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Manual of Investigative Operations and Guidelines 
Part II 



PAGE 12- 24 



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12-10.2 Firearms Qualification 



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12-10.2.1 Firearms Qualification Policy | (See MIOG, Part II, 
12-10.4; MAOP, Part I, 20-28.3.) | 



to carry. 



year. 



(1) SAs must qualify with ALL weapons they are authorized 

(2) |SAs must qualify a minimum of | four times per calendar 



i 



(3) SAs must qualify with each assigned handgun a 
minimum of once per year. It is recommended that | weapons | regularly 
carried on duty be fired for qualification at each firearms session. 

(4) Specific training requirements are set out in the 
Field Firearms Training Program submitted by the|FTU|for each calendar 
year. |PFIs|are required to follow current established course 
protocols set by the FTU. 

(5) [Agents will qualify within their assigned division. 
Agents assigned to FBIHQ, the Engineering Research Facility, and the 
FBI Academy will qualify with the FTU at Quantico. 

Exceptions: 

(a) Agents assigned on a temporary duty basis to 
another division which would preclude their qualification in their 
assigned division, may qualify with the host division. It is the 
responsibility of the PFI in the host division to ensure the TDY 



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i ■ . 

Agent's scores are recorded and forwarded to the PFI of the Agent's 
assigned division. 

(b) Agents wishing to qualify with another division 
for convenience must have the concurrence of the PFI from their 
assigned division" and. the host division. The PFI of the host division 
must record the visiting Agent's scores and forward these to the PFI 
of the Agent's assigned division. 

(c) Agents assigned to FBIHQ, the Engineering 
Research Facility and the FBI Academy wishing to qualify with another 

_division_must ..have_.the_concurrence_of^.the. FTU. and host PFI .__ The.. PFI 

of the host division is responsible to ensure the visiting Agent's 
scores are recorded and reported to the FTU. j 



EFFECTIVE: 04/07/97 



12-10.2.2 Recording] Firearms | Scores 

(1) The names of SAs receiving firearms training should 
be indicated on the Form FD-39 or an approved automated system. 

(2) The individual scores shall be entered in the 
appropriate column of Form FD-39. This form shall contain the names 
of all SAs attending firearms | training and the make and model of 
issue/approved firearm(s) used for qualification.] Supervising 
firearms instructors shall be listed at the bottom of FD-39. 

(3) After completion of a training period, scores are to 
be transferred from the FD-39 to each SA's|FD-40 or automated form. | 
FD-39s are retained.for one year, then destroyed; FD-40|is a permanent 
record and [must accompany | the |SA's personnel file upon transfer. 

(4) [The PFI or designated firearms instructor will score 
the targets on qualifying courses.) 



EFFECTIVE: 04/07/97 



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12-10.2.3 Failure to Qualify 



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(1) If an SA fails to qualify, the|PFl|must provide 
remedial training and an opportunity to | qualify | on the next regularly 
scheduled qualification day. 

(2) After opportunities have been provided for 
qualification | and failures continue to exist, the|PFI (must advise the 
FTU|in the Annual Field Firearms Training Report. 

(3) Employees must demonstrate proficiency to be 
-permitted-to-carry-f irearms.- — If -the -employee-cannot- qualify- after 

remedial | training on two out of three qualification attempts, | the SAC 
must require the employee to surrender his/her firearm. |The Agent 
will be issued his/her weapon only for training until such a time as 
a qualifying score is shot. When an Agent's authority to carry a 
firearm is rescinded, this action must be noted on the Agent's FD-40. 

(4) Chronic unexcused delinquency or failure to qualify 
should be reported to the FTU and Adjudication Unit, Office of 
Professional Responsibility, with recommendations for administrative 
action, if appropriate.! 



EFFECTIVE: 04/07/97 



| 12-10.2.4 Shoulder Weapons j- Qualification! 

SAs will qualify with each assigned shoulder weapon | at 
least] twice per year. | Agents are encouraged to train with weapons 
they regularly carry at EVERY training session. SAs with an assigned 
shoulder weapon will use that specific weapon when qualifying. 
Agents not assigned a specific shoulder weapon will, at a minimum, 
demonstrate proficiency with the shotgun, and MPS at least once per 
year as specified in the Annual Field Firearms Program. | 




EFFECTIVE: 04/07/97 



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12-10.3 |Firarms|Safety Rules 

(1) Cardinal Rules: 

(a) Treat all firearms as if they are loaded. 

(b) Never point a weapon at anyone unless you are 
| justified in doing so.) 

(c) Keep your finger off the trigger unless you 
^intend to shoot. 

(2) General Rules: 

(a) All live-fire FBI firearms training must be 
supervised by an FBI Firearms Instructor. 

(b) When transporting weapons on your person to and 
from the range, handguns should be holstered; shoulder weapons should 
be in a safe condition and carried with the muzzle pointed straight 
up. 

(c) Safety precautions must be adhered to and 
enforced. Discipline must be maintained. Unsafe and careless 
behavior will not be [ tolerated, should be reported, and may result in 
recommendations for administrative action. | 

(d) Immediately upon picking up a firearm, face a 
safe direction, |activate the safety if present, remove any 
ammunition, | open the action and check to see that the weapon is 
unloaded. Check it again. 

(e) Never give | to or receive | a firearm 

from anyone, unless.) the weapon is unloaded and j the action is open 
allowing the person receiving the weapon to see that it is unloaded. 
Always present the weapon BUTT first. 

(f) Never anticipate a command. | Avoid unnecessary 
conversation, and pay| attention to instructors. You will be told 
exactly what to do. 

(g) Perform|a| safety check on the weapon before a 
training session. Hake sure the weapon is | unloaded. | After training, 
you j also need to ensure the weapon is unloaded before cleaning. | 



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(h) Load and unload only on the firing line and only 
[when instructed to do so. | Any exceptions will be stipulated by the 
lead Firearms Instructor. 

(i) Keep the firearm pointed down range or|in a| 
safe direction at all | times and ALWAYS be aware of potential dangers 
in any direction your weapon may be pointed. | 

(j) Use only one hand when holstering a handgun. 
Any exception will be so stipulated by | the | lead Firearms Instructor. 

— (k) — No smoking, . eat ing.or_ drinking, on the- firing— 

[line because of health risks associated with lead residue.] 

| (1) | Never permit the muzzle of a firearm to touch 
the ground. 

| (m) | In case of a misfire or malfunction, perform 
| an | immediate action drill, unless instructed to do otherwise. 

| (n) | After firing a shot that does not sound as loud 
as it should, clear the weapon and check to see if a bullet is lodged 
in the barrel. 

| (o) | Never leave your firing position unless 
instructed to do so. 

| (p) j Never remove a weapon from the holster in 
training, unless instructed to do so. 

| (q) | Never dry fire on the range unless under direct 
supervision of a Firearms Instructor. Exceptions will be specifically 
identified by the lead Firearms Instructor. 

j(r)|-Eye and ear protection are mandatory when firing 
on the range. Ear plugs should be worn | ONLY [ IN CONJUNCTION with 
proper sound| barriers and are NOT a substitute for issued or 
equivalent hearing protection. | 

| (s) | Everyone is responsible for range safety. 
Immediately report any safety violations you see to a Firearms 
Instructor. 



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12-10.4 Firearms Training of | Non-Agent | Employees 

As a rule, only Agents receive firearms training from the 
Bureau. Exceptions are: 

(1) Electronics technicians and security patrol clerks 
-specif ically-authorized-by-FBIHQ. _____ . 



(2) Uniformed Police Officers] of the FBI.| 

(3) Other non-Agent personnel with special authority to 
carryj firearms (e.g., Special Deputy U.S. Marshal).} 



must: 



(4) {Non-Agent personnel authorized to carry firearms 



(a) be approved by their SAC or Section Chief 



(b) comply with deputation requirements established 
by the USMS, and 

(c) be engaged in official activities for which the 
carrying of a firearm has been authorized. | 

| (5) | All non-Agent personnel who are authorized to carry 
firearms will comply with all regulations in this section that 
normally | apply to SAs (see MIOG, Part II, 12-10.2.1). | In addition, 
they must also attend annual legal training, quarterly defensive 
tactics training, and participate in the Fitness Indicator Test (FIT). 




EFFECTIVE: 04/07/97 



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12-10.5 Police Firearms Training 

(1) FBI firearms instructors may conduct police firearms 
schools. 

(2) Firearms training is to be given only to law 
enforcement | groups unless an exception is authorized by the SAC (e.g., 
safety training for Bureau employees and their family). | 

(3) | The primary firearms instructor must ensure that 
ranges used for firearms training are inspected and contain no safety 
-hazards -that-would-endanger-FBI-or -police-personnel . | — _ 



EFFECTIVE: 04/07/97 



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12-10.6 



Firearms Instructors Policy (Formerly 12-10.6.1) 




(1) To qualify as a Bureau firearms instructor, 
candidates must attend the Firearms Instructor In-Service (FAIS) 
presented by the FTU. 

(2) To maintain instructor status, employees must qualify 
quarterly and obtain the following minimum scores when these courses 
are fired: 

(a) 30 round bulls-eye course 

1. One-hand score 240, or 

2. Two-hand (optional) score 260 
. (b) | Double Action Course | score |90| 

(c) PQC score 90 

(d) Shotgun 10A score 90 

(e) MP5 (qualification course) score|90| 

(3) To maintain instructor status, in addition to 
shooting instructor level scores on courses listed in (2) above, each 
instructor must participate in at least one documented Bureau firearms 



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training session per year. 



PAGE 12 - 31 



(4) Firearms instructors must attend a Recertif ication 
Program with the' FTU at least once every four years. Agents 
transferring out of the FTU are considered recertified for a period of 
four years. 

(5) Failure to comply with instructor requirements will 
result in the loss of current status. The employee will be listed 
officially as firearms instructor - inactive. 

(6) -To regain active firearms instructor status, the. 



employee must attend a Recertif ication Program at the FBI Academy and 
demonstrate proficiency as noted in (2) above. 



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EFFECTIVE: 07/17/97 



12-10.6.1 iRevised and Moved to 12-10.6 j 



EFFECTIVE: 04/07/97 




12-10.7 | Target Guidelines! 

| (1) | STEEL TARGET POLICY 

| (a) - Standard | service and training ammunition [may not 
be used on steel targets | at distances less than ten yards. Some types 
of frangible ammunition may | be used on | steel targets at closer 
distances. 

| (b) | To minimize|potential injury from j ricochets, 
firing positions should be perpendicular to the target line. 

| (c) | Construction of any steel targets MUST be 
coordinated through the | FTU to ensure targets meet minimum hardness 
and safety standards. 



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(d) PFIs are responsible for permitting only | the use 
of proper weapons and ammunition on steel | targets to prevent damage or 
{ destruction to the target, reduce ricochet and prevent injury to 
| personnel. 

|' (e) | Steel targets must be inspected before each 

training session. 

{ | (f) [■ All personnel on the steel course site must 

stand behind the shooter. In multiple courses, the shooter must not 
be ahead of another shooter. 



| (g) I All personnel on the steel course site must 
continuously wear eye and ear protection, j Personnel on a steel course 
should also wear issued body armor. 

(h) Damaged targets, i.e., dimpled, punctured, or 
bowed, are unsafe and should not be used. | 



EFFECTIVE: 04/07/97 



12-11 



SHOOTING INCIDENTS (See MAOP, Part II, 8-1.3.2.) 



EFFECTIVE: 10/17/95 




12-11.1 Reporting of Shootings (See|MIOG, Part II, 12-11.8; JMAOP, 
Part II, 8-1.3.2.) 

(1). In all shooting incidents involving| the intentional 
use of force by | FBI personnel jand in all incidents, intentional or 
otherwise, WHERE INJURY OCCURS, notify the Violent Crimes and Major 
Offenders Section (VCMOS) Chief, CID, JFBIHQ by| telephone, followed by 
teletype. Similarly, in all shooting incidents occurring in joint 
investigations or FBI led/controlled task forces where a non-FBI 
participant fires a weapon, notify the VCMOS, CID, FBIHQ by telephone, 
followed by an airtel within seven days.| 

(2) |0ther instances J involving the discharge of a firearm 



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I |by FBI personnel |must be reported as soon as time permits by teletype 
to the Chairperson, Shooting Incident Review Group (SIRG) , with a copy 
to the Firearms Training Unit (FTU) . FD-418 (Shooting Incident 
Report), in triplicate, is to be submitted to the FTU by airtel within 
five working days. SA's FD-40 (Firearms Record) should be attached to 
the FD-418. 

(3) If an FBI employee is injured, designate one copy of 
| teletype for the Office of | Public | and | Congressional Affairs. | 

(4) SAC must personally ensure that investigations 

.[ | related | to„Agentrinvolv.ed_shooting_incidents_are handled_quickly__and 

properly. 

(5) | If the SAC or ASAC was involved in the planning or 
execution of events, FBIHQ should be advised during initial contact. | 

(6) | Initial teletype should include the SAC's 
recommendation whether the shooting inquiry should be conducted by the 
field division under the direction of the SAC, or by a Shooting 
Incident Response Team (SIRT) under the direction of an Inspector or 
Inspector-in-Place (IIP). Generally, this determination is based on 
the extent of SAC or ASAC participation in the planning and 
operational events of the incident. | 

(7) |The Assistant Director, Inspection Division (INSD) , 
in consultation with the SAC and Assistant Director, CID, will make 
the determination whether a shooting inquiry will be conducted under 
the direction of the SAC or an Inspector/IIP. | 

(8) | If an Inspector/IIP is not dispatched to the scene, 
the SAC will advise and confirm by teletype that he/she is directing 
the necessary required shooting inquiry investigation, UACB. j 

(9) (A shooting inquiry must be conducted under the 
direction of the SAC when a weapon is discharged by FBI personnel 
unless circumstances necessitate the inquiry be conducted under the 
direction of an Inspector/IIP. | 

(10) | In joint or task force investigations wherein a 
local, state, or other federal law enforcement officer fires a weapon 
or is shot, but no shots are fired by FBI personnel who are present: 

(a) Joint investigation - SAC or ASAC will notify 
FBIHQ by telephone, followed by an airtel delineating the following: 



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1. Activities of accompanying officer and 
circumstances which led to the shooting. 

2. Details of raid/arrest plan. 

3. Instructions given to accompanying officer. 

4. Results of local shooting inquiry conducted, 
if available; records of interview(s) , and analysis. 

(b) FBI led/controlled task force: 



PAGE 12 - 34 



1. Include all of (a) above, plus: 

a. Degree of FBI supervision exercised over 
the officer's day-to-day investigative activities (generally reflected 
in implementing Memorandum of Understanding (MOU)). 

b. Chain of command within the task force. 

c. A copy of any MOU delineating task force 
responsibilities of non-FBI personnel. 

(c) Submit within seven days, an original and 12 
copies of the shooting incident airtel to the Assistant Director, 
INSD, Rm. 7129, Attention: SIRG, with one copy designated to the 
FTU.j 

| (11) through (22) Moved to MIOG, Part II, 12-11.7, 
12-11.8, and 12-11.9. | 



EFFECTIVE: 10/17/95 




12-11.2 Guidelines for Intervention at the Shooting Scene (See 
MAOP, Part II, 8-1.3.2.) 

(1) After the shooting scene has been secured, the first 
concern expressed and acted upon will be that all Bureau personnel are 
well cared for both physically and mentally. 

