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Full text of "80 Microcomputing Magazine August 1987"

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MJGUSn 
USARW 
CANADA MSO 
UK £2,50 
A CWCfl PUBUCXnOM 



10 Years 
Of Tandy 
Computing 




Mi(2 LliV Lulled 
\ 

fKtiv L\^LiULLLtil(JLL 

LaiLL VMl 



7447D"65947' 



'^Ordinary 
online 
services 
left me flat..." 



"With GEnie 
I discovered 
vast new 
horiions" 





$10+ per hour 



$5 per hour 



There's only so far you can go with most 
ordinary online information networks. But with 
GEnie— the General Electric Network for 
Information Exchange — there's virtually no end 
to the exciting new interests you can explore. 
Discover the value of GEnie's vast range of 
services and explore new territory with guides 
from our Special Interest Groups. 

Join the friendly crew with GEnie's 
Tandy t RoundTable "' Special Interest 

Group for exciting :ind informative discussions. 
Benefit from the expertise of experienced 
individuals. Compare notes on hardware, 
software, games or any other topic you 
choose. And, for the simple cost of down- 
loading, collect hundreds of valuable public 
domain software programs for your personal 
computer. Over 1000 new programs are added 
to our libraries every month. And remember, 
UPLOADS ARE FREE on GEnie! 

No extra chaise for 1200 Baud. 

Make new friends, schedule meeting, 
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the news, be entertained and even shop online 
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charge, because GEnie's non-prime rate for 300 
or 1200 baud is only 15 an hour, GEnie 
always comes out ahead of the competition in 
savings, in some cases by as much as 60% . 

You get even more for your money. 

In addition to user support groups, you can 
meet new people with GEnie's Live Wire '^" 
CB Simulator. Exchange messages with 
electronic mailstwice. Find the best vacation 



deals and make your reservations with American 
Airlines travel service. Shop at home with 
American Express Merchandise Shop. Leam 
the fiin way with a subscription to Grolier's 
electronic encyclopedia Play classic ;md 



Backed in the GE liradition 

GEnie is brou^t to you by General Electric, 
whose reputation is built on attention to detail 
and customer satisfaction. We're continuing that 
tradition with GEnie. 



Compare 
Save' 


Services 


Frkltig 1 


Stopping 


SIGs/User 
Groups 


CB& 
Mail 


Financial 
Services 


\euis 


Games 


Regi^ation 
Fee 


Monthly 
Minimum 


Non-prime time rates \ 


imbaiut 


1200 bmt 


TheSourci' 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


149.95 


(10.00 


J8.40 


J 10.80 


CompuServe 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


J39.95 


none 


16.00 


112.50 


GEnlct 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


S 18.00 


none 


$5.00 


$$.00 



*Basic rales urui serrices sfoou'n In effecl ^/S". ^Nan-f^tnc time applies Mvn. -Fri., 6pm-Ham itxal time, nii day Stit., Sun. , aisd nal 'i btytitiayi. Subj^td lo 
Sfnitre (ittift^hllity. .AdiiUimuii ^bargift aftpty/nr MOt) tttitaJ unti/iniiHiiatsrt'icet- 

multiplayer games. Use GEnie's Einartcial 
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Sign up from your keyboard today. 
4 Easy Steps: 

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Need help or more information? No modem 
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i-800-63S-9W6. 

t Tciti^y /,f £1 registered trademark of Tandy Corporation 



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I Instant Spelling ChecHer 
and Thesaurus 



CHECKS YOUR SPELLING nNIV^49 
AS YOU TYPE. ..and much more! """ ' *^" 



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Whoops Lightning 



Spelling Checker 

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Screen Proofing 
Disk File Proofing 
Word Count 
Add. Word Limit 
Correction Feature 
Displays Dictionary 
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Safe Exit 

One Step Installation 
Copy Protected 
Thesaurus 
No. Lookup words 
Min. Disk Space 

Price 



Fmi/M' PiMi\tmi;C(irp.. PC-H rih- ™Qim-k\til'i. 
I PC ■•f IflM. \illiiiiii\ Ji" ('•viiMiipiii Siilhuiif . hit . 



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Dictionarv 


• 


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No 


50.000 


80.000 


15.000 


300 


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No 


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No 


No 


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5.000 


39K 


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Makes proofing easy 

in addition to an on-line thesaurus. Whoops 
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processing program, proofing each word as 
you type .so you can always be confident 
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LeScript™. PC- Write™. Microsoft® Word, 
or any of dozens of other word processing, 
or spread sheet programs, you'll find that 
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Acclaimed! 

"Given the sophi.siication of this program, 
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PC Mmr.iiie 2/24/87 
"delivers its full potential superbly." 

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Lestript (TRS-DOS) S129.9S 89.99 

Whoops (MS/DOS) a 6 9.9 ^ 49.95 



Circle 245 on Reader Sen/lce card. 
*)nimdmior\ Pike. 
Pikes atxid thiu 9IH7. Add $5 S&H. 

CALL NOW TOLL FREE 

1-800-343-2432 

(In CA, call 415-528-7002) 
Software Sales, P.O.Box 5028 
Walnut Creek, CA 94596 



irr 



• INTEGRATES into i 1 dilfereiit word 
processing programs inct,: Wordsiar. 
Allwrite, Lescript, Siiperscripstt, 
Scripsit. Deskmate. La/y Wrin-r. ;iik1 
Electric Pencil (specify). Begins 
proofing at the stroke of a key: where 
possible, returns you to word 
processing w/ corrected text on screen. 

• DISPLAYS CORRECT SPELUNGS: 

If you don't know the correct spelling, 
EW will look it up for you, and display 
the dictionary. 

' VERIFIES CORRECTIONS: If you 

think you know the correct apelling of 
a word, EW will check it for you before 
making the corrections 

• HYPHENATES AUTOMATICALLYi 

(Optional). Inserts discretionary hy- 
phens throughout text. 

• GRAMMAR* STYLE CHECKER: 

(Optional), Identifies 22 types of mm-, 
mon errora. Makes suggested cor- (^ 
rections with the stroke of a key. i_ 
Runs within EW, 

• 50,000 WORD DICTIONARY: Uses 
only 2 'A bytes per word; add as many 
words as you wish, 

• FAST CORRECTING: In a.s little as 
30 seconds, Electric Webster can return 
you to your Word Processing program, 
with your text fijlly corrected and on 
your screen. 



Still #1 



"Etectnc Webster, a fantasije spelling and 
eriinimar checker!" HO Miviu 4/85 



I I 



I 



gectric 
Webster 

SPEUINGCHECKER 



ACCLAIMED: 

"Electric Webster is the best. Just read 
any review in any magazine and 1 don't 
believe that you will find even one dis- 
agreement to that statement." CINTUG, 
Cincinnati's Users Group Mag., 4/83 

"Now there's a program called Electric 
Webster that would let me write to 
Presidents and Kings and never feel em- 
barrassed. Miss Mulberry would give 
Electric Webster an A-t-, and so will you." 
Computer User, 1/84 

"The most helpful program I've found is 
Electric Webster. After looking at nine 
proofreading programs, I've settled on 
Webster . . "Creative Computing, 11/83 



"The Cadillac" 

of spell ing checkers 
80 Microcomputing, 9/82 

VOTED #1; For the second straight year, 
Electric Webster was voted the #1 spel- 
ling checker in the 80 Micro Reader's 
Choice Awards. (1/83, 1/84) 



• ^9.^ 



r i l 4 9.')ft" 



119.9? 

S -W.' » . S .'^9.95 
s, ■ < ¥')m .19.95 
534*8*- 179.95 



Special Prices! 

TRS-80 Electric Webster %-mS^ 

w/Co rrect i nu Feat urc 

Hyphenation 

Grammar & .Slvle 

THE WORKS 
M.S,'T)OS or CPA1 Electric Wchsier 

w,/Corrccl!fig. Hyph.. G.&S. SI 29.95 
i:iEMO lor any of Above S5.00 

Prices good thru 9/87, so order now! 

Circle 45 on Reader Sefvice card. 

Cornucopia Software, Inc. 

(415) 524-8098 

Box 6111, Albany, CA 94706 

Th)s. djctionnry iic^l frubMsbol "by the origirul publiihen of 
Websier'i DicUamfy « thcif ncccuon. 



I^^B 



Circle 361 on Reader Service card, 



Refined over 
10 years. 
Priced under $5a 

Electric PencU PC 
All the word 
processing 
power you 
could want. 

The first word processing program is still the best. Elec- 
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beginners waste no time getting started. 

And no wonder With our "Quick Start Guide" you can be 
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a simple keystroke you can activate any of 500 functions. Have a 
question? The on-screen help and extensive tutorial windows are 
there like a good friend with a manual. 

Sure you can pay more for a word processing program. A lot 
more. But why not get all the features you want and save your 
money. When you put the "pencil" to it, it makes good sense! 









'VC 



% 



%% 



•(0/ 



"^«. 




'<SL 



*> 



49 



95 



• On screen underiining & iKrfd with monochrome {colors on color monitor) ■ Set 
screen, text, underlined, bold & marker colors • AH prompts in Englisk • Recover 
last delete • Definable function keys • All "wordprocessing keys" are osed ■ De- 
signed especially for the IBM PC & compatibles 
• Definable screen width • Embedded printer 
control commands ■ Automatic character 
translation • Chain disk files when 
printing ■ Include files from disk 
witliin text • Centering • E^ge 
numbering • Ntin-prlnting 
remark in text • Print 
any part of text or 
range of pages 
■ Over 80 individual 
on line help win- 
dows • Toggle be- 
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alternate text files • ASCII 
file save/load ■ "Pause" command in text • Single word spell check • Customize 
dictionary • .luto-learn & correct misspellings • Build "specific" dictionaries 
■ Auto liyphenation • Dvorak, French, German & Spanish keyboard drivers • Auto- 
matic nie backup • Huns on floppy or hard disk • Keyboard macros ■ Disk-based 
macros ■ Simple 1 or 2 key command structure • Multiple search & replace func- 
tions • User timed auto- file save • 270 page 2 color manual • Split screens (up 
to 6) - Right justification 




yh" disk available.' 

25flOO VWjrd Medical Dictionary Optional 119.95. 

Please add S 5.1X1 for shipping and handling inside U.S. 

axis welcome. Please add an additional Ji.OO COT fee. 

Oil all foreign orders, shipping cost is assumed by the buyer. 

So foreign checks accepted. 



PRINT PREVIEW TO SCREEN 



B' FUUY MENU DRIVEN 

[3 100,000 WORD DICTIONARY 

EXTENSIVE ON SCREEN 

TUTORIAL WINDOWS 
H' NOT COPY PROTECTED 
H' WORKS WITH ANY PRINTER 
S' MUm-LINE HEADERS & 

FOOTERS 
S' RE-DEFINE ENTIRE KEYBOARD 



MONEY BACK GUARANTEE 

Ekctrit Pcndl PC \% uncondiiLDnallv jiuaran[eed 
for 30 days (tess shipping)^ There Js a *I0 re- 
:S(Od[lng lee if [he disk envekipe s^t is brtiken. 



F^^r Itxas orders or vlditiui^al inri:>rmaii>Dn 

Call (2l4) 234-8466. M^l tn \vur urder c^xlay 

or, for immediate shipment, 

CALL TOLL FREE 



DEALER INQUIRIES WELCOME 1-800-445-9004 



MINIMUM HABDWABESEtJOIBEMENTS: IBM-PCTiT/AT or oompati. 
bles and Undy 100o;iMOy.WOe, IJSK memory, one disk drive. 
K-DO.?, MS- bos J.O or hi^er. Color or niCNnothrome monilor. 

MS-DOS is a uadi-nwli ol -VllcroSofl Corp lUM and PC-DOS 2 
art re^slered trademarks i>no[rrnailona] Business Mactiine Corp. 
Tirvdy is a riRis[ertd tr^emark of The Handy Corp. Etectric Pencil 
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WINNEH OF 

THE GOLD MEDAL 

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ELECTHIC SOFTWARE CORPORATION 
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circle 204 on Reader Service card. 



P 



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H 



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AS Public Domain Disks I to 19. ta 9.9S 

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6/LDOS 79.95 

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Baseball Statistics 39.95 

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Courseware disk for above 16.50 

Student Schedule Data Base III 49.95 

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Test Generator/ Drill 111 34,95 

Test Question Data Bank IM/MS 49.95 

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The Basic Checkbook I/IIl 39.95 

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MOD 4 ^W 
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A complete re-write of the Mod 4 

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MSDOS 
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Electric Pencil PC 49.9! 

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1 Dir 79.95 

PC Tools (Great Utilities) 49.95 

PFS Isl choice (Includes File, 

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PFS Graph 99.95 

PFS Professional File 

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Printworks . . . , , , 59.95 

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RBasc 5000 (System V) 389.9} 

RefleJl 129.95 

Sargon 111 34.9! 

SideKick (non-protected) 69.95 

Sideways ....,,, , , 54.95 

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Superkey 39.95 

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The Print Shop 49.93 

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The Twin (1-2-3 Qone) 79.95 

Traveling SideKick 69.95 

Typing Tutor 111 (Simon & Schuster) 34,95 

Websters New World Spelling 

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Websters New Worid Thesaurus 59.95 

Word Perfect 4.2 299.9} 

Volkswiiter Delux 149.95 



BOOKS, ■■ 
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ABPC a Kids Guide to the IBM PC 7.95 

Annotated Basic Vol 1 or 2 3.00 

Comp. Communications Tech 10.95 

Diskettes DSDD 10 in Plastic Bl 9.95 

Electronically Speaking 9.95 

Green Screens I/II/1II/4/4P 16,95 

IBM PC for Kids S to 80 10.95 

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Rom Routines Documented I/1II/4 19,95 

Sentinel Color Disks in Plastic Bi 14.95 

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Using SuperUtihty 15,00 

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Call Tor addiiiortal details 




Tl 

kCount 

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CS MEH COMPETITIVE PRICES 



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CALL 214-680-8268 OPEN MON.-FRI. 10-7 CST 

Mail D riders, send cash, check, or money order. Please add 13.00 for UPS 
Shipping or SS.OO for US Postage & Insurance COD's send an additional 
$3.00 COD fee. All COD'S will require casti or cashier's check upon delivery 
Rjreign orders are welcome. All shipping charges assumed by purchaser. 
Whe n ordering by mail, f^ease specify computer and model number. 

I and ^B^ Cheerfully 
.Accepted. 



SALE 



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Index all of your diskettes and disk nics 
with SUPERDIRECTORY. This unique 
program will read ail of your disk files, 
getierate 3 master library sorted by file 
name or extension along witti the appro- 



SALE 

$39.95 



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THE TRS-80 GRAB BAG 

Jf you own a TRS^ (Mod l/lll)^ and you aic a 
chaiKf taker, or a gambtcr ami LOVE surprbes, 
our GRAB BAG may be jusi foryou. Send usjusi 
19.93. aJong with our standard S3 .00 shipping, 
and we will comb the far reaches of our ware- 
house. We will ship you a surprise pacliage worth 
more than S200.00. It may be compojler books> 
djik programs, tape pro-ams ^ other goodies or 
aswrtments of all. Programs wiU be BUKJanteed 
to run and reptaced if they don' i . Some itenu may 
beoW, some current, , , .that's the surprise. 
Refunds or exchanges art not allowed but we 
know thai you wonH be disappointed. 



Send for Our New 

Catalog 

TRS-80 & MS-DOS 

Software 



Lii^lUlt) ^UOUii rWTduoi ^aiviue^«)Ui 



Do you have a new MS-DOS^" computer or PC 
compatible? And do you have a LOT of data 
from your TRS-80™ (word processing, spread- 
sheet, database, etc.) that you'd like to l(eep using 
with MS-DOS, without having to re-type? 
How about BASIC programs you've written that 
you'd lilfe to keep using? Or DeskMate^^ files? 

Pssst. Over here. You are not alone. 
We can help you. It's easy with... 
TRSCROSS™ 2.0 

TRSCROSS runs in your PC or compatible, yet directly reads 

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Everything is done in ONE STEP! Easy and fast 

SCRIPSIF^ and SuperSCRIPSIT^ files are NO problem! 

Exclusive! TRSCROSS converts SuperSCRIPSIT^*' files to 
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New Version 2.0 TRSCROSS supports RFT/DCA 
conversions, leaving special formatting intact! 



* ^ ^ ^ 



FOUR STAR review in the 2/87 80-MICRO! 
Glowing review in tire 1/87 COMPUTER SHOPPER! 

TRSCROSS now supports copying from high-capacity drives 

(1.2MB), even more improved BASIC conversion and 

LS-DOS 6,3 and LDOS 5.3 are fully supported. If you have 

any questions, please write or call. - Only $89.95. 

We have hundreds of letters/comments on-flle complimenting us on the ease of 

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TRSCROSS cannot convert machine language (/CMD) - nor can any other conversion product. 



SUPER UTILITY/PC^" is another of our products that you might like to have for 
your rwlS-DOS computer (combo-special with TRSCROSS at only $49.95*). It allows 
you to restore deleted files, modify files or sectors, search for data, change 
file/directory/volume names and attributes, and more. This powerful utility is not 
protected, and runs from floppy or hard disk. Supports most PC's and compatibles. 
Including the TANDY 2000, Normally SU/PC^" sells for $89.95, but if 
you buy It at the SAME TIME as TRSCROSS*, it's only $49.9St 



Other PC/MS-DOS software we endorse, use, and sell: 

Microsoft Word $325, WordPerfect $369, MulfiMate $359, Smartcom II $99, 
Lotus 1-2-3 $369, Symphony $519, Framework II $519, Multiplan $139, 
R:BASE System V $519, dBASE III + $519, Reflex $99, PFSProf. File $179, 
Turbo Pascal $69, Microsoft C $329, QuickBASIC $69, MS-Windows $69, 
COPY II PC $29, Fastback $139, SideKick (NCP) $59, SuperKey $49, 
Crosstalk $1 39, Managing/Money $1 39, DoubieDOS $39, Disk Optimizer $39. 



Prices subject to change. Call for latest info. Support is by the manufacturer 
only. Some programs require more than 128KB and more than one drive. Most 
programs require DOS 2.0 or later, and many products do not support the TANDY 2000. 
Opened packages cannot be returned, tulost orders shipped within 24 working 
hours. Texas residents must add sales tax. Orders must be prepaid. Visa/MC OK. 

Save 25% on most items! FREE UPS ground shipping on 
orders over $100! (Otherwise add $5 ground / $10 air.) 



f 




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4 • so Micro, August 1987 



August 1987 




nmcro, 




page so 


P^^^^^^^^J 


^ 


o ^^ ii 


V 


'^1^ 


r 


'^•^^^B 




/ 




«sr 





papfd6 




Features 



33. The "Tandy 1000 SX by Dave Rowell 
Get the poop on the most powerful 1000. 

50. The Tandy Story by Ron White 

Ten years ago. the idea of a "personal" computer seemed 
silly, but not to a few people in Fort Worth. 

52. Where Are They Now? by David Essex 

Find out what past luminaries of the TRS-80 world are 
doing today. 

60. Tandy Trivia 

Can you name all the TRS-80 clones? All the TRS-80 

DOSes? 

66. The Family Tree 

Trace the evolution of every T^ndy computer ever made. 

69. Data to Order by David L. Kuzminski 

Now you can automatically generate dummy data to test 
your own Model 4 or Tkndy lOOO programs. (Disk Series) 

75. Communal Data Entry by William McMuUan 

You'll appreciate this data-entry routine if you use both 
TRSDOS and MS-DOS computers. (Disk Series) 

78. Test Tester by Thomas M. Swatloski 

Perform statistical analyses on test and other data. 

86. A Disassembler for All DOSes by David Goben 

Dissect assembly programs written under nearly any 
Model I/III/4 DOS. (Disk Series) 

SubscrlpUon copies of t^ls Isaue conudn n 9uppl«mffnt from ATD liic.'& Zudtcrboard. 



Departments 


6. 


The 80 Micro Disk Series 44. 


Express Checkouts 


8. 


Side Tracks 

by Eric Maloney 




edited by 

Mark E. Reynolds 

The Investigator 


11. 


Feedback Loop 




Bocaram/XT 




by Mercedes Silver 


48. 


Fixes and Updates 


17. 


Pulse Train 


92. 


The Home Computerist 




by David Essex 




by Michael E. Nadeau 


22. 


Reader Forum 


95. 


John's MS-DOS Coltmin 




edited by Paula Noonan 




by John B. Harrell III 


27. 


Fine Lines 


98. 


Public Works 




by Harry Bee 




by Thomas L. Quindry 


33. 


Reviews 


100. 


How to Use 80 Micro 




edited by 




Program Listings 




Mark E. Reynolds 


101. 


The Next Step 




Tandy 1000 SX 




by Hardin Brothers 




XLRSer Board 
Fractals 


107. 


New Products 




Life Experimenter & 
Super Spiro-Graph 




edited by 

Mark E. Reynolds 




I^galease 


116. 


Input 



page 92 



80 Micro, August 1987 • 5 



The 80 Micro 



(formerly Load 80) 



The 80 Micro Disk Series gathers to- 
gether selected programs from this 
issue of 80 Micro and puts them on a 
magnetic medium for your convenience. 
It is available on disk and runs on the 
Models 1. 111. and 4. 

The 80 Micro Disk Series programs are 
ready to run, and can save you hours of 
time typing In and debugging listings. 
The Disk Series also gives you access to 
assembly-language programs if you don't 
have an editor/assembler. And it helps 
you build a substantial software library. 

Using the Disk Series is simple. If you 
own a Model 1 or 111 disk system, you boot 
The 80 Micro Disk Series disk and trans- 



fer the files to a TRSDOS system disk 
according to simple on-screen direc- 
tions. If you own a Model 4. copy the 
Model 4 programs from the Series disk 
to your TRSDOS 6.x disk using the Copy 
command. 

Not all programs will run on your sys- 
tem. Some Model 111 programs, for in- 
stance, will run on the Model 4 in the 
Model III mode, but not in the Model 4 
mode. You should check the system re- 
quirements box that accompanies the 
article to find out what system configu- 
ration individual programs require. 

If you have any questions about the 
programs, call Keith Johnson at 603- 
924-9471. Yearly disk subscriptions to 
The 80 Micro Disk Series are $149,95. 
Individual loaders are available on disk 
for $17.95. including postage. To place a 
subscription order, or to ask questions 
about your subscription, please call us 
toll free at 1-800-343-0728 between 9 
a.m. and 5 p.m. Or, you can write to The 
80 Micro Disk Series, 80 Elm St,, Peter- 
borough, NH 03458. 



Directory 


Test Home-Brew Programs 


System: Models I/ni/4. 32K RAM. 


Article; Data to Order (p. 69). 


Disassemble any Model 1/111/4 


System: Model 4, 64K RAM, 


assembly listing written under 


Use Fakeout to generate 


nearly any DOS except CP/M, 


dummy data for testing your 


Language: Assembly. 


home-brew programs. 


Filespecs: DISASM/SRC. DIS- 


Language: Basic. 


ASM/CMD. 


Filespec: FAKEOUT/BAS. 






The Next Step 


Multipurpose Data Entry 


Article: LS-DOS. MRAS, Odds. 


Article: Communal Data Entry 


and Ends (p, 101). 


(p. 75), 


System: Model 4, 128K RAM, LS- 


System: Models I1I/4, 32K RAM, 


DOS 6.3, MRAS editor/assembler. 


Set up a data base vrith this 


Understand the LS-DOS 6,3 


common data-entry routine. 


security system, get more out of 


Language: Basic, 


your MRAS, and other odds and 


Filespecs: MDENTRY/BAS, 


ends. 


MDRANDOM/BAS. 


Language: Assembly, 




Filespecs: SERREAD/ASM, SER- 


Analyze Test Scores 


READ/CMD. 


Article: Test Tester (p, 78). 




System: Models I/11I/4, 32K RAM, 


Checksum 


Perform statistical analysis on 


Article: How to Use 80 Micro Pro- 


test and other data. 


gram Listings (p, 100), 


Language: Basic, 


System: Models 1/III/4, 32K 


Filespec: TEETEST/BAS, 


RAM, 




Use our checksum program to 


Disassemble Model I/III/4 


check the accuracy of the Basic 


Assembly Listings 


listings you type in. 


Article: A Disassembler for All 


Language: Basic. 


DOSes[p.86), 


Filespec: CHECKSUM/BAS, 


SRC, ASM = source code, CMD 


= obJecl code. BAS = Basic, 


Edttor/Asembter Is optional when object 


code Is provided, except where noted. 


See page 37 for details on, the quarterly disk series for the Timdy J 000/! 200/3000. 

1 



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Anne Fleming 

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Cover photQ by Larry I>aim 

SOWcm Is a fnam&er o1 CWCofnmninicatlorisJ'Inc. flrcwp, 
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6 • 50 Micro, August 1987 



Circle 141 on Readar Service cant. 




Named No.1 
Choice An Word Processors ! 



Your Need 



Your writing is important to you, 
and it should be. It is an expression of 
who you are. And how your documents 
look when they are read is as important 
as what you have to say. 

When you need a word processor 
that can help you achieve the profession- 
al and sophisticated look that you want 
in your writing, two things are most 
important: 1.) The ability to present 
your ideas on paper in a sharp, crisp, 
and attractive manner, and 2.) The 
ability to accomplish this quickly. 



Theffl 
Solution 



LeScript has the power to handle all 
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Advanced Features 



LeScript's features include Automatic 
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Mail- Merge, Automatic Footnotes, 
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matic Key- Word Search Disk File 
Directories, Programmable Macro 
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to change Font Styles and Sizes, 
Foreign Language Character support, 
over 250 Printers supported, Tandy 
1000/2000 Keyboard support, and 
ability to handle files as large as 1 
megabyte (with optional memory 
expansion). 



80 MICRO Review, November 1985 



The Professional 
Look Is Easy 



Unlike other advanced software 
packages, LeScript is one of the easiest 
you'll ever use. One reason is, LeScript 
displays your text on the screen the 
way it is going to look printed - with 
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footnotes, page numbers, line spacing, 
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the screen the words that are italic, 
boldface, underlined, 
subscripted. A 
feature that is so 
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Also, LeScript's 
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check orders are shipped after check 
clears. 



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The LeScript users 
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LeScript's online help 
screens, self-paced tutor- 
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System requirements - [BM-PC Compatible: One disk drive, 128K memory, color or monochrome monitor, and DOS 2.0 or higher. 
TRS-80 Model 1/3/4/4D/4P: One disk drive and 48K memory. 



SIDE TRACKS / by Eric Maloney 



Ode to the Model I 






Computers are about to be- 
'come a part of everyday Ufe in 
American businesses, schools and 
homes," begins Radio Shack press re- 
lease no. 7741 -A, dated Aug. 3. 1977. 
"The company has just introduced its 
new Radio Shack TRS-80 Microcom- 
puter System. Not a kit. the TRS-80 
comes completely wired and tested, 
ready to plug in and use." 

What was public-relations hyperbole 
10 years ago now seems prophetic. 
While Tandy can't take credit for launch- 
ing the computer industry, it can take 
pride in its role as the maker of the first 
mass-marketed, all-in-one microcom- 
puter system. 

An Original 

Compared to today's high-powered 
68020 and 80386 systems, the Model I 
looks a bit silly. The basic unit included 
a pokey 1.78MHz Z80 CPU, a 53-key 
keyboard, 4K of RAM expandable to 
16K, and cassette storage. It came with 
Level I Baste, which had such features as 
two string variables (AS and B$) and 
shorthand dialect (P for Print, REA for 
Read). Yet to come were such advanced 
statements as DIM. DEFINT. Else. In- 
key$. LList, LPrint, Print Using, Peek, 
and Poke, 

The Model I had all sorts of quirks and 
drawbacks, particularly if you went the 
whole nine yards and added an Expan- 
sion Interface and disk drives. If you 
could get past the spontaneous reboots, 
the keybounce would get you. and if 
not that then the bugs in TRSDOS 2,3. 
TRS-80 owners put up with outrages 
that today would drive a manufacturer 
out of business before it could say 
"upgrade." 

Tandy was remarkably reserved about 
the potential of Its Model I. Indeed, 
as Ron White reveals in this month's 
feature (see "The Tandy Story," p. 50), 
Tandy executives had little Idea of what 
they were getting into. Only a few in the 
Towers saw where the Model I could 
lead. 

"Keep in mind the TRS-80 isn't a pan- 
acea—it's a small computer." warned 
the introduction to its second microcom- 
puter catalog. "Remember, too, that 
you'll need to write programs (our man- 
ual tells you how) or have them prepared 
to suit your specific needs." 




But while the Model I lacked sophisti- 
cation, its owners were blessed with an 
abundance of creativity and persistence. 
No one had any real expectations of what 
the computer should do, so users bliss- 
fully went about stretching the technol- 
ogy to [and sometimes beyond) its limits. 
New and better DOSes, doubled-sided 
drives, CP/M capability, new Basic com- 
mands, utilities, more RAM, higher res- 
olution, and even color were some of the 
features that hackers granted the I and 
its successor, the Model III. While a few 
of these enhancements came from in- 
dustrious third-party developers who 
eventually made a living selling their 
products, most were labors of love by in- 
dividuals working in their basements 
and dens. 

Survival and Success 

I've written several times in this column 
about the excitement and camaraderie 
the TRS-80 community shared. I some- 
times wonder whether Tandy fully appre- 
ciates the loyalty TRS-80 owners felt 
toward its machines and the Shack, or 
whether it completely understands how 
vital that loyalty was to Tandy's ultimate 
survival and success, A celebration of 
the TRS-80 is really a celebration of that 
loyalty, because without it Tkndy would 
never have made it into the late 80s, 

But on the other side of the fence, I 
don't know whether TRS-80 owners give 
Tandy enough credit for its role as man- 
ufacturer. Although company officials 
had doubts about whether a microcom- 
puter could sell, they were ultimately 
willing to give it a try. When the time 



came to overhaul and refine the Models 
1 and III, the company added many 
features that its customers demanded. 
The Model 4 offered a superior DOS, 
more memory, a better display, and a 
faster CPU. yet Tandy also provided an 
upgrade path by Including a Model 111 
mode. 

Tandy users (including me) often 
mumble and complain about Tandy's 
seeming lack of concern for its estab- 
lished user base. I regularly get letters 
from TRSDOS users who. feeling aban- 
doned, have discarded their TRS-80s for 
PCs. Amigas, and Macintoshes (1 have yet 
to run across anyone who dumped his 
TRS-80 for an Apple, which I suppose is a 
moral victory of sorts). We sometimes for- 
get that of all the microcomputers avail- 
able in the late 70s, only two have 
survived: the Apple and the TRS-80. At 
a time when each year brings a new and 
superior technology to the market, this 
is a remarkable achievement 

Tandy could have easily and justifi- 
ably dumped the 4 several years ago 
without significantly affecting its bottom 
line. Yet even though the Model 4D is in 
its twilight. T^dy continues to sell and 
support the computer. 

In the Long Run 

If you're a new owner of a Tandy MS- 
DOS machine, you might wonder what 
importance the story of the TRS-80 has 
to you. Practically speaking, the answer 
is "none"— the history and fate of the 
TRS-80 have no relevance to your cur- 
rent computing needs. 

But the longevity of the TRS-SO is a 
statement to you of what you can expect 
from l^ndy when your own system be- 
comes old and gray. Computer vendors 
will come and go, technologies will suc- 
ceed one another like heavyweight title- 
holders, yet you can be confident that 
Tindy will be around to provide equip- 
ment and service. At this stage of the 
game, only IBM owners can boast a sim- 
ilar security. 

I will confess to you new owners that 
this month's feature is an Indulgence, 
Putting a picture of a Model I on the 
cover of a magazine in 1987 is a bit 
crazy. Call it one last tip of the hat to the 
machine, its users, and its maker. The 
microcomputer Industry would not have 
been the same without them. ■ 



B • SO Micro, August 1987 





ClAlMlElO 



|j ROMAN Niostaillipiiai 
JiOOQBHROIHn Pump Celtic 








Anniversary 

SALE 
Save $30! 



antil 9/1/S7 



Mimnui 





jjmi- jrjjjyjjjf^gri iilNy^ii^iSiLi) T1.AJAM 

Qini @ube5 



■ill Uf E 




Circfe 91 on Reader SbfyIcb card. 



DOTWRITEH printed these on an Epson MX-80. 



See Wliat ITou Can Do With 
DOTWBITER! 



DOTWHITER lets you create spec- 
tacular, eye-catching signs, invi- 
tations, letterheads, large sideways 
banners, catalogs, or even books. It is 
just what you need to turn your dot- 
matrix printer into a versatile typeset- 
ting machine. And it is available for 
your TRS-80 Model 4/4P (yes, in native 
mode), as well as ior the Models I and 
III. 

WHAT IS DOTWRITER? 

DOTWRITER uses the "bit-image" 
graphics of your printer to pro- 
duce the kinds oi stunning results 
shown inside the box. It is a full-func- 
tion text printing program, so you can 
inter-mix different character sets, do 
centering, paragraphs, pagination, 
magnification, draw horizontal and 
vertical lines, reversals (black on 
white), and even print right-justified 
proportional text. 

DOTWRITER includes the printing 
program, complete documentation, 
and fourteen useful typefaces (60 to 90 
characters per typeface). 



To use DOTWRITER, just write your 
text with any popular TRS-80 Word 
Processor (such as ALLWRITE or 




SuperScripsit), add the necessary for- 
matting commands, 
and DOTWRITEH 
will do the rest. 
36 more letter- 
set disks ore 
available separate- 
ly. Each has 3- 
complete typefaces. 
The disks costs less 
than $25 each and 
you may purchase them at any time. 

SIDEWAYS 
SPREADSHEETS 

If your VisiCalc spreadsheets are too 
wide for your printer, our "LONG- 
VIEW" option may be just what you 
need. It is an add-on that turns spread- 
sheets sideways so that DOTWRITER 
can print them down the page instead 
of across. LONGVIEW comes with 
three additional fonts. 

EQUIPMENT 
REQUIREMENTS 

DOTWRITER needs a TRS-SO 1, III, t ot 4P with 2 
di$k drives and 48K of memory. Separate versions 
oi DOTWRITER support EPSON MX-80 with Graf- 
trax, MX- 100 wilh Graftrax-PIus. and FX. JX. RX: 
C.ITOH 8510/lSSO: MICROLINE 84-2/92/93; RADIO 
SHACK DMP 1 IO-210D/CGP-220; GEMINI 10X/15X 
and other STAR printers. 



We printed our samples on an Epson; sizes may 
vary on other printers. Many of the fonts shown 
above are available at extra cost. 

Send ior free print samples! We've 
only shown you a few of the 240 
DOTWRITER fonts. For the best in TRS- 
80 graphics printing, we suggest you 
order DOTWRITER today. 



Please specify Printer and 
Computer when ordering. 

DOTWRITER $69.95 .SSSt^S 

LONGVIEW 29.95 

Additional Letter set 

disks (3- 12 fonts /disk) 24.95 

3 for 43.95 

FREE bonus disk with two 
Banner fonts when you order 
DOTWRITER! 



ORDEB HOWl 

(818) 764-3131 



m 



Depl. C, Box 560, No. Hollywood, CA 91G03 
|Bie| 7G4-3131 Inlormatlon and Same-Day Pnicossing 

TERMS: VISA, MC. checfes. COD. Please add S3.00 
shipping in U.S. ot Caitoda, Seles tciit in 
CA. Mast orders ! I lied within one day. 



Circle 1B on Reader Service card. 



From Computer Plus to YOU . . . 
PLUS after PLUS after PLUS 



Tandy 200 24K S649 
Tandy 600 32K $1269 
Tandy 102 32K S395 



m-^ 



*\ 



Tandy 3000 S1599 
Tandy 3000 HD S2499 
Tandy 3000 HL S1229 



Tandy 1000 EX S479 
Tandy 1000 SX S759 



DMP-130 S269 



Color Computer 3 
W/128K Ext. Basic $159 



BIG SAVINGS ON A FULL COMPLEMENT OF RADIO SHACK COMPUTER PRODUCTS 



COMPUTERS 

Tandy 1000 EX 1 Drive 256K 479.00 

Tandy 100 SX 1 Drive 3e4K 679.00 

Tandy 1000 SX 2 Drive 384K 759.00 

Tandy 3000 HL 1 Drive 51 2K 1229.00 

Tandy 3000 1 Drive 512K 1599.00 

Tandy 3000 HD 40 Meg. 640K 3179,00 

Modei 1VD 64K v^ilh Deskmate 889.00 
PRINTERS 

Radio Shack DMP-106 80 CPS 160.00 

Radio Shack DMP-130 100 CPS 269.00 

Radio Shack DMP-430 180 CPS 559.00 
Radio Shack DWP-230 DaisyWheeiSIO.OO 
Silver Reed EXP-420 Daisy Wheei 239.00 

Star Micronics NX-10 100 CPS 169.00 

Star Micronics NX-10 120 CPS 199.00 

Star Micronics t^X-15 120 CPS 369.00 

Panasonic P-1080i 120 CPS 215,00 

Panasonic P-10911 160 CPS 286,00 

Panasonic P-1092i 240 CPS 359,00 

Okidota 292 200 CPS 559,00 

Okiaata 192 + 200 CPS 366,00 

Okidata 182 120 CPS 269,00 



TAIVOY 1000 ACCESSORIES 

Tandy 1000 Disk Drive Kit 159,00 

Tandy 1000EX 5Vi Ext, Drive 199.00 

Tondv 1000 20 Meg. Hard Card 649.00 

256K Memory Pius Expansion Brd.179.00 

128K Memory Pius Expansion Adp.llO.OO 

PBJ Multi-Function Board (512K) 229,00 

PBJ Mini 9 Pin RS-232 

PBJ Mini IfO (RS-232, Clock. Par.) 

12eK Ram Upgrade Kit 

256K Ram Upgrade [for 1000SX) 

Logitecti RS-232 Serial Mouse 

Plus 1200 Baud Modem Board 

Plus 300 Baud Modem Board 

Practical Peripheral 1200 Modem 149.00 

TANDY MONITORS 

Tandy VM Green Monitor 

Tandy CM-1 1 RGB Color Monitor 

Tandy CM-5 RGB Color Monitor 

Tandy VM-6 TIL Green Monitor 

Tandy BGM-1 Enhanced Monitor 

Tandy Enhanced Graphics Adapt, 

Tandy 1200 Dual Display Adapt. 



69,00 
99,00 
78.00 
69,00 
99.00 
165.00 
85.00 



99,00 
349.00 
249.00 
165.00 
559,00 
259,00 
169,00 



CALL TOLL FREE 
1-800-341-8124 

• LOWEST POSSIBLE PBICES 
' BEST POSSIBLE WARRANTY 

• KNOWLEDGEABLE SALES STAFF 

• TIMELY DELIVERY 

• SHOPPING CONVENIENCE 



Gomi 



P.O. Box 1094 
480 King Street 
Littleton. MA 01460 



"COMPUTER PLUS SPECIALS** 

The PBJ lvlFB-1000 IVIulti-Function Board 
with 51 2K Ram, DMA, RS-232 Serial Port, 
Clock Calendar with Battery Backup, 
and Ram Disk Software 229.00 

The PBJ XRAM Exparided Memory 
Board with 256K Ram, Upgradable to 
2 Megabytes of Additional Memory, 
EMS Compolible, with Ram Disk 
Software 249,00 

Tandy 1000 20 Megabyte Internal Hard 
Drive Kit with Controller, Cables and 
Mounting Hardware 449.00 

**FREE SOFTWARE BONUS** 

Order the PBJ MFB-1000 with 51 2K or the 
PBJ XRAM Board and receive the 
Leading Edge Word Processor with the 
Spell Checker a 3199.00 Value at NO 
CHARGEM 

Prices are subject to change without 
notice. Pieose call for shipping charges. 
Prices in our retail store may be higher. 
Send for complete catalog. 



lus 



SINCE 1973 



IN MASSACHUSETTS CALL (617) 486-3193 



IRS-80 is a registered trademark of Tandy Corp, 



FEEDBACK LOOP / by Mercedes Silver 



Send your questions or problems 
dealing with any area of Tandy/Radio 
Shack microcomputing to Feedback 
Loop. 80 Micro, SO Elm St.. Psterbor- 
ough. NH 03458. Please include a self- 
addressed, stamped envelope and day- 
time phone number. 

Not Very Funny 

Q. I accidentally erased a data disk, 
which contained an inventory of comic 
books, by typing the Delete command. I 
lost months of data on that disk. Even 
though 1 made a printout of the data 
each month. I never made a practice of 
backing up the data disk, and I think I 
learned my lesson. However. 1 did try to 
recover the data by going into MS-DOS. 
I used Debug to try to undelete the data 
disk. I went into the directory and 
changed some numbers in the ASCII 
code section. I only partially succeeded. 
I did recover most of the data, but the 
data contained some garbage, some rec- 
ords were missing, and most of the rec- 
ords* ilelds were out of position. How can 
1 recover the data? (Bruce Scandariato, 
Gretna, LA) 

A. Due to the complexity of unerasing 
data files, a file-recovery utility such as 
the Norton Utilities or PC Tools should 
be an essential part of any software li- 
brary. First, remember not to write to a 
disk on which you want to recover a file. 
The Delete command does not actually 
erase a file, but it alters the first charac- 
ter of the file name and the file-allocation 
table (FAT), thus making the disk space 
used by the file available for future 
writes. To recover the file, you have to 
restore the file directory entry (FDE) in 
the directory and the entire cluster chain 
in the FAT, This fairly complex process 
is explained by John B. Harrell III In 
"Disk Repair 101 " in the March 1987 80 
Micro (p. 42). 

Customer Service 

Q. I have seen references to mailings of 
updates and upgrades for the Color 
Computer and Model I. What do 1 do to 
get these mailings from Tkndy? (Sharon 
Pulsipher. Henderson. NV) 
A. Registered owners can write to Com- 
puter Customer Service, 400 Atrium, 
One Tandy Center. Fort Worth. TX 
76102. If you are not a registered owner, 
you can request to become one. While 
I am on the subject of Tandy, the follow- 
ing phone numbers are for customer ser- 



1 


/ 




1 


i 


tl 




K\ 


\v 


Ai 


y// 


//H.lfiS » <> F i 



vice: 817-338-239n, where "n" is 
for spreadsheets and word processing, 1 
for accounting. 2 for language and oper- 
ating systems, 4 for hardware. 5 for 
Color Computer, laptops, and games, 
and 6 for education. 

No Juice 

Q, Last fall, 1 took advantage of a Radio 
Shack sale on the Digimouse controller 
and clock/calendar board. The battery 
expired six weeks ago. Local Radio 
Shacks have told me that the battery has 
been discontinued without replacement 
or cross-reference. Do you know how I 
can And a replacement battery? (Mike 
Parks. Camp Hill. PA) 
A. You can order the battery (part no. 
ACS.0103) from Radio Shack National 
Parts Division, 900 East Northside Drive, 
Fbrt Worth. TX 76102, 817-870-5662. 

Back to Normal 

Q. I have a Model lil with a DMP 200 
printer. When 1 leave Superscripsit, the 
printer is left in the mode initiated by the 
Open Document options, proportional 
pitch in my case. This is annoying If 
I forget to switch the printer off and on 
again (the only method to reset it. as 
T^ndy told me), and then print, let's say 
a disk directory, in proportional mode. 
As Superscripsit sets the printer to a 
specification at the start, there ought to 
be a way to make Superscripsit reset the 
printer to the selector switches on the 
printer. Do you know a patch to do this? 
(Henry H. Herrdegen. Windsor, Ontario) 
A. The patches below are for Model III 
Superscripsit 1 .3 and also work with ver- 
sion 1.3.1. This set of patches diverts the 
DOS exit to first reset the printer to data- 



processing mode prior to exit. You can 
change this to word -processing mode by 
changing the 13 hexadecimal (hex) 
value In the second line to 14 hex. 

PATCH SCRIPSIT/CMD (ADD = 647C,FiND = 

2D40.CHG=178A) 
PATCH SCRIPSIT/CMD (ADD = 8A17.FIND = 

OOOOOOOO.CHG = 3E 13CD3B) 
PATCH SCRiPSIT/CMD (ADD = 8A1B.FIND = 

OOOOOOOO.CHG =OOC32D40) 

Fbrverston01.02: 

PATCH SCRIPSIXyCMD (ADD = 5735. FIND = 

2D40.CHG = 267D) 
PATCH SCRIPSIT/CMD (ADD = 7D26.FiND = 

00000000 .CHG = 3E13CD3B) 
PATCH SCRIPSIT/CMD (ADD = 7D2A.FIND = 

OOOOOOOO.CHG = OOC32D40) 

More Memory on 
Motlierboard 

Q. I own a T^dy 1200 HD. I want to 
increase memory size, and according to 
your answer to Adam Borln in "Piece- 
meal Memory" in the March Feedback 
Loop (p. 16), I can do it on the mother- 
board. 1 called my local Tandy Repair 
Center, and they said that the 1 200 with 
seven slots is expandable on the moth- 
erboard and the 1200 with five slots ts 
not. Are they cortect? How do I expand 
my memory? Also, why does my screen 
freeze up when I use a memory-resident 
program, such as Sidekick? (John Cole. 
Fremont. CA) 

A, The five-slot Tandy 1 200 HD cannot 
be expanded on the motherboard, the 
seven-slot version can. You can verify 
this by examining the "Product Over- 
view" page near the front of your Tdndy 
1200. an Introduction and Guide book- 
let. It will tell you if you can expand 
memory on the motherboard or not. Ei- 
ther way, the memory section of the 
options chapter outlines the method to 
expand the memory. 

Your freeze-up problem might be due 
to an operating system/ROM conflict. 
The Tandy 1200s using MS-DOS 2. 1 1.4 1 
or later require that the version 3.0 ROM 
be installed on the motherboard, MS- 
EMDS 2.11.41 comes with a small pro- 
gram called Verslon.COM that tells you 
the version number, or you can open the 
case and look in front of the card slots for 
the ROM, a large chip. The version is 
marked on top, usually on a white 
sticker. Another way to determine your 
ROM version is to enter Debug, Typing 
D F0OO:EOOO displays the ROM copy- 



eO Micro, August 198? • 11 



FEEDBACK LOOP 



Program Listing 1 . Program to save a screen to disk and to print It again. See 
p, 100 for information on using checksums, 

1 'MX-BO with GHAFTHAX Plus Screen Dump for Model -4 

2 'M. Silver. AcJapted fcojm Model III pcog* by Donald B. Heckenlively 

3 'incorporate following command into your graphics program. 

A CLEAR, -3B73 '* 737 

5 'Merge this program with your graphics program^ and execute a 

6 'screen dump by a GOSUB 650^0 
64999 'skip if already initialized 

65fl0B IF XXXX THEN 6513B ELSE XXXX-1 '* 2255 

65010 'initialize graphics arrays 

6SB20 DIM XX1(64) ,XX2(64) (XXSie-t) ,XX4(S41 '* 2321 

6503B FOR XX5=1 TO 16:REftD XXX, XXY '• 216S 

65fl4B XXl(XX5)=XXX;XXl(XX5+16)=XXK;XXl(XX5+32)=XXX:XXltXX5+4ei=XXX '• 4342 

65fl5B XX2{XX5) =XXy:XX2(XX5+16) =XX¥;XX2(XX5+32) -XXY;XX2 (XX5+4B)"XXY '* 4351 

6506B NEXT XX5 '• 869 

6507B DATA fl , B , 24B, ,0 , 240 , 240 , 24B , IS ,8 , 255 , , 15 , 248 , 255, 240 '* 2968 

65080 DATA 0,15, 240, 15, 0,255,240,255, 15, 15, 255, 15, 15, 255, 255, 255 '• 3209 

65090 FOR XX5-17 TO 32 ! XX3 (XX5 ) -192jNEXT XX5 '* 2727 

65100 FOR XX5=33 TO 48 : XX4 (XX5) =192 ;NEXT XX5 '* 2725 

65110 FOR XX5=49 TO 64:XX3(XX5J=192:XX4(XX5I=192:NEXT XX5 '• 3543 

65120 'actual screen dump routine 

65130 XX7=PEEK(120)AND 254:POitE 120,XX7;OUT sHe4,XX7 'select screen '* 3144 

65140 LPRINT CHRS118);CHRS(27)''U";CHHS(1) '• 2337 

65150 FOR XX5=0 TO 1919 STEP e0:LPKINT CHRS [ 27 1 "A'CHRS ( 8) ; '« 3405 

65159 'read a video row byte 

65160 FOR XX6=0 TO 7 9:XX7=PEEK(XX6+XX5+iHF800) '* 2832 
65170 IF XX7<32 THEN XX7=32 'convert control codes to a space '• 1618 

65179 'put normal chars 

65180 IF XX7<12B OR XX7>191 THEN LPRINT CHRS (XX7) J iGOTO 65220 '* 3744 
65189 'set up for display of graphics chars 

6519B LPRINT CHRS ( 27) ''K''CHRS (6) ,'CHR$ ( B) ; >* 2280 

65199 'do let half of line 

6520B FOB XXe=l TO 3; LPRINT CHRS (XXI (XX7-127) 1 ;; NEXT XX8 '* 3505 

65210 FOR XXe=l TO 3:LPBINT CHRS(XX2(XX7-127)) ;:NEXT XX8 '* 3507 

65219 'set up for second half 

6522B NEXT XX6 :LPBINT: LPRINT CHBS ( 27) ''A''CHRS (2) j '• 2985 

65229 'pick up row byte again 

6523B FOR XX6=B TO 79: XX7=PEEK {XX6+XXS+SHF800) '* 2B30 

65239 'ignore if not graphic 

6524B IF XX7<12e OR XX7>19: THEN LPRINT" ";:GOT0 65280 '* 3246 

65249 'else process second half of graphics 

65250 LPRINT CHR$(27)''K''CHR$161 ;CBfi5(0) ; '* 2277 
65260 FOR XXB-l TO 3;LPRINT CHRS (XX3 (XX7-127) ); [NEXT XXB '* 3513 
65270 FOR XX8=1 TO 3; LPRINT CHRS (XX4 (XX7-127) ),-; NEXT XXB '• 3515 

65279 'finish linesdo nexttdone 

65280 NEXT XX6: LPRINT; NEXT XXSjLPRIMT CHRS(27)"g'' '* 31B1 

65289 'disable screen £ exit 

65290 XX7=PEEK(120)OR 1 ; POKE 12B,XX7!OUT (HB4,XX7 : RETURN '* 3533 



Program Listing 2. Model 4 graphics 


screen-dump program for the Epson. 


1 CLEAR, -3073!CLS 


2 FOR J-1 to 8 


6 FOR K=33 TO 200:PBIHT CHR$(K); 


7 NEXT K;NEXT J 


12 OPEN ''0'',1,*GRAF'' 


20 POKE 128,PEEK(12a) AND 254 


30 FOR K=0 TO 1919 


40 A-PEEi[[K+iHF800) 


5B PRINTtl, Aj";"f:NEXT KiCLOSE 


100 POKE 120,PEEK(12B) OR 1 


110 CLSlOPEN ■I-,1,-GRAF" 


125 IF EOF(l) THEN CLOSE i END 


130 INPUTtl,A:PRINT CHHS(A)! 


140 GOTO 125 


End 



right and version. Before I had my ROM 
changed, my computer would freeze up 
when using several application pro- 
grams, especially any with windows. 
The ROM change is about $35. If you are 
using the old ROM. be sure you have 
ANSI.DRV installed in Config.SYS. 

Charts in Hand 

Q. I am looking for a graphics screen- 
dump program for my Model 4 using an 
Epson printer. The graphics are stock 
charts constructed with "Upgraded 
Graphics" by Alan D. Smith in the Au- 



gust 1985 80 Micro (p. 76). 1 am also 
looking for a program to save the screen 
print of the charts. (A.M. Shackeroff, 
Houston, TX) 

A. You basically need to peek at the 
Model 4 screen for the byte values for 
each of the 1 ,920 screen locations. In Ba- 
sic, initialize your program with CLEAR, 
- 3073 to protect the upper-memory 
screen area from Basic. Begin your Peek 
section with: POKE 120.PEEK(120) AND 
254. End the section with: POKE 120, 
PEEK(120)OR1. 

Refer to "The Direct Approach" by 
Seth Monger in the September 1984 80 
Micro (p. 96) for more Information on 
this port configuration. Between these 
two statements use A = PEEK(X + &HF- 
800) where X is a value from zero to 
1919 (screen location). The returned 
ASCII value of the location will be in 
variable A. Program Listing 1 is a brief 
program to save a screen to disk and to 
print it again. Program Listing 2 is a 
Model 4 graphics screen-dump program 
for the Epson. 

Where Did AH 
My Patches Go? 

Q. Over several years. I have installed 
many patches on my Model 4D (using 



TRSDOS 6.2) to which I have become ac- 
customed. [ recently upgraded from Su- 
perscripsit to Scripsit Pro. and I am now 
using LS-EHDS 6.3. Please give me the 
patches that will: 

• eliminate the delta symbol in Scrip- 
sit Pro, 

• reinstate the Kill command in LS-DOS 
6.3. and 

• eliminate password checking when 
manipulating flies in LS-EHDS 6.3. 

I also need to find a printer driver to 
interface my Brother HR-15 to Scripsit 
Pro. Alps, which supplied my Super- 
scripslt driver, Is not supporting Scripsit 
Pro. (Robert W. Brown, New Albany, PA) 
A. The patches to eliminate the delta 
symbol on Scripsit Pro 1 .00.00 are: 

PATCH SCR/CTL [D13.7D = 18:FI3.7D = 20) 
PATCH SCR/CTL [D I5.C4 = 18:F1 5.C4 = 28) 

Kill does not exist on LS-DOS 6.3. so 
you must replace Remove with Kill. The 
patch is: 

PATCH SYSl/SYS.I-SIDOS (D02.15 = 4B 49 
4C 4C 20 2O;F02. 15 = 52 45 4D 4F 56 45) 

You can disable password checking on 
LS-DOS 6.3 with this patch; 

PATCH SYS2/SYS.LSIDOS ID02.50= 18:F02. 
50 = 28) 

Warning! Some commercial software 
uses the password checking as part of its 
file control. 

For those who have disabled the blink- 
ing cursor under Superscrlpslt and 
would like to do the same for Scripsit 
Pro. use the following patch: 

PATCH SCR/CTL IDIE.AB = 28 FB 00 00 00 
00:F1E.AB = 20 04 IB BA 20 F7) 

A conversion program that changes 
Superscripsit printer drivers into Scrip- 
sit Pro printer drivers has just been de- 
veloped by one of our industrious 
gnomes and Is currently under testing. 
Stay tuned. 

Scripsit Savvy 

Q. I appreciated the question from Don 
Johnson (May 1987 Feedback Loop. p. 
14) and your response about the files 
that make Superscripsit work. It gives 
me a better understanding of how the 
program works. 

Your answer atiout System/CTL storing 
configuration formats makes me wonder 
if Instead of having three or four disks set 
up, each with different user keys and mar- 
gin settings (for different jot>s). whether 
I could have several System/CTL files 
with different names and rename the 
one I want for the purpose at hand? 
Would you give the same information for 
Scripsit Pro as it has different flies? 

Will Electric Webster Spelling 
Checker, along with Its correcting fea- 
ture and grammar and style checker, 
work with Scripsit Pro. and if it will. 



^2* 80 Micro, August 1987 



Circle 17 on Reader Service card. 



The Amazing A'BUSr"^ 




An A- BUS system with two Motherboards 

A-BUS adapMr (IBM) In ronsraund 



Plug into the future 

With the A- BUS you can plug your PC (IBM, Apple, 
TRS-80) into a future o1 exciting new applications in the fields 
of control, monitoring, automation, sensing, rotratics, etc. 

Alpha's modular A- BUS offers a proven method to build your 
"custom" system today. Tomorrow, when you are ready to take 
another step, you will be able to add more functions. This is ideal for 
first time experimenting and teaching. 

A- BUS control can be entirety done in simple BASIC or Pascal, 
and no knowledge of electronics is required! 

An A- BUS system consists of the A- BUS adapter plugged into 
your computer and a cable to connect the Adapter to 1 or 2 A- BUS 
cards. The same cable will also fit an A- BUS Motherboard for 
expansion up to 25 cards in any combination. 

The A-BUS is backed by Alpha's continuing support (our 11th 
year, 50000 customers in over 60 countries). 

The complete set of A-BUS User's Manuals is available for $1 0. 



About the A-BUS: 

• Ad the A-6US cards are very easy to use with any language that can 
read or write to a Port or Memory In BASIC, use INPand OUT (or PEEK and 
POKE with /^ples and Tandy Color Computers) 

• Theyareallcompatib1ewit(iea:tiotherYoucannni!(antJrtiatchupto25 
cards to fit yoiir a ppii cation Card addresses are easily set with jumpers. 

• A-BUS cards are shipped with power supplies (except PD-123) and 
detailed manuals (including schematics and programming examples). 

Relay Card re-i 40: $i 29 

Includes eight industrial relays. (3 amp contacts. SPST) individually 
controlled and latched. 8 LED's show status Easy to use [OUTot POKE in 
BASIC). Cafd address is jumper selectable. 

Reed Relay Card re-i56:$99 

Same features as above, hut uses 8 Reed Relays to switch low level signals 
(20mA max). Use as a channel selector, solid state relay driver, etc. 

Analog Input Card ad-i42:$i2s 

Eight analog inputs, to +5V range can tw expanded to 1 GOV tjy adding a 
resistor 8 bit resolution (20mV}. Conversion time 120us Perfect to 
measure voltage, temperature, light levels, pressure, etc. Very easy to use. 

1 2 Bit A/D Converter an-i46: $139 

This analog to digital converter is accurate to .025%, input range is — 4Vto 
+4V. Resolution; f millivolt. Ttie on t)oard amplifier tMosts signals up to 50 
times to read microvolts. Conversion time is 1 30 ms, ideal for thermocouple, 
strain gauge, etc. 1 channel. (Expand to 8 channels using the RE-1 56 card). 

Digital Input Card in-i41:$59 

Ttie eight inputs are optically isolated, so it's safe and easy to connect any 
"on/off" devices, such as switches, thermostats, alarm loops, etc to your 
computer. To read the eight inputs, simply use BASIC INP (or PEEK), 

24 Line TTL I/O dg-148:S65 

Connect 24 input or output signals (swritches or any TTL device) to your 
computer The card can be set for input, latched output, strobed output, 
strotied input, andrtr bidirectional strobed I/O. Uses the 82 55 A chip. 

Clock witli Alarm cl-i44: $89 

Powerful clock/calendar with: battery backup for Time, Dale and Alarm 
setting [time and date); built in alarm relay, led and buzzer: timing to 1 H 00 
second. Easy to use decimal format. Lithium battery included. 

Touch Tone® Decoder ph-i45:$79 

Each tone is converted into a number which is stored on the board. Simply 
read the number with INP or POKE. Use for remote control protects, etc, 

A-BUS Prototyping Card pr-i52:$i5 

3'A by 4 'A in. with power and ground bus. Fits up to 10 I.C.s 



.1 



■gtfjjjjia 



■— 4|it 



r*..i» 



ST-143 




CL-144 




RE-140 




IN-141 




^^3 W^^t'' 






AO-142 



Smart Stepper Controller sc-i49: $299 

World's finest stepper controller. On board microprocessor controls 4 
motors simultaneously Incredibly, it accepts plain English commands like 
"Move arm 102 inches left" Many complex seguences can be defined as 
"macros" and stored in the on hoard memory For each axis, you can control: 
coordinate (relative or absolute), ramping, speed, step type (half, full, wave), 
scale factor, units, holding power, etc Many inputs; 8 limit & "wait until" 
switches, panic button, etc. On the fly reporting of position, speed, etc. On 
boanl drivers (350mA) for small steppers {MO-1 03). Send for SC-1 49 (Iyer. 
Remote Control Keypad Option RC-1 21 : $49 

To control the 4 motors directly, and "teach" seguences o( motions. 
Power Driver Board Option PD-1 23: $89 

Boost controller drive to 5 amps per phase. For two motors (eight drivers). 
Breakout Board Option BB-122: $19 

For easy connection o( 2 motors. 3 It, cable ends with screw terminal board. 

Stepper Motor Driver st-i43:$79 

stepper motors are the ultimate in motion control. The special package 
(below) includes everything you need to get familiar with them. Each card 
drives two stepper motors (1 2V, bidirectional, 4 phas«. 350m Aper phase). 
Special Package: 2 motors (MO-1 03) + ST-143: PA-181: $99 

Stepper Motors IH0-103:S15or4for$39 

Pancake type, ZVt" dia. 'A" shaft, 7,5°/step, 4 phase bidirectional, 300 
stepysec,12V,36ohm,bipoiar,5o2-intorque.sameasAirpaxK82701-P2, 

Current Developments 

intelligent Voice Synthesiier, 1 4 Bit Analog to Digital converter, 4 Channel 
Digital to Analog converter. Counter Timer, Voice Recognition. 

A'BUS Adapters for: 

IBM PC, XT. AT and compatibles. Uses one short sloi AR-133,.,$69 

Tandy 1 000. 1000 EXS SX, 1 200, 3000. Uses one short slot, AR-1 33.. $69 

Apple II, II+, lie Jses any slot AR-134..,$49 

TRS-80 Model 102. 200 Plugs inio 40 oio "system tjus" AR-136.„$69 

Model 1 00. Use$4p pinsocl<et (Socket Isduplicated onadapter). AR-1 35...$69 

TRS-80 Mod3,4,4D, Fiis 50 din bus. (With hard disk, use Y-cablel AH-132,.,$49 

TRS-80Model4P.lnclodes extra cableL(50pinlKjsistecesse(J) AR-137..S62 

TRS-80 Model I, Plu(s into 40 pin ITO bus w KB or E/l Afl-1 31 ...$39 

Color Computers (Tandy). Fits ROI^ slot, Muitioa*. or v-catde AR-138...S49 

A-BUS Cable (3 ft, so cond.) ca-i63; $24 

Connects the A-BUS adapter to one A-BUS card or to first Motherboard, 
Special cattle for two A-BUS cards: CA-162; $34 

A-BUS Motherboard mb-i20:$99 

Each Motherboard holds five A-BUS cards. A sixth connector allows a 
second Motherboard to be added to the first (with connecting cable CA- 
161 : $1 2), Up to five Mothertwards can be joined this way to a single A- 
BUS adapter. Sturdy aluminum frame and card guides included. 



Add SS.OO per ordflr for shipping. 
Visa, MC, chscks, M.Q. wAkome. 
CT & NY residents add salas tax. 
C.0.0. add S3.00 •Ktra. 
Canada: ghlpplng Is $5 
Overseas add 1 0% 



^^^n ALPHA [PmMim 



■ SiQ'flA inSt/%tIr9S ^tOTtpAfiy 



242- E West Avenue, Darien, CT 06820 



Technical info: (203) 656-1 806 

Kioa^ 800 221-0916 

Connecticut orders; (203) 348-9436 
All lines open weekdays 9 to 5 Eastern lime 



FEEDBACK LOOP 



what is the installation procedure? 

Finally, can input for this column be 
transmitted to SO Micro's BEB instead of 
by mall? (Ben Carpenter. Adrian, MI) 

A. You can have several different Sys- 
tem/CTL files on the same disk as long 
as they all have different names. An- 
other possibility is to place the desired 
System/CTL file on the data disk and not 
on the Superscrlpsit disk. This way par- 
ticular applications requiring one set of 
special keys and codes can be kept on 
the working disk for that application. 

The Scripsit Pro format is more con- 
densed than Superscrlpsit. Like Super- 
scrlpsit, Scripsit Pro contains the Help 
and Error message files, as well as a 
healthy supply of printer drivers, a cou- 
ple of sample text files, and a System/ 
CTL file, which contains the user-de- 
fined keys and printer codes. 

Scrlpsit/CMD is a short program that 
displays a copyright screen, turns off the 
cursor, and executes SCR/CTL, the ac- 
tual main program. SCR/CTL is the 
heart of the system and contains most of 
the immediate editor routines such as 
the keyboard and display drivers and 
cursor movement control. 

SCRO/CTL handles the spelling- 
checker interface. SCR 1 /CTL handles all 
aspects of blocked text control, tab-line 
editing, hyphenation, directory display, 
forms, file handling, windowing, user- 
key programming, printer-code editing, 
global find/replace/delete, and system 
setup. 

If you notice a file called Move/CTL 
suddenly appearing on your disk, this is 
the disk-buffer file used during block 
copies and moves. 

The publisher of Electric Webster, 
Cornucopia Software (P.O. Box 61 11. Al- 
bany. CA 94706. 415-524-8098), will up- 
date your Superscripsit-compatible copy 
for operation with Scripsit Pro for $35, 

You can submit questions via the 80 
Micro BBS, but you will not receive a 
mall reply (it's difficult for people to send 
a self-addressed, stamped envelope on 
the BBS). Also a {personal reply on the 
BBS is not practical as that requires a 
long wait on our end for the BBS to be 
free. Otherwise, you would have to wait 
to see if it appiears in the column — which 
Is at least a three-month delay. 

Mnemonics 

Q. I would like to assemble Intel mne- 
monics on my Model 1. I seem to recall a 
company called Small Systems Software 
that produced the RSM series many 
years ago. and the flrst RSM-1 handled 
Intel Vice Zilog Mnenomics. If you can 
help it would be greatly appreciated— 
perhaps another assembler. (Bryan 
McPhee, Browns Mills, NJ) 



A. If you have, or can get hold of. Radio 
Shack's (Microsoft's) Disk Editor/Assem- 
bler (catalog no. 26-2202}, then you are 
in luck. It sold for $99 but is no longer a 
stock item. The currently available 
Model III and 4 versions of the Fortran 
package (catalog nos. 26-2200 and 26- 
2219. respectively) also contain the 
same macroassembler configured for 
those computers. You can use Intel 8080 
mnemonics by using the -I switch during 
assembly. Most CP/M packages also fea- 
ture an assembler that supports the 
8080 mnemonics. 

READERS RESPOND 

Untended Code 

In July's Feedback Loop, the routine 
given in my answer to Bob Keller's re- 
quest for Information about screen dumps 
for the "mndy 1000 ("Untended Screen 
Dumps") had the + 1 and + 2 reversed in 
line 30. The program should read: 

10 SCPT$ = CHR$(2051 + CHR$(5) + 

CHR$(203) 
20AD = VARPRT(SCPT$) 
30 PR = PEEK(AD + 1) + PEEK(AD + 2)' 256 
40 CALL PR 
50 RETURN 

Sorry about that.— Mercedes Sfluer 

Line Feed and More for 100 

Paul Jaeger of Gary. NC, wrote in re- 
sponse to Noel Parks's need for a line 
feed from his Model 100. He sends the 
program in Listing 3. He can't promise 
that it will work with his Interactive So- 
lutions ROM, but it is certainly worth a 
try. Credit for the program belongs to the 
New York City Lap Users Group, in par- 
ticular George Mueden who tirelessly 
collects little goodies for the Model 100 
and Model 4. 

You can contact the New York City 
Lap Users Group via Sarah Stambler. 
370 Central Park West. Apt. 210. New 
York, NY 10025. The group meets 
monthly, but time and place may vary 
(members are notified). Membership is 
$3 to cover the cost of mailings. Its 
CompuServe ID is 72236,3352. Sarah 
also referred me to Shoestring Publica- 
tions (Box 712, Salem, MA 01970. 617- 
745-7027), which publishes a monthly 



magazine supporting the Model 100/200 
family. Subscription costs only a note 
with your name, address, daytime phone 
number, and list of computer products 
you use. Shoestring also sponsors a large 
user group (over 2000 members}. 

Multiplan to Scripsit 

Robert J. Aubrey of Masse na, lA. takes 
issue with my answer to Ann Miller 
(March 1987) about transferring Multi- 
plan spreadsheets to Scripsit and offers 
a better way. He says, "Saving the work- 
sheet in symbolic format saves each cell 
on a separate line with the cell format- 
ting information, etc. This makes it ex- 
tremely difficult to work with. It also 
takes what seems an interminable 
length of time to save the file. (Loading 
was even worse- 15 minutes fora61- by 
7-cell. mostly empty, file.) A much more 
practical approach is to print the work- 
sheet to a file. This gives you an ASCII 
file to work with, and most word proces- 
sors will have no problem handling it. 
The information will be properly spaced 
across the screen. It will probably still 
need some work, depending on your 
word processor, but not nearly what the 
symbolic file would require." 



HELP WANTED 

^Donal B. Marcus (926 West 1 5th St., 
Laurel, MS 39440) is looking for color rib- 
bons to fit the T^ndy DMP 130 printer. 
►-Ted Seidler (1194 Clinton St.. Aurora. 
CO 80010-3111) is looking for the pro- 
gram APL*80 by Phelps Gates for the 
Model III. 

»- Peter Dutcher (P.O. Box 7, Culver. IN 
4651 1) bought a Micro Illustrator for his 
Tandy lOOOA. He intended to print the 
diagrams on a Color Graphics Printer 
220. lUndy no longer makes the printer, 
and the Micro Illustrator does not give an 
option for another printer. He is looking 
for a way to change the program to work 
on a dot-matrix printer like a DMP 100. 
^Herman A. Winters Jr. (110 Pheasant 
Lane. Willingboro. NJ 08046) is looking 
for Continental Software. In particular 
an updated version of its Model 4 Home 
Accountant program that will allow him 
to run It on LDOS. ■ 



Program Listing 3. Llne-Jeed program for the Model 100. 

e ' addlfc 

1 KEYG, "Menu"+CHH5(13) +CHR?(2S'() +CKH5(13) +CHRS (2''5) +CHRS ( 62 ) + 
CHRSlia)+CHRS(261)-K:HRS(63)+CHRS(ie9)+CHR5(241) 

2 A.64228;IS=CKR?(271+"p":NS=CHRS(27)+"q" 

3 F5-" Off ";P=PEEK(A)+:56*PEEK[A+1) :IFP=6361S THEK FS=" On ' 

4 CLS:PRINT:PFlINT''LiIie Feed "I$FSNS : PRINT:PRINT, " (E) nable" , , 
"(D)iBable^,,"tMJenLi" 

i OM INSTRl''eEdDmM'',INPUTS(l)] GOTO 6 , 6 , 7 , 7 , 8 , 8 :GOTO 5 

6 POKE A,127;POKE A+l,248!GOTO 3 

7 POKE A, 243; POKE At 1,1 27: GOTO 3 

8 MEHU 



14 • 80 Micro, August 1987 



The Texas Connection 

for Tandy Computers. 




