riTT:>p org; >\
•.•J» •..*.'-'■. "-:1«'V>>'' : . ^JMI-^^
^^'/"^.•ts.'TY ot mro
Years of unparaheled Thrif^etech ,^
■PVJBLISHEID BY EDWARD WHITE 1607 CO««IN|0 NVVEALTff'^tlirDl'RfE'; PTftS^URGH. AUL RIGHTS RESERVE.O ON COV/ER DESIftH
Old Phipps Power Building.
JoHcph Home & Co. (Roof visible).
McElvccn Building (Furniture).
T. C. Jenkins (Wholesale Grocer. Roof visi-
New Phipps Power Building.
Sixth Street Bridge.
Kerr & Snodgrass.
Duquesne Theatre (Top).
H. J. Heinz Company (In distance).
Lutz & Schramm Co. (Pickles, etc.).
Sixteenth Street Bridge.
Pennsylvania Railroad Bridge over Allegheny
Laird & Taylor (Shoes). .
P. Duff & Sons (Molasses).
Stewart Bros. & Co. (Wholesale Shoes).
Pittsburgh Dry Goods Company Building.
Spear & Co. (House Furnish.ngs).
Young Men's Christian Association Building,
Columbia Phonograph Company.
Pittsburgh Life Building (Insurance).
Westinghouse Building (Corner visible).
R. G. Dun & Company.
Keenan Building and Chamber of Commerce
(Headquarters Postal Telegraph Co.).
Doubleday-Hill Electric Co.
Pickerings (House Furnishings).
Second National Bank (Corner visible).
J. C. Lindsay Hardware Company.
James B. Haines & Sons (Wholesale Dry
Penn Inclined Plane.
Public Play I
I.J DtWiU U. 1,11
JTOWN BUSINESS SECTION OF PITTSBU
READING FROM LEFT TO RIGHT AND FROM TOP TO BOTTOM. THE FOLLOWING MAY BE PLAINLY SEEN
1 (Pennsylvania R. R.).
Co. (Department Store).
II. Co. (Department Store).
German National Bank (Top of building
McCreery's Department Store.
S. Hamilton Co. (Pianos).
First Presbyterian Church (Rear visible).
Trinity Episcopal Church (Rear visible).
Campbell's Department Stcre.
Kleber's Music Store.
Farmers Deposit National Bank Buildin
(United States Weather Bureau).
First National Bank Building.
Western Union Telegraph Co.
Reymer & Brothers (Confectionery).
Pittsburgh Coal Company.
Kaufmanns' Department Store (Top
Solomon's Department Store.
rhotoKraphtd nnd eiiKnivL-d i;xi>r<.'s?.ly for Official Historicnl !
r of tlic Scsnut-Cci
iiil. inil ti^hi'il 1» I'Av.
J. R. Weldin & Co. (Stationery).
Grand Opera House.
Colonial Trust Company (Diamond street en-
Robinson Bros. (Brokers).
Corner of Wood and Diamond Streets.
Bailey-Farrell Building (Plumbing supplies).
St. Nicholas Building.
Jones & Laughlin (New building, just the cor-
Fidelity Title & Trust Company Building.
Pittsburgh Bank for Savings.
Post Office Building, (Tower plainly visible).
Pittsburgh Trust Co. (Vandergrift Building).
Germania Savings Bank.
The Mercantile Trust Co. (Top).
Peoples Savings Bank.
Commonwealth Building (Upper left hand
People's National Bank (Tcp and rear cf
Arrott Building (Safe Deposit & Trust Co).
Panorama frcm Diamond
Union National Bank Building.
Columbia National Bank Building.
Pittsburgh Terminal Warehouses (In the di»-
Guardian Trust Co. (Rear).
Pittsburgh Stock Exchange Building (Rear).
Hosteller Building (Rear).
House Building (A ccrncr visible).
Bank of Pittsburgh, National Association
(Rear corner visible).
Joseph Wocdvell Co. (Hardware).
Top of SmithField Street Bridge (Above).
National Bank Building.
GKEATER PITTSBURGH DAY. October 1. 1908
PROGRAMME i^^ FORMATION M|
GREATER PITTSBURGH ^^"^
PITTSBURGH MOUNTED POLICE
S. B. M. YOUNG.
Lieut. General U. S. A.. - - - - Chief Marshal.
COL. JOHN P. PENNEY.
Ad)t. General and Staff.
ESCORT — Fourteenth and Eighteenth Regiments, N. G. P.
Guests of the City.
GREATER PITTSBURGH LEGISLATION ' DIVISION.
CITY OF PITTSBURGH DIVISION.
Float representing the City of Pittsburgh and the various city departments, detach-
ments from the Bureau of Fire. Bureau of Health, and Public Works Department, with
old and new apparatus from each department.
Floats representing scenes in the early history of the city and nation.
Floats representing the Army and Navy. 18611865.
Veterans' organizations, including representatives from the Sons of Veterans:
Military Order Loyal Legion: Grand Army of the Republic: Allegheny County Grand
Army Association: Union Veteran Legion: Society of Ex-Pnsoners of War.
DIVISION OF SEMI-MILITARY AND UNIFORMED SOCIETIES.
EDUCATIONAL INTERESTS DIVISION.
Floats representing the growth of education in Pittsburgh, from the day of the log
school, at Fort Pitt, to the new University of Pittsburgh. Marching divisions from Elementary.
Intermediate and High Schools : Carnegie Technical Schools and University.
LABOR INTERESTS DIVISION.
Marching divisions and floats representing various industrial interests of Greater
MANUFACTURING INTERESTS DIVISION.
Floats representing various manufacturing industries of Greater Pinsburgh.
COMMERCIAL AND TRANSPORTATION INTERESTS DIVISION.
Floats representing transportation and mercantile interests in Greater Pittsburgh.
WII, 1,1AM I'ITT frjm •s OR>r.iM*L Painunc in the ro»al AcAoeM». losoon
Prime Ministtr of Kiiyland in 175S. when Fort Pitt and Pittslnirgh were named in I-.i> honor.
THE PITTSBURG PMOTO ENGRAvmG CO.
MURDOCH, KERA 4 CO , INC.
I YEAKS OF i;m>aralli-:i.ki) thrift I
CIIKONICLING A 1U;\ KLOl'.MKNT
rR03I A FKONTIER CAMP TO
A MIGHTY CITY
Otlicial History and Programme
By EDW AKD WHITE
Official Editor and I'liblisher for the Executive Coiiiiiiittee
I)i: WITT B. I^UCAv^, Associate Editor
TysMied under Authority of the
EXECl TIVE COMMITTEE OF THE .SESOUI-CENTENNIAl,
C O P V K I O H T , 1 !) O y , li\ E I) \V AKD \V H I T E
nf thr ii^tint of srlf-sarrtftrr
utlnrb luntrntrii thr rarlij srt-
tliTB nf Mpiitrru }Pruusi|lba-
nta, Ihrtr many brrbii uf
balnr, auii thr burbruB utbtrb
tltrij sn brrnirallij bnrr in
lagtug tbr fomibatiou fur nur
of tbr ijrratrst tniiuiilrtal aub
rommrrrial rtttrs nf mnbrnt
timrs :: :: :: :: ::
PITTSBURGH IN HISTORY
ONE HUNDRED AND FIFTY YEARS OF RE.MARK.'VBLE
GROWTH AND THRH"r
ROM a government outpost in 1758 to a
leading American city in 1908 is a rec-
ord of material advancement which
bears an inetTable charm to every stu-
dent and every reader of modern history. It un-
folds a story of intrepid pioneering, keen discern-
ment, commercial capacity and true aestheticism
that is virtually without a parallel. From a
frontier camp to a city of over half a million in-
habitants — known throughout the universe as the
greatest of all industrial centers, as the third city
in the world in banking capital and surplus, and
as a city of beautiful homes, magnificent parks,
boulevards, churches, schools and benevolent in-
stitutions — is a transition of glory and of wonder.
And yet through it all there is ever in evidence
that sturdiness of character, that equipoise of
mind and purpose, which characterized the little
band of English, Scotch and Irish settlers who
laid the foundation of such a city in the middle
of the eighteenth century. Their breadth of
vision enabled them to see that at this meeting
of the waters — this entrepot to the great fertile
West — would virtually command the situation in
the settlement and development of that vast ter-
ritorj', and result in the upbuilding of a great city
at the forks of the Ohio.
The most difficult problem which confronted
the settlers at the foot of the Western slope of
the Allegheny Mountains was the Indian ques-
tion. The reduction of the wilderness, as diffi-
cult as it was in those days of crude development
in the mechanical arts, was indeed an easy task
compared to the settlement of the Indian ques-
tion. The Indians would lend no assistance to
the settlers in the work of developing the coun-
try and making use of its resources, and they
would not recede peaceably from the lands which
could be made to yield so much under the touch
of the white man. The white men soon learned,
therefore, that they must fi.ght if they wou'd win
in the struggle for civilization, and from tlie time
of Braddock's defeat, a few miles east of Pitts-
burgh, I7S5, until the erection of Fort Fayette,
where is now Ninth street and Penn avenue, in
1702, there was an almost ceaseless conflict and
numerous bloody battles between the whites and
The colonists of Pennsylvania and Virginia
felt the effect of Braddock's defeat by the allied
forces of French and Indians very keenly. They
realized that life was no longer secure in any
portion of the territory west of the Susquehanna
river, and that relief of no kind was apparent..
The following year (1756) the British govern-
ment formally declared war against France, but
lack of thorough military training and skill on the
part of the British troops first sent out led to
almost sole dependence for protection upon the
Colonial militia. For the next two years the
French and Indians were successful at nc;irly
every turn, and the settlers were in a constant
reign of terror.
^ y ^' p T' r 'i2i'^''f|f\^\
riU-ihurghs First Post Office, 17S9
GENERAL FORBES BRINGS RELIEF
In the spring of 1758 General John Forbes was
placed in command of the army operating west
of the Alleghany Mountains, and from that time
the settlers saw their first real relief. With a
force of about 6.200 experienced soldiers, and ac-
companied by George Washington, General
Forbes marched from the Susquehanna river to
the Beaver river, stopping at a point near where
New Castle now stands. At Bedford he was
joined by Colonel Bouquet, with a force of
Colonial militia. Bouquet was sent forward to
Fort Ligonier, with a force of 2,000 men, while
General Forbes followed with tlie main body of
PITTSB URGH SESQUI-CENTENNIAL.
the army. Tlicse movements were striking ter-
ror to French and tlieir Indian allies, and the
fall of Fort Duquesne was drawing nearer. Gen-
eral Montcalm writing at this time to Chevalier
de Bourlamque, gives the following description
of conditions existing in the fort:
"Mutiny among the Canadians, who want to go
home; the officers busy making money, and steal-
ing like mandarins. Their commander sets the
example, and will come back with three or four
hundred thousand francs. The pettiest ensign,
who does not gamble, will have ten, twelve or
fifteen hundred francs. The Indians do not like
Ligneris, who is drunk every day."
thirty, were burned. The French, who num.bered
about four hundred, besides several hundred
Indian allies, withdrew, most of the French
going down the Ohio river on rafts and barges.
NAME CHANGED FORT PITT AND
What remained of the fort was occupied by
the English soldiers on the 26th of November,
and Washington pointed to the meeting of the
waters and predicted the building of an import-
ant city on the site. After the raising of the
British flag over the fort, it was named Fort Pitt,
Penns>ivania Canal — Site of Union Station
FALL OF FORT DUQUESNE
An occasional success in a slight conflict would
embolden the French and serve to keep their
spirits up. but the policy of their government
was wrong, and the time was near at hand when
they must abandon it. Early in September,
Major Grant, who had been sent to within a few
miles of Fort Duquesne, was defeated, but the
defeat was of no importance. A little loter an
attack was made upon Fort Ligonier by the
French and Indians, but no permanent advantage
was gained. The fall of Fort Frontcnac. at the
outlet of Lake Ontario, in August, had practical-
ly sealed the doom of Fort Duquesne, and on the
24th of November, when the English were within
a few miles of the fort, it was blown up and the
surrounding buildings, to the number of about
in honor of the Prime Minister of England, Wil-
liam Pitt. At the suggestion of General Forbes
the place was named Pittsburgh. The first re-
corded use of the name is in a letter from Gen-
eral Forbes to Governor Denn3% dated the day
after taking possession, from "Fort Duquesne,
now Pittsburgh, the 26th November, 1758." The
next recorded evidence is from the minutes of
the conference held by Colonel Bouquet with the
chiefs of the Delaware Indians, at "Pitts-Bourgh,
4th December. 1758."