(2) The Agent (s) involved in the shooting incident will 
be permitted and encouraged to immediately contact his/her spouse 



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and/or family. If the Agent has been injured, or if he/she feels it 
would be useful, the Agent's family will be contacted immediately in 
person by a designated Agent who knows the family personally. The 
field office will also be notified of the Agent's condition so that 
there will be a response to the family who called the office. It is 
particularly important that family notification occur before press 
and/or media accounts appear. 

(3) Agents who have been personally involved in the 
shooting incident will be removed from the scene as soon as possible 
and not assigned further duties in the investigation of that incident. 



(A) If the Agent's weapon is secured for evidence or 
ballistics tests, another will be issued immediately unless there is 
cause not to issue a weapon. The Principal Legal Advisor, Office of 
General Counsel, FBIHQ, or the United States Attorney's Office should 
be consulted if questions arise regarding whether an Agent's weapon 
should be surrendered to local authorities. 

(5) The SAC or ASAC will initiate a personal contact with 
the Agent(s) and his/her family in a supportive role and offer 
assistance, if needed. This contact will be made as soon as possible 
following the incident (within the first 24 hours). 

(6) The current Bureau procedure of not releasing the 
identity of Agents involved in investigations or incidents is 
especially important in post-shooting matters and will be maintained. 

(7) An SAC should communicate with FBIHQ if any of the 
established procedures appear to be inappropriate for a specific 
incident. 

(8) SACs and/or ASACs should hold an office conference, 
as soon as practical, after a shooting incident and as often as 
necessary to keep all personnel advised of pertinent details 
concerning the shooting incident. This should substantially reduce 
rumors and distorted accounts of the incident. (See MAOP, Part II, 
8-1.3.2.) 




EFFECTIVE: 05/20/94 



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12-11.3 Guidelines For Intervention During The First Week (See 
KAOP, Part II, 8-1.3.2.) 

(1) The Critical Incident Program consists of several 
specifically trained Agents and support employees located at the FBI 
Academy, Quantico, Virginia, and throughout the field offices 
administered from Personnel Division (PD) , FBIHQ. 

(2) The Critical Incident Program also includes FBI 
Chaplains in each field office who have been trained to respond to 

Agent s~and support -employees- who- have_been_invblved-in-cr.itical 

incidents including shootings. 

(3) Bureau policy establishes confidentiality for any 
conversations between employees and peer support employees or FBI 
Chaplains. 

(4) There are exceptions to this Bureau policy of 
confidentiality which could require disclosure. These exceptions 
might include, but are not limited to, risk of death or injury, 
perspective criminal acts, or interference with Bureau investigations. 
A decision to disclose must first be discussed with the Critical 
Incident Program Manager, PD, FBIHQ. No assurance can be given that 
the courts will recognize the confidential relationships established 
by this policy. In a criminal or civil action arising from a critical 
incident, the court could conceivably order disclosure notwithstanding 
Bureau policy. 

(5) The SAC or ASAC will advise the office FBI 
Chaplain(s) of the critical incident and coordinate a request for peer 
support with the PD, FBIHQ. 

(6) A brochure is available to Agents/employees who have 
been involved in shooting incidents covering: 



course. 



investigation. 




(a) The symptoms to be expected and their normal 

(b) Administrative handling of the post-shooting 

(c) Legal aspects of the shooting incident. 

(d) Counseling services available. 



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(7) An official from FBIHQ will contact the Agent 
personally by telephone. The scope and direction of this call is to 
express concern for the welfare of the Agent and his/her family. The 
Assistant Director, PD, will coordinate the personal phone contacts. 

(8) A total of five optional days of administrative leave 
are available to be taken (at sole discretion of) persons directly 
involved in the shooting incident. The use of that administrative 
leave will be strongly encouraged by the SAC. This leave may be taken 
at any time at the discretion of the Agent and should be coordinated 
with his/her supervisor. The Health Care Programs Unit (HCPU) , PD, 

will furnish guidance concerning_.individuals eligible for. leave. and : 

authority to grant leave. (Also see LEAVE ADMINISTRATION GUIDE.) 

(9) An Agent directly involved in the shooting incident 
should be advised by the SAC that the Agent can be reassigned from 
his/her squad for a period of time if the Agent so desires. 

(10) The SAC will immediately coordinate with HCPU, PD, 
FBIHQ, if an Agent directly involved in the shooting incident requires 
other special attention, to initiate the utilization of the mental 
health professional resources of the Employee Assistance Program . 
(EAP) . 

(11) If an Inspector has been assigned to conduct the 
shooting inquiry, he/she will review these intervention guidelines 
with appropriate field office managers. 

(12) In the event of an incident which involves the death 
of an employee or a line - of~duty injury that results in the 
hospitalization of the employee for serious injuries, the Director 
desires to personally contact the employee or family and offer 
comments that will contribute, even if in only a small fashion, to the 
healing process that lies ahead, to facilitate these contacts the 
following information should be relayed to the Director expeditiously, 
usually by teletype. 

(a) A brief description of the incident and the 
nature of the injuries sustained. 

(b) The name(s) and age(s) of the employee's 
immediate family. 

(c) Where and when the employee or family may be 
reached. 



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(d) Any other information that would be helpful 
during the Director's contact with employee or family. 

(13) Recognizing that the FBI's continuing concern can 
significantly help the recovery of our employees and their families, 
it may be beneficial for the Director to recontact them. The timing 
of this recontact is left to the discretion of the SAC. Recontact 
requests should be submitted by teletype to the Director's personal 
attention and include the following information: 

(a) The information requested above. 



(b) An update on the condition of the employee or 



family. 



(14) More periodic expressions of concern by the immediate 
FBI family will be led by the SAC. SACs should be aware of the 
extensive support structure that exists in the HCPU of the PD. This 
includes peer support, contract mental health professionals, FBI 
Chaplains and the EAP. These resources should be used as appropriate 
to provide our employees and their families with the support and 
assistance they need during times of extreme trauma and sorrow. 



EFFECTIVE: 05/20/94 



12-11.4 Guidelines for Long-Term Issues (See MAOP, Part II, 
8-1.3.2.) 

(1) SAC or ASAC will personally make every effort to 
facilitate the administrative investigation of a shooting incident. 

(2) If a group of Inspectors from FBIHQ is required to 
conduct an investigation of the shooting incident, an effort will be 
made to ensure that at least one of the Inspectors has received 
training in the effects of post-shooting trauma and, if possible, has 
personally experienced a shooting incident. 

(3) Agents should be allowed to pace their own return to 
work following shooting incidents. The Personnel Division (PD) will 
furnish guidelines concerning use of administrative leave. The SAC 
and supervisor will be involved in this decision-making process. 



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(A) If a transfer of an Agent to another squad following 
a shooting incident is contemplated, consideration will be given to 
the effects of the transfer on the adjustment period and the Agent 
should be involved in the decision. 

(5) The letter announcing the conclusion of a Bureau 
investigation of a shooting incident will be phrased in a way that 
takes into account the emotional impact on the Agent who has been 
involved in a life-threatening situation and may have suffered post- 
shooting trauma. 

_(6) — SACs-and/or-ASACs or- the-Principal Firearms 



Instructor should personally and individually provide the necessary 
positive and/or negative feedback to Agents after the administrative 
inquiry has been completed. This will also afford an opportunity to 
ascertain if the involved Agent (s) is amenable to any formal 
recognition, as warranted. Medals or incentive awards following a 
shooting incident in which subjects have been seriously injured or 
killed can have a negative psychological impact and/or be perceived as 
a reward. However, medals or incentive awards may be appropriate, and 
will be authorized if recommended and justified. Emphasis will be on 
the effort to save lives. 

(7) Agents who have been involved in a shooting incident 
will not immediately be assigned to duties likely to involve armed 
confrontations. This is even more important when a given Agent has 
already been involved in a previous shooting incident. This 
consideration should take precedence over other, action, including 
transfers. 

(8) Employees who have been involved in shooting 
incidents will be afforded an opportunity to attend a Post-Critical 
Incident Seminar at the FBI Academy. These group sessions will be the 
basis for future modifications in policy and training and will also 
provide a pool of employees able to provide meaningful peer support. 
The group sessions provide a therapeutic understanding of the shooting 
event. These conferences will be coordinated by the Training 
Division's Behavioral Science Services Unit (BSSU) . 

(9) PD's Employee Benefits Unit has prepared a booklet 
captioned "Your Worker Compensation Benefits" for questions relating 
to work-related illnesses and injuries. , 

(10) The PD Transfer Ombudsman had been designated to 
serve as a single point of contact at FBIHQ concerning insurance and 
compensation matters following a shooting. incident. The Ombudsman 



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will be available on a case-by-case basis to respond following a 
critical incident and offer assistance to victims and survivors of 
that incident concerning insurance and compensation matters. The 
Ombudsman attends Post-Critical Incident Seminars and maintains 
contact with the Critical Incident Program Manager. 

(11) Six months after the shooting incident, HCPU, PD, 
FBIHQ, will contact the SAC of the Agent involved in the shooting 
incident to determine if follow-up counseling is necessary. 



EFFECTIVE: 05/20/94 



c 



12-11.5 Guidelines For Training (See MAOP, Part II, 8-1.3.2.) 

(1) Training related to post-shooting trauma and its 
management will be made available to Bureau administrative personnel. 
A training block of this type will be presented by the Behavioral 
Science Services Unit, (BSSU) , Firearms Training Unit, and the 
Management Science Unit, Training Division. A presentation in this 
area should also be incorporated into upcoming SAC Conferences, Senior 
Executive Programs, and Executive Development Institute sessions. 

(2) An orientation session by the BSSU on an introduction 
to post-shooting trauma will be provided. to students during New Agents 
training. 

(3) In the planning of operations which have a high risk 

of armed confrontations and/or may involve the use of deadly force, if 
the SAC, ASAC or supervisor is aware of an Agent who is experiencing 
high levels of personal and/or family stress or health problems, 
consideration should be given to temporarily excuse the SA from 
participating in the exercise in order to minimize the risk of 
cumulative stress or trauma incidental thereto. 



EFFECTIVE: 05/20/94 



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| 12-11.6 Nondisclosure of Agents' Names in Shooting j Incidents | 
MAOP, Part II, 5-2 (4) and 8-1.3.2.) 



(See 



Names of Agents involved in shooting incidents. in 
performance of duty should not be volunteered to outsiders since 
experience has shown that once their identities become a matter of 
public knowledge, the potential that they and their families will be 
subjected to harassment and possible retaliation substantially 
increases. If identities of Agents involved in shooting incidents 
have been made public through inclusion in public records or 

_disclosur.e_at_public_proceedings.,_SACs_may_verify^the„AgentsJL — 

identities in response to inquiries by news media representatives or 
others. 



EFFECTIVE: 04/07/97 




[ 12—11.7 Investigation of Shootings Involving FBI Personnel 
(Formerly 12-11.1.) (See MAOP, Part II, 8-1.3.2.) 

(1) An investigative inquiry of the shooting incident 
will be conducted under the direction of the SAC or 
Inspector/Inspector in Place (IIP), as appropriate, and a 
comprehensive report issued. 

(a) The SAC is responsible for preserving evidence 
and instituting a logical investigation. SAC or SAC's designee should 
personally coordinate investigation if an ; Inspector/IIP is not 
dispatched to the scene. 

(b) .The SAC will designate an investigative team to 
conduct those shooting inquiries under his/her direction. The SAC 
should use appropriate personnel and resources (Evidence Response Team 
(ERT), Photographer, etc.) to conduct a thorough, factual 
investigation of the shooting incident and to submit a comprehensive 
report to the Shooting Incident Review Group (SIRG) . The SAC should 
consider Laboratory Division assistance in appropriate circumstances. 

(c) In the event an Inspector/IIP is dispatched to 
the scene, the Shooting Incident Response Team (SIRT) will be 
comprised of an Inspector or IIP and two or more Assistant Inspectors- 
in-Place (AIIP) selected by the Chief Inspector, Inspection Division 



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(INSD) , and a forensic team comprised of a firearms examiner, visual 
information specialist, and photographer selected by the Laboratory 
Division. 

(d) The SIRT under the direction of the Inspector or 
IIP will report directly to the Chief Inspector, Office of 
Inspections, during the shooting inquiry and be tasked with completion 
of a thorough, factual investigation of the shooting incident and 
submission of a comprehensive report to the SIRG, along with any 
observations regarding safety and/or training issues identified 
through the inquiry. 



(2) Local authorities are to be contacted to clarify 
jurisdiction and investigative responsibilities. 

(3) All personnel and witnesses at the scene are to be 
identified, located and interviewed. 

(4) Agents involved in a shooting must be given 
sufficient time to regain composure before being requested to provide 
any statements. The official conducting the inquiry will consult with 
the SAC or other appropriate personnel and consider such factors as 
physical injuries or trauma experienced by the Agent involved in a 
shooting to determine when an interview should take place. 

(5) Avoid having involved Agent (s) conduct any 
investigation and/or interviews relevant to the shooting. Do not, 
however, delay substantive investigation to accomplish this. Separate 
and remove involved Agent (s) from the scene as soon as practical. 

(6) Forms FD-644 (Warning and Assurance to Employee 
Requested to Provide Information on a Voluntary Basis) and FD-645 
(Warning and Assurance to Employee Required to Provide Information) 
are not to be used in investigations concerning shooting incidents in 
the absence of specific, compelling reasons. Such a determination 
will be made by the SAC or Inspector/IIP in consultation with the 
appropriate FBIHQ officials. Prior to the use of the FD-645 in cases 
where there is potential for criminal prosecution of the employee to 
be interviewed, OPR, Inspection Division, must present the facts of 
the case to OPR, DO J, and obtain an initial opinion that the matter 
in question should be handled administratively rather than 
criminally. (See MAOP, Part I, 13"6 (3) and MIOG, Part I, 263-5 (3).) 



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12-11.8 Shooting Inquiry Report (See MIOG, Part II, 12-11.1; 
MAOP, Part II, 8-1.3.2.) 

(1) Results of an inquiry in all shooting incidents 
involving the intentional use of force by FBI personnel and in all 
incidents, intentional or otherwise, WHERE INJURY OCCURS, are to be 

submitted to FBIHQ within two weeks -in -the form of an investigative 

report. The shooting inquiry is primarily a fact-finding effort and 
must be objective, thorough, and factual;' Observations regarding 
safety and/or training issues identified during the inquiry should be 
included in the report. 

(2) Report should be captioned "Shooting Inquiry, Report 
of Shooting Incident; (name of Reporting) Division; (date of shooting 
incident); Admin Hatters; (66F classification)." The report should 
specifically reference, using case caption, the substantive violation, 
if any, involving the shooting incident, e.g., "John Doe; First 
Savings Bank; 3/6/95; BR; 00: NY; UCFN #." Reference should also be 
made to the teletype that initially advised FBIHQ of the shooting and 
the communication which forwarded the FD-418s. 

(3) The report should contain appropriate enclosures and 
exhibits, to include but not limited to: medical reports, coroner or 
autopsy reports, police reports, crime scene diagrams, radio logs, 
criminal record and NCIC checks, military records of subjects if 
pertinent, weather information, firearms and ballistic information 
(include Laboratory Reports if available or FD-302 summary of 
laboratory analysis) , videos from local news media, shooting incident 
reconstructions, and crime scene photographs. 

(4) No accomplishments should be claimed in the Shooting 
Inquiry report. Any accomplishments achieved at the time of the 
shooting incident should be claimed by a communication under the 
substantive title. 