1199.00 



Tandy® 1000 SX Computer 

Now your business can have PC compatibility at a fraction of the price! 
Runs virtually all MS-DOS* software at speeds up to fifty percent faster 
than the IBMt PC! Includes MS-DOS 3.2 and DeskMate® II 6-in-l 
software, two 5 W" disk drives, 384K RAM and 5 card slots. #25-1051 
*TM Microsoft Coip. tIBM/TM International Business Machines Corp. Monitor extra 



These prices were effective in January. 

CALL FOR LATEST PRICES! 

*The Texas Connettion members pay just 8% above 

our published wholesale price, plus shipping. All prices 

include a 3% cash discount. Non -certified funds take 

10 working days to clear. All prices subject to change. 

Members pay 8% above wholesale plus shipping. 
Call Toll Free! 1-800-843-0781 

Benefits: 
The Texas Connection's Wholesale Pricelist 
Quarterly Updates 

Advance Notice of Price Changes and New Products 
10 day return on Hardware 
Some Factory Reconditioned/Repaired items 

available at fantastic savings 
Tandy and Non-Tandy products at unheard of 

savings 

Join and Start Saving Today! 

Defective Hardware replaced or repaired at our 
discretion. 

Some items have a manufacturer's warranty. 

Same day processing for fast delivery. We ship daily! 



Cat No. 


Description 

1000SX-2Dr 


Retail 

999.00 


Wholesale * 

585.14 




Computers 
25.1051 




25^70 


3000 HL 


1699.00 


917.17" 




26.6022 


6000 HD 


3499.00 


2478.57* 




Pi-inters 










26-1280 


DMP-130 


349.95 


230.37* 




26.1277 


DMP430 


699.00 


456.87* 




Boards 










Not Tandy 512K Multifunction 299.00 


184.27* 




Not Tandy 512K Memory 


99.00 


60.17* 




Memory 
Not Tandy 256K Chip Set 


99.95 


41.67' 




Monitors 










25-1024 


CM-llRGB 


459.00 


277.73* 




25J011 


VM-5 


149.95 


97.57* 




Disks 










25-1029 


20 Meg Hard Care 


799.00 


532.47* 




254062 


20 Meg HD Kit 


799.00 


430.07* 




Not Tandy 20 Meg Hard Card 599.00 


440.53* 




25-1064 


3'^ Disk Kit 


199.95 


140.87* 




NOT HERE?? CALL! 
WE SELL EVERYTHING TANDY MAKES. 
•Members Pay Wholesale Plus 8% 
"Temporary Wholesale Price. 





Circle 540 on Reader Service card. 



THE TEXAS CONNECTION • MEMBERSHIP APPLICATION 

TO: HTI, a Radio Shack dealer 

724 W. Main, Lewisville, Texas 75067 

YES. Enroll me as a member in the TEXAS CONNECTION™ and send your 
catalog of Tandy computer products I may purchase at just 8% above your normal 
wholesale prices. I will periodically receive newsletters which list special sales, 
factory-reconditioned equipment, and other cost saving specials. 1 am under no 
obligation to buy anything, now or in the future. 

♦Membership 1 Year 2 Years 

( )S8 ( )$15 



Discover 



( ) Check enclosed 
( )Visa 



{ ) American Express 
( } Discover 



{ ) Mastercard 



Account No. 

Name 

Address 

City 

Telephone (_ 



. Expires:. 



_State_ 



_J^pt. 
.Zip 



My Computer (s) Tandy. 
Signature X 



-Other. 



<Riqiired tor niembenUp) 



In Texas, 1-214-221-6404 



TANDY IS DANDY... 



. . . until you want more 




"... the Zuckerboard 
is a high-quality, 
reliable alternative to 
the high prices of 
Tandy's expansion 
memory boards." 



June 1986 Issue 





TANDY 

1000 


Zuckerboard 

Expansion 

Memory 


Tandy \t^ 
Memory Plus 


DMA 


Inc. 


Inc. 


with 256K 


$109 


$319.95 


with 512K 


$149 


$519.90 


Options: 






Ciocit/Caiendar 


$49 


$ 99.95* 


2S6K Upgrade 


$49 


$199.95 


RAM Disk/ 
Print Spooler 


$49 


N/A 


Warranty 


2 Years 


90 Days 

•with mouse 



" ... High Power Low Price. " PCM 

It's another 



UCKIERI^OMRD 




235 Santa Ana Court • Sunnyvale, CA 94089 • (800) 233-6874 (CA) • (800) 222-4920 

Canada South HiTech Inc. • 1 177 Mewmarkec St. • Ottawa. Ontario KIB 3V1 • 613/745-8120 

ZUCKERBOARD is a Trademark of Adranced Transducer Devices, Inc. ■ TANDY 1000 and TANDY 1200 are Trademarks of Radio Shack, a Division ofTandy Corporation, 
AJI pnc^subjeci tacluingc vtiihout notice due lo fluctuations in the ehip market. 



PULSE TRAIN / by David Essex 



The FCC Cracks Down 



At this time last year, Tandy 

was getting ready to unleash its new 
Tandy 1000 SX and EX on the world 
when the Federal Communications 
Commission (FCC) stepped in the 
way. Tandy began taking orders be- 
fore getting FCC approval stating 
that both machines met radio-fre- 
quency interference (RFI) standards. 
The company was forced to delay 
shipping while waiting for certifica- 
tion and lost money in the process. 

The FCC's RFI enforcement efforts 
are more vigorous than ever, al- 
though Tkndy appears to have es- 
caped the agency's wrath for now. 
Not so for some of Fort Worth's com- 
petitors, including the dozens — per- 
haps hundreds— of small firms that 
make and se!l MS-DOS-compatible 
computers. Many of these probably 
garage-based operations fail to get FCC 
approval before selling their products, 
sometimes out of Ignorance of the rules; 
some might be using phony certification 
stickers: others might be lying to cus- 
tomers about their FCC status. 

J.J. Freeman (see Photo 1), national co- 
ordinator of computer markedng enforce- 
ment at the FCC's Virginia Beach, VA, 
field office, said about half of the systems 
do not pass pre-certification tests con- 
ducted at an FCC lab in Columbia, MD. 
Post-grant tests performed on an ad hoc 
basis show a 75-80 percent failure rate. 

According to a 1984 FCC bulletin, RFI 
guidelines were instituted in 1980 in re- 
sponse to repwrts of computer interfer- 
ence with television, telephone, airline, 
and emergency channels. Two classes of 
FCC approval were adopted. The radia- 
tion limits for Class B computers and pe- 
ripherals are intended to protect a T'V 
receiver that is at least 10 meters away 
and on the other side of a wall. Class A 
devices have less-stringent emission 
limits because they are used in busi- 
nesses where interference is less likely 
than in a residential neighborhood. 

Federal law states that all manufactur- 
ers of computers and peripherals must 
send an application to the FCC, with the 
results of radiation tests conducted by 
an approved firm, before offering the 
product to the public. Then they must 
send a complete system to the FCC for 




Photo 1 . J.J. Freeman directs the FCC's 
computer enforcement division. 

pre-grant testing. (Freeman called these 
machines "laboratory queens" and said 
they frequently bear "no resemblance" 
to the product being sold.} If the FCC 
finds that no part of the system emits 
radiation that could interfere with 
nearby devices, it issues a Grant of Equip- 
ment Authorization, and the company 
can sell the product. Sometimes, FCC in- 
vestigators buy a random sample of 
computers on the open market for re- 
testing or because they suspect a system 
no longer meets RFI standards. 

How tough does the FCC get with vio- 
lators? The Wholesale Outlet In Albany, 
NY, found out the hard way last year 
when U.S. marshals seized uncertified 
equipment from the floor of Comdex Fall 
in Las Vegas. Other companies have also 
had their products seized. Early in 1986, 
Freeman slapped an $8,000 fine on PC's 
Limited in Houston, and the company 
had to substitute another manufactur- 
er's machine to fill orders. Subpoenas, 
search warrants, and threatening letters 
are also part of the FCC's arsenal. All 
told, the agency levied $230,000 in fines 
last year, and several are outstanding 
this year. Freeman said. 

TVidy paid a $2,000 fine and lost rev- 
enue during the aforementioned pro- 
ceedings, but the price paid in embar- 
rassment Is immeasurable. As Freeman 
tells it, the FCC had not approved the 
1000s when Tandy began advertising 



the machines anyway. Tandy offi- 
cials said they couldn't stop the mar- 
keting process because promotional 
material was prepared six months 
earlier. The FCC finally granted cer- 
tification after T^ndy agreed to put 
extra shielding in the printer cable. 
In March 1987, Global Computers, 
a mail-order firm, was fined $4,000 
for selling an uncertified PC through 
advertisements in USA Tbday. That 
same month, the FCC had a booth at 
the West Coast Computer Faire in San 
Francisco. Electronics engineer E>an- 
iel V. Bosque said FCC operaUves re- 
corded the numbers on cerUflcation 
labels for verification against a data 
base of approved computers. Several 
merchants selling products without 
stickers were told to display signs 
warning customers that the products 
could not legally be sold. "There are lots 
of questionable units." Bosque said. 

As the FCC representative answered 
questions, the president of a small elec- 
tronics firm, who remains anonymous, 
called the certification process "screwed 
up. . .the most violated regulation in the 
world." He ridiculed as "fiendishly com- 
plex" the pre-applicatlon testing pro- 
cess, especially the requirement to mea- 
sure radio emissions in an open field. 
The expense of this favors large compa- 
nies and penalizes small ones. "There 
are whole product lines we don't even go 
into because of it." he said. 

Freeman wanted to clarify that con- 
sumers can t)e liable for owning and oper- 
ating an uncertified computer. "They can 
be required to stop," he said, adding that 
his office can issue fines and subpoenas. 

If you have a modem, you can check a 
computer's certification status by call- 
ing the FCC's Public Access Link at 301 - 
725-1072, 24 hours a day, seven days a 
week. The system is menu-driven, has 
help functions, and is configured to run 
at 300 or 1.200 baud. There is a five- 
minute limit on calls made between 8 
a.m. and 8 p.m.; after that, the Umit is 
15 minutes. The PAL computer identi- 
fies products by the number on their 
FCC certification stickers. 

The FCC plans to go to Comdex Fall 
again this year, hoping to "educate" 
manufacturers and dealers in the proper 



80 Micro, August 1987 • 17 



PULSE TRAIN 



certification procedure. Don't be sur- 
prised if the agency uses old-fashioned 
teaching methods and makes an example 
of one or two violators. Freeman concedes 
the FCC is understaffed and can't keep 
track of every "Ma and Pa" company, 
but it means business nonetheless. 

Independent consultants have 

established themselves as important 
players in the computer industry. They 
are often the most economical alterna- 
tive for companies that can't afford to 
add full-time technical experts to main- 
tain expensive computer systems. But 
consultants have a new wony. beyond 
finding work and keeping current with 
technology: They are desperately trying 
to defeat a tax law that could put thou- 
sands of them out of business. 

The T^ji Reform Act of 1986 contained 
a provision requiring independent con- 
sultants in certain technieal categories 
to become employees of their brokers or 
of their clients. 

The provision, known as Section 
1706, effectively removed a "safe har- 
bor" for technical consultants that was 
established in a 1978 tax bill. Sen. Dan- 
iel Patrick Moynihan (D-N.Y.) inserted 
Section 1706 after technical service 
firms complained — just as lawmakers 
were looking for ways to raise tax reve- 
nue—that their independent competi- 
tors were getting favorable treatment. 
Computerujorid reported that Moyn!- 
han's action may have also been a quid 
pro quo for Republican concessions dur- 
ing the drafting of the tax act. 

Under the new law, independent con- 
sultants must now answer the "20 Ques- 
tions" that the Internal Revenue Service 
(IRS) uses to determine if a person 
should be treated as an employee of a 
company. 

This could spell financial ruin for most 
consultants, as the companies that hire 
them arc likely to shy away from the In- 
creased costs that accompany full em- 
ployee status. And already, independent 
consultants report that brokers are hir- 
ing them at a much lower salary than 
before. Industry analysts note that the 
allocation of labor within the computer 
Industry has become less flexible and 
thus less efficient. 

Proponents of Section 1706. including 
the National Technical Services Associ- 
ation and ADAPSO, a software and ser- 
vice trade group, argue that the provi- 
sion is aimed at closing a loophole for 
people who function like full-time em- 
ployees while claiming to be indepen- 
dent contractors. 

When independent consultants 
learned of Section 1 706 last November, 
many were outraged, in part because the 
original law called for further study be- 




Photo 2. Zilog's new Z280 chip may 
eventuallij be used in a Mode J 4 
board, 

fore any other changes were made. 
Congressional offices were inundated 
with calls, resulting in three bills that 
might provide relief for consultants who 
are already working under the new law, 
effective Jan. 1. 

One bill introduced by Sen. Alphonse 
D'Amato (R-N.Y.) seeks outright repeal 
of Section 1706 until "Congress can 
study the entire indej>endent contractor 
issue in a calm, deliberate, and dispas- 
sionate manner." 

A second bill by Sen, Dave Durenbur- 
ger (R-Minn.) would delay Implementa- 
tion for two years pending further study, 
and Rep. Judd Gregg (R-N.H.) has a sim- 
ilar bill before the House. 

Much confusion and ill feeling sur- 
rounded Section 1706 as it took effect 
early this year. The confusion was over 
exactly who would be affected. In re- 
sponse to numerous inquiries, the IRS 
issued a Jan. 21 "clarification" stating 
that Section 1706 applies only to sub- 
contractors working through brokers, 
not to independents who contract with 
clients directly. 

But a regional branch of a national bro- 
kers association placed newspaper ads 
stating "clients of computer consultant 
brokers are not adversely affected in any 
way by Section 1706," and some large 
companies were delaying their hiring of 
individual contractors because of the 
uncertainty. 

The ill feeling came when indepen- 
dents accused large technical firms and 
brokers of trying to scare off customers 
with biased interpretations of the law. 
According to Computerutorld, ADAPSO 
issued a statement that called into ques- 
tion the safe-harbor status of indepen- 
dent workers. Meanwhile, an Ohio con- 
sultant threatened to sue large service 
firms that were telling clients that inde- 
pendent consultants had little chance of 
maintaining their status, 

Jeff Sachs, president of the Indepen- 



dent Computer Consultants Association 
(ICCA), said his organization hired a 
Washington lawyer to lobby for repeal of 
Section 1706. 

Sachs said he interprets the IRS clari- 
fication to mean that two-party relation- 
ships are unaffected by the new law, but 
he noted that the industry could be hurt 
as brokers pass on added costs. "The 
ones who are going to be the most af- 
fected are contract programmers who go 
through brokers," he said. The ICCA, 
which has a membership of 2,500 firms 
nationwide, devoted half of its May con- 
vention to Section 1706. 

Should consultants expect any relief 
soon from Congress, which started the 
whole mess? Eventually, said several 
aides to congressmen with bills pending. 
Spokespersons for both D'Amato and 
Gregg said they were waiting for the 
introduction of a technical corrections 
bill to amend the Tax Reform Act of 
1986. Their best guess on when the 
bill might be introduced; late fall at the 
earliest. 



Tandyland 



A multifimction speed-up board for 

the Model 4? In early May, it looked like 
a series of events would come together 
to provide Model 4 owners with some- 
thing new to crow about. 

High Tech Research in Redding, CA, 
announced the Z280 Ultraboard for the 
Kaypro 10 line of CP/M computers. The 
Ultraboard runs at 12 megahertz (MHz) 
and lets you address up to 16 megabytes 
(MB} of RAM. 

It supports multiprocessing, multi- 
tasking, and networking, and it updates 
the screen 25 times faster than the com- 
puter's original board, according to High 
Tech Research. The Ultraboard is based 
on Zilog's new Z280 chip (see Photo 2), 
a recent upgrade of the Z80 chip used In 
early Kaypros and the Model 4. 

Bill Nesting, president of High Tech 
Research, said plans to market an Ultra- 
board for the Model 4 beginning in Au- 
gust were "put on the back burner" after 
lengthy discussions about the technical 
challenges involved. "The main reason 
is that the interface to the Radio Shack 
is dramatically different." Nesting said, 
citing differences in the Model 4's oper- 
ating system and ROM code, among 
other things. "I'm not saying we aren't 
going to do it, but we will not do it this 
year." 

High Tech Research maintains a BBS 
that reports on the company's product de- 
velopment plans. You can call the Radio 
Shack section at 916-243-9358: UART 
settings are 9,600 baud maximum, S-bit 
words, 1 stop bit, no parity. ■ 



18 • 80 Micro, August 1987 



lTM 



SOFTWARE for TRS-80 
MODELS 1, 3, and 4 Only 



TYPITALL Word Processor $69.95 
TYPITALL with Spelling Checker $99.95 

Word Processor upwardly compatible with SCRiPSIT - it 
reads your oid SCRiPSiT files and uses the same formatting 
and cursor movement commands — but it is a completely 
different word processor with many advanced features. 

Send any control or graphic/ special character to the 
printer. Control ond graphic characters are included in the 
text so that you have complete control of your printer. Print 
formatted text on the screen before going to the printer. 
Send tor matted text to a disk file for later printing. Merge 
data from a file during printing. Names, addresses, or other 
text can be inserted during printing - no need for a 
separate program for "mail merge" capabilities. Print while 
editing (spooling). Assign any sequence of keystroices to a 
single control key- Call up to 16 help screens at any time. 
Move cursor forwards or bacl<wards by character, word, line, 
or page. Reenter the program with all text intact if you 
accidentally exit without saving it. Optional spelling checker 
comes with 29,500 word dictionary - verify a 3,500 word 
document in less than two minutes! 

SYSTEM DIAGNOSTIC $69.95 

Complete tests for every component of yourTOS-80 Model 1, 
3, or 4 (separate versions tor each model). 

ROM: checksum test RAM: three tests. Video display: 
character generator, video RAM, video signal. Keyboard: 
every key contact tested. Line printer: character tests. Cassette 
recorder: read, write, verify. Disk drives: disk controller, drive 
select, track seek, read sectors, formatting, read/write/verify 
data with or without erasing, disk drive timer, disk head 
cleaner Single/double density/sides. 1-99 tracks RS-232-C 
interface: connector fault, data transmission, framing, data 
loop, baud rate generator. 

SMART TERMINAL $39.95 

TheintelligenttelecommunlcationsprogramforyourTRS-SO 
Model 1 , 3, or 4, or Model 2 CP/M Memory buffer for sending 
and receiving files. Automatic transmission and reception of 
data. Character translations, true BREAK key, help screens, line 
feed filters, and more. 

TRS-80 MODEL III 
ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE $29.95 

A complete course in assembly language, written for the 
beginner. Contents include: the Z-80 instruction set, ROM and 
RAM, using the Editor/ Assembler, reading, printing, moving 
dota, orithmetic operations, floating-point and BCD num- 
bers, logical and bit operations, USR subroutines. RS-232-C 
communications, disk and cassette input and output, the 
TRSDOS 1.3 disk operating system. 

With the book you also receive Monitor #5, a comprehen- 
sive machine language monitor and debugger. While descri- 
bing the Model III ROM and DOS, most of the book is also 
applicable to the Models 1 and 4, 




HOWE SOFTWARE 

64 Windmill Road 
Armonk, New York 10504-2832 

same day orders: (914) 273-3998 

Hours; 9:00 AM. - 5:00 P.M. Monday- Friday. 
30-dav Money Back Guarantee! 

Please allow 2-3 weeks for delivery. 

When ordering, please give your computer model number 

*TRS-eO is a trad&mofk of Tandy Corp. 



MS-DOS & TANDY Model 

iOOO/1200/2000/3000 

TRS-80™ Models 1,3. 4. 

2 & 12 SOFTWARE 



SMALL BUSINESS ACCOUNTING 

with PAYROLL $99.95 

Based on the Dome Bookkeeping Record *612, this pro- 
gram handles bookkeeping and payroll for a small business. 
Bookkeeper provides single entry ledgers with categories for 
income a, id expenses. Monthly and yearly summaries. Fiscal 
year can start in any month. Payroll handles up to 99 
employees with automatic computation of F.I.CA. and 
federal income tax. State tax and three optional deductions 
also included. Prints payroll and expense checks. Computes 
monthly, quarterly, and yearly summaries as well as Form 941 
reports and W-2 forms. Simple and easY to learn - ideal for 
first-time computer users. 

MAILING LIST $99.95 

Build and maintain mailing lists of up to 32,767 names. Up 
to five-line labels including first and lost names, optional 
second line, address, city, state, zip code, and optional fifth 
line. Optional lines can be used for telephone numl:>ers. 
account numbers, or any data. Sort or search for names by 
any field. Print labels in 1, 2, 3, or 4 adjustable columns, on 
envelopes or master index. Prints form letters with any 
substitutions. Includes 14 used-defined key groups for 
combining different lists into one file. Runs on floppies or 
hard disk, limited only by disk capacity. 

HOME BUDGET and 
CHECKBOOK ANALYST $59.95 

A complete checklDook program together with budget- 
ing, income and expense analysis, comparisons, and 
projections. Computes current checking balance. Also 
handles non-check expenses, bonk debits, and income. 
Monthly and year-to-date summaries, yeorly projections 
based on data through a known month. Monthly expenses 
compared to a pre-established budget, 

SMALL BUSINESS 
MANAGEMENT SYSTEM $299.95 

A complete point-of-sale program for a small business. 

Order desk handles order entr/ and invoicing. Items 
ordered automatically deducted from inventory, accounts 
receivable updated. Includes up to 1,999 8-character part 
numbers (999 for TRSDOS), invoices printed on NEBS forms or 
plain paper. 

Bookkeeper keeps general ledger, accounts receivable 
and payable, produces customer statements. General 
ledger produces monthly and year-to-date totals. Receiv- 
ables tracked to invoices. 

Inventory produces sales and inventory reports showing 
items in stock, amounts sold, monthly rates of sale, and 
profits. 

Installation tailors the program to your business. 

24-Hour TOLL-FREE Order Nunnber; 
Outside California call: 

(800)428-7825,8x1. 169 

Inside California call: 

(800)428-7824, ext. 169 

Terms; checks. Visa, Master Card, or C.O.D. 

Shipping and handling: S3.00, 

Canada, Mexico, Hawaii, Puerto Rico: S6.00 

Air mail overseas: S 17,00. 

New York residents please add sales tax. 



Cirdo S2 ort Reader Service card. 



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Aerocomp continues to lead the way to the BEST 
value in disk drives and related peripheral products for 
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quality construction, no-risk free trial, outstanding war- 
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make your decision to buy AEROCOMP the correct one. 
Please look over our selection and call our toll-free order 
number with your selection now. If you are not sure of 



what you need just call our technicial assistance number 
and we'll help you out. All drives are new— not factory 
blems, seconds, closeouts or defunct manufacturers sur- 
plus (li/IPl, Qume, Shugart, etc). Instruction manuals are 
included at no extra cost and service manuals are avail- 
able. We appreciate your business and will do our very 
best to support you. 

Add S4 shipping tor non-drive items; $& for single drives; $10 for dual drives. 



INCREASED DISK STORAGE FOR YOUR MODEL I 

Add 80% more capacity to your disk drives 
with our Douliie Density Controiier (DDC), 



Add double density to your TRS-80 Model I by 
Installing our DDC in your expansion Interface. 
Lets talk about density. Tfie l^odel I was designed 
to store data on diskettes in single density. Single 
density refers to the method used to write data 
to ttie disk. Your diskette is organized into tracks 
and sectors. Early Model I's tiad 35 track drives 
wfiile later models, and most aftermarket drives, 
had 40 tracks. In single density the tracks on the diskette surface 
are divided into 10 sectors. Each sector contains 256 bytes of 
data for a total of 2,560 bytes or 2.5k per track times the number 
of tracks your drive is capable of addressing. Double density, on 
the other hand, allows each track to be divided into 18 sectors. 
As in single density each sector contains 256 bytes but now there 
are 18 sectors instead of 10 giving an new storage capacity of 
4.608 bytes or 4.5k per track. The result is 80% more data in the 
same space. You may wonder why Radio Shack did not choose 
to use double density in the beginning. The reason is simple. It 
costs more money. Double density disk storage techniques were 
more expensive to implement back then. 

Reliable double density operation required a better disk drive 
than Radio Shack was furnishing in addition to better quality 
components and diskettes. Therefore, no double density for the 
Model I, We went to work and came up with a design that allowed 




reliable double density operation on the Mode) I. 
In fact, our DDC had a higher probability of data 
recovery than any other disk controller on the 
market then or since. Our analog design phase 
lock loop data separator has a wider capture win- 
dow than the digital types others use. This allows 
high resolution data centering. Our "DDC" analog 
circuit allows infinitely variable tuning with opti- 
mum attack and settling times. The oft-stated fears of adjustment 
problems rumored by digital dilettantes have been proved ground- 
less by thousands of satisfied users the world over. The bottom 
line is state-of-the-art reliability and performance, TRS-80 Model I 
disk system owners who are ready for reliable double density 
operation will get 80% more storage per diskette; single and 
double density operation with far fewer disk I/O errors; single 
density compatability; simple plug-in operation. You will need a 
disic operating system that has the necessary double density soft- 
ware driver. All the popular DOS's (except TRSDOS) have the 
software driver. We have a special combination offer that saves 
you $10 and includes the LDOS operating system in the event 
you do not already have a DOS. 

DDC by Itself $ 99 

DDC including the latest version LOOS 139 

PlesH Kk) i5 shipping 



LOW COST HARD DISK DRIVES 
FOR YOUR TRS-80 




$399 

COMPLETE 

5 Megabyte 

Primary 

Add a Secondary 

for only 




Our hard disk systems provide you with 
tiie latest integrated designs, proper con- 
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unwelcome surprises. Our systems are en- 
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vice. These systems come complete ready 
to go to worl<. There is nothing else to pur- 
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TRSDOS software drivers at no charge. Ad- 
ditional drivers may be purchased for $30. 

Each unit is guaranteed for one full year, 
parts and labor, at no additional cost. We 
provide the little things that are so important 
to a long troublefree life. Things like state- 



flcW EM BJiipfjirtS 



$349 



Md UO lof SIfinless Slsfl^ 



free trial. If you are unhappy with your hard 
drive, for any reason, just let us know within 
14 days of your receipt and we will promptly 
refund your purchase price (less shipping). 
You can't go wrong. Start enjoying the real 
power and speed of your computer with one 
of our hard disl< drives. Do it today! Use our 
toll-free ordering lines now. 

ADHrnOHAL SIZES AVAILABLE 





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20 Megabyte 


749 


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20 Megabyte 
30 Megabyte 
Add $10 shipping 



of-the-art continuous duty switching power 
supplies; buffered seek drives; plated media; 
filtered forced-air ventilation for cool opera- 
tion and extended life; power line EMI filter; 
solid steel construction; gold plated connec- 
tors; front panel LED indicators for Power- 
Ready— Select— Read— Write; buitt-in diag- 
nostics; automatic error correction; provision 
to add a secondary drive; plus attention to 
details and a dedication to provide quality 
service that is unequaled. We are so sure 
you will be satisfied that we offer a 14 day 

SAVE YOUR MONEY WITH OUR NEW 
] INTERNAL HARD DISK DRIVES 

Aerocomp continues to lead the way with the best low cost, high quality, fast-access, hard 
drives for your IBM, Tandy 1000/3000 or Clone compatible computer. Check the specs, then 
check our prices. Our systems aliow you to boot directly from the hard drive. Our hard drive 
kits come complete with everything you need to Install them in your computer. We even provide 
software to park the heads for maximum drive protection during transit. All connectors and 
card edges are gold plated to insure trouble-free service. Sizes listed are after formatting. DOS 
2.1 or later is required. Tandy 1000 requires DMA and ROM 1.01.00 or later. Tandy 1000SX own- 
ers can save hundreds by simply remove one floppy and install our high performance, half- 
high, low power consumption 20, 30 or 40 MB drive in its place. Not for Tandy 1000EX. One- 
year warranty, 

Wfe promise satisfaction and back It up with a 30 day money-back guarantee. If, for any 
reason, you are unhappy with your hard drive |ust let us know within 30 days of deliver/ and 
we will arrange the return and a full refund of your purchase price (less shipping). 



ADD DISK DRIVES TO YOUR 



;L3/4 



Convert your cassette IVIodel 3 or 4 to disk 
operation with one of our easy to install kits. 
Detailed illustrated instructions are included. All 
you need is a screwdriver and pair of pliers. In- 
cluded is our own advanced controller with gold 
contacts capable of 4-drive operation; plated steel 
mounting towers complete with RFI shield; power 
supply plus all the cables and hardware. Choose 
a 1 or 2 drive system or the basic kit and pick 
the drives you want and your disk operating sys- 
tem from the list on the opposite page. Give us 
a call. We are ready to help with the answers to 
your questions. 



Complete system, less drives . , . $ 1 59 

1-Drive system 259 

2-Drive system 349 

Subsiituie DS drives (or only $10 each. 
Add £10 shipping. 

Disk Controller Only 




.110 



RS-232 Board complete 69 *="=< W shipping. 



CALL TOLL-FREE 

800-527-3582 USA 

800-442-1310 Texas 

2i4«37-5400 Information 

Have youf Amefican Express. MastefCard Of Visa feady We will not 
charge your card unw tr»e day w<e snip vour order Hail ordaJS are 
wefcrjme Money ofders arw accep1e<l as weB as your company and 
personal r:hB£ks as long 35 tliey are bar^h poriled arMj liave your arltiress 
and leleplwoE nuinbeif we wiB snip surfar:e COD witn no deposil on 
mosr «Leniis cut all COD"s fMiuirs cash of a Csshief's Clwck c3r> delivery 
Texas fesidenls add Slate Sales Tax. Mo lax eoltccteo on out o1 siaie 
snipmenis Tr»ere is a oi» year warfafity ofi all tiafctwafe rienys a^ios! 
delects in rnatefials or wtjrkmafistiip Youf salisfadiofi IS guaranteed on 
all nafdwafe prtiducts it you ate nol satislied, far any reason, call us 
withlry 30 days ot r««[pt end we wilt arrange this relum ol tna hardware 
product and ttie chenffut reltjnd ol yrjuf money tiess snipping} Ail original 
maierials must tje intact and t^ndamaged as well as ihe txigmal stiipping 
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be reptaceft. No other software warranty appttes Prices and specifiea. 
lions arc suQ^t lo change without notice 



AE^OvwInr 



£544 Wsst Commerce Sdeei PO. Box 223957 Dates, Texas 75212 
■ TELEX 882761 ■ FM 2u-33743iei ' SERVICE- 2U-337J1M6 



READER FORUM 



Got a hot tip you would 
like to share with our read- 
ers? Send it to Reader 
R)Tum. c/o 80 Micro. 80 Elm 
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We pay $10 for each tip 
we publish. We regret 
that we cannot return or 
acknowledge Reader Forum 
submissions. 



What Day Is Tomorrow? 



More on Memdisk, Part III 



Tom Trigg said In the April 
1987 Reader Foninn (More on 
Memdisk. Part 11, p. 23) that 
he put Superscripslt (without 
Move/CTL) and two printer 
drivers on Memdisk with 
13. 5K to spare. Unfortunately, 
after building the JCL fUe and 
running It on my Model 4P, the 
screen flickered into the large- 
letter mode and wouldn't run 
Superscripslt. After turning 
the computer off several 
times in mid-project, I no- 



ticed that two files, Errors/ 
CTL and System/CTL. had to 
be reset. I added the following 
to my original JCL file: 

COPY ERRORS/CTL:0 :2 
COPY SYSTEM/CTLiO ;2 

Now Superscripslt loads 
right Into Memdisk and runs 
like a charm. I put Move/CTL 
on my data disk just In case I 
need its help. 

Al Psrkins 
Palm Coast, FL 



First Things First 

Start. B A automatically Start.BA wiU run the file you 



calls any program when you 
turn on your Model 100 or 
102. It calls the Note.DO file 
and overrides the automatic 
feature that turns the com- 
puter off after 10 minutes of 
Inactivity. If you don't want 
continuous power, eliminate 
lines 20 and 30 (see Program 
Listing I). 

To make the program work 
automatically when you turn 
on your computer, save the 
program as Start.BA, enter 
Basic, type IPL"START.BA", 
and press enter. Now if you 
enter Basic just before you 
turn off your computer. 



specify the next time you 
turn on your computer. To 
call any file at all, change the 
A$ assignment in line 10. 
The program adjusts auto- 
matically for the file-name 
length and value of the attrib- 
ute byte. 

Be aware that you can 
scramble your memory if you 
make a mistake typing in the 
program. Back up everything 
in your computer's memory 
before you initially run this 
program so you won't lose 
valuable files. 

Jerry Engelbach 
New York, NY 



Program Listing I . Start.BA. 




10 AS="NOTF." 




20 PRINTSISO, "Warning: POWEK COKT" 




30 POWEK CONT 




40 FOR I=63B44 TO 6414B STEP 11 




50 FS="" 




GO FOR J=l TO LEK(AS1 




7B FS=F5+Cl!R$lPEEK(I+J)) 




ee NEXT 




Se IF FS-AS THEN AT=PEEK (1-2) : IF ATOB THEN 




RD=I-2jI=6420e 




lefl NEXT 




llfl IF AT=B THEN PRIHTe210 ,AS" not found" j END 




lie CLS:CALL 22 84 8, AT, AD 






End 




School-age children and 
trivia buffs might be inter- 
ested In a retrospective cal- 
endar featuring the events of 
each day. Boot Personal Desk- 
mate on the Tkndy 1000 and 
move your marker to Calen- 
dar. Press the enter key (or 
double-click your mouse) to 
pull down the display menu, 
and select the Daily option. 
Type the Information you 
want to save. Use the search 
option to find particular dates 
and record whatever mes- 
sages you desire. 

When you display a month, 
each date with a message is 
flagged with a marker in the 



upper-right corner of the date 
box. Pull down the File menu 
and save your "interesting 
tidbit" file under any name 
you choose. You can enter the 
data over several sessions or 
on an ongoing basis. You can 
retrieve this Information sim- 
ply by entering the file and 
paging through the dates. 
However, [f you have a clock/ 
calendar board or always en- 
ter the correct date when you 
boot, the Calendar flle imme- 
diately displays the events of 
the past for that day, 

Henry C. Gernhardt Jr. 
Huntington. WV 



Ending 

Putting your documenta- 
tion at the end of a program 
when you finish development 
has its drawbacks, but here Is 
a method that intrigues me: 
10 'program goes here. 
ICXJO 'prggram goes here. 
50000 END 
50010 GOTO 280.300 FX)R; 

* * • • ■KEYBOAfOJ INPUT 

50020 GOTO 340.500 FOR: 
*•• "DISK I/O" 
THIS ROUTINE V/f£ WRIT- 
TEN APRIL 1987 
50030 GOTO 600.600 FOR: 
' ' 'ROUNDING OFF DOL- 
LARS & CENTS • • • 

The advantage is that the Go- 
tos describe the bounds of the 
routine. Since the documen- 
tation is at the end of the pro- 
gram, the Basic interpreter 
never encounters it at run 



It All 

time. It is automatically up- 
dated by renumbering the 
program. The renumbering 
facility treats it as though it Is 
ON X GOTO 280.300, If you 
type GTOO and not GOTO, it 
won't properly renumber. 
This method helps you 
quickly find routines when 
you want to lift them to use in 
other programs. 

If you want to know where 
your routines are during 
development, type LLIST 
50000- and your documenta- 
tion is neatly summarized on 
paper. If your program is too 
long to run with the docu- 
mentation, simply delete the 
routines at run time. 

Howard W. Mueller 
Pocahontas, MO 



22 • SO Micro, August 1987 



READER FORUM 



Squeezing 126K 



You can use a 60K RAM 
disk on the Model 4P as a 
printer sp)ooler. If you know 
your document does not ex- 
ceed 25K (approximately 
eight pages), you can open it 
on drive 2 (Memdisk, bank 2) 
and still spool it on bank 1. 
Skip the prompts by typing 
SYSTEM (DATE = OFF) and 
pressing the enter key; then 
type SYSGEN and again 
press enter. Initialize Mem- 
disk and the printer spooler, 
and go right to the Super- 
scrlpstt menu using Program 
Listing 2. Press shift-con trol- 



@. At TRSDOS Ready type 
AUTO DO STARTUP/JCL. 

When you next turn on or 
reset your machine, you can 
watch it all happen. If you 
break the print Job, first turn 
the printer off to clear the 
printer buffer, quit the docu- 
ment and program, and at 
TRSDOS Ready, type SPOOL 
(C). Then press enter, type 
SCRIPSIT fllespec. and press 
enter again to clear the 
spooler. Now restart the 
printer. 

Having to clear the buffers 
on a misprint is the price you 



Program LisHrig 2. Startup/JCL. 

BUILD STARTUP/JCL 

SPOOL *PK (BANK=l,DISK-e) 

SYSTEM ( DRI VE=2 , DRI VEfl="MEMDISK" ) 

C 

D 

V 

SCRIPS IT 

Press SHIFT-CTRL-e 

At TRSDOS Reaay type AUTO DO STASTUP/JCL 



End 



pay for freeing the computer 
with a buffer or spooler. The 
spooler still contains the docu- 
ment, but you cannot get mul- 
tiple copies from it after you 
view the product without re- 
entering the document and 
commanding it on the Print 
Options menu. By typing 



SPOOL (N) and pressing enter 
at TRSDOS Ready, you turn 
the spooler off. Remember to 
copy your (logical) drive 2 
document to (physical) drive 
zero or 1 before you reset or 
turn off the computer. 

Bill Sullivan 
San Clemente, CA 



Teacher's Pet 



To post grades after tests, I 
wrote a routine In Basic to 
give the day /date format (e.g., 
03/23/87 is Tue 23, 1987) for 
any date from Jan. 1. 1983 
(see Program Listing 3) with- 
out using a Peek. This routine 



works on the Model 4 and 
T^dy 1000. 

Begin the dating from any 
leap year by adjusting the 
part of line 20 that reads 
DAY$ = MID$("XXX...), 
where XXX Is the day of the 



week beginning that year. To 
begin with 1980, change that 
section of line 20 to DAV$ = 
M1D$ ("TueWedThuFriSat 
SunMon", DA,3). 

I expanded the above sub- 
routine into a program to 



Program Listing 3. Basic routine to give a day/date format. See p. 100 for 
information on usirtg checfcsums in Listings 3 and 4, 



le CLS 

20 PBINT#tl(l) ("";! INPUT "HO/VRAR ?",I>TE? 

38 K=VflL(LEFTS(DTES,2)) : IP (K<1 OR K>12) THEK SOUND 7,1: GOTO i 

e 

40 K=LEK(DTES); IF (K07) THEK SOUND 7,1; GOTO 20 

5fl V0=VAL[RIGKTS(DTES,4) ) : ^1 = ^0-1964: lt= Vl MOD 4: MO=VAL(LEET5 

(DTES,2))*3-2 
60 DNOS="a0ee31B59B9ei2fll51181212243273304334365": yl= (Kl I + 1Y1\4 

70 DY5="SlinMonTueWe<3ThuFciSat"! DA-VAL(MID5(DNO?,MO,3) )-(Y=B AND 

H0>6)+1+Y1: DA=1DA MOD 7)+l 
80 H0NS=MIDS("JanFebHacAp[MayJunJulAugSepOctKovDec" ,M0,3) 
90 CLS:PRINTe(5,34) ,MONS+" ,"+STR$lYfl): FOB 1=0 TO 6 
100 PRINT 8(7,22+5*1), MIDS(DYS, (1*3+1) ,3) 
110 NEXT I: L2=e: L=22 
120 DAl=VAL(HID$l"a31fl28a31030031B3ee3103103BB31e30031",t1O,3))-( 

Y=0 AND H0^4) 
130 FOB 1=1 TO DAI 

140 L=5*(DA-2+I] : L1=(L HOD 351+22 
150 PRIKTe(L2,Ll) , USING "t##";I; 
1S0 IF (Ll=52) THEN L2=L2+1 
170 KEXT 1 
180 PRINT e(L2+3,2B), "DO YOU WANT A HARD COPY <YES> OB ■;N0> ";: 

INPUT AS 
190 ON INSTBC YESNO ",A$)\3+1 GOTO 200,210,18 
200 SOUND 7,0: GOTO 168 
210 LPKINT TAB(30) KONS+" ,"+STR$(Y0) 
220 LPRINT: LPRINT SPC(17); 
230 FOR I"=0 TO 6 

240 LPRINT SPC(2); MIDS (DYS, (1*3+1) ,3) i 
250 NEXT I 

260 LPRINT: LPRINT SPCl 17+5* (DA-1) ) ; 
270 FOR I-l TO DAI 
280 LPRINT SPC(2); USING "HI";Ir 
290 IF LPOS(50)>S2 THEN LPRINT: LPRINT SPC(17); 
360 NEXT I: LPRINT 



355 
2479 

3 806 
2900 

4496 

3736 

6105 
4639 
3026 
2243 

1262 

4074 
1036 
1806 
18GI 

1500 

6oe 

4419 
2685 
1338 
2114 
1722 

907 
2204 

607 
2172 
1848 
1923 
2936 
1166 



Program LtsHng 4. Calendar generator. 

10 Y0=(1900+VAL(BIGHTS(DATES,2) ) ) : ¥l=Ye-1984; Y= Yl KOD 4: KO=V 

AL(LEFT$ (DATES , 2) ) *3-2 '* 4946 

IS DNO5="00003ieS9O901201Sll 81212243273384334": Yl= (Yl) +(Y1\4) + ( 

Y=0) '* 357B 

29 DA=VAL(HIDS(DNO$,H0,3) )-(Y=0 AND M0>6) +VAL(HIDS (DATES , 4 , 2) ) +Y 
1:DA=((DA HOD 7)»3+l): DAYS^MIDS ( "SunHonTueWedTbuFr iSat" ,DA, 3 
) '• 6020 

25 HONS=HIDS("JanFebHarAprHayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec",MO,3) :DD$=DA 
YS+" "+HON5+''"+STR5(VAL(«IDS{DATES,4,2) ) ) +" , " +"1S" +RIGHTS (DA 
TES,2) '* 66KG 



End 



print out calendars of any 
given month following Janu- 
ary, 1984 (see Program List- 
ing 4). With changes in DY$ 
of line 70, you can begin with 
any leap year. This program 
is for the Model 4; for the 
Model 1000, change all 
Print® statements to Locate 
statements. Fbr example, line 
20 should read LOCATE 
l.liPRINT" ";: INPUT "MO/ 
YEAR?", DTE$. Change 
LPOS{50)>52 In line 290 to 
LPOS(0)>52. 

I also wrote the following 
function to return a letter 
grade given a number grade; 

DEF FNGRADE$[X) = MID$ 
("FDCBA", -{X>- 1)-[X> 
59) - (X>69) - (X>79) - 
(X>S9),1) 

Then type PRINT FN- 

GRADE$(75). where 75 is a 

sample grade. A grade of "C" 

appears on the following line. 

Kefth Alford 

Port Gibson, MS 




80 Micro, August 1987 • 23 



New! Enhanced DeskMate 3™ disk 




software for the Cobr Computer 3™ 



An "enhanced" version 
of DeskMate? 

That's right. DeskMate 3 is the 
latest version of our popular 
DeskMate integrated software 
program. It was created exclu- 
sively for the power of our new 
Color Computer 3 and features 
seven of the most commonly 
used personal-productivity 
applications — in one program! 

DeskMate 3 (26-3262, $99.95) 
is designed for maximum effi- 
ciency and simplicity. There are 
no complicated commands to 
memorize, so you can begin 
working on your Color Com- 
puter 3 from the ver\' first day. 

Get the seven appHcations 
...users want most 

DeskMate 3 offers you seven 
program options that you will 
find useful for both your business 
and your personal household 
needs. You can select an apphca- 
tion by simply using your mouse, 
joystick or keyboard. The appli- 
cations are identified by name 
and icon and are arranged on an 
easy- to- read menu. 



htcu Ta Utr Thi-i nAOUflH 

Thi^ raanuil is iiuided inio 

fcDu to iPt„iBf "nt QUI at 

Spinnt'd tqli used a% 
leiirnirtl aids anJ olhprs ds 
FL-i'^rcncf lOOU. FijsVf.^ 

tkroMih tfiQse PotllOTit rau 
i^ant , HhcTi^irgu ate , 
riiri' tsenccd in rufiriinJ 



TEXT lets you compose, edit and 
print letters, reports on a 40/80- 
column switch able display. 

TEXT is a general-purpose 
word processor that allows you to 
write reports, letters, resumes 
and other correspondence or 
text. You can edit your work with 
a few simple commands, perform 
search and replaces, merge files. 



select blocks, copy and delete 
and more. 

LEDGER is a simple spread- 
sheet program that includes au- 
tomatic column formatting and a 
40/80-column svritchable display. 
LEDGER is perfect for budget- 
ing, sales forecasting, profit-and- 
loss projections and many other 
"What if . . . ?" calculations. 

/ATDEX CARDS turns your 
Color Computer 3 into a per- 
sonal filing system. Organize 
those important names and ad- 
dresses or other pertinent infor- 
mation and easily keep track of 
them. Enter and edit and per- 
form simple sorts and searches as 
vour needs dictate. 




INDEX CARDS allows vou to keep 
important names and addresses in 
an efficient filing system. 



PAINT allows you to take ad- 
vantage of the superior color 
graphics of the Color Computer 
3. With PAINT you can create 
brilliant drawings, charts and 
other graphic images on your 
screen and then print a copy on a 
dot-matrix printer. Create im- 
pressive proposals or "paint" just 
for fun! 

TELECOM* puts a world of 
information at your disposal on a 
40/80-column switchable display. 
This program lets you access na- 
tional information services, or ex- 
change information with other 
computers by phone. 



With CALENDAR you need 
never worry about missing those 
important engagements and 
dates. This simple-to-use 
monthly calendar program dis- 
plays all your "to do's" through- 
out each day. It's a great way to 
organize your busy schedule. 

Finally, CALCULATOR is a 
four-function mathematic prob- 
lem solver with memory that can 
be accessed within any applica- 
tion without interrupting the 
program you are currently using. 

Enhanced software for a 
powerful machine 

Our shaqi Color Computer 3 
(26-3334, New Low Price 
$199.95) is a powerful I28K Ex- 
tended BASIC personal com- 
puter with superb graphics 
resolution and a choice of up to 
64 colors. You get the power and 
dependability of a more expen- 
sive personal computer at a 
much lower price. The Color 
Computer 3 can be used in a va- 
riety of applications and is ex- 
pandable to 512K. And you can 
expand as your needs grow. 

Come in today! 

Take the Color Computer 3 
and enhanced DeskMate 3, and 

you've got yourself a powerful 
computer system. Drop by Radio 
Shack and see it todav 



Send me a new 
1988 Computer Catalog. 

Marl To: Radio Shack, Depi. aa-A.i044 
300 One Tandy Center 
Fori Worth, TX 76102 



Name. 



Address _ 



City_ 
State. 



Radio /haeK 



■Requires optional modem Prices apply at Radio Shack Computer Centers and pailicipating stores and 
dealers. The Color Computer 3 was S219.95 in Cat. RSC-17B. Monitor and disk drive soid separately. 



The Technology Store" 

A DIVISION OF TANDY CORPORATION 



Circle 75 on Reader Servioa card. 



Uiruits 3^4 uri n«auwi otirviue i;<iru. 



Can we talk? CP/M vs TRSDOS 



By moving to CP/M on your Model 4 you 
achieve two things. First you open the door 
to a wealth of existing software. More 8-bit 
software runs under CP/W than any other 
operating system. This includes virtually all 
of the "big name" programs which have set 
the standards by which all others are mea- 
sured. Programs like WordStar, dBASE II, 
and Turbo Pascal are available for CP/M, but 
not TRSDOS. Public domain software, 
almost unknown under TRSDOS, fills hun- 
dreds of megabytes of disk space. Valuable 
public domain programs like the Small C 
Compiler are just a toll-free phone call away. 
Most importantly, hundreds of applications 
programs are available from a multitude of 
vendors. Many include the source code. 
Wouldn't you like tc be able to choose from 
scores of Accounts Receivable or General 
Ledger programs, instead of the meager 
selection you now have? Circle our special 
Reader Service number 600 on the Reader 
Service Card to receive our comprehensive 
free listing of suppliers of application pro- 
grams that run under CP/M. 
What about the future? 

When the time comes to move up to another 
computer It will almost certainly use MS- 
DOS, That's when CP/M users get a pleasant 
surprise. Since MS-DOS was a derivative of 
CP/M it operates in almost the same manner. 
Even better most of the same software pack- 
ages are available in 16-bit form and they 
operate in virtually the same way that they 
did under CP/M, 
Is it easy to use? 

Montezuma Micro's CP/M has been carefully 
crafted to present a maximum of features 
while taking a minimum of memory. It sup- 
ports all of the standard features of the 
Model 4/4P/4D computers, as well as most 
of the optional ones. Our CP/M has been 
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been made as easy to use as possible. All 
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includes the ability to configure a disk drive 
to run like that of scores of other CP/M com- 



puters for maximum ease of software 
portability. Using the unique DBLCROSS 
program in our Monte's Toolkit utility pack- 
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between CP/M, TRSDOS (1.3 and 6.x)i and 
MS-DOS. 

Why use Montezuma CP/M? 

We have already told you why our CP/M is 
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"Why buy CP/M at all?" Radio Shack has 
abandoned TRSDOS — all of their new 
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Cost to update? 

Our owners are protected against instant 
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At any time you can return your original CP/M 
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handling fee. Periodically we publish NEW 
STUFF, a newsletter for registered users of 
Montezuma Micro CP/M. This publication 
carries news about new products, tips for 
getting more out of CP/M, and other valuable 
information for our users. It is sent free of 
charge to registered owners. 
Can I use a hard disk drive? 

CP/M hard disk drivers are available for 
Radio Shack, Aerocomp, and most other 
popular brands of hard disk drives. These 
drivers allow the hard drive to be partitioned 
into one to four logical drives of varying sizes. 



These drives may all t>e used by CP/M, or 
may be divided between CP/M and 
TRSDOS. A head-parking utility is included 
on the driver disk to minimize the nsk of 
damage when the hard disk drive is not in 
use. Also included at no charge is a utility 
which will copy, compress, list, print, and 
delete files with ease. There Isn't much you 
can say about a driver. It either works or it 
doesn't. Ours works supremely and it only 
costs $30, 

Hard disk backup? 

Unlike the high-priced, underpowered 
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TRSDOS hard drives, our CP/M HARDBACK 
utility makes the backup of a hard disk to 
floppies quick and painless. Only HARD- 
BACKgivesyouthecholceofbackingupthe 
entire drive or only those files which it knows 
have been changed since the last backup 
Daily backup is no longer a chore, since only 
new data must be copied. With HARDBACK 
you can quickly restore an entire drive, or 
only a single file if necessary. Only HARD- 
BACK will perform a complete check of the 
hard disk drive and lock out tracks which 
have become flawed to prevent the use of 
those tracks for later data storage. Add this 
supreme program to your hard disk for just 
$49. Isn't your time and data worth it? 

Specs? 

Size of Transient Program Area (TPA): 
56,070 bytes In a 64k system. 55,046 bytes 
in a 63k system (with optional hard disk 
driverji CP/M lOBVTE: Fully implemented. 
Device Drivers: Disk {35, 40, 77, & 80 track, 
single/double density single/double sided, 3, 
5, or 8 inch. (More than 85 disk formats sup- 
ported) Maximum Disk Capacity: 40T 
SS = 220k, 40T DS = 440k, SOT DS = 880k 
RS-232: All word lengths, parity, & baud 
rates. Parallel Printer: With or without line- 
feed and/or formfeed. Video: 24 by 80 with 
reverse video. Keyboard: Full ASCII with 9 
function keys. RAM Disk: 64k, automatic on 
128k systems. Hard Disk: Optional drivers 
available at extra cost for most popular mod- 
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ASM, DDT, DUMR ED, LOAD, MOVCPM, 
PIR STAT, SUBMIT, SYSGEN, and XSUB. 



Order Information 

Give us a call now with your order and we will ship immediately. 
Prices include delivery to your door in the lower 48 States in- 
cluding APO/FPO. All others please add an amount commen- 
surate to shipping requested. Any excess will be refunded. 
Credit cards will not be charged before we ship your order. The 
suitability of software selected Is the responsibility of the pur- 
chaser as there are NO REFUNDS ON SOFTWARE. Defective 
software will be replaced upon it's return, postpaid. Now avail- 
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The toll-free lines are fof orders only. 
Spscificalions/prices are subjecl to cfiange without notice. 



Montezuma CP/M: Mod8i*™raion2.M $ 169 

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MOHTEZUMA 
N^ICRO 



"We Keep You Running" 

T, 1967 by MoniKzwnp Micf? AH rdB>>t4 ^ewrvKl, 



for Information: 
214-631-7900 
P.O. Box 224767 
Dallas, Texas 75222 
U.S.A. 



FINE LINES / by Hany Bee 



Searching High and Low 



As you can see. our renovations are 
complete, and look at all the room 
we have this month! Now, you can unfold 
your Basic routines and spread them over 
several lines. If that's what a program 
needs. We also have room to discuss — or 
debate— solutions to the common (and 
not so common) progrEimming problems 
presented here each month, if you're up 
for a difference of opinion, you'll find me 
a willing participant. 

Making the change complete is the 
new set of rules you'll find at the end of 
the column. We've dispensed with the 
idea of winners, since no one was happy 
with the way it implied losers. You're in- 
vited to take on our monthly challenges 
for the fun of it. for the exercise, and for 
the discoveries they often lead to. 

To keep up with 80 Micro's production 
schedule and maintain some semblance 
of order, 1 still need your solutions to spe- 
cific programming problems by the 15th 
of the issue month. Also. I'm especially 
looking for your comments, criticisms, 
suggestions, and the program stoppers 
you've encountered, whether you've 
solved them or not. to keep the action in 
this space lively. Send those along any- 
time . If 1 use anything you send me, even 
a Bronx cheer, I'll see you get one of our 
coveted 80 Micro T-shirts for your trou- 
ble. Since you can't beat that, join In. 

In Search Of 

Three month's ago I broached the sub- 
ject of searching text files. 1 confess, I 
was somewhat casual in my approach to 
the problem. Sure. 1 knew it was differ- 
ent from searching the ordered lists you 
find in data bases, but 1 didn't fully real- 
ize how many factors were involved in 
the kinds of text searches typically 
found in word processors and editors un- 
til 1 tried to go beyond the Simple Simon 
solution of Program Listing 1 . 

Maybe that's why I got lots of nice mail 
this month, but no two-line solutions. I 
received pleas for help, a nifty approach 
with bells and whistles in 22 lines, and a 
challenge from Ray Belanger (Everett, 
MA) that amounted to, "You do It In two 
lines, wise guy." 

Back to the Drawing Board 

The objective is to find all occurrences 
of a search term (i.e., some text string) 




in an ASCII text file. Great. So what's 
an ASCII text flle, exactly? A definition 
helps. 

While the sources for text files are 
many, there is a more or less standard 
definition of them: They contain text 
characters (/SOU codes in the range 32 
through 127), carriage returns (code 13). 



an end-of-file character (code 26), and 
nothing else. Word processors, data 
bases, spreadsheets, and other productiv- 
ity software usually produce "delimited" 
ASCII flies in addition to files in their na- 
tive formats; most program code, includ- 
ing Basic code saved with the A option, 
is in iBCII; electronic mall and other In- 



Program Listing I. Simple Sf mon search for all Basics. 

IB IP S THEN IF NOT EOF ( 1 | THEN LINE INPUTtl ,T$:P=INSTH (T5 ,ES) : IF P THEN Ml 
DS(TS,P)=STRINGS(S,42) ^PRINT TS:PBINT;GOTO IB ELSE 18 ELSE ELSE CLS:INPUT"F 
ile to search" (FSsINPUT'Seacch terra' jSS!S=LEN(S$) iPBINTsOPEN"!" ,1,FS:G0T0 1 



Program Listing 2a. Two-line search for TRS-80 Basics. 

IB CLS!lNPUT"File";FS:INPUT"Find*rIS:GOSUB 2a : SS=TS ; S^LEN (SS) ;OPEN"R" , 1 ,FS! 
FIELD 1,126 AS TS(BJ,128 AS TS(1):F0K R=l TO L0F(1):GET IjEjFOR L=e TO 1:1$ 
=T$(L):GOSUB 20 :N=1; P=INSTR(T$,SS1 : IF P THEN PRINT LEFTS (I $ ,P-1) +"< "+MIDS (I 
S,P,S) +">"+RIGHT$(IS,65-P-S) 

20 IF N THEN N=a :C=C- {P>0) : NEXT L:NBXT RiCLOSE 1 jPRINT: PRINT C;"founa," ELS 
E TS="":FOR 1=1 TO LEN (IS) ! AS=MIDS1 1$, 1 ,1) : A=ASC(A$) !TS-TS+CHRS (A-32* SINSTB 
(" ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ'',A?) >1) I :NEXT I; RETURN 



Program Listing 2b. The same two-line search for GW-Basic. 

IB CLSi INPUT"File";F?: INPUT"Find" ; I S ;GOSUB 28 :S$-TS:S=LEN (SS) :OPEN"B" , 1 , FS ; 

FIELD 1,64 AS T$(B),64 AS TSdJiFOR R*l TO LOF ( 1 ) /126:GET 1,R:F0R L=B TO 1; 

IS=TS{L) ;GOSUB 2B :N=1: P=INSTR (TS,SS) : IF P THEN PRINT LEFTS ( I S ,P-1) t" <-+MIDS 

(IS,P,S)+">"+RlGHTS{IS,65-P-S) 

2B IF N THEN N=a:C=C-(P>e) :NEXT LiNEXT EiCLOSE 1 jPRINTiPRINT C;"found." ELS 

E TS=""!FOR 1=1 TO LEN(I5) :A$=HIDS{IS,I,1) iAi^ASClASI :T$=T$+CHRS(A-32«(1NSTR 

{• ABCnEFGHIJKLHIJOPORSTUVWXyZ",AS>>l)J :NEXT I: RETURN 



13 



80 Micro, August 1987 * 27 



FINE LINES 



Program Listing 3. A not-quite-complete text search. 




5 ' Foe TRS-BBs, modifir lines 2B and 3B, Refer to Listing 2a. 




Ifl CLS:INPUr"File";FS; I[JPUT"Find";IS;GOEUB 280 ;SS=T$:E=LEN (SS) 


: PRINT 


28 OPEN'ICl.FSiFIELB 1,64 AS TS(B),64 AS TS(l) 




30 FOR R=l TO LOF(l)/128:GET 1,R 




i6 FOR L=fl TO l:I$=TSa) :GOSUB 2BB:M=1 :D$="" 




5B P=INSTR(M,T$,S5) ;IF P=0 THEN 68 




ee DS=nS+MID$(IS,M,P-H)+"<"+HID$(I?,P,S)+">":H=P+S:C=C+l 




70 IF M<LEN(T$) THEN 50 




80 DS=£1S+RIGHTS[I5,(LEN(I$)+1)-M) 




90 IF M>1 THEN PRINT DSlPRINT 




100 NEXT LiNEXT R:CLOSE 1:PR1NT C; 'found ,": END 




200 TS="":FOR 1=1 TO LEN(IS) 




210 AS=HIDSll$,lrl) :A=ASC(AS) 




220 TS=T5+CHRS(A-32*(INSTR{" ABCDBFGHI JKLNHOPQRSTUVWXY Z" 


,A?)>1)) 


230 NEXT I; RETURN 






End 



formation received by modem more 
often than not is unadorned ASCII. 

Given the nature of ASCII files, Line 
Input is a valid device for reading them. 
Line Input accepts all text characters, in- 
cluding the commas and quotes that 
would confound an ordinary Input state- 
ment. It stops at each carriage return or 
the end of the file, or, lacking either of 
those, it takes up to 255 characters at a 
time. Line Input lets you examine the 
entire file without missing anything you 
might tie looking for. 

Likewise, the INSTR function makes 
sense. It's accurate, easy to use, and 
quick. Any kind of character-by-charac- 
ter search in Basic would be deathly 
slow, and unnecessary. Listing 1 makes 
use of Line Input and INSTR— and not 
much else. It prints any string in which 
it finds the search term. It even points 
out the position of the search term— hy 
obliterating it, which is a little drastic. 
That's all it does. 

For anyone who's interested, the 
twisted logic of the single line shows how 
Basic interprets multiple If. . .Then. . . 
Else statements as nested structures. It 
makes the "Else Else" necessary. You 
won't see it demonstrated quite so 
starkly except in a packed line, but it's 
an important idea to remember, 

A Better Way 

Program Listings 2a and 2b at least 
manage to preserve the search term and 
highlight it by putting brackets of a sort 
around it. The brackets are generic. 
There are as many ways of actually high- 
lighting text as there are models of Radio 
Shack computers, but you can't high- 
light at all on the Model I. 

These two programs take a different 
approach to the text file by treating it as 
a random (or direct) access file. That way 
you get the text in conveniendy equal 
chunks, which Line Input cannot guar- 
antee. You'll see the search term, in con- 
text, with enough additional information 
to be meaningful. And the predictable 
length of the strings will be easier to use 
in a formatted video display. On the 



down side, unless you look for the end- 
of-file character, which neither of the 
programs do, you pass it. 

The two programs add another feature 
to the search: The subroutine in line 20 
eliminates case sensitivity. Your search 
term and the text can have any combi- 
nation of upper- and lowercase letters. 
The routines wiit match them anyway. 

Despite trying to keep everything ge- 
neric, by using the brackets instead of 
highlighting and avoiding things like 
While. . .Wend that early TRS-80 Basics 
don't have, 1 still needed two versions 
of Program Listing 2 to cover all Basics — 
to coin a phrase. The differences be- 
tween the two programs are important 
to any of you who made the move from 
TRS-80 to T&ndy, or are thinking about 
doing it soon. 

While TRS-80 Basics always used a 
standard record size of 256 bytes, GW- 
Basic defaults to a smaller 128-byte rec- 
ord. More important, the LOF function of 
TRS-80 Basics returns the number of 
records in a file, while GW-Basic's LOF 
gives you the size of the file in bytes. You 
then have to divide by the record size to 
get the number of records. 

Wanted: Improvements 

But none of the routines so far finds 
euery occurrence of the search term. 
Even though both versions of Listing 2 
count the numt>er they do find, they look 
no further than the first successful 
match in each section of text. They over- 
look much. 

Program Listing 3 spreads the routine 
over several lines and makes it much 
easier to read and follow. In the process, 
the little loop from line 70 to line 50 
makes sure the program looks at the 
whole chunk of text before going on and 
counts everything it finds. But it still 
won't find everything. 

Before we can add t>ells and whisdes 
to this text search, we'd better solve a 
small problem; What atiout those times 
when what we're looking for isn't en- 
tirely present in the section of text we're 
looking at? What if It's split, part in one 



chunk of text and part in the next? Noth- 
ing I've done so far covers that case. 

Start with Listing 3, if you like, or start 
over. Either way, find every occurrence 
of the search term regardless of the ar- 
bitrary divisions of the text file caused by 
the way you read it. And while you're at 
it, use the method of highlighting the 
search term in context that suits your 
version of Basic. 

Numbers, 
Numbers, Numbers 

For extra credit, here's something off 
the wall. Recently I read about a word 
processor that offers as a feature the abil- 
ity to change all the numbers in a docu- 
ment to words— that is, 5 to five, 62 to 
sixty-two, and so forth. At first 1 thought, 
"How quaint," but it's not as inconse- 
quential as it seems. Whether to use 
numbers or the words for them is a ques- 
tion of style. 80 Micro, for instance, and 
other technically oriented magazines 
tend to favor numbers. Journals with a 
literary bent, such as the New York Re- 
view of Books, lean toward words. 

Changing numbers to words isn't a 
particularly difficult programming prob- 
lem, but it's tricky, especially handling 
the teens. How far can you go with it? 
How many numbers can you find words 
for? (For the really adventurous, what 
does it take to reverse the process and 
turn words into numbers?) Start with 
this line: 

100 INPUT" A numl3er":N$:GOSUB 1000: 
PRINT W$: PRINT :GOTO 100. 

What you put around it is up to you, 
but use my line 100 to preserve my al- 
ready questionable sanity. 

The Rules: 

1. Write your programs or routines in 
any TRS or Tkndy Basic, except Pocket 
Computer Basic. 

2. Solutions to this month's poser(s) 
must reach us by August 15, 1987, to be 
considered for the November 1987 issue. 

3. Employees of CW Communications al- 
ready have T-shirts and arc not eligible, 

4. Send your solutions, comments, crit- 
icisms, suggestions, and T-shirt size to: 
80 Micro. Fine Lines, SO Elm St., Peter- 
borough, NH 03458. We cannot return 
any material. ■ 



Harry Bee is a 
free-lance writer, 
puzzle creator, pro- 
grammer, and drea- 
mer. You can con- 
toict him at P.O. Box 
567, Cornish. ME 
04020, or on Com- 
puServe (74076, 
346!), 




28* 80 Micro, August 1987 



Micro Smart Inc. says 
what you want to hear. 

Service! 



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TRS80- all drives are externa) with their own cartridge cabinet, 
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5 Meg Removable Cart $399.95 

10 Meg Hard Disk $499.95 

20 Meg Hard Drive $599.95 

40 Meg Hard Drive $995.95 



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• Compatibility — by far the best and most 
compatible bios. Wfe guarantee that the 
major software will operate flawlessly. 
Lotus 2.x, Symphony, Flight Simulator (in 
our color systems), Wordstar 2000, Word, 
DBase, RBase, the list goes on and on . . . 

• Turbo speed (8MHz clock — you can switch 
down to 4.77MHz like the competition, 
would you really want to!!) 

• 8 expansion slot motherboard — 4 layers. 

• Turtx) light — No guessing. If it's red, it's Turbo. 

• 640K memory — High quality pre-tested 
chips. 

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compatible graphics card. 

• High resolution graphics — Both the monitor 
and display card are Hercules compatible. 
(No low quality composite stuff.) 

• We even give you a tilt and swivel base for 
your comfort. 

• One 360K high quality floppy drive. (Our head 
technician checks each one.) 

• Continuous and heavy duty 150 Watt power 
supply. (tS Watts more than most 
competitors.} 

• A battery backed-up clock calendar. 

• A slot for a math co-processor chip 8067. 

• One Serial port — you can add a second. 

• One parallel port for your printer. 

• One game port for jay sticks. 

• One light pen port. 

• AT style keyboard with 10 function keys 
(enhanced keyboard shown is an option). 

• FCC approved — (ask the competition if 
their's is). 

Free Software too! 

PC-Write word processor, PC-CALC spreadsheet, 
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XT options 

CGA Color system 640 x 200 — 240.00 
EGA Color system 650 x 350 — 475.00 
8087 math coprocessor — 125.00 

Complete Turbo M Systems with Hard Drives 

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8088-2 Processor 



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SERVICE 

No one does it better. Shipments are made Monday through Friday. 
Ail in-stock items are shipped the same day if your order is placed by 
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WARRANTY and AFTER WARRANTY SERVICE 

As a team, we have been servicing you since 1981. We knov^ how 
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24 hours — not too shabby! 

SPEAKING OF WARRANTIES 

We're the best. TWO YEARS on all electronics boards and fifteen 
months on all mechanicals. Just ask us. We will tell you about the 
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TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE 

We pride ourselves in our ability to assist in most situations. We will 
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AT/286 options 
CGA Color system 600 x 240 — 240.00 
EGA Color system 650 x 350 — 475.00 
80287 math coprocessor — 225.00 

Complete systems with: 

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30 Megabytes 1649.95 

43 Megabytes 1799.95 

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Not responsible tor typographical errors. T&rms and specifications may change wrlhoul notice. 



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6/10mhz $50,00 option 
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Lotus 2.x, Symphony, Flight Simulator (in 
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• Continuous hem/y duty power supply — 200 
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• AT style keyboard with 10 function keys 
(enhanced keyboard shown is an cation). 

• 2 Serial ports — J parallel port. 

• Slot for a math co-processor 802S7. 

• One light pen port. 

• A clock calendar for automatic time and date 
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Long waits for your system — NEVERf Order it by 2:00 pm on any week 
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REVIEWS / edited by Mark Reynolds 



The Tandy 1000 SX 



by Dave Rowell 

The Tbndjr 1000 SX comes 
with 384K. two disk drives, 
five expansion slots, and 
MS-DOS 3.2 and GW-Basic 
3.2. Tandy Corp.. Fort 
Worth, TX 76102, Catalog 
no. 25-1051. $999. $849 
with one drive. 

The 1000 SX is Tandy 
Corp.'s latest version 
of its inexpensive but capa- 
ble PC compatible. The SX 
is faster, more expandable, 
and more compatible than 
earlier 1000s, and the price 
stays just under $1000. 1^- 
ble 1 shows a list of specifi- 
cations for the machine for 
easy comparison. 

