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Full text of "150 years of unparalleled thrift : Pittsburgh Sesqui-centennial chronicling a development from a frontier camp to a mighty city; official history and programme"

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Years of unparaheled Thrif^etech ,^ 



Old Phipps Power Building. 

JoHcph Home & Co. (Roof visible). 

McElvccn Building (Furniture). 

T. C. Jenkins (Wholesale Grocer. Roof visi- 

New Phipps Power Building. 
Sixth Street Bridge. 
Bessemer Building. 
Kerr & Snodgrass. 
l^'ulton Binlding. 
Sixth Street. 
ColoninI Hotel. 
Hotel Annex. 
Penn Avenue. 
Bijou Bi'ilding. 
Duquesne Theatre (Top). 
Anderson Hctel. 
H. J. Heinz Company (In distance). 

Century Building. 

Lutz & Schramm Co. (Pickles, etc.). 

Sixteenth Street Bridge. 

Pennsylvania Railroad Bridge over Allegheny 

Laird & Taylor (Shoes). . 
P. Duff & Sons (Molasses). 
Allegheny River. 
McNally Building. 

Stewart Bros. & Co. (Wholesale Shoes). 
Heeren Building. 

Pittsburgh Dry Goods Company Building. 
Spear & Co. (House Furnish.ngs). 
Penn Building. 

Young Men's Christian Association Building, 
Columbia Phonograph Company. 
Pittsburgh Life Building (Insurance). 
Westinghouse Building (Corner visible). 


R. G. Dun & Company. 

Keenan Building and Chamber of Commerce 

(Headquarters Postal Telegraph Co.). 
Doubleday-Hill Electric Co. 
Pickerings (House Furnishings). 
Second National Bank (Corner visible). 
J. C. Lindsay Hardware Company. 
James B. Haines & Sons (Wholesale Dry 

Penn Inclined Plane. 

Grant Boiilev 
Liberty Aven 
Union Statior 
High School. 
Public Play I 
A. Rosenbaui 

I.J DtWiU U. 1,11 



1 (Pennsylvania R. R.). 
National Unnk. 
National Bank. 


Co. (Department Store). 
II. Co. (Department Store). 

German National Bank (Top of building 

McCreery's Department Store. 
S. Hamilton Co. (Pianos). 
First Presbyterian Church (Rear visible). 
Trinity Episcopal Church (Rear visible). 
Nixon Theatre. 

Campbell's Department Stcre. 
Kleber's Music Store. 

Farmers Deposit National Bank Buildin 

(United States Weather Bureau). 
First National Bank Building. 
Western Union Telegraph Co. 
Reymer & Brothers (Confectionery). 
Hotel Antler. 
Park Building. 
Hotel Henry. 
Fifth Avenue. 

Pittsburgh Coal Company. 

Carnegie Building. 

Frick Building. 

Frick Annex. 

Kaufmanns' Department Store (Top 

Pittsburgh College. 
Curry Building. 
Solomon's Department Store. 




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1 131 



rhotoKraphtd nnd eiiKnivL-d i;xi>r<.'s?.ly for Official Historicnl ! 

r of tlic Scsnut-Cci 

iiil. inil ti^hi'il 1» I'Av. 


Gocttmann's Restaurant. 
J. R. Weldin & Co. (Stationery). 
Berger Building. 
Grand Opera House. 

Colonial Trust Company (Diamond street en- 
Robinson Bros. (Brokers). 
Corner of Wood and Diamond Streets. 
Bailey-Farrell Building (Plumbing supplies). 
St. Nicholas Building. 

Jones & Laughlin (New building, just the cor- 
ner visible). 

Fidelity Title & Trust Company Building. 

Pittsburgh Bank for Savings. 

Post Office Building, (Tower plainly visible). 

Pittsburgh Trust Co. (Vandergrift Building). 

Germania Savings Bank. 

The Mercantile Trust Co. (Top). 

Peoples Savings Bank. 

Commonwealth Building (Upper left hand 
corner shown). 

People's National Bank (Tcp and rear cf 

Arrott Building (Safe Deposit & Trust Co). 

Panorama frcm Diamond 

Union National Bank Building. 
Columbia National Bank Building. 
Pittsburgh Terminal Warehouses (In the di»- 

Guardian Trust Co. (Rear). 
Pittsburgh Stock Exchange Building (Rear). 
Hosteller Building (Rear). 
House Building (A ccrncr visible). 
Machesncy Building. 
Bank of Pittsburgh, National Association 

(Rear corner visible). 
Joseph Wocdvell Co. (Hardware). 
Top of SmithField Street Bridge (Above). 
Hartje Building. 
National Bank Building. 




S. B. M. YOUNG. 
Lieut. General U. S. A.. - - - - Chief Marshal. 

Ad)t. General and Staff. 

ESCORT — Fourteenth and Eighteenth Regiments, N. G. P. 
Guests of the City. 



Float representing the City of Pittsburgh and the various city departments, detach- 
ments from the Bureau of Fire. Bureau of Health, and Public Works Department, with 
old and new apparatus from each department. 


Floats representing scenes in the early history of the city and nation. 

Floats representing the Army and Navy. 18611865. 

Veterans' organizations, including representatives from the Sons of Veterans: 
Military Order Loyal Legion: Grand Army of the Republic: Allegheny County Grand 
Army Association: Union Veteran Legion: Society of Ex-Pnsoners of War. 



Floats representing the growth of education in Pittsburgh, from the day of the log 
school, at Fort Pitt, to the new University of Pittsburgh. Marching divisions from Elementary. 
Intermediate and High Schools : Carnegie Technical Schools and University. 


Marching divisions and floats representing various industrial interests of Greater 

Floats representing various manufacturing industries of Greater Pinsburgh. 

Floats representing transportation and mercantile interests in Greater Pittsburgh. 

WII, 1,1AM I'ITT frjm •s OR>r.iM*L Painunc in the ro»al AcAoeM». losoon 

Prime Ministtr of Kiiyland in 175S. when Fort Pitt and Pittslnirgh were named in I-.i> honor. 




I YEAKS OF i;m> thrift I 




Otlicial History and Programme 


Official Editor and I'liblisher for the Executive Coiiiiiiittee 
I)i: WITT B. I^UCAv^, Associate Editor 

TysMied under Authority of the 

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ROM a government outpost in 1758 to a 
leading American city in 1908 is a rec- 
ord of material advancement which 
bears an inetTable charm to every stu- 
dent and every reader of modern history. It un- 
folds a story of intrepid pioneering, keen discern- 
ment, commercial capacity and true aestheticism 
that is virtually without a parallel. From a 
frontier camp to a city of over half a million in- 
habitants — known throughout the universe as the 
greatest of all industrial centers, as the third city 
in the world in banking capital and surplus, and 
as a city of beautiful homes, magnificent parks, 
boulevards, churches, schools and benevolent in- 
stitutions — is a transition of glory and of wonder. 
And yet through it all there is ever in evidence 
that sturdiness of character, that equipoise of 
mind and purpose, which characterized the little 
band of English, Scotch and Irish settlers who 
laid the foundation of such a city in the middle 
of the eighteenth century. Their breadth of 
vision enabled them to see that at this meeting 
of the waters — this entrepot to the great fertile 
West — would virtually command the situation in 
the settlement and development of that vast ter- 
ritorj', and result in the upbuilding of a great city 
at the forks of the Ohio. 

The most difficult problem which confronted 
the settlers at the foot of the Western slope of 
the Allegheny Mountains was the Indian ques- 
tion. The reduction of the wilderness, as diffi- 
cult as it was in those days of crude development 
in the mechanical arts, was indeed an easy task 
compared to the settlement of the Indian ques- 
tion. The Indians would lend no assistance to 
the settlers in the work of developing the coun- 
try and making use of its resources, and they 
would not recede peaceably from the lands which 
could be made to yield so much under the touch 
of the white man. The white men soon learned, 
therefore, that they must fi.ght if they wou'd win 
in the struggle for civilization, and from tlie time 
of Braddock's defeat, a few miles east of Pitts- 
burgh, I7S5, until the erection of Fort Fayette, 
where is now Ninth street and Penn avenue, in 
1702, there was an almost ceaseless conflict and 
numerous bloody battles between the whites and 
the Indians. 

The colonists of Pennsylvania and Virginia 
felt the effect of Braddock's defeat by the allied 
forces of French and Indians very keenly. They 
realized that life was no longer secure in any 

portion of the territory west of the Susquehanna 
river, and that relief of no kind was apparent.. 

The following year (1756) the British govern- 
ment formally declared war against France, but 
lack of thorough military training and skill on the 
part of the British troops first sent out led to 
almost sole dependence for protection upon the 
Colonial militia. For the next two years the 
French and Indians were successful at nc;irly 
every turn, and the settlers were in a constant 
reign of terror. 

^ y ^' p T' r 'i2i'^''f|f\^\ 

riU-ihurghs First Post Office, 17S9 


In the spring of 1758 General John Forbes was 
placed in command of the army operating west 
of the Alleghany Mountains, and from that time 
the settlers saw their first real relief. With a 
force of about 6.200 experienced soldiers, and ac- 
companied by George Washington, General 
Forbes marched from the Susquehanna river to 
the Beaver river, stopping at a point near where 
New Castle now stands. At Bedford he was 
joined by Colonel Bouquet, with a force of 
Colonial militia. Bouquet was sent forward to 
Fort Ligonier, with a force of 2,000 men, while 
General Forbes followed with tlie main body of 


the army. Tlicse movements were striking ter- 
ror to French and tlieir Indian allies, and the 
fall of Fort Duquesne was drawing nearer. Gen- 
eral Montcalm writing at this time to Chevalier 
de Bourlamque, gives the following description 
of conditions existing in the fort: 

"Mutiny among the Canadians, who want to go 
home; the officers busy making money, and steal- 
ing like mandarins. Their commander sets the 
example, and will come back with three or four 
hundred thousand francs. The pettiest ensign, 
who does not gamble, will have ten, twelve or 
fifteen hundred francs. The Indians do not like 
Ligneris, who is drunk every day." 

thirty, were burned. The French, who num.bered 
about four hundred, besides several hundred 
Indian allies, withdrew, most of the French 
going down the Ohio river on rafts and barges. 


What remained of the fort was occupied by 
the English soldiers on the 26th of November, 
and Washington pointed to the meeting of the 
waters and predicted the building of an import- 
ant city on the site. After the raising of the 
British flag over the fort, it was named Fort Pitt, 


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Penns>ivania Canal — Site of Union Station 


An occasional success in a slight conflict would 
embolden the French and serve to keep their 
spirits up. but the policy of their government 
was wrong, and the time was near at hand when 
they must abandon it. Early in September, 
Major Grant, who had been sent to within a few 
miles of Fort Duquesne, was defeated, but the 
defeat was of no importance. A little loter an 
attack was made upon Fort Ligonier by the 
French and Indians, but no permanent advantage 
was gained. The fall of Fort Frontcnac. at the 
outlet of Lake Ontario, in August, had practical- 
ly sealed the doom of Fort Duquesne, and on the 
24th of November, when the English were within 
a few miles of the fort, it was blown up and the 
surrounding buildings, to the number of about 

in honor of the Prime Minister of England, Wil- 
liam Pitt. At the suggestion of General Forbes 
the place was named Pittsburgh. The first re- 
corded use of the name is in a letter from Gen- 
eral Forbes to Governor Denn3% dated the day 
after taking possession, from "Fort Duquesne, 
now Pittsburgh, the 26th November, 1758." The 
next recorded evidence is from the minutes of 
the conference held by Colonel Bouquet with the 
chiefs of the Delaware Indians, at "Pitts-Bourgh, 
4th December. 1758." 


When commerce reached the forks of the 
Ohio, it found little in the way of human habita- 
tion save the tepees of the Indians and Fort Du- 
quesne, occupied by French soldiers. The mili- 


tary rule of the Frcncli stimulated traclini^ lie- 
tween the white frontiersmen and tlic Iiulian-. f^r 
the time, but when the English occupied the 
"forks" and built Fort Pitt, it was found that 
Frencli hostility had so embittered the Indians 
against the newcomers that commercial relations 
with them were well nigh suspended. It was not 
until the close of the Revolution that mercantile 
trading was resumed to a noteworthy cxteiu, and 
then was born the commerce of Pittsburgh. In 
1784 more than sixty wagon loads of goods 
reached Pittsburgh from tlie East, and by i;S6 
traffic on the Ohio river iiad become a feature 
of \\ estern trading. 