When commerce reached the forks of the
Ohio, it found little in the way of human habita-
tion save the tepees of the Indians and Fort Du-
quesne, occupied by French soldiers. The mili-
PITTSBURG 11 SESQUI-CRXTT.XXLIL.
tary rule of the Frcncli stimulated traclini^ lie-
tween the white frontiersmen and tlic Iiulian-. f^r
the time, but when the English occupied the
"forks" and built Fort Pitt, it was found that
Frencli hostility had so embittered the Indians
against the newcomers that commercial relations
with them were well nigh suspended. It was not
until the close of the Revolution that mercantile
trading was resumed to a noteworthy cxteiu, and
then was born the commerce of Pittsburgh. In
1784 more than sixty wagon loads of goods
reached Pittsburgh from tlie East, and by i;S6
traffic on the Ohio river iiad become a feature
of \\ estern trading.
In 17S6 a healthy expansion of business is
shown, .\miing the lirms were Craig, Bayard &
Co., Daniel Britt & Co., Samuel Calhoun, Wilson
& Wallace, John McDonald, William Haw ting,
William Fulton & Co., and Colonel John Gibson.
Most of the stores advertised that their goods
were exchangeable for cash, flour, wliiskey, beef,
pork, bacon, wheat, r3-e, oats, corn, candle-wick,
NEW STORES COMING IN
The year 1787 found several new concerns add-
ed to the list of the j-ear previous, among them
being general stores by John Wilkins & Co.,
David Kennedy, and John and William Irwin.
The Gazette advertised that it kept for sale State
laws, history of the Revolution, the New Testa-
ment, Dilwortli's Spelling Book, sealing wax,
In the year 1787 tliere was someihing of a de-
pression in the business circles of Pittsburgh,
lack of ready cash being especially noticeable, but
in the year 17SS a complete revival was experi-
enced, and all classes of business prospered.
URGING STATE CO-OPER.\TION
The following item from an issue of the Ga-
zette of 1787 rellects the spirit which had posses-
sion of the people at tliat early date:
"It ought to be a great object with the State
of Pennsylvania to encourage and cultivate the
town of Pittsburgh. It will be a means which
will bind the two extremes of the State together.
A town of note at the confluence of these rivers
must for ages secure the trade of tlie \\ estern
countr\' to Pennsxdvania."
F.\R^IING DID NOT P.\Y
Agriculture was unprofitable west of the Alle-
ghenies prior to the last decade of the eighteenth
century. The cost of transportation across the
mountains and competition with planters using
slave labor in Virginia and the Carolinas, made it
next to folly for the farmers of the Pittsburgh
district to raise more produce than was necessary
lor home consumption. I'l.uir rearhed tl'e Iovy
Iirioe of $1 per hundredweight, and beef seldom
brinighi more than Jj in cash per hundredweight.
Commerce at the time meant simply barter, and
very little money was used even in the settlement
Ilomc-made goods of all kinds were used as
leg.al tender, and if llie f.irnier got enough fur his
produce with which to pay his taxes, he was in-
ileed fortun.itc. The New Orleans market was
not available because of the distance and the time
consumed in getting goods there.
MISFORTUNE TURNED TO FORTUNE
It was such drawbacks to commerce as these
that caused a turn in the afl'airs of Pittsburgh,
shaped the destiny of the future great city and
made it the center of tlie greatest industrial em-
pire on the globe. It having become settled be-
yond peradventure that Pittsburgh and Western
Pennsylvania must turn their attention from agri-
culture to manufacture if they would reach promi-
nence in the business world, it became an easy
step to a substantial start in the right direction.
Ohio and Kentucky were just be.ginning their
development, and the demand for building ni;i-
terials and implements of all kinds from those
sections became the
OPPORTUNITY OF THE PITTSBURGH
Mills and forges and factories were started
like hives along the banks of the Allegheny and
the Monongahela rivers, while the transportation
problem was readily and easily solved by the
Ohio, and Pittsburgh itself began to grasp the
great opportunity soon after the ball had been
Prosperity came in great waves with the dawn
of this change. Tlie demand for implements in-
creased to a demand for flour, cotton goods, .glass,
iron and coal, and Pitt-linrghcrs sprang to tlie
work of supplying these demands. The time h;id
come for the "town beyond the mountains" to
take its place in the commercial world, and the
manner of its assumption was indeed creditable.
PITTSBURGH'S BEGINNING AS AN
The glass industry in Pittsburgh had its be-
ginning in 1797 in a factory started by General
James OTIara in a stone buildin.g on the south
side of the Monongahela river, nearly opposite
the Point, William Eichbaum having been
brought from the East to superintend the work.
In a note found among General O'Hara's papers
after his death, he said: "To-day we made the
first bottle at a cost of $,^0,000." The enterprise
proved successful and was really the beginning
of Pittsburgh's greatness in the manufacturing
line. It was the first venture on anything like an
extensive scale, and marked a new era for the
commerce of the city. Associated with General
In iSoi the list of business men contained the
names of Tarascon Brothers, Berthoud, Steele,
McLaughlin, Davis, Christy, Willock, Barker,
Hamsher, Gregg and others. The year 1802 the
well-known names of Hanna, Denny, Woods and
INIcIlhenny were in the list.
VOLUME OF TRADE IN 1803
Iilanuf actures $266,000
Produce brought to market 92,000
The excess of imports over exports caused
some of the cautious citizens to warn the people
to import less and manufacture more. New
Orleans continued to be the principal market for
the products of Western Pennsylvania, and the
opinion prevailed that the southern metropolis
was destined to be the greatest city in the world.
It was before the days of canals and railways, and
when the chief dependence of commerce was upon
the waterways. Pittsburgh's only access to the
great markets of the world was by water via New
Orleans, and its importance was therefore appar-
ent to every discerning business man.
Judge William Wilbins, first President of the Bank of
Pittsburg:h, United States Senator, Secretary
of War and Minister to Russia.
O'Hara in the enterprise was Isaac Craig, a
sturdy pioneer business man of Pittsburgh, and
the institution was known as the Pittsburgh Glass
OTHER MANUFACTURING ENTERPRISES
Hats were manufactured by Samuel Magee in
1798 at Front street and Chancery Lane. In the
same year there were also in the city institutions
manufacturing tobacco, wagons and chairs, and
in 1799 a shoe factory was started. In 1800 an-
other shoe factory was started by Hammond &
The principal articles of commerce in 1800 were
pork, beef, flour, whiskey, bar iron, castings, Irish
and country linens. At that time the borough
supported a large number of prosperous stores,
conducted by men with such familiar names as
Ormsby, Mahon, Sharp, Jones, Dunlap, Scott,
Stevenson and Hogg. Traffic on the Ohio river
was heavy, the commandant of Fort Massac, near
the mouth of the river, reporting that 276 boats
laden with produce and manufactured articles
passed that place from the ist of March to the
31st of May.
BRANCH BANK IN 1803
Tlie year 1S03 found the city sufficiently ad-
vanced in a commercial sense to require the aid
of a bank. Scarcity of money had previously pre-
vented tlie establishment of such an institution,
and exchanges were effected by local merchants,
aided by two or three brokers. Early in the year
the directors of the Bank of Pennsylvania, in
Philadelphia, made a formal proposition to the
business men of Pittsburgh looking to the estab-
lishment of a branch in the latter city, and soon
afterward the following call for a meeting of the
citizens appeared in the Gazette:
"The freeholders and other inhabitants, house-
holders, are hereby requested to attend a meet-
ing of tlie Corporation at the Court House, on
Saturday, the 26th of March, at 10 o'clock P.M.,
in order to take into consideration a proposition
of the Directors of the Bank of Pennsylvania for
establishing a branch within the borough, pro-
viding it is approved by the Corporation. W\\-
liam Christ}', Town Clerk."
PITTSBURGH'S FIRST BANK
While the branch of the Philadelphia bank met
tlie wants of the community for the time being,
the development of the city made necessary the
establishment of a home institution, and in l8iO
a movement took definite form in the organiza-
tion of the Bank of Pittsburgh. About a month
later, however, the legislature passed an act
amending the restrictive act of 1808 in such man-
ner as to make it virtually prohibitive to new in-
stitutions, forbiddin;^. under heavy penalties, the
incorporated banks organized under the act of
1808, to lend money, to receive deposits, or tc do
anything which the chartered banks might law-
fully do. The Bank of Pittsburgh immediately
closed its operations, in compliance with the pro-
visions of the act, and in everything subinitleil to
the letter and spirit of the law.
Later in the year 1810 the president and direc-
tors memorialized the legislature to grant them
a charter, couching their petition in such forcible
terms as to make it one of the most noted docu-
ments of record in the early history of the com-
monwealth. It was tlie death knell to such sum-
mary legislation as had for the time kept the
Bank of Pittsburgh out of the commercial field,
and opened the eyes of the people of the state to
the commanding position which the new city at
the head of the Ohio occupied. Even at that
early date the city had a population of S.ooo in-
habitants, and was engaged to a greater extent in
useful manufactures, according to population, than
any town in tlie United States. The petition
plainly showed the urgent necessity for the legis-
lature's fostering care for those industries.
VOLUME OF TRADE INCRE.\SIXG
The volume of trade passing through Pitts-
burgh in i8lo was estimated at $1,000,000, and tlie
sale of Pittsburgh manufactures reached a sum
slightly in excess of $1,000,000, making the total
for the year $2,000,000. Shipments by river par-
tially enumerated were furniture, saddlery, boots
and shoes, paper, glass and cabinet work, and the
receipts included tobacco, sugar, cotton, furs,
hemp, lead, etc. Pittsburgh had by this time be-
come an excellent market, and its fame as an in-
dustrial center was spreading over the land,
bringing skilled workmen and shrewd business
men to the new metropolis by scores.
In 1812 an express post was established by the
government from Washington, D. C, to Detroit,
via Pittsburgh, a distance of 550 miles. Pitts-
burgh was reached in three and a half days, and
Detroit in five days.
One authority estimated the number of frame
and brick houses built in 1812 at 300, and the
same authority stated that 7,000,000 feet of lum-
ber passed inspection at Pittsburgh during that
year, the product coming from the pine and hem-
lock swamps up the Allegheny river.
Among the leading establishments in the city
in 1812-13 were those of H. J. Lewis & Co., David
Logan & Co., G. & C. Anshutz, Isaac Harris, John
Wilkins, N. Richardson, William McCandless,
William Mason, John M. Snowden, Speer & Eich-
baum, James Wiley, Jr., and R. Brown & Co.
The war with England appeared to make prosper-
ous conditions for Pittsburgh merchants, so great
was the .•id\ance in jirices. Purchases were maile
fnmi e.i>tern and foreign m;irkels twice a year.
Decemlier 31, 1813, the direct ta.x of the gov-
ernment took elTect. re(iuiring the stamping of
BEXJ.\MIV FR.^NKLIN JONES,
Founder Jo.its & Laughlin Steel Company.
( Deceased 1
notes, bills, bonds and commercial paper before
EXPAXSIOX DURIXG THE WAR OF 1812
The growth of Pittsburgh's population during
the war was considerable, and its commerce grew
in proportion. Steam had become the motive
power on the Ohio river, and had completely
revolutionized transportation. The X'ational In-
telligencer, a paper published at Washington,
D. C, contained a letter from a Pittsburgher on
April 22, 1814, which contained the following
"It is difficult to repress the expression of feel-
ings which arise toward the person to whom we
owe it that this mode of navigation, so often be-
fore attempted and laid aside in despair, has be-
come practical, but it is unnecessary to give them
vent. The obligation which the nation — I had
almost said the world — owes to him will be freely
acknowledged by history."