The improvements are 
not readily apparent from 
the outside; the SX has the 
same white plastic case as 
older models — sturdy, light- 
weight, and attractive [see 
Photo 1). The panels cover- 
ing the two drive bays, however, arc now 
white instead of black. The SX doesn't 
hog space, partly because of Its shorter- 
than-lBM-PC expansion slots. 

A recessed area along the t>ottom front 
shelters the orange reset button (easy to 
press, but out of harm's 
way), two joystick ports, 
and the keyboard plug-in. 
The latter is handy, yet 
low enough so that the 
keyboard, when raised on 
its legs, can butt flush to 
the SX on a shallow desk 
without hitting the cable 
connector. 

Through long use I have 
grown to like the 1000 key- 
board; it's easy and depend- 
able, but a little loose- 
keyed. This keyboard is the 
same one Tandy introduced 
several years ago with its 
less compatible 2000. The 
key layout is fairly close 
to that of the enhanced 
keyboard now offered with 




Pftoto i. The Tandy lOOO SX is powerful and expandable. 



IBM micros— 12 function keys across the 
top and a separate cursor cluster— but 
it's somewhat cramped and not totally 
compatible. 

The non-standard number and place- 
ment of keys causes minor compatibility 



CPU: 8088-2 

RAM: 384K 

Clock speeds: 4.77/7. 16MHz 

Power supply: 67W 

Expansion: Five 10-inch slots 

Keyboard: 90-key Tandy design 

Display: built-in CGA controiler. monitor optional 

Drives: one 360K floppy 

Software: MS-DOS 3.2. GW-Basic 3.2, Deskmate II 

Ports: parallel printer port, two joystick ports, 

light- pen port, speaker jack 
Math coprocessor socket: yes 
FCC rating: B 

Dimensions: 16 inches wide, 13'.4 inches deep, 6 inches high 
Weight: 1 1 lbs. 
Price: $849 with one floppy drive. $999 with two drives 

Table i. Specifications for the TUndy lOOO SX. 



problems with a some soft- 
ware packages, especially 
in the keypad area. Usually, 
you can stumble across 
some key combination that 
triggers the function you 
wish to use. 

On Borland products, for 
instance, pressing alter- 
nate-break substitutes for 
the missing scroll-lock key. 
Tandy provides a keyboard 
driver (KEYCNVRT.SYS) 
that seems to help with 
some programs. The print 
key can also get you. Hit it 
accidentally with no printer 
ready to go and you might 
have to reboot. 

Physical Evidence 

The SX runs somewhat 
faster than older 1000s (and 
IBM PCs), but you won't see 
physical evidence of im- 
provements until you look 
around back (see Photo 3). 
There you'll find openings 
for five expansion slots (up 
from three), and, on early SXes, a 
grounding connection for the printer ca- 
ble—a last-minute change to meet FCC 
requirements for radio-frequency inter- 
ference (RFI). This connection is now 
built into the cable. 

The grounded printer ca- 
ble [optional) is still a non- 
standard card-edge connec- 
tor rather than the 25-pin D 
connector found on IBM 
PCs, and the new 1000 still 
provides a light-pen port. 

Open the SX— still just two 
easy-to-reach screws on the 
case front- and you find 
most changes are inside (see 
Photo 2). Not only are there 
more expansion slots (albeit 
a short 10 inches long), but 
you need fewer slots to up- 
grade the SX. It comes with a 
DMA (direct memory access) 
controller and 384K right on 
the motherboard with empty 
sockets to go to 640K. With 
built-in printer and CGA- 



80 Micro, August 1987 • 33 



REVIEWS 



video circuitry, you may 
have trouble finding 
enough boards to fill five 
slots. Tandy souped up the 
power supply accordingly, 
but to a less-than-powerful 
67 watts (from 54 watts). 

Tandy has addressed 
most major 1000 compati- 
bility problems, too-short 
slots and keyboard layout 
aside. The SX accepts dis- 
play adapters, thanks to a 
DIP switch that disables its 
built-in video circuits. Other 
DIP switches free some of 
the SX's hardware-inter- 
rupt lines for add-on boards. 
This means you can flick a 
switch and plug In a stan- 
dard PC-compatible hard- 
drive controller that uses 
hardware interrupt 5, 

The basic input^output system (BIOS) 
ROM (version 1,02) fixes other snags. For 
instance, the SX now cheeks for the 
presence of an 8087 math coprocessor 
chip and sets the appropriate bit in low 
memory during bootup. 

In spite of metal RFI shielding on all 
sides, the SX is open inside; you can still 
easily reach all DIP switches, jumper set- 
tings, empty RAM sockets, and the 8087 
socket. There's also a metal bar across 
the top of the expansion area that you 
must slide off before adding or removing 
expansion cards. All the electronics are 
on the mothert(oard, leaving room not 
only for the five slots, but also for a pig- 
gyback hard drive like Tandy's 20-me- 
gabyte (MB) Hard Disk Card. 

Putting in new boards is still a bear, 
because of the cheap little screws that 
hold and ground the boards onto the 
SX's metal back. The almost slotless 
screws defy most screwdrivers. Once 
you've managed to unscrew one, you're 
likely to drop it onto the 
motherboard, because the 
upper lip of the plastic fa- 
cade on the back makes the 
screws hard to get to. At 
least the black hole by the 
fan opening Is gone. A screw 
dropped there meant re- 
moving the plastic back. 

The last major hardware 
improvement is the 50 per- 
cent increase in clock rate. 
The SX runs default at 7.16 
megahert:: (MHz), but you 
can slow it down to the stan- 
dard 4.77MHz with DOS's 
Mode command if you're 
having speed problems with 
an expansion card or a 
game program. Unfortu- 
nately, the 50 percent clock 




Photo 2. It's easy to open the SX and install additional boards. 



spreedup only translates to a 25 percent 
performance increase with most practi- 
cal speed benchmark tests. Norton Util- 
ities' Sysinfo shows a 40 percent 
increase, but a spreadsheet recalc with 
Lotus's 1-2-3 Release 2 only speeds up 
18 percent. Several little Baste tests I 
wrote (a graphics program and a simple 
Fbr. . .Next loop} both run only 25 per- 
cent faster In the SX's fast mode. 

Sound and Color 

Although the 1000 SX mimics the IBM 
in most hardware details important for 
compatibility, it's not a clone. It has two 
of the enhancements that came with the 
PCjr: three- voice sound and two extra 
color video modes. In addition to pure 
tones, the special sound chip can also 
generate several types of noise. Several 
programs take advantage of these fea- 
tures (the King's Quest series, for one), 
but otherwise you'll have to write your 
own programs with the lOOO's version 




Photo 3. The SX offers Jive expansion slots where older 
1000s had three. 



of GW-Basic. 

One disadvantage of the 
lOOO's jr-like video capabili- 
ties is that the video circuitry 
takes up 16K of user RAM to 
store the display image 
rather than use RAM chips 
specific for video circuitry. If 
you use one of the special jr 
video modes (e.g., the 16- 
color. 640- by 200-pixel 
mode), you lose 32K of RAM 
to video storage, 

I found the SX speaker too 
loud for many programs; 
play a game on this com- 
puter and the whole building 
knows it. There is a trim pot 
(variable resistor) on the 
main board that you can ad- 
just with a small screwdriver 
to lower the volume. 
You have several display 
options for the SX. The built-in circuitry 
supports RGB monitors in CGA mode 
and drives both color and monochrome 
composite displays, too. A composite 
monochrome monitor, such as the VM- 
4, provides sharp text but doesn't trans- 
late colors well to shades of gray. "Tan- 
dy's CM- 1 1 RGB monitor displays good 
sharp 6*40- by 400-pixel color graphics 
and adequately clear text. The cheaper 
CM-5, however, is good only for 320- by 
400-pixel graphics and terrible for text 
display. 

Unlike earlier 1000s, the SX can use 
video expansion cards once you've 
switched off its internal video circuitry. 
Tkndy offers several video boards that 
will fit in the lOOO's 10-inch slots. The 
dual-display graphics adapter can drive 
a CGA-compatible monitor like the CM- 
1 1 or a TTL monochrome monitor like 
the VM-3 that produces high-resolution 
text or Hercules-type graphics. 
Another adapter card can drive the 
high-quality color and 
monochrome displays 
made for the 2000. Tandy's 
EGA card is too long for the 
1000, but Tkndy provides a 
third-party EGA board 
through its Express Order 
Hardware program. 

Drive Storage 

T^ndy first introduced the 
SX as a two-floppy computer 
(now selling for $999). The 
TEAC 55B floppies that 
come with the SX arc loud, 
especially at bootup. Re- 
cently, Tkndy brought out a 
one-drive SX ($849, catalog 
no. 25-1052) to give you 
more drive storage options. 
To fill that empty bay. 



34 • SO Micro, August 1987 



circle 455 on Reader Service card 



The Ultimate Expansion 
for your Tandy 

by Hard Drive Specialist 




Model 1000 Multifunction Boards 

New! 

4 Megabyte Memory PLUS Card 

For the Tandy 1000, 1000A, 1000SX, AND THE TANDY 1200. 
Expands memory beyond the 640K, limited by DOS, to use the 
Intel/ Lot us/Micro soft expanded memory format. Includes a printer 
spooler, memory disk, and Plus port. PLUS expansion cards 
(RS232C. Clock. ETC) can be plugged into a special connector, 
saving a slot for other applications. 
4 Megabyte Plus Card (OK) $199. 

TanPak™ 

For the Tandy 1000 and 1000A. Seven of the most needed 
junctions/features have been combined into one package using 
only one expansion slot. Features include memory up to 51 2K, 
RS232, Serial Port. Clock-Calendar, DMA. Printer Spooler, 
Memory disk, and a PLUS expansion port that can use most PLUS 
cards. 

TanPak OK $179. 

TanPakTM Secondary 

If you already have a Model 1000 memory card and do not wish 
to replace it the TanPak secondary is tor you. It retains all the 
Features of the TanPak except for the DtvlA. For the 1000, 1000A. 

TanPakTM Secondary OK $139. 

TanPakiM SX 

Made for the Nev^r Tandy 1000 SX, it contains alt the features of 
the TanPakTM except the l^/lemory and DI^A features. 
TanPakTM SX $129. 

TANDY 1000 Also Tandy 1000 EX 

RS232C Serial- Clock/Calender 
Piggy/Back Card by Hard Drive Specialist 

Now available for the TanPak, the Tandy Ivlemory Expansion 
PLUS Card, the HDS Memory Expansion Plus Card, and other 
boards that configure their expansion port w/ith side A (component 
side) routing conductors to the top side of the 62 conductor dual 
row header. 

RS232C-Serial PLUS Card 5 59. 

Clock/Calendar PLUS Card $ 59. 

RS232C-Serial, Clock/Calendar PLUS Card . . $129. 
Memory Plus Expansion Board 

For the 1000, 1000A. Includes sockets for 512K. DMA, and a 
PLUS expansion port. 

Memory PLUS Expansion Card, OK $99. 

Model 3/4 RS232C Card $69. 

Model 3/4 Floppy Disk Controller Card S99. 

Color Compuler Floppy Disk Controller Card $99. 

-'a--' '-■ ■ • '';■•■ -v .'•■•■ - ■.-... 



Tandy 1000, 1000A, 1000SX Hard Drives 



Shop and compare. Hard Drive Specialist has been building 
hard drive systems for years and have sold thousands of subsy- 
stems to satisfied Radio Shack/Tandy customers. Our drives alljj 
use buffered seek logic and plated media to result in almost one- 
fourth the average access found on our competitor's drives.! 
Internal drive systems include an interface card and a half -height? 
hard drive that replaces the top disk drive in both size and power ' 
consumption. External units include an interface card, case, ^ 
power supply, and hard drive unit. All units require a memorwH 
board with DMA compatible with the Tandy 1000. ^^ 

20 Meg Hard Card $499. 30 Meg Hard Card $699. 

NEW! 45 MEG Hard Card $899. 

20 Meg Internal $479. External $629. 

30 Meg Internal $679. External $829. 

45 Meg Internal $879. External $1029. 

60 Meg Internal $1199. External $1349. 

TANDY 1000 EX Hard Drives 

Our new External Hard Drives for the Tandy 1000 EX work just like 
our hard drive units for the Tandy 1000 with the exception of the-j 
PLUS type interfacing. Tandy 1000 EX Hard drives require aS 
memory/dma card. 

20 Meg External 1000EX Hard Drive $729. 

30 Meg External 1 0OOEX Hard Drive $929. 

42 Meg External 1 0OOEX Hard Drive $1445. 

60 Meg External 1000EX Hard Drive $1645.^ 

Tandy 3000, 3000HL Hard Drives | 

Hard Drives with 16 bit fast controllers that meet or beat the 
Tandy Products at a fraction of the cost. Add $50. to the below 
prices for a controller that will also operate a 1 ,2 Meg Floppy DisM 

External $729. 



External $929. 

External S11Z9. 

External S1499- 

.Model 1 add S50 5 



Drive. 

20 Meg Internal $579. 

30 Meg Internal S779. 

45 Meg Internal S979. 

GO Meg Internal ..... $1299. 

Model 1,3,4 Hard Drives 

20 Meg ■ $S4S. 20''20 Meg $1245. ~ 

40 Meg $1395. 40+40 Meg $2295. 

HARD DRIVE SPECIALIST 

Order Line 

1-800-231-6671 

1-713-480-6000 



16208 Hickory Knoll 
Houston, Texas 77059 



Ordering tnlormalion 

Use oi.< WATS line to place your t>rtte< «a V.sa MasrerCard, Disco-et or Wire Tiansler Or rn 

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,s ouTslandara inaansol s^lPPl.^^9 unless olhen*,se speeded Shipping coslsare available.""" 

requesl 



la^H 



.tffi 



ground^ 



REVIEWS 



Tandy provides S'A-lnch 360K floppy 
and 3'^-lnch 720K floppy drives. You can 
also put any half-height hard drive in 
that bay. Unfortunately, the 20MB inter- 
nal Bernoulli system Tandy markets 
doesn't go in the 1000. 

You can still upgrade the two-floppy 
SX with Tandy's 20MB internal Hard 
Disk Card ($799, catalog no. 25-1029), 
because this drive doesn't require one of 
the drive bays. It's a standard hard-drive 
unit bracketed to a short controller card. 
You must plug the card into the right- 
most slot so the drive can stick Into the 
empty space between the slot area and 
the two drive bays. I had some trouble 
performing a high-level format on the 
drive. It kept failing on one particular 
track until I ran it through a low-level 
format. From then on, it has worked re- 
liably and quietly. I've been using the 
20MB hard card for many months. 

The 20MB drive's performance Is me- 
diocre. Core's hard-drive test gives it a 
random average time of 90 milliseconds 
(ms)— what you'd expect for an IBM XT- 
type hard drive. The Doran test, which 
uses Norton Utilities' Disktest program 
(version 3.10) with the /D parameter to 
test sequential disk access, gives Ikn- 
dy's hard card a slow 22K per second. 
The XT's standard hard drives usually 
can test 44K per second. 

Software Included 

T^ndy gives you MS-DOS 3.2 and GW- 
Basic 3.2 with the 1000 SX. The Basic is 
specific for the 1000 and supports the 
three-voice sound chip and PCjr graph- 
ics modes. In other respects, the lOOO's 
Basic is compatible with other GW- 
Basics and IBM's BasicA. You don't get 
a full-fledged reference manual for either 
EK>S or Basic (optional from Tandy for 
$29.95). A quick-reference booklet gives 
you much of that informa- 
tion in condensed form for 
all DOS commands and Ba- 
sic statements, though. 

The Play sound state- 
ment in the SX's GW-Basic 
chokes on long strings of 
notes when playing in back- 
ground mode, but Tandy 
has an optional patch for it. 
Copy Patch.COM from the 
MS-DOS Supplemental Pro- 
gram disk to a backup copy 
of the DOS disk. At the IXJS 
prompt, add the following 
Unes to your Basic backup 
disk: 
PATCH BASIC.EXE.6E0F. 

75F 1,9090 
PATCH BASIC .EXE. 7 EDS. 

26C7,EB05 

If you make these 
changes, make a note of it 



in the version log; however, the version 
number remains the same. 

The 1000 SX MS-DOS is a standard 
version of 3.2, although the Mode com- 
mand has some options specific to the 
SX, Fast and Slow parameters switch 
the SX between 4.77 and 7. 16MHz clock 
speeds, for Instance. Graphics.COM has 
also been modified to support many of 
Tody's non- IBM -compatible printers. 

If you're used to MS-DOS 2.x. you'll 
find some new DOS capabilities and 
commands, like Xcopy, Xcopy can copy 
whole subdirectories without having 
to create the destination subdirectory 
first. I like the ability to run a program 
from some distant subdirectory by spec- 
ifying the path name. Both the DOS and 
Basic are slightly larger than previous 
versions. 

If you are new to MS-DOS computers, 
a big plus to buying the SX is Tandy's 
EJeskmate II Integrated all-purpose pro- 
gram. This memory-resident program 
comes with the machine and offers a full 
complement of capabilities: text editor, 
spreadsheet, filer, scheduling calendar, 
calculator, alarm, and phone directory. 
If you have a modem hooked to your 
1000 SX, you can use Deskmate II's tele- 
communications program (with host 
mode), mail system, and phone dialer. 
Because It's memory-resident, you can 
jump between Deskmate and some 
other program, if you have enough 
memory. 

Getting Started 

I>eskmate is a good package to get you 
started. It has all the common applica- 
tions that people use on micros. Each 
has the most basic functions that type of 
program should have, and not much 
more. You can get a feel for what a 
spreadsheet does or get onto Compu- 



Monitors: 
CM-5 320-by-200 RGB monitor ($300) 
CM- 11 640-by-200 RGB monitor ($460) 
VM-4 composite monochrome monitor ($130) 
Dual display adapter for RGB and TTL monochrome ($250) 
Deluxe display adapter for Tkndy hi-res VM-1 color monitor 
($400) 

Drives: 
20MB hard card ($799) 
720K 3'^-inch internal fioppy ($199.95) 
360K 5H-lnch internal floppy ($169.95) 

1/0: 

Dual serial port ($99) 

Diglmouse/clock board ($100) 
Modems: 1200 baud Internal ($200) 
Expansion boards: hard disk controller ($300) 
Grounded printer cable (6 ft.. $40: 12 ft., $45) 
Universal keyboard adapter ($100) 

Thble 2. Tandy's Options for the lOOO SX. 



serve with a modem. If you have a seri- 
ous need for any of these capabilities, 
however, you'll want to graduate to full- 
featured software. 

The 300-page owner's manual has 
three parts. The first section covers the 
equipment: setup, the components and 
what they do, care of disks, and adding 
options. Detailed drawings help you lo- 
cate the various parts, such as the socket 
for a math coprocessor chip. The second 
part covers the ttasics of using MS-DOS 
to do essential functions such as prepare 
disks and copy programs. The major 
part of the spiral-bound manual explains 
how to use Deskmate II. Compact size, 
good printing, and thoughtful layout 
ease the learning process. 

How Compatible? 

The 1000 SX is not an exact copy of 
the IBM PC, but it does mimic the es- 
sential hardware. This, along with the 
Phoenix BIOS, makes the SX greater 
than 95 percent PC compatible. T^ndy 
has eliminated many of the compat- 
ibility problems of earlier 1000s. The 
ability to use video expansion boards or 
an unmodified hard-drive controller are 
prime examples. Also, as the 1000 has 
gained in popularity, software manufac- 
turers have learned how to avoid unsa- 
vory programming practices that trip up 
the lOOO's few remaining hardware 
quirks. 

Two design kinks remain to keep the 
SX from reaching 99-percent compat- 
ibility. First, the 10-inch expansion 
slots limit your choice of add-on 
boards, although you can find a variety 
of short cards to do almost anything 
these days. Second, the non-standard 
keyboard layout can frustrate users of 
several important software packages — 
Microsoft Word and Framework, for ex- 
ample, Tandy now adver- 
tises a Universal Keyboard 
Adapter that lets you use 
a standard IBM PC/AT key- 
board on your SX— an ex- 
pensive solution. See Table 
2 for a list of Tandy's op- 
tions for the SX. 



Good Value 

In spite of these prob- 
lems, the 1000 SX has 
many attractive features; 
it's compact, light in 
weight, more powerful 
than an IBM PC, and ex- 
pandable. For programmers 
it has special effects in 
sound and graphics. With 
Tandy's support, availabil- 
ity, and low price, you may 
find the SX wortii the risk of 
some inconvenience. ■ 



36 • 80 Micro, August 1987 



The 80 Micro Disk Series 
1000/1200/3000 

80 Micro has come to the rescue of the "Rindy 1000, 
L200, and 3000 owners. Now you don't have to type in the 
MS-DOS program listings that appear In SO Micro. They are 
now available on a quarterly basis. We have two disks cov- 
ering the first two quarters for 1987. 

You win need the appropriate 1987 issues as documen- 
tation to use the programs. Below are the directories of 
what ap[>ears on the first two disks, the 1987 issue, article 
title, page number, and the program(s) that correspond. 

To order call toll free 1-800-258-5473. 24 hours, seven 
days a week, or fill out the order form on page 101 and mall 
it to us with your payment enclosed. The price for each disk 
is $17.95 including postage and handling. 



SPOOLI.ASM 

SPOOLI.COM 
Data-Statement generator, p 

DATAPOKE.BAS 
June 

T^dy 1000 Custom Character 
Generator, p. 58 



CLIPART.BAS 

CLIPGEN.BAS 
80 John's MS-DOS Column, p. 93 
SWITCHAR.ASM 
SWITCHAR.COM 



January-March 1987 

January 

Checking References, p. 48 

REFLIB.BAS 
Hidden Attributes, p. 66 

SECURE.ASM 

SECURE.EXE 
February 
That Thinking Feeling, p. 42 

OUTLINE.BAS 
Taking Measure, p. 49 

AREA.BAS 
Changing of the Guard, p, 60 

FILEIT.ASM 

FILEIT.COM 
March 

So, You \^feuit to Buy a House?, 
p. 54 



HOUSE.BAS 
Disk Repair 101, p. 42 

DISKINFO.PAS 

DISKINFO.COM 
Bonus Program 
September 1986 
Making the Grade, p. 68 

MARK.BAS 

April-Jime 1987 

April 

Payday Made Easy, p. 56 

PAYROLL.BAS 
May 
Quick Boot. p. 46 

REBOOT.BAS 
Leave the Printing to Spooli, 
p. 58 



CALL FOR ARTICLES 

Have you written a program or utility that might be in- 
teresting to other 80 Micro readers? Do you know a DOS or 
programming technique that you'd hke to share? Then 
how about sending it in to SO Micro for possible publica- 
tion? 

We're looking for people with good ideas. In particular, 
we'd like to see some useful utilities, small-business and 
personal management programs, tutorials on Basic and 
Pascal programming for all levels of expertise, and interest- 
ing science, math, and hobby applications. 

The procedure is simple. Write us a query letter telling us 
about your proposed article. We'll tell you whether we think 
your article is appropriate for 80 Micro. We'll also send you 
a copy of our author's guidelines, which will give you infor- 
mation on manuscript preparation, style, payment rates, and 
the like. 

Send yout letter or proposal to: 

Submissions Committee 
80 Micro 
80 Elm St. 
Peterborough, NH 03458. 

(JVo phone calls, please.) 




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80 Micro, August W87 • 37 



REVIEWS 



4 in the Fast Lane 

b^ William H. Potter 

The XLRSer Board can be installed in 
the Model 4/4P/4D running TRSDOS. 
LDOS, or CP/M. H.l. Tech Inc., P.O. Box 
25404. Houston. TX 77265, 713-682- 
7317. $299.95. 

The XLRSer package consists of a 
printed circuit board and the soft- 
ware to take advantage of it. Versions for 
TRSDOS 6.2, LDOS, and Montezuma 
CP/M 2.2 are available. The board in- 
cludes a HD64180 microprocessor with 
a 6. 144-megahertz (MHz) clock (which 
replaces your Z80 running at 4MHz), 
256K of additional RAM. two RS-232 
ports, and a high-speed parallel bus. 

The XLRSer speeds program execu- 
tion by 30-50 percent. Setting up the ex- 
tra RAM as RAM disk makes disk-access 
about five times faster than normal. If 
only as a RAM disk, the XLRSer might 
be worth the investment. 

The utility software lets you take ad- 
vantage of the speedup and the RAM 
disk. To use the other features— the par- 
allel bus. the RS-232 ports, and the ad- 
ditional HD64180 features— you'll need 



to do some assembly-language program- 
ming on the HD64 180. 

The XLRSer worked well with both 
floppy and hard disks and with a high- 
resolution graphics board. I found no 
problems using it with TRSDOS, Basic, 
Forth, or C. 

Installation 

Installation is simple: There are no 
traces to cut, no jumpers to move, and 
nothing to solder. If you need to, taking 
the board out again is also easy. 

The XLRSer uses the Z80 socket for all 
its connections to the Model 4, including 
power, so you don't have to make any 
other connections, unless you want to 
use the XLRSer's input/output (I/O) 
ports or expansion bus. All you need do 
is remove the Z80 from its socket, install 
the XLRSer. and connect it to the ZSO 
socket via a short cable. 

H.I. Tech furnishes an adhesive card 
guide that helps fix the board in place in 
a Model 4. In the 4P. you slip the XLRSer 
into the internal-modem slot. The instal- 
lation Instructions caution you to note 
the location of pin I on the ZSO socket 
and on the XLRSer board, but they don't 
tell you how to recognize that pin. it's at 



the notched end of the socket. 

According to the H.I. Tech engineer, it 
shouldn't hurt anything if you plug the 
jumper in backwards, but it's still a good 
idea to get it right. 

The XLRSer is about '/< inch too nar- 
row to fit properly into the card guides in 
the 4P modem slot, so you'll have to find 
some other means to keep it in place. I 
folded strips of electrical tape over one 
edge of the card. 

You need to keep the pins for the RS- 
232 and parallel bus connectors from 
shorting to the 4P case. Since I didn't 
expect to use these connections, I simply 
put electrical tape over the connector 
pins. With this rig, I installed the 
XLRSer in a 4P with a high-resolution 
graphics board, though it took some 
rather careful folding of the XLRSer's 
ribbon cable. 

The XLRSer manual is clear on the 
steps required to open the 4P and install 
the board, but it doesn't mention that 
you must take off the handle support 
plate (four screws) and the metal rear 
panel of the 4P internal case (six screws) 
before opening the bottom cover plate to 
get to the main PC board. 

The XLRSp"- doesn't have to occupy 



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38 • 80 Micro, August 1987 



REVIEWS 



the 4P's internal-modem slot, since it 
doesn't use the intemal-modem connec- 
tions. If you're using an internal modem 
in your machine, you should be able to 
arrange a kludge that will let the XLRSer 
and the modem coexist. 

The Software 

As stated above, you can choose one of 
three versions of XLRSer software. The 
LDOS version tncludes a routine that lets 
you run the Model 4 with XLRSer In Model 
111 mode. The utilities let you install the 
system, control the XLRSer' s speed and 
the number of wait states, and set up the 
additional 256K of RAM as a RAM disk. 
You also get a simple disassembler for 
the HD64180 and a utility that tells you 
which RAM banks are in use. 

The HD64180 
Microprocessor 

The XLRSer is more than a Z80 with 
a faster clock. The Hitachi HD641S0 mi- 
croprocessor is designed to be an up- 
ward-comj)atible successor to the Z80. It 
can emulate a Z80 but has many capa- 
bilities that a Z80 doesn't have, like sev- 
eral additional internal registers, and 12 
additional commands, including an in- 
teger multiply. 

It has a 19-bit address bus, so it can di- 
rectly address 512K of RAM, compared 
with the Z80's 64K. It offers a memory- 
management unit that lets the software 
select 64K out of the 512K address space 
to work in when it emulates a Z80. 

The HD64180 chip also includes two 
serial ports, timers, and circuitry to con- 
trol direct access to memory. All of this 
extra capability requires a module with 
more than 40 external connections, so 
the HD64180 comes in a 64-pin DIP 
package. Since it is implemented in 
CMOS, it requires little power. 

Execution Speed 

A wait state is a clock cycle during 
which the microprocessor waits for the 
rest of the circuitry to catch up. The 280 
always inserts a wait state in each I/O 
command. The HD64180can insert wait 
states in both RAM accesses and I/O 
commands. You can separately control 
the number of each , so you can make the 
HD64180 run as fast or as slowly as the 
rest of the computer circuitry allows. 

When you plug In the XLRSer and 
boot your machine, the system actually 
runs a little slower than with the ZSO, 
because the default condition of the 
XLRSer puts in enough wait states to be 
safe. To run it at full speed, remove these 
extra wait states by executing SET180. 

The XLRSer manual cautions you that 
your computer should have 150-nano- 
second (ns) RAM modules for the 
XLRSer to run full speed. However, I 



went ahead and plugged in the board 
with the 200-ns RAMs that are in my 
computer, and everything works fine so 
far. Slow RAMs might work, but 1 would 
not count on this happening. 

When running software written for ZSO, 
the XLRSer uses a faster clock speed and 
offers the RAM disk to increase program 
execution. The XLRSer can give you even 
quicker execution if you program some 
portions of your software in HD64180 
assembly, to take advantage of the addi- 
tional commands and registers. 

You also need HD64180 assembly pro- 
grams if you want to use either of the RS- 
232 ports or the SB ISO bus. To write pro- 
grams that take full advantage of the 
HD64180 commands, you'll need the 
HD64180 manual. You can probably fool 
a ZSO macroassembler into generating 
the extra HD64180 codes for you. 

The Optional Ports 

If you Intend to use one or both of the 
XLRSer's RS-232 serial ports, you'll 
need some additional components, a 
+ 12- and - 12-volt power source, and a 
cable to bring the signals out to the back 
panel of your computer. You also need 
software that doesn't come with the 
XLRSer package. H.l. Tech can furnish 
the hardware components but it doesn't 
provide the software. 

The XLRSer provides a 40-pin SB ISO- 
compatible expansion port that you can 
use to connect your Model 4 to the out- 
side world and gain fast input and out- 
put for special applications. 

Benchmark Tests 

I ran benchmark tests to compare the 
execution speed of Basic programs with 
and without the XLRSer, and to compare 
the access time for floppies against that 
ofthe RAM disk. 

In four program-execution tests, 
XLRSer decreased execution time of M/ 
D, a series of floating-point multiplies 
and divides, by 31 percent; Sieve, the fa- 
miliar Sieve of Eratosthenes, using inte- 
gers, by 44 percent; Trans, a sequence 
of number-crunching trig, log, and ex- 
ponential functions, by 30 percent; and 
Search, a search for a string of charac- 
ters in a long LeScript text file, by 33 
percent. 

The RAM disk loaded Basic and a Basic 
program and LjeScript and a long text file 
five times faster than did a floppy disk. 

Summary 

The XLRSer Board offers worthwhile 
improvements to your Model 4's perfor- 
mance, whether you just want to play, or 
reach further into its capabilities by pro- 
gramming Its microprocessor. It will 
keep your trusty computer in step with 
this era of turbo speed machines. ■ 



Worlds of Wonder 

hy Harry Bee 

Fractals (Mandelbrot Set Explorer, 
$19.95) and Life Experimenter & Su- 
per Splro-Graph ($24) run on the 
Models in/4/4P/4D and require a hi-res 
graphics hoard and one disk drive. Mi- 
cro-Labs Inc., 7309 Campbell Road, Dal- 
las, TX 75248, 214-702-8654. 

These programs are wonderful, in 
the most literal sense. You can't 
use them to write a proposal or plot your 
market strategy. There's nothing prac- 
tical about them. They won't even 
award you points. All you can do with 
Fractals, Life Experimenter, and Super 
Spiro-Graph Is explore, graphically, the 
implications of three well-known math- 
ematical concepts— and wonder. 

Nature's Geometry 

Fractals are complex curves. The Man- 
delbrot Set is a structure of fractal curves 
described by a simple mathematical func- 
tion. Fractals, the program, plots contour 
maps of areas ofthe Set and uses shading 
to represent the third dimension. 

The idea of the program is exploration, 
and everything about it tends to draw 
you deeper into the Set's fascinating ge- 
ometry. The picture of the entire Set 
seems perfectly symmetrical at first. But 
looking closer you discover that, like 
things found in nature, it's not, . , quite. 
That's its lure and hook. 

You can start with the complete map, 
or any part of it, by entering the coordi- 
nates ofthe area you want to look at and 
the magnification and resolution you 
want. The documentation is clear and 
provides good guidance. Finished maps 
that come with the program disk can get 
you started more quickly. Once you have 
a map on the screen, you can point to 
any area that catches your Interest and 
magnify it to look at it more closely. 

Each part of the Set, each map, is dif- 
ferent from every other. Each deeper 
level reveals the ever more intricate 
structure of fractal curves that made up 
the level above. Exploring the Mandel- 
brot Set with Fractals is very much like 
exploring nature: discovering the cellu- 
lar structure of tissue, the molecular 
structure of cells, the atomic structure of 
molecules, and wondering more. 

Because the program might perform 
thousands of calculations to draw one 
screen. Fractals incorporates features to 
help you find your way more quickly. 
You can save a screen to disk, in order 
to return to it, and print it with a 
capable printer. You control the 
amount of detail in each map by limiting 
the maximum number of calculations 
performed. The result is a quick sketch 



80 Micro, August 1987 • 39 



Cifcle 133 on Reader Service card. 



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computer sales 
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• Package of Computer Paper "400 

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REVIEWS 



of an area to help you decide If It's what 
you were expecting. 

The program also has a multipass 
mode that starts drawing with very little 
detail and doubles the resolution in each 
of nine passes. You can interrupt the pro- 
cess any time. Finally, you control the 
picture's contrast, and enhance certain 
details, by altering the range of values 
the shadings represent. 

When all Is said and done, the only 
thing that Fractals really does Is draw 
pretty pictures. Yet these pictures are spe- 
cial. The non-linear, asymmetrical de- 
signs are not just random patterns. They 
have a musical beauty, and an attraction 
I found Irresistible. 

Let There Be Life 

In Life Experimenter, an excellent im- 
plementation of John Horton Conway's 
Game of Life, your screen Is a self-con- 
tained universe, and each pixel repre- 
sents a life unit — a cell. A simple set of 
rules determines whether each cell will 
live and prosper, or die. 

The main difference between Life Ex- 
perimenter's simulated universe and the 
"real" one we inhabit Is that In the sim- 
ulation you know all the rules of a good 
life. Essentially, a happy cell survives; 
very happy. It reproduces: unhappy, it 
wastes away. 

To play the Life game, you seed your 
little universe with a colony of cells by 
lighting up some dots on the screen, 
then sit back to watch what happens. 
The program automatically applies the 
rules of survival to each successive gen- 
eration—alternately, you can step 
through the generations manually— 
until either all the cells die. or the "life" 
you started becomes stable. The object 
of the game is to create a successful 
organism. 

Knowing all the rules, you would 
think that finding a pattern of cells 
that succeeds would be easy. It is not. 
and that is the game's challenge. Its 
further fascination is in finding an or- 
ganism that's interesting. While some 
will be inanimate objects, others will 
oscillate, furiously or lazily. Some send 
off spores and trailers, and still others 
migrate. 

Much of the fun of Life Experimenter 
comes from putting successful orga- 
nisms together to see which will co-exist, 
which win compete and which prevail, 
and what combinations Interact to pro- 
duce new forms of life. The game has 
been around long enough that there is a 
stock of creatures known to be viable. 
The documentation and demonstration 
files Include many of them. The program 
also lets you add notes to the screen, and 
save and print scenarios you like. 

Life Experimenter's challenge is the 



lure of all science. There is an underly- 
ing excitement that you might at any 
time discover something previously un- 
known. Its ultimate attraction is that 
you'U.be the one to discover an organism 
that reproduces Itself. They'll name it 
after you. I'll wager. 

Round and Round 

If Spirograph sounds familiar, it's be- 
cause you can buy Kenner's plastic ver- 
sion for a few dollars at your local toy 
store. The concept predates plastic: By 
rotating one circle within another and 



I just discovered 
two fascinating 
products. . . 
from Micro-Labs 
that fully justify 
hi-res video on a 
Model III or 4. 



plotting the points passed by a point 
on the radius of the moving circle, your 
final is a flower-like pattern. 

Fortunately, there's more to Super 
Spiro-Graph. Freed from the limits of 
what can be manufactured in colorful 
plastic and sold to grand moms, the com- 
puter version adds several interesting di- 
mensions. The moving circle can be 
larger or smaller than the stationary 
one, and inside or outside of it. You can 
place the drawing pen anywhere along 
the moving circle's radius, even beyond 
Its circumference. 

The program draws anything from 
solid lines to widely spaced dots. You 
can position designs anywhere on the 
screen, stretch them into ellipses, com- 
bine several on one screen, overlap 
them, add notes, save them, and print 
them. 

Super Spiro-Graph does not have the 
enduring allure of Fractals and Life Ex- 
perimenter, but it adds enhancements 
to the familiar concept that make it 
a worthwhile addition to the Life Exper- 
imenter disk. 

Conclusion 

I have no use for business graphics. 
I'm not artistically Inclined to paint pic- 
tures. And hi-res arcade games don't 
much turn me on. But I just discovered 
two products from Micro-Labs that fully 
justify high-resolution video on a Model 
HI or 4. These programs are fascinating 
and full of wonder. ■ 



40 • 80 Micro. August 1987 



circle 299 on Reader Service card. 



REVIEWS 



Fine Print on Disk 

by Andy Levinson 

Legaleasc runs on the Tandy 1000/ 
1200/3000 and requires two disk drives 
and DOS 2.x. HDG Software Inc., 54 
Whitney St., Sherbom, MA 01770, 80O- 
628-2828. $129.95. 

Stripped to its core, Legalease is little 
more than a form book in the same 
family as "40 Sample Business Letters 
That You Can Use" packaged on disk 
with a shareware word processor and 
menu program. 

This is not to say that canned forms 
are improper. Form books are proljably 
the third most common text in an attor- 
ney's library, right after case and statute 
books. Human conduct varies, but simi- 
lar situations recur. 

Legalease is comprehensive when 
taken as a computerized form book. It 
consists of 157 common legal forms di- 
vided into six subject groups, such as 
employment forms and corporate rec- 
ords. These range in length from a 
simple letter of resignation ("Effective 
_^. 19 , I hereby re- 
sign from employment with the com- 
pany.") to a dense, four- page, irrevocable 
trust. The average form is less than one 
page. The attorney or sophisticated user 
gets a book of forms he can print out. 

It would have been best if Legalease 
stopped at this point, but it goes further. 
It bills itself the Legalease "System" and 
Includes a menu-selection and a word- 
processing program, and it is here that 
the package introduces some problems. 

The program uses a licensed version of 
Magee Enterprises' Automenu to create 
its menu system, but Legalease flaws its 
opening menu with typographical errors 
(e,g., "Prommlsory Notes") and a disap- 
pointing help menu, which consists of 
text files displayed a page at a time. 

To use a form, select a broad subject 
from the opening menu. This brings up 
a second menu, usually containing a 
narrower range of topics, and a choice 
from that brings up yet another menu 
with selections for the actual forms. But 
you're not there yet. 

The form selection starts the word- 
processing program. Legalease files 
print exactly as they appear on screen. 
Rather than Jumping from field to field 
as in a data base, you must find all 
empty spots (they're usually underlined, 
but sometimes they're just blank), insert 
the customized information, then delete 
any extra space, 

Legalease neatly formats single-page 
forms, unless your letterhead intrudes too 
far into the page. All multlpage forms re- 
quire formatting commands. You must re- 
name the form, print It, return to the word 



processor, and then return to the origi- 
nal menu. Not bad for a two-page com- 
mercial lease form, but tedious for the 
atMve-mentioned short letter of resigna- 
tion. And this all assumes that you know 
what to put in the blank spaces. 

Not Street Legal 

The manual warns that Legalease is 
not a legal adviser, and it isn't. Just a 
few sentences in the manual introduce 



Legalease 

offers a 

collection 

of legal forms 

that would cost 

$50-$75 

in book form. 



each form. If you know what you're 
doing, then the forms can save you lots 
of typing. If you don't, you can get 
yourself into trouble. Fbr example, gen- 
eral releases in California invariably re- 
fer to and waive California Civil Code 
section 1542; Legalease's general re- 
lease form does not. 

These forms can't account for statutes 
and codes unique to an individual state or 
Jurisdiction, Fortunately, most states have 
uniform laws for commercial matters, 
and Legalease concentrates in this area. 

The word processor is Quicksort's PC- 
Write 2.6. It features direct support for 
numerous printers, including 18 by 
Tandy, and configuration files for com- 
puters with non-standard keyboards. 
This latter feature is Important for 
Tandy 1000 owners, but the Legalease 
manual doesn't mention it. 

For $75 you can register with Quick- 
soft and get the same support as other 
PC-Write owners, covering updates, 
phone support, complete documenta- 
tion, and a newsletter. 

If you've got your own favorite word 
processor, Legalease forms are plain text 
files, so they'll work with any word pro- 
cessor that uses ASCII flies or has an 
^CII conversion utility. The Legalease 
manual mentions this option but, be- 
yond a reference to DOS's Copy com- 
mand, offers no advice for converting 
such files. 

That brings up another problem. The 
menu system is written to use only PC- 
Write and the Legalease selection of 
forms. You can create, delete, and 
change forms any way you want, but 
you can't run new flies from the Legal- 
ease menu. 



Professional results with 
Models III 4 * PC/XT/AT 
Tandy 1000-1200-3000 



# 



All MSDOS software Is now also 
available on optional 3.5" disks 




xT.CAD PROFESSIONAL by Microdex. 
Computer Aided Drafting software for 
tectinical production and education. 
Create, edit, modify precise drawings, 
details. Features inciude overlays, grids, 
cursor snap. zoom. pan. biock copy, 
enlarge, reduce, rotate, mirror, clip, 
merge, text labels, more. Requires hi-res 
screen and RS-232 interface. Output to 
pen plotters. Input from keyboard, or 
optional digitizer or mouse. Friendiy, 
competent support since 1984. Software 
is backup-free. Was $345 in 1986 cataiog. 
[Model III (48K) $245.00 

Model 4 4p 4d (64K) $245.00 

MSDOS computers {256K, fast!) $195.00 

xT.CAD BILL of Materials by Microdex. 

Software utilizes text labels from xT.CAD 
drawings to automatically generate 
invoices, parts requests, shipping lists, 
etc. Includes a mini-editorfor customizing 
of output to line printers. 
Model 4 4p 4d or MSDOS $ 45 00 

CASH PROFESSIONAL by l^^icrodex. 

Bookkeeping software with automai.t.) 
double-entry ledger distribution in user- 
definable accounts. Reports by period, 
account, project, etc. Ideal for small busi- 
ness, professional or personal accounts. 
Model 4 4p 4d or MSDOS $ 45.00 

GRAFYX Solution by Micro-Labs. Easy to 
install board provides hi-res similar to 
Radio Shack boards. Includes popular 
GBASIC software and manual. Supports 
xT.CAD and otfier graphic programs. 
Model 4 4p 4d (640x240 pixels) $145.00 

MOUSE interface by Micro-Labs connects 
to 50-pin I/O port and allows the use of 
Tandy Color Mouse 26-3025 (not included) 
with xT.CAD and other programs. 
Model III 4 4p 4d $115.00 



Microdex Corporation 

1212 N. Sawtelle 
Tucson AZ 85716 



602/326-3502 



Write or call for detai 



Sr 



MICRODEX 



80 Micro, August 1987 • 41 



Tandy 1000 Memory Card 



another high quality product from Southwestern Digital 

Why spend a bundle on a Tandy board? 
Our Board is only 

$135. 



Features : 

• 512K of Memory 

• DMA 

• Expansion Port 

• Gold Edge Cards 

• Easy Installation 

• 30 Day Satisfaction Guarantee Policy 




The Southwestern Digital Memory Expansion Pius Card has all 
the features of the Radio Shack Board but the price; you save 
almost $400. Features include 51 2K installed, burned in, and tested 
to give you a total of 640K, a DMA circut that is fully tested for hard 
drive operation, and an expansion port that will work with any of the 
Radio Shack Memory Pius Expansion Card options. High quality 
manufacturing, and features such as gold piated card edges make 
this the logical choice in upgrading your memory 



Multifunction Card for 1000, 1000A 

Includes 512K, RS232C Serial Port, Clock/Calendar, Plus Expansiori 
Port, RAM Disk, And Printer Spooler $239. 

Hard Cards for the 1000, 1000SX, 3000HL 

20 Meg S479. 

30 Meg $629. 

45 Meg S799. 

Tandy 1000 Add on Boards 
Serial, Clock, or Both 

Tandy 1000, 1000SX, 1000EX 

The Southwestern Digital new Add-On boards were developed 
for use with the Plus Card Port, { a piggy-back type, add on port 
established by Tandy to eliminate the need for an additional card 
slot ). These cards are fully compatible with the Memory Expansion 
Pius Card from Southwestern Digital and the Memory Expansion 
Pius Board from Tandy, 

RS232C PLUS Option Board 

Mounts on a PLUS expansion tioard. and features selectivity 
between COM Port 1 and COM Port 2. The RS232C output connec- 
tor is the standard Tandy female DB25, and is fully compatible v^fith 
the Tandy output. $59, 

Clock/Calendar PLUS Option Board 

Mounts on a Plus expansion board, and features selectivity between 
two ports so that you can run two clocks at one time. The Clock 
Calendar Board gives you perpetual time/date so that you don't have 
to re-input time and date into your application programs as part of 
your power up routine. $59. 

RS232C-Clock/Calendar PLUS Option Board 

Features options of both of the above boards on just one 
board. j-j29. 




Tandy 1000SX Computer System 

wfith 640K, RS232C Serial Port, 20 Meg Hard Drive, (1 ) 360K Disk Drive, 

Clock/Calender - $1399. 

Wilh a 30 Meg $1549. 



Order Line 
1-713-480-3296 

Southwestern Digital 

17333 El Camino Real 
Houston, Texas 77058 

Ofde/ing Enlormation 

CaJi us Of mail youi order in We accepi Visa, Masiercana, ama Ceniiied Funds for quickest ship- 
ment PeisonaJ cheicks are held Tor clearance Add S5. joi ground shi|>merii. o^ 5i0 for UPS 2ifid 
day air service. An products carry a 30 day satisfaction guarantee, and are warrantied (Of a full 
year 



Circle 444 on Reader Service card. 



REVIEWS 



Documentation 

According to the Legalease manual, if 
you want to create your own menus, 
you'll have to send $40 to Magee Enter- 
prises for instructions on working with 
Automenu, Automenu is well designed, 
though. It was easy to learn how to mod- 
ify a menu, although someone without 
much computer experience might not 
fare as well. 

The manual only dedicates 15 pages 
to instructions on using Legalease, and 
some of these explain the installation 
procedure. Most of the manual contains 
printouts of the legal forms, which is 
convenient, because it can be easier to 
find a form In the manual than to go 
through menu after menu on the screen. 

The manual has a table of contents 
that hstsall the program's forms in order 



of appearance but, inexcusably, does not 
have an alphabetical index. The disk has 
such an index but it cross-references the 
menus on the disk. The index should re- 
fer instead to the manual or to both the 
manual and the menus on disk. Another 
inconvenience with the disk index is that 
you must load it into the word-process- 
ing program to read it. 

Summary 

Every attorney uses forms, and it is far 
more expensive to type 157 forms onto 
a disk than to buy Legalease. In addition, 
you're receiving a collection of legal 
forms that would cost $50- $7 5 in book 
form. The program, then, offers conve- 
nience and seems fairly priced. How- 
ever, the forms are not specific to any 
jurisdiction and, therefore, might not fit 



every practitioner's needs. The docu- 
mentation is limited, and lay persons 
use the forms at their own risk. 

Legalease's license agreement states 
that only one person can use the Lega- 
lease System, and only on one computer 
at a time. This means that an office with 
more than one secretary must buy sev- 
eral copies of the program or limit its use 
to one person. PC-Write does not have 
the same restriction. 

The system doesn't allow you to add 
your own forms, so you're locked into the 
package. If you've got a word processor 
and a menu program or IX)S shell, there's 
some advantage in creating your own 
forms. That makes you responsible for the 
first draft and design, but you get just the 
forms you need, just the way you want 
them. Ffersonally, it's the route I prefer. ■ 



Circle 464 on Reader Service card. 



WHAT'S WRONG WITH THIS AD? 



Grofyx Solution^ sov© $100 oo 

Hi-Resotution Graphics for Mod 4/4D/4P/III 




Superior liardware. The Grafyx 
Solution provides 153,600 pixel elements 
which are arranged in a 640 x 240 or on 
the Model III a 512 x 192 matrix. Hundreds 
of new business, personal, engineering, and 
educational applications are now possible. 
The hi-res display can be shown on top of 
the standard display containing text, special 
characters, and block graphics. This 
simplifies program debugging, text labeling, 
and upgrading current programs to use 
graphics. The Grafyx Solution fits complete- 
ly within any tape or disk based Model 4, 
4D, 4P, or III. Installation is easy with the 
plug-In, clip-on Grafyx Solution board. 



Superior Basic. Over 20 commands 
are added to the Basic language. These 
commands will set, clear or complement 
points, lines, boxes, circles, ellipses, or 
arcs. The hl-res screen can be printed on 
any of 30 popular printers or saved or 
loaded to disk without leaving Basic, Areas 
may be filled in with any of 256 patterns. 
Sections of the screen may be saved and 
then put back using any of five logical 
functions. Labels can be printed in any 
direction. The viewing area can be 
changed. The entire screen can be 
complemented or cleared. Graphics Basic 
provides dot densities of 640 x 240, 320 
X 240, 160 X 240, and 160 x 120, all of 
which can be used in the same display. 




'^r-p^ 



^i^f 



Superior Software. The board 
comes with over 40 programs and files 
which make it easier to use, serve as 
practical applications, demonstrate its 
capabilities, and serve as programming 
examples. The software works with 
TRSDOS 1.3, 6.1.2, 6.2; DOSPLUS 3.4, 
3.5, 4; LDOS; and NewdosSO. The Grafyx 
Solution is also supported by over 20 
optional applications programs: Draw, 
BiEgraph, xT.CAD, 3D-Plot, Mathplot, 
Surface Plot, Chess, Slideshow, etc. 

The Grafyx SolutioiJV package is 
shipped complete for $199.95 {reduced 
from $299.95). The manual only is $12. 
Payment may be by check, Visa/MC, or 
COD. Domestic shipping is free on pre-paid 
orders, Texas residents add 5^% tax. 

Micro-Labs, Inc. 214-235-0915 

902 Pinecrest, Richardson, Texas 75080 



THE PRICEl! 52:^^^^ SJSe^sS ^149^ 



1982 - 1984 1984 - 1987 On Sale NOW 



80 Micro, August 1987 • 43 



EXPRESS CHECKOUTS 



Disk-Drive 
Diagnosis 



Investigator runs on the T^dy 1000/ 
1200 or IBM PC/XT compatible. Dysan, 
5440 Patrick Henry Drive, Santa Clara. 
CA 95050. 408-988-3472. $34.95. 

Tkndy sells the same program under 
the name Disk Drive Verifier (catalog no. 
26-1370). T^dy Corp.. One T^ndy Cen- 
ter, Fort Worth, TX 76102. $29.95 

Since your disk drives seem to read 
the data off your disks without any trou- 
ble, the drives must be working fine, 
right? Well, maybe you've had a few 
more bad sectors than norma) lately, or 
for some reason your machine won't 
read some disks. Could the problem be 
Just a bad batch of disks— or maybe 
something else? 

The Investigator Is a program that 
analyzes your disk drives and tells you 
If they're working within acceptable 
standards. If you've got a Tkndy 1000/ 
1200 and don't care about seeing the 
test display in color, you simply put 
the disk in the drive and run the verifi- 
cation program, PClnvest. (This pro- 
gram is called Verifier on Ttmdy's Disk 
Drive Verifier.) 

In Just over a minute, the Investigator 
runs a series of tests measuring the 
drive's speed, its ability to center a disk, 
the time between the leading edge of 
index to a reference point on the disk, 
the head position relative to the refer- 
enced track centerllne, the head posi- 
tioner's ability to return to the same 
location, and the disk's ability to read 
and write data. 

After the analysis Is complete, you 
can print out the numerical test data 
(see the Figure) for a service technician 
or Just as a benchmark to help you spot 
measurements that begin to change 




Photo. The Bocaram/XT expanded memory board fits tn the Tandy 1000/1200/ 
3000 and ts easy to install. 



from test to test. 

Before you run the Investigator, enter 
the PCInstal file (Vlnstall on the Disk 
Drive Verifier) to configure the program 
for the machine you are using. Tandy's 
version comes set to run on a 1000/1200 
with a monochrome monitor, but the in- 
stall file lets you change either default. 
The program supports more than 30 
IBM PC/XT clones, and the color screen 
looks nice. 

If you're one of those who's coming 
to depend more and more on the data 
you put in your computer and expect 
fiaw-free performance from your drives, 
you might find the Investigator an 
important step in your data-protection 
routine. ■ 

—Marie Reynolds 



DlBk Drive Verlflec Verelon l.fll Foi Tandy lBea/12BB PC 
»■» Nuneilcal Test Data «<< 

■ ■ ■'■'■■ ■■■■■■■■ Va BH >■«■■■■ HKa ■■ BB ■■ K^ E E E IZ E EEI3 CtnbC: Be faEtldbeeeeEK ■■>]■>■■ ■■■■■■ 

Teste Ttsefe Status Head(B) statue Head(l) Pass/Pail Limits 



RPM 
Centering 



I 

[ Azimuth 



I Ryeteresia [ 
I I 

I Bead/write I 



7 
32 



IS 
3: 



jPeee | 
iPaast 
I t 
I Pass F 
I Pass! 
I I 
I Pass I 
I Pass I 
I I 
I Pass f 
I Pass I 
t 



3t9 



SI 
82 



-12 
-12 



.^12 
+11 



-42 **2 
1.0 



I Hft I 
IPassI 
I I 
iFasB I 
|F«6B I 
I I 

iFasH I 
jFasB I 

I I 

IPasel 
I HA I 
I I 



HA 



223 
29e 



-12 
-13 



+12 
+11 



-42 +36 



1- 



39 IPassI Good B/H IPassI Good e/H 



Range 235 - 36S 
Hlnlnun S Hils 



Range le - GBtl u£ec 



Hlnimum +/- S Mils 
Delta 4 Hlla 



Minimum +/- 39 Mln, 
Maximum 1.5 Nile 



R/W all sectors 



I OPTIONS: Fl 



Select Drive 



Bardcopy 



P4 = EKlt 



Figure. A sample printout of the numerical test data produced by Disk Drive 
Vertfler for Inoestfgator^. 



Expanded Memory 

The Bocaram/XT expanded memory 
board fits in the Tkndy 1000/1200/3000. 
Boca Research Inc., 6401 Congress Ave.. 
Boca Raton, FL 33431, 305-997-6227. 
$345 (1MB). $575 (2MB), $245 (1MB- 
2MB expansion card). 

It seems hke only yesterday that In- 
tel's Above Board was a new, complex- 
sounding invention; today, expanded 
RAM is a handy commodity product. 
The Bocaram/XT card (see the Photo) is 
nothing fancy— It won't backfill to bring 
a smaller system up to 640K, for in- 
stance—but this product is a solid, low- 
priced example of the Lotus/Intel/Mlcro- 
soft Expanded Memory Specification 
(LIM/EMS). 

Installation Is a cinch— take the 8'/i- 
inch card out of the box and plug it into 
a slot. (If it's not your first EMS card, 
you'll have to set a few Jumpers.) A setup 
program automatically updates your 
boot files with device drivers for the card 
and its software options, a friendly touch 
that misfired when the program over- 
wrote or scrambled the Buffers = 30 line 
In my existing Config.SYS file. 

Once I fixed the files manually, 
though, the card worked fine, adding 
extra workspace to all the EMS-compat- 
Ible software 1 tried (for example, 1-2-3. 
Framework II, Words & Figures). It also 
has a print spooler and a swift, nifty ex- 
panded RAM disk that survives a con- 
trol-alternate-delete reset. With more 
programs supporting EMS and with sim- 
ple, affordable cards like the Bocaram/ 
XT, there's no reason not to go ahead 
and go past 640K. ■ 

— Eric Greustad 



AA* SO Micro, August 1987 



Circle 534 or Reader Service card. 



Ja^^ Mail Order Electronics •Worldwide •Since 1974 



INTRODUCING JAMECO'S NEW 
COMPUTER KITS!! 

Now You Can Build 
an IBM PC/XT Compatible Computer 

Jameco's IBM™ PC/XT Compatible Kits' 

Part No. Description Price 

4164-150 128K RAM (18 Chips) $20.70 

IBM-FCC Floppy Controller Card $34.95 

IBM-Case Flip-Top Case $34.95 

JE1015 XT/AT Style Keyboard $59.95 

JE1030 150 Watt Power Supply $69.95 

JE1050 Mono/Graphics Card w/Printer Port . . $69.95 

JE1020 51A DSDD Disk Drive $99.95 

IBM-MON 12 Monoctirome Green Monitor $99.95 

IBM-MB XT Motherboard (Zero-K RAM - 

Includes DTK/ERSO BIOS ROM) $99.95 

SAVE$90.3S Regular List $590.30 
JE1004 IBM™ PC/XT Compatible Kit. ■ . . $499.95 




4.77/8MHZ Turbo IBM™ PC/XT Compatible Kit 

Same as JE1004 except coines with 640K RAM. TURBO 4.77/8MHz Motherboard, JE1071 multi I/O with controller and 

graphics, and AMBER monitor — *»*^aj^«i-« n «_ » - ^ it.-rAr- Mr- 

SAVE$i46.50 Regular List $746.45 

JE1005 TURBO IBM " PC/XT Compatible Kit with Amber Monitor $599.95 



JE1059 . . . $5B9.95 
EGA Monitor & Card 

(not included - see below) 




Jameco's IBM'"" AT Compatible 
6/8/10/12 MHz Mini 286 Kit! 



Part No. 



Description 



Price 



NEW 



JE1015 XT/AT style Keyboard. $ 59.95 

41256-120 640K RAM (IS Chips) $ 71.10 

JE1012 Baby AT Flip-Top Case $ 79.95 

JE1032 200 Watt Power Supply $ 99.95 

JE1 022 5Vi" High Density Disk Drive $11 9.95 

JE1045 Hard Disk/Floppy Controller $199.95 

JE1 003 Baby AT Motherboard (Zero-K RAM - 

Includes Award BIOS ROM) $449.95 

SAVE$i05.B5 Regular List $1,080.80 

JE1008 IBM' AT Compatible Kit $974.95 

JE1059 EGA Monitor and Card SAVE $aO.0O $569.95 




TllCl^l-i^l^r^ Al>n 20 MegaByte Hard Disk Drive Board for 

-wvaxi-iti^^ -lui-^ the Tandy 1000 and 1000SX 2 Year Warranty! 

FEATURES: ■ A microprocessor-controlled servo mechanism guarantees high performance 
and maximum reliability ■ 20 MegaBytes formatted capacity • Compact design • DC power 
only (+12V and +5V) • Access time: 85ms - Pre-formatted with MSDOS • Uses only 1 slot 
• 2-year warranty ■ Just Plug In and Got 



T20MB 20 MegaByte Hard Disk Drive for TANDY 1000. . 
SX20MB 20 MegaByte Hard Disk Drive for TANDY 1 00 OSX . 



$57 9 .95 $494.95 
$569:95 $499.95 




Multifunction Board 

with Clock/Calendar 
for the Tandy 1000 



• Expands the Tandy 1000 {128K Version) to as much as 640K 

• Comes with RS232 serial port, RAM Disk, Printer Spooler and on- 
board DMA controller chip ■ Made in U.S.A. • 2-year warranty 

MTAN-256K 256K RAM & Manual ^^hF. . $179,95 

MTAN-512K 512K RAM & Manual 269:95 $199.95 



Expansion Memory Half Card 
& Clock/Calendar for Tandy 1000 

•Expands Tandy 1000 (12SK Version) to as much as 
640K using 256K DRAM chips • Incl. DMA controller 
chip • Optional clock/calendar plugs onto board 
(not incl.) ■ Made in the U.S.A. • 2-year warranty 

TAN-C Clock/Calendar Option (only) $ 39.95 

TAN-EM256K 256K RAM (Expand, to 512K) & Manual ... $ 99.95 
TAN-EM512K Includes 51 2K RAM and Manual $119.95 




California Residents: Add 



6V2%or7%SalesTax 



S20 Minimum Order - U.S. Funds Only 
Shipping: Add 5% plus SI .50 Insurance 

Send SI .00 Postage for 

a FREE Seasonal Flyer 
FAX 415-592-2503 

8/87 

1355 SHOREWAY ROAD, BELMONT, CA 94002 • FOR ORDERS ONLY 415-592-8097 • ALL OTHER INQUIRIES 415-592-8121 




Prices Subject to Change 

Send $1.00 Postage for 

a FREE 1987 CATALOG 

Telex: 176043 

c 1 9S7 Jameco Eleclronics 



80 Micro. August 1987 * 45 



circle 424 on Reader Ssrvice card. 



Save A Bun 




WITH ONE OF MONTE'S BUNDLES 

These special bundles are ready for you to save a bundle of money. CP/M software is actually preferred because~of the 
vast amount of programs available. Tfie programs in these bundles have been optimized to run on the Model 4-4D-4P. For 
example, we have memory-mapped WfordStar and it runs circles around the standard version others sell. V\fe also added 
printer drivers for the Radio Shack Daisywheel II, DMP-8100 and most other Radio Shack Printers as well. You have read 
the reviews and know that our CP/M is the best for the Model 4. Your Models 4 and our CP/M form an unbeatable 
combination. Send for our free public domain software catalog and see for yourself. 




Save a Bundle 

on these books and disks. 

Take advantage of ouf volume discounts. 
Buy ariy three items from this list and de- 
duct $5 from your total order. Buy four and 
deduct $10. Buy f ive .... deduct $15. Buy 
six ... . deduct $20 etc. Please add $1 for 
each book for shipping. 




TflSflO Disk a Other Mysleiiss. The How To" book 
d data recoveiv for the TR&eo Mode) 1 disK operaiing 
ssBtem 128 pages. Relal $22.50. MOW $18 

Micrx^sott BASIC D^od^ S Other Mysteries. The 

complete ouide to Level II and BASIC 312 pages. 
Relail $29.95 NOW $24 

The Custom TRSflO S Other MysteriBS. The com- 

piele gutde to customizing TRS80 hardware and 
software. 336 pages Retail $29.95 NOW $24 

BASIC Faster SBetter S Other Mysteries. Tfie com- 
plele guide to BASIC programniing tricks and tech- 
niques. 290 pages. Retail $29.95. NOW $24 

BASIC Faster i Setter Library Disk. Comains 121 furx:- 
tions, Subroutines and user routines. Search, rnerge. 
coTTspare and listing routines plus array harMjers. Bh^IC 
overlays and video drivers. BFBLIB Retail S19 95. 

NOW $16 

EkASIC Faster & Better Demonsiratiort dish. Contains 

32 demos of the Library Disk contents atxjve. 
BFBDEM Retail $19.95 NOW $16 

BASIC Disk 1(0 Faster & Better 4 Other Mysteries 

Programming tips and techniques to store/retrieve 
data Itom disk. 432 pages Retail $2S 95 

NI3W$24 

BASIC Disk I/O Foster & Better Demonstration Disk. 

All ol the major dsfino prograrris and litjrary oi disk 
1/0 subroutines <n 25 BASIC programs. Random. 
indexed, sequential and treesam file handlers in- 
eluded OFBLOAD Retail $29 95 NOW $24 

Machine Language Disk I/O & Other Mysteries. A 

guide to machine language disk I/O for the TRS-SO. 
2SS pages. Retail S29.95. NOW $24 

TRSDOS 2.3 Decoded S Other Mysteries. Detailed 
explanation of the Model i disk operating system. 
298 pages. Retail $29.95. NOW $24 

How to do It on the TRS-SO. A complete applicattons 
guide to the TRS-80 Model 1, 2. 3. 4. 100 and Color 
Computer. 362 Pages Retail $29.95. NOW $19 

The Custom Apple & Other Mysteries. Who cares'' 
Retail S29.96 NOW S19 



MS-DOS BUSINESS 
SOFTWARE 

Abilltti $62 

Accounting Partner I 279 

Accounting Partner It 699 

Borland Turbo Lighting 53 

BPI AP/AR/GUPayrdl 319 

BPI Inventory 477 

Carbon Copy 128 

Cornerstone 62 

Clickarl Personal Publisher 112 

Crosstalk 16 99 

Q^C Easy Accounting 39 

DMZ Easy Accounting Tutor 14 

EftC Easy Mate 24 

WC Easy Payrc^l 29 

0/^ Easy Pa/roll Tutor 14 

[WC Easy Port 19 

WC Easy Vtord 29 

dBase II 349 

dBase III Plus 399 

Diagram Master 212 

Dollars & Sense 109 

EGA Paint 45 

Framework II 469 

Freelance 215 

Generic CAD 2.0 89 

Lotus t-2-3, 2.01 319 

Lotus 1 -2-3. Use Tvwn 54 

Managing The Market 89 

Managing Your Money 3-0 119 

Microsoh Multiplan 127 

Microsott Word/Spell 3 269 

Microsoft Project 249 

Mirror 44 

MultiMate 239 

Newsroom 37 

Paradox 445 

Print Shop 37 

PFS; 1st Choice 89 

PFSiFite 88 

PFSiGraph 88 

PFS.Report 79 

PFSiPro Write 119 

ProOesign It 165 

Q&A 235 

R:Base 5000 1.01 269 

R:Base Extended Report Wriler 85 

RiBase System V 399 

Reflex: The Analyst 53 

Reflex Workshop 36 

SidekKk 49 

Smart Software System 432 

SuperCalc 4 295 

Superkey 37 

Timeline Project Manager 269 

Twin, Lotus 1-2-3 Clone 54 

VP Info 55 

VP Planner 55 

Webster New World Writer 75 

Wtord Perfect 4.2 209 

Word Perfect Library 61 

WtordStar 2000 Plus 1.01 269 

WordStar 3.31 189 



MS-DOS LANGUAGES/ 
UTILITIES 

Buurbaki "1 Oir" $ 57 

Clipper 435 

Copy It PC 23 

Copy It PC Option Board 80 

Crosstalk 16 99 

Disk Optimiser 27 

Fastback 89 

Fontasy 2.0 38 

Homebase 2.0 35 

Microsoft C Compiler 4.0 285 

Microsoft f^acro Assembler 94 

fvlicrosofl Windows 1.03 63 

Microsoft QuickBASIC Compiler 60 

Norton Commander 39 

Norton Utilities 3.1 55 

Sdekick 49 

Sideways 3.1 39 

Smaricom It 68 

Smart Notes 49 

Superltey 36 

SqY .. . 59 

Turbo Database Toolbox .............. 52 

Turbo Editor Toolbox 39 

Turbo Gameworks 39 

Turbo Graphics Toolbox 30 

Turbo Lightning 52 

Turbo Pascal w/8087 & BCD 52 

Turbo Prolog 52 

Turbo Tutor 23 

Ward Perfect Library 61 

Word Wijard 36 

MS-DOS RECREATIONAL 
SOFWARE 

Certilicaie Maker $ 36 

Charrpionship Golf 30 

F-1S Strike Eagle 33 

Gate 23 

Hitchikers Guide to the Galaxy ........ .25 

Ja 35 

Kareteka 22 

Kings Quest 32 

Leather Goddess 24 

Microsoft Flight Simulator 32 

NFL Challenge 59 

Sargon III 29 

Sileni Service 21 

Toy Shop 39 

Wizardry 38 

Zork I 2S 

MS-DOS HOME 
SOFTWARE 

Bank Sireei Wriler J 51 

Certificate Maker 36 

Dollars and Sense '.,.115 

Micro Cookbook 29 

Managing >fbur Money 113 

Newsroom 35 

Print Shop 38 

Print St<oo Graphk^ Library 22 

MS-DOS EDUCATIONAL 
SOFTWARE 

Mastertype I 26 

Math Blaster 29 

Mind Prober 30 

Spell 111 29 

Typing Tutor III 32 

Word Attack 29 



Cifcle 416 on Reader Service card. 



CALL TOLL FREE! 