In 17S6 a healthy expansion of business is 
shown, .\miing the lirms were Craig, Bayard & 
Co., Daniel Britt & Co., Samuel Calhoun, Wilson 
& Wallace, John McDonald, William Haw ting, 
William Fulton & Co., and Colonel John Gibson. 
Most of the stores advertised that their goods 
were exchangeable for cash, flour, wliiskey, beef, 
pork, bacon, wheat, r3-e, oats, corn, candle-wick, 
tallow, etc. 


The year 1787 found several new concerns add- 
ed to the list of the j-ear previous, among them 
being general stores by John Wilkins & Co., 
David Kennedy, and John and William Irwin. 
The Gazette advertised that it kept for sale State 
laws, history of the Revolution, the New Testa- 
ment, Dilwortli's Spelling Book, sealing wax, 
wafers, etc. 

In the year 1787 tliere was someihing of a de- 
pression in the business circles of Pittsburgh, 
lack of ready cash being especially noticeable, but 
in the year 17SS a complete revival was experi- 
enced, and all classes of business prospered. 


The following item from an issue of the Ga- 
zette of 1787 rellects the spirit which had posses- 
sion of the people at tliat early date: 

"It ought to be a great object with the State 
of Pennsylvania to encourage and cultivate the 
town of Pittsburgh. It will be a means which 
will bind the two extremes of the State together. 
A town of note at the confluence of these rivers 
must for ages secure the trade of tlie \\ estern 
countr\' to Pennsxdvania." 


Agriculture was unprofitable west of the Alle- 
ghenies prior to the last decade of the eighteenth 
century. The cost of transportation across the 
mountains and competition with planters using 
slave labor in Virginia and the Carolinas, made it 
next to folly for the farmers of the Pittsburgh 
district to raise more produce than was necessary 

lor home consumption. I'l.uir rearhed tl'e Iovy 
Iirioe of $1 per hundredweight, and beef seldom 
brinighi more than Jj in cash per hundredweight. 
Commerce at the time meant simply barter, and 
very little money was used even in the settlement 
of b.alanccs. 

Ilomc-made goods of all kinds were used as tender, and if llie f.irnier got enough fur his 
produce with which to pay his taxes, he was in- 
ileed fortun.itc. The New Orleans market was 
not available because of the distance and the time 
consumed in getting goods there. 


It was such drawbacks to commerce as these 
that caused a turn in the afl'airs of Pittsburgh, 
shaped the destiny of the future great city and 
made it the center of tlie greatest industrial em- 
pire on the globe. It having become settled be- 
yond peradventure that Pittsburgh and Western 
Pennsylvania must turn their attention from agri- 
culture to manufacture if they would reach promi- 
nence in the business world, it became an easy 
step to a substantial start in the right direction. 
Ohio and Kentucky were just be.ginning their 
development, and the demand for building ni;i- 
terials and implements of all kinds from those 
sections became the 


Mills and forges and factories were started 
like hives along the banks of the Allegheny and 
the Monongahela rivers, while the transportation 
problem was readily and easily solved by the 
Ohio, and Pittsburgh itself began to grasp the 
great opportunity soon after the ball had been 

Prosperity came in great waves with the dawn 
of this change. Tlie demand for implements in- 
creased to a demand for flour, cotton goods, .glass, 
iron and coal, and Pitt-linrghcrs sprang to tlie 
work of supplying these demands. The time h;id 
come for the "town beyond the mountains" to 
take its place in the commercial world, and the 
manner of its assumption was indeed creditable. 


The glass industry in Pittsburgh had its be- 
ginning in 1797 in a factory started by General 
James OTIara in a stone buildin.g on the south 
side of the Monongahela river, nearly opposite 
the Point, William Eichbaum having been 
brought from the East to superintend the work. 
In a note found among General O'Hara's papers 
after his death, he said: "To-day we made the 
first bottle at a cost of $,^0,000." The enterprise 
proved successful and was really the beginning 



of Pittsburgh's greatness in the manufacturing 
line. It was the first venture on anything like an 
extensive scale, and marked a new era for the 
commerce of the city. Associated with General 

In iSoi the list of business men contained the 
names of Tarascon Brothers, Berthoud, Steele, 
McLaughlin, Davis, Christy, Willock, Barker, 
Hamsher, Gregg and others. The year 1802 the 
well-known names of Hanna, Denny, Woods and 
INIcIlhenny were in the list. 


Iilanuf actures $266,000 

Produce brought to market 92,000 

Exports 180,000 

Imports 250,000 

The excess of imports over exports caused 
some of the cautious citizens to warn the people 
to import less and manufacture more. New 
Orleans continued to be the principal market for 
the products of Western Pennsylvania, and the 
opinion prevailed that the southern metropolis 
was destined to be the greatest city in the world. 
It was before the days of canals and railways, and 
when the chief dependence of commerce was upon 
the waterways. Pittsburgh's only access to the 
great markets of the world was by water via New 
Orleans, and its importance was therefore appar- 
ent to every discerning business man. 

Judge William Wilbins, first President of the Bank of 

Pittsburg:h, United States Senator, Secretary 

of War and Minister to Russia. 


O'Hara in the enterprise was Isaac Craig, a 
sturdy pioneer business man of Pittsburgh, and 
the institution was known as the Pittsburgh Glass 


Hats were manufactured by Samuel Magee in 
1798 at Front street and Chancery Lane. In the 
same year there were also in the city institutions 
manufacturing tobacco, wagons and chairs, and 
in 1799 a shoe factory was started. In 1800 an- 
other shoe factory was started by Hammond & 


The principal articles of commerce in 1800 were 
pork, beef, flour, whiskey, bar iron, castings, Irish 
and country linens. At that time the borough 
supported a large number of prosperous stores, 
conducted by men with such familiar names as 
Ormsby, Mahon, Sharp, Jones, Dunlap, Scott, 
Stevenson and Hogg. Traffic on the Ohio river 
was heavy, the commandant of Fort Massac, near 
the mouth of the river, reporting that 276 boats 
laden with produce and manufactured articles 
passed that place from the ist of March to the 
31st of May. 


Tlie year 1S03 found the city sufficiently ad- 
vanced in a commercial sense to require the aid 
of a bank. Scarcity of money had previously pre- 
vented tlie establishment of such an institution, 
and exchanges were effected by local merchants, 
aided by two or three brokers. Early in the year 
the directors of the Bank of Pennsylvania, in 
Philadelphia, made a formal proposition to the 
business men of Pittsburgh looking to the estab- 
lishment of a branch in the latter city, and soon 
afterward the following call for a meeting of the 
citizens appeared in the Gazette: 

"The freeholders and other inhabitants, house- 
holders, are hereby requested to attend a meet- 
ing of tlie Corporation at the Court House, on 
Saturday, the 26th of March, at 10 o'clock P.M., 
in order to take into consideration a proposition 
of the Directors of the Bank of Pennsylvania for 
establishing a branch within the borough, pro- 
viding it is approved by the Corporation. W\\- 
liam Christ}', Town Clerk." 


While the branch of the Philadelphia bank met 
tlie wants of the community for the time being, 
the development of the city made necessary the 
establishment of a home institution, and in l8iO 
a movement took definite form in the organiza- 
tion of the Bank of Pittsburgh. About a month 
later, however, the legislature passed an act 
amending the restrictive act of 1808 in such man- 
ner as to make it virtually prohibitive to new in- 


stitutions, forbiddin;^. under heavy penalties, the 
incorporated banks organized under the act of 
1808, to lend money, to receive deposits, or tc do 
anything which the chartered banks might law- 
fully do. The Bank of Pittsburgh immediately 
closed its operations, in compliance with the pro- 
visions of the act, and in everything subinitleil to 
the letter and spirit of the law. 

Later in the year 1810 the president and direc- 
tors memorialized the legislature to grant them 
a charter, couching their petition in such forcible 
terms as to make it one of the most noted docu- 
ments of record in the early history of the com- 
monwealth. It was tlie death knell to such sum- 
mary legislation as had for the time kept the 
Bank of Pittsburgh out of the commercial field, 
and opened the eyes of the people of the state to 
the commanding position which the new city at 
the head of the Ohio occupied. Even at that 
early date the city had a population of in- 
habitants, and was engaged to a greater extent in 
useful manufactures, according to population, than 
any town in tlie United States. The petition 
plainly showed the urgent necessity for the legis- 
lature's fostering care for those industries. 


The volume of trade passing through Pitts- 
burgh in i8lo was estimated at $1,000,000, and tlie 
sale of Pittsburgh manufactures reached a sum 
slightly in excess of $1,000,000, making the total 
for the year $2,000,000. Shipments by river par- 
tially enumerated were furniture, saddlery, boots 
and shoes, paper, glass and cabinet work, and the 
receipts included tobacco, sugar, cotton, furs, 
hemp, lead, etc. Pittsburgh had by this time be- 
come an excellent market, and its fame as an in- 
dustrial center was spreading over the land, 
bringing skilled workmen and shrewd business 
men to the new metropolis by scores. 

In 1812 an express post was established by the 
government from Washington, D. C, to Detroit, 
via Pittsburgh, a distance of 550 miles. Pitts- 
burgh was reached in three and a half days, and 
Detroit in five days. 

One authority estimated the number of frame 
and brick houses built in 1812 at 300, and the 
same authority stated that 7,000,000 feet of lum- 
ber passed inspection at Pittsburgh during that 
year, the product coming from the pine and hem- 
lock swamps up the Allegheny river. 

Among the leading establishments in the city 
in 1812-13 were those of H. J. Lewis & Co., David 
Logan & Co., G. & C. Anshutz, Isaac Harris, John 
Wilkins, N. Richardson, William McCandless, 
William Mason, John M. Snowden, Speer & Eich- 
baum, James Wiley, Jr., and R. Brown & Co. 
The war with England appeared to make prosper- 
ous conditions for Pittsburgh merchants, so great 

was the .•id\ance in jirices. Purchases were maile 
fnmi e.i>tern and foreign m;irkels twice a year. 

Decemlier 31, 1813, the direct ta.x of the gov- 
ernment took elTect. re(iuiring the stamping of 


Founder Jo.its & Laughlin Steel Company. 

( Deceased 1 

notes, bills, bonds and commercial paper before 

The growth of Pittsburgh's population during 
the war was considerable, and its commerce grew 
in proportion. Steam had become the motive 
power on the Ohio river, and had completely 
revolutionized transportation. The X'ational In- 
telligencer, a paper published at Washington, 
D. C, contained a letter from a Pittsburgher on 
April 22, 1814, which contained the following 
paragraph : 

"It is difficult to repress the expression of feel- 
ings which arise toward the person to whom we 
owe it that this mode of navigation, so often be- 
fore attempted and laid aside in despair, has be- 
come practical, but it is unnecessary to give them 
vent. The obligation which the nation — I had 
almost said the world — owes to him will be freely 
acknowledged by history." 

The following boatloads and wagonloads were 
received at Pittsburgh in 1813: 350 boats loaded 
with 3, 750 tons of saltpetre, salt, lead, belting. 



sugar, cotton, etc.; 1,250 tons of hemp, 3,750 tons 
of hempen yarn, 4,000 wagonloads of dry goods, 
groceries, etc., and 1,000 wagonloads of iron. 

Pittsburgh's exports were also large in 1813, 
its manufacturing institutions running more than 


President Bank of Pittsburgh, N. A., 

186.5 to IS'.ll. 


full time to fill orders. About this time the city 
became known as the "Birmingham of America," 
and the prediction was made by the Niles Reg- 
ister that it would eventually become the 


In 1814 the ironmongery manufactured in 
Pittsburgh amounted in value to $300,000, and 
the whole value of iron products was in excess 
of $500,000. This was nearly double the value of 
the output of 1812. The boatbuilding industry, 
which was started in 1811, had grown to good 
proportions by the year 1814, and manufacturing 
in other lines was greatly stimulated by its suc- 
cess. There were two steam engine manufac- 
tories, a rolling mill, puddling furnaces and a 
wire factory, besides smaller concerns, making 
locks, hinges, stoves, carding machines, shovels, 
tongs, cutting knives, etc. 

