dingana was so elated over this his first and only martial success of any 
importance, that he could not refrain from despatching a messenger, during the first 
days of September, to Capt. Gardiner, a missionary adventurer then in charge of the 
British settlement at Port Natal, proudly stating that he had 'killed all Mzilikazi's 
people and captured their cattle.' But his statement was altogether premature; for 
only two months after, in November, we find a strong Boer commando of 330 men, 
under Potgieter and Uys, marching against him. Weakened by their recent heavy 
reverses, the Matebele were easily routed. Between the Zulus and Boers, they found 
no security of tenure was now possible to them in the Transvaal. The Natives to 
the north were reported as of a much weaker race, fleeing upon the mere sight of a 
Zulu warrior. They therefore determined to seek a better fortune far away beyond 
the Limpopo. Dispersing and despoiling the peaceful Kalangas as they went, Mzi- 
likazi finally established himself about midway between the Limpopo and Zambezi 
rivers, building for himself a large kraal which he named after that from which he 


— 54* — 

had originally sot out in Zululand, viz. kwa'Bulawayo (the Place of him who was 
killed). Hero he rapidly brought the surrounding tribes to recognise his sovereignty, 
and so the powerful Matebele nation was built up and flourished, until the downfall of 
Bfzilikazi's son, Norabengula or, as the local corruption has it, Lobengula. 

The name Matebele is not Zulu. It was derived from the Suto word le-Tebele, 
plur. ma-Tebele (a Kafir i.e. a member of any of those neighbouring tribes that did 
not speak the same language nor belong to the same ethnological group as the baSuto 
themselves). It was originally applied by these latter to the marauders from Zulu- 
land, as a term of contempt. Among the present-day Matebele scarcely anything of 
pure Zulu blood is longer traceable. Even so long ago as 1863, Mackenzie, who visited 
their country and was intimately acquainted with South-African races generally, was 
compelled to aver that 'he found very few real Zulu soldiers; the flower of the army 
consisted of Bechuanas, and the younger regiments were principally composed of Maka- 
laka and Mashona lads recently enlisted'. Nor is their language any purer than their 
blood. It consists of a large percentage of original Zulu roots, all more or less cor- 
rupted, and even perhaps a half dozen old roots, also probably changed, now obsolete 
and unknown in Zululand; but a very large proportion of the speech is made up of 
entirely foreign words, a miscellaneous and indiscriminate gathering from all and 
every one of those tribes they incorporated and whose mixed offspring now mainly 
constitutes the Matebele nation. 

Soshangane, founder of the Gasa Nation. The Zulu-Kafir race would seem to be 
the fighting cocks of the Bantu breed. Those peaceful times of yore, which we are 
so pathetically told ever existed in and before the days of Senzangakona, were really 
only a lying dormant of their innate aggressive, plundering spirit. Once the ancient 
fire had been roused by Dingiswayo, and then fanned to a roaring conflagration by 
Shaka, there was no further possibility of holding in check the natural impulses of 
this people. One after another wild spirits of the race led forth, north, west and 
south, fierce turbulent masses to disturb the peace of the world, revelling in rapine 
and blood. Of Matiwana with his amaNgwana and Mzilikazi with the maTebele we 
have related. But there are two other bands of freebooters hailing from the Zulu 
country -the followers of Sosliangane (afterwards in his new home better known as 
Manukuza), son of Sigode, younger son of Langa, chief of the Ndwandwe or Nxumalo 
clan (and therefore nephew of Zwide, great-solTand successor of Langa), and, secondly, 
the followers of Nqaba or Uzajmandaba (or, as he was subsequently in Central Africa 
called, Uzwangenctaba ), son 01 Mbekwane, a chief-man in the Kumalo clan, whose 
names will stand out in terrible prominence in the future history of almost every 
eastern Bantu tribe right away to the Victoria Nyanza. These so maintained the war- 
like reputation of their breed, that even Stanley could not cross the continent, as far 
away as the equator, without becoming nervously cognisant of the fact. 'No traveller,' 
he says, 'has yet become acquainted with a wilder race in Equatorial Africa than are 
the Mafitte or Watuta (as he calls the abaNgoni wanderers). They are the only true 
African Bedawi; and surely some African Ishmael must have fathered them, for their 
hands are against every man, and every man's hand appears to be raised against 
them. To slay a solitary Mtuta is considered by an Arab as meritorious, and far 
more necessary than killing a snake. To guard against these sable freebooters, the 
traveller, while passing near their haunts, has need of all his skill, coolness and pru- 
dence. The settler in their neighbourhood has need to defend his village with im- 
pregnable fences, and to have look-outs night and day; his women and children require 
to be guarded, and fuel can only be procured by strong parties, while the ground has 
to be cultivated spear in hand, so constant is the fear of the restless and daring tribe 
of bandits.' 

The party under Soshangane, or as we shall hereafter call him, Manukuza, took 
a north-easterly direction and continued their course uninterruptedly for^rriRhroiigh 
various Tonga tribes, until they entered the Portuguese domain, compelled, in their 
present struggle for existence, to buy life for themselves only at the price of much 
Bhedding of blood, and to retain a footing on God's earth only at the point of the 
assegai. The mixed mob of fugitives, comprising members, not only of the Nxumalo, 
but of the Mtetwa and several other of the hundred dispersed tribes of Zululand, 
with whom Manukuza had so far successfully cut his way into the heart of Tongaland, 
became now generally known among the surrounding tribes, not, of course, as Zulus 
(which they were not), but as abaNguni — a generic name in Tonga parlance desig- 

— 55* — 

nating a Native of what we call the 'Kafir' stock (whether it be Zulu or Xosa), as of 
a race and language distinct from their own ; indeed, just in the same way as the 
Suto tribes called these same people maTebele. The great nation, however, which 
afterwards grew up around this Kafir or Zulu nucleus, was mainly composed of the 
conquered people of multitudinous local Tonga clans, and adopted for itself the general 
name — quite unknown in Zululand, and hence probably derived from some Local 
source — of abakwa' Gasa (the People of Gasa), or, as they are more commonly 
called on the Gold Fields, amaS hang ana. 

The martial feats of Matiwana and Mzilikazi were reproduced by Manukuza in 
Portuguese East Africa without any diminution of their magnitude or gory brilliancy. 
The consternation caused among the British in the Cape Colony upon the appearance 
of Matiwana, and among the Dutch in the Transvaal by the appearance of Mzilikazi, 
was repeated in an equal degree by Manukuza among the much weaker Portuguese 
of the East Coast. Their contemporary documents bravely own up to the fact, and 
tell us of many humiliations their little garrisons had to meekly endure at the hands 
of this barbarian upstart. 

It was about the year 1831 that he first appeared and settled near the Sabi __ - 
river, midway between the Limpopo and Zambezi. While there, he was joined by the 
second roving mob of Zulu fugitives, members of the Kumalo, emaNcwangeni and 
other clans — also originally resident in the northern districts of Zululand about the 
coast — led by the aforesaid chief, Nqaba or Uzwangendaba. This is the section of 
Zulu refugees to whom the name abaNguni most persistently clung, and who, under 
a subsequent corruption of the word, became afterwards notorious in Central Africa 
as the abaNgoni. 

But turbulent natures of this kind, fired with the spirit of independence and 
fight, could scarcely be expected to sit down together in peace. The inevitable con- 
tention arose, and the stronger chief, Manukuza, drove from the neighbourhood his 
brother, Mhlabawadabuka, who, along with the main portion of the recently arrived 
party under Uzwangendaba, inarched away still further north, accompanied by a 
considerable following from among his own people, leaving Manukuza in sole posses- 
sion of another large section south of the Sabi river. 

'On the 22nd. of October, 1833,' says Theal, 'a strong body of warriors of the 
Gasa tribe appeared before the fort on the Espirito Santo (as the estuary of several 
rivers debouching at Lourenco Marques used to be called). They were provided with 
no other weapons than short-handled stabbing assegais, so they could not effect an 
entrance; but during the night of the 27th., the captain, Dionysio Antonio Ribeiro, 
seeing an opportunity to escape, evacuated the place, and with his men retired to the 
island Shefina, which lies close to the coast. On the following day the abaGasa de- 
stroyed the fort, and then pursued the Portuguese to the island and captured them 
all. The prisoners were brought back to their ruined habitation and were there put 
to death.' 

'The captain of Inhambane, ' continues the historian, 'was so rash as to attempt 
to assist a frendly clan against Manukuza. The result of the interference was the 
plunder of the village, on the 3rd. of November, 1834, and the slaughter of the captain 
and all the inhabitants, except ten individuals who managed to escape.' 

'In 1836, the military commandant of Sofala, Jose Marques da Costa, collected 
the friendly Natives in the neighbourhood, and with them and his negroes ventured 
to give the enemy battle, with the result that every individual of his force perished.' 

But if such easy game was made of the Portuguese soldiery, what shall we 
expect was the fate of the more helpless Blacks? For more than a quarter of a 
century after the last lesson had been given the Portuguese, and especially during the 
years 1852 and 1853, the Bantu clans throughout the territory were one after the other 
miserably plundered or sometimes exterminated 'with no more compunction than if 
they had been vermin.' But at length towards the end of the fifties, the dreaded 
Manukuza had played his last game and failed, had fought his last fight with death 
and succumbed. 

Previous to this, however, he had already expelled from the land one of his sons, 
Mzila , who had fled inland into the Transvaal region; and another son, Maw&va, now 
succeeded to the supreme power. This chief, much to the dismay of thenttle Por- 
tuguese garrisons, proved a chip of the old block. When, then, his brother Mzila, on 
the 1st. of December, 1861, applied to the captain of the garrison on the Espirito Santo 
for aid against his brother and himself posed as^PortugaFsJigreatest friend, the captain 

— 56* — 

gladly lout him what help he could in the shape of powder and guns. After half a 
year's lighting, Maweva was completely crushed and Mzila reigned in his stead and 
ruled over all the country between the Zambezi and the Manisa, northwards of Delagoa 
Bay. At length Mzila, too, was called to his fathers, and duly succeeded by his son, 
Ngungunyana, who becoming obstreperous, was relieved of his chieftainship by the 
FortUgnTse, in the year 1895. 

The whole of Manukuza's or Ngungunyana' s country is only hazily known to 
present-day Zulus as kwa'Gasa or Gasaland, the home of the Shanganas. Yet their 
fathers knew it better; for, as Fynn records, Slujka's army was thrice sent to invade 
that territory and bring home the head of Soshangana. They penetrated even as 
far as Inhambane, but all they ever brought back was perhaps not much more than 
one emaciated half of themselves and myriads of malignant malarial microbes to 
finish them right off so soon as they got back to their kraals. 

We have said that, after the Zulu fugitives, fleeing from Shaka's hands, arrived 
near the Sabi river, their leader, Manukuza quarrelled with his brother, Mhlabawada- 
buka, and that the latter, along with another and still more recently arrived batch of 
Fugitives, set out for a new field of independence still further north. How far these 
two independent parties got in company we do not know; but it was not far, for in 
a short time there was another rift in the lute, and that portion of the refugees more 
recently arrived near the Sabi separated from their comrades, and, under the leadei*- 
ship of their original chief, Uzwangendaba, went on alone yet further northward, 
dropping, as they went, batches at the upper Sabi river and the lower Zambezi. This 
horde of Zulu fugitives became generally known throughout all that part of eastern 
Central Africa as the abaNgpnj, aNgoni, awaNgoni, as well as under some entirely 
new names, as maZitu, maV?t£waTuJa and other appellations according as they mi- 
grated from counfff*to country. "They crossed the Zambezi, about Zumbo, probably 
in November 1835, for at the time of their crossing, as Elmslie informs us, there was 
an eclipse of the sun. Directing their course due north, they fought their way along 
until they crossed the Tshambeze river flowing into bake Bangweolo, and, passing 
round the south-eastern corner of Tanganika, they entered the Fipa country. 

Having at length reached a spot quite 1,200 miles from their old home in Zulu- 
land, these abaNgoni, or maViti, as they were here called, considered they had accom- 
plished enough globe-trotting to suffice them for a season. So, after having duly 
enslaved the Jeri people whom they found in the land (the name of which people, by 
the way, they now appropriated as their own cognomen), there they settled for a 
lime. They amused themselves by making periodical raids into the country round 
about, though not always to their own profit. There was a large tribe of waRori or 
waSango on their eastern boundary, enviously wealthy in cattle. But after quite a 
lifTTe campaign lasting through several months, our maViti found the enemy too strong 
for them and drew back into Fipaland, but not before having left a large number of 
their brethren as corpses in the Rori country and become reduced even still more by 
the separation of a considerable section of their following, who went off and formed 
the Hehe tribe, resident on the upper Ruaha river, east of the Roris and south of 
the Gogo people. 

It is indeed astonishing how infectious the fighting temperament can become 
when those predisposed to it are brought under the requisite conditions. It would 
in as though every Bantu tribe that chanced to come into contact with the roving 
plunderers from Zululand and, being dislodged by them from their ancient home, 
were compelled to seek another by force of arms, eventually developed a type of life 
and character so like to that of their original conquerors as to become indistinguish- 
able from them. Thus we find Central Africa nowadays filled with spurious Zulus; 
tribe after tribe, all declared to be of 'Zulu origin', but which, if we may judge from 
their languages, markedly varying one from the other and all bearing alike absolute- 
ly no resemblance to the Zulu (beyond that common to all Bantu languages), can 
have practically no Kafir blood in their veins, and are only Zulu in so far that they 
have once passed under the shadow of the Ngoni ascendancy. To tell the truth, these 
latter Forced along with them as they went whole tribes of strange peoples picked up 
by them on their thousand-mile journey, and who in turn successfully cut themselves 
[oose From their erstwhile masters and struck out for themselves into unknown local- 
ities, whose affrighted inhabitants attributed their coming to the universally notorious 
abaNgoni. The blood of the few Zulu families who had really originated in Zululand, 
was, by the time they had reached Central Africa, already considerably diluted by 

— 57* — 

foreign admixture; and, as for the vast mass of the heterogeneous mob they had 
pressganged on their way, they were picked up mostly from numberless Tonga and 
kindred tribes, and were not Zulu at all. And in this way the Zulu name has Become 
credited with much glorification that is not honestly its due. Thus the brilliant mar- 
tial exploits of the Hehes and Bungas about the sources of the Rufiji, and of the 
Gwangwaras north-east of Nyasa, all go to swell the exaggerated reputation of the 
innocent boys in our midst; for all of these tribes are mistakenly dubbed of Zulu 

The Masai are held to be the fiercest tribe in Eastern Central Africa; but, as 
Last avers, when waMasai meet waHehe, then comes the tug of war. For, says he, 
'they are frequently defeated in their contests with the Hehe. Only last year (1HS2) 
strong parties of Masai were nearly annihilated by the Hehe. I was on<c returning 
home to my station from a visit to Mpwapwa, when we were overtaken by a party 
of fifteen Masai, the remnants of an unsuccessful company who had gone to lift the 
cattle of the Hehe. Several of these were without shields, but carried two large spears, 
showing that they had been able to pick up some of the spears of their fallen com- 
panions, but had been obliged to secure their safety in flight by throwing away their 
shields'. Wherever they came from, it seems clear that these Hehe are comparatively 
new arrivals in their present land of domicile. They appeared, as Stanley was in- 
formed, as a powerful and strange tribe in the Ruaha country, soon after the invasion 
of Roriland by the Fipa abaNgoni or maViti, about the year 1844. There they set 
about despoiling or demolishing the local peoples in quite orthodox Shakan style. 
They overran Sagaraland, pigsticking the males and stealing the females of the indus- 
trious Itumba and Kaguru clans; then they administered some wholesome castigation 
to the bullying Ngurus of Zeguhaland; and finally, in more recent days, they have 
brought permanently to their knees the brave Roris, who had so long successfully 
withstood the onslaughts of the maViti of Fipaland. 

Then, from these Hehe, or from the mother-tribe, the Fipaland maViti, emerged 
another lawless band, the Bungas. These unwelcome strangers first made their pre- 
sence felt, not far away from the Hehe, in the Gangi country, about the sources of 
the Ulanga, tributary of the Rufiji. They appropriated the south-eastern portion 
thereof as their own private domain, and then so far brought under their yoke a large 
section of the Gangi people, now known as the waHenge, that they not only recog- 
nised their paramountcy, but somehow or other came to assimilate a considerable 
quantum of their foreign language. 

But revenons a nos montons! From the time the Ngoni wanderers left Manu- 
kuza on the far Sabi river until the period of their arrival in Fipaland, they had 
been ruled by a chief named Uzwangondaba. But while they still sojourned in Fipa- 
land, this chief died, and, lacking fhe strong binding influence of a powerful head, the 
tribe rapidly fell to pieces. The heir-apparent was a boy named Mtwaro, who, how- 
ever, resigned his right to another brother, Momtjgrji. These being minded to continue 
their rule comparatively at rest in the Fipa country, another more 'progressive' party 
favoured a renewed trek yet further ahead. This more restless section of adventurers 
actually set out about the year 1846; and, giving the waRori a respectful berth, they 
headed for the Kanongo country to the north-east of the latter tribe, and from thence 
pushed further on, through Kawendi, to Ujiji town, an Arab and Native trading-centre 
of importance on the shores of lake Tanganika, and well known from the writings of 
Burton, Livingstone and Stanley. The unexpected appearance of these terrible plun- 
derers in that busy little town caused an immediate panic in the market, and the 
money-making Semites found their transactions abruptly closed. Taking to heart the 
Shakesperean aphorism that discretion is the better part of valour, they and then- 
Natives vanished en masse for Bangwe Isle, out in the waters of the lake. The wis- 
dom of this step was immediately apparent, for the waTuta (as our psendo-Zulus 
were here called), having duly killed all who had remainecTTJenind and finding nothing 
further after their taste to plunder, speedily passed on. But they made a mistake 
when they thought to pass without tribute through the country, further along the 
lake, of those inveterate blackmailers the waHa. These headed them smartly off into 
the Nyamwezi land, where they were again recognised by their old name, the mwa- 
Ngoni. Cutting their way through tribe after tribe of this district, they eventually 
passed through the waZinza, and the vast expanse of Victoria ; Xyanza spread like a 
vision before them. But the sea has no fascination for the Zulu stock; so these lost 
sons of the tribe, after having wandered full 1,700 miles from home, had here reached 


— 58* — 

their farthest point north and now retraced their steps southwards and settled them- 
selves for a rest once more on the grassy downs of Gombaland. There, betwixt the 
powerful walla tribe and the equally warlike people of Mira"fifbo, an Nyamw ezi potentate, 
the waTuta found time to indulge in a more beautiful occupation than fighting. An 
unusual amount of love-making seems to have been done here, and the results conse- 
quent on this were no doubt the most potent reason that caused this section of the 
abaNgoni to give up further aimless wandering and settle down permanently in the 
land. King after king sought the hand of a Tuta or Ngoni spouse, aye, even the 
terrible Mirambo himself ensured a permanent fighting alliance with these doughty 
warriors by taking one of their daughters into the bonds of wedlock. 

Leaving this, the most advanced section of the erstwhile Zulu fugitives, still 
enjoying life On the pasture-lands of Gomba, we shall now retrace our steps to the 
Fipa country, about 500 miles further south, on the south-eastern shores of Tanganika, 
and where the waTuta left their brethren the maViti, under their hereditary chief, 
Mombera. — * t — ""* 

The Gombaland party had scarcely separated from their Fipa comrades than 
civil strife broke out among the latter. Certain other sons of Uzwangendaba conceived 
the idea of contesting the sovereignty with Mombera. Fortunately the misunderstand- 
ing was amicably weathered by the rightful chief being willing to move away with 
his following, leaving the unsatisfied party, under Mperembe, where they were. M<> 
mbera inarched off in a south-easterly direction, dealing death and devastation where^ 
ever obstruction was met with, until finally reaching the plains stretching along the 
north-western side of Lake. Nyasa. As everywhere else, these restless freebooters 
became the terror of all fluT tribes surrounding the lake, and that continuously until 
peace, now fairly permanent, seems to have been introduced among them by the efforts 
of the white missionaries. 

The party left behind in the Fipa country, under Mperembe, afterwards followed 
south and joined their brethern, submitting once more to the paramountcy of Mombera, 
in 1891 still living, and now united constitute the great abaNgoni, or as the strange 
local tribes call them, maViti, nation of Nyasaland. 

We have now fairly unravelled the history of these puzzling and pillaging nom- 
ads of Central Africa, these mysterious and much-named abaNgoni, aNgoni, mwa- 
Ngoni, these maZitu, maViti and waTuta, these waHehe, waBunga and waGwangwara. 
While from their migratory habits or their robbing propensities the Tumbukas of 
Nyasaland called them maZitu, and the Yaos of the same region, maViti, and the 
t lilies of Tanganika, waTuta, the name which clung to them firmest and longest 
was that which they obtained nearest home, from our neighbours the Tongas, 
viz. abaNguni, which afterwards by the interior tribes became transformed into 
abaNgoni. Strange to say they have themselves still further corrupted the form 
of the appellation — that is to say, given it a form altogether unpermissible accord- 
ing to the principles of their original Zulu language — by calling themselves 
abakwa Ngoni, the People of Ngoni, as though this latter were the proper name of 
some ancestor, whereas it is simply the .Tonga way of saying 'Kafir.' For as we 
have already noted, it was not only the section of Zulu fugitives whose descendants 
are now speaking, as they say, itshiNgoni and dwelling along the shores of Nyasa, 
who were dubbed throughout Tongaland as abaNguni. The Natives of our present- 
day Zululand, as well as the people of Manukuza or Soshangane who remained behind 
from the 'further northward' trek in Portuguese East Africa, were equally called 
abaNguni, and even to-day the few families of purer 'Kafir' or Zulu (i.e. non-Tonga) 
origin among Ngungunyana's so-called Shangana people, are still known by it. But 
Buch families and such pure Zulu blood is nowadays among these latter people, and 
still more so among the Central African specimens, the Ngonis, the Vitis and the Tutas, 
practically non-existent. Those in the Portuguese territory absorbed all the Tonga 
clans and Tonga blood within their own very extensive sphere of influence. Those 
who travelled still further afield, into the central lakes regions, absorbed even still 
more as they went, Tongas, Karangas, Sengas, Bisas, Fipas, Rungus, Tumbukas and 
innumerable others, so that there is little possibility of there being much of the ori- 
ginal Zulu blood, Zulu character and Zulu language left. The abaNgoni or maViti 
"ii the north-western, western and southern shores of Lake Nyasa have probably 
preserved more of the language— though perhaps less of the true mother blood— than 
any other section of the whole multitude of original wanderers. We sometimes hear 
the Hehes, the Henges, the Bungas (on the upper basin of the Rufiji and Ruaha rivers) 

— 59* — 

and the Gwangwaras or Tshondes (to the north-east of Nyasa), referred to as of the 
Zulu stock. But their 'Zulu' origin merely consists, as we have before said, in their 
having been at one time more or less incorporated, after conquest, into the migratory 
Ngoni nation, from whom they subsequently cut themselves loose, taking along with 
them no doubt a certain very small modicum of Zulu blood in a few of their higher fami- 
lies and their women, but never enough to leaven their language with anything more 
than a very remote and ordinary Bantu resemblance to the speech of the true Zulus. 

The Passing of ' Nada the Lily.' It was probably some months after the close of 
the last Ndwandwe war, that Nandi, the Great Female Elephant, and mother of Shaka, 
passed away for a better land. The event, welcome, one would almost expect, to her, 
took place probably about the middle of the year 1826, at the Ndhlayangubo kraal, on 
the ridge between the Ngoye forest and the Mhlatuze river. 

The Natives have a strong innate disposition to exaggerate in their talk, and 
we fear that the reputation of Shaka, hideous as it already is, has been at times made 
worse by this weakness. That Shaka was utterly callous as to the selection of his 
victims is beyond doubt; relatives, friends, the harmless and the innocent, all went 
the same way as criminals and foes, to all was distributed the like meed of ruthless 
cruelty. This was patent to everybody ; so when at length his own mother went the 
way of all flesh, there was ample justification for the Native mind suspecting, aye, 
almost feeling assured, that she too had travelled by the wonted path, and this espe- 
cially since the fortune of exceptional treatment had not been hers during life, blows 
and abuse having been the too frequent mark of affection she received from her son. 
Yet, notwithstanding that all Native accounts positively assert that Shaka really did 
kill his mother, and that the explanation they give certainly predicates such an 
ending, an open-minded student of history cannot fail to entertain some doubt as to 
the fact. The great mass of Native knowledge is founded merely on hearsay ; but 
our own countryman, Fynn, who was actually present in the kraal and with Nandi at 
the hour of her departure, apparently neither observed nor heard anything of foul 
play on Shaka's part. Indeed, the net effect of his narrative is to lead us to believe 
that in his mother's death Shaka found his adamantine heart at length subdued and 
capable for once of shedding a real tear. The Native accounts, on the other hand, 
tell us, some, that he strangled her by binding a cord about her neck ; others, that 
he poisoned her secretly; others again, that he stabbed her with an assegai, himself 
actually holding up her arm and saying, while he pierced her in the arm-pit, ake 
ngikuzivise! (let me make you feel what it is like to be stabbed). But all are unani- 
mous in stating that the reason was because Nandi had dared to conceal a male child 
born to Shaka by one of his concubines. The child, its mother, Nandi who had dared 
to conceal it, and an elder brother of hers who had first brought it to her, were all ! 
alike, it is said, slaughtered. 

Shaka, we may here remind, lived in a constant state of apprehension lest he 
be assassinated. His only guarantee of self-preservation lay in his systematically kill- 
ing off all such as might be tempted or capable of doing the deed. He evidently 
did not suspect his brothers, or, what is more probable, feared their combination 
against him, if he attacked any one of them ; but that the land should become laden 
with actual sons of his own, born to him by his hundreds of concubines, was a con- 
tingency he could by strict supervision avoid. To think that he could permit a single 
one of these to attain to man's estate was to deem him foolish enough to overlook 
just what, in old age, would furnish him with the source of greatest danger. That 
Nandi, then, of all others, should attempt to purposely lay up for him such an evil, 
to nurture for him a future assassinator, to thus thwart him in his most strenuous 
efforts to avoid so fearful an end, was indeed most exasperating. As a matter of 
fact, however, we should prefer to believe that Nandi was too wise to be guilty of so 
unfortunate an indiscretion. Fynn, who was on the spot, knew nothing of it. Here 
is his unvarnished account of her death: — 

'While Shaka was engaged in hunting elephants, he received intelligence that 
his mother was seriously ill, which induced him to suspend the hunt, and proceed 
immediately to her residence, a distance of 80 miles from the hunting-ground, which 
distance was travelled during the latter part of the day and the night. Fynn ' ( the 
narrator writes his account in the third person) 'had been with Shaka some time . . . 
Implicit confidence was placed in his skill, and he was on this occasion requested to 
visit Shaka's mother. He found her in the agonies of death, and she expired an 

— 60* — 

hour after his arrival . . . When Shaka, accompanied by his chiefs in their war-attire, 
appeared near the hut in which she had died, he stood for twenty minutes in a silent 
melancholy attitude, while his tears dropped on his shield. At length his feelings 
were ungovernable; he became frantic. The chiefs and people, to the number of about 
15,(i(ii), commenced the most dismal and horrid yells. The inmates of the neighbouring 
kraals came pouring in ... by morning the numbers had increased to upwards of 
t>0,000. The cries now became indescribably horrid. Hundreds were lying faint from 
excessive fatigue and want, although not less than 40 oxen had been slaughtered as 
offerings to the spirits, the flesh of which was not allowed to .be. eaten . . . Shaka had 
several (persons) executed on the spot. The multitude, bent on convincing their 
chief of their extreme grief, commenced a general massacre. Those who could no 
longer force tears from their eyes, those who were found near the river panting for 
water, were furiously beaten to death; and, towards midday, each took this oppor- 
tunity of revenging an injury, real or imaginary, the weak falling by the hands of 
the stronger. By 3 o'clock, not less than 7,000 had fallen in this unjustifiable mas- 
sacre. The adjacent river became impassable, and on the ground blood flowed in 
streams. The horrid cries continued till 10 the following morning, when Shaka be- 
came somewhat pacified, and the people were permitted to take some refreshment . . . 
The following resolutions were strictly to be observed ... no cultivation was to be 
allowed that year, no milk was to be taken as food, the milk of the cattle to be spilled 
on the ground ; and all women who should be found in a state of pregnancy during 
the following twelve months should, with their husbands, be punished with death . . . 
On the third day after the death of the Great Female Elephant, a grave was dug 
near the spot where she died, in which she was placed in a sitting posture; and Fynn 
learned from some of the attendants, though it is now endeavoured to deny the fact, 
that ten females of her retinue were buried alive with her. Fynn was prevented from 
being an eye-witness to this scene, as he would, according to custom, have been com- 
pelled to remain at the burying ground for twelve months after '. 

Besides Fynn, the pioneer J. S. King was also present with Nandi, 'attending 
her in her last illness', as Isaacs attests. Yet neither of these has made any mention 
in his writings of Nandi having met a violent death. 

Founding of the kwa'Dukuza kraal. The original southern boundary of the sev- 
eral independent Zulu-speaking tribes had been, before Shaka's time, the Tukela and 
Mzinyati rivers; south of these, and reaching as far as the Mzimkulu, were tekeza- 
speaking Lala clans. In a very few years, Shaka had the face of the countiw totally 
changed. Independent clans, Zulu-speaking and Lala alike, had all ceased to exist as 
separate entities; their royal families had been destroyed or banished, and the whole 
had now become indiscriminately mixed up into one vast amalgam, which we may 
call the Zulu nation, with Shaka at its head. 

Although the Mpondo s and Sutos and many other neighbouring peoples sent 
tribute to Shaka, as a wi&e"* piece of policy -tending to save themselves the misfortune 
of having it compelled from them by force, their territories had not yet been incor- 
porated into the Zulu empire. The actual boundary of the Zulu country and extreme 
southern limit of inhabited territory, extended, at the period of the arrival of the 
English pioneers in 1824, not beyond the Tongati river. The Zulu-speaking tribes 
still confined themselves mostly to their old districts north of the Tukela, while the 
country between the Tukela and the Tongati contained within it all that remained of 
the broken Lala clans which had previously occupied the whole of present-day Natal, 
from the Tukela to the Mzimkulu. Between the Tongati and the latter river was, 
at the period referred to, that vast uninhabited wilderness, already described in a 
previous section, in which now lurked nothing but outlawed waifs and strays, hyoenas, 
and bands of men-hunters. 

In order to bring himself into closer proximity with those powerful nations on 
the south, the Mpondo and Suto, whom he had not yet actually conquered by force 
of arms, Shaka now had a military-kraal built at kwa'Dukuza (where Stanger town 
now is), south of the Tukela, in Natal, his headquarters, however, still remaining at 
Bulawayo, beyond the Mlalazi river, in Zululand. 

Shaka as a Wizard. Shaka about this time developed a new trait of character. 
He made the discovery that he possessed supernatural powers, could interpret dreams, 
smell out witchcraft, and perform in fact all the marvellous feats hitherto considered 

— 61* — 

the sole privilege of the witchdoctors. That so mighty a king should possess these 
powers seemed to Shaka self-evident. It was on the face of it impossible to suppose 
that any among his subjects could have powers which their king had not, and absurd 
to believe that any mortal could have a greater dominion over the spirit-world than 
he, to whom all the great dead had bowed. This new idea, further, provided him 
with an agreer.ble hobby wherewith to break the monotony of lib; while his warriors 
were absent on the war-path. At any rate, the female portion of the population would 
always be at home, and they were amply sufficient for a fair exercise of his powers. 
So he had a few hundreds of them collected, and naively enquired whether any of them 
were possessed of cats (i.e. izitfi ga ka — see text), thereby hinting, of course, that 
they had and that he knew all about it. However, says Fynn, 'whether tin' answer 
was in the affirmative or the negative, the result was the same. During three days 
the dead bodies of women, numbering not less than three or four hundred, were seen 
carried away to the rivers or left to the wolves; and that in the absence of their hus- 
bands' — fighting for their king and country! 

On another occasion, relates Isaacs, a certain nephew of Dingiswayo's, named 
Mbiya, and a great man in the Mtetwa tribe during Shaka's youth, appeared to him 
in a vision and gave him to understand that Senzaiigakona (Shaka's father) was 'very 
angry' with the Zulu people, because they were no longer so smart as they used to 
be, 'that the nation was growing too large and required constant employment, and 
that there were plenty of enemies yet to conquer before they could think to busa (i.e. 
enjoy good easy times).' This was truly an ominous observation for an apparition 
to make, and so soon after Shaka had moved his kraal within easier fighting distance 
of the great southern tribes. 

Embassy to King George. But the removal to Dukuza, had another advantage 
— it brought Shaka nearer to his recently acquired friends, the Whitemen at Porl 
Natal. He could now receive more frequent visits from these interesting people. 
What crafty tactics he had already formed in the secrecy of his heart in their regard 
was not yet apparent. It seemed more probable that he had already acquired some 
notion of the almighty power that lay behind them, and so deemed a friendly mien 
as safer and more politic. He thus conceived the admirable idea of sending two of 
his regiments 'to England' to learn to read, and manufacture firearms and wagons, 
and many other fascinating accomplishments he had marked on his White subjects. 
To prepare the way for his — and probably as the result of a shrewd suggestion 
thrown out by these latter — he forthwith despatched two of his councillors, Sotobe, 
son of Mpangalala, of the Sibiya clan, and Mbozamboza, under the care of James 
Saunders King, to pay a friendly visit on his behalf 'to King George.' In considera- 
tion of this service, he presented King with a document, signed February, 1828, at the 
Bulawayo kraal, repeating in his favour all the concessions of land about Port Natal 
and trading rights throughout his dominions, which he had already, in 1824, conceded 
to Lieut. Farewell, at that time absent in the Cape Colony, but who afterwards, in 
the early years of Dingana's reign, attempted to return to Natal by an overland route 
and was murdered by Qetu, chief of the Qwabe refugees then dwelling near the St. 
John's River. How far King really proposed to take the Zulu envoys is unknown, 
but probably it was not further than Capetown. Howbeit, he fell himself grievously 
ill at Algoa Bay, and had perforce to return with his proteges to Durban, where, 
after a very short time, he succumbed, much to the sorrow of Shaka. 

The Mpondo and Soshangane Campaigns. That pseudo-apparition of Mbiya was 
at length, in the early part of the year 1828, to materialise into sterner consequences. 
The nation was to be given some of that 'constant employment' recommended by 
the spectral chief. There was to be a campaign on a scale of unprecedented magnitude. 
Aged and young, the rich and the poor and the worthless alike, anybody and every- 
body, with the sole exception of females and small children, shall be massed together 
in one vast force — an u-Kukulela-ngoqo (or indiscriminate raking together of all and 
every rubbish), as Shaka called it — and proceed to conquer what still remained of 
the reachable world. 

So, first off to the Mpondos they marched. But the Mpondos waited not till 
the looming mass rushed overwhelming down upon them. They executed a hurried 
retreat, vainly flinging their little spears as they ran at the on-rushing wave of de- 
struction, leaving their cattle to be licked up in its passage. But not their chief. Faku 

— 62* - 

had taken the timely precaution to be hidden securely away in the deepest recesses 
of the Grosa forest, from which he emerged only after being informed that the in- 
vading monster had withdrawn its unhallowed presence from his land. In order to 
give any further developments a timely check, he at once despatched certain ambas- 
sadors to tender on his behalf the most humble submission to the Zulu Majesty, in 
the vicinity of whose Dukuza kraal one of them was to take up his permanent resi- 
dence, and so remain a perpetual pledge in Shaka's sight. 

Such an easy and absolute victory was very magnificent and flattering to Sha- 
ka's army, but it was altogether too rapid. Here was the whole mass of 'human 
rubbish,' whom he believed it his sacred duty to keep 'constantly occupied,' again 
thrown on his hands. Somewhere away in the remote north was an escaped rebel 
named Soshangane. Let them, then, thither, where good service may be done and 
entertainment for a considerable time be found. 

The army, it is true, had returned from Pondoland with unusual speed, but 
precisely on that account also thoroughly fatigued. There were no commissariat 
corps attached to Shaka's armies, nor medical attendance for the wounded and sick, 
and if each of the twenty or thirty thousand hungering warriors got every day but 
i.nw small snack from the few oxen slaughtered as their only food supply, he was 
lucky. With such a system, lengthy campaigns were cruel and impossible. But rea- 
sonableness and sentiment were qualities unknown to Shaka's nature. So, without a 
single day's break in their continuous march, without a passing look at their homes 
or families, without a rest, or one good meal, or a little medical attendance, the whole 
ukukulela-ngoqo or raking-together-of-all-the-rubbish was hustled unceremoniously by 
to seek further victories away in the unknown north, somewhere or anywhere about 
the Balule (or Limpopo) river, where it was fondly imagined Soshangane would be 
found awaiting them. Right through the length of Natal and Zululand they trudged, 
a vast multitude of limping, sinking, emaciated, growling humanity, into the fever- 
lands beyond the Sutu. There, amidst the interminable expanses of waterless thorn- 
veldt and plains reeking with malarial gases, they drank in their full of the deadly 
miasma and were mowed down in thousands by an invisible and unchallengeable foe. 
A lew with stronger constitutions and more undaunted spirits, struggled, it is said, 
still further ahead, as far as Inhambane, some 350 miles from their homes, but only 
to find the phantom enemy still far, far beyond. Then, after having attained nothing 
more than a few unimportant skirmishes, and even these not always successes, the 
grande armee returned, downcast and disgraced, picking up, as it went, what stragglers 
remained of the malaria-decimated legions, and finally reached home to delight in a 
blessing it had never expected. The long, dark night of tyranny and woe had passed 
never to return, and a sunnier day of hope and rest had dawned upon the land. 

The Assassination of Shaka. The intollerabe despot had at length laid the last 
straw upon the patient back of his people. As the Great Army was wending its wa)' 
to the Balule, and Dingana and Mhlangana, Shaka's brothers, were limping along, sore- 
footed and sullen in its rear, the devil of conspiracy entered within them, and thej r 
determined that now the end must come. Here was an opportunity that might never 
present itself again; Shaka alone in an empty land, peopled only by females! So they 
disclosed their thoughts to Mbopa, son of Sitayi, and body-servant of Shaka, and 
enlisted him in their service. All three thereupon discovered that they were taken 
ill, and must reluctantly return to their home, Mpande and the other brothers con- 
tinuing their way with the army. Their sudden appearance at Dukuza naturally filled 
Shaka's guilty heart with woful suspicion. Instinct, exalted in the face of imminent 
death, spoke loudly that something fearful was about to happen. These racking pre- 
sentiments reproduced themselves at night as hideous dreams. At last, writes Fynn, 
'he dreamt that he was dead and that Mbopa was serving another king. On waking 
it was the 24th. September, 1828,— he told his dream to one of his 'sisters' (or con- 
cubines), who within an hour mentioned the circumstance to Mbopa. This, knowing 
that in consequence of the portent, he would not have many hours to live, urged the 
confederates to take the first opportunity to assassinate the king; and this shortly 
occurred. Some Kafirs arriving from remote parts of the country with cranes' feathers, 
which the king had sent them to procure, the king was dissatisfied at their having 
been so long absent, lie came out of his hut, and went to a small kraal some fifty 
yards distant (from the Dukuza kraal). There these people sat down before him. 
NKuyazonke, brother to Nandi (the king's mother), an old man much in favour 

_-63* - 

with the king was also there. Shaka asking in a severe tone what had detained them 
so long with the feathers, Mbopa ran up to them with a stick and called on them to 
state why they had delayed so long to fulfil the king's orders, and then struck them. 
Being aware that their lives were in danger, and supposing that Mbopa had, as is 
usual when someone is ordered to death, received the private signal, they all ran 
away. Shaka, seeing them run, asked Mbopa what they had done to deserve being 
driven off in this way. Mhlangana and Dingana had hidden themselves behind a 
small fence near which Shaka was standing, and each had an assegai concealed under 
his kaross. The former, seeing the people run off, and the king by himself, stabbed 
him through the back on the left shoulder. Dingana also closed upon him and stab- 
bed him. Shaka had only time to ask: 'What is the matter, children of my father?' 
But the three repeated their stabs in rapid succession, so that he died after running 
a few yards beyond the gate of the kraal. The few people at the kraal and in the 
neighbourhood ran to the bush, believing that now heaven and earth would come 
together!' But no such calamity happened, notwithstanding that the corpse lay out on 
the veldt all night long, and that on the morrow great Shaka's body was ignominious- 
ly consigned to an old corn-pit in the kraal in which he was stabbed, and, along witli 
all his body-ornaments, there safely bottled up for all eternity, after having polluted 
this earth with his unholy presence for a period of about 41 years. 

Interregnum and Reign of Dingana. Inasmuch as the Zulu army was absent 
in the north and the Zulu army comprised the whole male population of the land 
it was manifestly impossible to proceed with the appointment of a new king. The 
administration of affairs was assumed by Mbopa, with the connivance of the brother 
assassins, as whose tool he acted. 

From the paternal side of Shaka's family there was nothing to be feared, for 
none had a prior right or more powerful influence than had Dingana and Mhlangana ; 
but from the maternal side, some trouble might be anticipated. Radical measures 
must therefore be taken to prevent such a development. Mbopa was accordingly 
dh'ected to assemble together what few men could be found in the neighbourhood. 
With these he first attacked and murdered without resistance, Nguj'azonke, the aged 
brother of Nandi, and one or two other favourites of Shaka, still resident in the 
Dukuza kraal, after which the whole company set out to remove Shaka's half-brother, 
Ngwadi, son of Nandi by Ngendeyana. 

The departure of this expedition against Ngwadi, and which both Dingana and 
Mhlangana accompanied, marked the last connection of the Zulu court with the Du- 
kuza kraal, whose solitary occupant was now the carcase of Shaka, rotting in a corn- 
pit. From the Wambaza kraal of Ngwadi, situate between the White and Black Mfo- 
lozi, and where, after a brave resistance, he had been finally killed, the party of 
murderers returned to Shaka's headquarters at Bulawayo, not far from Eshowe. 
There they awaited the return of the straggling remnants of the Grande Armee—a. 
sorry half of the entire force, who had been fortunate to survive both famine and 
fever, the remainder struggling along in small parties during the next quarter of a 
year, according as they could gather strength to do so on an occasional meal of locusts, 
which plague, by the bye, seems to have been as familiar then as it is now. 

Meanwhile jealousy rapidly evidenced itself between the two brothers. Both 
strongly aspired to the throne, but plainly both could not win the prize. Petty quar- 
rels naturally followed, and suspicion was the main feeling each experienced for the 
other. Mhlangana became avowedly impatient about the tardiness of the army to 
arrive, but Dingana was more restful in the consciousness of his superior claim to 
the kingship. Still, he would have been much more peaceful at heart were his brother 
not there to disturb him in his ambitions. So, when he one day discovered Mhlangana 
vigorously whetting his assegai for use, he instinctively felt that it might have some 
significance to himself. He immediately caused Mbopa to make secret enquiries, and 
from the remarks made by Mhlangana, that Dingana was 'too much of a fool to be 
capable of filling a throne, and he most certainly should not be king,' Mhlangana' s 
intentions became plainly revealed. Why, then, wait any longer? Without one mo- 
ment's delay, Dingana proceeded with a small party to Mhlangana's hut Then and 
there this latter was brought out and forthwith killed. 

Within the space of a fortnight after this, the first companies of the army 
arrived, to find Dingana in sole possession of the royal kraal of Bulawayo. The gloomy 
forebodings that had racked them on their march were transformed into an ecstasy 

_-64* - 

of joy when they found the land ridded for ever of Shaka'a presence. Nor did the 
most likely of them contemplate for one moment any attempt at disputing with Di- 
ngana regarding the succession. Enough for them was it, if they were granted in 
peace to crawl into their huts and rest, and await there in calm acquiescence the next 
turn of events. And the next turn was refreshing and inspiring, for Dingana assured 
the land of reforms and instilled into the hearts of the people hopes at length of 
brighter days. 

Alas, for those hopes! No sooner had Dingana firmly established himself in 
power, than he commenced a catalogue of cruelties and crimes not one whit less dia- 
bolical than those of his predecessor. He set about a systematic extermination of all 
that remained of his family and relatives, all his friends and former comrades, the 
great ones of the nation, Mbopa not excepted. Only Mpande, a quiet, effeminate 
youth and brother of his, of about 24 years of age, was permitted to live as a simple- 
ton, utterly harmless. But in this act of pseudo-clemency, he unwittingly set the seed 
of bis own destruction. 

We do not propose to enumerate here all the historical events of Dingana's 
reign, nor of the still longer reign of his successor, Mpande. These more recent 
occurrences, taking place after the advent of the White Colonists in the land, are too 
well known to require repetition here. 

The First Missionaries. In February, 1835, Captain Allen Gardiner, a self-appoint- 
ed missionary adventurer arrived, and made the first futile effort to evangelise the 
Zulus. Freedom to work was refused him by the Zulu king, and he returned discon- 
solate to Port Natal. Here he established himself as a preacher among the settlers, 
and was afterwards appointed the local justice of the peace, representing the British 
Government. He eventually departed in search of better missionary success in far 
Patagonia, where he met a sad death. On December 20th. of the same year, the Revs. 
Ahlen Grout, G. Champion and Dr. Adams, of the American Mission, arrived at Port 
Natal. On January 18th, 1836, they reached Dingana's kraal, and with his permission 
established missions near the mouth of the Mhlatuze and elsewhere. They were 
shortly afterwards reinforced by the advent of the Revs. Dr. Wilson and H. L. 
Venable, who had formerly been with Mzilikazi. Towards the end of the year 1837, 
the Rev. Mr. Owen, of the Church Missionary Society, appeared at Dingana's kraal 
at Mgungundhlovu, in the vicinity of which he was allowed to erect a small mission. 
He endeavoured to repeat Capt. Gardiner's efforts to convert Dingana, and even got 
him so far as to receive a few lessons in reading; but his pious labours were not 
rewarded with perseverance on the part of his royal pupil, and were soon doomed to 
come to an abrupt close in an awful tragedy. 

Massacre of the Boers. Just prior to his arrival at Mgungundhlovu, a certain 
Pieter Retief, a leader of the Boer emigrants from the Cape Colony, who were even 
then streaming down over the Drakensberg Mountains into the Zulu coast-lands, came 
on November 5th., 1837, to visit Dingana, in order to seek permission for his people 
to reside in what is now Natal. To this petition the king assented, provided Retief 
should recover for him certain cattle recently raided by Sigonyela, chief of the ma- 
Ntatis in the Transvaal. This task satisfactorily accomplished, Retief returned to 
Dingana, reaching the Mgungundhlovu kraal on the 3rd. February, 1838, bringing 
with him the re-captured cattle and accompanied by sixty-nine other Boers and thirty 
Natives. Great hospitality was shown the party during their stay, the deed of con- 
ion was duly made out and signed, and on the third day, the 6th. February, the 
farmers assembled unarmed in the kraal, preparatory to taking their farewell, when 
treacherously fallen upon and slain, neither Boer nor Native-servant escaping. Mr. 
Owen was within the immediate vicinity of the kraal, 'reading his Testament,' while 
the massacre was being enacted; but this terrible crime was a signal for his speedy 
exit from Zululand, along with that of all the American missionaries. Their generous 
sacrifices on behalf of the Zulus had been in vain. The missions were in every case 
abandoned and never re-opened, and not a single Christian was left behind in the land. 

Dingana had all the cruel nature and brutishness of his brother Shaka, but 
none of his martial genius. Like him he never had a wife, nor left a child, though 
In- freely indulged his passions among hundreds of concubines. Not a single military 
enterprise of note occurred during his reign to add some tinsel to his fame. There 
wa^ a partly successful attack made about August, 1837, on Mzilikazi, then in the 

— 65* — 

Transvaal, when their returning with a large booty of cuttle scarcely counterbalanced 
the considerable portion of their army left annihilated on the field. An abortive at- 
tempt to conquer the Swazis, with its single questionable victory resulting only in 
the project being abandoned, was the only other warlike undertaking throughout the 
twelve years of his reign. And yet there was ample abundance of cold-blooded and 
cowardly massacres of helpless people, and constant petty fighting with parties of 
immigrant Boers, all resulting in much bloodshed and devoid of glory or gain. 

Flight of Mpande. Meanwhile, Mpande, now grown to be a man of about 35 years, 
had, save for the apathetic part he took in the Swazi expedition, been quietly en- 
joying the dolce far niente in his Gqikazi kraal, near the village of Eshowe, sur- 
rounded by beer-pots and numerous young wives, and disturbing none. He thus 
made for himself no enemies, and his popularity and even power among a large sec- 
tion of the community, grew apace. So much so that jealousy once more rankled in 
the breast of Dingana. This Mpande, on his part, did not fail to observe; so when 
Dingana one day peremptorily summoned him to appear before him at the Mgungu- 
ndhlovu kraal, Mpande saw right through the manoeuvre and executed a rapid re- 
treat, With 17,000 of his Zulu adherents, over the Tukela, into the shadow of the aegis 
of the Boers. This great influx of Zulu residents into Natal took place in September, 
1839, and those who took part in it are referred to by the Natives as the igoda lika 
'Mpande or Mpande's rope. The majority, of course, subsequently followed Mpande 
back into Zululand, but probably a few thousands remained. 

Encamped near the Tongati river, in territory now practically annexed b}- the 
Boers, Mpande at once entered into negotiations with the latter, whose headquarters 
were then at what they called Boschjesmans Rand, afterwards the site of Maritzburg 
town. The result was that the more or less helpless farmers were glad to avail them- 
selves of Mpande's peaceful overtures, and consented to assist him to remove from 
their and his vicinity that dreadful element, Dingana. Mpande mustered his army 
forthwith — for with the Zulus every adult male was ipso facto also a fighting-man 
- and placed it under the direction of the induna, Nongalaza. Himself, as a pledge 
of good-faith, he accompanied the Boer contingent, 600 strong. With these also went 
'in chains' the great induna of Dingana, named Nzobo (in the narratives of Colonists 
generally called by his praise-name, Dambuza). He had been sent by Dingana a shor 
time before with a message, or perhaps more probably as a spy, to the Boers at 
Boschjesmans Band. But upon Mpande's appearing, he had been detained, and was 
subsequently, upon the evidence of Mpande and others, convicted of having been the 
instigator of the massacre of Retief's party and responsible for other crimes, and so 
was summarily executed by being shot. 

Overthrow and Death of Dingana. Dingana had already come to realise that with 
the recent formidable increase of strength among the White settlers to the south, his 
own sovereignty beyond the Tukela was now virtually at an end. To balance the 
loss, an extension of territory must be made to the north. He therefore conceived 
the ambitious notion of conquering the Swazi king, Sobuza, and obtaining possession 
of his land. A first attempt he had already made, but unsuccessfully, having lost half 
his force in the fight. Nevertheless, he still cherished the idea, and it was primarily 
in furtherance of this project that he had already shifted his head-quarters from Mgu- 
ngundhlovu to the Magundu Hills, eight miles south of the Pongolo river and not 
far from the Swazi border. 

At the Maqongqo Hills, still further south, the army of Mpande met that of 
Dingana, on the 29th. January, 1840. The two forces were fairly matched, and for a 
long time each failed to move the balance. Ultimately Dingana's warriors were out- 
done, and fled, with their king, to beyond the Pongolo and into quasi-Swazi territory. 
So incensed was he at this humiliating defeat suffered at the hands of Mpande, whom 
he had always referred to as a mere female and had only permitted to live out of 
sheer contempt, that he at once ordered the execution of his great induna, Ndhlela, 
who, indeed, had already been wounded in the fight. He even went so far as to rally 
his troops to a second effort, when his heart sank within him at the sudden appear- 
ance of his old foe, the Boers, galloping towards him. These had been about 60 miles 
distant while the great battle was in progress, but immediately they received tidings 
of the victory, they vigorously set about pursuing the routed fugitives. Dingana, 
however, evaded their search, and succeeded in safely concealing himself, with some 


— 66* — 

of his females, a small supply of cattle, and, some reported, about a hundred warriors, 
in the Illatikulu forest, on tbp Tl b^m hn (or Obonjeni) range. Here, unable to provide 
his following with food, he was driven to making foraging raids into Swaziland. This 
quickly brought down upon him the chastisement of the Queen-regent, Sobuza being 
• lead, and a party of warriors were sent to get rid of him. They surrounded his 
kraal during the night, and succeeded in placing a spear in his side as he fled forth. 
Ih« safely reached a friendly ki*aal in the neighbourhood, where he died from his 
wound after lingering three days, and was buried on the spot. His following in Zulu- 
land now dispersed and a large number passed over into Natal, they being contemp- 
tuously dubbed by Mpande's people as the umdidi ka' NdhLela or Ndhlela's rectum. 

Reign of Mpande. On the 10th. February, 1840, Pretorins, the commander of 
the Boers, proclaimed Mpande king of the Zulus. His reign, in accordance with his 
natural disposition, was mainly one of peace. Still, it had its turbulent and even san- 
guinary periods. In 1843, the king began to become tortured by the old canker of jeal- 
ousy and suspicion that afflicts all who attain to power by the road of violence. He 
believed, with reason or without, that his only living brother, Gququ, was planning 
against him, and had him killed. This sent the usual thrill of consternation among that 
brother's adherents, and, about the middle of the year, a great number of them (dubbed 
tin' ufa luka'Mawa or pudenda Mawas) followed his aunt, Mawa, in her flight into Natal. 

Mpande's natural weakness of character soon manifested itself in his utter in- 
ability to maintain discipline in his own household. His sons, Cetshwayo and Mbulazi, 
quarrelled over the succession even during his lifetime and in his Tery presence. The 
former was his eldest son, born of Ngqumbazi, daughter of Manzini, but the other 
was his father's favourite, born of his favourite wife, Monase. Cetshwayo's following, 
mostly resident in the country south of the Mhlatuze, were called the uSutu party, 
while that of Mbulazi, dwelling about the Mfolozi and beyond, were distinguished as 
the iziGqoza. The forces of the contestants met, on the 2nd. December, 185G, on the 
flats of Ndondakusuka, just above the lower drift of the Tukela. The army of Ce- 
tshwayo, being nearly three times in number that of his opponent, found little diffi- 
culty in utterly defeating the latter. Mbulazi and five other sons of Mpande, including 
Mantantashiya and Madumba, full brothers of Mbulazi, were killed. 

After this extermination of all the sons of his beloved Monase, excepting only 
one boy named Mkungo, whom he secretly got over the Tukela into the care of 
bishop Colenso, Mpande began to show a marked favouritism towards a certain 
younger wife whom he had affiliated to the branch of the family ruled by Monase. 
The ire and jealousy of Cetshwayo now fell upon this woman and her offspring. 
Again, quite regardless of his father, he had the kraal, in which she resided, surround- 
ed and the mother with all her children ruthlessly slain. But as it happened, the 
chief sons of the kraal, Mtonga and Mgidhlana, were fortuitously absent, and even- 
tually escaped over the border into Boer territory. 

This internecine warfare constantly carried on among Mpande's own people and 
within his own family, gave rise to a further emigration of Natives into Natal, a large 
portion of the adherents of Mbulazi betaking themselves there. 

After a reign of 32 years, Mpande died a natural death, in the year 1872. 

Reign of Cetshwayo. Cetshwayo now became king. His policy was not so peace- 
ful, nor so prudent in regard to his White neighbours, as was that of his father, and 
ultimately led him into conflict with the British. On the 11th. January, 1879, the small 
British force crossed the Tukela, and on the 28th. of August, in the same year, Ce- 
tshwayo was captured near the Ngome forest. On the 9th. January, 1883, the 'Algerine' 
appeared in a small bight of the sea north of the mouth of the Mlalazi river in Zulu- 
land, and on the following day Cetshwayo was brought safely through the surf, and 
restored to at least a portion of his broken kingdom. On the 8th. February, 1884, he 
died, of fatty degeneration of the heart, in a temporary kraal in which he was stay- 
ing, just outside Eshowe. 

Dinuzulu, the eldest son of Cetshwayo and at the time a mere lad, now, as 
late, according to his father's expressed desire, though certainly without any 
formal appointment by the council of the nation, succeeded to the mere shadow of a 
throne. Even this he eventually lost, when, like his father, he came into conflict with 
tin- British Government. He was convicted of certain state crimes and banished for 
ten years to the Island of St. Helena. He is now re-instated as a headman in the 
Nongoma district in the north of Zululand. 




THE question of the origin of human language has a very close bearing on that 
of the origin of the human species generally, and a likeness in the speech of the 
diverse primitive races of mankind would furnish one of the strongest evidences 
of a commonness of descent. In all the African family of languages, the Zulu may be 
regarded as one of the most ancient and best preserved examples. It occupies there- 
in a place similar to that helcHby the Sanskrit in the Aryan family and Arabic in the 
Semitic. A comparison between these three specimens of human speech as to any 
common traits of character must therefore be of high interest and value to anthro- 
pologists. Of course, a thorough comparison would demand, first of all, a profound 
acquaintance with all three languages, and, secondly, a special study of comparative 
philology. Yet even the cursory examination of a mere amateur will not be without 
its usefulness, especially in that it may suggest to scholars the more promising points 
for profounder research. 

In comparing languages for original relationships, we must consider, first, their 
respective grammatical constructions, and, secondly, the words of which they are 
composed; and of the latter, the primary parts of speech, the pronouns, numerals, 
prepositions and the like, as being most persistent, will engage the chief attention. 
The names of materials, and even of actions, are so constantly open to changeful 
influences, that similarities of form in their regard are of much less importance. 
Nevertheless, even such common likenesses have their own story to tell, and are use- 
ful to study, if only in a lesser degree. 

Sanskrit. In regard to grammatical construction, a brief study of the Sanskrit 
language fails to reveal any more prominent signs of relationship with the Zulu than 
might be traceable in almost any other of the ancient languages. In almost every- 
thing save the verb, the Sanskrit seems to be much more highly elaborated than 
the Zulu; but in regard to the verb, the Zulu infinitely surpasses it in perfection. 
The Sanskrit, with its nominal and pronominal declensions, and suffixes abounding in 
ma and us, has a distinctly 'classical' appearance, which, of course, is only natural 
seeing that it is the mother of both Greek and Latin. 

Neither in Sanskrit nor in Zulu is there any indefinite article, so that purushah 
and umu-ntu, * without further addition, express 'a man.' But the Skr. has a definite 
article sa, which the Zulu has not. 

The most marked divergence between the two languages is that the one is 
suffix and the other prefix using. We find, therefore, in the grammar and construc- 
tion of the nouns absolutely no mutual resemblance. 

* Wherever a Zulu word is fouurl internally divided by a hyphen, only the latter por- 
tion must be regarded as the actual root-word, the first portion being merely a prefix, having 
no more force than e.y. the suffix a at the end of the Latin word mots-a. 


— 68* - 

In both Languages pure adjectives are conspicuous by their rarity, the qualifying 
thoughts being expressed by specially constructed forms; but then in the Skr. these 
constructed words, once made, assume the form and take the inflexions of true adjec- 
tives, whereas in Zulu they take the form mostly of relative phrases having merely 
the force of adjectives. In the former language, also, the degrees of comparison are 
lemaiieally formed and declined, whereas in the Zulu the thought of comparison, 
lecially in the superlative degree, is barely expressible. 

But the Zulu is one with the Skr. in possessing a complete system of enumer- 
ation up to 1,000. As with the ordinary adjectives, so here the numerals in Zulu 
adopt a simple relative form, whereas the Skr. numerals are complicated with declen- 
sions according to gender, number and case. The Z. word nye (one) might be com- 
pared, not with the S. eka (one) but rather any a (other), in which sense also the Z. 
word is frequently used. Similarly, S. dvi (two) and Z. bill; S. tri (three) and Z. 
tatu\ S. panchan (five) and Z. ntlanu; S. dashan (ten) and Z. i-shumi. 

The Skr. personal pronoun for the 1st. person singular {aham, I; ma, me, etc.) 
has n> as the prominent consonant and a as the prominent vowel throughout all its 
cases, the Zulu exhibiting a similar peculiarity in its emphatic form of the same 
pronoun (mina, I, or me), as well as in the dative (mi, me). Also again in the pos- 
sessive adjectives derived therefrom (iva-mi, of me). 

In the Skr. 2nd. pers. sing., we find the prominent vowel throughout all its 
eases to be u (sometimes changed into the semivowel v), in various consonantal 
combinations. The same is the case in Z., though the consonant chosen for combina- 
tion in this latter is a k, instead of the t of the former. Thus Skr. tvam, (thou, nom. or 
ace.) and Z. u (thou, nom.), ku (ace), w-ena = u-ena (emphatic form for both cases). 

The distinguishing adjectives or pronouns in Z. are formed generally by prefixing 
the particle le to the personal pronouns li, si, etc.; thus le-li (this), le-si, etc. The Skr. 
sometimes forms the same pronoun by prefixing the particle e to the same pronoun 
of the 3rd. person, thus e-tad (from the pers. pron. tad, he). 

Tlve Z. generally forms the relative pronoun by prefixing an a to the nominal 
prefixes, with the initial letter of which it coalesces, thus a with isi (it) becomes esi 
( which ). So in the Skr. the relative is formed by joining a y to the personal pro- 
nouns (sas, tan, te, it), the first letter of which it displaces, making yas, yau, ye, 
( which). 

The interrogative pronoun 'who?' or 'which?' is formed in Skr. by joining a k 
(instead of the y as above) on to the personal pronouns, whose initial it displaces 
( thus, kas, who? kau, who? ke, which?), in a somewhat similar way to the Z. which 
affixes the particle pi (where?) to the end of the same pronouns, this li-pi, si-pi, etc. 
But the letter k is precisely that consonant which is prominent also in the Skr. word 
for 'where?' (viz. ki$a). 

We find in the Skr. a reflective pronoun sva, denoting possession, as the Eng. 
'my own,' which is at any rate reminiscent of the Z. reflective particle zi (self) used 
in conjunction with verbs. 

Both a and na w r e find in the Skr. expressing negation; in Z. we have a again 
as well as nga, as the common negative particles used with verbs to express 'not.' 

A remote relationship, we think, is noticeable between the prepositional particles 
Skr. a fi, across, antar, within, and the Z. pa-kati, through, inside; the Skr. ni, down, 
and the Z. pa-ntsi, down; the Skr. nir, out, and the Z. pa-ndhle, outside; the Skr. 
eha, and, and the Z. na, and or with. 

There is in Skr. no less than in Z. a causative form of verbs, expressing both 
actual causation and simply allowing or suffering. In the former, it is formed by 
adding ay to the verbal root, in the latter by adding isa. 

But in the Zulu the suffix isa is also used to give the verb an 'intensitive' 
form. A similar suffix, isha or sa, is used in the Skr. to give the verb a 'desidera- 
tive' or desiring form. 

The passive form is constructed in Skr. by affixing the particle ya to the root 
of the verb, just as in Z. the particle wa is used for the same purpose. 

The Skr. future passive participle, taking the affix ya, is equivalent in force to 
the neuter-passive form of verb in Z., taking the affix eka, and conveying the meaning 
of the English suffix 'able' or 'ible' (thus, tand-eka, be lovable). 

When, however, we come to the vocabulary of the Skr. and Zulu languages, 

find resemblances much more abundant. But in noting this, we by no means 

intend to assert that there has ever been any immediate connection between the two 

— 69* — 

races. Much more probable is it, that the mutual similarity of speech is the common 
likeness of both languages to a single primeval tongue. 

The following list of roots, crudes, bases and other Skr. forms, casually collect- 
ed, will at any rate testify that this resemblance actually does exist and that it is very 
suggestive of an original relationship. 


i-gamu (name) . . 
i-nyoka (snake) . . 
mnandi (stveet) . . 

in-kuku (fowl) . . 
isi-kati (time) . . . 
am-andhla (strength) 

is-andhla (hand) . 
is-ando (hammer) 
ganda, kanda (pound ) 
ba (be) .... 
u-baba (father) 
baneka ( light up ) \ 
u-bani ( lightning ) ) 
camanga (think, N.) 
cuma ( increase ) \ 
hluma (groiv) / 
dala (create) . . 
dalala (split) . . 
dangala ( be wearied 
de (long) .... 
depa (grow tall) . 
dhla (eat) . . . 
duma (thunder) . 
etula (lift down) . 
fa (die) .... 
fisa (desire) . . . 
um-fula (river )\ 
im-vula (rain) J 
nuka (Su. river) . 
in-gila (throat) 
haha (eat ravenously 
hamba (walk) . . 
hlala (stay) \ 
sala ( remain ) i 
kace (black) . . 
i-kanda ( head ) . . 
kanya (shine) . . 
in-kawu (ape) . . 
um-konto (spear) 
kula (grow) . . . 
kulu (large) . . 

isi-kumba (skin) . 
in-kunzi (bull) . . 
lila (weep) . . . 
luba (desire) . . 
mamateka (smile) 
u-mame (mother) 
mila (germinate) . 
qa (no) .... 
ndiza (fly) . . . 





i-nyanga (moon) . 



osa (roast) . . . 

osami (/ burn) 

madhu (honey), ma- 

pa (give) .... 


dhura (sweet). 

peka (cook) . . . 

paka (cooking, fr. 


pach, cook) 

amati, kala 

puza (drink) . . 

. pa 

han (strike), ojman 

sa (dawn) . . . 

. ushas 


saba ( fear ) . . . 

bhi, bhaya 

han (strike) 

sha ( burn ) . . . 

dah, ush 

han (strike) 

i-so (eye) .... 


han (strike) 

isi-su (belly, womb) 

su (beget) 


tamba (be mild) . 

dam (tame) 

tata; pa (nourish) 

tanda (love) . . . 


h\\a. (shine), bhanu 

tusa (praise) . . 

. stu 


wa (fall) .... 

. pat 


ya (go) .... 

• ya 

tu (increase) 

za ( come ) ga 

i-zulu ( sky, lightning ) dy ut ( shine ), vidy ut 


( lightning ) 


zwa (hear, live) . 

, shra (hear); swar 

glana (wearied) 

(sound); jiva (life) 


i-cala (crime) . . . 


drih (groiv) 

um-hlabati (earth) 


ad, ghas 

aka (dwell) . . . 

. kshi 

dhu (shake) 

apula (break) . . 

. lup 

tul (lift) 

bamba (hold) . . 

bandh (bind) 

ha (leave) 

banda (split) . . 


ish (desire), vi 

beta (strike) . . 

, badh 

plu (flow) 

bopa (bind) . . . 
cija (sharpen) . . 



in-dawo (place) . 


gir-a ( swallowing ) 

dhlala (sport) . . 

. las 

ghas (eat) 

i-dhlozi (spirit, 01 


gam, kram (go ) 


dyaus (sky) 


in-doda (husband) 


dontsa (draw) . . . 



i-dwala (rock) . . . 



enza (do) .... 

sadh ( accomplish ) 


um-fazi (wife) . . 



funga (swear) . . 

yu (bind) 


futa (blow) .... 



i-gazi (blood) . . 


urn ; sthula ( mas- 

um-godi (hole) . . 


sive ) 

um-hlaba (world) 

• jagat 

sku (cover) 

isi-hlabati (sand) . 


puns (a male) 

luhlaza (green) . . 


li (melt) 

i-hlo (eye) . . . 



hlupa (trouble) . 

muh ( be troubled) 

smetum (inf.) 

in-ja (dog) . . . 


matri; ma (bear) 

jabula (rejoice) . . 

bhuj (enjoy), las 

mi (go) 

( delight ) ' 


jobelela (join) . . 

• vuj 

vi ( bird ) 

in-kaba ( navel) 

. nablii 

— 70* - 


in-kala ( crab) . . • 
bu-kali (sharp) . . 
pezulu ( iij) above) . 
pezu ( above ) . . . 
qwaga (seize) . . 
sho ( say ) .... 
ubu-sika ( winter) 
um-sindo (a sound) 
li {</<> t/t/ts) .... 
umu-ti (tree) . . . 
in-tloni (shame) . . 
in-tliziyo (heart) . . 
isi-tsha | earthen pot) 
tukutt'la (be angry ) 
twala ( carry) . . . 
u-valo (nc?-vous7iess) 




sura (sublime) 



chaksh (speak) 


svri (to sound) 

dich (show) 

trus; drill (grow) 

hri (6e ashamed) 


chra (coo&) 



sphal (tremble) 



vunda (have abun- 


vridh (increase) 

vuta (flame) . . . 

jval (blaze) 

zala (beget) .... 


i-kaya (dwelling) 

vas (dwell) 

in-komo (cow) . . . 


kumula (liberate) 


lu-kuni (hard) . . 


i-lala (palmetto) . . 

tala (a palm) 

lawula (joke) . . . 

las (sport) 

mangala (ivonder) . 

man (think) 

imini (dag) .... 


u-moya (spirit, soul) 

manyu (courage) 

umu-nyu (feeling) . 

„ do „ 

nuka (smell) . . . 


ama-nzi (luater) . . 

vari, udan 

Arabic. When we come to the Arabic and compare it with the Zulu, we find 
just so much similarity and no more, than we found between the latter and the San- 
skrit — a similarity here and there, it is true, and one from which a learned philolo- 
I might be capable of extracting something substantial, but which to the superficial 
observer will not appear as of much obvious importance. These ancient languages 
have become in the ages so vastly far apart that any original resemblances the3 r may 
have possessed have become lost or obliterated by time. 

The Arabic language uses, like the Zulu, both prefixes and suffixes, and this 
resemblance is the more remarkable, because it uses these prefixes, under certain 
circumstances, for its nouns. Now, this is an important point, for precisely that per- 
sistent use in Zulu (and Bantu languages generally) of prefixes along with the nouns, 
is perhaps its most prominent mark of difference from the other languages of the 
»be. Where did this habit come from? — is the question that constantly puzzles 
philologists. Is it impossible that its origin and that also of the Arab usage are one? 
The Arab uses the prefixes in place of a definite article (the prefixes, therefore, a- 
mounting to a definite article and falling away whenever the mere indefinite sense is 
there). Thus, el-farsh (the sofa), en-nahar (the day), es-sdnd (the year), et-turab 
(the dust), ez-zawiya (the chapel); but, in the indefinite sense, simply farsh (a sofa), 
nahar, etc. 

The Zulus have the custom of contracting the word u-yise (father, or master) 
into u-so, and joining it on to other nounal roots to form proper names. The Arab 
does the same, thus, abu-gah and Z. uso-mandhla, the father-of-power, the almighty ; 
>>v again abu-ras, and Z. uso-kanda, he-with-the-( big)-head, Mr. Big-head. 

Regarding numerals, we find Ar. telat (three), Z. tatu; Ar. khamas (five), Z. 
hlanu; Ar. jashar (ten), Z. i-shumi. 

Among prepositions, etc., we may note Z. pakati (among, between, through), 
Ar. benat (between), fi (among); Z. pandhle (outside), Ar. barra; Z. pantsi (under), 
Ar. taht; Z. pi? (where?), Ar. fen?; Z. pambili (before), Ar. "abl; Z. nga (at, by), 
Ar. ganb; Z. na (and), Ar. wa. 

The possessive adjectives 'my', 'thy', etc., are formed in Ar. by suffixing, for 
the 1st. person, i; for the 2nd. person, ak, and so on —to the particular noun to be 
qualified, thus, bet-i, my house; bet-ak, thy house. These possessive particles i and 
ak have a resemblance to similar particles mi and ko used in Zulu for the same 
purpose and for the same persons, though in a different form; for in this latter lan- 
guage they are really the accusative personal pronouns used for the purpose in eon- 
junction with 'of, thus indhlu ya-mi (the house of-me), my house; indhlu ya-ko 
(the house of-thee), thy house. At any rate, the presence of an i and a k as the chief 
particles of the possessive adjectives for the 1st. and 2nd. persons in Ar. is note- 
worthy, for it is also they which are most prominent in the corresponding particles in 
Zulu. T)i<; Ar. possessive particle for the 3rd. person masculine is h and for the 
feminine lm. Now, although there is no similarity here with the Zulu, there is with 
the Suto, which has, for both genders of this person, hae — thus, nth/// y/i-hae (the 
house oi-him ), his house. 

- 71* - 

The above likeness appears again in the accusative forms of the personal pro- 
nouns, where we find for the 1st. person singular Ar. ni (me), Z. ngi; for the 2nd. 
pers. sing. Ar. ak (thee), Z. ku; for the 3rd. pers. sing. Ar. a (him), Z. m or ma. In 
the Zulu, however, these pronouns are joined to their governing verbs as prefixes; 
in the Ar., on the contrary, as suffixes. 

Sometimes in Ar. the personal pronouns are used along with the above-men- 
tioned possessive adjectives, in order to lend them emphasis. The Zulu does the same, 
thus, Ar. bet-i ana, my house, me; and Z. indhlu yarni mina. The likeness between 
this Ar. pronoun ana, for the 1st. person singular, as also that of the 1st. pers. plur. 
ihna, with the corresponding pronouns mina and Una in the Zulu, may be noted. 
Further likenesses in the other persons are not apparent, unless it be in the 3rd. 
pers. sing, feminine, where in the Ar. we find hey a (her), and in the Z. yena (her 
or him ). 

The Arabic forms a kind of demonstrative pronoun (also existent in the Zulu), 
by combining the particle a with the personal pronouns, thus aha (from a-ho), there 
he is; or ahoni (from a-hom), there they are. The Zulu constructs identically the 
same forms by combining the particle na with the same personal pronouns, thus, 
nangu (from na-ng-u, the ng acting merely as connecting particle between the demon- 
strative na and the pronoun u, he); or again, nampo (from na-m-po, the in merely 
connecting the demonstrative na with the pronoun bo, now changed to po, for 
euphony after the m). 

A peculiarity of the Zulu idiom is that the interrogative particles, 'what? 
where?' etc., are placed at the end of the sentence, not at the beginning as in English. 
The same habit we find in the Arabic. Thus, 'Where is your house?' — Ar. bet -ak 
fen (house-your where)?, and Z. indhlu yako (i)-pi (house your where)? Or again, 
Ar. gara e?, and Z. kuvele-ni? what has happened? 

In both Ar. and Z. adjectives follow their nouns, in the former language under- 
going suitable regular inflexions, in the latter taking the form of relative phrases. 

The verb 'to be,' when serving merely as a copula, is omitted alike in Arabic 
and Zulu. Thus, Ar. inta kebir and Z. u mkuln, thou (art) great. 

Progressive thought in the present tense of the Ar. verb is expressed by pre- 
fixing a particle be to the simple form, thus ti-ksar, thou breakest, be-ti-ksar, thou 
art breaking. The progressive present tense of the Zulu is formed quite differently 
from this; but the progressive past is formed in a very similar manner, although the 
explanation given to the process is different — a particle be (generally supposed to be 
the perfect of the Zulu verb 'to be') is prefixed to the present participle, thus ngi- 
casa, I breaking, be-ngi-casa, I was breaking. Perhaps, after all, this particle be in 
the Zulu, expressing progression of action, is no more a portion of the verb 'to be' 
than is the Arabic. Or, is the Ar. particle be the last survival of a verb 'to be,' which 
in that language would now seem to have got lost? 

Progressive thought in the future is formed in the Ar. by means of a word 
rah ('to go' with the sense of 'going, on the way'), which is prefixed in a similar 
way to the be above-mentioned, thus ti-ksar, thou wilt break, rah-U-ksar, thou will in- 
breaking. Now, in the Zulu there is properly no future progressive, but the simple 
future tense is formed by means of a particle ya (which also seems to be the actual 
verb 'go,' which in Z. is ya), thus, ngi-ya-ku-ya, I going to go — I shall go. 

The imperative mood is formed in Ar. by prefixing i to the root, thus, i-ksar, 
break. Although in Zulu, in the case of all polysyllabic verbs, nothing but the un- 
touched root is used to convey the imperative sense, yet, in the case of all monosyl- 
labic verbs, a particle yi is always prefixed, thus yi-zwa, hear. 

The verb is given its negative sense in Ar. by prefixing ma and suffixing sh 
to the verb, thus, ma-ti-ksar-sh, thou shalt not break, break not; or ma-kasar-sh, he 
did not break. The Zulu has a similar method of forming his negatives by affixing 
at once a negative prefix and suffix, thus, a-ngi-easa-nga (I did not break), where 
the a and the nga have precisely the same effect as the Ar. ma and .s7/. 

These negative particles mash are sometimes brought together as one word 
in the form mush, which is merely placed before the verb. This form bears a very 
curious resemblance to the defective verb mus or musa in Zulu, having a similar 
meaning, though only used in a prohibitory sense and rarely with any but the 2nd. 
persons sing, and plur., thus, musa u-hambe! thou shalt or must not go! 

A peculiarity of the Zulu — as, indeed, of many other ancient languages -is its 
possession of several different "forms" of verbs, each form having its own special 

— 72* — 

shade of meaning, and all built by various changes of the one original root. The Ar. 
has these forms also, and identically the same as used in Zulu, though very different- 
ly constructed. In the Zulu speech these forms still retain their full measure of use 
and perfection; in the Ar., on the contrary, they are already very defective and, some 
of them, rarely used, which leads us to believe that they are very ancient habits of 
speech, which in the Arabic are tending to die out. 

The objective form in Zulu is formed by changing the final vowel of the verb 
into ela, thus, aba (share), abela (share for or with). The Ar. constructs the same 
form by lengthening the first vowel and sometimes changing the second, thus sharak 
(share), shdrik (share for or with). 

The causative form in Zulu is formed by changing the final vowel of the verb 
into isa, thus caca (be clear), cacisa (make clear). The Ar. constructs the same form 
by prefixing an a to the verb and sometimes with an internal change, thus zahar 
(be clear), azhar (make clear). 

The reflective form is constructed in Zulu by prefixing zi to the verb, thus, 
geza (wash), zigeza (wash itself). The Ar. has a similar form, which it often avails 
itself of to express our passive voice — which otherwise has no regular existence in 
the tongue. This reflective-passive form it constructs by prefixing the particle it 
to the verb, thus, naddaf (clean), itnaddaf (clean itself i. e. be cleaned). The similar- 
ity of these corresponding reflective particles in the two languages is noteworthy. 

The Ar. uses again this same reflective particle it to give a verb the force of 
the reciprocal form in Zulu, formed in that language by changing the final vowel 
into ana, thus Ar. ghalib and Z. bang a (contend), and Ar. itghalib and Z.bangana 
(contend with one another). 

The Ar. uses a prefix ista before a verb in order to give it a causative-reflec- 
tice sense, thus, fihim (understand), istafhim (make oneself understand ). This prefix 
appears to be related to the Zulu causative prefix isa, mentioned above. 

By changing the final vowel of a verb into eka, the Zulu builds a neuter-passive 
form, whose sense is expressed by the English auxiliary 'get', or the suffixes 'able' 
or 'ible'. Thus, tanda (love), tandeka (get loved, be lovable). The Ar. has now no 
special form for this, though it has retained the thought, and expresses it by the 
simple passive, so that inhabb may be 'be loved, get loved, or be lovable'. 

Below, we append a list of Arabic words, not, of course, as definitely related to 
the Zulu, but which may provide the comparative philologist with a little concentrated 
material for study. Some of the words are merely derived forms, and therefore very 
different in appearance from their original roots. They are given in the form which 
• 'tiers the most palpable resemblance to the Bantu. 


i-kava (abode) . . 
ba (be) 

lu-hlaza {blue) . . . 
casa (break) . . . 

in-komo (cow) . . . 

isi-baya (cattle-pen). 
keta ( choose) . . . 
obala (clear, evident) 

in-gubo (clothes) . . 

u-tuli (dust) . . . 
banda i be cold) . . 
za (come) . . . . 

n-bala < op en country) 

dala I create) . . . 

Bela i drink) . . . . 

Um-hlabati {earth ) . 

noma-noma ( either-or 

i-e;ilri | error) . . . 

wa (fall) 

n-baba | tat her > . . 





/gamus (buffalo) 
^gamal (camel) 

ba"ar (cattle) 



fgukh (cloth) 
\ hudum (clothes) 


berd (cold) 




sa"a (give to drink) 

'ard, tin 
> 'imma-'imma 






u-mame (mother) 

. 'umm 

gcwala (be full) . 

• mala (fill) 

i-nyama (flesh) 

. lahm 

in-taba (hill) . . 

. gabal 

in-kosi (chief) \ 
in-doda (man)\ 

• goz (husband) 

u-limi (tongue) 

. lisan 

i-zinyo (tooth) . . 

. sinn 

u-bani ( lightning ) 

. bar" 

in-daba ( news ) . . 

. khabar 

, la 

i-gwababa (o'ow) 

. ghurab 

i-gamul , v 
i-gama} {son ^ ' 

Ighanna (sing) 
' \ghuna (song) 

kuluma (speak) . 

. kellim 

ma (stand) . . . 

. "am (stand up | 

i-sela ( thief) . . . 

. sara" (steal) 

hlamba (swim) 

. "abb 

k nana (Su. there) 

. hanak 

cabanga (think) . 

. zann 

isi-kali (time) . . 

. wa"t 

geza (wash) . . 

. ghasal 

— 73* 


lima (when) . . . 
ubu-sika (winter) 
u-nyaka (yea?') 
pa (give) .... 

im-puku (mouse) . 
qala ( begin ) . . . 
u-sizi (sorrow) 
tanda (love) . . . 
tata (take) . . . 
umu-ti (tree) . . 
tola (find) . . . 
isi-tsha (vessel) 
u-tshani (grass) . 
vala (shut) . . . 
u-valo (fear) . . 
ya (go) .... 
zala (bear, beget) 
zwa (live) . . . 
de ( long ) . . . . 
i-inali ( money ) 
bo mvu (red) . . 
zeka (relate) . . 
i-cala (rim) . . . 
in-dhlela (way)\ . 
osa ( roast)\ 
sha (burn) I 
ulw-andhle (sea) . 
lilala (stay) \ 
sala ( remain ) ] 
um-tombo (spring) 
banzi (wide) . . 
i-qakala (ankle) . 
mangala ( wonder ) 
bi (bad) .... 
twala (carry) . . 
beleta ( bear child ) 
um-hlobo (friend) 

ambata (wear) . . 












la"a, ilta"a 

j arrah ( water-pot ) 





tarah (bear fruit) 


tal ( be long ) 

mal (wealth) 





shawa (roast) 



bir (well) 



jagab (aston ish ment) 


shal (transport) 



/ ghata ( a covering ) 
\ bay ad (garment) 


kohlela (cough) . . 
in-gozi (danger) . . 
dhla (c<il) ..... 
in-dhlovu (elephant) 
lihv a (become event it g ) 
kusihl \va ( evening ) . 
zila (abstain) . . . 
saba (fear) .... 
landa (fetch) . . . 
i-langabi (flame)\ 
luba (desire) ] 
izim-pukane (flies) . 

i-liba i {gram) ' ' 
umu-ti (tree) . . . 
kula (g?-otv) .... 
ala (forbid) .... harama 






Biyam (a fast) 



lahluba (flame) 



tiwil (grow long) 

bala (reckon) 
baneka (lighten up) 
i-gama (name) . . 
im-buzi (goat) . . . 
in-dawo (place) . . 
i-dwala (rock) . . . 

fa (die) 

gana (marry) . . . 
i-ganga (knoll) . . 
gijima (run) . . . 
goba ( bend ) . . . 
gwaza (stab) . . . 



samma (to name) 



hagar (stone) 


hamba (go) . . . 

hlangana ( gather 
hleka ( laugh ) . . 
in-ja (dog) . . . 
i-mini ( day ) . . 
ntsundu ( darkish ) 
i-nyanga (moon) . 
papa (fly) . . . 
peka (cook) . . . 

. gabal (hill) 
. giri 

. gobbah (vault) 
. garah ( wound ) 

) hadjdja (set out) 
' \ghab (be away) 
together), la mm 
. sakhira 
. jakal 
. yom 

. sud (black, plur. ) 
. "amar 
. tar 
. tabakh 

Malay. Passing now to the dark-skinned races beyond the Indian Ocean, we 
find the Malays occupying the whole western half of the Eastern Archipelago. They 
ai'e people much more certainly related to the Hovas of Madagascar, though some 
have been curious to know whether they might not also have a still remoter rela- 
tionship with the Bantus. 

The Malay languages — for they are numerous — are, like all others of the Eastern 
Archipelago, in a very low state of development, and in this they resemble much 
more the Negro than the Bantu tongues, which show a high degree of finish. Inas- 
much as the Malay has been in times past under strong Sanskritic influences, we 
should naturally expect to find, at least in its wordage, some occasional and similarly 
slight resemblance between it and the Bantu speech. 

In the Malay, as in the Bantu, the accent falls generally on the penultimate. 

As in the Zulu, an n changes into an m whenever it comes before a b, p or /// 
— a change very common in the prefix of Zulu nouns of the 3rd. class. It also 
assumes the ringing nasalization before a k, g, or h — which peculiarity, also in the 
Zulu, we believe, originally gave rise to the existence in that language of the soft k, 
although the preceding n has now frequently dropped out. 

Both prefixes and suffixes are made use of in the construction of words; but 
these prefixes present no likeness to those used in Bantu, indeed even in Malay they 
change so much in the various languages as to be no longer mutually recognisable. 

74* — 

Properly speaking there is no number, that is, there is no distinct form for the 
plural; but certain articles (only used in the singular), and placed sometimes before 
and sometimes after a noun, in order to express 'a, the', etc., convey an idea at any 
rate of a singular number. Proper names, also, have a special article, different in 
different languages, proper to themselves — all which seems to suggest a rudimentary 
usage of prefixes as the Bantus know them, or a system which, if methodically worked 
out, might ultimately lead, as with the Bantus, to regular classes of nouns with regular 
prefixes. In some Bantu languages we find a similar state of things to that just 
mentioned, though now in the reverse, that is, nouns without any prefix in the singular 
though taking one in the plural, e.g. Su. tsimu (field), plur. ma-si mu. 

The cases are expressed, as on most occasions too in the Bantu, by prefixing 
prepositions. The genitive is formed by prefixing na, thus, where the Zulu says ka 
Faku (of Faku, Faku's). the Malay says na Faku. The preposition ka also exists in 
.Malay, but it is equivalent to the Zulu nga (towards, over against), thus ka lanit, 
towards the sky. The preposition tu is equivalent to the Zulu ku (to, towards), 
thus ta ruma, to the house. The preposition da/nan has the force of the Zulu kanye 
na (with, along with). 

The possessive adjectives we find practically everywhere expressed by particles 
almost identical with pronominal roots appearing in the Bantu languages, e.g. ku, mu, 
,//', mi, ta, na, or similar forms. Of course, being merely monosyllables of two letters, 
there is not much range for variations of change, so that, both in the Malay and the 
Bantu, we find the forms in turn almost indiscriminately used for each and every 
person and number. Thus, in the Malay the ku (my) is nearly everywhere used for 
the 1st. person singular; so in the Bantu, whether it be varied as Kamb. kwa; Ku. 
aka\ Su. ka; Sw. nyu; Tu. anji; or U. ane. The adjectives mo or mu are used in 
Malay for the possessive of the 2nd. pers. sing.; whereas in the Zulu the same word- 
lets are quite commonly used as personal pronouns indicating the 3rd. pers. sing. 
The adjectives ni or na commonly express possession in the 3rd. pers. 
in the Zulu they well enough correspond with the 2nd. 

A similar resemblance and a similar irregularity 
is apparent all through the list of pronouns in the two 

In numeral 'three' we generally find in the Malay the particle ta, te or to as 
predominant. This is the case also right through the Bantu, e.g. Z. tatu. Among 
the other Malay numerals, no external likeness is apparent. 

Doth Malays and Bantus have a common disposition to use the passive voice 
of verbs, where Europeans invariably use the active. But the passive is formed in 
the Malay quite differently from what it is in the African languages. Amongst several 
nther forms, the prefix ka is used to construct a neuter-passive, giving exactly the 
same meaning as does the suffix eka or kala in Zulu, thus Mai. ka-lihat, get seen, 
Z. bona-kala. 

The following few words (some of which, however, are clearly of Sanskrit re- 
lationship) may be suggested for comparison:— 

sing.; while 

pers. plur. 

as to persons and numbers, 

linguistic families. 


in-ja (dog) . . . 

isi-kumba (skin) . 

u-debe (lip) . . . 
lamba ( he hungry) 

tabata (take) . . 

im-vula ( ruin) . . 

i-duli (knoll) . . 
innu-ntu ( man) 

azi [know) . . . 
iu-dawo ( n place) . 

tanda ( wish ) . . . 

i-gama i mime) . . 

i-cala ( limit ) . . . 

i-i-kati (time) . . 

tenga ( barter) . . 

i-langa (sun ) . . . 

tshala i plant) . . 





la par 

djabat (take hold) 

hud j an 

bulu (hill) 



taroh (to place) 



salah (sin) 


dankan (trade) 




um-zimba (body) 
i-tambo ( bone) . 

buka (gaze) . . 

i-nyama (flesh) . 
is-andhla (hand) 
i-tusi (brass) . \ 
in-tsimbi (iron) \ 

isi-tebe (mat) . 
um-lomo (mouth) 
u-limi (tongue) . 
i-zinyo (tooth) . 
u-baba (father) . 
u-mame (mother) 
in-dhlela (road) 
tatu (three) . . 


bad an 

fmuka (face) 
\buka (open) 

busi (iron) 

lid ah 







kanti (but) . . . 
umu-sa ( kindness). 
ningi (many) . . 
im-bewu (seed) . . 
i-hlati (forest) . . 
in-gwenya (crocodile) 
in-gulube (pig) . . 
in-tlanzi (fish) . . 
i-gazi (blood) . . 


ganti ( instead of) 










isi-hlabati (sand) 
im-puku (rat) . 
ulw-andhle ( sea ) 
in-kanyezi (star) 
um-konto (spear) 
mnandi (sweet) . 
papa (fly) . . 
bulala (kill) . . 
in-dhlu (house) . 








sayap ( wing ) 



Polynesian. If there be any similarity between the Polynesian and Bantu languages, 
it most probably came about through a common connection with the Papuan races, 
although, of course, it might also be the last remaining signs of an anterior relation- 
ship away in the primordial ages of mankind. As it is, with tin; few insignificant 
exceptions given below, we can discover nothing in the Polynesian speech that shows 
any resemblance to the Bantu, whether it be in its grammatical construction or in its 

As in the Negro, so in the Polynesian, nouns and verbs are very frequently 
absolutely identical. 

Like the Bantu, the tendency is to place the accent on the penult. 

We find a semblance to the Bantu prefixes in the Polynesian usage of forming 
the plural of nouns by setting before them a certain general plural article. 

A pluralis excellentiae is also found, constructed by placing the suffix ma after 
the proper name, just as the Zulus would prefix an o before it to express the same 

The cases are expressed by prefixing prepositions, as in the Malay, and also in 
the Bantu. 

The genitive is sometimes formed, perhaps from Malay influence, by prefixing 
the particle na (of), which is equivalent to the Z. lea. 

The dative particle lei (to) is also strongly like the Z. ku, and is prefixed to 
nouns in a similar way; but before proper nouns and pronouns it becomes leia (cp. Z 
kwa ). 

The passive voice in the Polynesian is very commonly formed by adding ia 
(or some particle containing the same), or na, or other like particle, to the verb, in 
a manner very like that of the Bantus, who generally suffix iva to the verbal root. 

It is noteworthy that nearly all the Australian languages have the numeral 
adjective for 'two' remarkably like the Bantu, thus Zulu, bili; Lake Macquarie, hu- 
loara; Wiradurei, bula; Kamilaroi, bular; Turrubul, biidela; Dippil, bular; Tasmania, 

Although amongst the Polynesian vocabularies one occasionally comes across a 
word startlingly like some African root, generally speaking there is absolutely no 
resemblance between the wording of the two families of speech. We must, therefore, 
not be misled by solitary resemblances, which are probably merely coincidences. 
Thus, we should not consider there to be any relationship between the Maude Negroes 
and Englishmen because the former had the word do in their speech, moaning 'to 
make' and the English the same word with virtually the same meaning; nor between 
the Zulus and the Eskimo, because their word for 'a house' (Z. i-ndhlu; Esk. ichdlu) 
appeared to be in sound almost identical. Why, then, should we think to see any 
between the Samoans and Transvaal Boers, because with the former tala means to 
'speak' and taal again is the 'speech' of the latter? 

Papuan. There are few languages less known than those of the Papuan group; 
but very little information is available. From what we have come across, it would 
seem that they are of a very low type, indeed are on a par with the Negro, which 
they resemble again in being a vast complex of independent tongues having no pal- 
pable relationship one with another. 

In some specimens, we find the nouns divided into two classes, one with a 
pronominal suffix, the other without. 

Generally speaking there is no number, singular and plural forms being alike. 
Separate plural forms, however, are found in the pronouns. Also occasionally do we 
find a plural suffix na used with nouns. 

— 76* 

The cases, as in the Bantu, are constructed by prefixing prepositional particles 
to the nouns. 

Adjectives follow their nouns as in the Bantu. 

Verbs have causative, reciprocal and frequentative forms, which fact would seem 
to indicate a greater mental activity in regard to the elaboration of verbal forms — a 
phenomenon that equally strikes us in studying the Bantu. 

As is also the case in the Bantu, considerable use is made of the words 'al- 
ready' and ' still * in the modification of the verb, although the respective particles in 
the two language-groups present no similarity. 

Other modifications are made by prefixing i, and others again by suffixing the 
same particle, to the radical vowel of a verb. 

In regard to words, although we occasionally find such forms as nambaba and 
itibaba for 'father', we mostly find mama, a?na, mam, etc., which are the forms 
commonest in African and Aryan languages alike for 'mother'. For this latter we 
End in the Papuan such words as nina, ina, nin, inai, etc., — forms, again, almost 
universally used in the Bantu to express 'his or their mother' — the word for 'mother' 
in the Bantu having generally three different forms according to the person. The 
Papuan for 'child' is generally wana, ana, anan, anak, or something similar — curi- 
ously reminiscent, once more, of the Z. um-ntwana, Su. ngivana, etc., although in these 
languages the ending is merely the common diminutive suffix expressing 'small' in 
the Bantu. 

The following list of words presents us with a few slight resemblances ; but one 
wouldn't like to aver, at the present moment, that it is anything more than chance. 


i-langa (sun) . . . 

sa (dawn) . . . . 

i-nyanga (moon) . . 

u-suku (day) . . . 
i-mini (day-time) 
ubu-suku ( night ) 

im -vula (rain) . . . 

um-hlabati (earth) . 

in-taba (hill) . . . 

i-tshe (stone) . . . 

tsha (burn) . . . . 

ulw-andhle (sea) . . 

uinu-ti (tree) . . . 

in-gulube (pig) . . 

i-nyoni (bird) . . . 

i-mamba (viper) . . 

i-nyoka (snake) . . 

um-fazi (wife) . . . 
mo-sali (Su. woman) 

i-kanda (head) . . 

uinu-nlu ( person, man) 
u-debe | lip) .... 

u-liini (tongue) . . 

i-zinyo ( tooth) . . . 

in-dhlebe (ear) . . 
nm-konto (spear) 

bona (see) . . . . 

in-gane ( child) . . 

isi-tebe | ///'// ) . . . 

ama-tf (saliva) . . 

bili i /'/'<< i 

tatu i three) .... 


Kelana, lavanga (sun); Manikam and Bogadjim, Ian (sky); 
Valman, nanu (sun), anago (sky); Galela, wangi (sun). 

Jamir, as (sun); Tumleo and Salim, os (sun). 

Myso!, nah (moon); Tumleo and Sauvein, zanar (moon); Val- 
man, sanar (moon). 

Tumleo, os (day, sun). 

Valman, nanu (sun, day). 

Valman, kon (night). 

Valman, vul (rain); Szeak-Bagili, ua (rain); Karkar, ui (rain); 
Bakaua, u (ram). 

Valman, t'a (earth); Bilibili, tan (earth); Jotafa, peer (earth). 

Hatzfeldt, ab (hill). 

Tumleo, et (stone). 

Tami and others, ya (fire). 

Bogadjim, iwal (sea); Kadda, yual (sea); Manikam, wal (sea). 

Valman, meten (fruit). 

Valman, vul (pig); Wenke, bu (pig), Bongu, bul (pig). 

Valman, nal (bird); Kelana, mani (bird). 

Tami, mama (snake). 

Mysol, pok (snake). 

Manikam, gali (wife). 

Manikam, kadi (head); 

( head ). 
Mysol, motu (man). 
Valman, t'epurum (lip) 
Valman, nelie (tongue) 

Bogadjim, kate (head); Kelana, daba 

Jabim, imbela (tongue). 
Szeak-Bagili, Vmo" (tooth); Jotafa, niyo (tooth); 

(tooth); Brissi, nissin (tooth). 
Manikam, dabe (ear); Varapu, teve (ear). 
Kai, sontu (spear). 
Bongu, onar (see). 
Fiji, ngone (child). 
Mysol, tin (mat). 
Mysol, tefoo (saliva). 
Mysol, lu (two). 
Mysol, tol (three). 

Galela, ini 

— 77* — 

Negro. In coining to the Negro languages, we return, at length to the bosom 

our own ethnological family, and may consequently expect to find at last a linguistic 
family-likeness plainly and strongly marked. Yet, strange to say, this is by no means 
the case. At first sight, the Negro languages exhibit no more marked indications of 
relationship with the Bantu than do, for Intsance, the Papuan, Polynesian, or Malay; 
so that even such eminent authorities as Prof. Frederick Mflller of Vienna have ab- 
solutely denied any connection between the Negro and Bantu, and more, even between 
one Negro language and another; for, says the last named philologist, these (Negro) 
languages could not possible have sprung from a single mother-tongue, but must 
have had each its own separate seed-plot. And Cust continues, "not only are there 
such great differences of structure as forbid any such hypothesis (viz. of common 
origin ) being started, but there is no such uniformity in vocabulary as would allow 
such a hypothesis to be maintained." Yet, with nothing more to help us than the 
very sparse material available for our study on a remote Native mission in the outer 
darkness of the Zulu country, we firmly believe we do discern an unmistakable 
resemblance, not, it is true, so much between the individual members of the Negro 
family, as between the whole Negro family and the Bantu, and this, moreover, both 
as regards the structure of the languages and their vocabulary. 

Our own private opinion concerning the ethnological origin of the Negro ami 
Bantu peoples, has been already disclosed on page 19* of this Introduction and may 
be now re-read in this present connection. The theory there outlined is, we think, 
sustained and strengthened by the philological comparison. We believe we discern, 
indiscriminately scattered amongst the multitude of Negro tongues, those monosyl- 
labic elements of which the present Bantu vocabulary has either been built up, (or 
else into which it has become disintegrated by degeneration), and those fundamental 
laws of which its present grammatical structure is composed. We say the 'Bantu' 
languages, whereas really our comparison, our very small comparison, of the Negro 
speech has been confined only to the single Zulu member of that great Bantu family. 
Were the comparison extended to all the several hundreds of other Bantu languages, 
we feel convinced the identitj r would be brought out much more prominently ; indeed, 
we believe it probable that almost every element of Negro speech would find its cor-^/^* 
responding cognate word in the Bantu, and vice versa. 

The few remarks here following will explain our theory, and will indicate to 
more favoured students a very promising line of research. We cannot, of course, 
select any one specimen among the Negro which might serve as a standard and alone 
do entire satisfaction to our contention; for the Negro languages are so dissimilar 
among themselves, each exhibiting only a small portion of that fundamental likeness 
which one language-group has to the other. We may, however, select a couple of 
exemplary tongues, one spoken by the Nupe people, of the pure Negro race, and the 
other by the Hausa, of the sub-Negro class, both tribes resident far from Bantu 
influence, on the further outskirts of Negroland, well up the Niger. We feel convinced 
that nobody possessing a thorough acquaintance with the Zulu grammar (or, indeed, 
of that of any other Bantu tongue) will fail to see, aye, even mentally feel the very 
close relationship between the two groups of languages. 

Nupe. Prefixes, that distinctive mark of the Bantu, are common; indeed, nouns 
are constructed from the verbs simply by the addition of such a prefix, thus di-da 
(a walk, from da, go), wi-wo (dryness, fr. ivo, be dry), mi-mo (sweetness, fr. mo, 
be sweet), dze-dze (beauty, fr. dze, beautiful), i-ta (deceit, fr. ta, deceive). It will 
be remarked that these prefixes are mostly formed by a single reduplication of the 
initial vowel. Compare this practice with that of the Arabic, as outlined in the second 
paragraph of our preceding article (p. 70*). We believe that herein may lie the first 
steps in the development of the Bantu prefixes. 

The singular and plural forms of nouns are identical, although the plural is 
sometimes distinguished by the addition of a suffix zi. The particle zi constitutes 
the chief plural prefix in the Zulu, being used for no less than three different classes 
out of the total six taking plural forms. 

The particle ko affixed to Nupe nouns, and kazi to those of Zulu, gives in both 
languages the same augmentative sense, thus N. tsigbon-ko, a great tree, Z. umuti- 
kazi. The diminutive particle in Nupe is yi, used in the same way; compare this 
with the Z. words nci, tiny, ncinya, small. 

The nominative and accusative forms of nouns, both in Nupe and Zulu, undergo 
no inflexion and are the same, the first standing before the verb and the latter after it. 

— 78* — 

There is a genitive particle yan, exactly corresponding in sense and use with 
the Zulu particle I: a, or indeed the Z. possessive particles generally, thus, N. kara 
Faku Z. um-twalo ka Faku (the load of Faku, Faku's load), or N. yinkan 
n-m - Z. intlanzi ya-mi (the fish of me, my fish). 