(5) The Administrative section of the report should 
include information concerning decisions regarding interview of 
subject (s), pertinent administratively controlled material, informant 
information, and observations regarding training and/or safety issues. 
SAC analysis and recommehdation(s) for administrative action, if 
deemed warranted, should be set forth in this section of the report. 



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(6) A table of contents should be utilized to organize 
and identify report contents. Following is an example of items which 
might normally be included: 

(a) Interviews of personnel involved - include 
signed, sworn statements of all Bureau employees principally involved 
in the shooting incident. Interview all Bureau personnel directly 
involved in the investigation and/or planning leading to the shooting 
incident. Any arrest or raid plans pertinent to the incident should 
be carefully spelled out in statements obtained from the person (s) in 
charge of the raid/arrest. 




Interviews in shooting inquiries should be handled without the use of 
Forms FD-644 and FD-645, unless there are specific factual situations 
or complaints which might raise concerns about the shooting. Should 
these arise, the details should be discussed with the Chief Inspector, 
Inspection Division (INSD) , prior to conducting any interview of 
Bureau personnel. - 

(b) Interviews of witnesses - include FD-302s of all 
witnesses to the shooting incident. Persons interviewed should be 
apprised of the access provisions of the Privacy Act and afforded the 
opportunity to request confidentiality in accordance with MIOG, 

Part I, 190-7 and SAC Memo 51-77 (C) dated 11/15/77. 

(c) Investigation regarding subject (s) -, include 
such information as criminal records, if available, and interviews of 
associates which are germane to shooting (i.e., individuals involved 
in circumstances surrounding the shooting incident, co-arrestee, 
etc.). If possible, include interview of subject (s) regarding the 
shooting. Such an interview is often quite productive in obtaining 
admissions from the subject (s) directly pertinent to the shooting 
incident. Statements made by subject (s) contemporaneous to the 
shooting oftentimes^ may be important to the overall evaluation of the 
incident by the SIRG. 

Apprehension FD-302 should be included. Prepare FD-302 reporting that 
subject did not, was not known to have, or refused to comment on the 
shooting, if applicable. 

(d)* Medical reports - include medical reports and 
interviews with medical personnel clarifying the nature and gravity of 
all wounds or injuries as a result of the shooting. Indicate weapon, 
entry and exit of individual shots, if determinable. If fatalities 
involved, include coroner or autopsy reports. 



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(e) Vehicles involved - describe all pertinent 
vehicles and indicate damage incurred. Describe any other property 
damage. 

(f) Weapons involved - include FD~302s reflecting 
weapons and ammunition used by Agent (s), officer(s) and subject (s) 
involved and disposition or custody of weapons following the shooting. 

(g) Maps, diagrams, photographs, and other graphic 
depictions or representations of shooting incident scene and/or 

• scenario. — — — ■ — _ _ , . __.. ._ 



(h) Police reports - include copies of reports, if 
available, plus any statements made regarding possible prosecutive 
action against Bureau personnel. Include copy of communications with 
local prosecuting attorney. 

(i) Prosecutive status of subjects. 

(j) Laboratory reports - laboratory reports should 
be included in the Shooting Inquiry report, if they are available. If 
laboratory examinations have not been completed, preliminary results 
should be reported by a summary FD-302. Results of forensic 
processing conducted at the scene may be' included in the form of a 
laboratory report or an FD-302, whichever is deemed most suitable by 
the forensic expert (s). 

(7) To assure accuracy and completeness of the Shooting 
Inquiry report, SAC or Inspector/IIP should confer with the Chief 
Inspector, Office of Inspections, INSD. 

(8) Submit an original and 12 copies of the 

report to the Assistant Director, INSD, Rm. 7129, Attention: SIRG, 
with one copy designated to the FTU. The INSD will distribute copies 
to members of the SIRG. 



EFFECTIVE: 10/17/95 



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12-11.9 Shooting Incident Review Group (Formerly 12-11.1.) (See 
MAOP, Part II, 8-1.3.2.) 

(1) The Shooting Incident Review Group (SIRG) is an 
independent review committee established to analyze all shooting 
incidents involving Bureau personnel and to evaluate the application 
of deadly force in such incidents. The SIRG is to provide the 
Director with an evaluative analysis, observations, and 
recommendations for corrective actions from an operational standpoint, 
if any, as well as recommendations concerning training issues, safety 
_issues_and_adminis.trative„ act ion, __if _deemed_nec.es sary. 



! 




■>m 



(2) Scope and Purpose: The SIRG will review all shooting 
incidents wherein Bureau personnel employ deadly force, as well as all 
incidents where a firearm is discharged in a nontraining setting. 

(a) The SIRG will determine if the shooting under 
review was intentional or unintentional. This will govern the 
standards applied in the review as the FBI's Deadly Force Policy will 
only be applied where the shooting. was intentional. 

(b) The SIRG will deliberate and determine if the 
shooting incident falls within the application of the FBI's Deadly 
Force Policy and the law. 

(c) The SIRG will review operational plans, 
procedures, tactics and circumstances leading to the shooting 
incident. 

(d) The SIRG will review issues associated with 
safety, training, and management oversight and make recommendations 
for administrative action, if deemed necessary. 

(3) The .SIRG will be comprised of representatives from 
the following: 

(a) Inspection Division (INSD) - Deputy Assistant 
Director, (Chairperson) and Chief Inspector, Office of Inspections, 
(Alternate Chairperson); 

(b) Criminal Investigative Division; 

(c) National Security Division; 

(d) Training Division; 



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(e) Personnel Division; 

(f) Office of the General Counsel; 

(g) Laboratory Division; 

(h) Field Supervisor (preferably one who has been 
involved in a shooting incident) from the Washington, D.C. 
Metropolitan area. 

(i ) D epartmen t of Justice Att orney(s ) as del egated 



by the Deputy Attorney General. 

(4) The SIRG will deliberate and report its analysis by 
issuing a memorandum of findings and recommendations to the Director. 
This memorandum will be reviewed by the SIRG members, each of whom may 
provide additional comments, observations, or recommendations by 
attaching an addendum to the memorandum. 

(5) The findings and recommendations will be submitted 
from the SIRG by the Chairperson to the Assistant Director, INSD, for 
approval and forwarding to the Director. An information copy of the 
SIRG memorandum of findings will be disseminated to the substantive 
Assistant Director (CID or NSD) as appropriate, and to other 
appropriate entities (Training, Personnel, etc.).| 



EFFECTIVE: 10/17/95 




12-12 



HOLSTER/ACCESSORY EQUIPMENT 



(1) SAs must train with holsters and related equipment 
normally used on duty at each firearms training session. 



(2) Holsters are not provided for personally owned 



weapons . 



(3) Personally owned holsters must be approved through 
[ the | PFI | before use. 

(4) Alterations j of any holster, such as removing a thumb 
brake, is|not permitted. 



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(5) Accessory equipment, i.e., magazine or speed loader 
pouches, ammunition | pouches, etc.,|must be maintained and inspected in 
the same manner as |a]holster. 

(6) Each SA is responsible for the proper maintenance of 
all holsters and accessory equipment under his/her control. 

(7) Bureau-issued holsters/accessories, when worn or 
damaged beyond repair may be replaced through the FBI Academy Gun 
Vault. 

^8) All strong side belt holsters will meet the following 



requirements: 

(a) Must be able to draw and reholster the handgun 
with one hand. 

(b) The holster must not require the trigger finger 
to pass through the trigger guard to release the weapon. 

(c) the holster must secure the weapon during 
strenuous physical activity (running, climbing, upside down, etc.). 

(9) "Miscellaneous holsters" (refers | to shoulder holsters, 
belly bands, ankle holsters, inside pants holsters, cross-draw 
holsters, fanny (butt) |packs, etc.| 

(a) All regulations that exist for strong side hip 
holsters apply with the exception that it is permissible for the weak 
hand to steady the holster while returning the weapon. However, no 
holster will be approved that REQUIRES using both hands to draw the 
weapon. 

(b) Firearms instructors are to ensure that proper 
safety is exercised during training with any miscellaneous holster. 

(10) SAs should use both Bureau-issued and personally 
owned holsters and other firearms equipment during firearms training 
sessions to ensure familiarity. 



EFFECTIVE: 04/07/97 



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FEDERAL BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION 

FOEPA 
DELETED PAGE INFORMATION SHEET 




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«/ 



Page(s) withheld entirely at this location in the file. One or more of the following statements, where indicated 
explain this deletion. ' 



Deletions were made pursuant to the exemptions indicated below with no segregable material available for 
release to you. 

Section 552 Section 552a 

D M 1 ) O (b)(7)(A) □ (d)(5) 

"(b)(2) - □ (b)(7)(B) □ (j)( 2 ) 

n (b)(3) □ (b)(7)(C) D (k)(D 



O (b)(7)(D) □ (k)(2) 

13 (b)(7)(E) Q (k)(3) 

a (b)(7)(F) a <k)<4) 



(b)(4) n (b)(8) □ ( k )(5) 

n ^X 5 ) a (b)(9) n (k)(6) 

a (b)(6) □ m(7) 

D Information pertained only to a third party with no reference to the subject of your request or the subject of your 
request is listed in the title only. 

□ Documents originated with another Government agency(ies). These documents were referred to that agency(ies) 
for review and direct response to you. 

Pages contain information furnished by another Government agency(ies). You will be advised by the FBI as 

to the releasability of this information following our consultation with the other agency (ies). 

Page(s) withheld inasmuch as a final release determination has not been made. You will be advised as to the 

disposition at a later date. 

Pages were not considered for release as they are duplicative of 

Page(s) withheld for the following reason(s): 



HZ The fdlowinftnumber is to be used for reference regarding these paces: 



xxxxxx 
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xxxxxx 



xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx 

X Deleted Page(s) X 
X No Duplication Fee X 
X for this page X 

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12-15 DEMONSTRATIONS AND TOURS 

(1) Only authorized firearms instructors |may| present 
"live fire" | demonstrations, and then only with the express consent of 
the SAC or designee. | 

(2) Any other SA may present Bureau firearms for 



demonstration using "red-handle" weaponry! or live 
with trigger guard locks or similar j devices | which 
from firing. 



weapons equipped 
prevent | the weapon 



(3) The safe condition of all weapons used for 



demonstration- should be]verified by a Bureau firearms instructor 
BEFORE use. | (The general safe condition of firearms is action open, 
safety on, and weapon free of any live ammunition.) Demonstration 
weapons should never be pointed at another person. 



EFFECTIVE: 04/07/97 

12-16 MEDICAL PROFILE SYSTEM - MEDICAL MANDATES (RESTRICTIONS) 



| (1) | Agents on medical mandates are to be permitted to 
participate in firearms training, | including (defensive tactics, 
PROVIDED the Agent's evaluating| physician is | fully familiar with the 
Agent's (condition, the nature of the | training to be undertaken, and 
furnishes a written statement that, in the physician's opinion, such 
participation would not be injurious to the Agent's health or 
dangerous to others. (See MAOP, Part I, 20-5.2.1 (2).) 

| (2) | In instances where the evaluating physician does not 
certify the Agent to attend training and the prospects for (future 
participationjare remote due to the Agent's condition, authority to 
carry a firearm|will be rescinded|and any Bureau-issued weapon turned 
in. (See MAOP, Part I, 20-5.2.1 (3).) 



EFFECTIVE: 04/07/97 



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12-17 



TRAINING SAFETY 



| (1) All training exercises or scenarios which incorporate 
the use of loaded or unloaded firearms must be supervised by a 
currently qualified Bureau firearms instructor. 

(2) The supervising firearms instructor must ensure that: 

(a) all necessary firearms and ammunition safety 
checks are conducted prior to commencement of training. 

(b) all firearms safety rules and precautions are 



adhered to by all participants. 

(c) all facilities and training props are safe and 
absent of potential hazards to all personnel. 

(3) The primary instructor may designate assistants as 
required; however, the ultimate responsibility for safety rests with 
the primary instructor. 

(4) Under no circumstances will the primary or assistant 
instructors become active participants or role players during the 
training exercise or scenarios.! 




EFFECTIVE: 04/07/97 



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EFFECTIVE: 04/07/97 



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SECTION 13. LABORATORY DIVISION AIDS TO INVESTIGATIONS 



13-1 



INTRODUCTION TO FBI LABORATORY DIVISION 



EFFECTIVE: 05/25/90 



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EFFECTIVE: 04/07/97 



I 13-2 



AVAILABILITY AND USE OF LABORATORY FACILITIES 



EFFECTIVE: 05/25/90 



13-2.1 



Availability of the FBI Laboratory 



As a general rule, services of the FBI Laboratory are 
available to: 

(1) U.S. Attorneys, military tribunals, and all other 
Federal agencies in both civil and criminal matters. (Requests from 
USAs for any Laboratory services (including trial charts) , 
examinations and testimony of FBI Laboratory experts should be made 
through FBI field offices.) 

(2) All duly constituted state, county, and municipal law 
enforcement agencies in the United States and territorial possessions 
in connection with their official investigations, but in criminal 
matters only. 



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All Laboratory services, including expert witnesses, are 
rendered free of all cost to the requesting agency, but in offering 
these services, experience has dictated the following limitations in 
the interest of economy to avoid duplication of effort and to ensure 
the proper administration of justice: 

(1) No examination will be conducted on any evidence 
which has been previously subjected to the same type of technical 
examination. This requirement is intended to eliminate duplication of 

__ef f or.t .and..ensure._the_integri ty_of _the _evidence. is maintained An 

exception may be granted by the Laboratory Division to this policy 
when there exist compelling reasons that a reexamination be conducted. 
These reasons should be set forth in individual letters from the 
director of the laboratory which conducted the original examination, 
the prosecuting attorney, and the investigating agency which collected 
and submitted the evidence for laboratory analysis. (Note: A check 
will be searched through the National Fraudulent Check File even 
though it has been technically examined by or searched through a check 
file maintained by another agency.) 

(2) No testimony will be furnished if testimony on the 
same technical subject and in the same case is to be given for the 
prosecution by another expert. 

(3) No request for examination will be accepted from a 
nonfederal law enforcement agency in connection with criminal cases 
if it is indicated that only a civil case will grow out of it. 

(4) No requests for examination will be accepted from 
other laboratories which have the capability of conducting the 
requested examinations. (Exceptions to this policy may be made, in 
extenuating circumstances, upon approval of the Assistant Director of 
the Laboratory.) . . 



EFFECTIVE: 04/07/97 



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EFFECTIVE: 09/09/93 



13-2.2 



Use of Other Laboratories or Other Forensic Experts 



Since materials of evidentiary value located at a crime 
scene or otherwise obtained during FBI investigative activities offer 
invaluable potential for investigative information and probative 

J results, these materials |should|be submitted, except in circumstances 
detailed in subsection 13-2.2.2 below, to the FBI Laboratory in lieu 

of„other_laboratories„or. other__f or ens ic_ experts, because. 



(1) The facilities of and the expertise within the FBI 
Laboratory provide the best in available scientific analyses and 
technical services 



(2) The FBI is appropriated money yearly by Congress to 
operate its own Laboratory to provide laboratory services in matters 
of interest to the Bureau. 