Coal mining in quantity began during the war 
of 1812-14, although at that early date nothing 
was thought of tlie important figure which that 

product would eventually cut in the industrial 
history of the city. It was then unforseen that 
coal would yet be king of the great Pittsburgh 
empire, and it was not without value even at that 
period. The first mines were opened on the 
south side of the Monongahela river and was 
ferried to the city until the completion of the first 
bridge in 1816. Although the production was 
small, there was yet enough mined and used to 
demonstrate its value as a fuel, especially in iron 
manufacture, and by the year 1818, when the de- 
mand for coal came from Cincinnati, St. Louis, 
Louisville and New Orleans, it had become quite 
an important factor as a Pittsburgh industry. In 
Cincinnati it was used in the manufacture of 
glass and was sold there at twenty cents a bushel, 

The construction of the first bridge across the 
Allegheny was not begun until July, 1818, the de- 
mand for the bridge across that stream not be- 
ing deemed as important as one across the Mo- 


The effects of low water were sometimes seri- 
ously experienced in early times. At one time in 
1818 thre were thirty vessels, including keel boats 
and flat-bottoms, lying at the Monongahela 
wharves, loaded with $3,000,000 worth of mer- 
chandise destined for Ohio and Mississippi river 
points. A local paper summed up the situation 
as follows: 

"The embargo on our vessels is at length hap- 
pily raised, and $3,000,000 worth of merchandise 
has at length floated ofT on the rapidly swelling 
bosom of the Ohio. It may appear somewhat 
paradoxical, but Pittsburgh is delighted to have 
her shores deserted. The large fleet of boats 
which has for some months been lying before 
our city might serve to give strangers a just con- 
ception of the immense importance of our situa- 
tion, yet its protracted detention gave a melan- 
choly feature to this proof of our greatness. We 
fear the effect of it will be severely felt in the 
cities of the West. However, in all cases of 
gloom where our country is concerned our 
motto is Spcratc. The beautiful steamboat 
James Ross has weighed anchor for New Or- 
leans. She will take in freight at several places 
between this point and Louisville. May success 
attend this gallant vessel in her voyage across 
our immense continent." 


During the spring and summer of iSiS twenty- 
two steamboats were engaged in the Oliio river 
traffic, and seven boats were in process of con- 
struction at Pittsburgh. Manufacturing in Pitts- 
burgh had received a stetback from which it ap- 
parently could not recover, and conditions would 



indeed have been alarmiiig had it not been for the 
river trade which the city enjoyed. The cliicf 
trouble was that there was little or nothing 
manufactured for export trade, and tlie money 
stringency which was spreading over the land 
made domestic trade of little vakie. 

The depression tlnis begun reached its height 
in 1821, when prices of commodities reached the 
bottom. The gloom continued until 1S23, and by 
the middle of 1824 the city was again in a tlour- 
isliing condition. 


Organized effort for the bcttermsnt of trade 
conditions was one of the results of the hard 
times from 1818 to 1823. The Pittsburgh Manu- 
facturing Association, which was organized for 
commercial purposes in 1819, answered the ex- 
pectations of its founders in affording facilities 
for its interchange of commodities — supplying 
raw materials to the mechanic and manufactured 
articles to the farmer and country merchant in 
exchange for produce. The Legislature of iSio- 
20 chartered the association, which greatly in- 
creased its facilities for- benefiting the com- 

The year 1826 proved a record breaker for the 
new city. ^lerchandise to the amount of 9,300 
tons and valued at $2,219,000 was received from 
tlie East. The exports for the same year 
amounted to $2,881,276, showing a balance of 
trade in favor of Pittsburgh of $2,219,276. The 
exports were as follows: 

Iron $ 398,000 

Nails 2!0,ooo 

Glass 105.000 

Paper 55.000 

Porter 18,000 

Flour 10,500 

Castings S8,ooo 

Wire work 8,000 

White lead 17,000 

Steam engines 100,000 

Tobacco and cigars 25,800 

Bacon, 860,000 pounds 51,820 

Cotton yarn and cloths 160,324 

Axes, scythes, shovels, etc 49,000 

Whiskey 29,832 

Dry goods 480.000 

Groceries and foreign liquors 625,000 

Saddlery and leather products 236,000 

Miscellaneous 214,000 

Total 52,881,276 

The Niles Register of February 23, 1828, says: 
"About 2,600 persons and $2,000,000 capital are 
emploj'ed in the I'actnrios of Pittsburgh. The 

1-Ei.ix K. imrNOT, 

Proiiiintriit IlMsiiiess Mau and Philanthropist. 
[ Deceased) 

Senate of Pennsylvania lias passed a bill ])ermit- 
ting the Baltimore & Ohio railroad to enter that 
State providing a branch shall be made to Pitts- 
burgh, and it is important to Baltimore as well 
as Pittsburgh that these cities should be joined 
together, and we hope and trust that such an act 
passed by the Pennsylvania Legislature will be 
cheerfully accepted by the managers of this com- 
pany. Pittsburgh is, and must more and more 
become, the center of a vast and valuable busi- 
ness — tlie place of deposit for mighty quantities 
of produce of the soil and industry of Western 
Pennsylvania and of the ricli southeastern sec- 
tion of Ohio, and enjoys many other natural ad- 
vantages. Pittsburgh is even now supplying iron 
for the navy of the United States. We wish 
every success to the industry of her enterprising 
people, and desire an extension of domestic com- 

With the renewed impetus to business there 
came a rise in prices which greatly cheered the 
merchant and manufacturer. The construction of 
the Pennsylvania canal caused an extraordinary 


growth in population and commerce, and upon 
the completion of the project in 1829 business 
took an upward movement which showed that 
Pittsburgh was on the map to stay. 


Oil Merchant and Capitalist. 

( Deceased) 

Loss of trade and general depression again 
came upon Pittsburgh in 1830-31. There were 
no such disastrous failures as accompanied the 
former period, and the injurious effects were not 
so widespread. Business seemed to drift along 
without either advancement or retrogression, as 
if a feeling of lethargy had taken possession of 
the people. The President's war on the banking 
system of the country undoubtedly had much to 
do with the condition, capital being slow of in- 
vestment for fear of repudiation and bad faith. 

Tlie year 1831 witnessed a great improvement 
in Pittsburgh's transportation facilities to the 
East. The Pennsj'lvania turnpike passed into the 
hands of a stage company which improved it in 
many ways and placed on it three lines of stages 
to Philadelphia — two running dailj' and one every 
other day. One of the daily lines made the trip 
in two and a half days and the otlicr in four 
days. In addition to these lines there was the 
northern line, by way of Blairsville, Huntingdon 
and Lewiston, which made the trip in less than 

four days. A line was also established this year 
(1831) between Pittsburgh and Wheeling, an- 
other between Pittsburgh and Steubenville, while 
the time of the stages between Pittsburgh and 
Cleveland and Pittsburgh and Erie was decreased 
The travel on all these lines was very heavy. 

Freight transportation was such an important 
question in the early thirties that the business in- 
terests were kept constantly alert for new 
schemes for its improvement. In 1833 a turn- 
pike convention was held in the city to take into 
consideration the improvement of the roads, the 
question of uniformity of tolls and other matters 
of common interest. The companies represented 
were: Washington & Williamsport, Somerset & 
Bedford, Summit & Mt. Pleasant, Robbstown & 
Mt. Pleasant, Huntingdon, Cambria & Indiana, 
New Alexandria & Conemaugh, Pittsburgh & 
Greensburg, Bedford & Stoystown, Mt. Pleasant 
& Pittsburgh, Pittsburg & Butler, and Chambers- 
burg and Bedford. The convention elicited con- 
siderable interest on the part of the public and 
resulted in good to all concerned. 


In 1833 J. & E. Greer, at the TarrifT Foundry, man- 
ufactured stoves, grates, gudgeons, sawmill irons, 
windmill irons, wagon boxes, sadirons, bake kettles, 
plow irons, hollowware, etc. The following year they 
were forced to assign. 

Bemis, Kingsland, Lightner & Cuddy bought the 
interest of Lewis and Peter Peterson in their ma- 
chine shop and steam-engine factory, conducted by 
F. A. Bemis & Co., in February, 1834. F. A. Bemis 
& Co., the company being Lewis and Peter Peterson, 
had made steam engines and cotton and woolen ma- 
chinery here for some time. 

On November i, 1833, there were in operation in 
and near Pittsburgh 89 engines, with 2,111 hands 
employed therewith, and 154,250 bushels of coal con- 
sumed monthly. 

In the month of November, 1833. 2,337,580 pounds 
of iron were brought to Pittsburgh over the canal, 
as follows: Blooms, 1,658,326 pounds; pig-metal, 
112,560 pounds; castings, 75,167 pounds; iron, 492- 
527 pounds. There were shipped eastward over the 
canal during the same time 127,484 pounds of cast- 

There were in the city of Pittsburgh sixteen foun- 
dries and engine factories of the largest denomina- 
tion, besides numerous other establishments of less 
magnitude. There were nine rolling mills, cutting 
two tons of nails and rolling eight tons of iron per 
day on an average, and employing from seventy to 
ninety hands each. 


.Mthough there was a financial depression in 
Pittsburgh during the first two months of 1834, 
the volume of business for the year reached a 
total of $10,000,000 for the wholesale and retail 



trade and $0,500,000 lor tlie niaiuilacturcs, mak- 
ing- a grand total of $10,500,000. The total canal 
tolls collected at Pittsburgh lor the year were 
$16,704.99, showing a good trade in that direc- 
tion. The commercial transactions are thu<; 
itemized for the year: 

Books and papers S 450,000 

Drugs, medicines, paints, etc 175,000 

Hardware 400.000 

White lead 150,000 

Beer anil porter 80,000 

Lumber 350,000 

Pork 300,000 

Glass 250,000 

Sales of foundries, etc 1,690,000 

Cotton 360,000 

Copper and tin 75,000 

Brushes 20,000 

Groceries and liijuors 2,000.000 






truth to say that the whole of the goods manu- 
factured or imported and sold in our city, or 
passing through, amounts to the enormous sum 
nf $100,000,000." 

Dry goods 

Plows, wagons, etc . . . . 


Furniture and leather. 

Total $10,000,000 

From March, 1S34, to June, 1835, ,30,234.065 
pounds of freight were received from the East 
by the canal, and 16,653,429 pounds were sent 
from Pittsburgh by the same means. It may be 
said here that Philadelphia and Pennsylvania 
both lost by not making the Pennsylvania canal 
the leading transportation scheme between the 
East and the West. The building of the Erie and 
the Ohio and Erie canals resulted in New York 
securing the larger portion of the trade of the 
great West, which should have gone by way of 
Pittsburgh. Pittsburgh merchants and manufac- 
turers foresaw this, and urged the Legislature to 
take necessary action, but Philadelphians failed 
to support them, and the trade went to Xew York 
by way of Buffalo. 

Business in Pittsburgh in 1S36 was in good 
condition, every institution being operated at its 
full capacity. A communication appearing in the 
Gazette November 10, 1836, and signed "Old 
Merchant," thus referred to the volume of busi- 
ness for the year: 

"The manufactures and mechanical products 
and sales of all kinds of goods, foreign and do- 
mestic, by all our manufactories, wholesale and 
retail, and commission merchants, may be esti- 
mated at from $20,000,000 to $25,000,000. The 
value of every description of foreign and domes- 
tic goods received in transit from the Eastern 
cities and passing through the hands of our com- 
mission merchants for all parts of the West and 
South, may be estimated at from $60,000,000 to 
$70,000,000, and perhaps it will not exceed the 


Oil Mercliaiil and 


Business in Pittsburgh suffered a serious col- 
lapse from the effects of the panic of 1837. Goods 
in large quantities had been sold in the West and 
South on a liberal credit, and when the de- 
pression came barely a dollar cold be collected. 
As early as February it was calculated that Pitts- 
burgh's outstanding accounts amounted to $10,- 
000.000, and March found conditions worse and 
collections at a standstill. Pittsburgh manufac- 
tories began to shut down, and the merchants 
were forced to compromise with their Eastern 
creditors. All the banks in the citj-, with one 
exception — the Bank of Pittsburgh — suspended 
specie payment, and money became so scarce that 
prices of all commodities doubled and trebled in 
value. No influence could be exerted to give re- 
lief, and the people settled down to await the 
time when the panic should spend Its force. 


Relief did not appear until late in the fall of 
1837, when there was a slight revival cf trade 
and money became easier. 