800-527-0347 



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it 

* For orders over $100 



SAVE ON 
STASH 

MODEMS 

Everex InCerrial 1 200 w/software £ 99 

Hayes 300 external 149 

Hayes 1200 w/SmartComm 399 

Hayes 1 200B w/SmanComm 3S9 

Hayes 2400 S99 

Hayes 2J00B w/SmartComm 569 

RODENTS 

Microsofl 8us Mouse wysftwr. , . S 115 

Microsoft Serial Mouse w/&ftwr 135 

Mouse SySteiTis Mouse w/sftwr. 1 20 

C&H Mach Nl Joystick, each 36 

TACIO Joystick 21 

Wllard^Sen Combo w/friertds CALL 



HARD DRIVES 

20mb SSms ST225 kil cnmplele . . $ 389 

30mb 551I1S ST238 Vil comptele 469 

30mb 40ms 3^4038 bare drive S79 

MONITORS 

Milsubishi 6920 1024 x 1024 S 1899 

NEC Multisync 800x660 599 

Amdek 722 EGA 649x350 529 

Milsubishi 1410 EGA 439 

Milsubishi 1409 RGB 319 

Magnavox RGB 640x200 299 

NAP TTL 1000x360 AmberfGreer ... .110 

PRINTERS 

Cilizen 120D 120cps NLO. cd S 189 

CWzen MSP-15 leCKjK NLO. 32 col , 399 
Citaen MSP-20, 200cps NLO. 80 col 345 

Cilizen Premier 35DW. w/tractot 499 

Toshiba 321 216c[b. NLO. 80 cd 53S 

Toshiba 341 ai6cps. NLO, 132 cd 7S9 

C. Iloh 3520 SSOcOS NLO. 132 col , 1 1 95 

Canon LBP-8A1 Lasei 1895 

Canon Laser Toner kil .69 

ADD-ONS MEMORY & 
UPGRADES 

Hercules Graphics d^^ ^ ^99 

Paradise AulcsMlch EGA 399 

Oone EGA Plus 249 

Hercules Compalide Grap*iics 79 

Cdor Graphks. 3-outpul 69 

16K RAM, 200nsec. S diips 9 

64K RAM. 150(200nsec, 8 Chips 16 

Model 4 123K RAM w/RALcJiip 26 

64K RAM sel of 9 diips 18 

258K RAM set ol 9 chips 49 

8087 NtJmefIc coprDcessof, Sid 129 

8087 Numeric coprocessor. 1$^ 169 

60287 Numeric coproc, sId 1 99 

80287 Numeric coproc. fast 339 

MEC V20 Wonder Chip, SmHi 15 

NEC V20 Wonder Chip. 8m Hz 23 

Model ! RS-232 Kil comdeie 89 

Model 3M RS-232 Kit corrplete 69 

Model 3M Internal Drive kil 169 




TRS-80 SOFTWARE AND 
BOOKS 

Modem 80 Mod IQ Com Pkg $ 33 

Super Utilily Hus 3.2 Ml/3/4 49 

Super Ulilily Plus M4.4P/D only 49 

SuperCRCBSXT Specify Ml/3/4 79 

Conv 3-PC M3 BASIC to PC 119 

Conv 4-PC M4 BASIC to PC 119 

TRS-SO Beginners Guide FREE 

Inside l_evel II {a rare find) 9 

TflS-80 Model 4/4P Tech Manual 33 

TflS-80 Model 1000 Tech Manual 25 

Using Super Ulilty Plus 3.x 16 

See more books on the opposite page. 

BOOKS & MANUALS 

IBM BASIC Faster & Seller $ 22 

IBM BASIC Disk (or above 22 

IBM BASIC Manual 3rd ed 19 

Running MS-DOS 2nd ed 17 

Running MS-DOS Advanced 17 

Using WordPerfect 4.1 13 

Norlons Programmer's Guide 15 

See opposite page for more boohs. 

CP/M SOFTWARE 

dBase II S 385 

WbfdStar Professional 250 

ReporiStar 150 

DalaStar 175 

CaloStar 95 

Multiplan 159 

Out-Think 49 

Mex Plus 59 

MeK Plus Vf/REO & TEM 99 

Rembrandl 39 

Superoalc II 199 

Turbo Pascal S2 

Turbo Tulor 23 

Turbo Database Todbox 39 

Turbo Hdiday Pak (above 3) 99 

Tvmst & Shoul 34 

All of the above CPIM software is aval- 
able in various 514" formats as well as 
8" standard CP/M format. Please spec- 
ify format anrj include $10 per disk 

additional. 

CABLES 

TRS-80 Primer cade 26-1401 $ 9 

IBM Parallel Printer cade 10' 19 

Standard IBM 25 pin RS232 10' 20 

Sid TRS-80 25 pin flS232 10' 20 

Printer A/B Switch BOK Cade 6' 20 

Gender Changer. Spec M/M Fff 9 



ACCESSORIES 

C 8. H iBiach III Joysticks, ea I 34 

Sony 20 disks, box of 10 10 

Ojr cwm 20 disks, bag 0( 10 8 

Disk Storage Box wlfock hids too 6 

Keyboard^Ktender Cade. 6' 10 

TTL Monilor Extender Cade 6' 10 

Tilt and Swivel Monitor Stand 19 

Mert CPU Stand PC/XT/CLONE 25 

2-posilion Parallel Printer Switch 39 

4-posilion Parallel Printer Switch 49 

2-posilion RS-232 Switch 39 

4-posilion RS-232 Switch 49 

Slandby Pwr Sup. 300W/20 min 249 

BUY FROM US RIGHT NOW 

gi&i$e read the fine print first) 
ur rnventory is so large it cani not be listed 
cortipleiely- Please call us if you do no! se« 
wlhat you want. Char>ces are we have it or 
can get it right away. Because of fre lijne lag 
in magazine adveitising our prices are subject 
to ijhange without ndice. Our prices are for 
mail orider only, We are only humar^ SO we 
decline resporisibilily for typographical errors. 
We weteome your company arkcWor pefsonal 
diecks. We use TeleCheck. Please follow 
ihese TeleChecK regutaiions- The check musJ 
be drawn on a US or Canadian bank and b& 
payable m US Oculars. Your check must be 
bank primed ar>d contain your street address 
(not PO Box or APOtfPO) and telephone 
number. The signature must exactly match the 
r^ame prinled on the check. If your check 
does not meet these requiremenis allow ihrree 
weeks check clearance dme, We also ^ccepl 
American Express. MasterCard, Visa, Cash- 
ier's Checks, eleclronir^ funds transfer and we 
ship COD. COOs and motor freight shipments 
may require a deposit. Some special items 
may require a deposit. ALL CODs require 
cash on cfelivery. Company and/or personal 
checks can NOT be accepfted in payment of 
COD shipmenl. tbur credit card is not 
charged until we ship ypur order. Ground 
shipping charges are included on a^l orders 
over $100. Add shipping (o all orders under 
SlOO, We do not collect slate saJes lax on 
orders shipped outside of Texas. Orders 
placed by 5 PM will be shipped the next day 
if stock is on hand. Your order will leave before 
we go home. The responsibtlity of suilability 
of software rests with the purchaser Due to 
Ihe nature Of the business and product there 
are NO fTEFUNDS ON SOFTWARE. Please 
do not tHjy soltware from us if you are not 
sure it will work for you, SOFTV^fARE IS NOT 
RETURNABLE. Software support is provided 
by the manufacturer. We will PROVIDE A RE- 
PLACEMENT ONLY if you disk is defective if 
you no^ly us within 30 days after delivery of 
your merchandise. Please call us for help and 
instructions should you have a proWem. 

GOOD AS GOLD WARRANTY 

We want you to be happy with youf purchase. 
All Jtems we offer carry the manufacturers' 
warranty and any problem you might have in 
service will be handled by his service orga- 
nization. Please cati us should ypu have any 
difficulty in obtaining sen*nce. Your satisfaction 
is our Qoai and we back it up wilh a 30 day 
money- back guarantee (except software). We 
vti\[ be happy lo mail you a copy cA the 
comptele warraniy details on requesl. 




2544 W. Commerce Street P.O. Box 224767 Dallas, Texas 75222-4767 

© by 1987 Montezuma Micro. All rights reserved. priceaanisspKnicaiionssubiscttocKangawiitKjutnoti™. 



Telephone: 214-631-7900 
Facsimile: 214-634-8303 



Fixes and Updates 

Proper Rounding 

I decided to introduce proper rounding 
to Tidbit #42 from Jim C. Cahlik (May 
1987. p. 82). His program wa^ .0000001 
over the exact fractional value and 
rounded up to the next 64th. My version 
(see Program Listing 1) rounds values of 
% and over up, and less than % down. 

I made some small changes and added 
some new lines. In line 20 1 added double 
precision for old and new variables car- 
rying fractional values. I changed 63/64 
to 127/128 in line 60. Line lOOhasanew 
H Hag, to subtract 1 from NU when 
rounding down. In line 130 I added the 



Program Listing J, A program for more accurate Basic rounding. 

IB "DECIFRAC (enhanced "Jimfrac" by Jlis C. CahliK ai/21/67) 
15 'with exact counding by Henry H. Hettdegen, 87/04/18, 

2fl CLSlDEFDBL A-G 

3B LINE INPUT"Entec Decimal (xxx.uxxuxk) ; ' ;D$ 

4fl GOSUB SB:PRINT W$:GOTO 3fl 

Sa A=VftL(US) jB=INT(A) :D=fl-B:C= ( IKT(D/. B15625) )*. 015625 

52 E=(D/. 0076125) ;F=IKT(E) :GiE-F 

54 IF F/2=INT(F/2)A[1D G>0 THEN H=-l ELSE H=B 

60 IF 0>=,9921B75 THEN B=B+l:C=fl:GOTO 80 

7fl IF B+C<A THEN C=C+, 815625 :GOTO 76 

72 IF C=l THEN C=l. 80086801 

88 US=STRS(B) +ETRS(C( ;V=IIJSTR(US," .") 

90 IF V=e THEN WS=STRS(B) : RETURN 

92 IF D>=,9921S75 THEN 68 

100 C=INT(C*10008flB) ;NU=(C/1562S)+H:DE=64 

118 IF NU>2 AND DB/2=INT(DE/2) AND NU/2^INT (Ntl/2) THEN 

DE-DE/2:NU=INT(NU/2) :IF NU>2 THEN 118 

MB IF NU=2 THEN DE=DE/2! NU-NU/2 

138 DE¥=HIDS(STR$(DE) ,2,2) : W$=STft$ (B) +STR$(NU) +V+I1ES 

14fl RETURH 



End 



circle 232 on Reader Service card. 



ALL TANDY® 
Radio Shack products 
and EPSON PRINTERS 





Center 



ALL TANDY* 
Radio Shack products 
and EPSON PRINTERS 



3^ ^^ IB 



an 



and 

Radio 
Shack 

Full Line 




FOR YOUR 
SALE PRICE 



CALL Sam Till 5pm Central Time 

(1-81 7)481 -S-A-L-E 



TEJUS RESI DENTS AOO 6,J5^. SAUtSi TAX. 



lOOOE)! 

lOOOSX 

aDco 

2000HD 

3000HL 

3000 

3000HO 

MODEL 4D . . . . 

T102 

T200 

TSDDOHD 

DMP 130 

DMP 430 

DMP2110 

DMP 2200 

OWP230 

OWP52C 

VM4 Monllor . . 
CMS Monitor . . 
CM11 Monitor . 



.(10S0I •M9-00 

.(1051) 899.00 

.(5103) 529.00 

,(51041 111200 

.(4O70) 1 135.00 

.(40D1) 1466.00 

. (401 1) 2929.00 

.(1070) a43.O0 

.(3003) 360.00 

.(3860) 599.00 

.(60aa 257S.00 

.(1280) 246.00 

.(1277) 4«.00 

.(2810) 902.00 

.(1379) 1152 00 

.(2812) 265.00 

(2800) 685.00 

. (1020) 99.00 

.(1023) 219.00 

.(1024) 31900 



10 MEG HAPD DRIVE .. 

10 MEG BACKUP 

30 + 20 MEG BACKUP . 
20 MEG HARD CARD... 

40 MES H.O.KIT 

20 MEG H.D. KIT 



.(1025). 505.00 

.(1245) 1524.00 

.(4066) 3337.00 

.(1029) 566.00 

.(4061) 1222.00 

.(4062) 541.00 

* ALL UPGRADES AVAILABLE. * 

* INSTALLATION AVAILABLE. * 



EPSON 

Primers 



BELTRON 

Computers 

NOT 
TANDY 

COMPATIBLE 



LX 86 206.00 

FX 668 376.00 

FX2e6s 542.00 

EX 800 440 00 

XT A-1 256K-1 .D.0 428.00 

XT A.3 540K.2.D.O n)lt>t^ 671.00 

XT PI 256K I.D.D. . . lOT-tS ■ *W-99 

XT p.3 640K.2.D.D ^WVr! 637.00 

AT*1 612K-1.0.D 1197.00 

AT*31M6G.2.DD. + aOMEGM.D . 1700 00 



rWCES SUBJECT TO <aWtS£ WTTHOr;! tKUlCE -TEXAS HESIDENTS ADD tJSH SAL£S TAX 



"V\fyi1d's CLOSEST* Independent authorized computer dealer." 

'Cl««»1 n mo Tvt&f *«rflh«*J— ni««n» tmf\m. chanpw, mator dtriivar*. 

[?f CHECK OUR 

NEW LOWEST PRICES 

DFW COMPUTER CENTER 326 Main St., Grapevine, TX 76051 



MID$ routine and changed the W$ to 
eliminate the extra space after the slash. 

The new line 52 checks for the round- 
ing point in the middle of the 64th. Line 
54 sets the H flag, which assists in 
rounding down. Line 72 reintroduces a 
decimal point if C appears without one. 
Line 92 catches rounding to the next 
whole number after line 72. 

Changing to fractions other than 64th 
is now more involved, but should not be 
difficult if you follow Jim's original sug- 
gestions, once you have figured out how 
the line numbers in the text relate to the 
ones in the program listing. You have to 
change the values in lines 52, 60, and 92 
to the new intermediate values (64th to 
32nd. and soon}. 

Henry H. Herrdegen 
Windsor, Ontario 

Ed. note: The original listing was re- 
numbered and references to the lines 
in text were incorrect. Sorry! 

Better Filekeeping 

1 updated my Filekeep program 
("Good Filekeeping, August 1986, p. 60) 
so that it reads both single- and double- 
sided disks and gives information about 
disk free space. If you are interested in 
receiving a printout of the changes you 
need to make, which include revisions of 
a number of lines of the existing listing, 
send a self-addressed, stamped envelope 
to Technical Department, 80 Micro, 80 
Elm Street, Peterborough, NH 03458. 

Dauid Kuzminski 
Petersburg, VA 

Superscripsit 1.02.00 
Patch for DOS Commander 

1 adapted Randall K. Wright's Super- 
scripsit DOS Command patch so it 
worked on version 1.02.00 of Model 4 
Superscripsit. The SCR 1 7/CTL file was 
rewritten for this version. Randall's pro- 
gram code and message blocks replace a 
contiguous area in the SCR 1 7/CTL file. 
In the new version of Superscripsit, the 
corresponding area is in several places: 
a 77-byte block in the first record and 

Conlinued on p. 80 



48 • 80 Micro, August 1987 



CELEBRATE OUR 

TRS-80 
BIRTHDAY SALE 



* Thank you for your patronage over the years.' We have decided to have a big TRS-80 Birthday Celebration. Po werSoft software 
has always been rated highly and welcomed by the press and users alike. Each product is unique and without equal. Most of 
them have become industry standards for this popular machine. All of these products were considered necessities, so if you don t 
have one of them, now is the (ime to get it! This special will endsh only, so act now. Some supplies are Urn ited, as we are cleaning 
out our stockroom and several of these products may be permanently out-of -stock after this sale. If there is something that you 
want, purchase it now, because the time will never be better. Due to the extreme reduction in price for this sale, and its close-out 
nature, support is not offered. All products are new, sealed packages, and contain complete, easy-to-follow documentation. 
(PowerSoft software purchased at regular prices, or from our dealers, do include full support.) All products work as advertised, 
' "' ■ ' views. You can't go wrong at these low prices! -k 



and all have received 4 stars or more in magazine reviews. 



Super Utility™ Plus Special Packages 

This extremely powerful utility has heen writ- 
ten up in every inajor computer magazine over 
the years as the very best set of tools you can 
purchase for your TRS-80. If you have ever 
crashed a dist, lost a file, got a CRC error, 
wanted to kill or transfer many files from all 
kinds of assorted DOSes in mixed densities, 
format or backup many disks, or forgot a pass- 
word vou will appreciate SUPER UTILITY 
PLUS! Super Utility also removes passwords, 
backs up funny" disks, and mucn much more! 
Truly the most extensive, useful disk utility ever 
written for the TRS-80, with approximately 65 
different functions. Multiple FIVE Star reviews! 
Nothing comes close! Please specify Model 4/ 
4P/4D or 111/1 version. 

Normally $ 79. 95, this specially packaged SU + 
or SU4 now only $39.95 Super Utility Model 
HI (and I) commented source code in loose- 
leaf binder - only SI 50 

PowerMail™ Plus 

"The very BEST mail-list system for the TRS- 
80, floppy or hard disk! Written in pure ma- 
chine language, PowerMail works on floppy or 
hard disks and handles up to 97,000,000 rec- 
ords (average 1,150 per 40-trk DD disk). There 
is no way in this small space that we can prop- 
erly describe this very powerful program. 
Write for full details. Here is some of what the 
press said; "PowerMail was selected as a 1st 
Place Winner in 80-MICRO's READERS 
CHOICE AWARDS." (Jan. '84 issue) - INFO- 



*Tandy Hard Disit Drivers for TRSDOS 6.x 
and/or LDOS 

Includes Model 4/4P/4D and III /I version on 
same disk. Our own Hard Disk Drivers offer 
superior performance over those included with 
your drive. We include automatic setup for 
Tandy 5, 15, or 35 Me« drives. Features in- 
clude automatic installation, automatic sup- 
port for sharing, LDOS ancl TRSDOS 6 on 
same drive, faster access times, smaller mem- 
ory requirement, and booting directly from a 
Tandy hard drive using a Model 4P (no hold- 
ing F2 key) without a flopp;y. They allow you 
to split up your hard drive into partitions of 
differing sizes, and also allow you to define 
smaller granule sizes and other optimizing op- 
erating characteristics to achieve maximum use 
from your drive. The drivers (once relocated) 
are very small; less than 256 bytes. 
Normally $99.95, now only S49.9S 

^T4eed some tools for your hard disit or floppies? 

The Model 4 TootBelt (for Model 4 usage) 
The LDOS ToolBox (for Model 111 or 1 usage) 
If you run a hard disk, you'll really want The 
Model 4 ToolBelt or The LDOS ToolBox! 
These programs add tremendous power and 
flexibility to your operating systein, as well as 
performing maintenance and even "surgery", 
if necessary. Directory check and repair tools 
are included for complete safe operation. Re- 
pairs crunched HIT or GAT^bfes with ease. 
The utilities include prograiB^r disk analysis 
and repair, file or directory cltcking and re- i^ 
pair, extensive disk mtKlifier, memory modi- -vij 



data-bases, you should definitely consider 
PowerMail Plus. It is exceptionally fast. Over- 
all concept and design are excellent. Power- 
Mail Plus offers the kind of features that 
businesses, in particular, need." Please specify 
Model l/IlI, Model 4/4P version. 
Normally $99, 95, now save 50%! PowerMail 



' tier, file modifier, sector verifiers, file and 
sector compafcers, filters, file or disk mapping, i' 
manip 



WORLD'S Essential Guide To The TRS-gO ^ 
said, "If you need to maintain large iriailing ^atf- 

"■-^^ password ifi^ipulation, password removal, . , 
■, mass file moving, mass file killin^trasing, .' "^L 
disk drive exercising,disk and fiwaftarch/re- /F" 
pla^ and much, rjitiip, MORE. Each pro- .■ ' 
gralfcontains a built-in "HELP" prompt. All 
utilities written in machine language and con- 



Plus now only $49.95 Text /Merge form-letter 
module, is now reduced to only $19,95 

^BACK/REST™ Fast Hard Disk Backup for 
TRS-80 4, m» or I 

Backups or restores an entire logical drive or 
file-by-file! Files larger than a ftoptiy are NO 
PROBLEM any longer! BACK/REST can cre- 
ate a mirror-image of hard drive partitions on 
floppy disks in 20% of the time that a file-by- 
file backup would normally take; a full 15 me- 
gabyte drive should take about 20-35 minutes. 
BACK/ REST is simple to use and will even tell 
you just how many floppies you will need to 
nave formatted BEFORE you start. Further 
more, only allocated cylinders of the hard 
drive are copied to speed things up substan- 
tially. Platters may be restored eitlier com- 
pletely or file by file. If you've invested good 
money into a hard drive system, it doesn t 
make any sense not to have a good, fast 
BACKUP routine. BACK/REST makes that 
job easier and saves much time. TIME IS 
MONEY, Save yourself from a real problem if 
your hard drive crashes. BACK/REST will 
work with all TANDY hard drives and most 
others that use LDOS or TRSDOS™ 6.x. 5- 
Star review in the Oct '85 issue! BACKREST is 
strongly recommended as insurance against 
possible digital disaster." Includes Model 4/ 
4P/4D ana IIl/I version on same disk. 
Save $50! Normally $99.95, now only $49.95 




tain excellent documentation. 

Model 4 ToolBelt - Was $49.95, now only 

$29.95 LDO.S ToolBox - Was$49.95, 

now only $29.95 

If your hard drive is split Mod 4 and IH - gel 

both! Save even more, now only $50.00 

PowerDraw™ 

Model III /I version (uses Mod III mode of 
Model 4) Extremely easy to use drawing pro- 
gram that allows storing of up to 30 memory 
buffers to disk to allow full animation if de- 
sired. PowerDraw has many purposes, but is 
fun, useful, and educational. Graphics may be 
mixed with text. Three great Reviews!! 
Normally $39,95, now only $19.95 

^PowerDriver™ Plus 

for SuperSCRIPSlT'" or SCRIPSIT PRO™ 
Includes Model 4/4P/4D and III /I version on 
same disk. Stipreme printer driver for most 
EPSON or "PC compatible" printers. Control 
your printer to its fullest potential from within 
SuperSCRIPSIT, including proportional (if 
supported by your printer). 
Normally $29.95, now only $24.95 

^■ 

PowerScript™ - 

A major enhancement to SCRIPSIT™ 

Includes Model 4/4P/4D and III /I version on 
same disk. PowerScript gives you many new 
features, including complete printer control, 
while retaining allthe commands you already 
know - at a very low price! PowerScript also 
adds Directory and File functions, like DIR, 
FREE, KILL CHAIN, and LINK. All your 
previous files will, of course, be completely 
compatible. Supports Mod 4, III, and I ver- 
sions of SCRIPSIT. 4 + Star Review in the 
July'85 issue of 80-MICRO. 
Regularly $39.95, now add all this power to 
SCklPSlT™ for only $29. 95 

'^ST80-I!I™ Smart Terminal Communication 
System Combo 

Complete Automated Communications for the 
TRS-80 Mod 1, III, or 4 (in III mode) 
Please specify Model I or 111/4(111 mode) ST80- 
III Smart Terminal Program, a First Place award 
winner, was formerly $150 by itself. The included 
X-10 HOST package; which allows you to leave 
your computer "on-line" securely with full pass- 
word protection, etc., formerly soid for $50, and 
the included Personal Bulletin Board System also 
formerly sold for $50. All together we now put 
them together in one package for the speciaJ price 
of only 549.95 ! If you have a modem (especially 
an auto-answer tj-pe) and don't have good soft- 
ware, this is the one to get! Now get EVERY- 
THING, in the way of telcom software, for your 
computer at one low price! Save over $200! 
Now only $49. 95 complete 



^* Write or call for FREE TRS-80 
software catalogue! 

Fine print; These prices for prepaid or COD orders only. Visa- 
MasterCard gladly accepted. Ffai rate shipping on anv tcern or 
combinalion of items from this ad is only 13. Blue label, COD, 
or over-night shipping available at extra charge. Canada, 
please add 15 for airntail. Other counlries add ^10 for airmail. 
Foreign orders, please use Charge Cards ONI.V. Checks not 
drawn on U.S. banks will nol be accepted. Texas residents 



nitisi add aMropriate ^es tax! No refunds or support at Ibcse 
s. Diskettes guaranteed to load. 



low prices. 



17060 Dallas Rarkway, Suite 114 • Dallas, TX 7524 B • (214) 733-4475 




50 • so Micro, August 1987 






It all started 
10 years ago in 
a converted 
used-car showroom . . . 



by Ron White 



B 



y any logical assessment back in the 1970s, no one should 
have built a microcomputer to sell to a mass market. A few 
hobbyists were building computer kits that, more than any- 
thing else, tested their builders' endurance and patience. 
They certainly didn't do anything as useful as balancing a checkbook 
or even playing Space Invaders. The typical home consumer and small 
business weren't shouting for their own computers, tf most people 
thought about computers at all, it was as hulking giants that occupied 
air-condltloned rooms and were attended by white-robed priests who 
spoke Ln arcane terms about "kllobjrtes," "BIOS," and "dynamic RAM." 
Still, some thought there might be something to these new ma- 
chines. These people were the hardware hackers, mostly on the West 
Coast, who pursued personal dreams in garages and one-room rented 
offices. The established computer companies— IBM. Hewlett-Packard, 
Digital— weren't interested in downscaling their big machines into 
hobby-shop toys. But one established company thought there might 
be a future in building and selling a small computer. It wasn't a com- 
puter company. It was Radio Shack, located in Texas, equally far from 
either of the hotbeds of computer innovation surrounding San Fran- 
cisco and Boston. 

Radio Shack and its parent company, TUndy, had never built a com- 
puter before. Their specialty was electronic parts for do-it-yourselfers 
and low-cost consumer electronics. 

If anyone had thought about it back then. Radio Shack might have 
seemed an unlikely candidate to help launch the American microcom- 
puter revolution. But some people at Tandy did think about it and 



80 Micro, August 1987 • 51 



decided that microcomputers might be 
the latest fad— ! ike the CB radio market 
that had just boomed for a year or so and 
then quickly went bust. The executives at 
Tandy figured it was worth a gamble— a 
small gamble. They never suspected that 
microcomputers would go on to change 
the structure of American business and 
that Tandy would become a major force In 
that change. 

Abhorring a Vacuum 

No one in the twin granite towers of lein- 
dy's Fbrt Worth headquarters remembers 
the exact moment someone there con- 
ceived the idea of building a microcom- 
puter. But in 1976, Tandy was looking for a 
market to exploit. The bottom had dropped 
out of CB radios, which had been a big 
moneymaker for Radio Shack stores. The 
loss of CB sales was not going to bankrupt 
Tandy with Its diversified product hne. 
But the loss left a vacuum in Tandy sales. 

At the same time, some of Tandy's elec- 
trical engineers were ordering something 
called the MITS Altair 8800 from an ob- 
scure company in New Mexico. The Altair 
was something only a hobbyist could love; 
it had no keyboard and no video display, 
and it had absolutely no practical use. 
But a lot of people were buying It, and a 
lot of the electronics magazines were writ- 
ing about It. 

John Roach, a Tkndy executive, read 
the articles and noticed the company's en- 
gineers talking enthusiastically about 
their new toys. Roach thought Tandy 
should at least be looking into the new fad. 
A no-nonsense Texan with math, physics, 
and MBA degrees from Texas Christian 
University, Roach's background was in 
computers. He had managed the data- 
processing department for Tkndy before 
becoming its vice president of manufac- 
turing. It was experience that would even- 
tually prove valuable in the development 
of Tandy computers, which in turn would 
help boost Roach to chairman of the board 
and chief executive officer at Tandy. 

The engineering and merchandising 
departments got together to design a prod- 
uct that might appeal to the same people 
who were buying the Altair. The engi- 
neers came up with a plan for a computer 
kit that would outdo the Altair; it would 
have a keyboard and a monitor— more or 
less a real, functioning computer instead 
of an experiment for electronics freaks. Al- 
though the kit idea more than matched 
the marketing of the Altair, it was nixed 
by Bernle Appel, then vice president of 
merchandising and now president of Tan- 
dy's Radio Shack retail division, Appel 
decided that even Radio Shack's staple 
customers, who were no strangers to the 
soldering iron, could never put together 
something as complex as a computer. 

"We decided there were too many prob- 
lems likely to be encountered by the cus- 
tomers," Roach recalls. "The chips were 
sensitive to electrostatic discharges, and 
it was actually harder to test the parts un- 

52 • SO Micro, August 1987 



assembled than it was assembled." 

A kit would also require extensive, lay- 
man-language instruction manuals and 
would create nightmares for Radio 
Shack's service department. So the com- 
pany decided to do what, until then, no 
company had ever done before— sell a to- 
tally assembled microcomputer, complete 
with keyboard, monitor, processor, mem- 
ory, and a programming language. It was 
not something any company, even one 
with the extensive in-house manufactur- 
ing experience that Tandy had, could 
whip out quickly. That's where Steve 
Leinlnger came in. 

Something Was Brewing 

Leinlnger was a member of the Home- 
brew Computer Club, the loose hodgepodge 
of computer hackers located in what was 
coming to t(e called Silicon Valley, The club 
was where another electronics nut, Steve 
Wozniak, was showing off a rudimentary 
circuit board that would eventually become 
the Apple computer and Radio Shack's 
most serious rival. Leinlnger, like many 
other members of Homebrew, had de- 
signed and built his own computer— two 
or three of them, in fact— and he attended 
the twice-monthly meetings of the club, 
where the concepts of proprietary infor- 
mation and making a fortune did not yet 
exist. Instead something called the 
"Hacker Ethic" reigned. Members freely 
exchanged ideas and designs and occa- 
sionally "liberated" software or even mi- 
crochips from companies with reactionary 
ideas about property rights. 

In contrast to other members of Home- 
brew, Leinlnger was more conservative, 
meaning that he bathed regularly, got hair- 
cuts at least semi-regularly, and was mar- 
ried to a flesh-and-blood woman instead of 
a growing conglomeration of wiring and 
electronic components that other memt>ers 
spent their nights with. Leinlnger even 
had a regular job. designing chips for Na- 
tional Semiconductor, That's where sev- 
eral executives from Tkndy, led by fton 
French, met Leinlnger as they were on a 
fishing expedition to electronics manufac- 
turers to find new technology that they 
might use in Radio Shack products, 

Leinlnger was introduced to the Tkndy 
representatives as someone working on a 
tiny version of Basic to be incorporated 
into a cheap microprocessor. While they 
were talking, the Tandy visitors men- 
tioned that they'd like to see one of the 
California computer shops they'd heard 
about, Leinlnger gave them directions to 
the Byte Shop in Santa Clara, the second 
store to open in a chain of shops that spe- 
cialized in selling computer components 
to hardware hackers. L.ater that day when 
the Tandy executives visited the shop, the 
person greeting them from behind the 
counter was Leininger, making a little ex- 
tra money moonlighting. 

After the executives were back in Fort 
Worth and the discussion turned to hiring 
someone to design a microcomputer. 



French remembered this kid in California. 
Not only was he versed In programming 
and hardware, he had experience in the 
soul of T^ndy operations, electronics re- 
tailing. He seemed like a good candidate 
for the job. 

The call Leininger received from Tandy 
was well-timed. He had been unhappy at 
National Semiconductor because he had 
been passed over for stock options. Lein- 
inger' s wife, to whom he had been married 
for six months, had a master's degree in 
geology, but the best job she could find 
was the breakfast shift at McDonald's. 
Tandy WEisn't offering much more money 
than Leinlnger was making at National 
Semiconductor, but the fact that Texas 
has no state Income tax and that they 
would be In the middle of oil country made 
Leininger accept the job, 

"Almost the universal reaction from 
my family and friends was, "You're going 
to work for Radio Shackf?' " he remem- 
bers. "Radio Shack had this hyper- 
schlock image-— you know, buying out-of- 
spec parts, that sort of thing. I think they 
finally woke up to that about 10-12 years 
ago. but it's taken a lot of work to get to 
where they are now— almost respectable." 

The Department That Wasn't 

When Leininger arrived in Fort Worth 
In 1976, he discovered the company 
wasn't set up to build microcomputers. 

"There was no department for building 
computers," says Bill Schroeder, who 
later helped create one of the operating 
systems for the new machine, "There was 
no one to manage the manufacturing. 
There was no lead time for the acquiring 
of software products— none of this stuff." 

The lack of any master plan for going 
into the computer business would have 
surprised no one familiar with Tkndy in 
those days. It was still run in an informal 
seat-of-the-pants style that had character- 
ized it since 1918 when Dave Tkndy and 
his partner, Norton Hinckley, bought a 
supply of shoe leather for resale to cob- 
blers throughout Texas. When Tandy's 
son, Charles, took over the business, he 
created a couple of retail outlets to sell 
supplies to leather-crafting hobbyists of 
the type he had run into while serving in 
the Navy in World War II. 

The shops were a success and led to 
more outlets. In 1952 Tandy acquired a 
failing manufacturing plant in New En- 
gland. The acquisition established a pat- 
tern for all Tkndy operaUons, including its 
future venture into compuUng: The only 
products carried in its stores would be 
those with house labels on them, either 
made in Tkndy's own plants or made by 
other firms exclusively for Tandy. 

By 1961 Tkndy had 125 stores. The fol- 
lowing year Charles Tkndy came across 
Radio Shack, a chain of nine retail stores 
and a mail-order company in the Boston 
area that catered to ham-radio operators. 
He quickly whipped up a deal that in three 
years gave Tkndy 85 percent ownership of 



Radio Shack. At the same time it turned 
Radio Shack's $4 million of red ink into a 
profit with $20 million a year In sales. The 
stores by then represented 40 percent of 
Tkndy's Income. 

The number of Radio Shack stores con- 
tinued to grow. By the time T^ndy began 
thinking seriously about building com- 
puters, It had thousands of Radio Shack 
outlets worldwide generating pre-tax prof- 
Its of over 40 percent. While hobbyists 
continued to prowl its ever-present bins of 
electronic parts, the stores had diversified 
Into consumer electronics: TVs, stereos, 
games, and novelties. 

For all its blg-tlme success, however, 
there was a conspicuous lack of formal 
planning, A typical marketing strategy 
didn't involve expensive studies that 
splLled out a lot of gibberish about demo- 
graphics, product positioning, or image 
building. Instead the stores simply 
stocked a minimum Inventory of a new 
product. If Itsold well, the stores increased 
the inventory; if the product was a dud, 
the loss was bearable. The strategy has 
caused Radio Shack to miss some oppor- 
tunities. During the Christmas season of 
1983, Radio Shack stores ran out of video 
cassette recorders because management 
wanted to keep inventories low until they 
saw If VCRs, then only two years old, 
would catch on. It's a safe, conservative 
strategy, and if it means that at times 
Tandy missed the opportunity to win big. 
It also meant it rarely lost big. 

It was this same no-frlUs approach that 
Leininger encountered when he and his 
wife moved to Rirt Worth. Even the exec- 
utive offices in 1976 made no concession 
to the trappings of success. Located in a 
former factory just west of downtown Fbrt 
Worth, the headquarters of Lewis Kom- 
feld, then Tandy corporate vice president 
and president of the Radio Shack division, 
had a permanently waterlogged rug from 
a leaky ceiling. Add to this low-rolling at- 
titude the fact that no one at the time was 
confident there was a market for a micro- 
computer, and the orders given to Leinin- 
ger began to make sense. 

The ProHt Margin 
Of a New Machue 

At first, the young engineer from Cali- 
fornia was told that he would have to de- 
Sign a computer that could be sold at 
under $200 retail. (The Altalr. by compar- 
ison, sold for $397, and that was for a kit 
without a monitor and keyboard.) A $200 
retail price translated to a design that cost 
no more than $80 to manufacture— $60 
for parts and $20 for putting them ail to- 
gether. The original plan called for no 
monitor and a membrane keyboard. 

After working at this plan for a while, 
Leininger went to Roach and French, who 
hadbecomehlsboss, and pushed for added 
features that would raise the price. To be a 
workable computer, it would need a decent 
keyboard that would feel like the typewriter 
keyboards office workers were used to. 




E ARE THEY 

NOW? 



by David Essex 

MICHAEL SHRAYER, 

Author of Electric Pencil 

Michael Shrayer, creator of Electric Pencil, the first 
word prwessor for microcomputers, is living the 
good life in California. Fbr him, the good life In- 
volves more than material wealth: it means spend- 
ing time with friends, hanging out on the beach, 
and staying healthy. The 52>year-old former com- 
mercial film director and television repairman 
said he moved to the West Coast in 1970 to "do all 
those things Califomians are known to do," and 
that has included trying out "alternative life- 
styles." Soon, he will sell his house In Glendale 
and roam the continent In a mobile home. 

Like many entrepreneurs In the early TRS-80 
days, Shrayer stumbled Into compuUng as a cu- 
rious amateur and ended up creating an influen- 
tial product. A lifelong electronics hobbyist, 
Shrayer programmed an editor/assembler for the 
early MITS Altalr computers and needed to write 
the documentation. It occurred to him that the 
Altair could be programmed to do the job of a 
typewriter, and months later he had the first 
crude version of Electric Pencil debugged and 
running. Tkpe and disk versions eventually fol- 
lowed on the Model 1, and Electric Pencil enjoyed 
great popularity and Influence. Seventy-eight ver- 
sions were written for various computers between 
1976 and 1980. 

Shrayer's involvement with Electric Pencil 
ended in 1981 when he sold it to publisher Harv 
Pennington (see the profile of Pennington else- 
where on this page). He retired shortly thereafter. 
Investments were the key to Shrayer's wealth, not 
Electric ftncil. At one point, he lived in a "mini- 
estate" in Palm Springs and owned a Mercedes- 
Benz and a Datsun 2802. He gave that up for the 
more modest life he now leads. 

Shrayer's latest venture Is a small local com- 
pany called Not Just Another Sandwich, which 
makes and distributes sandwiches with unusual 
fillings— a Chinese chicken sandwich is one of the 
offerings. But while he remains open to entrepre- 
neurial opportunities, Shrayer Isn't thinking 
about money and influence much anymore. He 
said he has started to realize that material things 
are less hnportant than sphituality and having ful- 
filling relationships. "It seems that all the ac- 
coutrements of rapid wealth don't mean as much 
anymore," he Mid. 

The personal computer Industry has become 
less personal and more of a big business, in Shray- 



er's view. "It's gotten very serious and aligned It- 
self with the rest of the world. The camaraderie Is 
no longer there. It's a way to make a living," 

HARV PENNINGTON, 

Book Publisher 

When the first inscmtable Model I's and Ills came 
out, someone had to help the public understand 
them. Harv Pennington, a former commercial art- 
ist and cartoon illustrator, was the man. His IJG 
Inc. was transformed from precious stone dealer 
to publisher of such titlra as Basic F^ter & Better 
and TRS-80 Disk and Other Mysteries. The over- 
size paperbacks with cartoons on the covers be- 
came best-sellers— not quite on the New York 
Times list, but for a fledgling hidustry they were 
Impressive, Approximately 900,000 have been 
sold, according to f^nnlngton. 

Today, Harvard C, Pennington, 49, does con- 
sulting, teaching, and free-lance writhig hi Wal- 
nut, CA, about 35 miles east of Los Angeles. IJG 
went bankrupt last year, the victim of Tody's 
move away from TRSDOS hito MS-DOS. In 198 1 , 
Bennhigton acquired the rights to Electric Ffencil 
from Michael Shrayer and had a second TRS-80 
version written In machine language. Later, with 
the help of two partners, he developed a version 
for the IBM PC and compaUbles that is sold today. 
Pennhigton and his partners sold the Electric Pen- 
cil rights to a Dallas company last year. 

Among ftnnlngton's curtent writing projects 
is a book called The Great Messier Marathon 
Handbook, which is targeted at amateur astrono- 
mers. Charles Messier was a French astronomer 
who cataloged 110 "nebulosities" so that people 
wouldn't mistake them for comets, Pennington's 
book is a guide to a yearly marathon in which peo- 
ple try to spot all 1 10 nebulosities in an 814-hour 
period. 

Pennington's other Interests Include history, 
competitive silhouette shooting (a current project 
hivolves changhig the cahber on a Colt 1911 hand- 
gun), and some free-lance graphics work on his 
Macintosh. He hopes to write history books even- 
tually and has a tentative outline for a book about 
the SoWet Union called Modem Mongol. 

"To some extent, all microcomputer 
word processors owe their success 
to Electric Pencil." tJG President 
Harvard Pennington, "80 Micro 
Hail of Fame," 80 Micro, January 
1983, p 396. 



80 Micro, August 1987 • S3 



'vj? 



-^ 



. worth of fabulous p. 




WIN 

yoursha/e of nearly - 

0.000! 



2, 



QMicro Pop Quiz Sweepstakes HI 



[est your Tandy Computing IQ and win these great prizes 
and more — from some of America's leading manufacturers and distributors! 



^ Colorful Rewards! 

Nocona Electronics, HTl/The T^xas 
Connection and Perry Computers 
each are offering the Color Computer 3 
as a prize. Over S 700 worth of CoCo 3s. 



^ This Tandy is Dandy! 

Some lucky winner gets aTiindy 
lOOOSX computer. At a Radio 
Shack, you'd pay S 1 ,200 — but you 
can get it FREE if you're a winner! 



♦ Be Smart! 

It pays to know the answers when 
you can win a MicroSmart 
Computer system worth $600! 



ADVERTISERS& VALUE OF AmRDS 

16. H.l, Tech $300.00 

17. Howe Software $300.00 

18. HTS/Texas Connection $219.00 

19. Hypersoft $130.00 

20. Jameco Electronics $70.00 

21. KalgJo Electronics $48.00 

22. Koran $500.00 

23. Logical Systems $40.00 

24. Marathon Software, $149.00 

25. McAdams'MergeMatc $80.00 

26. Marymac Industries ,..,..,. $140,00 

27. Micro Smart $600.00 

2S. Microdex , $390.00 

29. Micru-Labs $150.00 

SO.Miller Microcomputer $180.00 



^ Own a Clone! 

done Computers is ready to ship you 
a Turbo Clone Computer System 
worth S1352.00. *u mi^t find It at. 
your doorstep-if you can find the an- 
swers. 



1. Aerocomp $500.00 

2. Anitek/LeScript $2,000.00 

3. ATD/Zuckerboard $200.00 

4. BCCompcQ $100.00 

5. Big D , $100.00 

6. Clone Computers $1352,00 

7. Compulogic Corp S7O.00 

8. Computer Plus $199.00 

9. Comtrek $200.00 

10. DiskCount Data $500,00 

11. DRV Computer Center 600.00 

12. Electric Software $70.00 

13. Enec-PC $200.00 

14. Fort Worth Computers $200,00 

15. Hard Drive Specialists $179,00 

Names of winners can be obtained on written request to: Publisher, 80 Micro, 80 Elm St. , Peterborough, NH 03458 



31. Misosys $675.00 

32. Montezuma Micro .... , $169.00 

33. National Computer $70.00 

:i4. Nocona tiledronics $300.00 

35. Perry Computers $199,00 

36. Powersoft $850.00 

37. Professor Jones $500.00 

38. Purple Computing $174.00 

39. Radio Sliack/Tandy $1199.00 

40. Spectre Tech $80.00 

41. Success Management $90.00 

42. Teietrends , $530,00 

43. Total Access $159.00 

44. Whoops/Software Sales $70.00 



POP QUIZ II OFFICIAL RULES 



1 Answer the questions on the entry form page (or 
facsimile) and mail it to 80 Micro, If we select your 
entry at random from the top entries received, you 
will win one of the 44 prizes. Enter as often as you 
wish but mail each entry separately. 

2 Taxes, duties and local regulations are your respon- 
sibility. 80 Micro reserves the right to limit prizes. 

3 Winners may be asked to allow use of their names 
and likenesses to future promotional activities, 

4 No purchase is required to enter. 



The following restrictions apply: 

• Sweepstakes is void outside the U.S. and wher- 
ever prohibited. 

- Employees (and their relatives) of participating 
advertisers and International Data Croup, Inc. 
are prohibited from entering. 

• Stated vatue of prizes is based on advertisers' 
retail prices. 

• Substitution of prizes may be made at the dis- 
cretion of 80 Micro and participating advertis- 
ers and is not subject towioner's request. 

• 80 Micro and International Data Croup, Inc. 
cannot be responsible for participant's failure 
to honor applicable regulations. 



IT'S 



Deadline 
for entries: 
Sept. 15, 1987 



1 .'Inswer the questionsi Hint: 
Ever>' answer can be found in the 
ads in this issue. Check the Advertis- 
ers Index for names of all participants. 
2 Mail the entire Entr>' Page to 80 Micro. Do I 
itonorbeforcSept. 15, 1987. 

3 Winners will be notified in Oc- 
tober. They'll also be an- 
nounced in an upcoming ^ 
ssue of 80 Micro. 
Good luck! 



OFFIC^ 



2ncl 
ANNUAL 



^^^^^ 



I 

>- 

0. 

o 
o 
o 



o 

UJ 

o 

Ul 



UJ 

o 



UJ 

CO 



s w 



1 , Does your Model 4 speak XZ#M%S? Who 
helps it speak ASSEMBLER. BASIC C and RATFOR? 

2 . Which Tandy dealer donates to charity with 
every purchase? 

:;. Who's the "mad genius" behind all those 
Zuckerboards? 

1 . Even the Marines will be singing in the halls 
when they save a bundle with what company? 

."). Who welcomes telephone orders with a $2 .00 
credit towards purchases? 

(i. Who offers The Solution! to power problems? 

7. They're going to take your Model III or 4 (in 3 
mode) to the year 2000. 

s. ThesecolorfulguysonConstitution Avenue 
sell the TTX printer. 

9. You don't have to be a professor to know who 
sells quality tools for handicapping sports. 
HI Who has a low-cost product, has been an "in- 
novator since 1978", and "eclipses all other hard 
disk solutions"? 

1 1 . What Garden Grove company "grows" mo- 
dems specifically for 4P users? 

12. Cornucopia/Software Sales designed it so you 
won't say its name while you type. 

l.i. They're "The Technology Store." Who are they? 
I ■'! . Deep in the heart of Texas, (his company offers 
all Radio Shack software at 20% off catalog prices. 
I ~). Microdex cut the price of the xT.CAD. How 
much do you save? 

Mi. If you want the next generation operating sys- 
tem for your 4/4P/4D, it's only logical to contact,., 
1 7. This Texas company brags its hard drives are 
the ultimate expansion for your Tandy, Name the 
company. 

is. It's cold in Minnesota, but if you call 1-800- 
248-3823 you'll get hot prices from what firm? 
11). What size check do j-ou have to send Howe Soft- 
ware for its Home Budget & Checkbook Analyst? 
211. They've been selling ""Mail Order Electronics • 
World Wide • Since 1974. " Name them. 

21 . Whom do you have to connect with down in 
Texas for prices just 8% over wholesale? 

22. Uh, ohl Micro- Labs says the price of its unique 
Grafyx Solution package is $199.95. What's the 
true price? 

2". If you want to toss out your No. 2 pencil and 
get into word processing, what package can get >'0u 
going in 20 minutes? 



Popbuiz 




80 Micro 

Pop Quiz Sweepstakes II 
80 Elm St. 
Peterborough, NH 03458 

All entries must be mailed separately 



Name- 
Street . 
City — 



24. It's nothing but plus after plus when you deat 
with this Bay State dealer 

2.'i. The name may sound French, but this software 
was named the No. 1 choice in word processors. 
2ti. Thegrapevinesaysthiscomputercenterhas 
great prices 'cause it's real close to the Tandy 
warehouse. 

27. What system makes vour T^ndy 1000 and 
lOOOA faster than an SX for S99.95? 
2N. Whose business graphics toolkit is so fine they 
named it after a great Dutch painter? 
29. Missouri's the "Show Me State." And this Sum- 
mersville dealer shows you a complete line of print- 
er ribbons, 

.'id. Don't drive to Dallas for a deal on "low cost hard 
disk drives for your TRS 80". Whos the dealer to dial? 

31. It costs $699.95 and the software is free! You'd 
be smart to buy an IBM clone from this company. 

32. Complete this phone number: I-800-FOR- . — 

Hint: it connects you to Roanoke, TX and low 

prices. 

33. Whom can you run to for a Pro Football pre- 
diction program that was 61% -i- accurate in '86? 

34 . This warehouse introduces the TUrbo XT/AT 
Personal Computer and lots of extras if you need 'em. 

35. Name the world's largest independent author- 
ized computer dealer. 

36. Which version of Forth programming lan- 
guage allows use of the same data disk in IBM PC/ 
XT/.'\T/PS2, Tandy 1000, TRS-80 Model 111/4 and 
even the original TRS-80 Model I? Name the mak- 
er, too. 

:f7. Name the "final ingredient" that dramatically 
extends the use of Deskmate and Deskmate [1? 
:!^. Hi! Who makes the XLR8 Upgrade Board that 
extends the life of your Model 4? 

39. In spite of its funny name, this could be "the 
best computer value in America.'" Get serious and 
name the computer. 

40. For the TRS-80 user who loves surprises, who 
offers a Crab Bag worth over $200 for just $38.95? 

41. Time to convert! Name the firm who can save 
you JIOOs when its time to make your printer IBM- 
compatible. 

1L>, Down in Granbury. Texas, they claim to be "The Sav- 
ing Place for all Tandy Computers and Printers". 



ipltsiA print) 



.State. 



.Zip- 



Apt.#. 

Phone ( \ _ 



Please specify your D Model I D Model III D Model 4 D Models lOOO, 1200, or 3000 

current computer system: D Color Computer D Other D 100, 102, 200, 600 

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And It really should have a monitor. 

"That raised the retail price to $499." 
Lelnlnger says. "But that didn't give 
Tkndy the profit margin It was used to. 
Finally for $599 we were able to get the 
whole computer with off-line storage in a 
cassette recorder, Basic butit in with float- 
ing-point computation, with a screen and 
a good keyboard." 

The choice of the microprocessor was 
crucial. At the time there were only a few 
Itkely candidates for the job: Zilog's Z80, 
Motorola's 6800. Intel's 8080. and a cou- 
ple of chips made by National Semicon- 
ductor. Despite his familiarity with the 
microprocessors made by his former em- 
ployer and a considerable knowledge he 
had acquired on the 8080, Leininger went 
for the Z80. It had what he considered a 
better set of instructions that meshed 
nicely with the Basic Tandy was picking 
up from Microsoft. (Microsoft's Basic was 
chosen because it was already being used 
on the Altair, which at that time was 
enough to make it an industry standard in 
an industry that barely existed.) But the 
main factor tn favor of the Z80 was its "au- 
tomatic RAM refresh," which would allow 
the new computer to use twice the mem- 
ory that it could with other microproces- 
sors—for the same amount of money. 

This was a big achievement at this 
stage in the fledgling industry. Tlandy's 
computer would offer at least 4K of mem- 
ory at the same time that 256 bytes were 
standard on the Altair and while other mi- 
crocomputers rumored to be in develop- 
ment were only planning to have 2K. The 
ZSO also would allow the memory to be 
expanded even further with the use of 1 6K 
memory chips that would soon be com- 
mercially available. 

The Blessing 

Tkndy at first was Spartan about staff- . 
ing the project, Ftir months only four peo- 
ple, under Roach's direction, worked on 
the new computer, French, who bought 
electronics parts for Tkndy and was some- 
thing of an amateur computer hacker, was 
the on-sSde coach overseeing the day-to- 
day progress. Leininger was hoth design- 
ing the hardware and writing a make-do 
operating system (a more extensive oper- 
ating system would soon be farmed out to 
an Independent programmer. Randy 
Cook). Van Chandler was pulled In from 
Tandy's data-processing department to 
write applications software. And Dave 
Lien was writing a manual to accompany 
the computer's Basic. 

Fbr months, the only ones who knew 
where the project stood were Roach and 
his team, Kornfeld knew that they were 
doing something with a computer, and he 
would sometimes stop by the converted 
used-car showroom where the new com- 
puter staff worked to see how things were 
going, Kornfeld would look at the tangle 
of wires and strange components that was 
supposed to be a computer. 

"I'd say, 'We'll order it the day it can 

56 • SO Micro, August 1987 



play chess with me and nobody from 
engineering has to hold the wires together 
or tell me "it was working just a minute 

ago, but, . , Kornfeld wrote in his 

book. To Catch a Mouse, Make a Notse 
Like a Cheese. 

Around the beginning of 1977, after 
about six months of work, the team had a 
prototype of the computer ready to show 
off, and Roach called Kornfeld over to look 
at it. On his way to the windowless confer- 
ence room where Roach's team had set up 
the prototype. Kornfeld saw Charles 
Ikndy by his black Continental. Undl now 
Tandy didn't know about the plans for a 
new product that Kornfeld and Roach 
were about to suggest they sell for a price 
higher than anything Radio Shack had 
ever sold before. Kornfeld figured now 
would be as good a time as any to let 
Tkndy in on it. 

With Tkndy and Kornfeld giving this 
new contraption a hard look. Leininger 
booted the computer, and it worked, with- 
out him holding any wires together or 
making any excuses. Of course, at this 
stage in the development, "working" 
didn't mean that the apparatus did very 
much, certainly not play chess with Korn- 
feld. But Roach and his crew explained 
what the computer would be able to do- 
eventually— with the right programming. 

"Who wants a computer?" Tkndy asked. 

Kornfeld dutifully pointed out that 
they didn't know if anyone would want 
to buy It. Except for some dedicated hob- 
byists, no one out there was demanding 
his own computer. What they had in mind 
was a computer for small businesses and 
schools, a market that didn't exist be- 
cause the product had never existed. 
What's more, Kornfeld added, the eco- 
nomics of buying parts meant that Ini- 
tially they would have to commit for 1 ,000 
units. 

Tfemdy we^ intrigued by the machine 
and said he figured that it would be worth 
the publicity even if the thing didn't sell. 

Roach then added that, actually, 3,000 
would be closer to the number they would 
have to commit for, 

Tandy thought this over for a while. Fi- 
nally they decided that since there were 
about 3,000 Radio Shack stores In the 
United States, if the new product was a 
bust, they could give one to each of the 
stores to keep their books on or to do in- 
ventory. . .or something. 

The only person there who was con- 
vinced the project would be a winner was 
Leininger. He told Roach that even with 
the price at $599, he thought they would 
sell 50.000. 

Roach's assessment of that prediction 
was succinct. 

"Horseshit," he said. Tandy had never 
sold that many of anything at that price. 

Leininger 's reasoning was that by the 
time you equipped an Altair with a moni- 
tor—the cheapest available was $795— 
you had sp)ent more than $1,000. And the 
demand for Altairs, which were kits, was 



so great that they were months behind 
being delivered. 

When Tandy left the room. Roach's 
team still didn't know If the project was on 
or not. It wasn't until Feb. 2, 1977, that 
they got the official go-ahead. The new 
machine, which Kornfeld named the Ra- 
dio Shack TRS-BO Microcomputer Sys- 
tem, was scheduled to debut in New York 
on Aug. 3 the same year. 

Saddling Up 

Soon Leininger's wife of less than a year 
learned to tolerate the 1 8-hour days he put 
In seven days a week. The team grew to 
seven people and moved into a former in- 
sulin factory where Tkndy hl-fl speakers 
were made. Fbr the final stage of the job, 
the actual building of the first units, the 
crew took over the upstairs floor of an 
abandoned saddle factory. 

Some of the work was farmed out. At 
first none of the big video companies was 
interested in supplying monitors, possibly 
because Tandy, ever conservative, was 
asking them to supply only a few thou- 
sand. Finally RCA agreed to provide a 12- 
Inch TV receiver stripped of its tuner, 
speaker, and assorted other circuitry. 
RCA also threw In a silver-gray cabinet 
that established the aesthetic design for 
the rest of the computer. 

Tandy designed a custom keyboard, 
which also contained the guts of the com- 
puter, the microprocessor, and other cir- 
cuitry. A separate interface unit that 
would allow the computer to tw expanded 
with other circuit boards and external pe- 
ripherals was in the works, but for the Au- 
gust debut, the staff concentrated on Just 
the keyboard/processor, monitor, cassette 
recorder, and enough software so that a 
buyer could turn the thing on and actually 
do something with it. 

Not long after the team began working 
In earnest. Roach made a trip that for the 
first time convinced him they might be on 
to something. In April he went to Califor- 
nia to attend the West Coast Computer 
Fkire, a convention of computer hobbyists 
and what few manufacturers existed at 
the time. 

"I saw 12-14,000 people, most of them 
paying $9 a head and waiting in long lines 
to get In," he says, "I thought maybe I 
really was looking at the rudiments of an 
industry." 

During the summer of 1977, the staff 
labored in the old saddle factory, hand- 
building the first 25 units in time for the 
kickoff to be held in just a few weeks at the 
Hotel Warwick. Then with only a month to 
go. Leininger ran into a problem he 
couldn't figure out. The invitations had al- 
ready been sent to the trade publications, 
advertising brochures were already in the 
works, and Leininger was sitting in front 
of a TRS-80 that refused to communicate 
with the cassette recorder. 

The 18-hour days were getting to Lein- 
inger. He was burned out. For two weeks 
he wrestled with the problem. Every time 



he made a change and hooked the com- 
puter to an oscilloscope, the machine 
tested line. But when he hooked the com- 
puter to the cassette, nothing happened. 

"I got to the point where I Just didn't 
know If I could figure out what the prob- 
lem was," Lelnlnger recalls. "I told my 
boss about it. and he said he'd be in seri- 
ous trouble if I didn't get it to work. 

"Finally after working on it all night, 
about 2 a.m. nature called. 1 went to the 
men's room with a listing of the program. 
While I was sitting there I found the 
problem." 

The New York Debut 

When the TRS-80 was officially un- 
veiled on Aug. 3, Roach was disappointed 
at the Initial reaction by the press. 

"Only a few radio hi-fl types showed 
up." he remembers. "The general-interest 
publications didn't care about microcom- 
puters at that time. The technology ana- 
lysts clearly didn't believe the microcom- 
puter was anything of significance. They 
couldn't relate to the tremendous gap be- 
tween stand-alone computers and minis." 

But while the trade press was under- 
whelmed at the debut of the TRS-80, the 
public was overwhelmingly enthusiastic 
about the computer. Radio Shack stores 
were soon flocKled with orders — more than 
they could fill for months. 

Harvard Pennington was typical of the 
type of person who saw what the TRS-80 
could give him. Bsnnington would later 
make a lot of money writing books that 
explained how to get around some of the 
TRS-80 's flaws, and he would even sell a 
program called Electric Pencil, written by 
Michael Shrayer and one of the first word 
processors. Note that Ftennington was not 
a hacker. The closest he had ever come to 
programming was working with a fancy 
Texas Instruments calculator. 

Bennington used the calculator in an ef- 
fort to cash in on the diamond market, 
which in 1977 had gone crazy. He had 
seen a program that ran on a mainframe 
that tracked the diamond market, but it 
was too expensive to rent the terminal 
time. He studied the program and figured 
out how It kept track of the many vari- 
ables involved in trading diamonds. There 
was too much data involved for even a 
powerful calculator like the TI 57. That's 
when he decided to get a computer. 

Apples. PetSt and Choices 

In 1977, Pennington didn't have many 
choices for a personal computer (a term 
that hadn't been invented yet). He didn't 
want to build a computer from a kit, and 
only three ready-built computers were 
available: the Commodore Ftet, one avail- 
able only by mall order from Ohio Scien- 
tific, and the TRS-80. (The only Apple 
computer at that Ume was the Apple I, 
which was a kit; the fully assembled Apple 
II wouldn't be ready for mass distribution 
until the next year.) Ftnnington doesn't 
remember why he rejected the Pet. "May- 



"It's going to be another Model I— a 
popular machine with a lot of Inde- 
pender^t software being written for 
It " fvfodel I creator Steve Leininger 
on the Modd 100, C-Notes, 80 Mi- 
cro, July 1383, p. 167. 



Not one to mince words, ffemilngton has some 
things to say about the course the computer in- 
dustry has taken since the Introduction of the 
Model I, which he believes has never been put to 
full use. Ibday's software and hardware compa- 
nies cater to people's perceptions of what's desir- 
able without teaching them how to use computers 
effectively. Summing up his feelings of how the 
reality of computing compares with his early 
hopes for it, Rsnnington said, "I'm crushed. We 
never realized its potential." 

STEVE LEININGER, 

Designer of Model I 

To the average person, the Steve who was big into 
personal computers was Jobs of Apple. But when 
Steve Leininger calls himself the Steve Jobs of 
T^dy. the notion doesn't seem exaggerated or 
self-aggrandlzlng. History records that Steve Lein- 
inger Is the man who designed die Model I. 

Now 35, Leininger lives with his wife and three 
small children and their dog In the Dallas suburb 
of Arlington, TX. After working as a consultant for 
two years. Leininger Is now starting a company 
with Lany AtweU, who did the mechanical and 
plastics work on the Model I. The new company 
win manufacture computerized measurement de- 
vices for physical therapy, such as Instruments 
that measure hand tremors in patients with Alz- 
heimer's disease. 

Leininger had two stints at Tkndy, He left his 
Job as an electrical engineer at National Semicon- 
ductor in 1976 to consult Ttady In developing the 
Modd I and remained there until 1981. After two 
years as an independent consultant, he returned 
to I^dy for 1 % years and then went back to con- 
sulting for several large hardware developers. He 
walked out on one company that Ignored his ad- 
vice by going ahead with a small-screen portable 
that Leininger knew would be outclassed by Tan- 
dy's soon-to-be-released Model 100. 

Two of Leininger's passions are electronic mu- 
sic and restoring cats. He worked at a music store 
In his home state of Indiana and took computer- 
music courses whQe earning his bachelor's and 
master's degrees at Purdue University. Nowa- 
days, he does some composing— "Just enough to 
amaze myself '—and plans to get more involved 
in music. Meanwhile, he is restoring a 1960 Cor- 
vette. "1 guess I've always been a tlnkerer," Lein- 
inger said. 

When asked bow the business has changed 
over the years, Leininger said It has become "a 
marketplace of standards" that is expensive to get 
into. "You either go it alone big, a la Apple, or you 
go into IBM compatibles," he said. He feels Tan- 
dy's progress has been somewhat disappointing. 
"I'd hoped liaiy would position Itself to do some 
pioneering work along the lines of a Macintosh 



product." Instead, Fbrt Worth has opted for "In- 
novation within bounds"— the bounds of IBM 
compatibility. 

With his new company, Leininger himself re- 
mains on the leading edge of technology. 

KIM WATT, 

Creator of Super Utility 

Like all new computers, the Model 1 could not have 
prospered without a wealth of software and litera- 
ture to support it. Programs that help you work 
smarter and faster have always been popular, and 
In 1978 Kim Vkli. saw the need and Med it with 
Super Utility, a package of more than 80 machine- 
language programs for such mundane tasks as data 
recovery and fUe management. It is still being sold. 




VfytS. is another early pioneer who came to com- 
puters almost accidentally. While a pre-med stu- 
dent, he bought a Model 1 to help with his course 
work and ended up using it to wrtte a pta^am for 
an accountant friend. More programs followed, 
Viaa left his name at the local Radio Shack store, 
and soon he was working nights to All orders. He 
never made It to medical school. 

\fett formed his own company. Breeze Com- 
puting, to market the 100 programs he had writ- 
ten. In 1981, he moved to Dallas and formed a 
partnership with Dennis Brent, whose marketing 
expertise was the perfect complement to Wfett's 
programming genius. Software with names like 
Powermail and Powerdraw followed, so It seemed 
logical to name the company Powersoft, of which 
Brent remains president today. 

mtt sold his part of Powersoft in 1983 and 
moved to Milwaukee to do general contracting for 
Bill Schroeder, president of Logical Systems Inc. 
One year later he took his current job at the auto- 
mation products division of Square D, a Fortune 
500 company based In Milwaukee. %itt is now the 
division's group leader for software and works on 
programmable controllers for a wide variety of au- 
tomation applications. Including control of airport 
runway lights and baggage handling. Now 34, 
Vla.ti is an avid sportsman, enjoying golf, volley- 
ball, sailing, fishing, and camping. 

Microcomputing has changed largely the way 
Watt thought it would, although he Is amazed by 
the technical advances. Speech recognition, how- 
ever, is one field that hasn't Uved up to his expec- 
tations. The business side of computers has 
changed in a way that makes it unlikely for any- 
one to repeat ^tt's success today. "When the 
home computer first came out, anything you 
wrote was easily salable," Watt said. "The com- 
petition today has become very fierce." 



80 Micro, August 1987 • 57 



be It was the name," he says. 

He borrowed an Ohio Scientific for a 
few days, long enough to figure out Basic, 
but he didn't buy one because the com- 
pany refused to answer his questions 
when he called. (''Scientific dorks," he 
calls them today.) 

Then he went to a Radio Shack and saw 
the TRS-80. 

"There was something about it." he re- 
calls. "A little bell went off in my head." 

Although the early TRS-SO was rela- 
tively primitive. Pennington was im- 
pressed by the add-ons Tandy was 
promising: more memory, a disk drive, 
and an Expansion Interface. A printer was 
also available. 

"It had no tractor feed, just used rolls of 
paper without perforations, but it was a 
real printer." he says. 

Pennington placed his order, and after 
waiting several weeks, the computer was 
ready for him to pick up. Writing his first 
program wasn't easy, but eventually he 
got the job done and "it was a very good 
program." he says. 

The Deluge 

Pennington wasn't the only one who 
saw the possibilities of the TRS-80. At the 
time of the Aug. 3 debut, only 25 TRS-80s 
existed. Within weeks of the introduction. 
Radio Shack stores had taken thousands 
of orders for it. 

"We were almost immediately deluged," 
says M Juge. today the company's director 
of market planning. Hejoined the company 
in the spring of 1978 while Tandy was 
trying to cope with the demand for TRS- 
80s. "At one point we were nine months 
behind on delivering Level 11 ROMs, six 
months behind on disk drives." 

Both Komfeld and Roach took a lot of 
phone calls from irate customers demand- 
ing to know why their TRS-SOs hadn't 
been delivered. 

"At the time we introduced them, we 
didn't have the infrastructure to handle 
back orders," Roach says. "We didn't 
have the people for customer services. All 
that just evolved as the business grew. 

"The only thing we could do was tell 
the customers everything known to man, 
and we were getting calls from legitimate 
customers, from people who wanted to 
\ise them in the state pen, and from peo- 
ple wanting to use them for things that 
they should have been put in the pen for," 
he adds. 

Roach would go down to the factory on 
Saturdays to help assemble computers. But 
no real assembly line yet existed. Each 
computer was crafted by hand, and output 
was only one a day. It wasn't until March 
1978 when the manufacturing stafi' had 
grown to 385 and the space taken up by 
computer operations had grown from 
15.000 square feet to 85,000 that the com- 
pany felt it had the situation under control. 

Wives and the IRS 

Today different people can find different, 
58 • 80 Micro, August 1987 



perfectly obvious reasons for the success 
that no one could have predicted before it 
happened. (Even Leininger's guess that 
they would sell 50.000 TRS-80s was short 
by nearly 5.000 for the first year.) 

"We caught the Imagination of a lot of 
people," says Juge. "[They] realized here 
was a way they could gain the same kind 
of management advantage in their little 
part of the world that others had had in 
big business for years." 

In 1979 Juge conducted a survey at the 
first of a series of barnstorming exhibits 
in 50 U.S. ciUes to show off the TRS-80. 
Seventy percent of the TRS-80 buyers 
claimed they were getting the computers 
for business. 

"I guess that's what they told their 
wives and the IRS." Juge says now. "1 
think most of them Just found It fascinat- 
ing to use a computer. If they could figure 
it out and use it at work, then they wrote 
it off." 

Schroeder explains, "It was something 
you could slide by the wife. You could get 
an 8K machine for $599. Then buy the 
Level II Basic for 500 bucks. Then you told 
the wife that you needed one disk drive. 
Then maybe another. The entry-level 
price was low, but you could spend $4,000 
over a period of two years." 

Roy Soltoff, who would later join 
Schroeder to write software for the "TRS- 
SO. saw other factors that continued to 
make the TRS-80 successful even after 
the Apple II became serious competition. 

"The Apple all-in-one box didn't appeal 
to the purist. And it had an inferior ROM 
for math. It couldn't do floating point un- 
less you got the Apple Basic language 
card." he says. 

As important as the hardware itself in 
the success of the computer was the 
ready-made distribution system through 
the thousands of Radio Shack outlets. 
They were more common than Mc- 
Etonald's, and they were located in areas 
where the California-oriented Apple had 
yet to penetrate. 

"Radio Shack had a better route to the 
people," says Schroeder. "They had bet- 
ter dissemination of advertising material, 
better distrtbutlon, and a better repair and 
parts network." 

Trashing the TRS 

No one claims the TRS-80 succeeded 
because it was perfect. In fact, even the 
most loya! TRS-80 owners called it 
"Trash-80," a nickname earned by the 
computer's inadequacies and frequent 
glitches. 

Looking tiack. Roach considers the fail- 
ure to plan ahead so Tkndy could supply 
peripherals to be the biggest mistake the 
company made. 

"It hurt us at a critical growth period," 
he says. 

To save the 97 cents that it would have 
cost to add some more memory to the 
TRS-80's video display, Tandy left out 
lowercase characters. To get them, own- 



ers had to spend an extra $30 to buy an 
adapter kit. 

There were other problems. The ma- 
chine sometimes overheated, and match- 
ing the Expansion Interface to the CPU 
was often touch-and-go. But the biggest 
problems owners encountered were not in 
hardware but software. 

Raiders of the Lost Disk 

At one point Roach considered going 
with CP/M, the operating system created 
by Digital Research. It was becoming the 
de facto standard on S- 100 computers, 
machines that traced their origins more 
direcdy to the Altalr and used the same 
Z80 found in the TRS-80. 

"But CP/M was an abortion." says Juge. 
"If you were a computer engineer, CP/M 
was Just a set of input/output routines. It 
didn't do anything to save you from your 
own mistakes. The manuals were vir- 
tually unreadable. I had programmed for 
three or four years, and I have more 
knowledge than most customers, and 1 
couldn't understand page 1." 

Still, the company bought the rights to 
CP/M as a backup in case something hap- 
pened with the operating system it was 
developing in house. And Roach warned a 
couple of times that if Tandy's own prod- 
uct hadn't reached a certain point by a 
certain date, he would go with CP/M. 

Leininger's original operating system 
was never designed to be more than a tem- 
porary package to get the computer off the 
drawing board. But the first full-fledged 
operating system, TRSDOS. wasn't much 
better. Part of the reason behind the inad- 
equacies of TRSDOS was the arrangement 
between Tandy and the person under con- 
tract to write TRSDOS, Randy Cook. Pen- 
nington describes Cook as a "bright but 
wary programmer who figured Radio 
Shack was out to screw him." 

At the time Cook was writing TRSDOS 
in 1977, Charles "Kindy died, and the com- 
pany was being run by committee, Pen- 
nington says. The company kept changing 
what it wanted from Cook, and the pro- 
grammer, to protect himself, kept making 
changes in the operating system that only 
he knew about, Pennington says. The re- 
sult was a TRS-80 user's nightmare. 

