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Full text of "The 9/11 Commission report [electronic resource] : final report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States"

Final FM.lpp 7/17/04 5:25 PM Page i 



THE 9/11 

COMMISSION 

REPORT 



Final FM.lpp 7/17/04 5:25 PM Page v 



CONTENTS 



List of Illustrations and Tables ix 
Member List xi 
Staff List xiii—xiv 
Preface xv 

1. "WE HAVE SOME PLANES" 1 

1.1 Inside the Four Flights 1 

1.2 Improvising a Homeland Defense 14 

1.3 National Crisis Management 35 

2. THE FOUNDATION OF THE NEW TERRORISM 47 

2.1 A Declaration ofWar 47 

2.2 Bin Ladin's Appeal in the Islamic World 48 

2.3 The Rise of Bin Ladin and al Qaeda (1988-1992) 55 

2.4 Building an Organization, Declaring 

War on the United States (1992-1996) 59 

2.5 Al Qaeda's Renewal in Afghanistan (1996-1998) 63 

3. COUNTERTERRORISM EVOLVES 71 

3.1 From the Old Terrorism to the New: 

The First World Trade Center Bombing 71 

3.2 Adaptation — and Nonadaptation — 

in the Law Enforcement Community 73 

3.3 . . . and in the Federal Aviation Administration 82 

3.4 . . . and in the Intelligence Community 86 



Final FM.lpp 7/17/04 5:25 PM Page vi 



3.5 . . . and in the State Department and the Defense Department 93 

3.6 . . . and in the White House 98 

3.7 . . . and in the Congress 102 

4. RESPONSES TO AL QAEDA'S INITIAL ASSAULTS 108 

4.1 Before the Bombings in Kenya and Tanzania 108 

4.2 Crisis: August 1998 115 

4.3 Diplomacy 121 

4.4 Covert Action 126 

4.5 Searching for Fresh Options 134 

5. AL QAEDA AIMS AT THE AMERICAN HOMELAND 145 

5.1 Terrorist Entrepreneurs 145 

5.2 The "Planes Operation" 153 

5.3 The Hamburg Contingent 160 

5.4 A Money Trail? 169 

6. FROM THREAT TO THREAT 174 

6.1 The Millennium Crisis 174 

6.2 Post-Crisis Reflection: Agenda for 2000 182 

6.3 The Attack on the USS Cole 190 

6.4 Change and Continuity 198 

6.5 The New Administration s Approach 203 

7. THE ATTACK LOOMS 215 

7.1 First Arrivals in California 215 

7.2 The 9/11 Pilots in the United States 223 

7.3 Assembling the Teams 231 

7.4 Final Strategies and Tactics 241 

8. "THE SYSTEM WAS BLINKING RED" 254 

8.1 The Summer of Threat 254 

8.2 Late Leads — Mihdhar, Moussaoui, and KSM 266 

9. HEROISM AND HORROR 278 

9.1 Preparedness as of September 11 278 

9.2 September 11,2001 285 

9.3 Emergency Response at the Pentagon 311 

9.4 Analysis 315 



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e 



10. WARTIME 325 

10.1 Immediate Responses at Home 326 

10.2 Planning for War 330 

10.3 "Phase Two" and the Question of Iraq 334 

11. FORESIGHT— AND HINDSIGHT 339 

11.1 Imagination 339 

11.2 Policy 348 

11.3 Capabilities 350 

11.4 Management 353 

12. WHAT TO DO? A GLOBAL STRATEGY 361 

12.1 Reflecting on a Generational Challenge 361 

12.2 Attack Terrorists and Their Organizations 365 

12.3 Prevent the Continued Growth of Islamist Terrorism 374 

12.4 Protect against and Prepare for Terrorist Attacks 383 

13. HOW TO DO IT? A DIFFERENT WAY OF 

ORGANIZING THE GOVERNMENT 399 

13.1 Unity of Effort across the Foreign-Domestic Divide 400 

13.2 Unity of Effort in the Intelligence Community 407 

13.3 Unity of Effort in Sharing Information 416 

13.4 Unity of Effort in the Congress 419 

13.5 Organizing America s Defenses in the United States 423 

Appendix A : Common A bbreviations 429 
Appendix B: Table of Names 431 
Appendix C: Commission Hearings 439 
Notes 449 



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^ 



Final FM.lpp 7/17/04 5:25 PM Page ix. 