COMMERCE OF 1813
The following boatloads and wagonloads were
received at Pittsburgh in 1813: 350 boats loaded
with 3, 750 tons of saltpetre, salt, lead, belting.
sugar, cotton, etc.; 1,250 tons of hemp, 3,750 tons
of hempen yarn, 4,000 wagonloads of dry goods,
groceries, etc., and 1,000 wagonloads of iron.
Pittsburgh's exports were also large in 1813,
its manufacturing institutions running more than
President Bank of Pittsburgh, N. A.,
186.5 to IS'.ll.
full time to fill orders. About this time the city
became known as the "Birmingham of America,"
and the prediction was made by the Niles Reg-
ister that it would eventually become the
GREATEST ]\IANUFACTURING CENTER
IN THE WORLD.
In 1814 the ironmongery manufactured in
Pittsburgh amounted in value to $300,000, and
the whole value of iron products was in excess
of $500,000. This was nearly double the value of
the output of 1812. The boatbuilding industry,
which was started in 1811, had grown to good
proportions by the year 1814, and manufacturing
in other lines was greatly stimulated by its suc-
cess. There were two steam engine manufac-
tories, a rolling mill, puddling furnaces and a
wire factory, besides smaller concerns, making
locks, hinges, stoves, carding machines, shovels,
tongs, cutting knives, etc.
COAL MINING BEGINS
Coal mining in quantity began during the war
of 1812-14, although at that early date nothing
was thought of tlie important figure which that
product would eventually cut in the industrial
history of the city. It was then unforseen that
coal would yet be king of the great Pittsburgh
empire, and it was not without value even at that
period. The first mines were opened on the
south side of the Monongahela river and was
ferried to the city until the completion of the first
bridge in 1816. Although the production was
small, there was yet enough mined and used to
demonstrate its value as a fuel, especially in iron
manufacture, and by the year 1818, when the de-
mand for coal came from Cincinnati, St. Louis,
Louisville and New Orleans, it had become quite
an important factor as a Pittsburgh industry. In
Cincinnati it was used in the manufacture of
glass and was sold there at twenty cents a bushel,
The construction of the first bridge across the
Allegheny was not begun until July, 1818, the de-
mand for the bridge across that stream not be-
ing deemed as important as one across the Mo-
RIVER DIFFICULTIES IN 1818
The effects of low water were sometimes seri-
ously experienced in early times. At one time in
1818 thre were thirty vessels, including keel boats
and flat-bottoms, lying at the Monongahela
wharves, loaded with $3,000,000 worth of mer-
chandise destined for Ohio and Mississippi river
points. A local paper summed up the situation
"The embargo on our vessels is at length hap-
pily raised, and $3,000,000 worth of merchandise
has at length floated ofT on the rapidly swelling
bosom of the Ohio. It may appear somewhat
paradoxical, but Pittsburgh is delighted to have
her shores deserted. The large fleet of boats
which has for some months been lying before
our city might serve to give strangers a just con-
ception of the immense importance of our situa-
tion, yet its protracted detention gave a melan-
choly feature to this proof of our greatness. We
fear the effect of it will be severely felt in the
cities of the West. However, in all cases of
gloom where our country is concerned our
motto is Spcratc. The beautiful steamboat
James Ross has weighed anchor for New Or-
leans. She will take in freight at several places
between this point and Louisville. May success
attend this gallant vessel in her voyage across
our immense continent."
A DEPRESSION COMES
During the spring and summer of iSiS twenty-
two steamboats were engaged in the Oliio river
traffic, and seven boats were in process of con-
struction at Pittsburgh. Manufacturing in Pitts-
burgh had received a stetback from which it ap-
parently could not recover, and conditions would
indeed have been alarmiiig had it not been for the
river trade which the city enjoyed. The cliicf
trouble was that there was little or nothing
manufactured for export trade, and tlie money
stringency which was spreading over the land
made domestic trade of little vakie.
The depression tlnis begun reached its height
in 1821, when prices of commodities reached the
bottom. The gloom continued until 1S23, and by
the middle of 1824 the city was again in a tlour-
THE PITTSBURGFI MANUFACTURING
Organized effort for the bcttermsnt of trade
conditions was one of the results of the hard
times from 1818 to 1823. The Pittsburgh Manu-
facturing Association, which was organized for
commercial purposes in 1819, answered the ex-
pectations of its founders in affording facilities
for its interchange of commodities — supplying
raw materials to the mechanic and manufactured
articles to the farmer and country merchant in
exchange for produce. The Legislature of iSio-
20 chartered the association, which greatly in-
creased its facilities for- benefiting the com-
The year 1826 proved a record breaker for the
new city. ^lerchandise to the amount of 9,300
tons and valued at $2,219,000 was received from
tlie East. The exports for the same year
amounted to $2,881,276, showing a balance of
trade in favor of Pittsburgh of $2,219,276. The
exports were as follows:
Iron $ 398,000
Wire work 8,000
White lead 17,000
Steam engines 100,000
Tobacco and cigars 25,800
Bacon, 860,000 pounds 51,820
Cotton yarn and cloths 160,324
Axes, scythes, shovels, etc 49,000
Dry goods 480.000
Groceries and foreign liquors 625,000
Saddlery and leather products 236,000
INCREASED PROSPERITY OF 1828-29
The Niles Register of February 23, 1828, says:
"About 2,600 persons and $2,000,000 capital are
emploj'ed in the I'actnrios of Pittsburgh. The
1-Ei.ix K. imrNOT,
Proiiiintriit IlMsiiiess Mau and Philanthropist.
Senate of Pennsylvania lias passed a bill ])ermit-
ting the Baltimore & Ohio railroad to enter that
State providing a branch shall be made to Pitts-
burgh, and it is important to Baltimore as well
as Pittsburgh that these cities should be joined
together, and we hope and trust that such an act
passed by the Pennsylvania Legislature will be
cheerfully accepted by the managers of this com-
pany. Pittsburgh is, and must more and more
become, the center of a vast and valuable busi-
ness — tlie place of deposit for mighty quantities
of produce of the soil and industry of Western
Pennsylvania and of the ricli southeastern sec-
tion of Ohio, and enjoys many other natural ad-
vantages. Pittsburgh is even now supplying iron
for the navy of the United States. We wish
every success to the industry of her enterprising
people, and desire an extension of domestic com-
With the renewed impetus to business there
came a rise in prices which greatly cheered the
merchant and manufacturer. The construction of
the Pennsylvania canal caused an extraordinary
growth in population and commerce, and upon
the completion of the project in 1829 business
took an upward movement which showed that
Pittsburgh was on the map to stay.
Oil Merchant and Capitalist.
ANOTHER PERIOD OF DEPRESSION
Loss of trade and general depression again
came upon Pittsburgh in 1830-31. There were
no such disastrous failures as accompanied the
former period, and the injurious effects were not
so widespread. Business seemed to drift along
without either advancement or retrogression, as
if a feeling of lethargy had taken possession of
the people. The President's war on the banking
system of the country undoubtedly had much to
do with the condition, capital being slow of in-
vestment for fear of repudiation and bad faith.
Tlie year 1831 witnessed a great improvement
in Pittsburgh's transportation facilities to the
East. The Pennsj'lvania turnpike passed into the
hands of a stage company which improved it in
many ways and placed on it three lines of stages
to Philadelphia — two running dailj' and one every
other day. One of the daily lines made the trip
in two and a half days and the otlicr in four
days. In addition to these lines there was the
northern line, by way of Blairsville, Huntingdon
and Lewiston, which made the trip in less than
four days. A line was also established this year
(1831) between Pittsburgh and Wheeling, an-
other between Pittsburgh and Steubenville, while
the time of the stages between Pittsburgh and
Cleveland and Pittsburgh and Erie was decreased
The travel on all these lines was very heavy.
A TURNPIKE CONVENTION
Freight transportation was such an important
question in the early thirties that the business in-
terests were kept constantly alert for new
schemes for its improvement. In 1833 a turn-
pike convention was held in the city to take into
consideration the improvement of the roads, the
question of uniformity of tolls and other matters
of common interest. The companies represented
were: Washington & Williamsport, Somerset &
Bedford, Summit & Mt. Pleasant, Robbstown &
Mt. Pleasant, Huntingdon, Cambria & Indiana,
New Alexandria & Conemaugh, Pittsburgh &
Greensburg, Bedford & Stoystown, Mt. Pleasant
& Pittsburgh, Pittsburg & Butler, and Chambers-
burg and Bedford. The convention elicited con-
siderable interest on the part of the public and
resulted in good to all concerned.
MANUFACTURING IN 1833
In 1833 J. & E. Greer, at the TarrifT Foundry, man-
ufactured stoves, grates, gudgeons, sawmill irons,
windmill irons, wagon boxes, sadirons, bake kettles,
plow irons, hollowware, etc. The following year they
were forced to assign.
Bemis, Kingsland, Lightner & Cuddy bought the
interest of Lewis and Peter Peterson in their ma-
chine shop and steam-engine factory, conducted by
F. A. Bemis & Co., in February, 1834. F. A. Bemis
& Co., the company being Lewis and Peter Peterson,
had made steam engines and cotton and woolen ma-
chinery here for some time.
On November i, 1833, there were in operation in
and near Pittsburgh 89 engines, with 2,111 hands
employed therewith, and 154,250 bushels of coal con-
In the month of November, 1833. 2,337,580 pounds
of iron were brought to Pittsburgh over the canal,
as follows: Blooms, 1,658,326 pounds; pig-metal,
112,560 pounds; castings, 75,167 pounds; iron, 492-
527 pounds. There were shipped eastward over the
canal during the same time 127,484 pounds of cast-
There were in the city of Pittsburgh sixteen foun-
dries and engine factories of the largest denomina-
tion, besides numerous other establishments of less
magnitude. There were nine rolling mills, cutting
two tons of nails and rolling eight tons of iron per
day on an average, and employing from seventy to
ninety hands each.
.Mthough there was a financial depression in
Pittsburgh during the first two months of 1834,
the volume of business for the year reached a
total of $10,000,000 for the wholesale and retail
trade and $0,500,000 lor tlie niaiuilacturcs, mak-
ing- a grand total of $10,500,000. The total canal
tolls collected at Pittsburgh lor the year were
$16,704.99, showing a good trade in that direc-
tion. The commercial transactions are thu<;
itemized for the year:
Books and papers S 450,000
Drugs, medicines, paints, etc 175,000
White lead 150,000
Beer anil porter 80,000
Sales of foundries, etc 1,690,000
Copper and tin 75,000
Groceries and liijuors 2,000.000
truth to say that the whole of the goods manu-
factured or imported and sold in our city, or
passing through, amounts to the enormous sum
Plows, wagons, etc . . . .
Furniture and leather.
From March, 1S34, to June, 1835, ,30,234.065
pounds of freight were received from the East
by the canal, and 16,653,429 pounds were sent
from Pittsburgh by the same means. It may be
said here that Philadelphia and Pennsylvania
both lost by not making the Pennsylvania canal
the leading transportation scheme between the
East and the West. The building of the Erie and
the Ohio and Erie canals resulted in New York
securing the larger portion of the trade of the
great West, which should have gone by way of
Pittsburgh. Pittsburgh merchants and manufac-
turers foresaw this, and urged the Legislature to
take necessary action, but Philadelphians failed
to support them, and the trade went to Xew York
by way of Buffalo.
Business in Pittsburgh in 1S36 was in good
condition, every institution being operated at its
full capacity. A communication appearing in the
Gazette November 10, 1836, and signed "Old
Merchant," thus referred to the volume of busi-
ness for the year:
"The manufactures and mechanical products
and sales of all kinds of goods, foreign and do-
mestic, by all our manufactories, wholesale and
retail, and commission merchants, may be esti-
mated at from $20,000,000 to $25,000,000. The
value of every description of foreign and domes-
tic goods received in transit from the Eastern
cities and passing through the hands of our com-
mission merchants for all parts of the West and
South, may be estimated at from $60,000,000 to
$70,000,000, and perhaps it will not exceed the
CAPT.4IN J.\COI! JAY VA.NDERGRIFT.