In 183S, the Pittsburgh Board of Trade, which 
had become a most useful and influential body, 



took a hand in business affairs which did much 
toward a trade revival. It opened headquarters 
in the Merchants' Exchange, brought the busi- 
ness men together at regular meetings, and se- 


For a I,ong Period Pittslmrgh's Leading Merchant. 


goes. The whole of our broad levee, from the 
bridge to Ferry street, is closely dotted with 
drays and wagons, hurrying to the margin of the 
river from every point of access, burdened with 
the valuable products of our factories or with 
Eastern goods. Some half a dozen of the steam- 
ers are puffing away ready to start. The margin 
of the wharf is absolutely covered to the height 
of a man with freight in all its varieties, while 
higher up on the footwalks and streets the fronts 
of the great forwarding houses are blocked by 
piles of boxes, bales and barrels in beautiful dis- 
order. Shippers, porters, draymen and steamboat 
clerks blend their hurried vocies at once — one is 
actually deafened with their cheerful din and 
rush of business. Some idea may be formed of 
the magnitude of our manufactures from the fact 
that the larger iron houses have 800, some, 
and some as high as 1.200 tons each of iron and 
nails ready for shipment to the West." 

Fifty-five steamboats were laid up at Pitts- 
burgh during the winter of 1838-39, all of which 
cleared before the 1st of March of the latter year. 
April 2, 1839, the steamboat Maine arrived from 
the Illinois river with 170 casks of bacon for ship- 
ment over the canal. This was the first cargo of 
Illinois river produce which was diverted from 
the New Orleans route. The costs of transporta- 
tion from Beardstown, Illinois, to Pittsburgh was 
50 cents per hundred pounds. The cost from 
Pittsburgh to Philadelphia was 87 cents per hun- 
dred pounds. June 22, 1839, there were in port 
at Pittsburgh fifty-si.x steamboats, the largest 
number ever before seen here at one time. 

cured for them information which enabled them 
to meet trade conditions and protect credits. 
There was nothing of a crude nature, and there 
was enough of the element of co-operation in it 
to make it successful. 

The freight shipped East over the canal in 1S37 
was 50,068,010 pounds, an enormous amount for a 
panic year. The tolls for the same year amounted 
to $48,807.97. An express line of boats was put 
on the canal in 1838, which made the trip to 
Philadelphia in three and one-half days. The 
Pittsburgh and Beaver canal was surveyed in 
1838 and was finished in 1840. 


The river trade in 1838 was impeded to some 
extent by a shortage of water, but after the rise 
in the fall there was unusual activity, and a great 
business was inaugurated. The Advocate thus 
describes the scene on the river front: 

"The wharves present one of the most ani- 
mated scenes we have witnessed in a long time. 
Twenty steamboats lie at the landing takmg in 
cargo for Louisville. St. Louis. Nashville. New 
Orleans and 'intermediate luirls,' as the phrase 


The year 1840 witnessed a revival of trade in 
every line and the volume of business became un- 
usually large. The following figures show the in- 
crease in river traffic over the year 1839: 

1839 1S40 

Steamboats arriving 652 1,393 

Steamboats departing 662 1,413 

Total 1,312 2.?o6 

In October, 1S40, three Pittsburgh banks re- 
ported deposits as follows: 

Bank of Pittsburgh $350,849.26 

Exchange Bank 136,624.09 

lilerchants & Alanufacturers Bank 197,145.82 


Tlie bituminous coal mines of Pennsylvania 
yielded about 500.000 tons in 1841, and shipments 
to distant parts of the country began to be heavy. 
The Intelligencer of January 5. 1842, said: 

"The coal trade of Pittsburgh and the imme- 
didate vicinity is very large and amounts in the 


course of a year to abcat $1,000,000. In 18,37, 'ic- 
cording to Harris" directory, the trade was esti- 
m.Tted at 11.304.000 bushels, which would be 
worth $565,200. A few days ago we went on the 
Minersville turnpike and were astonished to sec 
the large number of carts and two, three and 
four-horse teams constantly going and coming 
on that road alone: and this is only one of the 
many roads leading to the coal fields, to say noth- 
ing of the river traffic." 


A noteworthy feature of the business of 1S42 
was the large number of trailers from Santa Fe 
and other points in the West buying Pittsburgh 
goods. One buyer spent $5,000 in gold. The 
goods were shipped by steamboat to Fort Inde- 
pendence and thence across the unbroken prairie 
by prairie schooners to their destination. 

The tonnage of dry goods, groceries, drugs, 
oiU. foreign liquors, furs window glass and 
whisky on tlie canal in 1841 amounted to 15.005. 

The City of Alleslieny was incorporated in 
1840, and soon began development in city fashion, 
altliough its manufacturing interests did not grow 
materially until many years later. 


In 1843 tlie city of Pittsburgh subscribed for 
10,000 shares of the Pittsburgh & Connellsville 
(B. & O.) railroad, and immediately afterward 
business started on another great improvement. 
Buildings were erected at a rapid rate, manufac- 
turing enterprises came to this city to locate, and 
mercantile affairs took a long forward stride. In 
March, 1843. the Cleveland Herald printed the 
following item under the heading, "Pittsburgh 
and Cumberland": 

"The whistle of locomotives among the moun- 
tains within 100 miles of Pittsburgh makes the 
wealthy burghers prick up their ears, and al- 
ready the subject of a railroad from Pittsburgh to 
Cumberland is exciting no little interest. Build 
the road. Mr. Pittsburgher, and then we will see 
what can be done between Cleveland and tlie 
Iron City." 

To which the Pittsburgli .Kmcrican responded 
as follows: "We are going to build it, Mr. Her- 
ald, and that quick, too; and trust, if our life is 
spared but a few years, to take a locomotive trip 
to Cleveland on our way to Niagraga Falls. Green 
Bay, or some other summer resort on tlie great 

"We will give you a call then, Mr. Herald." 

Of the new railroads thus projected Pittsburgh had 
fully half a dozen under way. Railroads were being 
projected and built in every direction. Pittsburgh 
was becoming known as a city of opportunity. In- 
dustrial enterprises were being launched and the won- 

derful possibilities of the city at the head of the Ohio 
were claiming the attention of the general public as 
well as absorbing llie local mind. The trains were 
carrying passengers to riii1:i(Ulpliia in less tlKin a cal- 


I,e.iding Business Man and Banker. 

I Deceased ) 

endar day. the Like at Cleveland could be reached 
in seventeen htnirs. and men witli keen discernmcii; 
could easilj' see the rise of an industrial empire. 


.\pril 10, 1S45, a large portion of the business sec- 
tion of Pittsburgh was destroyed by fire, fully 1,100 
buildings being wiped out of existence. Tlie confla- 
gration started about noon at the corner of Ferry 
and Second streets, and in a few hours the district 
I>ounded by Ferry street, Diamond alley, Ross street 
and the Monongahela river was in ruins. The build- 
ings were made ready food for the flames by a 
drought which had existed for several weeks, and 
a high wind which prevailed at the time made the 
destruction quick and complete. The wind was blow- 
ing so furiously that burning timbers were carried 
in some instances two and three blocks, causing new 
tires to be started and handicapping the firemen in 
their efforts to check tlie original rolling walls of 
flame. The entire fire equipment of both Pittsburgh 
and Allegheny was brought into action, but it was 
nearly powerless to impede even the progress of the 
fire. The heroic efforts of the firemen were re- 
warded at one point, however, by changing the 
course of the fire after it had reached Diamond 



alley, and causing it to finish its sweep in the direc- 
tion of the river. But for that circumstance there 
would have been little left of the business district 
for the resumption of commerce. As it was, the 
section covered embraced the best buildings in the 


Statesman and Business Man of the Highest Type. 


city, and the annihilation was complete enough to 
warrant the event being called "the destruction of 


The burned district embraced warehouses, stores, 
dwellings, churches, schools, hotels and public build- 
ings, and the loss was estimated at $9,000,000. Two 
lives were lost, and great hardships were endured 
by many citizens, a large number of business men 
suffering complete loss. In some respects, however, 
the disaster was a blessing in disguise, causing an 
influx of new capital, stimulating the people to re- 
newed energy, and the rebuilding of the city on a 
much more substantial scale than had previously 


Fifty thousand dollars was appropriated by the 
State Legislature for the relief of the sufferers, and 
nearly $150,000 more came from other sources, some 
even from Europe. The Legislature also passed an 
act exempting from taxation certain buildings 
erected within the fire limits, thus affording relief 
to all classes. 

An act was passed by the Legislature providing 
that "the whole amount of state and county tax, 
previously assessed and unpaid, upon persional prop- 
erty, and real estate upon which buildings had been 
destroyed, in the First and Second wards and in 
Kensington, should be returned to persons liable for 
the same, and upon such property no tax for state 
and county purposes should be levied for years 1846, 
1847 and 1848. Persons whose merchandise had been 
destroyed were released from payment of licenses for 
the year 1845. 


The recovery of Pittsburgh from the great fire of 
184s was one of the marvels of the time. The erec- 
tion of new buildings was begun early in the year 
1846, and most of them were superior in design and 
construction to the ones which had been destroyed. 
Before the close of the year it was estimated that 
2,500 buildings were either completed or were in pro- 
cess of construction. November 4, 1846, the Com- 
mercial Journal came out with these headlines in 
large type : 

"Two Thousand Five Hundred Houses in Nine 

"Can Any Western City Beat This?" 

The building fever which had taken possession 
of the city did not stop with the year 1846. In Oc- 
tober, 1S47, the Chronicle estimated that 2,000 new 
buildings had thus far been erected in the city that 
year. More than 600 of that number were in the 
burned district alone. Property at this time was 
rising rapidly in price, lots on Market street selling 
at from $3,000 to $4,000 each. 

The Sniithfield street bridge, which was destroyed 
by the fire, was rebuilt and opened to the public in 
1846. A movement was begun at this time to span 
the two rivers at their junction with a "tripartite" 
bridge. A subscription was started but the enterprise 
failed to materialize. 


For many years the question of cutting away the 
top of Grant's Hill, known now as "the knob," had 
been a vexed one with Pittsburghers. It had been 
discussed and threshed over by the city councils, 
besides being the object of many public meetings 
and business gatherings. In November, 1S47, it was 
definitely settled to take several feet from the top 
of the hill and add two feet to the low ground along 
Sniithfield street. It is an easy matter for the people 
of today to see wherein their forefathers would have 
conferred upon them an everlasting blessing if they 
had made the cut twenty-seven feet instead of 
seven feet. 


Low w-ater in the Ohio river again caused a de- 
pression of business in 1849. The story is well told 



by the Commercial Journal of November 2 oi that 
year, as follows: 

"The past year has been the most trying and severe 
upon all classes of our business men that has ever 
been known. The panic of 1832-33 and the commer- 
cial revulsions of 1S36-37 and 1S41-42, although more 
fruitful of disaster in the crushing of business estab- 
lishments and business men, were infmitcly less in- 
jurious to our mercantile and manufacturing interests 
than the quieter but searching and exhausting diffi- 
culties of the period embracing the past spring, sum- 
mer and the first month of autumn. The wonder is 
that there has been so little breaking up of large 
houses — indeed there has been none — and that cir- 
cumstance is highly honorable to the punctuality and 
integrity of our business men, as it is creditable to 
their reputation as substantial, stable and responsible 
dealers. First, while our rivers were in fine naviga- 
ble condition — our large packet boats plying and our 
transient steamers running everyw-here — they were 
overtaken by the cholera panic, the pestilence then 
raging along Ohio and Mississippi river points with 
fearful violence. The alarm flew, and, almost as if 
by magic, travel was banished from the rivers, and 
our boats, from absolute want of employment, one 
by one dropped in home and w-ere laid up. The river 
trade was then suspended out of season, and the 
great source of demand for our manufactures was 
shut off. Then, designing demagogues having ex- 
cited false fears about our city and county scrip, 
uhich was our chief circulating medium, filling the 
channels of business, and having denounced it as 
worthless, illegal and likely to be repudiated, down 
it went. The sudden discredit which overtook it 
left our business men minus the great part of their 
active cash capital, and commerce received another 
stunning blow in the want of circulating medium. 
This was distress upon distress. There seemed to 
lie no money at all. But the mischief did not stop 
there, for the cry then arose that cholera w-as in our 
midst, and it soon appeared that we had sporadic 
cases of the pestilence, yet enough to create a panic. 
If business were at a standstill as before, this inade 
the prostration complete. So wore on the summer. 
When the cholera disappeared and men were dis- 
posed to engage in active pursuits and push their 
business enterprises to returns of profit, we found 
ourselves shut in — cut off from the market. The 
Ohio river, lower than it had been for twenty years, 
was shut up — cutting us off from the West. The 
Pennsylvania canal, too low for freight boats, cut 
us off from the East. Produce that should have paid 
our merchants' and our manufacturers' debts already 
due was excluded from our market. Manufactures 
and stocks of goods on hand here, representing heavy 
investments of cash, were locked up without buyers. 
So passed July, August and September, and a part 
of October. Such a state of things — such a combina- 
tion of disasters — never happened, we dare say, to 
any community in so brief a space of time. The loss 
has been monstrous. Millions would be required to 
replace the aggregate losses to the various business 

and indu>trial interests of this city. Vet, to the 
honor of our business men, we repeat, not an im- 
I'ortant failure occurred. .\nd now they breathe 
free. The rivers are up, all the avenues of trade are 
open and pouring in their tribute to the common 


Kiuinent Business Man. 


prosperity. We have learned, and, as the case may 
be, how disastrously dependent we are on the Ohio 
river and the Pennsylvania canal for our importance 
and prosperity in manufactures and trade. We have 
learned that we may lose more money in a single 
season than would complete our Pennsylvania rail- 
road to Beaver, securing us 'Iron Rivers' East and 
West, open and navigable at all seasons. The mil- 
lions of dollars the people of Pittsburgh lost this 
year by low water and the prostration of business 
would build the railroad to Beaver and pay all the 
subscriptions to the Central Railroad asked for by 
that company." 