EFFECTIVE: 04/07/97 




13-2.2.1 Cases Involving Joint Jurisdiction 

Diplomacy and good judgment must be exercised in the 
instances which arise in cases of joint jurisdiction where state, 
local, and/or other Federal laboratories either handle or maintain 
custody of materials of evidentiary value obtained by their personnel 
either prior to or after FBI involvement so as to: 

(1) Prjotect the integrity and "chain of custody" of these 
materials of evidentiary value in the event the final mutual agreement 
is that the matter under investigation is to be prosecuted in the 
Federal judicial system with the FBI having the responsibility of 
primary jurisdiction and 

(2) Demonstrate the FBI has the proper professional 
respect for the technical and scientific, competence of these other 
laboratories and the investigative efforts of their law enforcement 
personnel. 

(3) In matters where physical evidence has been 



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previously examined by a state or local crime laboratory and the FBI 
Laboratory is directed by the Department of Justice to conduct a 
reexamination, the head of the laboratory which conducted the original 
analysis will be promptly notified of this action by the Laboratory 
Division. 



EFFECTIVE: 05/25/90 



.13-2.2.2__.Cases_Involving_Sole_EBI_Jurisdiction_| (See_MI0G, PartJI, 
13-2.2.) | 



[ When circumstances dictate, FBIHQ will consider requests 

for the use "of non-Bureau forensic experts. The following conditions 
.must be observed: 

(1) Only the FBI Laboratory should conduct forensic 
| examinations of evidence in FBI investigations. Only under 

extenuating circumstances should other laboratories or forensic 

experts in private practice be consulted or their services requested. 

This should only occur after prior contact, and with the approval of, 
| the FBI Laboratory by [electronic communication (EC) , | teletype, or 
| telephone and then confirmed by|EC|or teletype. Such communications 

should include: 

(a) A synopsis of the circumstances necessitating 
the use of an outside forensic expert. 

(b) The name of the local expert (s) and their local 
laboratory affiliation, if any, 

(c) The name and office telephone number of the case 
Agent , and 

(d) The personal endorsement of the SAC that such 
action is needed. 

(2) this procedure is necessary to ensure: 

(a) That the needed services or examinations cannot 
be performed in a timely fashion by submitting the evidence to the FBI 
Laboratory due to extreme urgency of the situation, or that FBI 
Laboratory personnel could not travel to the requesting location and 
perform the services or examinations; 



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. (b) That when circumstances so warrant, and FBI 
Laboratory approval is given, only competent and reputable forensic 
experts be utilized who are recognized as reliable within the forensic 
science community. 

(3) If FBI Laboratory approval is obtained for the use of 
non-FBI Laboratory experts, those experts must assure that all 
necessary examinations are being performed since federal violations 
frequently require different elements of proof than do state or local 
violations of the same or similar nature and, 



(a) That nothing will be do~ne which will destroy "the 
usefulness of the evidentiary material; 

(b) That the local expert be advised of the 
willingness of the FBI Laboratory to be consulted on the scientific 
and technical aspects of the examination (s) and to provide additional 
examinations which may not be possible locally; 

(c) That a copy of the local expert's examinations 
report be promptly furnished to the FBI Laboratory. 

(A) Under no circumstances should "curbstone" opinions be 
sought of local scientific or technical personnel to assess the 
potential value of evidentiary materials prior to submitting these 
items to. the FBI Laboratory for examination. Preliminary local 
analyses could 



materials, 



(a) Cause alteration and/or contamination of these 



(b) Create a conflict of opinion due to variations 
in testing procedures, 

(c) Unduly complicate the "chain of custody," 

(d) Severely hamper the effectiveness of the 
Bureau's efforts, and 

(e) Create unnecessary legal issues which could 
arise subsequently in the prosecution process. 



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13-3 REQUESTING LABORATORY ASSISTANCE 

The information under this caption as well as that 
contained elsewhere in this section under the particular type of 
examination or assistance desired should be consulted to facilitate 
the submission of requests to the Laboratory Division. 




EFFECTIVE: 05/25/90 



*3 3.1 Requests for Examination(s) of Evidence (See MIOG, Part 
I, 9-7; II, 13-17.3.) 

A request for an examination must be in written form and 
forwarded with the evidence. A telephonic request must be followed 
with a written official communication. The incoming communication 
must be sent with each case and should include a listing of ' the 
suspect/subject, victim, violation, location and date of offense, case 
file number, a brief description of the case, a detailed description 
of the evidence enclosed, the request of the Laboratory and a contact 
name and number. A written request for Laboratory Division services 
must bear a single title and a single Universal Case File Number. If 
additional cases need to be intercorapared with the listed title, that 
request should be in the body of the incoming communication, not 
identified by additional titles. All requests should be addressed to 
the Director, Federal Bureau of Investigation, with an attention line 
in accordance with 13-3.1.1 below and contain the following 
information: 

(1) Reference to any previous correspondence submitted to 
the Laboratory in the case. 

(2) The nature of and the basic facts concerning the 
violation insofar as they pertain to the laboratory examination. 

(3) The name(s) and sufficient descriptive data of any 
subject, suspect, or victim. 

(4) Each case submitted to the Laboratory must be 
individually packaged and placed in an appropriate evidence container. 
The evidence container must be placed under proper seal, labeled with 



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appropriate warning labels, contain a single titled communication, and 
shipped via trackable carrier. Lab exam requests should contain a 
list of the evidence being submitted either "herewith" or "under 
separate cover." (Note: Due to evidential "chain of custody" 
requirements, all evidence sent through the U.S. Postal Service (USPS) 
system must be registered mail and not by parcel post or regular mail. 
If United Parcel Service, Federal Express, or air freight is used, 
utilize their "acknowledgment of delivery," "protective signature," 
"security signature," or any other such service which provides the 
same protection as USPS registered mail.) Only evidence for the first 
captioned case should be submitted with each communication. (See 
JiIOg.._Pgr$_II t _13r3..-1.2 (9), 13-6. 7 and 13-6 .7.1. ) 



■■nt- 



(a) "Herewith": This method is limited to certain 
small items of evidence which are not endangered by transmission in an 
envelope. Utilize the specially designed evidence envelope (Form FD- 
632). Execute written portion of envelope BEFORE placing evidence 
inside to preclude damaging or altering evidence and to prevent 
addition of indented writing. Insert the evidence and securely seal 
the envelope. Fold up the flap marked "PLEASE STAPLE CORRESPONDENCE 
TO THIS FLAP" and. securely attach the written communication which 
should state "Submitted herewith are the following items of evidence." 

(b) "Under separate cover": This method is 
generally used for shipment of numerous and/or bulky items of 
evidence. The written communication should state "Submitted under 
separate cover by (list the method of shipment be it USPS, United 
Parcel Service, Federal Express, or air freight) are the following 
items of evidence." For further information concerning the 
preparation of packages sent under separate cover see 13-3.1.2 below 
as well as 13-6.6 (Packaging Chart) illustrated in the "Electronic 
Reference Library Searching Guide" Appendix. 

(c) "Packaging": An evidence container is defined 
as any container that houses items of evidence in a manner which 
maintains the integrity of those items. To further this definition, a 
primary container is the container that is in direct contact with the 
evidence. For example, an envelope housing a fraudulent document or a 
vial containing blood would be considered a primary container. A 
primary container must be placed in a secondary container which must 
be leakproof and puncture-resistant, when the evidence so warrants 
additional protections. A secondary container is needed only when wet 
evidence, such as liquid blood, or a sharp item, such as a needle or a 
knife, is submitted to the Laboratory for examination. Each item of 
evidence must be packaged separately to avoid contamination. Each 
case must be submitted individually. The Laboratory Division will 



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strictly endorse the related portions of MIOG, Part II, 13-3.1.2(3) 
and 13-3.1.2(4) . 

. -(d) "Sealing": All containers must be properly 

[ sealed with| tamper-evident | tape. A container is properly sealed only 
if its contents cannot readily escape and if entering the container 
results in obvious damage/alteration to the container or its seal. A 
proper seal consists of taping the evidence container over or 

I along the opening with| tamper-evident | tape and placing the initials of 
the person creating the seal over the tape. A proper seal is not 
created by simply stapling the evidence container closed, nor is it 

LP ro P e y I y sealed when a c ontain er opening_ijs_exposed. | Tamper-evident j 
tape is available through FBI central supply or " thTTvi dence ConTrbl" - 
Technician. (See 13-3.1.2.) 

(e) "Warning Labels": A warning label alerts the 
recipient of the potential hazards of the evidence enclosed, therefore 
appropriate warning labels must be placed on an evidence container in 
a visible area. Biological hazards (biohazards) fall under the 
Bloodborne Pathogen guidelines. (See 13-3.1.2.) 

Biohazardous evidence (evidence containing any biological 
material) must be labeled with a biohazard sticker. If the item is or 
contains dried body fluids, such as blood, semen, or saliva, a primary 
container is the only container needed and the biohazard sticker is 
placed on the outside of the primary container. If the item is or 
contains wet body fluids, the primary container must be placed in a 
secondary container and the secondary container must be labeled with a 
biohazard sticker. (See 13-12.4.1.) 

Because of the importance of compliance with using proper warning 
labels, FBIHQ will remind the field of the policy when a noncompliant 
submission is received. If the case Agent or Evidence Control 
Technician neglects to affix appropriate warning labels, the | examiner 
orjexaminer's Unit Chief will call the supervisor of the case Agent or 
Evidence Control Technician to alert that supervisor of the 
noncompliant submission. Pursuant to the contact, a letter describing 
the noncompliant submission will be sent to the Assistant Director in 
Charge (ADIC) or Special Agent in Charge (SAC). 

(5) A request stating what types of examinations are 
desired. Include, if applicable, comparisons with other cases, 
listing captions of these cases and Bureau file numbers, if available. 

(6) Information as to where the original evidence is to 
be returned as well as where the original Laboratory report is to be 



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(7) A statement, if applicable, as to whether 

„„ rtf u t . ^ The evide "ce has been examined previously bv 

»!£?? T Pert ^ the Same technical ^eld (provide a copy of any 
report (s) generated by other experts, if available) 



or 



(b) Any local controversy is involved in the case, 
.(c)_ : _Any . non-Bure«u^law_enXo_r«ment ...agencie_s have an 



interest in the case. 

(8) Notification of the need and reason(s) for an 
rou P Snel 1 rre^U^ i ° n ^^ '" Ui " th " t '~ t -» t sh <~ ld "" be 

(9) If damage occurs in the mail system or evidence is 

Uoo^-i y / aCkaged r the «'•«»* ° f the evidence has D eeT 
jeopardized as a result, the case Agent will be notified. If the 

made e8 bv " ° ^ t^T* h " bMn ««P«.i..d, a decisis w 1 l be 
made by appropriate laboratory personnel as to what, if any, forensic 
examinations can or will be conducted. This policy is imperative to 
weirbT "V^'"* of the -^ence and to'protect tnHIJe ^ 
well being of the persons handling these submitted materials. 



EFFECTIVE: 11/21/97 




13-3.1.1 Attention Lines for Communications and Packages (See MIOG, 

Part II, 13-3.1, 13-3.1.2(8) and (10).) 

as oos ,iM P 16 fo ^ owin * guidelines should be adhered to as closely 
FBI P SX:rte°rs a :° ld "" "^""^ d * la * '« 'he routing of mail Jt 

markad "At-V.^ A11 J eq "" tS f ° r a iabor atory examination should be 
marked Attention: FBI Laboratory, Evidence Control Center." 

(2) Deleted 

(3) Deleted 



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t . ^ Requests for photographic processing ONLY should be 
submitted on the FD-523. (Note: . Whenever a package containing 
exposed film is sent to the Laboratory the word "FILM" should be 
clearly marked on the outside of the package.) 

(5) Requests for photographic laboratory examination of 
any kind should be marked "Attention: FBI Laboratory, Special 
Photographic Unit." . V 

(6) Requests for BOTH photographic processing and a 
fingerprint examination should be submitted on the FD-523 and, in the 

_area„for_reque.st.,ja_rJced^AtteiLtion:_J i ^oratory Division, Evidence 
Control Center." " "7 ~ ~ " — ~ — 



C) Requests for the enhancement, processing and 
examination of video imagery where no comparison with known 
photographs or items of clothing are required or requests for the 
production of video tape demonstrative evidence should be marked 
| Attention: FBI Laboratory, j Special Photographic |Unit." 



EFFECTIVE: 07/25/97 



13 3.1.2 Shipment of Evidence "Under Separate Cover" (See MIOG 
Part II, 13-3.1(4) (b).) 

The following steps should be followed to properly prepare 
a package for shipment of numerous and/or bulky items of evidence 
apart from the original written request for the examination (s) . For 
additional guidance and instructions see 13-3.1(4) (b) , (c) , (d) , and 
(e) above and 13-6.6 (Packaging Chart) below. (Note: Comply with the 
following steps (1) through (9) if a cardboard box is used and step 
(10) if a wooden bo* is used): 

CD Take every precaution to preserve the items of 
evidence as outlined in the applicable sections of the Evidence Chart 
U3 6.7) as well as afford appropriate physical protection of the 

if™/.* n8 2; pr£ /^ ther * on t0 include identification with the word 
LATENT. (.See (10) below.) 



(2) Choose a cardboard box suitable in si 



ze. 



(3) Place nonporous items of evidence in a separate 
container to avoid contamination and for preservation of latent 



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prints. (See Part II, 13-3.1(4) (c) and 13-3.1.2 (10) below.) 

(4) Do not place evidence from more than one case in the 
same box. (See Part II, 13-3.1(4) (c) and 13-3.1.2 (10) below.) 

(5) Pack the evidence securely within the box to avoid 
transit or puncture of box and protrusions/loss of 

(See (10) below.) 

(6) Seal the box with gummed tape and clearly mark the 
outer portions of the box with the word "EVIDENCE." (Note: If any of 

the evidence in the box is to be sub jected t o_a_ latent-_fj ng g^pj^t 

examination, also clearly mark the outer portions of the box with'the - ~ — 
word "LATENT.") 



damage in 
evidence. 



(7) Place a copy of the original written request for the 
examination(s) in an envelope marked "INVOICE" and securely affix this 
envelope to the outside of the sealed box. 

(8) Enclose the sealed box in wrapping paper and seal the 
wrapping paper with gummed tape. Prepare the address label, 
addressing the package to the Director, Federal Bureau of 
Investigation, 935 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Washington, D.C. 20535- 
0001, with the proper attention line as outlined above in 13-3.1.1. 
Cover the label with yellow transparent tape to identify the shipment 
as evidence and place it securely on the package. 

(9) Ship the package by U.S. Postal Service, United 
Parcel Service, Federal Express, or air freight in accordance with the 
note in 13-3.1(4) above and the Evidence Chart (13-6.7). 

(10) Choose a durable wooden box suitable in size and 

<»> Comply with the above steps (1), (3), (4), and 

(b) Securely fasten the lid on the box and address 
it to the Director, Federal Bureau of Investigation, 935 Pennsylvania 
Avenue, NW, Washington, D.C. 20535-0001, with the proper attention 
line as outlined above in 13-3.1.1. 

. 5°^ Place a C0 Py of the original written request for 
the examination (s) in an envelope marked "INVOICE." Place the invoice 
envelope. in a clear plastic cover, and tack it to the box. 

(d) Comply with step (9) above. 



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13-3.2 Requests for Other Laboratory Assistance 

F„™ pn *«■» ^ests for artist conceptions should be submitted on 
For* FD-383. Requests for photographic processing, printing, 

2 llKZvl' ll C " Where "° examination ^ involved must be submitted 
-opn fJ^m Lt._ RequesXs _Iqr^other SpecialJ>rojects Section services 
should be submitted on an FD-790. | Requests for translations, " tr"ul"~ 
exhibits, and on-the-scene Laboratory assistance in photographic 
surveillances, evidence examinations, or crime scene searches (e.g., 
bombings) and questions concerning photographic, polygraphs, forensic 
training, or other Laboratory matters should be submitted in a written 
communication, m triplicate, directed to the FBI Laboratory. 