P 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 
AND TABLES 



p. 15 FAA Air Traffic Control Centers 

p. 15 Reporting structure, Northeast Air Defense Sector 

p. 32—33 Flight paths and timelines 

49 Usama Bin Ladin 

p. 64 Map of Afghanistan 

p. 148 Khalid Sheikh Mohammed 

p. 238-239 The 9/11 hijackers 

p. 279 The World Trade Center Complex as of 9/11 

p. 284 The World Trade Center radio repeater system 

p. 288 The World Trade Center North Tower stairwell with deviations 

p. 312 The Twin Towers following the impact of American Airlines 

Flight 11 and United Airlines Flight 175 

p. 313 The Pentagon after being struck by American Airlines Flight 77 

p. 313 American Airlines Flight 93 crash site, Shanksville, Pennsylvania 

p. 413 Unity of effort in managing intelligence 



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Final FM.lpp 7/17/04 5:25 PM Page XX 



SlONQN^ 



j^ 1 : r <% 



"* UNITS' 

COMMISSION 
MEMBERS 



^~M&^- 7^ 



Thomas H. Kean 

CHAIR 

Richard Ben-Veniste 



Lee H. Hamilton 

VICE CHAIR 





Bob Kerrey 



Fred E Fielding 



John F. Lehman 



Jamie S. Gorelick Timothy;). Roemer 



Slade Gorton 




James R. Thorny/son 



Final FM.lpp 7/17/04 5:25 PM Page xi 



& 



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e 



COMMISSION 
STAFF 



Philip Zelikow, Executive Director 

Christopher A. Kojm, Deputy Executive Director 

Daniel Marcus, General Counsel 



Joanne M.Accolla 
Staff Assistant 
Alexis Albion 
Professional Staff Member 
Scott H.Allan, Jr. 
Counsel 

John A. Azzarello 
Counsel 

Caroline Barnes 
Professional Staff Member 
Warren Bass 
Professional Staff Member 
Ann M. Bennett 
Information Control Officer 
Mark S. Bittinger 
Professional Staff Member 
Madeleine Blot 
Counsel 

Antwion M. Blount 
Systems Engineer 
Sam Brinkley 
Professional Staff Member 
Geoffrey Scott Brown 
Research Assistant 
Daniel Byman 
Professional Staff Member 
Dianna Campagna 
Manager of Operations 



Samuel M.W. Caspersen 
Counsel 

Melissa A. Coffey 
Staff Assistant 
Lance Cole 
Consultant 

Marquittia L. Coleman 
Staff Assistant 
Marco A. Cordero 
Professional Staff Member 
Rajesh De 
Counsel 

George W. Delgrosso 
Investigator 

Gerald L. Dillingham 
Professional Staff Member 
Thomas E. Dowling 
Professional Staff Member 
Steven M. Dunne 
Deputy General Counsel 
Thomas R. Eldridge 
Counsel 
Alice Falk 
Editor 

John J. Farmer, Jr. 
Senior Counsel & Team Leader 
Alvin S. Felzenberg 
Deputy for Communications 



Final FM.lpp 7/17/04 5:26 PM Page xi 



e 



COMMISSION STAFF 



Lorry M. Fenner 
Professional Staff Member 
Susan Ginsburg 
Senior Counsel & Team Leader 
T. Graham Giusti 
Security Officer 
Nicole Marie Grandrimo 
Professional Staff Member 
Douglas N. Greenburg 
Counsel 

Barbara A. Grewe 
Senior Counsel, Special Projects 
Elinore Flynn Hartz 
Family Liaison 
Leonard R. Hawley 
Professional Staff Member 
L. Christine Healey 
Senior Counsel & Team Leader 
Karen Heitkotter 
Executive Secretary 
Walter T. Hemp el II 
Professional Staff Member 
C. Michael Hurley 
Senior Counsel & Team Leader 
Dana J. Hyde 
Counsel 

John W Ivicic 
Security Officer 
Michael N.Jacobson 
Counsel 

Hunter W. Jamerson 
Intern 

Bonnie D.Jenkins 
Counsel 

Reginald F.Johnson 
Staff Assistant 
R.William Johnstone 
Professional Staff Member 
Stephanie L. Kaplan 
Special Assistant & Managing Editor 
Miles L. Kara, Sr. 
Professional Staff Member 
Janice L. Kephart 
Counsel 
Hyon Kim 
Counsel 

Katarzyna Kozaczuk 
Financial Assistant 
Gordon Nathaniel Lederman 
Counsel 



Daniel J. Leopold 
Staff Assistant 
Sarah Webb Linden 
Professional Staff Member 
Douglas J. MacEachin 
Professional Staff Member & Team Leader 
Ernest R. May 
Senior Adviser 
Joseph McBride 
Intern 

James Miller 
Professional Staff Member 
Kelly Moore 
Professional Staff Member 
Charles M. Pereira 
Professional Staff Member 
John Raidt 
Professional Staff Member 
John Roth 

Senior Counsel & Team Leader 
Peter Rundlet 
Counsel 

Lloyd D. Salvetti 
Professional Staff Member 
Kevin J. Scheid 

Professional Staff Member &Team Leader 
Kevin Shaeffer 
Professional Staff Member 
Tracy J. Shycoff 

Deputy for Administration & Finance 
Dietrich L. Snell 
Senior Counsel & Team Leader 
Jonathan DeWees Stull 
Communications Assistant 
Lisa Marie Sullivan 
Staff Assistant 
Quinn John Tamm, Jr. 
Professional Staff Member 
Catharine S.Taylor 
Staff Assistant 
Yo el To bin 
Counsel 

Emily Landis Walker 
Professional Staff Member & Family Liaison 
Garth Wermter 
Senior IT Consultant 
Serena B.Wille 
Counsel 
Peter Yerkes 
Public Affairs Assistant