Oil Mercliaiil and Capitali.st.
THE PANIC OF 1837
Business in Pittsburgh suffered a serious col-
lapse from the effects of the panic of 1837. Goods
in large quantities had been sold in the West and
South on a liberal credit, and when the de-
pression came barely a dollar cold be collected.
As early as February it was calculated that Pitts-
burgh's outstanding accounts amounted to $10,-
000.000, and March found conditions worse and
collections at a standstill. Pittsburgh manufac-
tories began to shut down, and the merchants
were forced to compromise with their Eastern
creditors. All the banks in the citj-, with one
exception — the Bank of Pittsburgh — suspended
specie payment, and money became so scarce that
prices of all commodities doubled and trebled in
value. No influence could be exerted to give re-
lief, and the people settled down to await the
time when the panic should spend Its force.
REVIVAL OF TRADE
Relief did not appear until late in the fall of
1837, when there was a slight revival cf trade
and money became easier.
In 183S, the Pittsburgh Board of Trade, which
had become a most useful and influential body,
took a hand in business affairs which did much
toward a trade revival. It opened headquarters
in the Merchants' Exchange, brought the busi-
ness men together at regular meetings, and se-
For a I,ong Period Pittslmrgh's Leading Merchant.
goes. The whole of our broad levee, from the
bridge to Ferry street, is closely dotted with
drays and wagons, hurrying to the margin of the
river from every point of access, burdened with
the valuable products of our factories or with
Eastern goods. Some half a dozen of the steam-
ers are puffing away ready to start. The margin
of the wharf is absolutely covered to the height
of a man with freight in all its varieties, while
higher up on the footwalks and streets the fronts
of the great forwarding houses are blocked by
piles of boxes, bales and barrels in beautiful dis-
order. Shippers, porters, draymen and steamboat
clerks blend their hurried vocies at once — one is
actually deafened with their cheerful din and
rush of business. Some idea may be formed of
the magnitude of our manufactures from the fact
that the larger iron houses have 800, some i.ooo,
and some as high as 1.200 tons each of iron and
nails ready for shipment to the West."
Fifty-five steamboats were laid up at Pitts-
burgh during the winter of 1838-39, all of which
cleared before the 1st of March of the latter year.
April 2, 1839, the steamboat Maine arrived from
the Illinois river with 170 casks of bacon for ship-
ment over the canal. This was the first cargo of
Illinois river produce which was diverted from
the New Orleans route. The costs of transporta-
tion from Beardstown, Illinois, to Pittsburgh was
50 cents per hundred pounds. The cost from
Pittsburgh to Philadelphia was 87 cents per hun-
dred pounds. June 22, 1839, there were in port
at Pittsburgh fifty-si.x steamboats, the largest
number ever before seen here at one time.
cured for them information which enabled them
to meet trade conditions and protect credits.
There was nothing of a crude nature, and there
was enough of the element of co-operation in it
to make it successful.
The freight shipped East over the canal in 1S37
was 50,068,010 pounds, an enormous amount for a
panic year. The tolls for the same year amounted
to $48,807.97. An express line of boats was put
on the canal in 1838, which made the trip to
Philadelphia in three and one-half days. The
Pittsburgh and Beaver canal was surveyed in
1838 and was finished in 1840.
EXPANSION OF RIVER COMMERCE
The river trade in 1838 was impeded to some
extent by a shortage of water, but after the rise
in the fall there was unusual activity, and a great
business was inaugurated. The Advocate thus
describes the scene on the river front:
"The wharves present one of the most ani-
mated scenes we have witnessed in a long time.
Twenty steamboats lie at the landing takmg in
cargo for Louisville. St. Louis. Nashville. New
Orleans and 'intermediate luirls,' as the phrase
PROSPERITY AGAIN REIGXS
The year 1840 witnessed a revival of trade in
every line and the volume of business became un-
usually large. The following figures show the in-
crease in river traffic over the year 1839:
Steamboats arriving 652 1,393
Steamboats departing 662 1,413
Total 1,312 2.?o6
In October, 1S40, three Pittsburgh banks re-
ported deposits as follows:
Bank of Pittsburgh $350,849.26
Exchange Bank 136,624.09
lilerchants & Alanufacturers Bank 197,145.82
THE COAL TRADE TAKES ON A BOOM
Tlie bituminous coal mines of Pennsylvania
yielded about 500.000 tons in 1841, and shipments
to distant parts of the country began to be heavy.
The Intelligencer of January 5. 1842, said:
"The coal trade of Pittsburgh and the imme-
didate vicinity is very large and amounts in the
course of a year to abcat $1,000,000. In 18,37, 'ic-
cording to Harris" directory, the trade was esti-
m.Tted at 11.304.000 bushels, which would be
worth $565,200. A few days ago we went on the
Minersville turnpike and were astonished to sec
the large number of carts and two, three and
four-horse teams constantly going and coming
on that road alone: and this is only one of the
many roads leading to the coal fields, to say noth-
ing of the river traffic."
TRADE FROM THE FAR WEST
A noteworthy feature of the business of 1S42
was the large number of trailers from Santa Fe
and other points in the West buying Pittsburgh
goods. One buyer spent $5,000 in gold. The
goods were shipped by steamboat to Fort Inde-
pendence and thence across the unbroken prairie
by prairie schooners to their destination.
The tonnage of dry goods, groceries, drugs,
oiU. foreign liquors, furs window glass and
whisky on tlie canal in 1841 amounted to 15.005.
The City of Alleslieny was incorporated in
1840, and soon began development in city fashion,
altliough its manufacturing interests did not grow
materially until many years later.
A RAILROAD COMIXG
In 1843 tlie city of Pittsburgh subscribed for
10,000 shares of the Pittsburgh & Connellsville
(B. & O.) railroad, and immediately afterward
business started on another great improvement.
Buildings were erected at a rapid rate, manufac-
turing enterprises came to this city to locate, and
mercantile affairs took a long forward stride. In
March, 1843. the Cleveland Herald printed the
following item under the heading, "Pittsburgh
"The whistle of locomotives among the moun-
tains within 100 miles of Pittsburgh makes the
wealthy burghers prick up their ears, and al-
ready the subject of a railroad from Pittsburgh to
Cumberland is exciting no little interest. Build
the road. Mr. Pittsburgher, and then we will see
what can be done between Cleveland and tlie
To which the Pittsburgli .Kmcrican responded
as follows: "We are going to build it, Mr. Her-
ald, and that quick, too; and trust, if our life is
spared but a few years, to take a locomotive trip
to Cleveland on our way to Niagraga Falls. Green
Bay, or some other summer resort on tlie great
"We will give you a call then, Mr. Herald."
Of the new railroads thus projected Pittsburgh had
fully half a dozen under way. Railroads were being
projected and built in every direction. Pittsburgh
was becoming known as a city of opportunity. In-
dustrial enterprises were being launched and the won-
derful possibilities of the city at the head of the Ohio
were claiming the attention of the general public as
well as absorbing llie local mind. The trains were
carrying passengers to riii1:i(Ulpliia in less tlKin a cal-
WILI.IAM ANIJICKSOX Hi'.RRON,
I,e.iding Business Man and Banker.
I Deceased )
endar day. the Like at Cleveland could be reached
in seventeen htnirs. and men witli keen discernmcii;
could easilj' see the rise of an industrial empire.
DISASTROUS FIRE IN 1845
.\pril 10, 1S45, a large portion of the business sec-
tion of Pittsburgh was destroyed by fire, fully 1,100
buildings being wiped out of existence. Tlie confla-
gration started about noon at the corner of Ferry
and Second streets, and in a few hours the district
I>ounded by Ferry street, Diamond alley, Ross street
and the Monongahela river was in ruins. The build-
ings were made ready food for the flames by a
drought which had existed for several weeks, and
a high wind which prevailed at the time made the
destruction quick and complete. The wind was blow-
ing so furiously that burning timbers were carried
in some instances two and three blocks, causing new
tires to be started and handicapping the firemen in
their efforts to check tlie original rolling walls of
flame. The entire fire equipment of both Pittsburgh
and Allegheny was brought into action, but it was
nearly powerless to impede even the progress of the
fire. The heroic efforts of the firemen were re-
warded at one point, however, by changing the
course of the fire after it had reached Diamond
alley, and causing it to finish its sweep in the direc-
tion of the river. But for that circumstance there
would have been little left of the business district
for the resumption of commerce. As it was, the
section covered embraced the best buildings in the
GENERAI. JAMES KENNEDY MOORHEAD,
Statesman and Business Man of the Highest Type.
city, and the annihilation was complete enough to
warrant the event being called "the destruction of
LOSS NINE MILLION DOLLARS
The burned district embraced warehouses, stores,
dwellings, churches, schools, hotels and public build-
ings, and the loss was estimated at $9,000,000. Two
lives were lost, and great hardships were endured
by many citizens, a large number of business men
suffering complete loss. In some respects, however,
the disaster was a blessing in disguise, causing an
influx of new capital, stimulating the people to re-
newed energy, and the rebuilding of the city on a
much more substantial scale than had previously
THE WORK OF RELIEF
Fifty thousand dollars was appropriated by the
State Legislature for the relief of the sufferers, and
nearly $150,000 more came from other sources, some
even from Europe. The Legislature also passed an
act exempting from taxation certain buildings
erected within the fire limits, thus affording relief
to all classes.
An act was passed by the Legislature providing
that "the whole amount of state and county tax,
previously assessed and unpaid, upon persional prop-
erty, and real estate upon which buildings had been
destroyed, in the First and Second wards and in
Kensington, should be returned to persons liable for
the same, and upon such property no tax for state
and county purposes should be levied for years 1846,
1847 and 1848. Persons whose merchandise had been
destroyed were released from payment of licenses for
the year 1845.
J\LA.RVELOUS WORK OF REBUILDING
The recovery of Pittsburgh from the great fire of
184s was one of the marvels of the time. The erec-
tion of new buildings was begun early in the year
1846, and most of them were superior in design and
construction to the ones which had been destroyed.
Before the close of the year it was estimated that
2,500 buildings were either completed or were in pro-
cess of construction. November 4, 1846, the Com-
mercial Journal came out with these headlines in
large type :
"Two Thousand Five Hundred Houses in Nine
"Can Any Western City Beat This?"
The building fever which had taken possession
of the city did not stop with the year 1846. In Oc-
tober, 1S47, the Chronicle estimated that 2,000 new
buildings had thus far been erected in the city that
year. More than 600 of that number were in the
burned district alone. Property at this time was
rising rapidly in price, lots on Market street selling
at from $3,000 to $4,000 each.
The Sniithfield street bridge, which was destroyed
by the fire, was rebuilt and opened to the public in
1846. A movement was begun at this time to span
the two rivers at their junction with a "tripartite"
bridge. A subscription was started but the enterprise
failed to materialize.
CUTTING DOWN THE KNOB
For many years the question of cutting away the
top of Grant's Hill, known now as "the knob," had
been a vexed one with Pittsburghers. It had been
discussed and threshed over by the city councils,
besides being the object of many public meetings
and business gatherings. In November, 1S47, it was
definitely settled to take several feet from the top
of the hill and add two feet to the low ground along
Sniithfield street. It is an easy matter for the people
of today to see wherein their forefathers would have
conferred upon them an everlasting blessing if they
had made the cut twenty-seven feet instead of
ANOTHER LOW WATER DEPRESSION
Low w-ater in the Ohio river again caused a de-
pression of business in 1849. The story is well told
by the Commercial Journal of November 2 oi that
year, as follows:
"The past year has been the most trying and severe
upon all classes of our business men that has ever
been known. The panic of 1832-33 and the commer-
cial revulsions of 1S36-37 and 1S41-42, although more
fruitful of disaster in the crushing of business estab-
lishments and business men, were infmitcly less in-
jurious to our mercantile and manufacturing interests
than the quieter but searching and exhausting diffi-
culties of the period embracing the past spring, sum-
mer and the first month of autumn. The wonder is
that there has been so little breaking up of large
houses — indeed there has been none — and that cir-
cumstance is highly honorable to the punctuality and
integrity of our business men, as it is creditable to
their reputation as substantial, stable and responsible
dealers. First, while our rivers were in fine naviga-
ble condition — our large packet boats plying and our
transient steamers running everyw-here — they were
overtaken by the cholera panic, the pestilence then
raging along Ohio and Mississippi river points with
fearful violence. The alarm flew, and, almost as if
by magic, travel was banished from the rivers, and
our boats, from absolute want of employment, one
by one dropped in home and w-ere laid up. The river
trade was then suspended out of season, and the
great source of demand for our manufactures was
shut off. Then, designing demagogues having ex-
cited false fears about our city and county scrip,
uhich was our chief circulating medium, filling the
channels of business, and having denounced it as
worthless, illegal and likely to be repudiated, down
it went. The sudden discredit which overtook it
left our business men minus the great part of their
active cash capital, and commerce received another
stunning blow in the want of circulating medium.