«^rTV f ,, tin,e J? ° f the eS86nce ° r the •*i*«nei« of the case are 
"IIt'i I lep J onica ! lv contact the Laboratory Division, referring to the 

FBI Laboratory Directory of Support Services," for the unit which 
provides the desired assistance. If after consulting the Directory, 
problems or questions still exist, call the office of the Assistant 
Director, extension 4410. 



EFFECTIVE; 09/03/93 

13-4 RESULTS OF EXAMINATION (S) OF EVIDENCE 

The results of evidential examinations conducted in the 
Laboratory are recorded in a written report. 

EFFECTIVE: 11/23/87 



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13-4.1 Dissemination of Laboratory Report I (See MAOP, Part II 
10-13.13.) | 

J Normally| three | copies of each laboratory report are 

furnished to the 

(1) Office(s) contributing evidence, 

(2) Office of origin, 

— —(3) — ° f fic.es_designated_by_the_contributor(s).,_and 



(4) Those offices determined by the Laboratory to have an 
interest in the case depending on the results of the examination(s) . 

(a) The original] and two copies | of the report will 
usually be sent to the office of origin in those instances where there 
are several offices contributing evidence, as well as those instances 
in which a contributing office makes such a request. 

(b) If evidence is submitted to the Laboratory by a 
non-Bureau agency in a case in which the Bureau has or may have a 
joint jurisdiction, a report will be furnished the contributor 
with | three I copies of the report designated for interested Bureau 
offices, to include the office of origin. 






EFFECTIVE: 09/24/93 



13-4.2 



Inclusion of Laboratory Report in Other Reports 



A copy .pf a laboratory report may be included in other 
| reports prepared in the field. J Some (laboratory reports are sent to 
the field under the cover of a Laboratory Transmittal Form (7-72) 
commonly referred to as the Administrative Page(s). These 
I Administrative|Pages|are not part of the laboratory report and 

therefore should not be included in any reports prepared in the field. 



EFFECTIVE: 01/26/83 




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Manual of Investigative Operations and Guidelines 
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13-4.3 Rule 16. (Discovery and Inspection) 

A portion of Rule 16 of the Federal Rules of Criminal 
Procedure states "Reports of Examinations and Tests. Upon request of 
a defendant the government shall permit „the defendant to inspect and 
copy or photograph any results or reports of physical or mental 
examinations, and of scientific tests or experiments, or copies 
thereof, which are within the possession, custody, or control of the 
government, the existence of which is known, or by the exercise of due 
diligence may become known, to the attorney for the government, and 
which are material to the preparation of the defense or are intended 

_i°JLme^y_J:h_e_,gpj^ejrnm^^^ chief at the_ trial . "_ Thi s_ 

request must be made before the court and "Upon a" suf flcient "showing 
the court may at any time order that the discovery or inspection be 
denied, restricted, or deferred, or make such other order as is 
appropriate." 

EFFECTIVE: 01/26/83 -f 

13-4.4 Laboratory Reports and the Disposition of Submitted tl" 

Evidence 

(1) Each laboratory report will normally contain a 
statement concerning the original evidence being returned herewith, 

under separate cover, or with the results of another examination such .'^ 

as a latent fingerprint examination. ■ - '■#*> 



(2) Whenever original evidence is returned by the 
Laboratory to the contributing office(s) or to the office of origin, 
upon the request of the contributor (s) , it should be checked against 
those items listed in the written request as well as in the laboratory 
report to ensure all the evidence has been returned. 

(a) If any discrepancies exist, extreme care should 
be exercised in examining all of the packing material utilized in the 
shipment of the evidence in order that the missing items will not be 
inadvertently disposed of with this material. The FBI Laboratory 
should be advised immediately of any discrepancies. 

(b) |Deletedl 



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EFFECTIVE: 04/07/97 



13-5 



TESTIMONY OF LABORATORY EXAMINERS 



EFFECTIVE: 01/26/83 



13-5,1 



Availability of Service 



Laboratory examiners are available for expert "testimony ~~ 
concerning their examinations provided no other expert is used by the 
prosecution in the same scientific field. (Note: This restriction is 
generally used in the interest of economy and to avoid duplication of 
effort.) 





EFFECTIVE: 01/26/83 



13-5.1.1 Testimony at Trials 

The absence of examiners from FBIHQ should be kept to a 
minimum; therefore, 

(1) Every effort should be made to utilize the services 
of these witnesses as quickly as possible, consistent with good trial 
procedures. 

(2) Whenever practical, arrange for their immediate 
release following court appearance. 

(3) In_most cases the presence of an expert witness is 
NOT required by the court during the jury selection and, consequently, 
he/she need not be present when the case is called. 

(4) Whenever it is possible to anticipate when the expert 
testimony will be required, arrangements should then be made to have 
the witness present at that time, rather than earlier in the trial. 

| (5) Laboratory should be notified of the trial dates or 
other judicial deadlines as soon as they are known or set. I 



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13 5.1.2 Grand Juries and Preliminary Hearings 

| (1) | Laboratory experts are available to testify at such 
hearings but requests for their appearance should not be made unless 
absolutely necessary because in most cases the laboratory report, an 
affidavit, or the testimony of the case Agent will suffice. 



(2) 



If. all attempts to obviate the appearance of a 



Laboratory expert have been exhausted, the FBI~LabolraFol^h6irid~be~ 

advised in detail of the unusual circumstances which make the presence 
of an expert absolutely necessary. 



EFFECTIVE: 01/26/83 



§!■'■ 



13-6 



HANDLING OF PHYSICAL EVIDENCE 



V-Tf- 



EFFECTIVE: 01/26/83 



13-6.1 



Definitions of Evidence 



(1) That which is legally submitted to a competent 
tribunal as a means of ascertaining the truth of any alleged matter of 
fact under investigation before it. 

(2) Anything which a suspect leaves at a crime scene or 
takes from the scene or which may be otherwise connected with the 
crime. 



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13-6.1.1 Terminology '"'.'- 

», . fc „ " Phvsical »" "real," "tangible," "laboratory," and 
t i „l, " e 8l1 » d J •««*•■ to describe the types of evidence which 
| the FBI | Laboratory Division examines. | 



EFFECTIVE: 09/24/93 

_J-«b£ ?_2 Pur pose of Ph ysi cal Evi dence ___ 

(1) Aids in the solution of the case because it can 

(a) Develop M.O.'s or show similar M.O.'s. 

(b) Develop or identify suspects. 

(c) Prove or dispose an alibi. 

. (d) Connect or eliminate suspects. 

(e) Identify loot or contraband. 

(f) Provide leads. 

(2) Proves an element of the offense, for example. 

(a) Safe insulation, glass or building materials on 
suspect s clothing may prove entry. 

00 Stomach contents, bullets, residue at scene of 
fire, semen, blood, toolmarks may all prove elements of certain 
offenses. 

(c) Safe insulation on tools may be sufficient to 
prove violation of possession of burglary tools statutes. 

(3) Proves theory of a case, for example, 

(a) Footprints may show how many were at scene. 

00 Auto paint on clothing may show that a person 
was hit by car instead of otherwise injured. 



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13-6.3 



Nature of Physical Evidence 



•r- .. F ° r the m ° St part ' P h y sic al evidence falls into two 
classifications. 



EFFECTIVE: 01/26/83 



13-6.3.1 



Evidence with Individual Identifying Characterise 



cs 



This evidence can be positively identified as having come 
from a specific source or person if sufficent identifying 
characteristics or sufficient microscopic or accidental markings are 
present. (Examples are: fingerprints, handwriting, bullets, 

e^r^' h Sh °%^ i !J tS * ! ie " S ° f glaSS and plastic whe " the broken 
edges can be matched, and wood where broken/cut surfaces can be 
|matched and fabric and tape (torn ends).)! 



EFFECTIVE: 04/01/96 




13 6.3.2 Evidence With Class Characteristics Only 

„„i„ k. , C i 3 - I hiS e y idence ' no mat ter how thoroughly examined, can 
only be placed into a class. A definite identification as to its 
source can never be made since there is the possibility of more than 
one sourc? for the evidence found. (Examples are: soil, blood, 

IT!'. M ''/ ainffrM a S3fe ° r car ' * U " ^agments too small to 
match broken edges, and toolmarks, shoe prints, or bullets, in those 
instances where the microscopic or accidental markings are 
insufficient for positive identification.) 

. (2) Ifc is desirable to have evidence that can be 
positively identified, but the value of evidence with class 
characteristics only should not be minimized. In cases involving 
evidence with class characteristics only, the following are desirable: 

(a) A preponderance of such evidence. 



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. , . ' ^ A preponderance of class characteristics within 
a singe item of evidence such as paint with many layers all matching 
or soil with foreign matter such as paint chips, odd seeds, and safe 
insulation. 

(c) Elimination specimens such as soil from where a 
suspect claims he/she was or where he/she claims a car was; soil from 
the surrounding areas to show that a variation does exist; and paint 
or other materials from a source mentioned in an alibi. 



EFFECTIVE: 09/24/93 



13-6.4 



Crime Scene Search 



A crime scene search is a planned, coordinated, legal 
search by competent law enforcement officials to locate physical 
evidence or witnesses to the crime under investigation. In order to 
be effective a crime scene search should include the steps outlined in 
paragraphs 13-6.4.1 through 13-6.4.8 below. (Note: For additional 
information concerning a bombing crime scene search see paragraph 
13-6.5 below.) 




EFFECTIVE: 02/12/92 



13-6.4.1 Protect|and Secure|the Crime Scene 

u ,. v ,° nly P? rsons wh0 have a legitimate investigative interest 
should be allowed into the crime scene. This number should be kept to 
a minimum. Too many people in a crime scene can lead to evidence ' 
being moved or destroyed before its value as evidence is recognized. 
jOnce the scene is established, it should be protected diligently. | 

EFFECTIVE: 02/12/92 



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13-6.4.2 Conduct a Preliminary Survey of the Crime Scene for the 

Purposes of Establishing Firm Organizational and Planning 
Guidelines 

This is the planning stage of the search. The plans 
should include: 

(1) Form objectives of the search - what is to be found. 

(2) Take special note of evidence that may be easily 
destroyed such as shoe prints in dust, footprints, etc. 



(3) Organize the search. 



• < a > Make assignments for photographs, fingerprints, 

plaster casts, and evidence handling. 

. , (b) Decide on search pattern, i.e., lane, grid, 

spiral or zone searches. 

(c) Issue instructions to assisting personnel. 

(4) Write a narrative description of the general 
conditions of the crime scene. These are the investigator's original 
notes which will be used to refresh his/her memory at the trial. They 
should be an accurate description of the crime scene and should 
include: 

(a) Date, time, and location of the search. 

(b) Weather and lighting conditions. 

(c) Identity of others participating in the search. 
(d\ Assignments given other personnel. 

(e) Condition and position of evidence found. 




I 



EFFECTIVE: 02/12/92 



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13-6.4.3 Photograph the Crime Scene 



PAGE 13 - 21 



(1) Crime scenes will not remain undisturbed for very 
long, and therefore should be photographed as soon as possible, 
preferably before anyone is allowed into the scene. 

(2) |When possible, a medium-format (120-roll film) camera 
such as the Mamiya 645 should be used. If not available, then the 
35mm camera should be used. Crime-scene photographs will be taken in 
daylight or with electronic flash; therefore, the best film choice is 
either Kodacolor Gold 100 or Vericolor Professional III Type S (VPS) 

--If.using„yPS,_set_camera_and flash.ISO settings at 80 instead of 160 
which is indicated on the film instructions. It is noted that numerous" 
stages of a crime scene investigation will involve photography. A 
constant awareness must be maintained in order to ensure that the 
original crime scene is photographically recorded. As discoveries are 
made, these also should be photographed. I 



(a) Exterior crime scene: 

1 ' Establish the location of the scene by 
taking a series of overall photographs to include a landmark. (360 
degrees coverage if possible) 

2 « Establish the location of the building 
through a series of overall photographs. (Aerial photographs obtained 
at a later date may be useful.) Oblique and verticals. 

... . 3 ' l^y item of importance should have two 

additional photographs made of it. A MEDIUM-di stance photograph that 
depicts the item and shows its relative position to other items in the 
immediate area and a CLOSE-UP photograph with a scale if possible. | 

..... . *• Take a series of close-up photographs of 

individual items of. evidence to include filling the film frame 
showing proper perspective and avoiding oblique angles if possible. 
QBlack and white slow-speed film should be used as needed to record 
shoe prints in dust, documents, fingerprints, etc.) 

5. |A11 entrances/exits into the crime scene 
area should be photographed. | 

(b) Interior crime scene: 

*• Utilizing a series of overall photographs, 
photograph rooms and other interior areas from all sidesTin an 



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overlapping series. It may be useful to make some photographs with a 
wide-angle lens, but, as mentioned before, these should be noted on 
the "photo log," Form FD-674. | 

..... 2 - I Any iten > of importance should have two 

additional photographs made of it. A MEDIUK-distance photograph that 
depicts the item and shows its relative position to other items in the 
immediate area and a CLOSE-UP photograph with a scale if possible. | 

3. IDeletedl 



4. IDeletedl 



(c) Evidence photographs are needed to: 

1« Record the condition of individual items of 
evidence before recovery. (Photographs must show the evidence in 
detail and should include a scale, photographer's initials, and the 
date.) 

2. Conduct laboratory examinations of evidence 
such as shoe prints, tire impressions, and that obtained from bank 
robberies. (Photography should be performed before any attempts to 
lift or cast. Photographs should show identifying data as indicated 
above.) 

3. Support testimony given in court. 
(Photographs should be of professional quality and very detailed.) 

,C3) I The sequence of photographs varies with each scene. 
Logic should dictate what order to proceed with photography based on 
the fragility of a given area and your ability to maintain control of 
the scene. If you feel that exterior areas are in danger of being 
contaminated, then start with those. As long as all the needed 
photographs are made, the order in which they are made is not 
critical. | 

(*) | Crime-scene photographs should be made with the 
normal lens for the camera in use (80mm lens with the 120-roll film 

camera, 50mm lens with the 35mm camera) whenever possible. The 
normal '> lens maintains the same perspective that your eye gives you 

looking at the scene. A series of overlapping photographs can be made 

ILl It S » are ?» ? glVen SpaCC 3re recorded - " »^ng a lens other 
than the normal" lens, such as a "wide-angle" lens, to be able to 

photograph a larger area in a single photograph, it should be noted in 
the photo log (FD-674). (See paragraph (5).) 



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.. v t , ,. A record of Photographs taken should be kept on a 
photo log, Form FD-674. It is not necessary to record the shutter 
speed and f/stop used. It will be very useful to record the item 
description and, in some cases, the location of an item and/or the 
photographer may be significant. A quick drawing showing this should 
be done in the provided space on the form. (This drawing in no way is 
a substitute for the crime scene sketch.) This information can then 
be used later for identifying photographs and as an aid in testimony. I 



EFXE_CTJVE;_02/_12/92_ 



13-6.4.4 Sketch the Crime Scene 

A crime scene sketch is a handmade pictorial 
representation of conditions at a crime scene. (Floor, plans are 
sometimes available from commercial concerns to aid in sketching.) It 
is useful in clarifying investigative data and to make the situation 
easier to understand by eliminating unnecessary detail. A sketch does 
not replace photographs at the crime scene and should be used to show: 

(1) Dimensions of rooms, furniture, doors, windows, etc. 