Although business began to improve early in 1S50, 
a normal condition was not reached until 1S51. The 
volume of business transacted by the canal indicates 
this fact. The tonnage from the opening to June 
I of each year is shown in the following tabic : 

1S47 75.555.386 

1S4S 63.661,278 

1849 68,429,521 

1850 69,094,143 

1857 92,303,833 

Lumber which came down the .A.llegheny river in 
1851 sold for $9, common, and $iS, clear, the highest 



prices which had ever prevailed in the Pittsburgh 

1850 AND 1851 

The following statement of leading articles re- 
ceived at and shipped from Pittsburgh by the canal 
for the years 1850 and 1851 was published in the 
Commercial Journal, November 6, 1851 : 


Articles. 1850. 1851. 

Agricultural products, pounds.. 737,250 44i.ii7 

Leather 120,564 52-1.500 

Chinaware 2,444,093 2,121,200 

Coffee 9.382,595 11,374.315 

Drugs and medicines 865,300 1,436,600 

Dry goods 27,270,543 32,918,351 

Groceries 9,162,336 11,830,621 

Hardware and cutlery 13,506,835 11,935.335 

Liquors, foreign, gallons 30.525 2,701 

Paints, pounds 3S7.964 293,703 

Hats and shoes 3.948,850 4.693.363 

Iron in pigs 21,136,768 14,960,212 

Iron castings 154,600 865,163 

Bar and sheet iron 1,147,176 1,693,000 

Nails and spikes 1,126,747 137.600 

Steel 85,600 626.700 

Tin 708,600 884,800 

Fish, barrels 17,362 21,302 

Slate for roofing, pounds 625,600 833.000 

Tobacco, manufactured 2,439,289 1.609,600 

Tobacco, leaf 129,800 257,900 

Blooms, etc 12,463,300 12,403.535 

Marble 641,300 1,026,060 

Oils, gallons 18,940 386,578 

Tar and rosin, pounds 1,014,900 2,342,700 


Articles. 1850. 1S51. 

Hemp 7.755.728 1,357,644 

Tobacco, not manufactured. . ..15.204,194 18.191,932 

Feathers 481.831 424.745 

Wool 4,108,432 3.268,088 

Hogs' hair 634,400 607,792 

Seeds, bushels 874 904 

Chinaware, pounds 11,800 1.750 

Earthenware 278,232 355-280 

Glassware 1. 193.908 1,068,611 

Groceries 2,411,617 1,478.628 

Whisky, gallons 384.887 446.275 

Coal, tons 15.604 7.6ii 

Iron castings, pounds 574.992 806,914 

Bar and sheet iron 4,031,450 4.437.9I3 

Nails and spikes 2,269,000 1,853.412 

Bacon 38,495,265 32,520,000 

Beef and pork 5.600 6,949 

Butter 619,659 378,898 

Cheese 1,501.185 156.383 

Flour, barrels 72.072 200.538 

Lard, pounds 4.641.362 6.506,831 

Cotton 1.084,600 703.080 

Dressed hides 98.1.^0 201.282 

Leather 440.587 715.9,^8 

Furs and feathers 183,137 274.289 

German clay 87.406 416,000 

Dry Goods 265,839 5,^2,158 

Rags 628.307 677,066 

No. of boats cleared 3.643 4.384 

Tolls $ 102.308 $ 112,528 

The first train on the Chartiers coal railroad was 
run in September, 1851, an excursion being given 
to McKccs Rocks. 

The same year the Pittsburgh & Steubenville rail- 
road was projected and leading citizens agreed to 
promote the enterprise. 

The first ground was broken for the Ohio & Penn- 
sylvania railroad July i, 1850, it having been incor- 
porated by act of April 11, 1848. In June. 1851, hand 
cars ran west from Allegheny as far as Rochester. 

The Allegheny Valley Railroad Company placed its 
shares on the market in 1851. 

The first locomotive, the "Indiana," arrived at the 
outer station at Pittsburgh November 22. 1851. On 
December 11, 1851, "an express train was scheduled 
to leave Liberty street depot every morning at 6:30, 
bound eastward, run twelve miles to Turtle Creek, 
there to connect with stages ; thence to Beatty's Sta- 
tion, twenty-eight miles away; thence by rail to Phil- 
adelphia; all for $11." 

Regular express trains began to leave Allegheny 
for Enon Valley, 44 miles, November 24, 1851. From 
Enon Valley passengers were conveyed by stage to 
Salem, and thence to Cleveland by rail. 

In April, 1853, the Dispatch said: 

''At the last session of the Legislature thirty-one 
new railroad companies were chartered and seventy- 
eight new supplements to other railroad companies 
and ninety more for incorporating plank roads were 


The year 1856 was a notable one in the manufac- 
turing history of Pittsburgh, it being the date of the 
introduction of the Bessemer process of making mal- 
leable iron w^ithout fuel. Although the importance 
of the discovery was at once conceded, there were 
many who were skeptical of its genuineness, and it 
simply had to "prove" its way into public confidence. 

The manufacturers of Pittsburgh in 1856 may be 
enumerated and classified as follows : 

Anvils, Axes and Shovels — Forster, Garbutt & Co., 
Holmes & Co., Lippincott & Co.. Postley. Nelson & 
Co., William Day, Newmeyer & Graff, and Stuart, 
Sauer & Co. (New Brighton). 

Boi7«-M— William Barnhill & Co., J. Blair & Co.. 
Joseph Douglass, Thomas Douglass, Douglass & Eng- 
lish, and Robert Walker. 

Brass ind Bell Founders — Andrew Fulton. A. & S. 
McKenna. Phillips & Co.. and James Weldon. 

Coppersmiths — Fitzsimmons & Morrow. Howard & 
Rogers, Vean & Veller, James T. Kincaid, W. B. 
Scaife, and J. B. Sheriff. 

Cultivator Teeth— T). B. Rogers & Co. 

Engines— \N. W. Wallace. F. & W. M. Faber, 
Haigh. Hartupee & Co., Irwin & Co., Cyprian Pres- 
ton, Cridge, Wadsworth & Co,, and J. B. Marden & 

Fotindcrs—]o\m Anderson & Co., Bollman & Gar- 
rison, Alexander Bradley, S. S. Fowler & Co., Graff, 
Reisinger & Graff, Knapp & Wade, Livingston, Cope- 
land & Co., Daniel McCurdy, Marshall, McGeary & 
Co., Mitchell, Herron & Co., J. C. Parry, Paine, Lee 
& Co., Pennock & Hart, William Price. Robinson, 



Minis & Miller. Smith & Co.. and Warwick. At- 
tenbury & Co. 

Xails, SIsti-t and Bar Iron — Bailey, Brown & 
Co., Bro-n-n, Floyd & Co., Coleman, Hailnian & 
Co., Everson, Preston & Co., Graff, Bennett & 
Co., Jones & Lauth, Lewis. DalzcU & Co., 
Lorenz, Stewart & Co., Lyon. Scliorb & Co., 
Lloyd & Black, McKnight & Brother, Schocn- 
bcrger, Spang & Co., James Woods & Co., 
Woods, Moorhead & Co., and Zug & Painter. 

Nuts and Washers — Knapp & Carter. 

Railroad Sj^ikcs — Porter. Rolte & Swctt. 

Revolvers — Josiah Ellis. 

Rivets — W. P. Townsend & Co. 

Scales — Livingston, Copeland & Co., Joseph 
Dilworth & Co., Isaac Jones, and Singer, Hart- 
man &. Co, 

Safes — Burke & Barnes, Lippincott & Barr, 
and W. T. McClurg. 

Sheet Copper — C. G. Hussey & Co. 

Spikes — L. Severance. 

Tacks — Chess, Wilson & Co. 

Wire Manufacturers and Jl'orkers — Francis Clu- 
ley, J. R. Taylor & Co., and R. Townsend & Co. 

IVrought Xails and Gas Pipes — John Fitzsim- 
nions and William Pick. 


The output of Pittsburgh manufacturing insti- 
tutions in the year 1857 amounted in the-aggre- 
gate to $39,022,435, the principal concerns and 
their products being as follows: 


Industries. of products. 

25 Rolling mills $10,730,562 

26 Foundries 1,248,300 

1 Common foundry 40,000 

16 Machine shops 836.300 

7 Boiler yards 305.000 

4 Shovel and axe factories 823,742 

2 Forges 224.500 

7 Chain factories 261,000 

1 Railroad spike factory 250,000 

3 Safe factories 1 16,000 

3 Cutlery factories 30,000 

2 Smut machine factories 40.000 

r File factory 12,000 

I Boiler rivet factory 40.000 

I Sickle factory 30.000 

6 Saddlery hardware factories 40,000 

1 Rivet mill 20,000 

2 Gun barrel factories 28,875 

I Gun and rifle factory 40,000 

1 Repeating pistol factory 15,000 

2 Domestic hardware factories 450,000 

3 Plow factories 102,000 

I Copper rolling mill 200,000 

28 Copper and tinsmiths 192,000 

ID Brass foundries 75,000 

3 Key factories 166,000 

3 .Xgricultural implement factories... 80.000 

I Wire cloth factory 10.000 

Miscellaneous 22.982.156 

Total $39,022,435 

In addition to those enumerated above there 
were in the city in 1857 29 wagon factories, 13 
tanneries, 27 breweries, 6 cracker factories, 6 
marble works, 16 cabinet factories, 8 candle fac- 
tories, 7 sawmills, 17 lumber yards, 8 sash and 
door factories and 9 planing mills. 


Notwithstanding the apparent prosperity of 
its manufacturing institutions in 1857, Pitts- 
burgh suffered greatly from the effects of the 
"Great Western Blizzard" panic of tlie latter 
part of that year. The failure of the Ohio Life 
and Trust Co., of Cincinnati, resulted in many 
banks and business houses in other parts of the 
country going down with it. This was in Au- 
gust, and by the middle of September the situa- 
tion was indeed alarming. Hundreds of banks 
and commercial institutions in different parts of 
the country were crumbling like so many toy 
blocks, and specie payments were virtually sus- 
pended throughout the country. One Pittsburgh 
institution, however, stood valiantly by its guns 
and its honor, and kept on meeting its obliga- 
tions with coin. That was the Bank of Pitts- 
burgh, which earned the reputation of being the 
only bank in any of the large cities in the United 
States which never for one hour suspended 
specie payments. On the 26th of September, 
1857, the board of directors of the Bank of Pitts- 
burgh unanimously resolved to meet all the 
bank's liabilities in coin, and the resolution was 
faithfully adhered to, in spite of the fact that 
other banks in the city met in convention and 
resolved to suspend specie payments for the 
time being. 

"On November 3, 1857, the banks of I'itts- 
burgh held tlieir annual meetings. All of the 
suspended banks accepted the provisions of the 
relief law passed by the Pennsylvania Legisla- 
ture. The Bank of Pittsburgh and the Exchange 
Bank each declared a dividend for the last six 
months of three per cent. The new law pro- 
hibited the latter bank from declaring more." — 
Wilson's History of Pittsburgh. 