"It was a terrible time," Pennington 
says of the year he used TRSDOS, "It was 
dreadful trying to do a backup with one 
drive. The backup and format software 
had terrible bugs in them." 

In the meanwhile others tiegan writing 
alternative operating systems. Penning- 
ton saw a demo of one of these non-Tandy 
programs and was amazed. 

"It didn't crash!" he says. 

But Pennington found that he couldn't 
buy a copy of that program. APR-DOS, 
at his local Radio Shack. It wasn't an au- 
thorized Radio Shack product. Eventu- 
ally, however, Pennington got a boofleg 
copy of Newdos, another alternative oper- 
ating system. 

The operating system was handed over 



to Schroeder and SoltofF, who had written 
the unauthorized Newdos. The two Mil- 
waukee computer enthusiasts had been 
quick to recognize the possibilities of the 
new computer and formed a software com- 
pany called Logical Systems. Cook and Ra- 
dio Shack bickered about the ownership of 
the TRSDOS code, and when it came time 
to write an operating system for the new 
Model II, the company took all copies of 
the source code away from the program- 
mers. To avoid any further disputes with 
Cook, Radio Shack wanted to force the 
programmers to write a new operating 
system from scratch. 

Tbday Juge admits there were flaws in 
the early attempts to convert Leininger's 
original operating system designed for use 
with a cassette recorder to one for use with 
disk drives, 

"It was admittedly a buggy version," he 
says. "We told people this version is really 
not ready for consumption yet. But the peo- 
ple would say, 'Tell us where the bugs are. 
and we'll try to work around them.' " 

A Hard Line on Software 

Being a dreamer was almtrat a require- 
ment for the early TRS-80 buyers. By the 
time the machine was introduced. Chan- 
dler had come up with only four programs 
for it. One program was for budget man- 
agement. Another was -a payroll program. 
The other two were hardly something you 
could use to convince the IRS you had 
bought the computer for business pur- 
poses: a blackjack game and a program to 
calculate your biorhythms, 

"We got into some applications pro- 
grams, but Roach didn't want to be in the 
software business." Juge says. 

Roach says, "I didn't think software 
was an issue. We weren't terribly cogni- 
zant of what people wanted in software. 
We expected them to write their own." 

But at the same time Tandy shied away 
from getting into the software business, it 
refused to help others who did want to 
write programs for the TRS-80, 

The Apple II was introduced with what 
was called "open architecture." True to 
the thinking of the Homebrew Computer 
Club, Wozniak and his partner, Stephen 
Jobs, made no secret of how their com- 
puter worked. Third- party software com- 
panies sprang up and made fortunes 
writing programs for the Apple. The avail- 
ability of so many programs, In turn, 
made the Apple II a more attractive ma- 
chine. One of the programs written for it 
was Vislcalc, the first electronic spread- 
sheet and the program that some have 
said changed the microcomputer from a 
luxury Item to a business necessity. 

Today Roach admits, "I wish Vislcalc 
had been written for the TRS-80 Instead 
of the Apple." 

But at the time. TSuidy, halfway across 
the continent from the hacker ethic of 
Homebrew, took the more conventional 
big-company view that information about 
its products was proprietary. Radio Shack 



was the store that didn't even sell flash- 
light batteries unless they had a house 
label on them. 

"If someone at an Orange County user 
group wanted a copy of the source code 
for something that had, say, a Microsoft 
copyright on it, at the next user-group 
meeting someone in a sweat shirt and 
blue jeans would pass out copies of It," 
says Juge. "We had a little bit different 
way of looking at the world," 

Pennington contends; "Charles l^ndy 
had wanted an open system for the TRS- 
80, but when T&ndy died, the committee 
took over. And it said, 'If we keep control 
of it and don't tell how it works, they'll 
have to buy it all from us, and we'll control 
the world,' " 

Although Radio Shack turned to Logi- 
cal Systems to write the operating sys- 
tems that became LDOS and TRSDOS 6, 
Soltoff subsequently was frustrated trying 
to sell TRS-80 programs he and Schroeder 
wrote independently of tkndy. 

At first Logical Systems was able to sell 
TRS-80 programs through Independent 
retailers. But that market dried up as the 
retailers found it too dlfncult to compete 
with the ubiquitous Radio Shacks and eas- 
ier to specisdize in software for the Apple 
and Commodore, Soltoff says. 

Logical Systems turned to mail-order 
ads in magazines, but that was less than 
successful for the same reason; Radio 
Shack dtdn't carry the magazines, se- 
verely limiting their circulation. 

"TcUidy has done a number of wrong 
things over the years, but if they had 
changed their position on this one point, 
things might be a lot different today," Sol- 
toff says. 

Later, when IBM was to enter the mi- 
crocomputer field, that same proprietary 
attitude and pride in the Radio Shack la- 
bel was to help topple T&ndy from the po- 
sition it shared with Apple at the top of the 
new industry T&ndy had been instrumen- 
tal in bringing to full bloom. 

Boom Times 

The Introduction of the IBM PC, 
though, was still four years away, and 
once T^ndy caught up with the back or- 
ders for the TRS-80, Tandy went on a 
product binge, milking the newly discov- 
ered opportunity with upgrades to the 
TRS-SO and with entirely new computers. 

In May 1979. Tandy Introduced the 
Model II, which added larger-capacity, 8- 
inch disk drives and a faster Z80A micro- 
processor. It also corrected some of the 
more frequent complaints about the 
Model I (as it was now called): the difficulty 
of matching the CPU with the interface 
unit and its tendency to reboot when you 
least expected it. 

The Model III, unveiled In July 1980, 
was inspired by new FCC regulations on 
radio-frequency emission, a standard the 
Model I flunked. With the Model III, Ttody 
made a radical departure from previous 
models. It combined the keyboard, CPU, 



"One of the more serious drawbacks 
of the 11 is its inability to accept a 
cassette input." Wayne Green, 80 
Remarl(s, 80 Microcomputing, Au- 
gust 1982, p. 8 

WAYNE GREEN, 

Magazine Publisher 

Hobbyists making things for other hobbyists was 
the social force that fueled the early progress of 
personal computers, and Ifeyne Green was the 
hobbyists' Pied Piper. The controversial New 
Hampshire native with the genius IQ was one of 
the flist entrepreneurs to spot the public's hunger 
for practical infomiation about technology. Work- 
ing from that premise. Green started computer 
magazines that remain influential today. 




A lifelong hobbyist with a background as a 
Navy radio technician, Green started his Hist mag- 
azine, Amateur Radio Frontiers, in 1951; 73 mag- 
azine for ham radio enthusiasts followed in 1961. 
In 1976, he founded Kilobaud Microcomputing. 
When the Model 1 was Introduced in 1977, Green 
thought Tandy's support efforts were inadequate 
to meet the infonnational needs of a growing base 
of users. To fill the void, he started 80 Micro In 
January 1980, 

By 1983, Green had added system-specific 
magazines targeted at Commodore, Apple, and 
Color Computer users when he sold his publishing 
company to International Data Group (IDG), and 
launched his current company. Wayne Green En- 
terprises, which operates as an independent sub- 
sidiary of DO. Green publishes Di0tal Audio and 
several other publications covering the growing 
compact-disc industry, along with 73, 

Green, now 65, lives with his wife. Sherry 
Smythe-Green, In an 18th-century home in Peter- 
borough, NH, that they share with their grey- 
hound. The house is filled with books and elec- 
tronics equipment. Green said he enjoys cooking, 
listening to some of his GOO compact discs, and 
reading the 300 magazines and newspapers he gets 
every month. (He's a speed-reader.) Working on 
new Ideas remains perhaps his greatest passion. He 
Is currently negotiating with Chinese leaders to de- 
velop a technical education program for 10-17- 
year-olds based around a monthly magazine. 

Green feels Ttody could have become the num- 
ber one personal computer maker if it hadn't 
"made It miserable for third-party developers." 
IBM learned from Tandy's mistakes, cooperated 
with other companies that supported its PC, and 
grabbed the dominant position that It holds today. 
"You have to give T&ndy a plaque for showing IBM 
how to do It," Green said, ■ 



80 Micro, August 1967 • 59 



TANDY 

Trivia 



Companies Advertising in the 
First Issue of 89 Micro (January 
1980) and Stiil in Business 

Apparat 

Compupre (now Viasyn) 

Contiact Services Association 

Electronic Sp«lallsts Inc. (ESP) 

H Si E Computronlca 

Hofwe Software 

Micro Systems Software 

Miller Microcomputer Services 

NRI Schools/McGraw-HilJ 

Tkndy/Radio Shack 

TRS-80 DOSes 
We Have Known 

CP/M2.2 

CP/M3.0 

DBLDOS 

Dosplus 3.4, 3.5, 4.0 

LDOS5.1.5.2,5.3 

LS-DOS6.3 

Multidos 

Newdos 

Newdos/802.0 

POS 

Rapidos 

THSDOS 1.2. 1.3, 2.3. 2.0, 6.0, 6.2 

Ultrados 

VTOS 

XDOS 

Stiort-Lived Plienomena 

Electric Crayon and Chromatrs: Color for 
the Model 1, but no software to take advantage 
oftt 

Bxcallbw. A Model III/4 add-on to run MS- 
DOS software. 

MC-10. Everything the Tlmex/Sinclalr was 
and less, for three times the price, 

TkndyvSslon: Tandy's answer to Atari's 
game machines. 

Tkndy JO, Tandy's first "big" business 
computer, but the biggest thing about it was 
Ita $9,950 price tag. 

TDP-IQO. Tindy's attempt to market the 
Color Computer in non-Radio Shack stores. 



"Even if we had President Reagan 
in our ads, we wouldn't sell any 
more computers." Tandy Vice Pres- 
ident of Marl(eting David Becker- 
man, Pulse Train, 80 Micro, October 
1983, p. 300. 



Interface, monitor, and disk drives all in 
one cabinet. Except for a new reset but- 
ton. Inside the cabinet were the guts of a 
Model 1, but the computer had become 
less of a hobbyist's collection of individual 
parts and more a plug-and-run tool for the 
offlce and school. (The schools particu- 
larly liked the all-in-one design because it 
was harder for a student to walk off with 
than a disk drive or cassette recorder in 
his or her book satchel.) 

Introduced at the same time as the 
Model 111, the Color Computer was Tan- 
dy's answer to the popularity of the Com- 
modore Vic-20 as an inexpensive com- 
puter for home use. In March 1984, Tandy 
created the first successful laptop com- 
puter with the introduction of the Model 
100, It was a battery-driven computer that 
fit inside a briefcase and that came com- 
plete with built-in word processing, B£^ic, 
and the software and hardware necessary 
to hook the computer to a phone. The 100 
became an Instant necessity for reporters 
and executives who spent a lot of time on 
airplanes. 

The Model 4 in April 1983 retained the 
Model Ill's cabinet but upgraded It to a 
faster CPU and an 80-column by 24-line 
screen. It also Included the TRSDOS 6 op- 
erating system, which finatly answered 
most of the owners' complaints. 

By 1979 Tandy had sold more than 
200,000 computer systems, topping $500 
million In sales. The company was shipping 
hundreds more each day. There were more 
than 1 ,600 employees in six factories 
turning out TRS-80s alone. Computers 
and the seemingly never-ending list of ac- 
cessories were quickly becoming Tkndy's 
biggest single source of revenue, growing 
from 8.5 percent of the company's Income 
in 1979 to 34.5 percent in 1983. 

During much of that time Tandy con- 
tinued to run a nip-and-tuck race with Ap- 
ple for the leading share of the market. In 
1979, both companies had about 20 to 40 
percent of the market, depending on 
whether you defined the market as home 
computers, business computers, or both. 
(One estimate for Tandy's share at its peak 
was 60 percent.) But after that year, Tan- 
dy's share of the market began to slip. 

The decline in its market share was at 
first partially attributable to the fact that 
Timdy has never measured its success by 
market share. While other computer com- 
panies were cutting prices, Tkndy refused 
to do anything that would cut into its 
profit maigin. The strategy worked. Tan- 
dy's profits, even while Its share of the 
market was eroding, continued to grow at 
the rate of 35 percent a year. But more and 
more the market wasn't the same game In 
which T^dy was used to playing a domi- 
nant role. A new player had entered the 
game, and it had the clout to change the 
rules. The player was IBM, 

The Big Blues 

No one today will argue that the IBM PC 
introduced In 1981 was a radical advance 



in computer technology. IBM played It 
safe, using proven components that were 
in abundant supply. The most significant 
difference was that it used a 16-bit CPU, 
the Intel 8088, The 8088 meant that pro- 
grammers could use up to 640K of mem- 
ory for their programs. The 8 -bit CPUs in 
Tkndy computers and all other computers 
until the IBM machine came along were 
limited to 64K. 

Just as importantly, the new 16-bit ma- 
chines had the IBM logo on them. For a 
price not that significantly different from 
that for a TRS-80 or an Apple II, you could 
have on your desk or in your bedroom a 
computer made by the world's biggest 
computer company. Executives, many of 
whom still considered the Apple some- 
thing for kids to play games on and the 
TRS-80 something for hobbyists to tinker 
with, suddenly became a whole new mar- 
ket for computer sales. But the only one 
selling to them was IBM. 

Tbday people at Tandy don't like to ad- 
mit it, but others are quick to say that 
Tandy was too proud to recognize the 
threat posed by IBM. 

"The thing is that our market share de- 
clined precipitously," Juge says of the first 
couple of years after IBM brought out its 
personal computer. "They caught us off 
guard. No one thought [IBM's impact] 
would be as drastic as It was." 

By 1983, profit margin or no profit mar- 
gin, Tandy's share of the market was 
about half what it had been at its peak in 
1979. More importantly, its profits, which 
had been on a steady climb for four years, 
were fast leveling off. 

Roach denies that there was any debate 
within Tkndy as to whether they should 
jump on the IBM bandwagon, which was 
. already loaded down with a hoard of es- 
tablished and new computer companies. 

"Our long experience in the market- 
place told us there were standards that 
evolved that need to be followed. In the 16- 
bit world, MS-DOS was the standard," 
Roach says. 

But it wasn't until two years after the 
debut of the IBM PC, when Tandy finally 
brought out its first MS-DOS computer, 
that the Texans gave any indication they 
knew those standards existed. 

"Our timing might have been affected by 
the overall size of the business we were gen- 
erating with the 8- bit machines," Roach 
says. "These machines continued to sell 
well despite the PC. There was no great 
urgency to create an MS-DOS machine." 

Roach may deny there was any Texan 
pride behind the slowness to make a 
concession to the standard being forced 
on the microcomputer game by this high- 
rolling newcomer from back East. But 
Tandy's response to that standard, intro- 
duced In November 1983, still exhibited a 
stubborn streak. The Tkndy 2000 was an 
MS-DOS, 16-blt computer all right, but it 
was compatible with the IBM PC only in 
the loosest definition of the word. 

Not that the Tandy 2000 wasn't a good 



• 80 Micro, August 1987 



Circle 250 on Reader Service card. 



^^^^! 

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INDUSTRIES INC 






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CALL TOLL FREE 800-231-3680 



"We never built a home computer 
until the Color Computer." Tandy's 
Ed Juge, 80 News, 80 Micrcxjom- 
puting, June 1981, p. 58. 



Defunct Tandy-Specific IMagazines 

i/ni/4' 

80 U.S./Bask Computing 

The Alternate Source 

Color Computer Magazine 

Color Computer News 

Color Micro Journal 

Computer User 

Eighty System Newsletter 

HStE Computrottlcs Magazine 

HOTCoCo 

PC Companion 

Pocket Computer Neofsietter 

TRS-80 Microcomputer Nem 

Two/Sixteen Magazine 

Undercolor 

* Sent out ^Tomotitmai material, but was n^'er actually 
published. 

Tandy-Specific Magazines Stili 
Publisliing 

80 Micro 

Misosys Quarterly 

Northern Bytes 

One-Thousand Magazine 

PCM 

Portabie 100 

Rainbow 

The TRS-80 Clone Graveyard 

Dick Smith System 80 (Australia) 

Dragon by Ttoo (Color Computer) 

LNW-80 

LoboMax-80 

Phoenix 

PMC-80 

Video Genie (Englantl) 

TRZ-80 (Australia) 

When the TRS-80 
Was King 

The November 1982 issue of 80 Micro had 
almost 360 advertisers and nearly 250 pages 
of ads. It also contained 54 articles. 19 col- 
umns and departments, and 14 reviews. 



" 'If I gave one of these to my wife 
for Christmas, she'd think I was 
some sort of nut,' he [then Tandy 
President Lew Kornfeld] said, ciutch- 
ing a prototype of the original fvlodel 
I. Worded that way, the project didn't 
seem to make much sense." Ivlodel 
I manual author David A. Lien, "A 
Look Back," 80 Micro, Anniversary 
Issue 1983, p. 12. 



computer. Even an experienced Tandy 
critic like Harvard Pennington was Im- 
pressed by it. 

"Technologically, engineering- wise, it 
was well -designed. It was faster. The way 
you took boards in and out — they slide on 
little trays— was slick. The Tandy 2000 
even had a little bit of style in how it 
looked," Pennington says. 

The 2000's Intel SO 186 CPU was, in 
fact, two to four times as fast as the 8088 
used in the IBM machine. And Tkndy used 
drives that stored more information on a 
floppy disk than IBM's drives. Graphics, 
which had been one of the most criticized 
features of the IBM, were given more res- 
olution on the 2000. Tandy even threw in 
a couple of extra function keys. Many who 
looked at the 2000 saw a better machine 
than the IBM PC, In a very real way, it was 
too good. 

The Advantage of Mediocrity 

When the IBM PC was introduced, com- 
puter programmers, being bom hackers, 
quickly learned how to play tricks with 
the MS-DOS operating system, which they 
considered slow and cumbersome. The 
programmers figured out how to go 
around the operating system, which was 
designed to be a mediator between soft- 
ware and hardware, so that their pro- 
grams could give instructions directly to 
the various hardware components. It was 
faster and, from the hacker's standpoint, 
a more efficient way of doing things. 

The problem with the Tandy 2000 was 
that If any of these programmer's tricks 
tried to send instructions directly to the 
disk drives. CPU. or monitor, chances are 
the tricks wouldn't work with the "im- 
proved" features. Tandy ran tests on its 
new MS-DOS computer of 100 of the more 
popular programs for the IBM PC. Half of 
them wouldn't work. One of those was Lo- 
tus's 1-2-3. which had justified purchase 
orders for IBM personal computers the 
same way Visicalc had legitimized the Ap- 
ple II. 

The programmers at Lotus ran tests on 
both the Tandy 2000 and the IBM PC. The 
2000 finished in half the Ume the IBM took. 
The Lotus people told Juge "it was the neat- 
est computer they had got their hands on." 
They agreed to modify 1-2-3 for it, a job 
that took only four hours, Juge says. 

But Lotus was just one software com- 
pany, and an enormous advantage of hav- 
ing an IBM PC or a highly compatible 
clone was the wealth of software available 
under the IBM standard. There were too 
many software companies confronted by 
too many semi-compatible computers like 
the Tandy 2000 for all the programmers 
to keep up with what all the hardware en- 
gineers were doing. Like it or not, the min- 
imum requirement for survival in the age 
of the IBM PC was to conform religiously 
to the IBM standards. 

Other computer manufacturers— DEC, 
Texas Instruments, and Eagle— had al- 
ready made the mistake of creating "Im- 



proved" PCs, but Juge says that f^dy 
hadn't noticed that few people were buy- 
ing the semi-clones. 

"The reason we did what we did was 
that we didn't like the idea of just going 
out and copying what someone else was 
doing. It was not our thing," he says. "We 
knew we could either clone this computer 
or we could build the best damn MS-DOS 
machine our engineers could design— the 
state of the art in hardware." 

The spirit of jingoism was running so 
high at l^ndy that Juge decided against 
suggesting they also build a clone "just 
in case." 

"I had nagging doubts [about the 2000], 
but not enough to argue with anybody." 

Leinlnger. who after his Model 1 bum- 
out had left Tandy for a while and then 
come back, says he did tell his bosses the 
plans for the 2000 were wrong. But they 
didn't listen to him. 

"Tandy was under the assumption that 
there were going to be three standards for 
microcomputers: Apple, IBM, and 
T^ndy," he says. "1 don't know what they 
were thinking. The sun gets awfully hot 
out here. Maybe it baked their brains." 

The Standardization Game 

Within six months of its introduction, 
no one had to tell Tandy the 2000 wasn't 
going to fly. Juge says. "We knew we had 
made a mistake," 

A suspicion that they might have made 
a mistake may have begun to surface at 
Tandy even before then. The T^ndy 2000 
was introduced at the Consumer Electron- 
ics Show In Las Vegas on Nov. 30. 1983. 
Two months earlier John Roach had stood 
before a blackboard filled with specs for a 
new computer, one that was to be more 
closely compatible with the IBM PC. 

"Gentlemen," Roach told the engineers 
in the conference room as they studied the 
blackboard, "this is our next product. It is 
code-named August. I hope it's obvious 
what that means." 

The plans were for the Tandy 1000, en- 
visioned as a computer that would offer 
more functional compatibility with the IBM 
PC. but would still have hardware improve- 
ments. It would require fewer expansion 
tKjards by making a lot of the expansion 
board circuitry standard on the lOOO's 
motherboard. It would take up less space 
on a desktop, and despite the problems 
caused by the "improved" keyboard, 
speed, and graphics on the 2000. it was 
being designed with 12 function keys, 
would run faster than the IBM, and have a 
higher-resolution graphics display. This 
time, though, the graphics would conform 
to a different IBM standard, that of the PCjr. 

While the 1000 was being readied for 
market, Tandy decided to take a second 
Itjok at another computer design the com- 
pany had rejected earlier. Jugi Tkndon, 
head of one of the major manufacturers of 
disk drives for microcomputers, had earlier 
pitched Tkndy on a 100 percent IBM clone 
his company planned to make. He wanted 



■^ 



62 • 80 Micro, August 1987 



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"The simple fact is that the Model 
I/Ill's halcyon years are over They 
eroded on Nov. 30, 1983. the day 
Tandy announced the Model 2000." 
Eric Matoney, Side Tracks, 80 Mi- 
cro, March 1984, p. 10 



to know if Radio Shack would be interested 
in selling it under the Tkndy label. 

"At the time, it wasn't what we were 
interested in doing." says Juge, "but 
when Tkndon came back to John [Roach] 
later cm and said it was ready to go, we 
said. 'Why not?' People had been asking 
us to bid on large -quantity sales, and they 
were specing the PC/XT." 

Released In November 1984, the pure 
clone— the T^dy 1200— was not a success 
story. Juge says. The 1000, which was re- 
leased a couple of months before the 1200, 
on the other hand, has been one of Tan- 
dy's best-selling MS-DOS computers. 

Since then T^dy has followed a policy 
of developing IBM compatibles that In- 
clude a little something extra: extra speed, 
an extra expansion slot, an extra connec- 
tion for a joystick or light pen. 

Bouncing Back 

The strategy seems to be paying off. 
The Installed base of Tandy computers of 
all types has grown from 1 ,045,000 in 
1982— the year before its first MS-DOS 
machine— to 3,180,100 in 1986. accord- 
ing to International Data Corp., a market- 
research firm. Radio Shack stores sold 
68.000 MS-DOS computers in the first 
quarter of this year. 62 percent more than 
the same quarter last year. IDC says. An- 
other research firm, Infocorp, notes that 
last year T^ndy sold 667.500 computers— 
not all of them MS-DOS machines— put- 
ting it in a tie once again with Apple, each 
claiming 25 percent of the microcomputer 
market. The difference now is that the two 
companies are tied for second behind IBM. 

What's more important to Tandy in the 
long run is that it no longer pretends it 
can ignore the presence of IBM. In 1986 it 
began emulating another well-known IBM 
standard: the well-dressed salesperson. 
After inspecting several Radio Shack 
stores and coming away in a state of shock 
from some of the grungy furnishings and 
grungier sales staff. Roach issued a direc- 
tive establishing the company's first dress 
code. Roach also began a store-by-store re- 
furbishing designed to vanquish once and 
for all the Radio Shack image as a hobby- 
ist's haven. He replaced it with a new im- 
age as "the technology store," specifically 
technology catering to businesses. He also 
began a program of more training for com- 
puter sales personnel and established an 
outside sales force to reach the business 
executives. 

And l^ndy is no longer shy about 



IBM technology. Although he refuses to 
be specific. Roach says that it will match 
IBM's move earlier this year in creating 
a computer based on the powerful Intel 
80386 CPU. 

(The people at T^dy take some satis- 
faction from the fact that IBM's new line 
of Personal System/2 computers has a 12- 
fu notion -key keyboard and a new type of 
expansion slot that resemble those on the 
hapless Tandy 2000 more than they re- 
semble those on the IBM PC.) 

Roach welcomes the changes in the 
IBM products because their new disk 
drives, analog video, and "microchannel" 
bus introduce hardware incompatibilities 
with IBM's own older PCs. The changes 
free Tandy from what rankled the com- 
pany in the first place, a slavish adherence 
to IBM hardware. 

"OS/2 [the new operating system under 
development by Microsoft for the 80386 
computers] is hardware independent." 
Roach says. "Windows is hardware inde- 
pendent. What you're really saying is that 
from a hardware standpoint, the manufac- 
turers are going to have the opportunity to 
provide different features, different perfor- 
mance—if they will run the same software." 

Roach also hints that Ikndy has an MS- 
DOS laptop in the works, another area in 
which Tkndy has lost its lead to MS-DOS 
computers. In this case the high-power 
portables from Japan. 

On the other hand, the Model 4, at one 
time Radio Shack's biggest-selling com- 
puter, is doomed. 

"We'll sell the TRS 8-bit machine as 
long as there's a continuing demand for 
it," Roach says. But he adds: "Certainly 
its popularity and volume is continually 
declining." 

He has better hopes for the continued 
success of the Color Computer line as a 
home computer, although he refuses to 
call it a home computer. 

"One of these days, the industry will de- 
velop a true home computer. It's some- 
thing our people are working on." he says 
without elaborating. 

Overall, there is a sense of direction, a 
sense of organization at Tandy now that 
didn't exist 10 years ago when Roach no- 
ticed his engineers tinkering with the first 
microcomputers. The way Roach talks, 
Ikndy won't be caught again either nap- 
ping or sticking its head in the sand: 

"Our goal now is selling all technology 
products that have a broad customer 
base— and in many cases being on the 
leading edge of those products, such as 
we're doing developing the cellular phone 
market, which is really not a market yet. 
That's not something we've always done 
with microcomputers. But that's not a 
mistake we'll make again." ■ 

Ron White Is a newspaper editor, 
writes for several computer magazines, 
and is co-chairman of the IBM-Com.pati- 
bles User Group. Write to him at 116 E. 
French, San Antonio. TX 78212. 



64 • SO Micro, August 1987 




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THE TANDY 



TRSDOS 



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$599.95 



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1977 

66 • 80 Micro, August 1987 



1978 



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FAMILY TREE 



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Model 12 

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1984 



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1986 



i 

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so Micro, August 1987 • 67 



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UTILITY 



by David L. Kuzminski 



Data to Order 



Generate dummy data to test your home-brew programs. 



Testing a new program Is exciting 
because you Anally get to see the 
results of your labors. But it's also tedious 
Ijecause you have to create dummy data 
to use In a test run. If you don't run a test 
you won't know until too late that one or 
more routines don't work properly. Then 
it's back to the drawing board. 

1 used to make a temporary test-data 
program to create dummy data nies for 
my programs to read. However, I always 
had to write each test- data program from 
scratch. I also had trouble keeping the 
test-data program and the program It was 
created for In synchronization. Any 
change in the program under develop- 
ment required a corresponding change In 
the test-data program. 

The Right Questions 

Fakeout (see Program Listing 1) is the 
end result of my efforts to make sequential 
file programming tasks on the Model 4 
easier (modifications for the TUndy 1000 
and 2000 appear below). Fakeout is set up 
to ask for information that as a program- 
mer you should be asking yourself. Fake- 
out asks how many variables will I use? 
■Will the program handle strings or val- 
ues? Are the values integers, single preci- 
sion, or double precision? How many lev- 
els are in each array? 

If you are not using arrays in Fakeout, 
use level 1 . The first-level questions refer 
to the dimension of the array, and the sec- 
ond-level questions refer to elements in 
the array. If you want to work with several 
(e.g.. 10) "records," answer the first-level 
question with 1 and the second level with 
10. Ten dummy variables will then be in 
the array. 

Fakeout then systematically creates a 
program that generates dummy test data 
to use with the program you are devel- 
oping. In writing Fakeout, I discovered 



System Requirements 

Model 4 

(Tandjr 1000/2000 with changes) 

Basic 

Available on The Disk Series 



Program Ltsttng 1. Fakeout. Seep. 100 for information on using checksums in 
Listings 1 and 2. 

lemi 'FAKEOUT/BftS Mod 4 by D . Kuzminski 

IflfllB CLEAEjDEFSTR A-KtDEFINT I-N;DIH B(261, BQ(26), SV(26), LAY 

(261, QNT(26,4) '* 4577 

1E9020 'assign definitions 

18830 FOB L=65 TO 98 : HM^HM+CHRS (L) tCHES (L+32) : NEKT '* 2S67 

lBfl40 LD{e)=9:LD(l)=4:LD(2)=9 '* 1564 

10050 CLS:FOA(1)=''WR1TE'':FOA(2)="1'RIKT'*:FOA13)=FOA(2) :FOAM)=F0A 

(2) '* 3980 

laaee F1A(1)="LIKE 1NPUT";FIA(2)="1NPUT":FIA13)=FIA(2) :FIA(4)=FI 

A(2) '* 3997 

10878 DISSll) = ''Strlng":DISS(2)="Integet":DISSl3J = "Single":DISS{4 

js-Double" '* 5286 

10086 DS(ll="S"iDS(2)="l"!DS(3)="l"!DS(4)="t":FLAGl="xxi[x" '* 3240 

10896 'determine how many variables 
10189 INPUT "How many variables" jVAR; IF VAR>26 OR VAR<1 THEN 181 

m '* 4630 

10110 'start loop for user assignments 

18120 FOB 1=1 TO VAR:PBI»T "Variable" I '* 2648 

10130 GOSUB 10 150; NEXT: GOTO 10350 '• 1969 

10140 'get variable name 
10150 INPUT "Variable name" ;B (I) tip LEH(B)>39 THEN 10150 ELSE IF 

B(I)="" THEN READ B(I) '* 5488 

10160 'validate variable name 

10170 GOSUB 11678: IF FLAG="on" THEM 10150 '* 2431 

10180 'validate non-duplicate variable name 

18190 GOSUB 11600: IP FLAG2="1" THEN 18158 '* 2288 

10200 PRINT 'Variable has been designated as " B(I) '• 3976 

10210 IF FLAG="sfcip" THEN 10250 '* 1916 

18220 ^determine variable type 

10230 PRINT "IS " Bdl " to be a 1) string, 2) Integer, 3) singl 

e-precision, or 4) double-precision variable?" '* 6634 

10248 GOSUB 11430 :SV(I ( =INSTR ( "1234" ,H) '* 2253 

10250 If SVa)=0 THEN 10240 ELSE MIDS (PLAGl ,SV(I ) ,1) ^RIGHTS (STR5 

(SV(I)),1) '* 4330 

18268 GOSUB 11640 '* 949 

10270 'determine dimension of variable 

10260 PRINT "How many layers in " Bd) "?" '* 2933 

10290 GOSUB 11430;LAY(IJ=INSTH("1234",H) !IF LAY(1)=0 THEN 10290 '* 3S64 
10300 FOE J=l TO LAY(I) '* 1334 

10310 PRINT "Kow many in layer" J "7" '* 2634 

10320 INPUT QNT(I,J):IF QNT(l,J)=a THEN 10320 '• 2695 

10338 NEXTiRETUBN '* 1136 

10340 'display definitions 
10358 A="\ \ \ \ III! 

/M»t/tltl/lt##" '* 3048 

10368 'display variables 

10370 X=l!Y=10;IF Y>VAR THEN V^VAR '* 2153 

10380 FOR I=X TO y '* 1085 

10390 PRINT USING A; B ( I ) ; DISS ISV(I ) ) ; QNT ( I , 1 ) ; 0NT(I,2I; ONT( 

1,3) ; QNT(I,4) '* 4644 

10408 NEXT:GOSUB 11450:IF I>VAR THEN 10440 '• 2538 

10410 IF Y<VAR THEN X=X+10 :y=Y+10 : IF Y>VAR THEN Y=VAR '* 3383 

10420 GOTO 10380 '* 876 

10430 'user validation 

18440 PRINT:PRINT "Were they all okay?" '* 2986 

10450 GOSUB 11430!lF H="N" OR H="n" THEN 10460 ELSE 10588 '« 3220 

10460 FOR 1=1 TO VAR '* 1189 

18470 PRINT "Edit " Btl) "T'jiGOSUB 1143B:IF H="Y'' OR H="y" THEN 

GOSUB 10150 '» 4500 

10480 NEXTjGOTO 10440 '* 1256 

10490 'determine ASCII program name for merging 
10500 INPUT "Name o£ test program and drive destination (FILENAH 

E:D) "jDiGOSUB 11490;IF FLAG2="on" THEN 10500 '• 8007 

10510 'determine destination of test data 

10520 INPUT "Test file destination drive number" ;TDEST! IF TDEST< 

OR TDEST>3 THEN 10520 '• 6638 

10530 'prepare variable subscripts 

10540 FOR J=l TO VAR:GOSUB 11110:NEXT '* 2284 

10550 'prepare DIM statement 

10560 GOSUB 11150 '* 948 

10570 'start writing ASCII program lines to file 

10580 OPEN "O", 1, D '* 1040 

10590 PRINTIl, "10 '"+D+" Hod 4 *+OATE$ '* 2103 

10600 PRINTIl, "100 CLEARiDEFINT I-N" '* 2168 

10610 PRINTIl, "158 DIM "+DLST5 '* 1744 

10620 'write FLAG set for logic control 

10630 PRINTIl, "200 KUI=0" '* 1444 

10640 'write error control 1 



Listing J continued 



30 Micro, August 1987 • 69 



LtsHr»g I conHnued 

10658 PRINTtl, "999 CLS:ON ERROR GOTO SBIB" 

10660 'write file input coutine 

lB67fl PRINTIl, "IBBB OPEN "+CHRS (34) +" I"+CHRS (34) +" , 1, ■+CHES13 

i) +"testseq" 
IMSe C='ia»fl ":TOR J=l TO VftRsGOSUB li:ZB;GOSUB 11:48 
lfl69fl PRINTIl, C+PO 
10700 KEXT 

10710 PBINTII, "1050 CLOSE 1" 
10722 'write file display routine 
10730 C."110e ":FOR J=l TO VARiGOSUB 11220;GOSUB 11280:GOSUB 113 

e0:GOSUB 11360 
10740 PRINTIl, C+FO 
18750 NEXT 

10760 'write FLAG check to prevent endless loop program 
10770 PBINTII, -1200 IF KUZ^l THEN STOP" 
10780 'wcite dummy data creation routine 
10790 C="2000 "iFOB J=l TO VfiHiGOSUB 1122B;GOSUB 112eB:O0EUB 114 

S8:G0SUB 11360 
10800 PRINTIl, C+FO 
10810 NEXT 

10820 'write FLAG reset tor logic control 
10830 PRINTtl, "2100 KUZ=1" 
10840 'write error control 2 
10 850 PBINTII, "2990 OH ERROR GOTO 5028" 
10860 'write file output routine 
10870 PBINTII, "3000 OPEN "+CHB$ (34) +"0"+CHR5 (34) +" , 1, ■'+CHRS[3 

4)+"testseq:"+RIGHTS(STRS(TDESTI ,1) 
10680 C='3000 'iFOR J^l TO VAR;GOSUB 11228:GOSUB 11288:GOSUB 113 

40:GOSUB 11360 
10890 PRINTIl, C+FO 
10988 NEXT 

10918 PRINTtl, "3050 CLOSE 1" 
18920 ^wrlte message display 
10930 PRINTIl, "3060 PRIKT "+CHB$ (34) +"TeEtf ile written !" +CHRS (3 

4) 
10940 'write routine to re-route program to input and display du 

mmy file just created 
10950 PRINTIl, "3078 GOSUB 4818:0010 998" 
10960 PRINTtl, "4868 END" 
10970 'write timer routine 

10980 PRINTIl, "4018 FOR TM=1 TO 500 :NEXT;RETORN" 
10990 'write error control routines 
11000 PBINTII, "5010 CLOSE 1;RESUHE 2081" 
11010 PRINTtl, "5828 RESUHE 3850" 
11020 'write display source code routine 
11030 PRINTIl, "7088 LIST -8000" 
11040 PRINTIl, "8008 END" 
11050 CLOSE 1 

11060 'inform user that source code is complete 
11078 PRINT:PRINT "Program written!" 
110 80 'load newly created source code Into FakeOut for user insp 

ection 

11098 CHAIN MERGE D, 7000, ALL 

11100 'variable subscript routine 

11110 BQtJj^'CiFOR I-l TO LRY(J) 

11120 B0(J>=BQ(J)+RIGHTS(STR5(QNT(J,I) I ,LEN (STR$((3NT( J , I ) ) )-lJ+" 
I* 

11130 NEXT:X=LEN(BQ(J) ) ;MID$ (BO(J) ,X,1) ="1 " ;EETURN 

11140 'DIM routine 

11158 DLST5="";F0B 1=1 TO 4 

11160 FOB J=l TO UAR 

11170 IF INSTR(FLAG1,RIGHT$(ETRS(I) ,1))-SV(J) THEM DLSTS=DLST5+B 

(J)+BQ(J)+-, - 
11180 NEXT 

11190 NEXT:DLSTS=LEFTS(DLST5,LEN(DLET5)-2) 
11200 RETURN 

11210 'assign line numbers 

11220 X=LEN{STRS(J) ) :MID$ (C, 6-X ,X-1 ) ^RIGHTS ISTBS ( J) ,X-1J :BETURN 
11230 'setup variables for file input 
11240 FOR 1=1 TO 4:SWAP FOAdl, F1AII):NEXT 
11250 GOSUB 11280:GOSUB 11340:GOSUB 11360 
11260 FOR 1=1 TO 4!SWAP FOA (I ) , FIA (1 ) i NEXTiBETUBN 
11270 'setup transitory variables 
11280 F0=="":G1«:"(" 

11290 FOB 1=1 TO LAY(J) :G(I)=CHRS(I+72) !G1=G1+G(I)+"," 
11300 'start FOR NEXT loops routine 

11310 F0=F0+"FOR "+G(I)+"=1 TO'+ETRS (QNT( J , I ) ) +" ; " 
11320 NEXT:X=LEN[G1) :M1DS (Gl ,X , 1) =" ) "; RETURN 
11330 'concatenate PRINT/WRITE ot INPUT/LINE INPUT routine 
11340 FO=FO+FOA(SV(J))+"I1, " +B( J) +G1 ; RETURN 
11358 'complete FOB NEXT loops routine 
11360 FOR 1=1 TO LAY(J) :F0=FO+":NEXT":NEXT:BETURN 
11370 'concatenate display PRINT routine 

11380 FO=FO+"PRINT "+B (J )+Gl; RETURN 

11390 *setup dummy data assignment lines routine 

11488 IF EV(J)=1 THEN F0=FO+B ( J ) +G1+"=STRING$ (RND ( 20) ,BND( 95 1 +32 

)" ELSE FO=FO+B1J)+G1+"=RNDU00)" 
11410 RETURN 

11420 'keyboard scan 

11430 H=INKEy?:IF H="" THEN 11430 ELSE RETURN 

11440 'timer 

11450 FOB TM=1 TO 500: NEXT lEETUEK 

114E0 'default variables 

11470 DATA AA, BB, CC , DD, EE, PF , 

N, 00, PP, 00, HR, SS, TT, UU, 
11480 'validate filenaTne routine 
11490 FLAG2="":L=0:KX=0:IF LEN(D]<1 OB LEK(D)>23 THEN 11588 
11588 I=L+1:G0SUB 11570:IF 0<4 OR 055 THEN 11580 ELSE IF I=LENl 

DJ THEN 11568 
11510 FOR I=L+2 TO L+LD (KX) : GOSUB 11570:IF 0';4 OR I=LEN(D) THEN 

LB=I:I=L+LD(KX) 



GG, HH, 11, JJ, KK, LL, 

w, WW, XX, yy, za 



MM, 



4310 
3115 
1104 
599 
1591 



'* 4568 

'• 1100 

'• 604 

•* 2367 

'• 4567 

'• 1097 

'* 601 

'* 1496 

'* 2314 



■ « 
< * 
r* 
1 * 


^571 
1595 


I * 


4329 


1 * 


2324 
1356 


t -k 


2969 


■ * 


2334 
182e 


T t 
1 * 


1726 

1350 

734 





1706 




1863 




3 843 
3038 




1556 
1188 




4681 
602 

2673 
756 




3852 




2593 
2397 
3133 




909 
3028 




2788 

2675 




2538 




3161 




2149 




5587 

759 




2725 




2188 




6529 




3417 




4493 




4807 



Listing 1 continued 



that, by restricting the line numbers to a 
specific range, I could also use the newly 
deveiopeii test-data program as code that 
I could merge Into the program being 
developed. 

This way I know that I always have in- 
put/output (I/O) that will match between 
the test-data program and the developing 
program. 1 also put Into the test-data pro- 
gram a DEFINT for 1 to N, dimensioning 
for the variables, a simple timer routine, 
and a likewise simple data-display rou- 
tine. Thus, even more code is available for 
the new program, 

Fakeout allows changes to any vari- 
ables before writing the test-data program 
source code and also checks the test-data 
program file name and drive destination 
for Model 1/111/4 file-name conventions. 
It asks for the drive destination of the 
dummy data file, as well. 

F^eout performs a merge of the test- 
data program to let you inspect !ts source 
code before using it to create dummy data 
or merging into developing program code. 
Because the test-data program code Is 
merged into F^eout, it becomes Immedi- 
ately available for running to make dummy 
data without loading the test-data program 
separately. All you need to do is to type 
RUN and press enter. Eton't renumber 
Listing 1 because part of the created rou- 
tine may overwrite the program when it 
merges the source code into itself. 

Because you can use FUkeout on sev- 
eral different machines, it does not incor- 
porate a routine to ensure that you do not 
use aJl available memory in dimensioning 
the arrays. This depends on your judg- 
ment. F^eout also sets up the variables 
and loops with the assumption that sub- 
script (0) cannot be used because some 
programmers might l>e able to use Option 
Base in their programs. 

Adjustments 

You can change the variables In all Data 
statements to your choice. You must have 
26 different variables in each data set as 
the loops are set to 26. Because the routine 
for making Print* statements uses com- 
mas for Prints and Write#, if you normally 
use only Print*, then you might want to 
change the comma in line 11290 to a 
semicolon to use disk space more effi- 
ciently for actual test files. 

Model 1000 and 
2000 Modifications 

If you are using the 1000 or 2000, you 
should delete the section In lines 
11490-11580 and replace the lines given 
in Program Listing 2. Comments can be 
left out. ■ 

David L. Kuzmlnski is a microcom- 
puter data specialist for Jnternational 
Business Services In Hopewell, VA, and 
teaches at the corn.pu.ter lab at Saint Leo 
College. Write to him at 2581 Plnehurst 
Drive, Petersburg, VA 23805. 



70 • 80 Micro, August 1987 



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Circle 37€ on Reader Service card^ 



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Ltsttng t conttnued 

11S20 NEXT! IP Q=fl OR (LE^L+I-D (KX) AND Q>3) THEN 11569 ELSE IF LB 

=LEN(D) THEN 1156B 
1153e IF KX>=Q THBM llSBfl ELSE KX=Q 
■11548 L=LB:IF KX<3 THEN 11580 
11558 I=LE+1:G0SUB 11570:1? (Q<:56 OR Q>59) OK I<>LEN(D) THEN 115 

80 
11568 RETURN 

1157B Q=INSTRC/-:"-rti«+"B1234567a9",MIDS[D,I,l)):RETURN 
11580 FLAG2=" on": PRINT "Invalid name! " :G0TO 11450 
11590 'duplicate variable names routine 
11600 FLAG2=""!F0R J=l TO I-1:IF FLAG="skip" THEN SKIP=0 ELSE SK 

IP=1 
11S10 IF JOI AND B(I)=LEFTS{B(J),LEN(B(J))-SKIP> THEN FLftG2="!" 

:PRINT " Invalid 1" 
11620 NEXT: RETURN 
11630 'assign or validate variable type routine 

11649 Q1=INSTR(RIGHTS(B(IK1),DS(SV(I))):IF Ql=l THEN RETURN 

11650 B(n=B(lJ+ES(SV(I)) :RETURtJ 
11660 'validate variable name routine 

11670 FLAG="":FOH L=l TO LEN (B II ) ) : Q=IKSTR [ " S» ! t . 01234S6789"+HH, 
MID$tB[l)>I-(l)) ilF 0=0 THEN FLAG-"on* : L=LEN (B (I ) ) ;GOTO 1171 



'* 4861 

'* 2112 

■• 1683 

'* 3834 

■* 765 

•* 3151 

'» 3371 



4292 



'* 5003 
'* 1139 



3667 
1922 



11680 IF L<>LEN(B(I)) AND 0<5 THEN FLAG= 

710 
11690 IF Q<16 AND L=l THEN FLAGs'on" :L=LEN (B( I ) ) 
11700 IF Q<5 THEN FLAG^"skip" :SV( I) =Q 
11710 NEXT: RETURN 



L=LEN(B(I)) :GOTO 11 



4025 
2887 
239B 
1139 



End 



Program Listing 2. Replacement lines for Fakeout for the Tandy 1 000 and 2000. 



10000 'FAKEOUT/BAS Hod 1000 by D.KuzminBki 

19500 INPUT "Name of test program and drive destination {D:FILEN 

AME) "jD 

19520 INPUT "Test file name and drive destination (D:FILENAMEJ " ^ 

TDESTS 
10590 PRlNTll, "10 '"<-D+'' Mod 1000 ''+DATE5 
19670 PRINTIl, "1909 OPEN "+CHES ( 34) +"I ■-K:HRS (34) +" , 1, "+CHR$(3 

4)+TDEST$ 
10870 PRINTtl, "3999 OPEN "+CHR5 ( 34) +"0"+CHR5 (34) +" , 1, "+CHRS(3 

4)+TDESTS 
11400 IF SV(J)i=l THEN FO=FO+B( J) +G1 + "=STRING$ (INT (KND*20 ) , INT(RH 

D*100-5)+32)" ELSE F0=FO+B (J) +G1+"=INT [RND*100) " 



'* 5519 

I* 2244 

'» 3689 

'* 3899 

'* 6551 



Circle SO on Reader Sen(ce card. 

i]§[^{iii]^Tr[§ 

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As Reviewed In June/3? SO Micro. 



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TO RECEIVE MORE INFORMATION ON THE PRODUCTS 
AND SERVICES IN THIS ISSUE, PLEASE TURN TO 
READER SERVICE CARD. 



UTILITY 



by William McMuUan 



Communal Data Entry 

Enter data on either MS-DOS or TRSDOS 
computers with this common data-entry routine. 




Photo. MDEntry sample data input 
screen to Input name, address, and 
phone number. 

Setting up a data base using an IBM 
clone Is usually not difficult, but 
when you have to enter 35,000 names, ad- 
dresses, and other pertinent data, it be- 
comes a problem. 

The actual work of entering the data for 
this project was to be split up among three 
computers, one IBM clone and two Model 
4's. I needed a program common to both 
types of machines, so I wrote Multipur- 
pose Data Entry, or MDEntry (see Pro- 
gram Listings 1 and 2). See photo for 
sample data input screen. As I started to 
write MDEntry, I thought how often I had 
written almost this same program for en- 
tering data. However, to convert an old 
program, I would have to do a complete 
rewrite. What I needed was a versatile pro- 
gram that would let me rewrite the rewrite 
if I decided to enter more data. 

In addition, I wanted a data-entry pro- 
gram that I could use with other data pro- 
grams. I wanted to be able to expand it 
and to custom-flt tt to other needs. And it 
had to run on both machines. 

Data Statements 

Using Data statements, changing the 
parameters of this program is easy. Fbr ex- 
ample, the line below in Listing 2: 

1330 DATA "LAST NAME".2.2.20.20 



System Requirements 

Model ni/4 ox Tandy lOOO 

Basic 

Available on The Disk Series 



Program Listing 1. MDEntry for the Model 4. See p. 100 for information on 
using checksums in Listings 1 . 2 and 3. 



03/05/87 = SEQUENTIAL 
71228 



IB ' MDENTM/BAS VER l.B 

20 ' BY WILLIAM MCMULLAN 

30 ' RT 6 BOX 1, BASTROP, LA. 

4a CLEAR 

56 READ F$,R 

60 DIM LN$(R) ,PRS(R) ,R1K) ,C1(R) ,C2(B) ,PL(B) 

78 Rl=R-l!lF Rl>9 THEN Bl=2 ELSE Rl=l 

8e CLS:GOSUB llflfl iCLS; PRINT 9( 12 , 20 ) , "ENTER FILE NAME 

/DAT" 
98 PRINT ?(12,38) ,""; iLIKE INPUT FFS: FFS=FF?+"/DAT" ! IF FF5="/DAT 

" THEN FF$=F$ 
180 PRINT:PRINT "YOU ARE ABOUT TO CREATE A FILE NAMED I'EFS") IS 

THIS CORRECT <¥>/<N>" 
110 GOSUB 988:IF LS="Y" OR LS-"y" THEN 120 ELSE 80 
12B GOSUB 710:CLS 
130 OPEN "E",1,FF$ 
140 ' 
200 ' •••••••*•**** PROHPT FOR ENTRIES *****•*•••»»*••*• 

21B PRINT #(fl,fl) ,STR1NG5(88,"-") 

220 FOR X-1 TO J 

238 PRINT e(R(X) ,C1(X)) ,"<"X"> "+PRS(X(; 

240 PRINT KRfX) ,C2[X)) .STRING$(PL{X) ,"_-) ;;PRINT ? (R{X) ,C2 (X) ) , 



-■):PBINT e(BT+2, 01, STRINGS (80," 



250 IF R(X)>BT THEN BT=R(X) 

260 NEXT X 

270 PRINT |(BT+1,01 ,STRING$(80, 

") 
280 PRINT S(BT+2,36) ,*<E3> QUIT"; 
290 FOR X-1 TO J: GOSUB 600; NEXT X 
300 PRINT #(BT+2,8)," <F1> SAVE <F2> CHA 

NGE <F3> QUIT ■; 

310 PRINT e[BT+2,78) ,"";: 
320 GOSUB 900!BS=LS 
330 IF B$=CHB$(129) THEN 370 

340 IF BS=CHRS(130) THEN GOSUB 510!GOTO 328 
350 IF BS=CHR$(131) THEN CLOSE 1:CLS;END 
360 GOTO 310 

378 FOR Y-1 TO J:OPS=OP$+LK5(Y)+CHRS(34)+","+CHRS(34) :NEXT Y 
380 LL=LEN(0P$) :OP5-LEFT5 (0P$,LL-3) 
488 ' ********»••••••• EXTEND FILE i MRITB DATA **••••»•******* 

420 WRITEtl,OP$ 

430 ' 

440 0P$="" :GOTO 200 

5JJ0 1 *****Tk******* CHANGE ENTRY **************** 

510 PRINT e(BT+3,20) , "ENTER ENTRY TO CHANGE 1 TO "jJjiGOSUB 1888 

;PRINT §[BT+3, 28) (STRINGS (32," "); 
S20 GOSUB 618:PRIKT 3 (BT+2 ,70) , "" ; iRETURN 
Seg ■ •«*******»»•• PROMPT ROUTINE *****•»*•*•****** 
618 PRINT S(R(X),C2(X1),STRINGS(PL(X),'.*),!PHINT § (R(X) ,C2 IX) -1 

),">", 
620 GOSUB 888 

638 PRINT e(R(Xt iC2(X)-l) ," "j 
640 RETURN 

■jQQ I **************** CREATE FILE & READ DATA **************** 
710 J=J+1:READ PRS ( J) ,R (J> ,C1 ( J) ,C2 ( J) ,PL{ Jl 
720 ' 

730 IF PH$(J)="EHD" THEN J=J-1 {RETURN 
740 GOTO 710 

ggg . «.*...******** INKEYS INPUT ROUTINE 
ei0 LN?(X)="" 

828 LS=""jWHILE LS="" ;L5=INKEY5:WEND 
838 IF L$=CHR$(131) THEN CLS : END 
848 IF L$=CHRS(B1 THEN IF LEN (LNS (X) ) =8 THEN 620 ELSE P=P0S(X)-2 

tPRINT eCR(X),P),".";:PRINT ? {R(X) ,P) , "" ; :LNS (X> =LEFTS (LNS tX 

) ,LEN(LH5(X))-1) :G0TO 820 : ' BACKSPACE 
858 IF LS-CHRS(13) THEN RETURN ELSE PRINT LS; 
860 LK$IX)=LNS(X)+LS:IF LEN (LN$ (X) ) -PL (X) THEN RETURN 
878 GOTO B20 

900 ■ •••••******** SINGLE KEY INKEY ROUTINE »*••***••****«*««• 
910 LS="";WHILE L?="" ! LS-=INKEY5 iWENDsRETURN 

1800 ' ************* HULTI KEYSTROKE ROUTINE ****************** 
1010 PRINT §(BT+3,51),STRINGS(R1,".");:PKINT S(BT+3, 51) , " " r ! XS=I 
NPUT5(R1) iX-VALlXS) :IF X>J THEN PRINT e(BT+3,51)," ";:G0 
TO 1808 
1020 IF X=0 THEN 1010 
1830 RETURN 

1100 ' ********************* INTRO 
1110 K3$=STRINGS(B0,131) 
1120 CLSiPRINT eSl,B)rK3Sr 

1130 FOR JJ-1 TO 22:PRINT e( JJ , 0) ,CHRS (191) r ! PRINT 6 (JJ, 79) rCHRS 
(191) ;:NBXT 



********************* 



**************************** 



491 

661 

2441 

2197 

4850 

4484 

5554 

290 6 

1031 

968 



1786 

942 

2226 

3944 

1650 

623 

3833 
1921 
2070 

4409 
1373 
1883 

1535 
2492 
2388 
678 
3482 
2116 

900 

1057 



5S48 
2481 



4852 
7S2 

1637 
E66 

2479 

2266 

6 64 

673 
2146 
1888 



8S76 

2783 

3253 

690 

26 84 



7576 

1160 

706 

1335 
1492 



'* 4454 
Listing I conllnued 



80 Micro, August 1987 • 75 



Listing i continued 

114fl PRINT 6(22,2) ,K3S; 

1150 PHINT 1(4,28) ,STRINGS(21, 131); 

1160 PRINT e(5,30),"M D ■- ENTRY"; 

1170 PRINT e(6,28) ,STRING$(21,14fl),- 

1180 PRINT 9(11, 141, 'M ULTIPURPOSE DftTA B 

N T H Y " ; 

1190 PRINT i(14,31J,''S O F T W A R E"; 

12flfl PRINT e (19, 26) , "WRITTEN BY WILLIAM HCHULLftN"; 

12ie FOR JJ=1 TO 1000:NEXT JJ 

122fl RETURN 

1300 ' *********** FIELD DATA STATEMENTS ********************** 

13ie DATA "TEST/DAT: 1", 9 ' DEFAULT FILE NAME t NO. OF FIELDS + 1 

1328 ' DATA PftOMFT, ROW, COLl ,C0L2 , LENGTH 

133B DATA "LAST NAME" , 1 , 1 , 1 9 ,28 

134B DATA "FIRST NAME" , 2, 1 , 19 , 28 

1350 DATA "MID. NAME" , 3 , 1 , 1 9 ,12 

1368 DATA "ADDRESS" , 4 , 1 , 1 9, 20 

1378 DATA "CITY", 1,45, 62, 14 

13 88 DATA "STATE", 2, 45, 62, 2 

13 90 DATA "ZIP CODE" ,3, 45,62, S 

14BB DATA "PHONE" ,4 , 45 , 62, 12 

141B DATA "END", B, 8, 8,8 



1263 
1998 
2853 
1994 

3819 
2868 
3162 
1726 
789 

1403 

17 2B 

1806 
1713 
1615 
1465 
1486 
1666 
1525 
1195 
End 



Program Listtng 2. MDBntryfor the Tandy lOOO. 

10 ' MDENTRY.BAS VEH 1.0 03/05/ 87 = SEQUENTIAL = 

20 ' BY WILLIAM MCMULLAW 

30 ' RT 6 BOX 1, BASTROP, LA. 71228 

48 CLEAR 

42 DEFINT A-Z 

45 KEY 1,CHRS(129) :KEY 2 ,CHR$(13B) :KEY 3 ,CHRS (131 ) [KEY OFF 

58 READ FS,R 

68 DIM LNS(R),PRS(R),R{R),C1(R),C2{R),PL(R) 

70 R1=R-1:IF Rl>9 THEN Rl=2 ELSE Rl=l 

88 CLSiGOSUB 1188 :CLS: LOCATE 13,21jPRINT "ENTER FILE NAME 

..DAT" 

98 LOCATE 13, 39: LIKE INPUT FFS ;FPS-PPS+" .DAT" ! IF FF5--.DAT' THEN 

FFS=FS 
10B PRINTtPRINT "YOU ARE ABOUT TO CREATE A FILE NAMED ["PPS"] IS 

THIS CORRECT <Y>/<N>" 
IIB GOSUB 900:IF L$="!f" OR L$="y" THEM 128 ELSE 88 
120 GOSUB 710:CLS 
130 OPEN "A",1,FFS 
140 ' 
200 ' ••••••»••*••« PROMPT FOR ENTRIES ***************** 

210 LOCATE l,l:PfiINT STRINGS ( 80, "-" ) 

220 FOR X=l TO J 

238 LOCATE R(X) ,C1 (X) tPRINT "<"X"> "+PRS(X); 

248 LOCATE B (X> ,C2 (X) ; PRINT STRINGS (PL(!() ,"_"); iLOCATE R(X) ,C2(X 

) 
250 IF R(X)>BT THEN BT=R(X) 
260 NEXT X 

270 LOCATE BT+l,ljPRINT STRINGS ( 88, "-") iPRINT STRINGS(80," ") 
280 LOCATE BT+2,34!PRINT ■<F3> QUIT"; 
290 FOR X=l TO J: GOSUB 688: NEXT X 
300 LOCATE BT+2,1 SPRINT " <F1> SAVE <F2> 

CHANGE <F3> QUIT "; 

310 LOCATE BT+2,71j 
320 GOSUB 9ee:B$=L$ 
330 IF BS=CHR5(129) THEN 370 

340 IF B$=CHR5(130) THEN OOSUB 518:0010 320 
350 IF BS=CHR5(131) THEN CLOSE IjCLSiEND 
368 GOTO 318 

370 FOR Y=l TO J:OPS=OPS+LN$(Y) +CHRS(34) +","+CHRS(34) tNEXT Y 
388 LL=LEN(OPS) ;0PS=LEFTS(0PS,LL-3) 
400 . (•••**•* EXTEND FILE £ WRITE DATA ******** 
420 WRITEIlfOPS 
430 ' 

440 0P$="":GOrO 200 

5gg " ************* CHANGE ENTRY *************** 
510 LOCATE BT+3, 21: PRINT "ENTER ENTRY TO CHANGE 1 TO ";Jr:GOSUB 

10fl8:LOCATE BT+3, 21 ; PRINT ETRINGS{32," "); 
528 GOSDB 618; LOCATE BT+2 ,71 : RETURN 
688 ' *********** PROMPT ROUTINE •••••********** 
618 LOCATE R {X) ,C2 (X) :PRINT STRINGS (PL (X) ,"."); sLOCATE R(X),C2(X 

)-l: PRINT ">"; 
620 GOSUB 800 

638 LOCATE R(X) ,C2(X)-l:PfilNT " "; 
648 RETURN 

700 . **•**•(•< CREATE FILE t READ DATA ********* 
710 J=J+1:READ PRS ( J ) , H ( J) ,C1 ( J) ,C2 ( J) ,PL ( J ) 
728 ' 

738 IF PRS(J)="END" THEN J=J-1:RBTUBN 
748 GOTO 710 

888 * ********* INKEYS INPUT ROUTINE ************* 
818 LN5(X)='" 

828 LS-""!WHILE LS="" ; LS=INKEYS: WEND 
838 IF LS-CHRS(131) THEN CLS ! END 
848 IF LS=CKR5(8) THEN IF LEH (LNS (X) ) =0 THEN 820 ELSE P=POS(X)-l 

:LOCATE 8(X),P:PRINT ".";:LOCATE R IX) ,P : LN5(X) =LBFTI (LNS(X) , 

LEN(LNS(X) )-l) :GOTO 828 ' BACKSPACE 
858 IF LS=CHRS(13] THEN RETURN ELSE PRINT LSf 
868 LNS(X)=LNS(X)+L$:IF LEN (LNS (X) ) =PL(X) THEN RETURN 
678 GOTO 828 

900 . ..****** SINGLE KEY INKEY ROUTINE ************ 
918 LS="":WHILE LS="" : LS^INKEYSiWEND: RETURN 

IBBfl 1 ******.*• MULTI KEYSTROKE ROUTINE •*** 

1818 LOCATE BT+3 , 52 :PRINT STRINGS (Rl ,".");: LOCATE BT+3, 52:XS=INP 
UTS(Rl) !X=VAL(XS) :IF X>J THEN LOCATE BT+3,52 tPRINT " ";: 
GOTO 1080 
1028 IF X=B THEN 1810 



491 

808 

3339 

681 

2441 

2197 

4764 

4211 

5554 

2988 

1831 

964 



2129 

942 

2567 

4012 
1658 
623 
3651 
2260 
2878 

4751 
1181 
1883 
1535 
2492 
23S8 
678 
3462 
2116 



6524 
2209 



'• 4734 

'* 752 

'* 1978 

'* 666 

'* 2479 

'• 2266 

'* 684 

•• 673 

•* 2146 

'* 1888 



6853 

2783 

3253 

690 

2684 



7988 
1160 



Luting 2 conttnu&t 



You can create 
new programs 
under different 
names, saving 
a master copy 
of the program 
unaltered. 



puts the words L^T NAME at row 2. col- 
umn 2, expects a keyboard entry after the 
prompt at column 20, and limits the entry 
to 20 or fewer characters. 

To use the program, first write your 
Data statements. You could save only the 
Data statements you want for other ver- 
sions In ASCII and merge them with 
MDEntry as needed. Easier sttJl, since this 
program Is so short, you can create new 
programs under different file names for 
different uses, saving a master copy of the 
program unaltered. 

Preliniiiiarles 

After you run MDEntry and a brief In- 
troduction appears, you are prompted for 
a file name. If you don't enter one, the 
program uses the default file name (see 
the line 1310 In the Data statements). 
1 have used the name TEST/DAT, or in 
MS-E)OS TEST.DAT, and the number after 
the file name (I used the nuint>er 9, which 
represents nine fields including the "end" 
or dummy field). 

If you Increase or decrease the fields, 
you must change this number accord- 
ingly. This line must be the first of the 
Data statements since line 50 reads it to 
get the default file name and the number 
of fields. Line 60 also uses the field num- 
ber to dimension the arrays. You might 
want to change the file name in the Data 
statement or bypass the file-name entry 
prompt completely. If you do, change line 
80 to: 

80CLS:GOSUB 1IOO:FF$ = F$;GOTO 120 

In the MS-DOS version I used line 45 to 
define the function keys, setting their val- 
ues to the same ones used In the TRSEH3S 
version. The KEY OFF at the end of the 
line prevents the Key reference line from 
cluttering up row 25 of the screen. 

The MS-DOS version of the program 
differs little from the TRSDOS version. Lo- 
cate statements replace Prlnt(g state- 
ments. The numbers in the Locate 
statements are one more than those in the 
Print® statements, because of row and 
column numbering systems of the two 
machines. In the Open statement in line 
130, under TRSDOS, the letter "E" ex- 
tends a sequential file; "A" under MS-IX)S 
does the same thing. For random or direct- 
access files, use an "R" for both. 



76 • 80 Micro, August 1987 



Listing 2 continued 



1030 

1100 
lllB 
1120 
1130 

1140 
1150 

iiee 

1170 
118S 

119B 
1200 

i2ie 

122B 
1300 
1310 
1320 
1338 
1340 
1350 
1360 
1370 
13G0 
13Sfl 
1400 
1410 



******** 



********** 



O S E 



DATA 



RETURN 

t *************** INTRO 
K3S=STRINGSlSa,219) 
CLSiLOCATE 1,1:PRIKT K3S; 

FOR JJ=1 TO 24: LOCATE JJ,1; PRINT CHB$ (219) ; itOCATE JJ,80:PB 
INT CHRS(219) ;:NEXT 
LOCATE 23,3:PRINT K3$; 
LOCATE 5,29;PRINT STRING? {21 , 223 ) ; 
LOCATE 6,31: PRINT "H D - E N T B V"; 
LOCATE 7,29:PRINT STRINGS (21 , 220 ) j 
LOCATE 12,15;PBINT "HULTIPUfiP 

E N T R Y"; 
LOCATE 15,32:PRINT "S F T W A B E"; 
LOCATE 20,27: PRINT "WRITTEN BV WILLIAM MCHULLAN"; 
FOR JJ=1 TO 5eBfl:NEXT JJ 
RETURN 

t *****•• FIELD DATA STATEMENTS ************ 
DATA "TEST. DAT", 9 'DEFAULT FILE NAME S. NO. OF FIELDS + 1 
I DATA PROMPT, BOW, COL1,COL2, LENGTH 
DATA "LAST NAME" , 2 ,2 , 20 , 20 

"FIRST NAME", 3, 2, 20, 20 

"MID. NAME" ,4,2,20,12 

"ADDRESS ",5,2, 2 0,20 

"CITY", 2, 46, 63, 14 

"STATE", 3, 46, 63, 2 

"ZIP CODE", 4, 46, 63, 5 

■PHONE", 5, 46, 63,12 

"END", 0,0,0,6 



DATA 

DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 



788 

1342 
1834 

5133 
1686 
2335 
2396 
2336 

4162 
2411 
3496 
1730 
709 

129S 

1714 
1800 

1707 
1609 
1468 
1491 
1669 
1528 
1195 



Program Listing 3. MDRandomJor direct or random access files. 



IB 'MDENTRY/BAS VEft 1.0 03/05/87 = RANDOM = 

130 OPEN "R",1,FFS,FT 

140 FIELD 1, FT AS 0P1$ 

370 FOR Y=l TO J:LN$(V)=LEFTS(LN5(Y)+STRINGS(PL(Y) , 

380 OPS-0PS+LNS{Y) ;NEXT Y 

418 LSET 0P1S=0PS 

420 NK=L0F[1)+1:PUT 1,NN 

438 0PS="" 

440 GOTO 209 

720 FT=FT+PL(lI) 



'),PL(Y)) 



1179 

1304 

3675 

1539 

1025 

1434 

507 

675 

90 B 



Circle 176 on Reader Service catd. 



K^j 



Direct Access 

As it stands, MDEntry writes sequential 
files, but It can also write direct-access 
files. Load and save Program Listing 3 In 
ASCII using the statement SAVE "MD- 
RANE)OM/ASC".A (or in MS-DOS, SAVE 
-MDRANDOM.ASC'.A). 

Load MDEntry/BAS and merge MDRan- 
dom/ASC with the main program. Now 
you are set up to write direct- or random- 
access files, I pad the fields with spaces 
and then write them to disk in one block 
of data, rather than individual fields (see 
lines 370 and 380}. because 1 have not 
found a way to field an unknown number 
of fields. The field I use is 0P$ with FT 
bytes in it, where FT is the total bytes of 
all fields as calculated In line 720. 

Model III Changes 

If you are using the Model III, you need 
to convert the Print® values and Data 
statements in the Model 4 version of 
MDEntry to accommodate the 64-charac- 
ter-wide screen. You also need to change 
the While. . .Wend statements to If. . . 
Then statements, 

MDEntry Grows 

You can use this program in conjunction 
with other programs, such as invoicing, 
checkbook entry, check writing, address 
labels, and inventory. You can also use it 
with commercial programs such as data 
bases, spreadsheets, and word processors. 
You might also elect to use MDEntry as a 
basis for a much larger program. 



A Sample 

After you have tested the program, try 
changing the Data statements and see how 
the screen adjusts as you add and delete 
statements. Now change the following lines. 

For TRSDOS: 



13 10 DATA 
1330 DATA 
1340 DATA 
1350 DATA 
1360 DATA 
1370 DATA 
1410 DATA 

For MS-DOS: 



■'CHECKBK/DAT",6 
•■CHECK NO:". 1.52.70.6 
"PAY TO:", 3, 1.15,30 
"AMOUNT: ",3.52,68.8 
"FOR (DEPTl: ".6. 1.20.10 
"MEMO:",8.1. 13.65 
"END",0,0,0,0 



1310 DATA ' 'CHECKBK.DAT" .6 
1330 DATA "CHECK NO:", 2.53.7 1.6 
1340 DATA "PAY TO: ",4.2.16,30 
1350 DATA "AMOUNT: ",4.53.69.8 
1360 DATA "FOR (DEPTl: ".7.2,2 1,10 
1370 DATA "MEMO;", 9,2, 14.65 
1410 DATA "END". 0.0.0.0 

Delete lines 1380, 1390, and 1400 for 
both systems. 

Now you have a checkbook-entry or 
check-writing program in the making. You 
can improve the program by adding a num- 
ber to the Data statement that would tell 
the program to process the entry in some 
special way, such as admit only numerics 
or alphanumerics, or dates. You are lim- 
ited only by your imagination. ■ 

William McMullan is a selj-emploijed 
electronics technician, a ham-radio op- 
erator, and a computer hacker. Corre- 
spond \jAth him at Route 6, Box 1 , Bas- 
trop, LA 71220. 