This was distress upon distress. There seemed to
lie no money at all. But the mischief did not stop
there, for the cry then arose that cholera w-as in our
midst, and it soon appeared that we had sporadic
cases of the pestilence, yet enough to create a panic.
If business were at a standstill as before, this inade
the prostration complete. So wore on the summer.
When the cholera disappeared and men were dis-
posed to engage in active pursuits and push their
business enterprises to returns of profit, we found
ourselves shut in — cut off from the market. The
Ohio river, lower than it had been for twenty years,
was shut up — cutting us off from the West. The
Pennsylvania canal, too low for freight boats, cut
us off from the East. Produce that should have paid
our merchants' and our manufacturers' debts already
due was excluded from our market. Manufactures
and stocks of goods on hand here, representing heavy
investments of cash, were locked up without buyers.
So passed July, August and September, and a part
of October. Such a state of things — such a combina-
tion of disasters — never happened, we dare say, to
any community in so brief a space of time. The loss
has been monstrous. Millions would be required to
replace the aggregate losses to the various business
and indu>trial interests of this city. Vet, to the
honor of our business men, we repeat, not an im-
I'ortant failure occurred. .\nd now they breathe
free. The rivers are up, all the avenues of trade are
open and pouring in their tribute to the common
THOM.\s M. HOWK,
Kiuinent Business Man.
prosperity. We have learned, and, as the case may
be, how disastrously dependent we are on the Ohio
river and the Pennsylvania canal for our importance
and prosperity in manufactures and trade. We have
learned that we may lose more money in a single
season than would complete our Pennsylvania rail-
road to Beaver, securing us 'Iron Rivers' East and
West, open and navigable at all seasons. The mil-
lions of dollars the people of Pittsburgh lost this
year by low water and the prostration of business
would build the railroad to Beaver and pay all the
subscriptions to the Central Railroad asked for by
RESTORATION IN 1851
Although business began to improve early in 1S50,
a normal condition was not reached until 1S51. The
volume of business transacted by the canal indicates
this fact. The tonnage from the opening to June
I of each year is shown in the following tabic :
Lumber which came down the .A.llegheny river in
1851 sold for $9, common, and $iS, clear, the highest
prices which had ever prevailed in the Pittsburgh
VOLUME OF CANAL BUSINESS IN
1850 AND 1851
The following statement of leading articles re-
ceived at and shipped from Pittsburgh by the canal
for the years 1850 and 1851 was published in the
Commercial Journal, November 6, 1851 :
Articles. 1850. 1851.
Agricultural products, pounds.. 737,250 44i.ii7
Leather 120,564 52-1.500
Chinaware 2,444,093 2,121,200
Coffee 9.382,595 11,374.315
Drugs and medicines 865,300 1,436,600
Dry goods 27,270,543 32,918,351
Groceries 9,162,336 11,830,621
Hardware and cutlery 13,506,835 11,935.335
Liquors, foreign, gallons 30.525 2,701
Paints, pounds 3S7.964 293,703
Hats and shoes 3.948,850 4.693.363
Iron in pigs 21,136,768 14,960,212
Iron castings 154,600 865,163
Bar and sheet iron 1,147,176 1,693,000
Nails and spikes 1,126,747 137.600
Steel 85,600 626.700
Tin 708,600 884,800
Fish, barrels 17,362 21,302
Slate for roofing, pounds 625,600 833.000
Tobacco, manufactured 2,439,289 1.609,600
Tobacco, leaf 129,800 257,900
Blooms, etc 12,463,300 12,403.535
Marble 641,300 1,026,060
Oils, gallons 18,940 386,578
Tar and rosin, pounds 1,014,900 2,342,700
Articles. 1850. 1S51.
Hemp 7.755.728 1,357,644
Tobacco, not manufactured. . ..15.204,194 18.191,932
Feathers 481.831 424.745
Wool 4,108,432 3.268,088
Hogs' hair 634,400 607,792
Seeds, bushels 874 904
Chinaware, pounds 11,800 1.750
Earthenware 278,232 355-280
Glassware 1. 193.908 1,068,611
Groceries 2,411,617 1,478.628
Whisky, gallons 384.887 446.275
Coal, tons 15.604 7.6ii
Iron castings, pounds 574.992 806,914
Bar and sheet iron 4,031,450 4.437.9I3
Nails and spikes 2,269,000 1,853.412
Bacon 38,495,265 32,520,000
Beef and pork 5.600 6,949
Butter 619,659 378,898
Cheese 1,501.185 156.383
Flour, barrels 72.072 200.538
Lard, pounds 4.641.362 6.506,831
Cotton 1.084,600 703.080
Dressed hides 98.1.^0 201.282
Leather 440.587 715.9,^8
Furs and feathers 183,137 274.289
German clay 87.406 416,000
Dry Goods 265,839 5,^2,158
Rags 628.307 677,066
No. of boats cleared 3.643 4.384
Tolls $ 102.308 $ 112,528
A RAILROAD BOOM
The first train on the Chartiers coal railroad was
run in September, 1851, an excursion being given
to McKccs Rocks.
The same year the Pittsburgh & Steubenville rail-
road was projected and leading citizens agreed to
promote the enterprise.
The first ground was broken for the Ohio & Penn-
sylvania railroad July i, 1850, it having been incor-
porated by act of April 11, 1848. In June. 1851, hand
cars ran west from Allegheny as far as Rochester.
The Allegheny Valley Railroad Company placed its
shares on the market in 1851.
The first locomotive, the "Indiana," arrived at the
outer station at Pittsburgh November 22. 1851. On
December 11, 1851, "an express train was scheduled
to leave Liberty street depot every morning at 6:30,
bound eastward, run twelve miles to Turtle Creek,
there to connect with stages ; thence to Beatty's Sta-
tion, twenty-eight miles away; thence by rail to Phil-
adelphia; all for $11."
Regular express trains began to leave Allegheny
for Enon Valley, 44 miles, November 24, 1851. From
Enon Valley passengers were conveyed by stage to
Salem, and thence to Cleveland by rail.
In April, 1853, the Dispatch said:
''At the last session of the Legislature thirty-one
new railroad companies were chartered and seventy-
eight new supplements to other railroad companies
and ninety more for incorporating plank roads were
MANUFACTLTIING IN 1856
The year 1856 was a notable one in the manufac-
turing history of Pittsburgh, it being the date of the
introduction of the Bessemer process of making mal-
leable iron w^ithout fuel. Although the importance
of the discovery was at once conceded, there were
many who were skeptical of its genuineness, and it
simply had to "prove" its way into public confidence.
The manufacturers of Pittsburgh in 1856 may be
enumerated and classified as follows :
Anvils, Axes and Shovels — Forster, Garbutt & Co.,
Holmes & Co., Lippincott & Co.. Postley. Nelson &
Co., William Day, Newmeyer & Graff, and Stuart,
Sauer & Co. (New Brighton).
Boi7«-M— William Barnhill & Co., J. Blair & Co..
Joseph Douglass, Thomas Douglass, Douglass & Eng-
lish, and Robert Walker.
Brass ind Bell Founders — Andrew Fulton. A. & S.
McKenna. Phillips & Co.. and James Weldon.
Coppersmiths — Fitzsimmons & Morrow. Howard &
Rogers, Vean & Veller, James T. Kincaid, W. B.
Scaife, and J. B. Sheriff.
Cultivator Teeth— T). B. Rogers & Co.
Engines— \N. W. Wallace. F. & W. M. Faber,
Haigh. Hartupee & Co., Irwin & Co., Cyprian Pres-
ton, Cridge, Wadsworth & Co,, and J. B. Marden &
Fotindcrs—]o\m Anderson & Co., Bollman & Gar-
rison, Alexander Bradley, S. S. Fowler & Co., Graff,
Reisinger & Graff, Knapp & Wade, Livingston, Cope-
land & Co., Daniel McCurdy, Marshall, McGeary &
Co., Mitchell, Herron & Co., J. C. Parry, Paine, Lee
& Co., Pennock & Hart, William Price. Robinson,
Minis & Miller. Smith & Co.. and Warwick. At-
tenbury & Co.
Xails, SIsti-t and Bar Iron — Bailey, Brown &
Co., Bro-n-n, Floyd & Co., Coleman, Hailnian &
Co., Everson, Preston & Co., Graff, Bennett &
Co., Jones & Lauth, Lewis. DalzcU & Co.,
Lorenz, Stewart & Co., Lyon. Scliorb & Co.,
Lloyd & Black, McKnight & Brother, Schocn-
bcrger, Spang & Co., James Woods & Co.,
Woods, Moorhead & Co., and Zug & Painter.
Nuts and Washers — Knapp & Carter.
Railroad Sj^ikcs — Porter. Rolte & Swctt.
Revolvers — Josiah Ellis.
Rivets — W. P. Townsend & Co.
Scales — Livingston, Copeland & Co., Joseph
Dilworth & Co., Isaac Jones, and Singer, Hart-
man &. Co,
Safes — Burke & Barnes, Lippincott & Barr,
and W. T. McClurg.
Sheet Copper — C. G. Hussey & Co.
Spikes — L. Severance.
Tacks — Chess, Wilson & Co.
Wire Manufacturers and Jl'orkers — Francis Clu-
ley, J. R. Taylor & Co., and R. Townsend & Co.
IVrought Xails and Gas Pipes — John Fitzsim-
nions and William Pick.
LARGE OUTPUT FOR 1857
The output of Pittsburgh manufacturing insti-
tutions in the year 1857 amounted in the-aggre-
gate to $39,022,435, the principal concerns and
their products being as follows:
Industries. of products.
25 Rolling mills $10,730,562
26 Foundries 1,248,300
1 Common foundry 40,000
16 Machine shops 836.300
7 Boiler yards 305.000
4 Shovel and axe factories 823,742
2 Forges 224.500
7 Chain factories 261,000
1 Railroad spike factory 250,000
3 Safe factories 1 16,000
3 Cutlery factories 30,000
2 Smut machine factories 40.000
r File factory 12,000
I Boiler rivet factory 40.000
I Sickle factory 30.000
6 Saddlery hardware factories 40,000
1 Rivet mill 20,000
2 Gun barrel factories 28,875
I Gun and rifle factory 40,000
1 Repeating pistol factory 15,000
2 Domestic hardware factories 450,000
3 Plow factories 102,000
I Copper rolling mill 200,000
28 Copper and tinsmiths 192,000
ID Brass foundries 75,000
3 Key factories 166,000
3 .Xgricultural implement factories... 80.000
I Wire cloth factory 10.000
In addition to those enumerated above there
were in the city in 1857 29 wagon factories, 13
tanneries, 27 breweries, 6 cracker factories, 6
marble works, 16 cabinet factories, 8 candle fac-
tories, 7 sawmills, 17 lumber yards, 8 sash and
door factories and 9 planing mills.