(2) Distances from objects to entrances and exits 

(3) Distances between objects (including persons/bodies) 

(4) Measurements showing the exact location of items of 
evidence. Each object should be located by two measurements from 
nonmovable items, such as doors, walls, etc. 

(5) Point-of-view locations of photographs 



EFFECTIVE: 02/12/92 



13-6.4.5 Process for Fingerprints 

See Part II, Section 15, of this manual for instructions 
on fingerprinting a crime scene. 




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EFFECTIVE: 02/12/92 



13-6.4.6 Make Shoe Print/Tire Tread Casts and/or Lifts 

-.,.*• * See Paragraphs 13-19.1 through 13-19.1.3 elsewhere in this 

«H/i° n ,-S instructl0ns on the "»""« of ^oe print/tire tread cases 
ana/ or xitcs* 



E FFECTIVE; 2/12/92 



Q 




13-6.4.7 Collect, Identify and Preserve the Evidence 

. . For additional information on the collection, 

J! e 2 t 7 fl ^*'i 0n ' *"? P reserv » tion <>f items of evidence, see paragraph 
13-6.7 (Evidence Chart) and/or the appropriate paragraphs eLewSere in 
this section concerning the type of examination desired. 

(1) Collection. 

.._,., < a) A11 evidence must be collected legally in order 

In ?K.*f' ,1S T-? le l n C - Urt at S iat " date - For further instructions 
on the legality of crime scene searches, refer to the Legal Handbook 
ror Special Agents. 

. ( b) Evidence found during a search should be 
displayed immediately to another Special Agent so that both Agents can 
testify Co its source. 

t , (c ^ A11 evidence should be fully described in the 
searcher s notes and photographed in place prior to being picked up. 

t „ < d) I£ appropriate, Form FD-597 (Receipt for 
Property Received/Returned/Released/Seized) should be properly 
executed and the copy furnished to the contributor and/or the 

?«™ m!«5°- Wh r u^ ? ro P ertv iB bein « surrendered. The original of 
Form FD-597 is to be placed m the 1-A exhibit envelope of the case 

(2) Identification. 

, ., L _, AU f rti <=les of an evidentiary nature should be 
carefully marked for identification, preferably on the article itself, 



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in a manner not to injure the evidence itself and not to be 

obliterated. These markings, to include initials, date and case 

number enable the person finding the evidence to testify, at a later 
date, to the finding of it. 

(3) Preservation. 

(*) Each item of evidence should be placed in a 
suitable container, such as pillboxes, plastic vials or strong 
cardboard boxes. The container should be suitably identified and 
sealed. 



G>) Prepare appropriate 1-A envelopes | (FD-340a 
and/or FD-340b) J and/or Forms FD-192 and store the evidence in 
designated areas. 

^ For submission of evidence to the laboratory for 
examination see 13-3 (Requesting Laboratory Assistance), 13-6.6 
(.Packaging Chart), and 13-6.7 (Evidence Chart). 

....... (d) The legal "chain of custody" must be maintained 

at all times. 

EFFECTIVE: 02/12/92 

13-6.5 Bombing Crime Scene Search 

Bombing crime scenes, in spite of their massive 
destruction, must be conducted on the theory that everything at the 
scene prior to the explosion is still in existence unless it has been 
vaporized by the explosion. Locating and identifying items is the 
problem. The often-used statement that so much is destroyed by the 
explosion that the cause must remain unknown is rarely true. Due to 
various factors, the exact amount of explosives used cannot 
(normally | be determined based on an evaluation of the damage at the 
scene. (Note: The information contained in 13-6.4 
through) 13-6. 4. 7|concerning a crime scene search also applies to a 
bombing crime scene search.) 

EFFECTIVE: 12/05/85 



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13-6.5.1 Purpose of|Bombing Crime|Scene Search 

. ' J (1 ^l The P^Pose of a|bombing crime|scene search is to 
determine what happened, how it happened,, and gather evidence to 
identify bomb components, reconstruct the explosive device and compare 
it with items of evidence identifiable to a|suspect or to previous 
bombings. | r 

| (2) The office of origin should contact the Laboratory as 
soon as feasible to advise of the bombing and pertinent details. The 

^.»WAtpry_wi.ll_8.ear_ch_U«_ar.chiie^j.n_oxd.e.r_to_advi««_the_fie.ld 

office of any similar bombing incidents- from the past. I ~ 



EFFECTIVE: 04/07/97 



i. 



I 13-6.5.2 Special Considerations for a|Bombing Crime|Scene Search 

The following steps are to assist in the preparation, 
supervision, and evaluation activity connected with the scene of a 
bombing. The topics covered are not meant to be all inclusive and no 
attempt has been made to comment on the. many aspects of the bombine 
investigation. * 

W p } an of action: Formulate a plan adapted to the 
particulars of the | bombing (crime scene. This plan will include 
consideration of the creation of an on-scene command post; 
establishment of lines of supervision; assignment of various tasks 
such as photographing, fingerprint processing, crowd control, 
collection of evidence, etc.; protection of the crime scene; 
obtainment of needed equipment; periodic evaluation of progress- 
providing of pertinent information to the public;" safety; etc. ' 

(2) Command post: Consider establishing an on-scene 
command|post, separate from the investigative command post I 
particularly at a large bombing which may require days or weeks to 
complete the crime scene search. The command post should coordinate 
efforts amongst Bureau personnel and between representatives of other 
agencies and utilities as well as handle inquiries from sighseers, 
persons associated with the scene, relatives of the victims, and the 
press. 



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One person should be in overall charge of the bombing investigation, 
ano her over the actual crime scene search, and another over fhe 
collection of the evidence. These three individuals must maintain 
close coordination^ and expeditiously exchange information on a 
continual basis. The evidence coordinator will report directly to the 
crime scene coordinator who in turn will report directly to the 
individual responsible for the overall bombing investigation. 

f . . (3) Safe ty: Evaluate safety conditions at the outset of 
the crime scene search and on a continual basis throughout the search 
consider the possibility of a second bomb, a "jammed" bomb, or Hve 
-explosives. being_ in.„the.debris_and..the..safety of crowds, nearby 

residents, and personnel at the crime scene not only from additional 

explosions but also from such dangers created by utilities, weakened 

„-t-v t - 'f 8 ?, En ? ure a11 crime scene personnel are current 
with Tetanus and Hepatitis B vaccine. 

(b) Dust masks should be worn at all times while 
present at the crime scene, especially when death occurs and suspect 
carcinogens are present. p 

(c) Annual physical for potential crime scene 
personnel and individuals which have worked on major crime scenes is 
recommended. 

(d) All crime scene clothing should be detoxified 
prior to leaving the crime scene, even if the crime scene personnel 
are returning the following day. Caution should be exercised when 
storing soiled crime scene clothing in a hotel room or at the 
searcher s residence. Many contaminants may be adhering to this 
clothing and could cause illness to an individual not associated with 
the crime scene. 




(e) Prior to allowing the search team access to the 
crime scene, especially in the event of a large bombing, the crime 
scene should be examined for the presence of a radioactive residue, 
either associated with the bomb or the bombing scene. | 

NOTE: Bureau bomb technicians, Laboratory explosive specialists 
public safety bomb squad or military EOD personnel should be contacted 
it a DOfflb is located. 

f« .- - -i 4) Protection of crime scene: Take adequate safeguards 
to protect the crime scene from fire, law enforcement, utility, and 



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rescue personnel as well as others such as sightseers, victims, and 
individuals with a personal interest in the property. Also, since 
most residues remaining after an initiation of an explosive are water 
soluble, the crime scene, as ' much as possible, should be protected 
against exposure to excessive moisture be it from rain, snow, broken 
water pipes, or any other source. ' 

(5) Photographs: Take appropriate photographs to give a 
photographic representation of the crime scene (see 13-6.4.3 as a 
guide). These photographs should be made immediately before, 
periodically during, and at the completion of the crime scene 

^activity. Properly J, dent ify each photograph, coordinate the 

photographs wi th diagrams and/or blueprint s-of- SapsT-and "cbrirrde r" the— — - 

advisability of aerial photographs. 

(6) Bomb scene specialists: Have some specialists 
trained in handling and processing bomb scenes or make arrangements 
for obtaining such individuals from the Laboratory 

[ |Materials and Devices Unit. | Although the basic principles of 
conducting a crime scene search apply in a bomb scene search, 
individuals with specialized knowledge of explosives, improvised 
explosive devices, damage produced by explosive charges, and other 
facets associated with bomb scene searches, such as the search and 
collection of physical bombing evidence, are extremely valuable to the 
processing of a bomb scene effectively and efficiently. These 
specialists need not be qualified bomb disposal specialists. They 
should be the first persons, if possible, to be selected for the 
evidence and crime scene search coordinator positions. 

(7) Equipment: Promptly make arrangements to obtain the 
necessary equipment to move the debris and material at the scene. 
Although the equipment needed at the scene varies, the foil owing have 
been used: 

(a) Hand tools: Shovels, rakes, brooms, 
boltcutters, wire cutters, sledgehammer, hammer, screwdrivers, 
wrenches, chisels, hacksaw, magnet, flashlights, knife, 50-foot 
measuring tape, and traffic wheel measuring device. 

(b) Other light equipment: Screens for sifting 
debris, wheelbarrows, metal trash cans, power saw, cutting torch 
equipment, ladders, portable lighting equipment, metal detector, large 
plastic sheets, photographic equipment, . and parachute harness with 
related rope and pulleys. 

(c) Heavy equipment: Truck, front-end loader, 



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(d) Personal equipment: Hard hats, safety goggles, 
gloves (work and rubber types), foul weather clothing, coveralls, and 
work shoes. 

(<*) Crime scene kit: Usual equipment used for the 
collection, preservation, and identification of physical evidence. 

■.. (f) Vehicle: If the bombed target was a vehicle, 

bring an identical vehicle, if possible, to the scene to assist in 
-^4gEtjjy_i n g_fj:ag mented and mutilated it ems. 



(8) Search for evidence: Bear in mind the search for 
evidence at a bombing crime scene is important because the crime may 
contain principal evidence which will lead to the identification of 
the bomber (s) and/or assist in the successful prosecution of the 
matter. The following guidelines are general in nature as the exact 
method of searching depends on various uncontrollable factors: 

(a) Place one person in overall charge of the 
collection of the evidence from the various collectors as valuable 
evidence may not be admissible in court if a proper "chain of custody" 
cannot be established. 

(b) Do not stop the search after a few items of 
evidence have been found. Experience has shown that a thorough, 
persistent search will locate remains of most of the bomb components. 

(c) Avoid the tendency to concentrate only on 
physical evidence, such as safety fuse, detonating cord, blasting 
caps, leg (electrical) wire, dynamite wrappers, batteries, clock and 
timing devices, electronic and electrical components, metal end cap 
from a TNT block, plastic end cap from a C4 block, explosive residues, 
and unconsumed explosives, which may represent a bomb as this can 
result in overlooking other valuable evidence, such as fingerprints, 
hair, fibers, soil, blood, paint, plastic, tape, tools, toolmarks, 
metals, writing, paper, printing, cardboard, wood, leather, and tire 
tread-shoe print impressions. 

(d) Conduct a well organized, thorough, and careful 
search to prevent the necessity of a second search. However, have a 
secure "dump" area for debris in the event a second search is 
necessary. 



(e) [Simultaneously commence the scene search f 



rom 



43f 






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th! ,! I sx f e ° f the explosion and from the extreme perimeter toward 
SI II- "^ ".'?! b ° mb CraUr " in earth ' obtain ■•" "mples from 
Jllilt , °i- th * CraUr * " Wel1 as Ero » the side * and bottom, 

nJl?.? Ur \f . dlS . X M O ^ fiubstrata « ■■" th « crater is in another 
material, obtain similar samples. 

nntn ,„ . . ^ (f) . Sift Sffla11 de bris through a 1/4-inch wire screen 
onto an insect-type wire screen. Usually these screens are placed on 
2 foot square wooden frames constructed from 2- by 4-inch lumber. 
||NO more than three workers should work on a screen. | 

. ^ : _<«)__ .fcr«y_th« .. bp.di es_of _liy i ng.. and_deceas ed vi c t ims 

who were in close proximity of the explosion site for possible ~~ 
physical evidence and if possible, have the evidence removed. Their 
clothing should be retained as it may contain explosive residues. 
Also, obtain all medical reports concerning the victims' 
injuries/circumstances of death. 

... , . M Search a sufficient distance from the site of 
the explosion as evidence has been found several blocks from the sites 
or large explosions. 

(i) Determine the possible flight paths of bomb 
components to prevent needless searching. 

, J (j) Search trees, shrubbery, telephone poles, and 
the roofs, ledges, and gutters of buildings. 

,. . (k > Establish a search pattern for large areas. A 

line of searchers moving forward has been found to be a satisfactory 
method. A bomb scene specialist should follow the line of searchers 
to evaluate the items found, control the searchers, and furnish 
guidance. If a second search is desired, the positions of the 
searchers on the line should be rotated. 

uK . . ... ,_ (1) Retain all items foreign to the scene and items 
which the searchers cannot identify after seeking the assistance of 
those familiar with the bombed target. 

On) Obtain known standards of wire and buildine 
material from the bomb scene to be submitted to the Laboratory for 
elimination purposes. ' 

. . t l (n } Coll ect and preserve street signs, such as no 
parking or stop signs that may have captured explosives residue 
following the bombing. If it is not possible to remove and collect 



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the sign immediately, a plastic bag should be placed over the sign 
until explosives residues can be removed and packaged for analysis. 

(o) Have a chemist screen each crime scene worker 
for possible contamination with explosives in accordance with 
existing policy. 

(p) Do not wear crime scene clothing that has been 
used for explosive training, research with explosives, clothing 
normally used for firearms practice or has been worn at other bombing 
crime scene searches or the search of a bombing suspect or bomb 
factory unl ess the clothing has been thoroughly cleaned by a 
commercial laundry. | ~ — ~ " ~~ ~~ — — — 



EFFECTIVE: 04/07/97 



13-6.6 Packaging Chart (See MIOG, Part II, 13-3. 1 (4) (b) , 

13-3.1.2, 13-6.4.7(3) (c), | 13-6. 7 (20) (d); NF IP Manual, Part 
I, 5-6.3(14) (b).) | 

The following chart should be followed to properly prepare 
a package for shipment of numerous and/or bulky items of evidence 
apart from the original written request for an examination (s) . For 
additional guidance and instructions see 13-3.1.2 (Shipment of 
Evidence "Under Separate Cover") above. 

ILLUSTRATION NOT SHOWN - SEE "ERL SEARCHING GUIDE," APPENDIX 




1. 
2. 

3. 

4. 
5. 

6. 



Pack bulk evidence securely in box. 
SEAL box and mark as evidence. Mark "Latent" if 
necessary. 

Place copy of transmittal letter in envelope and mark 
' "Invoice." 
Stick envelope to OUTSIDE of sealed box. 
Wrap sealed box in outside wrapper and SEAL with 
gummed paper. 
Address to: Director 

Federal Bureau of Investigation 
| 935 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW 

Washington, D.C. | 20535-0001 

"Attention FBI | Laboratory, Evidence 

Control Center." | 
Cover label with yellow transparent tape and attach 



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it securely to the package. 
7. If packing box is wooden — tack invoice envelope to 
top under a transparent yellow cover. 