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80 Micro, August 1987 • 77 



MATH/EDUCATION 



by Thomas M. Swatloski 



Test Tester 

Perform statistical analysis on test and other data. 



As a university professor and admin- 
istrator in education, I found that 
analyzing test scores on a computer is 
much easier. I wrote Tee Test (see the Pro- 
gram Listing) for the T^ndy 1000, but It 
runs on the Model 4 without modification 
and on the Models 1 and HI with the sub- 
stitution of an open bracket ([} or up arrow 
(t) where the caret (") appears. 

Using raw test scores, this program ac- 
curately gives the standard deviation, 
mean, T ratio, F-test result, and Pearson's 
R for sets of pre- and posttest results [see 
the formulas In the T^ble) for groups of 
students as large as 50. 

I designed the screen prompts with 
the classroom teacher In mind. However, 
the program could work Just as well for 
other groups of data. 

Fbr larger sets of data, and of different 
varieties, change the DIM statements in line 
50 to numbers that match your needs. Fbr 
instance, for a list of 200 grades, or temper- 
atures, or people of a certain height, you 
would need to put 200, at least, in the DIM 
statements for F#, FA#, 0#,and OA*f. 

You can send the results of your com- 
putations to the screen or printer. A sam- 
ple output is shown In the Figure, If you 
are using the f^ndy 1000. your printer 
must be ready at the outset or the pro- 
gram win abort. If you want screen view- 
ing only, omit the LPrint lines. 

If you want to work with standard devia- 
tions and means for a single set of data, 
rather than both pre- and posttest results, 
run Tee Test entering the data for the pre- 
test scores only. When the first score for 
posttest grades is requested, press enter. 
The program will process the first set of 
data. In this case, the T ratios, F-test results, 
andFfearson's Rvalues have no meaning. ■ 

Thomas M. Swatloskt ts a retired pro- 
fessor of engineering physics at the Uni- 
versity of Southwestern Lousiana. His 
hobbies are amateur radio and com- 
puters. You can write to hint at 312 
Marie St., New Iberia, LA 70560. 



System Requirements 

Model I/m/4 or Tandy lOOO 

48KRAH 
Available on The Disk Series 



Standard deviation = [NEX* - (EX)=^1"=/N 

Mean = [EX]/N 

Fisher's T = (M^ - MvV[(EX^ + EY=)/(N(N- 1))]'™ 

F = EX^/EY=. or vice versa; keep larger in numerator 



Pearson's R 



NE(XY) - (EXUEY) 



[(N(EX') - (EX)*)(N(EY=) - (EY)")!'" 
M = mean: E = sum of (usually Greek sigma): X = pretest score; Y = posttest score 
Table. Formulas used /or computing test results. 



Program Listing. Tee Test for analyzing test scores. Seep. 100 for information 
on using checksums. 



le 


"TEETEST.BAS" 


20 


Standard DEVIATIONS, HEANS, and T-HATIOS for PRE and POST t 


est results using RAW scores. 


38 CLS 


4fl CLEAR IBBBB 


5fl DIH FMSfl), FAI(5B1, 01 {SB), 0AI(5fl) 


Se PRINT ....*...******* - 


7fl PRINT ■ • • * . ■ 


80 PRINT " * * STANDARD DEVIATIONS • * " 


9B PRINT " * • MEANS * • - 


IBB 


PRINT " * * T-RATIOS, F-TEST AND PEARSON'S R * * ■ 


llfl 


PRINT " • • of PREtest and POSTtest scores * * ■ 


126 


PRINT " « » By; Thomas M, Swatloslti • • " 


138 


PRINT " • * * * ■ 


140 


PRINT - • • * * [ 


ISB 




160 


PRINT 


165 


PRINT " MAKE SURE PRINTER IS READY OR PROGRAM ABORTS" 


170 


PRINT "NOTE: Scores must be input slowly. Otherwise ZERO Is 




seen by 


171 


PRINT " the computer as the end of the scores." 


180 


PRINT 


190 


INPUT "Number o£ Students in this Group "; T 


195 


IF T=B THEN GOTO 190 


iBB 


INPUT "GROUP NAME: ■; US 


210 


CLS 


22B 


Ft=B; FTt=0: Gt=.B: H#=B: 11=0; Jt=0: KI=B: Yt=0: Lt-B: Ol-B: 




PI=B: Ql=0: Rt=B: SI^B; Vl-O; Wl=0 


23B 


FOR N = 1 TO T 


240 


PRINT "PRE SCORE FOR STUDENT "i N;':";: INPUT Ft(N) 


250 


IF F*(N) = THEN 35B 


260 


FTt =1 FTI + FI(N) 


270 


LI = FTI/N 


280 


Gt = Gt + ((FtiN))"2) 


290 


HI = FTI"2 


300 


It = ((N * Gt) - HI) 


310 


Jl = ll*(l/2) 


320 


Kt = J#/N 


330 


IF N = T THEN 37fl 



340 NEXT N 

350 H = N - 1 

360 T - N 

370 PRINT "THE STANDARD DEVIATION FOR THE PRETEST IS "; US I 

111,11"; Kl 
38B FAI^O; FHI°B; GAt=0: HAI=0; IAI=B: JAI^O: KAt-B: LAI=0; 

B: PA 1=0: PRINT ; PRINT 
39B FOH N - 1 TO T 

400 PRINT "POST SCORE FOH STUDENT "; Nj " ; " ; ! INPUT FAUN) 
41B IF FAKN) = 6 THEN S16 
42B FHt ■ FHI + FAKN) 
430 LAt = FHI/N 
440 GAt = GAI + ((FA((N))"a) 
450 HAI = FHt*2 
46B lAt = ((N*GAI) - HAI) 



1 « 


357 


t * 


764 


' * 


1507 


■ A 


2567 


* * 


2336 


* It 


3112 


1 * 


2550 


* * 


3507 


' * 


4175 


f * 


3669 


' * 


2361 


«* 


2382 


' * 


2583 


* * 


580 


' * 


3971 


■ « 


6fl74 


1 « 


4537 


' * 


582 


' * 


3921 


■ * 


1425 


■ A 


1696 


' * 


405 


* * 


5166 


1 * 


1007 


■ * 


3399 


0* 


1314 


' * 


105S 


1 * 


735 


' * 


1200 


t * 


752 


■ * 


1080 


t * 


a43 


' # 


650 


' * 


1165 


p t 


612 


* * 


623 


" • 


472 


' « 


4601 


■ « 


4840 


■ * 


1014 


' * 


3589 


f « 


1375 


f • 


1097 


' * 


786 


' * 


1393 


■ A 


803 


' # 


1218 


Listing 


conUnued 



78 • so Micro, August 1987 



Ckcle 367 an Reader Senlca card. 



Listing continue 

47B JA# - IAI*(l/2) 

48a KAf ^ JAI/H 

498 IF K = T THEN 52B 

5BB NEXT N 

518 N = K -1 

528 PRINT "THE STANDARD DEVIATION FOR THE POSTTEST IS 

t.l#";KAI 

S3fl FOR N = 1 TO T 

54B 01 IN) = LI - Ft (N) 

55fl Pt = (0KN)~2) + PI 

56B KEXT N 

57fl FOR N = 1 TO T 

58B OAKN) = LAt - FAf (N) 

iW PA» = (OAt(K)-2) + PAi 

6BB NEXT H 



«1B Qt = PI 

62B N = N - 



+ PAi 

1 



63B Rl 

640 SI 

658 Vt 

669 Wl 



1> 



PA»/Pt 

PI/PAt 



'GROUP NAME: 



US: LPRINT 



LPRINT "FOR THIS GROUP N = "i T 



* (N 
Qt/RI 
Sr(l/2) 
(L* - LAI)/Vt 
S7e IF Pt<PA< THEN Xt = 
688 IF PI>PAt THEN XI - 
690 CLS 
789 LPRINT 
718 LPRINT: 
72fl LPRINT 

738 LPRINT "THE PRETEST SCORES ARE: " 
748 FOR N = 1 TO T 
758 LPRINT Ft (N) , 
760 NEXT N 
77B LPRINT : LPRINT 

788 LPRINT "THE POSTTEST SCORES ARE: " 
79B FOR N = 1 TO T 
888 LPRINT FAI{N) , 
Slfl NEXT N 
82B FOR N = 1 TO T 
83B Yl - FI(N) * FAKNJ + Yt 
84B NEXT N 
89B N - N - 1 
88B SI = N * Gl - HI 
92B AAI - (N * GAt) - HAt 
948 BBt = (Zt * AAI)-(l/2) 
IBBB CCt = FTI * FHI 
lfl2fl DDI = ({N * I'D - CCt)/BBI 
1848 PRINT TAB(25) US: PRINT 
1B5B PRINT "THE STANDARD DEVIATION FOR THE PRETEST IS 

USING "tttt.ll"; Kl 
1868 LPRINT: LPRINT: LPRINT "THE STANDARD DEVIATION FOR THE PRET 

EST IS "; TAB(47) USING "tttt.ll"; Kl 
107 PRINT "THE MEAN FOR THE PRETEST IS "; TAB (57) USING "Milt. 

If"; it: PRINT: PRINT 
1080 LPRINT "THE MEAN FOR THE PRETEST IE "; TAB (57) USING 

.11"; LI: LPRINT: LPRINT 
1090 PRINT "THE STANDARD DEVIATION FOR THE POSTTEST IS " 

1 USING "till. It"; KAI 
1188 LPRINT "THE STANDARD DEVIATION FOB THE POSTTEST IS 

1) USING "till. II"; KAI 
1110 PRINT "THE MEAN FOR THE POSTTEST IS "; TAB (57) USING "11 It I 

.11"; LAI 
1120 LPRINT "THE MEAN FOR THE POSTTEST IS ";TAB(S7) USING 

.It"; LAI 
1130 PRINT :PRINT "T = "; USING "Itl.tt"; Wl 
1140 PRINT "F = ": USING "III. It"; Xt 
1150 PRINT "PEARSON'S R = "; USING "tt.tl"; DDI 
1160 LPRINT :LPRINT "T = "; USING "III. II"; Wl 
1178 LPRINT "F = "; USING "III. II"; XI 
1180 LPRINT "PEARSON'S R = "; USING "11.11"; DDI 
1198 END 



"; TAB(47) 



'tllll 



TAB (47 

; TAB (4 



"tllll 



GROUP NAME: SAMPLE 13 
FOR THIS GROUP N = 25 

THE PRETEST SCORES ARE: 
89 99 

96 6« 

65 99 

45 ee 

78 9S 

THE POSTTEST SCORES ARE: 
77 5S 

88 4A 

99 33 

66 S6 
66 87 



THE STANDARD DEVIATION FOR THE PRETEST IS 
THE MEAN FOR THE PRETEST IS 

THE STANDARD DEVIATION FOB THE POSTTEST IE 
THE MEAN FOR THE POSTTEST IS 

T = -8.11 
F = 1.15 
PEARSON'S R = -8.17 



988 

7 87 

1169 

610 

589 

4624 

1010 

1067 

1146 

616 

1014 

1266 

1345 

611 

826 

623 

528 

709 

872 

1080 

1676 

1679 

417 

2339 

2734 

658 

2400 

1013 

1001 

61 S 

1258 

2500 

1018 

1062 

614 

1012 

1366 

617 

628 

948 

1194 

1279 

991 

1485 

16 97 

5080 

6283 

5082 

5311 

5244 

5312 

4263 

4388 
2437 
1938 
2654 
2592 
2017 
2733 
450 



84 


85 


73 


91 


89 


72 


96 


97 


84 


67 


76 


76 


36 


75 


67 


85 


96 


82 


81 


99 


88 


es 


85 


94 


S6 


84 


93 


94 


83 


95 



79.52 



80.04 



Figure. Sample output of Tee Test. 




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80 Micro, August 1987 • 79 



Conttnuedfrom p. 48 

separate message blocks near the end of 
the SCR17/CTL file. 

To adapt his program. 1 put a short- 
ened title, CMDMSG, and the 80-byte 
command buffer in the largest contig- 
uous message block for the directory 
function (see Program Listings 2 and 3). 
In this process, extra space enabled 
partial reclamation of Superscripsit's 
"Press break for menu" message. 

Jane A. Layrnan 
Waukesha, WI 

Spool! Sans Sequence 

1 entered the print spooler called 
Spool! (see "Leave the Printing to 
Spooli," by David A. Williams, May 
1987. p. 58), and it failed to work after 
I assembled it using Microsoft's Macro 
Assembler version 4.0. 1 studied the 
matter for two hours and discovered the 
problem within the source code. The line 
ASSUME CS:CSEG.ES:CSEG,DS:CSEG 
causes the assembler to use the ES seg- 
ment register on instructions that refer 
to memory. Replace this line with ^- 
SUME CS:CSEG,DS:CSEG. The pro- 
gram now works on my 'fendy 1000. 

Ed Garcia 
Youngsville, LA 

Review Correction 

Due to an editorial error. Jack Ffeld- 
man's review of Teletrend's TT5 12P mo- 
dem (May 1987, p. 40) incorrectly said 
the modem "uses the familiar IBM PC/ 
AT dialing protocol," It uses the Hayes- 
compatible AT dialing protocol. 

Substitute Characters 

I have received a number of questions 
regarding my article "Deskmate Printer 
Control" (May 1987. p. 90). Some read- 
ers have identified a problem entering "N 
and ''S within Edlin, Whenever it is nec- 
essary to enter these codes to create a 
printer control code table, you must pre- 
cede the code with 'V. For example, 
when End Underline requires *N (deci- 
mal 14), enter "VN into the Edlin line. If 
a control code requires escape-'N (deci- 
mal 27 14), enter 'V^VN. Also, some 
printer codes can be represented by 
three characters. Entering 'C to repre- 
sent a decimal 03 only stops the exectton 
of the Edlin Insert command: instead en- 
ter 'VC. 

To Invoke printer modes, you can use 
any number of characters, as long as you 
never expect to use them in text. Also, 
these characters can only be keyboard 
characters. Unfortunately, 80 Micro mis- 
interpreted a character in my manu- 
script and duplicated it incorrectly. An 
inverted question mark appeared in- 
stead of a reverse apostrophe, which 
is on the Tandy 1000 numeric keypad. 
Figure 1 shows the correct lines for 



Program Listing 


2. Model 4 Commander for Superscripsit 1.02.00. 


10 ' R. K. Wri 


ght's Model 4 SuperScr ipsit DOS Command Patch 






2fl ■ From SB M 


icro, June -87, pp. 72ff. 






38 ' Adapted t 


or V. 1 . 


82.88 by J. Layman 






*a ■CLS:PRINT:PRINT TAB (22) "SupecSCRIPEIT DOS Command Installec": 






PRINT TAB(3e)"by Randall K. Weight" 


■ ik 


7668 


5B PRINTjPRINT 


TAB (22) 


"Adapted Coc V. 1.82.88 by J, Layman" ;PRIM 






T:PRINT 






' t 


5617 


6B OPEN "B" ,1, 


"SCR17/CTL':FIELI1|1,174 AS AS, 4 AS A$:GET 1,8 


■ * 


3328 


7e IP ASO'l.Ca" THEN 


PRINT: PRINT TA6( 15) "Version number does no 






t match 1 Ab 


ottinq p 


rogram.";PRINT:CLOSE 1:END 


' * 


8265 


8fl PKINTiPRINT TAB(5)" 


Preparing to install patches." 


« * 


4245 


90 FIELD#1,177 


AS AS, 77 AS AS 


f * 


1568 


18e FOR A-l TO 


50: READ 


B:U$=US+CHRS(B) jNEXT 


« * 


2568 


llfl US^US+MPtess BREAK £ot Menu)"+CHESt3)+CHRS(e)+CHR$iai+CHfi$( 






B)+CHRS(fl) 






' * 


4531 


12B GET 1,1;LSET AS=US 


:PUT 1,1 


■ * 


1743 


138 FIELDI1,246 AS AS, 


10 AS AS;US=CHR$12e)+CKRS(31|+"*** SCRI" 


' * 


3326 


Ua GET l,7:WEr A$=[]S 


;PUT 1,7 


' * 


1757 


158 FIELDI1,4 


AS AS, 114 AS AS,U8 AS BS,22 AS BS 


' t 


2500 


168 US="PSIT — 


DOS COMMAND ***"+CHRS ( 10) +CHRS ( 10] +"Coininand? "tCHR 






$(14)+CHR5(3)+"B0 


byte command line buffer is )ieire":V$="Dos 






Coimriand" 






'• 


9167 


170 GET 1,8:LSET AS=U$ 


:LSET BS=VS:PUT 1,8 


' * 


2449 


160 PRINTiPRINT TAB(S) 


"Done" SPRINT: PRINT; CLOSE 1 : END 


I * 


3572 


190 DATA 62, 101, 239, 253, 283, 18, 166, 33, 154, 148, 62, 10, 23S 


I * 


2773 


200 DATA 33,186,148,239,1,8,79,33,198,148,62,9,239,56,13 


I * 


2840 


218 DATA 62,25 


,239,33, 


158,142,62,18,239,62,10,24,228,62 


' * 


2763 


220 DATA 2,14, 


15,239,195,253,142,18 


' * 


1774 










End 


Program Listing 3. Source code for Commander for Superscripsit 


J ,02.00. 


00100 ; R. K. 


Wright ' 


s Model 4 SuperSCRIPSIT Dos Command Pate)! 






00110 ; Ffom 


80 MICRO 


, June -87, pp, 72ft. 






00120 ; Adapted £or Version 1.82,88 by J. Layman 






00130 


ORG 


95B4H 






88140 


DEFM 


'Dos Command ; 11 SPACES 






00150 


ORG 


949AH 






00160 TITLE 


DEFW 


IFICH 






00178 


DEFM 


'*** SCRIPSIT— DOS COMMAND **" 






00180 


DEFB 


10 






80198 CHDM5G 


DEFB 


10 






08200 


DEFM 


'Command? ' 






80210 


DEFW 


038EH 






00220 BUFFER 


DEFS 


80 J ' 80 byte command line buffei: 


is 


here' 


00230 


ORG 


8E6DH 






00240 COHAND 


LD 


A, 181 






00258 


RST 


2SH 






00268 


RES 


4,(IYtl8] ; ENABLE BREAK KEY 






00278 


LD 


HL, TITLE 






80288 


LD 


A, IB ;9DSPLy 






68290 


RST 


28H 






88380 REDO 


LD 


HL, CMDMSG 






80310 


RST 


28H 






88320 


LD 


BC,4Fa0H 






80330 


LD 


HL, BUFFER 






00340 


LD 


A, 9 jSKEYIN 






00350 


RST 


28H 






80368 


JR 


C, RETURN 






08370 


LD 


A, 25 ;eCHNDR 






88380 


RST 


2aH 






08398 


LD 


HL,BRKMSG 






08488 


LD 


A, 10 






08410 


RST 


28H 






88420 


LD 


A, 18 






00430 


JR 


REDO 






08440 RETURN 


LD 


A, 2 






00458 


LD 


C,15 






00460 


RST 


28H 






00478 


JP 


8EFDH 






004 88 BBKMSG 


DEFB 


10 






08498 


DEFM 


' (Press BREAK for Menu) ' 






80588 


DEFB 


3 






00510 


NOP 








08520 


NOP 








88530 


NOP 








00540 


NOP 








00550 PRGEND 


EQU 


S-1 






00568 


END 


8EB9H 




End 



CHR120.DAT when listed from Edlin. 

Also 1 have come up with a couple of 
extra Ups. To eliminate the annoying form 
feed generated by the Print command, re^ 
place PRINT CHR120.DAT /P with COPY 
CHR120.DAT PRN. The reset file contain- 
ing "X only controls LPDRVR. The 
printer must also be reset by turning if 
off and then on again. Finally, beware of 
any memory-resident programs that use 
*V to invoke a particular function. 

John Heenan 
Placentia, CA 



*L 1: 


"[W*A{"0 


2- 


. "[w^aTn 


3 


: "[WbX'C'N 


4 


: "[W^Bri^O 


5 


: "IW"B~"['T 


6 


: "[W*B^*["S 


Figure. The 


correct lines for 


CHR120.DATI 


vhen listedfrom Edlin. 



W 80 Micro, August 1987 



The fastest route for maximizing 
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.■■i:, ■ . ■•■vi"^s"^,'- V 



A Disassembler 

For All DOSes 

by David Goben 

Disassemble any Model l/HI/4 

assembly listing written under nearly any DOS. 




I f you are looking for a high-speed di- 
K sassembler for your Model I, III, or 4, 
I try my DISASM/CMD program that 
m- 1 runs on all three machines under any 
operating system except CP/M. DISASM 
will be especially useful for those of you 
who have more than one model and use a 
variety of operating systems. With DIS- 
ASM. you can disassemble programs you 
don't have the source code for and cus- 
tomize your commercial software. 

This disassembler has some special 
features. One key feature is that it disas- 
sembles memory-resident program codes 
and disk-resident machine-language pro- 
grams with equal ease. It can also hurdle 
many problems that some low-end com- 
mercial disassemblers cannot, such as 
byte spanning in the middle of an in- 
struction line on a disk-resident file. 
DISASM accepts a variety of load-module 
(CMD) formats, including patch, com- 
ments, yank, and others used by LDOS 
and 1>S-D0S. 

In addition, DISASM supports the 
undocumented instruction sets that Zilog 
(makers of the computers' Z80 chip) did 
not ofRcially release in Its instruction-set 
data sheets. These commands include 
manipulation of the upper and lower bytes 
of the IX and lY index registers, as well as 



System Requirements 

Model I/III/4 

32KRAH 

Any operating system except 

CP/M 
Available on The Disk Series 



the index register-related mathematical 
and logical operations. (You can find ref- 
erences to these instructions in Radio 
Shack's Assembly Language Develop- 
ment System [ALDS] and some more re- 
cent Z80 manuals.) 

Determining the Environment 

DISASM (see the Program Listing) be- 
gins by determining the environment un- 
der which it is operating and acts upon 
these results accordingly. When operating 
on a Model 1 or III. it uses system calls 
common to both computers to communi- 
cate with the system and the operator. 
When working in the Model 4 mode, it 
uses the TRSEWS/LS-DOS 6 supervisory 
calls. The only exception is Model 4 Mul- 
tidos, which uses the Model III calls (it is a 
virtual work-alike of the III system). 

DISASM processes the machine code 
bytes by testing for specific bit patterns. 
This method tells the system what class 
of process the opcode will be performing, 
and, according to the results, DISASM 
goes to a routine that can manipulate that 
class of operation. This routine in turn 
tests other bits within the b3rte{s) to deter- 
mine with which registers it will be oper- 
ating and the proper output syntax to use. 
This technique allows a faster processing 
time and requires less program memory 
space, thus providing you with higher 
speed output. 

Because DIS-ffiM is written in assembly 
code, it operates extremely fast. Since it is 
long (although short in comparison to 
other machine-language disassemblers), I 
converted it into hexadecimal (hex) data 
statements for page-space economy and 
convenience for those without assem- 
blers. Regular checksums were omitted 



because the program itself contains a 
checksum verification. (The source code 
for DISASM is available on the 80 Micro 
Disk Series. You can also request the 
source-code listing from the Technical 
Dept . , 80 Micro, 80 Elm St. , ft terborough, 
NH 03458. Please enclose a stamped ($1), 
self-addressed, 8'i- by U-lnch envelope.) 

Operating DISASM 

You can execute DISASM/BAS from Ba- 
sic on the Model I, III, or 4. It creates a file 
called DISASM/CMD, which you can run 
from the DOS level by entering DISASM 
from the DOS Ready prompt. 

When you run DISASM a short sign-on 
message aste if you want to disassemble 
from memory or disk. The asterisk (•) be- 
side the "D" selection indicates the de- 
fault if you press the enter key. 

You select "M" for main memory to en- 
ter the main memory address where you 
want to begin disassembling (a hex value 
from zero to FFFF, such as 54AB). Next 
enter the byte count (in hex) to indicate 
the amount of memory to disassemble. 

If you elect to disassemble a disk fQe, you 
are asked for its file name. Include an exten- 
sion if it has one; you can also add a drive 
name. This file must be in CMD file format, 
which is common to files with such exten- 
sions as CMD. FLT, DVR, and DCT. 

Whether you disassemble from mem- 
ory or disk, DISASM asks if you want to 
send the resulting disassembly to the 
printer. If you select "N" (no), you will 
be asked if you want to send the output to | 
a disk file. If you select "Y," you are° 
prompted for a file name. The disassem- S 
bly will be sent to the disk and display. Be ^ 
sure you have plenty of space on the disk s 
for the disa^embly. If you run out of dlskf 




^ 



^sample entry 


point fot a 


hypothetical transportable program 


^designed for 


the Models 


I, II, 


III, and 4. 


ORG 


S2e0H 




,-Etact of pcogtara [or PSECT 52BBH1 


HAIN PUSH 


KL 




fsave used registers 


PUSH 


DE 






LD 


HL,(9) 




rget BST 8 vector address 


LD 


DE,400BH 




;set Hodel I/III address 


JtOR 


A 




; reset carry and set zero 


SBC 


HL.,DE 




jset zero if podels 1 or 3 


JR 


Z,HDL13 




;is 1 or 3 


jis model 11/4. Test £ot 


motlidos 1 


LD 


DE,BBEE3K 


-ieeeH 


fspecial test for Model 4 HULTIDOS 


SBC 


HLiDE 






JH 


HZ.KAINS 




J not MULTIDOS 


JR 


SETMD 




;else set as Model III 


fis a Hodel I 


or III 






|HDL13 LD 


A,n25H) 




;test for Model III 


SUB 


•I' 






LD 


ft,l 




;set flag for model I 


JR 


IIZ,HAIN2 




;is Model I 


SETHD W 


fl,3 




,-elEe set for Model III 


HAIN2 LD 


(MAIN) ,A 




jset environ. 


POP 


DE 




rget used registers 


POP 


HL 






;resuine notmal pcogram set-up here 


Fig, I. Sample entry fjoint of a transportable program. 



.■sample routines for hypothetical transportable program 
;for Models I, II, HI, and 4 



;previous code Is main program 

.■routine to test environ. VNC=HodeI I, C-Model 11/4, KZ/NC=Model III 

CHKHDL PUSH HL ;save used register 

LD HL,(HAIM) ;get flag to 'L' 

DEC L jset proper flags 

POP HL iget used register 

RET ; return to caller 



;get DOS high 


memory address from proper system into HL 


GBTBEM 


CALL 


CHKHDL 


;check environ 




JR 


C,MEM24 


;is Model II/4 




JR 


NZ,MEM3 


;is Model III 


HEMl 


LD 

RET 


HL,(4e49H) 


;get Model 1 himen 


MEM3 


LD 

RET 


HL,(4411H) 


.-get Hodel HI himem 


MEM24 


PUSH 


BC 


[Save used register 




LD 


HL,S-$ 


jnull registers 




LD 


B,H 






LC 


A, IBB 


;get Model II/4 himem 




HST 


2SH 






POP 


BC 


jget used register 




RET 






, display ASCII 


byte in register 


'A' 


DSP 


CALL 


CHKMDL 


jcheck environ. 




JP 


NceessH 


jdisplay on Model I/III 




PUSH 


BC 


fsave used register 




LD 


C,A 


;byte to C 




LD 


A, 2 


jdisplay byte on II/4 




RST 


2eH 






POP 


BC 


;get used registers 




RET 







;program continues fcop here 



Fig. 2. Sample outlines for a transportable program. 



Program Listing. Disassemble. 

1 'DISASM/BAS AND DISASK/CHD BY DAVID GOB EN 

2 ■ PERMISSION GIVEN TO USE, NOT TO SELL 

IB 'DATA POKE FORMAT CREATED ON DATAPOKE/BAS 

2B CLE:PRINT"BUILDING 'DISflSM/CMD' " :RESTORE 

38 OPBN"0*, 1,"DIEASH/CHD";L= 98 ;HX$="B1 234567 eSABCDEP" 

40 CS=e:L=L+l() 



Usttng conttnued 



space, the disassembly will continue very 
slowly to the screen. If you respond "N" 
to the disk-file question, the disassembly 
is sent to the video monitor one screen 
page at a time, and you are prompted at 
the end of each page to press the enter key 
to continue. 



DISASM does 
not need to be 
modified for 
different operating 
systems or 
computers. 



If you decide to send the disassembly to 
the printer, you are asked for the number 
of lines per f>age. The default value is 54. 
This allows a one-inch top and bottom 
margin on a page of 66 lines. Next you are 
asked for the page length. The default is 
66. Finally DISASM asks if you want to 
pause between printed pages. This feature 
is handy if you are feeding individual 
sheets to the printer. 

DISyCM lets you break out of any opera- 
tion or prompt by pressing the break key. 

Output Format 

The DISASM 's display output uses five 
fields. Field 1 Is the beginning address of 
an individual machine-language opera- 
tion, the address of the opcode, in 4-byte 
hex format. Field 2 lists all byte values, in 
hex format, that belong to that instruc- 
tion. Field 3 displays the opcode, the main 
instruction class for that line. Field 4 dis- 
plays the operand, the registers or process 
that the opcode will use or perform. If the 
opcode does not require an operand, then 
this field is left blank. 

Finally, Field 5 gives the screen-dis- 
play able representations of the bytes in 
Field 2. If a value is a control code, a value 
from zero to 31, or from 128 to 255, it Is 
shown as a period. This last field lets you 
quickly distinguish if the disassembly is 
displaying garbage or text data, such as 
message sections, which allow you to read 
the information without having to further 
hand-translate. 

Making Programs 
Transportable 

DISASM is a transportable program. 
This means it does not need to be modified 
for various operating systems or a number 
of different computers. 

The methods 1 use for this transpor- 
tability are simple and short. Since 
the Model I, III, and 4 share the same CPU 



88 • SO Micro, August 1987 



(the 280), any program segments that do 
not perforin system input/output (I/O) 
will run on all machines. Well over 95 per- 
cent of all Z80 program code is already 
fully transportable. Communications with 
the operating system and the computer 
account for the remaining 5 percent. If 
during each I/O operation the program 
could determine under which system it 
was running. It could select the proper 
syntax and method for communicating 
with its host. 

The easiest way to do this is to test an 
individual flag set In memory. For exam- 
ple, if a certain byte !n memory contains a 
zero, then the program would process one 
type of function pertinent to one com- 
puter. If the value is non-zero. It could use 
another routine to perform the same func- 
tion on a different system. 

Figure 1 shows the entry point of a hy- 
pothetical transportable program. This 
program segment saves the HL register 
because, during program entry, you might 
have entered parameters after the file 
name, which you will want HL to point to. 
The DE register is saved because DE 
might be pointing to a drive-code table if 
an LDOS/LS-DOS program Is executing 
the program via the System Library com- 
mand. The program tests memory loca- 
tion 9 because the value 4000 hex is 
stored here on Models 1 and III. This is just 
one possible test. Another might involve 
saving a low memory value, poking some- 
thing else there, testing to see if the Poke 
took hold, and replacing the original byte. 



If the Poke worked, then a Model II or 4 is 
the host. 

The program also distinguishes be- 
tween the Models I and III by checking hex 



In most instances^ 
the program must 
only check if 
it is operating 
on either a 
Model I/III 
system or a 11/4. 



location 0125 for an "1." If it is there, then 
the system Is a Model III. This Is important 
if your program will later access high 
memory, which is stored at 4049 hex on a 
Model I and at 44 11 hex on a Model III. It 
is also significant if you use the ojieratlng 
system to output text message strings: the 
Model I uses the system call at 4467 hex 
while the Model HI uses 02 IB hex. 

The program uses the Main address for 
storing the flag. In Model II or 4, it stores 
a zero here. A " I " will be there in Model I 
and a "3" in a Model IIL 

In most instances, the program must 
only check if it is operating on either a 
Model I/lII system or a II/4, lb do so. the 



program checks bit zero of Main. You can 
use an index register such as lY to point 
to the address and test the bit. It will be 
reset (zero) If it is a Model II or 4 and set 
(1) if it is a Model I or III. The I/III test can 
further be broken down by testing bit I. 
which will be set on a Model III. 

System Constraints 

The most restrictive member of a com- 
puter or E>OS determines a transportable 
program's memory constraints. This 
means a program cannot Invade the high- 
est of the lowest and the lowest of the high- 
est memory limits of any specified system 
It Is to support. Although a system such 
as a Model 4 can have a low memory limit 
of 3000 hex, it must still follow vrith the 
Model mil constraints, in this case. 5200 
hex. Thus you cannot place code below 
5200 hex. 

Figure 2 shows how two different rou- 
tines can use this test. In this example, 
when routine CHKMDL is called. It re- 
turns a Zero/No Carry (Z/NC) state If the 
system is a Model I, a Carry (C) state for a 
Model II or 4, and a Not Zero/No Carry (NZ/ 
NO state for a Model III. Routine GET- 
MEM acts according to these three states, 
and routine DSP acts only between the 
two states of Model l/IIl (Carry reset) and 
II/4 (Carry set). ■ 



David Goben is a programming con- 
sultant. Write to film at 67 Highland 
Road. Mansfield Center, CT 06250. 



Listing continued 

50 HEAD AS: IF A$="ENO"THEN CLOSE: ENC 

SS IF LEFT$(AS, !)<>"-" THEN 78 

6B IF VALIH1DS(A$,2))=CS THEN H ELSE PRINT'CHECKSUH ERROR I 

N LINE"L:END 
78 A-INSTR(HX$,i:.EFTS(AS,lI)*16+IKSTR(HXS,RIGHT5(A$,l))-l7 
89 PRINT ll,CHRS(A) r:CS=CS+A:GOTO 50 
98 ' ' ' BATA AREA ' ' ' 

Iflfl DATA a5,09,flfl,Ba,BB,44,49,53,41,53,4D,B5,a9,BB,64,-577 
lis DATA 56,IB,ZB,2B,2B,2B,2fl,Bl,FE,64,S6,ED,73,A5,63,-1335 
IZB DATA 31,lE,5I,2A,B9,0e,ll,fle,4B,AF,ED,52,28,aS,ll,-e53 
138 DATA E3,7E,ED,52,28,18,18,BE,3E,BE,32,15,57,3A,25,-1B95 
148 DATA Bl,D6,49,3E,Bl,2fl,aB,21,ll,44,22,B2,S9,3E,B3,-e75 
158 DATA 32, 64, 56, CD, 8C, 64, IC, IF, 44, 49, 53, 41, 53, 53, 45, -1264 
168 DATA 40, 28, 31, 2E, 34, 20, 2D, 28, 4D,4F, 44, 45, 4C, 28,49,-839 
178 DATA 2F, 49, 49, 49, 2F, 34, 28, 40, 41, 43, 4e, 49, 4B, 45, 28,-938 
180 DATA 4C, 41, 4E, 47, 55, 41, 47, 45, 28, 44, 49, 53, 41, 53, 53, -1067 
19B DATA 45, 4D, 42, 4C, 45, 52, BD, 43, 4F, 50, 59, 52, 49, 47, 48, -1865 
2BB DATA 54,28,28,43,29,28,31,39,38,37,28,42,59,28,44,-888 
218 DATA 41,56,49,44,28,47,4F,42,45,4E,2E,28,41,4C,4C,-982 
228 DATA 2B , 52, 49 , 47 , 48, 54 , 53 , 2B , 52,45 , 53 , 45 , 52, 56 ,45 ,-1869 
238 DATA 44 ,00,80, 00 , 31 , IE, 52, 3E, 16 ,32 ,83 , G5, 32 , 51 ,65, -725 
248 DATA AF, 32 ,18,65 , 32 , 0B, 65, 32 ,86 ,63 , 3B, 44 , 32 , 18 , 63 , -962 
258 DATA 32, 2C ,S3 , 21 , 55, 59, 22, E6,64 , 22,E9, 64 , 32 ,E5, 68,-1 506 
260 DATA CD, »C, 64, 0E, 44, 49, 53, 41, 53, 53, 45, 4D, 42, 4C, 45, -1271 
270 DATA 2B,4D,41,49,4E,2e,4D,45,4D,4F,52,59,2B,4F,52,-lB23 
288 DATA 28 , 44 , 49, 53 , 4B, 28 , 28, 40, 81 , FE ,68 , 57 , 2F,2A, 44 , -1B75 
290 DATA 29,00,CD,BF,59,28,45,FE,44,2e,41,FE,4D,20,C8,-1625 
388 DATA 32 ,18 ,63 ,CD, SC ,64 , 40, 41 , 49,4E,20 , 4D, 45 , 4D, 4F, -1237 
310 DATA 52, 59, 2B, 41, 44, 44, 52, 45, 53, 53, OB, CD, 33, 5A,2B, -1187 
32B DATA E4, 22, 22, 63, 22, E5, 60, CD, ec, 64, 42, 59, 54, 45,28,-1539 
33B DATA 43, *F, 55, 4E, 54, 00, CD, 33, 5A, 28, ED, 22, 17, 63, 18, -1196 
348 DATA 60,CD,BC,64,4E,41,4D,45,2e,4F,46,28,46,49,4C,-1262 
358 DATA 45, 28,54 , 4F , 20, 44, 49 ,53 , 41 , 53 , 53 , 45 , 4D, 42 ,4C ,-1039 
368 DATA 45, 3F, 28, 00, 01, BB, 17, CD, C8, 59, 11, 88, 55, CD, 56, -1875 
378 DATA 59 ,21 ,08 , 54 , 45,CD ,68 , 59, 2D,D9, 21 ,ED, 57 , ES ,E5 , -1742 
388 DATA CD, 43, 63, 3E, 81, 32, 2C, 63, CD, 85, 63, 32, BD, 63, 3E, -1168 
39B DATA 81,32,B6,63,3A,31,63,3C,32,31,63,2A,E5,68,2B,-ie38 
4BB DATA 7C ,B5, 3E, 1B,C4 ,06 , 64,CD , BC ,64 , 53 , 45 ,4E, 44 , 2B ,-1679 
418 DATA 44, 49, 53, 41, 53, S3, 45, 40, 42, 4C, 59, 28, 54, 4F, 28, -1859 
428 DATA 5B, 52, 49, 4E, 54, 45, 52, IF, 88, CD, 18, 5A,CA, 09,58,-1485 
430 DATA FE,4E,CA,D9,5e,3E,e6,32,8B,6S,3E,36,32,51,65,-1417 
440 DATA CD, 8C, 64, 4C, 49, 4E, 45, 53, 28, 54, 4F, 20, 58,52,49,-1286 



450 
468 
478 
4Be 
498 
508 
518 
528 
538 
548 
558 
568 
578 
5B8 
590 
600 
610 
628 
638 
640 
658 
668 
678 
688 
690 
788 
710 
720 
730 
740 
768 
768 
778 
788 
798 
800 
818 
628 
838 
840 
858 
868 



DATA 
BATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 



4E 

20, 

73 

32 

54, 

88 

D5 

54, 

28 

C3 

55 

IF, 

64, 

28, 

32 

22 

65 

21 

C2, 

C8 

3E, 

CD 

28, 

05 

48 

3F, 

28 

3E 

58 

4D 

FB, 

28 

FE, 

58, 

13, 

38 

BA 

02, 

8D, 

89, 

7F 

3D 



54,28,50, 
28,44,45, 
SA,38,D3, 
83, 65, CD, 
48,28,28 
CD,73,5A, 
32,0B,65, 
57,45,45 
84,F£,4E 
33, 59, CD 
54,28,54 
88, CD, 18 
44,55,40 
88,01,00, 
55,06,00, 
E6,64,3A, 
EF , PD , CB , 
64,56,FD, 
1C,44,3E 
F6,C8,CD 
1A,EF,18 
36,44,18 
44,18,CF, 
,CD,28,44, 

ce,cs,2i, 

20,00,01, 

eo,CD,40, 

89,EF,le, 

54,2E,58 

59,28,87, 

C9,FE,61 

E9,2P,2A, 

4E,2e,e2, 

29, 88, CD, 

FE,8D,28, 

B2,AF,C9, 

3B,02,D6 

CD,BF,59 

28,AD,FE 

29,09,29 

CA,B1,5E 

CA,8A,SB 



45,52,28,58, 
46, 41, 55, 4C, 
28,83,32,51, 
8C, 64, 50, 41, 
44,45,46,41, 
38, DF, 28, 82, 
CD, eC, 64, 58, 
4E, 28, 58, 41, 
20,83,32,18, 
8C, 64, 53, 45, 
4F, 20, 44, 49, 
5A,CA,33,59, 
58,28,46,49, 
1 7 , CD , C 8 , 5 9 , 
CD, BF,59,F6, 
51,65,32,83, 
eA,86,CD,9B, 
CB,80,46,C9, 
4E,EF,C9,CD, 
40,59,28,06, 
F7,3E,3B,EF, 
DO, 3E, 43, 18, 
3E,3A,18,E1, 
le,BE,3E,3C, 
88, 88, 44, 3E, 
8B,84,21,E5, 
88, DA, 6F, 63, 
F1,46,49,4C, 
41,53,53,57, 
CD,2B,00,B7, 
D8,FE,7A,DB, 
4E, 29, 80, CD, 
37,C9,B7,C9, 
BF,59,ee,EB, 
E3,FE,38,38, 
FE,3A,38,84, 
87,29,29,29, 
Ce,EB,21,88, 
38,38,CE,FE, 
,B5,6F,30,E3, 
,CB,77,CA,8F, 
,30,CA,66,5B, 



41, 

54, 

65 

47, 

55 

3E, 

41, 

47 

65 

4E 

53 

FE 

4C 

11 

01 

65 

5A 

CD 

4D, 

CD 

IS 

EF 

11 

18 

64, 

59, 

7E, 

45 

4F, 

28 

E6 

BF 

CD 

21 

04 

FE 

29 



81,FE,5C,58,47,45,-1177 
3D, 35, 34, 29, 88, CD, -1001 
3A,51,65,B7,2e,C8,-1410 
45, 20, 4C, 45, 4E, 47, -1218 
4C, 54, 30, 36, 36, 29, -955 
42, 2A, 51, 65, 95, 38, -1280 
55,53,45,28,42,45,-1369 
45, 53, 88, CO, 18, 5A, -1186 
21,3B,BB,22,E9,64,-1845 
44, 28, 4F, 55, 54, 50, -1438 
4B, 28, 46,49, 4C, 45, -1015 
4E,CA,33,59,CD,eC,-1711 
45,4E,41,4D,45,3A,-ie77 
32, 56, CO, 56, 59, 21, -1116 
32, IB, 65, 21, IB, 00, -1868 
CD, 4D, 59, 20, 07, 3E, -1238 
CO,A8,63,18,FB,FD,-2387 
4D, 01, FE, 58, 59, 59, -1749 
59, 28, 17, CD, 24, 44, -1613 
e9,44,C3,6F,63,4F,-1821 
E7,CD, 40,59,28,85,-1629 
CD, 40,59,28, 05, CD, -15 85 
32, 56, CD, 40, 59, 28, -1264 
DB,CO,4D,59,2A,49,-1372 
EF,C1,C9,CD,8C,64,-1794 
CD, FD, 59, CD, 40, 59, -1369 
CD,BF,5A,FE,0O,C9,-1654 
4E, 41, 40, 45, 2P, 45, -1268 
52, 44, 3A, 44, 2E, CD, -1222 
PA,C9,3E,88,EF,2e,-1476 
5F,C9,CD,8C,64,2B,-2606 
59,C8,FE,59,2e,e6,-1411 
eC, 64, 28, 28, 46, 45, -1672 
88,88,1A,CD,8F,5A,-1418 
FE,47,81,FE,54,5A,-1669 
41,38,F6,D6,3e,FE,-1943 
85, 6F, 38 ,05, 24, 18,-1818 
lA,CO,eF,5A,13,FE,-1772 
38, CA, 06,38, 44, 40, -1759 
ie,E0,CD,A5,6B,CB,-1572 
FS, 86, 87, CA, 73, SB, -2251 
CA,DE,5B,3D,CA,47,-1858 



Llsilng cantlnuffd 



80 Micro, August 1987 * 89 



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Listing conHnued 



87B 


DATA 


sea 


DATA 


e9Q 


DATA 


9SB 


DATA 


9ie 


DATA 


92B 


DATA 


93B 


DATA 


940 


DATA 


950 


DATA 


960 


DATA 


97a 


DATA 


980 


DATA 


990 


DATA 


1BB0 


DATA 


1010 


DATA 


1020 


DATA 


1030 


DATA 


1040 


DATA 


1050 


DATA 


1860 


DATA 


107B 


DATA 


1880 


DATA 


1090 


DATA 


1100 


DATA 


1110 


DATA 


1120 


DATA 


1130 


DATA 


ii4e 


DATA 


1150 


DATA 


1160 


DATA 


1170 


DATA 


1160 


DATA 


use 


DATA 


1200 


DATA 


1210 


DATA 


122B 


DATA 


1230 


DATA 


1240 


DATA 


1250 


DATA 


1260 


DATA 


1270 


DATA 


1280 


DATA 


1290 


DATA 


1300 


DATA 


1310 


DATA 


1320 


DATA 


1330 


DATA 


1340 


DATA 


1350 


DATA 


1360 


DATA 


1370 


DATA 


1380 


DATA 


1390 


DATA 


1400 


DATA 


1410 


DATA 


1420 


DATA 


1430 


DATA 


1440 


DATA 


1450 


DATA 


1460 


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1470 


DATA 


1468 


DATA 


1490 


DATA 


1S0B 


DATA 


1510 


DATA 


1520 


DATA 


1530 


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1540 


DATA 


1550 


DATA 


1560 


DATA 


1570 


DATA 


1590 


DATA 


1590 


DATA 


1600 


DATA 


1610 


DATA 


1620 


DATA 


1630 


DATA 


1640 


DATA 


1650 


DATA 


1660 


DATA 


1670 


DATA 


16 80 


DATA 


1690 


DATA 


1700 


DATA 


1710 


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1770 


DATA 


1780 


DATA 


17 90 


DATA 


1800 


DATA 


1810 


DATA 


1820 


DATA 


1830 


DATA 


1840 


DATA 



5B,3D,CA,E6,5A,3D,CA,D7,5A,CD,BC,64,S2,53,S4 

B9,B0,E'1,D6,C7,CD,87,5E,C3,16,SF,F1,CD,4A,64 

CD,A4r64,CD,A4,5E,CDr86,5E,ie,EE,Fl,CB,5F,2e 

41,CD,8C,64,50,55,53,48,09,00,E6,3e,0F,0F,0F 

0F,FE,02,38,29,2S,05,CD,20,5B,ie,CF,3A,7A,65 

FE,4D,20,08,CD,BC,64,4e,4C,00,ie,Ce,F5,3E,49 

CD, D6, 64, Fl, CD, 06,64, 18,84, CD, ec, 64, 41, 46, 00 

C9,CD,DA,65,ie,A8,FE,CD,20,08,CD,5C,5B,CD,80 

5E,ie,9C,FE,ED,CA,46,5D,7B,B7,CA,eB,60,23,47 

C3,9E,5A,CD,5C,5B,F1,E6,38,0F,0F,0F,01,FE,50 

5B,CD,7C,64,CD,35,5C,CD,80,5E,C3,16,5F,CD,8C 

64,43,41,4C,4C,09,00,C9,CD,6B,5B,18,DF,CD,8C 

64,4A,50,09,00,C9,CD, 81,5B,F1,E6,38,0F,0F,0F 

Cn,7C,64,18,D8,CD,eC,64,52,45,54,09,0e,C9,Fl 

CB,5F,20,0B,CD,8C,64,5B,4F,50,09,00,C3,F4,5A 

FE,e9,20,05,CD,81,5B,ie,B6,FE,D9,20,0A,CD, SC 

64,45,S8,58,09,00,ie,Ae,FE,E9,20,10,CD,6B,5B 

3A,7A,65,FE,4D,CC,8D,65,C4,C9,65,18,94,CD,D6 

5B,CD,8C,64,S3,50,2C,00,3E,02,CD,DA,65,18,e3 

CD,8C,64,4C,44,09,00,C9,F1,FE,CB,CA,97,5C,FE 

C3,20,06,CD,6B,5B,C3,33,5B,FE,D3,20,18,CD,01 

5C,CD,21,5C,CD,35,5C,CD,2E,5C,C3,59,5B,CD,8C 

64,4F,55,54,09,00,C9,FE,DB,20,35,CD,19,5C,CD 

32,5C,CD,21,5C,18,E5,CD,8C,64,49,4E,09,eB,C9 

3E,28,CD,D6,64,CD,e6,5E,3E,29,C3,D6,64,3E,41 

1B,F9,CD,2E,5C,3E,2C,18,F2,CD,7C,65,1B,F7,CD 

DA,65,18,F2,FE,F0,3B,26,CD,5A,5C,CB,5F,01,FE 

4C,5C,20,14,CD,eC,64,2e,53,5B,29,2C,00,C3,B5 

SB,CD,8C,64,45,5e,B9,00,C9,CD,8C,64,44,45,2C 

4e,4C,00,18,0F,CB,5F,3E,44,2e,01,3C,eD,D6,64 

3E,49,CD,D6,64,C3,13,5F,52,4C,43,52,52,43,52 

4C,20,52,52,20,53,4C,4I,53,52,41,53,4C,4C,53 

52,4C,3A,7A,65,FE,4D,2B,06,46,23,7E,70,2B,77 

7E,23,FE,4B,3B,28,F5,E6,3 8,0F,0F,0F,5F,e7,e3 

ll,7F,5C,a3,5F,30,01,14,06,03,lA,13,FE,20,C4 

D6,64,10,F7,CD,A4,64,F1,E6,07 ,CD,7C,65,C3,16 

5F,FE,80,30,18,CD,8C,64,42,49,S4,09,00,F5,E6 

38,0F,0F,0F,C6,30,CD,D6,64,CD,3S,SC,18,DB,FE 

C0,30,0A,CD,8C,64,52,45,53,09,00,18,E2,CD,8C 

64, 53, 45, 54, 09, 00, 18, D8,4C, 44, 49, 20, 43, 50, 49 

20, 49, 4E, 49, 20, 4F, 55, 54, 49, 4C, 44, 44, 20, 43, 50 

4 4, 2 0, 49, 4E, 44, 20, 4F, 55, 54, 4 4, 4C, 44, 4 9, 52, 4 3 

50, 49, 52, 49, 4E, 49, 52, 4F, 54, 49, 52, 4C, 44, 44, 52 

43,50,44,52,49,4E,44,52,4F,54,44,S2,7E,B7,01 

rE,48,5D,CA,8B,60,7E,23,47,FE,A0,38,16,D6,A0 

CB,5F,26,02,D6,04,FE,08,3e,02,D6,08,87,87,21 

06,5D,C3,03,5F,E6,07,CA,F7,5D,3D,CA,n,5B,3D 

CA,25,5E,3D,CA,4D,5E,3D,20,0A,CD,GC,64,4E,45 

47, 00, C3, 13, 5F, 3D, 20, 14, CD, 8C, 64, 52, 45, 54, 00 

CB,58,3E,4E,28,B2,3E,49,CD,D6,64,ie,E6,3D,20 

16 , CD, 8C, 64, 49, 4D, 00, 78, 06, 30, FE, 46, 28, 06, 04 

FE,56,28,01,B4,78,18,E2,78,FE,67,3a,26,CD,D6 

5B,CB,60,28,09,CD,32,5C,CD,D6,5D,C3,16,5P,CD 

D6,5D,CD,35,5C,CD,2E,5C,18,F2,3E,49,CB,5F,2B 

02,3E,52,C3,D6,64,CB,5F,20,09,CD,8C,64,S2,52 

44, 00, 18, AD, CD, D6, 64, 52, 4C, 44, 00,1 8, A4, CD, 19 

5C,78,E6,3 8,BF,BF,0F,CD,39,5C,CD,09,5E,C3,16 

5F,CD,8C,64,28,43,29,00,C9,CD,01,5C,CD,09,5E 

CD,35,5C,78,E6,38,BF,0F,0F,CD,7C,65,18,E1,CB 

Se, 28, 09, CD, ac, 64, 41, 44, 43, 00, 16, 07, CD, 8C, 64 

S3,42,43,00,CD,ac,64,09,48,4C,2C,00,7 8,E6,30 

01,FE,44,5E,0F,0F,0F,0F,CD,DA,S5,18,B9,CD,D6 

5B,CB,58,20,12,CD,75,5E,CD,35,5C,7e,E6,3B,0F 

0F,0F,BF,CD,DA,65,18,AB,7e,E6,3B,0F,0F,0F,0F 

CD,3E,5C,CD,75,5E,18,91,3E,28,CD,D6,64,CD,80 

5E,C3,29,SC,23,7E,CD,BA,64,2B,7E,CD,BA,64,3E 

46,C3,DG,64,CD,4A,64,CD,A4,64,F5,D6,e0,CD,A4 

5E,Fl,E6,07,CD,7C,65,C3,16,5F,FE,20,Da,FE,18 

30,B3,FE,10,D0,C3,32,5C,CB,77,CA,DA,5E,FE,76 

20,0C,CD,8C,64,48,41,4C,54,B9,0B,C3,16,5F,CD 

D6,SB,F5,E6,38,0F,0F,0F,CD,3 9,5C,F1,E6,07,CD 

7C,65,18,E9,F5,E6,07,CA,2A,60,3D,CA,9A,5F,3D 

CA,CB,5P,3D,CA,e5,5P,3D,CA,77,5F,3D,CA,6B,5F 

3D,CA,4F,5F,F1,E6,38,0F,0F,0F,87,87,21,2F,5F 

e5,eF,30,01,24,06,04,7E,23,FE,20,C4,D6,64,10 

F7,CD,A4,64,CD,A4,64,3A,F9,64,FE,29,DC,A4,64 

21,9B,60,7E,23,B7,CA,CF,64,CD,D6,64,18,F5,S2 

4C, 43, 41, 52, 52, 43, 41, 52, 4C, 41, 20, 52, 52, 41, 20 

44, 01, FE, 40, 5f, 41, 41, 20, 43, 50, 4C, 20, 53, 43, 46 

20,43,43,46,20,CD,D6,5B,Fl,E6,3e,0F,BF,0F,CD 

39,5C,CD,86,5E,ie,B6,CD,6E,5F,Fl,E6,38,0F,0F 

0F,CD,7C,65,18,Ae,CD,ac,64,44,45,43,09,00,C9 

CD,7C,5F,18,E7,CD,ec,64,4 9,4E,4 3,09,00,C9,Fl 

CB,5F,CC,7C,5F,C4,6E,5F,E6,30,0F,0F,0F,0F,CD 

DA,65,C3,16,SF,F1,CB,5F,20,BF,CD,D6,5B,E6,3B 

0P,0F,0F,0F,CD,3E,5C,C3,33,5B,CD,8C,64,41,44 

44,09,00,FS,3E,02,CD,DA,65,CD,35,5C,F1,E6,30 

0F,0F,0F,0F,CD,DA,65,18,13,CD,D6,5B,F1,47,FE 

20,30,29,CB,5F,28,09,CD,32,5C,CD,EC,5F,C3,16 

5F,CD,EC,5F,CD,35,5C,CD,2E,SC,18,F2,3E,28,CD 

D6,64,AF,CB,60,28,01,3C,CD,DA,65,C3| 29,5C,CB 

S8,28,13,CB,67,2B,B7,3E,02,CD,3E,5C,le,03,CD 

32,5C,CD,75,5E,ie,CA,CD,75,5E,CD,35,5C,CB,60 

2e,07,3E,02,CD,DA,65,18,B9,CD,2E,5C,le,B4,Fl 

B7,20,0B,CD,8C,64,4E,4F,50,09,00,C3,16,5F,FE 

08,20,01,FE,3C,60,0F,CD,BC,64,45,58,09,41,46 

2C,41,46,27,00,18,EA,FE,1B,2B,21,CD,8C,64,44 

4A,4E,5A,09,0B,C5,4E,06,00,CB,79,28,01,05,2A 



-1936 

-2029 

-2198 

-1162 

-1253 

-1560 

-2063 

-2137 

-1982 

-1738 

-1954 

-1589 

-1461 

-1B0B 

-1563 

-1981 

-1484 

-2147 

-1486 

-2196 

-1700 

-1835 

-1643 

-1531 

-1793 

-1894 

-2105 

-1153 

-1529 

-1235 

-1501 

-1076 

-1321 

-1504 

-1067 

-2171 

-1701 

-1713 

-1533 

-1054 

-1000 

-1033 

-1153 

-1221 

-1954 

-1403 

-1606 

-1462 

-1173 

-1474 

-1165 

-1737 

-1815 

-1739 

-1603 

-142B 

-1422 

-1495 

-1683 

-1258 

-1260 

-1629 

-1611 

-1211 

-1898 

-17 96 

-2385 

-2086 

-2874 

-1312 

-1918 

-1877 

-1922 

-1454 

-1312 

-2371 

-2007 

-1020 

-1119 

-1555 

-1755 

-1496 

-1793 

-1665 

-2005 

-1334 

-1779 

-1703 

-1568 

-1B97 

-1944 

-1147 

-1849 

-1624 

-1463 

-1212 

-1324 

-944 



Listing continued 



90 * 60 Micro, August 1987 



■^: 



Listing conllnued 

185B DATA E5,6B,B9,Cl,7C,CD,Bfl,6*,7D,CD,e7,5E,18,C5,CD 
1860 DATA 8C,64,4fl,52,e9,e«<FE,lB,28,DD,D6,2B,E6,3B,BF 
1878 DATA BF, BFxCD, ?C ,64 ,CD, 35 , 5C a8,CE,CD, 8C,64 , 44 , 45 
laea data 46,42,B9refl,2B,CD,e6,5E,C3,16,5F,54,45,5e,54 
1890 DATA 2E,44,41,54,41,2E,3E,4D,32,7A,6Sr3E,48,32,06 
1900 DATA 65,3E,4C,32,D7,65,AP,32,B9,65,32,F9,64,4F,3A 
1910 DATA 2C,63,B7,3E,fll,32,2C,63,2fl,0D,2A,OF,61,3E,0fl 
1920 DATA 85,6F,3Br01,24,22,E5,6e,21,A0,6e,ll,9B,60,CD 
1930 DATA F6,61,F6,el,32,2C,63,78,E5,21,ee,00,2B,22,flF 
1940 DATA 61,El,FE,4fl,3fl,5D,E6,07,28,42,FE,fll,28,45,FE 
195B DATA 02,2e,4A,FE,06,38,»7,FE,fl7,28,03,CD,F6,61,AF 
1960 DATA 77,12r79,32,CB,6a,21,ee,00,7CrCD,BA,64,7D,CD 
197B DATA BA,64,CD,8C,64,2a,2e,flfl,21,AB,60,E5,41,7E,23 
1986 DATA CD,BA,64 , IB , F9,CD, A4 ,64 ,CD, A4 , 64 , El , 7E , 47 , 23 
199B DATA C9,7S,FE,ai,FE,3e,61,lB,38,CC,18,C7,CB,58,20 
2000 DATA C6,CD,F6,61,1B,BE,78,FE,20,3B,BC,18,F4,FE,C0 
2010 DATA 38,B6,E6,07,FE,02,38,B0,FE,B7,28,AC,PE,e3,26 
2B2e DATA lD,FE,fl5,38,DE,2B,9F,78,FE,CD,28,D7,FE,ED,CA 
2B3e DATA eS,61,FE,DD,CA,07,62,FE,FD,CA,07,62,C3,e7,61 
2840 DATA 7 8,FE,C3 , 28 ,C0 ,FE,E3 ,DA, B4 ,61 , 18, Fl ,CD,E4 , 61 
2050 DATA FE,40,38,BC,FE,C0,30,BS,FE,S8,3G,1A,FE,A0,3B 
2fl60 DATA 0B,78,32,BD,63,3E,01,32,06,63,1B,D3,E6,B7,FE 
2070 DATA 04,30,EF,CD,F9,61,1B,C8,FE,71,2S,E6,FE,72,28 
20BB DATA E2, E6, 07 ,FE, 03 , 3 8, ED ,2B ,86 ,CD , F9 ,61 ,C3, 41 ,61 
209B DATA FE, 07 ,78,20 , 06 ,FE, 77 ,38,DC, 18,C9,PE, 47 , 38,DS 
2180 DATA FE,4D,28,D2,FE,56,28,CE,FE,5E,28,CA,18,B7,CD 
2110 DATA B5,63,77,FE,2B,38,e4,FE,Ba,38,02,3E,2E,12,7E 
2120 DATA 47,C9,CD,E4,61,78,23,13,0C,E5,2A,E5,60,23,22 
2138 DATA E5 ,60 ,E1 ,C9,CB ,6F ,3E, 58, 2B, 81 , 3C, 32, 9B,65 , 32 
2140 DATA C5,65,32,CE,65,32,7A,65,32,D7,65,3E,49,32,D6 
2150 DATA 65,CD,E4,61,FE,CB,2fl,17,CD,F9,61,CD,F6,61,CD 
2160 DATA F6,61,E6,07,Bl,FE,34,62,FE,e6,28,05,3E,4D,32 
2170 DATA 7A,65,C3,07,61,FE,Cfl,38,lA,FE,El,28,ll,FE,E3 
2180 DATA 28,flD,FE,E5,2B,B9,PE,E9,2B,05,FE,F9,C2,6C,62 
219B DATA CD, F9 , 61 ,18,DF,FE, SB ,38, 19, E6, 87 ,FE, 04, 38,04 
2200 DATA FE,07,20,03,C3,9B,61,FE,fl6,38,E6,CD,F9,61,CD 
2210 DATA F6,61,18,C2,FE,40,3B,38,FE,66,28,BC,FE,6E,2B 
2220 DATA BB ,FE,74 , 28, 04 ,FE, 75 ,28 ,83 , 32 ,B9, 65 ,E6 , 07 ,FE 
2238 DATA B4,38,04,FE,07,2B,1B,78,E6,38,FE,38,28,C9,7B 
2248 DATA E6,30,FE,30,2S,C9,1B,AC,FE,06,20,A9,78,FE,76 
2258 DATA 2B,B7,18,BC,E6,B7,28,B1,PE,B7,28,AD,FE,01,78 
2260 DATA 20,15,FE,21,20,Be,CD,F9,61,CD,P6,61,18,A6,E6 
2270 DATA e9,FE,09,CA,59,62,18,93,FE,22,DA,6C,62,2B,ES 
2280 DATA FE , 2A, 28, E4, E6 ,38,FE, 38, 28, B2, FE ,30 ,78, 28, BA 
2290 DATA E6,e7,FE,B6,CA,73,62,C3,59,62,FE,34,DA,6C,62 
2300 DATA FE ,36 , 2e,C6 ,C3 , 73 ,62 ,06 , 00 ,AF, 32 ,86 , 63 ,BB, 3E 
2310 DATA flB,C0,3E,44,FE,44,28,16,D9,21,00,00,7C,B5,28 
2328 DATA 52, 2B, 22, 17, 63, 21, 00, 00, 78,23,22, 22, 63, D9,C9 
2330 DATA 3E ,01 ,B7 ,C8, E5, Bl ,FE,3e , 63 , 3E, 00 ,3D, 32, 31, 63 
2340 DATA CC,43,63,21,BB,BB,7E,23,22,3A,63,E1,C9,CD,2A 
2358 DATA 64,FE,02,20,74,CD,2A,64,CD,8C,64,50,52,4F,47 
2360 DATA 52 , 41 , 4D, 20 , 45 ,4E ,54 , 52 , 59, 20 , 3D ,20 , 00 ,CD, 2A 
2370 DATA 64 ,F5 ,CD, 2A, 64,CD ,BA,64 ,F1 ,CD, B7 , 5E,CD,CF ,64 
2380 DATA 3A,E7,64,21,S5,S9,22,E6,64,22,E9,64,B7,CC,9D 
2390 DATA 59, CD, 8C, 64, 41, 4E,4F, 54, 48, 45, 52,20,44, 49, 53 
2400 DATA 41,53,53,45,4D,42,4C,59,Ba,CD,18,5A,FB,59,CA 
2410 DATA 98,S6,21,00,0B,31,00,BB,C9,CD,4D,59,2B,8B,3A 
2420 DATA 40,38,Ee,04,CB,18,BA,3E,65,EF,FD,CB,0A,46,18 
2430 DATA F4,FE,07,2B,lflrFE,fll,28,lE,CD,2A,64,47,CD,2A 
2440 DATA 64 , 18 ,FB,C3 ,43 ,63 ,CD,CF , 64,CD , 8C,64 , 50 , 41 , 54 
2458 DATA 43,4B,2E,2E,2E,flfl,CD,CF,64,CD,2A,64,3D,3D,E5 
2460 DATA DS,32,31,63,47,CD,2A,64,6F,CD,2A,64,67,ED,5B 
2478 DATA ES , 60, 22 ,E5 ,60 ,R7 ,ED, 52,D1 , 28 , 0F, El, 21 ,00 , 53 
24B0 DATA 22,3A,63,CD,2A,64,77,23,10,F9,C9,7C,B7,20,03 
2498 DATA 7D,FE, 03 ,D4 ,CF,64, 3B,B1 ,AF , 32, 2C, 63 ,B7 , 20 ,DE 
2500 DATA E1,E1,18,DA,D9,2C,B1,FE,2C,64,CC,81,59,7E,D9 
2518 DATA C9, 41, 44 , 44 , 41 , 44, 43,53 , 55 , 42, 53 , 42 , 43 , 41 , 4E 
2520 DATA 44 ,56, 4F , 52, 4F,52 ,20 , 43 , 50 , 20 , F5 ,E6 , 38, BF ,0F 
2530 DATA BF ,E5 ,CS, 6F, 87 , 85 ,21 ,32, 64, 85 ,6F , 30 , 01, 24 ,86 
2540 DATA B3 , 7E, 23 ,FE, 2a,C4 ,D6 , 64, 10 , F7 ,C1 , El , F1,C9 ,4B 
2558 DATA 5A ,20 , 5A, 4E, 43 ,28 , 43 , 50 , 4F, 50 , 45 , 20 , 5B ,28 , 4D 
2560 DATA B7,F5,E5,C5,21,6C,64,85,6F,3B,ei,24,B6,02,18 
2578 DATA D3,E3,F5,7E,23,B7,28,09,FE,09,28,08,CD,O6,64 
258B DATA 18,F2 ,F1, E3,C9 ,CD ,A4 , 64, 1 e,EA,FS ,C5, 3A ,F9,64 
2590 DATA 06 ,88, 30 ,FC,2F ,3C, 47 , 3E, 28 ,CD,D6 , 64, IB ,FB,C1 
2680 DATA F1,C9,F5, 07,87,87, 87, CD, C3, 64, Fl,E6,BF,FE,eA 
2610 DATA 38,02,C6,07,C6,30,18,07,36,28,CD,D6,64,3E,0D 
2620 DATA C5,DS,F5,4F,CD,4D,59,28,79,CD,33,08,11,32,56 
2630 DATA CD,55,59,CD,55,59,79,FE,BA,28,12,FE,aD,28,0E 
2648 DATA FE,20,3a,B6r3E,00,3C,32,P9,64,Pl,Dl,Cl,C9,3E 
2650 DATA 16,3D,32,83,65,20,4B,3E,0fl,B7,28,BB,47,3E,flA 
2668 DATA CD,D6,64,lB,FB,3E,BB,B7,2a,34,2A,E9,64,ES,21 
2670 DATA 55,59,22,E9,64,CD,8C,01,Ce,28,65,64,aA,3D,20 
2660 DATA 50, 52, 45, S3, 53, 20, 3C, 45, 4E, 54, 45, 52, 38,20,54 
2690 DATA 4F,2B,43,4F,4E,54,49,4E,S3,45,2B,3D,2B,80,E1 
2700 DATA 22,E9,64,CD,C5,59,3E,16,32,03,65,AF,18,ft3,3E 
2718 DATA 02, EF, 3A,E7 ,64 ,87 , 20,86,11 , 32 , 56 , 3E, 04 ,EF , 3A 
2720 DATA EA, 64, B7 ,C2 , EB, 64, 3E, 06, EF ,C3 , EB, 64, 42 , 43 , 44 
2730 DATA 45, 48, 4C , 4D, 41 , E5, 21 , 74,65 , 85 ,6F, 30, 01 , 24 ,7E 
2740 DATA El ,FE, 4D ,38, 19, 20 , B9,CD , 8C,64, 2B , 4B, 4C , 29, 00 
275B DATA C9,CD, 8C ,64 , 28, 49, 5B, 28 , 00 ,CD, 86 ,5E,C3 , 29, 5C 
2760 DATA FE,48,PA,D6,64,C5,47,3A,7A,65,FE,4D,78,C1,CA 
2770 DATA 06 ,64 , 32,C6 ,65 , 3E, 0B, B7 ,3A,C6 , 65,C2 ,D6 ,64 ,CD 
2780 DATA 8C ,64 , 49 , 5B , 4C ,00 ,C9,CD, BC,64 , 28, 49, 58,29 ,08 
2790 DATA C9,42,43,44,45,48,4C,53,50,E5,21,D2,63,87,85 
2800 DATA 6F,30,01,24,7E,CD,D6,e4,23,7E,Gl,C3,D6,64,B2 
281B DATA 82 ,64 , 56 , -1 88, END 



-2127 

-1491 

-1621 

-1258 

-11B4 

-1652 

-843 

-1450 

-1257 

-1742 

-1466 

-15B5 

-1539 

-2151 

-1805 

-2324 

-1733 

-2284 

-2128 

-2396 

-1814 

-1237 

-2111 

-1959 

-1888 

-2169 

-1261 

-1653 

-1672 

-1693 

-2447 

-147 9 

-2067 

-2B2B 

-1816 

-2045 

-1803 

-1655 

-1450 

-1971 

-1738 

-1899 

-1816 

-1802 

-2B24 

-1528 

-13B1 

-1060 

-1398 

-1428 

-16B8 

-1030 

-2370 

-1871 

-1319 

-1472 

-998 

-1726 

-1551 

-1914 

-1487 

-1718 

-1767 

-15BB 

-17S3 

-2117 

-1195 

-1250 

-1338 

-2161 

-9B5 

-140 8 

-1906 

-2511 

-1773 

-1965 

-122B 

-1675 

-1522 

-1775 

-7 80 

-1752 

-1431 

-1049 

-1074 

-1520 

-1367 

-20 64 

-1293 

-1352 

-1651 

-2253 

-1978 

-1365 

-1623 

-1738 



Circle 107 on Reader Service card. 