The origin of the Zulu locative case, which discards the conventional use of 
prepositions and is complicated by a change both at the beginning and the end of the 
noun, has always been somewhat puzzling. In the Nupe we discover a new variety 
'divisible' preposition, and precisely this kind is selected to build the locative case, 
one portion being attached to the front part of the noun and the other to the end, 
thus X. ta-kata-ti (fr. kata, house, ta-ti, on), on the house, cp. Z. e-ntabe-ni, on the 
hill ( fr. intaba, hill). 

The personal pronouns showing similarity are:— 

Xupe Zulu 

1st. peis. », no, r-nii (I); mi (me). ngi (I); ngi (me); i-ini (it is I). 

2nd. pers, <\ wo, i-wo, (thou); wo (thee), u (thou); ku (thee); u-we (it is thou). 

3rd. peis. an, wun, (he); un (him). u (he); m or mu (him); u-ye (it is he). 

l>t. pers. >/>', r-i/i (we); yi (we). si (we); si (we); i-ti (it is we). 

From these are formed the possessive particles, of which we may instance 
1st. pers. sing, in, and 2nd. pers. sing, o, alone. The particles in Zulu exactly correspond- 
ing to these are, 1st. pers. sing, mi, and 2nd. pers. sing. ko. Thus, N. yinkan yan-m 
(the fisli of me), yinkan yan-o (the fish of thee) is in Z. intlanzi ya-mi and intlanzi 
':<> respectively. 

The distinguishing pronouns ana (this), ga (that), appear plainly in the corre- 
sponding forms in Zulu, viz. lo-na, le-na (this); loiva-ya, le-ya (that yonder). 

- netimes in the same distinguishing sense, the Nupe uses nan (this). Here 
find tin 1 etymological counterpart of the Zulu demonstrative pronouns, na-ng'u 
(this is he, here he is), na-nHi (this is it), na-n'tsi, na-zi, na-m'po, na-n'ko, etc. 
(originally, no doubt, nan-u, nan-i, nan-bo, nan-wo, etc., between the combining por- 
tions of which euphonic particles were subsequently inserted). 

The interrogative pronouns are N. zai (who?) = Z. u-ba-ni; and N. ki (which?) 
Z. pi. 

The reflective pronoun so corresponds exactly in sense and use with the Z. zi, 
thus, X. mi-so-ta (I myself deceive), Z. ngi-zi-kohlisa. 

Adjectives, in the Nupe, when in the epithetical sense, simply follow their noun 
without any change; in the Zulu, they follow the noun in the same way, with the 
simple prefixing of the relative particles denoting 'who' or 'which' — thus, N. bagi 
■ (a black man), Z. umuntu o-mnyama. Adjectives used in the predicative sense, 
follow the noun, in both languages, simply prefixing the suitable personal pronoun, 
thus, X. bagi wun ziko (the man is black), Z. umuntu u-mnyama — ivun and u being 
the corresponding personal pronouns for 'he.' 

The verb 'to he' appears in the Nupe in forms tsi, si and yi — forms which 
throw ;m unexpected light upon a couple of points that have hitherto been quite in- 
explicable to us in the Zulu. In this latter language, such phrases as 'I am it,' 'it 
i- they ' and the like, are formed by simply coupling together the two pronouns by 
means of a certain particle yi f thus, 'I am it, a fool' (ngi-yi-so, isituta), 'it is they' 
i ku-yi-bo ). Now, when we come to the negative form for these same phrases, we are 
told to prefix the negative particle a and then substitute a si in place of yi, thus, 'I 
am not it, a fool' (a-ngi-si-so, isituta), or 'it is not they' (a-ku-si-bo). Now, these 
particles yi ami si in Zulu have absolutely no known meaning; they have no place 
whatever iii the Zulu verb 'to be' and therefore cannot be said to express to the 
Zulu the 'am' and the 'is' in the foregoing sentences; on which account Zulu gram- 
marian- complacently teach us that they are there 'merely for euphony.' Are they 
much more probably near relatives of the substantive verbs yi and si as used 
ty at the Niger? 

Tin- construction of the different tenses of the Nupe verb presents quitea remark- 
able similarity to that in the Zulu. 

The x. pr< -'lit tense is formed by inserting the particle e (or re) between the 
pronoun and verb, thus, mi-e-da (I am going). The Z. substitutes ya for the e, thus, 
I am going). 

— 79* — 

The N. perfect suffixes ani to the verb, thus, mi-da-ani (I have gone). The Z. 
substitutes a suffix tie for the ani, thus, ngi-ya-ile (I have gone) — abbreviate] into 

The N. future inserts a or ga between the pronoun and the verb, thus, n-a-da 
(I shall go). The Z. inserts yaku in the same place, thus ngi-yaku-yi. (I shall go). 

The N. potential inserts ga between the pronoun anil verb, with the particle 
ivo after the latter, thus, n-ga-da-wo (I can go). The Z. inserts simply nga in the 
same place, without the wo, thus, ngi-nga-ya (I can go). But there is in Zulu a 
particle yo often suffixed to the end of verbal forms {e.g. the participles, verbs in the 
relative, etc.) which has absolutely no meaning of its own and may often be omitted, 
its only purpose seeming to be one of euphony. May it not possibly be a relation 
of the Nupe wo? 

The N. conditional prefixes hag an or kaba before the future form as above, 
thus, kagan-n-ga-da or kaba-n-ga-da (I would go). The Z., although having and 
using other forms, may also at times construct in a similar fashion by prefixing to 
the future the word ngabe (supposed to mean simply 'perhaps,' although in this 
combination certainly expressing the conditional sense), thus ngabe ngi-yaku-ya (may- 
be I shall go, I would go). 

The Nupe numerals are somewhat more elaborated than those of the Zulu, 
having a separate distinguishing name for each ten up to 100. The primary numbers, 
however, are pure Bantu, thus, N. nini (one), Z. nye; N. ba (two), Z. bili; N. ta 
(three), Z. tatu; N. ni (four), Z. ne; N. tsan (five), Z. hlanu, after which in Nupe 
derivative forms are used constructed out of these primary particles, thus, sua-yin 
( five and one i. e. six ), etc. 

Unfortunately we have no copious supply of Nupe words by us from which to 
make a selection for comparison. However, the following may be noted; — dze (beauti- 
ful), Z. hie; tsi-gbon (tree), Z. umu-ti —it will be remembered that in Zulu examples 
the final portion alone contains the actual root- word, the former portion being merely 
a meaningless prefix ; kata ( house ), Z. i-kaya ( home ) ; kara ( load ), Z. um-twalo ; 
ele ( rain ), Z. imvula ; ego ( hand ), Z. in-galo ( arm ), Z. um-kono ( arm ) ; da ( go ), Z. 
ya; wo (be dry), Z. oma; mo (be sweet), Z. mtoti, mnandi (sweet); yinkan (fish), 
Z. in-tlanzi; wu (teach), Z. funda (learn); bokun (white), Z. mhlope; ziko (black), 
Z. zile (black), i-ziko (fireplace). 

Hausa. The Hausa language, like the Hausa blood, is no longer purely Negro ; 
both have been considerably diluted, as is supposed, with Berber, and even Nubian, 
admixtures. Nevertheless, the fundamentals of the language still disclose their marks 
of Bantu relationship. 

Both suffixes and prefixes are found in use among the nouns, thus, ba- Hausa 
(a Hausa) — which is the correct Bantu prefix for plural nouns of the same class; 
ma-kari ( the end, from kare, to end ) ; bawa-ntsi ( slavery, fr. bawa, a slave ). 

The possessive is formed by prefixing na (sometimes contracted into n') to 
the noun, in the same way as the Zulu prefixes ka. Thus, H. suna na Faku (the 
name of Faku, Faku's name ), Z. i-gama li-ka Faku. 

The distinguishing adjectives na and nan (this), placed as in Zulu after the 
noun, appear again in the Zulu distinguishing adjectives lona, lena, (this), as well as 
in the Zulu demonstrative pronouns nangu, nanti, nanku. etc. ( this is it, this here, 
etc. ). Thus, H. mafse nan ( this wife ), Z. um-fazi lona ( this wife ), or nangu umfazi 
( this wife here ). 

The interrogative pronouns are wa (who?), Z. u-bani; mi (what?), Z. ni. 

Among prepositions and numerals we note, H. bissa (on), Z.pezu; clzakka (in), 
Z. pakati; gaba (before), Z. pambi; gare (by), Z. nga ; biu (two), /. bili] goma 
(ten), Z. i-shumi; dubu (hundred), Z. i-kulu. 

The substantive verb is expressed by tse, which, as in the Nupe, reminds us 
at once of the negative verbal particle si or so in the Zulu, thus, H. kura tse (a 
hyoena it is), Z. a ku so mpisi (not it is a hycena i.e. it is not a hycena). 

Several kinds of verbs are formed, as in Zulu, by changing the termination of 
the verb in some way or by attaching suffixes. For instance, the II. suffix He gives 
the verb the same causative sense as does the suffix isa in Zulu, thus, H. stai (stand), 
stai-sie (make stand); Z. hlala (stay), hlal-isa (make stay, stop). The H. suffix yes 
gives the verb the same particular 'transitive' sense as does the suffix eza in Zulu, 

— 80* — 

thus, II. ba (give), ba-yes (hand to); Z. nika (give), nik-eza (hand to). The suffix 
da in Hansa gives the verb a sense of 'entirely', just as does the Z. adverbial particle 

suffix) hya when placed immediately after any verb. 

A verb >//', with the sense of 'do', is used in conjunction with nouns to form 
verbs, thus ni yi mag ana (I <1<> speech = I speak). This particle, again, may have 
ne relationship to the particle ya used in Zulu with verbs, in order to express a 
•pi ive' sense, thus, ngi ya kuluma (I do speak, or I am speaking). 

A certain particle si is prefixed to verbs to lend them a kind of personal or re- 
flective feeling, thus, si-dzoro (feel in oneself fear, i.e. be frightened). This is no 
doubl closely related to the Zulu reflective particle zi (self). 

The future tense of the verb is formed by prefixing the particle za (go), not as 
in Zulu, between the pronoun and the verb, but right at the beginning, before the 
pronoun, thus, za ni faff/a (going I go = I going to go, I shall go); Z. ngi zaku 
hatnba (I go-to go = I shall go). 

The curious custom of the Zulu sometimes affixing its negative particles at once 
both before and after a verb, is found also in Hausa, thus, H. ba na-sanni ba (not 

I know not I know not), Z. a ng(i)-aza nga (not I knew not = I knew not). 

Compare: — H. mutum (man), Z. umu-ntu; H. yaro (boy), Z. um-fana; H. da 
(son), '/.. in-doda (male-adult); H. sa (bull), Z. in-kunzi; H. sania (cow), Z. zana 
eneral female suffix of nouns); H. nama (meat), Z. i-nyama; H. karifi (iron), 
/.. in-tsimbi) II. tamaha (hope), Z. temba; H. ido (eye), Z. i-so, i-hlo; H. oba 
(father), Z. u-baba; H. siekara (year), Z. u-nyaka; H. kuda (fly), Z. im-pukane; 
II. kwana (day), Z. u-suku (day), u-kwikwi (dawn), mzukwana (on the day, when); 

II dang a (garden), Z. isi-vande; H. tufa (clothing), Z. in-gubo; H. sa (drink), 
/. sela, puza; H. kare (end), Z. kawula; H. tsai (stand), Z. ma (stand), Mala (stay); 
II. ba (give), Z. pa; H. matse (wife), Z. um-fazi; H. sanni (know), Z. azi; H. tse 

. i, /. 8ho, ti. 

In order to curtail our remarks as much as possible, in considering the following 
Negro languages, we shall assume that the reader is already thoroughly acquainted 
with the Zulu grammar, so that it will suffice simply to indicate the several points 
of resemblance without going further into explanations. 

Wolof shows the use of prefixes in a rudimentary stage. It forms nouns from 
verba by prefixing an n or m to the latter, though this practice is not nearly so de- 
veloped as among the Niger tribes. Thus, m-binda, a letter (fr. binda, write); n-du- 
nde, life (fr. dunde, live). 

In assuming these nasal prefixes, we observe that the root sometimes changes 
its initial consonant for euphony, thus, tn-po, a play (fr. fo, to play). 

There are also participial nouns formed from verbs by the suffixing of ye, thus, 
■</". to bathe; sangaye, bathing. The verbal participles in Zulu also commonly take, 
apparently simply for euphony, a particle yo attached as suffix. There may be some 
connection between these two habits. 

We find, also, a nounal suffix ite denoting 'having done', thus, the noun so/>- 
ite, the having loved (fr. the verb sopa, love). The Zulu forms the perfect or 'having' 
tense of its verb by suffixing to this latter a particle He, thus, tanda, love, tand- 
ile, have Loved. There is manifestly some relationship between these two particles. 

The plural of nouns is usually formed by suffixes, though also sometimes by 

The reciprocal class of verbs is formed by changing the end of the verb into 
ante, while the Z. changes it into ana, thus, W. sopa, love, sopante, love one another; 
Z. tanda, love, tandana, love one another. 

Compare: nar, tell lies (Z. ama-nga, lies); baye, father ( Z. u-baba, father); 
yapa, meal ('/.. v-nyama, meat); also, ukaye, a nounal suffix denoting 'the place for', 
thus, nelaw, Bleep, nelaivukaye, a sleeping-place (cp. Z. i-kaya, one's place, i.e. where 
he lives, his home, or where he is making for, his destination). 

Ibo. This language has several singular prefixes (though no plural), in con- 

j unction with nouns formed from verbs, thus, a-dzu, question (fr. dzu, ask — cp. Zulu 

.</. ask); ertsi, thought (fr. tse, think— cp. Z. ti, think, sho, consider); i-hu, face 

(fr. //>/. see cp. Z. ubu-so, face); o-ku, word (fr. ku, speak — cp. Z. kuluma, speak); 

knowledge (fr. ma, know); n-kalu, deceit (fr. kalu, deceive — cp. Z. kohlisa, 

.: m-moiga, 'l-.r-trine (fr. moiga, teach). 

— 81* — 

Also zi, send (cp. Z. za, come, zisa, make come); bibi, knock to ruins (cp. Z. 
bibi, fall to pieces); ga, go (cp. Z. //a, go.)j /;«, kill ( cp. Z. bulala, kill); r-.c, chief 
(cp. Z. in-kosi, chief); nye, give (cp. Z. wZ/ca, give); wrco, one (cp. Z. »ye, one); 
abuo, two (cp. Z. 6i7i, two); «Zo, three (cp. Z. £a£w, three); anno, four (cp. Z. we, 
four ). 

Fanti, ebien, two (cp. Z. fo7i, two); anan, four (cp. Z. we, four); i-du ten (cp. 
Z. i-shumi, ten). 

Ewe or Evhe and neighbouring languages have both suffixes and prefixes, the 
latter mostly connected with nouns formed from verbs, thus, a-dc, a hunt (fr. <l<\ catch ) ; 
e-so, horse (fr. sun, run — cp. Z. subata, run); en-da, sleep (fr. da, sleep cp. Z. 
Zrt/a, to sleep, da/ca, stupefy); also yi, go (cp. Z. y«, go). 

The Ewe has no separate form for plural; but the Odshi, a neighbouring tongue, 
has also plural prefixes, thus, ti, head, a-ti, heads; a-pata, a fish, em-pata; kuku, a 
pot, en-kuku. 

Efik has prefixes, both singular and plural, thus, i-dara, joy (fr. dara, rejoice 
— cp. Z. taba, delight, jabula, rejoice); u-bak, part (fr. bak, divide — cp. Z. banda, 
split); m-bre, play (fr. bre, to play); edi-tono, beginning (fr. tono, begin). As plural 
prefixes we find nyene, possessor, andi-nyene, possessors (fr. nyene, possess — cp Z. 
inn-vim, possessor); ete, father, m-ete; o-fu, slave, n-fu; esen, guest, i-sen. Also, iba, 
two (cp. Z. bill, two); ita, three (cp. Z. tatu, three); inan, four (cp. Z. we, four); 
ikie, hundred (cp. Z. i-kulu, hundred ). 

Vei, fa, die (cp. Z. fa, die); bo, friend (cp. Z. isi-hlobo, friend); ka, snake (cp. 
Z. i-nyoka, snake). 

The Vei, as well as the neighbouring Mande, form nouns rather with suffixes 
than prefixes, and occasionally show a separate form for the plural, also by means of 

Mande, ro, say (cp. Z. sho, say); nani, four (cp. Z. ne, four). 

Susu, fa, come (cp. Z. za, come); fu, ten (cp. Z. i-shumi, ten). 

Sonrhai forms a plural by means of suffixes, thus, kamb, hand, kamb-e, hands, 
(cp. Z. is-andhla, hand; baniba, hold); hau, head of cattle, hau-o (cp. Z. in-komo, 
head of cattle). Also, ma, name (cp. Z. i-gama, name); nam, bite (cp. Z. nambita, 
taste); tarn, catch (cp. Z. bamba, catch); fu-s, tumour (cp. Z. i-tumba, tumour); fit, 
blow out (cp. Z, /*w£«, blow); ya, body (cp. Z. igazi, blood; um-zimba, body); ham, 
meat (cp. Z. i-nyama, meat); he, cry tears (cp. Z. i-nyembezi, tear); &a, come (cp. Z. 
za, come). 

Logone, sa, drink (cp. Z. sela, puza, drink); pau, white (cp. Z. mhlope, white); 
Ze&w, shirt (cp. Z. u-lembu, spiders-web). 

Wandala or Mandara has suffixes in the plural, thus, luguma, camel, luguma-ha, 
camels (cp. Z. in-komo, head of cattle); na, see (cp. Z. bona, see); ma or wie, if (cp. 
Z. w/wa, if). 

The particle na is used, like the ya in Zulu, to form the progressive tense in 
verbs, though now as suffix, thus, ye-ze, I eat (Z. ngi-dhla); ye-ze-na, 1 eat-ing, I am 
eating (Z. ngi-ya-dhla). The suffix ka, as in the Zulu, is used to form a negative, 
thus, ye-ze, I eat; ye-za-ka, I eat not (Z. ka-ngi-dhli, not I eat, I eat not). 

Bullom and Temne have prefixes, thus, i-por, rain (cp. Z. im-vula, rain); u-mar, 
love (fr. mar, to love — cp. Z. tanda, to love); w-/b, speech (fr. /b, speak- cp. Z. 
s^o, say). There are also suffixes. 

The plural is genei*ally formed by means of prefixes, thus, pokan, man, a-pokan, 
men; pom, leaf, i-pom; i-tu, pot, n-tu; kil, monkey, si-kil (cp. Z. in-lcaivu, monkey); 
/bZ, eye, to-fol (cp. Z. t'-so, i-hlo, eye). 

A causative form of verbs is constructed by affixing /, where the Zulu affixes 

The negative is shown by means of en as a suffix, changing to ken after vowels. 
Compare with the Z. negative suffix nga. 

Also, i-pan, moon (cp. Z. i-nyanga, moon); gbal, write (cp. Z. bala, write); 
gbe, go (cp. Z. hamba, go); ZoZi, soothe, quieten (cp. Z. Z?<Za, be quiet, calm); ten, 
sweet (cp. Z. mtoti, sweet). 

— 82* — 

Mafor has both prefixes and suffixes. The adjectives ?follo\v their nouns. 

The perfect tense of the verb is formed by placing kwar (already) after the 
rb, where the Zulu suffixes the particle He. 

The future is formed by placing nerri (still) before the verb as well as pronoun. 
The Zulu word Eor 'still' is sa, but the particles used for forming the future. in Zulu 
are za and >/>/, placed before the verb, but after the pronoun. 

The particle ba is used as a verbal suffix to express the negative, as is the 

nga in Zulu. 

t'.Mii | >are:— mankoko, fowl (Z. in-kuku, fowl); snun, man (Z. umu-iitu, man); 
mbran, go (Z. hamba, go); ma, and ( Z. na, and). 

Bari knows nothing of prefixes, with one or two exceptions among its most 
primitive words, thus, baba, father, pi. ko-baba (cp. Z. u-baba, father, pi. o-baba); 
note, mother, pi. ko-note (cp. Z. u-nyoko, mother, pi. o-nyoko). The newer words 
adopl suffixes. 

Compare, nyo, what (Z. ni, what); yango, mother (Z. u-nyoko); bongo, gar- 
ment i Z. in-gubo, garment); doto, to sleep (Z. ubu-tongo, sleep). 

Baghirmi, man, water (cp. Z. ama-nzi, water); dza, fish (cp. Z. in-tlanzl, fish). 

Maba or Mobba, tang, house (cp. Z. i-tanga, temporary hut). 

Teda or Tibbu, goni, camel (cp. Z. in-komo, head of cattle). 

Kanuri uses suffixes for both the plural and to mark the different cases. The 
particle wa, either alone after the root, or inserted between the root and the case- 
suffiM's, marks the plural. Thus, soba-ye (Norn, a friend), soba-be (Gen. of a friend), 
etc, plur. soba-wa-ye ( Norn, friends), soba-wa-be (Gen. of friends), etc. Compare 
noba, friend (Z. isi-hlobo, friend). 

Gal la is neither a Negro language nor a Negro race, being supposed to be 
rather Hamitic. However, we may compare, shan, five (Z. hlanu, five); dera, long 
( /,. t/r, long); sibila, iron (Z. in-tsimbi, iron); yogga, year (Z. u-nyaka, year); karra, 
way {'/.. in-dhlela, way); lola, war (Z. hua, fight); oise, warm (Z. osa, roast); kesati, 
within (Z. pakati, within). 




1. Letters. Of these there are 26 used in the Zulu language, when written accord- 
ing to the improved orthography of this Dictionary. Of these, three (c, q and .r) are 
used to represent clicking sounds; one (?•), an European, but non-Zulu, sound; and 
the remainder the ordinary normal sounds of the Roman alphabet. 

2. Pronunciation. This will be found exhaustively treated in the text of the 
Dictionary at the commencement of each letter. Briefly regarded it is as follows: — 

A takes the continental sound, as in the Eng. word 'father.' It has three var- 
ieties of length — ( 1 ), short, as in the words mind ( me ) and ukuti sdkd ( to scatter ) ; 
(2), full, as in the penultimate of words, e.g. udaka (mud), intlahla (luck); (3), long, 
as in the penult of intlahla (old basket) and ihashi (horse), and according to the 
new orthography written with a aa. 

B has three sounds — (1), close or inspirated, as in beka (place); (2), open or 
aspirated, as in imbhobo (hole) and ubambho (rib) — this variety is distinguished 
by a bh; (3), exploded, as in bheka (look) and umbhobho (tube) — also distinguished 
by a bh. 

C represents the dental click, which has four varieties of sound— (1), simple, 
as in caca (be plain); (2), aspirated, as in chacha (cover), for which a ch is used; 
(3), hard liquid, as in gcagca (dance) and gcoba (anoint), for which a gc is used; 
(4), soft liquid, as in ingcacane (certain plant) and ingcosana (a little), for which 
also a gc is used. There is possibly also an aspirated gc, or gch. 

D has the same sound as in English. It is not yet ascertained whether there 
are not two varieties of this letter, a close and an aspirated. 

E takes the continental sound, as in the Eng. word 'there.' It has three var- 
ieties of length — (1), short, as in ccbebe (flat); (2), full, as in the penultimate of 
words, e.g. ceba (inform against); (3), long, as in ceba (be wealthy), and written 
with a ee. 

F has the same sound as in English. 

G has the sound of the hard g in English, though always aspirated. It is not 
yet ascertained whether there are not also two varieties of this letter, a close and an 

H represents the aspirate, in Zulu always more or less forcibly gutturalised 
according to taste or habit, as in hambha (go) and umhaivu (emotion). 

/ takes the continental sound, as in the Eng. word 'ravine.' It has three var- 
ieties of length — (1), short, as in imirii (noon) and idi (stick); (2), full, as in the 

* This is designed, not so much for teaching the language to a beginner (for which an 
exhaustive treatise on the subject should be employed), as for purposes of reference and ex- 
planation to those consulting this Dictionary, and of drawing the attention of students to certain 
more recent information on Zulu linguistics not contained in the present-day grammars. 


— 84* — 

penultimate of words e.g. hila (choke) and mina (me), or in the prefix of the 2nd. 
class e.g. ieilo (filthy thing); (3), long, as in isislla (bird's-tail) and isihiya (por- 
ridge ). and written with a ii. 

J has the same sound as in English. 

K has two sounds — (1), close or inspirated, as in kanye (once) and inkuku 
(fowl); ("->. open or aspirated, as in khanya (shine) and ikhukhu (pocket). 

/. has the same sound as in English. 

.1/ lias the same sound as in English. It also sometimes represents a sound some- 
what resembling that of the Eng. interjection i uml\ in which cases it is a contraction 
for the syllable urn, and is written m. 

X has the same sound as in English. 

lakes the continental sound, as in the Eng. words 'all' and 'nor'. It has three 
varieties of length — (1), short as in iso (eye) and gdlozela (stare); (2), full, as in the 
penultimate of words, e.g. in isikova (owl) and gbloza (stare); (3), long, as in isikova 
(banana-plantation) and ihobe (destitute man) and written with a oo. 

/' has two sounds — (1), close or inspirated, as in potshoza (pour forth) and im- 
prlu (really); (2) open and aspirated, as in phoshoza (chatter) and phela (end). 

Q represents the palatal click, of which there are four varieties of sound — (1), 
simple, as in qalaza (stare about); (2), aspirated, as in qhalaza (behave impudently), 
for which a (/// is used; (3), hard liquid, as in isigqala (cow with little milk), for 
which a gq is used; (4), soft liquid, as in ingqondo (sense), for which also a gq is 
used. Then 1 seems also to be an aspirated gq, as in the example igqhalashu (mungoose), 
as pronounced by some. 

R with the trilling sound as in English, does not exist in Zulu, unless in foreign 
words e.g. the name uMaria, or in recently coined words, as in ukuti dri (whirr 
round ). 

S has the simple hissing sound as in the Eng. word 'sin', never the z sound as 
in the word 'wise'. 

T has two sounds — (1), close or inspirated, as in toba (get softened) and 
tenga (wave to and fro); (2), open and aspirated, as in thoba (bow down) and 
thenga (barter). 

U takes the continental sound, as in the Eng. word 'plume'. It has three varie- 
ties of length — (1), short, as in lenu (your) and isulubezi (bad luck); (2), full, as in 
the penultimate of words e.g. in nquma (become solid) and kuye (to him), or the 
prefix of the 6th. class e.g. in uhlupo (affliction); (3), long, as in nquma (cut off), 
and written with a uu. 

V lias the same sound as in English. 

W represents the semi-vowel u when combining in sound with another vowel 
immediately following it. The sound produced, and represented by this letter, is 
consequently not so full or broad as the English sound. 

X represents the lateral click, of which there are four varieties — (1), simple, 

in ukuti xa (spread apart); (2), aspirated, as in ixha (bundle), for which an xh is 

I: (3), hard liquid, as in ugxa (rod), for which a gx is used; (4), soft liquid, as 

in ingxabano (quarrel), for which also a gx is used. There may also possibly bean 

aspirated gx, or gxh. 

Y represents the semi-vowel i when combining in sound with another vowel 
immediately following it. The sound produced, and represented by this letter, is con- 
sequently aot so full and broad as the English sound. 

Z has the same sound as in English. 
The following combinations are used to describe special sounds: — 

/•'//, sec B. 

( 'A, see C. 

/>/// represents the deep throat lisp, as in dhlula (pass), and resembling the 
id of the //// in the Eng. word 'smoothly'. 

< !'-. ee C. 

Gch, aee C. 

Gq, see Q. 

Gqh, see <}. 

Gxh, see X. 

/// represents the medium or mouth lisp, as in ahlula (overcome), and resem- 
bling the sound of the lid in the Eng. word 'deathly'. 

- 85* - 

Hh represents the soft or breath-like h, as in the words umhhahha (a single 
stroke) and hhahula (blurt out). 

Kh, see K. 

Ph, see P. 

Qh, see Q. 

Rr represents the strong guttural sound, as in the words irrwa (spear) and 
rreza (milk into the mouth). 

Sh has two sounds — (1), soft, as in the Eng. word 'sherry'; (2), hard, as in 
'cherry' — but both sounds are interchangeable. 

Th, see T. 

Tl represents the sharp or dental lisp (being a variety of the III lisp and occur- 
ring wherever that lisp immediately follows an n), and resembles somewhat the sound 
of the 'tl' in the Eng. word 'neatly', as in the word inTsele (ratel). 

Tsh repi'esents a combination of the sounds of a close or ins-pirated t together 
with an sh, and resembles somewhat the sound of the t in the Eng. word 'virtue' 
when pronounced with an intentional retention or closing in of the sound upon its 
expulsion from the mouth, as in the words itshe (stone) and tshala (plant). 

3. Words — their Syllabification. The general rule in Zulu is for every word, 
phonetically considered, and every separate syllable thereof, to end in a vowel. Thus, 
ta-nda (love), not tan-da; u-bn-ntu-twa-ne (ant-nature), not ub-un-tut-wan-e. This 
gives an easy rule for the correct division of polysyllabic words. 

Etymologically this rule is not always correct, as e. g. in the word ubu-nTu-twa- 
ne, where the second phonetic syllable ntu combines a portion of a prefix (the eupho- 
nic n) and a portion of a root (Tu) — from the noun intutwane (ant). But in actual 
speech, etymology must submit to the particular grammatical rules governing each 

4. Accentuation and Quantity. Every syllable in a Zulu word contains a single 
vowel, and that vowel may be long, full or short (i. e. its quantity), and either accented 
(with a long or short emphasis) or altogether unaccented (i. e. its accentuation). Thus, 
in the word i-si-Pii-ku-pu-ku, we have the first four syllables, as well as the last, all 
short, while the fifth is full in quantity— thus, "i-si-Pu-ku-pu-ku; and again, as to its 
accentuation, we have the first syllable bearing a short accent, the second short but 
unemphasised, the third bearing a short accent, the fourth short and unemphasised, 
the fifth bearing a long accent, and the final short and unemphasised— thus, i-si-Pu- 

There are, therefore, in Zulu three accents, a short, a full and a long, or rather 
one accent carrying one of three various quantities. The long accent is rare and 
altogether unusual, and therefore has no rule. The rule of the full accent is that it 
always and only occurs on the penult of words, as in tdnda, gudhlula, bekezela. 
The fixing of the short accent, however, is more capricious ; and, except in the case of 
so-called ukuti verbs, in which it invariably selects the first syllable (e. g. in ukuti 
t'ucu, ukuti fokoqo, ukuti fiihluhdu), any formulation of rules would scarcely coun- 
terbalance the exceptions required thereto; for each class of words seems to be a rule 
unto itself, as the following examples will show — the sign '-'over a vowel indicating 
the full accent, not the long, which does not appear: — 













5. Compound Words. These are both numerous and peculiar in the Zulu speech. 
They are formed by stringing together a number of separate, generally monosyllabic 

— 86* — 

dements of speech which have no definite meaning, and are never used, standing 
alone, !>ut which, by virtue of being placed in a certain relationship to other particles 
of Bpeech gain a definite shade of meaning which they lend to the whole and enable 
it to express a single completed, and often to our view quite comprehensive, thought. 
Such a combination <^ particles is bound together in the Zulu's speech under one 
common penultimate or full accent, which, indeed, is the sign that the single quan- 
tum of sense, or word, is, in the Native mind, complete. Thus, in the words ngaye 
(formed of nga and ye), engakadhli (of e nga ka and dhli), and ngiyakutanda (of 
ngi i/n kit and tanda), the particles e. g. nga, ka and yaku could not be separated 
from the particles ye, dhli and tanda respectively, without altogether destroying the 
accentuation, or, in other terms, destroying the word; and, further, alone they would 
present ao definite meaning to the hearer, anymore than would the particle bo in the 
Latin future amabo, or the ing in the English participle 'eating' if separated from the 
kernel of the word. 

Accentuation, then, is the only guide by which we know whether particles of 

Bi li are to be regarded as independent, or as forming part of a compound word. 

Thus, leyo nkomo is not a compound word because there are two penultimate or 
full accents, showing that, in the Native mind, each particle of speech stands alone; 
but leyo'ndhlu is a compound word and must be united in writing, since both the 
particles of speech are united under a common penultimate; which is the case again 
in such instances as tel'amanzi, or wangip amasi, where the first accent has become 
shortened and subordinated to the full accent in the penultimate, thus being accentu- 
al-'' 1 differently from the sentences tela amanzi, or wangipa amasi, where there are 
two separate full accents. 

The copulation of two words into one compound mainly occurs, in actual pro- 
nunciation, in those instances where the elided vowel is that of the first word, as in 
the example leVihashi; where it is that of the second word, the two words are 
-rally pronounced separately, each with its own penultimate, as in the exemples 
lelo hashi, zonke zikati; unless that second word be a monosyllable, in which case 
it is always joined, under one penult, to the word preceding, as for instance leyo'nja, 

6. Elision. When two otherwise independent particles or words, one ending and 
the other beginning with a vowel, are brought together in a close relationship, the 
weaker of those vowels, as an aid to fluency of speech, may be elided, and the two 
words joined together in one, or not, according as accentuation requires (see § 5). 

tin'abantu (for tlna abantu), 
ivangip' amasi (for ivanglpa amasi), 
kuy'op'igazi (for kuyaojja igazi), 

bay'enza (for bayaenza — the mere insertion of a euphonic y in 
thi instance would lead to confusion with the accusative pronoun of the 3rd class). 

leVihashi (for leta ihashi), 
lol'uti (for lolu uti) 
kafun'iniali (for kafuni imali), 
les'isitsha (for Usi isltsha). 
ngihlushwa Vinxeba leli. 


Telo 'hashi, (for lelo ihashi), 

lezi-ya 'zinkomo, (for lezi-ya izinkomo), 

zonke zikati ( for zonke izikati ). 

imilar elision also occurs in the formation of the vocative case of nouns (e.g, 
I"'), and the genitive of some nouns of the first class (e.g. ezika'Cishi/ ). 

and upon other occasions to be learnt from the 

7. Coalition of vowels. Whenever the prepositions na, nga, kwa, njenga, imined- 

: . v precede a noun or verb in the infinitive, the two words join together, the final 

vowel or the preposition coalescing with the initial vowel of the noun or verb, as fol- 

" and a, into </; u and i, into e; a and o, or a and u, into o. 

lie- same rule holds also in the conjunction of the genitive particles (see § 23) 

with their governed nouns. 

— 87* — 

The preposition ku, however, instead of coalescing, generally causes the initial 
vowel of the following word to he elided. 

8. Euphonic copulatives. Where, however, two particles of speech, one ending and 
the other commencing with a vowel, are brought together in close relationship, and 
the retention of both vowels is of grammatical necessity, such vowels arc coupled to- 
gether by the insertion between them of one or other of the semi-vowels to or ij ( sec 
Alphabet). Thus: — 

(amahashi lawo) a-w-ako (for a ako), 
(lawo 'mabantshi) a-w-odtva (for a odwa), 
(umfana) o-w-alusayo (for o alusayo), 
(inja) e-y-aziyo (for c aziyo), 
(intaba) e-y-ehlayo (for e elilayo), 
ba-yi-bona (for ba i bona). 

The rule for such combinations, based on euphony, is as follows: - 

a with any vowel = w\ except a with i and sometimes e — y. 
e „ „ „ = y; except e with o-or u = w. 

i „ „ „ = y; except i with o or u = w. 
o „ „ „ = w; except o with i — y. 
u „ ,, „ = w. 

Other euphonic particles are ng, I, y, iv and s. These, like the foregoing, are 
primarily copulative in their nature and used to remove a hiatus, though sometimes 
they stand as introductory particles at the commencement of a word. 

They are employed — (1), where, by reason of the omission of some intervening 
particle of the verb to be, nouns, pronouns or adjectives come to follow immediately 
after a pronoun, even though sometimes that pronoun (generally impersonal cases, 
amounting merely to it is) may be left absolutely unexpressed; (2), after passive- 
verbs, as agent to same. 

Ny is used only before nouns, pronouns or adjectives commencing with an a, 
e, o, or u (except in the case of nouns of the 5th. class). Thus: — 

kung amahashi (for ku amahashi). 
eng' umfana nje (for e umfana). 
kwakung'enkulu inkunzi (for kwaku enkulu). 
ng'umsebenzi wami (for ku — understood — umsebenzi). 
kung'utshani bami (for ku utshani). 
wahlushwa ng'abantu (for wahlushwa abantu). 
sashay wa ng'uive (for sashay wa mve). 

L is used in a similar manner with nouns of the 2nd. and 5th. classes. Thus:- 

kul'ihashi (for ku ihashi). 
kul'uto olukulu kuye (for ku uto). 
V ulwandhle (for ku ulwandhle). 
wahlatshwa Vuti lolu (for wahlatshwa uti). 

Y is used before nouns, pronouns or adjectives commencing with an i. 
y'ini, 'mfana? y'izinkomo (for ku ini, ku izinkomo). 
kuy'i?iqola (for ku inqola). 
kwakuy'ibona (for ku ibona). 
ubulewe y'inkosi (for ubulewe inkosi). 
uguliswa y ilesi 'silonda (for uguliswa ilesi'silonda). 

W is occasionally used in place of the particle ng. 

ew' umfana nje (for e umfana). 

kuw } umsebenzi wako (for ku umsebenzi). 

S is used before nouns in the locative case. 

bas'emfuleni (for ba emfuleni). 
owas'oNgoye (for owa oNgoye). 
The origin of these euphonic particles ng, y and I, although, in the present ad- 
vanced and altered state of the language, no longer perceptible, seems to us to have 
been the impersonal particles or pronouns ku, i, and li or In, and signifying simply 
an indefinite it. The ku became in time softened down to ng. Thus, ng'abantu, u</'a- 

nil into 




hh „ 




»1> „ 


nbh „ 


d „ 


— 88* — 

■fi<t.<)ii, for ku or fcw abantu, ku or kw amahashi. Y'ini le ekalayo (where ini 
has assumed the form of a noun of the 3rd. class), for i ini; or y'inqola, for i inqo- 
la. Vuli, again, for lit uti. Uguliswa y'ilesisilonda (where the latter compound 
word lias assumed the form of a noun of the 3rd. class), for i ilesi silonda. The fact 
that at tin' present day the impersonal pronouns proper may be used together and 
along with these above-mentioned particles does not prejudice this idea of their origin. 

9. Euphonic consonantal changes. Transformation of the internal consonants 
of words frequently occurs in Zulu for the sake of euphony. This change takes place 
on the following occasions : — (1), in the formation of the diminutive of words (see 
^ 20); C-), in the formation of the locative case of nouns (see § 23); (3), in the for- 
mation of the passive voice of verbs (see § 42). 

W'oi-ds, therefore, in any such positions and containing within themselves — for 
these changes never affect the first syllable of any root — the following letters and 
combinations of letters, have them euphonically changed, as below: - 

e. g. bopa, passive boshiva. 

„ loba, „ lotshwa. 

„ bhubhlsa, „ bhujiswa. 

„ luma, „ lunyiva. 

„ mpompa, „ mpontshwa. 

„ bambha, „ banjwa. 

„ isibhuda, locative isibhujana (the latter 
change only occurs in the locative case of nouns, not with verbs. 

10. Correct method of writing Zulu.* This is a subject about which there has 
hitherto been great divergence of method and opinion; and this, perhaps, because 
nobody has been forthcoming who, after formulating a practical and logical system, 
has taken the trouble to inform the public of it. We propose here to make an effort 
to remedy this deficiency, and, by submitting a carefully considered system, to in- 
troduce some general agreement and uniformity of practice in this matter. But in 
order to attain so desirable an end, we shall first of all have to be prepared to change 
Borne of our cherished habits and to sacrifice some of our erroneous prejudices. 

The first and chiefest rule is to write, as far as possible, exactly as the Native 
eaks. There must, in our writing, be a correct spelling, a correct compounding, 
and a correct dividing of the Zulu words. 

The present imperfect and faulty method of lettering must be abolished, and a 
tine and phonetic rendering of the various sounds adopted. Such a system is out- 
lined we believe, for the first time, in so far as it regards the Zulu language — in 
the pages of this Dictionary. The use of the new lettering may be found somewhat 
irksome and its appearance produce something of a shock at first; but the change 
has Keen safely accomplished in the Xosa language, and can be equally so in the Zulu. 
The Native newspapers in the former language are now written in the improved style, 
and neither writers nor readers find it anything but convenient and as it ought to be. 
The spelling of Zulu words in future should, therefore, be strictly in accordance with 
that shown within brackets after the entries in the vocabularies of this book. Wher- 
ever no bracketted indication of change is found, the particular word may be regarded 
orrectly spelled according to the old form. 

11. Diphthongs. There are no such in Zulu, notwithstanding that they are 
frequently seen in Zulu writing. It is altogether antagonistic to the genius of the Zulu 
janguage to place two vowels alongside each other in the same word. The rule in Zulu 

- for every syllable to commence with a consonant and end with a vowel; and where no 
introductory consonanl exists, a semi-consonant or semi-vowel is inserted to answer 
the requirements of the language. The connecting consonants or semi-vowels used 
for this purpose are mostly either xv or y. These letters, again, Europeans must 

It will he observed that the Zulu orthography, as exemplified in the examples, etc., to 
n<l in this work, is not in accordance with the rules here laid clown, but rather follows 
imperl thod customary hitherto. This has been intentional, for most students of the 

ill familiar only with that system of writing. Our first aim as lexicographers 
o to explain the meaning of words, not to treat on orthography, which lies more truly 
grammarian. Had we introduced changes of style and spelling too ab- 
ruptly, while Keeking \>, make clear, we might only have confused. 

— 89* — 

remember, do not represent the broad full-mouthed sounds of the same letters in 
English; such broad sounds are unknown in Zulu. In that language the w and y 
are nothing more or less than simply u and i, and are heard so faintly by European 
oars as to go often quite undetected. Nevertheless, they are always there, and a Zulu 
hears them distinctly. Therefore, wherever in words, simple or compound, two vowels 
(apparently) come together in one word, one of the euphonic semi-vowels should 
always be inserted in writing, in accordance with the rule in § 8. Thus we should 
never write, as is frequently done, waescti (then he said)— a Zulu never spoke so 
— but rather wayes'eti; or again, not um-Hau (feeling), but um-Hawu. 

Although it has been said above that in Zulu no two vowels may come together 
in close connection in one word, nevertheless they may occur in such a position that 
one be at the end of a word and the other at the commencement of the word next 
following. Thus, it were quite correct to say or write lew as ho inkosi (the chief said so) t 

12. Division of words into syllables. The general rule here, required by the 
principles of Zulu speech, though sometimes conflicting with the facts of etymological 
derivation, is that a word be so divided as to allow of every syllable ending in a 
vowel. The syllables, therefore, will, except such as stand at the beginning of words, 
generally commence with a consonant. There are, of course, a few exceptions, especial- 
ly as regards the prefixes. Thus : — 

u-bu-nTa-tiva-ne (not tib-im-Tut-wan-e). 
um-Mbi-la (not um-Mbil-a). 
ku-y'o-p'i-ga-zi (not kuy'-op-ig-a-zi). 

13. Elision of rowels. This is a very common practice in Zulu speech, and 
should also be duly marked in Zulu writing. This latter is accomplished by means of 
the apostrophe. The insertion of an apostrophe, wherever a letter has been omitted, 
removes ambiguity, guides the reader as to the actual manner in which a Native spoke 
and makes the construction of complicated words clear. Thus, without it, we might 
read the word wenza, and be unable to say whether the present tense (wenza i.e. 
u enza) or the past {wenza i.e. iva enza) is intended. Or, again, one might write 
down from the mouth of a Native the words tinabantu, kasifunimali, and yet the 
reader be utterly at a loss to know whether what the Native actually said was Una 
'bantu or tin* abantu, whether kasifun' imali or kasifuni 'mali. A letter has been 
skipped in speech, but nothing exists in the writing to show which letter it was. 

Wherever, therefore, in a Zulu word, simple or compound, a vowel has been 
omitted in its expression, such omission should always be indicated in script by the 
insertion of an apostrophe. 

This rule refers only to what we may call casual occurrences, not to words of 
a fixed formation in which it may occur, e.g. ngomhlomunye (for ngomhla omunye), 
or mhlawumbe (for umhla umbe). 

The following may serve as examples of this manner of marking an elision : 

' Mpande, leukoma, lob utshani, 
kwa'Zulu, les'isitsha, lok'ukudhla, 
lo'mfazi, lo'vifula, lab' abantu, 
leVlhashi, lol'uti, lezizinkomo, 

us' uti (for u se uti), 
engena'cala (for engena icala), 

abak'ontombi (where ontombi is regarded as a plural proper noun of the 
first class — the girl's people — abaku or abalea ontombi), 
ang'azi. nakubuya (for angi azi na ukubuya), 
ub'es'efile (for ube ese efile), 
angab'esasho (for angabe or angabi esasho). 

The apostrophe is also used to mark off certain euphonic particles from the 
actual body of the word to which they are prefixed, and although no elision has taken 
place. The justification for this is in the attainment thereby of a greater certainty 
as to the meaning and pronunciation of the speech scriptorally expressed. Thus, we 
might write the word luti (it is a stick) and the reader imagine that what we intended 
to say was 'it says or indicates' (i.e. luti); or, that the / were an intrinsic part of 
the body of the word, whereas the portion uti alone constitutes that word; or, he 
might be led to give the vowel u an incorrect pronunciation, not recognising that it 

— 90* — 

is the full // peculiar to nouns, a uti, of the 6th. class. The euphonic initial I is 
therefore marked off by an apostrophe, thus, — I'uti (it is a stick), but luti (it indi- 


The above rule, then, is observed in regard to all those euphonic particles ex- 
plained under § 8. Thus: — 

wahlushwa ng'abantu (he was made to suffer by the people), 
but wahlushwa ngabantu (he was made to suffer on account of the people). 

ngiy'indodana yako, (I am your son). 

ngisheshisiwe ng'amahashi (I have been hastened along by means of 
horses >, 

but ngisheshisiwe ngamahashi (I have been hastened along on account of the 
horses ). 

y'ini leyo es'otshanini"? (what is that in the grass)? 

I' uti (it is a stick), 

us'emfuleni (he is at the river). 

This rule is also observed in regard to the imperative mood of verbs commenc- 
ing with a vowel. Thus, y'akani, y'embata — the insertion of the apostrophe bring- 
ing the actual verb, and often its meaning, into clearer prominence. In regard to 
monosyllabic verbs, which usually take a full yi as imperative prefix, there does not 
n to be any custom or necessity for the use of an apostrophe. Thus, yidhla, yima. 

14. Hyphen. This is another sign made considerable use of in Zulu chirography. 
There are in that language several adverbial and pronominal suffixes regularly tacked 
on to the end of verbs, nouns and the like in order to qualify them in some way. 
Thus we have ni (what)?; pi (where)?; ke (then); ze (empty); and sometimes na 
(denoting interrogation). All these particles have an essential and independent meaning 
. . t" their own, and they are joined on to other words, not that they be absorbed by 
them, but merely as a convenience of enunciation, they being invariably monosyllables, 
and monosyllables being antagonistic to the rhythmic flow of Zulu accentuation. Nor 
can we depict them standing alone, for they are not so spoken, and our method of 
writing must be as near as possible an exact reproduction of the manner of speech. 
Were it not that they came into conflict with certain other similar particles likewise 
affixed td the end of verbs and with which they might easily be confounded, there 
does not appear to be any reason why they should not be joined on absolutely to the 
tail of the verbs, precisely, indeed, as the pronouns are prefixed to it at its head. We 
Bolve the difficulty, therefore, by making use of the hyphen. This plan not only 
preserves the correct accentuation, but it preserves also the identity of the particular 
particle and at the same time furnishes a guard against confusion with other similar 
verbal suffixes. Thus, the word puzani might, as it stands, mean either 'drink ye!' 
or 'drink what?'; or yakani mean 'build ye!', or 'it (the bird) builds what?' Or, 
tin, to take the enclitic ke frequently affixed to the end of words. There is in Zulu 
a class of verbs ending in ka, which frequently becomes changed into ke. Were no 
distinguishing mark apparent in script, this latter particle would often become con- 
founded with the former. Thus, anibulaleke might mean 'may ye then kill!' or 
'kill ye away then,' or again, 'may ye get killed!' A difference in articulation would 
make the difference of meaning clear in speech; and equally clear should it also be 
made in script. 

Wherefore, all such adverbial and pronominal suffixes, as pi (where), ni (what), 
ke I then), ze (empty), ba (who), etc., although no longer capable of being absolutely 
Bevered from their governing verbs, etc. — with which they have now entered into 
combination as compound words, as witness the common penultimate — might never- 
theless be clearly distinguished in script by some sign, e.g., a hyphen, according to 
the custom of Colenso. Thus, we should have puzani (drink ye) — where the ni is 
not one of the particles of the class to which we refer — but puza-ni (drink what); 
and anibulaleke (may ye get killed), but anibulale-ke (may ye then kill). 

But this rule applies to those particles only so long as they perform the service 
of adverbial suffixes and retain their own essential meaning. Thus, we should write: - 

si -pi (isitsha)? where is the vessel? 

for each of these particles is really an independent wordlet - the pi retaining its 

completeness of meaning as an adverb, and the si being a regular pronoun; so that, 

the unexpressed verb to be having been duly supplied, the combined particles form 

illy a perfect sentence. 

— 91* — 

Also, for the same reason : — 

una-ni? what have you? what is the matter? 
But no hyphen would be used with the following:— 

utanda sipi (isitsha)? which (vessel) do you like? 
wenza umsebenzi muni? what work do you do? 
for the reason, firstly, that the particles pi and ni are no longer adverbial suffixes 
meaning 'where' and 'what,' and, secondly, that the particles %i and mit air not 
capable of standing independently alone, being merely used as prefixes and devoid of 
any substantial meaning of their own. The whole combination, therefore, expresses 
together but one single thought incapable of division by a hyphen. 

The word ngani (by means of what, on account of what i.e. why) gives rise 
to some difficulty of rule. But after much consideration w r e have arrived at the con- 
clusion that the best working plan is to follow the practice indicated above, using the 
hyphen wherever the word signifies 'by means of and omitting it wherever it signi- 
fies 'on account of or 'why.' Thus:— 

nya-ni? by means of what (instrument)? how? 


ngani? on what accout? why? 

In a similar way, though for a slightly different reason — the particle ni, in this 
case, meaning not actually 'what,' but being a colloquial abbreviation for y'ini, just 
as in English one says and writes 'doesn't' — we write: — 
imali-ni? what, or how much, money? 
kwozala 'nkomo-ni? what kind of a beast will it give birth to? 

But here, as elsewhere, it must be the actual Native tongue that furnishes us with 
our rule. Wherever, then, the Native does not join such particles in one compound 
word with the governing verb, etc., — which will always be manifested by the fact oi' 
the penultimate of the governing word not having been shifted — in such cases, the 
particle, standing separately in speech, should be shown standing separately also in 
writing. Thus, a Native may say hamba-ke (go along then), but wena ke (you then ) 
without taking forward the penultimate. Or again, at one time a Native 'may say 
uyapi na? (where are you going to?); at another, uyapi-na? (a form of pronuncia- 
tion frequently heard in Zululand). The difference in the mode of writing should 
give at once the key to a correct reading of what the Native actually said, of the manner 
in which he actually spoke. 

15. Complex and Compound Words. We use the former term to indicate a 
certain class of words, very common in the Zulu speech, which are composed of many 
different parts united together under one penultimate accent, as e.y. the wory wab'es'eti 
(from waba e se eti), and to distinguish them from simply compound words, as 
e.y. the words njengokuba (from njenya ukuba) and uNguboziyeweni (from u ingubo 
ziya eiveni). The former are really small sentences in which the component 
wordlets, in spite of their concatenation under one principal accent, still retain their 
own independent meaning unimpaired; whereas in simple compound-words the com- 
ponent particles no longer retain nor express their several original meanings, but are 
become amalgamated together as the single sign of a single idea. 

A certain school of writers in Zulu have hitherto persistently denied the exist- 
ence in Zulu speech of such a thing as complex-words. In a certain well-known Zulu 
grammar, we find the following quotation: — 'Most English authors (in Bantu lan- 
guages) incorporate in one word the verb, its auxiliary, its pronoun subject, and, if 
there is one, its objective pronoun. Grout, however, did not do so; and, as a rule, 
French and German authors do not do it either. We think the latter are right, and 
we could prove it . . . We can only say that if this system of orthography were 
adopted in English, we would, instead of a sentence like 'he had not told it you', 
have the big word hehadnottoldityou. There is no more reason to apply it to Bantu 
than to European languages '. 

Yet in truth there is a very good reason, though it may not have occurred to 
the writer of the above lines, nor to those who habitually use his system of ortho- 
graphy. For if English were Bantu, and the rule of word-construction therein were 
that every completed wood be distinguished by the fixture of one full principal penul- 
timate accent — as is the case in Zulu; and if we found such expressions as 'he had 
not told it you' not so spoken as here written, but with the various particles rapidly 
linked together in one single effort of speech and under the government of one single 

- 92* - 

principal accent falling on the particle it, we contend that such an expression would 
be quite correctly written it' penned as actually spoken, without any dismemberment 
of its parts, in one united whole, with the accentuation properly shown. And more 
than that, we contend that it would bo positively incorrect to write the word otherwise. 
Colenso applied this reasoning to Zulu and acted on it, and most well-informed authors 

do the same. 

We thus have the rule, that all complex-words, constituted of several distinct 
particles or wordlets, which could not with any intelligibility to the Natives be chopped 
up into separated, independent particles of speech, and which are regularly joined 
together by them under one common penultimate (always clearly marked by an ac- 
centuation peculiar to itself), should be also so strung together in writing as to form 
one word or complete expression of thought. Thus ivahamba (he went). Some 
persons write this as wa hamba, apparently for no other reason than that in English, 
the 'he' is separated from the 'went.' But in the Native mind, the particle wa, when 
standing alone, as a distinct word, is absolutely unintelligible and meaningless. 

Again, the expressions siyakubona (we shall see), and siya 'kubona (we go to 
see), are by some persons — and apparently for the same reason as given above, viz., 
that English speech and orthography require it so — both written in the same way, 
in chopped up particles, without any regard to accentuation, and just as though each 
particle, when standing alone, had any meaning at all, thus — si ya ku bona. The 
different particles only obtain a definite meaning — that in the speaker's mind — when 
strung together as the Native does so, under one penult according as he places it. 
In the first instance, siyakubona, we hear the peculiar penultimate accent only once, 
■ 'ii the bo, wherefore we connect all in one thought or word together; in the second 
case we hear the penultimate accent twice, on the si and on the bo, hence we write 
two divisions of speech or two words. 

It is true that, according to our system, we shall sometimes find two complex- 
words appearing exactly the same in script and yet in meaning and pronunciation 
different But this defect is attributable not so much to the system of writing as to 
the actual manner of Native speech. For certainly, in both cases, the component 
particles of such words will be found duly united by him under one single principal 
accent the difference of meaning and pronunciation being accomplished by varying 
the position of the secondary or short accents, or by the dissimilar 'quantities' of the 
subsidiary constituent particles. Thus, the word belisadukile may mean (it, the cat, 
was still astray) and belisadukile (it, the sun, was glaring hot). Both words are 
written alike, but constructed and pronounced differently, each, as said, according to 
its composition. The first might be divided into its component particles thus: — be- 
lisa-dukile, comprising four different wordlets, and the length of the several syllables 
being respectively — short with short accent, short, full, short, full with long accent, 
short The second might in a similar way be divided — be-li-sadukile, comprising three 
wordlets, and the length of the several syllables respectively — short with short accent, 
short, short, short, full with long accent, short. The words are thus of different quan- 
tities, though of like accentuation. The sa in the former word is an independent par- 
ticle signifying "still" and retains the sound of a full (though unaccented) a; the sa in 
tie- second word is part and parcel of the word saduka, and as such only of short 
measure - which fact gives at once the key to the construction of the compound word, 
well as marking the difference of meaning and pronunciation. Words of this de- 
scription in Zulu remind us of such words in English as 'increase, concert, record', 
.. which, though possessing but one form of script, have two meanings and two 
pronunciations, the guide being, just as in Zulu, the accent. 

16. Capitals and Proper Names. So far Grout seems to have been the only one 

who attempted to formulate for us any fixed rules in regard to this matter. The 

practice of Colenso was constantly varying, showing that his own mind was not quite 

tied on the subject; at any rate he did not provide us with any regular method 

for dealing with these things. 

Unhappily Grout's system is inconvenient and irregular — which is, forsooth, a 
poor recommendation for any 'rule'. He advises (Rule 5, Par. 64, 'Zulu Grammar') 
"all proper nouns, as names of persons, places, rivers and tribes " he commenced 
with a capital letter, that is to say, that the. capital letter should appear as the initial 
letter of the prefix of the word, not of the root. Thus, Umuti (a person), Utukela 
( a over), Inkandhla (a place). 

— 93* — 

He then proceeds, by supplementary Rule 1 (under the same paragraph) to 
direct that, when such names of places appear in the locative case, the first letter is 
still that to be capitalised. Thus, Otukela, Enkandhla. 

Again, by supplementary Rule 3, he directs that, when such a proper name is 
preceded by a particle whose final vowel coalesces with the initial vowel of the proper 
name, then the letter to be capitalised is that next following alter tin; crasis. Thus, 
ngoTukela (along the Tukela), neNkandhla (and the Inkandhla). 

Further, by supplementary rule 4, he dh'ects that proper names of persons, as 
Umuti or Ugwayi, when in the genitive or locative case — in which instances, of course, 
the initial vowel or prefix is deleted — should capitalise the first of the remaining 
letters, thus, ka'Muti (genitive), 'Gwayi! (vocative). 

Further on, in his notes upon these above-mentioned rules, he proceeds:— 
"After much study ... I see no reason to change or modify the foregoing rules . . . 
They are in the best possible accord with good taste, do not mar or break up the 
word, or disturb its integrity . . . Much less do they involve any arbitrary, difficult, 
or needlessly minute division in a name." 

By the above eulogy of his system, Grout seems to have unwittingly stated to 
us some of its most conspicuous defects. For just what it does involve is an 'arbi- 
trary, complicated and needless' chopping about of the names; just what it does do 
is 'to mar and break up the words, and destroy their integrity,' at least in so far 
as it makes the name of a particular river appear at one time as though it were 
Utukela, at another as though it were Otukela, and at another as though it were 
Tukela. And so on with all names written according to this changeable method — the 
capital letter, which most people would take to indicate the commencement of the 
actual name, would be incessantly altering. At one time Umhlatuze, at another Em- 
hlatuze, at another noMhlatuze; at one time Inkandhla, then Enkandhla, and finally 
neNkandhla; at one time Undi, then noNdi, and again Ondini! 

Still further on, in the same notes above referred to, Grout observes that "in 
respect to other methods, it must be said that some of them put indignity upon a 
word by separating essential elements, as the incipient from the radical, the inflec- 
tional from the root, and so make, as it were, invidious distinctions by passing over 
the first part of a word and giving the capital to the second which has really been 
brought up from an isolated root condition into recognition, etc." Rut we arc not 
at all sure whether his own method does not do precisely all these things; whether, 
by stating that the correct name of a river is Utukela, and then writing noTukela, 
he is not 'separating the incipient from the radical, the inflectional from the root'; 
whether, by continually changing the appearance of the word, he is not systematically 
disregarding both prefix and root, 'passing over from the first part of a word and 
giving the capital to the second which has been brought up from a root condition 
into recognition ' — naming the place at one time Inkandhla, then iNkandhla (in 
form neNkandhla); whether the variations Utukela, Otukela, and uTukela (in form 
noTukela) are not very marked 'distinctions', not exactly perhaps invidious, but cer- 
tainly puzzling to a beginner anxious to know what or where the essential body of 
the word really is? A system that preserves the identity of the root-name Tukela 
and Nkandhla unchanged under all and every condition, surely cannot be regarded 
as inferior, more complicated and less reasonable than the above V Why write at one 
time Ufaku for a person's name {e.g. in the sentence ngibona Ufaku), and then 
Faku (as in the sentence umfana ka'Faku). In the sentence Uteza noMuti, the rule 
of the first word is broken in the second, and vice versa — two proper names, in 
which the t and the m are the corresponding initial letters of the root, each following 
a different rule of capitalisation, in the former case the sign of the name appearing 
in the prefix and in the second case in the root! Or, if we take the sentence Umuti 
mubi (written, of course, on the method of Grout), by what means would one show 
that the first word represents a person's name (and meaning 'Mr. Muti is bad') and 
not simply a medicine (and meaning 'the medicine is bad')? 

There is a system of capitalisation which, we believe, is much simpler, more prac- 
tical and more logical than that of Grout would seem to be. By it the first letter of- 

1. The first word of every sentence (including quotations and verse-lines), and 

2. The root of every proper name (including appellations of the Deity), 

is always written with a capital. Thus, nMuti (a person), umHlatuze (a river), 
leSuto (a country), luGanda (a language). 

— 94* — 

Should it happen that such names be, not only proper names, but also com- 
mence a sentence, then naturally they fall under both rules, and become respectively 
UMuti, UmHlatuze, LeSirto, LuGanda. 

By this method we retain the identity of the proper name unchanged under all 
circumstances. The following may serve as examples: — 

umdali, a creator (Umdali, if commencing a sentence; voc. 'mdali), 
uMdali, Mr. Creator — a person's name (U Mdali, „ do „ ; voc. 'Mdali), 
umDali, the Creator (UmDali, „ do „ ; voc. 'mDali). 
uMuti mubi, Mr. Muti is bad. 
umuti mubi, the medicine is bad. 
uTtikcla, the Tukela-river. 
oTukela, at the Tukela. 
ngoTukela, along the Tukela. 
iNkandhla, the Nkandhla-forest. 
Nkandhla, at the Nkandhla. 
ngibona it Fa kit, I see Faku. 
umfana ka'Fakit, the boy of Faku. 

It is true, the first three examples above show three different forms; but then 
here it is not three different forms in the one name; here we have three different 
words, with different meanings, of which each single one will retain its capitalised 
root or essential part unchanged through all circumstances. In Grout's system we 
find these changes occurring in the one same word, through the constant shifting of 
the capita] letter. 

The method above outlined is that generally followed by Colenso and adapted 
by Oust in his book on the "Modern Languages of Africa." Imagine the absurdity 
Oi the tiling had he classified his Bantu languages, places and peoples according to 
the first letter of the prefix instead of that of the root. We should have had Unya- 
mtoezi, a country (under U); Wanyamivezi, its people (under W); and Kinyamivezi, 
their language (under K); Kiva'zulu, a country (under K); Isizulu, its language 
( under I) ; and Abakwa zulu, its people (under A) — instead of finding all the former 
ande X (e. g. uNyamwezi, waNyamwezi and kiNyamwezi), and all the latter under 
Z. The classification of his 223 Bantu languages would have been impossible had he 
discarded the root for the prefix, inasmuch as perhaps most of the Bantu languages 
have a Ki or a Si or something very similar as the prefix to their name. 

Indeed, even in the classification of such a Zulu dictionary as we are at pre- 
sent engaged with, the adoption of Grout's system would have proved anything else 
than 'natural, plain and easy to the reader.' Who, for instance, would have thought 
to look for eTekivini (Durban) under "I" (as Iteku), or the mission-station of enTu- 
meni under "Intuma", or the Tukela under " U" (as Utukela) ? The root of a name, 
and to wit the first or initial portion of that root, is the only unchangeable element 
in a Kafir word, and under that it ought always to be classified. According to Grout's 
method we should have been compelled to confine our 'classification' of Zulu names 
of people to the one letter ' U\ and of places, to the two letters, mainly, ' U' and '/'! 

17. Prefixes of Nouns. Most languages of the world are suffix-using, as the Latin 
ami Hottentot. Others again are prefix-using, as the Bantu. It seems obvious to us 
that suffixes ami prefixes are, in their nature, philologically identical, differing only 
in the position which grammar has chanced or chosen to give them in human speech. 

Probably because the use of prefixes is an unintelligible novelty to ourselves, 
European students of the Bantu languages have displayed a great weakness for in- 
dulging in wild and fanciful theories concerning them. And yet it seems so plain 
that they are merely the African equivalents to the Aryan a and am, us and i, in the 
Latin words domina and dominant, dominus and domini. Prefixes and suffixes a- 
like, ami iii both varieties of language, tell us of the particular 'class' of the noun, 
and verb, too, in another respect. They indicate to us certain qualities of the word 
t<> which they are attached. In the Latin they inform us of the number, gender and 

■ the noun, and give us a key to the pronoun that will subsequently stand for 
it. In the Bantu they inform us of number, occasionally of case (as in the vocative 
and locative ). Buggest to us the nature of the object and give us a key to its pronoun. 
In the Latin the suffix vi, in the verb amavi, does for us what is achieved by the 
prefix nga in the Zulu verb nyatanda. Whereas, then, the Aryan ancestors of the 

— 95* — 

Romans chose to place their indicating-particles at the end of words, the African's 
ancestors chose to place theirs at the beginning. 

The Bantu prefixes are believed by some to be the remnants of 'primitive nouns' 
just as the English prefixes 'dom' and 'hood' are from old Saxon words <l~i,i, (doom ) 
and hod (character), and so on. But this, in our opinion, is exceeding the fair limit 
of comparison. We prefer to liken the Bantu prefixes to the suffixes, not of a com- 
paratively modern language like English, but of the Sanskrit or Latin, in which it is 
not supposedl that they are the remnants of primitive nouns; for, as Prof. Frederick 
M tiller asserts, "as for the meaning of the several suffixes (in the Aryan languages), 
one cannot affirm that any absolutely certain meaning has been attached to any 
particular suffix from the beginning." 

Others, again, like Dohne and Torrend, have thought to detect in these Bantu 
prefixes the presence of an article. Thus, the latter, taking the prefix um of the 1st. 
class, calls the u thereof an article, and the m a classifier. Such theories are often- 
times ingenious, but, in our opinion, they are pure fancy; we do not believe that the 
statements upon which they are based, really exist. We think that, in the Native 
mind, the prefix um, or whatever it may be, will bear no more chopping up within 
itself, than would the accusative suffix am in Latin, were one so bold as to assert 
that the a therein served the purpose of an article and the m that of a case-indicator. 
For, alike in the Zulu as in the Latin, the theory would be found 'not to work.' 
Immediately we came to nouns of the 3rd. class in Zulu, we should find the prefix a 
simple short * {e.g. in the word i-Nala, plenty). What, then, has become of the 
article, or alternatively the classifier, in this the very largest class of nouns? We 
elect to agree with Dr. Bleek that, even though an 'ancient article' may have been 
contained within the prefixes in primeval antiquity, 'its employment (i.e. of the pre- 
fix) nowadays appears mainly to depend upon usage' (or inherited habit) 'and 
scarcely upon any intention of thereby defining the noun.' 

18. Classen of Nouns. According to the variety of these nominal prefixes, there 
are in Zulu eight classes of nouns, as follows: — 


Singular Prefix 













Hi, contr. i 








ulu, contr. u 


u, contr. 








umu-ntu, a person 
um-fana, a boy 
u-Faku, Faku 
i-kanda, a head 
im-buzi, a goat 
in-daba, an affair 
i-nala, abundance 
isi-tsha, a vessel 
umu-ti, a tree 
um-fula, a river 
u-nyaka, a year 
u-bambo, a rib 
u-kamba, a beer-pot 
u-lcmbu, a spider 
ubu-kosi, chieftainship 
u-tshwala, beer 
\iku-kanya, light 










































The above is the classification of nouns according to Colenso's tabulation which 
is that followed in this Dictionary. But we venture to believe this tabulation might be 
improved, were it arranged as below: — 

96* — 


Singular Prefix 







11 IH II 


i< in a -X tit 












u- Fa Jen 





it m ii 



















i, contr. fr. Hi 







ii, contr. fr. ulu 




■ zi 
































isi, or isa 



izi or iza 




a /hi 









This method of tabulation seems to us much more systematic and accurate than 
the preceding. It brings those prefixes which are at all similar, and bear comparison, 
alongside each other. It brings prominently into view the fact that the m and n in 
the plural prefix {izi-m or izi-n) of the IV class (of this tabulation) are merely 
euphonic, that their appearance is merely casual and their variation solely caused 
and regulated by the nature of the consonant commencing the root, and that, although 
occasioned by the junction of a certain variety of vowel in the prefix and a certain 
variety of consonant commencing the root, they really pertain to and are pronounced 
in conjunction with the root, not the prefix, as the preceding table erroneously leads 
one t<> believe. Wherever a root of this class commences with a b, p, f or v, there a 
euphonic m is required; in all other instances, an n, except where the initial consonant 
<>f tin' root be an h or an I, when no euphonic letter of any description is required. 

The same remark refers equally to the prefixes singular and plural of the V 
• lass (as here tabulated), where the prefix is solely a short * (differing in pronunci- 
ation Erom the full i in the contracted prefix of the III class), and takes an m or n 
only fur euphony' sake, according to the aforesaid, rule. But should the root itself 
commence with either an m or an n, naturally no further euphonic letter is required, 
the shorl i of the prefix remaining alone, as in the words i-Mfangumfangu and 

It will be observed, further, that the contracted prefixes, consisting of a single 
vowel, show quite a variety of pronunciation. Thus, the u of the I class is short; 
that of the IV class, along with the i of the III class, are both full — that is, of the 
same quantity as the same vowels when occurring in the penult of words, though, of 
course, without the long accent; and, finally, the u of the II and VII classes are both 
long. The h of the VII class and the k VIII are, of course, both of the soft or in- 
Bpirated variety. 

The prefix of the VI class is given as isi, or isa. This does not imply that 
either of these prefixes may be used indiscriminately with all and any words of this 

but rather that certain of those words may, according to Native usage, take 
either of them at choice, or, indeed, in particular cases prefer regularly and solely the 

iriety. Thus, isaNgoma or isiNgoma, isiNci or isaNci, isaBongo or isiBongo, 

I. "In.; mi Isifukazi, isiNgquma or isaNyquma, isiKwece or isaKwece. Others 

again are nowadays never heard with any but the isa prefix. Thus, isaNusi, isaNcape. 

Aid yel it is plain, though not in every case, with our present limited knowledge of 

itu etymology, absolutely provable,— that in all of these cases the a is part of the 

prefix, not tie- root, whi<h commences with the consonant next succeeding it. Thus, 

mum forms its abstract noun as ubuNgoma, not as ubiuAngoma as it otherwise 

•I. and so showing that the root is ngoma, not angoma; which fact is further 

by comparison with other cognate words - iNgoma, etc. — in Zulu and 

- 97* — 

other Bantu languages. The word isaNcape has a second form iNcape, proving the 
same thing. The word isalCwece is from the verb kweca; while the name isaNusi 
is manifestly derived from an obsolete verb nusa (= nukisa; cp. susa), meaning 
merely isiNukisi (a smeller-out). The use of this isa form of the prefix is, therefore 
solely for euphonious purposes. 

But this class of words must not be confused with another in which it is self- 
evident that the a is part of the root, and not of the prefix, which in these instances 
becomes simply is — the final i having been dropped by elision before the stronger 
vowel succeeding it. Thus, is-Aliwa (from ala), is-Azi (from azi), and is-Apuko 
(from apuka). Some words, as isandhla and isando, are doubtful as to which of the 
above classes they belong. 

"In all of these cases, then, the etymology of the root of the word must be our 
only and infallible guide. Where such is untraceable, both forms and opinions must 
be permissible. 

In this Dictionary, in order not to create confusion too abruptly, we have ad- 
hered to the old familiar style of classifying such words under A, as though that 
were the initial letter of the root. We hope, however, by having the above facts more 
clearly explained to them, students of the language will come to see the necessity in 
a future edition of altering this error. 

In regard to the VII class, it may be noted that certain of the coast tribes in 
Zululand, as the Elangeni, Mtetwa, etc., have a habit of substituting the uku prefix 
for the ubu. Thus, uku-hle (for ubu-hle), uk-omi (for ub-omi). 

19. Construction of nouns from verbal roots, etc. At first sight the Zulu usage in 
this regard would appear arbitrary and irregular; but upon closer investigation, it 
will be found to be quite reasonable and systematic. Thus, from the verb tuta (carry 
away) is built the noun i-nTutwane (ant); from this noun (not from the original 
verb) is constructed the abstract noun ubu-Ntutwane (ant-nature). Again, from the 
verb gana (marry) is formed the noun i-nGane (child); from this noun (not the 
preceding verb), the noun isi-Ngane (darling or sweetheart); and finally, from this 
latter, the noun um-Ngane (friend). Now, which is the actual and real root of the 
words ubu-ntutwane and nm-nganel Obviously the n is no part of the original root 
of these words remotely considered ; but, on the other hand, it is certainly a part of 
the secondary forms (I do not say the root of such forms) from which they were 
constructed. Etymologically, then, it might be more exact to write ubu-nfutwane 
icm-nGane; but we should consider the form .ubu-Ntutwane, um-Ngane also permis- 
sible and indeed for practical purposes preferable. To be satisfactory to both opinions, 
we have entered such words in this Dictionary in both possible places. 

20. Nounal suffixes. The diminutive suffixes are ana (= little), and any ana (= 
very little). Diminution may also be expressed by the use of the feminine diminutives. 

The feminine suffixes are kazi, sometimes azi or azana (= female ), and kazana 
(= little bit of a female — gen. with contempt ). 

The form kazi is also used as a general augmentative or intensifying suffix 
(= great, huge); and, inversely, the forms azana., azanyana, and kazana (= little 
bit of a worthless, contemptuous) as diminutives of disparagement. 

The final a of these prefixes is often changed into e. 

These suffixes are joined on to the end of nouns, adjectives, adverbs and (in 
regard to the diminutive forms) also of verbs, the final vowel of such word becoming 
either elided before the incipient vowel of the suffix or, if o or u, changed into w. 
Thus, intombi (a girl), intombikazi (a huge girl), intombana (a smallish girl ), into- 
mbazana (a little girl), intombazanyana (a very little girl); isilo (an animal), isi- 
Iwane (a smallish animal), isilivanyane (a little animal), isilw any azana or isilwanya- 
kazana (a tiny animal). 

21. Number. This is shown by a change of the prefix — see § 18. 

22. Gender. The suffix kazi or azi is used in a few words to denote the female 
gender, as inKuku (fowl), inKukukazi (a female fowl or hen). 

But mostly the distinction of sex is expressed (1) either by a different word for 
each gender, as inDoda (husband), umFazi (wife); or (2) by the use of the terms 
inKunzi (male) and inTsikazi (female). These words are used indiscriminately with 



both animals and birds, governing the particular word qualified in the genitive case 
thus, internet yengwe (a bull leopard), intsikazi yejuba (a hen dove). 

23. Owe. Roughly speaking —for there is no uniformity of opinion on this point 
there are six cases in Zulu:— (1), the nominative; (2), genitive; (3), accusative; 
in. locative; (5), vocative; (6), prepositional. 

The nominative is that simple form of a noun or pronoun which it assumes 
when occurring as subject of a verb. 

The gewiive, it' this is to be regarded as a case, is formed in three ways:— 
ill, by the use of genitive particles, corresponding to the class of the noun 
rerning (and having somewhat of the force of the English of), which are placed 
before the noun governed, the two vowels coalescing on conjunction (according to 
Each class of nouns has its own proper genitive particle, as under: — 


Singular Prefix 



Plural Prefix 




it mil, inn, u 



aba, o 











mi, in, i 



tzim, xzin, izt 











in/in, inn, u 










izim, izm, xzi 




Uli II 









(2), by the use of ka (of) prefixed by the personal pronoun (see § 25) corre- 
sponding to the class of the noun governing (unless that pronoun be a single vowel), 
and then, all combined, placed before the noun governed. This form of the genitive 
is only cm ployed with nouns singular (mostly proper) of the I class, having the 
prefix a, which prefix is elided before the genitive particle. Thus, ikasi lika'gwayi 
(a leaf of tobacco), inkomo ka'Mafa (the beast of Mafa, Mafa's beast). 

Nouns plural of this variety of the I class follow the general rule 1, as above, save 
that there is no coalition of vowels. Thus, ukudhla kivawobaba (the food of my 
fathers), izidwaba zaivonina (the kilts of the mothers). 

< 3 i, by the use of the genitive particle (rule 1, above) in combination with a noun 
in the locative case. In this instance there is no coalition of vowels, the particle being 
united with the word by a euphonic s (see §8). Thus, umuntu was' eNatala (a person 
r from Natal), intlanzi yas'ohvandhle (a fish of the sea). 

Tin- accusative case, except in the case of pronouns (see §25) always takes the 
same form as the nominative. 

Tin- locative case is used to denote the place at, to, or from which anything is 

or urs. It is therefore always rendered into English by the use of prepositions. 

It is formed : — 

(1), by changing the initial vowel of the noun into an e, or, if that vowel be 
the n ..f the VI class prefix, into an o; then — 

■ by changing the final vowel of the word, if an a or e, into eni; if an i, 
infc it an <>, into vjeni; if an u, into wini; and finally — 

Bhould the last syllable of the word contain a b, bh, ph, m, mbh, mp, or 
'I- the rah § '.) ) for the euphonic change of consonants comes into force, nearly 

always, if the final vowel be o, frequently, if it be u; more rarely, if it be any other 

: but, in Buch words containing the euphonic change, the final vowel, if an o or 
'. frequently becomes merely eni or ini respectively, instead of went and wini as 
l>cfore indicated. Thus : 









■ irduli 





< i-fweni 

















— 99* — 

The vocative case is formed by simply eliding the initial vowel of the noun. 
Thus, 'Mpande! 'nKosi! 

The prepositional case is formed by prefixing to the noun one or other <>f the 
prepositions na (with), nga (along, by, by means of, on account of), kwa (of), nje- 

nga (like, as), etc., the final vowel of tbese latter coalescing with the initial vowel of 
the noun according to rule 7. Thus, nomkonto (with an assegai), ngeudhlela (along 
the path ), kwamasimu ( of the fields ), njengehashi ( like a horse ). 

24. Pronouns. These are of eight kinds: — (1), personal; (2), possessive; (3), 
prepositional; (4), emphatic; (5), relative; (6), distinguishing; (7), demonstrative; 
( 8 ), indefinite. 

25. The personal pronouns are as follows: — 



Norn. Ace. 



'Nora. Ace. 

1st. Pers. Sing. 
2nd. „ 





I class um-fana 

II „ 

III „ 

IV „ 

V „ 

VI „ 

VII „ 



a- bam bo 








y 1 











1st. Pers. 





I class aba- f ana 





























26. The possessive pronouns (or adjectives) are formed by prefixing the proper 
genitive or possessive particle (see §23) corresponding to the object possessed, to the 
pronominal particle corresponding to the subject possessing. Thus, the genitive 
particle having the force of the English 'of, the pronominal particle has the force 
of 'him', 'her', 'it', or 'them.' The pronominal particles, along with the genitive 
particles which precede them, are shown below : — 


Class Gen : 










1st. Pers. Sing. 


1st. Pers. Plur. 


2nd. „ 


2nd. „ 



I class um-fana 



3rd. „ 

I class aba- f aim 




II „ i-kanda 




II „ ama-kanda 




III „ im-buzi 




III „ ixim-buxi 




IV „ isi-tsha 




IV „ ixi-tslia 




V „ um-fula 




V „ im i-fula 




VI „ u-bambo 




VI „ izim-bambo 




VII „ u-tshwala 






VIII „ uku-dhla 





the vessel (isitsha) of (sa) him (ke), i.e. isitsha 
- the water (amanzi) of (a) it (wo), i.e. amanzi 

Thus, his (the boy's) vessel 
sake. Again, its (the river's) water 

In regard to the particle itu and inu, of the 1st. and 2nd. persons plural, the 
rule of coalition ( see § 7 ) comes into force. Thus, wetu, letu, setu, etc. 

27. The prepositional pronouns are those used in conjunction with the various 
prepositions na (with), ku (to), nga (by), etc., to which they are suffixed. Each 
person and class of nouns has a particular particle suitable to itself. Sometimes fuller 
emphatic forms are used, as below: — 


— 100* 



Prep. Eraphai 









1st. Pers. Sing. 



1st. Pers. Plur. 






2nd. „ 




I class um-fana 



3rd. „ 

I class — aba-fana 




„ i-kanda 




II „ ama-kanda 





„ im-buzi 




III „ izim-buzi 





„ isi-tsha 




IV „ izi-tsha 





„ um-fula 




V „ imi-fula 




„ u-bambo 




VI „ izim-bambo 




„ u-tshwala 







„ uku-dhla 





Thus, na-mi (with me), ku-bo (to them), nga-yo (about it — the imbuzi or 
goat ). 

When ku precedes the particles mi, ti and ni, it nearly always becomes ki. 

28. The emphatic pronouns, included in the preceding table, are sometimes used 
in apposition to other pronouns (personal, prepositional, etc.) in order to strengthen 
their force or to replace them in the accusative, and sometimes independently with a 
preposition, or after (seldom before) a verb. Thus: — 

ivasho wena, you said so. 

tina-ke kasikwazi loko, we know nothing about that. 

wanginika yona, he gave me it. 

kulete kinii mina, bring it to me myself. 

29. The relative pronouns, who, which, that, are formed — 

(1), when in the nominative case, by combining (according to § 7) the relative 
particle a with the initial vowel of the prefix of the antecedent noun. Thus : — 

umu-ntu (a u) omu-bi, the person, who is bad. 
isi-tsha (a i) esi-kulu, the vessel, which is large. 
u(lu)-ti (a u) olu-de, the stick, that is long. 

(2), when in the j)0ssessive case and meaning whose, of tvhich, by the same rule, 
save that the relative prefix is now coupled on before the noun expressing the object 
Possessed, which noun loses its initial vowel in the process. Thus: — 

in-kabi (a i) e ' zimpondo zinkulu, the ox, whose horns are large. 
u(ln)-ti (a u) oln'mbala mubi, the stick, whose colour is ugly. 

(3), when in the accusative or prepositional case, meaning whom, tvhich, to 
whom, about which, etc., the relative is formed by combining (according to § 7) 
the particle a with the initial vowel of the prefix of the subject of the relative sentence. 

amanzi, umfula (a u) o-wa-yisayo, the water, which the river bears. 
intsimu, imbuzi (a i) e-ya kuyo, the field, to which the goat goes. 

The personal pronouns of the 1st. and 2nd. persons, with their coalescing prefixes, 
should be remembered in this connection. Thus: — 

i-ngi ( I ), becoming e-ngi 
u (thou), becoming o 

i-si (we), becoming e-si 
i-ni (you), becoming e-ni. 

In the 3rd. person singular, for nouns of the I class, the relative particle re- 
mains unchanged and uncombined with any vowel. Thus: — 

ihashi, a-li-bonayo, the horse, which he (the boy) sees. 

intsimu, ubaba alimayo kuyo, the field, in which my father ploughs. 

30. The distinguishing pronouns are based on a combination (according to § 7) 
of tin- distinguishing particle la (here) with the prefix of the noun expressing the object 
indicated. Thus, la and u=lo; la and ili=^leli; la and i=le, and so on, as follows: — 

- ior 



Prefix This That | That there 




Those there 







lo, lona 


le, lena 


lo, lona 












lowa-ya, lowd 



lowa-ya, lowd 




am a 


la, lawa 

le, lena 









These pronouns are generally prefixed to their nouns, though sometimes follow- 
ing; but in the former case the noun, by elision, loses its initial vowel. Thus, lo'mfa- 
na, lezizinkomo, le-yd miti, isitsha leso. 

31. The demonstrative pronouns are peculiar to the Zulu language, and are as 
follows : — 




Here it 

There it 

There it is 
over there 


Here they 

There they 

There they are 
over there 

































am a 




















These pronouns are generally prefixed to the noun referred to, which may lose 
its prefix by elision. More rarely they stand alone. Thus: — 

nang'umfana omuhle, here is a fine boy. 
nant'ihashi lomlungu, here is the whiteman's horse. 
tata nantsi, take this here one. 
nampa-ya, there they are over there. 

32. By indefinite pronouns we mean such as the following : — 

all, every, formed by prefixing the particular genitive particle (see § 23) to 
the word onke, the vowels coalescing by rule § 7. Thus, bonkc, yonke, sonke, etc. 

only, alone, formed in the same way, but with the word odiva. Thus, lodwa, 
yodwa, sodiua, etc. The forms for the different persons, however, are somewhat 
irregular, and are as follows : — - ngedwa (I alone); wedwa (thou alone); yedwa (he 
alone); sodwa (we alone); nodwa (you alone); bodwa (they alone). 

another, formed by placing the suitable relative prefix (see § 2!)) before the 
word nye. Thus, omu-nye, eli-?iye, esi-nye, ama-nye, etc. 

Other examples will be found in the grammar. 

33. Adjectives. There are very few true adjectives in Zulu. The following' 
however, are some of them:— bi (bad), hie (beautiful), de (long), fushane (short), 
kulu (large), ncane (small). 

Some are now practically pure adjectives, though originally derived from nouns 
now obsolete, e. g, mnyama (black), mnandi (nice), mpom (poor), nzima (heavy ). 

Others are adapted from nouns still in use, e. g. lukuni (hard, fr. u-kuni), 
luhlaza (green, fr. u-hlaza), manzi (wet, fr. ama-nzi). 

Others again are formed by the verb to have — that is, the relative pronoun 
together with the particle na (with) and a noun. Thus, umuntu o-nolaka (a person 
who has anger i. e. an angry person ) . 



Many are formed by the relative pronoun with an ordinary verb. Thus, umfana 
ogulayo (a boy who is ill i. e. a sick boy). 

Finally, a few are formed by means of the possessive case, in the sense of 'for,' 
'of,' etc. Thus, umuntu wokudakwa (a drunken person), imisebenzi yolwandhle 
(marine affairs). 

34. Adjectives may take the form of a predicate or of an epithet. When as a pre- 
d irate, the rule is simply to prefix to it the personal pronoun corresponding to the 
noun. Thus : — 

um-fana u(m)-kulu 

i-hashi li-bomvu 
in-dhlu i-banzi 
isi-tsha si-mhlopc 

um-konto u(m) -ncane 
u-ti ln-de 
u-tshwala bu-ningi 
uku-dhla ku-mnandi 

When the adjective is used as an epithet, the rule is to place before it the rela- 
tive prefix (see § 29) suitable to the noun qualified. Thus:— 

um-fana o(m)-kulu 
i-hashi eli-bomvu 
in-dhlu e-banzi 

um-konto o(m)-ncane 
u-ti olu-de 
u-tshwala obu-ningi 
uku-dhla oku-mnandi. 

isi-tsha esi-mhlope 

It will be observed that adjectives used as an epithet always follow the noun 
in Zulu. 

There are several exceptions to the above rules which will be found duly ex- 
plained in the grammar. 

35. Adjectives very frequently take the diminutive and other suffixes mentioned 
under § 20. 

36. The comparative degree of adjectives is mostly formed by prefixing the particle 
kuna (than) or simply ku to the noun compared with, rule 7 for the coalition of vowels 
being adhered to when necessary. Thus, ihashi likulu kunembongolo (a horse is 
larger than an ass), kuncane kunaloku (it is smaller than this). 

Or the verb dhlula (surpass) is used. Thus, ihashi liyadhlula imbongolo 
ngobukulu (a horse surpasses an ass in size). 

37. The superlative ( seldom used ) is expressed by the use of certain auxiliary 
words, as kakulu (greatly), onke (all), etc. Thus, lenkabi inkulu kunazo zonke 
(this ox is bigger than all L e. is the biggest). 

38. The numeral adjectives take the different prefixes, according to the class of 
the noun qualified and according as they are used predicatively or epithetically (see 
§ 34), just as the ordinary adjectives. The numeral roots, to which these pre- 
fixes are affixed, are as follows, one of the prefixes being shown as a specimen: — 

i-nye nine zi-y'isishiyangalolunye 

zi-mbili ten zi-l'ishumi 

zi-ntatu eleven zi-l'shumi na-nye 

zi-ne twelve zi-l'ishumi na-mbili 















a hundred 

zi-ng ' amashumi amabili 
zi-ng ' amashtimi amatatu 



zi-y ' isikombisa 

zi-y ' isishiyang alombili 

39. The ordinal adjectives, seldom used above ten, are formed of nouns derived 
from the above roots and used with the genitive particle of the noun qualified, ac- 
cording t<> rule § 23. Thus:— 

a thousand zi-y'inkulungwane 




tenth into yeshumi 




eleventh „ yeshumi na-nye 




twentieth „ y amashumi amabili 




twenty-second „ y amashumi amabili 








hundredth „ yekulu 




hundred and tenth „ yekulu neshumi 





thousandth ,, yenkulungwane 





— 103* - 

40. Verba. These are formed from a simple root, which is that appearing in the 
infinitive mood, after the nominal prefix uku (to) has been removed. Thus: — (uku)- 
tanda, (to) love; (uku)-hamba, (to) go. 

Practically all verbs in Zulu end with an a. 

41. There are several kinds of derivative verbs i.e. secondary forms constructed 
out of the primitive root by some modification or change thereof. They are of at least 
25 different kinds, as follows: — 

(1), objective verbs, formed by changing the final a of the primitive root into 
ela, and signifying for, to, on behalf of, against, etc. Thus, tand-ela, love for; 
hamb-ela, go on behalf of. 

(2), causative verbs, formed by changing the said a into isa. Thus, tand-isa, 
cause, make, or help to love. 

(3), reciprocal verbs, formed by changing the said a into ana. Thus, tand- 
ana, love one another. 

(4), static-passive or neuter-passive verbs, formed by changing the said a into 
eka or akala, and signifying a continuous condition of the passive state, most conven- 
iently expressed in English by the word get. Thus, tand-eka, get loved, be fit to 
be loved, be capable of being loved, be lovable; bon-akala, get seen, be visible, appeal'. 
(5), reflective verbs, formed by the insertion of the reflective particle zi (self) 
before the root ( primitive or secondary ) of any verb. Thus, zi-tanda, love oneself. 

(6), reduplicated verbs, formed by repeating the primitive root, and signifying 
a diminution of the action, as limalima, plough in a slight degree, sebesebenza, do 
a little work; or a frequentation thereof, as sikasika, cut away at, hambahamba, go 
about or here and there. 

Then, again, there are complex derivative verbs, formed by combining two or 
more of the preceding simple forms along with their respective meanings. Thus we 
have the: — 

~f. (7), objective-causative form, as tand-elisa, make wind round on i. e. twist 
around; ak-elisa, cause to build for. 

4,(8), objective-reciprocal form, as hamb-elana, go to or for each other i. e. mu- 
tually visit. 

^ (9), objective-static form, as tand-eleka, get wound round on. 
^(10), reflective-objective form, as zi-bon-ela, see for oneself. 

^(11), redup Heated-objective form, as hamb-elela, go to for i.e. visit for; inten- 
sifiea-'objective form, as bamb-elela, hold fast to. 

.^(12), redup Heated-causative form, signifying an increased energy of action in 
the primitive (not causal) sense, as tand-isisa, love ardently; buz-isisa, enquire 
diligently ; or a double causative sense, as fundisisa, cause to cause to learn i. e. cause 
to teach. 

j. (13), causative-objective form, as ak-isela, cause to build for; bon-isela, help see 
for i. e. look after for. 

•^ (14), causative-reciprocal form, as bon-isana, cause each other to see i. e. show 
each other; lim-isana, cause each other to plough i.e. help each other ploughing. 

>£. (15), causative-static form, as bon-iseka, get caused to be seen, get shown, be 

^ (16), reflective-causative form, as zi-bonisa, cause oneself to see. 

(17), reciprocal-objective form, as pamb-anela, go across for i.e. cross one 
another at. 

«J[(18), reciprocal-causative form, as pamb-anisa, cause to cross each other, put 
at cross purposes or cross each other. 

f(19), reciprocal-static form, as pamb-aneka, get to cross each other or be at 
s£ (20), static-objective form, as hlup-ekela, get worried for. 

(21), static- causative form, as hlup-ekisa, cause to get worried; bon-akalisa, cause 
to get seen i. e. display. 

^(22), reflective-static-causative form, as zi-bon-akalisa, display oneself. 
y.(23), reciprocal-causative-objective form, as pamb-anisela, cause to be at cross 
purposes or crosswise for. 

^(24), objective-causative-objective form, as f-elisela, cause a person to be died 
for, as Shaka did the widows whose husbands he killed. 

^(25), reciprocal-causative-objective-reciprocal form, as pamb-aniselana, cause to 
lie across for one another i. e. strike cross blows at one another. 

— 104* 

42. The conjugation of verbs of all kinds is as follows: 

Infinitive mood. 

uku-geza, to wash 

Indicative mood. 

Present tense. 


pers. sing 

. ngi-geza, 

I wash 


pers. plur. 


we wash 


n n 


thou washest 


n ii 


you wash 


„ I class 


he, she, 

it, washes 


„ I class 

b a-geza, 

they wash 

„ II „ 




ii II „ 


ii ii 

„ HI „ 




„ HI „ 


ii ii 

„ iv .. 




„ iv „ 


ii ii 






>i y ii 


ii D 

» VI „ 




,i VI „ 


ir ii 

.. vii„ 

b u-geza, 



.. VIII 




Present progressive, I am washing. 
„ emphatic, I do wash. 


ngt-y a-geza. 


u-ya-geza, li-ya-geza, etc. 

Present perfect, I have washed. 

Sing', ngi-gezile. 


u-gezile, U-gezile, etc. 
Plur. si-gezile. 


ba-gezile, a-gezile, etc. 

Plur. si-ya-geza. 
ba-ya-geza, a-y a-geza, etc. 

Present perfect progressive. I have been 

Sing, hade ngi-geza. 

hade u-geza. 

kade e-geza, kade U-geza, etc. 
Plur. kade si-geza. 

kade ni-geza. 

kade be-geza, kade e-geza, etc. 





Static perfect, I have washed —-- I am washing {Mate). 

Plur. si-gezile or geze, 
ni-gezile or geze 
ba-gezile or geze, a-gezile, etc. 

Past progressive, (1) I was washing (lately). 

Sing, bengi-geza. 


ub'e-geza, beli-geza, etc. 
Plur. besi-geza. 


bebe-geza, ab' e-geza, etc. 

ngi-gezile or geze 

u-gezile or geze. 

u-gezile or geze, li-gezile, etc. 

I washed. 

ng a-geza. 


wa-geza, la-geza, etc. 



hn-geza, a-geza, etc. 



way e-geza, lali-geza, etc 

Past progressive, (2) I was washing {long ago). 

Plur. sasi-geza. 
babe-geza, ab'e-geza, etc. 

Past perfect, I had washed. 



bengi-gezile ; ngangigezile. 
a h ii -g ezile; wa w u-gezile. 
uh e-gezile; waye-g ezile; 
1 1 1- li-gezile; lali-gezile. 
i-gezile ; sasi-g ezile. 
ben i-ijc-.ilc; nani-g ezile. 
bebe-gez He; babe-gezile; ab' e-gezile. 

Past perfect progressive, (1) I had been 
washing {lately). 

Sing, hengi-kade ngi-geza. 
ub'u-kade u-geza. 
ub'e-kade e-geza, beli-kade U-geza. 

Plur. besi-kade si-geza. 
beni-kade ni-geza. 
bebe-kade be-geza, ab'e-kade e-geza. 

- 105* 

Past perfect progressive, (2) I had been washing (long ago). 

Sing, ngangi'kade ngi-geza. 
wawu-kade u-geza. 
waye-kade e-geza, lali-kade U-geza. 

Future, I shall wash. 

Sing, ngi-yaku-geza (ngi-yawu-geza, or 
u-yaku-geza (u-yawu-geza, or wo- 

u-yaku-geza (u-yawu-geza, or wo- 
geza), U-yaku-geza, etc. 
Plur. si-yaku-geza (si-yawu-geza, or so- 
ni-yaku-geza (ni-yawu-geza, or no- 

ba-yaku-geza (ba-yawu-geza or bo- 
geza), a-yaku-geza (ov wo-geza), etc. 

Future perfect, I shall have washed. 

Sing, ngo-ba ngi-gezile, wo-ba u-gezile, 
wo-ba e-gezile, lo-ba U-gezile, etc. 

Plur. so-ba si-gezile, no-ba ni-gezile, 

bo-ba be-gezile, wo-ba e-gezile, etc. 

Plur. sasi-kade si-geza. 
nani-kade ni-geza. 
babe-kade be-geza, ab'e-kade e-geza. 

Future progressive, 1 shall lie washing. 
Sing, ngo-ba ngi-geza. 

wo-ba u-geza. 

wo-ba e-geza, lo-ba U-geza etc. 

Plur. no-ba si-geza. 

no-ba ni-geza. 

bo-ba be-geza, wo-ba e-geza, etc. 

Future perf. prog.* I shall have boon wash- 
Sing, ngo-ba ngi-be ngi-geza, etc. 

Plur. so-ba si-be si-geza, etc. 

Conditional mood. 

Present, I should, or would, wash (if). 

Sing, beng i-yaku-geza; ngi-nga-geza; nga- 

ub 1 u-yaku-geza; u-nga-geza; nga- 

ub'e-yaku-geza; a-nga-geza; nga- 

ye-geza etc. 
Plur. besi-yaku-geza; si-nga-geza; nga-si- 

beni-yaku-geza; ni-nga-geza; nga- 

bebe-yaku-geza; ba-nga-geza; nga- 

be-geza, etc. 

Perfect, I should, or would, have washed (if). 

Sing, nga-ngi-gezile; ngangi-yaku-geza. 
nga-w u-gezile; wawu-yaku-geza. 
nga-y e-gezile; waye-yaku-geza, etc. 

Plur. nga-si-gezile; sasi-yaku-geza. 
nga-ni-gezile; nani-yaku-geza. 
nga-be-gezile; babe-yaku-geza, etc. 

Present prog. I should, or would, be wash- 

Sing, bengi-yaku-ba ngi-geza; ngi-nga-ba 
ngi-geza; nga-ytgi-be ngi-geza. 
ub'u-yaku-ba u-geza; u-nga-ba u- 

geza; nga-wu-be u-geza. 
ub'e-yakti-ba e-geza; a-nga-ba e- 
.geza; nga-ye-be e-geza, etc. 
Plur. besi-yaku-ba si-geza; si-nga-ba si- 
geza; nga-si-be si-geza. 
beni-yakii-ba ni-geza; ni-nga-ba ni- 
geza; nga-ni-be ni-geza. 
bebe-yaku-ba be-geza; ba-nga-ba be- 
geza; nga-be-be be-geza, etc. 

Perfect prog. I should, or would, have 
been washing. 

Sing, bengi-yaku-ba (ngangi-yaku-ba, or 
nga-nga-ba) ngi-gezile. 
ub'u-yaku-ba (wawu-yaku-ba, or 

nga-wa-ba) u-gezile. 
ub'e-yaku-ba (waye-yaku-ba, or 
nga-wa-ba) e-gezile, etc. 
Plur. besi-yaku-ba (sasi-yaku-ba, or nga- 
sa-ba) si-gezile. 
beni-yaku-ba (nani-yaku-ba, or nga- 

na-ba) ni-gezile. 
bebe-yaku-ba (babe-yaku-ba, or nga- 
ba-ba) be-gezile, etc. 

* This tense is never used in Zulu speech and would he scarcely intelligible; in case of 
necessity, the unchanged Future perfect, or forms with adverbs as s'aiirf, qeda, etc., would pro- 
bably be used. The Zulu given above is merely a reproduction of the English thought. 

106* - 

Potential mood. 

Present, I may ( can, might, or could ) wash. Present prog.* I may, etc., be washing. 




a-nga-geza, etc. 

n i-nga-geza. 

Perfect or Past, I might, etc., have washed. 

Sing, bengi-nga-geza (lately), 

ngangi-nga-geza (long ago); 

ub e-nga-geza, 

ir ay e-nga-geza, etc. 

Plur. besi-nga-geza, 

sasi-nga-geza ; 
beiii- a ga-geza, 


babe-nga-geza, etc. 

Sing, ngi-nga-ba ngi-geza. 

u-nga-ba u-geza. 

a-nga-ba e-geza, etc. 
Plur. si-nga-ba si-geza. 

ni-nga-ba ni-geza* 

ba-nga-ba be-geza, etc. 

Perfect or Past prog.* I might, etc., have 
been washing. 

Sing, bengi-nga-ba ngi-geza (lately), 
ngangi-nga-ba ngi-geza; 


vngi-'/igu-ua nyi-yt, 

ngangi-nga-ba ng 
ub'u-nga-ba u-geza, 

wawu-7iga-ba u-geza; 
ub'e-nga-ba e-geza, 

ivaye-nga-ba e-geza, 

besi-nga-ba si-geza, 
sasi-nga-ba si-geza; 

beni-nga-ba ni-geza, 
nani-nga-ba ni-geza; 

bebe-nga-ba be-geza, 
babe-nga-ba be-geza, 



Optative mood. 

Present, I ought to, should, must, wash. 

Sing, nga-ngi-geza. 


nga-ye-geza, etc. 
Plur. nga-si-geza. 


nga-be-geza, etc. 

Perfect, I ought to, etc., have washed. 

Sing, nga-ngi-be ngi-gezile (lately); nga- 

nga-ba ngi-gezile (long ago). 
nga-wu-be u-gezile; nga-iva-ba u- 

nga-ye-be e-gezile; nga-wa-ba e-ge- 

zile, etc. 
Plur. nga-si-be si-gezile; nga-sa-ba si-ge- 

nga-ni-be ni-gezile; nga-na-ba ni- 

nga-be-be be-gezile; nga-ba-be be- 

gezile, etc. 