EFFECTIVE: 04/01/96 



13-6.7 



G 




Evidence Chart (See MIOG, Part I, 91-8(11), 139-3- p ar t 
II, 13-3.1(4), 13-3.1.2 (1),(9), 13-6.4.7 (3)(c).j 



,, *. T he f0ll0Min g ^art is provided to give assistance in the 
collection, identification, preservation, packaging, and sending of 
evidence to the Laboratory. This chart should be used in conjunction 
with similar evidence information contained elsewhere in this section 
under each type of examination desired. This evidence information and 
chart are not intended to be all inclusive, and does not pertain to 
latent fingerprint evidence. 



SAND, ETC.: 



ounce 



(1) SPECIMEN - ABRASIVES, INCLUDING CARBORUNDUM, EMERY, 

(a) STANDARD (AMOUNT DESIRED) - Not less than one 

(b) EVIDENCE (AMOUNT DESIRED) - All 

(c) SEND BY - Registered mail or Federal Express 

<*> IDENTIFICATION - On outside of container: Type 
of material, date obtained, name or initials 

(e) WRAPPING AND PACKING - Use sturdy containers, 
such as 35 mm fUm canister or pharmaceutical container. Seal to 
prevent any loss. . • "*■ 

(f) REMARKS - Avoid use of envelopes 
(2) SPECIMEN - ACIDS: 

(a) STANDARD (AMOUNT DESIRED) - 100 milliliters 



(ml.) 



(b) EVIDENCE (AMOUNT DESIRED) - All to 100 ml. 



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Service 



(c) SEND BY - Federal Express or United Parcel 



(d) IDENTIFICATION - On outside of . container: Type 
of material, date obtained, name or initials 

(e) WRAPPING AND PACKING - Plastic or all-glass 
bottle. Tape stopper. Pack in vermiculite or other absorbent 
material. 

(f) REMARKS - Label "acids-corrosive." 




(3) SPECIMEN -ADHESIVE TAPE:" " ' " 

(a) STANDARD (AMOUNT DESIRED) - Recovered roll 

(b) EVIDENCE (AMOUNT DESIRED) - All 

(c) SEND BY - Registered mail 

(d) IDENTIFICATION - On outside of container: Type 
of material, date obtained, name or initials 

(e) WRAPPING AND PACKING - Place on waxed paper 
cellophane. 

(f) REMARKS - Do not cut, wad or distort. 

_ # W SPECIMEN - ALKALIES - CAUSTIC SODA, POTASH, AMMONIA, 

, , < a) STANDARD (AMOUNT DESIRED) - 100 ml., 100 grams 

vgm.) 

* M EVIDENCE (AMOUNT DESIRED) - All to 100 ml., All 
to 100 gm. 

„ (c) SEND BY - Federal Express or United Parcel 

Service 

<<*> IDENTIFICATION - On outside of container: Type 
of material, date obtained, name or initials 

(e) WRAPPING AND PACKING - Plastic or glass bottle 
with rubber stopper held with adhesive tape. Pack in sawdust or 
vermiculite. Label "Corrosive Material-Alkali" and volume. 



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(f) REMARKS - Label alkali-corrosive. 
(5) SPECIMEN - AMMUNITION (CARTRIDGES):: (See (29).) 

(a) SEND BY - For instructions re: shipping live 
ammunition, see 13-12.4.2 in this section. 

(b) IDENTIFICATION - On outside of container: Type 
of material, date obtained, name or initials 

— — Is) WRAPPING^AND PACKING - For instr uction s re: 

shipping of live ammunition, see 13-12.4.2 in this section. "~(SeV ~~ 
also 13-12.4.3.) 

( d ) REMARKS - Unless specific examination of 
cartridge is essential, do not submit. 

(6) SPECIMEN - ANONYMOUS LETTERS, EXTORTION LETTERS, BANK 
ROBBERY NOTES: (See (19), (20), (22), (23), (43) , (52) , (65)) 

(a) EVIDENCE (AMOUNT DESIRED) - Ail (Original 
documents, not copies, whenever possible) 

(b) SEND BY - Registered mail 

(c) IDENTIFICATION - Initial and date each unless 
legal aspects or good judgment dictates otherwise. 

(d) WRAPPING AND PACKING - Place in proper enclosure 
envelope and seal with "Evidence" tape or transparent cellophane tape. 
Flap side of envelope should show (1) wording "Enclosure (s) to FBIHQ 
from (name of submitting office)," (2) title of case, (3) brief 
description of contents, and (4) file number, if known. Staple to 
original letter ^of transmittal. 

(e) REMARKS - Do not handle with bare hands. Advise 
if evidence should be treated for latent fingerprints. 

(7) SPECIMEN - BILE: 

(a) STANDARD (AMOUNT DESIRED) - 10 milliliters 

(b) SEND BY - Most expeditious means available 

(c) IDENTIFICATION - Label container identifying 



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' .^ (d > . WRAPPING AND PACKING - Container in cardboard 
box with paper or styrofoam packing. 

^ REMARKS - Hold in freezer until personally 
delivered or pack in dry ice for mailing by most expeditious means 
available. Attach autopsy report. 

™t,„*« ™ (8) SPECIMEN " BLASTING CAPS (CONTACT MATERIALS AND 
DEVICES UNIT FOR INSTRUCTIONS.) 



„ t , „ a f 9) SPECIMEN - BLOOD -LIQUID KNOWN SAMPLES : '(S^eTS- 

8.1.4, 13-8.2.5 (3) & 13-8.4 (5).) 

(a) STANDARD (AMOUNT DESIRED) - 1 red top (no 
preservative) vacutainer vial for serological analysis and 1 purple 
top (.EDTA) vacutainer vial for DNA analysis 

(b) EVIDENCE (AMOUNT DESIRED) - All 

(c) SEND BY - Air mail special delivery - air 
freight or similar rapid transit method 

,„..,. (d) IDENTIFICATION - Use adhesive tape on outside of 
test tube. Name of donor, date taken, doctor's name, name or initials 
of Agent. 

(e) WRAPPING AND PACKING - Wrap in cotton, soft 
paper. Place in mailing tube or suitably strong mailing carton. 

(f) REMARKS - Submit immediately. Don't hold 
awaiting additional items for comparison. Keep under refrigeration, 
NOT freezing, until mailing. NO refrigerants and/or dry ice should be 
added to sample ^during transit. Fragile label. 

(10) SPECIMEN - BLOOD - SMALL QUANTITIES (LIOUID 
QUESTIONED SAMPLES) : (See MIOG, Part II, 13-8.1.4.) 

(a) EVIDENCE (AMOUNT DESIRED) - All 

(b) SEND BY - Air mail special delivery - air 
freight or similar rapid transit method 

' (c) IDENTIFICATION - Use adhesive tape on outside of 

test tube. Name of donor, date taken, doctor's name, name or initials 



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paper Placa in f* • i ."^P 6 *»> PACKING " Wrap in cotton, soft 
paper. Place m mailing tube or suitably strong mailing carton. 

, " ,, ^ RE MARKS - If unable to EXPEDITIOUSLY furnish 

off? c^ : l W l ^ th0r °^ hl y on the —P-ous surface a pe 
off or collect by usxng eyedropper or clean spoon, transfer to 
nonporous surface and let dry; or absorb in sterile gauze and let dry. 

ON FABRICS) . (11 Lf!;Tnr E V l^f To^ N UANTIT IES (DRY STAINS NOT 
-¥ w f abkic&J _; (.See MIO G, Par tlj .13-8 . 1 . b. , ) 



(a) EVIDENCE (AMOUNT DESIRED) - As much as possible 

(b) SEND BY - Registered mail 

n1 . ,. . , „ (c) IDENTIFICATION - On outside of pillbox or 
plastic vial. Type of specimen date secured, name or initials 

(d) WRAPPING AND PACKING - Seal to prevent leakage. 

scrapings. M REMA * KS " KeeP dry ' AV ° id USe of ^elopes for 

™v™,^ <12) SPECIMEN " BLOOD - SMALL QUANTITIES (FOR 
TOXICOLOGICAL USE): (See MIOG, Part II, 13-8.1.4, 13-8.2.4 (3).) 

(a) EVIDENCE (AMOUNT DESIRED) - 20 cc. (Blood and 
preservative mixture) vbiooo and 

(b > SEND BY - Air mail special delivery - air 
freight or similar rapid transit method 

f«f * h » ' ( ? IDENTIFI CATI0N - Use adhesive tape on outside of 
of Igent' * ° f d0n ° r ' d3te Uken ' doct -'» -ame, name or initial 

(d) WRAPPING AND PACKING - Medical examiner should 
use a standard blood collection kit. examiner should 

5 e * REMARKS - Preservative desired (identifv 
preservation used). Refrigerate. CAN freeze. ° ^"entity 

(See MIOG, Part II^Tl^T " ^^ CL ° THING ' '^^ ETC ' ' 



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PAGE 13 - 37 

(a) EVIDENCE (AMOUNT DESIRED) - As found 

„ ... A , ( ^ SEND BY - Registered mail, Federal Express, 

United Parcel Service (UPS) F ' 

e l„M, r C (C) P ENTIFICATI °N " Use tag or mark directly on 
clothes. Type of specimens, date secured, name or initials. 

(d) WRAPPING AND PACKING - Each article wrapped 
separately and identified on outside of package. Place in strong box 
—P^lM^pre^^^^ should be 

used for air-dried, blood-stained clothing items. ^~~~ ~~~~ — ~~ " 

USE NO »PAT -rn n»v 6) A RE ^^ * lf W6t Whe ° f0Und » DRY BY HANGING. 
USE NO HEAT TO DRY. Avoid direct sunlight while drying. Use no 
preservatives. 

te.. (K\ ( J 4> ^n? P f C i [MEN " B ° DY ° RGANS (BRAIN ' KIDNEY - LIVER . LU NG): 
(See (33) and (70) below, and MIOG, Part II, 13-10.1.5.) 

(a) EVIDENCE (AMOUNT DESIRED) - 75 grams of each 

(b) SEND BY - Most expeditious means available 

(c) IDENTIFICATION - Label container indicating 
organ, name of subject, date taken, initials of Agent 

. ' (d) "RAPPING AND PACKING - Styrofoam container 

preferred to keep specimens frozen 

... (•) REMARKS - Hold in freezer until personally 

delivered or pack in dry ice for mailing by most expeditious means 
available. Attach autopsy report. 

II, 13-12. 4 ( 3 5 ) SPECIMEN " BULLETS (N0T CARTRIDGES): (See MIOG, Part 

(a) EVIDENCE (AMOUNT DESIRED) - All found 

(b) SEND BY - Registered mail 

(c) IDENTIFICATION - | Initial or otherwise mark 
primary container only) 

(d) WRAPPING AND PACKING - Pack tightly in cotton or 



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contend" " '*"• "^ " ^^ b ° X * Ubel 0utsid * of bo * « to 

(e) REMARKS - Unnecessary handling, obliterates marks 
(16) SPECIMEN - CARTRIDGES (LIVE AMMUNITION) : 

(a) EVIDENCE (AMOUNT DESIRED) - All found 

(b) SEND BY ~ For instructions re: shipping live 
ammunition, see paragraph 13-12.4.2 in this section. 





orimarv ,*„, • (c) * DENTIFICATI0N "I I"i tiaro7^e7^^a7lT~ ~ 

primary container only| 

. (d) CAPPING AND PACKING - Pack tightly in cotton or 
coftenjr ^ Pi "' matCh ° r P ° Wder b0X ' Label <"*£«* *' box as ?o 

! II, 13-12.4. ( ") SPECIMEN ' CARTRIDGE CA SES (SHELLS): (See MIOG, Part 

(a) EVIDENCE (AMOUNT DESIRED) - All 

(b) SEND BY - Registered mail 

, . (c) IDENTIFICATION -|lnitial or otherwise mark 
primary container only] 

. (d) CAPPING AND PACKING - Pack tightly in cotton or 
con entr " PiU ' "'* " P0Wder b ° X ' Ubel 0uts ^ of Cox as to 

C Will. 9X1 LS * 

(13) ) (18) SPECIMEN " CH ARRED OR BURNED DOCUMENTS: (See 13-17.4 

(a) EVIDENCE (AMOUNT DESIRED) - All 
. (b) SEND BY - Registered mail 

,-«H,'„f * ■, ^l IDENTIFIC ATION - On outside of container 
indicate fragile nature of evidence, date obtained, name or initials. 

(d) WRAPPING AND PACKING - Utilize oolvester film 

I Teiui: T ion ■ t ; cha :? ue ^ contact inves t£ « ative op.r:t&r«; r a »£ r t 

| Section for instructions) OR Ship charred paper in original container 



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Manual of Investigative Operations and Guidelines 
Part II 

PA< 

in which it was burned at crime scene OR Pack in rigid container 
between layers of cotton. Do not compress layers. 

„. . .,„ ^ REMARKS - Added moisture, with atomizer or 
otherwise, NOT RECOMMENDED. 

(19) SPECIMEN - CHECKS (FRAUDULENT) : 

(a) EVIDENCE (AMOUNT DESIRED) - All (Original 
documents, not copies, whenever possible) 

____(b). _SH*D_ B I^Reg i s it ered_mai 1 




(c) IDENTIFICATION - See Anonymous Letters (6) above 
above (<1) WRAPPING ^ PACKING - See Anonymous Letters (6) 

P.im,-«h «».„.• i i^ * EMARKS " Advise what P«ts questioned or known. 
Furnish physical description of subject. 

STAMP KNnuw^Lnf™*"^ " CHECK PROTE CTOR, RUBBER STAMP AND/OR DATER 
STAMP KNOWN STANDARDS (NOTE: SEND ACTUAL DEVICE WHEN POSSIBLE) 

• . < a > STANDARD (AMOUNT DESIRED) - Obtain several 

^T!V n 1. word -f or - word " d ^ of each questioned check-writer 

™H n ',u ^« nal?le t0 f ° rWard rubber sta *P 8 ' P"P a « numerous 
samples with different degrees of pressure. 

(b) SEND BY - Registered mail 

(e) IDENTIFICATION - Place name or initials, date, 
name of make and model, etc., on sample impressions. 

, (d) WRAPPING AND PACKING - See Anonymous Letters (6) 
above and/or Packaging Chart (paragraph 13-6.6) above 

printing device, ^ ""^ " D ° ^ ^^ £nking -danisms on 
(21) . SPECIMEN - CLOTHING: 

(a) EVIDENCE (AMOUNT DESIRED) - All 

United Parcel Service (55)" " ^^ -"• " federal Express or 



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PAGE 13 - 40 

' .. t T (c) e IDENTIFICATION - Mark directly on garment or use 
string tag. Type of evidence, name or initials, date. 

(d) WRAPPING AND PACKING -Each article individually 
wrapped with identification written on outside of package. Place !n 
strong container. Clothing items should be individually packaged in 
paper bags. 

,. . Tx: (e) REMARKS - Leave clothing whole. Do not cut out 
stains. If wet, HANG IN ROOM TO DRY before packing. 