Your Model 4 computer 

may not speak XZ#M%S 

But with MISOSYS 

language products, she will 

speak ASSEMBLER, BASIC, 

C, and RATFOR 




PRO-CREATE — The "standard" macro assembler used by 
professionals and novices alil<e. Nested mairos, nested 
includes, nested conditionals. Full screen editor; cross 
reference $74.95 + $4S&H 

PRO-DUCE — A 2-pass labeling Z80 disassembler from disk 
or memory witfi screening input for data areas. Generates 
/ASM files $29,95 + $2S8lH 

PRO-MRAS — Powerful relocating macro assembler 
development system REL module compatible with Microsoft! 
Includes full screen text editor, REL librarian, VM iinker with 
overlay capability $89.95 + $4 S&H 

UNREL-T80 — Converts MRAS or M-80 REL object files to 
/ASM. Use on your own REL modules, FORUB, GRUB, 
BASCOM, BASRUN, etc $49.95 + $2 S&H 

PRO-EnhComp — An enhanced BASIC compiler with a 
built-in assembier for Z80 in-line code mixed with BASIC. 
LOGO-like turtle graphics, strings to 32767 chars, multi-line 
functions, keyed/tagged SORT, REPEAT-Ur^TIL, structured 
IF-ENDIF, labeled statements, double precision functions. 
$124.95 + $4 S&H 

LS-TBA — A structured BASIC translator. Labeled 
statements. Conditional translation, pseudo global and local 
variables, 14-char var names $39.95 + $4 S&H 

PRO-MC — A full K&R C compiler with nearly 200 functions. 
Structs, unions, bitfields, enum, dp floats and functions. 
Wildcards, I/O redirection, args, overlay support. Requires 
PRO-MRAS or M-80 $124,95 + $4 S&H 

RATFOR-M4 — A professional implementation of RATional 
FORtran, Provides structure and greater portability to 
FORTRAN programs. Fully documented with tutorial user 
manual. Requires FORTRAN compiler $99,95 + $5S&H 

Note: Model l/lll products may be available on request. 




MISOSYS, Inc. 

PO Box 239 

Sterling, VA ZZ17IHtZI9 

70H5(M181 MC, VISA, CHOKX 

Onlers Only! 3«HH1S0SVS 1P-5P EST Monday-FridaY 



VA rsiidants »U V/i% saiss lax, S&H : Canada add $1; 
Foreign me S&H timas 3 



80 Micro, August 1937 • 91 



THE HOME COMPUTERIST / by Michael E. Nadeau 



Join the Club 



Computing at home can be a lonely 
experience. For Instance, suppose 
you've splurged on a fancy new word 
processor, and you want to transfer your 
old word-processor flies to !t. The docu- 
mentation suggests that it is possible, 
but nevertheless, the transfer falls. 

The company's customer-serrice rep- 
resentative says to call the other com- 
pany, which, unfortunately. Is now out of 
business. It's Just you against technology. 

It was worse in the old days— about 10 
years ago. If you bought software or 
hardware then, you didn't expect tt to 
work, and you didn't expect much help 
from the vendor, either. Early comput- 
erists tended to seek each other out and 
draw on their collective experience to 
solve problems. Out of these gatherings 
grew the present network of computer 
clubs, or user groups. 

A user group Isn't for everyone, but if 
you have trouble getting what you need 
out of your computer, or just want to 
share your enthusiasm with other com- 
puterlsts. it might suit you. 

Great Expectations 

The size and quaflty of user groups 
vary. Some larger clubs boast thousands 
of members, a newsletter, a bulletin-board 
system (BBS) or two, and seminars on 
computer-related topics. Generally speak- 
ing, the larger the club, the more and bet- 
ter the services it offers its members. 

Very large clubs tend to split the mem- 
tiershlp according to Interests, such as Ba- 
sic programming, interactive fiction, or 
applications. These clubs usually have 
sections for novice users, as well. 

User groups of this size sire usually In 
metropolitan areas. Fortunately, small 
clubs exist in many large towns and small 
cities. Small clubs are less formal, allow- . 
ing more unstructured interaction among 
their memtwrs. This has its advantages; 
you learn about more areas of computing, 
and the atmosphere encourages mem- 
bers to bring up their own problems. 

On the other hand, small user groups 
often publish no newsletter, offer fewer 
seminars, and sometimes don't have the 
resources to run a BBS. These are not big 
drawbacks if the club makes its mem- 
bers feel welcome and is serious about 
helping them out. 




Where to Look 

The local Radio Shack is your best bet 
to And a nearby user group. Computer 
Centers tend to be more aware of clubs 
and other resources that might interest 
their customers. With the franchise 
stores, your luck will depend on how 
much the manager cares about com- 
puters. Sometimes a franchise store will 
sponsor a user group. 

Failing this, check non-Radio Shack 
computer stores. You probably won't 
find a Tandy-only club this way, but 
most MS-DOS-oriented clubs have a few 
1000 owners among their members. 

I had hoped to list at least a few user 
groups here, but 1 found that 80 Micro's 
list was too out of date. Nonetheless, 
drop me a note if you can't find a user 
group, as I'm in the process of updating 
the magazine's club listings (more on 
this later). 

Starting Your Own 

I don't recommend starting a user 
group only because you can't find a local 
one to join. It takes more than posting a 
notice at the Radio Shack. You must 
have something to offer, and I'm not 
talking about expertise with a computer. 

You must be organized, persistent, re- 
sponsible, and thick-skinned. Suppose 
you find a dozen or so people interested 
in joining your user group. You must 



make a good impression: Start the first 
meeting on time; spell out what you 
hope the i^er group will provide; keep 
the meeting flowing; and listen to what 
your would-be members say. even If they 
suggest something that doesn't appeal 
to you. 

The following checklist should give 
you enough ideas to start a user group: 

• If possible, ask a friend or two to help. 
Starting a user group is a big task, 

• Make a list of objectives you want the 
user group to achieve. If you have your 
goals clearly defined in your mind, it will 
be easier to communicate them to a 
group. 

• Outline how you see the user group 
being organized. How many officers? 
Will they be elected or appointed? What 
special-Interest groups would you like to 
see? How will you keep in touch with 
members? 

• Consider where you might want to 
hold meetings. Libraries, schools, and 
other public buildings often allow out- 
side groups to hold meetings. They are 
usually easy to find and centrally lo- 
cated, as well. 

• Give some thought to what dues 
should be charged. Will the user group 
have a newsletter? A BBS? Guest speak- 
ers? All these cost money, and a little 
footwork will get you rough estimates on 
just how much. Another user group, for 



92 • 80 Micro, August 1987 



uii nvauei ociviliH udiu. 



THE HOME COMPUTERIST 



Instance, might be a good source of ex- 
pense estimates. 

• Speaking of other user groups, seek 
out a few outside of your area and ask 
their officers how they did It. They might 
even have members from your area who 
would join a user group closer to home. 

• Draw up a proposed charter and have 
copies on hand for the first meeting. 

• Post notices in Radio Shack stores, 
computer stores, shopping centers, and 
on any community bulletin boards. Be 
sure to ask permission from store man- 
agers. On your notice briefly describe 
what you want to do; ask those inter- 
ested to either write or call you. You can 
set up a meeting once you have a list of 
prospective members. 

• Keep in mind that all your plans are 
open for discussion once you've assem- 
bled your potential members. They 
probably won't agree with all your ideas, 
and they are sure to have a few of their 
own. Be open-minded and willing to ac- 
cept what the majority wants. 

• Ask those at the first meeting to fill out 
a questionnaire asking about their inter- 
ests, areas of expertise, free times to meet, 
computer systems, and any tasks for 
which they would like to volunteer (such 
as a newsletter or BBS). Most importandy, 
get addresses and phone numbers, 

• Finally, insist on a no-copying rule. 
Software copying is not as prevalent as 
It once was among user groups, but It 
still exists. Such a rule encourages a ma- 
ture, responsible attitude among a 
club's members. 

Some of you might want to add to this 
list. I welcome your comments and will 
mention them in this column. 

Club Roundup 

As I said. I'm compiling a user-group 
list. I want to hear from your club, espe- 
cially if it is Tkndy-specific. Send me the 
following Information: 

• club name and address; 

• list of officers; 

• name and phone number of contact 
person (optional); 

• specific interests; 

• dues charged; 

• number of members; 

• years in operation; and 

• whether or not it publishes a newslet- 
ter or operates a BBS. 

I would appreciate copies of user- 
group newsletters to keep on file, too. 

I'd like The Home Computerist to act 
as a clearinghouse on user-group Infor- 
mation for Tandy owners. So please keep 
me up to date on your user group. 

Attention, Shoppersl 

An Interesting item crossed my desk 
recently. It's called The Hardware Ref- 
erence Guide for the Tandy 1000, sold 



by Technetronlcs (P.O. Box 24299, Jack- 
sonville. FL 32241. 904-262-2691. $6). 
It Is a bargain-hunter's tip sheet for the 
latest prices on nearly every 1000 board 
you can think of— hard cards, modems, 
multifunction boards, cloclt/calendars. 
and oddball Items. 

The Hardware Reference Guide 
makes no attempt to evaluate any of the 
hardware. It just lists the vital statistics. 



There just 
isn*t any 
other way 
to get such 
current product 
information 



in one place. 



price, and warranty information from 
each mail-order company. Technetron- 
lcs claims to update it daily. A quick 
check on a few items seems to support 
that claim. 

I could not find Advanced Transducer 
Devices, maker of the Zuckerboards. 
listed under any category. Its products 
did appear under other dealers, though. 
Radio Shack dealers who discount 
Tandy equipment and magazines for the 
Ikndy 1000 are listed in the back. 

This is a unique product. There just 
isn't any other way to get such current 
product Information in one place. If you 
are seriously shopping for Tandy 1000 
hardware. The Hardware Reference 
Guide will more than pay for itself. By 
the way. Technetronlcs offers a discount 
to user groups on purchases of 10 or 
more guides: $3.50 each. 

Next Month 

A rash of on-screen tutorials on topics 
ranging from DOS to word processing 
have hit the market lately. In September, 
I'll check out a few, including one on 
Deskmate. ■ 



Michael Nadeau 
is 80 Micro's execu- 
tive editor. He has 
been editing com- 
puter mcyazinesfor 
six years, using 
Tandy equipment 
all the while. Write 
to him c/o 80 Micro. 
SO Elm St., Peter- 
borough, NH 03458. 




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CALL FOR ARTICLES 



Have you written a program or utility that might 
be interesting to other 80 Micro readers? Do you 
know a DOS or programming teciinique that you'd 
like to share? Tlien how about sending it in to BO 
Micro for possible publication? 

We're looking for people with good ideas. In partic- 
ular, we'd like to see some usehil utilities, small-busi- 
ness and personal management programs, tutorials 
on Basic and Pascal programming for all levels of 
expertise, and interesting science, math, and hobby 
applications. 

The procedure is simple. Write us a query letter 
telling us about your proposed article. We'll tell you 
whether we think your article is appropriate for 80 
Micro. We'll also send you a copy of our author's 
guidelines, which will give you information on manu- 
script preparation, style, payment rates, and the like. 

Send your letter or proposal to: 

Submissions Committee 
80 Micro 
80 Elm St. 
Peterborough, NH 03458. 

(No phone calls, please.) 



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94 • 80 Micro, August 1987 



JOHN'S MS-DOS COLUMN / by John B. HarreU III 



Why Upgrade to DOS 3.2? 



If you purchased a Tandy 1000 prior 
to release of the 1000 SX. you proba- 
bly sUU have the MS-DOS 2. 1 1 that came 
with your computer. Should you up- 
grade to the newer MS-DOS 3.2 now that 
it Is available? 1 think so for several com- 
pelling reasons, and this month's col- 
umn will explain them. 

Tables 1 and 2 list the several new or 
modified commands in MS-DOS 3.2. 1^- 
ble 1 contains those features you can use 
from the DOS command prompt, and 1^- 
ble 2 is a list of the new features that you 
can specify in your system's configura- 
tion file. 

Most of these commands benefit the 
hard -disk user most, and, if you have in- 
stalled a hard-disk card in your Tandy 
1000, this is another excellent reason to 
upgrade to DOS 3.2. Most hard cards 
available for the T&.ndy 1000 have a ca- 
pacity of at least 20 megabytes (MB). Un- 
der DOS versions prior to release 3, the 
best you could hope for was allocations 
of 8K for each cluster on a disk up to 
32MB in size. 

This means that any file you store on 
the disk uses at least 8, 192 b)ftes. Statis- 
tically, you can show that you waste 
about 4,096 bytes in the last cluster of 
each file— quite a bit of wasted space. Be- 
ginning with DOS 3.0. the hard-disk file 
handling has expanded to rnore effi- 
ciently use the larger hard-disk volumes. 

The cluster size changes from 8, 192 
to 2,048 bytes when you use DOS 3.2 on 
a 20MB hard disk. This cuts the average 
wasted space down to 1,024 bytes per 
file. 1 found that 1 was able to reclaim 
over 1MB of space once I switched to 
DOS 3.2 and reloaded Graphwriter, 
which consists of about 300 files, many 
of them less than 4,096 bytes. 

You do not gain all this free space 
without some pain— you have to make a 
complete backup of your hard disk and 
then reformat It using the newer IX>S 
version. After that you must restore all 
the files. 

DOS 3,2 also changes the flie-alloca- 
tion algorithm on the disk. In previous 
versions, DOS allocates file spiace using 
the first available cluster on the disk. 
Long periods of use with numerous file 
deletions and creations cause the disk to 
become severely fragmented. 

As a result, all clusters for a file might 
not occupy adjacent areas on the disk. 




^^4#^ 




which substantially slows file access. 
DOS 3.2 improves the file-allocation al- 
gorithm in an attempt to budget disk 
space more efficiently. 1 have found this 
file-allocation scheme to be a significant 
Improvement over the older one, espe- 
cially on a large hard-disk system, 
DOS 3.2 has some significant addi- 



tions that improve its performance 
(see T^ble 1). A complete software in- 
dustry exists to provide simple tools that 
do tasks now provided for by this new 
3.2 DOS, 

The Append command lets you create 
a data-fUe path that tells DOS which 
drives and subdirectories to search 



DOS 3.2 




commaiul 


Description 


Append 


set a data-file path 


ATTRIB 


set or display file attributes 


Diskcopy 


make copies of floppy disks 


Disktype 


display information about disk 


Format 


prepare disks for system use 


HSect 


low-level preparation of hard disk 


Join 


link root directory to a path name 


KEYBxx 


substitute intemaUonal keyboard BIOS 


MLFormat 


format second DOS partiUon on hard drive 


MLPart 


create second DOS partition on hard drive 


Mode 


set peripheral/system parameters 


Patch 


make modiflcaUons to disk file 


Print 


manipulate background print queue 


Replace 


update previous versions of files 


Setup 


iniUalize (AT} system configuration 


Share 


install file-networking functions 


Shlptrak 


park hard-disk heads prior to S/D 


Spooler 


operate the DOS printer spooler 


SUBST 


substitute drive name for path 


XCopy 


copy files/directories 




Table 1 . MS-DOS 3.2 commands. 



80 Micro, August t987 • 95 



JOHN'S MS-DOS COLUMN 



when looking for a data file. This h^ 
been one of EKDS's most serious limita- 
tions—the Inability to keep your data 
flies In a subdirectory separate from the 
main program files. DOS uses the Path 
command search for program -executa- 
ble files but does not search along this 
path for data files, and many of the older 
software products did not use the nested 
directory features. 

The ATTRIB Command 

The ATTRIB command lets you mod- 
ify the "read-only" and "archive" bits 
of a specified file. Changing the archive 
attribute is particularly useful when cou- 
pled with the Backup. Restore, and 
XCopy commands. Selectively setting 
or clearing the attributes for your flies 
allows you to exercise greater control 
over these utilities when they examine 
this bit to determine whether a file has 
been modified. 

Diskcopy now accommodates the 
newer format disks and automatically 
recognizes the need for target-disk for- 
matting prior to copying the source. Pre- 
viously, you had to format your target 
disks before doing the copy. This is a 
welcome improvement that reduces the 
need for other disk utilities. 

The new Fbrmat command has two sig- 
nificant changes other than support for 
the new disk formats. You cannot format 
a disk without explicitly specifying the 
target-drive letter on the command tine. 
This means that you no longer have to 
worry about formatting the wrong disk 
because you omitted the drive letter. 

More importantly, you cannot format 
the hard-disk drive without entering the 
volume label. If you do not enter the cor- 
rect label, the command aborts. I take 
advantage of this In my office by putting 
a non-printing (FF hexadecimal) charac- 
ter into my volume label. You can't see 
It and you can't enter it unless you know 
how to type It using the alternate key 
and the numeric keypad. 

The KBYBzx Routines 

The KEYBxx routines that began vrith 
E>OS 3.0 are basic Input/output system 
(BIOS) keyboard extensions for multi- 
lingual support. The Label command 
creates, changes, or deletes the volume 
label on the target disk drive. 

MLFormat, MLPart, and the driver 
MLPcirt.SYS are specialized support util- 
ities for partitioning a hard disk into 
multiple EWS volumes. The current DOS 
version cannot use more than 32MB of a 
hard disk without resorting to some de- 
vious scheme. You also cannot use the 
FDlsk command to partition the hard 
disk into multiple DOS volumes to use 
the remaining space. 

Several alternatives exist for creating 



immense data-storage devices and using 
them with DOS. These three routines pro- 
vide one of these mechanisms and let you 



The ATTRIB 
command lets 
you modify 
the *read-only* 
and ^archive* 
bits of a 
specified file. 



create additional partitions up to 32MB 
each. You can place up to three more par- 
titions on your hard disk so you can ac- 
commodate drives as large as 1 28MB. 

The Patch command does not exist in 
other MS/PC-DOS 3.2 implementations 
and appears to be a Tandy utility. It lets 
you make minor changes to programs or 
any other disk file If you know the loca- 
tion of the bytes you want to change and 
if the replacement data is the same 
length as the original data. Tkndy prom- 
ises program changes using this utility. 

The Print command now accepts the 
device name on the command line. More 
Importantly, you can now set the buffer 
size and the numtier of files allowed in 
the print queue. Changing the size of the 
print buffer significantly speeds up the 
background file-printing operation. 

Eto not confuse the Print command 
with the Spooler command, which is a 
true printer spooler. Print takes previ- 
ously prepared output and processes the 
files in the background while you per- 
form other tasks. Spooler works in con- 
Junction with Spooler.SYS and direcdy 
intercepts calls to write data to a printer. 
It stores the data in memory and prints 



it whenever the printer is available. This 
operation is transparent to your pro- 
gram and requires minimal intervention 
Eifter installation. 

Join, SUBST, Replace, and XCopy are 
sophisticated file-management utilities 
that are well-suited for the EKDS environ- 
ment. The Join command links the root 
directory of the target disk to a path 
name. It removes the distinction be- 
tween physical drive units that you must 
refer to by separate drive letters. For ex- 
ample, JOIN A: C:\DATA joins the disk 
in drive A to the subdirectory \DATA on 
your hard disk. Any subsequent refer- 
ence to this directory automatically re- 
fers to the root directory of the disk 
located in drive A. 

The SUBST command is essentially 
the reverse. It lets you assign a shortcut 
drive-letter notation to any disk path 
name. If you are using a deeply nested 
directory structure on a hard disk, this 
can be a time-saver. 

As an example, my C source-code files 
are In \Language\MSC\Source, and 
typing this every time I want to change 
directories is tedious. I use the com- 
mand SUBST E: C:\LANGUAGE\MSC\ 
SOURCE to denote that "E:" Is a short- 
cut for the full path name. 

Have you ever wanted to update the 
flies on your disk to a new version of soft- 
ware? How atiout adding flies that do not 
exist on the hard disk? Batch files can 
accomplish these tasks, but they have 
limitations. First, you cannot easily 
search every subdirectory of a hard disk 
by using a batch file. You also cannot use 
a batch command to selectively update 
files if the source flies are newer. 

The Solution 

Replace solves all these problems. By 
default, it sweeps through the target direc- 
tory and replaces any files that match the 
source directory. You can add files that do 



Conflg 




command 


Desdiptlon 


Country 


establish international conversions 


Drivparm 


define parameters for block devices 


FOBS 


specify maximum file-control blocks 


Lastdrive 


define the maximum number of drives 


Device 




driver 


Description 


Driver.SYS 


extended disk support 


HDrive.SYS 


extended hard-disk support 


LPDRVR.SYS 


extended printer support 


MLPart.SYS 


access multiple DOS volumes 


Spooler.SYS 


printer spooler driver 


VDisk.SYS 


virtual -disk-device driver 


Table 2. MS-DOS 3. 


2 features available for your system's configuration file. 



96 • 80 Micro, August 1987 



JOHN'S MS-DOS COLUMN 



not currently exist in the target direc- 
tory, or you can cause Replace to scan all 
directories on the target drive. Other op- 
tions select replacement If the date Is 
more recent, pause for permission to re- 
place, and replace read-only files. 

XCopy Is a superior extension of the 
Copy command. It copies files or direc- 
tories from the source disk to the target 
disk, duplicating the source directory 
structure as it copies. Unlike Dlskcopy, 
XCopy does not require that the source 
and target disks have identical formats. 

Optional parameters for this com- 
mand allow copying only files that have 
the archive bit set, and you can leave the 
archive bit as is or reset it after a suc- 
cessful copy. You can copy files modified 
on or after a specified date. One option 
lets you duplicate the directory struc- 
ture of the source disk completely by al- 
locating empty directories on the target 
disk matching the source's structure. 

You can use XCopy to make an exhaus- 
tive backup of your disk that stores all the 
files in a ready-to-use format (unlike the 
Backup command). Use ATTRIB or a util- 
ity package like the Norton Utilities to set 
all the archive attributes on the disk. Then 
prepare a stack of formatted, blank disks 
large enough to hold all the files. 



Next. Issue the command XCOPY C:\ 
A:\ ISfM. This instructs XCopy to copy 
all the files from drive C to A, search 



Xcopy makes an 
exhaustive backup 
of your disk that 
stores the files in 
a ready-to-use 
format* 



through all subdirectories on drive C, 
and copy only modified files, resetting 
the archive bit after the copy. XCopy fills 
up the first disk and then stops with an 
"Insufficient disk space" error message. 
Replace the disk and press the F3 key 
to restore the command line; then press 
enter. XCopy again starts searching with 
the root directory on drive C, but it skips 
all the previously copied files because 
the archive bit has been reset. Continue 
to fill disks until XCopy no longer re- 
ports an error on the copy. You now have 
a full backup of your disk with the excep- 
tion of hidden or system files. 



Conclusion 

DOS 3.2 is a significant change from 
the previous versions— especially from 
the version distributed with the older 
T^ndy 1000. I think you will find it well 
worth the upgrade. If you are a hard -disk 
owner. 1 recommend that you upgrade 
now and make the one-time effort to refor- 
mat your disk. Make sure you remember 
how much memory you had used before 
you start the process and you will be sur- 
prised with how much additional space 
you gain after completing the upgrade. 

However, if you have a minimal 
T^ndy 1000 configuration, this DOS re- 
lease might not be for you. T^dy 1000 
owners with 256K of memory are al- 
ready tight on space, and 3.2 is signifi- 
cantly larger than its predecessor. ■ 



John B. Han-ell III 
is a naval electronic 
warfare systems 
analyst. He pro- 
grams in Pascal, C, 
and assernbly lan- 
guage. Write to him 
c/o 80 Micro. 80 Elm 
St.. Peterborough, 
NH 03458. 




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... 155.00 70 MEG HD SECOND 2259.00 

...499,00 3W DRIVE MOD 102 149.00 

...399.00 3^ DRIVE MOD 1000 225.00 

... 219.00 5W DRIVE MOD 1000... 170.00 

... 319.00 360K DRIVE MOD 3000. 135.00 

...145.00 1.2M DRIVE MOD 3000 .209.00 

...249.00 1Z8K COCO 3 159.00 



PRINTER SWITCH 80.00 

PRINTER CONTROLLER 179.00 

SCOLORPLOHER 569.00 

STANDBY POWER ..439.00 

300/1200 MODEM BRD 155.00 

CELLULAR PHONE 929.00 

SATELLITE ANTENNA 1519.00 

ROBIESR ROBOT 139.00 

PfiO-2004 SCANNER 319.00 

TRACTOR DWP 230 80.00 

TRACTOR DWP 520 109.00 






(817)825-4027 

100% RADIO SHACK COMPONENTS WITH FULL WARRAH1Y. 

ALL RADIO SHACK SOFTWARE AT 20% OFF CATAIOG PRICES. 

CiSHIERS CHECK OR MONEY ORDER MUST ACCOMPANY ALL ORDERS. 







80 Micro, August 1987 • 97 



PUBLIC WORKS / by Thomas Quindry 



BBS Etiquette 



Last month, I told j^ou what equip- 
ment and software you need to ac- 
cess electronic bulletin-board systems 
(BBSes) and download public-domain 
software. With that sole objective In 
mind, however, you will surely not win 
friends. System operators (sysops) set up 
BBSes for both your enjoyment and 
theirs. They are inviting you to jjartJci- 
pate in their hobby, and you should fol- 
low certain rules of etiquette If you 
accept the invitation. 

Suppose you are invited to a party. 
You go to the host's house, search 
around for the hors d'oeuvres, eat as 
many as you can. stick a few more in 
your pocket, and then leave without 
even conversing with your host or the 
other guests. Or suppose you introduce 
yourself using a false name. Do you 
think your host will be anxious to see 
you come back? 

Unfortunately, this happens time after 
time to sysops. They invite you into their 
homes via the telephone, and you should 
give them the same type of respect as If 
you were a guest In their living rooms. 
You should participate in the BBS con- 
versations and not Just download public- 
domain software, hanging up without 
even a thank-you. 

The sysop Is there because It Is his 
pleasure and expense. Once his pleasure 
stops, so does yours. He can pull the 
plug on you if you don't abide by his 
rules and standards. If you don't like 
something, you can either discuss It with 
the sysop or leave. Keep your discussion 
friendly and private unless the sysop de- 
cides to open It up for others. Sysops are 
usually fair. If there is a legitimate con- 
cern, he might change the rules. Usu- 
ally, you vrill find that the other BBS 
users support the sysop. 

Wbat Is Expected of Too 

A sysop generally wants to know who 
you are, your interests, and what he can 
do to help you. Your behavior on his 
board tells the sysop whether you intend 
to contribute to the discussions or 
upload new public-domain software in 
exchange for what you have taken. 

Some BBSes are single purpose, while 
others have conferences on numerous 
topics. I've been on a BEtS set up to assist 
in tax matters only. I've also been on one 




that had close to 30 conferences cover- 
ing a range of computer topics plus sub- 
jects such as astrology, adults only, and 
gay rights. Sysops must exercise special 
control over some topics to ensure that 
their BBSes, and BBSes in general, don't 
get a bad rap by allowing undesirable 
situations to occur. For example, you 
wouldn't want your children to have ac- 
cess to adult topics. 

The First Time 

When you f!rst get on a BBS, you are 
expected to give your correct name. 
Some BBSes let you use an alias; most 
do not. Most sysops and BBS users want 
to know exactly who they are talking to 
and feel that aliases encourage people to 
say things they aren't brave enough to 
say under their true names. 

Next, you will protably get a list of 
rules. You might be told to read certain 
bulletins and how to access them. These 
bulletins might tell you what Is expected 
of you In return for downloading files, 
what types of public-domain programs 
the BBS is looking for, whether uploaded 
files should be In a compressed format, 
or the user-supported aspects of the BBS. 
More on user support later. 

You will often be asked to fill out a 
questionnaire, usually asking for your 
name, address, telephone number, age, 
and why you want to access the BBS. 
The sysop will verify your identity either 



by checking the phone book or calling 
you. Giving false Information Is against 
federal law. 

Once you've read the bulletins and 
filled out the questionnaire, the sysop 
will give you access to all the open areas 
of the BBS, including the download sec- 
tions In most cases. This usually takes 
24 hours. 

Sysops' Pet Peeves 

The biggest pet peeve of sysops is not 
reading the bulletins or filling out the 
questionnaire. The next In imf>ortance is 
not keeping within an upload/download 
ratio or uploading junk and copyrighted 
programs Just to keep up the ratio. Some 
users have uploaded copies of MS-DOS 
utilities such as Debug or have renamed 
a program that the BBS already has. All 
BBS activities are logged, and attempt- 
ing an undesirable practice such as 
these usually gets the perpetrator 
"locked out" of the BBS. The following 
list tells you how to stay on a sysop's 
good side: 

• Do not use aliases unless specifically 
encouraged by the sysop. 

• Do not put misleading or false infor- 
mation on BBS questionnaires. 

• Read the sysop's bulletins. 

• Don't download software without con- 
tributing to the message base. Become a 
member of the BBS community. 

• Respect upload/download ratios. Don't 



98 • SO Micro. August 1987 



PUBLIC WORKS 



just download without contributing your 
public-domain programs. 

• Don't act as if it is your right to use 
the BBS. 

• Don't demand that the sysop do things 
differently, 

• Don't expect more access time without 
following the BBS rules. 

• Don't complain obnoxiously, though 
constructive criticism is acceptable, 

• Don't use foul language, 

• Don't enter messages in uppercase. It 
looks like you are shouting, and it is hard 
to read. 

1 know of one sysop who takes great 
glee in his traditional announcement of 
Permanent Twits— those who don't fol- 
low the rules and are banished from his 
BBS forever. Following Is text for one 
who was "Twitted." The names have 
been changed to protect the guilty: 

John Doe. one of the oldest American tradi- 
tions Is tiie public announcement. It serves to 
"place the case In the court of public opinion." 
1 publicly declare those who have l>ecome Per- 
manently Twitted for a few reasons, chiefly tie- 
cause they rarely look in the message area, 
and as you discovered, those Twitted are not 
dfsplayable when others search the user list. 
It's possible that John Smith may be an ac- 
quaintance of yours, and. If so. please discuss 
BBS etiquette with him. It's too late here, but 
you may save him the "grief" from other Sys- 
ops with thicker skin than mine. 

The User-Supported BBS 

Like user-supported software, many 
BBSes ask for donations. The donations 
are not for using the message bases, but 
for extra downloading privileges. Using 
the message bases are usually free re- 
gardless of other donations asked. Re- 
member that for most sysops, their 
BBSes are their hobby. The donations al- 
low them to continue with it. 

Most boards offer two alternatives for 
downloading. If you want unlimited 
downloading privileges, you can donate 
the required fee. usually $10 to $25 a 
year, and never again worry about being 
criticized for excessive downloading. 
Some ask for a one-time-only contribu- 
tion of $25 or $35. 

If you don't care to contribute, you can 
keep an upload/download ratio, usually 
one upload for every 20 to 30 downloads. 
If you have less than that ratio, your ac- 
cess time is decreased to the point where 
you can't eflectiveiy download until you 
contribute a few upload files. When 
uploading, the access-time clock is usu- 
ally stopped. 

Some BBSes demand a payment for 
downloading privileges, though use of 
the message base is free. 1 do not care for 
this arrangement, since it inhibits those 
who can't afford to pay from download- 
ing. My main argument, though, is that 
it gives no incentive for anyone to upload 



flies, and thus the BBS's file selection 
stagnates. 

This Is not exactly borne out in prac- 
tice. I counted the number of uploaded 
files over a three-month period to a pay- 
only BBS and to three other BBSes with 
alternative pay or ratio plans. Though 
the alternative-plan BEISes had slightly 
more uploads over the same period, the 
difference wasn't great. The quality of 
uploads to any of the BBSes was atwut 
equal. You don't get any tetter flies on a 
pay -only BBS, 

The pay-only sysop argues that since 
he has a closed system of users for 



Given the choice, 
most users 
opt for the 
dow n load/up load 
ratio to 
maintain access. 



uploads and downloads, the chance for 
getting Trojan flies from the BBS is de- 
creased significantly. A Trojan file is one 
that someone has altered to destroy data 
on your floppy or hard disk when you 
run it. Most sysops check out flies before 
releasing them for access by the users. 
Many users volunteer to check out the 
files, and sysops give them special ac- 
cess to the beta flies. The sysops of pay- 
only BBSes can also aflbrd to upgrade 
their equipment more readily. 

Given the choice, most users seem to 
opt for the upload/download ratio to 
maintain their access. One of the best 
BBSes that I access gives the users an 
option of paying or not. 1 was surprised 
to find out that during the three-month 
period that the sysop actively solicited 
contributions, he had only 13 support- 
ing users at $25 each. Even with that he 
upgraded to a multitasking, multiuser 
system with two phone lines. Support- 
ing users, now 15, have full exclusive ac- 
cess to the second node (phone line}, 
while all other users must use the flrst 
node. Some pay-only BBSes state that 
they will put on an additional phone line 
for each 100 paying users. 

Paying $25 a year for downloads is sUU 
far cheapier than paying for CompuServe. 
The Source, Genie, or Delphi access— the 
major commercial data-base networks 
who charge up to $12.50 per hour. 

Model 100 Update 

Last month, 1 eliminated discussion 
about Model 100 terminal programs tie- 



cause of lack of space. The Model 100 
comes with its own terminal program. 
Telcom can only upload and download 
straight ASCII programs (document 
files), even with special programs for er- 
ror-free transfer like SXM.BA. You must 
change Basic programs to DO format ije- 
fore transferring them. This is easy 
enough; just load your program into Ba- 
sic and type SAVE "filespec.DO". where 
fllespec is the name of your Basic pro- 
gram. You can convert machine-lan- 
guage programs (with the CO extension) 
to an ASCII/hex format with a program 
like Change.BA, which 1 discussed in the 
March 1987 column (p. 90). 

Correction 

In the March and April Public Works, 
1 talked about Club 100 and the Danville 
Tigers Club in practically the same 
breath. Since they both have the same 
public -domain software for the Model 
100, many readers have been writing to 
the Danville Tigers Club for information 
on its software. All distribution of public- 
domain software for these groups is 
through Club 100, Contact Hanson- 
McBride Services/Club 100, P.O. Box 
23438, Pleasant Hill. CA 94523. for in- 
formaUon on Model 100 public-domain 
software. Fbr those who have written to 
Bill Templeton, your letters have been 
forwarded to Club 100. You will still get 
information, but expect a delay. 

Next Month 

ri! get back to public-domain software 
next month and talk about hard-disk 
utiliUes. I'll also try to to feature a BBS 
or two from around the country. Send 
me the name, city, state, phone number, 
and the computers supported on your fa- 
vorite BBS. 

Model 100 users can send $6 for a 31^- 
inch disk with SXM.BA, Change.BA. 
their DOC files, and other public-domain 
selections. If you prefer the software on 
a 5'/,-)nch TRSDOS 1.3 or MS-DOS disk 
that you can download to your 100 using 
a null-modem cable, 1 will send the disk 
1 menUoned in my March column. I'll 
even make a tape for $6, though I make 
no guarantees. No special requests 
please; It's too hard to keep track of 
them. Please send your quesUons sepa- 
rately from disk requests. ■ 



Thomas Quindnj 
has written for 80 
Micro since 1980. 
Write 7bm at 6237 
Windivard Drive, 
Burke. VA 22015. 
Enclose a stamped, 
self-addressed en- 
velope for a reply. 




80 Micro, August 1987 * 99 



How to Use 80 Micro Program Listings 



Basic program listings in SO Micro in- 
clude a checksum value at the end of each 
line. This value is the sum of the /€CII 
values of all characters and spaces in (he 
line, excluding remarks. You can use these 
values to test the accuracy of your typing. 

• Type in program code exactly as listed, 
omitting the indentations (when program 
tines continue to a second or third maga- 
zine line). The '* characters, checksum val- 
ues, and comments may be omitted. 

• Save the program in ASCII format with 
the command SAVE "file narne",A. 

• Load and run Checksum (see Program 
Listing). {F=br the Tandy 1000, change line 
10 to: 10 CLS:LOCATE 2,25:PRINT "VER- 
IFY CHECKSUMS ON PROGRAM" 
3544.) The program will prompt you for the 
name of the file to be verified and give you 
the option of sending the line numbers and 
checksum values to the printer or to the 
screen. 

When printing to the screen. Checksum 
lists 20 lines and then waits for you to press 
the enter key. 

• Compare the displayed tine numbers and 
checksum values with the checksums 
shown in the fisting. Correct errors in lines 
having checksum values that don't match. 

—Beverly Woodbury. 

Technical Editor 



Program Listing. Checksum. 



IB CLEAR 10BB;CLS:PRINT^140, "VERIFY CHECKSUMS ON PROGRAM" 

20 PRINT! PRIWT: INPUT "Enter Name Of File to vetify";F$ 

3a PRINT: PRINT: PRINT "List Check smns to:" 

40 PRINT TftE(2B) "<P>t inter" : PftINT TftB(20) ■<S>ci:een' 

58 PRINT: pmwT:PRINT TflB(3B);"? "; 

60 K$^INKEY$ 

le IF KS"='P" OH K5="p" OR KS="S" OR K5^"a" THEN 8B ELSE 6i 

SB PRINT KS;IF KS^"P" OR K$="p" THEN LP=1 

96 OPEN "I",1,FS:BS=CHRS(3jI) 

IBB IF E0F{1) THEN CLOSE :G0TO 390 

He LINE INPUTtl,L?:L=VAL(LEFTS(LS,6i ) 

12B IF 2=2 AND L=a THEN IBB ELSE 2=2 

13B A=VARPTR[L$) :GOSUB 270 ;Q=PEEK (A) 

146 LE=PE£K (A+l) ;MS=PEEK {A+2) :A=MS*25S+LE:GOSUB 27B 

15B IF INSTE{LS,"'") THEN GOSUB 280 

160 IF RIGHTS [LS,1)-" " THEN IQ-Q:GOSUB 37B 

170 FOR K=l TO Q:P=PEEK(A) :CS"CS+P:A-A+l!NEXT K 

180 IF CE=0 THEN IBB 

19fl IF CS<iee000! THEN D?*'-" 

200 IF CS<:10000 THEN D$="- * 

210 IF CS<1BB0 THEN ES="- " 

226 IP CS<1BB THEN DS="- 

230 IF LP=1 THEN LPRINT "Line";L;CS;CS, :CS=0 :GOTO IBB 

240 PRINT "Line";L;DS;CS:CS=0:X=iX+l 

25B IF X=20 THEN X=0: PRINT TAB(30) "Press <ENTEE> to continue." 

ELSE 100 
26B K$=INKEYS:IF KS<>CHRS(13) THEN 260 ELSE IBB 
27B IF A>32767 THEN A= {6S536 1-A) *-l jRETURN :ELSE RETURN 
28B I=INSTR (LS, " ' ") :IQ=I-1 
29B IF LEN(L$)=INSTE(LS, ■ ' ") THEN IBB 
300 LC?=STK?(L) iLQ=LEN(LQS) ;IF LQ+2=>1 THEN IBB 
31B Q1=INSTR(LS,BS) :IF Q1>I OR Q1=0 THEN 37B 
320 Q2-=INSTR(Q1+1,LS,B$) :IF Q2>1 THEN I=INSTB (02, LS, " ' " ) 
330 IF 1=0 THEN RETURN 

340 03=INSTR(Q2+1,LS,BS) !IF Q3>I OR 03=0 THEN 370 
350 Q<l=INSTR(03+i,L?,BS) :1F Q4>I THEM I-INSTR (04, L$, " ' ") 
360 IF I=B THEN RETURN 

370 FOR 1=IQ TO 1 STEP-1 :C=ASC (MIDS (LS, I, 1 ) ) : IF C<33 THEN NEXT I 
360 RLS=LEFTS(L$,I) ;(3=LEN (RL?) :RETURN 
390 PRINT; PRINT"CMECKSUN/BAS now in Memocy" 

4B0 PRINT "Reload the PROGRAM that yog are working on? (Y/Nl"; 
410 INPUT Q$:IF 06="K" OR Q$="y" THEH CLS:LOAD FS 



3713 
4245 
3233 
3626 
2146 
726 
3269 
2439 
1521 
2000 
2275 
2069 
2244 
3115 
2B38 
2514 
2»45 
1131 
1538 
1481 
1466 
1451 
3370 
2282 

4924 
2785 
3275 
15B4 
2B9S 
2839 
2593 
3297 
1386 
2869 
3308 
1389 
3647 
2323 
3248 
4890 
2967 



80 MICRO'S LIST of ADVERTISERS 



Reader Service Number 



Page 



M 82 

# 82 
17 

UUI 

400 

#378 

«rtS2 

*301 

133 

*302 

367 

# 18 
#291 

# 46 
176 

Mzaz 

1*204 
91 



#361 



Aarocomp 20 

Aerocomp 21 

Alpha Products 13 

Anitek Software Products 7 

Anthropornoiphic 108 

ATD 16. 16A, 71 

BCCompco 1 10 

Big Computers 106 

CDA Wofld o( ComputBrs 40 

Clone Coimpulars 81-84 

Computer Friends 79 

Computer Plus 10 

Comtrek Computer Components 73 

Cornucopia Software 1 

Data Covet 77 

DFW Computer Center 48 

DlskCounl Data 3 

Dotwriter" ProSOft 9 

SO Micro 

Classified 74 

Classified Ads 114, 115 

eO Micro Disit Series 6. 65 

PC Resource Sut>scnption B5 

Reader Service 74 

University Micro 77 

Eie-sri:^ Software Corp 2 



AUGUST 1987 



Reader Service Number 



Page 



# 45 Electric Walister t 

*358 exec-PC 112 

*214 Rift W)rth Computers 38 

GE Information Services CM 

9 H & E Ccmputronics CIV 

#209 H.I. Tecfi 94 

Halix Institute 77 

#640 HTinexas Connection 15 

455 Hard Drive Specialists 35 

/ri 75 Howe Software 19 

# 46 Hypereoft 113 

#534 Jameco Electrifies 45 

#455 Kalglo 112 

# 98 Konan Clll 

tt ' Logical Systems .............,,...,,111 

#140 Marathon Software 37 

#250 Marymac Industries, Inc 61 

# 50 li^erge Mate/McAdams 73 

225 Merrill Computer 106 

#464 Micro Latjs, Inc 43 

# * Micro Smart £9, 30. 31 

#299 Microdex 41 

#137 Miller Micnxxjmputer Services 93 

#107 Misosys. Inc 91 

#100 Montezuma Micro 63 

#41 1 Montezuma Micro 26 



Pop Qxaz F'axticipant. 

Fbr more details about our Pop guiz turn to page 54. 



Reader Service Number 



Page 



#416 Montezuma Micro 47 

#424 Montezuma Micro 46 

#157 National Computer Supply .94 

#232 Nocona Electronics 97 

#124 Perry Computers 66 

#308 Powersoft 4. 49 

#449 Professor Jones^Frogg House 108 

91 Prosoft (Djhvriter) 9 

#478 Purple Computing ' . 72 

1 20 FISL Electronics 90 

# 75 Radio Shack , . 24, ZS 

246 Software Sales 1 

444 Southwestern Digital 42 

#188 Spectre Tech 109 

#219 Success Management Syslerrrs 109 

227 Trisott t15 

390 Unison Witorfd 32 

For rurthcr Information rrom our advertisei^. 
please use the Reader Service card. 
*Tti(s adverUsor prefers to be contacted di- 
rectly. 

Advertising Sales [603) 924-7138 

or (800) 441-4403 

West Coast Sales (415) 328-3470 



100 • ao Micro, August 1987 



Upgrading to 
MS-DOS? 



LET'S 



SERIOUS. 



THE COMPUT 



FUNNY NAM 



THE CLONE™ 

Frankly, this is the twst computer value in America. Better than IBM. Better 
than Tandy. Complete MS-DOS™ compatibility. . .lightning fast processing. . .tons 
of RAM. This machine has everything the Boys in Blue promise. . .and more. All 
at a price you can afford. 

WE DIDN'T NAME IT "CLONE" FOR NOTHING. 

What we have here is a computer that is truly IBM PC/XT compatible. The 
Clone computer is completely MS-DOS compatible and it has all the hardware 
capability of the IBM PC/XT (except cassette) plus some and comes with 
MS-DOS 3.2 {the latest version), GW-BASIC and reference manuals 
(manuals are extra cost on the Tandy fOOOI). With the Clone you 
get eight IBM compatible expansion slots, seven of them a full 13" 
long. You have six additional slots available; something a Tandy 
1000 owner can only dream about. 

IBM COMPATIBLE? YOU BET. 

Flight Simulator, one of the classic tests of compatibility, runs 
perfectly. Lotus 1-2-3» can't tell it's not running on an IBM. In 
fact, we have not discovered an off-the-shelf MS-DOS software 
package that wouldn't run property on the Clone. The ability 
to run standard, off-the-shelf, software is important because 
it allows you to obtain software from any number i 

of sources. A 



STANDARD FEATURES: 

The Clone computer comes complete, ready to run, 
with tots of standard features. Like the maximum 640K 
of system memory installed. Like an IBM standard par- 
allel printer port, a clock/calendar with automatic bat- 
tery backup, a speaker, two serial ports (one 
populated), a game adapter/joystick port, a light pen 
port, a 2-drive floppy disk controller, and the newest 
AT style keyboard. The video output is IBM standard 
color graphics with a special port that allows you to 
view color software on a monochrome monitor as 
well as 80 X 25 text. A 360K ultra-reliable floppy 
drive is included with space for three additional half- 
height floppy or hard disk drives. The 135 Watt 
power supply runs cool and assures you of ade- 
quate power for future expansion, 

PC-DeskMates, a powerful multi-function memory 
resident utility, is included so you can start using the 
Clone when you receive it. You get an alarm, clock, 
calculator, calendar, notepad, phone dialer, type- 
writer, and access to DOS level commands. The 
Clone also comes with Qmodem, the famous modem 
program which enables you to access the wo rid of 
telecommunications. PC-Write, probably the best 
shareware word processor available, is also fur- 
nished. Your Clone comes ready to worit for you. 

WHAT'S MISSING? 
The Big Blue price tag. 



r 
I 




eg SAMSUNG 





I- _ '■'■ _ '^ 



T 1 1" r TV] 

11 1 r I [ 
^ I 11 1 T ■ I 

/ f I I r 1 




US users only. 



OPTIONAL FEATURES: 

The Turbo Clone is equipped to run at the standard 4.77mH2 clock rate or at a 
blazing 8mHz. That's almost 70% faster processing than a standard IBM. Front 
panel lights indicate Turtw operation, power status and hard disk activity. A key- 
lock switch allows the ke^^oard to be electrically "locked out" for unattended 
security. Imagine a lengthy Lotus 1-2-3 spreadsheet recalculation with an 8mHz 
processor! It's awesome. 

HOW TO BUY A COMPUTER WITHOUT LEAVING YOUH CHAIR. 

Zero effort required. Just pick up your phone and call us toll-tree. 




(Keyboard and monitor included) S699 



rr-pTT^n 



t _ * 



T" T- TIT Tr,A| 

1 I 1 T' i_ 11 

T T ]■ ]■' \ i \ 

Till 



^IMpiPU 




Your American Express, MasterCard and Visa are 
welcome at no extra charge as well as your check, 
money order, or COD order. Your Clone ships right 
away. In just a few days the UPS man delivers it to 
your door. 

Too long to wait? Ask for our Expedited Sereice, 
Our distribution experts will get you a Clone OVER- 
NIGHT, almost anywhere. (Some restrictions apply). 

A WORD OF EXPLANATION. 

We sell Clones exclusively by mail. And there's a 
good reason why. Supporting the expensive overhead 
of a chain of retail stores is not our idea of keeping 
costs down. You're buying the Clone computer at 
wholesale prices, directly from the manufacturer. 
Your Clone comes with an ironclad guarantee that 
exceeds most other manufacturers'. We guarantee 
your satisfaction or we'll refund your purchase 
price within thirty days, no questions asked. Our 
guarantee is backed by a reputation earned in 
years of experience in the mail order business. 
Think about it. Repeat orders come from satis- 
fied customers. This makes us work very hard 
to get It right the first time. 



Optional TURBO Clone, $799 



Circle 302 on Reader Service card. 



US vs. THEM 









TANDY 1000 


LEADING EDGE 


FEATURES 


CLONE 


JBM PC/XT 


EX (SX) 


Model D 


Mlcroprocessar: Intel SdSS » 4.77inHi 


YES 


YES 


YES 


YES 




&mHz Optional 


NO 


7,16mHz STD 


NO 


P0M«r Supply Rating 


150 WATT 


63.5 WATT 


54 WATT 


130 WATT 


IBM Slandard Bus: 


yES 


YES 


NO 


YES 




MS-DOS 3.2 


EXTRA 


MS-DOS 2.1 1 (3.2) 


MS-DOS 3 1 


Disk BASIC: 


YES 


IN ROM 


YES 


YES 


MS-DOS and BASIC Hef. nianualsr 


YES 


EXTRA 


EXTRA 


YES 




640K 


256K 


256K (SeiK) 


mK 


Casi to Expanil RAM: 


-0- 


$$ 


S?59 (S1S9) 


S 


Keyboard: 


■Ar STYLE 


STD 


NON-STD 


STD 




INCLUDED 


EXTRA 


EXTRA 


INCLUDED 


VIdfto Outputs: 


BwrnTScmoB 


EXTRA 


NTSC. RGB 


BAN, RG.B 


Disk Drive Capacity: 


1-3S0K 


1 ■360K 


1-360K B-360K) 


E-360K 


Max Nuirb«r of Internal Drives: 


1 


4 


1 at 


2 


Jntornal Expansion Slots: 


B 


i 


1 (5) 


4 


Accepts Standard IBM Cards: 


YES 


YES 


NO (10- Only) 


YES 


8087 Main Co-Processor Option: 


YES 


YES 


NO (YESI 


YES 


sturdy Steal Case: 


YES 


YES 


PLASTIC 


PLASTIC 


Standard Parallel Ports: 


1 





t 


t 


Standard Joystick and LijM Pen Ports: 


YES 


NO 


J (J/LPI 


NO 


Standard Serial Ports: 


2 11 OF>tional} 








t 


Warranty 


1 YEAR 


90 OAYS 


90 DAYS 


tS MONTHS 


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1-800-527-0347 1-800-527-3582 



THE NEXT STEP / by Hardin Brothers 



LS-DOS, MRAS, 
Odds, and Ends 



It's been a long time since I have cov- 
ered a variety of topics In a single col- 
umn. The middle of summer seems a 
good time to catch up on some things 
that won't make an entire column by 
themselves. 

LS-DOS Security 

The security scheme used In LS-DOS 
6.3 has caused a lot of confusion. The 
following Information comes from sev- 
eral phone conversations with Bill 
Schroeder, president of Logical Systems 
Inc. [LSI). This Information Is Included 
here with his permission and might help 
clarify some Issues. 

Like many other software companies, 
and many of us software users, LSI was 
concerned atwut possible piracy when it 
decided to produce LS-DOS 6.3. It 
couldn't look to copy protection as an 
answer, of course, since the idea of a 
copy-protected operating system is al- 
most ludicrous, especially one that uses 
overlays as extensively as TRS-80 oper- 
ating systems do. 

LSI took an unusual approach to pro- 
tecting its development Investment in 
LS-DOS 6,3. The DOS uses a unique "In- 
stall protection" system. When you first 
Install LS-DOS 6.3, it takes a "snapshot" 
of your computer. The actual contents of 
that snapshot are a proprietary secret, 
but LS-DOS 6.3 is capable of distinguish- 
ing between one computer and another. 
The DOS saves that snapshot on your 
system disk and on all system backups 
you make. After the first snapshot, your 
copy of LS-DOS is personalized for your 
computer. 

From that point on. whenever you use 
LS-DOS 6.3, it compares your computer 
to that snapshot. If the comparison falls |lf 
you have moved the DOS to a different 
computer), the DOS sets a flag. When the 
flag Is set is another proprietary secret, 
but it Is a quick process and only happens 



System Requirements 

Model 4/4P/4D 

128KRAM 

LS-DOS 6.3 

Editor/aBsembler, iSRAS 

Available on The Disk Series 




Program Listing. Demonstration of the process of creating a modular assem- 
bly program using MRj^. MLIB, and MLink. 

This file shows the complete process of creating a modular 
assembly-language ptogram using HRASr HLIB, and HLINK except 
for the commands given to the text editoc. Since it is a 
demonstrat ionr it is probably more modularised than a 'real' 
progcam would be. This program also demonstrates how to 
find the serial number of the user's copy of LS-DOS 6,3 

Program flow: 

1. Check if DOS version 6.3 or later. 

Abort if not. 

2. Open EYSB/SYS for reading. 

Abort if not found. 

3. Read relative sector IB he* of SVSB/SYS into a buffer. 

4. Close the file. 

5. Locate the ASCII text "Seriall " in the buffer. 

Abort if not found. 

6. Move the le-byte serial number to a data area. 

7. Print the serial number and then return to DOS . 
Steps 2r 3, 5, and 6 will be performed in separate modules. 
Steps 1, 4 J and 7 will be performed by the main program, which 
will also handle all error messages. 

Communication between modules will be by registers. 

First, create the following file and save it as SVCLIST/ASn 



SVC's and Macro commands for this project 



iDSPLY 

ICLOSE 

§FSPEC 

S FLAGS 

eoPEK 

6 POSH 

SREAD 

! 

SVC 



MACRO 
LD 
RST 
CNDH 



EQU 
EQU 
SOU 
BQU 
EOU 
EQU 
EQU 

*NUM 

ArlHUK 

2BH 



SAH 
3CH 
4 EH 
6SH 
3BH 
42H 
43H 



MACRO I A DDR 

PUSH HL 

PUSH DE 

LH HL , lADDR 

SVC eOSPLK 



LtsLtng conttnued 



80 Micro, August r987 • 101 



THE NEXT STEP 



occasionally as you use different DOS ser- 
vices [including loading and executing 
programs). And, occasionally, as you re- 
turn to LS-DOS Ready from a program, 
the operating system inspects the flag to 
see if it has been set. 

If you have indeed used a copy of your 
personalized DOS on a different com- 
puter, about once in 100 EtOS services 
the computer stops at the LS-DOS Ready 
prompt, prints a message stating that 
you are using an illegal installation of the 
DOS. and forces you to reboot. By stop- 
ping only at the LS-DOS prompt, the sys- 



Ifyou damage 
the encryption key, 
the code produced 
by decrypting is 
corrupted. 



tern ensures that your data is probably 
safe since whatever program was run- 
ning should have closed all files. 

If all of this happened with normal 
code In a normal SYS (system) flle, of 
course, patches would soon appear on 
many bulletin boards to override the LSI 
protection process. But at least some of 
the code is not stored normally, LSI has 
taken two steps to keep the code from 
meddlers: First, it has stored at least 
some Information between sectors on 
the disk, rather than as a part of any par- 
ticular file. And second, it has encrypted 
much of the code for the protection 
scheme, as well as your ID number. 

A danger exists tn encrypted code, of 
course. If you somehow damage the en- 
cryption key, then the code produced by 
decrypting will be corrupted. If you've 
been programming in assembly lan- 
guage for any amount of time, you 
should have some feeling for what hap- 
pens when the Z80 CPU tries to execute 
something that really isn't a program. 
The nicest thing that can happen Is that 
the computer comes to a halt. 

Obviously, the key itself cannot be en- 
crypted, and just as obviously, the key 
must be different for every copy of LS- 
IXJS. The key for decrypting the protec- 
tion code and data on your disk is. at 
least in part, your serial number. Every 
time you boot LS-DOS, the screen dis- 
plays the serial number. If you have ex- 
perimented with the library command 
"ID," you've probably noticed that your 
identification number and serial number 
appear to be unrelated. Also, if you have 
searched your disk for your ID number, 
you have probably also discovered that 



Listing continued 








POP 


DE 






POP 


HL 






ENDH 








Create the £o 


llowing file and save i 


t as FRDOPEN/ASK 




'; FRDOPEN - 


' Open a file for reading^ set the LRL to 






256i and ignore 


the 


original LRL if 






it is different 








; Entrj 


: FRDOPEN 










HL -"> File name (terminated by CR) 






DE ==> File Control 


Block (32 bytes) 






BC ==> Sector buffer 


(256 bytes) 




! EKit! 


SuccessF z flag 


set 








Failure, NS fla^ 


set 


, error code in A 




; Uses 


AF, BC, HL 








'GET SVC LI ST 




;Get SVCe and macros 


CSBG 






,-Put this in code segment 


PUBLIC FRDOPEN 




;Make entry point public 


FRDOPEN; 








PUSH 


Ilf 




fSave this register 


PUSH 


BC 




fSave sector buffer addr. 


SVC 


ePSPEC 




rWove and parse file name 


LD 


A,13H 




fTllegal File Name" error 


JR 


HZ, FAIL 




7G0 if error 


SVC 


§FLAGS 




(Else lY ==> flag table 


SET 


a, (lY+'S'-'A') 




?Set to ignore original LRL 


POP 


HL 




;HL =-> sector buffer 


SVC 


SOP EH 




^Open file for reading 


JR 


EXIT 




fJump to end 


FAIL POP 


BC 




rClear stack if failure 


EXIT POP 


lY 




^Recover lY register 


RET 






rWe're done 


END 








Assemble the 


module with the fo] 


lowing command: | 


MRAS FRDOPEN 


-WE 






If there are 


no assembly errors 


start a library: | 


MLIB 




< 


Load the librarian 


A 




< 


Add a module 


R 




< 


Module is a /REL file 


FRDOPEN 




< 


Module name 


S 




< 


Save the library 


I 




< 


Library in IRL format 


SERIAL 




< 


Name it SERIAL/IRL 


it 




< 


Exit from librarian 


Create the fo 


llowing file and save it as TEST/ASM 1 




; Test prog 


ram for FRDOPEN 








•GET SVCLIST 








EXT 


FRDOPEN 




iLets us link with routine 


CSEG 






fThis is program code 


BEGIN LD 


HL,FILNAM 




iHL ==> file name for test 


LD 


DE,FCB 




;DE =■=> file control buffer 


LD 


BC, SECBUF 




;BC ==> sector buffer 


CALL 


FRDOPEN 




(Open the file 


SVC 


eCLOSE 




;Now close it 


LD 


HL,B 




;No error to DOS 


RET 






;End the program 


DSEG 






;Thi5 is all data 


FCB DS 


32 




; Space for FCB 


SECBUF DS 


256 




jSpace for buffer 


FILNAH DB 


■TEST/ASM ',13 






END 


BEGIN 






Assemble it with the command: 






MRAS TEST -WE 








Link the two 


with the linker: 






HLINK 






<— Load the linker 


TEST 






< Read the main file 


-S=SERIAL 






<— Search SERIAL/IRL for modules 


-N=jB 






< Finished file to drive fl 


-E 






<: Save /cmd file and exit 


Now use Debug 


to trace through TEST/CHD. You should experiment by | 


changing the 


file name. Watch the z 


flag and A register to be sure 


errors are correctly trapped and 


reported. 


C 


reate the £o 


llowing file and save it as SECREAD/ASM: 


' 


SECREAD — 


Read a sector from 


a f 


le into a memory 


j 


buffer. Assume that the 


file is opened with 


1 


LRL = 


256, and that the 


buffer was designated 




when 


the file was opened 


■ 




'. 


Entry 


: SECREAD 






; 




BC = relative sector 


number 






DE ==> FCB of op 


ened 


file 


; 


Exit; 












Success, z flag 


set. 


data is in buffer 


; 




Failure, NZ flag 


set 


error in A 


; 


AF is 


used 






* 


GET SVCLIST 








CSEG 






;This is program code 


PUBLIC SBCHEAD 




.-Define entry point 


EECREAD: 








SVC 


SPOSN 




;Position file to sector 


JR 


NZjFAIL 




;Go if error 

Listing continued 



102 • 80 Micro, August 1987 



THE NEXT STEP 



Listing continued 

SVC 

FAIL RET 

END 

Assei^ble this 

HRAS SECREAD 

Add it CO the 

MLIB 

L 

I 

SERIAL 

A 

R 

SECREAD 

S 

I 

SERIAL 

K 

Load TEST/ASK 



gREAD 



with tbe coiniTiand 

WE 

library: 



;Re^d sector to buffef 
^Return to caller 



< Load the librarian 

< Load a library 

< in IRL format 

< named SEKIAL/IHL 

< — " Add a module 

< in BEL format 

< named SECREAD/REl, 

< Save the new library 

< in IRL formal 

< named SERIAL/IRL 

< Exit from librarian 



Test prog 



and add the three lines marked with 
ram for FBDOPEN and SECREAD 



*GET SVCLIST 
EXT 
CSEG 

BEGIN LD 
LD 
LD 

CALL 
LD 

CALL 
SVC 
LD 
RET 



FRDOPEN, SECREAD 

HL,FILNAM 

DE,FCB 

BCSECBUF 

FRDOPEN 

BC,B 

SECREAD 

SCLOSE 

HL,a 



**** Lets U3 link with routine 
This is program code 
BL ==> file name for test 
DE ==> file control buffer 
BC ==> sector buffer 
Open the file 

**** Set to first sector 

***• Read the sector 
Now close it 
No error to DOS 
End the program 



This is all data 
Space for FCB 
Space for buffer 



DSEG 

FCB DS 32 

SECBUF DS 256 

FILNAW DB 'TEST/ASMMJ 

END BEGIN 

Assemble and linK this program exactly as before and use Debug 
to test it. 
Create the following program and save it as MEHSRCH/ASH; 

MEHSRCH — Search a block of memory for 
a specific byte string. 



Entry: 



MEHSBCH 
HL ==> Buffer to search 
DE ="> string to search for 
BC = length of search buffer 
A = length of string 



Exit: Success — Z flag set, 

HL ==> beginning of match 
in buffer 
Failure — NZ flag 
Usee: AF, BC, DE, HL 





CSEG 






PUBLIC 


MEMSRCH 


MEHSRCH 


: 






DEC 


A 




LD 


(STRLEN) ,A 


LOOPl 


LD 

CPIR 


A,(DE) 




RET 


NZ 




DEC 


HL 




PUSH 


BC 




PUSH 


DE 




PUSH 


HL 




LC 


A, (STRLEN) 




LB 


B,A 


L0OP2 


INC 


HL 




INC 


DE 




LD 


A,(DE) 




CP 


(HL) 




JR 


NZjENCLP 




DJN2 


LOOP 2 


ENDLP 


POP 


HL 




POP 


DE 




POP 


BC 




RET 


Z 




INC 


HL 




JR 


LOOPl 


' 


DSEG 




STRLEN 


DB 


s-s 



[Reduce match count by 1 
Save string length for later 
Get first byte 
Look for first character 
Leave if not found 
Else back up to match 
Save registers in case 

we have to look 

some more. 
Get string length 

into B for loop counter 
Point to next In buffer 
And next in string 
Get next in string 
Same as next in buffer? 
(HL) <> (DE) ~ go 
Else try the next match 
Recover registers 



[Leave if match successful 
[Else move past false match 

; and look some more 



[One byte of storage 



END 

Assemble it with the coirmand 

MRAS MEHSRCH -WE 

And add it to the library with the commands: 

MLIB < 

L <— 

I <— 

SERIAL < 

A <— 

B <— 

MEHSRCH < 

S < 



Load the librarian 
Load a library 
in IRL format 
named SERIAL/IRL 
Add a module 
in REL format 
named SECREAD/REL 
Save the new library 



Usltng continued 



it is nowhere to be found. The ID number 
is part of the information that is en- 
crypted and hidden. 

What happens if you legitimately de- 
cide to change your computer, from a 
Model 4 to a 4P, for example? Simply call 
the people at LSI. give them your ID and 
serial numbers for them to look up in 
their data base, and they'll give you in- 
structions for reinitializing your EKDS on 
a new computer. LSI says it has no inter- 
est in hampering legitimate purchasers 
of LS-E>OS, only those who have not pur- 
chased their own copies. 



For this piece of 
magic to work 
correctly^ you need 
to understand 
logical segments. 



Are there ways to defeat this protec- 
tion system? Probabiy, but beware of 
some possible pitfalls. I have heard ru- 
mors that programs on local BBSes 
claiming to sidestep the LSI protection 
system are nothing more than worms or 
Trojan horses that will, either slowly or 
quickly, destroy your disks and data. 1 
have also heard that some protection-de- 
feat programs can work for one or two 
users but cause constant lockups for oth- 
ers. But since you can make as many 
copies of your E)OS disks as you want, 
why would you want to defeat the pro- 
tection system in the first place? 

This protection system has a side ef- 
fect that some software writers might 
want to consider. A legitimate LS-DOS 
6.3 disk has a unique serial number, 
stored in relaUve sector 10 hexadecimal 
(hex) of SYSO/SYS. If you alter that serial 
number, you are likely to cause a num- 
ber of system catastrophes. 

An application program can easily 
"piggyback" on top of the LSI protection 
system. The first time you Install the 
software, it could read the serial number 
and store it inside of the program. Then, 
every time the program runs, it can com- 
pare this internal copy of the serial num- 
ber against the one available on the 
system. If the numbers are different, the 
program has been moved to a new com- 
puter. Of course, such a program would 
probably want to do Its own encryption 
to discourage someone from using a disk 
editor to simply change the number. 

If. as a software author or publisher, 
you find a pirated copy of your program 
floating around, you need only decrypt 
the serial number, call LSI, and find out 



80 Micro, August 1987 * 103 



THE NEXT STEP 



who originally Installed the program, 
since their name will be in LSl's data 
base, LSI has promised to furnish this 
information to any software developer 
who needs it for such purposes. Without 
resorting to copy-protected disks, your 
program will have a fair amount of pro- 
tection from unscrupulous users. 

Getting the 

Most Out of MRAS 

Judging from my mall, a number of 
people who have purchased the MR/S 
assembler from Mlsosys are having trou- 
ble understanding its advanced features, 
especially how to write modular pro- 
grams with it. 

The MRAS assembler, along with the 
MLink linker. MLE librarian, and SAID 
editor, ts far and away the most powerful 
assembler available for the Model 4. But 
to use this package effectively as a devel- 
opment tool, you need to leam a new way 
of working with an assembler. Much of the 
following also applies to the advanced fea- 
tures of Radio Shack's Assembly Lan- 
guage Development System (ALDS). 
although it uses different terminology. 

You can use MRAS as a normal assem- 
bler. Just use the -GC (generate code) 
switch when you assemble a program. 
and MRAS works just like EDAS/Pro-Cre- 
ate. But if you do that, you give up a lot of 
MRAS's power and make program devel- 
opment more difficult than it should be. 

Every programmer knows that it is 
much easier to write and debug a short 
program than a long one. With MRAS, 
you can create complex programs by 
gluing together short, simple routines. It 
also encourages you to create routines 
that you can use over and over in a va- 
riety of programs. 

You can do this with any assembler, 
of course, by keeping source-code mod- 
ules around, hooking them together, and 
reassembling. But as programs get 
longer, the chance of a conflict of vari- 
able names, as well as the time required 
for assembly, ttegins to bog down an en- 
tire project. And for really large projects, 
you eventually run out of memory space 
to compile a program. 

Programming with MRAS is a process 
of creating small, spteeiflc subroutines, 
assembling and thoroughly testing 
each, and, ultimately, linking all the sub- 
routines together along with some coor- 
dinating logic. Since each module is 
preassembled, changes to one do not re- 
quire reassembling the entire program, 
only a small module, so you spend much 
less time waiting for the assembler. Also, 
you drastically reduce the possibility of 
conflicts between label names in various 
modules. 

The first new concept ts the difference 
between local and global labels. Unless 



Listing continued 












I 












< in IRL formal 


SERIAL 












< named SERIAL/IRL 


X 












< Exit from librarian 


CREATE 


THE FOLLOWING PROGRAM 


AND SAVE 


IT AS TEST/ ASM: 


; Test 


program 


for MEMSRCH 










EXT 




MEHSRCH 






;Tell the linker to find it 




CSEG 












This is the code 


BEGIN 


LD 

LD 

LD 

LD 

CALL 

LD 

RET 




HL,BUF 
DE, STRING 
BC.BUFLEH 
A.STRLEN 
HEKSRCH 








HL ==> buffer 
DE ==> string 
BC = buffer length 
A ^ string length 
Find the string 
No error 
Return to DOS 


' 


DSEG 












BUF 


DC 
CB 
DC 
DB 
DB 




2B, ' ' 
'This' 
2B, ' ' 

'This is it' 
20, ' ' 






;20 spaces 
,>A partial matoh 
;20 more spaces 
,-The real match 
;Some more spaces 


BUFLEK 


BQU 




5-BUF 






;Length of buffer 


STRING 


DB 




'This is it' 






?String to match 


STRLEK 


EQU 
END 




S-STRING 

BEGIN 






;Length of string 
;End of program 


Assembl 


€ and 


link it with exact 


ly the 


sane instructions as the 


first TEST prog 


rami and test 


it 


using 


Debug . 