Present prog. I ought to, should, must, be 

Sing, nga-ngi-ba ngi-geza. 

nga-wu-ba u-geza. 

nga-ye-ba e-geza, etc. 
Plur. nga-si-ba si-geza. 

nga-ni-ba ni-geza. 

nga-be-ba be-geza, etc. 

Perfect prog. * I ought to, etc., have been 

same as Perfect. 


I ought to, 

Sing, ng a-nga-geza. 
nga-ioa-geza, etc. 

etc., have washed. 

Plur. nga-sa-geza 
nga-ba-geza, nga-wa-geza, etc. 

This tense, of which the literal translation of the English i.s given, is perhaps never 
naed in actual Zulu speech. 


Subjunctive mood 

Present, (that) I may wash; (if) I wash. 


(ukuba) ngi-geze; (uma) ngi-geza. 
(ukuba) u-geze; (uma) u-geza. 
(ukuba) a-geze; (uma) e-geza, etc. 

Plur. (ukuba) si-geze; (uma) si-geza. 

(ukuba) ni-geze; (uma) ni-geza. 

(ukuba) ba-geze; (uma) be-geza, etc. 

Perfect, (that) I may have washed; (if) 
I have washed. 

Sing, (ukuba) ngi-be ngi-gezile; (uma) 

Plur. (ukuba) ba-be be-gezile; (uma) be- 

Past, (that) I might wash; (if) I washed. 
Sing, (ukuba) ngi-geze; (uma) nga-geza. 
Plur. (ukuba) ba-geze; (uma) ba-geza. 

Past perfect, (that) I might have washed; 

(if) I had washed. 
Sing, (ukuba) ngi-be ngi-gezile; (uma) 

bengi-gezile (lately) ; ngangi-gezile 

(long ago). 
Plur. (ukuba) ba-be be-gezile; (uma) bebe- 

gezile ( lately ) ; babe-gezile (long ago). 

Future, (that) I shall wash; (if) I shall 

Sing, (ukuba) ngi-geze; (uma) ngi-yaku- 


Future perfect, (that) I shall have washed; 

(if) I shall have washed. 
Sing, (ukuba) ngi-be ngi-gezile; (uma) 

ngo-ba ngi-gezile. 

Present prog, (that) I may he washing; 
(if) I be washing. 

Sing, (ukuba) ngi-be ngi-geza ; (uma) ngi- 
ba ngi-geza. 

(ukuba) u-be u-geza; (uma) u-ba u-geza. 

(ukuba) abe e-geza; (uma) e-ba e-geza, etc. 

Plur. (ukuba) si-be si-geza; (uma) siba 

(ukuba) ni-be ni-geza; (uma) ni-ba ni-geza. 

(ukuba) ba-be be-geza; (uma) be-ba be- 
geza, etc. 

Perfect prog, (that) I may have been 
washing; (if) I have been washing. 

Same as Perfect. 

Past prog, (that) I might be washing; (if) 

I were washing. 
Sing, (ukuba) ngi-be ngi-geza; (uma) nga- 

ba ngi-geza. 
Plur. (ukuba) ba-be be-geza; (uma) ba-be 


Past pert. prog, (that) I might have been 
washing; (if) I had been washing. 

same as Past perfect. 

Future prog, (that) I shall be washing; 

(if) I shall be washing. 
Sing, (ukuba) ngi-be ngi-geza; (uma) ngi- 
yaku-ba ngi-geza. 

Future perf. prog, (that) I shall have been 
washing; (if) I shall have been washing. 

same as Future perfect. 

Imperative mood. 

wash, geza; wash ye, gezani. 

Forms used 

let me wash! may I wash! etc. 

Sing, a-ngi-geze; ma-ngi-geze. 
a-wu-geze ; ma-wu-geze. 
a-ka-geze, ka-geze, a-geze; ma-geze; 

a-li-geze, etc. 
a-si-geze; ma-si-geze. 
a-ni-geze; ma-ni-geze. 
a-bu-geze, a-wa-geze; ma-ba-geze, 

ma-iva-geze, etc. 


as imperative. 

I shall, must, ought to wash, etc. 

Sing, a-ngi-bo-geza; a-ngo-geza. 
a-bo-geza; a-wo-geza. 
a-ka-bo-geza, ka-bo-geza; a-ko-geza, 
ko-geza; a-li-bo-geza, a-lo-geza, etc. 
Plur. a-si-bo-geza; a-so-geza. 
a-ni-bo-geza; a-no-geza. 
a-ba-bo-geza, a-bo-geza; a-ka-bo-ge- 
za, a -w a-bo-geza, a-bo-geza, a-ko- 
geza, a-wo-geza, etc. 

- 108* 


Present, I washing. 

Perfect, I having washed. 

Sing, ngi-geza 

Sing, ngi-gezile. 



e-geza, li-geza, etc. 

e-gezile, li-gezile, etc. 

riur. si-geza 

Plur. si-gezile. 



be-geza, e-geza, etc 

be-gezile, e-gezile, etc. 

42. Passive Voire. 


is formed 

oy simply inserting a iv before 

the final 
vowel of the root in the active voice, thus, tanda (I love), tandwa (I am loved). In 
the perfect tense, the I of the active voice falls away in the passive, thus, tandile 
(have loved), tandiwe (have been loved). 

43. Verb ukuti. This verb is peculiar to the Zulu and other Bantu languages, 
and cannot be exactly compared with anything in English. Its uses are very extensive ; 
but mostly it is used in connection with some verbal particle, often onomatopoetic, 
of which several hundred examples will be found in the body of this work. The 
verb H itself is conjugated in the regular manner, the particular particle being simply 
placed after it and standing independently, as below: — 

akukati nya, it is not yet completely finished. 

umuti ute twi, the tree stands perfectly straight. 

ibantshi libomvu lite tsebu, the coat is bright red. 

ishungu sengaliti geqe, I have already cleared out my snuff-box. 

ngamuzwa engiti qiki, I felt him giving me a nudge. 

kabonanga eti nka, he didn't say a word. 

44. Adverbs. True adverbs, like adjectives, are few in Zulu. Their place is 
supplied mainly by the use: — 

(1), of adjectives, with the particle ka prefixed. Thus: — 

ka-hle, nicely, well ; ka-mnandi, sweetly ; ka-kulu, greatly. 

(2), of nouns and verbs, with the particle nga prefixed, the two vowels coalesc- 
ing. Thus: — 

ngamandhla, forcibly; ngejubane, swiftly; ngokuhlakanipa, wisely; ngo- 
kushesha, quickly. 

(3), of adjectives, nouns and verbs in the relative impersonal form, with the 
particle nga prefixed. Thus: — 

ngokusha, newly; ngokwabelungu, in the whiteman's way; ngokusabekayo, 

4"). The numeral adverbs are formed by prefixing ka to the cardinal roots (see 
S 38). Thus — ka-nye, once; ka-tatu, thrice; kay'isitupa, six times; ka-l'ishumi, ten 



(a) Foreign Languages to which Reference is made 

Abipones (in Paraguay). 

Adam . . Adamawa (Sudan, basin of I'ppcr Binue). 

Ak . . . Akka (pygmies, S. of Mainbetu, Long. 28 E.; 

Lat 3 N.). 
Amb . . Aiubwela i inland of Bengwela, Portuguese 

West Africa, Long. 18 E.; Lat. 15 S.). 
Ang . . . Angola -Mbunda or Bunda (Portuguese West 

Africa, Long, lo E.; Lat. 10 S.). 
Ar . . . Arabic (of Egypt). 
Arawak . (South America). 
A. 8. . . Anglo-Saxon. 

At . . . Atakpame (Togo, German Guinea Coast). 
Ar . . . A vesta (ancient lang. ot Persia). 

Ba . . . Bamba (dial, of Nywema, about Nyangwe, 

Upper Congo;. 
Ba</ . . . Baghirnii or Bagriuia (S. E. of Lake Tshad 

and E. of Shari R.). 
Bar . . . Bari (S. of Dinka, on Upper Nile, Long. 32 

E.; Lat. 5 N.). 
Be . . . Bemba (N. of Lake Bangweolo). 
Ben . . . Bena (S. W. of Hehe and S. E. of Saugo). 
Bi . . . Bibe (inland of Bengwela, Portuguese West 

Africa, about sources of Kuanza R.). 
Bit . . . Bisa (S. E. of Lake Bangweolo). 
Bo . . . Bondei (German East Africa, coast opposite 

Pern ba). 
Bon . . Bongo (bet. Dinka and Nvainnyam in Sudan, 

Long. 27 E.; Lat, 8 N.). 
Bor . . . Bornu (Sudan, S. W. of Lake Tshad). 
Bu . . . Buuga (N.E. of Lake Nyasa, S. of Hebe and 

E. of Bena). 
Bug . . . Bugis (Malay Archipelago). 
Bid . . . Bullom (on coast of Sierra Leone). 
Bun . . Bunda = Angola. 
Bush . . Bushman or San (Western Kalahari, South 

Bwa . . Bwari (on Lake Tanganika). 

Cam . . Cameroons = Dualla. 

Celt . . . Celtic 

Chat . . Chaldean 

Chil . . Chilwa or Kilwa (Germ. E. Africa, S. of 
Lufiji R.). 

Chin . . Chinese 

Chw . . Chwana (Transvaal and Bechwaualand) 

Com . . Comoro Islands (N. of Madagascar). See Hinz. 

Cong . . Congo (about Lower Congo R. and San Sal- 
vador) = Fiote. 

Corn . . Cornish. 

Oym . . Cymric (Welsh). 

D . . . Dutch (South-African). 

Da . . . -Dahomey (Guinea Coast). 

Di . . . Dinka (S.E. Sudan, Long. 30 E. and Lat. 
8 N.). 

Dtp . . Dippil (Australia). 

Du . . , Dualla (about the Cameroons, opposite Fer- 
nando Po). 


Ef . 



Ee . 

F . 


Fe . 

Fi . 


Fu . 

Ga . . . 


Hal . 




Ger . 

Gi . 

Go . 


Gr . 

Gu . 

Ha . 


, . 

Ileb . 

Heh . 

Her . 

Hi . 


Hot . 

Hu . 


I . . 

Ibo . . 

Ic . 

It . 


Ka . 

Kag . 

Kal . . 



Kamil . 

Kar . . 

Ke . . 

Khu . 

Kilwa ■ 

Ko . . 


Dunda — see Ndunda 

Efik ion Lower Cross R., Old Calabar). 



Evhe or Ewe (in Togo, German (iuinea Coait i. 


Fan or Mpangwe (S.E. of Cameroons, Long. 

12 E. and Lat. 2N.i 
Fernandian or Ediya (Fernando Po Inland). 
Fiji Islands. 
= Congo. 
Fulah (scattered through Central and Weil 


Ganda (N. of Victoria Nyanza). 

Gaboon or Pongwe I Lung. 10 E. ; Lai. I. 

Galaganza (in Nyainweziland, \V. of Ha and 

S. of Huma j. 

( S. of Abysinuia). 

(iaugi (S. of Ruaha R., bet Bunga and Ilenge). 
Gindo (S. of Rufiji R., bet. Gangi and coast 

Gogo (N. of Hehe and S. of Rangi). 
Guha (Central Tanganika. W. shore). 

Hausa (Central Sudan, Last of Niger). 

Hayti (West Indies). 


Hehe (on basin of Upper Ruaha 1! . N.E. of 
Sango and S. of Gogo). 

Herero (German West Africa). 


Hinzua (one of Comoro Islands >. 


Humba (Masai tribe bet. Sagara and Kilima- 
njaro ) . 


(N. and N.E. of delta of Niger R.). 



Itumba (dial, of Sagara). 

Karanga or Kalanga l Rhodesia >. 

Kaguru (dial, of Sagara). 

Kalaka = Karanga. 

Kami i bet, Khutu and Zeguha). 

Kamba ( bet. Masai and Pokomo R. 

Kamilaroi i Australia). 

Karagwe (W. of Victoria Nyanza). 

Cele i N. of Lower Ogowe R., about Bembu 

tributary ). 
Khutu (bet. Kami and Middle Lufiji R.). 

Konde (N. of Kua, on Lower Rovuma R.). 

110* - 

Kon . . . Kondwa or Solwe (dial, of Sagara). 

K<i . . . Kua (province .>f Mozambique, Portuguese 

East Africa). 

Kua . . . Kusu i dial, of Nywema, \V. of Tanganika |. 

Kir.i . Kwango (trib. of Congo on S. side). 

Kicafi . . (N. of Masai |. 

A'i/v . . Kwenyi (dial, of Sagara). 

I ■ . . . Latin. 
/..''. . . Lower Congo Congo. 

/.■' . . Lima (dial, of Swahili, of coast opposite Zan- 
zibar ). 

. . Lithuanian. 
/.. .1/ Lake Macquarie (Australia). 

/.. Nig . . Lover Niger. 
/." . Lomwe (dial, of Kua). 

. . Logone (S. E. of Lake Tshad and W. of 
Shari R.). 
L>i . . . Lnnda (Central Africa, inland of Angola). 
Lur . . (W and X. W. of Albert Nyanza). 

.'/'( . . Masai (midway bet. Zanzibar and Victoria 

Maf . . Mafor or Konjara (in Dar-Fur, Sudan). 
Mai . . Malay. 

Malagasy (Madagascar). 
Mamb . . Marabetu or Monbuttu (Long. 28 E.; Lat. 

:■;'/, N.). 
'/ "( . . Mande or Mandengo (N. W. of Liberia and 

E. of sources of Niger). 
Mao . . Maori. 
'/' / . . Mbunda = Angola 
Mid. Nig. Middle Niger B. 
Mb . . Mozambique (dial, of Kua). 

Mob . . Mobba or Maba (in Wadai, .Sudan. Long. 21 

E.; Lat. 14 N.). 
Won . . Monfu or Momvu (S. E. of Marabetu). 
M»r . . Morn (W. of Ban, Long. 30 E.; Lat. 5 N.). 

Mpongwe or Pongwe (about mouth of Gaboon). 
Msim . . Msambiji — Mozambique. 

Na . . Nano (in Bengwela, Portuguese West Africa). 

Ndo . . Xdonga (in Ovamboland, German West, Africa). 

. . Ndunda (N. of Kuaha R., bet. Hehe and 

Sagara i. 
. . Ngoni (N. W. of Lake Nyasa). 

. Xguru (bet. Shambala and Sagaraland). 
NJfW . . Xgwila (N. E. of Sango, in bet. the Hehe). 
-V' . . . Xika (E. of Mashonaland, in Portuguese E. 

Sy . . . Xyanye. 

Nya . . Xyamwezi (bet. Tanganika and Masailand). 
Nyal Xya-Lungwa (bet. Tanganika and Lake Mwero). 

Nyam . . Xvanmvam or Sande iX. \V. of Mambetu, 

Long. 26—28 E.; Lat. 4V 2 — «Va N). 
Nyamb . Nya-Mbu <W. of Victoria Nyanza, N. of 

Nyanye . Nyanyembe (in Nyamweziland). 
Nyas . . Nyasa or Nganga (S. W. and E. of Lake 

Nyasa i. 
Nyai . . Xya-Tiiru I W. of Masai and S. E. of Siikuma). 

Nyo . . Nyoro (bet. Victoria and Albert Nyanzas, N. 

W. of Ganda). 
NyvBt . . Xywema (S. of Regga, bet. Upper Congo and 



P . 
Po . 



Ro . 
Ru . 

Sa . 


Slw . 
Sin . 
Skr . 

Son . 

S P . 
Su . 

Stis . 

Sw . 

Ta . 

Tar . 

Tas . 
Tat . 
Tc . 
Teb . 
Ted . 
Tu . 

U . 
V . 


Xo . 

Ya . 
Ye . 

Z . 

Za . 

Ze . 

Zl . 

Old Bulgarian. 
Old High German. 


Pokomo (along the Tana R 

X. of Mombasa). 

Rangi (bet. Masai and Gogo). 

Regga (N. of Nywema, Get. Congo and Lutu 

Rotse (on Upper Zambezi, above junction with 

Rua ion Upper Congo, W. of Tanganika). 

Sande = Nyamnyam. 

Sagara (bet. Masai and Ruaba R.). 

Sakalava (W. coast of Madagascar). 

Sango or Rori (N. of Lake Nyasa, W. of Bena 

and Hehe). 
Sena (on Lower Zambezi). 
Shambala (German E. Africa, bet. Bondei and 

Shona or Swina (Mashonaland). 
Singhalese (Ceylon ). 
Sonrhai or Surhai (within the bend of Middle 


Suto i Basutoland i 
Sukuma (8. of Victoria Nyanza, N.E. of Nya- 

mwezi ). 
Sumbwa ( S. W. of Sukuma, in Nyamweziland). 
Susu (E. of Liberia, Long. 13 E. ; Lat. 10 N.). 
Swahili ( Zanzibar and African coast opposite). 

Taita or Teita (midway bet. Mombasa and 

Taturu == Nya-Turu. 

Tete (Lower Zambezi, N. E. of Rhodesia). 
Tebele (Matebeleland). 
Teda or Tibbu (Southern Fezzan). 
Tusi (S. E. of Victoria Nyanza and through 

Turrubul (Australia). 

Ungu (bet. Fipa and Sango). 

Vei (coast of Liberia, N. W. of Monrovia). 

Wandala or Mandara (N. of Nyamnyam, Long. 

26 E.; Lat. 9 N.). 
Wiradurei (Australia). 
Wolof (S. of mouth of Senegal R.). 

Xosa (Cape Colony). 

Yao (lower eastern side of Lake Nyasa i. 
Yansi (Lower Congo, W. of Leopold Lake). 
Yeye (N. of Lake Ngami). 
Yenesei (Siberia). 

Zulu (Zululand and Natal). 
Zararuo iS. W. of Bagamoyo, Germ. E. Africa). 
Zeguha (S. W. of Bondei, Germ. E. Africa). 
Ziraha (S. E. of Sagara, Germ. E. Afrieai. 

N.B. Whenever, in the derivations, no English word is inserted, it must 
be understood that the last English word given is repeated. 

refer to the Classes of Nouns (see Synopsis of 


arc. accusative. 

"'I) ■ ■ ■ adjective. 

ttdc, . . adverb. 

App. or Append. Appendix (at end of book) 

aug. . . augmentative. 

(b) Miscellaneous: 

bet. . . 



'■""./■ ■ 

between . 


('olenso-Natal, i. e. a word given in Colenso's 
Dictionary as used in Natal, though un- 
known or unused in Zululand. 



111* — 

contr. , 
ep. or comp 

dial. . . 
doub. ace 

*. (/. . 
Ex. . . 

contracted from, contraction of. 
. compare. 



double accusative ( taken by the verb). 

tor example. 

euphemism, euphemistically. 


f. . . . feminine, 
fr. . from, 

freq. . . frequently. 

gen. . . generally. 

h. I. p. <;. hard liquid palatal click (nee Note al com- 
mencement of Q). 

i. i. . . that is. 

imper. . . imperative. 

impers. . impersonal, 

indie. . . indicative. 

infin. . . infinitive. 

int. . . . interjection. 

lang. . . language. 
Lat. . . Latitude. 
Long. . . Longitude. 

M. . . . Missionaries (i.e. a word coined by them I. 
in. . . . masculine. 
metaphor, metaphorically. 

mod. . . modern word (coined since the advent of Eu- 

N. . . . Natal, i.e. a word used in Natal (though not 
appearing in Colenso's Dictionary i, and 
unknown or unused in Zululand. 

n . 

P. . 


q. V. 
It. . 

s. b. 

8. c 

s. k. 
a. p. 
s. q. 
8. I. 

8. X. 

s. I. 




Phrase or Idiom. 




which see or refer to. 

ciproc. reciprocal. 

} • 

p. c. 

soft 6, etc. i.e. without the aspirate 'for ex- 
planation, see Note on Pronunciation al com- 
mencement of each letter). 


soft liquid palatal click I see Note at com- 
mencement of Q). 

Town Kafir i. r. 

coined hv the Natives in the 

(used in perf.). means that the particular verb, in the par- 
ticular sense, gen. takes the static perfect 
tense, even though when referring to pre- 
sent time. 

v. . . . verb. 

N. B. — When seeking a word, take care, in even/ case, 
to refer also to the Appendix for additions and corrections. 




N.B. For the pronunciation of the letters, as shown in the corrected orthography given in brackets alter 
many of the words, see the notes on pronunciation at the commencement of each sectional letter. 

\ in Zulu, always takes the Continental 
5 sound, as exemplified in the English 
word 'lather', and lengthened or shortened ac- 
cording to the different varieties of the letter. 

There are in Zulu three varieties of A — (1), 
a short a, as in the words mina (my), and 
itkiiti saka (scatter) ; (2), a full a being that 
generally heard in the penultimate of words, 
as in u-Daka (mud), i-nTlahla (luck); (3), a 
loug »7, a sound less common, In i-iiTluhla 
(old basket) and i-Hashi (horse), and distin- 
guished in script by the sign aa. 

A, jjers. pron. They used with nouns 

plur. of the 2nd. cl., having the prefix 

ama [Sen. MZT. Ro. Chw. a; Cong. 
Ang. ma; Kag. Nyam. ga, etc.]. 

Ex. ama-hashi a-gijvma, the horses (they) 

A, rel. pron. Who; which used for 

nouns of the 2nd. cl. plur., having the 
prefix ama, when the relative in Eng. 
is in the nom.; also for 3rd. pers. sing. 
of nouns of the 1st. cl., having u or um 
as prefix, when the relative in Eng. is 
in the accusative. 

Ex. ama-hashi a-gijimayo mahle, the horses 
which run, are nice. 

iwja umfana a-yi-tandayo, the dog which 
the boy likes. 

A, pers. pron. He, she, it - - used only in 
the 3rd. pers. sing, of the subjunctive 
mood, for nouns of the 1st. cl. 

Ex. m-tshele, a-hambe, tell him, (that) he 
may go. 

A, aux. verb. part. Let, may - prefixed 
to pers. prons. of all els. and followed 
by the verb in the subj. to express a 
polite request, exhortation, entreaty = 
ma, lea. 

Ex. a-si-hambe! let us go! 

A, neg. part. Not — the particle is mean- 
ingless when alone, expressing the neg. 
only when in combination with other 

certain inflexions of the verb or verbal 
particles = ka. Cp. nga. 

Ex. a-ngi-tandd, 1 do not like. 

a-ai-yi-ku-hamba, we shall not go. 

A, int. Ah! used to express sudden 


Aba (pass. abiwa>, v. Distribute, deal out, 
allot, apportion out property, prizes, etc., 
among persons (doub. ace. with ela form) 
— used properly only of 'distributable' 
goods, as cattle, clothing, etc. ; for land, 
and the like, sikela, nqumela, nika, etc. 
would be used [Skr. bhajami, I allot]. 

N.B. For the construction aud meaning 
of the numerous derivative forms of each 
verb, see the note thereon in the preface. 

is-Aba (mostly used in plur. form iz-Aba), n. 
Attempt or effort (generally where there 
is doubt as to its usefulness or success) 
macTe r "in order to overcome some diffi- 
culty, etc., as when endeavouring to cure 
a sick person, when consulting a witch- 
doctor on the chance of gaining some 
light on a matter, or when a person 
offers some fabricated pretext, excuse, 
or prevarication, when endeavouring to 
get out of some difficulty (with enza) 
[Sw. sababu, pretext]. 

Ex. ion nut a uy'enxa ixaba nje, a person 
has a try, makes some attempts at any rate 
(even though it be not much use). 

asvm'enxeli 'xaba, we make no prevarica- 
tions, objections, regarding him, i. e. we have 
nothing to say against him, no fault to find 
with him. 

Abe (with the last syll. prolonged), int. 
used to express reproving surprise, as 
in order to check, etc., and equivalent to 
Eng. 'what next! what are you doing! 
where are you going to there!' 

Abo, poss. adj. Their, of them — used 
of things of the 2nd. cl. plur. when pos-. 
sessed bv others of the 1st. and 7th. cl' 


[Ga. MZT. Chw. etc. abo]. 




is-Abongo (Abhongo), n. Fixed, brooding 
ill-feeling retained long in the hear! 
against another peT8on=ama-Fundulul'U, 

Ex. angina? sabongo huge (or »a>jr), I retain 
no ill-will or malice towards him. 

nk i pa isabongo lei mi. he is letting on" his 
ill-feeling towards me. 

is-Abudu (Abkudu), n. (N) = i-nTenesha. 
is-Abukazana (Abhukazana),n. = i(li)-Bu- 

iz-Abulo (no sing.), n. Secret affairs (of an 
evil nature) only used as below. 

Ex. ngamnika ixabulo, I presented him 
with all his secret doings, dirty deeds. 

is-Abumu (Ah Jni mil), n. Ripe fig when 
already bad or rotting (cp. nm-Pobo); 
person outwardly smart-looking, though 
nally stupid; an abnormally large navel 
or swelling thereat, umbilical hernia, 
Ereq. among the Natives (= isi-Bono); 
ox of a breed having long shaggy hair. 

is-Aca (Aaca), n. Immense number, as of 
people or cattle; immense quantity, as 
of corn, etc. — used only as below as 
expression of surprise. 

Ex. isaca somuntu ka'Faku! s'enxam? 
that multitude of people at Faku's! what 
is it doing? 

is-Acusana, n. dim. of the following. 

is-Acuse (Achuse), n. = isi-Cuse. 

is-Acute (Acuthe), n. = isi-Cute. 

is-Adhla (And hi a), n. Final circular mat 
of grass thatching the summit of a Na- 
tive hut and forming the crown-tuft = 

is-Afico, n. = isi-Fico. 

is-Aga, >i. Name, saying, or word, of any 
description, containing some hidden" or 
suggested meaning, i.e. a verbal token 

, of something; hence, a nickname coined 
for a person and referring~Tcfsome phy- 
sical peculiarity or incident connected with 
him (= isl-Fenqo); current saying or 
p rover b, which suggests a second mean- 
ing not literally that of the words; 
particular cry, as thatcommonly adopted 
by a particular regiment or other body, 
when united in concerted action, as when 
char<:in.i- r in battle, at a hunt, or tackling 
a heavy weight together (cp. isi-Mewa); 
any surprising, unaccountable ev£nt or 
performance (from its strangeness being 
supposed to indicate some other event 
which it su^ests or portends as about 
t" happen um-Hlolo); habit or man- 
ner of life, daily conduct, c ustoms or 
ways (- iiin-Kiihii, and, like ITIWlHtter 
word, when used in plur., generally im- 
plying bad ways) - isi-Ga. 


Ex. yeka r.'ir elinexaga!. what a country 
for had practices ! 

ixaga talo'mfatia angixitandi, I don't like 
the carryings-on of that hoy. 

kwekle iaaija sini lapa-ya ' what strange 
thing has occurred over there ?=what's wrong 
over there? 

is-Agila or Agile, n. Short stick rough-cut 
from the bush and having an irregular 
knob left at the end, commonly carried 
by herd-boys for throwing at birds = 

is-Agisha, n. = is-Agila. 

is-Agude, n. = isi-Gceba. 

Ahle, mix. verb, used with the subjunctive 
of a verb to express 'possibility' in 
matters where there is some question 
or uncertainty, and equivalent to Eng. 
'could, could really, would actually, etc.' 
The fuller form ngahle is sometimes 
used ; and even this may be further pre- 
fixed by any of the pers. prons., thus, 
ngingahle, angahle, etc. The commoner 
form in Zululand is ngase, which is 
merely another form of ngahle (the par- 
ticles hi and s being, in Zulu, occasion- 
ally identical, e.g. i-hlo or i-so, meaning 

\\ 'eye'). Both se and hie would appear to 

i*be the solitary remnants of some obso- 
lete verb. See hla, sa. 

Ex. able (or ngahle., or ngase) ngikwenxe 
mi 111 i, why, I too could do that. 

kn at i iiti n hi e i or ngahle, or iiyase, or ba- 
ngahle) bayoUma, linn kanje? Do you think, 
then, they would actually go and hoe, it 
raining like this? 

ahle (or ngahle, or ngase, or kuiujahlp) kube 
bafiniiaim innfnla ngewele, it is possible they 
found the river full. 

Ahluka (s.k.),v. Part company with (with 
loc. or ku) ; get separated from ; differ 
from (used in perf.). 

Ex. ingubo yami y'ahlnkile kweyako, my 
blanket is different from yours. 

Ahlukana (s.k.), v. Separate (intrans.), be- 
come disconnected mutually, come apart, 
as a chain in the middle; part company 
with, as with a fellow-traveller (with ?ia) ; 
disagree with or differ from one another, 
as one thing in appearance with another 
(with na), or one person with another 
over an agreement (used in pert'.). 

Ex. 8' ahlukana naye emLalaxi, we parted 
company with him at the Umlalazi. 

amagamu abo 'ahlukene, their statements 
are separated i. e. are different, disagree. 

um-Ahlukanandhlela (s. k. loc. emahluka- 
nandhlela), n. 5. A parting of the ways, 
a junction of two roads, etc. 


Ahlukanisa (s. k.), v. Separate (trans.), dis- 
s connect, as anything (ace.) joined together 
with something else (with no) ; make 
part company, part, as two companions 
(ace.) or two boys lighting; set apart, 
devote, as money for a certain purpose 
(doub. ace. with ela form) ; make a 
distinction, as between one fault and 
another; divide into parts, as a cake, or 
property among a number (doub. ace. 
with ela form); grant a separation or 
divorce, as a magistrate. 

Ex. lesi'sikati s'ahlukaniselwe ukuteta ama- 
cala, this time is set apart for trying eases. 
wayekela-ni ukub' ahlukanisa? why didn't 
you part them (the lighters)? 

is-Ahlukaniso (8. k.). Letter of divorce; 
divorce, separation, as of husband and 
wife; cause of separation; partition. 

is-Ahluko (s. k.), n. Part, chapter, as of a 
book (M). 

Ah I u la, v. Get the better of, master, in 
any sense ; hence, conquer another (ace.) 
in "battle; overpower, as one wrestling 
with another ; overcome, as grief a per- 
son; be too much for (hibern.), surpass 
the understanding, astonish altogether, 
as an incomprehensible action or a huge 
joke might a person; beat, as one boy 
another in a race; convince, get the better 
of, as in an argument; persuade, as by 
convincing advice; master, as a disease 
= tika; zanga. Cp. tantata. 

Ex. ung'ahlulile umfwndisi, ukudhla kwake, 
he has beaten me, has the missionary, by 
his food (its astonishing quantity or deli- 

amadumbi la/ra ayas'aklula, these kafir- 
potatoes are too much for us (being more 
than we can manage, or get down in the 

lonfo ka'Ndwandwe seway'ahlula intombi 
lca'Ngiyexwa, the young-fellow of Ndwa- 
ndwe's has now brought down Ngiyezwa's 
girl (has made her consent). 

Ahluleka (s.k.),v. Get overpowered, con- 
quered ; get outdone, as by any difficult 
task ; be done up, as by fatigue or aston- 
ishment (used in pert'.); be unequal to, 
unable to cope with, unable to do (with 
ku, or infin.). 

Ex. seny'ahltdekile, I have been outdone, 
quite got the better of, as by any impossible 
work, or intractable person or disease. 

babeyakuti-ni bona, sekw'aftluleka noma- 
Burnt? what would they have done, even 
the Boers having been worsted? 

leyo'nkuku iy' ahluleka ukuhamba, that fowl 
is unable to walk. 

Ahlusa, v. = ahlukanisa. 


is-Aho, n. = isi-Ho. 

am-Aja, n. — see ama-Ja. 

is-Aja, //. Water remaining in the horn <>f 

the i-Gudu or hemp-pipe after smoking 

= isi-Ja. 

N.B. This water is smeared on the ge- 
nitals of a cow that has been covered, in 
order to prevent the bull from re-mounting it. 

Ajila, int. = ashila. 

Aka (Akha),v. Build, as a house (ace.); 
construct, as a wagon, or bridge; inhabit, 
as a country (ace); live, dwell (used in 
perf. ake cp. hlala). [Ski-, kshi, 

dwell; Gr. oikeo, I dwell; II eh. banah, 
build; Lat. habito, I dwell; MZT. yaka, 
build ; Sw. jenga, build ; kaa, dwell]. 

Ex. w'ake-jai wena? where do you live 
[lit. where have you built r.' 

umuzi wakiti w'ake nyas'oTukela, our kraal 
is settled (lit. is built) near the Tukela. 

abakwa'Mtetwa b'akr lonke lelo'xwe, the 
Mtetwas inhabit all that country. 

is-Akamukanya (Akhamukhanya), n. (Jar- 
den watch-hut, built like a small grass 
hut raised aloft on a stagework of sticks ; 
'a little yawning garden hut' - a name 
jocularly given to a person who is 
shading his eyes with the hands (i.e. 
ukw-aka 'mkanya). Cp. i(H)-Xiba; i-nQo- 
lobana; u(lu)-Bamba. 

Ake (s. k.), aux. verb. part, used in all 
persons, with the subjunctive, to express 
a polite request, stronger than a (q. v.), 
and rendered into Eng. by 'please, I 
wish you would, be so good as', and the 
like. Cp. ke, e. [Sw. ake; Kamb. Ni. 
akwe; Sen. ache; Mo. awe; Mpo. aye]. 

Ex. ake w'enxe kahle! please wait a mo- 

ufike ku'mlungu, uti ake atume lowo'muntu 
'exe kiuti, you will go to the whiteman, and 
say, would he be so kind as to send that 
Native to me. 

ake balime, ngixe ngifike kona, just let 
them be going on hoeing, till I come to 
Ake (Akhc), jjoss. adj. His, her, its — 
used for nouns of the 1st. el. when pos- 
sessing things of the 2nd. cl. plur., hav- 
ing the prefix attta. [Sw. ake; Ku. 
awe; Mpo. aye; Com. ahe; MZT. akue; 
L. Cong. andi\. 

Ex. ama-svmu ake, his gelds. 

Akela (Akhela), v. Build Eor (a particular 

purpose, person etc.) — mostly used of 

birds 'building' a nest for the breeding 


Ex. yaboniswa ttba leyo'nyoni uhcakela 



indhlu enje9 by whom was that bird shown 
to build sut'li a nest '.' 

I'lir. ikanjana hike ling'akela ongoso nge- 
langa! his little head may build for (i.e. 
be built in by) field mice iu uo time — a 
threat to 'do for' a person (C.N.). 

ttku-m-akela (umuntu) id, to construct for 
a person (i.e. against him) a fencing-off (wi- 
thin which he may not come) = to exclude 
him from a one's society, companionship, 
cut him off. 

Akelana (Akhelana), v. Build i. e. settle 
down for one another, be neighbours, 
living in one another's vicinity (used in 

Ex. s'akelene rye naye, we have our kraals 
near one another, are neighbours of his. 

s'akelene kabi kule'ndau-o, we have bad 
neighbours in this place. 

ow'akelene mi mi, naice, naye, etc. my, thy, 
his, neighbour. 

um-Aki (Akhi), n. 1. Builder, bricklayer, 
mason (M). 

Akisa (Akhisa), v. Cause a person (ace.) 
to build i.e. give him a site, settle him, 
as in such and such a place, help him 
to build. 

Ako (Akho), poss. adj. Thy used with 
nouns of 2nd. pers. sing, when posses- 
sing things of 2nd. el. plur. having the 
prefix ama [Sw. MZT. ya. ako; Cong. 
aku; Chw. aho; Mpo. Ka. ao]; also with 
nouns of the 8th. cl. when possessing 
things of the same cl. i. e. 2nd. cl. plur. 
[Sw. Ka. Cong, ako; Chw. aho]. 

Kx. ama-simu ako, thy fields. 
ama-nxi ako (uku-dhla), its water {i.e. of 
the food). 

um-Akoti, />/ur. ab-Akoti (Akooti, s.k.; s.t.), 
— VrMakotl. 

is-Akwali (Akhwali),n. = isi-Kivali. 

is-Akwece (Akhwece), n. Small quantity of 
anything left remaining in a vessel, as 
a little tobacco still left at the bottom 
of a pipe, food in a dish, etc. Cp. isi- 
THnyela; isi-Cete. 

Ala (pass, aliwa), v. Forbid, disallow, any- 
thing (ace.) or action (with uku, or uku- 
hri), nut a person (for which see alela); 
refuse, as to do anything (with uku); 
decline to Liive up a thing (with na of 
thing); reject, as a girl her lover (ace); 
dislike refuse to have any dealings with, 
with a certain person (ace); keep off, 
beat all hollow, do in a masterly all- 
beating manner, as in dancing, etc. = 
nqaba (which latter is the word com- 
monly used in Zululand, a/a being sel- 
dom heard, though in Natal it is the 


contrary). Cp. nqumisela. [Ar. harama, 

Ex. qa! ngiy'ala! no! I am .sure not; 
I deny it, etc. 

kw'ala kancane, wafa, it refused just a 
little, and he was dead i. e. it wanted but 
a little, he was very near dying. 

umfo was'eLangeni, a/c/if 'Mpande! na- 
giya, w'ala, that fellow of the Langeni clan, 
oh! by Mpande! he did dance, he would 
let nobody approach him (in quality of 

uku-x'ala, to reject oneself i.e. pay no 
attention to one's bodily appearance, neglect 
■ oneself, keep oneself in a dirty, untidy 

Ala (Aala), v. obsolete verb, only remain- 
ing in phrases below. 

Phr. itku-ala ixitanga. to sit crossdegged, 
like a tailor. 

ukiv-ala indima, to plan or mark out a 
field-patch, by picking out with a hoe, or 
merely by the eye. Cp. yaba. 

am-Ala (no sing.), n. The concavity below 
the ribs when the belly is sunken in 
from famine. 

Ex. waf'ika es'eng'amala, he arrived with 
the belly quite sunken in with hunger. 

is-Ala, n. Bunch of crow or other feathers, 
worn on the back of the head by young- 
men and boys when out courting, though 
originally only at royal festivities. 

is-Alakutshelwa (s.k.; s.t.), n. One who won't 
be advised by others. 

P. isalakutshelwa sabona ngomopo, the ob- 
stinate man saw (the truth of what had been 
told him) by the blood-flow = who won't 
be told, will learn by bitter experience. 

is-Alakwanda (s. k.), n. An urn-Takati (lit. 
one who prevents increase in a family 
by killing off its members). 

Alana, v. Dislike one another, be bad 

Ex. bay' alana, they don't get on together, 
don't like one another. 

Alahala (Alahala), int. = halahala. 

Aleka (s. k.), v. Be such as to be forbidden, 
disallowed, refused, disliked; hence, be 
disagreeable or disliked, as a young-man 
with the girls. 

Alela, v. Forbid a person (ace.) to do any- 
thing (with uku, or ukuba). 

Ex. ubaba us'alele ukuba siye kona, our 
father has forbidden us to go there. 

Aliswa, v. Be caused to dislike a person 
(ace), feel an antipathy towards him 
only used idiomatically as below in re- 
gard to married state. 


Ex. umfaxri w'aliswa indoda, the wife is 
caused to dislike her husband (hy the child 
in her womb) — referring to a natural anti- 
pathy she feels against hiin about the period 
of conception. 

indoda y'aliswa umfaxi, the husband has 
an antipathy against his wife (at the same 

is-Aliwa, n. Young-man or girl rejected by 
the other sex = isi-Shonkolo, isi-Gwadi, 
/' isi-Shimanqa. 

is-Aliwakazi, (s. k.), n. Wife disliked by her 
husband = isi-Shinikezi, isi-Shonkolo. 

Alo, poss. adj. Its used with nouns 
of the 2nd. and 6th. els. when possessing 
things of the 2nd. cl. plur., having the 
prefix ania [Sw. Nya. alo; Sen. Her. 
aro; Chw. ajo]. 

Ex. ama-ndhla al<> (ihashi), its strength 
(of the horse). 
ama-ndhla alo (uti), its strength (the stick). 

Aluka (s. k.), v. Plait, as a grass-rope (ace); 

weave, as a rush sleeping-mat; go out, 

V as cattle to graze, or people to work 

[Gr. pleko, twist; Bo. Ga. luka, plait; 

Sw. suka, plait]. 

Phr. sahlanyana nempi is'alulca, we knock- 
ed up against an army going out (to war) 
= we are in a nice fix — used by oue 
suddenly befallen by some difficulty or in- 
convenience in the midst of his work, as 
when the pot cracks in the midst of the 

is-Alukazana (s. k.), n. Little old woman or 
cow; a certain insect; a splashing up 
on the ground, caused by rain-drops, 
when the soil is already flooded; also 
= isi- Cash akazan a. 

Ex. imriila yexalukaxana, a heavy, splash- 
ing, gen. quiet, but drenching rain, without 
wind or mist, as in the summer. 

Phr. isahdeaxana sakwa' Mpanjana, any 
very ancient old woman, no longer able to 
feed or look after herself. 

is-Alukazi (s.k.),n. Any woman beyond 
the age of child-bearing ; any old female 
animal; also derisively of any old male 
animal; name applied to two kinds of 
insects, also to the isi-Cashakazana. 

Ex. isalukaxi esmg'v/mame, my old mother. 
umfana wesalttkaxi, an old woman's boy, 
a molly-coddle = um--Nqolo. 

um-Alukazi (s.k.), n. 5. Old bullock, or cow 

(not bull = u-Masheqe). 
is-Alukwazi (s.k.),n. (N) = is-Alukazi. 

Alusa, v. Cause the cattle (ace.) to go out 
to graze i. e. to take out to graze, herd, 
as a herd-boy; hence, watch over, keep 


guard over, as a headman over his 
people (ace). 

Ex. kaho, it'olusile, he is not here, he is 
out herding. 

um-Alusi.w. /. Shepherd, herd (M). 

is-Alute (Aluthe), n. Mist = UnKungu. 

Amba (Ambha), v. Dream of a thing (me- 
taphor.), imagine, think, ;is anything 
(ace.) improbable or incredible [MZT. 
amba, speak]. 

Ex. benging'ambi na'kwamba ukidi Uya- 
ktma namhlanje, I didn't even dream it 
would rain to-day. 

is-Amba (Ambha), n. A taking off bodily, 
a clearing off wholly at one go, as below. 
Ex. uku-tata ngesamba, to take the whole 
off at once, bodily = nqukula. 

is- Am bane (Ambhane), n. Ant-eater or ant- 
bear (Orycteropus Capensis); sometimes 
applied to a restlessly industrious man. 

Phr. siyadel' isambane, esinitfwngodi, si- 
ngawulali, s'&n teFonkomankoma naongungu- 

mbaitc! he's a self-contented fellow is the 
ant-bear, who digs a hole and then doesn't 
lie in it, making it only for ferns and por- 
cupines! = he is happy who can afford to 
work for mere pleasure, without bothering 
himself about any results. 

yek'tdcwenx'amandhla esambane! alas! for 
this doing the work (exertion,) of au ant- 
bear ! — exclaimed by one who finds he has 
been working for the benefit, not of himself, 
but of somebody else; or who has been work- 
ing with no profit to himself. 

Ambata (Amb hatha), v. Put on, cover or 
clothe the person with some covering, 
as a blanket (ace.) or other free, flowing 
robe according to Native fashion (not 
properly used of dressing with Euro- 
pean clothes = gqoka) = embata. [Ar. 
bayad, garment; Ga. amballa, put on; 
Ka. mbara; Chw. apara; Sw. a mint la, 
stick to - - cp. Z. namata\. 

Ex. kuhle owesifaxana ahambe 'ambete, it 
is proper for a female to go with the body 

is-Ambatwangapi (Ambhathwangaphi), ». 
Blanket with both sides coloured alike 
Cp. isi-Balala. 

Ambesa (Ambhesa), v. Cover or clothe with 
a blanket (with nga), etc., the body of 
a person (ace.) = embesa. Cp. sibekela. 
Ex. m'ambese, angalali edtndilixile, cover 
him (with his blanket), that he may not lie 

ulw-Ambesi (Ambhesi), n. Pericardium. 
Phr. intlixiyo inolrcambesi, the heart has 


a smothercd-up sensation, /. e. the free action 
of the lungs is impeded. 

r.rlr ulwambesi, he has thrown a cover 
over ns, stopped our months, stiffled onr 
expectations [as when we were eagerly hoping 
he would open a certain matter, and he 
merely talked about something else and then 
left). ' 

is-Ambo (Ambho), n. Quiver, for carrying 
assegais on the back; quiver-like recep- 
tacle for preserving feather head-or- 

Ambuka (Ambhuka), v. Break one's alle- 
giance to or abandon one's chief (with 
ku or loc.) in favour of another — the 
word was commonly applied to those of 
Cetshwayo's people who went over to 
the southern side of the Umhlatuze, to 
John Dunn and the white-people. See 

Ambula (Ambhula), r. Uncover by strip- 
ping off a blanket or similar covering, 
as when uncovering a sick person (ace.) 
so as to expose his body (the antithesis 
< >i" ambesa), or a heap of goods covered 
by a cloth; hence, open to view, reveal, 
as hitherto hidden matters (ace). Cp. 
penya; sibukula. [Bo. hambula, un- 

Phr. ukw-ambida wndobokawi, to uncover 
a young-wife — as a father-in-law might do 
by presenting her with a goat (taken by her 
isi-Gqila), alter which she would no longer 
require to hlonipa him by covering the 
breast, etc., in his presence. See hlonipa. 

P. VambuUingubo, lingene, it (an icala) 

uncovers the blanket (uninvitedj and gets in 
ito the bed) - - said by a person who sud- 
denly finds himself involved in some trouble, 
almost before being aware of it. 

is-Ambulo (Ambhulo), n. Divine revela- 
tion (M). 

Ami, poss. adj. My used of 1st. pers. 

sing, when possessing tilings of '2nd. cl. 
plur. having the prefix ama [Mpo. ami; 
Cong, ante; Her. andije; Sw. angu; 
Chw. aka\. 

Ex. amasimu a/mi, my fields. 

is-Ampanza (Ampaanza),n. Water-blad- 
der expelled by cattle, etc., before the 
delivery of the calf. Cp. um-Hlapo; 

is-Ampokwe (s. p.; 8.k.),n. Shambok, or 
thick stick-like strip of hippopotamus 
hide /-,// Vubll. [D. sjambok}. 

is-Ampompo (s.j/.J,?i. Native spoon-bag 
woven with grass or palm-straw is- 
Ampontshe, um-Godhlo. 

is-Ampontshe (s.p.;s. t.), n. = is-Ampompo. 

6 AM 

is-Ampotwe (Ampothwe), n. Native adze, 
consisting of a wooden handle with a 
small triangular blade of iron fixed into 
it, by a spike, near the end and at right 
angles to the haft (cp. i(li)-Zembe) ; per- 
son with very protruding forehead. 

Amuka (s.k.),v. Take away a thing from 
a person by force (doub. ace), deprive 
= apuca [Sw. mpoka]. 

Amukela (s. k.), v. Hold out the hands to 
receive a thing (ace); hence, receive ge- 
nerally. Cp. kangeza. 

X.B. It is Zulu etiquette for children, 
women, and inferiors generally, to receive a 
thing by holding out together both hands. 
I To receive in one hand only would imply 
superiority, or familiar intercourse between 

Amukezelana (s. k.), v. Pass to, or hand to 
one another, as persons do the strings 
when building a Native hut; supply one 
another with words, devices, as when 
pre-arranging evidence ; stand next in or- 
der to (with na), as one hut to another 
in a kraal. 

is-Amuku (s. k.), n. = isi-Muku. 

Amula, v. Pat or slap gently on the face 
or head, as one might a child (ace), with 
the palm of the hand (= mukida; cp. 
i-mPama); interrupt, put out a person 
(ace) when talking (not working — cp. 

Amuleka (s. k.), v. Get made to forget, get 
escaped for in the memory, forget; go 
wrong, make a mistake, get confused or 
put out by forgetfulness or distraction 
(cp. kohlwa; yibaza); go wrong alto- 
gether in respect to any specified vice 
(with na or nga), get so habituated to 
any bad custom (with na or nga) as to 
do it without thinking (cp. mukeleka; 

Ex. us'a/mulekile nokweba, he is now alto- 
gether given up to thieving, it is habitual 
with him. 

'/.' uqinisile! ng'amulekile, oh! you are 
right! I have been made, or have got, to 

Amulekisa (s.k.),v. Cause a person (ace) 
to forget or have an escape of memory. 

N.B. A boy who has had the misfortune 

to allow the cattle to trespass into a neigh- 
bour's fields, nibbles is-Amuyisane q. v. as 
he goes home, in order to induce forget- 
fulness in his father's mind — which this 
plant is supposed to do; and so he escapes 
is-Amuyisane or Amuyisani, n. Long-stalked 
weed, giowing in old fields, and used 
as above. 



is-Amvu (Aamvu), n. = isi-Fudumezi. 

is-Ancape (Ancaphe, no plur.), n. Late 
green mealies, eaten at the beginning of 
winter, after the harvesting 01 the ama- 
bele, but before the i(li)-Wenana = 

is-Ancapela (Ancaphela), n. Certain bird 
(? Saxicola bifassiata) (N). 

is-Anci, re. Tawny coloured jackal, having 
a disagreeable' smell. Cp. i(li)-Kanka. 

is-Ancinza, re. Girl kept by a chief, osten- 
sibly as a maid-servant, but also as co- 
ncubine = i-mPotuli [perhaps from 
ncinza q. v. Sw. m-zinzi, fornicator]. 

And', and'uba, and'ukuba, and'ubani, adv. 
Then, and then, afterwards, before that 
— only used in Natal = kad'uba. 

Ex. anobekisisa kuqala, n'and'ukuya'kwe- 
nxa leyo'nto, look well first, before you go 
to do that thing (X). 

sebenxanv, niqede, and'uba nidhle, work 
and get finished, and then eat (N). 

Anda, v. Increase (intrans.), multiply; 
spread, as might a report or sickness; 
become enlarged, as a hole in a hut, or 
a field by annual additions [Lat. pando, 
I spread"; Sw. tanda, stretch out; Her. 
tandavara, stretch]. 

Phr. ukwanda hwaliwa umtakati, increase 
(of family) is prevented by an umtakati — 
may mean, there has plainly been no umta- 
kati here, in this rapidly growing family. 

w'ande ngomlomo wje, he is grown large 
only as to his mouth, i. e. he talks much, 
but does nothing; is all bluster. 

is-Anda, re. Remnant or remainder left over 
from anything after the main purpose 
has been fulfilled, as a small supply of 
corn or dumbis remaining after planting ; 
(N) ground plan of, or site got ready to 
receive a hut (= isi-Za); (C.N. fr. Xo.) 
layer of reeds for storing grain upon. 
is-Andakwapusa or Andukwapusa (Anda- 
kwaphusa), re. Child, calf, etc. which has 
just ceased sucking. 
Ande, adv. (N) = kad'uba. 
is-Andela, n. Certain sea-fish. 
is-Andhla, re. Hand; sometimes used to 
indicate the right or left 'side' (cp. i(li)- 
Cala; u(lu)-Hlangoti). [Skr. han, strike; 
Hi. hath, hand; Lat. manus; MZT. h- 
anza; Ka. i-ganja; Bo. u-daha, ability; 
Ku. mihatha, hand; Heh. i-ganza; San. 
ganja; Go. ganya; Ngu. vyala; Sak. 

Ex. ukusipi isandhla tiomgwaqo? it (the 
kraal) is on which side of the road? 

umuxi ka'Bani wowunika (or buyisela) 


kulesi isandhla, So-and-so's kraal you must 
leave on this hand (as shown by a rign). 

Phr. uku-buya ngexandhla, to return empty- 
banded, having tailed to gel what one had 
gone for. 

ukw-enxa ngapandhk kwexandhla, to rlo 
anything without authorisation, on one's own 
account, without permission ol those in au- 
thority, etc. 

uku-bek'isandhla lcu'Bani, to seek the fa- 
vour, or patronage, of So-and-so, as a poor 
man when wishing to be adopted as the de- 
pendant of SQjne rich or powerful person. 

uku-qeda isandhla, to complete the hand. 
i. e. be or make up five. 
am-Andhla (no sing.), n. Strength (phy- 
sical = izi-Kwepa); power, might, moral 
strength; authority; authorisation, as for 
dong anything; ability, capability, as for 
doing any work; exertion, labour, ex- 
pended on any work; euphem. for semen 
virile (= ama-Lota) [Skr. han, strike; 
ojman, strength; Lat. mantis, hand; Bo. 
u-daha, ability]. 

Ex. inamandhla le'ndoda ibaxUe iwindiiku, 
he is able or skilful is this man in the carv- 
ing of sticks. 

okwabelungu kunamandhla, the things, 
doings, etc. of the Whitemen are of power 
i. e. show wonderful ability or skill. 

kunamandhb. ukuba induna ingeko, it is 
a powerful obstacle (to progress) that the 
iitdiaia should be away. 

Phr. uku-pcVamandhla, to fail of strength, 
be quite exhausted, whether physically or 
mentally; hence sometimes, be overcome with 
amazement; faint; give up in despair, etc. 
ulw-Andhle (loc. ehv-Andhle or olw-Andhle, 
no plur. — the plur. izi-Lwandhle, now 
sometimes heard, is of modern coinage 
and etymologically incorrect), n. Sea 
[MZT. lu-anja; Ga. Gu. nyanja, broad 
expanse of water, sea; Her. oka-ran', 
sea — see ama-Nzi]. 
ulw-Andhlekazana (s.k.), n. Variety of yel- 
low mealies having grains somewhal 
smaller than the u-Tubini (= u(lu)-Ngo- 
ye); another variety, having small black 
and white grains. Cp. i(li)-Gcak%; ifltj- 
is-Andhlwana, n. = i-nGobo. Cp. u(lu)-Su. 

Andisa.v. Make increase or multiply; en- 
large, make be more; make go a long 
way, as a little food (ace.) by treating 

is-Andisa.x. Increase; interest or profit 
accruing from anything. 

is-Ando, n. Hammer; origin, the stone 
used by a smith for striking the hot iron 


[prob. akin to anda q. v. — Skr. han, 
strike; Reg. nyondo, hammer; Sw. nyu- 
ndo; (Ja. nsamu; Her. o-ngungo]. 
And'uba, adv. (N.) = kad'uba. 

Andulela, r. Begin first, or before another, 
as a woman beginning to hoe before the 
others of her locality; begin first with, 
start off with, as with any particular 
one (with nga) of a rotation; be before- 
hand in regard to, anticipate a person 
(ace.) or event, as by speaking before 
him, making provision against, etc. 
[MZT. andirfa, break open]. 

Ex. ngiyakwandviela ngendhht yaka'Magidi, 
I shall start off or begin with the hut of 
Magidi's (laughter (in removing a kraal). 

mus'ttkung'andulela ukukuluma, don't an- 
ticipate me with your talk (I shall come to 
that which you are talking about). 

is-Andulela, n. First-fruits of any season's 
crops; (C. N.) certain bright star ap- 
pearing at the end of autumn (cp. 

um-Anduleli, n. 1. Precursor (M). 

And'uma, and'ume, and'ukuma, adv. (N.) = 

is-Andundundu (noplur.), n. = i-mBovane. 

Anela, v. Be sufficient for (ace. or with 
ku); suffice; be sufficed for by, have 
enough of (with agent); be given suffi- 
cient of (with nga), as a kettle with 
water; keep, retain possession of, as 
anything (ace.) found, lent, or taken by 
force in all senses most freq. used in 
perfect; just or merely do a thing, as 
arrive (with uku)\ speak, etc. = Eng. 

Ex. i;ili(iinlfi kax'anele, inganti bengiti 
siyaktoanela, the posts do not suffice, whereas 
I thought they would be sufficient. 

afnlr into pantsi, ab'es'ey'anela, he finds a 
thing on the ground, and thereupon keeps it. 
inilixiyo ka/y'cmelanga, the heart or desire 
did not get its full. 

w'aneFukuhleka rye, he did nothing but 

s'anel'ukufUea, basebesijja ukudhla, we had 
just, or no sooner, arrived, than they gave 
us food. 

shwapiduxa, wanele nawe, take a spoonful 
(pinch, etc. i and be satisfied also — as might 
be said to a person arriving when the food 
prepared is of a very small quantity, not 
sufficing for all. 

Anezela, v. = enezela. 
Anga, /•. Kiss a person (ace.) [Bo. onka; 
Sw. na\. 

N.B. Although, according to Native cus- 
tom, fathers and mothers frequently kiss 

8 AN 

their children, these latter never kiss their 
parents. Two boys, or two girls, may also, 
under exceptional circumstances, kiss each 

ulw-Anga, n. Roof of the mouth, hard pa- 
late. Cp. ama-Laka. 

Phr. uvame ulwanga, she has a big mouth 
i. c much talk, a noisy active tongue. See 

is-Angabe, n. = um-Ngabazane. 

is-Angcesheza, n. Certain small bird (N.) 
= isi-Hlalamahlangeni. 

is-Angci, n. Dense continuous rain (not ne- 
cessarily heavy), persisting perhaps for 
a whole day or longer, and, as it were, 
holding the whole land fast (ngci) within 
its grasp = is-Angeinyane; cp. um- 

is-Angcinyane, n. = is-Angci. 

is-Angcobe, n. Old mealies or mabele of 
the current or last harvested season, 
which have become sour from the damp 
of the pit. Cp. n(lu)-Pata. 

is-Angcokolo (s. k.), n. Maize-grub = isi- 

is-Angcozi, n. Protruding forehead ; person 


Angiti (Angithi), idiomatic equivalent to 
Eng. 'not', as below (lit. don't I say?), 
used interrogatively only and when an 
affirmative answer is assumed; hence, 
often equiv. to 'of course, you know, etc' 

Ex. angiti nganitshela na? did I not tell 
you? (of course I did). 

qa! bamsola njr nabo, bati, angiti wa- 
bekwa y'itina? no! they blamed him too, 
saying, were you not placed there by us? 

is-Ango, n. Sudden breaking forth from 
the clouds, or a momentary oppressive 
glare, of the sun, as on a cloudy sultry 
day in the summer — is-Ongo. Cp. isi- 

is-Angobo, n. Food-crib, for storing mea- 
lies, etc. = i-nGoma. 

is- Angoma, n. Necromancer, so-called 'witch- 
doctor', Native diviner = is-Anusi, urn- 
Ngoma. Cp. i(li)-Dhlozi; um-Lozi [Gr. 
nekros, dead; manteia, divination; Lat. 
augur, soothsayer; Gr. magos, one of 
the magi or tribe of dream-interpreters; 
Sw. Ga. ngoma, drum (comp. Zulu cus- 
tom of beating a hide during a witch- 
doctor's ceremonies); cp. Sw. ganga, 
practise medicine; uguza, to doctor; Ga. 
mluzi, medicine-man; Z. um-Lozi, q. v. 
and i-Nyanga q. v., both of which latter 
are other titles for an is-Angoma]. 

N.B. There are two classes of necro- 
mancers among the Zulus, one said to be 





■5 ' 









i/ispi 'ml by an ancestral-spirit or i(H)-Dhlox4 
— this is by far the commonest variety — 
and another, rarely met with, said to be pos- 
sessed of a familiar-spirit or um-Loxi. In the 
former case, of course, the speaking is done 
by the witch-doctor himself; in the second, it 
is done by the spirit, the doctor himself being 
supposed the remain silent. Their business 
is to unravel for their clients, for the sum 
of one shilling down (for a single private con- 
sultation, though for a public or combined 
consultation or iim-llhihln a much larger 
sum is required) any of the mysterious oc- 
currences of daily life e.g. disappearances of 
persons or stock, surprising calamities, out- 
breaks of disease, deaths, etc. 

-Angoza, n. Intense sun-heat, as when 

'the very ground is hot to the feet' = 


-Angqondo, sometimes in plur. iz-Angqo- 

ndo (Angqoondo) n. Amasi of the best 

kind i. e. sucli as comes out white and 

well clotted = is-Ankefe, izi-Keke. 

-Angqu, n. Orange River; one of a cer- 
tain regiment formed by Mpande next 
after the ama-Pela or more properly 
after the i-nGulube (= i(li)-Sishi). [Su. 
Senqu, Orange R. in its upper-parts; 
lower down called nuka entsu or Black 
R., and by the Hottentots called the 

-Angquma, n 

-Angume, n. 

Angungu, n. = isi-Gubudu. 

-Angxoko, (s. k.), n. = isi-Ngxoko. 

-Angu, n. = ulw-Anga. 

-Ankahlu (s.k.),n. Violence, vehemence, 
as when talking furiously to a person = 

-Ankefe, or sometimes in plur. iz-Ankefe 
(s. k.), n. = is-Angqondo. 

-Ankuntshane (s. k.; s. t), n. Small veldt- 
herb (Ophioglossum sp.), much liked as 

-Anqawane, n. = isi-Cegu. 

■Antloko (s\ t.; s. k.), n. Pea-like seed of 
the i(li)-Kumalo bush, worn as an or- 

■Antlukano (s. L; s. k.), n. S. Split or se- 
paration, temporary estrangement, be- 
tween relatives, friends or companions, 
as might follow some quarrel or passing 
disagreement; cause of such estrange- 
ment; (C.N.) separation, gap. 

N.B. This word is very irregular in its 
formation, having a y in the prefix instead 

Hail — isi-Coto. 
Certain plant, used as an 


of the euphonic //, and an n introduced into 
the radical ahhikano (see ahlukana) from 
which it is probably derived. 
um-Antshu (s. t), n. 5. Serous blood, as is 
sometimes discharged from a wound or 

ulw-Antsu (8. L), n. (C. N.) - u(lu)-Si. 

ulw-Antu or Antulwantu (s. I.), n. Any nice, 
dainty food, not come across every day, 
as meat, cake, etc. Cp. ul-Ovela; i(lij- 

is-Antungwana, n. Odour, scent, small smell 
(good or bad), as of a smelling hide, 
some medicines, or the savour of frying 
meat = u(lu)-SL Op. i(li)-Punga; u(lu)- 
Qashi; u(lu)-Futa. 

Ex. kwanuka 'santungwana, there is a 
scent or odour about (pleasant or unpleasant). 

Anula, v. Widen out, as the mouth of a 
sack (ace), a hut by extending outwards 
the foundation wattles, or a field by en- 
larging at the side; go beyond the rea- 
sonable limit in talk, as a person quar- 
relling going on to divulge secrets, etc. 
Cp. eneka; elula [S\v. tanua, enlarge]. 

is-Anungu, n. (C. N.), = i-nTate. 

is-Anusi, n. = is-Angoma [prob. akin to 
nuka q. v., or obsolete nusa = nukisa 

— cp. Sw. nusa, smell]. 

Anya, v. Suck the breast, as an infant or 
calf = ncela, ncinta. [Ga. nywa, drink; 
nyabu, a mother; Sw. nyonya, suck the 
breast; L. Nig. w-anyi, woman]. 

iz-Anya^io sing.), n. Consciquness of guilt, 
interior fear or shame arising therefrom, 
causing sensitiveness and mental agita- 
tion before others. See nyeza. 

is-Anyana, n. Certain shrub (Kraussia 

Anyisa, v. Suckle, give the breast, as a 
mother to her child (ace.) ; cause or al- 
low to suck, as a herd-boy the calves; 
suck heartily, as a calf. 

Anyisela, v. Cause to suck by sucking for 

— used only of an older calf sucking at 
its mother after she has already a young- 
er calf, which it is supposed to be 
helping to suck thereby. 

is-Anyu, n. = is-Anywane. 

im-Anyule, n. - see i-Manyule. 

is-Anywane, n. General unpopularity or 
disfavour, as of a young-man with the 
girls; person with the same ( isi-Nyo- 
mbolo; see -isi-Siln; i-Nyama); certain 
shrub, growing in the bush-country, 
which, when placed in a man's hut, is 
supposed to bring about his being gene- 
rally disliked. 


is-Anzwili, n. So-called Mocking-bird (Saxi- 
eola pileata) (C. N. fr. Xo.). 

is-Apompolo (Aphompolo), n. (C. N. fr. 
Xo.) isi-Bonkolo. 

Apuca (Aphuca), r. Take something from 
a person l>y force (doub. ace), deprive 
liim of it, as a man taking away the 
stick from a boy fighting = amuka 
[Lat privo, I deprive; Sw. poka, take 
by force]. 

Apuka (Aphuka), v. Get broken or frac- 
tured, as a bone or stick; get dislocated, 
sprained (though the Natives regard it 
as a fracture for an obvious sprain 
or dislocation, see enyela), as a person's 
limb at the joint (used with doub. nom.); 
die rapidly or suddenly, without any 
apparent cause; also euphem. for tomba 
q. v. [Ga. atika, break]. 

Ex. ng'apuka umlenze, I got or had my 
leg broken. 

induku yarni y , apukile, my stick has got 
i. * . i> broken. 

is-Apuko (Aphuko), n. Flat, bridge-less 
nos<' isi-Kopela. Cp. u(lu)-Zukumba. 

Apuia (Aphula), v. Break, fracture, as a 
bone (ace), stick, window-pane, etc.; dis- 
Locate, as the limb (ace.) of a person (the 
Natives considering it a fracture — see 
enyela); make a person die suddenly or 
without premonitory symptoms, as an 
umtakati [Skr. lap, break; Her. pora; 
Bo. tula; ahula, tear]. 

Ex. wamuti dhluxu, kwangati uyakum'a- 
pul'ingalo, he gave him such a pull, one 
thought he would break his arm. 

k'oBani i: inkomo (i% intombi,etc.) ; l apulana, 

with So-and-so cattle (girls, etc.) are very 
numerous, in heaps. 

is-Aqate (Aqathe), n. = isi-Qate. 

is-Aqu, a. Any hunting-song. 

is-Arro, //. A loud, unanimous expression 
of displeased surprise as by the inter- 
jection hawu. See ukuti rro. 

Ex. mus'ulcungiku&a ngesarro, don't he 
reproving me with your loud bairu-'mg. 

Ash' or Ashi, int. expressing very strong 
disapproval, as at a false statement, or 
to check a wrong action. 

Ashila, int. There you've got it! Serves 
you right! There's for you! -- as might 
be said to a child who has cut itself after 
being cautioned not to play with a knife, 
or as a boy might shout out when throw- 
ing his stick after a bird (this word is 
the antithesis of nxepe) = ajila, ashu- 
la, hash i I a. 

is-Ashu, //. (N) u-Nqasha. 

10 AY 

Ashula, int. = ashila. 

ulw-Asi, n. (C. N.) = u(lu)-Si. 

Aso, poss. adj. Its - - used with nouns of 
the 4th. cl. sing, when possessing things 
of the 2nd. cl. plur. having the prefix 
ama [Sw. Nya. Mo. aeho\. 

Ex. ama-nzi aso (isitsha), its water (of 
the vessel). 

Ata (Atha), v. Divide down the middle, 

as a hide (ace), loaf of bread, etc. 
ulw-Avela, n. (C.N.) = ul-Ovela. 

Awo, poss. adj. Its used with nouns 

of the 5th. cl. sing, when possessing 
things of the 2nd. cl. plur. having the 
prefix ama; their — used with nouns of 
the 2nd. cl. plur. when possessing things 
of the same class [Sw. Ka. Kag. Her. 
awo, its; Ni. Chw. ao; Her. Ang. MZT. 
ao, their; Sw. Nya. ayo; Ga. ya. ago]. 

Ex. ama-qabi awo (umuti), its leaves (of 
the tree). 

ama-hashi awo (amakosi), their horses (of 
the chiefs). 

Awu, int. Oh! an exclamation, when 

uttered soft, expressing agreeable sur- 
prise, admiration, etc.; but when ex- 
pressed hard, as Hawu, expressing the 
surprise of dislike, disapproval, indig- 
nation, etc. 

Awus', defect, verb. Don't, refrain from, 
desist from, must not — the original 
root of this verb, along with that of 
musa q. v., with which it is closely con- 
nected, or is, may be, identical, had pro- 
bably a meaning, like the present mean- 
ing of yeka q. v. (with which it is even 
still interchangeable) of positive-nega- 
tive command. The word or particle 
given above is used; though very rarely 
(like musa and yeka) to forbid, or cause 
desistance from an action, and is pro- 
perly followed by the ini'in., uku [Sw. 
is ha, leave off = yeka, Z.; Ga. deka! 
stop! leave off!]. 

Ex. awus'ukusho njalo, you mustn't or 
shouldn't say so = mushtkusho njalo, yeka 
ukusho njalo. 

(jijima, umbuyise; awus'ukuba aye lapo, 
run and bring him hack; it must not be 
that he goes there. 

Ayi, int. of negation, expressing strong 
dissent or denial; or of disapproval, in- 
tended to reprove or check some action 
or statement. See hayi; cp. ashi. 

Ex. ayi! mus'iikakulmna a/manga, stop 
that ! you mustn't get telling lies. 

ayi bo! heigh! cease that! 

ayi irena, 'mftmdisi! you mustn't 'mfu- 
ndisi! (hibern.) — you are altogether too 
tunny, too particular, etc. 


ayi Una wena! oh! dear me! with your 
fun! (you are quite too funny). 

ayi ngebeshu lake bo! oh! for hi* fine 
after-covering (what a beautiful, or unusual 
one it was). 

Ayi-ke, (s. k.), int. commonly used as a 
set-off or prefatory expletive in conver- 
sation or narration, always standing at 
the beginning of a sentence and used 
to lower expectation, sober excitement, 
etc., and may generally be rendered 
into Eng. by such expressions as 'well! 
very well! well and so!' etc. 

Ex. ayi-ke! yvn\ani ngokubona kwenu, 
very well! do as you find best, 

ayi-ke! sat'uba sifike kona, sahumida ixi- 
nkabi, well ! when we got there, we out- 
spanned the oxen. 

Ayo, 2)oss. adj. Its— used with nouns of 
the 3rd. cl. sing, when possessing things 
of the 2nd. cl. plur. having the prefix 
ama; their— used with nouns of the 
5th. cl. plur. when possessing things of 
the 2nd cl. plur. [Sw. Ga. Cong. Her. 
ayo, its; Sw. Sen. Ka. ayo, their; Cong. 
amio; Her. avio], 

Ex. ama-sondo ayo (inqola), its wheels (of 
the wagon). 

ama-qabi ayo (i/i/iti), their leaves (of the 

is-Ayoyo, n. Young of man, animal, or 
bird when just born. Cp. i(li)-Pupii. 

Azana, v. Know one another; be familiarly 
acquainted, intimate with a person (with 
na); know each other's capabilities, 
strength, etc. 

Ex. akasiye owakiti, siy'axana naye nje, 
he is not one of our family, he is merely 
an acquaintance. 

Phr. unyawo luyakukutwala, lukuyise lapo 
ung'axani nomuntu, the foot will carry you 
there where you know nobody, where you 
will he a perfect stranger yourself— said to 
reprove an inhospitable man. 

Azeka (s. k.), v. Be or get known; be 
knowable, ascertainable. 

Ex. ixinkomo xake kax'axeki, libuningi 

Ixr.o, his cattle are not knowable, are beyond 
computation, as to their numbers. 
Azela, v. Know a person (ace), etc., at. 

Ex. ngim'axele emZimkulu, I have known 
him at the Uniziinkulu. 

Azelela, v. Have concern for, show con- 
sideration for, notice kindly, as a person 
/(ace.) ill; think to know a person's (ace.) 
thoughts about any matter. 

Ex. umuntu ohlupekayo kuhle ukum'axe- 
lela, it is right to pay kindly attention to a 
person in suffering. 

11 AZ 

amanga! mus'ukung'axelela, it is not so! 
don't get thinking to know my business 
for me. 

icadindilixa nje, beng'axelele, he just laid 
himself out to die, they paying do attention. 

Azi, v. Know any thing or any person lace); 

understand a thing; show a person (ace.) 
the respect, sympathy, etc., t\wr to him, 
as to one's superior, *>r a person in want 
[O.Ir. fis, knowledge; Ga. manyi, know). 

Ex. uku-x'axi, to be self-conceited, full of 
the idea of one's own importance. 

kam'axi umuntu ohlupekayo, he has no 
understanding, shows no concern about a 

person in suffering. 

uyena ow'axiyo, it is he who knows all 
about it. 

abantu bayakohliswa, ngoba iniali besuke 
bengay'axi, the Natives get cheated, because 
they don't understand money-matters. 

Phr. amanxi uyaw'axi kakulu, he knows 
water-matters very well i.e. he is a good 

angiy'axi imiti in/ho, 1 know nothing of 
medicines, or about doctoring. 

ng'uye, ini, umaxi wexabantu {ixindaba), 
exake vimkohlile? is he the man then, who 
knows all about other people's affairs, while 
his own slip his memory? — as might be 
said of a busy-body finding fault with the 
affairs of another and implying that he 
ought rather to look after his own. 

is-Azi, n. One who knows a thing thor- 
oughly, an expert. 
ukw-Azi, n. Knowledge. 

Azisa, v. Cause a person (ace.) to know, 
acquaint; know a thing well or tho- 
roughly; remember well, have vivid 
recollections of anything (ace); think of 
with admiration, as any object or person; 
esteem, value, show due appreciation or 
respect lor, as towards a parent (ace) 
or for some present given to one; like, 
be fond of, as meat (ace); treat a person 
(ace), etc., kindly, with consideration; 
know well generally; also idiomatically 
as below. 

Ex. ihashi lalowo'mlungu ngiyaVaxisa! I 
have vivid recollections of that whiteman's 
horse, I think of it with a very intimate 
knowledge (for it once very nearly killed 

abelungu kabay'axisanga imali! the white 
people didn't like money! i.e. they are 
surprisingly fond of it. 

abakwa'Zulu bayam'axisa umuntu omhlo- 
pe, the people of Zululand have a great 
respect for a white person. 

Phr. angikayiqedi, kwaxis'ukuti ng'epuxa 
ukufika, I have not yet finished it (the field), 
it makes one remember (= you see; it was 


because; it was on account of that) I arrived 

Icwaxise ukuba aku'silwane esilculu; isika- 

sana nje, esingefinyefele 'ndawo, you see. it 

is not a large animal (an animal of any 

size); it is only a short crawling thing that 

can get no distance. 
Azisela, v. Notify, announce, give notice 

to a person (ace.) beforehand. 

Ex. wong'a : isela usuku, oxakuhamba ngalo, 

yon must let me know the day upon which 

you will be going. 
Azisisa, v. Know a thing (ace.) perfectly, 


Ex. angilw'axisisi kahle usuku, I don't 

know the day exactly, or for certain. 

12 BA 

is-Aziso, n. A making-known or announce- 
ment ; hence, advertisement ; proclama- 
tion (M). 

Azo, poss. adj. Their—used with nouns 
of the 3rd. 4th. and 6th. els. plur. when 
possessing things of the 2nd. cl. plur. 
having the prefix ama [for nouns of 
3rd. cl. Sw. Ga. Her. Cong, azo, their; 
Ka. Aug. ajo; for nouns of 4th. cl. MZT. 
azio, their; Nya. afo; Cong, ayo; Sw. 
avio; the 6th. cl. doesn't gen. exist in 
other Bantu langs.]. 

Ex. ama-kanda axo (ixmtombi), then- 
heads (of the girls). 


\\ in Zulu has three different sounds— one, 
a closed or inspirated b, pronounced by 
torn pressing the lips aud then gently openiug 
them with a slight holding of the breath, as 
exemplified in the Eng. word cab, and in the 
Zulu words beka (put), bona (see), aud des- 
cribed in this work by the simple sign b. 

Another kiud is the open, or slightly aspi- 
rated b, i this is the ordinary b of English), as 
in the word boar, or the second syllable of the 
Zulu word i-mBhobo (hole). 

A third variety is the exploded, or strongly 
aspirated b, identical with the bit in the English 
word eab-horse (when united in one sound, 
thus ea-bkwse), and exemplified in the Zulu 
words bhelca (look) and um-Bhobho (tube). 

These last two, a.s aspirated varieties, are 
both described in this work by the sign bh; 
the difference between the two kinds being 
sufficiently marked by the fact that the softer 
or slightly aspirated form occurs only after an 
m, where that letter immediately precedes it 
and in the same syllable; the exploded b, on 
the other hand, standing generally alone and 
at the commencement of a syllable. 

The slight difference between these various 
sounds is not easily recognisable to untrained 
ears, so that in consequence we find both 
Natives and Europeans making many ortho- 
graphical mistakes. Thus, the river or place 
in Natal called by the Natives iXobho has 
been by the Whitepeople erroneously named 
iXopo. Similarly, the English word borer be- 
comes to the Zulu i-bhola (this is the exploded 
I', the Zulu language not permitting the use 
of the merely open b — winch would be the 
correct sound- except after the prefix i-m). 
Again, the English /> is not easily distinguished 
by the Natives, especially when it comes at 

the end of a word. Hence we find the Eng. 
word shop becomes in Zulu i-shabhu. 

Ba, v. Be [Skr. bhu, be or become; Ar. 
ba'a, be; Gr. bios, life; Ger. bin; Sw. 
Bo. and most Centr. Air. langs. wa; Ka. 
uka; Kam. kwia; Ku. kala; Ru. ji; Gu. 
Ga. Kus. Nywe li; Hinz. ka; Ma. Hu. 
iagu; Her. ri\. 

Ex. ngikunike nje, kunge yami nokuba 
yami? that I should just give you. it not 
being mine at all, or not being really mine? 

akwaba bayakunqunywa la bo dbanyakaxi- 
sago! would that they might be executed 
(hanged), those who are causing the agita- 
tion! (N). 

Ba, ukuti (Bha, ukuthi), v. Lie clear and 
open, as the flat, treeless veldt, a cloud- 
less sky, or a plain fact = ukuti mba 
[Lat. pateo, I lie open ; Ar. ban, to be 

kwa'Ba (Bha; s. k.), n. Country open and 
flat, where all is plainly visib\e~i(li)-Ceke. 

ubu-Ba (Bha), n. Utter bareness, as of a 
tree-less plain; utter destitution, as of a 
poverty-stricken man; absolute devasta- 
tion, as of a country after a war or 
visitation by locusts. 

Ba (uku-), v. = eba. 

ukG-Ba (ukuu-Ba, s.k.),v. To steal; n. 
Stealing = ukw-Eba. 

Ba, pers. pron. They (nom.); them (ace.) 
- used with nouns of the 1st. cl., 3rd. 
pers. plur. [Ga. MZT. Chw. etc. ba; Cong. 
be; Her. ve; Sw. Nya. Ya. toa\. 

u-Ba' (abbrev. of u-Bani), interr. pron. 
Who V whom ? 

Ex. kwasho'ba? who said so? 



u-Baba, n. My or our father (nearly 
always used without any poss. pron.) ; 
my nr our father-in-law (whether hus- 
band's or wife's father); my or our 
itrBabekasi q. v., of any description, 
male or female; used out of respect to 
a chief or person of consequence; also 
by a servant to his master ; or by a 
woman when courteously addressing a 
man ; or to a boy by way of coaxing 
[Skr. lata, father; pa, protect, nourish; 
Hi. dada; Chal. abba; Ar. 'ab; Sw. Su. 
ete. baba; Mamb. papa; Sa. ha ; Aug. 
MZT. tata; Her. tate; Mon. f'aa; Ak. 
a fa; Lur. jam,; Di. wo; (cp. Xo. bawo); 
Bo. baba, grandfather; Ha. baba, chief, 
man of consequence]. 

Ex. awu, 'baba! 6hJ father! — equivalent 
to the common Eug. expression 'oh! mother,' 
and used by males, in a sportive way, to 
express some slight laughable surprise. 

B5ba, ukuti (Shaba, ukuthi), v. = babaza 

Baba (pass. Batshwa), v. Be disagreeably 
strong (in various ways) to the taste ; 
hence, be bitter, as aloes; be acrid, as 
tincture of iron, or the fruit of the arum- 
lily ; be very salty, as brine, or sea-water; 
lie very sour, as yeast; be very acid, as 
vinegar; be pungent, sharp, 'strong,' as 
highly fermented beer, or soda-water ; 
be pricking, stinging, itching, irritating 
to wie'skin, as a nettle; or, metaphor. 
to the heart, as a tantalising object or 
anything strongly exciting. See isi-Ha- 
hadolo; isi-Halamahogo. [Bo ivawa, 
smart; Her. ruru, bitter]. 

Ex. buyababa lobit'butsliwala, this beer is 
strong, puugent (with carbonic-acid gas). 

ubatshwe ugwayi, (or ulaka, or ukukuluma), 
he is made to itch by snuff (i. e. by the 
strong desire for it), or by anger (burning 
within him and wanting to be let off), or 
by speech (i. e. by the desire to make known 
what is mentally irritating him). 

Baba (Bhabha), v. Catch, as a bird (ace.) 
y^oy a trap or entanglement; hold fast or 
f firmly, as deep mud might an ox or 
wagon that has sunk therein— this word 
is rarely used in the active form, being 
nearly always transposed into the passive 
form bajwa; also = babaza (bhabhaza). 

Ex. kwaqala fewabajwa mkabi, maitje ku- 
bajiwe inqola, first the oxen got stogged, 
now the wagon is stuck. 

P. knbajw'eshoshayo (iiiyoni), it is the one 
(bird) that hops about the ground that gets 
caught in the trap (not the one flying in 
the air)— implying that it is dangerous to be 
always going about here and there, instead 

13 BA 

of staying at home; accidents air mostly in 

the travelling. 

i(li)-Baba (Bhabha), />. An isibongo or 
nickname for a fiery-tempered, spirited 

young-man, to whom also tli«' longer 
form, VrMababakazana, mighl be given. 

i-mBaba (Bhaba),n. — only used adver- 
bially in the form ngembaba, to express 
'openly, outright, clearly,' as of one's 
talk, evidence, confession, etc. 

Ex. indaba wayisho (or wayibeka) ngem- 
baba, he stated (or placed out) the affair 
openly (without any mere hinting, attempts 
at concealment, etc). 

i-mBaba (Bhaaba), n. Unsound, badly- 
shaped pumpkin, generally discarded on 
the field (= i-nGxwele); hyaena (— i-m- 

um-Baba, n. 5. Wild-chestnut tree (Calo- 
dendron Capense) (N. fr. Xo.). 

uku-Baba, n. Strongness; bitterness; sour- 
ness; acidity; pungency; itchiness, etc. 
See baba. 

u(lu)-Babadhlolo (Bhabhadhlolo), n. Tall, 
sturdy, well-built young-man. Cp. i(li)- 

Babagogo, int. = babashane. 

u-Babakazi (s.k.),n. = uBabekazi. 

Babala, v. Conie or go anywhere in regard 
to or about any particular matter (ace.) 
or to any particular person (used in 
pert'.); set off, start suddenly doing or 
saying anything ; provoke a person (ace), 
as to quarrel or fight ( == qala). 

Ex. kitkona umimtu onyasitk'ebabala in- 
koino, itvminituir.i cnycko nal is there any 
body who can get to come about a beast, 
while the kraal-head is absent? 

nyibabcle uBani, I have come to, for, or 
about So-and-so. 

wababala wanyishaya, lie just started off 
thrashing me (without any warning or pro- 
i-mBabala (Bhabala), n. Bush-buck (Anti- 
lope sylvatica), male or female; (N) fe- 
male only of same. Cp. u-Nkonka. [Ya. 
Babalala, ukuti (Bhdbhalala, ukuthi), v. 
Lie or fall sprawling, sprawl flat out on 
the belly or breadth of the body, as a 
child falling, or a woman lying on her 
belly, or an old hut falling down in a 
'squat' manner babalala. 

Babalala, (Bhdbhalala), v. = ukuti baba- 
lala (used in pert'.). 

um-Babalala (Bhdbhalala), n. 5. = urn- 



Bahama (Bhabhama), v. Flap out the 
wings, as a bird when caught in a trap; 
fling about the arms, as a man wildly 
gesticulating; pounce or spring at a 
tiling (ace with ela form), as a cat at 
a mouse (cp. badama). 

u-Babamkulu (Babamkhulu), >/. My or 
our grandfather, <>r grandfather's sister 
or brother (i.e. great uncle). Cp. u-Ma- 

u-Babana, n. Step-father (the title being 
somewhat contemptuous, is not liked). 
Cp. iirWawa. 

isi or um-Babane, n. 5. Any bitter, sour, 
sharp-tasted, stinging thing = i(U)-Hla- 
hn, isi-Hahadolo. 

Babashane, int. Dear me! oh my! - as 
when a fatigued person sits down for a 
rest, or when one expresses, in a spor- 
tive way, astonishment at some tale or 
action of another (mostly used by males) 
= Babagogo. Cp. mameshane. 

Babaza, v. Expre ss astonishment at any 
thing (;nv.), whether of displeasure or 
admiration ; hence, speak with praise or 
admiration of a person (ace.) or thing, 
as to its astonishing excellence, etc.; be 
surprised at the astonishly bad doings 
(ace.), etc of a person or the bad qua- 
lities of a thing; have a very handsome 
appearance, whether by natural physique 
or get up. Cp. mangala; bonga. 

Babaza (Bhabaza), v. Squelch, make a 
squelching sound, as a frog when thrown 
on the ground, or as the person throw- 
ing it (ace.) = ukuti baba (bhaba). 

Babaza (Bhabhaza), v. Bubble, babble, as 
the water of a brook among the rocks. 

i-mBabazane (Bhabazane), n. Stinging- 
nettle, used medicinally to induce sexual 
irritation (cp. h-mBati); regiment of girls 
preceding the i-nZaiuu, and the last 
formed by Shaka. 

um-Babazo, n. Any foppish peculiarity of 
dress to attract admiration, as a long 

Babe, ukuti (Ilhabe, ukuthi), v. Come 
down upon in a thickly-covering, encom- 
passing mass, as locusts swarming down 
in a field, a lot of people crowding over 
a fibre, or as an outbreak of disease 
universally attacking a kraal. 

Ex. sekute babe ixinyoni entsimini, it is 
DOW thickly covered with birds in the field. 

i(li)-Babe, or Babe (Baabe), n. Discoloured 
spot or patch on the skin, where a son 1 
or burn lias originally been. 

u(lu)-Babe, ».. Name of two varieties of 
long broad-leafed grass (Panicum excur- 

14 BA 

reus etc.), common around bushes and 
by rivers, and one of which is much 
liked by cattle. 

u-Babekazi (s.k.),n. Any brother or half- 
brother of my or our father, i. e. pater- 
nal uncle (cp. u-Malume) ; any sister or 
half-sister of my or our father, i. e. 
paternal aunt (cp. u-Mamekazi) ; any 
um-Zala (male or female) of my or our 

Babela, v. Burn off a patch of grass sur- 
rounding a kraal (ace), in order to pro- 
tect it from grass-fires. 

Babo (with both sylls. equally long), int. 
expressing grief, disdainful surprise, etc. 

Ex. we! babo! ngomntanami! oh! dear 
me! for my child! — said by a woman 

Babo, poss. adj. Their — of nouns of the 
1st. cl. plur. — see abo. 

um-Babo, n. 5. Rope-like stuffing of grass, 
etc., that forms the body of a Native 
basket, and around which the palm-strips 
are twisted ; one of the outside wattles 
in the frame-work of a hut crossing dia- 
gonally over those on the inside = urn- 

isi-Babule, n. One of a section of the 
u-Tulwana regiment; (C.N.) sulphur. 

Baca, ukuti (Bhuca, ukuthi), v. Lie 'splash' 
out, flatly and softly extended, spraw- 
ling, as a lump of wet mud thrown on 
a wall, or a person falling or lying 
stretched out on his stomach, or a wet 
garment thrown 'spreadingly' out on 
the grass to dry == bacazeka; make so 
lie, i. e. throw, let fall, etc., as a lump of 
wet mud (ace.) on to a wall (loc.) or a 
spoonful of porridge on to the floor = 
bacaza; slush at, splash, bespatter, as a 
wall (ace.) with mud, or metaphor, a 
person with foul charges = baceka. Cp. 
ukuti pahla, ukuti taca. 

Baca (Bhaca), v. Hide oneself, as in the 
grass (= casha); cling to a person (with 
ku) unwanted, stick to him like some- 
thing undesired; betake oneself else- 
where for refuge, for tiding over a 
famine, for avoiding one's creditors, etc. ; 
waste time, laze about, as a boy who, 
sent on a message, just comes and idles 
about, or a woman who going out to 
hoe, on arrival in the field, merely sits 
about snuffing [Ar dara, conceal; Her. 
tara, hide oneself]. 

i(li)-Baca (Bhaca),n. One who habitually 
acts as above, in any sense; one of the 
Baca tribe, now mostly about the Umzi- 
mkulu and St. John's River. 

BA 15 

u(lu)-Baca (Bhnca), n. Person habitually 
lying 'sprawled' out; lionee, one abso- 
lutely without strength, as whoa in the 
last stages of illness; one chronically 
sick, a confirmed invalid. Cp. um-Cam- 

Bacalala, ukuti (Bhdcalala, ukutki), r. 

— ukuti baca. 
Bacalala (Bhacalala), v, = ukuti baca. 
i-mBacambaca (Bhaeambhaca), n. Any 

soft, semi-liquid, slushy substance, as 

umd = i-nTacantaca. 

Bacaza (Bhacaza), v. Make anything of 
a soft, semi-liquid nature lie out ex- 
panded, splash-wise, as porridge (ace.) 
or mud by throwing it or letting it fall 
= ukuti baca. 

Bacazela (Bhacazela), v. Splash or slush 
anything, as a wall, table, or person 
(ace.), with anything (with nga) of a soft 
semi-liquid nature, as above = baceka. 

Baceka (Bhaceka), ?'. 'Slush,' splash, be- 
spatter a thing (ace.) with any softly 
expanding, semi-liquid substance (with 
nga), as when throwing mud on a wall 
when plastering it, or letting cow-dung 
or porridge fall about the table or floor; 
bespatter a person (ace.) as to his cha- 
racter by making foul charges against 
him ; begin to show cobs, as mealies 
(= cashela) = taceka. 

i(li)-Baceka (Bhaceka), n. Very small girl's- 
umutsha, having a mere apology for an 
isi-gege or front-piece and a very narrow 
loin-band of beadwork. 

Bacekeka (Bhacekeka), v. Get so slushed, 
splashed, or bespattered, as above. 

Bada bada, ukuti (Bhada bhdda, ukuthi), 
v. Stagger about, be unsteady on one's 
legs'," as a person intoxicated or wading 
through slippery mud ; walk with a 
staggering, unsteady gait, as a traveller 
thoroughly exhausted; do anything (pro- 
perly with the feet) in a clumsy manner 
(cp. pamazela); flounder helplessly 
about in one's talk, as a person quib- 
bling or giving concocted evidence (= 
manaza) = badaza, badazela [Sw. Ga. 
bata, duck; Her. taka, waddle]. 

i(li)-Badabada (Bhddabhada), n. A clumsy, 
awkward person (properly on the feet, 
though also freq. used in a general 
sense). Cp. i(li)-Pamapama. 

u-Badakazi (Bhadakazi), n. Profound 
sleep — only used in the phrase kivesi- 
ka'badakazi. (isikati), at the time of 
deep sleep i. e. about midnight. 

i(li)-Badakezi (Bhadakezi), n. Big, broad, 
flat foot. 


Badalala, ukuti (Bhddalala, ukuthi), v. 

Lie sprawling or at full length on tin- 
ground, as a drunken man, or an ox in 
the mud ukuti patalala. 

Badalala (Bhadalala), v. ukuti badalala. 

Badama (Bhadama), v. Come down upon 
suddenly or by sin-prise, pounce upon 
unexpectedly (not necessarily with any 
springing of the body, merely by sud- 
denly appearing over), as a highway- 
man suddenly coming down upon a 
person (ace.) he has been belaying, or a 
thief taken in the act, or as a cat sur- 
prises a mouse. Cp. babamela. 

Ex. w'etuka, ipoyiso. selimbademe, Ik- start- 
ed to i i till the policeman already upon him. 

u(lu)-Badane (Bhadane), n. General out- 
break or epidemic of disease. 

Badaza (Bhadaza), v. = ukuti bada bada. 

Badazela (Bhadazela), v. Go along in a 
staggering, unsteady, clumsy, flounder- 
ing manner, as when walking or talking 
= ukuti bada bada. 

isi-Badazi (Bhadazi), n. Any person or 
thing unduly 'squat,' low and broad, as 
a short thick-set woman, a broad low 
hut, or squat beer-vessel. 

i(li)-Bade (Shade), n. Certain veldt-herb, 
the white under-skin of whose leaves 
used to be stripped off for fringes and 

Badeka (Bhadeka), v. Roast by burning, 
by putting right into the fire, as boys 
meat (ace); over-roast, burn, asamealie- 
cob (which should be placed near, not 
in the fire). 

Ex. uku-xi-badeka emlilweni, to roast one- 
self over the fire i. e. sit very close over it. 

u(lu)- Badeka (Bhadeka), n. South-African 
leprosy (N) = u(lu)-Qoko. 

N.B. Leprosy seems to be quite unknown 
in Zululaud, and no uame exists for it. 
See i(li)-Ndiki. 

Badhla, ukuti (Bhadhla, ukuthi), v. Place 
or throw carelessly down in a broad 
expanded heap, as one might his blanket 
(ace); place or throw oneself flat down 
on the buttocks, squat down, as a Native 
woman = badhlaza; lie or get so placed 
or squatted down = Badhlazeka. 

Badhla (Bhadhla), v. Boil in a bubbling, 
spluttering manner, as any thickened 
semi-liquid food like porridge ( =xwata. 
Cp. bila; budhluzela; xapazela); stow 
away, pack away into, as goods (ace.), 
grain, etc. into any basket (with nga) 
or other receptacle (= jm/tta). 

Badhlaza (Bhadhlaza), v. = ukuti badhla. 




Badhlazeka (Bhadhlazeha), v. — ukuti ba- 
rf hi a. 

Badhlu, ukuti (Bhadhlu, ukuthi), v. Break 
open into broad sores, or become marked 
with extensive open wounds from burn- 
ing, etc., as a person's body; become 
'all holes' i. r. with staring open spaces 
(not mere tears), as a person's garment 
= badhluka, cp. camuka; make become 
as above = badhlula, badhluza; cp. ca- 
nt US 1 1 . 

isi-Badhlu (Bhadhlu), n. Broad open sore, 
as from a burn; broad staring hole, as 
in a blanket. 

Badhluka (Bhadhluha), v. = ukuti badhlu. 

Badhlula or Badhluza (Bhadhlula, Bha- 
dhluza), v. = ukuti. badhlu. 

i(li), or isi-Badu (Bhadu), n. Large-sized 
spot, as below = i(li)-Gqaba. 

Badu badu, ukuti (Bhadu bhadu, ukuthi), 
v. Be dotted or marked with large-sized 
spots, as a pig, leopard, cloth, etc. = ba- 
duzeka; put on, or mark with such 
spots = baduza. See ukuti gqaba gqa- 
ba. Cp. ukuti kifi kifi. 

Badula (Bhadula), v. Tramp along a great 
distance over the country (ace. — lit. 
spot it all over with footmarks); bar, 
as the doorway of a hut (ace.) by a 
thick cross-bar (see u-Nobadule). 

u-Badule (Bhadule), n. used only in a 
jocular sense as personification of a 
tramp's feet. 

Phr. uyahamba, 'Badule ka'Lunyatvo f thou 
goest well, good feet of mine! 

Baduza (Bhaduza), v. = ukuti badu badu. 

Baduzeka (Bhaduzeka), v. = ukuti badu 

u-Bafazini, n. Hen-pecked husband, or one 

mastered by his wives (= u-Vumokwe- 

nina); or an 'old woman' of a man, 

always with his wives. 

Baha (Bhaha), v. Rave, as an angry man 
at a person (ace. with ela form); rage, 
as sickness or famine. 

isi-Baha (Bhaha), n. Fever-tree, whose 
very hot and pepper-liked root-bark is 
used for malarial fever and as an ex- 

i(li)-Bahu (Bhahu), n. New skin-petticoat 
or kilt of a woman before it has been 
blackened for wearing. Cp. isi-Dwaba. 

isi-Bahu (Bhahu), n. Angry, absolute per- 
son, who domineers over all. 

Baka (s. Jr.), v. Rage, be furiously active, 
as an epidemic of disease, a great grass- 
fire, <>r a person giving full play to some 
passion or evil propensity. 

Ex. uBani ubake ngokweba (or ubakile 
ekwebeni), So-and-so is going at it strong 
with his thieving. 
i(li)-Baka (Bhaha), n. Veldt-pond (=i(li)- 
Cibi, i(li)-Damu) ; pi. ama-Baka, great 
abundance, 'ponds-fuP of u-tshwala (= 

Ex. kwaku amabaka nje, it was just ponds 
(of beer), we were just swimming in it. 

Baka baka, ukuti (ukuthi, s. k.), v. = ba- 

i(li)-Bakabaka (s.k.),n. Person with rest- 
less eyes, as though of a timorous, 
suspiciously cunning nature (see baka- 
za); fine-looking person, of attractive 
appearance, male or female. 

isi-Bakabaka (Bhakabhaka), n. Great ex- 
panse of water, as from a river that has 
over-flown its banks; a flood. 

um-Bakabaka (s. k.), n. 5. = um-Gembele- 

i(li)-Bakabolo (Bhakabholo), n. = i(li)-Pa- 

isi-Bakabu, n. Large wound (C.N.). 

i(li)-Bakada (Bhakada), n. Female of the 
Large Kafir Finch or i(li)-Sakabidi q. v. 

Bakaza (s. k.), v. Look, or move the eyes, 
restlessly or rapidly about, from place 
to place, in a timorous, shy, suspicious, 
or cunning manner, as one of a nervous 
temperament, with a guilty conscience, 
or some dishonest intention = laziza, 
ukuti baka baka. Cp. sholoza; nciya- 

Bake (Bakhe), poss. adj. His, her, its 
used with nouns of the 1st. cl. — see ake. 

Bakela (Bhakela), v. Beat a person (ace.) 
w r ith the fists, punch [fr. vulgar Eng. 

isi- Bakela (Bhakela), n. = u(lu)-Gwibi- 
sholo; also (fr. verb above), clenched fist ; 
punch or blow with the fist; short, 
scrubby top-knot of a woman. 

Bako (Bakho), jjoss. adj. Thy — used of 
2nd. pers. sing, with nouns of 1st. cl. 
plur. — see ako. 

i(li)-Bakuba (Bhakubha), n. = i(li)-Papu. 

Baku baku, ukuti (ukuthi, s. k.), v. = ba- 
kuza (s. k.). 

Baku baku, ukuti (Bhahu bhahu, ukuthi), v. 
= bakuza (bhakuza). 

u(lu)-Bakubaku (Bhakubhaku), n. Interior 
'fluttering', nervous agitation, timidity. 
See papateka. 

Bakuza (s. k.), v. Do nimbly, with quick 
active motion, as when walking over 
sharp stones, or a waiter sharply fetching 


something; phew or cat with a quick 
nimble movement of the mouth, mumble, 

as a rabbit or old person without teeth 
(cp. mwmuta.) 

Bakuza (Bhakuza), v. Flap or flutter about, 
as the wings of a bird when caught, or 
a flag in the wind = gubaza. 

Bakuzela (Bhakuzela), v. Flutter at the 
diaphragm i. e. palpitate, as a man after 
rapid running; flutter or be flurried with 

Bajaza (Bhajaza), v. Look in the eyes as 
.- though conscious of guilt. Cp. bakaza; 

Bala, adv. A fact! actually, so then, really, 
indeed, etc. - expressing surprise with 
doubt, surprise with admission (= mba- 
/</, imbala, nembala); adj. a mere (one), 
a single (one) \xr-n. in a disparaging- 

sense (= nibala) [Sw. ivazi, clear. Cp. 
Sw. waza, count = Z. bala\. 

Ex. halo! kwaxa kwalunga, actually, it got 
to come right ! 
angina'mwitUf ngisho nomfana lo obala, 

I have nobody, not even a single boy. 

Bala,/'. Count, as cattle (ace); go over, 
one by one; calculate, as the effects of 
an action. [Skr. bhajami, I allot; Ar. 
manah, reckon; Sw. waza; Her. vara; 
Bo. tala; Ga. gat a]. 

Ex. kakubali konke lo/cv, he doesn't take 
all that into account. 

Bala (Bhala), v. Make scratched figures or 
delineations on anything (ace.) with the 
nails or a pointed instrument (= hweba); 
hence, write (M), as a letter (ace); write 
down, register, enter, as a person (ace.) 
or thing. 

Phr. uBaiti ttbaliwr, So-and-so has been 
written down i.e. enrolled or called out to 
work on a road-party. 

i(li)-Bala, n. Spot, of any kind, as on a 
leopard's skin, on a dress, on the veldt 
where grass has been cleared away ; an 
open-space, court-yard, as outside a kraal 
(= i(li)-Gceke); spot specially cleared in 
a field for the temporary stacking of 
Kafir-corn when cut; distinguishing co- 
lour-mark or pattern, of cattle, all of 
which marks have separate names -- see 
lung a, wasa, etc. 

i-mBala (Bhala), n. = i-mBali. 

um-Bala, n.5. Colour, as of any thing; shin- 
bone, tibia [MZT. mu-bala, colour; Her. 
otyi-vara; Cp. Her. oku-vara = Z. uku- 
bala; Sw. bay a, scraggy]. 

Phr. uku-ba nembala <>r nemibala, to have 
thin scraggy legs, without calves. 
sengiy'inkomo enombala, I am now become 

17 BA 

a 'spotted' beast in the land i. e. disagree- 
ably famous in some bad sense — as the 
lather of a young-man whoso crimes are the 
talk of the country. 