The establishment of a clearing house for 
Pittsburgh was urged in 1857. So far Philadel- 
phia had not had one, but the necessities of the 
hour became so apparent in Pittsburgh that con- 
certed action and general protection was de- 

Early in January, 1858, the banks of Pitts- 
burgh had all resumed specie payments, although 
confidence was not yet restored. Money became 
more plentiful but the holders of it became very 



careful. The statements of the Pittsburgh banks 
proved tliem to be in a more healthy condition 
than those of other cities. They took the lead 
in resumption, and they did it without flourish 
or ostentation. No city in the country came out 
of the panic with as much to its credit and with 
as little noise as Pittsburgh. It resumption oc- 
curred three months before the requirements 
provided by the State law. Not a bank in Pitts- 
burgh suspended during the entire panic, and 
the year following the close of the depression 
found every institution in the city with its stock 
quoted above par. 


The manufacture of iron and steel had become 
an important factor in Pittsburgh in i860, and 
the place was already known as the "Iron City." 
Tliere were 26 steel rolling mills in operation, 
employing about 3,000 hands, and connected with 
them were 80 puddling furnaces. The number of 
heating furnaces was 130 and there were also 
260 mill machines. Eighteen foundries employed 
1,800 men. The total amount of iron consumed 
exceeded 110,000 tons. 


In ]\Iarch, 1859, the Citizens Passenger Rail- 
way Company, of Pittsburgh, was incorporated 
by an act of the Legislature. It was authorized 
to start from the intersection of Market and 
Fifth streets, thence passing to Liberty, thence 
across Liberty to Cecil alley, thence to Penn 
avenue, thence to the Greensburg and Pittsburgh 
turnpike road and thence to the suburbs. The 
company was incorporated with 2,000 shares of 
$50 each, and among the incorporators were 
James Verner, Alexander Speer, Richard Hays, 
William Darlington, Joshua Rliodes and Nath- 
aniel Holmes. The road was built, and became 
an important feature of the city's industrial life. 


The financial depression of 1857 had the effect 
of causing the collapse of several railroad enter- 
prises in which the community was interested. 
In i860 the railway indebtedness of Pittsburgh 
was $1,800,000; Allegheny, $400,000: Allegheny 
county, $2,300,000; total, $4,500,000. At that date 
the total assessed valuation of the county out- 
side of the city was $12,500,000; Pittsburgh, $[0,- 
500,000; Allegheny, $3,000,000; total, $26,000,000. 
It will thus be seen that the railroad indebted- 
ness was 17 per cent, of the total assessed valua- 
tion of the county. In June, 1S50. a mass meet- 
ing of the citizens was held and resolutions were 
adopted instructing the commissioners not to 
levy a tax for the paj-ment of interest on the rail- 
road bonds. The commissioners did as request- 

ed. In March, i860, another mass meeting was 
held, which severely strictured the supreme court 
for deciding against the county certain suits on 
the bonds. The course taken by the commis- 
sioners was approved, and the meeting even 
went so far as to openly encourage resistance to 
the mandates of the court. 


Upon the election of Abraham Lincoln to the 
Presidency tlie patriotic citizens of Pittsburgh 
took on a feeling of security over the threatened 
disruption of the Union which had been flaunted 
in their faces for several months. On the 22d 
of December, i860, a convention held in Charles- 
ton, South Carolina, declared for secession by 
adopting a "declaration of independence." This 
act renewed former apprehensions and taught 
loyalists that something must be done. The 
United States government was even then remov- 
ing muskets and other munitions of war from 
the Alleglieny arsenal to the southern points, un- 
der the implied approval of President Buchanan. 

The excitement over the removal of the guns 
from the arsenal was intense, but, witn the ex- 
ception of five guns which were surreptitiously 
loaded on a southbound train, the arsenal was 
permitted to hold its cannon. Early in Januar}', 
1S61, Secretary of War Floyd countermanded 
the order, which created a feeling of great satis- 
faction throughout the city. 


In February President-elect Lincoln passed 
through the city enroute to Washington. He 
was greeted by a large crowd of people and 
delivered a speech from the balcony of the 
IMonongahela House at 8 o'clock in the morning. 


Within a few Iiours after the receipt of the 
news of the firing on Fort Sumter the Pittsburgli 
Zouaves voted unanimously to tender their serv- 
ices to the Governor of Pennsylvania. Two 
other companies, however, preceded it, they hav- 
ing offered their services at the time of the at- 
tempted removal of the cannon to the South. 
These were the Jackson Independent Blues and 
the Pennsylvania Zouaves. Other companies 
followed, and fully 2,000 volunteers were either 
under arms or in readiness for entering the serv- 
ice at the end of two weeks. 


On the night of April 15, nearly 5,000 people 
met in the City Hall, and stirred the feeling of 
patriotism to the highest pitch. Judge Wilkins 


presided, and Thomas M. Marshall delivered an 
impassioned address, which was followed by the 
hand playing "The Star Spangled Banner" with 
thrilling effect. The following committee on 
pnhlic safety was annoimced on the 17th: 

William Wilkins, 

Wm. J. Morrison, 
James P. Barr, 
Wm. F. Johnson, 
Dr. Geo. McCook, 
John Marshall, 
T. J. Bigham, 
Joseph Dilworth, 
Charles Barnes, 
David Fitzsimmons, 
C. L. Magee, 
John Harper, 
Andrew Miller, 
James Park, Jr., 
C. H. Paulson, 
J. H. Foster, 
Charles McKnight, 
William Neeb, 
John D. Bailey. 
John W. Riddell, 
Jas. A. Sewell. 
William M. Lj-on, 
Thomas Bakewell, 
W. J. Howard, 
Sol. Schoyer, Jr., 
J. P. Pears, 
R. Miller, Jr., 
H. L. Ringwalt, 
Geo. W. Wilson, 
James Reese, 
J. W. Barker, 
Wm. Caldwell, 
Ed. Simpson, 
Dr. Jas. King, 
John J. Dravo, 
Jos. R. Hunter, 
W. M. Hersh, 

C. B. Bostwick, 
Nat. Holmes, Jr., 
Samuel Riddle, 
Francis Sellers, 

D. S. Stewart, 

R. H. Hartley, 
J. R. Murphy, 
Geo. W. Irwin, 
E. P. Jones, 
P. C. Shannon, 
E. D. Gazzam, 
Geo. P. Hamilton, 
Thos. M. Marshall, 
J. R. T. Xobb, 
Henry McCnllougli, 
Jas. A. Hutchinson, 
Joshua Rhodes, 
James Verner, 
Jno. N. Tiernan, 
Thos. S. Blair, 
Samuel McKelvy. 
Jno. N. McClowry, 
G. L. B. Fetterman, 
Max K. Moorhead. 
.'Me.xander Nimick, 
X. P. Fetterman, 
John D. Scully, 
Dr. Geo. S. Hays, 
Benjamin Coursin, 
John Mackin, 
A. G. Lloyd,' 
Jolin J. Muse, 
W. Bagaley, 
T. M. Howe, 
C. W. Ricketson, 
Joseph Kaye, 
J. B. Poor, 
T. S. Rowley. 
James Herdinan, 
Andrew Scott, 
S. H. Keller, 
David E. Bayard, 
J. R. McClintock, 
James Kelly, 
James Saulsbury, 
William Martin, 
Wm. Robinson, Jr., 
W'illiam Bishop, 

H. A. Weaver, 
Wm. H. Magee, 
T. J. Gallagher, 
Thomas Steel, 
Russell Frrett, 
R. H. Patterson, 
W. K. Nimick, 
George Gallup, 
A. Nicholson, 
Davi<l F. Magce, 
William Phillips. 
William M. Edgar, 
Dr. L. Oldshuc, 
Dr. Geo. I. McCook, 
Robert McElhern, 
Frederick Collier, 
Thos. B. Hamilton, 
.Archibald McBride, 
.Andrew Fulton, 
William Simpson, 
.Alexander Hilands, 
George A. Berry, 
W'm. Carr, 
Jas. Benny, Jr., 
J. B. Canfield, 
H. L. Bollman. 
Wm. B. Holmes, 
D. D. Bruce, 
Will A. Lare, 
Robt. Finney, 
Alex. L. Russell, 
N. P. Sawyer, 
W^ S. Lavely, 
John M. Irwin, 
Wm. C. Barr, 
Jas. Floyd. 
Alex. Moore, 
Samuel Rod.gers, 
Alfred Slack, 
Christian Zug. 
John Birmingham, 
John W'right, 
John McDonald. 
Wm. Barnhill. Jr.. 
Wm. Owens, 

The names of many 
are recognized in the 
city's "best" of nearly 

Harry Wainwright, 
J. M. Brush, 
Robt. Morrow, 
J. M. Killcn, 
C. Magee, 
Col. Leopold Sahl. 
Dr. Wm. M. Simcox, 
.Alexander Speer, 
Henry Hays, 
Adam Getty, 
Edward Gregg, 
John Dunlap, 
Jolm C. Dunn, 
John Brown, 
John E. Parke, 
B. F. Jones, 
George W. Cass. 
Walter H. Lowrie, 
Dr. S. Dilworth, 
David Irwin, 
And. Burke. R. Hartley. 
W. G. McCartney, 
John Atwell, 
M. I. Stewart, 
Robt. B. Guthrie. 
Hugh McAfee, 
Hugh Kane, 
Samuel Cameron, 
R. J. Grace, 
Joseph Woodwell, 
Jno. McDovitt. 
James B. Murray, 
Jas. McAuley, 
John Graham, 
Wm. Holmes, 
Daniel Xegley, 
Wm. \\'oods. 
Geo. H. Thurston. 
Edw. Campbell. Jr., 
Wm. H. Smith. 
.A. W. Loomis, 
Wni. Wade, 
J. P. Penny. 

well-known business men 
above list. It was the 
half a century ago. 

Latter day development of Pittshurjih may he found in tlie display pajies 

which follow this history. 


Moderu Pittsburgh— View of Liberty Avenue from the Roof of tlie Diamond National Bank Building. 


Modern Pittsburgh — Night View of liberty Avenue 

(riiotoeraph taken 7 A. RI. Suiid 



Pittsburghs Payroll 

is Larger than the Combined Payrolls of the States of 





500 Manufacturing Lstablishments 

Average Annual Wage Per Man 


Average Annual Wage Per Man in United States 

(All Industries) 


Average Daily Payroll in Pittsburgh 


Aggregate Yearly Payroll in Pittsburgh 


Aggregate Yearly Payroll in State of Massachusetts 


Deposits in Pittsburgh Savings Banks 





The Wage Earners of 
the City of Pittsburgh 

Men Employed in Mills and Fadories . . 85,000 
Average Annual Wages Per Man .... $660.00 
Average Annual Wages Per Man' in the 
United States, all industries 475.00 

Deposits in Pittsburgh Savings Banks &- 
Trust Companies $170,000,000 

(Chiefly Savings of Wage Earners) 

Pittsburgh Workers Among the Most 
tj Prosperous of Any in the World 






Lights and Shadows on Fifth Avenue from the Roof of the Diamond National Hauk Buildine 




Day aud Night Views from a Window in the Commonwealth Building. 



Pittsburgh District 

The National Industrial Center 


Manufacturing Establishments 5,000 

Employes 350,000 

Value of Product $ 750,000,000 

Capital Invested 1,000,000,000 

Pay Rolls (annual) 500,000,000 

Leads [the World in the 
Manufacture of 

Iron and Steel Steel Cars 

Glass Tin Plate 

Electrical Machinery Air Brakes 
Cork Fire Brick 

Pickles White Lead 


I" ^ ^(1 

I ftttBhurgli JtBlrtrt i 

I ^.s i 

^ TheWorld'sGreatest ^ 

^ Wealth-Producing Region S 

» ^ ffi 


* DISTRICT— 2,250,000— TWO AND * 


!ii K 

ffi Annual Tonnage of Pittsburgh iDistrid * 

!ii 1 40,000,000, or Ten Per Cent, of the Tonnage S 

S of the Entire Country, Including all Freight S 

y^ Carried Annually by Rail, River and Lake IC 

ic If- 

« Banking in Pittsburgh District * 

^ Capital and surplus, $210,000,000, which is thirty- S 

U: one million dollars more than the capital and sur- IE 

If^ plus of all the banks in the States of Illinois and u: 

Jfl Indiana, including Chicago, with a total population ^ 

ill of over 8,000,000 or nearly four times greater than Jfl 

Hi the population of the Pittsburgh District. $ $ $ ■ tfl 

IC Capital and Surplus of the Pittsburgh District, one- u; 

IC fifteenth of the total capital and surplus of all the IC 

Jfl banks in the United States, and one twenty-fourth U^ 

Ifi of the capital and surplus of all the organized Jfl 

ffi banks in the world. $$$$$$$ ^ 


IC Capitalized strength of Pittsburgh Banks five million dollars more £ 

Sfi than the combined capital of the Bank of England, all the organized tfi 

g banks of Scotland and Ireland, the Imperial Bank of Germany and ^ 

lU the Imperial Bank of Russia. 5 


Wood Street, from Second Avenue 



Manufacturing: I>i-.trict Alonv: the Allegheny. 