THE PANIC OF 1857
Notwithstanding the apparent prosperity of
its manufacturing institutions in 1857, Pitts-
burgh suffered greatly from the effects of the
"Great Western Blizzard" panic of tlie latter
part of that year. The failure of the Ohio Life
and Trust Co., of Cincinnati, resulted in many
banks and business houses in other parts of the
country going down with it. This was in Au-
gust, and by the middle of September the situa-
tion was indeed alarming. Hundreds of banks
and commercial institutions in different parts of
the country were crumbling like so many toy
blocks, and specie payments were virtually sus-
pended throughout the country. One Pittsburgh
institution, however, stood valiantly by its guns
and its honor, and kept on meeting its obliga-
tions with coin. That was the Bank of Pitts-
burgh, which earned the reputation of being the
only bank in any of the large cities in the United
States which never for one hour suspended
specie payments. On the 26th of September,
1857, the board of directors of the Bank of Pitts-
burgh unanimously resolved to meet all the
bank's liabilities in coin, and the resolution was
faithfully adhered to, in spite of the fact that
other banks in the city met in convention and
resolved to suspend specie payments for the
"On November 3, 1857, the banks of I'itts-
burgh held tlieir annual meetings. All of the
suspended banks accepted the provisions of the
relief law passed by the Pennsylvania Legisla-
ture. The Bank of Pittsburgh and the Exchange
Bank each declared a dividend for the last six
months of three per cent. The new law pro-
hibited the latter bank from declaring more." —
Wilson's History of Pittsburgh.
The establishment of a clearing house for
Pittsburgh was urged in 1857. So far Philadel-
phia had not had one, but the necessities of the
hour became so apparent in Pittsburgh that con-
certed action and general protection was de-
Early in January, 1858, the banks of Pitts-
burgh had all resumed specie payments, although
confidence was not yet restored. Money became
more plentiful but the holders of it became very
careful. The statements of the Pittsburgh banks
proved tliem to be in a more healthy condition
than those of other cities. They took the lead
in resumption, and they did it without flourish
or ostentation. No city in the country came out
of the panic with as much to its credit and with
as little noise as Pittsburgh. It resumption oc-
curred three months before the requirements
provided by the State law. Not a bank in Pitts-
burgh suspended during the entire panic, and
the year following the close of the depression
found every institution in the city with its stock
quoted above par.
THE IRON INDUSTRY IN i860
The manufacture of iron and steel had become
an important factor in Pittsburgh in i860, and
the place was already known as the "Iron City."
Tliere were 26 steel rolling mills in operation,
employing about 3,000 hands, and connected with
them were 80 puddling furnaces. The number of
heating furnaces was 130 and there were also
260 mill machines. Eighteen foundries employed
1,800 men. The total amount of iron consumed
exceeded 110,000 tons.
THE FIRST STREET RAILROAD
In ]\Iarch, 1859, the Citizens Passenger Rail-
way Company, of Pittsburgh, was incorporated
by an act of the Legislature. It was authorized
to start from the intersection of Market and
Fifth streets, thence passing to Liberty, thence
across Liberty to Cecil alley, thence to Penn
avenue, thence to the Greensburg and Pittsburgh
turnpike road and thence to the suburbs. The
company was incorporated with 2,000 shares of
$50 each, and among the incorporators were
James Verner, Alexander Speer, Richard Hays,
William Darlington, Joshua Rliodes and Nath-
aniel Holmes. The road was built, and became
an important feature of the city's industrial life.
RAILROAD BOND TROUBLES
The financial depression of 1857 had the effect
of causing the collapse of several railroad enter-
prises in which the community was interested.
In i860 the railway indebtedness of Pittsburgh
was $1,800,000; Allegheny, $400,000: Allegheny
county, $2,300,000; total, $4,500,000. At that date
the total assessed valuation of the county out-
side of the city was $12,500,000; Pittsburgh, $[0,-
500,000; Allegheny, $3,000,000; total, $26,000,000.
It will thus be seen that the railroad indebted-
ness was 17 per cent, of the total assessed valua-
tion of the county. In June, 1S50. a mass meet-
ing of the citizens was held and resolutions were
adopted instructing the commissioners not to
levy a tax for the paj-ment of interest on the rail-
road bonds. The commissioners did as request-
ed. In March, i860, another mass meeting was
held, which severely strictured the supreme court
for deciding against the county certain suits on
the bonds. The course taken by the commis-
sioners was approved, and the meeting even
went so far as to openly encourage resistance to
the mandates of the court.
PITTSBURGH IN THE WAR OF THE
Upon the election of Abraham Lincoln to the
Presidency tlie patriotic citizens of Pittsburgh
took on a feeling of security over the threatened
disruption of the Union which had been flaunted
in their faces for several months. On the 22d
of December, i860, a convention held in Charles-
ton, South Carolina, declared for secession by
adopting a "declaration of independence." This
act renewed former apprehensions and taught
loyalists that something must be done. The
United States government was even then remov-
ing muskets and other munitions of war from
the Alleglieny arsenal to the southern points, un-
der the implied approval of President Buchanan.
The excitement over the removal of the guns
from the arsenal was intense, but, witn the ex-
ception of five guns which were surreptitiously
loaded on a southbound train, the arsenal was
permitted to hold its cannon. Early in Januar}',
1S61, Secretary of War Floyd countermanded
the order, which created a feeling of great satis-
faction throughout the city.
LINCOLN IN PITTSBURGH
In February President-elect Lincoln passed
through the city enroute to Washington. He
was greeted by a large crowd of people and
delivered a speech from the balcony of the
IMonongahela House at 8 o'clock in the morning.
THE FIRST TROOPS
Within a few Iiours after the receipt of the
news of the firing on Fort Sumter the Pittsburgli
Zouaves voted unanimously to tender their serv-
ices to the Governor of Pennsylvania. Two
other companies, however, preceded it, they hav-
ing offered their services at the time of the at-
tempted removal of the cannon to the South.
These were the Jackson Independent Blues and
the Pennsylvania Zouaves. Other companies
followed, and fully 2,000 volunteers were either
under arms or in readiness for entering the serv-
ice at the end of two weeks.
On the night of April 15, nearly 5,000 people
met in the City Hall, and stirred the feeling of
patriotism to the highest pitch. Judge Wilkins
presided, and Thomas M. Marshall delivered an
impassioned address, which was followed by the
hand playing "The Star Spangled Banner" with
thrilling effect. The following committee on
pnhlic safety was annoimced on the 17th:
Wm. J. Morrison,
James P. Barr,
Wm. F. Johnson,
Dr. Geo. McCook,
T. J. Bigham,
C. L. Magee,
James Park, Jr.,
C. H. Paulson,
J. H. Foster,
John D. Bailey.
John W. Riddell,
Jas. A. Sewell.
William M. Lj-on,
W. J. Howard,
Sol. Schoyer, Jr.,
J. P. Pears,
R. Miller, Jr.,
H. L. Ringwalt,
Geo. W. Wilson,
J. W. Barker,
Dr. Jas. King,
John J. Dravo,
Jos. R. Hunter,
W. M. Hersh,
C. B. Bostwick,
Nat. Holmes, Jr.,
D. S. Stewart,
R. H. Hartley,
J. R. Murphy,
Geo. W. Irwin,
E. P. Jones,
P. C. Shannon,
E. D. Gazzam,
Geo. P. Hamilton,
Thos. M. Marshall,
J. R. T. Xobb,
Jas. A. Hutchinson,
Jno. N. Tiernan,
Thos. S. Blair,
Jno. N. McClowry,
G. L. B. Fetterman,
Max K. Moorhead.
X. P. Fetterman,
John D. Scully,
Dr. Geo. S. Hays,
A. G. Lloyd,'
Jolin J. Muse,
T. M. Howe,
C. W. Ricketson,
J. B. Poor,
T. S. Rowley.
S. H. Keller,
David E. Bayard,
J. R. McClintock,
Wm. Robinson, Jr.,
H. A. Weaver,
Wm. H. Magee,
T. J. Gallagher,
R. H. Patterson,
W. K. Nimick,
Davi<l F. Magce,
William M. Edgar,
Dr. L. Oldshuc,
Dr. Geo. I. McCook,
Thos. B. Hamilton,
George A. Berry,
Jas. Benny, Jr.,
J. B. Canfield,
H. L. Bollman.
Wm. B. Holmes,
D. D. Bruce,
Will A. Lare,
Alex. L. Russell,
N. P. Sawyer,
W^ S. Lavely,
John M. Irwin,
Wm. C. Barr,
Wm. Barnhill. Jr..
The names of many
are recognized in the
city's "best" of nearly
J. M. Brush,
J. M. Killcn,
Col. Leopold Sahl.
Dr. Wm. M. Simcox,
Jolm C. Dunn,
John E. Parke,
B. F. Jones,
George W. Cass.
Walter H. Lowrie,
Dr. S. Dilworth,
J.is. R. Hartley.
W. G. McCartney,
M. I. Stewart,
Robt. B. Guthrie.
R. J. Grace,
James B. Murray,
Geo. H. Thurston.
Edw. Campbell. Jr.,
Wm. H. Smith.
.A. W. Loomis,
J. P. Penny.
well-known business men
above list. It was the
half a century ago.
Latter day development of Pittshurjih may he found in tlie display pajies
which follow this history.
PHOTO BY DeWITT B. LUCAS COPYRIGHT, 1B08, BY EDWARD WHITE
Moderu Pittsburgh— View of Liberty Avenue from the Roof of tlie Diamond National Bank Building.
PHOTO Bi OEWITT 8. LUCAS
Modern Pittsburgh — Night View of liberty Avenue
VIKW OF PITTSBURGH FROM
(riiotoeraph taken 7 A. RI. Suiid
BY EDWARD /<HITE
is Larger than the Combined Payrolls of the States of
NEBRASKA NORTH DAKOTA
500 Manufacturing Lstablishments
Average Annual Wage Per Man
Average Annual Wage Per Man in United States
Average Daily Payroll in Pittsburgh
Aggregate Yearly Payroll in Pittsburgh
Aggregate Yearly Payroll in State of Massachusetts
Deposits in Pittsburgh Savings Banks
The Wage Earners of
the City of Pittsburgh
Men Employed in Mills and Fadories . . 85,000
Average Annual Wages Per Man .... $660.00
Average Annual Wages Per Man' in the
United States, all industries 475.00
Deposits in Pittsburgh Savings Banks &-
Trust Companies $170,000,000
(Chiefly Savings of Wage Earners)
Pittsburgh Workers Among the Most
tj Prosperous of Any in the World
BY DEWITT B. LUCAS COPVftlGMT, 1008. BV EDWARD WHITE
Lights and Shadows on Fifth Avenue from the Roof of the Diamond National Hauk Buildine
PHOTO Br DEWITT B. LUCAS
Day aud Night Views from a Window in the Commonwealth Building.
The National Industrial Center
Manufacturing Establishments 5,000
Value of Product $ 750,000,000
Capital Invested 1,000,000,000
Pay Rolls (annual) 500,000,000
Leads [the World in the
Iron and Steel Steel Cars
Glass Tin Plate
Electrical Machinery Air Brakes
Cork Fire Brick
Pickles White Lead
I" ^ ^(1
I ftttBhurgli JtBlrtrt i
I ^.s i
^ TheWorld'sGreatest ^
^ Wealth-Producing Region S
» ^ ffi
ifi POPULATION OF THE PITTSBURGH !fi
* DISTRICT— 2,250,000— TWO AND *
S , A QUARTER MILLIONS ^
ffi Annual Tonnage of Pittsburgh iDistrid *
!ii 1 40,000,000, or Ten Per Cent, of the Tonnage S
S of the Entire Country, Including all Freight S
y^ Carried Annually by Rail, River and Lake IC
« Banking in Pittsburgh District *
^ Capital and surplus, $210,000,000, which is thirty- S
U: one million dollars more than the capital and sur- IE
If^ plus of all the banks in the States of Illinois and u:
Jfl Indiana, including Chicago, with a total population ^
ill of over 8,000,000 or nearly four times greater than Jfl
Hi the population of the Pittsburgh District. $ $ $ ■ tfl
IC Capital and Surplus of the Pittsburgh District, one- u;
IC fifteenth of the total capital and surplus of all the IC
Jfl banks in the United States, and one twenty-fourth U^
Ifi of the capital and surplus of all the organized Jfl
ffi banks in the world. $$$$$$$ ^
IC Capitalized strength of Pittsburgh Banks five million dollars more £
Sfi than the combined capital of the Bank of England, all the organized tfi
g banks of Scotland and Ireland, the Imperial Bank of Germany and ^
lU the Imperial Bank of Russia. 5
PHOTO BV DEWITT B. LUCAS
Wood Street, from Second Avenue
Manufacturing: I>i-.trict Alonv: the Allegheny.