(itmitniu) o'mbtUa kahili, one who is of 
two colours, i.e. double-faced, craftily joining 
either side as circumstances require, a- ;i 
man who sometimes pretends to be a Chris- 
tian and at other times a heathen. Cp. 

u(lu)-Bala, n. Open, empty country or 
spot, clear of trees and other objects, or 
unoccupied by people (= u(lu)-Qangqa- 
lazi; cp. i(li)-Ceke; i(li)-Gceke); hence, 
an empty, useless thing, a nothing; 
empty 1 stuff, as talk (= i(U)-Ze); used 
adverbially as ubala, to express 'vainly, 
for nothing', or as ngobala, in a similar 
sense (= ngeze); loc. obala, in the open, 
in the open country; hence, plain, visible 
to all (with ku) [Ar. khala, open coun- 
try ; Sw. wanda]. 

Ex. uyakulumela {sebenxda, etc.) ubala nje, 
he is merely talking (working etc.) tor tbe 
air, for nothing, to no purpose. 

amaxwi ako as' obala, your words are out 
in the open, obvious, perfectly plain. 

wma-.i wakubo us'obala k/ti, their kraal is 
clearly visible from our place. 

ixinkomo kona umuntu axitole ubala nje, 
there a person just finds cattle in the open 
i. e. without even having to look for them, 
without any exertion. 

i-mBalakabili (Bhalakabili), n. One who 
shows two colours, a trimmer see 


Balakaca (Bhalakaca), v. = balakaxa. 

Balakaca, ukuti (Bhalakaca, ukuthi), v. = 
ukuti balakaxa. 

Balakaxa, ukuti (Bhdlakaxa, ukuthi), v. 
Fling down in a flat-falling, flopping, 
sprawling way, as a wet hide (ace.), or 
anything of a similarly soft nature = 
balakaxa; get so flung flatly or flop 
down; get thrown, or lie, sprawling, as 
a man in the ground = balakaxeka. See 
ukuti dalakaxa. 

Balakaxa (Bhalakaxa), v. = ukuti balakaxa. 

i(li)-Balakaxa (Bhalakaxa), n. Big, clumsy, 
'sprawling' foot or hand; large clunisy 
boot. Cp. i(li)-Baxakezi. 

Balakaxeka (Bhalakaxeka), v. = ukuti ba- 

isi-Balala (Bhala la), n. Woollen blanket 
having coloured stripes on one side but 
plain brown on the other (X. fr. Xo.). 

Baleka (s. k.), v. Bun away, openly or 
known to others; escape, flee openly. 
Cp. eqa. 





P. latbaleka ehlatshicayo (inkomo), it is the 
ox that i- gored or stuck that runs away, 
/. e. do thou likewise and clear, since the 
abaiakati have already given you evidence 
of their presence (perhaps by the death of 
some person). 

Balekela (s. k.), r. Run off or away to a 
person or place (with ku or loc); run 
away from a person or thing (ace); run 
away after or for a thing (ace), whether 
actually, or mentally (metaphor.) as when 
drawn or made to run off towards any 
particularly attractive article among a 
selection; make straight for a certain 
spot aimed at, as an assegai. 

Balela, v. Recount or enumerate for a 
person the details of an affair (doub. 
ace.); shine brightly or hotly, as the sun 
(used iu perf.) [Lat. caleo, I glow]. 

Ex. libalele narnhla (Manga), it (the sun) 
is hot to-day. 

libaleli isango, or elenkunxi, etc., it is 
>hiniug with a stifliug glare, or with a bull 
of a sun (i. p. tremendously hot), and so on. 

um- Balela, u. 5. (N) = u-Xyezi. 

um-Bali (Bhali), n.l. Writer; clerk (chief- 
ly that in a magistrate's office). 

i-mBali (Bhali), n. Peculiar skin-spot caus- 
eci in numbers on the legs of Natives 
from 'scorching' themselves i. e. sitting 
too close over a fire (= i-mBala); flower, 
blossom, of a plant or tree (cp. i-mPo- 
Lire); pretty -featured person, male or fe- 
male (= u(lu)-Baqa, um-Ceko) [Lat. flos, 
flower; Ar. fattah, to bloom; A. Sax. 
lil os in, flower; Her. o-ngara]. 

Ex. ukahlela imbali enjani? what kind 
of a flower liiis it (the plant)? 

isi-Bali.n. Flower of the pumpkin plant 
= isi-Gtve. 

Balisa, v. Recount, relate to a person all 
the details of a case (doub. ace); go 
over within oneself, consider successive- 
ly all the many points of an affair, as 
a sorrowful person thinking over to 
himself all his troubles (ace) ; turn over 
thoughtfully in one's mind, as an affair 
(with nga) about which there is some 
doubtfulness (cp. ngabaza). 

Balo, jjoss. a<lj. Its used with nouns 
of the 2nd. el. si n^r. - see alo. 

isi-Balo (Bhalo), n. Work-party, called out 
by a chief for doing Government works, 
mainly road-work; such a road-party. 

isi-Balo, //. Cypher, figure, in arithmetic (M ). 

um-Balo (Jihalo),n.5. = um-Cwangubane; 

also (M) a writing, document; plur. imi- 

Balo, the Scriptures, 
um, or u(lu)-Balu (Bhalu), n. 5. = um-Gede. 

i-mBaluko (Bhaluko), n. Bag or long pouch, 
for carrying the snuff-box, etc., and made 
of the skin of an unborn calf (N). 

Bamazela (Bhamazela), v. = pamazela. 

i(li)-Bamazi (Bhamazi), n. = i(li)-Bamuza. 

Bamba (Bambha), v. Catch, as a person 
(ace) pursued; grasp, lay hold of, as 
the horns of an ox; get hold of, as a 
fish with the line; grasp with the in- 
tellect or memory, as an explanation of 
anything; keep, as a law; keep hold of, 
as a thing placed in the hands; keep 
back, hinder, delay, as a person from 
action; catch, discover, as a thief in the 
act of stealing; lay hold of for carnal 
purposes, rape (actually, or only with 
such intention), as a girl; catch the 
throat, stick in it, as distasteful food 
that won't go down ; engage in battle or 
close fight (more freq. bambana) ; take 
up for a time, a particular job (only 
used in certain connections) [Skr. bandh, 
bind; Ga. baka, catch; Sw. kamata; 
Her. kambura]. 

Phr. uku-bamba ong'exemtsi {urrdomo), to 

lay hold of the lower lip, as a Native does 
when amazed = to be overcome with per- 
plexity, not know what to do, what course 
to take. 

uku-bamba ongas'entla (umlomo), to lay 
hold of the upper lip = to feel the heart 
lighten, be filled with a little hope, feel less 
seriously, as after grievous excitement, sor- 
row, etc. 

uku-bamba itoho, to take up togt work 
i. e. work for daily payment. 

uku-bamba umlomo, to hold the mouth 
i. p. to be overcome with amazement, as be- 
fore anything wonderful, calamitous, etc. 

uku-bamba indhlela, to take hold of the 
path i. c. to address oneself to one's journey, 
go on one's way. 

uku-bamba v.ulu, to grasp at the sky i.e. 
be unduly ambitious, seek what is altogether 
beyond one. 

uku-m-bamba isamulcu (umu/tfu), to stifle, 
smother one. 

uku-bamba umkono otile, to take, this or 
that arm (i. c. hand) = to go to right or left. 

uku-bamba umtondo, to catch hold of the 
penis i. r. to become effectively covered, con- 
ceive, as a cow. 

uku-bamba ivmximba, to lay hold of the 
body *". r. begin to put on flesh, as after 

uku-xi-bamba, to hold i. e. restrain oneself, 
exercise moderation or temperance. 

u- Bamba (Bambha), n. A stage made of 
sticks or branches placed crosswise upon 
stakes and used for stacking something 
(as Kafir-corn) upon, or to act as the 

BA 19 

floor of a watch-hut or a corn-crib; (N) 
one of the cross-beams or rafters of a 
Native hut, going from side, not from 
fore to aft (= um-Shayo. Cp. um-Ja- 

i(li)-Bamba (Bain him), n. Canine-tooth, of 
dog, etc. (C. N.) ; also (C. N.) = isi-Fociya. 
Ex. i ha in hi i loldixibopa isisu, a belt to 
hind herself round the helly — a name given 
O a bullock presented to a hride's mother 
(C. N.) — umu-Mba. 

isi-Bamba (Bambha), n. = isi-Fociya. 

Bambabula (Bhambhabula), v. Deal a blow- 
on the body of a person (aee.) with the 
length of some supple instrument, shara- 
bok, or switch, such as would leave a 
mark = tentebula. Cp. taxabula. 

Bambala v. (C.N.) = bambelela. 

Bambalala v. Neglect, disregard, as a child 
its parents (C.N. - see bembesela; ta- 
lasa); also (C.N.) = babalala. 

Bambalala, ukuti (Bhdmbhalala, ukuti), v. 
= ukuti ja. 

isi, or u(lu)- Bambalala (Bhambhalala), n. 
Any long body lying extended on the 
ground, as a long stick, post, etc. 

Bambalaza (Bhambhalaza), v. = ukuti j a. 

Bambalazi, ukuti (Bhdmbhalazi, ukuthi), v. 
= ukuti ja. 

Bambana (Bambhana), v. Catch hold of, 
grasp one another; grapple, wrestle; 
engage one another in argument or 

Ex. asibambane, let's have a wrestle. 

Phr. uku-bambana ngexandhla, to shake 
hands. ■ - ■- 

isi-Bambane (Bhambhane), n. Thick, dense, 
closely-packed together cluster or accu- 
mulation of several separate objects, as 
of huts in a kraal, kraals in any parti- 
cular spot, or stripe alongside stripe (as 
of a whipping) on a person's body = 
isi-Dhlavela, isi-Xakaxolo, isi-Dhlidhli. 
Cp. um-Hlohlelekwana. 

um-Bambangwe (Bambhangwe), n. 5. Cer- 
tain thorny bush; hence, Mauritius Thorn, 
called after it. Cp. u-Sondelangange. 

i(li)-Bambasisu (Bambhasisu), n. (C. N.) = 


Bambata (Bhambhatha), v. Pat with the 
hand, as a dog (ace). Cp. pulula. 

um-Bambato (Bhambhatho), n. 5. = um- 

i(li)-Bambazi (Bambhazi), n. Species of 
red-bellied Iguana, of greater length than 
the isi-Quzi and very destructive to 

Bambeka (Bambheka), v. Be catchable, 


holdable, graspable to the mind; get de- 
tained; have a hitch or difficulty in one's 
speech; get hitched, as work or machi- 

Ex. ngisabcvmbekik lapa, 1 am just de- 
tained here (at some work J cannot leave). 

alibambeki leli'xembe, this hatchet doesn't 
easily get held, is awkward. 

Bambela (Bambhela), v. Hold, or catch 
something for a person (doub. ace.); act 
as substitute for another (ace.) at some 
work (with ku or loc.); take a turn, as 
at any work; reach as far as. 

Ex. imti angimbambele usuku lube lunye, 

he said, might I hold on for him {i.e. take 
his place; for a day. 

iiyiyakukubambela leh'xwi, I shall take 
care of that word for you = I shall not 
forget it, shall pay you out for it some-day. 

Phr. uku-bambeVixandhla ekanda, to hold \^ 
the hands to the head, i. r to wail or per- s\ 
form the isi-Lilo custom, as women do. 

im-Bambela (Bhambhela), n. = i-nGwane. 

Bambelela (Bambhelela), v. Lean forward 
in a kneeling posture with the palms of 
both hands on the ground; also = ba- 
mbela. _^t K t* ^ • 

i-mBambelela (Bhambhelela), n. = isi- 

Bambezela (Bambhezela), v. Detain, delay, 
as a person (ace.); continue holding tight- 
ly, as on to anything (with ku); hold 
on, keep on, as at any work [Ka. ba- 

i-mBambezela (Bhambhezela), n. = i- 

n Gwane. 
isi-Bambezelo (Bambhezelo), v. Cause of 


Bambisa (Bambhisa), v. Cause or help 
one (ace.) to hold on at any work i. e. 
give him a hand or keep him company 
thereat (with ku). 

isi-Bambo (Bambho), n. Blacksmith's vice 

u(lu)-Bambo (Bambho), n. Rib, of man or 

beast ; face-scraper, made of rib-bone (= 

u-Pepeta) [Sw. ubavu; Ka. Bo. lu-bavu; 

Her. oru-pati]. 

Phr. yck'ubambo Iwenkabi Iwadhlelwa e- 
ndhlwaneni! alas! for the rib of au ox (a 
prime part of the beast) eaten in a hovel! 
— expressing disgust at the daughter of 
some important man having married into a 
common family. 

iximbambo, umatiya, ngokutiya ububende 
(or umtinyu), the ribs are the obstacle, keep- 
ing back within, one's blood (or painful 
feelings) = great is my grief within, but 
nobody sees it for these ribs which prevent 
my heart from being shattered. 





Bami, poss. adj. My used for 1st. pers. 
sing. see ami. 

Bamu, ukuti (Bhamu, ukuthi), v. = bamuza. 

i(li), or um-Bamu (Bhamu), n.5.— i(li)-Baka. 
Phr. amabamu otshwala, great abundance, 
'floods' «it" beer. 

isi-Bamu (Bhamu), n. Gun or rifle. Cp. 
itrMbay im hay i ; isi-Ntuluntulu. 

Bamuza (Bhamuza), v. Wade, flounder 
about, as through deep water when cros- 
sing or bathing ; talk rubbish, nonsensical 

i(li)- Bamuza (Bhamuza), n. Bladder, blis- 
ter, such as forms on the skin when 
scalded with water, or as the pod of the 
Mr Sing a plant; bubble, as formed by soap 
i(li)-Panyaza, i(li)'Ququwe. Cp. i(li)- 
Pote; i(li)-Shamuza. 

Bana, adj. Baddish, rather bad; freq. 
equiv. to 'common, inferior, old, etc.' 

Ex. ugqoke ixingubo eximbana, iu<jaitli 
Li/, kangaka-ya, he wears shabby clothes 
:iik1 yel lie is so rich. 

Banana, ukuti (Bhdnana, ukuthi), v. Lie 
out oi- be openly exposed in a numerous 
intermingling, as the veins on a man's 
body when standing prominently out, 
or a lot of intercrossing railway lines 
at a junction <>r of fields ploughed here 
and there thickly together on any spot 

= bananaza. 

u-Banana (Bhanana), n. Banana or ba- 
nanas [Eng.]. 

isi-Banana (Bhanana), n. Banana planta- 

um-Banana (Bhanana), n. 5. Jealousy, 

envious feeling = um-Ona. 
Bananaza (Bhananaza), v. = ukuti banana. 

Banda,/-. Be cold, as water or wind; be 
cool i.e. comparatively cold, as a refresh- 
in g breeze, or cool atmosphere (= qa- 
nda); cleave or split wood (ace. =± canda); 
ward off or 'cover' oneself from some 
danger by hirling behind a tree (with 
nga), by spe akin g evasively, or hiding 
behind an excuse [Skr. bhanj, split; 
At. berd, cold; Her. penda, cleave; Sw. 
katn, cleave]. 

Phr. uku-gexa wmanxi abandayo, to wash 
away the water which is cold (i. e. the chill 
which is said to conn' over one when bury- 
ing :t corpse), by going to bathe in a river 
after ;i burial. 

i'l:>i-i/f.'i, iini'iii.i ebauda, to wash (the 
body in a river), the water being cold. 

Banda ( Bha ndu), v. Plaster a hut (ace.) 

by flinging on lumps of mud (with nga 

pahleka); stow away within, pack 

goods (ace.) into any basket, or wagon 
(with nga = pahlaj. 
i-m Banda or Bande (Bhaanda or Bhaa- 
nde), n. Slope, as on a hill-side [Sw. 
mpando, incline]. 

isi- Banda, n. Flat scaly scar on the skin, 
as left by a burn or healed sore; any 
small animal about the size of a cat and 
of any species; a very short person 
(also isi-Banjana) [Chw. lo-badi]. 

Bandakanya (s. k.), v. Take or place to- 
gether, unite, couple, as a number of 
tools (ace.) held in one hand, two bul- 
locks in the one yoke, an extra horse 
tied alongside a pair (not properly used 
of two things coupled together one be- 
hind the other, as railway-carriages) = 
bandakanyisa. [Ang. bandeka, unite; 
Her. pandeka, bind]. 

Bandakanyisa (s. k.), v. = bandakanya. 

i-mBandama (Bhandama), n. = i-mBanda. 

um-Bandamu, n. 5. Ring-worm. 

N.B. The ringworm is cured by placing 
thereon an um-Cimbitwa or an um-Nenke 
(slug), and allowing its mucus to remain. 

u-Bande (Bhande),n. Children's game of 
throwing up stones and catching them 
on the back of the hand. 

i(li)-Bande, n. The one half or side of a 
cooking-pot -- only used adverbially, as 

Ex. isijingi sishe ibande, the pumpkin- 
mash has got burnt on one side of the pot. 

i(li)- Bande (Bhande), n. Belt, brace (in 
plur. = a pair of braces) [Eng. band\. 

ama-Bande (Bhande; no sing.), n. (C.N.) 
= ama-Mbande. 

i-m Bande (Bhaande), n. Musical pipe or 
flute, made of the shin-bone of a reed- 
buck or goat (now no longer in use) ; 
also = i-mBanda. 

i-m Bande (Bhande; no plur.), n. Strip or 
strips of wood i. e. wood cut lengthwise 
from the block (not crosswise, so as to 
include the whole body thereof = i(li)- 
Dumbu), as a piece of chopped firewood, 
or a scantling, or walking-stick made 
from such a 'strip' of wood. See banda 
[Sw. ki-banzi and ki-pande, splinter of 

Ex. induku yami iy'imbande, my stick is 
a strip (not cut off whole from the tree = 

u(lu)- Bande, n. Piece of um-Tomboti wood 
(much liked on account of its agreeable 
smell) cut in the rough from the tree; 
necklace made of numerous little black 
sticks cut from this wood. 


BA 21 

Bandeza, v. Crowd, inconvenience for 
room by squeezing in, us kraals closely 
surrounding another (ace.); oppress, 
treat tyrannically by depriving of free- 
dom, etc. 

Bandezela, v. Inconvenience a person (ace), 
block the way to free work, hamper, as 
by not allowing him the use of one's 
tools or pots. 

Bandezeka (s.k.),v. Be in a crowded, in- 
convenienced state through pressure; 
be hampered in one's freedom, oppressed, 
as by one's chief. 

Bandhla, v. = bandhlulula. 

i(li)-Bandhla, n. Men sitting assembled 
together, a social gathering, as merely 
to gossip or drink beer, or for some 
particular business, as to hear a trial 
or some announcements of the chief; 
the men collectively of any kraal; hence 
(M) congregation, company of believers, 
sect, church. 

Ex. 'bandhla! do you say so (humorously)? 
how funuy! wonderful! — the expression is 
mostly used by males, aud is supposed to 
draw the company's attention to the good 
thing being said or something astonishing 
being doue = bantu (see umu-Xtu). 

we! 'bandhla.' or o! 'bandhla! or 'ba- 
ndhl'epakati! — used similarly to the above. 

Phr. nyixe 'kirot'ibandlda nje, I have just 
come to warm myself at the company *'. e. 
to enjoy the society of other men, have a 
little chat, etc. 

Bandhlulula, v. Disown, cast off, reject, as 
a family might an unruly member (ace.) ; 

s exclude, eject, as a person (ace.) from 
one's society or membership of any 
company = cwasa, bandhla, hlulula 
[Ang. bandulula, untie; cp. Z. banda- 
kanya, i-Bandhla, and the endings of 
such words as sombulula, sibukula, 
ambula, endhhda, etc.]. 

i-mBando (Bhando), n. = i-mBande. 

isi-Bando, n. Pretext, excuse or quibble 
by which one seeks to ward off blame 
or reproof. See banda. 

um-Bando, n. 5. One slice, piece, or half 
of a hide when cut lengthwise (the hide 
of a beast being generally cut down the 
middle into two pieces). Cp. i-mBando. 

u(lu)-Bandubandu, n. Person with loud, 
noisy voice, heard above all others. 

Band u la, v. = qandula. 

Bane, ukuti (ukuthi), v. Lighten up sud- 
denly, give out a flash or glare of light, 
as lightning; have a sudden shooting- 
pain = baneka, ukuti bani. Cp. ukuti 


isi-Bane, n. = isi-Bani. 

um, or u(lu)-Bane, n. 5. um-Bani. 

Baneka (s. k.J, v. Lighten up, make bright 
with light, illuminate, as lightning does 
in the heavens ( nyazima), or a person 
does by placing a lamp in a room; have 
a sharp shooting pain in the body; 
other modern uses as Tight a lamp (ace), 
light up a room (ace.) by a lamp (with 
nga),' though occasionally heard, would 
seem to be grammatically incorrect. Cp. 
baqa. [Skr. bhanu, sun; Ar. bara", 
lighten; bar", lightning]. 

Ex. woz'ubaneke lapa, conic and bring a 
light here. 

kuyabaneka lapa esiswini, there are sharp 
shooting pains here in the abdomen. 

sekubanekiwe endhlini, it is already lighted 
up, or has already been made bright with 
light, in the hut. 

Banga, v. Claim by contending for, as one 
son with another (with na) for the cattle 
(ace.) left by a parent; contend over 
anything (ace); make for, journey to- 
wards (used with "abbrev. perf.); give 
rise to, bring about, produce, cause, as 
any action might give rise to bad' effects 
(ace); bring down upon, cause for a 

with ela form) some ill 
banga, make; Sw. fanya, 

person (ace. 
(ace.) [Ang. 

Ex. ubange-pi? where are you making for, 
or going to? 

ukupuxa amanxi amabi kuyabanga ixifo, 
drinking bad water gives rise to disease. 

uyabanga naye ubukosana, he is claiming 
or contending for the (right of) heirship 
along with him. 

amayamu ake asibangela ubuhlungu, his 
words caused (tor) us pain. 

sidhla nesibucu Una, sibanga ngoba kuy'i- 
■nkomo, we eat eveu rotting meat, contending 
that (i. e. basing our justification on the tact 
that) it is a beast (and is to be eaten). 

uku-bemgwa nodonga, to be contended for 
with the grave •'. e. be nearly dead. 

uku-bang'umsindo, to make a noise. 

uku-bang'utuli, to raise a dust. 

uku-bang urnhawu, to excite pity. 

i(li)-Banga, //. Distance, as from one place 
to another [Ga. banga, space]. 

Ex. ibanga lingakanani elisuka eTekwini 
liya emZinto na'.' what is the distance from 
Durban to Umzinto '.' 

kaku'banga'lide, it is not a great way. 

i(li)-Banga (Bhang a), n. Large beer-cala- 
bash with broad mouth ; woollen blanket 
having large coloured squares (cp. isi- 

u(iu)-Banga (Bhang a), n. One of the se- 



veral sharpened stakes fixed erect in 
the ground at the bottom of a pit for 
trapping game = u(lu)-Veku. 

u(lu)-Bangabanga, n. = u(hi)-Rrang arra- 

isi-Bangabatakati (Ba ngabathakathi), n. = 

Bangaiala, v. Rage furiously, as a grass- 
lire or angry man. 

u(lu)-Bangalala, n. Veldt-plant, used to 
cause sexual excitement in the male 
(man or beast). 

Bangalasa, v. Make a great noise with the 
mouth, scream, as when loudly crying 
(as a child), scolding (as a woman), 
shouting (as of boys playing) = rra- 


isi-Bangamlota (Bangamlotha), n. Certain 
bush (Antidesma venosum), growing on 
the coast. 

i(li)-Bangana, u. Short distance, or consi- 
derable distance (according to context 
and manner of expression). 

Ex. kuseVibangana nje, it is now only a 
little way. 

kuFibangana nje kodiva, it is rather a good 
way, a fair distance. 

um-Bangandhlala, n. 5. Small tree (Hete- 
romorpha arborescens), making very 
bad firewood - - the bark is said to be 
used for colic and scrofula and as a ver- 
mifuge for horses. 

Phr. ngalutinta ukuni hmbangandhlala, 
I touched a log of the wribangandhlala tree 
— applied to au irritable person, who will 
flare up if merely touched. 

i-mBangayiya (Bhangayiya), n. Long tail- 
feather or feathers, gen. of the ostrich, 
worn on the head = urn-Bongo. 

Bangazela (Bhangazela), v. Run, rush, 
dash wildly, excitedly along, as a person 
or animal in a great fright (not when 
racing) = papaieka. 

um-Bangazi (Bhang azi), n. 5. Flat-crown 
tree = u(lu)-Solo. 

i(li)-Bange (Bhang e loc. eBange), n. 

Hank (for money) [Eng.]. 

isi-Bangebange (B hang eb hang e), n. Person 
angrily or violently demanding anything, 
as food, payment, etc. 

i-mBangi (Bhangi), n. Young-man who, 
in courting girls, trespasses on the pre- 
serves of others. 

Bangisa, v. Cause (the country) to make 
for or be directed towards any certain 
place, as below : — 

I. s«/'nliu sipumekona, mlibangi&a oTu- 



tela, upon leaving there, we directed our 
course (Z. the country) towards the Tukela. 

isi-Bango, n. Charm, or incantation, by 
herbs, etc. (C.N.). 

um-Bango,«. 5. Family contention, as about 
property, heirship, etc.; contention be- 
tween two young-men for the same girl. 

Ex. ubukosana btika' Somkeli sebung'um- 
bango, the heirship of Somkeli is already a 
matter of family strife. 

P. umbango uvuk'emloteni, family strife 
spriugs up from the ashes (of the paternal 
hearth) i.e. has its cause in the home, is not 
originated outside. 

Bangqa (Bhangqa), v. (C. N.) == banqa. 

Bangqana (Bhangqana), v. (C. N.) = ba- 

Bangqanisa (Bhang qanisa), v. (C. N.) = 

Bangquza (Bhangquza), v. Wriggle about, 
as a dog its tail (ace), or a person the 
tongue in his mouth; fly about here 
and there, up and down the country, as 
a man running about in search of a 
doctor, or anything urgently needed = 

Bangula, v. Extract a thorn (ace.) or splinter 
from the body, by picking it out with 
another thorn or needle. Cp. vungula. 

isi-Bangulo, n. Instrument (usually ano- 
ther thorn kept for the purpose) for 
extracting thorns, etc. from the body. 

Bani, ukuti (ukuthi), v. = ukuti bane. 

u-Bani, interr. pron. Who?; indef. pron. 
Somebody, a person, anybody; also used 
for 'So-and-so, What's-his-name' (as when 
narrating or illustrating, and the parti- 
cular person's name is unknown or 
forgotten) [Ze. bwani; Ngu. mbwani; 
Sha. mbwai; Sw. Kag. Heh. nani; Ru. 
nyani; Gu. ani; Her. iani; Nyanib. 
nindi; Gal. ndi; Sum. nde; Chw. mang\. 
Ex, ubani icena, igamu lako? what is your 


angisaqondi ukuti ivashaya ubani, 


no longer certain who it was he struck. 

asimz'angene ekaya, ab'es'eh,mina, 'Bani.' 
he just enters the kraal, and then says, 
Come here, So-and-so! 

isi-Bani, n. Light, torch (in the kraals 
usually consisting of a stalk of tambootie- 
grass) - - this word is used more in 
Natal than in Zululand, where n(ln)-Ba- 
qa is the common expression; hence 
(M) candle, lamp. 

urn, or u(lu)-Bani, n. 5. Lightning 
rally), whether forked or sheet =-- 
Nyazi [Skr. bhanu, sun; Ar. 


BA 23 

N.B. Owing to the dislike of the Natives 
for calling awful things by their proper 
names, the word in most common use for 
'lightning' is merely i{li)-Zulu (the heavens). 
u(lu)-Bani, n. Certain veldt-plant, having 
blue flowerlets, used as a Love-charm by 

u-Banibani, //. So-and-so - standing for 
the name of a person when it is unknown 
or has been forgotten, or in giving an 
illustration = u-Iiani, u-Sibanibani. 

isi-Bankwa (s.k.),n. Lizard; marrow in 
the jaw-bones of cattle. 

Banqa (Bhanqa), v. Unite, join, bind to- 
gether side by side, as sticks (ace), or 
mealie-cobs held or tied together, or 
bullocks in the same yoke = banda- 

Banqana (Bhanqana), v. Be united, joined 
or bound together side by side, as above 
(used in pert'.) Cp. hlangana. 

Banqanisa (Bhanqanisa), v. = banqa. 

Banqu, ukuti (Bhanqu, ukuthi), v. Mark 
a thing (ace.) with cross-stripes of dif- 
ferent colour, as the inside framework 
of a hut when alternating old (or black) 
and new (or white) wattles, or an eat- 
ing mat when weaving it with cross-, 
stripes of dyed and undyed grass = 

i(li)-Banqu (Bhanqu), n. (C.N.) == i(li)- 

Banqula (Bhanqula), v. = ukuti banqu. 

i(li)-Banqule (Bhanqule), n. Anything with 
a cross-stripe or stripes, or broad cross- 
ing patch of a different colour, as the 
hut or mat above, or an ox (whether 
black or red) with a broad stripe of 
white going up from beneath the belly 
and meeting on the back (cp. i(li)-Qola; 
i(li)- Waba). 

Banquza (Bhanquza), v. — bangquza. 

um-Bantaka (Bhantaka), n. 5. Kind of 
tall thatching grass, somewhat like tam- 

Bantsa (Bhantsa), v. Slap a person (ace.) 
with the palm of the hand on the body 
(not on the face = mukula). 

i(li)-Bantsa or Bantsi (Bhantsa or BJiantsi), 
= isi-Gaga; (C.N.) a grey -hound. 

Bantsana (Bhantsana), v. = mpantsa. 

Bantsela (Bhantsela), v. Present a buyer 

y (ace.) with a bonus, throw in some 

• slight extra as a present [ ? Eng. bonus]. 

i-mBanselo (Bhantselo), n. Bonus, extra, 
thrown in with a purchase, as above. 

i(li)-Bantshi (Bhantshi), n. Coat [D. baatji]. 

(Bhaantshi), n. 5. 

see u in u- 

um-Bantshi (Bhaantshi), n. 5. (N) um- 

Phr. a&iqeM 'mbantshi ukvjiya, we are 

not at all sure as to how the mash will 

thicken = we can't say how the affair may 

turn out, what will be the end of it. 
Bantu (s. L), int. fr. aba-Ntu 

Ntu; i(li)-Bandhla. 
u-Bantwanyana (s. t.), n. Emerald Cuckoo 

(Chrysococcyx smaragdiuus). 

N.B. The cry of this bird is said to he 

' Bant '/cany ana ■■/ ning'endi! Little children I 

don't get married! 

Banyana, adj. reduplic. dim. of bi q. v. 

Banyaza (Bhanyaza), v. Look blinkingly, 
with watering eyes, as a person sitting 
in the smoke, or when, from disease, 
the eyes cannot bear the light; look 
with shy, shifting eyes, as persons who 
feel a disability to look another in the 
face = panyaza. 

i(li)- Banyaza (Bhanyaza), n. Blister, as on 
the body when scalded (cp. i(li)-Pote); 
large, protruding eye — i(li)-Bamuza, 

Banzana, adj. Rather wide; fairly big 
(in extent), whether actually (as a piece 
of land), or metaphor, (as a position or 
'billet'); fairly large (in quantity), as 

Banzi, adj. Broad, wide [Ar. wasiz, wide; 
Sw. pana; Bo. hana; Her. paranga]. 

ubu-Banzi, n. Breadth, width; extent (ge- 
nerally), dimensions, of things of sur- 

Baqa, ukuti (Bhaqa, ukuthi), v. Lie down 
flat on the belly, sprawling or flounder- 
ing = baqaza. Cp. ukuti bukulu, ukuti 
nqepu, bacalala, babalala. 

Baqa (Bhaqa), v. Light up, as in a hut 
by means of a torch (with nga) or 
lamp, or as the lightning lights up the 
heavens (= baneka); light up, light, 
make to shine, as the torch (ace.) or 
lamp itself (= okela); light up a person 
(ace.) in regard to his evil doings so 
that he become clearly exposed to pub- 
lic view; also = ukuti baqa this 
word is much used by those who hlo- 
nipa the words baneka and kanyisa. 

Ex. ngiyakubaqwa uba? by whom shall 
I be exposed? - as might be said by a 
child stealing something and cautioned by 

u(lu)-Baqa (Bhaqa), n. Native 'lamp' or 
torch for lighting up in a but, and con- 
sisting generally of a dry stalk of tam- 
bootie-grass ; a pretty, handsome person, 
male or female (< i-mBali, um-Ceko); 


person sent secretly to warn another of 
danger (= u(lu)-Nyandhle, v(tu)-Qunga, 
i-nkasa); (C.N.) a beast given by the 
bride's family to the bridegroom's father 
•to light up the lobola cattle' he has 
parted with on his son's account. 

Ex. inkanyezi enobaqa, a star with a 
torch = comet (C. N.). 

isi, or um-Baqanga (Bhaqanga), n. 5. Thick, 
lumpy porridge of crushed mealies, 
mostly eaten by boys after they have 
attained to puberty. Cp. isi-Shwala. 

Baqaza (Bhaqaza), r. Jump up high, kick- 
ing the buttocks in doing so, as children 
or an is-Angoma; also = ukuti baqa. 

isi-Baqaza (Bhaqaza), n. Any broadly 
spread-out thing or person. 

Baqeka (Bhaqeka), v. (C.N.) = baqa. 

Baquza (Bhaquza), v. = banquza. 

Barru, ukuti (Bit ami, ukuthi), v. = barruza. 

Barruza (Bharruea), v. Deal a person (ace.) 
a 'squelching' blow, as in the belly; 
throw down anything, as a fowl (ace), 
with a 'squelching' sound = burruza. 

Basa, v. Make a fire (ace.) i. e. arrange 
the sticks and set fire thereto (cp. pe- 
nt ha); make up and enkindle strife (ace.) 
[Ar. wallaz, kindle; Sw. washa; Bo. 

um-Basa, n. 5. Month, beginning after the 
middle of February, when the winter is 
making itself felt and fires have to be 
lit, and next preceding u-Ngulazibuya. 

Basela, v. Kindle fire or strife for a person 
(ace); make it warm for a person (ace.) 
concerning old debts (with nga) i.e. 
rouse him up by strong persistent de- 
mand or talk; warm up for the old 
debts (acc.) themselves i.e. demand 
strongly a clearance or payment of them. 
Ex. ngisaya'lcubasela amacaVami k'oSiba- 
nibani, I am just off to make warm de- 
mand for the old debts due to me at So- 
and-so's kraal. 

hade exe 'kungibasela ngenkomo yoke, he 
has just been here to warm me with demand 
about his beast. 

Basha (Bhasha), v. Be stunted, under- 
grown, as a boy or plant (used in perf.) 
= qata, shishibala. 

Ex. ubashile, he is short lor his age. 

Bashu, ukuti (Bhashu, ukuthi, some- 

times also with g.b.),V. Do patehwise, 
in any sense; hence, patch a coat (acc.); 
patch on the piece of cloth (acc); hoc a 
patch of a prospective field (acc); burn 
'>tT :i patch of grass (acc.) on the veldt; 
be patchy, as mealies growing badly in 
a field ; be patehwise, as the multi-coloured 

24 BA 

squares on a blanket; break out or 
appear in different localities, as an epi- 
demic of disease. 

isi-Bashu (Bhashu), n. Patch, of any de- 
scription, as above. 

Baso, poss. adj. Its - used with nouns 

sing, of 4th. el. - - see aso. 
urn- Baso, n. 5. = um-Basa. 

i(li)-Bata (Batha), n. Foot conspicuously 
big and flat, as of a duck, or some oxen 
with the hoof deformed, or a splay- 
footed man [Sw. Ni. Ga. bata, duck; 
Her. o-mbaze, foot; o-mbaka, duck]. 

FOx. ukuhamba kwake, wen: a ngamabata, 
as to his walking he does it as with splayed 
feet /'. c. goes with a slouching, slip-shod 

i-mBata (Bhata), n. (C.N.) = i-mBazu. 

isi- Bata (B hatha), n. Spring-snare for 
buck, etc. made of string and stretched 



for catching it 

the neck or 

limb = isi-Batazane, um-Esho. 

u- Batata (Bhatata), n. Sweet-potato. Cp. 
uta-Hlaza [Eng. potato], 

isi- Batata (Bhatata), n. Sweet-potato field. 

Bataza or Batazela (Bathaza), v. Walk 
in a flat-footed way, as one splay-footed, 
with naturally weak feet, or a person 
walking when quite tired out. Cp. ba- 

isi-Batazane (Bhatltazane), n. = isi-Bata. 

i-mBati (Bhati), n. Kind of nettle, eaten 

as imifino = isi-Kukuku. Cp. i-mBa- 


i(li)-Batu (Bathu), n. An open grassy spot 
or glade amidst a forest = isi-Kala. 

Bava (Bhava), v. = beva. 

i-mBava (Bhava), n. = i-Nyati. 

u-Bavu (Bhavu), n. Any large tin vessel, 
as parafin-tin, or zinc-bath [Eng. bath]. 

isi, or u(lu)-Bavu, n. (C.N.) = isi-Banda. 

isi-Bavubavu (Bhavubhavu), n. Wild, fierce 
person. See bavumula. 

i(li)-Bavula (Bhavula), n. Barbel [Eng.]. 

um-Bavuma (Bhavuma), n. 5. Old, shri- 
velled, dried-up person or animal; old 
worn-out earthenware pot = um-Dhle- 
kedhle, um-Hohoho, i-nKohtomba. 

Bavumula (Bha.vumula), v. = bovumula. 

Bawela, v. Have an irresistible itching to 
do something prematurely, impulsively, 
etc., as to mix oneself up in the talk or 
dispute of others (acc. with el a form), 
to blurt out a secret, to be served with 
food before one's turn, etc. 

Bawo, poss. adj. Their — used with nouns 
of 2nd. class plur. - - see awo. 

BA 25 

isi-Bawu, n. Gadfly, of which there are 
several species; one of a regiment form- 
ed by Mpande of old men, remaining 
from Shaka's regiments. 

Baxa, ukuti (Bhaxa, ukuthi), v. Tramp or 

slush through thick mud, as cattle in a 
fold after rain, or a person walking in 
the rain over muddy ground baxaza. 
Cp. i-mBaxaiubaxa. 
i(li)-Baxa (Bhaxa), n. Fork or crotch, as 
where two branches of a tree join; any 
stake or piece of wood having such a 

fork (= i(li)-Xasiyo) ; forked-junction, 

as formed by two rivers or roads; pre- 
text or opportunity, for mounting in an 
argument or getting the better of one; 
plur. ama-Baxa = ania-Mbaude. 

isi-Baxa (Bhaxa), n. Young fat-bodied girl, 
of about nine years of age, such as were 
common in the royal kraal; forked- 
stump or support for propping a shelf 
or for laying weapons upon;/>/. izi-Baxa, 
kind of scaffolding erected outside a hut 
when building, for standing on; also = 

i-mBaxa (Bhaxa), n. Branch of a forked 
river, road, or tree; mental hitch or dif- 

Baxabula (Bhaxabula), v. Strike a person 
(ace.) with a flexible instrument, as a 
shambok or reim = taxabula, gwaxula. 

i(li)-Baxakezi (Bhaxakezi), n. Big foot with 
the toes spread out broadly. Cp. i(li)- 

i-mBaxambaxa (Bhaxambhaxa) n. Person 
or thing all covered with wet mud, as 
after slushing through a muddy place. 
Cp. baxaza; i-nDaxandaxa. 

Baxaza or Baxazela (Bhaxaza) v. Slush 
or splash along, as above — see ukuti 
baxa; walk awkwardly, clumsily, as a 
person with big or splayed-feet. 

Baxela (Bhaxela), v. Girt or wrap a cloth 
(ace.) round the loins, as a young girl 
out of decency. Cp. binca. 

Baxu, ukuti (Bhaxu, ukuthi), v. = baxula. 

i-mBaxu (Bhaxu), n. Certain creeping- 
plant, whose roots yield fibre used in 
the making- of isi-Nene, assegais, etc. 

Baxula (Bhaxula), v. == baxabula. 

isi-Baya, n. Stock-fold, pen, for cattle, sheep, 
etc., gen. situated in the middle of the 
kraal; the space (gen. shaven) enclosed 
by a man's head-ring; wearer of such 
(i. e. of a head-ring) used jocularly [Cp. 
Ar. ba'ar, cattle; seraya, camp, fort; 
zi-mbabwe (originally zi-mbahe), name 
of ancient circular buildings in ruin in 
Mashonaland; Ga. ki-lalu, cattle-fold]. 


P. ayikabi ixibaya exibili, it (a cow) 
doesn't kick in two kraals = a person is 
only Lord in his own castle or domain, else- 
where he becomes a nobody, 

Bayede, int. Hail! your .Majesty! a 

word of salutation only used to the 
Zulu kin<j. 

A'./>. Its origin, as is the case with most 
interjections, is untraceable. It certainly lias 
no connection with 'bring them' (i.e. ba lete 
or bit yete), the orthography bayete being in- 
correct. The full salutation might run:— 
'Bayede! wen'umnyama! wena icapakati! 
wena wohlanga! wen'udhVamadoda! Hail! 
thou who art black (the royal house of the 
Zulus being generally a dark-skinned family), 
thou of the inner recesses (may-be of tin 
isi-godhlo esimnyama), thou of the original 
source (of our tribe), thou who eatest up 
(strong) men (by first having them killed 
and then confiscating their property). It 
is quite improper to apply the term to any- 
body but the paramount Zulu chief or king. 
Hence the custom, frequent in Natal, of ad- 
dressing magistrates, etc., as your Majesty! 
is, in Zulu eyes, altogether inappropriate, 
if not indeed somewhat ridiculous. 
Bayete (Bayethe), int. (N) = bayede. 

Bayo, poss. adj. Its - with nouns of the 
3rd. cl. sing.; their - - with nouns of the 
5th. cl. plur. - see ayo. 

Baza,v. Shave, pare, or carve wood with 
a knife, as when making a knob-kerry 
(ace), or head-rest ; hence, plane, as a 
board (ace). 

Ex. uyabaxa amapulankwe, he carves 
planks i. e. works at carpentry. 

ufcu-baxa induku, to make or pare a stick. 

uku-baxa ngqoko, to make or carve a meat- 

i-mBaza (Bhaza), n. = i-mBazu. 

i(li)-Bazelo, n. Paring, shaving, chip (such 

as is cut off smooth with a knife). Cp. 

Bazi, ukuti (ukuthi), v. = bazi inula, ukuti 

i-mBazi (Bhazi), n. One who works in 

wood, a wood-carver. 
isi-Bazi, n. Blotch, as on a person's skin 

or the rind of a pumpkin. 
u(lu)-Bazi, n. Certain tree, yielding fibre. 

ubu-Bazi, n. Tiny stinging prickles on the 
leaves of nettles; irritation caused by 
them. Cp. i-mBabazane; i-mBati. 

Bazimula, v. Glitter, glisten, as a diamond 
or mirror in the sun = ukuti bazi, ka- 
:i m nl a, cwebezela. 

Bazizela, v. ■-- bazi inula. 



big broad front-tooth (cp. i- 

Bazo, poss. adj. Their -- used with nouns 
plur. of the 3rd., 4th., and 6th. els. 
see azo. 

i-mBazo (Bhazo), n. Axe, hatchet (= i(li)- 




Be, ukuti 

Be, ukuti 

(Bhazu), //. 
iv Zululand 



alone the 

(ukiitJii), v. = beza. 

(Bhe, ukuthi), r. Flare up sud- 
break out into flame, as when a 
is put to anything very combus- 

with a prolon 
Do with a 
passion, as 



Be, ukuti (Bhe, ukuthi — 
gation of the vowel), v. 
outburst of energy or passion, as an 
animal ravening, a fire devouring, an 
epidemic raging, or a man asserting or 
denying vehemently. See ukuti be. 

Beba (Bhebha), v. Mount, cover, or tread 
the female (ace.), as any of the smaller 

animals, like a pig, sheep, goat, fowl, or 
as children one with another (for the 
cow, zcta; for the dog, pinga; and for a 
wife, zeka, zeta, or tundela, are gene- 
rally used — cp. jeka; xova). 

Beba, v. Sit or ride lying flat and strad- 
dled on another's back, as the infant on 
that of its mother, or a person being 
carried by another over a stream. 

isi-Beba, n. Coloured spot, patch, streak, 
or figure worked upon a gi*ound of 
another colour, or alongside it, as a belt 
of fancy string-work in a sleeping-mat, or 
the different coloured spaces in a girl's 

Bebe, ukuti (Bhebe, ukuthi), v. = ukuti 

i(li)-Bebe, w. (N) = i(li)-Bebesi. 

isi-Bebe (Bhebke), n. Any broad, thin, flat 
plate of a thing (whether quite rigid, or 
only stiff), as a piece of oil-cloth, sheet 
of zinc, piece of beadwork, or sheet of 
glass; broad-shouldered, spread-out per- 
son (= isirHlandhla) = isi-Xwexwe. 
cp. u(lu)-Bembedu. 

isi-Bebe (Bhebe), u. Porridge of ground 
mealies or Kafir-corn fermented with 
Kafir-corn malt. 

um-Bebe (Bhebhe), n. 5. Largest kind of 
amasi calabash. Cp. isi-Hlali. 

i(li)-Bebebe (Bhebhebhe), v. Man always 
fowling' or 'jawing' angrily at others, 
making the wild sound be be be — See 

i(li)-Bebegolo (Bhebhegolo), n. Obscene 
word denoting an immoral girl. 


(s. k.), n. (C. N.) = i(li)-Be- 


i(li)-Bebesi, n. Any food of a pleasantly 
mild, mellow taste, not strong or sharp 
to the palate, nor yet wanting in flavour, 
as fresh amasi, sweet i-mBondwe, nice 
mild beer, etc. (= i(li)-Kezekeze) ; speech 
or orders to which no attention is paid, 
without power, falling 'flat'. 

Bebeta (Bebetha), v. Go nimbly along in 
a quiet, quick manner, 'eating its way' 
forward, a& a grass-fire creeping rapidly 
forward over the dry veldt, or a nimble 
man walking; munch away incessantly, 
as a person at mealies (ace), or a goat 
= bubuta. [Bo. bebeta, gnaw]. 

Bebeteka (Bebetheka), v. Get taken nimbly 
along in a quiet, quick manner over a 
great stretch of country, as a grass-fire. 

Bebeza (Bhebeza), v. = mbebeza. 

Bebeza (Bhebheza), v. Make the sound 
bhe, bhe; make the fierce, growling noise 
bhe bhe bhe, as a lion or leopard when 
enraged or excited at an attack ; make a 
similar sound, as a goat when ravening 
after the female; flap about with a si- 
milar sound, as fire burning wildly in 
the wind; keep 'jawing' away, as a man 
or woman when angry. 

Bebezela (Bhebhezela), v. Fan up, make 
flare with a flapping of flame, as the 
wind or a person with a mat might a 
fire (ace.) ; fan on, urge on, stir up, ex- 
cite, as a person (ace.) to do anything, 
as fight, rebel, etc., or a bull to mount. 
Cp. bibizela. 

Beca (Bheca), v. Smear, daub, anything 
(ace.) with mud (with uga), paint and 
the like = huqa. 

u, or i(li)-Bece (Bhece), n. Kind of water- 
melon, resembling the i(li)-Kabe, though 
gen. eaten boiled (= u-Jeleza); great, 
effeminate man, an 'old muff. See u- 

Plir. ulcu-gwaxa ibec-r, to kill a defenceless 
or powerless person, massacre an enemy 
when already vanquished, surrendered, or 
overtaken in flight. 

i-mBece (Bhece), n. Blacking made of fat 
mixed with grass-ash, for smearing the 

u(lu)-Bece (Bhece — no plur.), n. Plant of 
the water-melon above (see u-Bece); 
(with plur.) seed or pip of the same. 

u-Becesafinya (Bhecesafinya), n. Name 
given to any very fragile thing, or peev- 
ish child, which will break, or full into 
tears, if merely touched (lit. a water- 
melon while still just appearing like a 


tiny knob on the stalk, and which 
merely needs touching, to be caused 
to drop off). 

Phr, uku-tinta ubeeesaflnya, to touch a 
peevish, irritable child or person, as above. 

uku-x'onela ubeeesaflnya, to spoil or ruin 
oneself or reputation, while still new in one's 

Beda (Bheda), v. Talk senseless stuff, 

. stupid rot, as a foolish ignorant person 
J talking (used of merely a single state- 
ment). Cp. bedeleza; budazela. 

u(lu)-Bedazane (Bhedazane), n. = vm- 

um-Bede (Bhede), n. 5. Bed [Eng.]. 

ubu-Bede (Bheede), n. Species of red ant, 
giving a sharp painful 'bite'. Cp. i-uTu- 
twane. It' referred to by its real name, as 
above, it will probably pay a visit to the 
kraal in unpleasant numbers! It is therefore 
spoken of 'nicely', as o-Makoti (young wives) 
or aba-Yeni (young husbands). 

Bedeleza (Bhedeleza), v. Talk away a lot 

/of senseless stuff, as a stupid person 
relating some absurd tale. Cp. beda; 

Bedeza (Bhedeza), v. = bedeleza. 

um-Bedeza-omusha, n. 5. = um-Peteza. 

Bedhla (Bhedhla), v. Be annoyingly fid- 
t gety, vexatiously restless in one's actions 
y or with one's tongue; hence, keep the 
tongue persistently on the wag at a per- 
son (ace.), as a fidgety old person con- 
stantly scolding, or a man allowing a 
debtor no rest when dunning for his 
money ; fidget about, keep constantly and 
annoyingly on the move, as one continu- 
ally shuffling about in a hut or turning 
about in bed. Cp. belesela; teta. 

i-mBedhlane (Bhedhlane), n. Fidgets, lid- 
getting about, incessant small restless- 
ness, as of an old woman or a person 
in bed - - dim of 1-mBedhlu. 

isi-Bedhleba (Bhedhleba), n. Any broad- 
bodied person or animal. 

i-mBedhlu (Bhedhlu), n. Vexatious rest- 
, lessness or impatience, harassing dispo- 
/ sition, pestering nature - a more pro- 
nounced form of the above. 

Bedu, ukuti (Bhedu, ukuthi), v. Do abun- 
dantly or in great degree; get done, 
appear, be seen, or get revealed in great 
numbers or quantity, as a lot of people 
working together, seeds growing up, etc. 

u(lu)-Bedu (Bhedu), n. Fat attached to the 
pericardium, and the perquisite of the 
herd-boys; band or flat ring of solid 

27 BE 

brass worn originally round the neck, 
as a decoration of the highest class, by 
Zulu chiefs in olden times (the custom 
having become already obsolete in Sha- 
ka's time). Cp. um-Naka; um-Daka. 
Beduka (Bheduka), v. <o-t done, get seen, 
appear, etc. in greal numbers or quan- 
tity = ukuti bedu. 

Bedula (Bhedu/a), v. Do abundantly or in 
great degree, as when ploughing up a 
very large piece of land, or when walking 
an immense distance ( dwengula); be- 
gin to twist or turn the horns at the 
extremities, as a bullock after it has 
reached its prime (= nqanda; cp. shwi- 
la); also = petulula (*./>.; s.t.). 

Ex. washaya imbedula, he was off ami far 
away in no time. 

i-mBedula (Bhedula), n. Bullock that has 
already reached the age of uku-bedula 
q. v. 

Bedulula (Bhedulula), v. = petulula (s.p.; 
s. t.). 

i-mBedumehlwana (Bhedumehlwana - no 
plur.),%. Action of inverting the eye- 
lids, as common with children. 

Ex. id'enxa imbed wnehhv ana, he turned 
up his eyelids. 

um-Befu, n. 5. Asthma, asthmatic breathing 
(N. fr. Xo.). 

Befuzela, v. Gasp for breath, as a person 
suffering from asthma, or an over-loaded 
stomach. Cp. pefuzela. 

Beja (Bheja), v. Be red, as the sky, moon 
behind a fog, an inflamed eye, or an 
angry whiteman's face (used in pert.) 
[Skr. raj, shine]. 

i(li)-Beja or Beje (Bheja or Bheje), n. One 
of the ama-Beje group of Dingane's isi- 
godhlo girls - - the kraal set apart for 
them at emGungundhlovu was called 
eBeje. Cp. i(li)-Ti>iitsi ; i-nKwelemba. 

u, or isi-Bejane (Bhejane), n. Common 
Black Rhinoceros, smaller and with 
shorter horns than the um-Kombo. 

um-Bejazane (Bhejazane), n. 5. um-Be- 


u(lu)-Beje (Bheje), n. Native of a very 
light or yellow skin (cp. i(li)-Gawozi)\ 

a certain shrub. 

Beka (s.k.), r. Put, place, set a thing (ace), 
as on a table; instal, place in office, ap- 
point, make a person to be a chief or 
policeman (doub. ace); commit to the 
charge of, place under the care of, as 
one's children or cattle (ace.) into the 
rare of some guardian (with ku); put 
down formally or decidedly, as the 


money (ace), for a purchase, a definite 
promise, etc.; stake, as a wager; put 
aside, put by, as food or money for fu- 
ture use; lie fair i.e. put aside the rain 
or wind, as the heavens (used in perf.); 
drop or give birth to a calf (ace.), as a 
cow; pay or present the um-Beko beast 
or equivalent [Sw. weka, place; Ga.teka; 
Va. taga; Bo. ika]. 

Ex. wambeka induna, lie appointed him 

uyakubeka-ni? what will you het? 

fata loku'kudhla, ukubeke, take this food 
and put it aside. 

libekile namhlanje, it has cleared up (of 
rain), calmed down (of wind) to-day. 

libekile, fcanalo ulaka, he is of a quiet, mild 
disposition, not angry-tempered. 

e/ululo kwakubekioa ngawo umdaka, in olden 
times the um-beko was paid in rings of brass. 

l'hr. sekubekwe inhlamvu nje, there has 
already been laid a branch (over him in the 
grave) = he is already as good as dead and 

uku-belc'indhlebe, to hearken, pay attention 
to, listen to what one is being told or or- 
dered (with leu). 

iiku-bck'isandhla, to seek the patronage of, 
or adoption as a subject or servant by, some 
higher person (with ku). 

uku-bek'indttlat, to place the stick (on the 
head of another contemptuously) i, c. chal- 
lenge him to fight i with ace). 

uku-beka ixito, to walk or go slowly. 

Beka (Bheka), v. Look, see; look at a 
thing (ace); look towards a thing (with 
ku or !«>(•.); observe, watch a thing; at- 
tend to one's work (ace), a boiling pot, 
etc.; keep an eye upon, look after, take 
care of, as a child (ace) left temporarily 
with one; look out for, expect, wait for, 
as a person (ace) at some meeting-place; 
face towards (with ku, ngaku, or loe); 
go in the direction of (with loe and 
nga)\ take a thing (ace) into account, 
consider, pay regard to; be still, calm, 
fair, as the weather when free from wind 
(used in perf.). 

Ex. beka bo! take care! look out (or 
I'll give it to you in a minute)! 

simbekile namhlanje, we expect him to-day. 

beka kimina, look towards me. 

labaleka (ihashi), labeka ngas 'emLaxi, it 
(the horsej ran away in the direction of the 

kabeki toko yena, he doesn't take that into 

l'hr. ukurbeka pantsi, to be submissive, 
humble, respectful, is one's bearing. 

uku-beka umuntu nenyoka, to look at a 
person as though a snake — to hate him 
with a deadly hatred. 

28 BE 

i(li)-Beka (s. k.)n. Quiet, mild, even-tem- 
pered person or animal, with no fire or 
anger in him. 

i(li)-Beka (Bheka), n. Any one of the lohola 

Phr. walandela amabeka, it (the child) fol- 
lowed the lobola cattle i. e. took after the 
mother, or mother's family, where the lobola 
cattle went to. 

i-mBeka (Bheka), n. Meat slaughtered for 
a doctor and carried by him as provision 
on his journey. 

um-B3ka (s.k.),n.o. = iim-Beko. 

Bekana (Bhekana), v. Look at one another 
i. e. be face to face (used in perf.), or 
opposite to (with na). 

Ex. imixi yetu ibekene, our kraals are face 
to face or opposite each other. 

umitxi wakubo uyabekana nowakiti, their 
kraal is opposite to ours. 

ekubekarteni nomuxi tvakin-i, opposite (or 
in the place opposite to) your kraal. 

isi, um, or u(lu)-Bekazane (Bhekazane), n. 
A raging, a wild impetuous activity, as 
of a furious devouring fire, a raging 
epidemic of disease (often equivalent to 
English adjectives denoting such a con- 
dition, as 'raging, furious, passionate'); 
passion (in human beings), wild uncon- 
trollable mental impulse to do something 
= um-Bejazane. 

Ex. aku'itd/dala, ubekazane, it is not a 
(mere) famine; it is a real furiously raging- 

uvuke umbekaxane wokweba, he has got 
excited (within himself) a passion or irre- 
sistible craving for stealing. 

Bekebe, ukuti (ukuthi), v. Appear suddenly 
before one, as a highwayman before a 
traveller, or an unexpected visitor sud- 
denly appearing before one's door. 

Beke beke, ukuti (ukuthi, s. k.), v. Wave, 
undulate, as a long plank carried on the 
head = bekezela. 

I isi-Bekebeke (Bhekebheke), n. Big affair, 

serious matter. 
j isi-Bekedu (Bhekedu), n. = isi-Kigi. 

! Bekela (s.k.), v. Place, lay by, provide for, 
as food, etc. for a particular person or 
time (doub. ace) ; put a patch on to, as 
on to a dress (ace with nga); put on, 
wear the izi-nJobo on one's umu-Tsha; 
place for a person some medicine (doub. 
ace) with criminal intention, as an um- 
/a /rati. 

Bekela (Bhekela), v. Look for, or on be- 
half of (not in search of — cinga) a per- 
son (ace). 


Ex. wosibekela! you shall look for us! as 
shouted by a man at a limit when he believes 
lie has struck a buck ami thereby giving 
notice of his claim to those on ahead. 

Bekelana (s.k.), v. Place for one another, 
as medicine, with evil intent; lay a wager 

Bekelana (Bhekelana), v. Be or go side 
by side, parallel with (with v<i). 

Bekelela (s.k.), v. Lay one thing on top of 
another, pile one above the other, as 
one blanket upon another on a bed, or 
one garment over another on the body; 
lay by time after time, store up, as 
money (ace.). 

isi-Bekeli (s.k.), n. An umtakati or one 
\S given to 'placing' medicine on paths, 
etc. with the intention of doing injury 
to certain others. 

um-Bekelo (s.k.), n. 5. Contribution; depo- 
sit (M). 

u(lu)-Bekenya (Bliekcnya), n. Person with 
an angry, noisy tongue, always scolding, 
finding fault, quarrelling, etc.; one of a 
regiment formed by Sliaka ; the regi- 
ment itself. 

u(lu)-Bekenyakato (Bhekenyakntho), n. Spe- 
cies of red iron wood. Cp. um-Ozane. 

X.B. This tree is used medicinally as ;i 
charm against an um-Kovu. 

Bekenyeka (Bhekenyeka), v. Re always 
'jawing', scolding, grumbling, or finding 
fault in an angry noisy manner. 

u-Bek'eyahlu!wako (Bhek' eyahlulwako), n. 

One who looks out for the victorious 
(or lit. the conquered) side with which 
he always craftily takes his stand. Cp. 

ifli)-Bekezantsi (Bhekezantsi), n. Large bat, 
a 'Flying Fox' (cp. i(U)-Lulwane) ; (C.N.) 
also = u-Xamu. 

Bekezela (s. k.), v. Wave, undulate, as a 
long plank carried on the head (— boko- 
zela, teba); submit patiently to (with hit), 

, be patient or forbearing before ill-treat- 
* ment or trouble; catch rain or dripping 
water, by placing a vessel for the pur- 
pose (= kongozela). 

Bekisa (Bhekisa), v. Make a thing (ace.) 
point or go in the direction of (with ku 
or loc); look away towards, reach away 
in the direction of, as a range of hills 
(with nga and loc). 

Ex. ukufa kusabekisa pambili, the sickness 
is still directed forwards i. c. is still making 

Bekisela (Bhekisela), v. Help a person to 
look for something (doub. ace). 

29 BE 

Ex. we! wox'ungibekisele iiuali yami, here! 
conic and help me look for niv money. 

Bekisisa (Bhekisisa), v. Look, look at, or 
look for very carefully; be very careful, 
cautious, etc. 

Ex. into woyibekisisa, unyakayitcnyi, yon 

should look at a thing properly before you 
buy it. 

um-Beko (s.k.),n.5. Meal or beer placed 
for the ama-Dhlozi; beast sent along 
with a bride by her father on ber wed- 
ding-day as a present to the bride- 
groom's people to be slaughtered by 
themf isi-Godo, eyokukulekela ukuzala 
abantwana) it is gen. accompanied by 
another fine bullock (eyokucela izinko- 
mo) which itself is accompanied by ;i 
third, but gen. smaller beast (i(li)-Shoba 
or u(lu)-Swazi), both of which remain 
in the kraal unslaughtered. Although 
the name mu-Beko is gen. applied only to 
the first beast, the plur. im-Beko is used 
to denote the whole three collectively. 

ubu-Bekubeku (Bhekubeku), n. General 

commotion of spirited activity, as below. 

Bekuza (Bhekuza), v. Turn up or throw 
up the buttocks, tail, etc., as a buck does 
its tail, or its rump when running, or a 
fowl when scratching, or a woman when 
strutting about at a dance; hence, act or 
talk rudely to a person (ace with ela 
form); do, or work away at anything 
with spirit or energy, as when hoeing, 
walking, etc. = pekuza; beluza. 

isi-Bekuza (Bhekuza), n. Tail of any kind of 
buck or goat (= isi-Belu; cp. um-Tsho- 
kodo); spirited, energetic, industrious 
person (= isi-Pekupeku); certain dance 
ceremony, of the women, etc., at the at- 
taining to puberty of a girl or a boy 
(used with ukw-enza -- the custom how- 
ever is now almost obsolete). 

Bele, aux. verb, expressing 'constantly, 
repeatedly, continually' = de, jinge, si- 
nge, etc. 
Ex. ubel'esho, he is always saying so. 

i(li)Bele (with the voice raised ami the 
vowel slightly lengthened in the last syl- 
lable), n. Far of Kafir-corn (Sorghum 
vulgare); plur. ama-Bele, Kafir-corn (col- 
lectively) in gen. sense, whether as grain, 
or in growing plant; beer made there- 
from (=u(bu)-7shwala). Cp. u-Jiba\ 
u-Nukane; i(li)-Hlosa [prob. so named 
from the resemblance of the pendulous 
ears to the female breast see below. 
Hi. bajree, kind of millet (Pennisetum 
Typhoidewm); warree, another kind of 
millet {Panicum miliaceum); Fulbe, 




Centr. Air. bairi, sorghum; Adam, mair 
wari; Bor. ngaberi; B«>. u-hemba; Sw. 
ma-btta, millet-stalks; Ga. mwembe, mil- 
let; Ku. ma-hele = Z. uNyawoti; Ku. 
mefe, sorghum; Yr/. ma-pemba, sorg- 
hum; ma-bele, la-easts; Reg. che-bele, pi. 
me-bele, maize]. 

Phr. uku-dhla amabele, to drink beer i.e. 
to enjoy existence or life, be living. 

P. wodhliwa indoda, (the ama-bete) will be 
eaten by a man /. *. a smart fellow = he 
will have to be a smart fellow to get any 
kafir-beer this season owing to some adverse 
circumstance) — applied similarly to any 
other difficult thing which it will require 
unusual smartness to attain. 

ibele lendhlela kali rut tea, the ear of corn 
(growing on a pathway doesn't get ripe (it 
cannot thrive well under the treatment of 
many passers-by] — said of a person who 
is constantly bothered by travellers through 
living too near a high-way. 

i(li)-Bele (with the voice lowered on the 
last syllable),;?. Female breast; udder, 
of an animal. Cp. isi-Bele; um-Bele [Gr. 
phele, nipple; Lat. uber, fruitful; felo, 
I -nek; fe-mina, woman; pectus, breast; 
0. B. dete, infant; Ar. ba'ara, cow; 
]\IZT. i-bele, breast; Her. vere; Bo. mele, 
milk; ki-wele, udder; Ga. ma-were, 
breast; Sw. ma-ziwa, Chil. ma-siba, 
breasts comp. with Xo. ama-zimba, 
Kafir-corn (wh. latter in Z. is ama-bele); 
also comp. Ze. ma-tombo, breasts; Kag. 
ma-tombe; Go. ma-tombu with Z. imi- 
tombo, malt of Kafir-corn; uku-tomba, 
to attain to puberty]. 

i(li)-Bele (Bhele), n. = um-Belenja. 

isi-Bele (pronoiinc. as i(li)-Bele, breast), n. 
'Place' <>f the breast i. e. rudimentary 
lueast of a young girl below puberty, 
or of a man (cp. i-nGono); pneumonia 
with abscess or gangrene of the lungs 
(from the pain felt about the nipple). 

um-Bele (pron. as above), n. 5. Teat, of 
an animal; fleshy appendage hanging 
beneath the throat of a goat. 

ubu-Bele (pron. as above), n. Tender feel- 
ing, compassion. 

i(li)-Beleba (Bheleba), n. Serious affair, 
event, lawsuit, etc.; also = i(li)-Bele 

i(li)-Belebele (Bhelebhele), n. = um-Bele- 
bele; also i(li)-Tweletwele. 

um-Belebele (Bhelebhele - no plur.), n. 5. 
Seed-pod or pods of the irnGotsha bush, 

and which somewhat resemble green 
chillies in shape and are eaten by the 


um-Belebele, n. o. A never-ending affair, 

as a long rigmarole of a story, a never- 
ending lawsuit, or any persistently wor- 
rying matter; loc. emBelebeleni, the 
name of one of Shaka's military-kraals. 

Ex. ngafa umbelebelel I died of an endless 
thing! — said by a man in reference to some 
person or affair that is an everlasting worry, 
never seeming to leave him alone. 

Belekeqa (Bhelekeqa), v. = ukuti belekeqe. 

Belekeqe, ukuti (Bhelekeqe, ukuthi), v. Be 
broad, widely spread or opened out, as 
a wide hut, or sleeping mat; part, cut, 
or open widely apart, make gape, as a 
person's head (ace.) with a blow from an 
axe; get widely parted, as the seed- 
leaves of a sprouting plant. 

isi, or um-Belekeqe (Bhelekeqe), n. o. Any 
broad, widely spread-out thing, as a 
wide hut, meat-tray or mat. 

isi-Belekexa (Bbe/eke.ra), n. = isi-Belekeqe. 

i-mBeleko (Bheleko), n. Skin used for 
supporting an infant when carried on 
the back ; hence, hood ; beast presented 
by a father, for slaughtering purposes, 
to his daughter soon after her marriage 
and for which she makes a visit to her 
home in order to hold there the feast. 

Phr. akulahlwa 'mbeleko nga'kufelwa, the 

child's sack is not thrown away (absolutely 
through one's children dying) = there is al- 
ways still hope of a child living; never de- 
spair on account of present adversities. 

upakati kwomhlana nembeleko, he isbetweeu 
the back and the sack i. e. is crying, like 
a child, even when comfortably carried on 
the mother's back — said of one who grum- 
bles even when well off. 

i(li)-Belelendhlovu, n. Certain tree {Kige- 

lia pinnata) (X). 
u(lu)-Belendhlovu, n. Variety of the female 

breast, in which the organ is unusually 

large and long. Cp. i-iiKomane; isi-Pofu; 

um-Nqadula; um- Vongoto. 

um-Belenja (Bhelenja), n. 5. Skin of any 
small animal worn hanging as a frontal 
dress (in place of the isi-Xe?ie, q. v.) by 
men, and sometimes by girls when in 
'un-dress' within their homes = i(li)- 
Bele (Bhele). 

Beiesela, v. Be always at a person (ace.) 
in a worrying, harassing way, as when 
dunning him for payment of a debt (with 
nga), bothering him with persistent beg- 
ging or following, or when constantly 
teasing him about some old fault. Cp. be- 
dhla; fukamela; fundekela; fundamela. 

Beieta (Beletha), v. Give birth, as to a 
child (ace), only used of women; carry 
straddled on the back, as an infant (ace.) 


in the i-mBeleko, Or a person over a 
stream; also ' i/casl/rla [Ar. wili.d, bear 
(child); Ka. Ga. bereka, carry on back; 
Her vereka; Ya. yeleka; Bo. <?/«/ra]. 

Phr. iiku-bclctu ixinyawo, to carry one's 
feet on one's back «'. e. to hasten along. 

Beletisa (Belethisa), v. Help to bring 
forth, as a midwife assisting a woman 
(ace); attend such a woman (ace.) in 
child-birth; cause a person to carry ano- 
ther (doub. ace.) on the back i.e. assist 
him or her thereto. 

Phr. uku-yi-beletisa (intombaxema) itunga 
— see i(li)-Tunga. 

u(lu)-Belo, n. Great swiftness, as of an 
arrow or race-horse 'jFJying' (C.N.) Cp. 
isi-Qubu; i(li)-Jubane. [Reg. lu-biru, 

um-Belo (Bhelo), n. 5. Method of building 
a cattle-kraal with the long stakes, lean- 
ing from the inside and outside upon a 
common central rail, closely packed side 
by side; method of sewing beadwork, in 
which the beads are drawn closely to- 
gether, leaving no interstices as in the 
i(li)-Tambo. See isi-Twetwe. 

Belu, adv. used only as an expletive, to 
gently or politely emphasize, and often 

/equiv. to such Eng. expressions as 'just, 
i then, of course, you know, etc' 

Ex. kahleni bclit! hold on! just wait a bit! 

e! yenxani belu! now then, fire away! 

mjiijexa belu! I am just comiug (so be 
patient a moment, or, be continuing 

niyakaxiva bel/t pambili, you will hear, 
you know, on ahead. 

isi-Belu (Bhelu), n. Tail of a buck or goat 
(= isi-Bekuza; cp. um-Tshokodo) ; per- 
son with a conspicuous 'Grecian bend' 
or curving in of the spine and protrusion 

^or 'turning up' of the buttocks (= u(lu)- 
Belu; cp. i-mPentsula; talasa); false 
alarm (cp. um-Kosi); certain bird, White- 
breasted Dove (Tympanistria bicolor). 

u(lu)-Belu (Bhelu), n. Afrikander cattle 
(used without plur.), first brought down 
from the Transvaal Basutos about the 
time of Mzilikazi's raiding there, and 
hence called also u(lu)-Sutu; person 
with very curved back and 'turned up' 
buttocks (= isi-Belu). 

um-Belume (Bhelume), n. 5. Certain sea- 
fish (N). 

Beluza (Bheluza), v. = bekuza. 

Bema (Bhema),r. Take snuff (ace; cp. 
hela); smoke, as wild-hemp or tobacco 
(ace), or as the hemp-horn or the pipe; 
used idiomatically as below to express 

31 BE 

Mo do off in no time, clear away com- 
pletely, make a complete end of 'a thing 
(used with shay a and only in certain 
connections - cp. qotula); clear Le. be 
off and away in no time (cp. tita) [Her. 
peuxi, blow the nose; Ovambo. oseni, 

Ex. washaya wabema, he was off and 
away in no time, he cleared completely. 

umsebenxi ngiwusliaye ngawubema, I have 
polished off the job. 

ixinlcomo itmbila utwushaya tatoubema, 
the cattle made a clean sweep of the mealies. 

Bemabema (Bhemabhema), v. Finish or 
do off smartly, in no time, as work 
(ace.) or mealies. 

i-mBemakanyana (Bhemakdnyana), n. 

Small or moderate snuffer or smoker. 

i-mBemba (Bhembha), n. Kind of orna- 
mental or war axe or hatchet, common 
among the Swazis, consisting of a cres- 
cent shaped blade of iron with a long 
spike in the concavity for driving through 
the end of a wooden handle. Cp. /'(//)- 

isi-Bemba (Bembha), n. Branch of a palm 
of any kind (from the drooping curve 
thereof = isi-Kwepa); person bearing 
the head drooping towards one side, as 
a coy little child (= isi-Nxadi). 

u(lu)-Bemba (Bembha), n. Anything fal- 
ling, leaning, or drooping over towards 
one side, as the head of some children, 
an car of Kafir-corn, or a badly set 
lamp-glass. Cp. u(lu)-Tsheku. 

isi-Bembe (Bheembhe), n. Anything left 
abandoned, without any owner or in- 
heritor, as food left in the fields or 
kraal by a familj r removing, property left 
by an intestate man without heirs, or 
girls left by a man who has no sons 
to 'own' them (see i(li)-Fa); plur. izi- 
Bembe, great abundance of food, as at 
a feast, so that it was left uncared for 
on all sides (cp. ama-Baka; isi-Bidhli- 

u(lu)-Bembe (Bheembhe), //. —- u(lu)-Be- 

isi-Bembedu (Bhembhedu), u. Certain 
hard-wooded forest-tree. 

u(lu)-Bembedu (Bhembhedu), >/. Any rigid 
sheet or plate of a thing, as a bide dry 
and unbendable, a tray, or plate of iron 
(cp. isi-Bebe, isi-Xwexwe); stiff-backed, 
stiff-necked person, moving the whole 
body round when glancing sideways, as 
though in one rigid piece; certain bush. 

Treat tin- 
or dis- 

Bembesela (Bhembhesela), v. 

gratefully, despise, disregard 

BE 32 

respect, a good parent (ace), a benefactor, . 
or anyone to whom gratitude is duo. | 
Cp. fulatela; talasela. 

um-Bembeso (Bhembheso), n. 5. Broad 
bell of stiff white ox-hide worn round 
the waist by the um-Twisaswe regiment, 
but from its inconvenience to the active 
soldier, afterwards abolished and cut up 
into a certain skin head-dress (see ubu- 

i(li)- Berne (Bheme), //. Large supply or 
abundance of food, as at a feast (N) = 

u(lu)-Bememe (Bheme/ur), n. Agreatrush- 
ing forward with overpowering force, 
as of a mightily strong wind, an impi 
dashing forward, or a wild grass-fire 
or epidemic of disease. 

Ex. mxukwana kwob&meme Iwabelungu be- 
ya eNdayimana, at the time of the ou-rush 
of tlic whitemen to the Diamond-fields. 

kwasekusulca iibememe olukulu, thereupon 
there arose a great rush forward. 

Bena (Bhena), v. Curve in the back and 
throw up the buttocks, as young-men 
do to show off, or a horse when mount- 
ed by a heavy man. Cp. bensa; talasa. 

Benca (Bhenca), v. = benceza. 

Bence, ukuti (Bhence, ukuthi), v. Bend 
about in all directions, or back upon 
itself, as anything hanging together by 
a loose joint, as a snaffle-bit, or thing 
allowing itself to be easily turned or 
folded back upon itself without breaking, 
as a piece of card board, tin, or oil-cloth 
= benceka; make so bend about, turn 
back or down upon itself as anything 
(ace.) above; twist about in all directions 
in one's talk, as an evasive, crafty talker 
or one prevaricating = benceza. =ukuti 
in he nee. 

u Bence (Bhence), n. A snaffle-bit (T). 

i(li)-Bencebence (Bhencebhence), n. One 
who twists about in all directions in his 
talk, an evasive crafty talker = isi- 

Benceka (Bhenceka), v. = ukuti bence, 

Benceza (Bhenceza), v. = ukuti bence; 
in benceza. 

Bencu, ukuti (Bhencu, ukuthi), v. = ukuti 

Bencu I a (Jlhencula), v. = benceza. 

i(li)-Bende or Bende (Beende), n. Blood 
flowing from the bowels i.e. the vagina 
(as at child-birth or during the menses), 
or th<- anus (as when suffering from 
piles (cp. i-n< !<r.l) ; small kind of veldt 
rat (see i(li)-Gundane). 


u(lu)-Bende or Bende (Beende), n. Spleen; 
certain splenic, disease of calves. 

ubu-Bende, n. Blood found in the body 
of a slaughtered beast, which is mixed 
with minced-meat and eaten; used as an 
adj. in the form bubende, crimson, dark 

Phr. uku-\i-kire\a ithubende, to preserve 
one's blood i. c. to take care of oneself, 
guard oneself from danger. 

P. ininyiliyaVona ububende, the multitude 
of people spoils the collops = too many 
cooks spoil the broth. 

um-Bendeni, n. 5. = u-Ndicosho. 

Bend h la, v. = lendhla. 

u-Bendhle or Bendhle (Bcendhle), n. 1. = 

Benga, v. Cut meat (ace.) into a long rope- 
like strip, for roasting over the fire ; 
cut, off a long strip of anything, as hide 
(ace.) to make a reim, by a succession 
of small slits, not by one clean cut (cp. 
caya, cakaza); cut up or cut a strip 
out of the veldt (ace), by burning suc- 
cessive small patches forming a zigzag 
line; cut up a person (ace), by blows 
with a stick dealt right and left on the 
Benge, ukuti (ukuthi), v. = ukuti benye. 
i-mBenge (Bhenge), n. Small Native basket, 
about the size of a large bowl (cp. um- 
Helo; i(li)-Qoma) ; the pileus or cap of 
a mushroom (= i-mPenge). 
i-mBengembenge (Bliengembhenge) n. Ser- 
ious, nasty-looking affair or law-case 
( = i(li)-Beleba); bad-tempered, cross- 
grained person. 
Bengezela, v. — benyezela. 
um-Bengo, n. 5. Piece of meat slit zigzag, 
fashion so as to lengthen it, for roasting, 
into a long thin strip. 
Bengu, ukuti (ukuthi), v. = bengula. 
Bengu, ukuti (Bhengu, ukuthi), v. = be- 
ngula (bhengxda); benguka; benguza. 
isi- Bengu (Bhengu), n. Wild or furious 
rising up, as of people in a tumult, a 
raging fire, or furious wind. 

Ex. ummja (or umlilo, or abantu) sebesusx 
isibengx, the wind (or fire, or people) are 
now getting wild, furious. 
u(lu)-Bengu, n. Outer-skin or sheath of a 
stick of imfe or a stalk of tambootie- 
grass, and which is somewhat sharp, 
and removed when eating or dressing. 
isi-Bengubengu (Bhengubhengu), n. = isi- 

Benguka (Bhenguka), v. Get thrown or 
tosed wildly up or about, as a man's 


blanket by a strong wind, or a grass- 
fire when blown furiously about. 

Bengula, v. Cover or go over a greal 

stretch of country (ace.) very quickly, :is 

S a grass-fire going rapidly forward, or a 

quick walker covering a long distance 

in a very short time. 

Bengula (Bhengula), v. Throw or toss 
wildly up or about, as a furious wind 
might a man's blanket (ace), or the 
flames of a grass-fire (= benguza); do or 
go furiously, with wild vehemence, as 
a grass-fire in the wind or a routed impi 

Benguza (Bhenguza), v. Drive wildly for- 
ward or about, as a great wind might 
a grass-fire. 

Bentsa (Bhentsa), v. Turn up the buttocks, 
as a person with a deeply curved back 
S (used in perf.) ; turn up the buttocks at 
(metaphor.) i. e. be saucy, insolent, con- 
temptuously rude to a person (ace. with 
ela from) = bona, talasa. 

Phr. ubentse amabuka, he has his poste- 
riors swollen out with tapeworms — vulgar 
term of abuse used by women (C.N.). 

i(li)- Bentsa (Bhentsa), n. Follower or at- 
tendant, living on the good things of 
his lord (C. N.). 

isi-Bentse (Bhentse), n. Person with deeply 
curved back, throwing the chest forward 
and the buttocks up = isi-Belu. 

Benu, poss. adj. Your— with nouns of 1st. 
el. plur. — see enu. 

u(lu)-Benyane, n. Certain kind of grass 
(Op lismenus A fricanus) . 

Benye, ukuti (ukuthi), v. = benyezela. 
, i-mBenyeka (Bhenyeka), n. Indecency of 
sitting on the buttocks with the thighs 
opened far apart (N.). 

i-mBenyeza (Bhenyeza), n. (C.N.) == i-m- 

Benyezela, v. Glitter, as bayonets in the 

/sun ; glisten, as a diamond ; flash, as a 
mirror reflecting light = cwazizela, ba- 

i(li)Beqe (Bheqe), n. Strip of dry skin, of 
the i-nTsimango, i-nTsimba, etc., worn 
dangling on each side of the head before 
the ears, as a full-dress ornament at the 
um-Kosi, wedding-dance, etc.; hence, 
blinker; pi. ama-Beqe, a kind of after- 
dress of men made of strips of i-nTsi- 
mango skin. 

isi-Beqe (Bheqe), n. Large, broad, flat thing, 
like a tobacco-leaf; skin sleeping-mat of 
infants = isi-Beqeza. 

i(li), or isi-Beqeza (Bheqeza), n. = isi-Beqe. 

33 BE 

i(ii)-Beshu (Bheshu), n. Skin buttock-co- 
vering, of males. Cp. umtt-Tsha; isi-Ne- 
ne; i-nJobo; i(li)-Dhlaka. 

Ex. uku-binca ibeshu, to Lrinl on or wear 
the buttock-covering. 

Beshuza or Beshubeshuza (Bheshuza or 
Bheshubheshuza), v. Throw up the rump 
when running, as a buck <>r goat ; go 
about 'throwing up the rump or tail' 
(metaphor.), as a woman in a very Bhort, 
stiffly sitting isidwaba; go off 'throw- 
ing up the rump' i.e. go <>r run off con- 
temptuously, as a refractory child when 
ordered to do anything by its mother. 

Beta (Betha), v. Strike, as a nail (ace.) 
with a hammer, or a person with a stick ; 
beat, work by striking, as a smith iron 
(ace. = kanda); pelt, as hail a person 
or field, or boys throwing stones; blow 
a pleasant breeze, as the wind [Skr. 
badh, strike; Aug. beta, strike; Her. 
vela; Kamb. atlia; Ku. wata; (Ji. }>nfa\. 

Ex. ixwe elibeftimoya, a country which 
blows pleasantly i. e. a cool, airy, breezy 

ivmoya ubefa ka/mnanjatut namhla, there 
is a pleasant breeze to-day. 

Phr. ikanda lake libetih, his head recedes, 
he has a receding head. Comp. buya. 

uku-beta ikwelo, to whistle 

uku-beta ihlombe, to clap the hands. 

uku-beta ugubu, to play the organ or piano. 

urn-Bete (Beetlie).n. 5. Dew, or drops left 
by rain upon the grass (= ama-Zolo - 
the latter use is merely by comparison); 
hairiness about the belly (= nbu-Hirn- 

Betela (Bethel a), v. Knock or drive in, as 
a nail (ace.) into a board; nail, fix with 
nails or pegs, as the board (ace.), the 
soles of boots, or a fresh skin to dry; 
drive in or set up a stake for charm- 
ing off evil, as lightning (ace), etc.; 
clap the hands, or beat the hide for, as 
is done for a witch-doctor (ace). 

Betelela (Bethelela), v. Operate on or 'fix' 
a girl (ace), as a young-man does by 
certain love-medicines (see isi-Betelel<>)\ 
(C.N.) put up to fight, as cattle (ace.) 
or boys (see qata). 

isi-Betelelo (Bethelelo), n. Any love-medi- 
cine used for the purpose of vku-bete- 

N.B. Take of the i-mBambda (cuttle-fish). 
u-Manaye (plant), u-Nginakile (plant), u-Zi- 
lilo (plant), ama-Futa engwe (leopard's fat) 
and u-Lukuningomile (plant), each a part 
and mix with the spittle of any particular 
girl and your own ; place all, carefully cov- 
ered up, beneath a projecting rock in some 


precipice, and the girl is 'fixed' firmly to 
you against all comers! 
i(li)Beto (Betho), n. Native smithy or forge 
= isi-Tando. 

Ex. ingttbo wayinikwa isapuma ebetweni, 
mimic is'inje! he was given the blanket just 
new from the factory or store, and now it 
is like this ! 

Betu (Bethu), poss. adj. Our— used with 
nouns of the 1st. el. plur. — see etv. 

u(lu)-Betubetu (Bethubethuk n. = u(lu)- 

Betuza (Bethuza), v. = s hang a. 

Beva (Bheva), v. Be wild, fierce, furious, 
as an ill-tempered dog or an irascible 
man at another (ace. with ela from) = 
bava, bova. Cp. bovumula. 

Ex. iibeve ngolaha mdhlini, he is wild with 

rape in the hut. 

isi-Beva (Bheva), n. Fierce, passionate 
man, given to getting in a rage; (C.N.) 
one with very strong animal passions, 
a lecherous person. = isi-Bova. 

um-Beva (Bheva), n. 5. Manner of casting 
lots (ukwenza umbeva) practised by 
herd-boys, wherein two of them grasp a 
stick hand over hand until the top is 
reached. The one to whom the last 
place falls must then hold the stick 
swinging between his forefinger and 
thumb, while the other, with a jerk, en- 
deavours to throw it from him. If he 
succeeds, he is considered free, and the 
other must go and look after the cattle 

ubu-Beva (Bheva), n. Lewdness, lecherous- 
ness (N). 

Bevumula (Bhevumula), v. = bovumula. 

i-mBewu (Bliewu — no plur.), n. Seed, of 
any description (for planting purposes, not 
in the mere sense of a 'grain' = i-nTla- 
m vii); (C.N.) stock or race of people, 
etc. (= u(lu)-Hlobo). Cp. i-nTLwanyelo. 
[Sw. Bo. mbeyu; MZT. im-bezu; Mo. 

Phr. iiiihririi ihlaleCihlanga layo, the seed 
waits for its old ground = I am hiding my 
time, everything comes round to those who 

u-Bewula (Bhewula), n. Section of the u- 
Mbonambi regiment. 

Beza, v. Glitter, as dew on the grass in 
the sun; vibrate shiningly, as the hot 
air on a plain = ukuti beze. 

um-Beza (Bheza), n. 5. = um-Embesa. 

Beze or Bezi, ukuti (ukuthi), v. = beza. 

Bezezela or Bezizela, v. = beza, 

Bi, adj. Bad, in any sense, moral or phy- 

34 BI 

cal; hence, wicked, as a person or deed; 
evil, as an omen; dangerous, grievous, 
as a disease; serious, grave, as a matte]-; 
unpleasant to the eye, deformed, ugly ; 
disagreeable, unpleasant to the feelings; 
nasty, unpleasant to the taste; difficult, 
troublesome, hard, as any work; worth- 
less, useless, inferior of quality, as a coat; 
in bad condition, out of order, unhealthy, 
unsound, as a dirty vessel, an untidy 
hut, or a deranged stomach [Pers. bud, 
bad; Ar. battal; Hi. buret; Goth, ttbils; 
Ger. iibel; Eng. evil; Ga. Gu. Ru. etc. bi; 
Su. Her. vi; Sha. wiwi; Ko. kiwa; Ya. 
ehimwa; Kam. cheha; Heh. Kag. etc. 
keha; Ze. weha; Go. yeha ; Sw. bay a], 

Ex. kubi lewake (ukuhlu/peka, uhveba, etc.) 
kunoBani, his (affliction, thieving, etc.) is 
worse than that of So-and-so. 

Bi (Bhi), adj. Same as above, the aspira- 
tion being introduced when the b fol- 
lows an m. 

Ex. umfana omubi, a bad boy. 
indoda embi (embhi), a bad man. 
Bi, ukuti (Bhi, ukuthi -- with prolongation 
of the vowel), v. = biba; bibisa; also = 

isi-Bi, n. Little bit of (vegetable) rubbish 
or sweepings, lying about on a floor, 
floating in the air or in the water (= 
isi-Longosha); small pimple growing or 
formed on the eyeball, as from a form- 
ing cataract or thorn-prick (cp. uni-La- 
nga; um-Tuqwa). 

Phr. Icithwti ntlougasibi, it is an open, ex- 
posed country, without a scrap of vegetation 
(save grass). 

us'exibini, she is in the rubbish i.e. in 
childbirth, from the practice of women in this 
condition lying on cut-grass. 

ubu-Bi,/>. Badness, of any kind, moral or 
physical, as above — see bi. 

Biba (Bhibha), v. Spin round (intrans.) ; 
whirl round, revolve, as a top, a wheel, 
or stick when twirled round in the hand ; 
spread, as a sore (= hlentleteka) ; qui- 
ver, vibrate rapidly, as a reed or assegai 
(== veva, vevezela). 

im-BTba (Bhiiba), n. Striped field-mouse, 
in some parts hunted for and eaten by 
boys = u-Hazula, tim-Tendekazana. 
Cp. i(li)-Gundane. 

isi-Biba, n. = isi-Hluuiju. 

i(li)-Bibane, n. Chaps or sores forming be- 
neath the toes, in scrofulous persons. Cp. 

Bi'be, ukuti (ukuthi), v. Appear in great 
numbers, as people or cattle. 

Bfbi, ukuti (Bhibi, ukuthi), v. Fall to pieces 




broadly, get spilt out in a wide- spread, 
scattered manner, all over the place, as 
water from a broken vessel, mud from 

a wall, or mealies from a fallen sack — 
bibika; make anything (ace.) so to fall 
or get spilt scatteringly about - bibiza. 

i(li)-Bibi, ». Weeds or vegetable refuse ga- 
thered together in one place, as in a field 
or at a river's'-edge ; sometimes applied to 
dry overgrown veldt-grass that has 
escaped being burnt off; immensely big 
broad person 'appropriating all the 
room' t<> himself (= isi-Kukulugu) ; any 
one of the inferior wives attached as 
subordinates to any of the chief Ivnts in 
a Zulu kraal (see i-nDhlunkulu) [Bo. 
wiwi, weeds; Sw. ma-biwi, rubbish- 

ama-Bibi (no slay.), n. Weeds lying about 
uncollected in a hoed-field; also plur. 
of preceding, i.e. weed or rubbish-heaps. 

Bibidhla, v. Bubble at the mouth, pass out 
dribble or food (ace), as an infant (cp. 
gxaza); come 'bubbling' out, as water 
at a spring. 

Bibika (Bhibika),v. = ukuti bibi. 

i-mBibika (Bhibika), n. Mouth witli big, 
hanging lower-lip 'all fallen abroad.' Cp. 
isi-Mbence; isi-Bumbulu; isi-Xukulu. 

i-mBi'bimbibi (Bhibimbhibi), n. Thing fal- 
len broadly to pieces or scattered all 
about; hence = isi-Bidhlibidhli, isi-Bi- 

Bibisa (Bhibhisa), v. Make spin or whirl 
round, as a top (ace.) or wheel, as above 
— see biba = ukuti bi. 

Bibiteka (Bibitheka), v. Break up in the 
face, look on the point of crying, as a 
child = bihla, bihlilika. 

Bibiyela, v. Collect and clear away rub- 
bish (ace.) in a newly-hoed field. 

Bibiza (Bhibiza), v. = ukuti bibi. 

Bibiza (Bhibhiza), v. (C.N.) = bibidhla; 

Bibizela (Bhibhizela), v. Whistle on, set 
on or excite by whistling, as dogs (ace.) 
y at a buck, or the bull when serving a 
cow. Cp. hdha; shishizela. 

Bici, ukuti (Bind, ukuthi), v. = bicika; 

u-Bici (Bhlci), n. Small-pox (so named at 
the time of the violent epidemic in Zu- 

u(lu)-Bici (Bliiei), n. Purulent matter exu- 
ding from the eye when diseased. Cp. 

Bicika (Bkicika), v. Give forth, or run 
with, thick oozing exudation, as a per- 

son's body when covered with running 
sores, or as a dirty dish-cloth exuding 
greasy filth when pressed = ukuti bid. 

i-mB'i'cimbici (Bh/tcimbhici), n. Oozing 

exudation, as eomes from a sore, or a 
greasy dish-cloth when washed. 

Biciza (Bhiriza), v. Make give forth an 
oozing exudation, as a dirty dish-cloth 
(ace); make come forth, squeeze out, as 
the greasy filth (ace.) therein. 

um-Bicosho (Bhicosho), n. 1. - see n-Mhi- 

Bidhli, ukuti (Bhidhli, ukuthi), v. = bi- 
dhlika; bidhliza. 

i(li)-B7dhli (Bhiidhli), n. Thing numerously 
scattered on all sides, an immense quan- 
tity or number, as of people at a feast, 
or crops at a harvest; big, widely affect- 
ing affair (— isi-Bidhlibidhli); any 
hobby, or petty fashion in dress, adopted 
by a person for a short time then 
dropped ; person who has the habit of 
commencing things, then abandoning 
them unfinished. 

Phr. ain/ina'bid//!/ kuloko, I have no in- 
terest or concern with that; it is not my 
hobby or affair = angina'budhlu, or 'dudhlu. 

um-Bfdhli (Bhiidhli), n. 5. Immense num- 
ber or quantity of things thickly scat- 
tered about, as people, cattle, food, etc.; 
also applied to the famous proclamation 
of Sir T. Shepstone fixing the lobola 
cattle at ten head, the reference being 
to the multitude of girls who got mar- 
ried in consequence thereof (= isi-Ta- 

isi-Bidhlibidhli (Bhidhlibhidhli), n. Things 
scattered numerously about; hence, great 
multitude, as of cattle ; immense quantity, 
abounding wherever one looks, as of 
food at a feast; big, serious affair, ex- 
tensive in its circumstances or effects; 
hugely fat person or animal, with fat 
falling abroad on all sides; lump of 
jelly-like thing, seeming to shake to 
pieces broadly on all sides = i-mBibi- 
mbibi, i-mBikimbiki, i-mBikiza, urn- 

Bidhlika (Bhidhlika), v. Get scattered 
abroad, fallen apart or in pieces, as a 
big crowd dispersing from a meeting, 
an immense quantity of food all scattered 
about at a feast, a sod wall or pile of 
books all fallen down apart. Cp. bihla, 

Bidhliza (Bhidhliza), v. Cause to get so 
scattered about or fallen down ; hence, 
throw down, knock down, shake down, 
the wall, books (ace), etc., as above. Cp. 

Bl 36 

i(li)-Bidi (Bhidi), n. Variegated thing, com- I 
mingling various colours, as a lot of 
beads of different kinds, a tortoise-shell 
cat, etc. 

izi-Bidi (Bhidi - no sing.), n. Sediment, 
dregs, deposit (properly only when set- 
tled at the bottom of a vessel) = izi-Di- 
hi, izi-Dibiza, i-nZika, izi-Cucu; cp. 

Phr. hroba ixibidi, there will be a general 
mixing up, lively times, excitement, merry- 
making, as at a kraal on the day of a wed- 

Bidiliza (Bhidiliza), v. Do anything in an 
unskilled, imperfect, bad manner, as a 
man any work with which he is not 
well acquainted, or a foreigner or 
child talking in a language he does not 
yet know = pitiliza. Cp. potoloza. 

Bihla, v. Fall softly apart or to pieces, 
as a clay vessel while still soft in the 
making, bread before baking, the flesh of 
a person broken out in sores; break up 
about the face, as a child when about 
to cry (= bibiteka) = ukuti bihli, bi- 
hlika. Cp. bidhlika; kixika. 

Bihli, ukuti (ukuthi), v. = bihla, bihlika; 
bill li^d. 

Ex. bati bihli, bebaleka, they ran off dis- 
persed in all directions. 

um-Bihli, n. 5. Old person (mostly women) 
with fallen, hanging chops. Cp. um-Bi- 
m hi. 

isi-Bihlibihli, n. Big, fat, flabby person = 

Bihlika (s.k.),v. = bihla, ukuti bihli. Cp. 
kixika.; bidhlika. 

isi-Bihlikana (s.k.),n. = um-Bihli; also 
' little crying thing ' of a child, who breaks 
into tears for nothing. 

Bihlilika (s.k.),v. = bibiteka. 

Bihliza, v. Make to fall softly apart or 
into pieces, as a clay-vessel (ace), etc, 
as above - - see bihla. Cp. bidhliza, ki- 

Bihlizeka (s.k.),v. = bihlika. 

Bija (Bhija), v. Concentrate or 'focus' the 
eyes, so as to follow or see clearly any 
distant object; follow up with the eyes, 
find, 'spot' a thing (ace.) being searched 
for; put on, wear, an armlet of grass or 
wire (ace.). 

um-Bijazane (Bhijazane), n. 5. Stalk of 
the isirKonko grass twisted into an arm- 
lei for wearing (= um-Bijo); sometimes 
applied to the stalks of such grass 

Bije, ukuti (Bhije, ukuthi), v. Penetrate or 


pierce into deeply, as a thorn or assegai 
into the flesh; make so to penetrate 
deeply, thrust deeply in, as an assegai 
(ace). = ukuti hlose. 

Bijelezela (Bhijelezela), v. Empty or clear 
out entirely, leaving nothing behind, as 
water (ace.) from a bucket, mealies from 
a basket; pour or let out the whole of 
an affair = tshopolotela, minyelezela. 

Bijelezi, ukuti (Bhijelezi, ukuthi) v. = bi- 
um-Bijizane (Bhijizane), n.= um-Bijazane. 

i(li)-Bijo (Bhijo), n. (C.N.) = um-Bijazane. 

um-Bijo (Bhijo), n. 5. = um-Bijazane; 
beadwork string, worn round the neck 
or loins (= um-Gingqo); also = um- 

um, or u(lu)-Bijongo (Bhijongo), n. 5. Any 
tall-standing thing with perpendicular 
sides, like a coffee-tin or tar-drum, as 
some Native vessels, a man's head-ring 
when grown high, or a 'chimney-pot' 
hat = um-Bosho. Cp. um-Patsha. 

Bika (s. k.), v. Report, as an occurrence or 
a person (ace.) to somebody (with ku) — 
see bikela [Bo. bilikia, announce]. 

Ex. 'nkosi! ngixa 'kubika uHamu, ukuti 
uyagula, sir! I come to report Hamu, that 
he is sick. 

P. babik'imbiba, babik'ibu-J, they report a 
field-mouse, then they report a field-rat, i. t. 
they first report one thing, then another. 

ohivahluV amadoda kuyabikwa, that which 
beats men is a thing to be reported, i. e. is 
something unusual one would like to hear 
= there's nothing a man of intelligence and 
will cannot do. 

i(li)-Bika (s.k.),n. Any insect, bird, etc., 
as the i-Nqomfi, i-nTendele, mylabris 
beetle, etc., whose appearance in a kraal, 
field, etc., is supposed to foretell, gene- 
rally something good, that is about to 
happen. Cp. isi-Hlabamhlola. 

Bikela (s. k.), v. Report a thing or person 
to another person (doub. ace). 

Bikezela (s. k.), v. Announce beforehand, 
foretell, as any event (ace). 

Bikelana (s.k.),v. Report things (ace) to 
one another (with na). 

Bi'ki b'iki, ukuti (ukuthi - - s. k.), v. = biki- 
za, bikizela. 

i(li), isi, or u(lu)-BVkibiki (s. k.), n. Anything 
of a shaky nature, as jelly or cold por- 
ridge; hugely fat person, whose flesh 
shakes as he walks (= isi-Bihlibihli); 
large abundance of food, as at a feastj 
great multitude, as of a cattle = isi-Bi- 
dhlibidhli, i-mBibimbibi, i(li)-Likiliki. 


i-mBikicane (Bhikicane), n. — i-mBiliklca- 

i-mBikihla (Bhikihla), n. Certain forest- 
tree, used for sticks. 

i-mBV kimbiki (Bhikimbhiki), n. = i(li)-Biki- 

Bikinqa (Bhikinqa), v. = binqa. 

Bikiza (s.k),v. Shake (trans, or intrans.), 
as a person might jelly (ace.) on a plate, 
or as the jelly itself; prepare food abun- 
dantly, as when grinding much corn 
(ace.) for a beer-drink, a large quantity 
of snuff, etc. See isi-Bikibiki. 

i-m Bikiza (Bhikiza), n. - - i(li)-Bikibiki. 

u{\u)-BMz3i-(s.k.),7i. = i(li)-Bikibiki. 

Bikizela (s. k.), v. Shake tremulously or 
with a quivering motion, as jelly, a 
bouse in a strong wind, the body with 
nervous twitchings (cp. hlasimula), or 
sheet-ligbtning = likizela. 

urn, or i-mBiko (s.k.),n.5. Report, mes- 
sage, gen. of something important that 
has happened. 

Bila, v. Boil, as water (intrans. — the 
word referring to the bubbling action of 
the water; hence, not in trans, sense, 
for potatoes, etc. - - see peka); ferment 
(intrans.), as beer; boil with rage [Lat. 
bullio, I bubble; Hi. ubalna, boil; Ka. 
bira, boil; Ga. bimba, boil over; MZT. 
pia, cook ; Sw. pika, cook ; Bo. bilibili, 

Ex. amanxi abilayo, boiling water. 

(inianxi abilileyo, boiled water (but ama- 
-.nmbatie apekiweyo, boiled potatoes). 

Phr. uZulu wabilisa okwemamba, the 

Zulus were furiously enraged or excited (as 

in a battle). 

i-m Bila (Bhila),n. South-African daman 

or cony (Hi/ rax capensis). Cp. i-nGola. 

P. imbila yaswela umsila ngokuyalexela, 

the cony got to be without a tail through 
having given directions (to others to fetch 
him one at their distribution) = if you want 
a thing done, do it yourself. 

wo\ 'ufike kwa'MgaduM, kwa' MbilamfUope, 
you will come to arrive at Mgaduli's, where 
Mr. White-cony lives (a white cony not 
existing) — ridiculing the useless ambitiou 
of a person. 