The MoiioiiK'ahfla Wattr I-'ront. 

Strength of Pittsburgh Market 


Aluminum and Wares 5 

Arc Lamps and Lights 2 

Architectural Iron Work 6 

Art Goods (exclusive) 16 

Asbestos Material 13 

Automobiles (dealers & m'f't'rs.) .... 45 

Automobile Supplies 4 

Awnings, Tents and Flags 8 

Bakers' Supplies 10 

Barbers' Supplies 5 

Belting 14 

Blank Books 9 

Boiler Makers and Dealers 33 

Bolts and Nuts 12 

Brass Signs 14 

Brewers 8 

Brewers' Supplies 5 

Brick Manufacturers 49 

Brooms 10 

Builders' Supplies and Material 28 

Butchers' Supplies and Tools 3 

Butter 10 

Carpets 4 

Clothing 3 

Confectioners 22 

Distillers 12 

Druggists 4 

Dry Goods 8 

Electrical Supplies 2 

Feed 2 

Flour 33 

Fruit II 

Furniture 2 

Glass (dealers) 14 

Grocers 40 

Hardware 6 

Hats and Caps 6 

Jewelers 25 

Lumber 27 

Men's Furnishings 12 

Millinery 6 

Paper 12 

Piano and Musical Instruments 28 

Pickles and Preserves 6 

Plumbers' Supplies 20 

Roofing Materials 17 

Rubber Goods 16 

Rubber Hose 8 

Sand and Gravel 21 

Sewer Pipe 28 

Shoes 16 

Steel (manufacturers) 37 

Stoves 13 

Structural Steel 13 

Teas and Coffees 8 

Tinware 5 

Tobacco and Cigars 14 

Wall Paper 3 

Volume of Wholesale Business 

One Billion Dollars Annually 


View of Wholesale District— reun Avenue 

Capitalized Strength 

of Banks in tne PittsDurgn District 


Wnicn IS 

Thirty-One Milhon Dollars More 

Than the Capital and Surplus of all the Banks in the States oi 

Indiana and Illinois 

Incluaing Chicago, with a Total Population ot over 
8,000,000, or Nearly Four Times Greater than 
the Population ot the Pittsburgh District. 

Capital and Surplus of the Pittsburgh District 

One Fiiteentn 

Of the total Capital and Surplus of all the Banks in 
the United States, and 

One Twenty-Fourtk 

Or the Capital and Surplus of all the Organized 
Banks in the World. 

(Comptroller of the Currency of the United States) 


Five Million Dollars More 

Than the Combined Capital of the 

Bank oi England Imperial Bank of Germany 
Imperial Bank of Russia 

And all the Organized Banks of 
Scotland and Ireland. 

Copyt.llil 1903 by EJwa,J While 



Making CniL-ihle Steel in a PiltNlnireli SIlxI Plant 


Manufacliu inc I>istric"t — South Siile 

IKI <^ 

Bank Deposits Per Capita 

Pittsburgh's Position 

Second among the large 
cities of the United States 

Deposits Per Capita 

Boston $907 

Greater Pittsburgh (including Allegheny) . . 704 

Cleveland 511 

Greater New York 500 

♦ Baltimore 381 

Philadelphia 371 

St. Louis 358 

Chicago 325 

Detroit 318 

(Compiled from official statements of deposits 
for 1907, and from census of States for 1905) 

Individual Deposits, Per Capita 
United States, $ 1 5 2 




Where the \\'aters MLx-t— ConliiiL-nce of the Motion ffalu- la and Alk-^ht-ny kivi. rs. lorinitii^ the Ohio. 


City Hall Park. North Side 

Bird's-eye View of Schenley Park. Carnegie Institute. Carnegie Tie 


nical Schools. lioultvard. I'hipps Coiiser\-atory. and ScheiiUy Oval. 

•Is and Phipps Consen-atory. Schtnley Park. 


pttaburflli aiib AllrBliritu 130? 


(Cliambpr of (Enmm^rrr ISr^inrt 

Number of Churches and Synagogues 397 

Value of Property (estimated) $17,000,000 

Contriburions, 1906 (estimated) 3,500,000 

Number of. Hospitals 22 

Capacity (beds estimated) 3,000 

Number of Asylums and Infirmaries 62 

Number of Beneficiaries '(estimated) 5,000 

S* & Si 

(itlirr QPrgam^atTDtis 

For the Relief of Poor and Distressed 26 

Carnegie Hero Fund Endowment $ 5,000,000 

Carnegie Relief Fund Endowment 4,000,000 

Value of Real Estate and Endowments of Charitable 

Institutions in the Two Cities (estimated) 22,000,000 

Expended by Foregoing Benevolent Organizations, 1 906 

(not including churches) 3,000,000 


Allegheny Obsen-atorj- in River\-ie\v Park 



In Ili^'hland Park 


Ijfihts and Shadows in Highland Park 




Rustic Steps ill Koniaiitic tileii. Schcniey Park copvright, leoa, by eoward white 

Educational In^itutions 
of Greater Pittsburgh 


One University 

Faculty, 154 Students, 964 Alumni, 2,570 

Plans under way for 40 buildings on a site comprising 43 acres, which will place it in the front rank of 
educational institutions of the United States. 


Colleges 2 Schools 13 

In^ructors - - - - 33 Instrudtors - - - 275 

Students 419 Students - - - - 3,982 


Seminaries - - - - 3 Buildings - - - - || 9 

lnstru(5tors - - - - 20 Instrucftors - - - 1 ,690 

Students 157 Students - - - - 73,734 

High Schools 

Buildings, 4 Instructors, I 00 Students, 2,950 

Carnegie Technical Schools 

Built and Endowed by Andrew Carnegie (partially completed) 

The City of Pittsburgh donated a site of 32 acres. Schools 
planned to accommodate 4,000 students. Four separate schools: 
School of Applied Science, School of Apprentices and Journey- 
men, Technical School for Women, School of Applied Design. 
Special Building, Machinery Hall. Day and Night Courses 
in all Schools. 



The I'nion" Station 


Coal Fleet oti the Monongahela River 


Path I^eading to the Bear Pit. Riverview Park 

Chamber of Commerce 
of Pittsburgh 

CHARTF.RKD jUl.Y 8, 1876 

fITTSBURGH'S principal development has been within 
the life of the Chamber, and it has been instrumental 
in placing the city in its proper position in the world ot 
achievement. It has aggressively led in all movements which 
have advanced the citv and its interests and has maintained 

An Unparalleled Record of Usefulness 

Prfsiiirnls uf tbr (Eltambpr nf (Hommrrrp 

Thomas M. Howe — l 874-1 S77 
James K. Moorhead — 1878-1883 
John F. Dravo— 1884-1886 
William E. Schmertz — 1887-1891 
George A. Kelly — 1892-1894 
lohn B. [ackson — 1895 

lohn Bindley — 1S96-1901 
Albert J. Logan — 1902-1903 
lohn Eaton — 1904-190^ 
H. D. W. English — 1906-1907 
Lee S. Smith — 1908 

Prrarnt ©fftrrra 




First Vice President 


Second Vice President 


Third Vice President 





Traffic Manager 


Assistant Secretary 






Nature's Refreslinient Stand, Hijirhland Park 




F UNIQUE and iimisiuil iiitcrest to 
Pittsburgh's Sesqui-Centcnnial guests 
will be the Carnegie Technical Schools. 
These modern educational buildings, 
designed to ultimately cover thirty-two acres of 
ground, and the adjacent massive Carnegie Insti- 
tute, with its six acres of science and art treas- 
ures, tell the story of Andrew Carnegie's splendid 
gifts to the city of Pittsburgh. 

During the week from September 27th to Oc- 
tober 3rd, the schools will make special arrange- 

a small frame house Vv-ill be iiiuKt process of 
electric-wiring, plinubiiig and drainage installa- 
tion; in a third, a group of girls will be studying 
tlie nutritive values of different foods; and so on. 


The Technical Schools, which Mr. Carnegie has 
endowed to date with four million dollars, and 
in which he is especially interested, enjoy one of 
the finest locations in all Pittsburgh. They are 


The Cameyie Technical Schools. Showing the School for .-Viiprcntices aiul Jonrne.\ni.'iii 
and the .School of Applied De-sij^ii. 

ments for visitors, throwing open for inspection, 
with guides, the many interesting departments of 
the institution. Opportunities will be given to 
witness in operation everything pertaining to a 
model technical university. The two thousand 
students can be seen at work in clnss-room, 
laboratorj', shop, forge and foundry, and the 
nature of their tasks will vary from the young 
man making some delicate electrical test to the 
young woman being trained in the household 
arts. In one room a class will be engaged in the 
clay modeling of architectural details; in another 

situated on high land in Schenley Park, a beauti- 
ful and diversified stretch of 420 acres, compar- 
able to Central Park, in New York, and Fair- 
mount Park, in Philadelphia. Being geogTaphic- 
ally central, thej' are readily accessible from both 
the residential and the business section.s. With 
a world-wide reputation as the greatest of indus- 
trial centers, Pittsburgh furnislics an ideal en- 
vironment for such an institution. Her people 
and activities are in accord with its aims, her 
commercial prestige appeals to the imagination 
of those seeking an industrial education, and her 



colossal steel, iron electric and other manufac- 
turing plants, to which frequent inspection visits 
are made, provide unrivalled opportunities for 
acquainting the student with the ^ctual working 
conditions of the vocation he is in training to 


The buildings so far erected and in use are the 
School for Apprentices and Journeymen and the 
Margaret Morrison Carnegie School for Women. 
Two large structures in the group for the School 
of Applied Science are practically completed and 

"Commons," the social hail, athletic quarters and 
other collegiate structures. 


The Carnegie Technical Schools consist cf four 
separate schools, the School of Applied Science, 
the School for Apprentices and Journeymen, the 
School of Applied Design and the Margaret Mor- 
rison School, in all of which both day and night 
courses are given. A student enters whichever 
school offers instruction for the particular pro- 
fession he has chosen. Detailed information in 
regard to this instruction in the different schools, 

The Carnegie Technical Schools. The Margaret Morrison Carnegie Technical School for Women. 

Photograph by R. W. Johnston 

will be ready for occupancy in October of this 
year. In the near future the School of Applied 
Design, which is temporarily quartered in the 
School for Apprentices and Journeymen, as well 
as many other buildings, will be erected. The 
total floor space now available is about 360,000 
square feet, the style of architecture is simple, 
dignified and essentially serviceable, while the 
construction throughout is absolutely fireproof 
and in accordance with the most modern practice. 
The schools to date have cost approximately $2,- 
500,000, and at the present stage of their growth 
are about one-sixth of their eventual size; on 
completion an imposing educational institution 
will be the result, with a terraced campus in the 
center, surrounded by the different schools, 
dormitories, the administration building, the 

and also in regard to tuition fees and living ex- 
penses, is given in the catalogue, a copy of which 
may be secured by writing to the Secretary. 

The School of Applied Science, which, with en- 
larged equipment and increased corps of instruc- 
tors will be established in its new buildings this 
fall, is for the training of students who wish to 
become chemists, civil, electrical, mechanical, 
metallurgical or mining engineers. 

The School for Apprentices and Journeymen 
furnishes an industrial or trade education; its in- 
struction is designed to prepare mechanics for 
more advanced positions in their chosen lines. 
The courses in this school are grouped under 
four main heads — mechanical drafting, station- 
ary engineering, machinery trades and building 
trades. The advantage of being a skilled me- 



chanic over an unskilled one is convincingly 
shown by some recent statistics compiled by the 
United States Bureau of Commerce and Labor. 
They bring out the fact that in the building 
trades unskilled labor earns on an average of 
$10.45 per week, while skilled labor earns $22.37. 
In the machinery trades it is the difference be- 

The Carnegie Technical .Schools. Two new buildings 

in the group for the School of .Applied Science. 

To be ready in October. 

Photograph b.v S. I. Haa.s. 

tween $9.69 a week and $17.70. It will thus be 
seen that to be a skilled artisan in these days of 
industrial opportunities, is to receive consider- 
ably higher wages than those paid to clerks, 
bookkeepers, stenograpliers, etc. 