PHOTCS BY DEWITT B lUCAS
The MoiioiiK'ahfla Wattr I-'ront.
Strength of Pittsburgh Market
NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS
IN THE DIFFERENT LINES ARE
Aluminum and Wares 5
Arc Lamps and Lights 2
Architectural Iron Work 6
Art Goods (exclusive) 16
Asbestos Material 13
Automobiles (dealers & m'f't'rs.) .... 45
Automobile Supplies 4
Awnings, Tents and Flags 8
Bakers' Supplies 10
Barbers' Supplies 5
Blank Books 9
Boiler Makers and Dealers 33
Bolts and Nuts 12
Brass Signs 14
Brewers' Supplies 5
Brick Manufacturers 49
Builders' Supplies and Material 28
Butchers' Supplies and Tools 3
Dry Goods 8
Electrical Supplies 2
Glass (dealers) 14
Hats and Caps 6
Men's Furnishings 12
Piano and Musical Instruments 28
Pickles and Preserves 6
Plumbers' Supplies 20
Roofing Materials 17
Rubber Goods 16
Rubber Hose 8
Sand and Gravel 21
Sewer Pipe 28
Steel (manufacturers) 37
Structural Steel 13
Teas and Coffees 8
Tobacco and Cigars 14
Wall Paper 3
Volume of Wholesale Business
One Billion Dollars Annually
PHOTO BV OtWITT B LUCAS
View of Wholesale District— reun Avenue
of Banks in tne PittsDurgn District
CAPITAL AND SURPLUS
Thirty-One Milhon Dollars More
Than the Capital and Surplus of all the Banks in the States oi
Indiana and Illinois
Incluaing Chicago, with a Total Population ot over
8,000,000, or Nearly Four Times Greater than
the Population ot the Pittsburgh District.
Capital and Surplus of the Pittsburgh District
Of the total Capital and Surplus of all the Banks in
the United States, and
Or the Capital and Surplus of all the Organized
Banks in the World.
(Comptroller of the Currency of the United States)
Five Million Dollars More
Than the Combined Capital of the
Bank oi England Imperial Bank of Germany
Imperial Bank of Russia
And all the Organized Banks of
Scotland and Ireland.
Copyt.llil 1903 by EJwa,J While
ri I ISBVKGU SESOLl-LESTl-Wl.ll.
Making CniL-ihle Steel in a PiltNlnireli SIlxI Plant
PHOTOS BY DEWITT B. LUCAS
Manufacliu inc I>istric"t — South Siile
Bank Deposits Per Capita
Second among the large
cities of the United States
Deposits Per Capita
Greater Pittsburgh (including Allegheny) . . 704
Greater New York 500
♦ Baltimore 381
St. Louis 358
(Compiled from official statements of deposits
for 1907, and from census of States for 1905)
Individual Deposits, Per Capita
United States, $ 1 5 2
COPYRIGHT 1908, BY EDWARD WHITE
Where the \\'aters MLx-t— ConliiiL-nce of the Motion ffalu- la and Alk-^ht-ny kivi. rs. lorinitii^ the Ohio.
PHOTOS BY DeWlTT B. LUCAS
City Hall Park. North Side
Bird's-eye View of Schenley Park. Carnegie Institute. Carnegie Tie
PHOTOS BY DeWITT B. LUCAS
nical Schools. lioultvard. I'hipps Coiiser\-atory. and ScheiiUy Oval.
•Is and Phipps Consen-atory. Schtnley Park.
pttaburflli aiib AllrBliritu 130?
(Cliambpr of (Enmm^rrr ISr^inrt
Number of Churches and Synagogues 397
Value of Property (estimated) $17,000,000
Contriburions, 1906 (estimated) 3,500,000
Number of. Hospitals 22
Capacity (beds estimated) 3,000
Number of Asylums and Infirmaries 62
Number of Beneficiaries '(estimated) 5,000
S* & Si
For the Relief of Poor and Distressed 26
Carnegie Hero Fund Endowment $ 5,000,000
Carnegie Relief Fund Endowment 4,000,000
Value of Real Estate and Endowments of Charitable
Institutions in the Two Cities (estimated) 22,000,000
Expended by Foregoing Benevolent Organizations, 1 906
(not including churches) 3,000,000
PHOTO BY DEWITT B. LUCAS
Allegheny Obsen-atorj- in River\-ie\v Park
PHOTO av OEWITT B. LUCAS
In Ili^'hland Park
PHOTO, 1908, BY DeWITT B. LUCAS
Ijfihts and Shadows in Highland Park
COPYRIGHT, 1908, BY EDWARD WHITE
PHOTO B¥ DeWITT 8. LUCAS
Rustic Steps ill Koniaiitic tileii. Schcniey Park copvright, leoa, by eoward white
of Greater Pittsburgh
CHAMBER OF COMMERCE REPORT
Faculty, 154 Students, 964 Alumni, 2,570
Plans under way for 40 buildings on a site comprising 43 acres, which will place it in the front rank of
educational institutions of the United States.
DENOMINATIONAL j| PRIVATE
Colleges 2 Schools 13
In^ructors - - - - 33 Instrudtors - - - 275
Students 419 Students - - - - 3,982
THEOLOGICAL PUBLIC SCHOOLS
Seminaries - - - - 3 Buildings - - - - || 9
lnstru(5tors - - - - 20 Instrucftors - - - 1 ,690
Students 157 Students - - - - 73,734
Buildings, 4 Instructors, I 00 Students, 2,950
Carnegie Technical Schools
Built and Endowed by Andrew Carnegie (partially completed)
The City of Pittsburgh donated a site of 32 acres. Schools
planned to accommodate 4,000 students. Four separate schools:
School of Applied Science, School of Apprentices and Journey-
men, Technical School for Women, School of Applied Design.
Special Building, Machinery Hall. Day and Night Courses
in all Schools.
The I'nion" Station
PHOTOS Br DEWITT B. LUCAS
Coal Fleet oti the Monongahela River
PHOTO BY DeWITT B. LUCAS
Path I^eading to the Bear Pit. Riverview Park
Chamber of Commerce
CHARTF.RKD jUl.Y 8, 1876
fITTSBURGH'S principal development has been within
the life of the Chamber, and it has been instrumental
in placing the city in its proper position in the world ot
achievement. It has aggressively led in all movements which
have advanced the citv and its interests and has maintained
An Unparalleled Record of Usefulness
Prfsiiirnls uf tbr (Eltambpr nf (Hommrrrp
Thomas M. Howe — l 874-1 S77
James K. Moorhead — 1878-1883
John F. Dravo— 1884-1886
William E. Schmertz — 1887-1891
George A. Kelly — 1892-1894
lohn B. [ackson — 1895
lohn Bindley — 1S96-1901
Albert J. Logan — 1902-1903
lohn Eaton — 1904-190^
H. D. W. English — 1906-1907
Lee S. Smith — 1908
LEE S. SMITH
F. R. BABCOCK
First Vice President
W. H. STEVENSON
Second Vice President
D. P. BLACK,
Third Vice President
H. M. LANDIS
IRA S. BASSETT
P. C. WILLIAMS
PHOTO BY DeWITT B. LUCAS
Nature's Refreslinient Stand, Hijirhland Park
COPYRIGHT 1903, BY EDWARD WHITE
THE CARNEGIE TECHNICAL
F UNIQUE and iimisiuil iiitcrest to
Pittsburgh's Sesqui-Centcnnial guests
will be the Carnegie Technical Schools.
These modern educational buildings,
designed to ultimately cover thirty-two acres of
ground, and the adjacent massive Carnegie Insti-
tute, with its six acres of science and art treas-
ures, tell the story of Andrew Carnegie's splendid
gifts to the city of Pittsburgh.
During the week from September 27th to Oc-
tober 3rd, the schools will make special arrange-
a small frame house Vv-ill be iiiuKt process of
electric-wiring, plinubiiig and drainage installa-
tion; in a third, a group of girls will be studying
tlie nutritive values of different foods; and so on.
AN IDEAL ENVIRONMENT
The Technical Schools, which Mr. Carnegie has
endowed to date with four million dollars, and
in which he is especially interested, enjoy one of
the finest locations in all Pittsburgh. They are
PHOTO BY R. W. JOHNSTON
The Cameyie Technical Schools. Showing the School for .-Viiprcntices aiul Jonrne.\ni.'iii
and the .School of Applied De-sij^ii.
ments for visitors, throwing open for inspection,
with guides, the many interesting departments of
the institution. Opportunities will be given to
witness in operation everything pertaining to a
model technical university. The two thousand
students can be seen at work in clnss-room,
laboratorj', shop, forge and foundry, and the
nature of their tasks will vary from the young
man making some delicate electrical test to the
young woman being trained in the household
arts. In one room a class will be engaged in the
clay modeling of architectural details; in another
situated on high land in Schenley Park, a beauti-
ful and diversified stretch of 420 acres, compar-
able to Central Park, in New York, and Fair-
mount Park, in Philadelphia. Being geogTaphic-
ally central, thej' are readily accessible from both
the residential and the business section.s. With
a world-wide reputation as the greatest of indus-
trial centers, Pittsburgh furnislics an ideal en-
vironment for such an institution. Her people
and activities are in accord with its aims, her
commercial prestige appeals to the imagination
of those seeking an industrial education, and her
colossal steel, iron electric and other manufac-
turing plants, to which frequent inspection visits
are made, provide unrivalled opportunities for
acquainting the student with the ^ctual working
conditions of the vocation he is in training to
DESCRIPTION OF THE BUILDINGS
The buildings so far erected and in use are the
School for Apprentices and Journeymen and the
Margaret Morrison Carnegie School for Women.
Two large structures in the group for the School
of Applied Science are practically completed and
"Commons," the social hail, athletic quarters and
other collegiate structures.
THE FOUR SCHOOLS
The Carnegie Technical Schools consist cf four
separate schools, the School of Applied Science,
the School for Apprentices and Journeymen, the
School of Applied Design and the Margaret Mor-
rison School, in all of which both day and night
courses are given. A student enters whichever
school offers instruction for the particular pro-
fession he has chosen. Detailed information in
regard to this instruction in the different schools,
The Carnegie Technical Schools. The Margaret Morrison Carnegie Technical School for Women.
Photograph by R. W. Johnston
will be ready for occupancy in October of this
year. In the near future the School of Applied
Design, which is temporarily quartered in the
School for Apprentices and Journeymen, as well
as many other buildings, will be erected. The
total floor space now available is about 360,000
square feet, the style of architecture is simple,
dignified and essentially serviceable, while the
construction throughout is absolutely fireproof
and in accordance with the most modern practice.
The schools to date have cost approximately $2,-
500,000, and at the present stage of their growth
are about one-sixth of their eventual size; on
completion an imposing educational institution
will be the result, with a terraced campus in the
center, surrounded by the different schools,
dormitories, the administration building, the
and also in regard to tuition fees and living ex-
penses, is given in the catalogue, a copy of which
may be secured by writing to the Secretary.
The School of Applied Science, which, with en-
larged equipment and increased corps of instruc-
tors will be established in its new buildings this
fall, is for the training of students who wish to
become chemists, civil, electrical, mechanical,
metallurgical or mining engineers.
The School for Apprentices and Journeymen
furnishes an industrial or trade education; its in-
struction is designed to prepare mechanics for
more advanced positions in their chosen lines.
The courses in this school are grouped under
four main heads — mechanical drafting, station-
ary engineering, machinery trades and building
trades. The advantage of being a skilled me-
chanic over an unskilled one is convincingly
shown by some recent statistics compiled by the
United States Bureau of Commerce and Labor.