> N.B. To drive away thunder or rain, the 
Natives burn the skin of a cony; but for 

/I bringing rain the porpoise is the powerful 
\ specific! 

isi-mBila (Bhila), n. - - see isi-Mbila. 
um-Bila (Bhila), n. 5. -- see um-Mbila. 
i-mBilapo (Bhilapho), n. Groin, in man. 
i-mBilati (Bhilathi), n. Bone of the fore- 

37 Bl 

arm (tibia), or fore-leg of beasts (C. N. 
fr. Xo.) the word seems to be now 

unknown in Zululand, although the fol- 
lowing phrases are used in rare eases 
by the women, e.g. uku-ma (or uku-tu- 
/</) ngembilati, to go on persistently at 
a thing, peg away at it (with the feet in 
walking, or the tongue in talking). 

Phr. seniloku n'ema ngembilati, ningasipu- 

unci, you have been now ever so long driv- 
ing away (walking), without giving us a rest, 
yiloku icit in undo, ngembilati, he was con- 
tinually driving away at him (with the tongue, 
e.g. to get him to agree to something, or 
when scolding him, etc.). 
i-mBTle (Bhiile), n. = i-mBilenibilana. 
u(lu)-BTIebile, n. Any very rich, fatty food 
of a soppy or mashy nature, as fat <>i' 
meat minced with Vegetables, a bean 
mash mixed with much butter or oil, 
etc. = isi-Bilibili, isi-Biliboco. 
Bilela, v. Boil with rage at a person (ace.); 
boil over a person i.e. befal with vehe- 
mence, as an outbreak of sickness in a 
i-mBilembilana (Bhilembhilana), n. Small 
quantity, i.e. small brewing, oiurtshwala, 
as for private consumption = i-mBile. 
Bili, adj. Two [Ga. Co. MZT. bill; Sw. 
pili; Nyam. wiri; Fer. iba; Ba. ibali; 
Ang. yari; Her. vari; Kamb. kele; Sang. 
wili; Heh. wile]. 
Bili (Bhili), adj. same as preceding, the 
aspiration being introduced when the b 
follows an m. 

Ex. abaiif/i dba-bili, two people. 

ixindhht exim-bhili, two houses. 

isi, or ubu-Bili, n. The second place. 

Ex. inkabi yesibUi, the ox of the second 
place i. e. the second ox. 
isi-Bili, n. Body i. e. main trunk of a thing, 
as that part of a man left after the limbs 
have been cut off, or of a tree, etc.; 
main or essential substance, as of an 
affair; hence, sometimes equiv. to 'the 
real truth', and in this sense used ad- 
verbially (the use of this word, though 
common in Natal, is rare in Zululand) 
cp. i-nDikimba. [Bo. ndidi, truly ; Her. 
ou-atyiri, truth; Sw. kweli, truth]. 

Ex. isibili! or impela isibili! it's a fact! 
indeed! on my word! honour bright! (N). 

us'emukik isibili, he has gone off properly 
uow, gone in real truth (may-lie for a far-ofl 
place, or for good). (N i. 

tjona (inkosi) isibili sayo, he (the chief) 
his own self ( N ■ " z 

kuya ngctxibili, it goes by sizes (N). 

isi-Bilibili, ii. ii(Iii)-Bilebilc. 

sing), n 

= u(lu)Bilebile. 
- ukuti bilikici; 


izi-Biliboco (no 

Bilikica (Bhilikica), t 

i-mBilikicane (Bhilikicane), ?i. Goose-foot 
(Chenopodium ambrosioides, and Ch. 
vulvana) a past* 1 of the leaves (Ch. vul- 
varia) is said to be good as a styptic for 
staying blood-flow; the leaves are also 
eaten by women as imifino. 

Bilikiceka (Bhilikiceka), r. = ukuti bilikici, 

Bilikici, ukuti (Bhilikici, iikuthi), v. Fall 
down, or come into sharp contact with 
anything with a soft 'flopping, slushing' 
sound, as any soft clammy fleshy thing 
like a snake,' a fish, a calf when born, 
or a wet hide when flung down = bili- 
kiceka; make so fall i.e. throw or drop 
anything down, as a snake or fish (ace.) 
with a slushy flop = bilikica. See ukuti 

i-mBilikihla (Bhilikihla), u. Certain tree 
growing in coast districts. 

um (plur. ?m), or izi-Bilini, n. 5. Entrails, 
bowels; sometimes applied euphem. to 
the sexual organs of either sex = izi- 
Bindi [Lat. He, gut; pi. ilia, entrails; 
Sw. ini, liver]. 

Phr. sekwehle ixibUini kuye, the entrails 
have now sunk down in him i. p. he has 
mow departed life, given up the ghost. 

ukungipendida ixibilini, to turn me as to 
my entrails i. e. to turn my stomach, as some 
horrifying sight. 

unombilini omuhle, he (or she) has a good 
breeding-organ, i. e. produces fine children. 

Bilisa, /'. Make to boil, as water (ace), 
but not potatoes (see peka), the thought 
referring merely to the bubbling of the 

i(li)-Bilo, n. Loose flesh at the throat i.e. 
between the chin and Adam's apple. 

Ex. yek'umlungu enebilo! just look at the 
i-bilo or -double-chin' of the whiteman! 

uxmtshontsha, ukuJduke ibilo, if you steal, 
von will have a swelling under the chin (and 
be detected) — said to check a child 
from stealing. 

u(lu)-Bilo, n. Dewlap or loose baggy skin 
hanging below the throat in cattle; cer- 
tain cattle disease, marked by a swelling 
of the dewlap; tired, weak, fagged-out 
feeling, as after heavy work or a spurt 
of energy. 

Ex. is'inobilo imikono, the arms are tired 

/- enobilo, kasaqomisi, he has had enough 
of it for the present, he no longer goes about 
after girls. 

38 Bl 

Biloza, v. Puff, pant (swellingly), as a toad, 
or a fat person in a close room ; make 
an ostentatious forward motion with the 
head, as girls or young-men when danc- 
ing a certain kind of forward movement. 

i(li)-Bimbi (Bhimbi), n. One who is 'a 
stupid' at anything requiring some ex- 
perience or nicety of action, e. g. dancing, 
singing, talking, etc., as one who is a 
raw beginner thereat, or lacking in intel- 
lectual aptitude = isi-Xtve, i(li)-Dhliwa. 

um-Bimbi (Bhimbi), n. 5. Wrinkled, fallen 
'chops' (mostly used in plur. im-Bimbi), 
as of an old woman = um-Jwili. Cp. 

Bimbitela (Bhimbhithela), v. Eat or drink 
to the full, to satiety. 

Bina (Bhina), v. Utter abhorrent, fearful, 
loathsome things or expressions, as girls 
or boys singing lewd songs or shouting 
obscene language (not when conversing 
privately), or when a father in expelling 
a son from his kraal utters a curse upon 
him, or a person who tells another (ace. 
with ela form) that a certain calamity 
will befal him if he goes such and such 
a way, or a person taking any of the or- 
dinary obscene Kafir oaths. 

N. B. This custom of swearing by obscene 
assertions or threats is very common in 
, Native conversation, occurring almost in every 
11 instance where, in Eng., one might emphasize 
\ the truth of a statement by merely saying 
'A fact!' Prevalent Native expressions of 
this kind are 'dade tvetu! (= ngifunga in I ri- 
de wetu, I swear by my sister i. e. that I 
whould rather commit incest with her than 
be now speaking a lie), 'baktvekaxi.' 'mexala! 
Wlpande.' ngihidule imfibinga ka'Mpandel 

Binca (Bhinca), v. Gird on, wear round 
the loins, as an umu-Tsha (ace), cloth, 
etc. = vata. Cp. ambata; gqoka. 

Ex. nUeiKjabincile, he was not wearing 
any umutsha or loin-covering. 

ubincile ingwe yoke, he is wearing his 
tiger-skin {umutsha). 

Bincilizi, ukuti (Bhhicilizi, ukuthi), v. = 
ukuti minci. 

isi-Binco (Bhinco), n. = isi-Vato. 

BTnda (Biinda), v. Choke, obstruct as to 
breathing-room, as a bone (nom.) when 
sticking in a man's throat (in use nearly 
niways transposed into the passive form, 
as below — cp. ma; i(li)-Findo); stifle 
one's inclination to speak i. <>. retain sil- 
ence, remain silent, when one would 
have expected a cry, a word, an answer, 
etc. (mostly used as bindela). 

Ex. wabindwd itambo Indian . i, he was 
choked by a fish-bone. 




P. wabmdwa isidwa, he was choked by an 
isidwa stone — said of a person whose lies 
have been mi exposed that he remains speech- 
less = watniwa isidwa. 

isi-BTnda (Biinda), n. Certain large and 
hard-wooded forest tree. 

BTndana (Biindana), v. Be congested, 

choked for want of room, closely packed 

/ together, as people in a hut, mealies in 

a field, vessels in a cupboard, etc. Cp. 

in in //a mi. 

Bindanisa (Biindanisa), n. Make be con- 
gested, choked for room, closely packed 
together, as above. Cp. ntinyanisa. 

BTndeka (Biindeka), v. Get balked in one's 
plans, put out in one's calculations. Cp. 

Bindela (Biindela), v. Choke oneself (meta- 
phor.) i. e. not let a sound pass the 
lips, keep the mouth closed, retain si- 
lence, remain mute, as a man who when 
hurt gives forth no cry, or, when he 
ought to have spoken, remained silent. 

i(li)-B7ndela (Biindela), n. One who re- 
mains mute, or says nothing purposely 
or by self-restraint. 
um-BTndela (Biindela), n. 5. A sickness or 
disease of any kind that doesn't 'open 
its mouth', i. e. which, though working 
away within the system, presents no 
locatable symptoms for one to operate 
upon ; hence, a blind abscess, dry cough, 
i(ii)-B7ndi (Biindi oft. in plur. ama-BT- 
ndi), u. Sorrow or painful anger tem- 
porarily choking the heart, painful brood- 
ing disturbance of the temper such as 
gets relieved by opening one's heart to 
another or by a flow of tears = isi-Di- 
isi-Bindi, u. Liver, of man or beast; cour- 
age, nerve, heart for doing a thing cruel 
or courageous, boldness of purpose; any 
tree-growing fungus (= isi-Bindi somu- 
ti); germ inside a seed, as a bean, 
mealies, etc.; heart, essential internal 
part of anything; heart of a country, 
the interior parts, where the most im- 
portant kraals are generally located; 
plur. izi-Bindi — izi-Bilini [Her. ou-pe- 
nda, courage; o-mbindu, blood; cp. 
ti(lu)-Bende; i(li)-Bende\. 

.V. />'. hibindi senywenya (crocodile's liver) 
is a medicine in great request by Kafir doc- 
tors for takata purposes. 
u(lu)-B7ndi (Biindi), n. Thick mass, dense 
multitude, as of cattle, people, as it were, 
packed together (cp. u-Bintsi); a crowd- 
ed or packed-together body, a combined 
mass, as when the waters of two conver- 

ging rivers combine together into one 
great body of water, or when two pre- 
viously separated fields are joined into 
oik! block by ploughing up the land in 

i-mBindolo (Bhindolo). n- Very black, ugly 
person (cp. i-nKwwhela) ; black, dirty- 
looking, uninviting food. 

Binela (Bhinela), e. (Jtter a word of uku- 
bina q. v. at a person (ace.). 

Bingelela, v. Greet, as the people in a 
kraal or field might a passer-by (ace.) 
or new arrival, gen. by saying sakubona. 
Cp. kuleka. [Or. angelo, bring tidings; 
Ga. labbilana.] 

Ex. loko ukukuluma ngiyakubingelela, that 
(kind) of talk I hear for the first time, it is 
something new — as when expressing surprise. 

i(li)-Binini (Bhinini).n. Certain climbing 
plant (Embelia Krausii), whose roots 
are used as remedy for tapeworm, etc. 

Binqa (Bhinqa), v. Speak ironically of or 
to a person (ace), praise sarcastically ; 
tuck in or up about the loins, as a female 
her dress (ace.) or isidwaba when work- 
ing — bikinqa. 

u-Bintsi (Bhintsi), n. Great multitude, im- 
mense number, as of people or cattle = 
isi-Bidhlibidhli; cp. u(lu)Bindi. 

BVnya or Binyi, ukuti (Bhinya or Bh'inyi, 
ukuthi), v. = ukuti piny a. 

Binya, v. Writhe, wriggle, as a snake when 
struck (used in reflect, form zi-binya) 
= janquza. 

Binyaza (Bhiuyaza), v. = pinyaza. 

Binyila (Bhinyila), v. = ukuti pinya. 

i(li)-Binza, u. Little heap or small handful 
of grain placed upon the grinding-stone 
forCrushing at one time; hence (meta- 
phor.), a handful, small quantity, heap, 
crowd, mass, etc. of anything generally. 

Bipa (Bipha), v. Look downcast, sad or 
breaking-up in the face, as a child about 
to cry (cp. bibiteka; hlibitisa), or an 
adult when grieved at hearing or an- 
nouncing very sad news. 

Phr. urnunta obipisile, person with a bro- 
ken-up, ugly face, as though about to cry 
= um-Pihlana. 

Biqa (Bhiqa), v. Spit Le. string or pierce 
together on a spit, as bits of meat (a 
locusts, figs, etc. hloma. 

u(lu)-Biqo (Bhiqo), n. String of locusts, 
figs, etc., spitted on a stick, as above, 
for eating or roasting u(lu)-Hlomo. 

Bisha, v. Be or get bogged, sink down 
deep into, as into soft mud or a bog. 

u(lu)-Bishi, n. Bog, quicksand, place with 



very deep soft mud, as about a swamp 
= um-Dabe; u(lu)-Buku. Cp. i(li)-Xa- 


i-mBishimbishi (Bhlshimbhishi), n. = i- 

i-mBishishi (Bhishishi), n. = i-nDishindi- 


u(lu)-Bisi, >i. Milk (sweet - cp. ama-Si); 
(C.N.) interest or profit from any thing 
[Her. oma-ihi, milk; ou-ityi, honey; 
\d. ubu-si, honey; (la. mu-bisi, honey; 
Sw. ma-ziwa, milk, also female breasts 
see i(li)-Bele. From these examples 
it would seem that the original root 
was si or isi, the b being merely euphonic 
(cp. biza, bvl<t); which fact would be 
further confirmed by the existence of 
si only in the word ama-si (sour milk), 
(hie might also believe there is some 
connection between this word u-bisi and 
honey (the 'milk' of the bee), both from 
the cognate words above and from the 
fart that the honey or bee-bread of a 
certain kind of hornet is actually called 
in Zulu ubiirSi, q. v. Kinship might 
perhaps be further traced with the Z. 
word a/ma-nzi (wa.ter), which in the hlo- 
nipa language becomes ama-ta (see also 
uku-mata, to be damp); but in Ga. 
matta is 'milk']. 

Bisizela (Bhisizehi).v. = dishizela. 

Bixa (B'uixa), v. Smear, as a hut (ace.) 
with mud; besmear, as a person (ace.) 
by laying a disgraceful charge against 
him = nemba, been, baceka. 

Bixi bixi, ukuti (Bhi.ri bhiri, ukuthi), v. 
(C.N.) = ukuti pixi pixi. 

Bixilili, ukuti (Bhixilili, ukuthi), v. Be all 
in a mess, disorder, mixed-up state, or 
muddle, as articles in a room, or as an 
affair = ukuti fitilili, ukuti xakalala. 

Bixilizela (Bhixilizela), v. Slush about in 
mud or rain, as a person walking along 
a road, or cattle in a muddy kraal; 
'slush' along i.e. go as a heavy soft 
mass, as a very fat person (even when 
over a dry place). 

Bixizela (Bhixizela), v. = bixilizela. 

Biya, v. fence in, enclose, by a hedge or 

p.alisade, as Natives do their kraals (ace. 

with ela form). 

Biyelela, /•. Vmce off for, defend, as one 
man might another (ace.) by speaking 

lor him. 

Biza, v. Call, a person (ace.): summon; 
invite (= memo); name, designate a 
person or thing (cp. ta, qamba); claim, 

demand, ask, as a salesman so much 
money (acc.) for his goods, <>r a person 

40 BO 

claiming for damages; cost, as a coat 
so much money (acc.) [Lat. cito, I sum- 
mon; Ar. samma, to name; Chw. bitsa, 
call; Sw. Ga. Nyam. MZT. ita; Her. 
isana. By comparing the Sw. ita, Her. 
isana, etc., it would seem that b-iza 
and uku-ta (to name) are probably mere 
different forms of the same original 
root, the b of the former word being 
merely euphonic]. 

Ex. uyabixa, lo'mlungu, this whiteman 
does ask high prices. 

ubixa-ni ngenlcabi yako? what do you want, 
or ask, for your bullock? 

inkabi yako ibixa-ni? what does your bul- 
lock cost ? 

wambixa nyokuti uMali, he called or nam- 
ed hi in Mali. 

Biza (Bhiza) v. Have concern, care, or 
solicitude about any person (acc.) or 
thing (= naka, nakekela) ; fly off, as 
sparks, chips of wood, etc. (= qasha, 
ukuti bi). 

Ex. kabambixile, they have no care or 
concern for him (a sick person). 

\-mB\za (Bhizct), n. General name for any 
of the larger-sized earthenware pots in 
Native use (not those used for actual 
'table' use i. e. for eating or drinking 
out of — see u(lu)-Kamba) ; bowl of the 
hemp-horn (see i(li)-Gudu); generic 
name for a large number of herbs used 
as boiled decoctions, for scrofula, chest- 
complaints, and blood-purifying pur- 
poses generally (cp. isi-Conco; i(li)-Ka- 
mbi; i(li)-Kubalo). 

i-mBizazewule (Bhizazeivule), n. = um- 

Bizekela (Bhizekela), v. = nakekela, bhiza. 
i(li)-Bizelo, n. Matter about which one has 
been summoned. 

P. ibixelo ladhlHkondekaxi, the summons 
was the death of the she-baboon (perhaps 
referring to some fable) — used of a person 
for whom the summons by his chief has 
turned out ill. 

i(li)-8izo, n. Name, designation, of a person 
or article = i(li)-Gamu. 

Ex. usaya kwcSBixobi, she has just gone 
to Mr. Bad-name's. 

u(lu)-Bizongo (Bhizongo), n. = u(lu)-Bijo- 

Bo, int. Particle used as an enclitic, ge- 
nerally at the end of a sentence or word, 


a statement, 






on, with you! 




to throw force 
urge an action 
Ex. Iiauibu bn. 
on, I .say! 

B6, ukuti (Bho, ukuthi) v. bojoza. 

i-mBo (Bho),n. Malignant malarial fever, 
common about Tongaland; certain plant, 
said to he used by an um-Takati to 
produce such disease. 

um-B6be (Bhoobe), n. 5. Butter-milk = 

tiui-Qiki, iini-TiiitiK 

u(lu)-Bobe, n. Dense, thickly growing, or 
entangled place, as a thickly-overgrown 

bushy place, or dense jungle, or a field 
with the coin so close as to impede 
movement; certain tree (? Entada Na- 
talensis), in the bush-country. 

i-mBobela (Bhobela), n. Certain very 
nice edible veldt-herb, eaten as imifino. 

Bobo, ukuti (Bhbbo, ukuthi), v. = boboka; 

i-mBobo (Bhobo), n. Hole, passing through 
a thing (hence, not a pit = um-Godi), 
as in a calabash, coat, or needle. Cp. 

isi-Bobo (Bhobo), n. Hole, as above ( = 
i-mBobo); mouth, opening or passage 
for exit, as of a river, long ravine or 
pass ; also = u(lu)-Hlabo. 

um-Bobo, n. 5. Sour wind belched up from 
the stomach. See bodhla. 

um-B6bo (Bkoobho), n. 5. Any long, nar- 
row, hollow, tubular thing, as the curled- 
up leaf projecting from the top of an 
isi-Gceba tree, or a long narrow passage 
or channel made underground by ants 
or moles, a hollow reed, etc ; hence, pipe, 
tube (of Europeans); a name given 
originally to the gun. 

u-Bobobo (Bhobhobho), n. Large intestine 

or colon, of cattle = u-Popopo, 
Bobodhla (Bhobhodhla), v. = bubudhla. 

isi-Bobodhla (Bhobhodhla), n. Calabash 
with a large-sized hole or mouth. 

Boboka (Bhobolca), v. Get a hole bored, 
pierced, or broken through (the thought 
referring chiefly to its coming out on 
the other side), as a board, calabash, 
or coat (used in perl'.); get broken forth, 
burst, as an abscess; come forth, get 
produced, as food; break or burst out 
from, as from a wood; come out, gel 
stated openly, as a matter hitherto hush- 
ed up; break out, get started, get set 
in action, as any particular works, war, 
symptoms of a disease, etc.; emerge, 
come out at, find oneself eventually at, 
as at a particular place. 

41 BO 

u-Bobokana (Bhobokana), n. One who 
blurts out everything, can't keep a sec- 

i-mB6bombobo (Bhbbombhobo), n. (C.N.) 
= i-mBubumbubu. 

i(li)-Boboni (Bhobhoni), n. Large Puff- 
backed Hush Shrike (DrySOSCOpus n/f'i- 
ven fris) (N.). 

Bobosa (Bhobosa), v. (C.N.) = boboza. 

Boboza (Bhoboza), v. Make a hole through 
anything, as through a plank (ace.) with 
a borer, through a calabash with a stone; 
pass through, as through a forest (ace.) 
(not through an open field (tabula); 

make burst, i. e. open, lance, as an 
abscess (ace); bring forth, produce, as 
food, etc.; let out, publish openly, as a 
matter hitherto hushed up; burst 
through, as an impi charging the enemy 
(ace); break or burst a girl (ace) through 
i.e. deflower (— rnekezisa; hoboza). Cp. 
cusha; ukuti cushe. [Lat. foro, 1 bore ; 
Her. topora, bore; Bo. bogosa, bore; 
bovusa, break through]. 

Boboza (Bhobhoza),v. Let 'flow' out i.e. 
pass excessively, as a woman, with 
uterine disease, blood through the va- 
gina ; pour out talk (ace.) excessively. 

um-Bobozelwa (Bhobozehva),n.5. Hole 
made in the bottom of an i-gula to let 
out the whey. 

Boca (Bhoca), v. Beat a person (ace.) 
about right and left on the body, beat tin 1 
life out of him, beat him till exhausted 
or rendered helpless; knock up, take all 
the life and strength out of one (ace.), 
as famine might. See bocobala. 

Boco, ukuti (Bhoco, ukuthi), v. = bocoza. 

Boco, ukuti (ukuthi, s. k.), v. = ukuti foco. 

isi-Boco, n. = isi-Foco. 

Bocobala (Bhoeobala), v. Be in a 'knocked 
out* state, powerless, done up, from ex- 
haustion, famine, I -earing, etc. (used in 
pert'.). See boca. 

Bocoka (s. k.) v. = focoka. 

Bocoza, r. = focoza. 

Bocoza (lihocoza), v. Make or put a per- 
son (ace.) in a knocked out, powerless, 
done up state, as above see bocobala; 
also = boca. 

Bodhla (Blnxlhhi), r. Belch up wind (sec 
um-Bobo); growl with a deep rumbling 
sound, as a cat or wild-beast at night 
(-: bonga); grunt, as a pig. 

i-m Bodhla (Bhodhla), >t. Cat become wild 

or homeless i(li)-Gola. Cp. i-mPaka. 

um-Bodhlelantanyeni (Bhodhlelantanyeni), 

)i. r>. Little drop of beer which a man 

BO 42 

drinks privately bv himself. Cp. i-mBi- 

Bodhlo, ukuti (Bhodhlo, ukuthi), r. = bo- 
il hi oka; bodhloza. 

i(li)-Bodhlo (Bhodhlo), n. A growling or 
belching, as above — see bodhla. (C.N.). 

Bodhloka (Bhodhloka), v. Get smashed in 
or through, as below — see bodhloza = 
ukuti bodhlo. 

i(li)-Bodhlolo (Bhodhlolo), n. Certain veldt- 
herb, having grayish leathery leaves. 

i-mBbdhlombodhlo (Bhodhlombhodhlo), n. 
Person with a loud, deep, gruff, voice. 

i-mBodhlongo (Bhodhlongo), n. Deep, 
gruff, chest voice; bubbling of phlegm 
in the chest, as of one with bronchitis 
or consumption; an i(U)-Zele q. v. of an 
inferior quality i. e. without any sweet 
juicy pith. 

Bodhloza (Bhodhloza), v. Smash through, 
smash in with a crashing blow, knock 
a hole or In-each through anything (ace); 
bubble, as phlegm in the bronchial 
tubes; speak in a deep, gruff, chest- 



(Bhodhlozi), n. Wild, angry, 
manner of action or speak- 
ing, as when disputing excitedly. 

Ex. watata ngesibodhloxi, he went at it 
iu a violent way, as when replying to a 

u(lu)-Bodongo (Bhodongo), n. 

um-Bodiya (Bhodiya), n.5. 
growing by rivers, the viscous fluid of 
whose bulbous root is used for mix- 
ing witli the u-Ngiyane in the making 
of a Native headring; (C.N.) petticoat of 
buckskin with brass ornaments. 

= um-Pata. 
Small plant 

(Ji 'hodo, ukuthi), v. = ukuti 


Bodo, ukuti 

Bbdo bodo, ukuti (Bhbdo bhbdo, 
r. bongozela. 

i(li)-B6dobodo (Bhodobhodo), n. Rapidly- 
growing child i.e. growing rapidly tall. 

Bodoka (Bhodoka), v. - patazeka. 

i-mBbdombodo (Bhodombhodo), u. um- 

Bodoza (Bhodoza), v. pataza. 

Bodozela (Bhodozela), r. bongozela. 

isi-Bofu,/>. Faint, scarcely audible voice, 
speech or word, as of a very sick or 
thoroughly fatigued person (the use of 
the word is almost confined to the nega- 
tive phrases below). 

Ex. way'elek engena'sibofu, he lay incap- 
able of speech, almost lifeless. 

he didn't give me 


kangin ikanya 'sibofu, 
a sound. 

u(lu)-Bofu, n. = u(lu)-Futa. [Sw. ovu and 
bovu, rotten ; Bo. u-ovu, rottenness ; Her. 
ora, to rot]. 

Bohla, v. Subside, sink down, as anything 
swollen, like a river or tumour, or in- 
flated, like the stomach; subside, as an- 
ger or noise = ukuti bohlololo; toba. 

P. sobohla, 'Manyosi! it 


isi-Su or 
tomach) will go down, Manyosi! -- referring 
to a certain man who after having had the 
belly fattened by the good treatment of 
Dingane, afterwards ungratefully went over 
to his enemy Mpande = you'll come to your 
senses eventually, you'll think of it some 

Bohlololo, ukuti (ukuthi), v. = bohla. 

Boja (Bhoja), v. Thrust or poke into i. e. 
burst through into something (ace.) by 
thrusting, as a stick into the mud (ace), 
or the clyster-horn into the rectum of a 
person. Cp. joja. 

i(li)-Bojane (Bhojane), n. Lying scoundrel, 
bad-charactered person given to false 

i(li)-Boje (Bhoje), n. Place with an excess 
of subsoil water, so that when trodden 
on the foot sinks deeply in, as among 
the trees in some woods or even in some 
exposed spots too watery for cultivation 
= i(li)-Joja. 

B'ojo, ukuti (Bhojo, ukuthi), v. = bojoza. 

i(li)-Bbjobojo (Bhojobhojo), n. Unconcern- 
ed, unbridled talker, who pours out 
talk quite regardless of its being true 
or false, painful or indecent. 

i(li)-Bojongwana (Bhojongwana), n. = i(li)- 

Bojoza (Bhojoza), v. Thrust forth or pour 
out talk in an unprincipled, unrestrained 
manner, quite regardless of its truth, ef- 
fects, decency, etc. = ukuti bo, boloza. 

um-Bokazana (Bhokazaua), n. 5. =um-Za- 

u(lu)-Bokela (s.k.), n. Any immensely long 
thing, as plank, field, forest, etc. 

Boko, ukuti (ukuthi; s. k.), v. = bokoza; bo- 
kozeka; ukuti poko. 

isi-Boko (s.k.), n. Soft glandular swelling, 
as on the side of the neck; also = isi- 

um-Boko (a. k.), n. 5. Elephant's trunk; 
penis of horse (cp. um-Nqundn) [Gr. 
bosko, I eat; Di. rok, mouth; MZT. ku- 
boko, arm; Fan. nyok, elephant (cp. Z. 
i-Nyoka, snake; i-mBokwane, eel); also 
prob. akin to radical boko - see boko- 

BO 43 

P. aku'ndhlovu yasindwa umboko wayo, 
there is no elephant hardened (by the weight) 
of its own trunk. 

u(lu)-Boko (Bhoko), u. Long walking- 
stick or Staff, SUCh as used by old men 
(== u(lu)-Dondolo, u(lu)-Zime); long 
train or string, as of cattle, railway-car- 
riages, etc. (cp. u(lu)-Jenga) [Lat. bacul- 
um, staff]. 

i(li) or isi-B6koboko (s. /;■.), n. = i(li)-Bu- 
kubuku, i(li)-Bokos i. 

Bokoda (Bhokoda), v. Thrust into, stick 
into or stab vigorously, as a boast (ace.) 
with a spear (with nga), porridge with 
a spoon, or as a sharp pain stabbing 
the body. Cp. gwaza. 

Phr. icqhokodira amadlilo; i, he was .stabbed 
vigorously "By the omadhlo\i, i.e. he had a 
sharp piercing pain in the side (from pleurisy 
or pleurodynia, supposedly caused by angry . 
ancestral spirits). See isi-Bokodo. 

i-mBokode (Bhokode), n. Round water- 
worn stone, large pebble, such as are 
used by Natives for grinding with; 
hence, smaller or hand grindstone [Sw. 
kokoto, small stone]. 

Ex. imbokode yenywenya, pebble found in 
the stomach of a crocodile, and which, boiled 
in water and ncindwa, is used for obstinate 
stomach complaints. 

P. uqote imbokode acsisckelo, he has des- 
troyed (everything in the kraal, even the) 
grindiug-stone and the pfopping-stone — ex- 
pressing utter destruction of everything, as 
by an invading arm)'. 

isi-Bokode (Bhokode), n. Place in a river 
where large round stones or pebbles 

i-mBokod'ebomvu (Bhokod'ebomvu),n. One 
of the first Zulu regiment formed (or 
rather merely named) by Dinuzulu (and 
to which he himself belongs), and next 
following the u-Falaza of Cetshwayo. 

i(li)-Bokodo (Bhokodo), n. = i(li)-Tamo. 

i-mBokodo (Bhokodo), n. (C.N.) = i-m- 

isi-Bokodo (Bhokodo), n. Anything bulky 
or massive of its kind, as a massive 
post, thick mealie-stalk, large bulky 
mealie-cob, a big-bodied child, etc.; also 
= u(lu)-Hlabo. 

i-mBokonde (Bhokonde), n. = i-mBokode. 
i-mBokondo (Bhokondo), n. (C.N.) — i-m- 

isi-Bokonyane (Bhokonyane), n. Big, thick 
thing, as a leg enormously swollen. 

i(li)-Bokosi (s. k.), n. = i(li)-Bukubuku. 
u-Bokotshiki (Bhokotshiki), n. Kind of 
striped flying beetle. 


Bokoza (s. k.), v. Droop or nod at the 
extremity, as a pendulous ear of corn 
(see bokozela); also = bukuza. 

Bokozeka (s. /.-.), v. bukuzeka. 

Bokozela (s.k.),v. <h> nodding or droop- 
ing at the extremity, wave up and down, 
as a long plank or bundle Of grass when 
carried on the head teba; cp. tenga. 

um-Bokwane (s. k.), v.. 5. Eel. Cp. um-Boko. 

Bola, />. Decay, as wood (used in perf.); 
putrefy, as meat; turn rotten, as fruit; 
go bad (to putrefaction), as milk [Aug. 
bolela; Ka. bora; Bo. ola; Her. ora; 
Sw. oza]. 
Ex. insika is'ibolile, the post is now rotten. 
P. wabola uboshiwe, it (the tobacco) went 
rotten while tied up (so that when it was 
opened out, it was found to he good for 
nothing) — said of a person who, when he 
opens his mouth to speak, brings out some 
rubbishy, good-for-nothing word. 

i(li)-Bola (Bhola), n. Playing-ball, of any 
kind; gimlet [Eng. ball; borer], 

i(li), or um-Bole, n. o. General dying off, 
state of decay, such as enters a flock of 
sheep, or the members of any family. 

Boleka (s. k.), v. = tsheleka. 

Bolekela (Bholekela), v. Go into, enter, 
as into a hut (loc.) or kraal = ngena. 

i(li), or um-Bolela, n. 5. Anything left to 
rot, or knowingly neglected or discarded 
by its owner, as a fallen tree lying to 
rot, an old debt uncalled for by tin" 
creditor, people left in the grave, etc. 

u(lu)-Bolo, n. Penis of man (only in vul- 
gar lang.) — um-Tondo [Bo. mbolo, 
penis; OHG. nabolo, navel]. 

P. wox'uhtgwwi (or ulngumuxe) njenge- 

nihir.i, you will come to munch at it (the 
ubolo), as ti goat does — said in derision <>t 
a young man who canuot get a wife (vulgar;. 

Bolokoqa (Bholokoqa), v. Throw or pitch 
out bodily or in mass, as water (ace.) 
from a bucket; throw down bodily, hurl 
down, as a strong man might another 
(ace); bring down upon crushingly or 
with full force, as a man dealing another 
(ace.) a heavy blow with a stick; come 
down upon a person (ace.) heavily, 'like a 
load of bricks,' with vehement scolding 
or violent abuse = ukuti bolokoqo. 

Bolokoqo, ukuti (Bholokoqo, ukuthi),v. - 

i(li)-Bololwane, n. Compacl mass or swarm, 
large number of things closely packed 
together, as a lot of bees clustered thick 
about their nest, or people or cattle 
clustered thickly together. Cp. u(ltt)-Bu- 

BO 44 

i(li)-Bolomani (Bholomani), v. Cape half- 
caste (N.) [Eng. brown man]. 

Boloza (Bholoza) v. = bojoza, poloza. 
i(li)-Bolwa (Bholwa), n. (C.N.) = i(li)-Bo- 

i(li)-Bolwane, or Bolwanyana (Bholwane), 
)>. Rascally, bad-charactered follow, as 
a Native boy who has 'gone rotten' by 
had life in the towns. Cp. i(li)-Bukazana. 

i-m3oma (Bhoma), n. Fruit or berry <>!' 
the aloe-plant, whether i(li)-Cena or unt- 
il/aim; short, thick-bodied rock-snake, 
coloured somewhat like a puff-adder; 
hippopotamus (= i-mVubu). 
isi-Boma (Bhoma), n. Large lump or joint 
of meat, or roll of tobacco (— isi-Poma, 
isi-Kuxungu); beast presented by a bride- 
groom to a bride's father, extra to and 
upon completion of the lobola cattle, as 
a •scaling of the contract' (= i-mVuma). 
Cp. isi-Oubu. 
ama-Bombo (Bombko, no sing.), n. Face, 
direction or bearings one takes on his 
course or journeying (only used in phra- 
ses, as below) [Reg. mobombo, bundle]. 

Ex. ngatwala amabombo, ngaicabekisa n<ja- 

Tukela, I carried my bearings, turned 
towards the Tukela. 

amabombo ngawabekisa eluitini, I directed 
my face (*'. e. course) towards such and such 
a place. 

N.B. This word is nowadays only used in 
phrases such as above. It is probably a 
remnant of more ancient times. Its present 
meaning is altogether abstract, and not 
cli arly defined. Originally it no doubt refer- 
red to some concrete object 'carried' by the 
Natives, either his nose (cp. i-mBombo and 
um-JBombo), nostrils (= Her. o-mbepe), or 
••1st' some burden they were wont to carry 
on their head, as goods (cp. Re. mo-bombo, 
bundle) or elephant's tusks (cp. Sw. pembe, 
elephant's tusk; u-pwmba, tusk of boar). 
i-mBombo (Bhombho), n. Long, round- 
topped, ridge-like or sausage-shaped 
thing, as the lip-like formations that 
grow on each side of some old injury 
to the bark of a tree, or one of the but- 
tock-like bulges on the sides of some 
potatoes or pumpkins, or the bulges in 
corrugated iron, or on the leg in front 
<>f the thigh. Cp. um-Bombuluka. 
um-Bombo (Bombho), n. 5. Ridge of the 
nose; nose i.e. frontal ridge of the face 
of an ox; also um-Bombulu/ea. See 
hhihi. [MZT. im-pemo, nose; Her. o- 
niJ, <■]><•, nostrils]. 

u(lu)-Bombo (Bhonibho), n. Large long 
tuber of a kind of isv-Kwali q. v. - only 

••d in phrase below. 


Phr. wadhla ubombo oluhulu, ^mfanm! 
you've got a big piece of pudding, my boy ! 
— said humourously to a small boy eating 
a large lump of anything nice. 

Bomboda (Bhombhoda), v. Do in a long- 
drawn-out manner, as when talking away 

i-mBombombo (Bhombhombho), n. = u- 

um-Bombombo (Bhombhombho), n. 5. = 

Bombota (Bhombhotha), v. = bomboda. 

um-Bomboto (Bhombhotho), n. 5. Any long- 
bulky body, as a massive stick, thick 
pole, or tall big-bodied person. Cp. bo- 
mboda; um-Bombuluka. 

Bombuluka (Bombhuluka), v. Go along, 
or be extended in a large long body, as 
a herd of cattle or troop of soldiers 
marching along a road over a plain. 

um-Bombuluka (Bombhuluka), n. 5. Large 
long body, as a great thick snake or 
tree lying- on the ground, a long round- 
topped ridge, or long troop of soldiers. 
= isi-Bubulungu. 

Bombuluza (Bombhuluza), v. Do, obtain, 
anything (ace.) easily, without any effort, 
as when making money, or a horse 
pitching a rider with ease. Cp. titilisa. 

u(bu)-Bomi, n. see ub-Omi. 

i(li), ama, or isi-Bomu.w. The making up 
of the mind before acting, deliberate 
intention, wilfulness - - only used in the 
adverbial from as ngebomu or ngama- 
bomu, intentionally, on purpose, wilfully. 
Ex. kwaJcungenga'bomu, kwakuy'ingoxi nje, 
it was not (done) wilfully, it was just ac- 

um-Bomvana, n. 5. Saffronwood tree (Eleo- 
dendron croceum), the astringent bark 
of which is said to be good for tanning ; 
also another tree (Ochna arborea). 

Bomvu, arf/. Red, in any of its shades; 
crimson (cp. ubu-Bende) ; brown, chest- 
nut, as a cow; orange-yellow, as a so- 
vereign or a light-skinned Native; ripe, 
as fruit, regardless of its exact colour; 
inflamed, as the eyes. Cp. ukuti tsebu; 
iim-Toto [Ar. bamba, pale red; Nye. 
momvu, red soil; Ye. movu; Ro. mopu; 
- the Z. adj. was also prob. derived 
from i(li) or isi-Bomvu, red earth]. 

Phr. ngitanda inyama ebomvu mina, tm- 
Idope angiyitandi, I like lean meat, do I; 
not fat. 

indhlala ebomvu, a famine of the last 
.degree (with nothing but wild herbs to eat). 

sasibekile ngamehlo abomeu, we were ex- 
pecting with all our eyes i.e. with all eagerness. 


ngamshiya es'ebomvu rrubu, I left him 
deep red (in the face) i. e. about to die. 

yaseyVntlixvgo'bomvu, he (the chief) was 
by then red at heart i. c. very angry. 

i(li)-Bomvu, n. Kind of red ochre or clay, 
used for smearing on the body of small 
children = u-Qintsi, Cp. isi-Buda. 

isi-Bomvu, n. Red soil, as in some parts 
of the country. 

Bona, v. See, a thing- (ace.) ; see with the 
mind's eye, know who or what (ace.) is 
meant, understand ; recognise or see the 
truth of a statement (ace); see good, 
think proper, think right; hence, will or 
like; notice, regard a person (ace.); see 
a person (ace), as when paying him a 
visit [MZT. bona; Nyam. wona; Sw. 
Bo. Heh. ona; Her. muna; Mpo. yena]. 

Ex. 'esibo', or kesibo', or hesibone! let us 
see! let me have a look! 
ii sakubona! we saw thee! — common greet- 
ing to a person arriving (perhaps from the Zulu 
habit of giving every new-comer first a good 
and prolonged 'look' before acknowledging 
J or addressing him as a friend). See bonela. 

qa! angikuboni loko, no, I don't see that; 
1 can't consent to that. 

akangiboni, he doesn't recognise me; be 
doesn't notice or regard mc (as though he 
doesn't know me|. 

sabona Icwenxa nje, we saw it just doing 
i. c. being done, happening, not knowing 
how it came about, our efforts having had 
no effect — as when expressing surprise at 
a sudden extrication from some difficulty. 

ktoabonwa sokwenxa, it was seen already 
occurring or being done — as above. 

nenie ngokubona hwako, do as you like, 
as you think best. 

sokubonwa ngokusa nangokuhlwa, it is now 
seen by the morning .and evening i.e. we 
cannot be sure of anything for a day. 

asibonanga sibona uto olurye, we have 
never seen such a thing. 

Phr. ukubona kanye, 'kubona kahili! to 
see once is to see twice = once caught, 
twice shy; or, I've experienced it once, I 
don't want to experience it again. 

amabonabonane asliiico ny'uQcugcwa; u- 
bona m in a nje, bobona wena ngomnso, the 
mutual seeing of one another as told of by 
Gcugcwa, to wit, you see me to-day, they 
will see you to-morrow! — words said to 
have been spoken by Gcugcwa to Shaka 
when the latter was about to have him killed, 
and so used by a person even to-day in 
comparatively similar circumstances. 

Bona, emph. pron. They ; them used 
with nouns plur. of the 1st. el., and nouns 
sing, of the 7th. cl. [Chw. bone; MZT. 
abo; Du. babo; Her. ovo]. 

45 BO 

Bonakala ($. k.), ?'. Be in a state of being 
seen i.e. be visible; appear <>r be in 
sight; turn up, as an animal or thing 
that has been lost; (N) seem (see /<■//- 
ngati); (N) be evident, plain (= obala). 
Cp. hlaluka; qamuka; ukuti qangqala- 
zi, etc. 

Bonakalisa (s. k.), v. Make a thing (are.) 
to be visible; hence, disclose, reveal; 
show, indicate. 

isi-Bonakaliso (s.k.),n. Sign, indication 

Bonanga or Bonaze, aux. verb, denoting 
'never, not at all' (the former word 
being followed by the pres. part., the 
latter by the subj.) = zange. 

Ex. kabonanga ekiduma, he never spoke 
(a word). 

angibonaze ngikulume, I never spoke (a 
word |. 

Boncu, ukuti (Bhoncu, ukuthi), v. Draw 
out anything that slides or slips out 
smoothly, as a stalk of grass (ace.) from 
its sheath, a cork from a bottle, a stake 
from the ground, or a hair from the 
head = boncula, ncomula, ncotula, rno- 
ncula; get so drawn or pulled out; be 
of a 'slidingly slipping out' nature = 
boncuka, ncomuka, ncotuka, moncuka. 

Boncuka (Bhoncuka), v. = ukuti. boncu. 

Boncula (Bhoncula), v. = ukuti boncu. 

Bonda, v. Stir and mash up, as any thick 
soft-natured food like porridge (ace.), 
sweet-potatoes or beans (cp. zamisa; 
govuza); take, bring, or send forward 
the um-Bondo. 

i(li)-Bonda, n. Heap of firewood, whether 
in logs or already chopped. 

isi-Bonda, n. Pole, post, as of a fence, or 
a Native hut. Cp. i-nTsiku [Sa. rnbondo, 
stick; Sw. upondo, punting-pole ; Her. 
o-ngunde, pole]. 

P. aku'sibonda saguga namaxol'aso, there 
is no stake that grew old with its bark 
still on = age must tell upon us all (as to 
our external looks), we must all lose by 

um-Bonda, n. 5. Long broad crowd, troop, 
or lengthy narrow swarm, as of cattle s 
being driven, bees or ants flying (not a 
standing crowd - see isi-Qumbu, etc: 
nor a long single train - see u(lu)-Bnko, 
etc.) [Her. otyirmbumba, crowd; Sw. 
kundi, crowd]. 

izi-B6ndhlo (Boondhlo — no sing.) n. Any- 
thing done or said to create a pleasant 
impression, as kind soft language which 
one might use when wishing to coax, 
flatter, console or gen. speak 'nicely' or 


BO 46 

lovingly, or nice enjoyable food with 
which one might entertain some valued 
friend who has come on a visit. 

um-Bondo, n.5. Food, gen. u-Tshwala, sent 
by a young wife's mother to her new 
home, regularly, perhaps once or twice 
every year, in recognition of the cattle 
paid for her. Cp. iim-Cobozo. 

i-mBondwane (Bhondwane), ». Large heap 
of anything, perhaps as large as a small 
hut = i-mBundu, i-nDondela. 

urn, or i-mBondwe (Bhondwe, no plnr.), n. 
Native vegetable (Plectranthus esculen- 
tus) having long narrow tubers = uflu)- 
Jwangu, u(lu)-Shizane. Cp. u(lu)-Jilo. 

isi-Bondwe, //. Name of a large tree (C.N.). 

Bonela, v. Remember a person (ace.) to 
another (with ku), convey one's greet- 
ings or regards to him — this is the 
expression common in Zululand, where 
the konzela q.v. of Xatal is seldom used). 
Ex. wonyibonsla ku'Bani, remember me 
in So-and-so. 

Phr. uJcu-xi-bonela, t> look out for one- 
self, do as one thiuks best or himself prefers. 
nakona ebinca isigege sodwa, nolco kabo- 
nehoa, and even though they (the girls) only 
wear an isigege, nevertheless they arc not 
Been for i. e. their private parts are not seen. 
mubi umutsha, u»iuntit uyabonelwa, the 
kafir-girdle is not nice; a person is seen 
(thereby) as to his private parts. 

Bonelela, v. Look after, care for, have or 
show consideration towards, as a sick 
person (ace.). 

Bonga, v. Praise, extol, a person or thing 
(ace.); the Zulu manner of expressing 
one's gratitude being to 'praise' the giver 
or his gift — hence, give thanks (gen.); 
thank a person (ace.) for something (with 
nga = tokoza); thank for a thing (ace.); 
his abject reverence, submission, etc., 
being manifested in a similar way — 
hence, worship, offer sacrifice to (ace), 
pray to (ace), as to the ama-Dhlozi or 
ancestral-spirits (cp. enanezela) [Her. 
fang a, yimba, praise; Sw. abudu, wor- 
ship; omba, pray; Go. kombika, pray; 
Ka. tambika, pray; Cong, boka, call). 

Phr. wambonga ngentlamba, he acclaimed 
him loudly with rounds of abuse or insulting 

le'nko'mo ihlatshelwe-ni? ibongile, what is 
this beast slaughtered for? it has given 
praise, done sacrifice i. e. is slaughtered for 
the ama-Dkhxi. 
Bonga (Bhonga), v. Hoar, give forth a 
deep angry cry, growl in a loud conti- 
nuous rumbling manner, as a bull when 
it sees another approaching, or of a lion 


or baboon, or a pig grunting, or a cat 
at night (not used of the shrill bellowing 
of a bull = konya, nor of the crying of 
a cow for the calf = kala) ; roar, as a 
bawling child or angry man. Cp. kalima. 
i(li)-Bonga or Bongo (Bhonga or Bhongo), n. 
Young male (of man or beast) just after 
attaining virility, as a boy of about 
fourteen years, a young bull just com- 
mencing to mount, etc. Cp. i(li)-Bungu. 

u-B6ngabonga (Bhongabhonga),ri. = u-Po- 

Bongela, v. Thank for a person (ace.) i. e. 
tender thanks on his behalf, or for any 
thing received (in the latter sense less 
frequently used). 

i-mBongi (Bhongi), n. Professional praiser, 
' one of whom is attached to the court of 
every Native chief to proclaim publicly 
the praises of this latter or any notable 
visitor on certain grand occasions or 
public festivals; honey-bee (— i-Nyosi). 

u(lu)-Bongiyane, n. Honey-bee = i-Nyosi. 

u- Bongo (Bhongo), n. = u-Qoqoqo. 

i (I i)- Bongo (Bhongo), n. = i(li)-Bonga. 

ama- Bongo (Bongo, no sing), n. Deep 
angry continuous growling or low roar- 
ing, as of a lion, bull when angry, or 
a cat at night (see bonga) ; deep audible 
breathing, as of a person in consump- 
tion, or as some people naturally when 
asleep (cp. ndonda). 
isi-Bongo, n. Tribal or clan name (cp. isi- 
Takazo); name of praise, given to a 
young-man by his comrades; pi. izi- 
Bongo, praises of a person, cow, dog, 
etc. — every Native, and especially 
chiefs, has a number of these praise- 
phrases coined for him by others, and 
which are often added on to his name 
by way of a distinction. 

Ex. img'owa-pi wena, isixalo sakini? ngi- 
ng'owqkwa'Ntombela mina (or irakwa Mkixe, 
or was'eLangeni, etc.), of where are you, 
your people's origin? I am one of Ntombe- 
la's clan (or Mkize's, or the Elaugeni clan) 
— Ntombela, Mki%e or Elangeni, then, are 
the isi-Bongo of these people. 

N.B. Of these clans there must be more 
than a hundred among the so-called Zulu- 
Kafirs, and to one or other of them every 
Native belongs. Each originally sprang from 
some particular individual in past times, in 
some cases probably far back into hundreds 
of years, in others (as in the case of the 
Bhiyaha, Ntanzi, etc., who are really, with 
the Zulu, merely branchlets of the same 
clan) more recently, almost within living 
memory. Being, therefore, but so many se- 
parate, large families, there is no inter- 


marriage between persons of the same elan- 
name, even though there may be no known 
directly-traceable relationship between them; 
.such a marriage would be regarded as in- 
cest; although cases of this description do 
occur, whereupon, to cover the stigma (though 
for the moment, of course, accentuating it! 
a new clan-name is formed, as e. (/. with the 
yimr.i and Bhiyaha clans who are said 
to have sprung from such a union between 
members of the Zulu tribe. A Native regards 
the kraal of every man having the same 
isibongo as himself, as his own home, the 
owner being to him a father or brother, and 
he has only to walk in, make known his clan- 
name, and be treated as one of the family. 

isi- Bongo (Bhongo), n. = is-Abongo. 

um-Bongo (Bhongo), n. 5. Deep angry con- 
tinuous growling or low roaring, as of 
a lion, or (metaphor.) of an angry man, 
distant thunder, etc.; also = i-niBa- 

Bongobana (Bhongobhana), v. Retain a 
fixed ill-will or hateful feeling towards 
another (with na). 

isi-Bongobi (Bhongobhi), n. = is-Abongo. 

isi-Bongobiya (Bhongobhiya), n. = is-Abo- 

i(li)-B6ngobongo, n. = i-mBongombongo. 

Bongola (Bhongola), v. Be pouted, as the 
mouth; have the mouth pouted, as with 
sullcnness or disdain = bozoma, pukula. 

Bongolisa (Bhongolisa), v. Pout the 
mouth (ace), 'turn up the nose', as a 
girl might with sullenness or disdain — 

i-mBongolo (Bhongolo), n. Donkey; mule; 
big, protruding, pouted mouth [Sw. 
baghala, mule; Ga. dogoi, donkey; Her. 

i-mBongolwana (Bhongolwana), n. Black 
flying-ant, such as appear in swarms 
on hot days; a little pouted mouth, or 
the owner thereof, as might be applied 
y. to a sullen disdainful girl, given to turn- 
ing up the nose at people and things. 

i-mB6ngombongo (Bhongombhongo), n. 
Peevish, fastidious, spoiit, child crying 
at every restraint and wanting its way 
in everything = i-nTetemisa; i(li)-Te?ige. 

Bongoza (Bhongoza), v. = mbongoza. 
Bongoza, v. Humour, indulge, pet, a child 
(ace.) so as to spoil it = totosa, tengeza. 

Bongozela (Bhongozela), v. Grow rapidly, 
shoot up quickly, as a child or tree = wo- 
ngozela, bunguzela, pakazela, bodozela. 

u-Bongwana (Bhongwana), n. = w-Qoqoqo. 

i(li)-Bongwendhlini, n. A selfish greedy 

person, who likes to eat his meat priva- 

47 BO 

tely, alone with his wives in the hut, not 
distributing it freely among his assem- 
bled visitors (lit one who is praised in 
the hut, not out among the public, from 
the Native custom of thanking the giver 
of a meat-least by uttering bis praises) 
-only in phr. sash'amabongwendhlini, 
we got burnt (i.e. bad unpleasantly to 
do with) greedy, selfish people. (N.). 

um-Bongxosi(7>7/o^/.<o.s7A n.5. um-Bosho. 

i(li)-Boni, //.. Kind of veldt-locust of two 
varieties, one of a greenish and the 
other of a brownish colour. 

im-Boni (Bhoni), n. Certain climbing- 
plant, growing along the sea-coast and 
bearing a huge non-edible bean, some- 
times with a pod nine inches long, used 
medicinally for goats = i-mBune. 

Bonisa, v. Cause a person to see anything 
(doub. ace), i.e. show = kombisa. 

Bonisela, v. Look after anything for an- 
other (doub. ace), as things left in one's S* 
charge; tell or inform a person where 
something is that he is looking for. 

Ex. e! 'madoda! ngibamselani (or ngibo- 
niseleni — both these forms of the imperative 
being commonly used in Zululand I ihashi 
lami! 0! qa! kasilibonanga, I say, my 
men! show for ine my horse (i.e. tell me 
where it may be seen)! O, no! wc haven't 
seen it. 
um-Boniseli, n. 1. Caretaker (M). 

i-mBonisi (Bhonisi), n. Stationary observer 
or spy placed on any particular spot to 
give notice of the movements of an 
enemy = i-nTlomeli. Cp. i-nTIoli. 

i-mBoniso (Bhoniso), n. Any conspicuous 
spot, as a high hill, from which the 
movements of an enemy may be observ- 
ed and signalled. 

um-Bonjana (Bhonjana), n. ■'>. Thorny- 
bush, whose sticks are used as wattles. 

u, or um-Bonjisi (Bhonjisi), ». 1. or 5. Bean 
or beans [D. boontjiis ]. 

isi-Bonkolo (no }>Iur.), n. Species of brown 
ant, giving painful 'bite,' and whose 
mud nests are frequently seen on trees. 

isi, or um-Bono (Bhono), n. 5. Large fleshy 
protuberance (umbilical hernia) about 
the navel of some Natives = um-Bumu. 

um-Bono, ». 5. Any wonderful or strange v 
sight suddenly or unexpectedly appeal- \S 
ing before one; hence, sometimes used / N 
for 'apparition, vision.' 

Ex. namhla ngibone umbono! to-day I 
have alighted upon a strange sight! 1im\ •■ 
had a strange apparition. 

Bonqa (Bhonqa), r. Entwine, twist round 
or about, as the string (ace) round the 




neck of a calabash for suspending it, or 
round the grass at the edge of a mat 
to make it firm. Cp. tanda. 

Phr. uku-xi-bonqa, to twist or roll oneself 
about, as with pain. 
i-mBonqa (Bltonqa), n. String twisted 

round or about anything, as above. 
Bontsa (Bhontsa), v. Enlarge the cob, \ 
separating it from the stalk, as a raealie- 
plant when beginning to put on grains, 
and subsequent to the uku-ncashela. 
See um-Dende. 
u-Bontshela (Bhontshela), n. — i-nTsha- 


i(li)-Bontsi (Bhontsi), ». Shrub (Saldcia 

Kraussii) growing along the coast and 

bearing an edible fruit something like 

an apricot. 

um-Bonxosi (Bhonxosi), n. 5. — um-Bosho. 

Bonxu, ukuti (, ukuthi), v. — ukuti 

boshu; al ~< > ukuti gonu. 
Bonxuka (Bkonxuka), v. = boshuka; go- 
mi ka. 
Bonxula (Bhonxula), e. = boshula; gonula. 
Bonya (Bhonya), v. Beat or strike a per- 
son (ace.) with a stout stick on the body; 
also to tula (q.v.) excessively, finish all 
off, as mealies (ace. - cp. vubukula). 
\-m&or\y<i (Biionya), n. Girdle of long goats- 
hair (C.N.) = u-Tshavv. 
Bonyu, ukuti (Bhonyu, ukuthi) v. ukuti 

Bonyuka (Bhonyuka), v. = gonuka. 
Bonyula (Bhonyula), v. — gonula. 
Bopa (Bop ha), v. Bind i. e. make firm or 
secure by a binding or string, as one 
might a parcel (ace), or as one might 
the' string (ace.) or binding itself by 
entwining it round about some other 
object; fasten up, as a horse (ace with 
ela form) to a tree, or a rope to a ring 
(not properly tie a knot = tekeleza); 
pack up, bind up, as one's goods (ace.) 
into a bundle; button up, make- fast, as 
a coat (ace. Mod.); take into custody, 
put into prison, as a policeman or ma- 
gistrate might a criminal (ace Mod.); 
be 'tight' or holding one firmly in i. e. 
be strong, as a smell of something rot- 
ring or thick coal-smoke (used in perf.). 
Cp. kunga [Skr. bandh, bind; Su. bofa; 
Ga. sib a; Her. paudeka\. 

Phr. lcaneishani! ubopa i/nja nexinkuni! 
tingy, tight-fisted! why he hinds 
up ate dog along with bis firewood (perhaps 
that he may save even the morsels that 
would otherwise be eaten by it) — said of 
a very ftingy person. 

Bopela (Bophela), v. Inspan, as oxen (ace.) 
into a wagon; saddle up, as a horse (ace). 

Bopelezela (Bophelezela), v. = bopa, bo- 

Bopezela (Bophezela), v. = bopa, bopela. 

isi-Bopo (Bopho), n. String or rope of 
grass, used for binding; hence, any 
thiny- used for binding; bounden duty 

u-Boqo (Bhoqo), n. Kind of convolvulus 
(Ipomaa ovata), whose black bulbs are 
eaten in time of famine. 

i(li)-Boqo (Bhoqo), n. Fibre-bearing bush, 
growing on the coast; short-hafted as- 
segai with a long broad blade. 

i(li)-Boqongwana (Bhoqongwana), n. = u- 

'i-Borri (Bhorri), n. Medium large bead or 
beads of a light bluish colour. 

Borro, ukuti (Bhorro, ukuthi), v. = bo?'roza. 

Borroza (Bhorroza), v. Break off with a 
crashing sound, as a dry branch (ace.) 
from a" tree; smash with a crashing 
sound, as box (ace), or (metaphor.) a 
person's head or ribs. Cp. dorroza; 
gorroza ; durruza. 

isi-Boshi or Boshishi (Bhoshi or Bhoshishi), 
n. Anything with a fetid smell, stink- 
ing, with an overpowering stench = 
u(lu)-Futo, u(lu)-Bofu. 

i(!i)-Bosho (Bhosho),n. Cartridge; cart- 

um-Bosho (Bhosho), n. 5. Any tall-stand- 
ing, long and narrow thing, as a Native 
milking-pail, a chimney-pot, long narrow 
can, long topknot of a woman, or long 
head with the crown high ; might also 
be used Sfor a 'tower or turret', from 
its shape'= n(1u)-Bijongo, um-Boshongo, 

u-Boshobana (Bhoshobana), n. Weasel = 

um-Boshongo (Bhoshongo), n. 5. = urn-Bo- 

Boshu, ukuti (ukuthi), v. Get peeled off, 
come peelingly off, as the skin from 
a burn or graze = boshuka; peel off, take 
peelingly off, as the skin (ace.) = boshu- 
la. See = ukuti bonxu. 

Boshuka (s. k.), v. = ukuti boshu, bonxuka. 

Boshula, v. = ukuti boshu, bonxula. 

u-Bosiki (Bhosiki), n. Red-water = u-Mbe- 

ndeni [D]. 
i(li)-Boti (Bhoti), n. Genitals of a girl — a 
word only used idiomatically by women, 
as below, and gen. only of each one's 
own daughter (not of a strange girl); 


hence, applied to the profit resulting 
from being a girl i. e. various cattle ; 
certain climbing plant, having red edible 

Ex. nanti iboti lain/.' here are my little 
genitals i. e. here is my little girl — said by 
a mother vvheu toying with her infant. 

sod hhi iboti lenkosaxa/na, we shall enjoy 
the genital-profit of our young-lady, as might 
be said by one wife to another and referring 
to the eating of the inkomo yokwormda (at 
the first menstruation) of one of their daugh- 
ters, or the inkomo yokueola (slaughtered 
for the girl in the paternal kraal on the day 
of her leaving to get married), or the u»i- 
qoliso (slaughtered in the bridegroom's kraal 
on the day after the wedding). 

Boto, ukuti (ukuthi; s. t.), v. — botoza; bo- 

isi-Boto (Botho), n. Young locust or grass- 
hopper just putting on wings but not 
yet able to fly (cp. i-nKasa) ; weak-footed 
person, a bad-walker, who cannot walk 

i(li)-B6toboto (s.t.),n. Any soft-bodied 
thing that allows itself to be pressed in 
or pitted by the fingers, as a very ripe 
peach, or india-rubber ball. Cp. i(li)- 

Botoza (s. t.), v. Press in or pit with the 
fingers, any soft-bodied thing, as a soften- 
ed tumour (ace), ripe peach, or india- 
rubber ball. Cp. bukuza; focoza. 

Botoza (Bothoza), v. Walk in a weak-foot- 
ed way, get quickly tired out, as a bad 

Botozeka (s. t.; s. k.), v. Get so pressed in 
or pitted with the finger, as above; be 
soft of substance or body, so as to be- 
come pitted when pressed by the fingers. 
Cp. bukuzeka; focoka. 

um-Botshozeiwa (Bhotshozehva), n. 5. = 

Botuluka (Bothuluka), v. Go, or appear, 
in an incessant repetition (not in one 
close procession = mininika), as party 
after party going along to a hunt- 
meeting, or wagon after wagon appear- 
ing along a road = tapuka. 

Bova (Bhova), v. = beva. 

u-Bova (Bhova), n. Man with [a furious 
temper, given to getting into a rage (= 
isi-Bova); also sometimes applied to a 
Scotch-terrier dog (cp. isi-Maku). 

isi-Bova (Bova), n. = u-Bova, isi-Beva. 

i-mBovane or Bovwane (Bhovane or Bhov- 
ivane, no plur.^, n. Weevil or weevils — 
B6vu, ukuti (ukuthi), v. Stab a thing (ace.) 

49 BO 

thoroughly, deeply, vigorously, as with 
an assegai, or an <>x with its horns = 

i-mBovu (Bhovu), n. Chaps, inside the 
cheeks of cattle. 

Phr. unemljoru or uvame unburn, lie lias 
a long tongue, has much talk. Sec ulw- 

u(bu)-Bovu, //. Mattel', pus, as from an 
abscess fSw. ovu and bovu, rotten; Bo. 
u-ovu, rottenness; Her. ora, to rot]. 

Ex. siloku sipum'ubovu, ii (the sore) is 
continuously discharging matter. 

Bovula, o. Stab a thing (ace.) deeply, tho- 
roughly, vitally, stab it home, as a man 

a buck with an assegai, or one ox an- 
other when driving in the born ; bellow 
away excitedly, keep up a persistent 
roaring, as cattle when agitated by some 
frightful thing as the blood of a slaugh- 
tered beast, or (metaphor.) a man keep- 
ing up a persistent scolding at finding 
something wrong. Cp. bovumula. 

Phr. xiyayibovula ku'Bani, they (the cattle) 
are showing a loud dislike towards So-and- 
so, i. e. they can't bear even the sight of 
him — said of a man who has got himself 
generally disliked. 

Bovumula (Bhovuniula), v. Rave, be in a 
noisy rage or fury, be 'roaringly' 
furious, as a wild-beast, dog, etc., at 
something, or an angry-tempered man 
raving at another ("ace. with ela form) 
= bavumula, bevumula. Cp. bova. 

Boxa (Bhoxa), v. Knead, work up, gen. 
with the feet, as earth and water, or as 
cattle the mud (ace.) in the cattle-fold ; 
make a mess of an affair (ace), mix it up ; 
put on horns about nine inches in length, 
sufficiently long to be of service in goring, 
as a growing bullock; pierce or stick 
another (ace.) with the point of the horn ; 
throw out the cob i. e. make it fall from 
its hitherto vertical position alongside 
the stem (see ncashela) and point out- 
wards, as mealies growdng. 

i-mBoxela (Bhoxela), n. Ox with erect 
sharply-pointed horns = u(lu)-Cushela. 

Boxo, ukuti (Bhovo, ukuthi), v. = boxa, 

i(li), or i-mBoxo (Bhoxo), n. Young bullock 
with the horns well grown, just suitable 
for inspanning = i(li)-Jongosi. 

um-Boxo (Bhoxo), n. 5. = um-Bosho. 

i(li)-Boxongo {Bhoxongo), n. Person who 
mixes up people's affairs, causing mis- 
understanding and strife between them. 

um-Boxongo (Bhoxongo), n. 5. = um-Bo- 



Boxoza (Bhoxoza), v. Flounder or wade 
about in mud, as cattle in a muddy 
cattle-fold; work up mud or mortar (ace!) 
with the feet. 

i-mBoxwana (Bhoxivana), n. Little utshwa- 
la, sufficient for a small 'beer-drink'. 
Cp. i-mBile; um-Bodhlelantanyeni. 

u-Boya, n. Variety of imfe. 

isi-Boya, n. Single hair, as of a cat, dog, 
or other animal (of man - see u(lti)- 
Nwele, u(lu)-Za) = u(lu)-Dosi; also 
(C.N.) = um-Ncongo. 

u-Boya, a. 7. — see ub-Oya. 

i(li)-Boyi (Bhoyi), n. Grey-backed Bush- 
Warbler ( Camaroptera sundevalli), said 
to foretell rain and not eaten by girls 
as causing them to bear children with 

scraggy legs. 

i(li)-Boyiyana (Bhoyiyana), n. Person with 
an uncontrolled tongue, always scolding, 
slandering, etc. 

Boyiza (Bhoyiza), v. Act as the above. 

i(li)-Boza or Bozane, n. Tall plant (Moscho- 

sma riparia) having yellow flowers, 

and used for coughs. 

isi-Boza (Bhoza), n. Person who habitu- 
ally passes urine during sleep, as many 

Bozela (Bhozela), v. = mpoziza. 

isi-Bozi,w. Anything gone rotten or de- 
cayed, as mealie-cob, pumpkin, etc. = 
isi-Cudulu. Cp. isi-Bucu. 

Bozisa, v. Make anything (ace.) to rot, go 
bad, or decay ; make die off, as an um- 
takati the people of a kraal. 

i-m Bozisa (Bhozisa),n. Any medicine or 
plant used for causing decay or 'dying- 
off in people, crops, etc., such as an 
umtakati uses; counter-remedy or anti- 
dote for nullifying the effects of such 
a medicine. Cp. i-mBulelo. See bozisa. 

u-Boziyembe (Bhoziyembhe), n. A front 
{i.e. white starched breast-covering, 
or such as is attached to a shirt) ; cer- 
tain kind of ladies'-jacket made with 
a kind of front (T.). 

u-Bozo (Bhozo),n. = u-Cakide. 

u-Bozoba (Bhozobha),n. = u-Cakide. 

u(lu)-Bozolo (Bhozolo), n. = i-mPukutu. 

Bozoma (Bhozotna), v. = bongola; also 

i-mBozoma (Bhozoma), n. = tc-Ma?npozo- 

Bozozela, v. Smile = marnateka. 

Bu, pers. pron. It — used with nouns of 

the 7th. el., having the prefix ubu. 
Bu, ukuti (Bhu, ukuthi), v. = bula. 

50 BU 

Bu, ukuti (Bhu, ukuthi — with prolonga- 
tion of the voweLi, v. = buza (bhuza). 

i(li)-Bu (Bhu, no plur.), n. Common grain 
or clothes' moth (cp. i-m Vemvane) ; tiny 
fly, common about fermenting things, 
as beer or rotting fruit (= i-mBuzane) 
[Sw. imbu, gnat, mosquito]. 

i-mBu (Bhu, with plur.), n. Certain flying 
ant that freq. swarms about one when 
travelling along a road (N) = i-mBu- 
zane, um-Iyane. 

umu, or u(lu)-Bu (Bhu), n. Large number 
or 'swarm', of any small animals (gen. 
such as bear prolifically), as a litter of 
pigs, a brood of chicks, or a lot of little 
children about a kraal. 

Buba, ukuti (ukuthi), v. = tikuti pata. 

Buba (Bhubha), v. Perish, die, be or be- 
come no more. 

i(li)-Buba, n. Syphilis, properly syphilitic 
sores about the genitals [Eng. bubo]. 

um-Buba, n. 5. = um-Pata. 

Bubana, v. = patana. 

u(lu)-Bubana, n. (N) — u(lu)-Sebe. 

u-Bubani (Bhubhani), n. Plague (the di- 
sease) (T.). 

Bubaza, v. = pataza. 

i-mBube (Bhube), n. Lion = i(li)Bubesi, 

N.B. The dry excrements of a lion burnt 
and mixed with those of an alligator are an 
' excellent emetic for one who has been poi- 
sdned by an wntakati! 

i(li)-Bubesi (Bhubesi), u. = i-mBube. 

Bubisa (Bhubhisa), v. Cause to perish, 
destroy, any living thing (ace). Cp. 
bulala; buba. 

Bubu, ukuti (Bhiibu, ukuthi), v. Do any- 
thing with a sudden and sharp outburst 
of energy, as a hawk sweeping off a 
fowl (ace), a person suddenly and quickly 
snatching away a child from any danger, 
or a cyclone suddenly rising and taking 
off a hut = bubuza. Cp. bubububuza. 

Bu bu, ukuti (Bhu bhu, ukuthi), v. = bu- 
buza (bhztbhuza). 

i-m Bubu (Bhubu), n. Kind of soft long 
grass, used for thatching; anything soft 
like down of birds, lawn-grass, soft soil, 
etc. (more freq. i-mBubumbubu). 

isi-Bubu (Bhubhu), n. Certain bush. 

u(lu)-Bubu, n. = u(lu)-Mbimbi; also small 

isi-Bubububu (Bhububhubu), v. Sudden 
onrush or outburst of continuous violent 
energy, as when one throws himself 
suddenly and desperately on an enemy, 





or of a man beating about a child right 
and left giving him no breathing time, 
or of a violent wind rushing suddenly 
down upon a kraal or a hawk upon a 
fowl (with enza). 

Biibububuza (Bhltbiibhubuza), v. Work 
away with a great and sudden outburst 
of violent energy upon anything (ace.), 
as upon the enemy, child, fowl, etc., as 

Bubudhla (Bhubhudhla), v. Make a bub- 
bling sound bu, bit, as water does when 
a bottle is thrust into it, or as soft mud 
does, from the escape of gas, when a 
person walks upon it; hence, ladle out 
beer (ace), from the noise made; (Mod.) 
mix up sugar (ace.) with water for 

Phr. hade sibububudlda ka'Bcmi, we have 
just been having a great bubbling or ladling 
(of beer) at So-and-so's, i. e. have been having 
a fine beer-drink. 

ingcuba ibubudhla amagwebu, the unheal- 
thy-meat bubbles with foam (/. e. is filled 
with a watery fluid). 

Bubula, v. Moan, sigh, groan, as a person 
lying in pain (= gquma, gqiha); give 
a sigh of dissatisfaction, as at an article 
(ace. with ela form) presented for pur- 
chase; give forth a moaning sound, as 
some cattle when sleeping (see um-Daka) ; 
(C. N.) forsake, cast off, as offspring 
(ace.) [Sw. ugua, moan]. 

isi-Bubulundu, n. Hugely fat child, such 
as were common in the royal kraal, and 
to whom the name was usually confined ; 
hence, a child of the royal kraal; nowa- 
days applied indiscriminately to any 
such unusually fat child. 

isi-Bubulungu, n. Any long bulky thing 
with a roundish body, as a long round- 
topped ridge, or a big long sweet-potato 
= um-Bomhuluka. 

i-mBubumbubu (Bhubumbhubu), n. Any- 
thing softly yielding to the tread, as 
soft lawn grass, soft soil on an old kraal- 
site, etc. 

Bubuta (Bubutha), v. = bebeta. 

Bubuya (Bhubhuya), v. Affect or pretend 
regard for a person (ace), having some 
ulterior motive of self-interest; play 
upon one's generosity, as when always 
begging of a soft, kind-natured person. 

Bubuza (Bhubhuza), v. Cause the sound 
bu bu; hence, flap the wings, flutter, as 
a bird in a trap = pupuza. 

Bubuza (Bhi(buza),v. = uktili bubu. 

i-mBubuzi (Bhubuzi), n. Moaning, as of 
one in pain. 

Buca (Bhuca),v. Become softly de- 
composed, falling to pieces from rotten- 
ness, as flesh, paper, etc. (= bucuka); 
smear a thing (— beca); (C.X. fr. Xo.) 
mix up with the hand, as any paste. 

Phr. uJcu-buc'wmlomo, to smear the mouth, 
i.e. to take a little food in order to appease 
slightly one's hunger. 

Bucela (Bhucela), v. Walk empty-handed, 
as a man without a stick (C.N.) = va- 

Bucu, ukuti (Hit fiat, ukuthi), v. = bucuka; 

i(li)-Bucu (Bhucu), n. Certain small plant, 
used as intelezi. 

i-mBucu (Bhucu), n. Certain small bird. 

isi-Bucu (Bhucu), n. Anything in a soft 
state of decomposition or rottenness, 
as flesh, hide, brown-paper, etc. 

Bucuka (Bhucuka) v. Be or become in a 
state of soft decomposition or rotten- 
ness, falling readily to pieces, as putrid 
flesh, rotted hide or paper-made thing; 
get readily fallen to pieces or broken 
up in a soft manner, i. e. crushed, squash- 
ed, etc., as any such rotten thing. 

Bucu la (Bhucula), v. Make a thing become 
softly rotten or decomposed, as an ex- 
tensive burn might the flesh of one's 
body (ace). 

i-mBucumbucu (Bhucumbhucu), n. Any- 
thing in a state of soft decomposition 
or rottenness, as flesh, hide, thatch-grass, 
paper, etc. 

Bucunga (Bhucunga), v. = buxunga. 

Bucuza (Bhucuza), v. Break up, crush 
apart, squash, etc., anything (ace) in a 
state of soft decomposition or rotten- 
ness, as flesh, paper, etc., or anything 
of a similarly soft nature, as a banana, 
orange-peel, etc. = ukuti bucu. 

Buda (Bhuda), v. Colour the top-knot 
with isi-Buda or red paint, as a woman; 
also = budazela. 

i(li)-Buda or Budana (Bhuda or Bhudaua), 
n. One who talks away in a wild, sense- 
less, stupid manner, as a crazy person. 

isi-Buda (Bhuda), n. Certain red ochreous s 
stone, which is ground into paint for 
women's top-knots. Cp. i(li)-Bomvu. 

Budaza or Budazela (Bhudaza), r. Talk 
away (continuously) a lot of senseless 
jargon, as one delirious or crazy, or 
when dreaming. Cp. beda; bedeleza. 

i-mBude (Bhudc), n. Crazy, deranged per- 
son; a returning of the cattle at noon 
during the summer for a rest, 'd'ter- 





wards returning to graze till sunset — 
a custom no longer in vogue (= ukuza- 
'kupunga imikonto ekaya; see butisa). 

Budhla (Bhudhla), v. Gore or stab a thing 
(ace) vigorously, or stick into it deeply, 
as with an assegai, or an animal with 
the horn; talk out wildly in a totally 
unrestrained, regardless manner, with- 
out concern for the truth, decency or 
effects of what one says = budhluza, 

um-Budhla (Bhudhla), n. 5. Tall, plump- 
bodied person. 

isi-Budhlakali (Bhudhlakalt), n. (C.N.) = 

i(li)-Budhle (Bhudhle), n. One who acts or 
talks in a wild, unrestrained, violent 
manner, having no respect for superiors, 
no consideration for others, no regard 
to decency (= isi-Puhla); stem of the 
aloe-plant upon which the flower grows 
and which when dry is used as an i(li)- 
Pini; also = i(li)-Tulo. 

Phr. uku-m-shisela ibudhle, to burn the 
porridge-stick for one = to make one's life 
unpleasant, make things unpleasant for one, 
by petty harassings, etc., as women might 
for an unwelcome addition to their number. 

Budhlu, ukuti (Bhudhlu, ukuthi), v. = bu- 
dhluka; budhluza. 

i(li)-Budhlu (Bhudhlu), n. - - i(li)-Bidhli. 

i-mBudhluba (Bhudhluba), n. Great, round 
belly, as of a big fat man. Cp. u(lu)- 

Budhluka (Bhudhluka), v. Get smashed, 
broken or crushed to pieces, as below 
— see budhluza. 

i-mBudhlum budhlu (Bhudhlumbhudhlu), 
n. Anything readily getting broken up 
or smashed, whether from softness or 
friableness of nature, as a piece of soft 
dry earth, or an over-ripe fruit. 

Budhluza (Bhudhluza), v. Smash, break 
up into particles or parts, as one might 
a calabash (ace), a piece of dry earth, 
or a soft fruit; make fall to pieces i.e. 
purge, as a doctor his patient (ace.) by 
;i strung purgative; talk in a wild, un- 
restrained manner without respect or 
consideration; smash up a person (ace), 
etc., i. e. stab or gore vigorously or 
deeply with horn or assegai = budhla. 

Budhluzela (Bhudhluzela), v. Boil away 
vigorously, as potatoes or other solids 
in a pol (not as liquids = badhla). 

Budu, ukuti (Bhudu, ukuthi), v. Make a 
trampling sound with the feet, as 
children running; hence, scamper off, as 
children to see anything; also = budu- 
ka; budula. 

i(li)-Budu (Bhudu), n. A scampering along 
or off, as of children running off any- 
where, or out of any place (with suka, 
puma, etc. and nga). 

isi-Budu (Bhudu), n. (C.N.) = i-nTenesha. 

um-Budu (Bhudu), n. 5. Grassy place now 
worn bare by constant sitting or walk- 
ing on. Cp. isi-Kuudhla. 

ubu-Budu (Bhudu), n. Anything readily 
falling to pieces from decay, etc., as 
rotten skin or cloth, or meat boiled to 

Buduka (Bhuduka), v. Get worn of its 
grass, as a place or path on the veldt; 
get trodden down or worn away by 
trampling, as the grass itself; get worn 
of its nap, as a man's or woman's skin 
dress (= buduleka); fall readily apart 
or to pieces from rot or looseness of 
composition, as a pumpkin, skin, a clod 
of soft soil, or over-boiled meat (cp. 
bucuka; budhluka; buduza). 

Budukeza (Bhudukeza), v. Make a grab at 
a thing (ace), as to catch hold of it, as 
a cat with a mouse; grab about at any- 
thing (ace), as a man endeavouring to 
retain hold of a sharp active boy who 
wants to get away from him = ukuti 

Budukezi, ukuti (Bhudukezi, ukuthi), v. = 

Budula (Bhudula), v. Cause a thing to 
get worn of its grass, nap, etc., as above 
(see buduka), as when trampling about 
upon grass (ace), constantly rubbing- 
one's skin-dress, etc.; hence, search mi- 
nutely, diligently, for something (ace) 
lost, as in the grass, in a hut, etc. 

Buduleka (Bhuduleka), v. = buduka. 

Budululu, ukuti (Bhudululu, ukuthi), v. 
Fall sprawling, as a child when run- 
ning (C.N.) 

i(li), or isi- Budululu (Bhudululu), n. A 
'sprawling', clumsy, awkward person 
with his feet or hands (N) = i(li)-Pama- 

i-mBudumbudu (Bhudumbhudu), u. Any 
friable, crumbling substance, as old dry 
bread, decayed wood, etc. 

Buduza (Bhuduza),v. Crumble or break 
up any substance (ace), as above. 

u(lu)- Buduza (Bhuduza), n. Short, stumpy, 
bulky thing, as a person or mealie-cob. 

Buduzeia (Bhuduzela), v. Scamper off, 
along, or out, -as a lot of children run- 
ning excitedly away from any fearful 
thing, or off to see something = ukuti 

Buja (Bhuja),v. Stick far or deeply into 

BU 53 

anything, as a person stabbing an ox 
(ace.) vigorously with an assegai, or a 
thorn piercing far into one's foot = u- 
kuti buje, budhla. 
Buje, ukuti (Bhuje, ukuthi), t>. = buja. 

Buka (s. k.), v. Gaze at a thing (ace), look 
at intently, with eyes fixed thereon (cp. 
bheka); hence, admire, a thing (ace.) or 

Phr. uku-yi-buka (into) cumin, in i, to look 
at it (any desire or plan) in the water, i. e. 
regard it as unattainable, beyond one's pow- 
ers of obtaining. 

P. elisina'tnuva liyabukica, that (company) 
which dances afterwards is looked at (most) 
= who speaks last speaks best; nothing is 
lost by waiting, etc. 

i(li), or more gen. ama-Buka (s.k,),n. Tape- 
worm or worms (only used in vulgar 
abusive lang. with wadhla (you ate), 
or w'esuta (you were filled with). Cp. 

u(lu)-Buka (s. k.), n. Emaciated, feeble, life- 
less thing, as sheep, ox, or man = u(lu)- 
Nwabu, u(lu)-Dwamba. 

Bukana (s. k.), v. Face each other, as two 
kraals. Cp. bekana. 

i(li), or isi-Bukazana (Bhukazana), n. Per- 
son of loose, low, dissolute character and 
vicious disposition = i(li)-Bojongwana, 

Bukeka (s.k.),v. Be worth looking at, get 
gazed at; hence, be beautiful, pretty, to 
be admired, to be approved. 

Ex. kakubukeki loko'kwenza lewako, that 
conduct of yours is not nice, does not meet 
with anybody's approval or admiration. 

Bukela (s.k.),v. Gaze at (intrans.) ; be a 
spectator, in an approving or admiring 
sense, as at a dance (not as a mere on- 
looker at a fight = buka). 

isi-Bukeli (s. k.), n. Spectator, as at a dance. 

Bukeza (s. k.), v. Repeat or go over a 
second time, in any connection, as when 
re-grinding corn (ace), re-ploughing a 
field, re-trying a lawcase. Cp. duba. 

Bukisa (s, k.), v. Cause to gaze at or ad- 
mire, i. e. show, as a child one's treasures 
or curiosities; draw one's gaze or at- 
tention, as one might that of a crying 
child (ace). 

isi-Buko (s. k.). n. Anything used for seeing 
or looking through or in, as a mirror, 
spectacles, window, etc. (Mod.) 

i(li)-Buku (Bhuku), n. = i(li)-Bukuvane. 

isi-Buku (Bhuku), n. Short log, or stumpy 
piece of wood, as when a tree trunk or 
branch is sawn into pieces. Cp. um- 


um-Buku (Bhuku), n. 5. Stump or small 
thickish piece of wood, as cut off from 
a scantling; such a short stumpy block 
used as a head rest without legs (= 
um-Gqiki); anything neglectfully cast 
away, as unvalued or unwanted by the 
owner (= i-nGinqi). 

u(lu)-Buku (Bhuku), n. Bog or place where 
the soft deep mud forms a great shaking 
mass (cp. u(lu)-Bishi); big, flabby belly, 
as of a man who drinks much beer (cp. 

i(li)-Bukubu (Bhukubhu), n. = i(li)-Pa/>>/. 

Buku buku, ukuti (ukuthi;, v. = bu- 
kuza; bukuzeka. 

i(li)-Bukubuku (s.k.),n. Any soft-bodied 
thing or mass such as becomes swelled 
or puffed out at the sides when pressed, 
as a soft peach or india-rubber ball, or 
a mass of jelly = i(li)-Bokoboko. 

isi-Bukubuku (Bhiikubhuku), n. Log-like 
thing or animal, appearing only to be 
a lump of body without limbs, as a 
mole; plump, round, stumpy-bodied per- 
son, gen. used of a chubby child. 

Bukuca (Bhukuca), v. = ttikuea. 

Bukuda (Bhukuda), v. Bathe in a river 
or pool (i. e. not the washing of the body 
= geza, but the general frolicking about 
of young people) ; throw oneself into a 
discussion or matter (ace) with which 
one has no business or with the details 
of which one is unacquainted. 

i(li)-Bukudwane (Bliukudwane), n. = i(li)- 

Bukula (Bhukula), v.. (C.N.) = bunkula. 

Bukulu, ukuti (ukuthi; s. k.), v. Lie stretch- 
ed out in a reclining position, or on 
one's side. Cp. cambalala; ukuti baqa; 
ukuti nqepu. 

isi-Bukutu (Bukuthu),n. Any fat, plump 
lump of a thing, as a fat little pup, kit- 
ten, child, or fledgling of bird; name 
given to any girl of the um-Ndhlunkulu. 

i(li)- Buku vane (Bhukuvane), n. Big flap of 
an ear, whether, as of a man, when 
standing stiffly out, or of a dog or rab- 
bit, when hanging down (- i(li)-Buku); 
big flabby belly (— u(lu)-Buku). 

Bukuza (s.k.),v. Make any soft bodied 
thing (ace) bulge or swell about under 
pressure, as below sec bukuzeka; 

shake out snuff (ace.) abundantly from 
the snuff-box = bokoza. 

Bukuza (Bhukuzu), v. Make lie about, i.e. 
put or throw a thing (ace.) down any- 
where in a disorderly fashion, as a per- 
son carelessly tin-owing down on the 
floor his blanket, basket, or any other 
article. Cp. ukuti fit i! Hi. 



isi-Bukuza (Bhukuza), n. Short log or 
stump of wood (= isi-Buku); noodle, 
simple stupid fellow (= isi-Bunge). 

Bukuzeka (s. k.), r. Be softly pressable, i. e. 
bulge or swell about when pressed, as 
any soft-bodied object or mass, as an 
orange or ball of soft rubber, or a mass 
of jelly = bokozeka. 

Bukuzeka (Bhukuzeka), v. Get thrown 
down or about anywhere in a careless, 
disorderly, neglected manner, as any ar- 
ticle - see bukuza (bhukuza); get lying 
about anywhere and in any disorderly 
manner, as a drunken man. 

Bukuzela (s.k.),v. Go bulging or 'swelling' 
along (from the weighing down of the 
flesh at each step), as a very fat man 
when walking. 

um-Bukwane (s. k.), n. 5. Sight that makes 
one gaze, spectacle to be gazed at, as a 
dance or show; strange occurrence that 
makes one look in amazement. 

um-Bukwane (Bhukwane), n. 5. Certain 
stilt-bird resembling the pauw. Cp. i(li)- 

Bula ( Bind a), r. Beat with the dull thud- 
ding sound bu, in various connections ; 
hence, beat with a stick, as corn (ace.) 
to thresh it, or any other thing, as snake, 
hide, etc., lying on the ground; beat 
anything of a soft resounding nature, 
as* a carpet (ace.) to knock out the dust, 
or a woman (from the softness of the 
body); beat anything with a broad thud- 
ding instrument, as when beating out a 
Lirass fire (ace.) with a branch or sack, 
or when beating a person with one's 
coat or rolled blanket; consult an is-ango- 
ma or witch-doctor (perhaps from a 
former custom - now only partially re- 
tained of beating on a hide during 
the process); hold such a consultation, 
divine, as the witch-doctor himself fSw. 
pura, thresh; mbele, divine; Bo. mbuli, 
word, affair; Nyam. boru, divine; Sumb. 
hula, heat; Bu. tula; Ru. hila; U. pola; 
111'. puma; Mpo. bold; Gi. Jj'/fa; Gal. 
I. a ha). 

N.B. A common indoor pastime of chil- 
dren is to place a row or rows of mealie- 
ins on the Hour of tin- hut, supposed to 
represent different birds. The mass of chil- 
dren then form a chorus, singing in a plea- 
sant minor tone, the refrain Bula.' 'mscntse! 
I mine, clever fellow!) to which another 
single girl, singing in a similar pleasant tone, 
and pointing to one of the tnealie-graias, re- 
ph<-. A'.' i .' es'ematoleni, irnbala/ne, vjahaelikulu 
ry well ! the one among the calves, the 
yellow-finch, ;i very fine-looking young- 
fellow . At each round a different bird musl 

54 BU 

be mentioned, and the game consists in the 
child being able to think of so many birds 
as will get him or her through all the row 
of mealies. 

Bulakasha (s. k.), v. = bulukusha. 

Bulakasha, ukuti (ukuthi, s.k.),v. = ukuti 

um- Bulakasha (s. k.), n. 5. = um-Bulukushu. 

Bulakasheka (s.k.),v. = bulukusheka. 

Bulala (pass, bulawaj, v. Kill, a person 
(ace); murder him; destroy, injure, 
render useless, as anything (ace.) ; break 
into pieces anything hard, as a stone 
(ace.) ; ill-treat, as a master his servants ; 
hurt, cause pain, afflict a person, as 
might a headache; kill, be the death of 
a person (hibern.), by making him 
laugh, by overdoing him with unpleasant 
food, etc. [Lat. pugna, battle; Ic. bana, 
kill; AS. bana, murderer; Ar. ' aza, in- 
jure; Kag. Sa. ulaga, kill; Kwa. eari, 
kill; Ga. chawa, injure; Sw. ua, kill; 
Kam. aa, kill; Ka. buraya, kill]. 

Ex. uyasibulala ngomscbenxi, he kills us 
with work, he overworks us, he works us to 

ngibulewe isisu, I am troubled, pained, by 
my stomach. 

wasibulala ngentsini, he killed us with his 

P. kubulala okudhliuayn, it is the food 
(which one enjoys) that kills one (that carries 
the poison) — said in reference to a person 
who has brought down suffering upon him- 
self by some pleasure in which he was in- 

libukk umuMbo, lasa, it (the lightning) 
killed one of the Embo tribe, and then it 
cleared up (perhaps referring to some former 
incident of this kind) — used to express 
that 'it was a short sharp trouble, but it is 
all over now' (C.N.). 

Bulala, adv. While lying down, in a re- 
cumbent position — only used as an 
affix after verbs (probably from an ob- 
solete noun ubu-Lala). 

Ex. irai/ii/inr.n 'bulala, he stabbed it (the 
leopard; while down, lying on the ground. 

isi-Bulalambiza (Bulalambhiza), n. Certain 
small bird, with the habit of drawing- 
people from its nest by feigning inabi- 
lity to fly. 

Bulalela, v. Kill for or on account of. 

Phr. nl.-ii- .i-hiiliiiiia, to kill, ill-treat, ac- 
cording to one's own fancy, or for mere 

i(li), or more gen. ama-Bulawo, n. Any 
pain or ill catised in one's limbs by the 
injurious medicines of an umtakati; 


especially, painful swellings of the joints 
from rheumatism, [chronic gout, etc.; 
medicine supposed to cause such. Cp. 
u(lu)-Bule, n. Manner of standing, sitting 
or lying on or towards one side, as 
though inclined to fall, as a beer-pot, 
lamp, or a man reclining on one elbow 
(used adverbially, as below, with hlala, 
lala, etc. = u(lu)-Tsheku) ; manner of 
stacking amabele by setting it in bun- 
dles one upon the other in a long line, 
not by the loose ear, in circular heaps 
(cp. qinqa; hloma); a long, not big, 
belly, as of a growing boy ; any pleasant 

Ex. iiku-lala 'lubule, to lie half-prostrate 
on one's side, resting on the elbow = u/c/t- 
lala ngenqulu. 

Bulela (Bhulela), v. Place an um-Bulelo 
for a person (ace), kill or harm with 
an um-Bulelo = mvebela. 

um-Bulelo (Bhulelo), n. 5. Certain class 
of poisons or injurious medicines placed 
in a kraal, along paths, etc., by an um- 
takati, for the purpose of causing fatal 
disease in those who should come in 
contact with them. Cp. um-Qoto. 

Ex. kutiwa w'eqile, it is said that he has 
stepped over (an vmbulelo) — hence his 
peculiar sickness. 

N.B. If the umxanyana womfaxi (the 
placenta of a woman) and the umhlapo we- 
hashi (that of a horse) be mix together with 
idhlaligicavuma. (human fat) and umdhlebe (a 
poisonous bush) and twiopo (a certain sea- 
animal) and ifelakona (a certain mollusc) and 
one or two other ingredients, a powerful 
umbulelo will be prepared! 

izi-Bulo, n. = iz-Abulo. 

isi-Bulo (Bhulo), n. Stick for beating any- 
thing, as for threshing corn, using at 
witch-doctor's ceremonies, etc. 

Bulu, ukuti (ukuthi), v. = ukuti pulu. 

i-mBulu (Bhulu), n. Large land-lizard or 
monitor living beneath rocks or in 
earth-holes ; also = i-mBuluiwane; also 
see iMbulu [Bo. mbulu, lizard]. 

N.B. It is said, if a person imitates the 
i mbula (which is said to make a cry as 
though of a distant person singing), he will 
get a toothache. 

jJuluba /Bhuluba), v. Miscarry, used only 
of women, pigs and dogs (not cattle sec 
punza) = pupuma isisu. 

u-Bulube (Bhalube), n. Certain sluggish 
non-poisonous snake of a light-brown or 
reddish colour (= i-nKwakwa); any 
dull-minded, stupid person. 

55 BU 

i(li), or isi-Bulubentse (Bhulubhentse), n. 
Big fellow having large buttocks and 
I xdly; also used to refer contemptuously 
to a person with whom one has no 
concern, as an unknown stranger, child 
of some other kraal, etc.; also used to 
denote an uncultured, ill-mannered per- 
son who doesn't know how to conduct 
himself in decent society (every Native 
having the idea that there is no other 
tribe or family so fine as his own). 

i(li), um, or i-mBulukucu (Bhulukucu),n. 
Thoroughly indolent, spiritless person, 
too lazy even to cook for himself. 

Bulukuqa (Bhulukuqa), v. Throw or fling 
anything (ace.) down or away so as to 
fall sprawlingly, lying out at length. = 
ukuti btdukuqu. Cp. bulukusha. 

Bulukuqeka (Bhulukuqeka), v. Get flung 
down, as above ; lie sprawled or stretched 
out at length, as a man drunk or a- 
sleep, or a snake; go stretched out at full 
length, drawing itself along on the belly, 
as a snake = ukuti bulukuqu. Cp. bu- 

Bulukuqu, ukuti (Bhulukuqu, ukuthi), v. = 
bulukuqa; bulukuqeka. 

um-Bulukuqu (Bhulukuqu), n. 5. Any long, 
bulky body, stretched out at length, as 
a python, a long narrow bale as of oil- 
cloth, or a tall man stretched out on the 
ground at full length; tall, big-bodied 
man; applied contemptuously to any 
stupid, thoroughly indolent person, 'a 
mere inert mass', or a non-venomous 
snake = um-Bulukushu. 

Bulukusha (s.k.),v. Make lie down in a 
long bulky-bodied manner *. e. lay or 
place down anything (ace.) of a long 
bulky body (as a thick snake, or long 
narrow bundle) so that it lie stretched 
out in a long mass. 

Bulukusheka (s.k.),v. Get so laid out at 
length, as any long body with bulk, as 
a python, a long thin bale, or a tall man 
asleep; go as a long bulky stretched-out 
mass, like a python = bulukuqeka. 

Bulukushu, ukuti (ukuthi; s. k.), n. 5. = bu- 
lukusha; bulukusheka. 
um-Bulukushu (s. k.), n. 5. = um-Bulukuqu. 
i(li), or ama-Bulukwe (Bhulukwe), n. Pair 

of trousers [D. broek]. 

i(li)-Bululu, n. Puff-adder (Bitis arietans) 
= i(li)-Hobosha. Cp. i-nTlangwane; 
u-Maqandalingop i. 

i-mBululwane (Bhululwane), >t. Thick scali- 
ness of the skin on the upper part of 
the foot, in some Natives constitutional 
i-mBulu. Cp. i-nKwali; um-Kenke. 


isi-Bululwane, n. Plump-bodied infant; 
(C.N.) large centipedal worm; any other 
large non-edible worm ; large buzzing 

Bulumunga — see obula. 

Bulunga, v. Roll, i.e. make into a roll or 
sausage-shaped lump, as when rolling 
the UrNgiyane for a headline or the 
clay (ace.) in pot-making into a long thin 
rope; rounden off, as when giving the 
head (ace.) of a knobkerry its final shape. 
Cp. bulunga (bhulunga). 

Bulunga (Bhulunga), v. Roll into a ball, 
form anything (ace.) into a round glo- 
bular lump or mass, as a pill or dump- 
ling = dilinga; cp. bulunga. [Lat. 
pila, ball; Bo. mbuluga, round; Her. 
putuputu, round]. 

i-mBulunga (Bhulunga), n. Anything of 
a round, ball-like shape, as a bead or 
cannon-ball (not a circular disc = i-jiDi- 
linga; nor sausage-like roll = um-Bu- 
lunga) = i-nGqumutiga. 

um-Bulunga, n. 5. Long sausage-shaped 
roll, as of putty, clay for pot-making, a 
roly-poly pudding, etc. Cp. I-mBulunga. 

Bulungana (B hulling ana), v. Form into 
a ball, or into ball-like lumps, as the 
moon in its course, or mealie-meal when 
thrown into boiling water = dilingana. 

Buluza, v. = puluza; ukuti bulu. 

i(li), or um-Buma (Bhuma), n. 5. Kind of 
rush, growing in marshy places and 
used for making women's sleeping-mats 
y and medicinally to aid parturition ; small 
kind of green bead (= u(lu)-Hlaza) ; 
anything of a deep-green colour (but 
lighter than the um-Xopo). 

Bumba (Bumbha), v. Work or make any- 
thing (ace.) in clay, as an eating-vessel; 
make from dough, paste, etc., as bread 
(ace), or a plaster-model ; fabricate, make 
up, as deceptive plans or stories [Ga. 
bumba, clay; mu-bumbi, potter; umba, 
to shape; Sw. bumba, sod; Her otyi- 
tumbehi, sod]. 

Phr. uku-bumba umlomo, to refrain from 
speaking (whether altogether, or merely 
about any particular matter). 

P. libunjwa \ ibumba), lis'eva, it (the clay) 
is worked while it still allows (i.e. is fresh, 
in good condition) = strike the iron while 
it's hot; make hay while the sun shines. 

i(li)-Bumba (Bumbha), n. Clay, generally ; 
and especially, that fit for making pot- 
tery [Ga. bumba, clay; Sw. bumba, sod; 
Her. otyirtumbehi, sodj. 

i-m Bumba (Bhumbha — no plur.), n. Kind 
of small black bean cultivated and much 
liked by the Natives = i-nDumba. 

56 BU 

isi-Bumbata (Bumbhatha), n. Lump or 
clod of any soft clay -like stuff, as dough, 
putty, or clamp corn clotted together. 

isi-Bumbatuvi (Bumbhathuvi), n. The 
Tumble-dung beetle = i-nKuba. 

isi, or i-mBumbe (Bhumbhe), n. Noodle, 
simpleton, one naturally stupid or lack- 
ing in intellect; bad snuff = isi-Bunge. 

ama-Bumbelandeni (Bumbhelandeni), n. 
Monstrosity (of birth). See i{li)-Lumbela. 

Bumbezela (Bumbhezela), v. Arrange or 
make up a thing (ace.) so as to deceive, 
as by covering up some defect, by 
presenting a specious external ap- 
pearance, etc,, as a man might his hair 
when arranging so that it appear abun- 
dant or conceal a bald spot, or similarly 
with the topknot of a woman whose 
hair is scarce, or as a person might the 
fault of another when presenting it in 
such a way that its grievousness be not 

i-mBumbezela (Bhumbhezela), n. Thing 
'arranged or made up', as above, so as 
to present a specious appearance, as a 
filling out of the hair so as to appear 
abundant, a pretending to enjoy a cer- 
tain disagreeable food when in a friend's 
house, or a glossing over of the fault 
of another (with ukw-enza). 

isi-Bumbu (Bumbhu), n. Pubes or lower 
part of the abdomen just above the 
sexual organ. 

Ex. itambo lesibumbu, the os pubis or 
front part of the pelvis, as felt just before 
the bladder. 

ama-Bumbulu (Bhumbhulu), n. A loud 
outburst (whether by one or many) of 
reproach, indignation, etc., as at some- 
body's disgraceful speech or conduct. 
Cp. is-Aho. 

Ex. wakuxa amabumbulu, he uttered a 
cry of loud reproach or disapproval. 

isi-Bumbulu (Bhumbhulu), n. Mouth with 
fine large lips (admired by the Natives). 
Cp. isi-Mbence. 

i-mBumbulu (Bhumbhuki), n. Pip, as of 
an orange or pumpkin; kernel, stone, 
as of a peach or wild-berry ; hence, some- 
times used in the general sense of 
i-nTlamvu, i. e. a berry or stone-like thing, 
as a pill, marble etc. (cp. i-mBulunga); 
a treacherous plot, ruse, or action - 
mostly used in adverbial form = see 

Bumbuluza (Bhumbhuluza),v. Act treacher- 
ously, act deceptively with the intention 
of doing harm, as a party ostensibly 
hunting but really intending to kill some- 

BU 57 

um-Bumbuluzo (Bhumbhuluzo), n. 5. Large 
war-shield. Cp. isi-Hlangu; i(li)-Hawu. 

Bumbutana (Bhumbhnthana), v. Get or 
be massed together, as below. 