Finally 


f write 


the following 


program 


and save it as 5ERREAD/ASM 


; SERIAL ~ 


Finds LS-DOS 6. 


serial 


number and 


; prints 


t 


on the screen 








; Foi 


use vi 


th 


LS-DOS 6.3 only 






*GET SVCLIST 














EXT 




FRDOPEN, SECHEAD 


MEMSRCH ,-Befine entries to other mods 1 




CSEG 












BEGIN 


SVC 

LD 

CP 

JR 

LD 

LD 

LD 

CALL 

JR 

LD 

CALL 

SVC 

LD 




eFLAGS 

A,(I¥+27) 

63H 

C , BADVER 

HL,EYS0S 

DE , FCB 

BCEECBUF 

FRDOPEN 

NZ,0 ERR 

BCIBH 

EECREAD 

KLOSE 

HL,EECBUF 






;IY ==> flag table 

?Get version number 

jRight version? 

;Ko — go 

jHL ==> file name 

;DE ==> tile control block 

,-BC =~> sector buffet 

;Open the file 

jError? -- Go 

;Reaa sector 10H 

,-Get it 

;Kow close the file 

jHL ==> buffer 

Listing continued 



you specify otherwise, every label within 
a module is local, which means it can 
only be "seen" by that module. You 
could write a program with 100 mod- 
ules, each using a label called Loop, for 
example. Since each label can only be 
seen by its own module, there is no con- 
fusion about which Loop is meant in 
each routine. 

Of course, routines need to call each 
other by name, so some labels must be 
visible outside of a module. Such names 
are "global" or "public," which means 
every routine can see and use them. 
Often, a module has a single global label 
for its entry point and its other labels are 
all local. The module performs one spe- 
cific task and then often returns some in- 
formation to whatever program called it. 

The assembler has to know which la- 
bels it should keep local and which to 
make global. If you want a label to be local, 
you need do nothing. That is the default. 
If you want a label to tie global in scope, 
you need to declare it as global when you 
write the module. You do so with the 
pseudo-op Global (or Entry or Pub- 
he— they mean the same thing to MRflS). 

In each module, you must also tell the 



assembler which labels it will find in 
other modules, that is, those external to 
the current module. You do that by using 
the pseudo-op EXTRN or EXT. There- 
fore, a label you declare Global in one 
module is EXTRN in every other module 
that makes references to it. 

If you do some planning, you should 
be able to write most of your subroutine 
modules so that they are usable in differ- 
ent programs. Think of them as being 
somewhat similar to TRSDOS/LS-DOS 
supervisory calls (SVCs) as you write 
them, and make each perform a specific 
service that other programs can use. 

tf these modules are ail preassembled, 
how do you know what address to use as 
the ORG (origin) of each? You don't, and 
you don't need to. That's the other new 
concept necessary for working with 
preassembled modules. You don't spec- 
ify any address in any module. Instead, 
you let a linker program. MLink, put the 
modules together to create your pro- 
gram and assign absolute addresses to 
each routine. The assembler creates flies 
with the extension REL, meaning that 
you can relocate the module to any place 
in memory. The linker takes all of the 



104 • 80 Micro, August 1987 



THE NEXT STEP 



Llstir^ continued 










LD 


DE, SERIALS 




;DE ==> serial string 




LD 


BC,lflflH 




jLength of sector buffer 




LD 


A, SERLEN 




;Length of search string 




CALL 


MEMSBCH 




;Find serial string 




JH 


NZ, NOSER 




fError - — go 




LD 


A, 8 




;Offset to serial number 




ADD 


A,L 




jAdd the offset 




LD 


L,A 




;And save it 




JR 


NC,5+3 




iQo if no carry 




IHC 


H 




;Else increment H 




LD 


DE,SSTORE 




jDE ==> storage area 




LD 


BC,1B 




;10 bytes to transfer 




LDIR 






;Move serial number 




PRINT 


ssHow; 




.-Print it 




JR 


EXIT 
ing 

BADVERS 




;And leave 

;Print error message 




; Crrof handl 


BftDVEft PRINT 


JR 


EXIT 




J And leave 




NOSER PRINT 


NOSER $ 




xNo serial number 




JR 


EXIT 




; Leave 




0_BRB PRINT 


0_ERRS 

m 

HL,B 




;Can't open file 
jReport no error 




; Enit pirogra 


EXIT LD 


RET 


m^q& 




;Retarn to LS-DOE 
fPut in data segment 




; Data area £ 


DSEG 


BADVERS DB 


'HQSt use LS 


-DOS 6.3 or 


later', 13 




NOSERS DB 


'Serial numb 


SI is missing ' J 13 




0_ERR$ DB 


'Cannot open 


SYSB/SYS' , 


13 




SSHOWS DB 


'Your fecial 


number is 


' 




S STORE DS 


le 








DB 


13 








SYS0S DB 


'SYSB/SYE.LSIDOS' ,13 






FCB DS 


32 








SECBUF DS 


256 








serial; DB 


'Seriall' 








SERLEN EQU 


S-SERIALS 








END 


BEGIN 








AssemtJle the p 


rogtatii with th 


e command ; 






MRAS S ERR BAD - 


WE 








Link the ptogram with the command: 






MLINK SERREAD 


-S=SERIAL -N=: 


e -E 


< Learn to use MLINK 

the command line to save 


from 

time 


Run SERREAD/CMD under Debug 


to test it, 


then run it notmally. 












End 



necessary REL flies and puts them into 
a single CMD program, assigning ad- 
dresses to everything as it goes. 

For this piece of magic to work cor- 
rectly, you need to understand logical 
segments. MRAS supports four kinds of 
segments, but only two are normally 
used to write modular programs. It is 
generally desirable to separate the code 
and data sections of a program into two 
different areas of memory. Doing so 
makes debugging easier, keeps a pro- 
gram bug from accidentally writing data 
on top of program code, and gives most 
programmers a sense of orderliness. But 
if each module contains both code and 
data, how do you separate them in the 
final program? 

The answer is to label segments In 
each module. You should put anything 
that is data in DSEG (the data segment). 
Anything that is program code should be 
put in CSEG (the code or program seg- 
ment). When the linker creates the final 
program, it groups all the data together 
in one part of memory and all the code 
in another part. You can either specify 
the address for each or let the linker de- 
cide where each should go. 



The other two segments that MRAS 
recognizes have specialized uses. You 
normally use the absolute segment, 
ASEG, when you know the actual ad- 
dress of something at assembly time 
(rare in the Model 4, but useful for the 
data structures in low memory on the 
Model 1 or III). The segment called Com- 
mon is used mostly for Fortran pro- 
grams. You can also use the Common 
segment (or segments, since you can 
name various Commons) for various 
modules that need scratch space and 
don't care what happens to that space 
when they aren't using it. 

Program modules, which are usually 
general-purpose subroutines, tend to be 
small. And, when you work with modu- 
lar programs awhile, you will collect a 
large number of such modules. Keeping 
track of them on disk could soon become 
a nightmare; it isn't uncommon, for ex- 
ample, to have 100 preassembled mod- 
ules available for a large program. 

The librarian MLIB has the job of or- 
ganizing the modules In a way that the 
linker can understand. Instead of having 
many separate modules in Individual 
files and remembering which ones you 



need to link, you can ask MLIB to put 
modules into libraries of related func- 
Uons. When It is time to link a program 
together, you tell the linker which librar- 
ies to search. It extracts the necessary 
modules and copies them Into your pro- 
gram. It does not include unneeded mod- 
ules in the final program. 

The linker knows which modules to 
use from a library by keeping a list of 
EXTRN labels that have not yet been re- 
solved. As it finds modules in the library 
that have labels declared Global or Public, 
it pulls the associated modules into mem- 
ory, separates the segments, and adds the 
module to your finished program. 

You need to consider one final issue 
before writing program modules. Mod- 
ules need to pass Information back and 
forth. There are three common methods 
for doing so. You can pass information in 
registers, much as TRSDOS/LS-DOS 
SVCs do; on the stack, as programs writ- 
ten in C do; or through Public or Com- 
mon data areas, as, I understand. For- 
tran often does. The first approach is 
prot>ably easiest if you are writing rou- 
tines that you will use only in assembly 
programs. If you want to write routines 
to use both in assembly programs and 
with another language such as C or For- 
tran, you should follow the guidelines of 
that language. 

This month's demonstration program 
(see the Program Listing) shows how the 
whole process works. This short program 
extracts the serial number from an LS- 
E>OS 6.3 disk and displays it on the screen. 
I've included all the steps necessary to 
produce a modular program, including 
the commands given to MLIB and MLInk 
to create the final program. If you want 
to run the program using another assem- 
bler, combine the modules into one 
source file, remove the segment. Public, 
and EXTRN pseudo-ops, and change the 
label names where necessary. 

Instead of separate listings, I have in- 
cluded all listings with instructions in a 
single text file (Listing I), along with ex- 
planations. I've assumed that you wlU 
use both the librarian and linker in inter- 
active mode, which is best for learning, 
although once you are familiar with 
them it is easier to write JCL files that 
use each in command mode. Even though 
this is a short program with only a few 
modules, the listing should give you a 
good feeling for how to use the MRAS 
tools to create much larger programs. 

Odds and Ends 

Many of you write to me with the 
same questions, so I will answer some of 
them here. 

First, as far as t know there is no tu- 
torial book on Model 4 assembly pro- 
gramming. If you are just starting, you 



80 Micro, August 1987 • 105 



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should buy a general-purpose Z80 tuto- 
rial book (they range from simple to 
complex). You should also buy the Model 
4 Technical Reference Manual from Ra- 
dio Shack and Roy SoltofT's Program- 
mer's Guide to LDOS/TRSDOS 6 from 
Diskcount Data (2701-C West 15th, 
Suite 612, Piano. TX 75075). Most Z80 
books explain how to write in assembly 
and also talk about using CP/M. Ignore 
the CP/M stuff and find the parallel Infor- 
mation in the Technical Reference Man- 
ual or the Progrczmmer's Guide. You 
can also find Model 4 assembly tutorials 
in past issues of this magazine. 

Second, some of your requests for pro- 
grams end up in this column. But oth- 
ei-wise 1 don't have time to write pro- 
grams for free. 

Third, I strongly advise against spe- 
cialized patches to TRSDOS/LS-DOS 6 
and much prefer writing short filters or 
modifying the DOS with the System com- 
mands and then saving the results with 
Sysgen. But if you do want to know the 
absolute addresses for patches. I suggest 
you purchase a copy of The Source (avail- 
able from Misosys, P.O. Box 239, Sterling, 
VA 22170-0239, 703-450-0239). Since 
Tfie Source was written for TRSDOS 
6.2, not all of it will be applicable to LS- 



DOS 6.3. but it should at least show you 
where to look and what to look for. 

Finally, a list of my favorite program- 
ming tools for the Model 4: I use MRAS 
and Pro-Create about equally as assem- 
blers, depending on the project. I use 
Misosys's Pro-DD&T extension to Debug 
for most debugging work, as well as the 
Pro-Duce disassembler. I use the C lan- 
guage (the Misosys Pro-MC compiler) 
whenever possible instead of assembly 
for anjrthing longer than short utilities. 

I only use Basic for "quick and dirty" 
short programs, rarely for anything that 
takes more than 30 minutes to code and 
debug. And I use SAID (included with 
Pro-Create and MR^) as my text editor 
for almost everything. ■ 



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106 • 80 Micro, August 1987 



NEW PRODUCTS / compiled by Mark Reynolds 



MS-DOS 

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With this software you can 
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Special Fonts 

Turbofonts lets you incor- 
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EGA by Boca fits the Tandy 1000 SX, 1200. and 3000. 



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The ASM 689 macroassem- 
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Its full-screen editor stays 
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When developing code that 



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Version 3,0 of the Popdrop 
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The number of layers in- 
creased from 8 to 16. 

New commands Include 
View, which lets you display 
the layers loaded and the 



memory used. A "hooks" 
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interrupt vectors hooked by 
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The program runs with 
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Guide to 
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The Educational Software 
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30 Micro, August 1987 •107 



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Floyd, the robot you met In 
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performance. It eliminates the 
file and directory fragmenta- 
tion DOS creates through 
normal computer use. 

With this menu-driven pro- 
gram, optimizing a 10-mega- 
byte disk takes eight minutes 
or less. You can back up, ver- 
ify, and run CHKDSK without 
exiting the program. DS op- 
timize allows you to organize 
your files according to those 
read and written to most 
often. 

DS Optimize is available for 
$69.95 from Design Soft- 
ware. 1275 Roosevelt Road, 
West Chicago. IL 60185. 800- 
231-3088. 
Circle 560 on Reader Serutce card. 

Kindergarten to B.A. 

Compu-tations' quiz-au- 
thoring system features a 
standard format to create 
tests for any grade or subject. 
This courseware has a single 
menu that lets you access, 
edit, or create exams that 
have review and reinforce- 
ment capabilities. Subjects 



108 • 80 Micro, August 1987 



NEW PRODUCTS 



Circle 219 on Reader Service card. 



can cover languages and top- 
ics with scientific notation, 
mathematical notation, and 
graphics. 

The quiz-authoring system 
costs under $30. For a free 
catalog of educational soft- 
ware, contact Compu-tations 
Inc.. P.O. Box 502. Troy. Ml 
48099. 800-345-2964. 
Circle 550 on fieaderSeruice card. 

STB's Graphics 
Adapter 

A multiple high-resolution 
Enhanced Graphics Adapter 
(EGA) supports IBM's VGA 
and provides compatibihty 
with the EGA, CGA, MDA, 
and Hercules, the video stan- 
dards. Multi-Res II produces 
16-coIor enhanced graphics 
and high resolution for dis- 
play of operating environ- 
ments, business graphics, 
communications, and CAD 
and desktop-publishing ap- 
plications. 

The Multi Res II drives a 
wide range of monitors. It 
maintains VGA compatibility 
through hardware support at 
the BIOS level; it doesn't re- 
quire any preboot software or 
unique drivers. The ROM 
BIOS chip will be available to 
current EGA Multi Res own- 
ers who want to upgrade to 
VGA compatibility. Multi Res 
II sells for $449 from STB 
Systems Inc., 1651 N. Glen- 
vtlle. Suite 210, Richardson. 
TX 75081, 214-234-8750. 
Circle 566 on Reader Service card. 

PC Phone Mailbox 

PC-Telepost Electronic 
Mailbox can run in back- 



ground mode in a multitask- 
ing system to automatically 
send and receive your elec- 
tronic mail. 

This e-mail program deliv- 
ers both text and binary files, 
such as documents, spread- 
sheets, graphics, and com- 
puter programs. 

The remote computer must 
use the standard x-modem 
CRC file-transfer protocol, 
but it doesn't need to use the 
PC-Telepost software. 

PC-Telepost runs on MS- 
DOS 2.x. It is available for 
$75 from Coker Electronics, 
1430 Lexington Ave.. San 
Mateo, CA 94402, 415-573- 
5515. 
Circle 559 on Reader Serulce card . 

Schedule 

Appointments with 
SAM 

Schedule and Appointment 
Maker software is designed for 
medical, dental, hearing, and 
other professionals to sched- 
ule, cancel, and change office 
appointments. SAM keeps 
track of doctor/clinician avail- 
ability and appointments for 
individual and group ses- 
sions. It can handle up to 
2,000 patients and 200 doc- 
tors and compiles statistics 
on scheduling information. 

It is available for $295 from 
Digital Hearing Systems 
Corp.. 2934 Shady Lane, Ann 
Arbor, MI 48104, 313-973- 
2658. 
Qrcie 563 on Reader Service card. 

Custom Accounting 

Based on modules. Custom 
Accounting lets you custom- 




Multi Res 11 produces 1 6-coIor enhanced graphics. 



SAVE HUNDREDS!!! 

CONVERT YOUR OLD PRINTER TO 
AN IBM COMPATIBLE WITH 

' PRINT-COMMANDER ' ' 

Order Today 
ONLY $39.95* 



• PRINT-COMMANDER converts IBM print codes (character & font) for your 
ni>n<:ompallble printer. • IncluiJes a modifiable printer setup string. • Select- 
able configuration flle$ can be stored on disk and loaded in a matter of sec- 
onds. • Select between printer ports 1 S 2. • Turns on and off at a key- 
stroke. • Pcp-up menu driven, • Use PRINT-COMMANDER to access other 
characters your printer Is capable of printing, such as foreign language or sci- 
entific characters ETC ... * Memory resident (less than 3Skb of ram needed). 
« Will operate on an IBM PCfXTfAT cr compatibles. 

'S4.50 lor 3 & H (Pa. resrdenis add 6% sales tax.) 
S5.5Q S 4 H Canada & MeiicQ. Foreign orders SI2.0D S & H. 

SUCCESS MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS INC. 

P.O. BOX 6120 

HARRISBURG, PA 17112 

1-7 17-652- 1732 

24 tour Toll Free Order Una from U.S. or Canada: 1-80M28-2828 (eit. 696) 

CHECK. MONEY ORDER. MASTER CARD, VISA, add $1J0 lor COD 

Ahiitfy litKt Vittimrfltv. hiof-Chmmftmitr h uwniif^mBiiity ffiiimnimi f/f .^i} iky': p^m .iAi/i/tiMg 
flfiff /ffxi xiiflflfnf^. TAe/r U a $i\}. lV n'stwti»g ^fff tut oH rrfitnif. 

.^i/fit/fiitiK ttiNf fiiirr iattjtft Pi t&nnff ii^iikml imtiiy. 
IfiM fF a tipsfrmf tttttimtati t)f lulrmttfirtinit Uttiiirtja Mm-Aitm (Jttp. 



Circle 188 on Reader Service card. 



New Model 4 & MS/DOS Stuff! 



Qi 



r> 



fVfjuran 



(h 



$39.95 

tor the MoifeS 4 

TRSDOSorCPm 

Both for iust $59.95! 



Complete Business Graphics Tootf<it 
^- for the Mode! 4 using eiiher 
TRSDOS or CP/Ml 
REMBRANDTfS Ihe o(My graphic software 
you'll ever need (or your Model 4 
i:;ompuler. Hi-Fles board not required! 
Freehand drawing: Draw lines, boxes, 
circles, artd wnle or\ the screen in large 
characters. Full btocdc operations are 
supported — move, fill, copy and more! 
Business graphics: Create honiiontal and 
vertical bar Chans, pie charts andxyplols. 



Autornalically chart spreadsheet files or 
use hand-entered data. 
Slide shows: Sequence your graphics 
on-screen using elevgn cinemalic spaciai 
effects like wtpes. lad^s and spirals. 
Hard copy: Print your graphic screens on 
[Tiost dot-matrix and daisy wheel printers, 
REMBRANDT IS onlyS39.95 and is 
available tor {he Mddei 4 {specify 
TRSDOS or CP/M when ortiering), 
SPECIAL OFFER: get both the CP/M and 
TRSDOS versions for just £59,95 



LONG & LOUD! 



Two great pieces of software at one low 
price! LONG lets yi:pu print out ycur spraad- 
sheets (or any file) sideways on ycurdct- 
malrix printer, No more cutting and pasting 
to put together a fragmented output- LOUO 
prints giant banners in letters irom two to 
eight inches high using five special lype 
styles. Supports most printers including 
Anadex, Apple. C, Itoh. 
Csnlronics, DEC, Data 
Products. Epson, HP. 
IBM. IDS, MPI. NEC, 
Mannesman Tatly, 
Okidala, Radio Shack, 
Smith Corona, Toshiba 
and more. Write for list! 




SHOUT YOUR 

MESSAGE IN 

A BANNER! 




II- 



$34.95 



tor the Modsl 4 

(TRSDOS or CP/M) 

or any MSaos 

computer. 

Buy two versions 

for just S49.95 



TECHNOLOaieS. INC 

22458 Ventura Blvd., Suite E 
Woodland Hills. CA91 364 



Wb aa^t^ VJSA, MaslarCard and Afneflcsn 

ExpiflM and pereofla) orcompanj^ checlts. 

Ofdo-T by mall or call our 24 hour IoH-Ubb 

ordef line li^mlhe US or CAraOA: 

800-628-2628 (Ext. 918} 

Technical [;ues[k^^s. caui&gs. orders cjll 
818.716-1655 (9-S P3T) 



80 Micro, August 1987 • 109 



NEW PRODUCTS 



ize your accounting proce- 
dures for your business. It 
features tracking options (de- 
veloped by people who run 
their own businesses) that 
you can tailor to your needs. 
Ttic modules, which are 
fully integrated, include Pay- 
roll. Accounts Payable, Ac- 
counts Receivable, and 
Inventory/Job Costing. A 
demonstration program is 
available for $50 (refundable). 
For complete information, 
contact D.W. & Associates. 
P.O. Box 623. NapervtUe, IL 
60566,312-983-5866. 
Circle 554 on Reader Service card. 

Let Genie Do It 

A utility to solve data- and 
file-conversion problems be- 
tween computers. File Genie 
lets you implement format 
changes, process source-code 
conversion, convert main- 
frame data, and detect un- 
seen errors in data files. The 
only criterion of compatibility 
is that each system run MS- 
DOS. 



File Genie includes a 
search-and-replace utility for 
ASCII code that can use logi- 
cals and wild cards. Another 
feature analyzes data-base 
file structures. You can write 
your own utilities to manipu- 
late any type of file. File Genie 
is priced at $69.95. For more 
information, contact Team 
Austin Inc., 6809 Convoy 
Court, San Diego, CA 921 11, 
619-278-5353. 
Circle 551 on Reader Service card. 

Coach MS-DOS 

Maximizer:PersonaI Run- 
ning Coach, from Mii-Fitness 
Software, is a program that 
sets goals, assigns workouts, 
and provides progress reports 
for joggers and professional 
runners alike. 

Each workout is based on 
the previous day's activity, 
your current physiological 
data, and your training 
history. It recommends 
modified goals when poor 
weather or injury impedes 
your progress. 



The program consists of 
three disks: Base Training. 
Maintenance/Fteak Prep, and 
Ffeaking. It costs $79.95 and 
requires 128K and two disk 
drives. It is available for MS- 
DOS 1 .0 and higher from Mii- 
Fitness Software. RD #1, Box 
241, Madison, NY 13402- 
9736,315-824-1256. 
Circle 561 on Reader Service card. 

Quickreport 
Meets Clipper 

Quickreport has been re- 
vised to support the Clipper 
compiler. It can now access 
the non-compatible Clipper 
NTX indexes as well as nor- 
mal Dbase NDX index files. 

Quickreport is a report 
writer that defines a variety of 
tabular and free-form reports 
using information stored in 
data flies. The reports can be 
printed from within applica- 
tions programmed in Clipper, 
Dbase II, Dbase III, or directly 
from DOS. 

Quickreport's price remains 
at S295. Current owners desir- 



ing Clipper compatibility can 

upgrade for $29. Contact Fox 

& Geller Inc. 604 Market St., 

Elmwood Park, NJ 07407, 

201-794-8883. 

Circle 553on Reader Service card. 

XT'286 Speed Card 

The half-slot add-In XT- 286 
Speed Card uses an 80286 
processor fed by high-speed 
cache memory at lOMHz 
with zero wait states. For 
better compatibility, the 8K 
of cache memory, not an in- 
creased clock speed, per- 
forms the acceleration. 

Outside switches disable 
the cache memory and/or the 
80286. The XT-286 Speed 
Card is available for $499 
from SMT Inc., 1 145 Linda 
Vista Drive. San Marcos, CA, 
92069-3820, 800-648-6262 
or 619-744-3590. 
Circle 568 on Reader Service card. 

Get the Picture, Too 

Television, communica- 
tions software designed to 
send pictures, uses advanced 



PRINTERS added: FIND VOURS BELOW. 



PRINTER 

MAKf.UOOFL NUMBER 

Contact us if your printer Is 
not fist&d. We have rrany more in slock. 

We can probably RELOAD your old cartridges. 



BCCOMPCO 



SIZE 
Inches 

by 
Yards 



NEW CARTRIDGES 

From Che uanows 

manulacturers or made 

in oyr own shrijp 

Ready la use 



RELOADS 

YouSENDywuf u&kS 

CARTRIDGES 10 U5 WE 

pm OUH NEW INSERTS 

in them 



REPLACEMENTS 



INSERTS EZ-LOADIm 

DROP IN, NO WINDING' 
EXACT REPLACEMENTS 

(nado in our own shof] 
Csrtnt^s NOT indutliKl 



C ITOH Prowifler 1550-8510. NEC 6023-8025. APPLE DMP- IWAGEW 



1Q lis 



S15/2 S 12'6 S 78/12 



? Qa ^ or more 



$15/3 $54/12 t2B8ff2 



IBM PROPRINTER (Standard Paper) 
IBM PROPRNTER XL 



(4201) 
(42021 



7/16x20 
7/16 I 27 



SIS/2 
S18.'2 



$ 51/6 
$51/6 



S 98/12 
J 96/12 



te/i 

tB/1 



$7 ea 2 or moifl 
$7 ga 2 Of mofg 



S18.'3 
$18i3 



S66/12 

$66/12 



S360/72 
$360/72 



RADOSHACKTOSHIBA-GOMMODORE-PANASONIC-RICOH 

Cafbon Film - DWP 210. DIABLO HYTYPE II BlacK (1445) 

DWM.DWP 4 10-5 10. RICOH 1200- 1300 -1600 Black (1419) 

Red, Green, Blua, Brovm Colo/s (1419) 

Fabric (Long Lite), DWP 210. DIABLO HVPi-PE II Black { 1 458) 

DWll.DWP 41 0-51 O.RICOH 1200-1 300-1 600 Black (1449) 
DMP ■ 100, LP VII, COMMODORE 1S2S. GORILLA BANANA (1424) 
DMP - 200, f EO. 130 (430 INSERTS & RELOADS) (1483) 

DMP -400 - 420, LP VI-VIII. PANASONIC KXP- 130- 1093 (1418) 
DMP-500 (1482) 

DMP - 21 00. TOSHIBA P1340.1 3S0-1351 -351 (1 442) 

DMP-2200,CITOH3500 (1233) 

LP lll-V. CANON A 1200 (New Only) (1/2 i 5) (1414) 



5/1 6 1 145 
1/4 1 145 
1/4 I 130 



Inker Loop 
1/2x20 

5/16 K 14 
1/21:20 

1/2x20 
1/2x52 
1/2x 15 



RSLP- 
$16.0 

sie/3 

$21. a 

SI 8/2 

$18/2 

$18/2 

$20/2 

SI 5/2 

$22/2 

$153 

S35 

$15/2 



l-H-IV, CENTRON 
$60/12 $342/72 



$60/12 
$72/12 
$51/6 
$51/6 
$51/6 
$67/6 
$42/6 
$63/6 
$ 42/6 



$342/72 

$414/72 
$96/12 
I 96/12 
S 96/12 
$108/12 
$ 78/12 
$120/12 
$ 7a/12 



730-737.739-779 (ZIP PACK) 
$5ea3-11 $4 8a 12 or more 
$5ea3-11 $4ea 12 or more 
$6 ea 3-1 1 $5 ea 12 or more 
$8/1 $7 ea 2 or more 

$8/1 S7ea 2 or more 



$12/3 

$24/6 
$24/6 
$30/6 
$21/3 
$21^ 



$45/12 
S42fl2 
$42/12 

S54/12 
$78/12 
$78/12 



$252/72 
$234/72 
$234/72 
S234/72 
$432/72 
$432/72 



GENERIC $30 
$ 42/6 S 78/12 



$7/1 

$7/1 

$7/1 

$7/1 

$18/1 

$7/1 



$6 ea 2 or more 
$6 ea 2 or more 
$6 ea 2 or more 
$6 ea 2 or more 
$16ea 2 or mora 
$G ea 2 or more 



$15/3 

$15/3 
$15(3 
$15/3 
$30/3 
$15/3 



$54/12 
$54/12 
$54/12 
$54/12 
$ 57/6 
$54/12 



$288/72 
$288/72 
$288/72 

$288/72 
$108/12 
$288/72 



STAR MICRON ICS RADIX 10 
STAR MICRONICS RADIX 15 



1/2 x55 

1/2x25 



$18/2 $51/6 
$19/2 $ 54/6 



$96/12 
SI 02/1 2 



S7/1 
$8/1 



$6 ea 2 or more 
$7 ea 2 or more 



$15/3 
$18/3 



$54/12 
$66/12 



$288.'72 
$360/72 



EPSON LQ 1000 

MX-FX-RX 70-80-85. LX 60-90 (5/16 X 7) 

MX-FX-RX 100-185-286. LQ 800 (1/2 X IB) LO 1500 (1(2 X 14) 

EPSON LO 250O (INSERTS S RELOADS ONLY) 

DX 20-35 Carbon Film (Munislnke). OLIVETTI ET-121-221 



1.(2 >i 18 
1/2x20 
1/2x30 
1/2x15 
5/16 1(290 



S22/2 S 63/S $120/12 

114/2 $38/6 $66/12 

$18/2 S 51/6 $96/12 

S21/3 $72/12 $414/72 



$8/1 
$7/1 
$8/1 
$7/1 
(Call (or 



$7 ea 2 or more 

$6 ea 2 or more 

$7 ea 2 or mora 

$6 ea 2 or more 

Corredable Prices) 



$18/3 
$15/3 
$18/3 
J 15/3 



$66/12 
$54/12 
$66/12 
$54/12 



$360/72 
$288/72 
$360/72 



NEC Spinwrner-Carbon Filrr - 2000-3500 {Reloads BCCOMPCO Only) 
- 5SOO-7700 (Can Reload Most Types) 
PGPR103/105A 
Pinwriler P1-P2-P6. P-5(1/2x 14) 
P3-P7 



5/16x1 45 



hM>T EJ U]AD 



lr2x 13 
1/2x20 
1/2x27 



$18/3 $60/12 $342/72 
$18/3 $60(12 $342/72 

COMING SOON 
$25/2 $69/6 1126/12 
$30/2 I 84/6 $156/12 



$5 Ba3-1 
$5ea3-1 

$7/1 
$7/1 
S8/1 



1 $4 ea 12 or more 

1 $4 ea 12 or more 

$6 ea 2 or more 

56 ea 2 or more 

57 ea 2 or more 



$24/6 
$24/6 
$15/3 
$15/3 
$18/3 



$42/12 
$42/12 
154/12 

$54/12 
$66/12 



$234/72 
$234/72 
$288/72 
$288/72 
S360/7Z 



COMREX 420 Fabric (INSERTS S RELOADS ONLY) 

DX-15. If "I Fabric 

BROTHER HR-1 5-25-35 J Cartxjn Film (MullistrikB) 



5/16 1(52 

5/16 X 17 
5/16x82 



$8/1 



$7 ea 2 or more 



$21/3 $78/12 



$15/2 $ 42/6 
$18(3 $60/12 



$ 78/12 
$342772 



OKIDATA Pacemark 2350-2410 Black 
Mk:iolina 293-S4 

Microlina 182-183-192-193 292 (7/8 x 16) 
ML-80-B2-e3-92-93 (Call lor ML-84 Prices) 



1/21 100 

7/3 X 28 

Inker Loop 

1/2x 16 



$20 EACH 

$30/2 S 84/6 $156/12 

$20/2 $ 57/6 $108/12 

$21/6 $36/12 SI 98/72 



$20/1 



$18ea 2or more 



$36/3 $132/12 $720/72 



MANNESMAN-TALLEY MT-160. RITEMAN INFORUNNER (Inker Loop) 
fcfT-l 80-290 
RrTEMAN15 

-SPIRIT 80 (SP80) COMMODORE 1526 (MuHislrlke) 



9mm X 1 1 
9mm 1 1 3 



$19/2 S 54/5 $102/12 
$20(2 $ S7/6 $108/12 

COMING SOON 
$16(2 S 45/6 $ 84/12 



V7SA 



SEND CHECK MONEY ORDER OR C O D TO 

BCCOMPCO p3 

800 South 17 Box 246 I5b=^^^ 



PANASONIC KXP-1 080- 1090-1 091 -1 092-1 592-1 595 



Inker Loop 



$16(2 t 45/6 S 84/12 



SummersviHe, MO 65571 • (417) 932-4196 

WEPAYUPSGROUNDSHIPPINGonPREPAIDOHDERS 

PLEASE INCLUDE STREET ADDRESS lor UPSOEUVERY 

FOREIGN ADO 15% U S FUNDS 

MISSOURI RESIDENTS ADD 5% SALES TAX 



110 • 80 Micro, August 1987 



Circle 152 on Reader Service card. 



NEW PRODUCTS 



data compression to reduce 
the size of a graphics image 
and special encoding to send 
them through any electronic- 
mail system. You can send a 
single message containing 
text, graphics images, and bi- 
nary data. 

Television sends a medium - 
resolution (320 by 400} color 
image in 45 seconds at 1,200 
baud. It is a mouse-driven. 
Icon-activated program arid 
includes a driver for the Pola- 
roid ftdette so you can make 
slides from your images. The 
program requires 256K and 
MS-DOS 2.0 or higher. Televi- 
sion lists at $99. For more 
information contact IXS/Tele- 
graphics. 261 VassarSt.. Cam- 
bridge. MA 02139, 800-437- 
0036 or 617-547-4738 in Mas- 
sachusetts. 
Circle 562 on Reader Service card. 

Double Hard-Disk 
Storage 

Me2. a software utility that 
uses redundant on-line hard- 
disk storage to provide fault- 



toierant disk operation for 
PC/AT-type computers, 
permits parallel storage of 
critical data. The utility 
automatically backs up two 
identical copies of data on 
two separate disks within the 
same machine. 

It can support four 32- 
megabyte partitions per 
drive, and its password sys- 
tem has up to nine levels of 
user-programmed access. All 
of its features are indepen- 
dently enabled or disabled, 
and its security features re- 
quire no intervention once in- 
stalled. Me2 Is available for 
$285 from Atlantic Microsys- 
tems Inc., 8 A Industrial Way, 
Salem, NH 03079, 603-898- 
2221. 
Circle 565 on. Reader Service card. 

Data-Handler Plus, 
Come Forth 

MMSForth is a version of 
Forth that provides a full- 
screen editor, an on-line as- 
sembler, and the ability to use 
disks Interchangeably be- 



tween MS-DOS machines and 
the TRS-80 Models I. III. and 
4, among other features. 

A variety of applications 
and utilities support MMS- 
Forth, DataHandler-Plus. a 
data base that occupies 64K 
of RAM and uses another 
64K-576K for file buffering, 
lets you select records condi- 
tionally on any fields or frag- 
ments with delay time less 
than a half-second. You can 
also sort on any multiple 
fields in several records. 

Because the Forthwrite 
word processor uses subfiles 
and runs in MMSFbrth. it can 
use TRS-80 data disks in an 
IBM PC. One special feature is 
its Insert mode, which works 
directly In text, letter by let- 
ter, while you type and the 
display continues to word- 
wrap without hesitation. 

A license for MMSForth is 
$180. Both Data-Handler- 
Plus and Forthwrite are 
$99.95. For more informa- 
tion, contact Miller Micro- 
computing Services, 61 Lake 



Shore Road, Natick, MA 

01760, 617-653-6136. 

Circle 5 73 on Reader Service card. 

TRSDOS 

Adjusting LeScript 

Two sets of modifications for 
LeScript let you adjust this 
word processor for your needs. 
Set 1 lets you change the 
shape and speed of the cursor, 
adjusts certain keyboard func- 
tions, alters screen and text 
formatting, such as screen 
width, and provides a patch for 
the /KSM file. Set 2 gives you a 
functional Dvorak keyboard 
on your Model III or 4. 

You can make your changes 
permanent by running a short 
program. One set costs 
$15.95; for both, $25.95. The 
modifications work for Le- 
Script 1.67. 1.68. and 1.70. For 
more informaUon contact Pro- 
gram Customizing, 245 Riche- 
lieu, McMasterville. Quebec 
J3G 1T7. 
Circle 572 on Reader Service card. 



Cirele 291 on Reader Servlos card. 



LSI DELIVERS 

THE NEXT GENERATION OPERATING SYSTEM 



FOR YOUR TRS-80 Model 4/4P/4D 

FROM THE ORIGINAL AUTHOR OF THE MODEL 4 OPERATIiVG SYSTEM 

LS-DOS 6.3 is an update lo the TRSDOS 6.x operating system for Tandy TRS-80 Model 4 
compuiers Due lo ihe continuing popularily ol the TRS-80 Model 4, this update was deemed 
necessary to extend the useful life of the computer through the 1990's. At the same time, many 
other useful features have been added. 



LS-DOS 6.3x 

prepaid 



39 



95 



• upward compatible with TRSDOS 6.x versions. 
' Expanded date range, 1980 through 1999. 

• nies now have a modification Time Stamp as well as a date. 

• The directory dispiay shows file dates and times. 

• New SVCs for screen print and decimal display. 

• All new, easy to use full screen ASCII text editor. 

• Conversion program forpre-6.3 version disks adds new 
time/date information. 

• Automatic date/time conversion when copying from 
TRSDOS 6.x to version 6.3. 

• One pass format and disk duplication program. 

• Variable and line number cross reference utility for 
BASIC programs. 

• Many "user requested" changes/additions/enhancements 
have been made. 

• Several changes to increase "user friendliness." 

• Many enhancements to BASIC: - including - [ 

- Line copy and block move with automatic line reference renumbering. 

■ Search and display variatile, line numbers, and keywords. 

■ Selective block renumbering. 
-High speed load and save. 

• Direct access to DOS SVCs. 

■ Ust next or previous line{s) with a single keystroke. 

■ Single letter abbreviations (or Auto, Delete, Edit, and List. 



A docurrentation update describes all new features and utilities, and 
contains technical information changes and additions. 

Since this is an update to TRSDOS 6.2, all customers are expected to have 
purchased or received and have in their possession a legitimate copy ol the 
TRSDOS 6.x DOS and documentation. 

To provide support only to legitimate owners, all LS-DOS 6.3 master disks 
contain an individually encoded customer service ID and serial number. 
This emilles customers to support directly from LSI, 



lOGICAL 

[systems 

[INC, 



Ordering information: 

To save COD, handling and shipping charges, 

send a check or money order for $39.95 to: 

Logical Systems, Inc. 

PO Box 55235 

Grand Junction, CO B1505 

Credit card and COD orders call: 
(303) 243-7070 



Maslercard and Visa cards a re accepted. Credit card and COD orders are £44.95, inctuding 
shipping and tiandlmg. No COD orders accepted outside Ihe United Slates. No purchase 
orders or on account orders wrill be accepted. Orders will be shipped postpaid inside the U.S., 
Canada and Mexico. All overseas orders, please add $5,00 lor air postal shipping. All Junds 
rr^ust be in U.S. dollars. Allow 4-6 weeks for delivery. LS-DOS is availabfe for American 
keyboards only. No! avaitable for Frencii or Gemnan keyboards. 

TRS-80 and TRSDOS are Begislered Tiademarlts ol Tandy Corporation. 



m Micro, August 198? "Ill 



Circle 358 on Reader Service card. 



PC - SPRINT iOOO 



SPEED FOR THE 1000/1000A!! 

PC-Sprint makes your Tandy 1000 and 1000A 
faster than an SX. Your computer is NOT 
obsolete! 

• Run your 1000 at 7,38 mhz. 

• 280% speedup (Norton SI rating) 

• Speeds up all software — you can 
see the difference 

• "Slotless" plug-in installation 

• External speed switch 

• Change speed "on the fly" 

• Includes two microprocessors, 
select the one best for your 
installation. 



»99.95 



Includes: 



PC-Sprint circuit card, NEC V20 and 
8088-2 microprocessors, cables, 
instructions, warranty, tool, remote 
rnount switch, free BBS subscription. 

Prices and specifications subject to change v^itinout notice. 



C rt^ Q^ I P.O. BOX 11268 

EtXGC'r^f inc. Shorewood. Wl 53211 



NEW PRODUCTS 



ORDER HOTLINE 
(414) 242-Z173 



ORDER BY MODEM 
(414) 964-5160 



CIrclB 46S on Reader Service card. 




The 
Solution! 

H3l(j|@ Power Protection Products 

TRANSIENT VOLTAGE SURGE SUPPRESSORS 

POWER LINE FILTERS 

STANDBY UNINTERRUPTIBLE POWER SYSTEMS 

CALL TODAY FOR FREE LITERATURE 

1-800-524-0400, in PA 215-837-0700 

Kalglo Electronics Co., Inc. DEALER - OEM 



6584 Ruch Road 
Bethlehem, PA 18017 



DISTRIBUTOR 
INQUIRIES INVITED 



Etc. 




Inmac offers two products 
for peripheral sharing. One 
also screens out data- 
scrambling noise. 




Peripheral Command 

Inmac has released two 
products for peripheral shar- 
ing. The PC T-Switch gives 
you the ability to command 
two peripherals from your 
PC, or it can let up to four peo- 
ple share one laser printer, 
plotter, or modem. 

Since PC T-SwItch is con- 
structed in an unshielded 
case, it can only be used in 
conditions tn which It is far 
enough away from other ma- 
chines that can cause inter- 
ference (such as generators, 
soft-drink machines, and cop- 
iers). It is adequate if you are 
switching in a small, local- 
ized area such as an office. 
The 25-pin, two-device ver- 
sion is priced at $99. 

The Clear Signal Plus T- 
Switch [$I19 for the 25-pln, 



two-device version) allows pe- 
ripheral sharing and screens 
out any data-scrambling 
noise to ensure your signal 
emissions are within FCC reg- 
ulations. It comes in two 
models. One has a key so you 
can control unauthorized ac- 
cess to devices or to a sensi- 
tive data base. The other lets 
two users have equal and si- 
multaneous access to two 
compatible peripherals. 

For a catalog or the number 
of a local Inmac distributor, 
contact Inmac, 2465 Augus- 
tine Drive, Santa Clara, CA 
95054. 800-547-5444. 
Circle 577on Reader Service card. 

Brother's 
HR-40 Printer 

Brother's HR-40 letter- 
quality printer includes both 
a built-in sheet feeder and a 
built-in forms tractor. It fea- 
tures a triple-bin sheet/enve- 
lope feeder, second color 
printing, the ability to "park" 
fanfold paper to feed individ- 
ual sheets, and an optional 
KB-150 keyboard. 

The keyboard turns the 
printer into an electronic 
typewriter that allows you to 
highhght in red portions of 
address labels, short docu- 
ments, and envelopes. You 
can view characters before 
you print. The HR-40 ($799) 
and the optional typewriter 
($299) are available from 
Brother International Corp., 
8 Corporate Place, Piscataway, 
NJ 08854. 201-981-0300. 
Circle 580 on Reader Service card. 




Brother's HR-40 letter-quality printer includes a built-in 
sheet feeder and forms tractor. 



112 • SO Micro. August 1987 



NEW PRODUCTS 




The full-duplex Clear Signal 212A modem can transmit 
and receive data simultaneously. 



Transmit, Receive 

Calls 

Simultaneously 

The full-duplex Clear Sig- 
nal 212A modem can trans- 
mit and receive data simul- 
taneously. With the Clear 
Signal Fast Talk modem you 
can transfer data at 2,400 
baud. 

You can use both modems 
with dial-up and leased lines 
connected to any RS-232 
computer. Both have an auto- 
answer feature. 

The Clear Signal 2 1 2A 300/ 
1,200-baud modem costs 
$289. and the Fast Talk 
2,400-baud modem costs 
$459. Prices include an RMI 
cord and a power adapter. 
Both are available from In- 
mac at 2465 Augustine Drive, 
Santa Clara, CA 95054, 
800-547-5444. 
Circle 582 on Reader Service card. 



! 


jHpltlMt'MMtMJM JH 

D cV "0 COUNT- lO-.SJ.e SH 



Wo Count eliminates pin 
counting- 
No Count 

Available in 14 configura- 
tions. No Count is a num- 
bered ptn locator that slips 
over the pins of an integrated 
circuit test clip. No Count re- 
mains with the clip, so when 
you attach the test clip to the 
10, you can easily identify 
each pin. This eliminates pin 
counting and reduces error. 

The configurations range 
from 14 to 64 pins and cost 
from $3.50 to $6.50. Contact 
L.J. Boder Enterprises Inc., 
11105 Shady Trail, Suite 



115, Dallas, TX 75229, 214- 

241-3727. 

Circle 575 on Reader Service card. 




Novations' 2400 XE/HC 
half-card m.odem features 
automatic equalization. 

Half-Card Modem 

Novations' 2400 XE/HC 
half-card modem is compati- 
ble with the Hayes AT com- 
mand set, as well as with the 
Bell 103, 212A, and CCITT 
V.22 standards. The modem 
can operate in synchronous 
or asynchronous data for- 
mats and handle half- or full- 
duplex transmission. 

Among its features are au- 
tomatic equalization, auto- 
dial and auto-answer, and 
built-in test functions. MS- 
IMS- compatible Procom soft- 
ware comes with the modem. 
The 2400XE/HC Is available 
for $229 from Novation Inc., 
21345 Lassen St., Chats- 
worth, CA 91311, 818-998- 
5060. 
Circle 579 on Reader Service card. 



New Products listings 
are based on informa- 
tion supplied in man- 
ufacturers' press 
releases. 80 Micro has 
not tested or reviewed 
these products and 
cannot guarantee any 
claims. 



Hypersoft 



We are Your MS-DOS - TRS80 - CP/M - Apple Connection 
NEW! Emulate a TRS-80 Model 4 on your PC with PC-Ftmr. 

Another Hypersoft FIRSTI PC FDui Is a new program thai makes your PC or 
Compatible Iwhave like a TRS-80 Model 4. It emulates your old TRS 80 Model 4 
operating system and its Z80 microprocessor with 128K of memory so you can nm 
many of your Model 4 programs such as Scrtpstt and VlSlCAI^. unmodlfled. It 
even works with assemblers such as MZAL and debugger/monitors such as TAS- 
MON so you can write, assemble, debug and run Z80 machine code programs on 
your PC. To use It, you must transfer your old flies to MSDOS disks first and for this 
we recommend PCXZ or Hypcreross— see below for details. Send $3 for PC4/PCXZ 
demo disk— refundable on order. 

Requires: PC or compatible wtth at least 384K of memory. 
Introductory prices; Order #PC4 $79.95 alone, #PC4H $104.95 with Hyper- 
Gross SX3PCM4. #PC4Z $119.95 with PCXZ. 

Read TRS-80 disks on your PC with PC CrosB-Zap 

PC Cross-Zap (PCKZ) is a utility that runs on youi PC or PC-eompatlble. With 
It you can copy flies to or from TRS-80 disks at will. Suitable for all types of ales, 
BASIC, ASCII and Binary. Converts BASIC and tort files automatically as you 
copy. You can also format a disk, copy disks, explore, read and write sector data, 
repair bad directories andmuehmore.Long after your TRS-801sgone,youwlllstlll 
be able to read yotirold disks. Pormats Supported: Model I mixed density; DOS + 
3.4. DoubleDOS. LDOS ISOLE). MultlDOS, NEWDOS 80 V2. TRSDOS 2.7/8: Model 
mil Double Density: E>OS+ 3-5. LDOS 5.x. Model III: DOS + 3.4. MultlDOS. NewDOS 
80. TRSDOS 1.3, Model 4/4P: MultlDOS. DOS + 4. TRSDOS 6,. LSD03 6.3; Max- 
80: LDOS 5. 1 , PCXZ supports single or double sided. 35. 40 and 80 track formats. 
Requires: PC. XT. AT or compatible. T^dy lOCO (lOOOEX needs DMA), 1200. 
3OO0. You must have at least one 360K, 720K, or 1.2M drive and 256K memory. 
An original program from Hypersoft: Order «PCXZ $79.95 

Also for youx PC: XENOCOPY II and MatchPolnt 

XenoCopy 11 runs on your PC and lets you read, write and format approx. 300 
different non TRS-80 formats. Includes many CP/M formats. CoCo. PSystem disks 
and others. 

Order *Xeao 981.95 

MatchPt>hit-PC is the hardware solution to reading and wriUng Apple and CP/M 
disks on your PC. A half-slzed card plugs In your PC and does the Job software alone 
cannot. Reads Apple DOS, PRODOS, SOS, CP/M. and over 200 CP/M formats In. 
eluding hard sectored types like NorthStar. Requires installation. 
Order #MPPC $195.00 

TRS-80 Model I/in/4/4P Programs 

HjrperCross 3.0— The Proven Standard In File Transfer. 

Using HYPBRCROSS 3 you can COPY nics between TRS-SO disks and those from 
many CP/M and IBM-PC type computers on your own TRS-80 Model I, 111. 4/4P or 
Max -80. If you have access to more than one kind of computer, or you are changing 
to a new machine then you need HYPEHCROSS to transfer your text flies, BASIC. 
FORTRAN. PASCAL, or C programs, Vlslcale files, general ledger and accounting 
files, data bases and even binary files. You can FORMAT alien disks, read their 
directories, copy files to and from them, even copy directly from one alien disk to 
another. 

Formats supported; IBM-PC and MS-DOS Including DOS 1.1. 2.0-3.2 Tandy 2000. 
single and double sided. 3.5 and 5 inch. CP/M from Aardvark to Zorba. including 
all popular TRSeo CP/M formats such as Holmes. Montezuma, and Omikron. TRS- 
80 Color Computer format also supported. 

HyperCross converts Basic files! IfyperCross will, as you copy, automatically con- 
vertyourtokenlzedBasicfiletoMSIKISorCP/M.putUngln spaces. changingPRINT 
@. correcting syntax errors and nagging parts needing manual modification. 
Tried and Tested in 1 000s of Installauons world wide, by Industry. Universities. 
Oovemment Institutions and nice TRS-80 owners everywhere. Prices Include disk 
and 40 page manual. Upgrades from any version of HyperCross or SuperCross for 
old disk -t. $5 + price dllTerence ($15 min]. 
HyperCross 2.0 CoCo reads CoCo format (No Basic convert) Order SX2CCM1, 

SX2CCM3 or SX2CCM4 $49.95 

HyperCross 3.0 PC reads popular MSDOS 1.1-3.2 formats Order SX3PCM1, 

SX3PCM3 or SX3PCM4 849.95 

HyperCross XT/3.0 reads 90 different CP/M and PC formats Order SX3XTM1, 

SX3XTM3 or SX3XTM4 SS9.9S 

HyperCross XT/3.0-Plus reads over 220 formats inel. CoCo Order SX3XTM1 + , 

SX3XTM3 + , or SX3XTM4 + S129.9S 

Specify TRS 80 Model I (needs doublerl. 111. 4/4P or MAX 80, Dual model versions 
eg- Mod 3/4 on one disk add $10 extra. 

Amazing HTPERZAP 3.2G Disk Maglct 

Do you want to back up your precious copy of Copycat 3, or SU? Do you want 
to fU or modify a disk— If so then you need HYPERZAPl. GetUng better and 
belter for 4 years, HYPBR2AP Is more than Just another disk copying program— It 
Is the program for analyzing, copying, repairing, creating floppy disks of all kinds. 
It works with TRS-eo formats as well as many others such as CP/M. PC. CoCo etc. 
Designed lo handle mixed density sectors on any track In any .sequence. Many 
features for reading, wriUng, editing track and sector data. Hyperzap Is the tool 
that lets you be In charge. Make ymn- own self booting disks. T^e your own CMD 
flle and turn it into a dual booting Mod l/lll/iv disk AutopUot mode learns, saves 
and repeats procedures. Disk comes with fascinating examples. Use Hyperzap as a 
learning tool, find out how things are donel. 
Hyperzap 3.2G— nothing else even comes close! Order // HZ32— one version runs 

on all Model I/I11/4/4PS (order HZ32Mx for Max .80) $49.95 

Terms: We accept MasterCard, Visa. COD, Checks. PCs (from Schools and Major 
InstituUons). Add $2 for shipping. $5 for 2nd day air. Telephone orders welcome- 
order by phone and we'll credit $2.00 toward your purchase- 

HYPERSOFT 

PO Box 51155, Raleigh, NC 27609 




Orders only: 1919) 847-4779 8am-l 1pm EST 
Tech Support; (9191 846-1637 Spm-l 1pm EST 

Programming Computers for 25 Vfears Since 1962 




80 Micro, August 1987 -IIS 



THUMPED 



iS^Si 



Clone Kits, Modems, Hard 
Drive Kits, disk drives, 
printers, memory, and 
IC's. Distributor pricing 
to end users and dealers. 
Fbr catalog caU 1-800-833- 
2600, m Ohio can 513- 
531-8866. FREE SHIP- 
PING. 



MZOABYTE 1!X]PA]ISI0N 
BOARD FOB MODELS 

4/4P. $119.95 with BAM- 
Drlve software. Memory, 
shipping extra. Details: 
RAI, Box 7084, Hampton, 
VA S3666. 



8KH> SPEED UP FOB 
MODELS 4/4P. $84.88, 

($a S&H). Non-gate array 
models. Details, contact: 
RAI, Box 7084, Hampton, 
VA 23666. 



RADIO SHACK, TANDY 

OWNERS find the com- 
puter equipment you need 
that I^ndy no longer sells. 
Pacific Computer Ex- 
change buys and sells 
used TRSDOS MSDOS com- 
puters and peripherals. 
503-236-2949. Pacific 
Computer Exchange, 
1031 S.E. Mill Suite B, 
Portland, OE 97214 



TANDY 1000/SK/EX/ 
3000/3000 HIi. Discount 
Soft ware /Hard ware. Mi- 
cro 1000. P.O. Box 1192 
Orange, TX. 77631, (409) 
886-3808. 



SOFTWARE 



BENT Sottware $3/diskI 

Domain/commercial for 
T-1000-3000, CCS 728 
Muskogee, Norfolk VA 
23S09. (804) 863-3441. 



Physicians! Patient Care 

programs. Exercise per- 
scrlptlons, PFT, TPN, 
Others, Medaide, 815 S. 
Quebec, Tulsa OK 74137. 



laSK MODEL/ 4 ASSEM- 
BLERS, disassemblers, 
editors, other utilities, 
multibank switching, 
from $50. Details: write 
DCL, 11715 Weathervane 
Dr., KnoxvUle, TN 37922. 



Media Conversion for 

TUndy Models to over 800 
systems including Mag- 
tape, Micro Computers, 
Mini Computers, Word 
Processors and Typeset- 
ters. Plvar Computing 
Services, Inc., 165 Arling- 
ton Hgts, Rd., Number 
80, Buffalo Grove, IL 
60089. 312-459-6010. 



PtNAL OFFERI Enjoy bal- 
ancing your checkbook 
UBlng your Model 4. Psr- 
manent History and no 
errors. Fbr disc program 
send $14.95 to Howard 
Gronemeler PO Box 507, 
San Carlos, CA 94070 



l^ndy 6000 Model 16BHD, 
DC Modem II, Cables, 
memory boards, chip 
sets, DT-lOO, Xenix, Mul- 
tiplan, Scripsit, Profile, 
GL Multiuser software. 
$4,000, 802-267-0704. 



BOWLINO LEAOUE SEC- 
RETARY — MS-DOS — 
Model III/4— 0-K Audio— 
543 Cedarwood Middle- 
town, OH 45042—513- 
423-03S1. 



Profile users] PROAID 
III + /A+ provides many 
features for reports from 
single or multiple files. 
Model in/4's. $49. Clay 
Watts Software, 680 
North Loop, Cedar HUls, 
TX 75104. 214-291-1171. 



$I$WIN wltb Thorough- 
bred, Harness, Grey- 
hound Handicapping Soft- 
ware. . .$29.95, enhanced 
. . ,$49.96. Professional 
Football Handicapping 
System. . .$39.95. Free 
Information. Software 
Exchange, PO Box 53a2M, 
W. Bloomfield, MI 48033. 
(313) 686-7208. 



TANDY 1000, 8000. 3000 
Owners — We support you 
with RAMDISK, Backup, 
HELPERS Utilities, 
printer utilities. CaU or 



write for catalog. ALPS, 
1502 County Road 25, 
Box 6100, Woodland 
Park, CO 80866. 800-232- 
ALPS 



IBM SOFTWARE user- 
friendly $7.99. PC-Calc 
PC-Write Reflex Games, 
Business, Free catalog. In- 
terface, Ml, Box 329 
Cookstown, Ont. LOL ILO 
Canada. 



BVDOET/PLUS HIGH- 
SPEED BUDGET MAN- 
AGEHXiNT SYSTEM. 

Friendly program brings 
you one step closer to a 
balanced budget. Free 
user support. For free in- 
formation write: Elran 
Software Systems, PO Box 
301166, San Antonio, TX 
78220 



Gat tl» Attantlon yon davtrrv. For only 46 per word, your ad will be seen by over 
100,000 dedlosted TRS-eO/TSndy uBBrs. Ads must bs received by the 20th of the 
month 3 months prior to publication date. Sand Totu-i todmy. CancaautlTD 3 mDntb 
prfr-pmy spflaUl IS per word. 

Name . 

Address 

City 



State 



Zip 



Telephone _ 
CitTEOORY . 



(3 words) 

(6) 

(9) 

(12) 

(IS) 

(18) 

(21) 

(24) 



Ibtal Number of Words x $5/lssiie = 
Pop 



issue 



lUka Check! Plyabla ta BO Mioro 

NO u> ACCBPXXD wtxHOOT nxtast 

Claasirieds, c/D MOSS 

11 Northeestern Blvd., Suite SIO 

Nashua. NH OSOes 



INPUT 



Brand Loyalty 
Debate Continues 

I've been reading your magazine for 
two years now. Since using the Model 4, 
I have been continually impressed with 
its performance. I realize that newer ma- 
chines are more powerful and can do 
more tricks. I attend school and have 
used IBM PCs, VAX mints, and the 
newer PC compatibles. I know where the 
Model 4 fits into the scheme of things. As 
long as my Model 4 continues to do the 
Job, I'll keep it. TRSIX3S 6.2 is a sophis- 
ticated operating system and to have ac- 
cess to the source code of such a system 
is a dream come true. 

I read each issue of 80 Micro word for 
word. I don't mind coverage for fkndy 
1000, but if you don't cover the Model 4. 
where will Model 4 owners go? TUndy 
has an excellent 8-bit computer in the 
Model 4 that nicely complements its line 
of 16-bit computers. With a lower price 
and more support, T&ndy could retain 
the share of the market that right now is 
slipping away. If the Model 4 dies, this is 
one customer that will switch brands as 
a matter of principle. 

Car! Af. Mudryk 
Moosejaw. Saskatchewan 

Game Therapy 

Eric Maloney's May 1987 Side Tracks 
column really drew me in. I had always 
argued that people who buy expensive 
home computers for the sake of playing 
video games are people who don't know 
how to manage their money or who have 
fat wallets. 

But I believe that my maturity is mov- 
ing the opposite direction of Eric's. At 32. 
when I'm not working behind my com- 
puter. I'm playing behind it. As a free- 
lance writer and programming consul- 
tant, the pressure gets intense. After 
hours of haggling with clients. I turn to my 
trusty Model 4, boot up a Model 111 game, 
and as the lo-res invaders swoop down 
on my little ship, I visualize pasting the 
human object of my frustration onto the 
little blocks of phosphorescence. 1 rack 
up scores like you wouldn't believe. 

I recall reading somewhere that the 
more a person uses his or her brain, the 
greater is the need for play. It seems to 
me that if people are moving away from 




games, then computers are no longer 
challenging people as they once did. 

David Go ben 
Mansfield Center, CT 

More Problems with Color 

James C, McCord's letter !n 80 Mi- 
cro's April 1987 Input (p. 10) contained 
complaints about Tkndy's reaction to his 
questions regarding a problem running 
three internal boards on his Tandy 1000. 
His letter finds a sympathetic ear in Can- 
ada. 1 bought a 1000 HD and right away 
had no color from the composite video. 
Ongoing reference to the TSndy store did 
not solve the problem, which included 
the Ijackward Installation of VRl, cov- 
ered by T^ndy service no. 1000:24 of 
Dec. 30, 1985. 

When 1 bought the machine it was 
still the real Tkndy-Radio Shack in Can- 
ada, not the present Intertan arrange- 
ment. Five months after the bulletin 
Ttody still sold this model in defective 



Tell Your Story 

What's the l>est experience you've 
had with Tandy or its computers? 
What's the worst experience? 80 Mi- 
cro is looking for interesting anec- 
dotes about our readers and their 
computers to publish in this Input 
column. 

So don't be shy: send us a letter 
describing your story. In return, we 
will send you a genuine "1 Break for 
80 Micro" bumper sticker. 



condition without telling its store man- 
agers about the problem. I found out 
about it from the January 1987 Issue of 
80 Micro, The local store manager went 
to bat for me once he was aware of the 
problem. But I still didn't have color. 
Eleven months later we solved the prob- 
lem. The solution was in the start-up 
procedure. This is only one of a series of 
disappointments. The fault was Tandy's 
defective merchandise support:. 

Walter R. Alien 
OakviUe, Ontario 

Change In Plan 

The Mid-Cities TRS-80 Users Group 
recently changed its meeting schedule. 
The group now meets on the second and 
fourth Tuesdays of every month at the 
Arlington Community Center in Vander- 
griff Park, 2800 South Center St., Arling- 
ton, TX. Memtwrship is free. Call me at 
817-535-7931 for more information. 

Rob Yoder 
Arlington. TX 

Thanks for the Memories 

IJust received your May 1987 issue, 
my last issue of 80 Micro. I have been a 
longtime reader of your magazine and 
have found the editorial, advertising, 
and programming content helpful. 

I use my Model 111 to prepare taxes, 
write letters, prepare mailing labels, and 
of course, to play games. But the tech- 
nology has moved on and there are fewer 
articles in your magazine that I find use- 
ful. I understand. Lately, Popular Me- 
chanics has not printed many articles on 
the Model A, either. I wrote to say thanks 
for eight wonderful years. It was a lot of 
fun reading your magazine. 

Joaquin B. Ovtedo 
Los Angeles, CA 

Software Over There 

Computer peripherals are not readily 
available for American service members 
stationed overseas. Dealing with Ameri- 
can mail-order companies is not always 
an option because many of them are un- 
willing to send their wares to Army Post 
Office (APO) addresses. They do not un- 
derstand that mailing an item to an APO 
or Fleet Post Office (FPO) address Is not 
the same as mailing it to an international 
ConUTiued on p, tl5 



116 • SO Micro, August 1987 



INPUT 



Continued from p. 116 

address. APO and FPO rates are the 
same as those for mailing to New York 
City or San Francisco. 

The military postal service E^sumes 
responsibility for shipping the Item to 
military postal offices in Europe and 
Asia. No additional cost is incurred by 
the sender. 

There is a large market for computer 
products overseas, and many mall-order 
companies would profit from taking ad- 
vantage of it. Asking us to call for ship- 
ping information on APOs and FPOs 
does us no good since we are charged 
high international dialing rates, even on 
toll-free numbers. 

Captain Ronald E. Miller 
APO New York. NY 

Give the People 
What They Want 

As far as I am concerned. I did not 
abandon Tkndy. it abandoned me and Its 
other customers. Tandy's lack of serious 
support for any of the low-end com- 
puters and its antiquated "Don't open 
the box" policy finally became unbear- 
able. While IBM was combining the good 
features of the Models I and III and the 
Apple II. Apple and Tandy were busy 
trying to foist their visions of the future 



(the Model 16 and the Lisa) on a market- 
place that could not have cared less. 

If you don't like IBM, remember that 
TSmdy and Apple gave It their business 
gift-wrapped. Apple and Tandy tried to 
sell people what the manufacturers 
thought they should have and not what 
the people wanted. Tandy's habit of 
throwing a tantrum when criticized did 
nothing to Improve the company's Image. 

Michciel W. Joerms 
Westmont, IL 

Tandy 2000 Orphans 

The Tkndy 2000 Orphans publishes a 
monthly newsletter with a data base that 
supports members with patches and 
ports for updates of major software, tricks 
for killing bugs, and a place to ask all ques- 
tions, no matter how simple or complex. 

The group also provides information 



80 Micro's BBS Is open 24 hours 
a day. It offers programs you can 
download, special-interest groups, 
and a classified section. You can 
reach the board at 603-924-6985: 
UART settings are 300/ 1 ,200 baud, 8- 
blt words, 1 stop bit, no parity. 



on used hardware, software, group pur- 
chasing of hardware for wholesale dis- 
counts, and price listings of T^ndy 2000 
items. Owners of the 2000 can write for 
information to David R., 387 Main St.. 
Westport, CT 06880. Membership is 
$10; you are requested to respond to a 
survey regarding your needs, knowl- 
edge, and system. 

David R. 
Westport. CT 

Computer Buff 
Wants Exchange 

I am a 19-year-old computer enthusi- 
ast who would like contacts in your 
country. I have a Model 1 with 64K, two 
disk drives, and high -resolution color 
graphics. Please write me at Meissener- 
strasse 7. 4352 Herten, West Germany. 
At this moment I am developing an in- 
terface for two video tape recorders to 
cut tapes with my computer. 

Bernd Porr 
Herten, West Germany 



Send your correspondence to Input. 
80 Micro, 80 Elm St.. Peterborough, 
NH 03458. We reserve the right to edit 
letters. 



Circle 227 on Reader Service card 



THE CLASSIFIED 

SDmicro 



COMMUNI- 
CATIONS 



NAIIONSEHT. OnUne in- 
formation Network, 3960 
Covert Ave., Evansville, 
IN 4771S, (812) 477- 
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BUSINESS 
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OWNERS CAN EARN 
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SERVICE 



INSURE YOUB COM- 
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Pickles & Trout 



available from 

TriSoft 



All your Tandy Model-ll, -12, -16, 
and -6000 CP/M-2.2 and CP/M-68K 
needs! 



From: 

TriSoft 

1825 East 38V2 St. 
Austin, Texas 78751 

1-800-531-5170 
(512)472-0744 



80 Micro, August 1987 'US 



KXP-230Z 




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Doubles the capacity of your hard disc 
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m nn Header Service carO. 



Ml-nWJ, liixlh<yi\1V-.-Ili2'l 



Introducing the Most Powerful 
^^ Business Software Ever! 

FOR YOUR IBM • APPLE • MAC • TRS-SO • KAYPRO • COMMODORE • MSDOS OR CP/M COMPUTER* 



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VERSA 
LEDGER 














TheVERSABusiNESS" Series 



Each VerSaBusfness module can be 
or can be linked in any combination to form 

VeRSARECEIVABLES" $99.95 

Versa RECEH/ABLi^" is a complete menu -driven accounts receivable, imoicing, and 
monthly sta I ement generating system. Il keeps track of all information related to who 
owes you or ^four company money, and can prouide automatic billing for past due ac 
counts. Versa RECEIVAa.ES'- prinfs at[ necessary statements, invoices, and summary 
repcils and can be linked with VersaLeix;er IT" and VfeBSAtWEfJiORV'", 

VERSAPAYABLES™ $99.95 

VERSAPAVABti^- is designed to keep track o( current and aged payables, keeping you 
in touch with all inlormation regarding how much money your company owes, and to 
whom. WRSAPAYfl8l,es~ maintains a complete record on each vendor, prints checks, 
check registers, vouchers, transaction reports, aged payables reports, vendor refiorts, 
and more. With ViiRSApAVABLES". you can even let your computer automatically select 
which vouchers are to be paid. 

VERSAPAYROLL" $99.95 

VersaPayroiJ-'- is a powerful and sophisticated, but easy to use payroll system that 
keeps track of all government, required payroll information. Complete employee records 
are maintained, and all necessary payroll calculations are performed automatically, with 
totals displayed on screen for operator approval. A payroll can be run totally, automati- 
cally, or the operator can intervene to prevent a checlf from being printed, or to alter 
information on i I. II desired, totals may be posted to the VfeRSA LEDGER \V system. 

VERSaInVENTORY'" $99.95 

Versa ^tVENTORV™ is a complete inventory control system that gives you instant access 
to data on any item. Versa INUENTORV™ iieeps track of all intormatron related to what 
items are in stock, out of stock, on backorder. etc., stores sates and pricing data, alerts 
you when an item falls below a preset reorder point, and allows you to enter and print 
invoices directly or to link with the Versa RECEIVABLES" system. VersaInventorv prints 
all needed inventory listings, reports of items below reorder point, inventory value re- 
ports, period and year-to-date sales reports, price lists, inventory checklists, etc. 



purchased and used independently, 

a complete, coordinated business system, 

VersaLedger ir $149.95 

Versa Ledger IT" is a complete accounting system that grows as your business 
grows, VersaLeimeu II" can be used as a simple personal checkbook register, 
expanded to a snnall business bookkeeping system or developed into a large 
corporate general ledger system without any additional software. 

• VfeRSALEDGER 1?" gives you almost unlimited storage capacity 

{300 to 10,000 entries ,ier month, depending on the system), 

• stores all check and general ledger information forever, 

• prints tractor-feed (;hecks, 

• haniJles multiple checkbooks and general ledgers, 

• prints 17 customized accounting reports including check registers, 
balance sheets, irKomc statements, transaction reports, account 
listings, etc. 

VersaLedger IT" comes with a professionally- written 160 page manual de- 
signed for first-time users. The VersaLedger I!" manual will help you become 
quickly familiar with VERSA LEtxsER ir", using complete sample data files 
supplied on diskette and more than 50 pages of sample printouts- 



1 



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CQinPUTHQWICS 



50 N. PASCACK ROAD, SPRING VALLEY. N.Y. 10977 




FOR TRS-80 MODEL OWNERS ONLY! 



TRS-80 owners only may now take 50% off our listed price of 
any module (s) from our VersaBusiness Series. All sales are final 
(our normal 30-day money back guarantee does not apply to sale 
items). 



To Order: 
Write or call Toll Free 

Other inquiries call 914-425- 1535 

■ add $4.95 for ^hyjplng In UPS areas 

^ add $5.9& tai CQ.D. or nor-tJPS areas 

• add $6.95 lo CANADA or MEKICO ^^^ 

' add pTC^>«r postage elsewhere ^ S^. 

DEAI_ER INQUIRIES WELCOME ^^ 

Al] prices and specifjcations subject IQ change / Delivery sub>€CT lo availability. 



1-800-331-0362 

(Inside NY Stale) 

1-800-431-2818 

(Outside NY Stale) 



Clrcls 9 on Reailer Service card.