In the School of Applied Design the two 
courses offered at the present time are those in 
architecture and interior decoration. In tlie last 
national competition of the Beaux Arts Society 
of New York 49 out of the 55 drawings submitted 
by Carnegie Tech students received honorable 
mention, two receiving first mentions. Students 
in these courses are exceptionally fortunate in 
having access to the fine collection of books, 
architectural models, and paintings in the Car- 
negie Institute. The international exhibitions of 
paintings and architectural drawings held at the 
Institute offer the student the further unusual ad- 
vantage of becoming familiar with the best cur- 
rent achievements in his line of work. 

A short distance from the School of Applied 
Science and the School for Apprentices and 
Journeymen, but located so as to become one of 
the units in the future quadrangular arrangement 
of the buildings, is the ^Margaret Morrison School 
for Women, named after Mr. Carnegie's mother. 
It is the first of a proposed group to be devoted 
to the education and training of women for the 
home, wifehood and motherhood, as well as along 
technical and industrial lines. 

The attention of visitors is especially directed 
to the words on the cornice of the entrance court, 
which read as follows: 

"To make and inspire the home; 

To lessen suffering and increase happiness; 

To aid mankind in its upward struggles; 

To ennoble and adorn life's work, however 

humble — 
These are woman's high prerogatives." 

This motto finely expresses the ideals and the 
purpose of the Margaret Morrison School. To 
develop character, and to train young women to 
earn a livelihood in tlie best lines of work whicli 
are open to them to-day, are the two primary 
aims of the many courses of instruction offered. 

The school is completely and attractively pro- 
vided not only with the usual class, lecture and 
laboratory rooms, but with a gymnasium, studio, 
rest and lunch rooms, and a library. The sub- 
jects taught are grouped under the four main 
heads of household arts, dressmaking, costume 
design and secretarial work. Forming sub-di- 
visions of these general departments are many 
courses for day and night students, among the 
most interesting of which are milliner\', interior 
decoration, sketching, banking and bookkeeping, 
card indexing, social ethics, Englisli, history anil 

The students in tliese four schools are placed 
under the immediate training of an able faculty 


"1 '■ 

' ' 


" j|'''^^£ 

.- 'i 





ipv ^''*" .^M 




One of the Da>- Classes in the .School of .\pi;licd Science. 
Photograph b.v E. H. W. McKee. 

of IIS professors, assistant professors and in- 
structors, men and women who have had not 
only an academic and scientific education, but 
also practical experience in the industrial world, 
that has made them conversant with the actual 
methods that prevail in the modern practice of 
their professions. 



HE UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH ly wvrc nK-n of Iiigli ::l)i:i;y ;uicl IiskIlt- in the 
is the legal descendant of the Pitts- iiiunier work of esta]ilishins fdr.oation in Pitts- 
burgh Academy, incorporated in 178". Inir;^li. Dr. Ilhick was a miiii-trr in tlu- Rcfornied 
In 1819 the Academy was reincor- rrc.-Ii\ li.rian Church. h'ailkr Magnirc was a 
porated and the name cliangod to the Western Rimian Catholic and the fomnK-r of St. Paul's 

The Acadeiii.v 

The Presidents The l"iiiversit>- 

Tilt l'ni\(.r>il:. Itiiildinij. 1.S54-1SS2 

University of Pennsylvania. In the spring of Catlicdral. Dr. lirucc was nicinhcr of ilic As 
1822 the first faculty was inaugurated in the First sociate Reformed Church. ;ind Dr. Swift and Dr 
Presbyterian church. The members of this facul- McElroy wrrc Presliytcrians. 



The first Board of Trustees included such men way, which also was destroyed by fire in 1849. 

as Robert Bruce. William Wilkins, United States In 1854 the University property on Duquesne 

Minister to Russia, Walter Forward, at one time way was sold and a lot purchased at the corner 

Secretary of the Treasury of the United States; of Ross and Diamond streets, and a building 

The Present Buildings of the I'niversity 
Science Hall The Main Building 

John Scull, Ebenezer Denny, Rev. Joseph Stock- erected which continued to be the home of the 

ton and James Allison. University until 1882, when the Allegheny County 

The first building of the University was located Court House was burned and the county pur- 

at the corner of Third avenue and Cherry alley, chased the University building to be used as the 

The Alle^^henj- Observatorj-, Rivcrview I'ark, North Side 

and was erected with $12,000 received from the Court House during the erection of the new edi- 

Statc. The cut of this building is shown in this fice. 

program. The building was burned in 1845. and In 1890 the present buildings, consisting of the 

the second building was erected on Duquesne main University building and Science Hall, were 



erected on Perrysville avenue on the grounds of 
the Allegheny Observatory, which was a part of 
the University. These buildings are shown. 

In 1S92 the Medical Department was added, 
and in 1S95 the Law School and the College of 

the campus a magnificent view can be obtained 
of Schenley Park and also the splendid East End 

In July work was begun on the first building 
to be erected on the new campus, the building 

School of Mines Buildincr 
(First hiiikiint; to be erected on tlie new site) 

Pharmacy'. In 1S96 the Dental College was es- 
tablished. Thus the institution became a real 
university with seven distinct departments. For 
a number of years the question of a new location 
for the University was considered, and finally in 
December, 1907, a site was selected, comprising 

for the School of Mines, the cornerstone of which 
will be laid on Friday of the Sesqui-Centennial 
week. It is hoped that work in the new location 
can begin in the fall of 1909. 

During the past year the total enrollment in 
all departments of the University was 1,158 with 

The Proposed Group of Buildings lor the New l'niversit.v 

forty-three acres, located in Oakland, the larger 
part being a portion of the historic Schenley 
Farms. This location is in the midst of the edu- 
cational and institutional center of Pittsburgh, 
and from the crest of the hill forming a part of 

a faculty numbering over 150. The University 
with its College and Engineering School and 
professional schools offers unexcelled opportuni- 
ties to the thousands of young people in Pitts- 
burgh and vicinity who wish higher education. 

Ip ^ 

Programme Pittsburgh 



? 1908 

Official Programme: Certified to by the Executive 
Committee of the Pittsburgh Sesqui-Centennial 


i f 

Official Programme 

Pittsburgh Sesqui-Centennial 


SUNDAY MORNING, SEPTEMBER 27: Special services 
in all Churches. SUNDAY AFTERNOON: Union religious 
meeting in Nixon Theater. SUNDAY EVENING: Union 
neighborhood services in many churches. 

MONDAY. SEPTEMBER 28, 3 P. M. : Unveiling Tablet, by 
Daughters of the American Revolution at Old Block House. 
EVENING: Official reception by the Mayor and Councils 
at Duquesne Garden. 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 29: Sesqui^Centennial Day at the 
Western Pennsylvania Exposition, the musical programme 
including works of Pittsburgh composers. 

WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 30: Marine historical 
pageant and parade on rivers. 


Certified to by the Executive Committee of the Pittsburgh Sesqui-Centennial 

Copyright. 1908. by Edward White. All Rights Reserved 

Official Programme 


Pittsburgh Sesqui-Centennial 


THURSDAY, OCTOBER 1: Greater Pittsburgh Day. His^ 
torical pageant and commercial, manufaduring and mili- 
tary parade. 

FRIDAY, OCTOBEK 2 : Laying of cornerstones of Soldiers' 
Memorial Hall and University of Pittsburgh building. 

SATURDAY, OCTOBER 3: Pvaces at Schenley Oval, and 
music, etc., at the parks. 

ALL WEEK : Exhibits of Colonial and Revolutionary paint- 
ings, books and relics at Carnegie Institute. 

WEDNESDAY, NOVEMBER 25— Anniversary Day: Meet- 
ing and concert in Exposition building, on sites of Forts 
Duquesne and Pitt. 

The Independence Day Celebration in the Parks on July Fourth was also under 
the auspices of the Sesqui-Centennial Committee. 

Certified to by the Executive Committee of the Pittsburgh Sesqui-Centennial 

Copyright, 1908, by Edward White. All Rights Reserved 

Pittsburgh Sesqui-Centennial 

(Bcncral Committee 

Mayor George W. Guthrie. Chairman 
James W. Brown. First lice Chairman 
H. J. Heinz. Second Vice Chairman 

Mrs. S. A. Ammon. Third I'ice Chairman 
John B. Jackson. Treasurer 
Burd S. Patterson. Secretary 

Allenon. O. H. 

Dimling. John 

Jones. B. F. Ir. 

Price. C. B. 

Armstrong. Richard 

English, H. D. W. 

Kambach. Geo. J. 

Rees, Thos, M. 

Babcock. F. R. 

Ferguson. Hugh 

Keenan. Thos. J. 

Reizenstein. Isadore 

Barr, Albert J. 

Flinn, Wm. 

Kelly. A. J,. Jr. 

Fkipley. D, C. 

Barbour, John B.. Jr. 

Frew. W. N. 

Kennedy. M. W. 

Rook. C. A 

Baum. George W. 

Garwood. C. H. 

Kohne. Chas' C. 

Scaife. W. L. 

Bigelow. E M. 

Graham. Chas. J. 

Lambing, Rev. A. A. 

Shepherd. A. B. 

Black. D. P. 

Guffey. J. M. 

Lang E. 1. 

Shiras, W. K. 

Blanchard. C. A. 

Gulland. Chas. 

Lewin. Dr. Adolph 

Smith, A. Y. 

Boggs. R. H. 

Guthrie. R. W. 

Lloyd. D. McK. 

Smith, Charles O. 

Bonneville. E. E. 

Hamilton. Wm. M. 

Logan. Geo. B. 

SofFel. Jacob. )r. 

Bope Col. H. P. 

Hamilton. W. T. 

Long. S. C. 

Stevenson. W. H. 

Brand. Wm. 

Hamerschlag. Dr. A. A. 

Manion. P. A, 

Tilley J. Frank 

Brashear. John A. 

Harding. Miss Julia M. 

McCormick. Rev. S. B. 

Torrance F. J. 

Buchanan. )ames 1. 

Hawkins. T. J. 

McCook, Willis F. 

Walters. Dr. E. R. 

Burchfield. A. P. 

Hershman, Oliver S. 

McElroy. Samuel 

Ward, R. B. 

Cochrane. R. K. 

Ireland. A. E. 

Moore. A. P. 

Wasson, J. C. 

Connelly. W. C. Jr. 

lamison. S. C. 

Oliver. Geo. T. 

Weil A. Leo 

Davis, W. H. 

Jones. W. L. 

Penney, John P. 

Wilson, Adam 

lEyecutive Committee 

W. H. Stevenson. Chairman Hon. James W. Brown 

A. J. Kelly. Jr.. Vice Chairman H. J. Heinz 

Burd S. Patterson. Secretary Mrs. S. A. Ammon 

Hon. Geo. W. Guthrie John B. Jackson 

Cbatvmcn of Sub=Committccs 

Gol. J. M. GufFey. Finance 

S. C. Long. Railroad and Transportation 

W. K. Shiras. Invitation 

Dr. S. B. McCormick, Clergy 

T. J. Fitzpatrick. Exposition 

). W. Beatty. Art Exhibit 

). P. McCollum, Music 

Major W. H. Davis. Military and Parade 

Capt. ]as. A. Henderson, Marine Displa]) 

T. ). Hawkins, Decorations 

H. D. W. English, Greater Pittsburgh Day 

A. J. Kelly, Jr., Anniversarv Day 

Miss Julia M. Harding, Women's Auxiliary 
E. M. Bigelow. Electrical Display^ 
Wm. N. Frew, Carnegie Institute 
John A. Brashear. Tleception 
E. E. Bonneville. Hotel 
A. B. Shepherd, Independence Day 
H. W. Neely, Merchants' Jluxiliary 
W. H. Stevenson. Councils 
Col. H. P. Bope, Boys' Brigade 
C. B. Price, Soldiers' Memorial Hall 
Dr. S. B. McCormick. University of Pgh. 
George W. Baum, Matinee Races 

Official Programme 
Certified to by Executive Committee of the Pittsburgh Sesqui-Centennial 

^:iJ:4-^:ie:^-->ll^.---^>i i^^;^---^^-^^ ^' ^— C ^■ ^l ^^J;;^;]^ ^^ : '■ n H-'^r-' -V i ,H^:'^0;^:^l:^'^'--eNJx"'-A... 



The Financial Canon of Pittsburgh— Fourth Avenue 

Compliments of