Bumbutela (Bhumbhuthela), v. Heap or 
mass together in one lump, crowd, col- 
lection, etc., as different lots of grain, 
people (ace), etc. 

i-mBumbutela (Bhumbhuthela), n. A mas- 
sing together, conglomeration, as above. 

i-mBumbwane (Bhumbhwane), n. Small 

Bume, adv. Standing, on the spot, while 
still walking or living, etc. - only used 
idiomatically in connection with certain 
verbs, as mangala (be amazed), fa (die), 
etc. (prob. from an absolete noun ubu- 
. Ex. umlobokaxi kadhli bume eur.luiha- 

\s'ninaxala, a young-wife doesn't eat standing- 
Jf up or walking in the kraal of her father-in- 
* law. 

awu! ngafa bume, oh! 1 am dead while 
still living, i. c. my chronic ailment has 
rendered me utterly useless as a man, as 
good as dead. 

baf'ubn babone lo'mhlola, b'orna bume, 
wheu they saw this strange thing, they dried 
up still standing (i. e. became fixed to the 
spot with amazement, consternation, etc.). 

isi-Bumu (Bhumu),n. == is-Abumu. 

um-Bumu (Bhumu), n. 5. — isi-Bono. 

i(li)-Bumumu (Bhumumu), n. Big, good- 
for-nothing man. 

Buna,?;. Fade, wither, as a plant; dry up, 
/as a sore when healing; die off, die away, 

as sheep from emaciation. Cp. feketa 

[Ga. buna, brown]. 

Bunca, ukuti (Bhi'inca, ukuthi). v. ==. bn- 

Buncana (Bhuncana), v. Shrink, shrivel 
, up, gather together into small compass, 

as a dried fruit, gall-bladder, an old 

woman, or a shirt through washing = 


u-Bunce (Bhunce), n. Certain small bird. 
um-Bunce (Bhunce), n. 5. Any shrunken, 

shrivelled - up thing, as above see 

Bunda, v. Shrink away, dry up, become 
. merely bones, as one wasting with con- 
S sumption, or sheep with famine. 

i(li)-Bunda, n. Certain shrub (Dombeyia 
Natalensis), whose skinny bark is used 
for making baskets = i(ii)-Bunga. 

u(lu)-Bunda, n. Miserably emaciated, dried- 
up, animal or person, merely bones, as 
from wasting disease or famine; (C.N.) 
= u-Bamba. 


u(lu)-Bunda or Bunda (Buunda), n. Raised 
earthen boundary, made in the floor of 
a hut, cutting off a small portion at tin- 
side thereof tor the use of youn."' goats, 

etc.; such an enclosed place itself ; hence, 
sometimes applied to the batch of goats 
sleeping there or belonging to that par- 
ticular hut. Cp. i(li)-Tombe. 

Bundana, v. Shrink together, dry up, 
become merely a skeleton, as a withered 
grenadilla = buncana. 

i-mBundu (B/mundu), n. i-mBondwane. 

um-Bundu (Bimndu), n. 5. A bulging-fold, 
pleat or plait, such as caused in a wo- 
man's kilt or a lady's dress by the 
gathering in at the waist; a crimpling, 
creasing, or wavy unevenness at the 
edge of a sleeping-mat, from having 
pulled the parts too tightly together; 
raised earthen border made in the floor 
at the back of a Native hut, so as to 
mark off the um-Samo or place for pots. 
(cp. u(lu)-Bunda; i(li)-Ziko). 

u(lu)-Bundubundu, n. Any substance of a 
smooth pasty nature, as boiled arrowroot, 
flour paste, plaster, etc. 

Bune, ukuti (ukuthi), v. Be drooping, in 
a faded or jaded state, without strength 
or vigour, as a plant through drought, 
or a person overcome by hunger. Cp. 

i-mBune (Bhune), n. Withered, emaciated, 
strengthless creature, man or beast, as 
from age or disease; certain climbing- 
plant, bearing a large kind of bean (N. 
= i-niBoni). 

N.B. This bean is used by an wntakati 
to cause a person to waste away (buna)! 

Bunga, v. Gather or heap together in one 
place, as firewood (ace), or mealies; 
gather or flock together, as bees round 
the queen (ace), or sheep collecting to- 
gether; gather or flock round, as flies 
round a person or children round a 
visitor (ace); come upon in a flock, 
swarm, etc., as birds or locusts upon 
corn (ace) in afield; heap upon a person 
(ace) all manner of charges. Cp. bu- 
ng any ela; bungaza. 

i(li)-Bunga, n. Piece of rotten, decayed 
wood, whether stick, post, or tree-trunk; 
also = i(li)-Bunda; certain plant used 
as an um-Bulelo for causing 'rot or 
decay' in a kraal. 

Ex. ixibqnda sexing'amabunya, the posts 

are already rotten. 

i-mBunga (Bhunga),n. Hair of a soft 
downy, woolly nature, as that about the 
tail of a rabbit or at the back of a man's 
neck; fluff, nap, as on some cloths; 



(C.N.) manner of dressing the hair with 
young-men so that it have a frizzy ap- 
pearance (sometimes in plur. izi-mBu- 
nga). Cp. isi-Hlupe, i(H)-Qubu; urn-, 
Siren do. 
isi-Bunga, n. Certain disease, caused by 
an um-Bulelo. * 

Bungabunga, v. — bungaza. 

i(li)-Bungane (Bhungane), n. Generic name 
for any flying beetle; hence, applied in 
a more particular sense to the human 
intestinal beetle f= i(H)-Kambi), a cer- 
tain boring fly, etc. 

N.B. The two varieties of Mylabris (M. 
bifaseiata and M. lunata), so common in 
the pumpkin-fields and valuable for their 
blistering properties, are gen. merely called 
by this name, seeming to have no distin- 
guishing appellation, although their blistering 
properties are known. 

Bunganyela, v. Flock or gather together 
for, collect round, as people round one 
(ace.) who has met with an accident, or 
rattle round something exciting on the 
veldt. Cp. bunga; bungaza. 

Bungaza,?'. = bunga; and bungazela. 

Bungazela, v. Gather to, come closely round 
about, as a child might about its mother 
(ace.) from whom it would like something 
or about a friend just arrived; fawn 
upon, show affectation by close contact, 
as a dog running about its master (ace.) 
who has just arrived ; caress, put one- 
self closely around or about, as a father 
affectionately caressing his child (ace), 
or a person his dog; keep flatteringly 
about the chief (ace), as one seeking to 
ingratiate himself with him. 

Bungcana (Bh/nigcana), v. = buncana. 

isi-Bunge (Bhunge), n. = isi-Bumbe. 

Bungela, v. Heap or gather together in 
• a- at any place, as mealies (ace), rub- 
bish, etc; heap upon, as firewood (ace 
or with nga) upon a fire (ace), or false 
charges upon a person; gather or collect 
thickly upon, cover 'in neaps', as ticks 
might a person (ace). See bunga. 

ama-Bungela, n. Charges 'heaped' falsely 
upon a person. 

i(li)-Bungezi (Bhungezi), n. (N.) = i(li)- 

i(li)-Bungu, n. Certain kind of river-grass 
or rush ; veldt-grass, field-crops, etc. 
while still young and soft, about a few 
inches above the ground. 

i(li)-Bungu (Bhungu), n. Lad, young male 
of about sixteen or eighteen years. Cp. 

isi-Bungu, //. Maggot of a certain fly, living 

58 BU 

in the ground ; maggot-like piece of flesh 
extracted from beneath the tongue of a 
young dog (=um-Nqadula). CTp.i-mPetu. 

um-Bungu, n. 5. Embryo of man or beast 
still in the womb and not yet a foetus 
(= um-Gawu); ox of an entirely white 
colour, horns and all [Her. oty-mu- 
mbunibua, foetus]. 

Bunguka (Bhunguka), v. Leave or aban- 
don one's parents and home and become 
'wild' i. e. living among 'foreign tribes' 
or in non-related kraals. Cp. hlubuka. 

Bungula (Bhungula), v. Cause a person 
(ace) to abandon parents or home, as 
above; used also for making a person 
(ace) insane or go mad. Cp. hlubula. 

i-mBungulu (Bhungulu), n. Bug = i-nTsi- 
kizi [Ga. blulu, bug]. 

i-mBungumbungu (B hung umb hung u), n. 
Thing of a soft, yielding nature to pres- 
sure of the feet or hands, as the soft 
earth in a cattle-fold, soft downy hair, 
etc. Cp. i-mBunga. 

Bunguza, v. Move rollingly along, roll 
heavily about, etc., in a heavy, lumbering 
manner, as a big snake moving torpidly 
along, or a heavy sheep' s-tail dangling 
round and about behind. 

um-Bunguza, n. 5. Big, rolling, lumber- 
some mass, as of izi-nJobo, a large 
sheep's-tail, or a snake. 

Bunguzeka (Bhunguzeka), v. Yield softly 
to pressure, as anything of the nature 
of an i-mBungumbungu. 

Bunguzela (Bhunguzela), v. = bongozela. 

Buniyani, ukuti (ukuthi), v. Fade right 
away or die away rapidly, or without 
effort. See ukuti bune. 

Bunku, ukuti (Bhunku, ukuthi), v. = bu- 

Bunkula (Bhunkula), v. Break, snap, or 
cutoff or apart, as a branch (ace) from 
a tree, a mealie-cob from the stalk, one 
piece of meat or cloth from another, or 
as a man cutting off i. e. rejecting, having 
done with, any of his w r ives or children. 

Bunqana (Bhunqana),v. = buncana. 

Buntsha (Bhuntsha), v. Be or become no 
longer appreciated or of interest, become 
of little or no value, get consequently 
neglected or abandoned, as a piece of 
handiwork which one has made and then 
sold unduly cheap or left about uncared 
for, a hut or any undertaking which 
one has commenced and then through 
loss of interest left unfinished (used in 

u(lu)-Buntshu (Bhuntshu), n. Person with 
very small buttocks = isi-Shodo. 


B'untsu, ukuti (Bhuntsu, ukuthi), v. Pitch 
or throw heavily down, as a heavy load 
(ace.) carried on the head = buntsula; 
get so thrown down heavily === buntsu- 
leka. See ukuti tuntsu. 

Buntsula (Bhuntsula), v. = ukuti buntsu; 

Buntsuleka (Bhuntsuleka), v. = ukuti bu- 
ntsu; funtsuleka. 

i(li)-Bunu (Bhunu), n. Dutchman, Boer [fr. 
Xo. i(li)-Bulu\. 

isi-Bunu, n. Vagina femince (this word is 
of a decent nature, and can be used, 
when necessary, in respectable society) 
= i-nTlunu [Bo. tunu, lust; Her. e-kuku, 

Bunuka (s.k.),v. (C.N.) = bunusa. 

Bunusa, v. Live the 'gentleman' i. e. lead 
an easy, happy life, with abundance to 
eat and drink and nothing to do, as a 
wealthy kraal-owner, or a wife in a 
chief's kraal. Cp. tamasa; hleleleka; 
ukuti zele zele. 

i(li)-Bunzi, n. Forehead = i-mVelelo [Skr. 
bhru, brow; Ar. "ura, forehead; Her. 

Buqa (Bhuqa), v. Make a clean end of a 
thing (ace), finish it off or clear it away 
outright, as cattle clearing off a field of 
mealies, constant walking wearing clean 
off all the grass from a place, or an 
army making a clean end of an enemy 
(= ukuti buqe, buqaza); go over a field 
(ace.) a second time, 'doing for it entire- 
ly', as when a harrow is sent over it 
after ploughing so as to completely 
break up the clods, or when re-sowing 
it after a first sowing has not been a 
success; make sport of a person (ace), 
have fun out of him, humbug him, 
whether by humourous talking or prac- 
tical joking. 

i-mBuqa (Bhuqa), u. Person or thing cast 
aside, neglected, as of no further value 
or use = i-nGinqi. 

Buqabuqa (Bhuqabhuqa), v. Dash down 
or about, make a thorough end of him, 
as a strong man might another (ace.) 
with whom he is wrestling. 

Buqaza (Bhuqaza),v. = bhuqa. 
Buqazela (Bhuqazela), v. (C.N.) = va- 

BLiqe, ukuti (Bhuqe, ukuthi), v. Make a 
clean end of a thing (ace), finish it off 
entirely (= buqa, ukuti lohle, ukuti 
lute); be quite black, pitch dark (gen. 
with mnyama = ukuti kace, ukuti 

i(li), or isi-Buqe (Bhuqe), n. A clean sweep- 

59 BU 

ing off (with enza), as above = i(ii)- 
Lohle, isi-Size. 

i(li)-Buqu (Bhuqu),n. 1 se, lighl soil 

(whether poor, sandy, or rich) such as 
can be raised up by the wind as dust. 
Cp. i-inBu ng u >u b u ng u . 

i-mBuqumbuqu (Bhuqumbhuqu), u. x=i(li)- 


i(li)-Buqusi (BhuquH), u. Dust, as rises 
from the road in a wind = u(lu)-Tuli. 

Buquza (Bhuquza), v. Raise a dust, kick 
up a dust (ace), as children romping or 
dancing in a dusty place, a girl sweeping 
in a room, or bullocks on a road (— 
puquza; cp. kupeza); knock up the dust 
of a country i. e. tramp or travel away 
over it (ace), even when using only 
grass paths; roll about, squat down, etc, 
'in the dust', i. e. anywhere, on the bare 
ground, not tidily selecting a seat. 

um-Buqwa (Bhuqwa), ?i. 5. Certain food 
prepared by mixing crushed mealies 
with crushed pumpkin-pips, u(lu)-Donqa, 
etc., and eaten dry. 

Burru, ukuti (Bhurru, ukuthi), v. = bu- 
rruza; burruzeka. 

Burru, ukuti (Bhurru, ukuthi, with a 

prolongation on the final voweU, v. Be, 
or go, in a long continuous procession, 
as a string of cattle, or constant pro- 
cession of people = burruka; ukuti qu, 
quma; cp. gquma. 

Burruka (Bhurruka), v. = ukuti burnt. 

Burruza (Bhurruza), v. Deal a person (ace) 
a 'squelching' blow in the belly, with a 
stick or kick; throw violently down any 
squelching body, as a fowl = ukuti 

Burruzeka (Bhurruzeka), v. Get so thrown 
'squelchingly' down, or receive such a 
blow, as above = ukuti burru. 

Busa, v. Enjoy a 'fine' life, as one with 
plenty to eat and drink and nothing to 
do (cp. bunusa); hence, live the gentle- 
man, be a lord; lord it over a country 
i. e. reign over it (with ku, or sometimes 
ace), as a chief [Her. pua, prosper]. 

Ex. bayabusa labo'bantu! they have a 
fine life, have those people. 

esabusa uMpande kwa'Zulu, while Mpande 
was still king in Zululand. 

mus'ukuxiSusa ngami, don't get enjoying 
yourself at my expense. 

uku-xi-busela, to live at ease for oneself, 
live independently of others, eujoy life as 
one likes; hence sometimes, to be free, en- 
joy perfect liberty. 

Bushu bushu, ukuti (Bhushu bhushu, uku- 
thi), v. z=z bushuza; bushuzela. 



Bushuza (Bhushuza), v. Go with the but- 
tocks /. e. keeping them close together 
and wriggling them slightly from side 
to side as one goes, as people, gen. short 
and plump, who habitually walk with 
very short steps; go wriggling the but- 
tocks i. e. go naked, generally, and as 
any kind of person = shubuza. 

Bushuzela or Bushuzela-ze (Bhushuzela), v. 
Go along naked, 'wriggling the bare 
buttocks', as above = shubuzela. 

\s\-Bushwane ( Bh tts/t /rane), n. Short plump- 
bodied person who walks with short 
quick steps, wriggling the well-stuffed but- 
tocks about from side to side as he goes ; 
also applied to a plump-bodied ox with 
well-filled out buttocks (= isi-Shubuka); 
an idiot, one naturally without intellect, 
' who goes about bare', as though under- 
standing nothing. 

Busisa, y. Cause or help one (ace.) to en- 
joy life or have fine times, as a chief 
might a favourite by lavishing wealth 
upon him ; hence (M), make prosperous, 
bless, as God (cp. hlahlamelisa). 

um-Buso, n. 5. An enjoying of life, 'fine 
times'; manner of enjoying one's life, 
as customary with any particular nation, 
as bull-fighting might be with the Spa- 
niards, or polygamy and beer-drinking 
with the Kafir; mode of 'lording it' or 
acting the chief in a land i. e. mode of 
dealing with or governing the people, 
making life happy for them (they being 
supposed to be the 'children' of the 
chief); country over which one lords it 
or reigns, kingdom. 

Buta (Bntha),v. Gather together or up, 
rullect, as rubbish ('ace), scattered grains 
or blankets; call to account, bring up, 
as a person's talk may afterwards bring 
him up for an explanation; pass, butwa, 
In- gathered into i.e. incorporated in a 
regiment, as was every young-man 
among the Zulus upon attaining about 
his twentieth year of age (see i(li)-Buto) 
[Sw. kutanisha; Bo. vuzd\. 

Ex. nabutwa-pi nina? Sabutwa ha'Nodwe- 
ngu, where were you assembled (i. e. your 
regiment), where did you serve for military 

rice '.' We were assembled, or we served, 
at the Nodwengu military-kraal. 

Phr. ukuhlwa kuyakukubuta, the dusk will 
rake you iu or bring you back — as might 
In- Bald to a naughty boy running away 
from punishment. 

uku-buta uifsluvaqa, to gather in the 
wrinkles i. c. to frown. 

i(li)-Buta (Butha), n. Certain climbing 
plant, used as a charm for attracting 
the girls. 

60 BU 

Butalala (Bnthalala), v. = ukuti butalala. 

Butalala, ukuti (Bilthalala, ukuthi), v. 
Squat down in a crouching posture i.e. 
resting upon the knees with the but- 
tocks upon the heels and the body lying 
low over the knees; lie on the belly 
(not on the side), as a cat or a dog, 
with the head erect. Cq. barnbelela. 

Butana (Buthana), v. Gather or collect 
together' (intrans.), as cattle or people 
coming together on one spot [Sw. kuta- 

i-m Butane (Bhuthane), n. Kind of scented 
grass (C.N.). 

Butaza (Buthaza), v. Gather up closely 
together, compress, as a person his body 
when pressed for room. 

Ex. iiku-xi-butaxa, draw oneself together, 
crouch, as a cat when about to spring, or a 
thief hiding in a bush. See hi-Butu; iiku- 

Butazeka (Buthazeka), v. Get drawn toge- 
ther, or compressed, as the body of a 
cat before it springs, or a new clay-pot 
still soft when it gets pressed together 
at the sides. 

Butisa (Buthisa), v. Gather itself (or them- 
selves) together in one place, as a snake 
when coiling itself up, or cattle collecting- 
together on one spot at mid-day (some- 
times used in reflect, form tiku-zi-bu- 

Ex. nantsi inyoka ibutisile otshanini, 
here's a snake coiled up in the grass. 

irikomo sexibutisile, the cattle have now 
collected together (for the mid-day rest). 
Cp. i-mBude. 

um-Butiso (Buthiso), n. 5. A combined 
ploughing or hoeing for the chief by 
his people, and applied alike to the as- 
sembled workers or to the land plough- 
ed by them. Cp. i(li)-Lima. 

i(li)-Buto (Butho), n. Regiment, such as were 
periodically formed by the Zulu king 

| of all young-men of the nation of a like 
age; member of any such regiment, war- 

; rior, or fighting-man (cp. u(lu)-Dibi); 
all collectively, or each individually, of 
the girls of a similar 'regiment' (in 
their case there was no actual embodi- 
ment in regiments, but from time to 
time, perhaps at the period of incorpor- 
ating a new male regiment, the Zulu 
king would also coin a name by which 
all the girls of the nation of a like age 

, would henceforth be known ; the women 
thus knew their respective ages from 
their i-buto). 

Ex. ity'ini wena, ibuto lako? Ngvy'indhlu- 
yengwe, of what regiment are you? T am an 


i-nDhluyengtve (the Leopard's-lair— uame of 
a regiment). 

P. akohlisana (amabuto), ehlomile, they 
deceive one another (the warriors) when un- 
der arms or on the war-path (having then 
to be very wary) == two rascals (out on the 
same job) met and took each other in. 
N.B. Every boy in Zululand who had 

/ attained about his eighth year had to 
work, when required at any military-kraal, 
as an u(lu)-Dibi or baggage-bearer. When 
about eighteen or twenty, he was, along with 
all the other youth of a like age throughout 
the land, incorporated into some newly-form- 
ed and newly-named regiment, and for a 

^ time had to serve a kind of apprenticeship 
in one of the military-kraals (see i(li)-Kanda). 

Butu, ukuti (Buthu, ukuthi), v. = butuha; 

izi-Butu (Buthu), n. Crouching posture, a 
compressing of the body together into 
small compass, as when wishing to con- 
ceal oneself from sight, or when ap- 
proaching the Zulu king, or as a cat 
about to spring -- only used adverbially 
as below. 

Ex. uku-lala ixibutu, to lie crouched up 
= butaxa. 

um-Butu (Buthu), u. 6. A general dropping 
or dying off in large numbers and with- 
out apparent cause, as sheep or goats. 

Butuka (Buthuka), v. Crumble to pieces, 
as a lump of dry earth between the 
fingers; drop away or die off, as sheep 
or goats, in large numbers and without 
apparent cause. 

i-rnButuma (Bhuthuma), n. Big, baking- 
fire, formed of a heap of glowing logs. 

Butuza (Buthuza), v. Make crumble to 
pieces, as a piece of dry earth (ace), be- 
tween the fingers ; make drop or die 
off largely, as certain diseases do sheep 

Butuzeka {Buthuzeka), v. = butuka. 

Biixe, ukuti (Bhuxe, ukuthi), v. = buxeka; 

Buxeka (Bhuxeka), v. Place so as to stand 
immovable or firm ; hence, fix or drive 
in firmly, as a stake (ace); set down 
firmly i. e. flat down or squat, as a flat- 
bottomed can (ace), or an infant on its 
buttocks; settle firmly or fixedly, as 
one's kraal in any particular locality = 
ukuti buxe. 

Buxekeka (Bhuxekeka), v. Get placed 
firmly or immovably, as above; get 
firmly fixed or driven in ; get to sit flat 
down, as a can, or squat down, as a 
lazy woman idling; get firmly settled 

61 BU 

down, as a kraal in any locality, or a 
man in a new position. 

isi-Buxu (Bhu.r/i), a. Calf with unusually 
large body. 

Biixu biixu, ukuti (, ukuthi), r. 
Wash the body with the hands, as when 

Buxunga (Bhuxunga), v. Wash the back 
of another person (ace). 

Buya, v. Come or go back, return; bend 
inwards at the top, as the sides of a 
beer-barrel, or in a more pronounced 
degree in some globe-shaped vases ami 
Native pots and baskets (cp. cita; u(/u)- 
Bijongo; <u»a-Ngu?igu); be closely, 
compactly built, as a cosy Native hut 
that has been well thatched so as to al- 
low of no cold or draughts to enter 
(used in pert'); succeed in getting, or 
come off with, anything (with na) over 
which there has been some contention; 
be thus obtained after successful conten- 
tion, come back with one (with na of 
person), as some object (nom.) over 
which there has been contention; con- 
tract, as a healing sore; also used ad- 
verbially, as an aux. verb, and expres- 
sing 'afterwards, and then, again, etc' 
[prob. akin to buta; At bo, go back]. 

Ex. ngibuya hona, ngibuya kuye, ngibuye- 
la wena, ngibuyela toiwe, I return from there, 
I return from him, I return for (*. e. to fetch, 
or on account of) you, I return to you. 

ilcanda lake UbuyUe, his head curves round 
at the forehead (■/. e. curves forwards, is bow- 

ngitanda isitsha esibuyileyo, I prefer a 
vessel bending in at the top (not straight- 

labuya nati (icala), it (the lawcase) came 
back with us, i.e. we Avon the case. 

ngiyakubuya nako, I shall succeed in get- 
ting hold of it — as when thinking for a 
word one has momentarily forgotten. 

yafuba mgijamele {inyati), yadhlula; nga- 
buya umoya-ke; ngaseiujifde uvalo, after it 
(the buffalo) had cast an angry look at me, 
it passed on; and I came back again as to 
my breath {i.e. and I breathed again freely:; 
for I was already dead with fright. 

ibuya, \nadoda! it (the impi) returns (to 
the fight), my men! - a common rallying 
cry of Natives fighting. 

yidhla manjc, ubuye uxe hi mi. eat now, 
and then come to me. 

wabuya watt uMpamde, afterwards Mpande 


uma ubuya ukwenxa, aim! 'Mpande! wo- 
bona okukulu, if you do it again, oh! by 
Mpande! you will see something great. 




i(li)-Buya (Buuya), n. Backwash of any 
kind, i.e. water driving backwards, or 
up on to the land, not passing off in a 
free forward course, as the in-coming 
tide at a river-mouth (the waters ap- 
parently being thrown back on the land), 
or as in some rivers, where a swift cur- 
rent throws the side-waters in a circular, 
backward course round some pro- 

i(li)-Buya, //. Place where a large number 
of people have their fields together, a 
large number of fields close together in 
one common spot = um-Limela. 

i-mBuya (Bhuya), n. Common weed (Ama- 
ranthus Thunbergii), much liked as imi- 
f'nio when young; also another weed 
somewhat resembling it, but said to 
cause dysentery in a kraal in the vicinity 
of which it grows (== isi-Nyembane). 

P. (iimuntu) o'manxiwa kainili 'mbuya, 

a person whose kraal-sites dou't grow any 
imbuya (he doesn't stay long enough for 
that), — said of a restless man, who is con- 
stantly shifting his kraal. 

isi-Buya, n. Spot prepared for threshing 
Kafir-corn f= isi-Za); fenced enclosure 
for storing grain after harvesting. 

i-mBuyabatwa (Bhuyabathwa), n. Certain 
weed, something like the i-mBuya, but 
thorny, and not eaten. 

Buyelela, v. Return on the same day (not 
sleeping away from home). 

Buyisa, v. Return, bring or send -anything 
(ace.) back, as an article borrowed ; bring- 
back (the clouds), be working up for 
rain, as the heavens; take back, with- 
draw, as offensive words; make good, 
replace, as the injured property (ace.) 
of another; rally, as an induna might 
his warriors after a repulse by shouting 
ibuya! to them; bring back home a 
recently deceased person (ace. i. e. his 
i(li)-Dhlozi — see hlamba). 

Ex. (ixulu) Wanda uk//buyisa, it (the 

weather) wants to work up for rain (J. o. a 

Bet-in rain, not ;i passing shower or storm). 

P. abiibuyisi bapambili, the turners-hack 

i. r. those who are worse than those you 

are running away from) are on ahead = 

you will find worse things on ahead; out 

the frying-pan into the fire. 

Buyisana, v. Bring or send back one to 
another; take back one from another, 
withdraw mutually, as offensive words; 
hence, make it up, after a quarrel. 

Buyisela, /-. Cause to come back to a person 
something, return or restore a person 
his tiling (doub. ace.) ; make amends to 
a person (ace.) for something damaged 

or lost (ace.) by something else (with 

Phr. akusena'kubuyiselwa'muva, it is no 
longer able to be returned back (and be as 
though never donoj = it's no use crying 
over spilt milk. 

Buza (Bhuza), v. Buzz, hum, as a swarm 
of flies or bees; swarm, be numerous, 
as an immense number of cattle or a 
pig's litter; w r ander idly, saunter about 
without any purpose, as a loafing man 
or unherded eattle. 

Buza, v. Ask a person (ace.) anything 
(ace), put a question to a person (with 
Jcu) about some matter (ace. or with 
nga); enquire about something (ace. or 
with nga) of a person (with ku, or ace. 
respectively) ; interrogate, examine orally, 
as a teacher his class (ace.) [Lat. postulo, 
I demand; Ar. sa'al, ask; MZT. buzia; 
Chw. butsa; Ka. buja; Ga. wuza; Sw. 
uza; Her. pnra]. 

Ex. kayabuxwa, yini'l is it then asked 
about? — used to express 'of course! there's 
no doubt about it.' 

wonyibuxa pela! you shall ask me then 
(if it is not so) i. e. you'll see if it won't 
be as I say. 

Phr. uku-buxa vx/wi, to ask about a state- 
ment; to ask for a statement or definite 

N.B. A favourite musical pastime of the 
Native children is to draw certain figures, 
consisting of lines, rings, etc., on the floor 
of the hut, whereafter one of the girls, 
having noted the position of the several fig- 
ures, covers her eyes with one hand, and, 
in a pretty minor song, replies to another 
of the girls who, pointing to the first of the 
figures as they stand, enquires, in a similar 
singing tone, Nyibuxa! (I ask what this is!). 
There are three varieties of figure and three 
different replies, viz. Nyibuxa iimhmo we- 
sibamn, yeyeni! (I ask about the mouth of 
the gun, ya! ya!); 'Ntsikintsiki, siy'axi so- 
nice, yeyeni! (Lump of a thing, we all know 
it, we do, ya! ya!); Vuta, 'nkwenkivexi exi- 
pum'elwandhle; siye sambamba cNdayimana, 
yeyeni! (Flame up, twinkling thing, those 
which rise up out of the sea; we went and 
caught him at the Diamond-Fields, ya! ya!) 
If the girl who is replying, through forget- 
fulness of the relative positions of the dif- 
ferent figures, sings out an unsuitable reply, 
she has lost the game. 
i-mBuzana (Bhuzana), n. Green-backed 
Bush Warbler (Gamaroptera olivacea) 
= i-mBuzi. 
i-mBuzane (Bhuzane), n. Black flying-ant 
that comes out of the ground after rain 
(■=. um-Iyane); black flying and stinging 


ant that sometimes appears in swarms 
on hot days; small species of fly that 
swarms about fermenting stuffs (= i(li)- 
Bu); small gnat that rises in columns 
from the ground on hot mornings — the 
word would seem to have been origi- 
nally, as it still is in the Xosa, a generic 
name for any kind of gnat or midge ; 
in which indiscriminate sense it is, how- 
ever, no longer in use among the 
Zulus. Cp. i-nTsentsane. 

N.B. The naming of the numerous vari- 
eties of ant is very contradictory among the 
Natives, the different names being applied to 
different objects in almost every separate 

u(lu)-Buzane (Bhvzane), n. = u(lu)-Buzela. 

isi-Buzela (Bhuzela),n. Idle vagrant, one 
sauntering lazily about, a loafer. 

u(lu)-Buzela (Bhuzela), n. Roaming swarm 
of things, as of cattle wandering in great 
numbers unherded about a plain = u(lu)- 
Yaba. Cp. i(li)-Bolohvane. 

um-Buzeli, n. 1. One who defends another, 
by cross-examining the other side, ask- 
ing questions on his behalf. 

isi-Buzenge (Bhuzenge), n. Half-daft, daz- 
ed-looking, mentally-lost individual. 

i(li)-Buzi, n. Kind of field-rat, larger than 
the i-mBiba. 

P. ibini Va%iiva umlaleli, the where-abouts 
of the field-rat (eaten by some children) are 
known to him who listens for it = if you 
want a thing, you must go and work for it; 
or, the good things come only to those 
who search for them. 

63 CA 

akic'ntsimba yaxwt'ibuzi ngokuhlala, there 

is no genet that ever caught a rat by 
sitting down. 

i-mBuzi (Bhim), n. Goat; also = i-mBu- 
zana [Ar. mdjza, goat; Sw. m-btizi; 
MZT. im-buzi; Amb. buzi, water-goat; 
Mpo. m-boni, goat]. 

Phr. mus'ukuqub'inibuxi ngakvmi! don't 

get driving your goats over towards me! — 
said to reprove an intoxicated man when he 
rolls up against a person. 

P. mgaxaVirikomo (N. nomkmgu 
atit/nge isicoco)! a goat could beget an ox 
(and a whiteman wear a headring)! — be- 
fore such and such a thing could be. 

imbiixi igudhViguma (or indhlu), the goat 
rubs close along the door-screen (or hut) — 
when it wants to get a chance to come in 
— said of a person cunningly seeking au 
opportunity for 'getting' at one, or catching 
him by stealth. 

isi-Buzi (B)ni-.i),n. Certain kind of grass 
(Andropogon finitimns). 

i-mBuzimeshe (Bhvzimeshe), n. Cane-rat 
(= i(li)-Vondwe); gnu f= i-nKonkonl) 
the word seems to be almost obso- 
lete now, save, as in Somkeli's district, 
where it is used for hlonipa purposes. 

Bw — words containing this sound in the 
Natal dialect, where it is occasionally 
heard, are invariably spoken in Zululand 
with the exploded b (bracketed in this 
work with a bh), the biv sound being 
unknown. Wherefore, all words of this 
description must be sought in this book 
under the ordinary B, with the bh sign 
in brackets. 


I . in Zulu is used to represent the dental 
click, of which there are four varieties, viz. 
(1), the dental click simple, represented by the 
letter c, and occurring e. g in the word caca 
(to be plain); (2), the aspirated dental click, 
represented by a cli, as in the word chaeha 
(to cover, as water the food in a cooking-pot) ; 
(3), a hard liquid dental click, represented by 
the sign gr, as in the word geagca (to perform 
the wedding-dance), aud geobo (anoint); (4), a 
soft liquid dental click, also represented by gc, 
as in the words i-nGcacane (a marsh-plant), 
aud i-nOcosana (a small quantity) — the dif- 
ference between these last two varieties being 
sufficiently marked by the fact that the latter 
or softer kind only occurs after an n immed- 
iately preceding it in the same syllable, the 
sound being found mostly in words of which 
the radical really commences with a c, but the 

sound of which has now become liquified or 
tempered down by the presence of the nasal 
n preceding it. It must be noted, however, 
that there are some words in which the simple 
dental click, written with a c, also follows im- 
mediately after an n in the same syllable, and 
yet does not have its sound affected in any 
way; but in such cases it may be assumed as 
more probable that the n is, along with the e, 
an intrinsic portion of the original root, aud 
is not a subsequently added prefix, as for in- 
stance in the word i-nOwincwi or i-Ncwinctci 

Words commencing with the liquid varieties 
of the click, written with a gr, will be found 
duly entered under the letter G. 

Ca (Cha), int. Qa (this latter form being 
almost universal in Zululand, the former 
in Natal). 

CA 64 

i-nCa, n. Grass, generally (= u(lu)-Tshani); I 

used also adverbially, as below. 

Ex. kwafika amnBunn, engangenca nje, 
there came the Boers, they being as many 
as (the blades of) grass. 

Phr. tcam'onela inea (or tcay'onela inca), 
they ill-treated him (or it) as though he 
were mere grass (to be trodden on) i.e. as 
though he were a despicable nothing, of no 
worth or account. Cp. ukiv-onela pantsi. 

Caba, v. CKop down, chop away, as bushes 
(ace.) from a spot being cleared; break 
up by biting, as a bone (ace.) when 
nibbling it off at the soft end to obtain 
the marrow and juice (not the gristle, 
etc. clinging to it outside = kukusa); 
cut down, slay right and left, as people 
(ace.) in a battle. 

Ex. iicaba izigxobo, ucaba umuzi, he is 

chopping stakes, he is chopping (stakes) for 
a kraal. 

umivxi sowucatshiwe, the kraal is already 
chopped for [i.e. its necessary stakes for 
fencing, etc.). 

Caba, ukuti (ukuthi) v. Be flat, level, 
smooth, as a plain or hut-floor (= caba- 
zeka, cabekeka); sit flatly, or squat, 
down, as any flat-bottomed vessel, or a 
book lying on its side, or a woman 
'squatting' on the ground (= cabazeka, 
cabekeka); hence, have a pleasant berth, 
be comfortably placed, as a woman 
marrying into a well-off family (= ca- 
bazeka, cabekeka); come clown on to 
flat ground, as when descending from a 
precipice or steep hill (= cabazeka, ca- 
bekeka); make flat or level, as a hut- 
floor (ace. = cabaza, cabeka); set down 
flat i. e. so as to sit flatly down, as any 
flat-bottomed vessel (ace), a grinding- 
stone, or a book on its side (= cabaza, 
cabeka); place down slightly, whether 
in small degree or quantity, as porridge 
(ace.) when serving it out; or carefully, 
softly, as a blanket (ace.) over a sleeping- 
person, or food so that it be not splash- 
ed about (= cabeka) = ukuti clefe, 
(■a h< i ha, cebebe, cebelele, ta, tebelele. 

isi-Caba, ?«. Thin flat piece of crushed 
mealies (or tim-Caba), such as gets 
turned off the stone when crushing 
boiled-mealies for mixing with amasi; 
any similar thin flat cake or plate, as a 
tin lid or a dinner-plate; Hat, low-lying 
strip of land beneath a hill or by a river 
(ep. i-rnFunda). 

isi-Caba (Cabha), n. Small sitting-mat 
(== isi-Cepu); Native hut-door made of 

um-Caba, n. 5. Boiled mealie-grains crushed 
"ii tlx; grindstone for mixing with ama- 


si; sickly, delicate, strengthless person or 

Phr. umcab'osel'emasini, the crushed- 
mealies that are left in the sour-milk — a 
term jocularly applied to those young-people 
born since the break-up of the Zulu power 
and who have consequently not been called 
up for regular military service nor incorpo- 
rated into regiments, except nominally. 

Cababa, ukuti (ukuthi), v. = ukuti caba. 

Caba caba, ukuti (ukuthi), v. = tikuti taba 
taba, ukuti zinzi zinzi. 

Caba caba, ukuti (Cabha cabha, ukuthi), v. 
Patter, as a rain-drops on the wet ground. 
N.B. There is a universal custom among 
Native children of splashing about with their 
feet in the rain, singing, ' Caba cabal ama- 
tontsi ayamuka!' or, 'Cabalele kicesamatole ! 
cabakle Icweserdnkomo!' — see cabaza. 

u-Cabacabane (Cabhacabhane), n. Chil- 
dren's pastime, as above (with enza). 

u-Cabakashisi (s.k.),n. Nice cool food 
a nickname for amasi. 

u-Cabalele (Cabhalele), n. = u-Cabacabane. 

Cabanga, v. Think, in all its forms; hence, 
reflect, consider; imagine, suppose, fancy, 
any thing (ace.) or person = kankanya, 
kanyanga. Cp. zindhla [Skr. man, 
think; Sw. angalia, have thought for; 
Her. ndangovasi, imagine]. 

Ex. hade ngikucabanga, I have been long 
imagining (i. e. suspecting) you. 

kade ngicabanga ngawe (or ngikucabanga), 
long is it I have been thinking of you. 

u(lu)-Cabanga, n. Cartilage at the end of 
the breast-bone = i(li)-Pe, u(lu)-Valo. 

Cabangela, v. Think, or presume for a per- 
son (ace.) i. e. assume a knowledge of 
his thoughts or actions ; hence (in a bad 
sense), imagine for him, entertain 
thoughts of suspicion about him, su- 
spect him, as of doing any bad action 
= zindhlekela. 

um-Cabango, n. 5. A thought; reflection, 

Cabaya (Cabhaya), v. = cabaza (cabhaza). 

Cabaza, v. = ukuti caba. 

Cabaza (Cabhaza), v. Splash about sing- 
ing in the rain, as Native children 
have the custom of doing. See ukuti 
caba caba. 

Cabazeka (s. k.), v. = ukuti caba. 

ubu-Cabe, n. = um-Cabo. 

Cabeka (s. k.), v. = ukuti caba; also, get 
cleared or chopped away, as bushes, etc. 
— see caba. 

um-Cabo, n.5. Piece of bush-land newly 
cleared = ubu-Cabe, ubu-Hlahlo. 


CA 65 

isi-Cabu, n. Any kind of venomous spider 
(= u(lu)-Lembu); gadfly (=■ isi-Bawu). 

Caca, v. Open a wound (ace. = i-nGozi), 
gen. on the head, by scraping aside the 
flesh so as to reveal the underlying 

Caca (Chacha), v. Ijjfi^wlaitt, evident, un- 
obscured, as the words of a person (not 
as a kraal — see u(lu)-Bala; nor water 
= ctveba); be glossy, sleek, as the skin 
of a person or beast in good condition 
(= cacamba, tawuzela, topa); appear 
like a shiny covering on the top, as 
water (nom.) when poured on food in a 
pot so as just to cover it with a shining 
surface (pert*, is used in all above senses 
to indicate the state); break up, chop 
up, as a bone (ace.) for boiling in soup 
or extracting the marrow (cp. caba), or 
as the middle wattles in the roof of a 
a Native hut when removing the same 
in two portions. 

Ex. amazwi ako acacile, your words are 
clear, evident. 

tel'amcmxd, acace, pour in water, so that 
it may show a surface (above the food). 

ueaeile uBani, he is in fine sleek condi- 
tion, is So-and-so. 

u(lu)-Caca, n. Anything lying 'scattered' 
or fallen about over the ground, as 
Kafir-corn blown down (in grain, or 
plant) by the wind, mealies spread all 
about the ground to dry, or men strewn 
killed over a field of battle. 

Cacamba (Chachambha),v. Burst by 
cracking (not into atoms), as an earthen 
beer-pot, or lamp glass; burst open by 
splitting the joint, as a seed-pod; be 
sleek, with well-filled-out, glossy skin, 
as a person or beast (used in perf. = 

Phr. uku-caeambisa amadhloxi , to put in 
good condition the ancestral-spirits, i. e. put 
them in good heart, make them come back 
to the kraal, when, by some misfortune, it 
is feared they have forsaken it. This is 
done by slaughtering a white beast in their 
honour and placing medicine at the back of 
the hut to be sipped by them. 

Cacamezela, v. Do anything carefully, 
with concern, as when carrying a fragile 
vessel, pouring out beer, hoeing a val- 
ued plant; do, use, treat economically, 
with frugal care, as when patching a 
garment to make it last long, or when 
tying up a bundle with scraps of old 
string, other being unobtainable; act 
with patient, resigned perseverance or 
carefulness, as in any hard circumstance 
difficult to bear = catamezela. 


i(li)-Cacane, n. Certain 
an orange-red spike 

of tin 


veldt-plant having 

ike the i-nOcaeane 

e marsh; in some localities applied 

indiscriminately to one kind and the 


Cacaza (Chachaza), /'. Act the lord, be 
the master, as a bull over the herd or 
a wife over the man (with pezu, or loo); 
make oneself out the master, as a boldly 
disobedient child, or a stranger impro- 
perly assuming authority in any kraal 
f= tontota); drip, as rain from the roof 
of a hut ( = xaxaza); leak by letting 
ooze or trickle out, as a cracked pot; 
crack or crackle, as dry firewood when 
split up or a board when breaking 
lengthways (= rrerra); also = qaqaza. 

Cacisa or Cacisela (Chachisa), v. Make 
an affair (ace), word, etc., clear, or plainly 
evident for a person (ace). Cp. casisela. 

Cadelana, ukuti (ukuthi), v. Be very thin, 
with the bones showing prominently at 
all points of the body = caka. 

ama-Cadelana, n. Thin bony person, 'all 
bones', as an old man, or thin 

Cafaza (Chafaza), v. Squash up in the 
mouth, champ, as honey-comb containing 
young bees (= cimiza); squash or break- 
softly between the fingers, as the mealie- 
grains of an over-fresh cob when shel- 

ama-Cafazi (Chafazi), n. Young immature 
bees in the comb, eaten by Natives = 
ama-Qanda, ama- Cimiza, ama-Qamuza. 

isi-Cafucafu (Chafnchafu), n. = isi-Finini. 

Cafuza (Chafaza), v. = xafuza. 

isi, or izi-Cagogwana (Gaagogwana), ». An 
undertoned slanderous talking about 
others (= izi-Vicoco) ; small cooking or 
serving of food. 

Ex. tiampa-ya behlexi ixieagoywana, there 
they are, sitting talking slander, talking ill 
about other people. 

Caka (s. k.), v. Be very thin, emaciated, 
'all bones', as a consumptive or famine- 
stricken person (used in perf. = gea- 
ntsa); whiten, whitewash, with white 
ochre or lime, as a wall (ace), or as 
witch-doctors do the body ; hence, paint 
the face with colours, as young-men and 
girls nowadays occasionally do. 

Caka (Chaka), v. Blurt out, let out openly, 
publish abroad, as a secret, whether an 
affair or a person (ace.) = cekefufa. Cp. 
etvula; hahula; pafuza. 

Ex. umfana ka'Ncomi indaba u/yicakile, 
wasicaka, Ncomi's boy has let out the whole 
affair, he has given us away or made us 


isi-Caka (Chaka), n. Poor, poverty-strick- 
en fellow, without any stock (= i(U)-Ho- 
br, umrPangqolo, um-Hlalaqa, i-mPa- 
ba nga); pumpkin-garden [Fe. bo-fa ki, 
servant; Mpo. oshaka]. 

Cakabeza fs. k.), v. Make or let get cold, 
as food (ace.); make a person get or 
feel cold, as cold food, or as when a 
person with a cold body lies near him. 

i(li)-Cakabezi (s. k.), n. Cooked food already 
become cold = i(li)-Takabezi. 

Ex. basibekela icakabexilayixolo, they served 
11- with some cold stuff of the day before. 

Cakacakaza (s. k.), v. Augment, form of 

isi-Cakacolo (s. k.), n. Any things, as kraals, 

fields, etc., standing numerously together 

on one place (not densely packed in one 

block = isi-Dhlavela). 
isi-Cakafu (s. k.), n. Any squat-bodied 

thing, as a pumpkin flattened on both 

sides, or a short broad-bottomed pot = 

Cakafula (s. k.) v. Walk slowly along, as 

an old or feeble person. 

Cakafula (Chakafula), v. Revile, abuse 
with offensive language = cikacika, ce- 
kaceka, ngcoza, xafuza. 

Cakalashela (s. k.), v. = calakashela. 

Cakalala, ukuti (ukuthi; s. k.), v. = ukuli 


u(lu), or i-nCakalala (s. k.), n. = i-mFitiWi ; 

also = i-mFene. 
Cakamisa (s. k.), v. (N) = cakatisa. 
Cakasha (s. k.), v. Collect or pick up small 

sticks (ace), scraps, for firewood. Cp. 


Cakata (Cakatha),v. — cakatisa. 

Cakatisa (Cakathisa), v. Do anything 
slightly, just a little, imperfectly, not 
thoroughly, as when pouring out a little 
water (ace.), grinding snuff roughly 
or in small quantity through want of 
time; do anything loosely, slackly, not 
firmly or tightly, as when fixing a reim 
or putting on a covering; do lightly, 
softly, gently i.e. carefully, not roughly, 
when carrying or washing a fragile 
-sel; be or get done slightly, loosely, 
etc., as the reim, covering, etc., above; 
be an imperfect, a 'loosely' ten i.e. be 
nine in number. Cp. cotoza. 

Ex. ngicakatisele loku, just take this loosely 
along for me - implying that there is do 
need of much care being taken; or, just 
carry this gently for me — implying care- 
fulness of handling (the sense would be 
Belf-evident from the particular object refer- 

66 CA 

xicakatisilc ixinkomo tika'Bani, So-and- 
so's cattle have not made up a full ishumi, 
they are about nine. 

Cakaza (s. k.), c. Scatter or throw dis- 
orderly about on all sides, as a fowl 
does when among spread-out grain (ace), 
or children the refuse of imfe, clothes, 
etc.; cut incisions abundantly in the body 
of a person (ace), 'slice him up' (= va- 
kaza; cp. zawula). 

Cakaza (Chakaza), v. Slit or notch at the 
edges, as men do strips of skin (ace) 
when making ornamental tails, or the 
edges of an assegai so as to make it 
catch into the flesh (= qopa); slit up or 
slice up, as one might a hide (ace) when 
slicing off a reim or slash for a whip 
(— chat/ a). 

i(li)-Cakazi (Chakazi), v. Young widow 
marrying a second husband = i(li)-Di- 
Jcazi. Cp. um-Felwakuzi. 

u, i(li), or ubu-Cakide (Chakide), />.. Weasel 
= u-Boshobana, u-Mbonjolo. 

P. ucakide uhlolile, imamba y'alukilr, the 
weasel is at ease, the matnba having gone 
out — might be applied to children enjoy- 
ing themselves when their parents are away 
= when the cat's away, the mice will play. 

puma, 'cakide! wadhliwa imamba! come 
out, weasel! or you will be eaten by the 
matnba = get out of his (your father's) 
sight before he comes, if you don't want to 
be walloped (as might be said as a warning 
to a child who has done wrong). 

um-Cako (s. k.), n. 5. White ochreous stone, 
found in some localities and used by 
the Natives for painting the body (dis- 
tinct from u(lu)-Daka olumhlope) ; hence, 
lime; certain tree, growing in the bush- 
country and whose red berries are used 
as an ornament. 

Cakula (s.k.),v. Draw, dip, as water or 
beer (ace) with the i-nDebc or gourd- 

um-Cakulo (s.k.),n.5. Small sized earthen 
pot, shaped like a pudding-basin or 
tin bowl, and used for eating from = 
um-Kele, tmi-Kambati, um-Shenyele. 

i-nCakusha (ft.k.), n. Certain bluish-coloured 

i(li)-Cala,w. Anything wrong, deserving com- 
plaint, in any kind of action or work ; 
hence, fault, defect; mistake, error; harm, 
injury; crime, offence against the law; 
guilt, guiltiness, as of the person, or his 
action ; law-case, trial, of any description 
as tried before a court; debt, whether 
owing to, or by, a person [Ar. ghala, 

CA 67 

Ex. kaku'cala, or kafcuna'cala, it's no 
matter, of no consequence. 

ttna'cala-ni? what's wrong with you? 

•iHciala rlikidu. he has a great crime (at- 
tached to him), he has great fault, great 

katcaba na'cakt,, he suffered no harm or 

angina'cxUa kuloko, I have no responsibi- 
lity for that. 

uye ecaleni, he has gone to a trial (before 
the chief or magistrate). 

uye 'kubasela amacal'ake k'oFaJeu, he has 
gone to agitate about his debts [.i.e. about 
payment of them) at Faku's. 

icala limlahlile, the case has thrown him 
away, /. e. he has lost the case. 

icala limtetite, the ease has relieved him 
of blame, i. p. he has got off. 

icala limvumele, the case has agreed with 
him, i. p. he has won the case. 

nkn-twala icala, to incur blame, become 
charged with wroug-doiug. 

uku-m-beka (wmuntu) icala lokweba, etc., 
to accuse him (any person) of stealing, etc. 

uku-li-beka kiiye icala lokweba, pic, to lay 
the blame or fault of the stealing, etc., on 

uku-m-nilca icala lokuti, to place upon 
him the responsibility for any thing 

i(li)-Cala (Caala), n. Edge, outside limit 
or extremity of anything of surface (cp. 
>t(1u)-Cilo, n(lu)-Ndi, u(lu)-Siko) ; side 
(relatively), of any surface, as a road 
(cp. u(lu)-Hlangoti) ; side, bank, shore, 
as of a river (cp. u(lu)-Gu, u(hi')-Sebe); 
adv. ecaleni kwa, beside, at the side of. 

Ex. uhk'-.i ecaleni kwendhlela, he stands 
beside or at the side of the path. 

baciteka ernacaleni onke, they scattered on 
all sides, in every direction. 

ungayi ngas'ecaleni, don't go off towards 
the side (/. e. keep straight forward). 

i(li)-Calaha (Chalaha), n. Male (i. e. uncas- 
trated) dog. 

Calakashela (s. k.), v. Do anything by a 
forced effort, even when without strength 
or heart, as w r hen trudging along to get 
to one's journey's end, though quite ex- 
hausted, or working when disinclined 
or against one's will, or when bearing 
up patiently under adverse circum- 
stances ; hence, force oneself to do an} r - 
thing overpowering or difficult = cata- 
mezela, candalasela, cinelela, eondo- 

Cama (Chama), v. Void or pass urine = 
tunda, gcabaza, shobinga. 

Cama cama, ukuti (Chama chama, uku- 

thi), v. = ukuti nekende. 
Camazeka (Chamazeka), v. = nekendeka. 


Camanga, v. (C. N.) = eabanga [Skr. man, 
think; malis, thought; Lat. mens, mind). 

um-Camango, u. 6. (C. N.) = um-Cabango. 

Camaza (Chamaza), v. - tamasa. 

Cambalala (Cambhalala), v. Recline, lie 
down for repose (not sleep = see lala) 
[Aug. lambalala; L. Cong, lavalala; 
Her. tamanana, lie stretched out]. 

um-Cambayiya (Cambhayiya), n. 6. Indo- 
lent person, always lying down or sleep- 

| Cambuka (Chambhuka), v. Have, or have 
made, a bole through; get opened or 
lanced, as below = camuka, qambuka. 

Cambusa (Chambhusa), v. Make a hole 
through anything (ace), as a plank, or 
child's ear (according to Native custom 
and when it is about seven or eight 
years of age = rrerra), or a calabash 
at the mouth; lance, open, as an abscess 
(ace.) ; be of full intellect, attained to full 
clearness of mind, i.e. not stupid or 
boorish, as a child growing out of its 
first years of infancy, Or a country-lad 
brightening up by contact with civili- 
sation (= rrerra). See camusa, qa- 

Phr. bati ongacambusile, isiputa; udhlela 
emkombeni wempaka, they say a person who 
has not pierced the ear is a lagger-behind. 
one not up to the mark in growth or in- 
tellect; he eats out of the trough of the 
wild-cat (has cut himself from his family 
and their ways and become wild'. 

Camela, v. Rest or lean the head on any- 
thing (with ku or loc), as upon a pillow. 
Cp. eyama [Her. yama, lean against; 
Sw. inama], 

isi-Camelo, n. Kafir head-rest, made of a 
log of wood with a leg at each end = 
isi-Gqiki; isi-Goco; cp. um-Bukv. 

um-Camo (Chamo), n. Urine; penis maris 
= um-Tondo. 

i(li)-Camu (Chamu),n. = i(li)-Ncanni. 

isi-Camu (Chamn),n. Hole, gap (C. N.). 

Camuka (Chamuka), v. Have a hole through, 
as below ; get opened or lanced, as an 
abscess (■= cambuka); break out in open 
sores, as a person's body (= cuceka, 
cp. badhluka). 

Camusa (Chamusa),v. Make a bole through 
anything, as a plank (ace), child's ear, 
or garment; open, lance, as an abscess 
(ace.) = cambusa, qambusa. 

Camusela (Chamusela), v. Hatch, as a hen 
(by breaking a hole in the eggs for the 
chicks to come out). 

i(li)-Canca (Chanca), n. i(/i)-Ca/>cala. 





i(li)-Cancala (Chancala), n. A flooding, as 
of any spot with water after heavy rain ; 
hence* puddle, pool, as might be formed 
on a road after rain ; plur. ama-Cancala, 
multitude of pools, general inundation, 
swamping, flood, as might be here and 
there about a partially submerged field 
(= ama-Ta)itala); great abundance of 
u-tshwala, 'floods' of it (= ama-Damu, 
ama-Bcika). Cp. i(li)-Baka, isi-Bakabaka. 
Ex. wuLalaxi seuul'icancala, the Umla- 
lazi is now in flood, a broad expanse of, 

intsimu ka'Ngoxa is'ing'amacancala, Ngo- 
za's field is now flooded, covered with pools, 

Canda, v. Cleave, split, 'chop', as a log of 
wood (ace.) into lengths of firewood = 
ba?ida [Lat. ccedo, I cut; Sw. chanja, 
chop; Her. penda, split]. 

Candabezela, v. = calakashela. 

Candalasela, v. = calakashela. 

Candula,v. Make new or fresh again, as 
a smith an old hoe (ace.) by working it 
up anew. 

Canduleka (s. k.), v. Come out afresh, grow 
up again, come out 'young' again, as 
new grass coming up after a grass-fire, 
or foliage re-appearing on the trees in 
spring; become young again (jocularly), 
as an old person regaining vigour (used 
in perf.). 

um-Cane (Chane), n. 5. Meat of an ema- 
ciated beast that has died of disease ; also 
applied contemptuously to any thin, 
sorry animal purposely slaughtered. 
Cp. i-nGcuba. 

Caneka (Chaneka), v. = ctvaneka. 

i(li)-Cangcala ( Chang cala),n. = i(li)-Ca- 

Canguza (Changuza), v. Dance as girls, at 
certain ceremonies or festivals connected 
with their sex, as at the ukw-omula, 
and at a wedding (in this latter case it 
is applied solely to the bride or to the 
bride's party collectively and inclusive 
of males, but not to the girls of the i(li)- 
Keto or bridegroom's party). Cp. gca- 
gca; keta; sina. 

Canguzisa (Changuzisa), v. Help a girl 
(ace.) to dance, i. e. attend her dancing 
ceremony, wedding, etc., as a member 
of her party. 

um-Canguzo (Changuzo), n. 5. = um-Gca- 

Cantsa (Chanted), v. Lay out, spread or 
"pen out, as a garment or mealies to 
dry ; divulge, expose publicly, as a secret 

affair = eneka [Sw. tanda, spread out; 

Her. vanda, spread over]. 
i(li), or u(lu)-Cantsi (plur. only ama), n. 

Sleeping-mat = u(lu)-Kuko. Cp. i-nKe- 

ta; isi-Hlandhla; i(li)-Nxadi. 
Cantsisa (Chantsisa), v. Help or cause a 

person to lay out anything (doub. ace.) ; 

unfold, unravel, explain, lay out clearly 

any difficult matter or problem (ace.) = 


Cantsisela (Chantsisela), v. Unfold, un- 
ravel, or explain a matter (ace., or ku, 
or nga) to or for a person (ace.) — ka- 

isi-Canucanu, n. Any rich, luscious food 
that quickly causes surfeit or disgust; 
any food or medicine of a nauseating 
nature, liable to turn the stomach, as 
castor-oil or cold soup ; person or thing 
of disgusting habits or appearance; 
person of a squeamish nature, easily 
disgusted = isi-Fehlefehle, isi-Casucasu. 

Canuka (s. k.), v. Get sickened or turned 
as to the stomach (i-tiTliziyo) by anj' 
luscious food, nauseating medicine, or 
disgusting sight = casuka. 

Canula, v. Turn the stomach (i-nTliziyo), 
as luscious food, nauseating medicine, 
or disgusting sight = casula, canuzela; 
cp. swica. 

Ex. kuyangicanida intliziyo loku'kudhla, 
this food turns my stomach. 

isi-Canulo, n. = isi-Canncanu. 

Canuzela, v. = canula. 

Capa, ukuti (Chdpha, itkuthi), v. Drop, i. e. 
make fall drop-wise, spill in drops, as 
a person water (ace), mud, etc.; drop 
juice, as a palm-tree when cut = capaza; 
drop or dot a thing about with some- 
thing of a liquid nature, as a table (ace.) 
with lumps of porridge (with nga), or 
a floor with drops of ink = capazela; 
get dropped about or spilt in drops, as 
water, porridge, etc. = capazeka. 

Ex. itafula baliti capa capa tjoitke indawo 
iigomuti, they dropped or dotted the table 
all over with ink. 

Capa (Chapha), v. Supple or soften a skin 
(ace.) by smearing it or rubbing it in 
with amasi, milk, cowdung, etc. [Sw. 
paka, smear]. 

Phr. uku-capa umuntu iiyvntlamba, to 
smear a person with abuse, rub it well in- 
to him (used chiefly by women). 

i-nCapa (Chapha), n. Soft kind of grass, 
used for putting under girls menstru- 
ating for the first time (C. N.). 

ama-Capacapa (Chaphachapha), n. Spots, 


dots, blots, and the like, 'dropped' or 
scattered about over anything. 

Capasha, ukuti (C/tdphasha, ukuthi), v. 
Emerge or come up out of the water 
on to the other side, as a person when 
fording a river = ukuti capashi, ukuti 

Capashi, ukuti (Chdphashi, ukuthi), v. == 
ukuti capasha. 

Capashiya, ukuti (Chdpashiya, ukuthi), v. 
= ukuti capasha. 

i(li)-Capazelo (Chaphazelo), n. Drop, as 
sprinkled or spilled anywhere; separate 
drop of loose rain, such as falls sparsely 
at the commencement of a storm. 

Phr. uku-dhliwa amacapaxelo, to be eaten 
by the drops falling about, i. e. to be struck 
or injured by a stray shot or chance blow 
intended for someone else — as might occur 
to a spectator at a fight. 

i-nCape (Chaphe), n. = is-Ancape. 

Capeka (Chaphcka), v. Get suppled, as 
above — see capa; be well suppled 
(figuratively), i. e. of quick perception, 
readily grasping, sharp intellectually, as 
a boy; to have feeling, sympathy, good 
nature, in one's heart (used in perf.). 

um-Capo (Chapho), n. 5. Any material 
used for suppling a skin, as amasi, 
milk, cowdung, etc. 

Capuna (Cap h una), v. Take out a small 
quantity of anything solid with the hand, 
scoop, dish, etc., from a larger quantity, 
as when taking out a dishful of mealies 
(ace.) from a sack (not of liquids = ca- 
kula). Cp. cosula; zacula. 

Casa, v. Smash, break up into bits, as a 
stone (ace.) or any hard body ; eat amasi 
'raw' i. e. unmixed with crushed mealies; 
eat or harvest Kafir-corn still green; 
also = cwasa [Ar. kasar, break; Ga. 
asa, crush ; Sw. saga, grind ; pasua, 

Phr. uku-xi-casa, to throw oneself about 
on the ground in a rage, as a child. 

Casha, v. Hide oneself, as behind a thing, 

in the grass, or as a person concealing 

himself from his creditors or the police 

,- (used in perf.) = baca; also (C. N.) = 


Phr. ukn-casha ngaye, to hide or screen 
oneself by means of him, i. e. casting the 
blame on him. 

i(li), or isi-Casha, n. Spot, as on a leopard's 
skin, a pig, dress, or person's body — 
in plur. ama-Cashacasha; (C.N.) certain 
poisonous ground-spider (cp. u-No?na- 
gende). [Sw. ncha, a point]. 

isi-Cashakazana (s. k.), n. Certain small 

69 CA 

salamander, superstitiously regarded as 
the i-Dhlozi of some old woman, and 
which is carefully avoided, if it should 
enter a hut, lest it fall down and get 
killed, whereupon evil might be expected 
= is-Alukazi, isi-Catakazana, isi-Ca- 

Cashalala, ukuti (ukuthi), v. Squat down 
on the ground with the body bent lying 
over the knees — a freq. posture with 
old women ; listen slyly, as when placing 
one's ear to the door in order to hear 
what is going on inside = ukuti catalala. 

Cashalala, v. = ukuti cashalala. 

isi-Cashalala, n. = isi-Cashakazana. 

i(li), or isi-Cashana, n. Very small spot, 
speck, dot — dim. of i(li)-Casha. 

Casisa or Casisela, v. Break up or explain 
an affair (ace), word, etc., for a person 
(doub. ace). Cp. cacisela; hlazulula; 

isi-Casucasu, n. = isi-Canucanu. 

Casuka (s. k.), v. = canuka. 

Casula, v. = canula. 

Cata (Chatha), v. Inject an enema to a 
person (ace.) = ta, pots ha, boja. 

Phr. hade sixdeata ngotshwala, we've been 
just pouring in the beer, drinking largely. 

isi-Catakazana (Cathakazana), n. = isi- 

Catalala, ukuti (Cdthalala, ukuthi), v. = 
ukuti cashalala. 

Catamezela (Cathamezela), v. = calaka- 
shela; also rarely cacamezela. 

Cataza (Chathaza), v. Pour out some, not 
the whole, of what is in a vessel, as 
water (ace), amasi, or snuff = cateka. 
Cp. bijelezela. 

Cateka (Chatheka), v. = cataza. 

Catekela (Chathekela), v. (C.N.) = qa- 

isi-Cato (Chatho), n. Any medicine used 

as an enema; large quantity of beer, as 

at a large beer-drink. 

Catu, ukuti {Cdthu, ukuthi), t>. = catula. 

um-Catu (Cathu), n. 5. (C.N.) = i-nGcatu. 

Phr. umcatu kn , Boviniga7ia, the slow pace 

of Bovungana — a former chief who required 

his girls to walk slowly to and from the 

river, in order not to break their pots (C.X.i. 

Catula (Cathula), v. Walk very slowly, 
scarcely moving the feet, just crawling 
along, as an infant just learning to 
toddle, or a very sick person scarcely 
able to use his feet = ukwenza 

Ex. uku-catidisa ingane, to cause an in- 




rant to toddle, '■''■ teach it to walk. Cp. 

isi-Catulo (Cathulo), n. Boot, shoe (Mod.). 

Caya, /•. gcaya. 

Caya (Chaya), v. Spread out, lay out, 
whether flat on the ground, as mealies 
(ace) or clothes to dry, or banging up 
on a wall or string, as an i-beshu or 
blanket (= eneka); separate into small 
strips or shreds, as when pulling fibre 
(ace) into its component threads or a 
palm-leaf into strips, (— rraya); slice 
up. as a skin (ace) into strips, a pump- 
kin into slices, or the body by numerous 
incisions (= rraya, cakaza, caza) [Cong* 
kaya, divide]. 

ubu-Cayi, n. State of annoying incon- 
venience, an inconvenient position, an 
unpleasant fix. 

Ex. ngis'ebucayini la pa, ngilondel'umuntu 
ogulayo, I am awkwardly placed here, 
having to look after the kraal for one who 
is sick. 

in<; ijHitu Icahle ixitsha lexo tabehmyu, u- 
yafa; iibucayi lobu, you must hold carefully 
those vessels of the white-people, they break 
[easily); a troublesome, awkward matter that 
I /. i . those vessels). 

isi-Cayo, )/. Wicker-tray, for carrying 
meat (cp. u(lu)-Gqoko)', sometimes used 
for is-Adhla. 

um-Cayo (Chayo), n. 5. Single thread, as 
of separated fibre (a number of which 
when rolled together make the i-ntambo 
or string for sewing and weaving pur- 
poses); single small strip or shred, as 
of a palm-leaf. 

Caza, v. Separate or divide anything into 
parts or portions, as an orange (ace.) 
when distributing it among several, beer 
among one's wives, or any matter, when 
making it clear by separating distinctly 
its different facts, etc. = cazulula, co- 

Ex. eaxela, wetu! give us a bit. comrade! 

common request of one boy to another 

Caza (Chaza),v. Make incisions in the 
-kin of a person (ace.) for rubbing in 
medicine (= zaula, gcaba); also some- 
times used for caza. 

Cazulula, /•. caza. 

i(li)-Ce (Che),n. Habitual good fortune, 
success, prosperity, as of a young-man in 
regard to girls (i.e. lezintombi), cattle 
(i-cr lezinkomo), or any matter of 
business (not a casual stroke of fortune 
<>r bit of good luck = i-nTTahla). See 

u(lu)-Ce (Che. plur. i-uGce),n. Dribble 
or tenacious spittle of an infant, which 
hangs from its mouth (cp. bibidhla) ; 
kind of very fine, brightly green river- 
grass, having soft hair-like blades (== 

Ceba, v. Inform against a person (ace.) 
to his superiors (with ku or loc.), accuse 
behind one's back (= klala, humusha, 
kelenga) ; devise, contrive, invent, as a 
plan (i-cebo), means for doing anything, 
lies, etc. (= qamba). Cp. songoza; rra- 

Ceba (Ceeba), v. Be rich, well-off (used,., 
in perf.); (N) be in good condition, as 
an ox (used in perf. — kulupala). Cp. 
nota; zaleka. 

i(li)-Ceba, n. Upper part of the shoulders, 
between the shoulder-blades (C.N.). 

Cebebe, ukuti (ukuthi), v. = ukuti caba. 

Cebedisa, />. Seek to win favour by fine pre- 
tending appearances, put on fine plausi- 
ble ways in order to win favour, as when 
a man, wishing to be given a share at 
a meat feast, makes himself osten- 
tatiously helpful to the one in charge 
(with ku and ela form), or a young-man 
seeking to regain the good-will of his 
father, with whom he has fallen out, by 
adopting towards him a manner of unu- 
sual submissiveness, or a person seek- 
ing by his pleasing manners to get him- 
self liked by the chief; let the vulva 
hang loosely, i. e. be about to calve, as 
a cow = cebeza. Cp. ncenyelezela. 

Ex. vlui-xi-cebedisela enkosin/i, to curry 
favour, make oneself liked with the chief. 

inkotnaxi is'icebedisa, the cow is now 
wauting to calve (perhaps in a few hours). 

mus'ukucebedisa ngesandhla, don't be seek- 
ing to make the thing look favourable with 
you hand — as a seller when spreading out 
his grain broadly in the basket so as to 
make it appear much. 
Cebekazi, ukuti (ukuthi; s. k.), v. — ukuti 

Cebelele, ukuti (ukuthi), v. — ukuti caba. 
i-nCebelezela, n. (N) = u(lu)-Titi. 

Cebengela, v. Patch up any old worn-out 
thing, hold it together by patching, as 
an old garment (ace), hut, etc.; patch up, 
make the best out of a bad case, as an 
advocate urging all manner of specious 
excuses, etc., for his client, or a man for 
his friend at a Native trial — ciciyela. 

Cebeza or Cebecebeza, v. = cebedisa. 

i(li)-Cebo, n. Plan, device, stratagem, for 
doing anything (cp. i(li)-Stt, i(Il)-Songo- 
zo)\ plur. ama-Cebo, fabrications, 


r CMh-v 

-S&l i 


deceits, deceptive tricks, plans to de- 
ceive or mislead, lies. 

Ex. umuntu onamacebo, a deceitful, false 
person, in talk or dealings. 

i(li)-Cece, v. Anything 'dear' to one's 
heart, as a prized article, or one's 'darling' 
or sweetheart (— i(li)-Lece, i(ll)-Gugu) ; 
a meeting together of sweethearts, as 
in the bush or home of the young-man, 
where beer is generally provided ; beer 
surreptitiously prepared or carried by 
a girl to the meeting-place with her 
sweetheart and his companions, ge- 
nerally in some secluded spot away from 
the parental kraal, also as refreshment 
for him when attending some wedding- 
dance (cp. um-Njonjo) ; (N.) wedding 
or wedding-dance (= nm-Gcagco, wn- 

Ex. bas'ececem', they are at the lover's- 
party (whether in a hut or away in the 

isi-Cecelegwana, n. = isi-Xexelegwana. 
u(lu)-Cecevana, n. Small, thin, light sheet, 

or slice, as of paper, bread, or tin = 

u(ltt)- Cwecwana. 

u(lu)-Cecevu, n. Large thin, light sheet, 
as of zinc, tin, or brown-paper = u(lu)- 

Cecezela, v. Show affection or loving 
attention towards a person (ace. with 
el a form), as a girl when welcoming a 
dear friend in her home. 

Cefeza (Chefeza), v. Squash, crush, any- 
thing soft, like a boiled pea (ace.) be- 
tween the fingers, soft grains on an un- 
ripe mealie-cob when rubbing off the 
grains in shelling, or as young bees 
eaten in a honey-comb. 

i(li), or more gen. ama-Cefeza (Chefeza), n. 

Anything of a soft, readily 'squashable' 

nature, as above. 
isi-Cegu (Cheyu), n. — isi-Nqawana. 

Ceka (s. k.), v. Cut off prematurely, i. e. cut 
firewood while still green and leaving 
it in the bush for future use ; cut down 
or harvest grain-crops before ripe, as in 
order to save from the locusts ; destroy 
growing crops, as an invading army ; 
slaughter away .everything, without 
regard to age, sex, etc., as a blood- 
thirsty invader or chief (oft. in reduplic. 
form ceka ceka). 

Phr. uklffa LucL'ka ifumuka nesitshodu, 
death finishes off' the new beer and the 
stale = old and young alike. 

irikosi ieeke ikaba, the chief has cut down 
the young green crops, i.e. has put to death 
the young people. 

71 CE 

i(li)-Ceke (s. k.), //. Hat, open country 

(treeless or with trees) = elama-Ceke, ^ 

i(U)-Denge. Cp. i(li)-Gcek<>. 
isi-Ceke fs. k.), n. = isi-Cete. 
um-Cekeceke (Chekechekc), n. 5. An ibuto 

of girls formed by Shaka after the 


Cekefula (s. k.), v. Repeat continually the 
one thing, as a person going over 
a piece of work (ace.) several times in 
order to make it perfect (not doing it 
once and having done), a woman persis- 
tently reiterating an old grievance, or a 
man constantly repeating the same old 
story or joke. 

um-Cekelele (Chekelele), n. 5. Stick or 
sticks bound on to the outside frame- 
work of a hut when building for stand- 
ing or mounting on. See isi-Baxa. 

um-Cekezo (s. k.), n. 5. (C.N.) — ama-Tele. 

um-Ceko (s. k.), n. 5. Firewood cut green 
and left to dry in the bush ; nice, pretty, 
'fresh-looking' young-person, male or 
female (= i-mBali). 

i-nCeku (s.k.),n. Certain official in a chief's 
kraal, whose duty it is to look after 
the food ; butler, steward. Cp. i-nDuna. 

ubu-nCeku (s. k.), n. Position of, office 
discharged by, the above. 

Cekula (s. k.), v. Make thin, do thinly, as 
wdien making pottery (ace.) and laying 
on very little clay (ace), or a basket 
when stuffing into the body too little 
grass, or a hut when covering it with 
only a slight thatch. Cp. lambisa. 

Cela, v. Ask for a thing (ace.) of any 
person (with ku), beg, request; nearly 
reach to, as to any place (with loc); be 
very nearly as big as, as tall as, as 
many as, as one child with another 
(with ku), or one person's cattle with 
those of another. 

Ex. wacela incwadi enkosini, lie requested 
a letter of the chief, or he asked the chief 
for a letter. 

ixwe lika'Dinuxulu lacela emRlatiue, Di- 
nuznlu's territory very nearly reached to the 

ihlosa licela edondini, the ihlosa variety 
of imfe is very nearly as tall as the idowh 

P. soyicefivutiwe, we shall ask for it ithe 
inyama) when it is cooked, i.e. we'll Dot 
talk about it in the present state, we'll con- 
sider it when it has come to a head. 
Cela (Chela), v. Sprinkle, as snuff (ace.) 
or a plant, with water (with nga), or an 
army or kraal with medicinal charms; 
carry or spread reports or tales (ace.) 
all a'bout the country. 


isi-Celankobe (s. k.), n. Certain tree, grow- 
ing in the bush-veldt; certain small bird 
with long bill; bead fringe hanging from 
tlic hair over the forehead; evening- 
star, Venus (cp. i(li)-Kwezi). 

Cele, adv. = ntlanye. 

i(li)-Cele, ,i. i(li)-Cala. 

at the side of the 

Ex. ecelt <>i kwomgwaqo, . 

i-nCele, //. Loose flesh at the hinder part 
of the upper-leg just below the buttocks. 
Cp. i(li)-Tsweba; i-nQulu. 

Ex. angacuta na'ncele, I didn't move, not- 
even my thigh-flesh, i. e. I wasn't in the 
least afraid = angatidumela na'ncele. 

ttku-lilala ngencele, to recline on one's side 
= uku-hlala »;/ei>qttl>t. 

uku-lala ngencele, to lie almost down, rest- 
ing on the thigh — the 'court' manner 
of approaching the Zulu king, creeping along 
in this position towards him. 

i-nCelebana, n. A favourite, as with one's 
chief or father; (N) navel-cord, of a 
new-born infant (= i-nGalati; i-nKaba; 
cp. um-Zanyana). 

isi-Celegu (Chelegu), n. Small bird with 
white spots (C. N.). Cp. isi-Nqawana. 

isi-Celegwana (Ghelegwana), n. Small 
brown bird with wliite tail (C. N.). 

Celekeshe, ukuti (ukuthi; s. k.), v. = ukuti 

isi, or um-Celekeshe (s.k.),n.o. Certain 
bird frequented new grass f= um-Ngce- 
lu); love-charm manufactured by young- 
men from same. 

u-Celemba (Celembha), n. Native chopping- 
knife; hence, cane-knife, bush-knife; long 
flowing beard, of about six inches, such 
as are common among the Dutch (cp. 

isi-Celu, ft. Sunshine, or place whereon 
the sun shines (as distinct from shade) 
= isi-Gcaki, isi-Tangamu. 

Ex. asihlalt esieelwini, let us >it in the 
-mi or sunshine. 

u(lu)-Celu, n. Broad, shallow i(li)-Qoma. 
Cp. i-itCcengce. 

i-nCema, ». Long rush, growing in swamps 
about the coast, and making the best 
kind of sleeping-mats; long waving 
beard (= UrCelemba). See i-nKeta. 

isi-Ceme (Cheme), n. Line of persons 
(whether only three or four, or very 
many) standing together and facing the 
me way (not one behind the other = 
i(li)-Hele; u(lu)-Qitolo) ; inuzzleormouth- 
band for <'alv<-s, armed with a row of 
thorns to prevent their sucking the cow 
(cp. UirMfonyo). 

72 CE 

Ceme ceme, ukuti (Cheme cheme, ukuthi), 

v. — ukuti nekende. 
Cemezeka (Chemezeka), v. = nekendeka. 

i(li)-Cena, n. Small kind of aloe (Aloe sa- 
ponaria), whose leaves are used for 
raising the hair on hides. Cp. am-Hlaba. 

isi-Cenene (Chenene),n. Involuntary drib- 
bling out or passing of urine, as from 

Cengebezela, v. = ncengelezela. 

i-nCengela or Cengelana, n. Protuberance 
at the lower part of the occipital bone 
at the back of the head = u-Mantshasa; 
cp. isi-Pmidu. 

isi-Cengeza, n. Beast with horns broadly 
spread out basin-fashion. 

um, or u(lu)-Cengezi,w. o. Broad, shallow, 
flat-bottomed earthen basin or bowl, for 
washing the hands in (cp. um-Qengele); 
horns of an ox when spread broadly 
out and round like a basin; such ox 

Centa (s. t.), v. Clear the grass off the top 
of the ground by chopping it off with a 
hoe, as when clearing a space (ace.) of 
weeds (ace.) ; scrape, as a medicinal root. 

i(li)-Cenyane (Chenyane), n. An ibuto of 
girls formed by Dingane and following- 
next after the i-nTlabati. 

isi-Cepu (Cephu), n. Small sitting-mat. 
Cp. isi-Tebe. 

isi-Cete (Cethe), n. Contents of a vessel 
when just covering the bottom, or any- 
thing up to a small quarter full — isi- 
Ceke. Cp. isi-Kope; isi-Qentu. 

Cete cete, ukuti (Cethe cethe, ukuthi), v. = 

Ceteza (Cetheza), v. Gossip lies, false 
tales, etc. 

Cetula (Cethula), v. = ctvetula. 

i(li)-Cevucevana, n. Persistent gossip, one 
who can't restrain the tongue. 

Cevuza, v. Talk away, or gossip, inces- 
santly or without restraint. 

Ceza, v. Chip or strike off, as a piece 
(ace.) from a stone or log of wood; fly 
off, get struck or chipped off, as such 
a piece from the block (= cezuka); go off 
away from a place (loc), as a person 
crossing the veldt from the high-road 
(= cezuka); make go off at a tangent, 
take off or away, as a bye-path might 
a person (ace.) when leading him out of 
his course. 

Ex. ngaceza kiva'fidabamH, I went off 
away (out of niy course) at Xdabambi's 

kucezile kwa' Ndabambi, it is off away (out 
of my coursei, is Xdabambi's kraal. 


indhlela ycmgicexa emLalaxi, the path 
led me away (from the main-road) at the 

Ceze, ukuti (ukuthi), v. — ceza; dodge 
about, fly sharply off away, as a child 
dodging another,' or behind anything 
(with nga); dodge aside, dodge away, 
as from a missile flung at one = cezeza, 
ukuti pelu. 

Cezeza or Cezezela, v. = ukuti ceze. 

Cezu, ukuti (ukuthi), v. — cezuka; cezula. 

u(lu)-Cezu, n. Bit, chip, fragment, broken, 
knocked, or cut off from the block, as 
f a chip of wood or stone ; hence, piece, 
portion (generally) of any solid, as a 
crust of bread broken from a loaf, a 
slice of meat cut off from the lump; 
sometimes used for 'wedge' (from wood- 
chips gen. being of this shape). 

Phr. uku-faka 'luceui, to insert or intro- 
duce edgewise, sideways, as one might a 
door (ace.) or bedstead through a narrow 

ama-Cezucezu (Chezuchezu), n. Place where 
many roads or side-paths branch off. 

Cezuka (s. k.), v. Get broken, knocked, or 
cut off from the block, as a chip of wood 
or stone = qezuka. Cp. hlezuka; hle- 
puka; qepuka. 

Cezuka (Chezuka), v. Turn off, go off and 
away, as a bye-path from a main-road, 
or as a person going off by such a path 
out of his course = qhezuka. 

Cezu la, v. Break, strike, or cut off from 
the block, as a chip (ace.) from a log or 
stone, or a crust from a loaf of bread 
= ceza, qezula. Cp. hlezula; hlepula; 

Cezula (Chezula), v. Make turn or go off 
or away, as above — see chezuka. 

Ci, ukuti {Chi, ukuthi — gen. with pro- 
longation of the vowel), v. Be soaking 
wet, running with water, as a wet gar- 
ment or green firewood. 

Ex. ixulu liloku life ci, the heavens are 
continuously running with water, i. e. it keeps 
on raining. 

Ci, ukuti (Chi, ukuthi), v. Do, or get done, 
in a 'scattered' manner, about in all di- 
rections, on all sides == ukuti mibi, 
ukuti hlangu hlangu, ukuti citi. 

Ex. babalrku, bati ci, they ran off in all 

wahlakanipa, wati ci, he was clever ;ill 
round, in every way, outright. 
i(li)Ci (Chi), n. That part of a kraal be- 
tween the outer fence and the inner 
cattle-fold surrounding any particular 
hut and considered private to that hut; 

73 CI 

combination formed against a person 
for excluding him from their company, 
etc. (= u(lu)-Tilciti); any concerted plan 
mutually arranged among a number <>!' 

Ex. utata ixinkuni, akusilo ici lakirumi, 
t/ini, lap//' you are taking firewood, is it 
not my private part of the kraal here? 

Phr. uku-m-alcela (umuntu) ici, to form 
a concert against a person, as a number of 
children associating against another, excluding 
him from their society, etc. 

isi-Ci, u. Thing, in a general, abstract 
sense, as perceived by the mind; hence, 
that which happens, causes, exists, etc.; 
event; matter; peculiarity, particular 
mark, seen by the mind. Cp. um-Hlola; 
isi- Yiko. 

Ex. isici sini? what is it'.' what is the 
matter (gen. something serious)? 

kitya ngesici esitile, there is some parti- 
cular thing which causes it. 

kako'm/tntti/ ongena'sici, there is no man 
that hasn't something (peculiar or defective 
about him). 

Ciba, v. Fling an assegai (ace.) holding it 
poised by the middle (cp. jijimeza) ; take 
a long drink, going deep dow r n into the 
pot, as of beer (ace.) - - see um-Cibo. 

i-nCiba, n. (C.N.) = um-Ncwado. 

Cibalala, v. Fly along 'like a shot', as one 
running from some danger, or even 
walking along at a tremendous pace = 

CVbi, ukuti (ukuthi), v. = cibiza. 

u-Cibi (Chibi), n. Immense multitude, as 
of people or cattle on one spot = u-Bi- 
ntsi. Cp. u(lu)-Bindi. 

i(li)-Cibi (Chibi), n. Pond, considerable 
accumulation of standing water on the 
veldt (= i(li)-Damu) ; also sometimes 
used for isi-Cibi. 

isi-Cibi (Chibi), n. Puddle, small pool of 
water, as on a roadway after rain, or at 
the bottom of a cooking-pot; a cut piece 
of dressed hide, of which a number 
sewn together form a woman's iai-dwa- 
ba; hence gen., piece or patch, of cloth, 
etc. (= isi-Ziba); penis-covering made 
of soft skin, worn by men in Zululand 
up to Dingane's time (cp. um-Ncwado). 
Ex. angibanga ngisafvnyanisa na'sicibi 
enkotsheni; tishile, I didn't just find even 
a drop of water in the mealies ; they are 

Cibikeza (s.k.),v. = cifiza. 
isi-Cibilili, n. Brownish bird, with red 
beak, living in the woods. 


CI 74 

um-Cibilindi, //. 5. Any nauseatingly in- 
sipid, thiekish liquid, as stagnant veldt- 
water, 'dish-water' tea, warm stale hoer. 
Cp. i-Ncikinciki; i^Ncibineibi. 

Cibishela, v. Shoot an arrow <('. X.). 

um-Cibishelo, />. 5. (C.N.) = tnu-( Hbisholo. 

Cibishi, int. Cry uttered when a thrown 
stick has struck the mark (C.N.)- 

isi-Cibishi, n. Practice by boys of throw- 
ing sticks at another stuck up in the 
-round (C.N.). 

um-Cibisholo, it. 5. Arrow. Cp. u(lu)-Gwi- 
bisholo. [Ak. Mon. scba, bow]. 

Cibiza, v. cifiza. 

i(li)-Cibiza, n. Slush, or soft semi-liquid 
filth of any kind, as soft vegetable matter 
covering a river-stone, a lump of por- 
ridge or cowdung on a floor. 

i(li)-Cibo, ». Certain tree, growing in the 

um-Cibo, n. 5. Long drink, as of beer, 
going down 'deeply' into the pot. See 

Ex. tmomcibo, he is a long-drinker the 
will finish it half off at a drink). 

Cica (Chicha), v. Let ooze tricklingly out, 
let run out in an oozing trickling fashion, 
as a cracked vessel the liquid (ace.) it 
contains, or an ulcer matter; ooze trick- 
lingly out, run out in an oozing, trick- 
ling fashion, as the water from a cracked 
vessel, or matter from an ulcer, = 
cuea; cp. cinineka; vuza. [Her. ziza, 

i(li)-Cici, //. Ring worn in the ear, ear-ring 
(X. t'r. Xo). 

Cicibala, v. Come down upon a thing (ace.) 
overpoweringly, as when dealing an 
animal a vehement death-dealing blow, 
<>] a man ravishing a girl. 

Cicima (Chichima), v. Flow over, as water 
at the top of a pot in which it is boiling, 
or over the banks of a river = pujm- 
ma, hlihlima [Ga. bimba, boil over]. 

Ciciyela, v. = cebengela. 

Ciciza, v. = cucuza. 

Cicizela, v. Look with eyes watering or 
running, as one whose eyes are diseased 
and cannot bear the light, or when over- 
powered by smoke. 

i(li)-Cide (Chide), n. One-eyed person or 
animal, i.e. with only one eye-ball (not 
properly when both eye-balls remain, 
though one is blind). Cp. i(li)-Tobana. 

Cifi, ukuti (Chifi, ukuthi), />. = cifiza, ukuti 

Cifika (Chifika), v. 

below cifizeka 

Gel so squashed, as 


Cifikeza (Chifikeza), i\ = cifiza. 

Cifiza (Chifiza), v. Squash anything of a 
slushy, pulpy nature, or that can be 
crushed to pulp, as when treading on a 
lump of porridge (ace), a worm, or 
(metaphor.) when dealing a man (ace.) 
a blow that will knock his head to pulp 
= cibiza, cibikeza, cifikeza, .cifiza, fi- 
hliza. Cp. sicila. 

isi -Cifiza (Chifiza), n. Flat, broad nose, as 
though squashed (more commonly isi- 
Gcifiza) — isi-Gcimiza. Cp. isi-Habuza. 

Cija, v. Point, sharpen at the end, as a 
stake (ace.) or pencil; be pointed, have 
a sharpened end, as a stake or pencil 
(used in perf.); sharpen, make keen a 
person (ace.) by inciting words, as when 
urging him on to fight, etc. [Skr. co, 
sharpen; Sw. ncha, point; Ga. ogi, sharp; 
kv-ja, to sharpen]. 

um-Cijo, n. 5. = u(hi)-Kandetnpemvu. 

u(lu)-Cijo, n. Any stick, stake, iron, etc., 
sharply pointed at the end. Cp. u(ht)- 

um-Cijwane, n. 5. Card of the 'diamond' 
suit in playing-cards (Mod.). Cp. u-Ma- 

C'kacika (s.k.), v. Do with much vigorous 
effort, spirited movement, intensity of 
action, as when stabbing a beast (ace.) 
then stirring the assegai vigorously 
about internally, or a dog angrily tear- 
ing about with the mouth some small 
animal, or a man wrestling with some 
difficulty or sickness that bids to get 
the better of him, or a woman 'pitching 
into another properly ' with abuse. 

Cikacika (Ch'ikachika), v. = cikacika above. 

Cikaza (s. k.), v. = cikacika. 

Cikazisa (s. k.), v. Cause one (ace.) to 
wrestle away at some difficulty that 
threatens to overcome him, as by ob- 
structing him, confusing him, etc. 

Ciki, ukuti (ukuthi; s.k.), v. Be filled comple- 
tely, to the brim, as a bucket with water, 
or the water itself (= ukuti gewa, swi, 
nqata); be fully rigged out, as a Native 
dressed up in all his trappings. 

Cikica (s. k.), v. Rub the eye or ear (ace), 
as a child when rising from sleep, or 
when something is tingling in the ear. 

u-Cikicane (s.k.),n. Little finger (cp. isi- 
Titpa; umu-Nive); smallest toe (cp. u-Qu- 
kirfu; i(li)-Zwant) [At. cigidi, small]. 

N.B. A common game with Native chil- 
dren is to count the fingers of both hands, 
calling each finger, beginning with the little 
finger of the left hand, by its proper name, 
thus: I. uCikieane lo; 2. owawodki lo; 

CI 75 

;{. QwawoZigwe lo; l. uZigwemagwegtee l.<>: I 
5. uOwegwe anqumn h; • >. nMutcane lo; 
7. owaicoNtamo-usomayidi lo ; 8. uGidamnsi 
lo; 9. oicakwa' Maqatiitela l<>: l". uSoxidi- 
njane la. 

i(li)-Cikidwane f.v. /-J, //. = i(li)-Cukudwane. 

i-nCi'kinciki (s.k.),v. see i-Ntikhiciki. 

Cikoza (s.k.),v. Work the head backwards 

and forwards from the neck, as a duck 
does when walking, a young-man when 
dancing affectatiously, a man when cros- 
sing a full river witli a jerking move- 
ment, or when riding on a horse = gi- 
ntshoza, jingoza. 

Cilikisha (s. k.), r. Ho very nicely, finely, 
dexterously, any work (ace.), as a mat, 
beadwork, etc. (= nomfiya, cola); also 
= cikacika. 

Cilikisha (Chilikisha), v. = cilikisha above. 

u(lu)-Cilikishane (Chilikishane), ». Any 
nicely-done little piece of work, as a nice 
little' hut, neatly made mat, etc 

Cilikishi, ukuti (ukuthi; s. k.), v. = ukuti 

i(li), more gen. ama-Cilikwane, n. Crafty, 
fabricated talk intended to deceive. 

Ex. adimde angibumbele amacilikwane, he 
just concocts for me deceptive stories. 

Cilileka (Chilileka), v. = tipaieka. 

Ciliza (Chiliza), >'. Motion away, as a per- 
son (ace.) with the hand; push slightly 
out of the way with the foot or back of 
the hand. Cp. kapeza; sunduza. 

u-CTIo (Ciilo), n. Very small bird, said to 
be difficult to hit with a stick, it gene 

rally managing to 




with the grasshopper still in its mouth. 
Hence the following proverbs:— 

P. ucilo walahla intetr, the ucilo has let 
go the grasshopper = it's done for this 
time, is dead — said e.n. when one breaks 
a pot to pieces. 

ucilo kafi ixidubuli, the ucilo doesn't die 
(if his bruises = don't mind hard knocks, 
persevere in spite of them. 

ucilo uyUahlile ivUete ku'Bani, the ucilo 
has let go the grasshopper with So-and-so == 
it's all up with him, he's done for, /. e. is 

i(li)-Cilo (Chilo), n. Any action or thing 
disgusting to nature, filthy, obscene, to 
be ashamed of = ama-Nyala. 

um-Cilo (Chilo), n. 5. Rope or cord made 
of twisted hide and used for various 
purposes, as the long ropes of twisted 
calf-skin worn hanging over the shoul- 
ders as an ornament by men (= iiMa- 
bani, i-nTsonto), or the cord of a wo- 
man's isidwaba bv which it is bound 


round the loins (cp. t/(/N)-(jofo); hence 
(N) bullock-reim ( i-nTambo); hori- 
zontal wrinkle i»n one's forehead ( mn- 
Qwebu. Cp. i-iiTlottze). 

u(lu)-Cilo (Chilo), o. Border, edge of any- 
thing (not brim u(lu)-Ndi), ;is of a 
mat, cloth, book, etc. 

i(li)-Cilongo, >t. Native trumpet, made of 
a long reed with a horn affixed to the 
end; hence, trumpet of Europeans. Cp. 
u(lu)- Veve. 

Cima, v. Put out, extinguish, as a candle 
(ace.) or fire; go out, get extinguished, 
as the candle or fire itself; shut the 
eyes (with amehlo) to anything (meta- 
phorically ace. with eld form), so as 
not to notice it (not to actually close 
the eyes = timeza); be in articulo 
mortis, dying, passing away, as a dying 
person (= cimeka) = tisha, kwisha 
[Ang.jima; MZT. Nyam. Sw. Wo.ziwa; 
Her. zerna; Ga. zikizn]. 

i(li)-Cimamlilo, //. Small veldt-plant (Pen- 
tanisia variabilis), having an umbel of 
blue flowerlets resembling 'Forget-me- 
not' = i(li)-Cishamlilo. 

N.B. The roots are boiled tor swollen 
stomach, retarded after-birth, etc. 

i(li)-Cimbi (Cimbhi), n. Large hairless 
caterpillar, of which there are several 
varieties, all eaten by Native children, 
and being the larvae of several kinds 
of moths, according to the tree (e. g. 
unm-Nga, um-Ganu, etc.) upon which 
they are found. See isi-Gwe [Her. oka- 
rombo and omu-ngu, two species of 
caterpillar, latter edible]. 

i-nCimbi (Cimbhi), n. Any uncooked, raw- 
eaten, watery dish, as a mess of poko 
or nyawoti; kind of meadow-grass, hav- 
ing long stalks surmounted by a tuft 
of white spikes. 

um-Cimbi (Cimbhi), n. 5. Mark or track 
formed by a drop of rain running down 
a window, or of sweat or tears trickling 
down the cheeks. 

um-Cimbitwa (Cimbhithwa), n. 5. Large 
green, brown-striped grass-locust, some- 
times eaten. 

Crme, ukuti (ukuthi), t>. Go out, as a 
candle (referring to the moment of be- 
coming extinguished); put out, as the 
candle (ace); close the eyes (ace. — refer- 
ring to the moment of excluding the 
light from them). See cima; cimeka ; 

i(li)-Cime, n. = i(li)-Cishe. 

Cimeka (s. k.), v. Get just extinguished, as 
above; be getting extinguished i.e. be 

CI 76 

in the last flickering stage of life, be 
dying, passing away (= cima). 

Cimela, v. Put out, or go out for — see 
cima; be gone out for, as below; (N) 
beg money, etc., from one's friends, as 
a girl, previous to getting married. 

Ex. imbixa is'icimele, the pot is gone out 
lor (by the fire) i.e. the fire beneath it has 
gone out = is'iy'enyele. 

Cimelela, c. Fade away, die gradually 
away, as a cloud before the sun-heat, or 
as a child fading slowly away from 
some wasting disease. 

Cimeza, v. Shut the eyes, whether in sleep 
or purposely, in order not to see a 

Phr sesix<ikuhamba sicimexUe, we shall 
now go with our eyes shut, *. e. with easy 
minds, without further fear, anxiety, thought 
of fatigue, etc. 

CVmi, ukuti (Cfiimi, ukuthi), v. = cimiza. 

isi-Cimicimi (Chimichimi), n. = isi-Dumu- 

Cimiza (Chimiza), v. Squash anything of 
a soft pulpy nature or that can be 
crushed to a pulp, as a worm (ace), or 
lump of porridge on the floor, or (met- 
aphor.) a man's head with a smashing 
blow (= cifiza); eat anything of a 
'squashing' nature, as a piece j of fat 
meat (ace), immature bees in a honey- 
comb, etc. (== cafaza). 

ama-Cimiza (Chimiza), n. = ama-Cafazi. 

isi-Cimiza (Chimiza), n. = Isi-Gifiza (more 

gen. isi-Gcimiza). 
u(lu)-Cimo (pi. i-nGcimoJ, n. Certain kind 

of bi-valvular sea-shell. Cp. i-nKumba. 

Cina, o. Stop up, as a hole (ace.) or gap 
in a wall or window; stopper, put a 
stopper into, plug, as a calabash (ace.) 
or bottle = vimba [akin to gci?ia; qina; 
cindezela; and Xo. xina, press against]. 

urn -Cina, n. 5. An um-Tshumo not yet 
cleared of the pith, still 'stopped up.' 

Cinana, v. Be confined for room through 
being too closely packed or placed, as 
mealie-plants in a field, or sleepers in 
a hut; be stopped or stuffed up, as the 
nostrils of a person wiith a cold, or a 
drain-pipe with dirt (used in perf.) = 
ri ni buna; ininyana. 

Cinanisela, v. Constrain oneself, urge one- 
self along by force, as to do anything 
unpleasant, like drinking medicine, or 
distasteful, disagreeable work; restrain 
oneself, as from breathing when under 
the water = cinelela. 

Cindezela, v. Press, in any way (actually 
<u- figuratively); hence squeeze, as the 


finger (ace.) in a door; exert pressure 
upon, press down, as a lever or electric- 
button; compress anything, as into a 
box; force, constrain, as a person to do 
something; constrain oneself (without 
zi), as to eat (= cinanisela); oppress, as 
subjects by tyrannous laws; (Mod.) print, 
as a book = ficezela. Cp. sicila [Sw. 
shindilia, press ; Bo. sindilia — see cina]. 

Cinelela, v. = cinanisela. 

Cinga, v. Look for, search for with the 
eyes, as anything (ace.) lost. Cp. funa 
[Ga. nonga, look for — for change of 
Ga. n into Z. c. see also cosha\. 

um-Cingo, n. (C.N.) — see um-Ngcingo. 
u(lu)-Cingo, n. Wire, as of a fence, tele- 
graph, etc; hence, telegram [fr. Xo.]. 

Cinineka (Chinineka), v. Ooze out, exude, 
so as to form tiny drops externally, as 
beer through the sides of a beer-basket 
(isi-Cumu), or matter from a sore; ooze, 
as the beer-basket itself, = cuca. Cp. 
cica; vononeka. 

i-nCinini, n. Kind of rush or marsh-grass, 
used for making izi-Tebe. 

isi-Cinini (Chinini), n. Kind of u-Ngoso. 

Cintsa (Chintsa), v. Spirt out by a for- 
cible blowing from the mouth, as an 
elephant or whale does water (ace.) or 
a chief the mouthful of u-selwa squash 
at the utn-Kosi (not to squirt through 
the teeth = tsaka; nor yet through the 
closed lips = kifa); spirt out at or upon 
anything (ace). 

Phr. uku-cints'uselwa, to spirt out the 
uselwa (kind of gourd) — this formed one 
of the ceremonies at the um-Kosi or annual 
harvest-festival, when the chief spirted out 
a mixture of the new year's fruits, includ- 
ing the uselwa, in different directions over 
his supposed enemies. See ukw-eshwama, 

Cipateka (Chiphatheka); v. Be stuck up, 
haughty, regarding others with disdain 
= cilileka, zi-gqaja, cipilika. 

Cipi, ukuti (Chiphi, ukuthi), v. = cipiza; 

Cipilika (Chiphilika), v. = cipateka. 

Cipiza (Chiphiza), v. Shed tears slightly, 
let fall a few drops. 

Cipizeka (Chijyhizeka), v. Get shed slightly, 
drip, as tears above. 

Cisha, v. = cima. 

Phr. lixe lishone, bemeisha nyamanxi, till 
the sun went down they have been extin- 
guishiug him (with water), i. e. all day long 
have been awaiting his becoming extinct, or 
passing away. 

i(li)-Cishamlilo, n. = i(li)-Cimamlilo. 






Cishe, Cisho, or Cishu, defect, aiiz. verb. 
- expressing 'almost, nearly, on the point 
of, etc.' = pose. 
Ex. ngacishe ngafa, I nearly died. 
ngambona ecish'ukuwa, I saw him almost 
(or on the point of) falling. 

i(li)-Cishe, n. State of being without light 
or fire (um-Lilo), whether for lighting 
or warming purposes (mostly used by 
women, and only as below). 

Fx. kukona icishe endhlini, there is dark- 
ness i. e. no light, in the hut. 

sengihlaP ecisheni, I am now sitting (or 
living) without light or fire — often said 
by a man who has lost his wife. 

Ci'shi, ukuti (ukuthi), v. = ukuti time. 

um-Cishu, n. 5. = um-Vemve. 

ama-C ishucishu, n. Only as below. 

Ex. nloku ebikwa amac ishucishu, he is 
always being reported as very nearly, very 
nearly (as one long on the point of death, 
yet never dying). 

i-nCisili, n. Red edible flowers of the isi- 
Kwa plant. 

Phr. tiku-m-shaya (umuntu) ineisili, to 
treat a person with open contempt, scarcely 
regarding his presence. 