They bring out the fact that in the building
trades unskilled labor earns on an average of
$10.45 per week, while skilled labor earns $22.37.
In the machinery trades it is the difference be-
The Carnegie Technical .Schools. Two new buildings
in the group for the School of .Applied Science.
To be ready in October.
Photograph b.v S. I. Haa.s.
tween $9.69 a week and $17.70. It will thus be
seen that to be a skilled artisan in these days of
industrial opportunities, is to receive consider-
ably higher wages than those paid to clerks,
bookkeepers, stenograpliers, etc.
In the School of Applied Design the two
courses offered at the present time are those in
architecture and interior decoration. In tlie last
national competition of the Beaux Arts Society
of New York 49 out of the 55 drawings submitted
by Carnegie Tech students received honorable
mention, two receiving first mentions. Students
in these courses are exceptionally fortunate in
having access to the fine collection of books,
architectural models, and paintings in the Car-
negie Institute. The international exhibitions of
paintings and architectural drawings held at the
Institute offer the student the further unusual ad-
vantage of becoming familiar with the best cur-
rent achievements in his line of work.
A short distance from the School of Applied
Science and the School for Apprentices and
Journeymen, but located so as to become one of
the units in the future quadrangular arrangement
of the buildings, is the ^Margaret Morrison School
for Women, named after Mr. Carnegie's mother.
It is the first of a proposed group to be devoted
to the education and training of women for the
home, wifehood and motherhood, as well as along
technical and industrial lines.
The attention of visitors is especially directed
to the words on the cornice of the entrance court,
which read as follows:
"To make and inspire the home;
To lessen suffering and increase happiness;
To aid mankind in its upward struggles;
To ennoble and adorn life's work, however
These are woman's high prerogatives."
This motto finely expresses the ideals and the
purpose of the Margaret Morrison School. To
develop character, and to train young women to
earn a livelihood in tlie best lines of work whicli
are open to them to-day, are the two primary
aims of the many courses of instruction offered.
The school is completely and attractively pro-
vided not only with the usual class, lecture and
laboratory rooms, but with a gymnasium, studio,
rest and lunch rooms, and a library. The sub-
jects taught are grouped under the four main
heads of household arts, dressmaking, costume
design and secretarial work. Forming sub-di-
visions of these general departments are many
courses for day and night students, among the
most interesting of which are milliner\', interior
decoration, sketching, banking and bookkeeping,
card indexing, social ethics, Englisli, history anil
The students in tliese four schools are placed
under the immediate training of an able faculty
ipv ^''*" .^M
One of the Da>- Classes in the .School of .\pi;licd Science.
Photograph b.v E. H. W. McKee.
of IIS professors, assistant professors and in-
structors, men and women who have had not
only an academic and scientific education, but
also practical experience in the industrial world,
that has made them conversant with the actual
methods that prevail in the modern practice of
THE 1:NI\ ERSITY OF PITTSBURGH
HE UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH ly wvrc nK-n of Iiigli ::l)i:i;y ;uicl IiskIlt- in the
is the legal descendant of the Pitts- iiiunier work of esta]ilishins fdr.oation in Pitts-
burgh Academy, incorporated in 178". Inir;^li. Dr. Ilhick was a miiii-trr in tlu- Rcfornied
In 1819 the Academy was reincor- rrc.-Ii\ li.rian Church. h'ailkr Magnirc was a
porated and the name cliangod to the Western Rimian Catholic and the fomnK-r of St. Paul's
THE UNIVERSITY IN 'Sir.-
The Presidents Hou.se The l"iiiversit>-
Tilt l'ni\(.r>il:. Itiiildinij. 1.S54-1SS2
University of Pennsylvania. In the spring of Catlicdral. Dr. lirucc was nicinhcr of ilic As
1822 the first faculty was inaugurated in the First sociate Reformed Church. ;ind Dr. Swift and Dr
Presbyterian church. The members of this facul- McElroy wrrc Presliytcrians.
The first Board of Trustees included such men way, which also was destroyed by fire in 1849.
as Robert Bruce. William Wilkins, United States In 1854 the University property on Duquesne
Minister to Russia, Walter Forward, at one time way was sold and a lot purchased at the corner
Secretary of the Treasury of the United States; of Ross and Diamond streets, and a building
The Present Buildings of the I'niversity
Science Hall The Main Building
John Scull, Ebenezer Denny, Rev. Joseph Stock- erected which continued to be the home of the
ton and James Allison. University until 1882, when the Allegheny County
The first building of the University was located Court House was burned and the county pur-
at the corner of Third avenue and Cherry alley, chased the University building to be used as the
The Alle^^henj- Observatorj-, Rivcrview I'ark, North Side
and was erected with $12,000 received from the Court House during the erection of the new edi-
Statc. The cut of this building is shown in this fice.
program. The building was burned in 1845. and In 1890 the present buildings, consisting of the
the second building was erected on Duquesne main University building and Science Hall, were
erected on Perrysville avenue on the grounds of
the Allegheny Observatory, which was a part of
the University. These buildings are shown.
In 1S92 the Medical Department was added,
and in 1S95 the Law School and the College of
the campus a magnificent view can be obtained
of Schenley Park and also the splendid East End
In July work was begun on the first building
to be erected on the new campus, the building
School of Mines Buildincr
(First hiiikiint; to be erected on tlie new site)
Pharmacy'. In 1S96 the Dental College was es-
tablished. Thus the institution became a real
university with seven distinct departments. For
a number of years the question of a new location
for the University was considered, and finally in
December, 1907, a site was selected, comprising
for the School of Mines, the cornerstone of which
will be laid on Friday of the Sesqui-Centennial
week. It is hoped that work in the new location
can begin in the fall of 1909.
During the past year the total enrollment in
all departments of the University was 1,158 with
The Proposed Group of Buildings lor the New l'niversit.v
forty-three acres, located in Oakland, the larger
part being a portion of the historic Schenley
Farms. This location is in the midst of the edu-
cational and institutional center of Pittsburgh,
and from the crest of the hill forming a part of
a faculty numbering over 150. The University
with its College and Engineering School and
professional schools offers unexcelled opportuni-
ties to the thousands of young people in Pitts-
burgh and vicinity who wish higher education.
SEPTEMBER 27 TO
Official Programme: Certified to by the Executive
Committee of the Pittsburgh Sesqui-Centennial
COPYRIGHT, 1908, BY EDWARD WHITE ■ ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
SUNDAY MORNING, SEPTEMBER 27: Special services
in all Churches. SUNDAY AFTERNOON: Union religious
meeting in Nixon Theater. SUNDAY EVENING: Union
neighborhood services in many churches.
MONDAY. SEPTEMBER 28, 3 P. M. : Unveiling Tablet, by
Daughters of the American Revolution at Old Block House.
EVENING: Official reception by the Mayor and Councils
at Duquesne Garden.
TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 29: Sesqui^Centennial Day at the
Western Pennsylvania Exposition, the musical programme
including works of Pittsburgh composers.
WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 30: Marine historical
pageant and parade on rivers.
PROGPsAMME CONTINUED ON FOLLOWING PAGE
. . . OFFICIAL PROGRAMME . . .
Certified to by the Executive Committee of the Pittsburgh Sesqui-Centennial
Copyright. 1908. by Edward White. All Rights Reserved
THURSDAY, OCTOBER 1: Greater Pittsburgh Day. His^
torical pageant and commercial, manufaduring and mili-
FRIDAY, OCTOBEK 2 : Laying of cornerstones of Soldiers'
Memorial Hall and University of Pittsburgh building.
SATURDAY, OCTOBER 3: Pvaces at Schenley Oval, and
music, etc., at the parks.
ALL WEEK : Exhibits of Colonial and Revolutionary paint-
ings, books and relics at Carnegie Institute.
WEDNESDAY, NOVEMBER 25— Anniversary Day: Meet-
ing and concert in Exposition building, on sites of Forts
Duquesne and Pitt.
The Independence Day Celebration in the Parks on July Fourth was also under
the auspices of the Sesqui-Centennial Committee.
. . . OFFICIAL PROGRAMME . . .
Certified to by the Executive Committee of the Pittsburgh Sesqui-Centennial
Copyright, 1908, by Edward White. All Rights Reserved
Mayor George W. Guthrie. Chairman
James W. Brown. First lice Chairman
H. J. Heinz. Second Vice Chairman
Mrs. S. A. Ammon. Third I'ice Chairman
John B. Jackson. Treasurer
Burd S. Patterson. Secretary
Allenon. O. H.
Jones. B. F. Ir.
Price. C. B.
English, H. D. W.
Kambach. Geo. J.
Rees, Thos, M.
Babcock. F. R.
Keenan. Thos. J.
Barr, Albert J.
Kelly. A. J,. Jr.
Fkipley. D, C.
Barbour, John B.. Jr.
Frew. W. N.
Kennedy. M. W.
Rook. C. A
Baum. George W.
Garwood. C. H.
Kohne. Chas' C.
Scaife. W. L.
Bigelow. E M.
Graham. Chas. J.
Lambing, Rev. A. A.
Shepherd. A. B.
Black. D. P.
Guffey. J. M.
Lang E. 1.
Shiras, W. K.
Blanchard. C. A.
Lewin. Dr. Adolph
Smith, A. Y.
Boggs. R. H.
Guthrie. R. W.
Lloyd. D. McK.
Smith, Charles O.
Bonneville. E. E.
Hamilton. Wm. M.
Logan. Geo. B.
SofFel. Jacob. )r.
Bope Col. H. P.
Hamilton. W. T.
Long. S. C.
Stevenson. W. H.
Hamerschlag. Dr. A. A.
Manion. P. A,
Tilley J. Frank
Brashear. John A.
Harding. Miss Julia M.
McCormick. Rev. S. B.
Torrance F. J.
Buchanan. )ames 1.
Hawkins. T. J.
McCook, Willis F.
Walters. Dr. E. R.
Burchfield. A. P.
Hershman, Oliver S.
Ward, R. B.
Cochrane. R. K.
Ireland. A. E.
Moore. A. P.
Wasson, J. C.
Connelly. W. C. Jr.
lamison. S. C.
Oliver. Geo. T.
Weil A. Leo
Davis, W. H.
Jones. W. L.
Penney, John P.
W. H. Stevenson. Chairman Hon. James W. Brown
A. J. Kelly. Jr.. Vice Chairman H. J. Heinz
Burd S. Patterson. Secretary Mrs. S. A. Ammon
Hon. Geo. W. Guthrie John B. Jackson
Cbatvmcn of Sub=Committccs
Gol. J. M. GufFey. Finance
S. C. Long. Railroad and Transportation
W. K. Shiras. Invitation
Dr. S. B. McCormick, Clergy
T. J. Fitzpatrick. Exposition
). W. Beatty. Art Exhibit
). P. McCollum, Music
Major W. H. Davis. Military and Parade
Capt. ]as. A. Henderson, Marine Displa])
T. ). Hawkins, Decorations
H. D. W. English, Greater Pittsburgh Day
A. J. Kelly, Jr., Anniversarv Day
Miss Julia M. Harding, Women's Auxiliary
E. M. Bigelow. Electrical Display^
Wm. N. Frew, Carnegie Institute
John A. Brashear. Tleception
E. E. Bonneville. Hotel
A. B. Shepherd, Independence Day
H. W. Neely, Merchants' Jluxiliary
W. H. Stevenson. Councils
Col. H. P. Bope, Boys' Brigade
C. B. Price, Soldiers' Memorial Hall
Dr. S. B. McCormick. University of Pgh.
George W. Baum, Matinee Races
Certified to by Executive Committee of the Pittsburgh Sesqui-Centennial
^:iJ:4-^:ie:^-->ll^.---^>i i^^;^---^^-^^ ^' ^— C ^■ ^l ^^J;;^;]^ ^^ : '■ n H-'^r-' -V i ,H^:'^0;^:^l:^'^'--eNJx"'-A...
PHOTO BV DeWITT B. LUCAS
COPYRIGHT. 1908, BY EDWARD WHITE
The Financial Canon of Pittsburgh— Fourth Avenue