Cita (Chitha), v. Scatter abroad in a 
blameworthy manner; hence, waste, 
throw away, as one's money (ace.) or 
property; throw out or away, as water 
from a dish, or potatoes from a basket 
(only of such things as can be scattered 
abroad — not a single article == lahla, 
ntshinga); spill, as any liquid; spoil, 
render useless wantonly, destroy, as any 
article; abolish, do away with, as any 
obnoxious custom; cast out, expel, as 
an undesirable servant; disperse, rout, 
as an enemy. 

Phr. ushaye wacita, he cleared, he was 
off and away in no time. 

isitsha esicitile, a spread-out vessel, i. e. 
with the sides broadly extended outwards 
from a small base (like a wash-basin; not 
like the wash-jug = esibuyile). 

Citakala (Chithakala), v. Be in a scattered 
abroad i. e. ruined, destroyed, wasted 
condition (used in pert'.). 

CTte, ukuti (Cliithe, ukuthi), v. = ukuti citi. 

Citeka (Chitheka), v. Be or get scattered 
abroad i. e. wasted, thrown out, spilled, 
destroyed, dispersed, etc., as above (used 
in perf.) — see cita. 

CVti, ukuti (Chithi, ukuthi), v. Scatter any- 
thing (ace.) abroad in every direction, 
as grain ; waste, squander, scatter to the 
winds, as a prodigal person his money 

(ace.) or property (cp. hlapaza) = citiza; 
get or become scattered in all directions, 
as people or cattle dispersing — citizeka. 
Cp. ukuti ci. 

uhlakanipile nle citi, he is in all respects 
clever, is downright smart. 

u-Citi (Chithi), n. Children's game of 
throwing up a lot of stones and letting 
them fall scattered in all directions. Cp. 

i(li)-CYticiti (Chithichithi), n. A wasteful, 
extravagant person, who gets through 
all his possessions by prodigality = 

Citisa (Chithisa), v. Make thoroughly smart 
or sharp, as a growing child (ace.) by 
teaching it, or a dog by administering 
it an emetic of the poisonous i-nThingu- 
nyembe bush. 

um-Citiso (Chithiso), n. 5. Emetic given 
a dog, as above. 

Citiza (Chithiza), v. = ukuti citi. 
i(li)-Ciwu, n. Small green non-poisonous 
bush-snake, supposed to bring good luck. 

Ciya (Chiya), v. Stay, support, by the 
hand or a prop (with nga), anything 
toppling over, as a wagon (ace.) or cup- 
board. Cp. sekela; pasa. 

i(li)-Ciye (Chiye), n. Certain veldt plant, 
whose bulbous root produces a lather 
used for cleansing shields, etc. 

i(li)-Ciyo, n. = i(li)-Cwiyo. 

Ciza (Chiza), v. Be soaking wet, as a gar- 
ment just washed, or very green fire- 
wood (= ukuti ci); be of a surly, dis- 
agreeable temper, as an unsociable man. 

isi-Ciza (Chiza), n. Person with a surly, 
disagreeable, unsociable temper. 

um-Ciza (Chiza), n. 5. Thing soaking-wet, 
as a garment just washed or piece of 
very green firewood; plur. im-Ciza, wet 
firewood generally (whether from lying 
in the rain or being still green). 

Co (Cho), int. said by a mother to her 
infant when it sneezes = so. 

Co, ukuti (Cho, ukuthi), v. = cocoza; coba 

Co, ukuti (ukuthi), v. = cona, contsa. 

Coba, v. Thoroughly enervate, render 
languid, rob of strength, as a sultry day 
(Hang a), dissipation, etc., does one's 
body (ace.) ; mince, cut or chop up fine, 
as meat or ubu-Bende. 

Ex. Qanga namhia liyacoVamatambo, the 

suu to-day takes all the strength out of one's 
bones, makes one as though he could col- 


Coba (Choba), v. Crack or kill lice (ace.) 
between the nails. Cp. ntlantlata. 

Kx. we' 'ma.' awungicobe intwala, I say! 
mother! please kill nic (these) lice (ou my 

i(li)-Coba (Choba), ». Sandstone, of any 
colour, used by the Natives, like pumice- 
stone, for cleansing the feet = i(li)-Cwe- 
ba. Cp. i(li)-Sisa. 

si-Cobamhlaza (Chobanthlaza), it. Certain 
tree, growing in the bush-country. 

(li)-Cobantswani (Chobantswani), n. One 
of the vanguard or foremost party, as 
^\ an i in pi, or party going to a wedding 
(= abacoba intswani, those who crack 
up the dry scrub — marking a way for 
the main body following); anyone given 
to much travelling, 'grass-treading', 
never being found at home; certain 
goat given by the bridegroom's people 
to the young-men of a bride's party on 
their arrival on the eve of the wedding 
and eaten by them at the isi-hlahla on 
the wedding-morn. 

Cobeka (s. k.), v. Be or get enervated, made 
languid or weak of body, as above (see 
coba - used in perf.) = fehleka, ukuti 
'/>ca, ukuti lisa. 

Cobela, v. Fill the smoking-horn (ace.) 
with hemp (ace.) for smoking, or a pipe 
with tobacco. 

Ex. ni/icobelclc, 'mfana, fill the smokiug- 
iiorn for me, my boy. 

Cobo, ukuti (Chobo, ukuthi), v. = coboka; 
coboza; cobozeku. 

Cobocishi, ukuti (ukuthi), v. Do for tho- 
roughly, kill outright, as a person (ace), 
when slaying him with an assegai, or 
by heavy blows from a stick (— cobo- 
s'ha); be dead or killed outright (= co- 

Ex. us'ete cobocishi, he is already quite 
• lead, has lite extinct. 

Coboka (Choboka), v. Get smashed or 
broken to pieces, as below -- see coboza. 
= fohJoka. 

i(li)-Coboka (Choboka), v. Any frail, deli- 
cate thintr, easily smashed up; delicate, 
sickly, unhealthy person easily knocked 
up (= i(li)-Qandarlenyoni). 

um-Coboka (Choboka), n. 5. Kind of reed, 
ed lor making snuff-boxes, musical- 
pipes, etc. = i(li)-Shani. Cp. i-nGqu- 

um-Coboko (Choboko), n. 5. Scrofula, 
showing itself gen. in glandular-swellings, 
body-sores, <-\<\ um-Zimb' omubi. 

Cobosha, v. = ukuti cobocishi. 

Coboza (Choboza), v. Smash, break up, 

78 CO 

anything of a delicately brittle or frail 
nature as an egg-shell (ace), calabash, 
earthen-pot, match-box, etc.; go crashing 
through dry undergrowth or bush = 
tbhloza; pahlaza; fahlaza; dubuza. 

Cobozeka (Chobozeka), v. = coboka. 

um-Cobozo (Chobozo), n. 5. Beer fetched 
by a bride from her mother's kraal 
about two months after marriage == 
um-Shisanyongo. Cp. um-Bondo. 

isi-Coco, n. Headring, of a Native man ; . 
first child born of a man (cp. umu-Tsha). 

Cocoba, v. = cocobala. 

Cocobala (Chochobala), v. Be crisped or 
baked externally by heat; hence, be 
toasted, as bread or kidneys cooked on 
a skewer after Native fashion ; be parched 
or roasted, as a mealie-cob set near the 
fire; be scorched, as a garment placed 
too near the fire to dry (used in perf.). 
Cp. hwamvka; hanguka. 

Cocobalisa (Chochobalisa), v. Crisp, toast, 
roast, scorch, anything (ace), as above, 
Cp. hwamula; hangula. 

Cocoma, v. Hop, as a frog; hop about, go 
constantly from here to there, as a wo- 
man hoeing first here then there in a 
field, or a person constantly shifting his 
place in a hut = g cog coma. Cp. qiqima. 

Cocoza (Chochoza), v. Make a crackling 
noise, as beetles eating at night, or meat 
when roasting; be baking hot, as the 
sun (== cocobalisa). 

i-nCodoba, n. Person with broad upper 
body but thin lower limbs = u(lu)~Tshu- 
bungu, um-Cukutu. 

Cofiya, v. Spit out, as a particle of food 
(ace) remaining in the mouth after eat- 
ing. Cp. kafula. 

Cofo, ukuti (Chofo, ukuthi), v. — cofoza; 
ukuti cosololo. 

Cofoza (Chofoza), v. — cifiza. 

i-nCohiba, n. Small veldt-shrub (Gompho- 
carpus sp.) resembling the i(H)-Shongu>e, 
whose milky leaves and carrot-like root 
are poisonous and so used for poisoning 
dogs, etc. 

Coka, ukuti (ukuthi; s. k.), v. — cokama; 
cokaza; ukuti congco. 

Cokama (s. k.), v. Stand or be perched up 
on high, as a bird on a tree, or a man 
on a house or hill-top (used in perf.); 
be on tip-toes, whether standing erect 
or crouching down (see ama-Zwayiba). 

i(li)-Cokama (s.k.),n. = i(li)-Gcokama. 

ama-Cokamo (s. k.), n. Tonga word for 
'dew', occasionally used by women in 
Zululand for hlonipa purposes, having 
been introduced at the time the Zulus 

CO 79 

were raiding cattle in the northern dis- 
tricts. See ama-Zolo. 

Cokaza (s. k.), v. Go along with a spring- j 
ing, light-footed gait, as though on 

Coko, ukuti (uhuthi; s.k.),v. = ukuti co- 

u(lu)-Coko (Cholco), n. Any very tiny thing, 
y a mite, as a very small head, or seed; 

(N) South-African leprosy (unknown in 

Zululand - see i(li)-NdiM). 

Cokololo, ukuti (ukuthi, s. k.), v. Be thor- 
oughly at rest, happy, contented, having 
all one's desire (used of the i-nTliziyo) 
= ukuti cosololo, ukuti copo. Cp. 

Cokoloza (Chokoloza), /'. Poke, as a per- 
son (ace.) with the point of one's finger, 
or a dog with one's stick (=. hlokoloza) ; 
urge on by poking (metaphor.), incite, 
irritate, as a person (ace.) to anger or 
any action (= ncukuza); take or poke 
up on a stick, as a dead snake or filthy 
cloth = ukuti coko lost, ukuti cupuluzi, 
tokoloza, copoloza. 

Cokolozi, ukuti (Chokolozi, ukuthi), v. = 

Cokosha (s. k.), v. = cakasha. 

u(lu)-C6kucoku (s. k.), n. Any very delicate, 
, frail thing, easily breaking, tearing, etc., 
f as a fragile vessel, thing hanging to- 
gether by the last threads, thin leg of 
a stilt-bird, or person of frail delicate 
Cola, v. Do anything well, nicely, finely, 
as when grinding corn (ace. — i. e. grind 
it fine), sewing a dress (do it neatly), 
folding clothes (do it tidily = cilikisha) ; 
do a girl (ace.) in good style, do her off 
nicely, as her father by slaughtering for 
her, according to good Native custom, 
a beast at the time of her first menstru- 
ation, of her going off to get married, or 
on the loss of her child (she being ge- 
nerally on such occasions, rendered 
'fine' or purified, by sprinkling the gall 
of such beast on her arms and legs). 

Phr. coVinone! do it well and let it (the 
beast) be fat! — used to express 'that's 
right !' as might be said to a child that has 
burnt itself after beiug cautioned not to 
play with the fire. 

ucolr abuye, he would do well to return 
^S(i.e. we wish he would return). 

ucole nokuba uxakuhamba, he would do 
well if he were to go. 

Cola, v. = buqa. 

Cole, ukuti (ukuthi), v. — ukuti buqe. 

Coleka (s. k.), v. Get done nicely or finely, 


as meal well ground, pottery smoothly 
polished, cloth of fine soft make (used 
in port'.). 

Colisa v. = cola. 

i(li)Colo (Cholo), v. Small copse or thickel 
(C.N.) == i(li)-Hlozi. 

isi-Colo (Cholo), n. Tuft or top-knot of 
any description, as the crown of a hut, 
high head-dress of a woman, or the 
hairy protuberance on the head of a 
hornless ox (C.N.). Cp. i-nTloko; is- 

izi-Colo (nosing.), n. Acts of kind-hearted- 
ness, such as shown towards a friend 
or new arrival when conversing with 
him or behaving towards him with 
marked signs of friendship. Cp. cecezela. 

Comba (Conibha), v. Mark a thing with 
a spot or patch of another colour, as a 
man might his trousers (ace.) with a 
coloured patch, or a hut-wall with a spot 
of colouring; put on such a mark, have 
or wear such a mark, as the pair of 
trousers above, or an ox with a white 
star on the face (see um-Combo); smear 
a thing gen. with colouring, as a child's 
body with red ochre; begin to put on 
white patches, as mealie-plants com- 
mencing to dry. 

Combi, ukuti (Gombhi, ukuthi), r. = co- 

Combiza (Combhiza), v. Fall 'drop-wise' 
so as to form a 'spot', as a drop of rain 
falling from the roof on to the floor of 
a hut, or the large drops of rain 'spot- 
ting' here and there at the commence- 
ment of a storm ; pour out a little drop, 
as of water or semi-liquid stuff (ace). 

i-nCombo (Combho — no plur.y, n. Species 
of small white ant (different from the 
umu-Wwa), making the ant-heap i-nGa- 
nga, and used as bait by boys for catch- 
ing birds; hence, small light-yellow bead 
or beads; young amabele still yellow. 

um-Combo (Combho), n. 5. Spot or patch 
of colour upon any differently coloured 
ground, as the star on the forehead of 
a horse or ox, the bull's-eye of a target, 
or a conspicuous patch on a pair of 

Cona, v. = contsa, ukuti n>. 

isi-Conco (Chonco),n. Infusion, made by 
pouring cold or lukewarm water upon 
medicinal leaves, pounded roots, etc. Cp. 

um-Condo, ». Thin, scraggy, calfless leg, 

like that of a fowl, or some thin persons. 
Cp. um-Sondo. 

Phr. uMcondo kit 'Zimelela, Mr. Thin-legs, 





son of Mr. Walk-with-sticks — said derisively 
of a person with scraggy legs (C.N). 
Condobezela, v. = congobezela. 

Condoza, v. Walk in a light, perky manner, 
as a fowl, person with thin light i. e. 
calfless and fleshless legs, or as a young 
man dressed up going along in a nice 
'lady-like' manner on the fore-part of 
t ho foot (= cokaza). 

Congco, ukuti (uktithi), v. = ukuti coka, 
cokoma. See i-nGcongco. 

Congelela, /•. - qongelela. 

Congobezela, v. Act with great carefulness, 
as when making use of a vessel (ace.) 
already cracked, when economising one's 
small food supply in time of famine, 
when being thrifty with one's money, 
when taking care of one's sick body 
during work, or when speaking or act- 
ing cautiously where there is danger of 
displeasing = condobezela, congolozela. 

Congolozela, v. = congobezela. 

Contsa (s. t.) v. Drop, drip, as a small 
portion of any semi-liquid substance, 
like aniasi — tontsa, totita, cona. [Sw. 
tona, drop; Ga. tony a, rain; Her. tyo- 
nona, drop]. 

i(li)-Contsi (s.t.),n. A drop, drip = i(li)- 
Tontsi [Sw. tone; Ga. tondo; Her tyo- 
nona, to drop]. 

Conzulula, v. = cazu. 

Co pa (Chop ha), v. Scrape or rub the feet 
or back with a piece of sandstone in 
order to clean it. Cp. nqamula; rrerra. 

C6po, ukuti (Chopho, uktithi), v. = ukuti 

i(li)-Copo (Chopho), n. Flap or meeting- 
part of the isidwaba where the two 
sides come together and lie open below 
the loin-string, or of a coat in front 
below the lowest button. 

isi-Copo (Chopho), n. Small fancy stick, 
like an i-wisa with the top and under- 
part of the knob scooped out, and used 
by amadoda when dancing or walking 
= u-Shingwana, isi-Shingo. 

Phr. uku-pona isicopo, to make fine move- 
ments with the stick when dancing. 

ubu-Copo (Chopho), n. Brain (in the ma- 
tt-rial, not abstract sense) [Chw. bu-koko; 
Ga. bu-ongo]. The brain of a guinea-fowl or house- 

fowl is not eaten by girls, lest they should 

give birth to long, narrow-headed children 


Copoloza (Copholoza), v. — cokoloza; also 

== ukuti copolozi. 

Copolozi, ukuti (Copholozi, ukuthi), v. Do 
very slightly, as when taking out a very 
small quantity of sugar (ace), etc., from 
a sack (cp. zacula), or when doing a 
little bit of hoeing; also = ukuti coko- 

isi-Copolozi (Copholozi), n. Small portion 
of anything done or taken out, as a tiny 
patch of hoed-land for planting vege- 
tables = isi-Gcoyi. 

i-nCosana, n. = i-nGcosana. 

ubu-nCosana, n. — see ubu-nGcosana. 

Cosha, v. Pick up, both in the sense of 

,' taking up from the ground' and of 
/'finding'. Cp. tola. [Sw. okota, pick 

up; kuta, get by chance; Ga. nonja, 


Cosho, ukuti (ukuthi), v. Sit or squat down 
(referring to the moment of action), 
whether as a man seating himself on 
the ground, or a bird alighting on a 
tree; sit down, stay, or rest just for a 
moment, as a person making a passing 
visit to a kraal when delivering a mes- 
sage. Cp. ukuti qubasha. 

i-nCosho, n. = i-nCoto. 

Coshoza, v. 3= ukuti cosho. 

i-nCosi, n. Smallish portion or quantity 

of anything, as above — see i-nCosana. 

Cp. ukuti cosu. 

Cosololo, ukuti (uktithi), v. = ukuti coko- 

Cosu, ukuti (ukuthi), v. = cosuka, cosula. 

isi-C6sucosu, n. One easily irritated, quick- 
ly getting into a pet. 

Cosuka (s. k.), v. Get torn off or away 
easily, as *below ; get quickly irritated, 
taken off in a pet, as a peevish child; 
expire or get taken off easily, as one 
whose long dragging illness has already 
taken all the life out of him ; get taken 
out in a very small quantity from a 
larger mass, as a handful of meal from 
a sack (cp. ukuti copolozi) = hlosuka, 
tosuka. Cp. nivebuka. 

Cosula, v. Tear off or away easily any- 
thing (ace.) softly yielding to the pull, 
as when nipping off a small piece of 
dry skin about a sore, or when pulling 
from a tree a fresh switch already hang- 
ing by the skinny bark, or a portion of 
a string of worsted or wet blotting- 
paper from another portion, or as a nail 
might rip up a woollen coat; take out 
a very small quantity, a tiny bit, from 
any larger quantity, as a handful of 
meal from a sack (cp. ukuti copolozi; 
ukuti zacu) = hlosula, tosula, yosula. 
Cp. nwebula. 

CO 81 

i-nCosuncosu, n. Anything that gets easily 
torn apart, as worsted, rotten sacking, 
etc.= i-nTosuntosu. Cp. i-nDhlubu- 

Coto, ukuti (Cotho, ukuthi), v. = cotoza. 

isi-Coto (Ghotho), n. Hail = isi-Nyquma, 
isi- Wunguza. 

i-nCoto (Cotho), n. Fire-lily, the outer- 
skin of whose bulb is stripped up into 
shreds to make izi-nJobo for a little 
boy or an ear-ornament for a child just 

Cotomezela (Cothomezelu), v. (C.N.) = 

Cotoza (Cothoza), v. Do anything (ace.) 
very slightly, whether in small quantity 
or in gentle manner, as when hoeing a 
little, beating a new floor just slightly 
with the stone, giving a little snuff, etc. 
Op. cakatisa. 

Cotu, ukuti (Cothu, ukuthi), v. = cotuka; 

Cotuka (Cothuka), v. Get galled or scraped 
off, as the skin from one's leg, or hair 
from an i-Beshu = ukuti cotu. 

Cotu la (Cothu la), v. Scrape off or gall, 
as the skin (ace), hair from an i-Beshu, 
etc., as above = ukuti cotu. 

Coyacoya (Choyachoya), v. = nciyanci- 

Coyiya, v. Be fastidious, over-nice, par- 
ticular about trifles, as about little 
particles of dust on one's coat, when 
picking and chosing in selecting goods, 
scrutinising the food served up to one; 
pick off little bits of things, as little bits 
of rubbish (ace.) from one's coat, little 
bits of grains from a poor mealie-cob, 
small particles of food from between 
the teeth, etc. ; be unduly slow, dilly-dally, 
taking excessive time over a mere no- 
thing, as an over-scrupulous or phleg- 
matic person at work. 

i-nCozana, n. (C. N.) = i-nGcosana. 

Cozulula, v. = caza. 

Cu, ukuti (ukuthi), v. Be extended in a 
long straight line, as a snake or man 
lying stretched out, or a long train of 
wagons or cattle, or any long straight 
thing like a road or tree. Cp. ukuti cu- 
bululu; cululeka; ukuti culukushu. 

umu-Cu, n. 5. Single thread of anything, 
such as are twisted together to form a 
string or rope, or of fibre ; single string 
or piece, as of fine wire; pinnule or 
leaflet of any kind of palm-branch ; a 
tiny bit of a thing, as a thin person, a 
few goats, a little amabele. 

Phr, akusele 'mucu ongaguliyo, there 


doesn't remain a morsel (of us) that is not 

u(lu)-Cu, n. Single string, as of beads, 
words, details of evidence, etc. 

Phr. hico'mfana kona'kteu, that boy ha? 
no manners, no breeding, no refinement of 
nature or ways — may be said of one who 
returns no thanks for anything received, 
who is insolent to his parent, etc. 

Cuba, v. Squash or break up the lumpy 
ingredients in any mixture, as of flour 
(ace.) when mixing it with water, or of 
meal when cooking porridge. 

i(li)-Cuba, n. Leaf, as of tree, or tobacco 
= i(li)-Kasi (the word being gen. adop- 
ted by women when hlonipamg this 
latter word, it is now rarely used by 

Phr. wamfuxa, lcashiya na'euba, he re- 
sembled him and didn't leave a single leaf, 
i. e. resembled the old stock in very limb, 
in all his features. 

izinkuni xami baxitatik, kabashiya na'eu- 
ba, they.have taken my firewood and haven't 
left a leaf i. c a single scrap. 

Cubu, ukuti (ukuthi), v. — cubuka; cubuza. 

isi-Cubu, n. Lump of fresh or uncooked 
meat (cp. isi-Boma); lobe of the ear, 
where the hole is pierced (cp. i(li)-Gwa- 

u(lu)-Cubu (Cubhu), n. = u(lu)-Qubhu. 

ubu-Cubu, n. Chick^or chicks, of any bird 
or fowl; small fry (applied jocularly to 
children jbelow the age of about five 
years, and contemptuously to an adult) ; 
certain small bird, Ruddy Waxbill (La- 
f/onosticta rubicata), commonly seen go- 
ing in pairs = ubti-Cwibi. 

Ex. Icangafitmauisa 'muntu, ubucubti bo- 
dua, I didn't find a person (at home), only 
little children. 

Phr. uVuhamba nedu-a iije; kawaxi yvni 
ukuti ubucubti buhamba nga'bubili nu? you 
were just going alone; don't you know that 
the waxbills (i.e. littleVchildren) go in pairs 
(i. e. never alone) ? 

Cubuka (s. k.), v. Get squashed up, crush- 
ed, as anything of a soft pulpy nature, 
like a worm beneath the feet, a soft pea 
between one's fingers ; hence, get crush- 
ed to atoms, as an earthen pot upon 
which anything heavy might fall ; get 
wiped out, crushed to nothing, rendered 
absolutely desolate, as a land by war. 
Cp. cuba [Her. ttikutura, crush]. 

Cubukala (s.k.), v. Get or be in the squash- 
ed, crushed state, as above (used in 

Cubukeza (s. k.), v. — cubuza. 



Cubululu, ukuti (ukuthi), v. Lie stretched- 
out in a long, loosely hanging, lifeless 
body on the ground, as a dead snake, or 
man lying down at full length exhausted 
(cp. nabalala)] be of a long, limply 
hanging nature, as a snake or wet reim 
= ukuti cu. 

Ex. icajaba /rati cubululu (or cu), he was 
abashed so as to become quite limp of body, 
i. e. was thoroughly abashed. 

uloku ete cubululu endhlini, he is all along 
Bt retched lifelessly out in the hut — said of 
a lazy, indolent person. 

Cubuluza, v. Pass watery stools of di- 
arrhoea (mostly used of infants). Cp. 
cululeka; huda. 

Cubungula, v. Keep fiddling about with 
anything (ace.) in one's hands, dilly-dally 
with anything, not quickly getting it off 
one's hands, as when washing cups or 
clothes, dawdling over a field, etc. Cp. 

Cubuza, v. Squash or crush up anything 
(ace), as above; crush or smash to 
atoms anything, as above — see cubuka; 
'break up' or 'break down' a person 
(ace), get the better of him thoroughly 
(in a good or a bad sense), as a young- 
man conquering his girl or getting the 
better of her rebuffs, or an unruly boy 
getting the mastery over his parents; 
break down a temporary estrangement 
with a person (ace. or with ku), re-win 
his favour, make it up with him, as a 
son with his father with whom he has 
fallen out. 

Ex. uyipanje, ucubuxa-ni kayo? you just 
make her a present, what is it you want to 
break down or smoothen away with her ? 

kade ecubuxa leuye, he has just been smooth- 
ening things up, i. e. making it up with him. 
Cubuzeka (s. k), v. = cubuka. 

Cuca (Chucha), v. Make anything (ace.) 
fall in holes, as below; also = cica. 

Cuceka (Chucheka), v. Fall into holes or 
shreds, as an old worn-out blanket (used 
in perf.); fall to pieces, break out all 
over in sores, as a person's body (= 
camuka; cp. badhluka). 

i(li)-Cucu, n. Thing all in shreds or tatters, 
as the ear of a beast slit about as a 
body-mark; ear, of a man, with an ab- 
normally long lobe; plur. ama-Cucu, 
shreds, tatters, as a garment torn or 
wrorn-out with age. 

izi-Cucu (nosing.), n. Shreds, tiny fibrous 
particles, as fall from a worn-out blan- 
ket (= ama-Cucu) ; meat all in strings, 
ue to shreds, with excessive boiling 
or decay ; small particles of meat collect- 

82 CU 

ed in the gravy at the bottom of the pot ; 
hence, any sediment or dregs (= isi- 

Cucuza, v. Make run or flow out, discharge 
anything (ace.) of a thick flowing nature, 
as the cow mucus from the vagina after 
covering (cp. pungula) = ciciza. 

u-Cucuza, n. = u-Qadolo, u-Gamfe. 

isi-Cudulu, n. = isi-Bozi. 

Cukalala, ukuti (ukuthi; s.k.),v. (C.N.) = 
ukuti lotololo. 

i(li)-Cukazi (s.k.),n. (C.N.) = i(li)-Xukazi. 

i-nCuke (s. k.), n. Hyoena (= i-tnPisi); 
also applied to any wild 'devouring' 
beast of prey, as a leopard, etc.; a vor- 
acious eater, gourmand — the word, 
owing to its being generally adopted 
by women for hlonipa purposes as a 
substitute for imPisi, is now rarely 
used by men. [At. okoko, hycena]. 

i(li)-Cuku (s. k.), n. Group or body of young 

, people of about the same age, though 
in a broader sense than the i-nTa- 
nga (big boys or girls = i(li)-Cuku; 
small boys or girls = i(li)-Cukwana), 
such as are collected, or living together 
in any kraal; any and all young persons 
of a common age (used collectively = 

Ex. kako lapa, us'ecukwaneni, he is not 
here; he is with the little children. 

uZumbu noMaxwana baVucuku linye, Zu- 
mbu and Mazwana are of the same group 
(i.e. of about the same age). 

um-Cuku (s.k.),n.5. (C.N.) = um-Xuku. 
Cukuca (s. k), v. (C.N.) = xukuxa. 
i(li)-Cukudu (s.k.),v. (C.N.) = i(li)-Cuku- 

i(li)-Cukudwane (s.k.),n. Small veldt-plant 
with pink flowerlets and a large bulbous 
root, used as an enema for infants, in- 
ternally for cattle, and, on account of 
its lather, as a washing-soap, like i-mFe- 
yesele, by the Natives = i(li)-Ciki- 

um-Cukutu (Cukuthu), n. 5. = i-nCodoba. 

i-nCukwe (s.k.),n. = i-nCuke. 

Cula (Chula), adv. = ggala, 

Culukusha (s.k.),v. = ukuti culukushu. 

Culukushu, ukuti (ukuthi; s. k), v. Be per- 
fectly straight, as a road, or post; lie 
out in a long straight away, as a snake. 

Cululeka (s. k.), v. Be in a long extended 
train, as wagons or cattle (used in perf.) ; 
go along straightly i. e. be quite straight, 
as a road, snake, or a tree (used in 
perf.) ; pour out watery stools in a long 
incessant stream, as one suffering from 


diarrhoea (= huda; cp. cubuluza); do in 
a lazy, indolent, loose-bodied manner, 
as a lazy girl going lazily along when 
sent out to work, or lying about in a 
lazy fashion, or a person coming down 
a hill in a leisurely, loose-bodied manner. 
Cp. ukuti cu. 
um-Cululeka (s.k.)n, 5. Any long, straight- 
ly extended thing, as above; lazy, indo- 
lent person. 

Cuma (Chuma), v. Bear abundantly, as 
... mealies in a fertile spot (used in perf.); 
multiply or increase largely, abound, as 
cattle with any person or in any locality 
(used in perf.); be of a meek, mild, kind- 
ly disposition (used in perf.) [Skr. tu, 
multiply; MZT. vula, multiply; Her. 
kuma, mount, as a bull]. 

Ex. xirncumile ixinkomo uMajiyana, cattle 
have increased well with Majiyana. 

■ucunywe ixinkomo, w'aliwa inxalo, he has 
been increased for by cattle, but denied (by) 

lou'o'mfana ucunyws amashitmi amabili, 
that boy is abounded for by, i. e. always 
gets, twenty (shillings a month). 

um-Cumane, n. 5. Certain forest-tree, grow- 
ing along the coast. 

Ctimba cumba, ukuti (Cumbha cumbha, 
ukuthi), v. — cumbaza. 

Cumbaza (Cumbhaza), v. Feel a thing (ace.) 
with the fingers, press or poke repeat- 
edly, as when curious to know what is 
inside; toy with, play with a thing 
(ace), as a nice little object, or as a 
young-man with a girl; turn about in 
the hands, finger, handle, as a child when 
disdainfully turning about its food (ace.) 
in the plate. 

Cumbe, ukuti (Cumbhe, ukuthi), v. Prick 
lightly, as with an assegai (C. N.) 

Cumbeza (Cumbheza),v. — ukuti cumbe. 

Cumbu, ukuti (Chumbhu, ukuthi), v. = cu- 

Cumbulula (Cumbhulula), v. Turn over 
something (ace.) disgusting, as a dead 
dog (C. N.). Cp. petulula; cupuluza. 

Cu mbusa (Chumbhusa), v. = cambusa. 

isi-Cumi (Chuml), n. Meek, mild, kind- 
natured person. See cuma. 

isi-Cumu (Chumu), n. Large globular bas- 
ket, with small mouth at top, used for 
carrying beer. 

isi-Cuntsa (Chuntsa), n. = isi-Cuse. 

Ciinu ciinu, ukuti (ukuthi), v. = ukuti 
ncunu ncunu. 

Cunuka (s. k.), v. Get vexed, put out, of- 
,^ *"fended, as below (used in perf. — see 


83 CU 

cunula); get disgusted, or tired, as with 
an excess of very rich food, or with a 
monotonous repetition of the same food 
(follow, by agent) ; feel a thing (with 
agent) tiresome, irksome, as work. 

Cunukala (s. k.), v. Be in the vexed, of- 
fended, tired out, state, as above. 

Cunula, v. Vex, put out, offend a person 
(ace.) by any word or action ; disgust, 
or tire,' as very luscious food, or the 
same food always; be tiresome, distaste- 
ful, irksome, as work to a person 
(ace). Cp. nenf/a; casula; fundekela; 

Cunulula, v. = vumbulula. 

Cunuza, v. = ncunuza. 

Cupa (Cupha), v. Lay a trap or snare for 
anything (ace), as a wild-beast or bird ; 
place a sign so as to show if anything 
has been touched, entered, etc. 

Ex. cupa! look outl be careful! — used 
as a threat, or warning. 

Cupana (Cuphana), v. Be on the look out 
to catch one another (with some bad in- 
tention) ; threaten one another. 

Cupanisana (Cuphanisana), v. = cupana. 

Cupe, ukuti (Cup he, ukuthi), v. Do any- 
thing very slightly, very nearly, scarce- 
ly at all, just avoiding not being done, 
as when hoeing a few moments in the 
field, doing a few rubs with the 
grinding-stone ; hold a thing (ace.) in 
such a way as scarcely to be holding it 
at all (as when catching it by the edge 
or w r ith the tips of the fingers) ; set a 
thing so that instead of standing it is 
in constant danger of falling; get done 
or happen by all but a mere shave, i. e. 
narrowly escape being done ; stand ready 
to act on the instant, as a gun to go off, 
or a box to fall. 

Ex. cupe ngalimala (or cishe ngalimala), 
it was the merest shave and I had been in- 

ngati ngipakati. kwati cape, ngamuka, and 
when I was in the middle (of the stream), 
it wanted just a little and I was gone (with 
the current). 

ngati ngipakati, kwati cupe' ungamuki, 
and when I was in the middle, it was be 
careful that yon don't go off, i. e. I had to 
be very careful nut to go off. 

mus'ukusiti cupe isitsha, you mustn't hold 
the vessel as though you just wanted to let 
it drop. 

iwwe lake lite cupe ukufika cmlllatuxe (or 
iicupcle ukufika), his laud very nearly reaches 
to the Umhlatuze. 
Cupela (Cuphela), v. = ukuti cupe. Cp. 


Cupeza (Cuphe*a), v. = ukuti cupe. 

Cupisa (Cvphisa), v. Warn, caution, put 
on one's guard; threaten a person (ace). 
Cp. songela; rwaya. 

Cupuluza (Cuphuluza), v. Poke a thing 
(ace.) with the finger or a stick; poke 
or take up, or turn about, a thing (ace.) 
with the point of a stick, as anything 
disgusting which one dislikes touching 
= ukuti cupuluzi; cokoloza; copolona. 

Cupuluzi, ukuti (Ciiphuluzi, ukuthi), v. = 

isi-Cuse (Chuse), n. Any object set up, or 
standing out conspicuously alone, as a 
scarecrow in a field, an object seen 
standing on a road in the distance or 
stuck up in a kraal, or an 'aunt-Sally' 
made of an um-Senge stump and set up 
by boys for throwing at; an utterly 
worthless, despised person, not worth 
caring about, a mere 'dummy' of a per- 
son, as an old neglected woman or child 
(= um-Lwane). 

Cusha (Chusha), v. = boboza (on account 
of its being mostly adopted as a sub- 
stitute for this latter word for hlonipa 
purposes, the use of the word is now 
mostly confined to women). 

Cushe, ukuti (Chushe, ukuthi), v. Pass 
(intrans.) straight or right through, 
pierce through, as a needle or awl pas- 
sing through a piece of leather, grass, 
etc. = cusheka; make pass through, as 
the needle (ace.) or awl above — cushe- 
za; get passed through, or pierced 
through, as the piece of leather above 
= cushezeka. 

Cusheka (Chusheka), v. — ukuti cushe. 

u(lu)-Cushela (Chushela, or sometimes, 
s.c.),n. Any sharp-pointed, piercing 
thing; an ox with sharply pointed horns 
standing erect (=■ i-mBoxela). 

Cushelekela (Chushelekela), v. Go straight 
through, or direct along, a path (with 
nga). Cp. ukuti ngcelekeshe. 

Cusheza (Chusheza), v. = ukuti cushe. 

Cushu, ukuti (ChAishu, ukuthi), v. = ukuti 

i-nCushuncushu, n. - see i-Ncushuncushu. 

Cushuza (Chushuza), v. — cusheza. 

Cushu za, v. — ncushuza. 

Cuta (Cutha), v. Contract, compress, or 
draw in the body (ace), or any of its 
parts, as when seeking to drag the body 
through a narrow space, or when being 
tickled, or when straining, or when purs- 
ing the mouth to restrain from laugh- 
ing, or as a horse or dog laying down 
the ears (cp. butaza); have the ears 

84 CW 

drawn together i. e. unpierced, without 
a hole, according to Native custom (used 
in perf.) ; have the ears closed i. e. be 
disobedient, not readily responsive to 
orders, as a bad child ; be deaf (used 
in perf.). 

isi-Cute (Cuthe), v. Person with ears un- 
pierced ; person with ears closed i. e. not 
obedient, or actually deaf = isi-Puta. 

Cwa, ukuti (ukuthi), v. Be calm and clear, 

as the sky, mind, etc. = ukuti cwanta. 

Ex. intlixiyo yami ite cwa, my heart is 

at perfect rest, happy and contented, without 

anythiug to ruffle it = ukuti cokololo. 

Cwa, ukuti (Chwa, ukuthi), v. Resound, 
send forth a continued indistinct din or 
noise, as a lot of people singing in the 
distance, or as a wood or hail sending 
forth a dull confusion of sound; make 
a gentle rumbling noise, i. e. ferment 
gently, effervesce, as beer, or soda-water 
= cwaza. 

Cwaba, ukuti (Chwaba, ukuthi), v. Crackle, 
as dry sticks or undergrowth when 
walked upon ; make to crackle, as a piece 
of dry firewood (ace.) when breaking it 
up, or dry undergrowth when walking 
upon it = cwabaza. 

Phr. ake uti cwaba umlilo, just crack a 
few sticks for fire, or make up a small fire. 

u(lu)-Cwabasi (Chwabasi), n. Any food 
nicely crisped in the cooking or nicely 
crisp in the mouth, as meat or mealies 
nicely roasted, or buttered toast; (C.N.) 
a tall person of nice medium-sized body 
(— i-nGcwabasi). 

u(lu)-Cwabasosha (Chtvabasosha), n. (C.N.) 

= i-?iGmvabasi. 
Cwabaza (Chwabaza), v. = ukuti cwaba. 
i-nCwabi, n. = i-mBodhla; i-mPaka. 
Cwacwaba or Cwacwabala (Chwachwaba 

or Chwachwabala), v. = cocobala. 

i-nCwadi, n. Mark of any kind which indi- 
cates, directs, etc. as a sign-post, a stone 
placed as a guide in measuring, a pe- 
culiarity of features by which one re- 
cognises, etc.; hence, sign; evidence; 
letter, 'which indicates or tells things'; 
book; certain string of beads with the 
colours arranged according to a fixed 
custom, and which a young-man 'reads 
or tells,' it having reference to his love- 
feelings (Mod. in the latter instances). 

Ex. incwadi yami leyo, that is my sign 
or guide (as a knot tied in the grass or 
stick in the ground). 

incwadi yabo inye, ikala, their distinguish- 
ing feature is the same all round, viz. their 
nose (as children of a particular family). 


Cwaka, ukuti (ukuthi; s. k.), v. = ukuti cwa- 
nta (mostly N.). 
Cwakalala, ukuti (ukuthi; s. k.), v. = ukuti 

cwantalala (mostly N.). 
Cwala, v. Dress the hair by picking or 
combing it out with any pointed instru- 
ment, as is commonly done to the hair 
below the headring = visha. 
i-nCwali, n. Native hair-dresser and head- 
isi, or u(lu)-Cwalo, n. Pointed wooden 
instrument for picking or puffing out 
the hair, as above. 
um-Cwana, n. 5. (C.N.) = i(li)-Lula. 
Cwaneka (Chwaneka), v. Roast, toast, as 
a piece of meat (ace.) over the fire, or 
a person at the stake; bake, as the sun 
a person (ace.) = cocobalisa. 

N.B. Burning at the stake was not un- 
known with the Zulus. Shaka had a large 
number of the Elangeni clan — that of his 
mother — impaled on a circle of sharpened 
stakes, the stake eutering by the anus and 
passing through the body up to the neck, 
and then roasted over fires made up below 
isi, or um-Cwangubane (no plur.), n. 5. Cer- 
tain kind, or kinds, of small, striped, 
smooth-bodied caterpillars which have 
appeared in certain past years and 
worked great damage to grain crops = 
um-Balo, um-Gwangube. Cp. i(li)-Ntshu- 
um-Cwangube, n. 5. = um-Cwangubane. 
Cwaninga, v. Search or look for anything 
(ace.) carefully (= hlwaya); collect small 
sticks for firewood (ace. = cakasha). 
Cwanta, ukuti (ukuthi; s. t.), v. Be perfectly 
calm or still, as the weather on a wind- 
less, cloudless day (= ukuti cwantalala); 
be spread out at rest, as a multitude of 
people, or of cattle, sitting or lying down 
quietly on one spot (= ukuti cwantala- 
la, ukuti yiba, ukuti yibaba; cp. ukuti 
Cwantalala, ukuti (ukuthi; s. L), v. = ukuti 

u(lu)-Cwantalala (s. t), n. Mass of people 
or cattle lying or sitting spread out at 
rest on one spot = u(lu)-Yiba. 
Cwanzulula, v. = cwasa. 
Cwasa, v. Exclude or cut off a person (ace.) 
from one's society, friendship, etc. = 
bandhlulula, cwanzulula. See i(li)-Qu- 
de; i(li)-Ci. 

Cwasha or Cwashe, ukuti (Chwasha or 
Chwashe, ukuthi), v. Stick or pierce a 
person or thing (ace.) very slightly, as 

85 CW 

might a thorn, or one person giving 
another a prick with a pin; stick in 
slightly or loosely, as a hair-pin (ace.) 
into the hair, or a spoon into the thatch 
of a hut (cp. hloma); throw into the 
mouth, or eat bit by bit in small pieces, 
as when eating mealie grains (ace.) or 
small fruit singly — cwasha or cwashela, 
ukuti twasha. 
Cwasha or Cwashela (Chwasha or Chwa- 
shela), v. = ukuti ctvasha. 

Cwasha or Cwashela, v. Put or wear a 
band of skin or beadwork round the 
head, generally over the forehead = 
qela (qhela). 
Cwata (Cwatha), v. Become clear, cloudless, 
as the sky (used in perf.) ; become bare, 
bald, cleared of hair, grass, etc., as a 
man's head, a patch on an ox, or a spot 
on the veldt (— qwata) = cwatula. 

Ex. licwatile ixulu namhlanje, the sky is 
cloudless to-day. 
Cwata, ukuti (Cwatha, ukuthi), v. = cwata. 
u(lu)-Cwata (Cwatha), n. Bare or bald 
thing or place, as a man's head when 
shaven, a bald patch on an animal's body 
as where burnt, or the veldt where quite 
bare of grass = i-nGcwatule; i-Nyabule; 
i-Manyule. Cp. i-mPandhla. [Ga. kwa- 
lata, baldness]. 
u-Cwatibane (Chwathibane), n. Kind of 
grasshopper, said to be the male of the 
i(li)-Diya — ii-Mantshola. 
Cwatula (Cwathula),v. = cwata. 
i-nCwatule (Cwathule), n. —■ see i-nOcwa- 

Cwaya, v. = gcaya. 
Cwaya (Chwaya), v. Perform the hut, or 

i-nCwayi, n. One skilful at the um-Cwayo, 

Cwayi cwayi, ukuti (ukuthi), v. = cwayiza. 
Cwayiza, v. Blink, wink, as when some- 
thing has entered the eye, or as ordi- 
narily = qwayiza; cwazima; pazima. 
um-Cwayo (Chwayo), n. 5. Hut, or sitting- 
dance, or its accompanying song = um- 
Cwaza (Chwaza), v. = ukuti or a. 
u(lu)-Cwazi,w. A dazzling or glittering 
thing, a 'dazzlingness', such as fills the 
eyes after looking at the sun, or the 
dazzling heat-waves dancing above moist 
ground on a hot day, or the layer of 
oily-matter lying on the surface of stag- 
nant water, or the heliograph from its 
dazzling motion = u(lu)-Ncwasi; u(lu)- 


u-Cwazibe, n." Large bright star, Aldeba- 
ran of the constellation Taunts. Cp. 

Cwazi cwazi, ukuti (ukuthi), v. = cwazi- 
mula, cwazizc/a. 

ubu-Cwazicwazi, n. Brightness, shininess, 
as of polished metal or glassware ; splen- 
dour, effulgence, glitter, as in a gorgeous 
hall lighted -up. 

Cwazi ma, v. = cwayiza. 

Cwazi mu la, v. kazi inula, ukuti cwazi 

Cwazizela, v. kazi in til a, ukuti. cwazi 


Cwe, ukuti (ukuthi), v. Be brightly green 
or blue, as new grass, a clear sky, or 
pure water = ukuti yaka. Cp. cweba. 

isi-Cwe (Chive), n. Pigmy or Bushman 
(=: umu-Twa); sometimes used (N) for 

Cweba, /-. Become clear or pure /. e. free 
from all obscuring bodies, as muddy 
water does upon being left undisturbed, 
or as the sky when free from every 
cloud or haziness (used in perf.) ; be- 
come 'glassy', as the eyes when filled 
with tears. 

Ex. amanxi aewebile ate ore, the water 
is clear as crystal. 

amehlo as'ecwebe (or hlwenge, or ewenge) 
i\ inyembexi, his eyes are already filled with 

i(li)-Cweba, n. Lagoon, as at the mouth 
of the Umhlatuze or Durban. Cp. u(lu)- 

Ex. icweba laa'eNtlengeni, the Tonga la- 
goon i. c. St. Lucia Bay. 

i(li)-Cweba (Chweba), n. Single stalk of a 
certain kind of rush (used with plur.); 
also = i(li)-Coba. 

i-nCweba, n. Tiny skin-bag containing 
medicines or charms and worn singly 
or in numbers on a string round the 
neck. Cp. ama-Mbata. 

u(lu)-Cweba or more gen. Cwebe, //,. Any 
still, pure expanse or sheet of liquid, 
as a clear stagnant pond, lagoon, or 
beer when standing at rest (from the 
clear surface of water rising to the top). 

Cwebe cwebe, ukuti (ukuthi), v. — cwebezela. 

Cwebedu, ukuti (ukuthi), v. Be perfectly 
clear and still, as the sky; be perfectly 
silent, quiet, as a person. Cp. ukuti 

Phr. kuaate cwebedu, it is still all clear, 
without a speck (along the path), i. e. there- 
are still no signs of him fas of a person 

86 CW 

Cwebezela, v. — kazirnula. 

um-Cwebo, n. 5. = um-Laza. 

Cwecwa, v. Pare, shave off in thin slices 
(not scrape), as peel (ace.) from a potato 
(ace), or fat from a piece of meat, or 
small j shavings from a medicinal root. 

Phr. uku-eweewa ugwayi, to remove the 
stalks and stiff ribs from a tobacco leaf, 
leaving only the ukudhla. 

uku-xi-cwecwa endabeni, to cut oneself off 
from (having anything to do with) an affair, 
shrink out of it. 

u(lu)-Cwecwe, n. Thin, light sheet or plate 
of anything, as a sheet of tin, or brown- 
paper; dim. form u(lu)-Cwecwana, slice, 
scale, wafer, etc. = u(lu)-Cecevu, u- 

i-nCwele, n. (N. fr. Xo. i-nQwelo) == i- 

i-nCweleha, n. = i-nXeleha. 

Cwenga, v. Clear i. e. make run off clear, 
'pour off any liquid (ace.) from its sedi- 
ment, as one might clear water by strain- 
ing, filtering, or making it run off clear 
at the top, leaving the sediment behind; 
or as the sour-milk calabash (nom.) does 
the whey (ace.) when it lets it run off 
clear leaving the curds behind (= hlwe- 
nga, hlahla); or as a person's eyes make 
tears (ace.) 'run off clear' when they 
fill with them from sorrow or anger 
(— hlwenga, cweba). 

Ex. us'eewenge ixinycmbexi, his^eyes are 
already filled with tears. 

Cwentsa (Chwentsa), v. Act or talk in a 
bad-mannered, rude way, without shame, 
restraint, or respect, as a youth talking 
rudely to his father, or fighting with 
another boy in his presence. 

i(li)-Cwentsa or Cwentsana (Chwentsa), n. 
One who acts or talks as above. 

Cwepe cwepe, ukuti (Chwephe chwephe, 
ukuthi), v. = cwepesha. 

Cw6pesha (Chwephesha), v. Do off smartly, 
with skilful easiness, as any work (ace.), 
account of an affair, etc. See i-nGcwepe- 

Cwepeshe, ukuti (Chwepheshe, ukuthi), v. 
= cwepesha. 

Ex. wasiti ewepeshe (isicalulo), he put it 
right in no time (the boot he was repairing). 

i-nCwepeshi (Cwepheshi), n. — see i-nGcwe- 

Cwepeza (Chwepheza), v. — cwepesha. 

Cwesha, v. = ukuti cweshe. 

Cweshe, ukuti (ukuthi), v. Cut off a little 
bit of anything (ace), as meat, cloth, etc.; 


encroach upon land (ace.) by appropri- 
ating small bits at a time = cwesha. 
Cwetula (Cwethula), v. Clear away the 
clouds, become clear, as the sky (= cwa- 
ta, hluba; cp. beka); clean up, sweep 
up, as a kraal (ace.) of weeds and rub- 
bish (ace. = cetula). 

Phr. (ixulu) liewetulilr., nas'ebukweni bexi- 
nja, the sky has cleared up right away to 
the horizon {lit. even to where the dog's 
wives come from). 

ubu-Cwibi, n. — ubu-Cubu. 

Cwicwiteka (Cwicwitheka), v. Titter, as a lot 

S~ of girls at a person speaking. Cp. ma- 

mateka; gegeteka; kunkuteka; gigiteka. 

Cwila, v. Sink down bodily into anything 
(loc.) out of sight, as when quietly div- 
ing or sinking into deep water, or 
(metaphor.) into deep or long grass. Cp. 
ukuti goje. [Ga. bira, dive]. 

CwTIi, ukuti (ukuthi), v. = cwila; cwilisa. 

um-Cwili, n. 5. Klip dagga (Leonotis ovata) 
= u(bu)-Tshwalabenyoni; cp. i-Munya- 

87 DA 

XB. The haves of this plant are said to 
he oue of the chief Xosa remedies for snake- 

Cwilisa, v. Make sink down into, as above 
— see cwila; hence, immerse, dip into, 
as when placing anything (ace.) beneath 
the water; steep, soak, as Kafir-corn 
(ace.) by putting into a stream to make 
it sprout for malt. 

Ex. vku-xi-cwilisa, to duck oneself, dive 

down beneath the water (not properly plunge). 

i-nCwincwi, n. Sun-bird or Honey-sucker, 

of which there are several varieties 

(Cinnyris Afra, C. chalybea, etc.). 

Cwiya, v. Cut off small bits here and there 
from a slaughtered beast, or as an urn- 
takati does from a murdered person; 
take out or away small bits now and 
then, as of food (ace.) from a pot. 

i(li)-Cwiyo, n. Small choice piece, tit-bit, 
such as is cut off a slaughtered beast 
for the kraal-head, or from a human 
body, as above. 


\ in Zulu has but one sound, the same as 

in English, although in Zulu the letter is 

somewhat more clearly dentalised and possesses 

a stronger aspiration than in English speech. 

The comhiuations did, as in the word Dhlala 
(to play); hi, as in the word Elala (remain); 
and tl, as in the word i-nTlixiyo (heart), are 
used to denote the three varieties of lisp in 
the Zulu language. The difference in sound 
between the did (the deep, throat lisp) and 
the hi (the medium or mouth lisp) is very like 
the difference between the tfd in the English 
word 'smoothly' and that in the word 'deathly' 
— the sign dhl corresponding to the former 
and the Id to the latter. The tl (or sharp, 
dental lisp) is the latter sound sharpened by 
the fact of its following immediately after an 
n, which causes it to become somewhat den- 
talised, so as to resemble the sound of the tl 
in the Euglish word 'neatly'. 

In the Xosa language, the sign dl is used 
for the same sound as we express in Zulu by 
the sign did. For the sake of uniformity, as 
well as of brevity, it would seem eminently 
desirable to adopt the Xosa sign also for the 

Da, defect, verb. — mostly appearing in 
■ the form de q. v., and used to express 
/' 'continually, constantly, always', etc. 

Ex. uti uMpatwa, uboda umbekela intsimu 

yoke, Mpatwa says, always keep an eye for 
him on his field. 

i-nDaba, n. Matter, affair; case; topic of 
conversation; business; report; story, 
tale; pi. izi-nDaba, news; doings [L. 
fabula, story; fama, report; Ar. khabar, 
news, report; Sw. jambo, affair; Ga. ki- 
gambo; Bo. z-ambo; Ze. Ngu. ku-ga- 
tnbira, to tell to; Her. oku-yamba, to 
talk about; Ka. ku-leba, to speak]. 

Ex. kuy'indaba yako ukulungisa loko, it 
is your business to arrange that. 

seku indaba, it is now a case (to be talked 
about) — previously it was of little public 
concern or importance. 

ixindaba xake anyixitandi, I don't like 
his affairs (caused by his carryings-on). 

ngimaxi nyeiulaba nje, anyimaxi ngamehlo, 
I know him just by report, I don't kuow 
him by the eyes (i.e. personally). 

indaba kanyiyixeki, the affair, no! I don't 
talk about it, i.e. it is altogether too bad, 
or surprising, beggars all description. 

Phr. tat'indaba le, nyikupe umcaba, take 
this affair, and I will give you some mealie- 
'masi = oh! do relate to us that affair. 

i-nDaba (or i-nTliziyo) ka'Ndondondo, n. = 
i-nGubo ka' Kundhlase. 

u(lu)-Daba, n. Occurrence or matter of 
importance, serious affair. 




i-nDabakadengizibone, (s.k.),n. 

i-nDabakawombe (Dabakawombhe), n. 


Dabalaza, v. Stand astride, with the legs 
wide apart (C. N.) = xamalaza. 

i(li)-Dabane, n. Certain weed, growing- in 
old kraals. 

isi-Dabane, n. = isi-Gceba. 

i-nDabankulu (s.k.),n. Certain section of 
Shaka's izi-mPohlo regiment. 

um-Dabe, n. 5. Place with deep, uncross- 
able mud; a bog = u(lu) Bulm; u(lu)- 


Dabu, ukuti (ukuthi), v. = clabuka; dabula. 

um-Dabu, n. 5. Name given to the larger 
i-nTolwane shrub (— um-Dabu obomvu) 
whose roots are used as an emetic for 
iibu-Lawu and for chest and stomach 
complaints; more rarely also applied to 
i-n Tolwane encane (= um-Dabu omhlope) 
which is used for, headaches; also = 

Dabuka (s. k.), v. Get rent, torn, as a gar- 
ment (cp. qibuka; rrebuka) ; get broken, 
as an earthen vessel; get broken out, 
as the body of a person with sores ; get 
heart-broken, saddened, grieved; get 
broken out into being, get sprung forth 
into life, i. e. break out into being, spring 
forth into life, as new grass and plants 
at the coming of spring; originate, have 
their origin, as a tribe [Sw. pasuka, get 
rent or broken; tatuka, get rent; Ya. 
sauka, suffer; Her. pauka, tauka, get 
broken or torn]. 

Ex. ngidabukile impela ngalcyo'ndaba, I 
am very sorry about that affair. 

y'iloku kwadabuka umhlaba, ever since 
the world came into existence. 

abakwa'Dhlam ini badabuka eSwaxmi, 
those of the Dhlamini stock had their origin 
in Swaziland. 

um-Dabuka (s. k.),n. 5. = um-Kenke. 

Dabukela (s. k.), v. Be grieved at (the sight 
of) i. e. to envy, enviously covet, as the 
property (ace.) of another man = hawu- 

Dabukisa (s. k.), v. Grieve, sadden, as a 
child its parents (ace.) this word is 

not used as a rule in the sense of 'to 
create', or of to cause to get torn or 
broken' i. e. to break or tear, dabula 
l"ing used in such cases. 

urn, qr i-nDabuko (a.k.),n.5. Original or 
ancient custom, nature, as of the Na- 
tives i-mVelo. 

isi-Dabuko (a.k.),n. Original source, place 

88 DA 

of origin, as of a tribe; original or an- 
cient custom. 

Dabula, v. Rend, tear, as a garment (ace. 

— cp. qibula; rrebula); break (trans.), 
as an earthen pot; make break forth 
into life or being, create, as God did the 
earth; split up or ofr^ as one portion 
(ace.) of a tribe from another ; go or 
pass through, as a field (with loc. or 
pakati) ; cut or saw through, as a plank ; 
chap, as frost, the feet (ace); slice, slit, 

• as a hide — (this word is not used to 
express 'to make heart-broken, or grieve' ; 
for this dabukisa is used). [Sw. pasua, 
tatua, to break or tear; Her. paura, 
taura, to break or tear]. 

Ex. uyifunde qede, irb'us'uyid-abula (inewa- 
dij, when you have read it (the letter), tear 
it up. 

uNkulunkulu wadabula abantu ohlanyeni, 
God brought man into being from out of 
the original stem. 

Phr. ukudabida umkonto, to separate off 
from the bundle, grasp hold of an assegai 

— in order to draw it out for throwing. 
ukudabula ubusuku, to travel during the 

night — whether only for a short portion 
or the whole thereof. 

i(li)- Dabu lam biza (Dabulambhiza), n. = 

u-Dabuleni, n. Safety-pin (T.). 

um-Dabuli, n. 1. Surveyor — from his bu- 
siness of dividing up the land into 
farms (Mod.). 

i-nDabuli, n. Professional 'arranger' of 
Native dance-songs, adapting the song 
to the dance, etc. See funda. 

Daca, ukuti (ukuihi), v. Make a slapping, 
splashing sound, as of a lump of mud 
thrown on a wall, or dropped on a floor; 
hence, throw, drop any soft semi-liquid 
substance (ace), as before = dacaza; 
get so thrown or dropped, as the semi- 
liquid substance itself; lie sprawling or 
flat on the stonach = dacazeka. See 
ukuti baca. 

Dacaza, v. = ukuti daca. 

Dacazeka (s. k.), v. == ukuti daca. 

Daceka (s. k.), v. = dacaza. 

Dacekeka (s. k.), v. = dacazeka. 

Dada, r. Cause a person (ace.) to be at a 
loss as to what to do, make helplessly 
puzzled how to extricate oneself, as 
might any difficult circumstances e.g. 
two impis coming up from different 
sides at the same time, a superabundance 
of weeds in a planted field, etc. = tana. 
[Sw. tatanisha, puzzle. Comp. Dida]. 

i(li)-Dada, n. Black Duck (Anas spar sa); 


applied also to any other similar varieties 
(cp. i(li)-Hoye); also (N) — i(li)-Cacane. 
[Hi. bat, duck; Sw. Ga. Ngu. bata; Bo. 
Sha. Ze. wata; Ku. nrata; Heh. ibata- 
tvata; Her. o-mbaka]. 

um-Dada.w. 5. Rig i(li)-Beshu, very broad 

and long. 
isi, or u(lu)-Dada, n. = u(lu)-Dadawe. 

Dadambala (Dadambhala), v. Go beyond 
the proper time in doing anything; 
hence, be over-cooked, as any food (used 
in perf.); delay in bearing, as a cow or 
woman whose time has already passed. 
u(lu)-Dadasholo, n. Any broadly expan- 
sive thing, as a skin, blanket, curtain, 
etc. = u(lu)-Dwadwasholo. Cp. i(li)~ 
u(lu)-Dadawe, n. = u(lu)-Dvduma. 
u-Dade, n. Applied by male* to any fe- 
male, younger or older, born of the 
same mother (= sister); of the same 
father by other wives (= half-sister); 
of the maternal uncle or aunt, and of 
the paternal uncle (= cousin, — when 
of paternal aunt = imi-Zala) ; or of any 
other kraal or family having the same isi- 
bongo(= clanswoman, kinswoman, blood- 
relative). Applied by females to any 
female as aforesaid, when elder than 
the speaker - - females in the same de- 
gree of relationship, but of like age = 
um-Fo, q. v.; those in the same degree 
of relationship, but of younger age == 
tim-Nawa, q. v. [Sw. dadal used in 
addressing a sister; San. muhasa; Gan. 
Heh. muhadza; Bis. uweso; Bo. Ngu. 
Ze. lumbu]. Comp. n-Tate. 

Ex. udadc wetu, wenu, wabo (never wami, 
wako, wake), my, or our sister; plur. odade 
wetu, wenu, uabo (never bami, etc., or betu. 
etc.), my, or our sisters. 

ngifung'adade wetu, I swear by my sister; 
or 'dade ivctn .' alone, or the sister's name 
— is a very common expression of men 
when wishing to confirm a statement by an 
oath, the meaning being 'Indeed I would lie 
with my sister, if I be not telling the truth ' 
(see Bina). 
Dadeka (s. k.), v. Get put, or be, at a loss 
as to what to do, how to extricate one- 
self, as when in seriously emban-assing 
circumstances (used in perf.) = taneku. 
See dada. 
Dafaza.v. Trudge wearily along, when 

tired out = divaza. 
ama-Dafu (no sing.), n. Very soft, over- 
boiled mealie-grains (izi-nKobe) = ama- 
Nyewu, ama-Nyikive. 
Daka (s. k.), v. Make besotted, stupefy, 
intoxicate, as alcohol, or hemp-smoking 

89 DA 

a person (ace); make faint, languid, 
strengthless, as hot sultry weather; 
besot, be too much for, make forget one- 
self, as an unaccustomed abundance of 
delicious food (ace.) might cause chil- 
dren momentarily to lose their gravity, 
respect, etc. - the word in all its senses 
is generally used in the passive form 
dakwa q. v., seldom in the active. 
i(li)-Daka (; s. k.),n. Rich compress- 
ed soil beneath the soft surface-mud in 
the cattle kraal, in some places used as 
fuel; (tvith pi.) single brick or clod of 
dried kraal-mud, used as fuel. 
isi-Daka (s.k.),n. Black rich soil, wet or 

um-Daka (s. k.), n. 5. Ring, about six inches 
in diameter, of rough brass of about an 
inch in thickness and obtained by barter 
from the Portuguese territory or pos- 
sible manufactured by Native smiths 
further north, and formerly used for 
making the i-nGxota and also as an 
um,-Beko; soil of any kind rendered 
black and muddy by rain ; hence, any- 
thing of a dark-brown, muddy colour 
(see mdaka); gall-ball, or soft pellet 
found in the gall-bladder of some cattle 
and goats, and said to be the cause of 
the animal's making a groaning sound 
when breathing asleep in the kraal; such 
groaning sound made during sleep by 
cattle; deep breathing of some human- 
beings when sleeping. [Tat. odika, iron ; 
Kag. Itum. ndapo, iron-ore; Sw. shaba, 
brass or copper; Bo. ki-lama, iron]. 

N.B. These brass or copper rings were 
formerly of great value among the Zulus, a 
person "being easily able to get a beast, or 
even a wife at times, for them. They were 
used for making neck-rings, and other body 
u(lu)-Daka (s.k.),n. Mud; mud-mortar; 
udaka olumhlope, white ochreous clay. 
isi-Dakadaka (s.k.),n. Huts, houses, or 
kraals very numerous together in one 
place. Cp! isirDhlidhli. 
u(lu)-Dakalwezisini (s.k.),n. Any nice soft 
food that makes a paste for the teeth, 
'stick-jaw,' as nice isijingi, amasi, or 
very tender meat. 
um-Dakamfene (s. k.), n. ■'>■ Certain forest- 
tree, having hard red wood. 
u(lu)-Dakana (s.k.), h. Half-asleep looking 
person having no energy of body or 
mind. Cp. um-Lalane. 
i-nDakandaka (s.k.),». Great quantity or 
multitude of anything, as crops, beer, 
books, cattle, etc.; person overcome or 
done up with exhaustion or worry, 

DA 90 

whose powerless body is 'all over the 
place.' See dakaza. 

Ex. ku'Bani aku'mabele, indakandaka i<jt, 
with So-and-so ir i>n't corn; it is just heaps 
of it. 

i(li)-Dakane (s.k.),n. Certain hush-tree, 
growing along- the coast. 

um-Dakane (s. k.), n. o. White Pear (Apo- 
dytes dimidiata) — forest tree growing 
along coast with hard wood used for 
felloes, and its bark and leaves as pur- 
gative for young cattle (N). 

u(lu), or i-nDakane (s. k.), n. Certain shrub, 
producing fibre, and used medicinally 
for fevers and as an i-nTelezi. 

Dakatsha, ukuti (ukuthi; s. k.; s. t.), v. = 

Dakatshela (s. k.; 8. t.), v. Go dragging one- 
self along, as one quite exhausted = 

Dakaza (s. k.), v. Do anything largely, 
abundantly, prodigally, etc. — most com- 
monly used of 'good things,' as food, 
etc See i-nDakandaka. 

Ex. nbani uasidakaxa ngotshwala, So-and- 
so treated us abundantly to beer. 

sadakaxa ngotshwala k'obani, we got any 
amount of beer at So-and-so's. 

inlcosi yah 'idakaxa ixincwadi, the magis- 
trate was eugaged on a great heap of letters. 

Dakwa (s. k.), v. Be besotted, drunk, as 
with beer or hemp; be overcome, as by 
sun's heat or over-eating. 

Ex. udakiwe, he is drunk 

udakwe ilanga, he is done up by the sun. 

i(li), or isi-Dakwa (s.k.), n. Drunkard; one 
given to excessive hemp-smoking. 

X.B. Native medicine is not without its 
cures for inebriates, e. g. ground partridge- 
gizzard, or the froth of boiled beer-dregs, 
administered in a little utshwala before the 
feast is an infallible specific. Another re- 
medy is the is-ona weed taken in the same 
way. The reasoning in this case is pro- 
bably that, inasmuch as the isona weed is 
the most fatal enemy to the mabele plant 
while in the field — this latter not being 
able to thrive at all wherever the weed exists 
— ergo, the mahele-beer poured into a stom- 
ach previously well drugged with the weed, 
will find it a very unfavourable habitat. Lest, 
however, there be auy misunderstanding as 
to the opinion of the Native, from an ethical 
point of view, about getting drunk, I may 
state that it is not the habit of inebriation 
that is disliked by the drunkard or disap- 
proved by the community, or indeed treated 
by the Kafir doctor, but the alcoholism and 
nerve-effecta (u- Valo) resulting therefrom. 


u-Dakwa-ukusuta (Dakwa-ukusutha),n. Re- 
giment formed (or rather only named) 
by Dinuzulu's mother, during his ab- 
sence in St. Helena, and next following 
after the i-nGubo ka Kundhlase (q. v.). 

Dala, v. Bring into being, create, as God 
brought into existence the world (ace.), 
or as Mpande is said, in his praises, to 
have created Zululand = dabula. [The 
word is probably only another form of 
zala, to give birth to (q. v.). Skr. dha- 
ma, effect, create; jan, beget; Lat. pario, 
I bring forth ; nascor, I am born ; Heb. 
bara, create; Ar. khala, create; Her. 
kara, make to be; At. da, create; Ga. 
tonda, create — comp. Zulu um-tondo, 
male organ of generation, the penis]. 

Dala, adj. Old, aged (not used for 'old' 
in the jocular sense — see u-Ntsondo and 
u-Koto). [A.S. eald; Eng. old; Ar. "adim, 
old ; Ga. Nya. Kag. daa, ancient ; Her. 
kuru, old (k in Her. = d in Z., e.g. 
Her. kara, create = Z. dala, create); 
Ngu. Ze. kolo, (see prev. remark); Sw. 
zee, old (z in Sw. = d in Z., e. g. Sw. 
zaa, to bring forth, and Z. dala, create)]. 

Phr. ngimdala namhlanje, I am old to- 
day, i. e. I have seen wonders. 

woba mdala, you will be old, i. e. will 
make a tough experience, such as you never 
knew before — said to a naughty boy for 
whom chastisement is in store. 

sell lidala (ilanga), it (the sun) is already 
old, *'. e. is already up some time, say about 
an hour (see pisa). 

loko kwavela pakade kadala, that happened 
long ago, in old times. 

abadala, adults; amadala, old people. 

i(li)-Dala, n. Aged person. 

ubu-Dala, n. Age, as of a person; anti- 
quity, the 'long ago.' 

Ex. kwenxiwa 'budala loko, or ebudaleni, 
or endulo, that was done or made in ancient 

Dalala, ukuti (ukuthi), v. Be openly ex- 
posed to the view of all, be in the open, 
as a kraal or exposed object, or the 
fault of a person become publicly known ; 
be quite bare, empty, a merely open 
space, as a field that has been eaten 
off by cattle; make, or place, so openly 
exposed, bare, etc., as any object (gen. 
such as ought to be concealed), the fault 
(ace.) of a person, etc. (= dalula). [Skr. 
dal, split; Her. kuruka, bare — comp. 
Her. kuru, old = Z. dala, old], 

Ex. ixinkomo xangena, xawuti buqe urn- 
bda, sekute dalala, the cattle entered and 
utterly cleared off the mealies, it is now per- 
fectly bared (nothing being left). 

DA 91 

aekute dalala eshungwini la mi, it is now 
quite empty in my snuff-box. 

wakuluma wamtcla dalala, he spoke and 
made (the case) bare for him, /. c. exposed 
him = iramdalula. 

isono sake satiwa dalala, his sin was laid 
Dalakaxa, ukuti (ukuthi), r. == ukuti bala- 

u-Dalamede, n. Dynamite [Eng.]. 
Dalasa, or Dalasela, v. — talasa. 

um-Dalase, n. 5. Any very old thing, as 
vessel, hut, or person. 

isi-Dalasi, n. = isi-Talasi. 

u(lu)-Dalasi, n. = u(lu)-Dwadwa. 

ezika'Dalawana (izinja), n. Dalawana's 
dogs — a name of contempt given to 
the Durban Native police, probably so 
called after a certain superintendent 

u-Dali, n. Dohl; split-peas; lentils [Eng.]. 

i-nDalu, n. Small tree (Greyia Suther- 
landi), growing in up-lands (N). 

Dal u la, v. Expose, make bare, as a person 
or his secret doings (doub. ace.) = uku- 
ti dalala [Skr. dal, split; Her. kuruka, 
bare — comp. Her. kuru, old = Z. data, 

i-nDalule, n. One of the number of bones 
used by the Native bone-diviner (N). 

Damba (Dambha), v. Go down, as a swel- 
ling; subside, as a river; be calmed 
y' down, as anger; be allayed, as pain; be 
calmed, as one's desire = bohla. 

Dambata (Dambhatha), v. = gubuya. 

um-Dambi (Dambhi), n. 5. Rush-like grass, 
used for making eating-mats ; (N) shrimp, 

i(li)-Dambisa (Dambhisa), n. = i(li)-Dwa- 

Dambu dambu, ukuti (Dambhu dambhu, 

ukuthi), v. = ukuti namba namba. 

Dambuza (Dambhuza), v. = nambaza. 
isi-Dambuza, or Dambuzana (Dambhuza or 
Dambhuzana), n. = isi-Namba. 

Damene, aux. verb. = de, jinge, zinge, 

Damu, ukuti (ukuthi), v. Burst up in a 
flare or flame, as a little dry grass when 
lighted; burst or break open or apart, 
as a mist, clouds, or a rank of men to 
allow a chief to pass; open out in con- 
centric circles, as water when a stone is 
thrown in = damuka; go flaring or 
flaming up, as a grass-fire when coming 
across patches of dry grass or blown 
up by a wind = damuzela; cause to burst 
up in a flare, as the wind might a little 
fire (ace.) among dry grass; cause to 


break open or apart, as the wind a fog 
(ace.) = damula; go splashing in or 
through water (ace), causing it to 'burst' 
up and about, as when crossing a drift, 
or a swimmer splashing about with the 
feet = damuza. 

i(li)-Damu, n. A splashing about in the 
water, or splashing up thereof, as when 
swimming, according to Native custom, 
with a splashing of the feet (== uku-sho 
ya idamu), or as children splashing one 
another when bathing in a river (cp. 
i-nTiki); a large abundance of food, 
generally beer, 'ponds-ful' of it (more 
generally used in plur. ama-Damu = 
ama-Baka; ama-Cibi). 

Damuka (s. k.), v. = ukuti damn. 

Damula, v. = ukuti damu. 

Damusa, v. (C.N.) — darmiza. 

Damuza, v. = ukuti damu. 

Damuzela, v. = ukuti damu. Cp. gqamuka. 

Dana, aux. verb. — de, damene, etc. 

Dana, v. Get powerless, depressed, languid, 
as the body from excessive heat or 
weakness; get depressed mentally, out 
of heart, as through worry. 

Ex. ngidanile, nyidaniswe ixindaba ;ako, 
I am tired out, I have been tired out by your 

isi-Danasi, n. = isi-Talasi. 

Dan da, v. Follow along, as a track or 
path (with ku); follow along, relate, an 
occurrence (ace. = landa); plant or 
sow anything (ace.) by following along 
(not scattering broadcast), i. e. seed by 
seed in furrows, or rows, or successive 
holes made by the hoe. 

Phr. aku-danda indima, to mark out a 
field or garden by cutting a row of holes 
with the hoe = gaba, ala. 

N.B. This word, danda or landa, shows 
how also in the Zulu language an inter- 
change formerly existed between the letters 
d and /. How this interchange was mauaged 
is clearly exemplified by the Suto branch 
of the Bantu languages, where even to-day a 
sound exists which is midway between a d 
and an /, as shown in the Suto word for 
'God,' which some Europeans write as Mo- 
limo, others as Modimo. 
i(li)-Danda (loc. e-Danda) n. = i(ii)-Qolo. 

isi- Danda, n. Person or animal (as cow or 
bullock) of sluggish, spiritless disposi- 
tion, without energy or fire — used of 
a child still crawling when others of its 
age are walking, or a cow that lets it- 
self be pulled about by anyone, or a 
woman in an advanced stage of preg- 

DA 92 

ubu-Danda, >i. Quality or state of being 
as above. 

Dandabuza, /•. Travel far, covering a great 
stretch of country (ace); go on and 
on, recounting all the monotonous de- 
tails, never getting to the end, as when 
giving evidence or relating an affair = 
tandabuza, shish i/neza. 

Dandalaza, v. Come into sight, come into 
the open, as anything previously screened 
from view. 

Phr. idandnlazile (inyanga), it is come 
into sight (the moon) — used of the new 
moon just appearing. 

Dandalazi, ukuti (ukuthi), v. — dandalaza. 

i-nDandato (Dandatho), n. Ring, or cir- 
cular piece of metal; the name was ap- 
plied to the um-Daka q. v. 

Dandisa, /-. Make to follow all the inci- 
dents of an affair by giving a detailed 
account of it (doub. ace.) = landisa. 

Ex. wangidandisa yonke indciba, he re- 
lated t he whole affair to me. 

Dane, <iu.r. verb. = de. 

i(li), or sometimes ama-Danga, n. = i(li)- 
Denge, i(li)-Ceke; also (C.N.) = i-mBuqa. 

isi-Danga, u. Very long string or rope of 
beadwork wound round and round the 
loins or neck so as to form a thick belt 
(= isi-Woado), or allowed to hang in 
numerous strings from over the shoulder 
f= uru-Gaxo). 

i(li)-Dangabane, n. (C.N.) = i(li)-Dwangu- 

Danga danga, ukuti (ukuthi), r. .-■ danga- 

Dangala, v. Get or be depressed, strength- 
less, languid, as the body from illness 
or heat, or the mind from affliction or 
worry (used in perf.) = dana. 

i-n Dangala, n. = i-mFene. 

Dangalaza, v. = xamalaza. 

Dangana, v. = dangala. 

Dangazela, v. Flare up, break out into 
flame brightly for a few moments and 
then die down, as a grass-fire when the 
breeze blows, or a hut-fire when a few- 
more dry sticks are thrown in = da- 
ngazela, langalangazela (see remarks 
under danda). Cp. damuzela. 

i(li)-Dangu,H. Veldt-pond of stagnant water 
= i(li)-Cibi. [MZT. chi-bongo, small 

Dangu dangu, ukuti (ukuthi), v. = danga- 

Danguzela, v. = dangazela. 
u(lu)-Danqudanqu, n. = u(lu)-Donqadonqa. 


Dantsaza (s. t.), v. Go trudging, shuffling 
along, dragging the feet after one, as a 
tired-out traveller. Cp. davuza. 

Dantsha, ukuti (ukuthi; s. t.), v. = ukuti 

Dantsu, ukuti (ukuthi; s. L), v. = dantsula. 

Dantsula (s. t.), v. Hit a person (ace), give 
him a stroke or swipe with a switch, 
whip, birch, or other flexible instrument 
= kwantshula, kwantshabula ; cp. taxa- 

Danyana, adj. dim of De, long — hence, 
rather long, longish. 

Dapu, ukuti (Daphu, ukuthi), v. = dapuna. 

isi-Dapudapu (Daphudaphu), n. = i-nDa- 

Dapuna (Daphuna), v. Take up or out 
w r ith the hand anything (ace.) of a soft, 
ungraspable nature, falling into pieces 
or away from the hand, as any semi- 
liquid food like pumpkin-mash, or any 
rotten, sodden substance. 

i-nDapundapu (Daphundaphu),n. Any soft- 
natured, ungraspable thing, falling apart 
under the touch, as above. 

Dapuza (Daphuza), v. = dapuna. 

Dapuzeka (Daphuzeka), v. Get taken up 
or be takable, as above, i. e. be of a 
soft, ungraspable nature, falling to bits 
under the touch, as sodden meat or 
soaken bread. 

isi-Darraza, n. = isi-Cakafu. 

Datsha, ukuti (ukuthi; s. t.), v. =tikuti diea. 

i-nDatsha (s.t.),n. Certain ferocious little 
rat-like animal, having small tusks and 
tail-less, of a light brownish colour, and 
living underground (N) = i-mPukuluti. 

Davuza, v. Plod laboriously along, toil 
along, as when on a long journey; wade 
or toil through, as a swamp, broad ex- 
panse of water, or dense undergrowth 
of vegetation ; plod about, wander about, 
as one not knowing the way, or going 
about on fruitless errands = divaza, 
gqizaza. Comp. dantsaza. 

isi-Dawane, n. Strand-wolf, a species of 
hycena (the animal having become ex- 
tinct in the country of the Zulus, the 
name also has become obsolete and exists 
now merely in fable) [Xo. is-Andawane). 
N.B. The isidawane is said to come up 
to a kraal and say, We! 'banif nampu 
ububende bako! i.e. Here! So-and-so! here 
is your mince-meat! — upon his arrival, it 
will seize and go off with him. 

i-nDawo, w. Place, locality, room, space; 
situation, place of employment; par- 
ticular point of an argument; proper 

DA 93 

or usual point or limit for doing any- 
thing ; used adverbially as 'ndawo, to 
express 'at all, by any means, anywhere', 
and generally, though not always in 
connection with a negative [Skr. dhama, 
place; Ar. wadaj; Ta. a-ndu; Ga. wa- 
ntu; Bo. ha-ntu; Po. bfa-ntu]. 

Ex. uti bala kukona 'ndawo'? and du you 
think then it actually exists anywhere? 

ndawonye (= indawo inye) is used prepo- 
sitionally to express 'together, in the same 
place '. 

<ja! ngingc&e ngavuma 'ndawo, no! by 
no means can I allow it. 

m'efikile, yini, endaweni? has hr then 
already arrived anywhere? — said sueeringly 
in reply to a question as to where a bad 
walker might by this time have got to. 

wayipekisisa (inyama), wadhlida indawo, 
he cooked it (the meat) beyond the mark or 
proper degree. 

utshwala babumnandi, badhlula indawo, 
the beer was nice, beyond all ordinary beer. 

uhukuluma kwako kawuknlumeli 'lvlawo, 
as to your talking, you don't talk for any 
point, or useful object, at all — i. e. you 
are driving at nothing; also, you speak to 
no purpose. 

i-nDawo (Daawo), re, Species of cyperus or 
rush, whose stalks are used for mat-mak- 
ing, and whose roots, having a bitter gin- 
ger-like taste, as a stomachic for indiges- 
tion, foul breath, etc., and which are con- 
sequently often worn in small bead-like 
pieces round the neck for nibbling at 
as occasion requires; another kind of 
flag, growing in moist places, and used 
for 'smoking away' ticks from cattle; 
also sometimes applied to i-nDungulu. 

N.B. The eyperi are known all the world 
over for their carminative properties. And 
the fact of this local specimen (the indawo) 
of the genus (as well as many other more 
important remedies, as, for instance, the fern 
— i-n-Komankoma — for tapeworm) haviug 
a place in the Kaffir materia mediea, may 
be taken as evidence that they do possess 
some really good and efficacious remedies. 

i-nDawo I ucwata (Daawolucwatha), re. Cer- 
tain iridaceous plant of Europeans, used 
by Natives for sprains, as a charm, etc. 

i-nDawoluti (Daaivoluthi), n. Species of iris 
(Belamcanda punctata), cultivated by 
Europeans, and of which one kind (em- 
nyama) is used as a cure for hysterics 
and the other (emhlope) for headache 
and stomach complaints, also to render 
ineffectual the medicines of an umtakati. 

Daxa, ukuti (ukuthi), o. = daxazela; da- 

Daxalazela, v. — daxazela. 


i-nDaxandaxa, n. Person or thing dripping 
wet with rain, causing the slopping sound 
daxa. Cp. i-m Baxambaxa. 

Daxaza, v. Make the slopping, slushing 
sound daxa, as a cow when dropping 
dung, or a person throwing mud, or the 
isidwaba of a woman when wet through, 
or a man walking through a muddy 
place in the rain. 

Daxazela, v. Go slushing, slopping along, 
as a person walking along a road in a 
heavy rain, or a woman with her isi- 
dwaba wet through. 

Daxu, ukuti (ukuthi), v. Hit a person (ace.) 
or thing with any soft-substanced, flex- 
ible instrument, as a wet reim, or 
shambok = daxula. Cp. dantsula. 

Daxu la, v. = ukuti daxu. 

isi-Dayanonko (s.k.),n. Daft, utterly sense- 
less, stupefied-looking individual or 
idiot ; sometimes applied contemptuously 
to any deaf person (= isi-Tulu), from 
the stupid appearance he presents when 
being spoken to and not hearing; any- 
thing of a hard, or intractable nature, 
not readily responding to any operation, 
as tar to leave the hand when washed, 
etc.; any disagreeable peculiarity about 
a person, as a repulsive appearance, dis- 
gusting manners, etc., such as make him 
generally disliked among the girls, etc. 

Daza, v. Persist in contention, strife, or 
dispute from sheer obstinacy (used with 
i-nKani). Cp. banga. 

Dazu, ukuti (ukuthi), v. — dazuka; dasufa. 

Dazuka (s. k.), v. Get so split apart or 
asunder, as below; utter a 'splitting' 
or piercing cry, shriek out, cry out with 
all one's might, as when in danger or 
merely to some distant person = dazu- 

Dazula, v. Split apart or asunder, as tin- 
two portions of a piece of chopped fire- 
wood (ace), a man's head with a blow 
from a hatchet, or a person his legs 
when separating them far apart whether 
when sitting or standing (cp. xamalaza) 
= dazulula. Cp. debeza [Skr. dal, split]. 
Ex, ukii-xi-daxula, to open apart one'- 
legs so as to expose the private parts ob- 

Dazuluka (s. k.), r. = dazuka. 

Dazulula.r. = dazula. 

De, def. verb, used to express 'continu- 
ally, constantly, frequently' = dunr, da- 
rn ene, jinge, zinge, etc. See da. 

Ex. wad'etsho, he was constantly Baying so. 

De,adj. Long; high, tall; deep [Skr. 
</ir(///. long; Ar. tawil, long; Bo. le; 





Her. tide; Ru. la; Sum. lele; Ko. lehu; 
Ka. ulu; Ku. udzulu; Ngu. tali; Sw. 
re/"?/; At. ti, far]. 

Phr. 1/rnf.r, umximba nmude, you rise in 
the moruing with a long body, i. e. with a 
feeling of weakness, enervation. 

amati/ktt amade, long days, i. e. a long 
number of days. 

elide (itam'bo) lomkono, the bones (both 
ulna and radius, which the Natives speak of 
;i* oue) of the lower arm. See fupi. 

elide lomlenxe, the bones (both tibia and 
fibula) <•(* the lower leg = u(lu)-Qalo. 

sokukude kadala yavela, it is now loug 
ago, in old times, that it happened. 

ubu-De, )>. Length; height; depth [See de]. 

P. itbude abupanyica, height is not snatched 
up in a hurry — Rome wasn't built in a 
day; it will all come in its good time. 

Debe, ukuti (ukuthi), v. — debeza. 

i(li)-Debe, n. Person with his face cut up 

with tribal incisions, as the amaBaca; 

used contemptuously of anybody (C.N.). 

i-nDebe, n. Half of a split gourd, used for 
baling water, beer, etc. = i-nKezo. 

u(lu)-Debe, n. Lip; pi. izi-nDebe, common 
name for the whole external female or- 
gan (cp. u(lu)-Fa; um-Lomo; i(li)-Lebe). 

Debekesa, v. = debesa. 

Debesa, or Debesela, v. Do anything in a 
heartless, careless, slow, lazy manner, 
as having no interest in it == tebesa, 

Debeza, v. Divide, cut, or break asunder 
in 'mouth and lip 'fashion (v. u-Debe, a 
lip), as when cutting open a man's (ace.) 
s<alp by a heavy blow with a stick, or 
when stabbing a beast vigorously so as 
to cut a big gash, or when splitting a 
calabash into two halves or 'lips' (izi- 
nDebe). Cp. dazula. 

Deda, v. Get out of the way for a person 

(ace. with ela form) = qelika; suduka; 

rluka [Sw. jitengd]. 

u-Dedangandhlale, n. Level open country, 

clear of hills and ravines. Cp. i(li)-Ceke. 

Ex. kwa? Deda/ngandhlalc, name of a certain 
plain in the Transvaal. 

I; fide sihamba ude.danyandhla.le weeeke, we 
have been ever so long travelling over a level 

etch of country. 

i(li)-Dede, n. Excrements passed in a soft, 
semi-liquid state, as those of cattle. Cp. 
"/n-Gamu; um-Godo. 

um-Dede, v. r>. = u-Nomdede. 

u-Dede-ezibomvu, n. Kind of i(li)-Qwagi. 

Dedelele, ukuti (ukuthi), v. Be thoroughly 
dime up, without strength or spirits, 

ready to sink, from fatigue, overwhelm- 
ing misfortune, etc. = ukuti lisa, ukuti 

Dedengu, ukuti (ukuthi), v. Bear or carry 
anything (ace.) in an utterly careless, 
regardless manner, as when merely drag- 
ging it indifferently along, merely throw- 
ing one's dress loosely round the body, 
or when taking up a pot between the 
fingers of one hand. 

Dedika, v. Get out of the way = deda. 

Ex. mus'ukukutuma toko, dedika.' dou't 
talk that (stuff), get away! 

Defe, ukuti (ukuthi), v. Be level, flat, as a 
plain or hut-floor = ukuti caba. 

u(lu)-Defe, n. Flat, level place or thing. 

u(lu)-Dekane (s. k.), n. Meadow-plant (Vitis 
hypoleuca) with raceme of tiny white 
sweet smelling flowerlets and used as 
an intelezi = u-Norramtirreshe. 

i-nDekazi (s.k.),n. = i-nDendende. 

u(lu)-Dekeda (s.k.),n. Small veldt plant, 
having a raceme of blue flowers. 

isi-Deku (s.k.),n. Main root (not seed- 
tuber originally planted — see i(li)-Goni) 
of the i-Dumbi plant, from which the 
leaves and shoots sprout forth; root- 
stump of a tree, from which all the izi- 
nGxabo or earth-roots proceed; origin, 
root, of any matter (= isi-Zimbati, isi- 

Dela, v. Have enough — in all its possible 
uses; hence, give in, give up, as when 
overcome (the thought always being in 
the Zulu mind that the individual has 
had 'quite enough'); have one's heart's 
content, be thoroughly satisfied, as when 
the desire has been completely gratified ; 
leave, throw off, abandon, as a man his 
chief when going to live under another; 
give up hope or expectation, as when 
tired of waiting any longer [Sw. tele, 
enough ; Ga. deka ! leave off, enough ! ; 
Bo. delea, let loose; hela, cease]. 

Ex. bayadela labo'bafana, they are happy, 
are those boys, i. e. have all they could wish 

ngidelile, I have had enough ; I don't want 
any more; I have had my heart's desire — - 
applicable to every phase of mind. 

uku-xi-dela, to sacrifice oneself, one's own 
life, comforts, etc; risk oneself. 

uku-xi-dela amatambo, to give up oneself 
as to one's bones = to risk one's life. 

Phr. uyawuncind'udele, niyauuncinda tii- 
dele, bayawuncinda badele, you (they, etc.) will 
dip it (the medicine) up with your fingers 
( /'. e. will be able to put your finger in the 
jam) until you have had your full = you 

DE 95 

will be astonished (e.g. at the beautiful 
work, marvellous feats, etc. of So-and-so); 
you won't want to see any more. 

i(li)-Dela, n. Happy-go-lucky kind of per- 
son, careless and content with anything 
and everything. 

i(li)-Delabutongo (Delabuthongo) n. Hyce- 
na; an urnTakati q.v.—lit. a thing that 
gives up sleep, i. e. goes about during the 

Delana, v. Have done with one another. 
P. imbaxa ayidelani nomfula, ukuhamba 
ngokwayo, the branch doesn't throw off its 
connection with the river, io order to go 
along by itself— said to correct the impru- 
dence of a poor dependant severing con- 
nection with his patron. 

Delela, v. Disregard with contempt, care 
4- nothing about, as a boy his father (ace.) ; 
make nothing of, do anything (intrans.) 
with easy mind, without any mental 
anxiety or concern, as when walking 
along where there is no longer fear of 
danger; put a circlet of beads round 
the head so as to hang diagonally over 
the ear or eyes. [Sw. tharau, despise]. 

Ex. namhlanje sekufike abelimgu, nexinga- 
ne xiyahamba xidelele, nowadays that the 
whitemen have arrived, even children go 
about with perfect ease and unconcern. 

uBani nyadelela, So-and-so is contemptu- 
ous, haughty of character. 

isi-Deleli, n. Disregardful person, wilfully 
despising authority ; an easy-going per- 
son, indifferent to everything (=i(li)- 

Deleleka (s. k.), v. Get despised, i. e. be 

/despicable, made nothing of. 
Ex. uniuntit odelelekileyo, a despised person. 

Delisa, v. Make a person (ace.) to have 

/enough, satisfy him, by a present, by 
giving him a deserved hiding, etc. 

Dembesela (Dembhesela), v. (C. N.) = debe- 

u(lu)-Dembudembu (Dembhudembhu),n. — 


Dembuluka (Dembhuluka),v. = lernbuluka 
[Bo. dema]. 

Denda, v. Do anything, as work or talk 
or growth, in a slow, drawn-out manner, 
never getting to the end = dendisa. Cp. 
ndandaza; lernbuluka. 

i-nDenda, n. Certain bush (= u-Maguqu), 
or the tiny berries growing thereon, 
and which are eaten medicinally for 
worms, etc. (== i-nTlamvubele) ; (C. N.) 
back hair of girls, which is coloured red. 

um-Denda (Deenda), n. 5. Variety of wild- 




edible fruit. 

fig tree, bearing 
Cp. um-Kiwane. 

um-Denda or Dende, n. 5. Row or lino 
of anything running horizontally, as of 
mealie-grains on a cob, or planted trees ; 
streak, stripe, as of colour on a dress 
(= um-Tende) = umu-Nqa. 

u(lu)-Denda, n. Viscid expectoration or 
mucus, such as expelled from the throat 
after violent exertion or vomiting, in 
long tenacious strings (used with Ma- 
ma). Cp. i-njembuluka. 

isi-Dende, n. — isi-Tende; also (C.N.) 
= u-Maguqu. 

Dendebula, v. Tear into strips or rags, 
pull to pieces stripwise or piecewise, as a 
garment (ace), or hut by dragging out the 
grass; strip up as the long roots of a 
tree or soft bark from a tree-trunk = 

i-nDendende, n. An affair of long ago; a 
long, nevei'-ending affair, story, conver- 
sation, etc. = i-nDekazi. 

Ex. thus' 'ukung / kulumela indendemle. don't 
talk to me of a thing so old, remote (in the 
past), or so distant (as iu the future) — 
as might occur when referring to any great 
retrospective or prospective pleasure. 

ud'evusa indendende feyo, he is constantly 
bringing up that old gone-by affair. 

bakuluma indendende, they had a long 
talk, they were talking an immense time. 

Dendisa, v. = ndandaza, denda. 

Denga, v. Do anything reluctantly, very 
slowly, without heart or energy, as a lazy 
person working, or a tree growing (cp. 
zindela); drawl out in talking, as a per- 
son with a slow manner of speaking or 
when never getting to the end of one's 
tale = zenga; denda. Cp. donda. 

isi-Denga, or Denge, n. A drawling, slow- 
moving person, who gets to move or do 
anything only with difficulty. Cp. i 
Danda, i-nDondukusuka, isi-Xycmfu. 

ubu-Denga, or Denge, n. Slow, spiritless, 
drawling nature in a person incapable 
of acting with spirit or energy. 

i(li)-Denge, n. = i(li)-Tenge; also i(U)-Ce- 

Denge denge, ukuti (ukuthi), v. = ukuti 
tenge tenge. 

isi-Dengele, n. Any old earthen pot already 
chipped about the brim = isi-Qengele. 

um-Dengele, n. 5. = um-Qengele. 

u(lu)-Dengele, n. = u(lu)-Dengezi. 

Dengeza, v. = tengeza. 

Dengezela, v. = tengezela. 

i(li)-Dengezi, n. = i(li)-Dunguza. 





u(lu)-Dengezi, tt. Fragment, chip, broken 
portion, large or small, of any earthen- 
ware article. Cp. isi-Hlepu. 

i-nDeni,??. Belly (the word is now nearly 
obsolete, being solely used by women 
for hlonipa purposes) = isi-Su. 

Ex. indeni yakp ibol/le, his inside is rotten. 

Phr. ikiwane elibumru IwoV indent, a red 

i,nice looking) fig is rotten in its pulp = 

von can't judge anything bv its appearances 


isi-Deni, i>. Disinclination to exert oneself, 
slow, lifeless, unenergetic, lazy nature 
in a person. Cp. ubu-Denga. 

isi-Denjana, ». Anything of a squat, broad 
and stumpy build, as a flat-bottomed 
kitchen cauldron, or a short thick 

Depa (Dcpha), v. Grow tall, high, or long, 
as a person, tree, or grass [Skr. drih, 
grow ; Her. renaka, grow tall — akin 
to de, q. v.]. 

Depu, ukuti (Dephv, ukuthi), v. = ukuti 


Depuka (Dephnka), v. = tepuka. 

Depu la (Deplmla), v. = tepula. 

Derre, ukuti (ukuthi), v. Squat down on 
the buttocks in an easy, regardless 
manner, not arranging the legs accor- 
ding to the rules of Native decency — 
may be used of a woman squatting flat 
on the private parts, or a man squatting 
with the knees far apart, or generally 
of anybody 'squatting' lazily down while 
others are working. 

Derrezeka (s. Ic), />. = ukuti derre. 

i(li)-Devu, n. Nose of a bullock; moustache, 
of a man (plur. ama, or izi-nDevu) [Sw. 
ndevu; Bo. lu-devu; Ma. ndolu; Ga. ki- 
levu; MZT. in-dezu; Her. oru-yezu — 
this word exemplifies the interchange- 
ableness in the Bantu languages of the 
letters d, I and y, and of the letters z 
and v. See remarks under Danda]. 

Dhla, v. Eat, as food (ace); used meta- 
phorically in a general sense expressing 
'to enjoy' an}- of those multitudinous 
material pleasantnesses which the body 
may consume or experience — hence, to 
drink, as utshwala; to snuff, as tobacco; 
enjoy, as a conversation (indaba) or a 
sot-dance; come into possession of, in- 
herit, as property; confiscate, as a man's 
cattle (doub. ace. ); cheat, as in making 
a bargain (doub. ace); profit by another 
(with rc<7a);l;take possession of any 
particular thing, as in dividing spoil; 
pieh out, fall upon, take hold of, as a lot 
\inkato) a person (ace); eat up or con- 


sume, a person (ace.) i. e. his substance, 
as a lawsuit might; bite, eat, as a snake 
or wild-beast a man (ace.) — though not 
actually devouring him; eat away, wear 
away, rub away into, gall, as friction or 
a tight-boot; J eat into, as an ulcer or 
rust; cost, as a coat; feed, graze, as ani- 
mals; pass, as a season or space of time 
(ace); cut, cut into, as a sharp edge; 
eat in upon, encroach, as a man on an- 
other's estate (with loe); 'sport', delight 
in wearing, as any finery (vmfinga of the 
thing) ; be decorated or smeared with, 
as a girl's face or child's body with 
colour (ace) ; go through in a fine mas- 
terly manner, as a man a dance or pas 
seul (ace) [Skr. ad, ghas, eat; Gr. phago, 
I eat; Lat. edo, I eat; esea, food; Goth. 
atjan, eat; Ar. 'akl, to eat; Ku. Bo. ja; 
Sen. dya; Sag. dia; MZT. Ha; Sw. la; 
Cong, dia; At. je]. 

Ex. kudhliwa-pilnamhla? where is it drunk 
to-day = in which kraal is there a beer- 

sike sadhla indaba naye, we just enjoyed 
a bit of a talk with him. 

wadhla impahla yonke ka'yise, he inherited 
all his father's property. 

inkosi yamudlda xonke in inkomo xake, the 
chief confiscated (from) him all his cattle. 

ungidhlih imali yami, he has cheated me 
(out of) my money. 

abehmgu bayadhla ngafi, si'xituta, the 
whitemen make profit out of us, we stupid 

yena wadhla ixinkomo,ingqukumbane wayi- 
itika umfo umbo, he himself took possession 
of the cattle and gave the cart to his brother. 

ieala limdhlile, the lawsuit has eaten him, 
i. e. has consumed some of his substance, he 
having been fined, or ordered to disgorge 
what he was illegally holding. 

wadhliwa inyoka, or ingwe, he was bitten 
by a snake, or leopard. 

' intsimbi yaleli'sondo iloku idhleka ivjalo, 
the iron of this wheel is constantly getting 
eaten or worn away (by friction). 

sadhla iziuyanga e%ine kona, we passed 
four months there. 

lesi'sieatulo siyangidhla ewwaneni, this 
hoot galls (not pinches) me on the toe. 

leli'bantshi liahla imali-ni? how much 
does this coat cost? 

Phr. idhlc ibomru ingane, the child has 
put on the red clay i. e. has had its body 
smeared therewith. 

yek'umfo ka'Siba/ti, wasidhla isisuso, leave 
him alone, the fine fellow of Sibani's, he did 
his isisusu (Native dance; in fine style. 

uku-xi-dhla, to enjoy the ornamentation 
of oneself, to be full of delight of oneself 
= to be proud. 


DHL 97 

uku-mu-dhla imfumuta ubani, to take 
advantage of oue's (ace.) helplessness (e. g, 
being alone, iguoraut, etc.) in order to harm 
him in some way, as when scolding a child 
because its mother is away, striking a boy 
because he is alone, or defrauding a person 
because of his not knowing anything of the 
details of the transaction. 

P. udhle nkinlhla, kwamialhla, he has eaten 
food, (but) it has bitten him = the biter 
bitten, or of one whose pleasure has turned 
out a pain. 

udhliwe Vubixo, he has been bitten by the 
/ iuvitation, i. e. he has been drawn on by a 
coquette and then jilted. 

xowadhla epakati, they (the birds; will 
eat it (the Kaffir-corn), even while she is in 
(the field) — said of an incapable, stupid, 
good-for-nothing person, who can be charged 
with no work or responsibility, who would 
allow things to go wrong before his eyes. 

isi-Dhla, n. Gancrum oris, a cancerous 
and generally fatal ulcer eating into the 
side of the cheek; unhealthy spot on 
the side of a pumpkin which dries up 
forming a hole; also = is-Adhla. 

ubu, or uku-Dhla, n. Cutting part or sharp 
edge, as of a knife or umkonto = ubu- 

uku-Dhla, n. Food; utshwala, the food 
par excellence of men; feast; holding 
capacity i. e. interior space, as of a bas- 
ket or pot. 

Ex. ipidangwe siti Vubembedu ngoba li- 
ngena'kudhla, a plank we say is a bembedu 
(Mat thing) because it has no 'food' in it, 
/. e. no food can get in it, it cannot hold 

o! leli'botwe kalina'kttdhhi, oh! this pot 
doesn't hold anything, one can only get very 
little (food) into it. 

Dhlaba, v. Sport with, play jokes upon 
(with nga) a person regardless of whe- 
ther he likes it or not, make fun out of 
him — the action being sometimes per- 
missible, but more generally disapproved 
of as an excess or reckless liberty. . 

i(li)-Dhlaba, n. Person of a sportive nature, 
given to playing jokes, making fun out 
of others without regard or restraint; 
he-goat while young, as being of a spor- 
tive nature. Comp. i-Pompo, i-Gabaza. 

Dhlabe, ukuti (ukuthi), v. Sink down deep, 
'up to one's ears,' as in deep water or 
long grass (not in mud) ; cook in very 
large quantity, be up to one's ears in 
food — dhlabeka. 

Ex. ng'anePukungena, ngasengiti dhlabe, I 
had only just got in, when down I went up 
to my ears (in water). 


umfaxi uwate dhlabe amabelc, the wife 
has prepared enough amabelc to sink in. 

Dhlabeka (s.k.),v. = ukuti dhlabe. 

isi-Dhladhla, n. Footprint of any paw- 
footed animal, as a leopard, cat or dog 
(cp. u(lu)-Nyawo; i(li)-Sondo; u(lu)-Hla> 
bo; ama-Ztvane); muscular strength, 
power of arm, as for lifting, etc. (= izi- 
Kwepa, izi-Pika); person of average, 
medium size. 

Dhlafu dhlafu, ukuti (ukuthi), v. = dhlafuza. 

Dhlafuza,^. = dhlavuza. 

i(li)-Dhlaka (s.k.).n. Man's after-covering 
when made of several dangling 'tails' 
of i-nTsimba skin merely slit up, not 
twisted = u(lu)-Hayi; cp. i(li)-Gqibo. 

isi-Dhlakadhla (s.k.),n. Overpowering 
violence, force, or energy, as of an impi 
when it comes on with an irresistible 
rush; violence of temper, irascibility 
(= ubu-Jaka). 

Ex. amaBiiHH emaningi kangaka, kufa- 
nele sivele ngesidhlakadhla, the Boers being 
so numerous, it is proper that we appear in 
overpowering force — lest they overcome us. 

Dhlakata, ukuti (Dhldkatha, ukuthi), v. 
Seize, grasp firm hold of, as a dog a 
buck (ace), an iron-trap an animal, or a 
man a thief = ukuti qakata, ukuti xa- 

Dhlakatisi, ukuti (Dhldkathisi, ukuthi), v. 
= ukuti dhlakata. 

i(li)-Dhlaku (s.k.),n. Large white-bellied 
rat found about watery places (C.N.) = 
i(li)- Givevu. 

i(li)-Dhlakubi (s.k.),n. One who breaks 
the mourning-abstinence, i. e. who par- 
takes of food before duly permitted by 
the Native law of mourning ; any one 
who acts, against the ordinary etiquette 
of 'eating,' as a shamefully greedy per- 
son or who partakes of someone's hos- 
pitality and then spreads reports about 
him of stinginess. 

A 1 . B. The kraal-owner, the eldest son, 
eldest daughter aud the various mothers are 
all 'eaten medicine for' on the day of burial 
and hlamba'd for a few months after death. 
There are numerous very fine rules gover- 
ning the eating of food at these times, aud 
particularly before these duties have been 
duly performed. One who eats food contrary 
to these rules is called an idMakubi, i. e. one 
who eats what is bad; for food so taken will 
surely bring down some evil upon him! 

i-nDhlakudhla (s.k.),n. Goat, or other 
present, made by a young-man's people 
to a sweetheart upon the occasion of 
any of her numerous ante-nuptial visits, 


in order to 'open her month to eat' — 

which she will not do until so presented. 

isi-Dhlakudhla (s.k.), n. Ravenous person, 

eating always and anything he comes 

across = isi-Huqa; cp. isi-Hamuncana. 

i-nDhlakuse (s.k.)n. One always eating, 

voracious person; (C.N.) = um-Cwa- 


Dhlala, v. Play; frolic; make merry, hold 

a feast. Cp. feketa [Skr. las, sport; Ic. 

dara, make sport of; MZT. ziana, play]. 

Ex. kadhlali Wmhmgu! there's no play 
about that whiteman, he does the thing 
properly, with energy — whether it be in 
asking exorbitant prices, performing any 
work of surprising skill, or what not. 

udhlala ngami nje, he is just making a 
fool of me, humbugging me. 

kutiwa isidhlalo, ngoba y'ilapo lidhlalcla 
(ixidu) Jcona, it is called a playing-place, be- 
cause it is there that it (the lightuiug) 
dances. See isi-Dhlalo. 

Plir. uku-dhlala unnkosi, to hold the har- 
vest-feast, as a chief. 

P. it dhlala ngegeja kuxilwa, you are play- 
ing about with the hoe, (notwithstanding) 
it is abstaiued from (being a day of absti- 
nence from work) = you are doing what is 
not permitted, or are talking about a danger- 
ous subject, you had better leave it alone. 

i-nDhlala, or Dhlala (Dhlaala), n. Any 
gland of the body (considered delicate 
eating by the Natives). 

i-nDhlala (Dhaala), n. Dearth of food sup- 
ply, as in any kraal at any time ; famine, 
generally throughout the land. Cp. n(lu)- 
Kevete; lamba. [Ga. njala, hunger, fa- 
mine; Sw.njaa; MZT. in-zala; Bo. sala, 
Ku. i-tala; Chw. tlala; Her. o-ndyara]. 

Ex. o! kasidhli'luto indhlala, oh! we are 
not eating anything (i. e. have no beer), it 
is a dearth (of supplies now with us). 

sibulewe indhlala, we are killed by scar- 
city of food, i. e. we don't get enough to eat. 

Phr. indhlala ebomvu, a red or well-ripened 
dearth = a thorough-going famine. 

i(li)-Dhlalati (Dhlalathi), n. Anything not 
softening under treatment, as a hard 
abscess or swelling not going on to sup- 
puration, or a potato or pumpkin that 
remains hard even after boiling. Cp. 

i(li)-Dhlalesula, n. False, unprincipled talk- 
er, who says a thing and then denies 
it, who never remains true to what he 
has said. 

i-nDhlalifa, n. Heir. 

i(li)-Dhlaligwavuma, n. Human fat {i.e. of 
a Kafir, 'one who growls when eating), 

98 DHL 

and used by an umtakati. Cp. i(li)-Pu- 

Dhlalisela, v. Show off, running gracefully 
(according to Kafir notion) about the 
dancing-place, as women are accustomed 
to do at a dance; 'jump about' or move, 
as the unborn calf in the cow's Avomb. 
Phr. y'ilapo (ixulu) lidhlalisela kona, it is 
there where it (the lightning) plays about, 
*'. e. is given to striking (as on some par- 
ticular spots). 

isi-Dhlalo, n. Plaything; laughing-stock; 
place where lightning is given to play- 
ing i. e. striking'; (C.N.) pneumonia (=isi- 

i-nDhlamadoda, n. A name given to the 
i-nGqungqulu (from its habit of eating 
the corpses of those slain in battle); 
also = u(lu)-Jovela. 

i-nDhlamafa, n. ==. i-nDhlalifa. 

u(lu)-Dhlambedhlu (Dhlambhedhlu), n. 

Fierce, wild man; Dingane's own regi- 
ment '(followed by um-Kulutshane), and 
afterwards revived by Mpande next 
after the u-Ndaba-ka' wombe (— um- 

i(li)-Dh Iambi (Dhlambhi), n. (C. N.) = i(li)- 

um-Dhlambi (Dhlambhi), n. 5. Foam of 
the sea-waves (C. N.). 

isi-Dhlambila (Dhlambhila), n. Person 
come for food to a strange kraal, as 
occurs in time of famine (the term 
is contemptuous and not applied by 
friends); certain plant. 

um-Dhlambila (Dhlambhila), n. 5. Species 
of rock-cobra, of a reddish colour, very 
venomous, and said to be very fond of 
coneys (see i-mBila). 

u(lu)-Dhlame, n. (C.N.) = u-Bamba. 

i-nDhlamu (Dhlamu), n. Certain lively 
kind of dance, indulged in by a number 
of young people together (N). See 

Dhlamuluka (s.k.), v. Do, or talk, in a 
furious way, wildly, with overbearing 
violence, in a state so as to utterly dis- 
regard all restraint or reproof, as when 
quarrelling, when shouting out angrily 
at anyone, etc. = dhloba, dhlova, dhla- 
nguza, etc. 

Ex. udhlamuluka kangaka, kawuniboni,, 
yini, es'ekude? you are in a fury (with your 
wild shouting), don't you se« he is already 
far away (and doesn't hear a word of what 
you say)? 

Dhlana, v. Eat, cheat, etc., one another, or 
one with another. 




Phr. ukudklcma ngenkato, to cast lots for 
one another, or mutually ; divide among one 
another by lot (N). 

uku-dhlana imilala, to cut the imi-Lala 
(q. v.) for one another (said in reference to 
a custom of men placing the sharp edges of 
their assegais together and seeing which, by 
a sharp, dexterous pull, shall succeed in 
cutting the blade-strings of the other) = to 
be in close contest, as two impis in sharp 
conflict, two horses contesting a race very 
closely, or a number of boys eating at the 
same pot where it is all a struggle to get 
anything at all. 
uku-Dhlana, n. Little food, or utshwala. 

i-nDhlandhla, n. Certain kind of brownish 
frog (cp. i(li)-Sele) ; certain kind of veldt- 
rat; also sometimes used for i-nTlahla. 

Dhlandhlalaza, v. = hlantlalaza. 

Dhlandhlalazi, ukuti (ukuthi), v. = ukuti 

um-Dhlandhlasi, n. 5. Certain climbing- 
plant, whose very poisonous leaves, etc., 
are used as medicine for stomach com- 

Dhlandhlata (Dhlandhlatha), v. Accuse a 
person (ace.) falsely, bring a charge 
against him of which he knows nothing 
= poqa. Cp. qamba. 

urn, or u(lu)-Dhlandhlati (Dhlandhlathi), 
n. 5. Any narrow ridge, passage, ascent, 
etc., running between two precipitous 
hills, or a narrow passage crossing be- 
tween two deep pools in a river = um- 

i-nDhlandhlokazi (s. k.), n. Jackal Buzzard 
(Buteo Jackal) = i-nTlandhlokazi. 

Dhlanga, v. Act or talk in a wild, violent 
manner, without thought, restraint or 
respect, as some naturally 'wild' young- 
men (= dhlamuluka); go wrong or bad, 
not as it ought, used of" milk, beer, etc., 
in their chemical changes (== dhloba); 
do 'awfully', be a,\vfjil, in respect to im- 
mense numbers, awful size, hardness, 
etc. (often with nga); rage, as disease, 
immorality, etc. •"■"■" 

Ex. imfvndo yas'etnadolobon idhlange 
ngokubambi, town education is awfully pro- 
lifice of badness. 

sekudhlanga ixinkomo, sekuncipa isibaya, 
now that the cattle are so very numerous, 
the cattle-fold is getting small. 

kndhlanga amantombaxana kit' Bant, there 
are an awful number of girls at So-and-so's. 

inyania ka' Sibanibani yasidhlangela, the 
meat at So-and-so's was frightful to us (so 
tough) ! 

isi-Dhlanga, n. Pneumonia (C. N.). 

99 DHL 

u(lu)-Dhlangadhlanga, n. = isi-Dhlangtlr 

i(li)-Dhlangala, n. — i(li)-Dokodo. 

isi-Dhlangala, n. = isi-Dhlangati. 

Dhlangalala, v. Rage furiously, so as no 
longer to be held in check, as a grass- 
fire, an angry man, or sickness. 

Ex. ukufa 8ekudhlangalele ku'Bani, the 

sickness has now got firm hold of So-and-so 
— it scarcely helps to attempt any further 

ukufa kumdhlangalele uBani, the Bicknesa 
has got the better of So-and-so - it has 
got firm hold over his kraal in spite of all 
his efforts to keep it away. 

isi-Dhlangati (Dhlangathi), n. Large num- 
ber or 'swarm' of young men in any 
one family or kraal (==■ isi-Dhlangala; 
cp. u(lu)-Dumo, vmu-Bu); very hardy 
person, always in good health. 

u-Dhlangezwa, n. Certain military-kraal of 
Shaka situated near the mouth of the 
Umlalazi, in Zululand; a regiment 
formed there = u-Hlomendhlini. 

um-Dhlankuku (s. k.), n. 5. Poor, worthless 
fellow, of no consequence, 'who eats 
fowls' for want of cattle = umu-Ntu- 

isi-Dhlangudhlangu, n. Wild, violent tem- 
pered person, given to acting in a furi- 
ous, unrestrained, arbitrary way. 

ubu-Dhlangudhlangu, n. Wildness, uncon- 
cerned violence of manner, in acting or 

Dhlanguluka, v. Act or speak in a wild, 
violent manner, as a furious, disrespect- 
ful person. 

Dhlangu za, v. Act or talk as above = 

i(li)-Dhlanyazi, n. Person caring for nothing 
and nobody, rude, unprincipled, etc. 

i(li)-Dhlanzana, n. dim. of following = 

i(li)-Dhlanzi, u. Party, company, herd, etc., s> 
of perhaps twenty head = i(li)-Hlokova. 

Dhlapuna (Dhlaphuna),v. To tapuza (q. v.) 
vigorously, violently. 

isi-Dhlavela, n. = isi-Dhlidhli. 

i-nDhlavini, n. = um-Kulutshane. 

Dhlavu dhlavu, ukuti (ukuthi), v. = dhla- 

ama-Dhlavudhlavu (no sing.), n. Tatters 
(properly from being worn away, not 
torn), a worn-out ragged thing, as a 
moth or rat-eaten garment, or a mat all 
tattered from long use = ama-Hlafv- 
hlafu, ama-Hlakahlaka. Cp. ama-Niki- 

DHL 100 

Ex. mgubo yatni is'i'madhlavudhlam, my 

blanket is already in worn-out rags. 

Dhlavuza, v. Make ragged, in tatters, by 
eating, gnawing, wearing, rubbing, etc., 
as moth or rats an article of clothing 
(ace), or constant sitting the seat of 
one's trousers ; rate a person (ace.) with 
sharp words, pull him about roughly 
(by words) = hlafuza, dhlafuza. 

u(lu)-Dhlawu, n. Native blacksmith's tongs; 
hence, pincers; wing, as of an army or 
hunting-party (u(lu)-Pondo) ; long, pro- 
minent nose. 

Dhlayidhla, v. Eat and eat away at — re- 
duplicated form of dhla. 

i-nDhlazanyoni,/*. (C.N.) = i-nOqungqulu. 

i-nDhlazi,w. Mouse-bird (Colius Capensis) 
whose long tail-feathers are used as a 

P. nginonele pakati njengendhlaxi, I am 
fat inside like a mousebird, i. e. my feelings, 
thoughts, auger, or revenge, is not seen by 
vou, but you may come to feel it — may 
be used as a threat, or of a person with a 
brooding ill-feeliug. 

X.B. The amafuta of this bird is used 
as an isi-betelelo (q. v.) 'because it is always 
sticking at home in its nest!' 

i-nDhle, n. = i-Ndhle. 

i(li)-Dhlebe, n. Any big, broad, limp-hang- 
ing lobular thing, as ear of an elephant, 
or lobe, of lungs ; big, broad, flap of an 
ear, in human being (even though stand- 
ing stiff out); (comparatively) broad, 
flap of a leaf, as the small broad leaflets 
of a moalie-sprout; barb, as of a barbed- 
assegai [Gr. lobos, lobe of ear; Ma. 
nehbi; Ze. Ngu. gutwe; Sha. Bo. gutwi; 
Ko. Ga. kutu; Her. oku-tui]. 

i-nDhlebe, n. Ear, of anything [see i(li)- 

Phr. indhlebe itshela intlixiyo, the ear 
tells the heart, i. e. what goes in at the ear 
goes home to the heart. 

um-Dhlebe, n. 5. Certain bush (Synade- 
nium arborescens), the smell of which 
when in flower is said by the Natives 
to be fatal to one inhaling it. 

X.B. The bark of this tree, mixed with 
other ingredients, makes a powerful um-Bu- 
lelo. and the doctor when cutting it, must 
first smear his hands with the bile of a 
<:o;it, then approaching from the windward 
side, let fly his axe at the trunk of the tree 
and bo chip out small pieces. 

u(!u)-Dhlebe, n. Second-hearing i.e. a sup- 
posed preternatural power of intellectual 
or telepathic hearing possessed by one 
who has anointed himself in the pre- 


scribed way with i-nTsimango fat, etc., 
and by which conversations, slanders, 
etc., uttered a long distance away, be- 
come distinctly audible to him. 

i(li)-Dhlebedudu,w. Species of sweet-potato, 
said to bear well but inclined to be 
stringy. Cp. u(lu)-Tshuza. 

Dhlebeleka (s.k.),v. = dhlevuluka. 

i(li)-Dhlebelendhlovu, n. Certain shrub 
(Rhyncosia sigmoides) growing in damp 
woody places and whose broad leaves 
are used as an i(li)-Kambi; also certain 
small tree (Trimeria alnifolia). 

Dhlebu, ukuti (Dhlebhu, ukuthi),v. — dhle- 

Dhlebula (Dhlebhula), v. Pull off tearing- 
ly, tear off with a pulling grab, as the 
topknot (ace.) of hair from a woman's 
head, or any small bunch or hanging 
article that can be grabbed by the hand. 
Cp. hlepula. 

Dhledhla, v. = dhledhlezela. 

Phr. uku-dhledhla upiso, to fetch or take 
an u-piso (certain large beer-pot) — from 
the trotting caused by its weight when being 

u(lu)-Dhledhle, n. A continuous trotting 
about, tramping along, etc., as of a po- 

Ex. uloku adhVudhledhle, he is continuously 
on the trot, always going about. 

ubu-Dhledhledhle, n. A trotting along. 

Dhledhlezela, v. Trot heavily along, as a 

bullock, or a man carrying anything of 

great weight = dhledhla. Cp. nqunquta. 

Dhleka (s. k.), v. Get worn away, as by 

constant friction, rust, or wear. 
isi-Dhleke (s.k.),n. (C.N.) = isi-Hleke. 
um-Dhlekedhle (s.k.),n.5. Old, worn-out 
thing, as an old man, woman, or beast; 
sometimes applied to a broken-down 
wagon, or old earthen-pot = um-Baba- 
lala. Cp. i-nKohlomba. 
izi-nDhleko (s.k.), n. Expenses, outlay (M). 
Dhlela, v. Eat from, etc. 

Ex. lesi'sitsha kasidhleli 'mwitu, this plate 
does not eat from (= is not eateu from) by 

kakudhleli hnuntu kulcsi' sitsha, there eats 
nobody from this plate. 

ukamba, isitsha esidhlelayo, an ukamba 
is a vessel for eating out of. 

ukudhlela indhlala, to eat on account of 
a dearth — that is, something not considered 
fit, proper or sufficient at another time. 

Phr. uku-dhlela ubani emehlweni, to make 
fun of a person (ace.) in his presence by 
opeuly passing remarks about him, though 

DHL 101 

concealing them under the show of talking | i 
about somebody else. 

ukudhlela emkombeni wempaka, to eat from 
the wild cat's basin = to have thrown off 
the 'good manners and customs' of home 
and race, and become wild, uncultured, rude 
— mostly used of one who has not had his 
ears bored (C. N.). 

umlimela omkulu awudhlelwa 'x-ele, a great 
hoeing is not eaten for by fa single) stalk, 
i. r. so great a labour has proved altogether 
i-nDhlela, n. Native foot-path (from the 
grass having been 'eaten away' along 
its course); way or direction; way or 
manner, of doing a thing; air, or so- 
prano-part of a song; way or habit of 
conducting oneself in life [akin to uku- 
dhla q. v. — Nye. in-dera; Her. oka- 
ndyira; MZT. in-zila; Sw. njia; Bo. 

Ex. o ! kanti uhamba ngeyami, oh ! so 
then you are going the same way as I. 

ixindhlela xake ximbi, his ways, or life, 
is bad. 

ixindJMa xokuxala (N) = u(lu)-Ta. 

Dhlelana,v. Be good neighbours, partaking 
of one another's food (i. e. beer) ; try to 
out-do one another, generally in a bad 
isi-Dhlelani, n. Friendly neighbour, whose 
food (i. e. beer) is partaken of — the 
unfriendliness of Natives being mani- 
fested by their not appearing in each 
other's kraal at a beer-drink. 
um-Dhlelanyoni (loc. em-Dhlelanyoni),n. 5. 
Small kraal-of-ease which a chief may 
establish away from his principal kraal 
and in which he generally resides with 
his favourite wife. 

A T .R This kraal is also called owakwa- 
'Ntandokaxi, or owakwa' Mpimbo wake, or 
nirakiva'Mpinjcni, or oicakwa'Nji ling went. 
There is generally a good deal of jealousy 
between the wives left in the chief kraal 
and the wife or wives regularly inhabiting 
the Njilingiveni residence. 
ubu-Dhlelanyoni, n. State or condition of 
living as above. 

Ex. inkosi is'ebudhlelanyoni, the chief is 
at his kraal-of-ease. 
isi-Dhlele (Dhleele), n. Swollen cheek or 
neck, as from toothache or glandular 
Dhlelesela, v. (C.N.) = dhlelezela. 
Dhlelezela or Dhlelezelela, v. Say dhlele 
dhlele! to a person (ace), i. e. show off 
ostentatiously one's superiority over 
him, e.g. after having been at rivalry 
with him and won = gabisela. 


(li)-Dhlelo, n. Pasture-ground, cattle-run 
(comp. i(li)-Kapelo); small mat for roll- 
ing imi-Tshumo, etc., in. 
i-nDhlelo, n. Crop, of a fowl; that side of 
a slaughtered beast, or its hide, opposite 
to the wounded side - this latter, not- 
withstanding that it contains the assegai 
holes (and probably just on account of 
them), is the most prized and goes to 
the chief, or favourite wife. 
i-nDhlelwamehlweni, n. Person made look 
or feel foolish, by the custom of uku- 
dhlela (q. v.) emehhveni. 

Ex. uku-m-enxa ubani indhlelwamehleni, 
to make a fool of So-and-so — by passing 
jocular remarks about him in his presence 
while pretending to be speaking of some- 
body else. 
Dhlemuleka, or Dhlemuluka (s. k.), v. = mu- 

Dhlemuzela, v. Walk briskly, step it out. 
um-Dhlenevu, n. 5. Slight burning or ex- 
cessive roasting on mealie-grains, when 
roasted dry in the grain (gazinga) or 
when boiled in water (izi-nKobe); mem- 
ber of the u(lu)-Dhlambedhlu regiment. 
Ex. ngipe exinomdhlenevu, give me of the 
burnt or crisped ones (mealie-grains). 
Dhlenge, ukuti (ukuthi), v. = ukuti dhle- 

Dhlengelele, ukuti (ukuthi), v. Start, as in 
one's sleep; start back, be startled, as 
by any sudden horror on the road. Cp. 
ukuti qikilili; etuka. 
Dhlenu, ukuti (ukuthi), v. Spring up or 
appear abundantly at the same time and 
all over the place, as newly-sown seed 
after a good rain (with mila) = ukuti 
dhlibu, ukuti mfe, ukuthi yalu. 
ama-Dhlepu or Dhlepudhlepu (Dhlephu or 
Dhlephudhlephu), n. Tatters, rags (from 
tearing; not from being moth-eaten or 
worn = ama-Bhlavudhlavu) = ama- 
Nikiniki, ama-Leptdepu. 
Dhlepu dhlepu, ukuti (Dhlephu dhlephu, 

ukuthi), v. = dhlepuza; dhlepuzeka. 
Dhlepuza (Dhlephuza), v. Tear a thing 
(ace.) so as to be rags or tatters, as 
thorns or nails might one's clothes. 
Dhlepuzeka (Dhlephuzeka), v. Get so torn 

to rags, as above. 
Dhlevu dhlevu, ukuti (ukuthi), v. = ukuti 

dhlavu dhlavu. 
ama-Dhlevudhlevu, n. = ama-Dhlavudhla- 

Dhlevuluka (s. k.), v. Go on persistently 

scolding, 'jawing' without cessation. 
Dhlevuza, v. = dhlavuta. 




i-nDhlezane, n. Cow that has recently 
calved, and so called till the horns ap- 
pear in calf; applied also to goat, sheep, 
and buck. 

um-Dhlezane, //. I or 5. Woman who has 
recently given birth, and applied to her 
till the child can walk; also used of pig, 
dog, and cat. 

u-Dhli (accent on last syl.), n. Contemp- 
tuous disregard, insolence, brazen-faced 
rudeness, as of a child towards its par- 
ents (used with enza and nga). Cp. 

Dhlibu, ukuti (ukuthi), v. = ukuti dhlenu. 

isi-Dhlidhli, n. Close, compact gathering 
or grouping together of things on one 
spot, as of kraals or huts thickly crowded 
together, or the string-seams in a sleep- 
ing-mat when too closely placed so as 
to form a belt as it were = isi-Dhlavela. 

Dhlikadhlika (s.k.),v. = dhlikiza. 

i-nDhliki (s.k.),n. Name applied to the 
little bit of stick, stone, etc., with which 
the herd-boys cast lots as to which shall 
run after the cattle. 

Ex. asibone ukuti indhliki iyakubuya ngo- 

ha'-: let ns see with whom the Indhliki will 
return, i.e. who will draw it? 

Dhliki dhliki, ukuti (ukuthi; s. k.), v. = dhli- 

ama-Dhhkidhliki (s. Ic), n. Thing or things 
all pulled roughly about, L e. in an un- 
tidy, dirty, neglected condition, as an 
untidy hut with the thatch all pulled 
about, food droppings all about a floor, 
a dirty unwashed pot, a disorderly heap 
of unfolded clothes, or a pair of trousers 
all torn about = ama-Xikixiki. 

Dhlikilili, ukuti (ukuthi; s.k.),v. Be in a 
scattered-about, disorderly, pulled about 
state, as a lot of things untidily thrown 
about a room, or a number of people 
running off disorderly in all directions; 
be general, all over the place, as a fa- 
mine or epidemic; be numerous, in great 
numbers, as cattle. 

Ex. inala tie dhlikilili Jculeyo'mfunda, 

abundant crops are everywhere, general (in 
all the fields) of that river-flat. 

sekute dhlikilili ixinlcomo ku'Masuku, cat- 
tle are now in great numbers fare scattered 
on all sides) at Masuku's. 

i(li), or mostly ama-Dhlikiti (Dhlikithi), n. 
Big, bulky mass or lump of a thing, as 
the cheeks when swollen, large breasts 
on a female, etc. 

Ex. uBam ung'amadhlikiti, Bo-and-so is 

|j eat lumps i. c has fat chops. 

isi-Dhlikiti (Dhlikithi), n. Great lump, or 

huge mass of a person, mostly used of 
an unusually fat child. Cp. isi-Baxa. 

Dhlikiza (s. k.), v. Pull about in a rough, 
disorderly manner, as a goat the grass 
(ace.) of a hut by rubbing up against 
it, or a person a cupboard of nicely ar- 
ranged clothes (ace.) ; pull tearingly 
about, as a girl her clothes (ace.) by 
going through a bush; pull roughly 
about, worry, as a dog might a small 
animal (ace.) that it has caught; throw 
or drop about in a dirty untidy fashion 
all about the place, as food droppings 
all over a floor = dhlikadhlika, xikiza. 

i(li), or more commonly ama-Dhlingosi or 
j, Dhlingoziw. Outburst (generally passing) 
of intense interest, as a child in its pic- 
ture-book; or of ardent zeal, enthusiasm, 
as a man for any undertaking or enter- 
prise; outburst of excitement, frenzy, 
as a man in a towering rage, a man or 
witch-doctor wildly dancing = ama- 

Ex. uvukwe amadhlingosi, or itnamadhli- 
ngosi, he has been aroused for by an intense 
interest; he is in a pitch of excitement, 

basukwa amadhlingosi, they were entered 
by quite a frenzy. 

Dhlinza, v. = zindhla. 

i(li)-Dhlinza, n. = i-Liba. 

Dhlinzekela (s.k.),v. = zindhlekela. 

Dhlisa, v. Administer poison to a person 
(ace.) ; help one (ace.) to eat, i. e. eat 
along with or share with him. 

Ex, kengikudhlise! let me help you with 
your food i. e. take a mouthful with you. 

wadhliswa, he was poisoned. 

P. ngixidhlise ngohami (uhuti), I have 
poisoned myself with my own (poison) — 
as might be said when one has brought 
back upon himself any misfortune while at- 
tempting to injure another. 

i(li)-Dhliwa, n. = i(li)-Bimbi. 

Dhlo, ukuti (ukuthi), v. Have a sleep, per- 
haps for a couple of hours. 

izi-Dhlo (nosing.) n. Fine foods, as of the 
Whiteman, or at a festival. 

imi-Dhlo (no sing.), n. 5. Unwillingness to 
share, selfishness, greedy unsociable- 

Ex. unemidhlo, ngoba, nakona abantwana 
lake bedhla k'okwetu, angex'avuma ukuba si- 
dhle kwake, she is selfish, because, while her 
children eat from our (food), she will never 
allow that we eat in her hut. 

Dhloba (Dhlooba), v. — dhlanga. 

Ex. utshwala budhlobile, the beer is a 
failure, has not turned out well (as when it 




has not fermented well or turned sour from 
climatic influences). 

i(li)-Dhlobidhlobi (Dhloobidhloobi),n. Star- 
ing gaze; staring eye (gen. in plur.). 

isi-Dhlobidhlobi (Dhloobidhloobi), n. Rude 
gazer, a starer. 

Dhldbiza (Dhloobiza), v. Stare at (ace.), 
f gaze at fixedly (the action being disliked 
as rude). 

i-nDhlodhlela, n. Assegai with a very long 
blade-shank headed by a tiny spear of 
perhaps two inches in length. Cp. i- 
n Gcula. 

isi-Dhlodhlo, n. Bunch of feathers worn 
on the top or back of the head (= isi- 
\y Dhlukula) ; person with broad upper- 
body; person of medium size (= isi- 

i(li)-Dhlodhlombiya (Dhlodhlombhiya), n. 
Anything hanging in a loose, straggling, 
dishevelled manner, as hair hanging 
out from a woman's topknot, feathers 
from the bunch on a man's head, or 
portions of grass from a bundle. 

u(lu)-Dhloko (s.k.),n. One of a regiment 
formed by Mpande next after the i-nDhlo- 

Dhlokodhla (s. k.) } v. (C.N.) = hlokoza. 

i(li)-Dhlokolo (s.k.),n. Plume formed of 
a single large bunch of i(li)-Sakabuli 
feathers, worn on the top of the head 
at great festivals = isi-Saka. Cp. isi- 
Dhlodhlo; um-Nyakanya. 

u-Dhlolo, n. = u-Zibandhlela. 

u(lu)-Dhlolo, n. Sterile person or beast, 
and of either sex f= i-Nyumba); evil- 
tempered person. 

i-nDhloloti (Dhlolothi),n. Species of iris, 
with a yellow flower and abundant in 
moist places, but very poisonous to cattle 
eating it; angry -tempered, scolding per- 
son; such temper itself. 

u(lu)-Dhlomoti (Dhlomothi), n. Any very 
tall or high thing, as a tree, tower, 
pillar, or man. 

Dhlomuluka (s. k.), v. = dhlamuluka. 

i-nDhlondhlo (Bhloondhlo), n. Large dark- 
coloured variety of cerastes or horned 
viper (Cerastes caudalis), of a very ve- 
nomous nature, and regarded by the 
Natives as the most dreaded of snakes; 
one of a regiment formed by Mpande 
next after the i-nKonkoni (= u-Shisi- 
zwe); certain *sea-fish 'with many teeth.' 

Dhlondhlobala, v. Tower up or become 
swelled with rage, intense excitement ; 
get furious, as a wild-beast when irrita- 
ted or an angry man when aroused or 


a regiment dancing spiritedly before 
their chief; puff itself up, make the hair, 
etc., stand erect, from internal excite- 
ment, as a cat, or leopard; gel big, put 
on size, grow, become numerous, as a 
beasl, or cattle generally. 

Ex. ikati selidhlondhlobele, the cat has 
now got its hair off— is puffed up in a rage. 

is'idhlondhlobele inkonyana yako, youi 
Calf has already put on size, has got big. 
isi-Dhlondhlolozi, n. Short period of insen- 
sibility, as when a person gets stunned. 

Dhlondhlopala (Dhlondhlophala), v. (C. N.) 
= dhlondhlobala. 

u(lu)-Dhlondhlwane,w. Certain regiment 
of Shaka. 

Dhlongopala (Dhlongophala), v. = dhlo- 

ubu-Dhlontiya (s.t.),n. Ostentatiousness, 
love of displaying one's beauty, fine 
attire, etc., as in vain young people. 

um-Dhlonzo, n. 5. Certain forest creeper, 
said to be a remedy for horse-sickness, 
the leaves being also rubbed and smelt 
for headache. 

um-Dhloti (Dhlothi), n. 5. Natal tobacco 
(from being largely grown in the um- 
Dhloti district). 

Dhlova v. — dhlovadhlova, dhlovula. 

isi-Dhlova, n. Wild, furious, savagely- 
acting person, or animal, as a dog or 
wild-beast, or some wild-tempered peo- 
ple. Cp. isi-Dhlangudhlangu. 

Dhl&vadhlova, v. Pitch into a thing (ace.) 
in a wild, savage, infuriated manner, as 
a wild-beast wlien fighting, or a man 
acting or talking wildly when enraged 
= dhlovula. Cp. dhlanga. 

Dhlovo dhlovo, ukuti (ukuthi), v. = dhlo- 

Dhlovoza, v. = hlofoza; fohloza. 

i-nDhlovu, n. Elephant [MZT. in-zovu; Ni. 
n-dzovu; Go. nzofu; Ga. njovu; Chw. 
Hon; Her. o-ndyou; Reg. njou; San. 
jongtva; Kwafi. endoma; Ma. oldome; 
Bari. tome; Sw. tenibo, elephant; nguvu, 

Phr kw'ehla indhlovu .' there came down 
an elephant! — remark made upon the 
appearance of a girl with small buttocks (a 
mark of ugliness with the Natives), the ele- 
phant being conspicuous for the smallnesa 
of its hinder quarters. 

ukw-enxa (taia, ngena, etc.) ngendlilomi-ya- 
ngena, to do (take, come in, etc.) like an 
elephaut coming in, t. e. in the manner of an 
invading enemy, in a wild, forcible manner. 

irnxitafa (ixdnkomo) ngcndhlorn-yangcnn, 
he seized them (the cattle) by simply, wildly 


be gathered together - - may be said in 
ference to the contentions of relatives 


coming in and taking them, by violence, by 

indhlovu iu-ilc, xipelclr tonke ixixwe xiije 
'htxepula fcuyo, the elephant has fallen and 
all the tribes have turned out, every man- 
jack of them, gone to pull off a bit of it 
where the carcase is, there will the vultures 

the property of a deceased man. 

P. indhlovu idhla abasondexeli, the elephant 
eats up those who approach very near (not 
wildly attacking like a liou) — may be said 
of a chief who comes down suddenly on his 
courtiers, or who turns the tables on his 
enemies who had thought to better him. 

um-Dhlovu (generally in plur. im-Dhlovu), 
n. 5. Horn or horns of an ox when 
growing with the points downwards so 
as nearly to touch the jaws, but not 
hanging loose as the ama-Hlawe. 

i-nDhlovudalana or Dhlovudawana, n. Spe- 
cies of wart-hog or long-tusked bush- 
swine (Potamochcerus chaeropotamus). 

Dhlovu dhlovu, ukuti (ukuti), v. = dhlovu- 

i-nDhlovukazi (s.k.),n. Female elephant- 
used as a term of honour to a woman 
of very high rank, as a chief's mother; 
or to any woman of an unusually big 

Dhlovu la, v. Be wild, rough, furious or 
violent towards (ace. of person) = dhlo- 
va; cp. dhlamuluka. 

i-nDhlovula, n. Rough, wild, savage treat- 
ment or behaviour, as above; person of 
a wild, savage, violent temperament, as 
above = isi-Dhlova. 

Ex. wangidhla indhlovula, ha turned ou me 
like a savage, pitched into me (with his 
tongue) in a wild, overbearing manner, al- 
though I had done nothing. 

isigewelegcwele y'ilo/ro ndhla umtmtu m- 
dhlovula, an isiycwcleycuxle is one who takes 
to himself the property of a person by force. 

i-nDhlovunda, n. Wild, angry person. 

um-Dhlovune, n. 5. Fever-tree, a large tree 
growing in Swaziland, having light green 
leaves and smooth bark, and said to be 
a good specific for malaria — um-Dhlo- 

um-Dhlovunga, n. 5. = um-Dhlovune. 

um-Dhlovunya, n. 5. = um-Dhlovune. 

um-Dhiovutwa (Dhlovuthwa), n. 5. Certain 
tree, said to cause fatal umkuhlane to 
anybody standing near it. Comp. um- 

Dhlovuza, /•. Stab about, on a person (ace.), 
as when giving him more than one stab 
in quick succession, or when thrusting 

104 DHL 

the assegai about in the same wound = 
ukuti dhlovu dhlovu. 

Ex. ulcufa ki/yanyidhlovuxa lapa, the dis- 
ease is stabbing me about just here = I 
am troubled with a stabbing pain. 

Dhloza, or Dhlozela, v. = dhlozomela. 

isi-Dhlozane, n. Violence of manner, as 
when wildly attacking a person or tear- 
ing anything from him. 

i(li)-Dhlozi, n. Spirit of a man, when gone 
from the body in death; ancestral spirit, 
i. e. spirit of some former member of. 
the family = i(li)-Tongo; cp. um-Lozi- 
kazana; u m-Zimu . [Skr. dyaxis, sky; 
Lat. deus, gHcT " L6 w Lat. dusius, demon; 
Gr. zeus, theos, god; Ga. mgogwi, spirit; 
Gi. li-koka; Gan. i-kisi; Nywe. u-kishi, 
God; Her. mu-sisi, ancestral spirit; Ya. 
li-soka, spirit; Gal. i-pasa; Sw. pepo, 
spirit — in Zulu witchcraft the plant 
burnt in honour of the ama-dhlozi is 
called im-pepo]. 

Phr. ixwe elifulatelwe amadhloxi, a lonely, 
deserted place, without inhabitants. 

unedhloxi clikulu, or likulu idhloxi lake, 
he has a powerful (lit. great) ancestral spi- 
rit (looking after him), or his (guardian) 
spirit is mighty — said of some person who 
has been uncommonly fortunate, in coming 
unscathed through danger, sickness, etc. 

P. akuhlhloxi lay'endhlini, layeka kicabo, 
there is no ancestral-spirit who ever went 
into (another) hut and left his own = as 
our ancestral-spirits exist, so surely will they 
help us; or, each looks after his own. 

N.B. The i-dhloxi is the uearest approach 
the Zulus have to the idea of a 'God.' The 
u-Nkulunkulu (q. v.) or 'first man,' who is 
said to have 'made the world,' is nowadays 
merely a nursery-myth, neither trusted in 
nor cared for. He seems to have created 
mankind and vanished altogether from their 
further experience; for the government to- 
day is certainly not in his hands, but en- 
tirely in those of the ama-dhloxi. These 
spiritual beings are the benevolent or ma- 
levolent 'Providence' of the Zulu, according 
as they be pleased or displeased with the 
conduct of the living. They are the supreme 
feature of whatever religion he still retains 
— all his faith is founded on them; all his 
worship is directed towards them; all his 
hopes and fears are centred in them. Pros- 
perity, preservation of health, misfortune, 
and even death, are matters arranged by 
them. According to the Zulu system, every 
person, even a child, becomes after death a 
spirit or little god of this description. He 
does not sever connection with this earth — 
for the simple reason that the Zulu could 
scarcely imagine the existence oi any place 




apart from it — but 'becomes' oue or other 
of certain specified and harmless creatures 
— as non-venomous snakes, lizards, ;uid 
the like — all of which are well-known and 
everywhere duly respected. 

It would be interesting to know whether 
there is really no relationship traceable be- 
tween the Zulu word i-dhlm i and the Skr. 
dyaus, sky (Z = i- :////<); Gr. fheos, god; 
and L. deus, god. 

i-nDhlozi, n. Serval or tiger-cat ( Leo-par dus 

serval) [Bo. suzl; Pers. youze, cheetah]. 

isi-Dhlozi, n. Nape of the neck=isi-Jingo. 

Dhlozomela, v. Seize, take violent hold or 
possession of a person (ace.) or thing, as 
a wild-beast seizing a man, a hawk seiz- 
ing a fowl, or a person seizing a thief; 
take violent hold of an affair (ace), i. e. 
take it up or dispute about it vigorously 
without any right or business therein= 
xozotnela. C\>. dhlukula ; bozomela ; isi- 

Dhlu, ukuti (ukuthi), v. Go deep into, pe- 
netrate, as a thorn into the foot, or a 
person's foot into soft moist soil. 

i-nDhlu,w. Any kind of artificial dwelling 
of man or beast— hence, hut, house, 
nest, web, hole, etc.; house, in sense of 
family, descendants, race, etc. [Goth. 
hus, house; Lat. cedes, house; Chw. n-tlu; 
Na. o-ka-ndyu; Cong, in-du; Her. o- 
ndyuo (comp. Her. tunga, build) ; Ny we. 
lum; Heh. i-jumbi; Nyamb. njo; Suk. 
numba; Kamb. i-sumba; Ga. Sw. Kag. 
nyumba; Ku. i-nupa; Ze. ng'anda; Tu. 
tiinzo; Ang. inzo; At. He]. 

Ex. owendhlu, one of the hut or family. 

aba'ndhlu'nyc, those of one hut or family 
i. e. of the same mother. 

abendhlwenye, those of a different hut or 
family i. e. of another mother (though of same 

wma wendhlu ende! you of a great house! — 
as of a royal house. 

siyahlwpeka tind'ndhlu emnyamd, we 
are afflicted, we (of) the black race. 

indhlu ka' Smxangakona iyakuprla umeobo- 
ko, the house of Senzangakona will come to 
an end (by reason of) scrofula. 

sitate, usi'se endhlint hwami, take it to 
my hut. 

isi-Dhluba (Dhlubha) n. Clump, as of mea- 
lies growing thickly in one spot in a 
field, or of tambootie-grass, and similar 
things (not of trees or people)=m- 

isi-Dhlubu, n. Garden planted with the fol- 

A 7 . B. A girl may not pass through such a 
garden during her period of menstruation, or 

after having eaten meat, lent all the nut.- BO 
rotten ! b 

u(lu), or i-nDhlubu, n. Kind of ground- 
nut, planted and much liked by Natives. 
Cp. i(li)-Ntongomana. [Reg. mabungu, 
round ground-nut; Sw. njugu nyasa 

Phr. uku-keta indhlubu ekasini, to pick 
out the nut from its shell, i. e. exclude a 
person from one's concern or society on ac- 
count of his being of another tribe or fa- 

Dhlubulenenda, v. = dhlubulunda. 

Dhlubulunda, v. Act under a sudden im- 
pulse of revolt, as when breaking vio- 
lently away, kicking against control, do- 
ing perversely what one has just been 
told not to do, etc. = ukuti dhlubulu- 

Ex. yadhlubulwidela enqoleni, it (the bul- 
lock) broke away, freed itself by violence 
and made off, from the wagon. 

Dhlubulundu, ukuti (ukuthi), v. = dhlubu- 

Ex. bengingatandi ukuhamba, ug'/'-./m 
intlixiyo is'ite dhlubulundu, ngahamba, I was 

not wanting to go, but I felt my heart 
say 'break away!' 'revolt!' and off' I went. 

i-nDhlubundhlubu (Dhlubhundhlubhu), n. 

Thing that has lost its consistency, cohe- 
sion or firmness, separating up into 
parts, as a rotten skin, sodden meat, a 
moth-eaten garment, or food of a wash- 
ed-out nature having an excess of 
water and consequent disintegration 
of parts and insipidness of flavour. Cp. 
i-nKamfunkamfu; i-n Cosuncos //. 

um-Dhludhlu, n. 5. Assegai having a long 
blade-shank but only small blade (= 
i-nDhlodhlela) ; cow r given to breaking 
away when being milked. 

Dhluku, ukuti (ukuthi; s. k.), v.— dhlukula. 

Dhlukula (s.k.),v. Take up or take away 
a thing with a violent breaking away, 
seize up, or seize away, as a person 
suddenly snatching up a child (ace.) 
aw r ay from some danger, or dragging 
away the blanket from another, or as 
oxen starting a wagon with a sudden 
violent jerk. Cp. hlwita; dhlozomela. 

isi-Dhlukula, n. Bunch of feathers worn 
on the top of or dangling behind the 
bead, as an ornament (= isi-Dhlodhlo ; 
cp. ubu-Tekwane) ; one who takes or 
seizes with violence. 

Dhlula, v. Pass, in all its meanings; hence, 
go on ahead ; go by, pass anything 
(ace); pass on from (with ku); pass 


along by, pass through, as a Hold or 
kraal (with loc.) ; pass beyond, exceed 
the line of rectitude, legality, etc.; sur- 
pass, as another (ace.) in any matter of 
comparison or rivalry (=eqa); pass 
over, as a time of affliction; pass away, 
die; often used in the sense of 'and 
yet', 'nevertheless', 'besides'. 

Ex. uyise wamtshela; adhlulr 'enxe nje! 
his father told him; he just goes oil (= not- 
withstanding) and docs it. 

umfundisi uyasifundisa; kepa 
kas'axi 'Into, the teacher teaches us 

and yet 
we know nothing. 

ttyaptixn njcUo ngokudhlulileyo, or ngoku- 
il/ilul/sa, you always drink to excess, in a 
manner that is beyond the bounds. 

mus'ukudhlula pe\u kwamaxwi enkosi, 
you mustn't proceed and do in spite of, 
or in opposition to, the words of the chief. 

yaslto pantsi, yasho pexulu, yadhlula 
(ingane), it (the child) gave off below and 
gave off above, and passed on i. e. died. 

Phr. ukudhhda nayo into, to pass along 
with a thing, i. c. carry it off either actually 
or practically, by destroying it, as an impi 
might field-produce taken or destroyed 
along its course. 

P. okwamuva kudhlul'okwatt/undulo, the 
last surpasses the first (may be used as a 
threat of vengeance which shall exceed the 

tcadlilula ngendhhi ifakiwa, kwabamba 
'r/ondo (= kawabamba, the a in the contract-, 
ed form having the ' full ' sound), he pass- 
ed by a hut while being built and didn't 
tie a knot, i. e. and didn't lend them a 
hand, which little courtesy is expected by 
Native etiquette of every passer-by — said of 
an unsympathetic, feelingless person who 
hasn't the manners of a true man, who would 
see a fellow-being in difficulty and merely 
pass by unconcerned. 

i(li)-Dhlula, n. Certain plant growing in 
woods, whose roots are used as an 
inTelezi; small quantity of already fer- 
mented beer which, along with some 
malt, is mixed into other unfermented 
worts, in order to induce rapid fermen- 
tation (= isi-Xubo). 

um-Dhlula, n. 5. Kind of trap, built of a 
fence with apertures through which 
buck, etc., may pass and be caught by 
a string. Cp. urn-Wowane. 

in-Dhlulamiti (Dhlulamithi), n. Giraffe 
(lit. the thing that surpasses trees in 

Dhlulisa, v. Do in excess, pass the line of 
propriety, lawfulness, etc., as when jok- 
ing or drinking. 

ama-Dhluludhlulu, //. Lumps or small 

106 DHL 

round masses forming in porridge or 
similar food when cooking. 

i-nDhlulundhlulu, n. = i-nDhluluza. 

Dhluluza, or Dhluluzela, v. Look or see 
things in an indistinct, dazed manner, 
out of focus, so as to mistake their real 
position or nature, as a man dazed or 
drunk, or with one eye injured, or with 
the eyes full of smoke, so that the ob- 
jects appear obscurely and in untrue 
positions. Cp. nduluza. 

i-nDhluluza, n. Eye, sightless and gene- 
rally grown abnormally large and pro- 
truding, through injury or disease = 
i-nDhlulundhlulu. See i-nDhlundhlu. 

Dhlumbu, ukuti (Dhlumbhu, ukuthi), v. — 
ukuti dhlabe. 

um-Dhlume, n. 5. Light dusty-brownish 
snake with darkish stripes, and non- 
venomous, though large. 

i(li)-Dhlundhlu, n. Young man who thinks 
much of himself, is puffed up with self- 
conceit, and making it chiefly conspic- 
uous by his high talk (C. N.). 

i-nDhlundhlu, n. Self-conceit, stuck-uppish- 
ness, haughty pride, such as is said (by 
the Natives) to be a prominent charac- 
teristic of the Kafir policeman. 

Ex. otwele indhlundhlu, one who is puffed 
up with self-conceit. 

oif indhlundhlu (ngeso), one who is puffed 
up with his own greatness (of eye) — used 
as a term of derision of one who has an 
i-nDhluluza, q. v. 

Dhlundhluteka (Dhlundhlutheka), v. Do 
anything, go, walk, etc., in a 'blind', 
wandering, uncertain, erratic kind of 
way, as a blind or drunken man stray- 
ing about not knowing where, or a per- 
son searching in an uncertain, groping 
way all over the place for something 
that is plain before him = dhlundhluea. 

isi-Dhlundhluteka (Dhlundhlutheka), n. 
Blind kind of person, going groping 
aimlessly about, unable to see what is 
plain before him. 

Dhlundhluza, v. = dhlundhluteka. 

Dhlunga, v. Talk out everything in a wild, 
unrestrained, regardless, violent manner, 
as a young-man of a wild, unprincipled 
character. Cp. pahluka. 

isi-Dhlunga, n. One given to wild, violent, 
unrestrained talking, as above (cp. isi- 
Pahluka); such manner of action; a 
clump, as of mealies or grass (= isi- 

i(li), or isi-Dhlungandhlebe, or Dhlungu- 
ndhlebe, n. = i(li)-Ptmgandhlebe. 

i-nDhlunkulu (loc. e-nDhlunkulu; s.k.),n. 




Chief hut, i. e. the hut of the i-nKosikazi 
duly appointed ; family belonging to this 
hut; kraal attached and subject to this 
hut, therefore the great kraal. 

N.B. The indhlwnkulu is the hut occupied 
by the inkosikaxd or chief wife of the kraal. 
The great wife, iu the ease of ehiefs, is 
ehosen by them in consultation with the 
headmen of the tribe, at any time after they 
have become 'full-grown men' by the putting 
on of the headring, and therefore this 'great 
wife' is rarely the chief's first wile. 

Along with and at the same time as the 
inkosikaxi, there are further appointed ano- 
ther wife to be the i(li)-Kohlwa or i(li)-Kohh, 
and a third to be the i(li)-Nqadi. 

The inqadi is a kind of supplementary 
'great wife', so that in case of the indhlu- 
nkulu failing to provide an heir or inkosana, 
tho eldest male of the inqadi hut becomes 
chief inheritor on his father's death. The 
hut of the great wile being always at the 
higher end of the kraal, that of the inqadi 
wife is built near it, on the left hand side 
looking towards the gate. 

But good means are always taken for pre- 
venting a failure on the part of the indhlu- 
rikulu to provide an heir. For in case the 
great wile may have given birth to no male 
issue, the chief remedies the deficiency by 
taking a new wife, whom he places in the 
great hut and whose duty it becomes to 
produce male offspring for that hut. Her 
sou then becomes inkosana or heir, and is 
regarded as the actual son (horn by proxy) 
of the great wife. The real mother of this 
boy, along with any further wives who may 
have been 'put in' or attached to the indhlu- 
nkulu — a number of these always existing 
— are provided with separate huts in the 
upper part of the kraal on the left hand or 
inqadi side, looking down towards the gate, 
and are known as ama-Bibi. 

The ikohlwa wife occupies the second place 
of dignity in the kraal, and will oftentimes 
be the chief's 'first love'. She, and all other 
subordinate wives attached to her household 
(ama-Bibi), is entirely independent of, and 
in no way connected with the great wife and 
her indhlunkulu. The ikohlwa portion of 
the kraal, therefore, has nothing to do with 
the provision of an heir for the chieftainship 
and has no part in the personal property of 
the chief, all of which pertains solely to the 
indhlunkulu. To prevent any jealousy, how- 
ever, the chief usually permits the eldest 
son or inkosana of the ikohlwa side, so soon 
as he is grown up to man's estate, to with- 
draw with his portion of the great kraal 
and to establish a new and independent 
kraal for himself elsewhere, giving him at 
the same time some portion ot the tribe 

with authority over them, always of course 
subject to his own or his chief sou'> pafa- 
mountcy. So long as they remain within 
the enclosure of the great kraal, the ikohlwa, 
with the various huts attached to it, are 
built on the right side, looking down from 
the indhlunkulu to the gate. One of the 
wives attached to the ikohlwa is appointed 
to be the inqadi of that branch of the fa- 
mily; and in case of failure of mule issue 
in the real ikohlwa hut, the eldest son of 
this inqadi inherits the position and pro- 

Apart from, and in rank below all these 
a certain hut is appointed as the isi-Zinda, 
q. v. 

um-nDhlunkulu (s. k.; no plur.), n. 5. Girl, 
or girls (collectively) sent up as tribute 
to the chief and living in his kraal until 
married off by him to his favourites, 
who pay the lobola to him. 

N.B. The indhlunkulu, and ikohlwa, and 

inqadi in every kraal of importance in Zu- 
luland was required to present to the king 
at least one grown-up girl. This girl was 
sent to one or other of the chief's numerous 
kraals, lived there with the other girls in a 
similar position — forming the um-nDhlu- 
nkulu of that kraal — and ceased entirely 
to be any longer the property of her natural 
lather. She belonged to the chief, and did 
the work of the kraal — the chief's wives 
and their children not being expected to 
work — and it she chanced to be good- 
looking, was taken to wife by the chief him- 
self; otherwise she was made a present of 
by him to any favourite, or sold by him for 
lobola to any one with a chance who might 
bid for her. 

Dhlunye, ukuti (ukuthi), v. Do anything 
excessively or in unusually great degree, 
as a woman cooking an over-abundance 
of food (ace), a doctor administering an 
overdose of medicine (with nga) to a 
person (ace), or a thorn penetrating 
unusually deep into the foot of a person 
(ace.) = dhlunyeka. 

Dhlunyeka (s.k.),v. = ukuti dhlunye. 
Dhlunyekeka (s.k.), v. Get doneexcessively, 
as above. 

u(lu)-Dhlutshana (s. t.), n. Small veldt-plant, 
having violet daisy-like flower and high- 
ly poisonous roots, sometimes used me- 
dicinally for chest and head complaints, 
for trichinosis, and as an enema. 

i-nDhlu-yenkonjane (s. k.), n. Dimple, as 
on the cheek of a plump-faced child = 

i-nDhlu-yengwe, //. One of the regiment 
formed by Mpande next after u-Nokenke 


q. t. and from which the i(li)-Ktrentu, 
u-Nqakamatshe, ist-Pikili, and i-m Vuem- 
iiyama sub-regiments were detached. 

i-nDhlu-yesikova (yesikhova), n. Unformed 
ibuto following the i-nDuku-ka' Qwaba- 
landa and which would have consisted 
of that intanga of boys who in 1901 
were about nine years old. 

i-nDhluzele, n. Hartebeest (Antilope Ca- 

Dhluzula, i'. Drag or pull away anything 
(ace.) with force or violence; talk or 
reply in a violent manner. See below. 

i-nDhluzula, ft. Violence, in any action or 

F.x. wangitatela ngendhluxula, he started 
at me in a violent, enraged manner. 

isi-Dhlwabidhlwabi, ?i. Wild, violent, rough- 
ly indifferent person (= isi-Dhlangu- 

dhlangu); ravenous, 



(= isi-Dhlakudhla). 
Dhlwabiza, or Dhlwabizela, v. Do, go a- 
long, etc., in a wild, rough manner, as 

isi-Dhlwadhlwa, n. Sweet ama-Zele water, 
mixed up with um-Caba. Comp. u-Hle- 

Dhlwambi, ukuti (Dhlwambhi, ukuthi), v. 
= ukuti dhlabe. 

i-nDhlwandhlwa, n. Hide-scraper = isi- 

i(li)-Dhlwani, n. = i(li)-Ndhlwane. 

i-nDhlwanya, n. Deadly threat (C.N.). 

u(lu)-Dhlwayi, n. Tall, scraggy-bodied per- 
son = u(lu)-Dhlwayimba. 

u(lu)-Dhlwayimba (Dhhvayimbha),n. = 

Dhlwe, ukuti (ukuthi), v. Feel revived, re- 
freshed, as after eating a meal when 
very hungry and fatigued (see hlume- 
lela) ; feel eased, with new life, as when 
pain has been reduced by some medicine, 
or gone away (cp. ukuti lotololo); be a 
little in advance in size, a little bigger 
than (with ku, or generally alone = uku- 
ti tutu). 

Ex. wa/ngipa okicokupuxa, ng'exwa sekute 
dhlwe, he gave me something to drink, and 
J felt all my vigour now return. 

enyc ineane (inkonyand), enye tie dhlwe, 
one is small (of the calves), the other is a 
bit bigger. 

u-Dhlwedhlwe, n. Long stick or staff, such 
used by old men = u(lu)-Boko. 

Dhlweza, v. — ukuti dhlwe. 

Di, ukuti (ukuthi), v. Act in a nonchalant, 
perfectly indifferent, regardless, fearless 
manner, as when speaking, sitting, etc. 

108 DI 

izi-Dibi (Dibhi; no sing.), n. — izi-Bidi. 
um-Dibi, n. 5. Irregular or disorderly 
mingling or mixing-up together, as of 
things that by their nature or by custom 
are kept apart, as boys and girls in a 
school, big cattle and their calves, etc. 

Ex. ixinkomo ■iiamhla xipmne xi umdibi, 
kanye namankonyana, the cattle to-day have 
gone out all mixed up with the calves. 

kwesakubo isikale kuba umdibi kanye na- 
bafana namantombaxana, in their school it is 
an indiscriminate mixing-up of boys and girls. 

u(lu)-Dibi, n. Carrying or baggage boy. 
N.B. Every boy in Zululand, between 
the ages of 9 and 15 about, had to become 
an u-dibi and do the carrying for the fight- 
ing-men or ama-buto. At the end of this 
term of service, he would get drafted into a 
newly formed regiment, aloug with all others 
in Zululand of approximately the same age. 

ubu-Dibi,rc. = u(lu)-Titi. 

i-nDibilishana, n. Small penny i.e. half- 
penny, or farthing. 

i-nDibilishi, n. Penny [D. dubbeltje], 

u-Dibintlango (s. t.), n. == u-Jubingqwanga. 

izi-Dibiza (Dibhiza), n. = izi-Bidi. 

Dica, v. Fling down, or make lie down in 
a dead, flaccid manner, as a wet cloth 
(ace), or a person thoroughly exhausted ; 
make to fall or lie prone and ruined 
anything which by nature stands erect, 
as an army 'cutting down' the enemy 
(ace), a destroyer trampling or casting 
down the crops in a field, or (by com- 
parison) a person cutting down his 
crops prematurely and before ripe on 
account of locusts or an expected inva- 
sion = ukuti did; dieiza. 

Dica, ukuti (ukuthi), v. Be altogether with- 
out strength, ready to collapse, faint, as 
from complete exhaustion, fright, or di- 
minished heart-action = ukuti lisa. Cp. 
cobeka; fehleka. 

um-Dica, n. 5. Anything lying prone in a 
dead, strengthless, limp-bodied, loosely- 
hanging way, as above — see dica. 

DYci, ukuti (ukuthi), v. = dica. 

Dieiza, v. — dica. 

Dida, v. Put out (ace), as when reckoning ; 
confuse, as a lot of people addressing a 
person together. 

Didakala (s.k.),v. Be put out; be confused, 

as above. 
Didakalisa (s.k.),v. = dida. 

Dideka (s. k.), v. Get put out; get confused, 
as above (see dida). 

Ex. sengididekile ifilexi'xibalo, I am now 
all in a fog with these figures. 





i(li), or um-Didi, n. 5. Rectum/ of man (see 

Ex. ukwelwe ididi, he suffers from prolap- 
sus ani. 

N.B. The umtakati watches for his victim 
goiug out to stool. He theu stealthily goes 
and takes the ton-Xcuno (q. v.) of the person, 
mixes it with certain medicines and goes 
through some other processes at home, with 
the result that the said victim, however far 
away he may be, immediately discovers that 
something has gone wrong with his rectum ! 

isi-DTdi (Diidi), n. Great number of things 
standing in a mass, as a large herd of 
cattle or multitude of people, or kraals. 

Di dt dl', ukuti (ukuthi),v. Give rise to the 
dull, heavy sound of di, i. e. the thud or 
patter made by a footstep ; hence, tread, 
stamp, patter, and the like; give forth 
such a sound, as the earth when stamped 
or heavily trodden upon f= ukuti gi gi 
gi); make a general pattering, move 
about in a lively, excited manner bustle 
about, as women beer-making, (= qiqi- 
zela, didizela); run about or run off in 
an excited, confused manner, make a 
general stampede, as people when an 
impi is reported = didizela. Comp. gi- 

ubu-Dididi, n. Lively, excited moving or 
running about, as when a fight is on, 
or a lot of children are playing. 

Didiyela, v. Do two or more things at a 
time, which usually or properly should 
have been done separately, or kept apart, 
as e. g. a waiter bringing in two courses 
(ace.) at once, a master giving a boy 
several months wages at a time, a man 
cutting off from the beast a double joint 
at one stroke. 

Ex. mus'ukudidiyela i\ itsha xomlungu 
mxabantu, you mustn't take together, or 
mix up together (it may be 'wash' together, 
in this particular case) the vessels of the 
whitemau and of (his) Kafirs. 

umnumxana wmndidiycla hnbando yombili, 
the kraal-head 'doubled' her (his wife) with 
both halves of the hide (whereas it would 
have been usual for her to have received 
only one, and some other wife the other). 

udidiyela abanye abantu, inganti ng'tt/re, 
you bring in or add in (the names of) other 
people, whereas it is you (alone). 

Didizela, v. = ukuti di di di. 

Didizelisa, v. Causative of didizela — to 
drive about in confusion, send off in a 
general scamper or stampede, scatter, 
rout, as an impi might an enemy (ace). 

i(li)-Didwa, n. Temporary post stuck up 
inside a hut to support the framework 

while building; any of the permanent 

i(li), or isi-Difiza, n. = isi-Difikezi. 

isi-Difikezi (s.k.),n. Big, heavy, clumpy 
thing, as a swollen hand, a club-foot, a 
flat-bottomed, too heavily shaped vessel ; 
big, heavy-bodied person = isi-Difiza. 

Dikadika (s. k.), v. Deal with, pitch into, 
do for anything (ace.) in a vigorous, 
spirited, thorough manner, as a man 
thrashing soundly one weaker than him- 
self, when dealing vigorously with a big 
piece of work, when feasting heartily 
on nice food, or when stabbing a beast 
thoroughly with much energetic action 
of the assegai. Cp. tikatika. 

isi-Dlkadika (s.k.),n. Any big, weighty 
thing, a 'proper' specimen of its kind, 
as a great heavy bundle to be carried, 
a large joint of meat, or a serious affair; 
a lifeless body, carcase, corpse, such as 
of man or beast when found on the 
veldt, or after a battle (not gen. when 
dying or slaughtered at home). 

i(li)-Dikazi (s.k.),v. Young widow eligible 
for marriage, or about to be married 
again = i-Cakazi, i-nJuba. Comp. nm- 
Fehvakazi; i(li)-Pumandhlu. 

i-nDiki (s. k.), n. Little finger with the last 
joint cut off, as is the distinguishing 
mark of some tribes, as the ama-Bomvu. 
See i(li)-Ndiki. 

Phr. ityakuicuiiquma (iMHuntcc), itbe indiki, 
you will cut it off (your finger) and become 
an indiki (stump-fingered person) — before 
you have the courage to do what you say 
= I should just like to see you! — as when 
daring a person in a quarrel to do what he 
says he will do. 

Dikibala (s. k.), v. Be tired out, 'sick' of 
doing or trying anything, as of correct- 
ing an incorrigible child, or with food 
(used in perf.). Cp. tikibala; dinwa. 

DYki, ukuti (ukuthi; s. k.), v. Quiver, trem- 
ble, vibrate (= dikiza); fall flat with a 
thudding sound, as any blunt instru- 
ment which does not penetrate, but 
merely knocks (diki!) when thrust 
against anything (= dikimeza); to eat 
oneself chock-full, so as not to be able 
to put away any more (= dikiza). 

Ex. igeja lami lisimxe liti diki panisi, 
my hoe just comes down with a thud <>u 
the ground, i. e. is quite blunt. 

sad/da sati diki, we ate till we had filled 
ourselves. — shown by our leaving some food 
in the dish = sadhla sakushiya. 

akusati diki kimi, it no longer quakes 
within me = I no longer fear. 




DVkidiki (s.k.),adj. Loosely, limply, pow- 
erlessly hanging, as a person's arm 
when paralysed or thoroughly exhausted. 

Ex. imikono iVidikidiki, (my) arms are 
now quite fagged out — from tiring work. 

Dikila (s. /,:), r. Refuse or reject a thing 
(ace), or refrain from doing anything 
through being in the 'huffs', as to eat, 
talk, work, go, etc. = kalala, duba. 

i-nDikili (s.k.),n. Any blunt or stumpy- 
pointed thing, as hoe or unpointed stick 
(set' iik iiti di/ii); a 'blunt' pot i.e. one 
that doesn't quickly boil, through being 
too thick at the bottom (see ubu-Kali) 
= i-nDikindiki, i-nDikiva. 

isi-Dikili (s. k.), n. Small veldt-plant (La- 
siosiphon Meisneri) having small white 
umbel and silvery -green leaves, and 
whose pungent roots are used for snake- 
bite, some fevers, and as an enema. 

Dikimeza (s. k.), v. Come down flop or flat, 
not sharp and penetrating, as a blunt 
hoe or stump of wood = ukuti diki, 
ukuti (Untsi. 

isi, or i-nDikimezi (s.k.),n. Any blunt, 
stump of a thing, that won't pierce or 
cut, as a hoe, horns of a beast with the 
points cut, man's leg with the foot (or 
sharpness) off, or any unpointed thing 
that comes down with a flat thud = 

i-nDikimba, (Dikimbha), n. The bulk, i. e. 
the main or larger quantity, of anything; 
bulkiness, bigness, largeness of quan- 
tity; main 'body' i.e. main facts, essen- 
tial points, of an affair. Cp. isi-Bili. 
[Bo. ndidi, truly]. 

Ex. uyababaxa lexo (ixingubo), kantikawu- 
kaboni indikimba yaxo, you open your mouth 
at those fclothes), but you have not yet seen 
the bulk or main quantity of them (which 
is locked in the store). 

indikimba yaxo i ixinkomc)yadhliica uMusi, 
the hulk of them (the cattle) were iuherited 
by Musi. 

kabasuti ngani, loku indikimba yalo (ipa- 
lishi) i 'a; /a ku, why is it they do not get 
enough, when the amount (or bulk) of it 
(the porridge) is so much? 

asikfexioa indikimba yah (ieala), we have 
not yet heard its 'body' (i. c. main facts that 
go to make up the case). 

i-nDikindiki (s.k.),n. Any blunt-edged, or 
stumpy-pointed thing, as a much-worn 
hoe (not generally used of a knife = 
irnJundu), an unpointed stake, etc.; 
oking-pot that doesn't quickly boil /= 
xDikili, i-nDikiva); any tasteless food, 
from nature or want of flavouring (= 
nkudnma); immense quantity of food, 

as beer or meat at a feast (cp. ama- 
Damu); any shaky, jelly-like thing (== 

isi-Dikinyane ($. k.), n. Bodily faintness, 
sickly powerlessness, from excessive 
fatigue, as when one feels quite ill, un- 
able to eat, etc. (with ukuba no). 

i-nDikiva (s.k.),n. = i-nDikili, i-nDiki- 

Dikiza (s. k.), v. Tremble, as a man from 
fear, or as distant-thunder ; vibrate, as 
a bridge when anything heavy crosses; 
shake, as jelly when carried; quiver, as 
sheet-lightning; twitch, have muscular 
twitching s, as an animal dying (= ukuti 
diki); eat food in great abundance till 
one can't eat any more (leaving some un- 
eaten = uku-zi-tika). fSw. tikisika, 
tremble ; Her. teketa, tremble]. 

Ex. kade sikumemexa, ungadikixi na'kudi- 
kixa, we've been calliug you ever so long 
and you haven't moved a muscle. 

sidikixe saiiikixa, sakushiya, we crammed 
it away till we couldn't get iu anymore, 
and left it. 

Dikoza (s. k.), v. Say spiteful, malicious 
things (C.N.). 

isi-Dikozi (s. k.), n. Grudge, spite, ill-will, 
malice (C.N.). 

i(li)-Dikwe (loc. eDikwe), n. Any 'uneat- 
able' food or drink, whether from unfit- 
ness or nasty taste. 

Ex. irasibekela idikwe layixolo, he set be- 
fore us uneatable food (cold and insipid) 
from yesterday. 

mus'ukwpuxa kona, kus'edikwe, dou't drink 
there, it is at an uudrinkable place (because 
it is there we bathe, or wash our clothes). 

amanzi akona aC idikwe, the water there is 
unfit for drinking purposes. 

isi-Dikwe (s.k.), n. One who dwells on 
the same spot for an unusually long 
time, not occasionally shifting his kraal 
from place to place. 

Phr. isikundhla somnamatela, njeng'esabele- 
twa uKenkeni, the sittiug-place of a stick- 
faster — like that which Kenkeui carried 
on his back (the reference here is to some 
ancient fairy-tale of the Zulus, and the say- 
ing is now applied to such a man as above). 

Dili, ukuti (ukuthi),v. = dilika; diliza. 

i(li)-DTli (Diili),n. Great multitude or mass 
abundantly about on all sides, as of 
food at a feast (cp. ama-Damu), people 
flocking into or attending an assembly, 

Ex. kaku'nkomo, idili nje, it isn't cattle 
at all, it's an idili (extraordinary multitude), 
= cattle's not the word for it. 


ngivinjelwe amadili amaeala, I hare been 
blocked out by the unusual number of ca- 
ses (to be tried). 

P. idili I'enxiwe ng'umnimlo, the feast 
(i.e. abundance of food) is caused by its 
owner [i.e. by his generosity) — a word in 
praise of his liberal hospitality. 

Dilika (s. k.), v. Fall to pieces, fall down, 
fall in, as anything constructed of stone, 
plaster, earth, etc. ; lose flesh, let fall 
superfluous fat, as a stout person ; be 
in great abundance, 'fallen all about', as 
cattle, food, cases for trial, etc. (the 
state, in all cases is expressed by the 
perf. tense — dilikile) [Her. sir big a, 
fall in]. 

Dilikici, ukuti (ukiithi; s. k.), v. Fall, or be 
fallen, in a flaccid, lifeless sprawl on the 
ground, as the body of a man or small 
animal, a snake sleeping on the road, 
or a wet skin flung on the ground (not 
applicable to any rigid object, or to any 
large-sized animal falling heavily or 
lying in a great heap, as a bullock == 
ukuti giligiqi). Cp. ukuti did; ukuti 

Ex. ngamfumanisa etc dilikici endhlini, I 
found him sprawled in a limber, lifeless 
manner (not stretched out in an orderly 
fashion as when sleeping) in the hut. 

Dilinga, v. Make round or into a ball, as 
a piece of clay (ace); invent a falsehood 
or false story (not exactly to 'tell a lie' 
or single untrue word, which would 
scarcely want 'making or rounding up') 
= bulling a (bhulunga) [Sw. viriganisha, 
rounden ; m-viringo, a circle]. 

i-nDilinga, n. Round thing, whether ball 
or disc shaped (comp. i-mBulunga) ; an 
invention, fabricated i. e. false statement 
or story = i-nDingilizi [Sw. m-viringo, 

Ex. inyanga is'ig'indilinga, the moon is 
now a ball i. e. is full = is'tdindile, is'idi/i- 

imgiletele indilinga nje! woba mdala, ngi- 
fung'uMpande, you just bring me a story 
trumped up by yourself ! you will be old 
(a person of experience, when you have got 
what I shall give you some day), by Mpande 
you will. 

Dilingana, v. Form, or form itself, into a 
round shape or balls, as the moon, meal 
when thrown into the boiling water and 
forming lumps, etc. = bulling ana (b hu- 
lling ana). 

Ex. inyanga is'idUingene, the moon has 
now formed itself into ball-shape i. e. is at 
the full = is'tdindile, is'ihlangene. 

Diliza, v. Make to fall down, fall in, fall 


to pieces, etc.; hence, pull down, knock 
down, bring down, as a man or rain 
might anything formed of stonework, 
plaster, earth, etc. [Her. siringisa, make 
fall in]. 

i-nDima, n. Middling-sized piece of culti- 
vated ground, not large enough to be 
called a field or i-nTsimu, of which it 
may at times be a single strip allotted 
to a particular wife [akin to lima, to 
hoe — the I and d being interchangeable 
in Bantu languages; hence, Lu. ku-dima, 
to hoe; Bo. ndima, work]. 

Phr. us'eiidimeiii yabantu, he is in the 
middling-sized place of people, /'. c in the 
mean, average, as to size, height, etc. 

kanisekuyo eyagixulu; scniaambe enye 
indima, you are no longer in the one (iudi- 
ma) of yesterday ; you have now planned 
another field to plough in (= another story). 

ukwala indima, to mark out beforehand 
a plot about to be hoed or ploughed (by 
running round it with the hoe or plough) = 
uku-gaba indima [comp. Ga. c/i-alu, a field]. 

Dimde, aux. verb. = simze. 

Ex. udinuVavume konke, he just agrees to 

isi-Dime, n. Person dumb and idiotic. 

u(lu)-Dimi, n. Tongue (now obsolete, ex- 
cept in phrases below and in case of 
'snake's tongue,' only spoken of in plur. 
izi-nDimi, and for which u-limi is never 
used). See u(lu)-Limi. [Lu. lu-dimi, 
tongue ; Sw. Ga. Bo. etc. lu-limi, tongue ; 
plur. n-dimi, tongues — the /, for 
euphony, becoming d after the n]. 

Phr. inyoka in gal i\ a ixindimi, the snake 
thrusts out its tongues (from the forks. — 
Mark that this d form occurs only in the 
plural, and refer to remark on Sw. and cog- 
nate languages above). 

umuntu o'ndimi'mbili, a double-tongued, 
deceptive, wilfully misleading, treacherous 
person. See u(li<)-Limi; ion -Bain. 

Dina, v. Tire, be irksome to, sicken (me- 
taphor.) — generally by excessive, mono- 
tonous repetition = pisha, shipa. [Ga. 
sima, satisfied]. 

Ex. ktiyangidina ukwenxa kwalaba'bantu, 
it sickens me, this manner of the Natives. 

isi-Dina, n, Disagreeableness arising from 
too frequent repetition, tiresomeness. 

Ex. amadumhi Itucn as'enesidina kifi, these 
madumbi are now irksome to us. 

seainesidina samadumbi, we are now sick 
of dumbis. 

Dinda, v. Thrash, beat vigorously, as a 
person (ace.) with a stick or switch, or 
a heap of mabele for the grain (— bula); 


l>c a useless thing, of no service, be an 
i-nDindn (used in perf.); do a useless 
work, of no service, make be an i-nDi- 
nda; make up one's full term, full size, 
etc (comp. ndinda, with which it is 
probably akin. The exact meaning of 
this word, dinda, is somewhat difficult 
to follow ; it is mostly used in reference 
to animal procreation and food, seldom 
on other occasions). 

inkunxi iioku /'dinda inyumbakaxi, the 

bull is nil along doing a thing of* no service 
to the sterile cow (by constantly mounting it). 

ixinkomaxd nonyaka \ id indite, the cows 
this year have done a thing of no use, i.e. 
they have skipped this season, by not having 
been served by the bull. 

isijinyi sidindile, kasidhliwa 'intuitu, the 
pumpkin-mash has done a useless work, has 
become an i-nDinda, it is not eaten by any- 
body i.e. is standing idle, cooked for no- 
thing, there is nobody who will eat it. 

umsebenxi udindile, the work is standing 
an i-nDinda, there being nobody to do it 
i. c. is standing idle for want of somebody 
to take it up. 

us'edindile umfa:i ka'Bani, she has made 
up her full time, has the wife of So-and-so 
i. e. she is now due to give birth. 

inyanga is'idindile, the moon has made 
up its full term, i. e. is now at the full = 
is'ihlangene, is'idilingene. 

i(li), or i-nDinda, n. Anything cast away, 
as useless, not wanted or cared for by 
anybody, as anything found thrown out 
on the veldt or lying about neglected 
in the kraal (cp. i-mBuqa) ; a buck found 
dead in the bush, a woman cast out on 
to the world by her husband, meat of 
a bush-buck, etc., not eaten by girls, a 
discarded pot, would all be named an 

Dindi or Dindikazi (s.k.),n. (C.N.) = di- 

isi-Dindi, n. Cheek-bone (= isi- Dindi seso, 
i(U)-Tinidu); clod of entangled roots 
and earth, such as is formed beneath a 
clump of grass (= isi-Hleke); such a 
clump of grass itself (= isi-Qundu; isi- 

i-nDindibala, n. Any mass or body of 
huge, immense proportions, as a man, 
hut, heap of mabele (not used of such 
things as a forest, field, river, etc. = 
u(lu)-Dukada, u(lu)-Dwalaza, etc.). 

Dindida.v. Thrash vigorously = dinda. 

isi-Dindili.w. Body lying stark-naked (C.N.). 

Dindiliza, v. Lie stark-naked (= qungqu- 
luz'i; comp. qunguza; nquna); throw 
down at full length on the ground, as 
a man a girl (ace.) for carnal purposes 


or one boy another when merely play- 
ing; lie out dead, as a corpse in a hut, 
even when the corpse is covered (used 
in perf.) = ukuti dindilizi [Sw. pinda, 
dead carcase ; Her. pinyauka, lie in dis- 

Ex. ngamfumanisa edindilizile ecaleni 
lewomgwaqo, I came across him stretched 
dead (even though covered) by the roadside. 

wadindilixa iimuntu, sing'azclcle, a man 
lay dowD dead, we not haviug paid attention 
— said to blame, as it were, the sudden 
death of a person. 

Dindilizeka (s.k.),v. Get thrown down at 
full length, as when one slips in the 
mud = ukuti dindilizi. 

Dindilizi, ukuti (ukuthi), v. = dindiliza; 
Ex. ■us'ete dindilizi, he already lies dead. 

Dindinini, adj. Tasteless; flavourless; flat; 

insipid, as food — duma. 
Dine, aux. verb. = sinize, dimde. 

Dinga, v. Be without, want, need (ace); 

be needy, destitute [Sw. taka; Ga. agal- 
I la; Her. hepa] — the word has gone 

out of use in Zululand through the habit 
•of hlonipaing the names of Dingi- 

sivayo and Dingane, the word ntula 

being there substituted for it. 

i-nDinganiso, n. Large-sized i-Qoma (q.v.), 
about tw r o feet or more in breadth, con- 
taining nearly half a sack, and used in 
the old days for measuring out grain 
for sale — about half a dozen of these 
baskets filled with corn being deemed 
equivalent to a beast = u(lu)-Yengezi. 
[see linganisa, from which it is derived]. 

isi-Dingawoti (Dingawothi), n. Idiot 
often used as a term of abuse in the 
sense of 'fool' (== isi-Tuta); also, bad 
snuff (— isi-Pusha) = isi-Dingidtvane, 

Dingeka (s. k.), v. Be scarce, not easily 

i-nDingi.w. = i-nDingiliza. 

Dingida, v. Investigate, enquire into, an 
affair (ace.) = titinya. 

isi-Dingidwane, n. = isi-Dingawoti. 

Dingiliza, v. = ukuti dingilizi, ntingiliza, 

Ex. uku-dinyiliza ixwi, to roll together a 
word i. e. come to a common agreement as 
to what shall be said, as a lot of men goiug 
to a trial. 

i-nDingiliza, n. Round, ball-shaped thing 
(= i-nDilinga, i-nDingilizi) ; Kafir top, 
made by thrusting a stick through any 
large berry, etc. (= i-nDingi, i-mPimpi- 
liza. See bhibha). Cp. isi-Yingelezi. 

Dl 11 

Dingilizi, ukuti (ukuthi), v. Go round; hence, 
roll, as a ball; spin, as a top; revolve, 
as a wheel ; spin or circle sharply round 
on the 'chest,' as the flanks of an ex- 
tended impi or line of dancers, so as 
to form up group-wise = ukuti ntingi- 
lizi. Cp. ukuti yingilizi. 

isi, or i-nDingilizi, n. — i-nDingiliza. 

i(li), more freq. in pi. ama-Dingolo, n. Any 
badly-made earthen vessel too heavily 
laden with clay; person having big, 
ugly ears, or buttocks, or body generally. 

i(li)-Dini, n. = i-Dili. 

u(lu)-Dini, n. = u(lu)-Ndi. 

Dintsi, ukuti (ukuthi; s. L), v. Be or come 
down heavily as a dead weight, as a 
heavy box falling, or a blunt hoe that 
simply falls flatly on the ground, not 
penetrating the soil = ukuti gqintsi. 
i(li)-Dintsi (s.t.),n. Any very heavy, weighty 

thing = i(li)- Gqintsi; i-nZema. 
Dinwa, v. Be sickened, tired out, vexed, 
as with something irksome. Cp. diki- 

FjX. ngiyadinwa y'ttoku'lcucela kwabcmtu, 
I am sickened with this begging of Natives. 
sengidiniwe, I am aheady tired out, have 
given up trying any more. 
Dmye, ukuti (ukuthi), v. Fill anything (ace.) 
into something else (loc); be full, as a 
vessel (nom.) with anything (ace), or as 
anything (nom.) in a vessel (loc). 

Ex. uywayi ngomgaya, ngimuti dinye esi- 
tsheni sami, I shall grind the snuff and fill 
it into my snuff-box. 

nyalifumanisa igida lite dinye amasi, I 
found the milk-gourd filled with amasi. 

amanxi ami apt? ngiwashiye ati dinye 
exitsheni, where is my water? I having left 
it full in the pot. 
Dipaza (Diphaza), v. = ntipaza. 
Dipizisa (Diphizisa), v. Surpass one's 
power to comprehend, beat, puzzle (C.N.). 
Cp. ntipaza. 
isi, or i-nDishela, n. Any tasteless, insipid 
mash, porridge, or other thick soft mess 
of food. Cp. duma. 
i-nDishindishi, n. Person or animal heavily 
shaking with fat = i-mBishimbishi, i- 
mBishishi, i-nDishishi. 
i-nDishishi, n. = i-nDishindishi. 
Dishizela, v. Go with the fat shaking or 
heavily sinking down at each step, as a 
very fat man, or pig = bishizela. 

i-nDiva, n. Any cast-away, worthless, neg- 
lected thing, as an old pot no longer 
used, a wife no longer cared for since 
the advent of younger brides, etc. = i- 


tnBuqa; i-nDinda. [Sw. hafifu, worth- 

Divaza, v. Walk or tramp along weary 
and done-up; search wearily about for 
a thing (ace.) without finding it; dance 
in a bad, heavy, lazy manner, be merely 
'stamping.' = duvaza. 

Divi, ukuti (ukuthi^ v. (N) = ukuti diki. 

i-nDivili, ra. (N) = i-nDikili. 

i-riDivindivi, n. (N) = i-nDikindiki. 

u(lu)-Diwo, n. = u(lu)-Kamba. 

Dixi, ukuti (ukuthi), v. = dixiza; dixizeka. 

Dixiza, v. Make to lie, as below. 

Dixizeka (s. k.), v. Lie out on the ground 
in a loose, relaxed manner, as an indolent 
person lounging lazily in a kraal. 

ama-Dixana (no sing.), n. A 'running' with 
an excess of any thick liquid, etc. 
used as adjective, as below. 

Ex. inkosikaxi i'l/iadixana arnafuta, the 
wife is just running with fat (with which 
she has anointed herself). 

DFya (Diiya), v. Cut a straight, even edge 
or end on a thing, as when nicely paring 
the both ends of a stick, or when cut- 
ting even the top or bottom edges of 
an isidivaba, or when cutting a piece 
of cloth to fit in by measurement. 

isi-Diya, n. = isi-Gcayo (the latter is the 
word mostly used in Zululand) ; some- 
times applied to the i-mBeleko after- 
wards made from such isi-Gcayo. 

u(lu)-DTya (Diiya), n. Straight even edge 
or cut, as made along a piece of cloth 
or skin. Cp. u(lu)-Ndi. 

i(li)-Diye, n. Small locust eaten by boys. 
Phr. nantsi ingqoto yami, 'mfana, /'\r 
ungigokle amadiye emva kicendhlu kwenu, 
there's my settler, boy, just come and catch 
locusts for me behind your mother's hut — 
a common challenge in Natal given by one 
boy to another by tapping him lightly with 
a stick on the head. 

Doba, v. Fish, catch fish (ace.) (N) = 6a- 
mba. [Ga. roba, fish-hook; vuba, to 
fish; Reg. kalobo, hook; Sw. ndoana, 
fish-hook; opoa, to fish up]. 

i(li), or i-nDobela, n. Tidal waters of the 
inner-bay or lagoon at Durban, so called 
from the old-timed Native custom of 
fishing there. Cp. i(li)-Buya. 

Phr. sokubuye idobela, the i-dobcla (i.e. 
the water of the lagoon) has come back — 
at return of tide = for practical purposes 
at Durban, 'it is high water.' 

lis'emukile idobela, the i-dobela (i. e. water 
of the lagoon) is still away — when the tide 



is out = for practical purpose* at Durbau, 

•it is low water ' 
i(li)-Dobo, n. An i(li)-Watanga q.v. when 

overgrown with bush or scrub from its 

southern aspect. Cp. u(lu)-Faba. [Hi. 

doab, cultivatable land between two 

u(lu)-Dobo, n. Fish-hook (N) [Ga. roba; 

Sw. ndoana]. c 

Doda, v. Be or become a man — mostly 
in the sense of 'doing the work of a 
man' in the kraal, as a smart boy might 
in the absence of older workers; also = 
ndonda. [See i-nDoda]. 

Ex. uMaxwana us'emdoda uyise = uMa- 
\icana us'emcnxela uyise imisebenxi yama- 
dodu, Mazwana now does the men's work 
for his father (as building huts, repairing 
the fences, etc). 

uyise us'edodwe amfana wake, the father 
has the men's works done for him by his 

I-nDoda, pi. ama-Doda, n. Adult male; 
husband (in the sense merely of the 
'man' of a wife); male, of any age (used 
to designate the sex) ; smart boy — 'a 
man'; adult male of smartness, exper- 
ience, position, etc. [Skr. dhava, hus- 
band; U. umu-ntu, pi. awa-ntu, man; 
Ya. mu-ndu. pi. wa-ndu; Ka. mu-ndu, 
pi. a-ndu; Bo. Ze. Ngu. etc. mu-ntu. 
pi. wa-nhi, Sw. m-tu, pi. wa-tu. — 
The derivation of this word is diffi- 
cult to trace. From the Sahara to the 
Southern Ocean, throughout all the Ba- 
ntu languages, one does not come across 
any word, having this particular signi- 
fication, and bearing such a marked 
resemblance to the Kafir word in-Doda 
(husband) as the Skr. dha-va, husband. 
The word for ' man ' throughout nearly 
all of the Bantu languages is the local 
equivalent of the Zulu word umu-ntu, 
a person. But in those languages it 
means almost invariably 'a man' or 
'male' in contradistinction to 'a woman' 
or 'female', though it also very fre- 
quently has the second meaning of 'aper- 
i.' It, therefore, seems just possible 
that the word in-Doda is only another 
form of the same original root, and that, 
in earlier times, it many also have had 
the general meaning of 'a person' or 
'human-being'. We note that the plural 
of the Zulu word is not izin-Doda, as 
it should be, but ama-Doda, which is 
quite irregular in Zulu, but quite in 
accordance with the regular plural of 
umu-ntu in almost everj r other Bantu 
language. Furthermore, the use in Zulu 
of the word in-Doda-kazi (a daughter) 

114 DO 

would support the supposition that the 
thought contained in the root Doda 
was not always solely 'male' or 'man', 
but rather 'a person'; for the idea of 
'a female man' (i.e. in-Doda-kazi) is 

Again, the word in-Doda and also 
perhaps umu-ntu as well may be 

connected, in its origin, with the Bo. ku- 
doda, to drip; Sw. dondo-ka to drip; 
Ga. tondo, a drop; Ga. tonda, to create 
or bring forht into being ; Zulu, um- 
tondo, the male organ: — hence, the 
'dripping' or 'procreating' one]. 

P. adhla nya'rtdoda, they (the other ama- 
duda) ate through a man— said by people 
in praise of anybody who has brought them 
something good. 

ubu-Doda, n. Manliness; male sexual or- 

i-nDodakazi (s.k.),n. Daughter (female 
offspring, even when adult, and mar- 
ried, is scarcely ever dignified by this 
name in every-day Kafir speech; the 
word i-nTombazana (little girl) is that 
in customary use, even when referring 
to a married woman still in her prime, 
beyond that period i-nDodakazi would 
be used ; in the case of chiefs and men 
of position, the -word i-nKosazana is 
frequently used). 

i-nDodana, pi. ama-Dodana, n. Son (like 
the preceding, this word also is seldom 
used, um-Fana (boy) being that in 
common use, even though it refer to a 
married man of anything under 30 years 
of age — the word i-nDodana might be 
applied to any male older than this). 

P. indaba inendodana. uyise /catia'cala, 
the matter is with the son (or offspring), 
the father is of no concern = it is not the 
mere original action, it is not what you 
have already done (that is of concern to me), 
but the bad results it may have, the ill 
effects it may give rise to. 

u(lu)-Dodelana, n. The little good-for-no- 
thing lot of men — as of a certain kraal 
or locality (word of contempt). Comp. 
u(lu)-Fazazana, u(lu)-Ntonjana, u(lu)- 
Fanyana, etc. 

i-nDodisisa, pi. ama-Dodisisa, n. A man 
indeed i. e. of true manly qualities. 

Dodonya, v. = durruza (q.v.) thoroughly, 

u(lu)-Dodovu, n. Person broken-down, in- 
firm, through age or sickness = um- 

Dodoza, v. = ndonda. 

i-nDofane, n. = isi-Dofela. 

DO 115 

isi-Dofedofe, n. = isi-Dofela. 

Dofela, v. Eat, as any food that can be 

called an isi-Dofela. 
isi, or i-nDofela, n. Any nice thickish paste 

of a food, mash or porridge of pleasant 

taste and nice consistency. 

Dofo, ukuti (ukuthi), v. = dofoza. 

Dofoza, v. Administer pressure by a 
punch, kick or tread of the foot or hand 
on any soft, yielding surface; hence, 
crush, crush down, scpiieeze, as when 
treading on a lump of thick dough, a 
snake, mole-heap, or long entangled 
grass (—shofuza), or when giving any- 
body a kick in the stomach. 

Ex. sasidofoxa emenweni, we went crush- 
ing through the long grass. 

Phr. wamdofoxa k/rexibomvu, he gave him 
a thrust (with his foot) in the light-brown 
parts i. e. on the side, beneath the arm. 

Dofo, ukuti (ukuthi), v. = dofoza. 

Dofuza, v. = Dofoza. 

i(li)-Dokodo (s. k.), n. Roughly made, tem- 
porary hut, as were commonly erected 
in roving times of war = i(li)-Dhlanga- 
la; cp . i(li)-Fokozi; i(li)-Xiba. 

Doko doko, ukuti (ukuthi; s. k.J, v. = do- 

Dokofu, ukuti (ukuthi; s. k.), v. = dokofula. 

Dokofula (s.k.),v. Do anything in a weak, 
strengthless, weary manner, with body 
limp and ready to fall, as an exhausted 
or lazy woman hoeing, or a tall, weak- 
legged man walking = dukufula. 

i-nDokoxa (s.k.),v. = isi-Doxo. 

Dokoza, or Dokozela (s. k.), v. Speak in a 
s* low, base, gruff tone, as a person talk- 
ing when half-asleep, or some deep- 
voiced persons naturally, or as the voice 

i(li), or um-Dokwe (s. k.), n. 5. Kafir-corn 
porridge f= i(li)-Yambazi); anything of 
a greenish-brown colour, like Kafir-corn 
when half ripe (= um-Tokwe). 

N. B. The dove (i(li)-Juba), which is a 
destructive visitor to corn-fields, sings a'm- 
dokice! avutiwe! it (the amahek) is brown- 
ing! it is ripe! 

i-nDola, n. Certain shrub (Triumfetta 
rhomboidea), used for its fibre. 

u- Dolo (Doolo), n. Very great mass or 
multitude, as of people or cattle (larger 
than the u-Bintsi). 

i(li)-Dolo, n. Knee; pi. ama-Dolo, the de- 
creased flow at the menses owing to 
conception, only used as below [Her. 
o-ngoro; Sw. goti ]. 


Phr. ukvu-gexa amadolo, to have the de- 
creased menstrual flow of conception. 

i(li), or u(lu)-D6lo (Doolo), n. Long com- 
pact mass or closely packed line, as a 
crowd of men sitting thickly round 
hearing a trial, a row of dancers when 
standing very close together, or a long 
thick stretch of cloud. Cp. u(lu)-Qimba. 

i(li)-Dolo-lenkonyane (s. k.), n. Smaller Dock 
(Rumex Eckloni), whose roots are used 
for tapeworm. 

i-nDololwane, n. Elbow [Ga. lu-kokola; 
Her. o-ngete]. 

u-Dolonzima, n. = u-Dolo. 

u-Doloqina, n. Medicinal charm taken as 
a tonic at the commencement of every 
new season, previous to the eating of 
the first-fruits. See eshwama. 

isi-Domba (Dombha), n. Species of un- 
usually tall and fine-looking imfe = i(li)- 

Domboloza, or Dombolozela (Dombholoza), 
v. Grow handsomely tall, with a fine 
sleek body. 

um-Dombolozi or Dombolozana (Donibho- 
lozi), n. 5. Tall handsome person with 
fine sleek body. Comp. um-Gembeleza- 
na; uui-Dondoshiya. 

i(li)-Dompola (s.p.), n. Dumpling [Eng.]. 

Domu, ukuti (tikuthi), v. = domula; domu- 

Domula, v. Draw out with a smooth, slid- 
ing action, as a stalk of grass from 
its sheath, a stake from the ground or 
a cork from a bottle (= ncomula), 
select the choicest, among a lot of 
things, as girls or goods in a store (= 

Ex. katete, mndomule, he hasn't taken 
(a wife), he has selected the sweetest thing 
(in the district). 

aPikicasi uyatenga, yini? uyadomula. 
doesn't Pikwasi make a purchase? she 
chooses the nicest (of what is there). 

Dondav. Be slow, or reluctant, to move, 
as in order to do anything, obey, get up, 
or a tree to grow. Cp. denga ; kanula 
[Her. oku-panda, unwillingness]. 

i-nDondela, n. Immense heap, perhaps as 
large as a small hut = i-?iQolobela, 
i-mBundu, i-mBondwane [Her. o-ndyu- 
ndo, heap; Sw. chungu]. 

i(li)-Dondi,ra. = isi-Domba. 

isi-Dondi, n. Slow, reluctantly moving 

i-nDondo, n. Solid brass ball, about an 
inch thick, and having a hole through 


DO 110 

the middle, for wearing round the neck 

as an ornament = i-nOquma. 

Phr. hamba 'ndondof Good bye! big 

golden ball! — said to the red evening sun 

us it sinks in the west (N). 
Dondobala, v. Be in an utterly powerless, 

strengthless state, unable to walk or 

rise, through sickness, cold, etc. (used 

in perf.). 
isi-Dondobala, n. Person in such a state 

as above; also applied to any abnormally 

weak delicate person, unable to walk, 

work, etc. 
u(lu)-Dondolo, n. Long stick for walking, 

as carried by old women or men when 

travelling = u(lu)-Boko. 
Phr. ukudhla kul'udondolo, kuyHntsika ye- 

\ne, food is the staff-of-life, it is the pillar 

of the land. 

leli ikambi li udondolo lokuhlola uma y'ilo, 

yini, uhlabo na? this herb is a staff for 

examining (i. e. a test) whether it is an 

tthlabo or not. 

Dondolozela, v. Walk with the aid of a 
stick or staff, as an old man. Cp. sime- 

Dondoshiya, ukuti (ukuthi), v. Go up tall, 
be slender and high, as a tree, reed, etc. 

um-Dondoshiya, n. 5. Any tall thing or 
person, as above. Cp. um-Dombolozi. 

i-nDondukusuka (s.k.),n. Slow, tardy, 
sluggish person, always postponing or 
promising yet always too indolent to do. 

isi-Dondwane, n. Mound, generally over- 
grown with bush, and formed of low 

u(lu)-Donga, n. Bank or steep side, as of 
a river or dam; used for the 'wall' of 
a house (mod.); deep gully or washed- 
away channel, such as are common on 
the up-country flats; a long compact 
mass of people sitting or standing, or 
of cloud (cp. u(lu)-Dolo) [Mbu. on-donga, 
river; Her. o-ndondu, river; Sw.u-kingo, 
river-bank ; dungu, platform]. 

Phr. nfele odongeni Iwamadoda, he has 
died in the men's pit — he has died the 
death of a brave man — said of one who 
has been killed in battle. 

uOubudu nfikile namhlaitje odongeni hva- 
badala, (rubudu has to-day reached the bank 
<if the old people — the edge of adult 
life i. e. she has to-day reached the age of 
puberty, that is, has menstruated for the 
first time (the phrase is also applicable to 
ma j 

u-Dongoyi,rc. = u-Nondongoyi. 
u(lu)-Dongozi, n. Bad smell of any kind. 
Cp. i(li)-Punga; u(lu)-Futa; u(lu)-SL 


um-Dongwe, n. 5. Very fine fatty clay 
deficient in sand and cracking when 
baked, hence not used for pottery [Sw. 
u-dongo, claj' ; Her. omu-noko]. 

i-nDoni, n. Black edible berry of the uni- 
Doni tree. 

um-Doni, n. 5. Waterboom (Eugenia cor- 
data) a large tree growing on the coast 

i-nDoniyamanzi, n. Dark-skinned person, 
but not so black as the i-nKanyimba. 

u(lu)-Donqa, n. Sesamum Indicum, a plant 
flowering something like the foxglove, 
and producing a small edible seed, for 
which it is slightly cultivated by the 

u(lu)-Donqabatwa (Donqabathwa), n. An- 
other plant (Chenopodium murale) 
closely resembling the preceding, but 
wild and not used as food. 

u(lu)-D6nqadonqa, n. Any savoury-smell- 
ing, tasty food, as isi-Tubi or roasted 
mealie-cobs = u(lu)-Danqudanqu. 

Dontsa (s. L), v. Pull, in all its meanings ; 
hence, draw, drag, tug; allure, attract, 
as by some inticement (with nga) ; draw, 
as by suction through a pipe; pull up, 
ascend with exertion, as a steep hill (ace. 
or loc); strain or make protrude, as the 
eyes (ace.) [Skr. duh, draw out; Lat. 
ducere, to lead ; Xo. dnntsa, strain ; Sw. 
jtihudi, a strain; Her. kondya, to strain]. 

Phr. uku-xi-dontsa, to be griped, to strain, 
as one with diarrhoea. 

wangidontsela amehlwana, he pulled his 
little eyes out for me, /. e. stared at me. 

isi- Dontsa (s. L), n. A griping or straining 
at stool, as one suffering from diarrhoea. 

i-n Dontsa (s. t), n. The planet Jupiter = 
i-nDontsakusa, i-nDontsamasukii. 

i-nDontsakusa (s.t.; s.k.),n. — i-nDontsa. 

i-nDontsamasuku (s.t.; s.k.),n. = i-nDo- 

i-nDontsamehlwana (s. L), n. Silly, stupid 

person who, when asked a question, 

merely gapes at one without answering. 

Cp. isi-Nctvayimbana. 
u(lu)-Dontsi (s.t.),n. (C.N.) = u(lu)-Dosi. 
Donya, v. = durruza. 

i-nDonya, n. White star on the forehead of 
a horse or ox; hence, a single conspi- 
cuous spot of a different colour marked 
in the middle of anything, as the ace 
of any suit of cards (except of spades 
= u-Sihungu) ; some red substance pur- 
chased in the towns and used by the 
young men as a love-charm to fill a girl 
with fear in his presence and so make 
her an easy prey. 

DO 117 

D6rro, ukuti (ukuthi), v. = dorroza. 
Dorroza, v. = durruza. 
i-nDosa, n. (C.N.) — i-nDontsa. 
i(li)Dosha, n. Snuff-box (properly of some 

European make). Cp. i(li)-Shungu. [D. 


u(lu)-Dosi, n. Sting, of a bee; a loose hair, 
of any kind, i. e. detached from the body, 
such as one might find on one's coat 
after holding a cat, or in the food oc- 
casionally, and whether of animal or 
man. Cp. u(lu)-Nwele; isi-Boya. [Her. 
o-ndyise, a human hair; Reg. ma-osa; 
Sum. mu-sasi; Be. mu-sisi; Ze. lu-fili; 
Kon. rn-vili; Gan. lu-vuile; Sw. u-nyele; 
Li. lu-nyuele = Zulu, u-nwele, human 

N.B. The u-dosi or hair of some animals, 
as the lion tor instance, figures largely in 
cases of takata. They are said to cause 
various diseases, generally incurable chest 
complaints. Consumption is sometimes con- 
veniently explained as beitig such an u-dosi 
on the chest, introduced there, of course, by 
an umtakati. 

Dovadova, v. Knead, tread or trample 
upon anything (ace.) with the feet, as 
mud when preparing it for mortar; 
knead, punch, or press about with the 
hands or fists, as anything down on the 
ground. Cp. xova. 

um-Dovu, n. 5. Any grain of last season's 
crop already slightly smelling of the pit 
(but not so strongly as the is-Angcobe). 
Cp. u-Nyasa. 

isi-Doxo, n. Filth or dirt of a thick, pasty, 
besmearing kind, whether still wet or 
encrusted, as of mud on one's trousers, 
food-stuff about the hands of a child, or 
thick dirt encrusted on a boy's neck or