„ 1TniT1I (i2) SPECIMEN - CODES, ^CIPHERS AND FOREIGN LANGUAGE^ -- 
■ MATERIAL: 

(a) EVIDENCE (AMOUNT DESIRED) - All 

(b) SEND BY - Registered mail 

afeove (c > IDENTIFICATION - Same as Anonymous Letters (6) 

(6) above ^ WRAPPING AND PA <*ING - Same as Anonymous Letters 

„..,., (e) REMARKS - Furnish pertinent background and 
technical information, 

(46)) (23) SPECIMEN " C0MPUTE R AND COMPUTER-RELATED ITEMS: (See 

(a) EVIDENCE (AMOUNT DESIRED) - All 

... . . (b) SEND BY " Floppy disks - registered mail; hard 
disks - by overnight express. 

ta *» n . a • ■*• , (C) « IDENTIFICATI0N " ^bel container indicating date 
taken and initials of Agent. 

(d) WRAPPING AND PACKING - See Anonymous Letters (6) 

J!!!/" ^ "envelope *hould be marked "Magnetic Media Evidence 
Enclosed. Do not X-ray. 

(e) REMARKS - If computer diskettes are submitted, 
accompanying communication should, if possible, contain information 
regarding the make and model of computer used in their preparation. 



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p a*"t II „ A -„ ,„ 

PAGE 13 - 41 

(24) SPECIMEN - DRUGS - LIQUIDS: (See (35), (36), (49)) 

(a) EVIDENCE (AMOUNT DESIRED) - All 

(b) SEND BY - Registered mail, UPS or air express 

e j . , . ' (c) VERIFICATION - Affix label to bottle in which 
round, including name or initials and date. 

(d) WRAPPING AND PACKING - Bottle with sealable top. 




(*) REMARKS - Determine alleged normal use of drug 
and if prescription, check with druggist for supposed ingredients. 

^ „n^ (25) SPECIMEN " DRUG S " POWDERS, PILLS, SOLIDS: (See 
(.35;, (49)) 

(a) EVIDENCE (AMOUNT DESIRED) - All 
;! ( b > SEND B * - Registered mail, UPS or air express 

(c) IDENTIFICATION - On outside of pillbox, name or 
initials and date 

< d > WRAPPING AND PACKING - Seal to prevent any loss 
by use of tape . 

? 6) SPECIMEN " DYNAMITE AND OTHER EXPLOSIVES OR SUSPECTED 
EXPLOSIVES (CONTACT MATERIALS AND DEVICES UNIT FOR INSTRUCTIONS AND 
SHIPPING CONTAINERS.) 

(27) SPECIMEN - FIBERS: 

- < a > STANDARD (AMOUNT DESIRED) - Entire garment or 
other cloth item 

(b) EVIDENCE (AMOUNT DESIRED) - All 

(c) SEND BY - Registered mail 

(d) IDENTIFICATION - On outside of sealed container 
or on object to which fibers are adhering. 

_ ■ (e) WRAPPING AND PACKING - Folded paper or pillbox. 

Seal edges and openings with tape. 



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, . ut a (d) WRAPPING ■~AW)-pACKIMG^^If ^-dt-devel-oped-wrap-iir 
lightproof container. F 

(29) 5 PECIMEN ~ FIREARMS: (See MIOG, Part II, 13-12.4.3, 
13-12.5; MAOP, Part II, 2-2.2.2, 6-2.3.9:) "•*..», 

(a) EVIDENCE (AMOUNT DESIRED) - All 

''$ (b) SEND BY _ Registered mail or Federal Express 

(c) IDENTIFICATION - Mark inconspicuously as if it 
were your own. Investigative notes should reflect how and where gun 
narked. ' * 

(d) WRAPPING AND PACKING - Wrap in paper and 
identify contents of package. Place in cardboard box or wooden box. 

(«) REMARKS - Unload all weapons before shipping. 
Keep from rusting. See Ammunition (5) above, if applicable. 

(30) SPECIMEN - FLASH PAPER: 

- ^ SEND BY " Contac t Investigative Operations and 
Support Section for instructions 

(b) IDENTIFICATION - Initials and date. 

(c) WRAPPING AND PACKING - Individual polyethylene 
envelopes double wrapped in manila envelopes. Inner wrapper sealed 
with paper tape. 

c , _ ^ REMARKS - Store between moistened sheets of 

blotter paper, with dry ice. Refrigerate if extended storage is 
necessary. ° 



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?art - 11 ., PAGE 13-42 £ 

■A 

(f) REMARKS - Do not place loose in envelope. 
(28) SPECIMEN - FILM: 

(a) EVIDENCE (AMOUNT DESIRED) - All 

(b) SEND BY - Registered mail 

"DO NOT X-RAY." ^ IDENTIFICATI0N ' If not developed mark outside 







:£ 



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PAGE 13 - 43 

nRVTrrc TTKTT <3 i.L SPECIMEN - FUSE. (SAFETY) (CONTACT MATERIALS AND 
DEVICES UNIT FOR COMPLETE INSTRUCTIONS) 

(32) SPECIMEN - GASOLINE: (See MIOG, Part II, 13-10.3.4.) 

(a) STANDARD (AMOUNT DESIRED) - 100 ml. 

(b) EVIDENCE (AMOUNT DESIRED) - All to 100 ml. 

(c) SEND BY - UPS or Federal Express 




„-m, - * . ( ^ IDENTIFI CATI0N - On outside of container, labe7~ 
with type of material, name or initials, and date. 

break . nrn , . ,„, (e) W R AP"NG AND PACKING - Use sturdy box containing 
break-proof bottles and absorbent packing. 

(f) REMARKS - Shipping regulation - allow 4 oz. 
maximum per bottle. 

(33) SPECIMEN - GASTRIC CONTENTS s 

(a) EVIDENCE (AMOUNT DESIRED) - All available 

(b) SEND BY - Most expeditious means available 

„ ,. . < c > IDENTIFICATION - Label container indicating 

gastric contents," name of subject, date taken, initials of Agent. 

(d) WRAPPING AND PACKING - Bottle with sealable top 
and pack as indicated under "Body organs," (14) above. 

(e) REMARKS - Mark package "Keep Refrigerated." 
(34) SPECIMEN - GEMS: (See MIOG, Part II, 13-11.7.) 

(a) EVIDENCE (AMOUNT DESIRED) - All 

(b) SEND BY - Registered mail 

(c) IDENTIFICATION - On outside of container 

(d) WRAPPING AND PACKING - Use 35 mm film canister 
or pharmaceutical container. 



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PAGE 13-44 «* 

(35) SPECIMEN - GENERAL UNKNOWN - SOLIDS (NONHAZARDOUS) ; 

(a) STANDARD (AMOUNT DESIRED) - 100 gins. 

(b) EVIDENCE (AMOUNT DESIRED) - All to 100 gms. 

(c) SEND BY - Registered mail 

,,..„, , (d) IDENTIFICATION - Name or initials, date on 
outside of sealed container. 

(?«0 above -< e >— "RAPPING. AND. .PACKING_^Same_.as., Drugs ,_,(24)„ and 

t ( f ) REMARKS - If item is suspected of being a 
hazardous material, treat as such and contact Materials and Devices 
Unit for shipping instructions. 4 

(36) SPECIMEN - GENERAL UNKNOWN - LIQUIDS (NONHAZARDOUS) : 

(a) STANDARD (AMOUNT. DESIRED) - 100 ml. r 

(b) EVIDENCE (AMOUNT DESIRED) - All to 100 ml. 

(c) SEND BY - Registered mail 

(d) IDENTIFICATION - Same as for liquid drugs, (24) 



above, 
above. 



(e) WRAPPING AND PACKING - Same as drugs, (24) 




•ii&l 



# ( f ) REMARKS - If item is suspected of being a 
hazardous material, treat as such and contact Materials and Devices 
Unit for shipping instructions. 

11.1.3.) (3?) SPECIMEN " GLASS FRAGMENTS: (See MIOG, Part II, 13- 

(a) EVIDENCE (AMOUNT DESIRED) - All 

(b) SEND BY - Registered mail, UPS or air express 

Nam . A • •►• , ( °l J IDEOTIFI CATIOM - Adhesive tape on each piece. 
Name or initials and date on tape. Separate questioned and known. 



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'■ _ (d) WRAPPING AND PACKING - Wrap each piece 

llltltl ', Y S C °M° n - PaCk in Str ° ng b0X t0 P revent lifting and 
breakage. Identify contents. 



11.1.3.) 



(e) REMARKS - Avoid chipping and mark "Fragile." 
(38) SPECIMEN - GLASS PARTICLES: (See MIOG, Part II, 13- 



u .,- ..' (a) STANDARD (AMOUNT DESIRED) - All of bottle or 
headlight. Small piece of each broken pane. 



(b) EVIDENCE (AMOUNT DESIRED) - All 

(c) SEND BY - Registered mail 

t ^ < d > IDENTIFICATION - Name or initials, date on 

outside of sealed container 

• . (e) WRAPPING AND PACKING - Use 35 mm film canister 
or pharmaceutical container. 



will tear. 



(f) REMARKS - Do not use envelopes or bags which 

(39) SPECIMEN - GLASS WOOL INSULATION: (See (45)) 

(a) STANDARD (AMOUNT DESIRED) - 1-inch mass from 
each suspect area 

(b) EVIDENCE (AMOUNT DESIRED) - All 

(c) SEND BY - Registered mail 

■ .^ .. -GO IDENTIFICATION - Name or initials, date on 
outside of sealed container 

(e) WRAPPING AND PACKING - Sealed container 

(40) DELETED 

(41) SPECIMEN - GUNSHOT RESIDUES - ON CLOTH: (See (57) 
and MIOG, Part II, 13-12.4.1.) ^umi. U>ee u>/> 



(a) EVIDENCE (AMOUNT DESIRED) - All 



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ParTlI^ InVestigative Operations and Guidelines 

PAGE 13 - 46 
(b) SEND BY - Registered mail 

*■* -, T (C> IDENTI FICATI0N - Attach string tag or mark 
Erectly. Type of material, date, and name or initials 

(d) WRAPPING AND PACKING - Place fabrir n.r >,<.*-., 

I7'",u p * p " Kd then «•* ■• ">*< ~.*~i*i^f! ta t'JL'«:£r 

(e) REMARKS - Avoid shaking. 
— (A2) S PECIMEN^ JMTPj 




<b) EVIDENCE (AMOUNT DESIRED) - All 
(c) SEND BY - Registered mail 

of material „ r M * DENTIFI CATI0N - On outside of container. Type 
of material, date, and name or initials. ■ P 

/ 

<!«! a , (C) - WRAPPING AND PACKING - Folded paper or pillbox 

Seal edges and openings with tape. pmDox. 

(£) REMARKS - Do not place loose in envelope. 
STANDARDS: ^ SPECIMEN " HABITING AND HAND PRINTING, KNOWN 

' w*. • ■ *. U) STAN DARD (AMOUNT DESIRED) - For instructions r.. 
obtamxng known standards, see paragraph 13-17.2.3 in this secL'n 

(b) SEND BY - Registered mail 

(c) IDENTIFICATION - Name or in.'ti.i. j * * 

(6) above. ™ ^^^ *** PACKING " Same as Anonymous Letters 
(44) SPECIMEN - HOAX BOMB DEVICES AND/OR COMPONENTS (FOR 



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INSTRUCTIONS, CONTACT THE MATERIALS AND DEVICES UNIT.) (See also 
MIOG, Part I, 91-8; Part II, 13-16.6.) 

(39) ) (45) SPECIMEN ~ INSULATI0N <SEE GLASS WOOL INSULATION, 

(46) SPECIMEN - MAGNETIC MEDIA (SEE COMPUTER, (23) ABOVE.) 

T ,™ „,„J\ 7) SPECIMEN " MAGNETIC TAPE RECORDINGS (SEE MIOG, PART 
I, 139-3(2) (d), PART II, SECTION 16, PARAGRAPHS 16-8 TO 16-8. 2. A.) 

. (48) SPECIMEN - MATCHES: 




(a) STANDARD (AMOUNT DESIRED) - One to two books of 
paper. One full box of wood. 

(b) EVIDENCE (AMOUNT DESIRED) - All 

(c) SEND BY - UPS or Federal Express 

(d) IDENTIFICATION - On outside of container. Type 
of material, date, and name or initials. 

(e) WRAPPING AND PACKING - Metal container and 
packed in larger package to prevent shifting. Matches in box or metal 
container packed to prevent friction between matches. 

(f) REMARKS - Keep away from fire. "Keep away from 

(49) SPECIMEN - MEDICINES (SEE DRUGS, (24) AND (25) 

(50) SPECIMEN - METAL: 

(a) STANDARD (AMOUNT DESIRED) - One pound 

(b) EVIDENCE (AMOUNT DESIRED) - All to one pound 

(c) SEND BY - Registered mail, UPS or air express 

(d) IDENTIFICATION - On outside of container. Type 
of material, date, and name or initials. 

(e) WRAPPING AND PACKING - Use paper boxes or 
containers. Seal and use strong paper or wooden box. 



fire" label 



ABOVE.) 



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p * rt II PAGE 13 - 48 

(f) REMARKS - Melt number, heat treatment, and other 
specifications of foundry if available. Keep from rusting. 

(51) SPECIMEN - OIL: (See MIOG, Part II, 13-10.3.4.) 

(a) STANDARD (AMOUNT DESIRED) - 250 ml. together 
with specifications 

(b) EVIDENCE (AMOUNT DESIRED) - All to 250 ml. 
( c) .SEND BY . - _ Any met hod 



(d) IDENTIFICATION - On outside of container. Type 
of material, date, and name or initials. 

(e) WRAPPING AND PACKING - Container with tight 
screw top. Pack in strong box using excelsior or similar material. 

(f) REMARKS - Keep away from fire. 
(52) SPECIMEN - OBLITERATED, ERADICATED, OR INDENTED 



WRITING: 



above 



(a) EVIDENCE (AMOUNT DESIRED) - All 

(b) SEND BY - Registered mail 

(c) IDENTIFICATION - Same as Anonymous Letters, (6) 



(d) WRAPPING AND PACKING - Same as Anonymous 
Letters, (6) above 

„ (e) REMARKS - Advise whether bleaching or staining 
methods may be used. Avoid folding. 

(53) SPECIMEN - PAINT - LIQUID: 

(a) STANDARD (AMOUNT DESIRED) - Original unopened, 
container, up to 1 gallon if possible 

(b) EVIDENCE (AMOUNT DESIRED) - All to 1/4 pint 

(c) SEND BY - Registered mail, UPS or air express 



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(d) IDENTIFICATION - On outside of container. Type 
of material, origin if known, date, name or initials. 

(e) WRAPPING AND PACKING - Friction-top paint can or 
large-mouth, screw-top jars. If glass, pack to prevent breakage. Use 
heavy corrugated paper or wooden box. 

(54) SPECIMEN - PAINT - SOLID (PAINT CHIPS OR SCRAPINGS) : 

(a) STANDARD (AMOUNT DESIRED) - At least 1/2 square 
inch of painted area if possible, with all layers represented. Take 

-representative samples from„.seyeral areas of known source and secure 
separately. 

(b) EVIDENCE (AMOUNT DESIRED) - All. If on small 
object, send object. 

(c) SEND BY - Registered mail, UPS or air express 

(d) IDENTIFICATION - On outside of container. Type 
of material, origin if known, date, name or initials. 

(e) WRAPPING AND PACKING - Use 35 mm film canister 
or pharmaceutical container. Seal to prevent leakage. Paper and 

plastic envelopes are not satisfactory. Do not pack in cotton. 

(f) REMARKS - Avoid contact with adhesive materials 
such as fingerprint lifting tape or other pressure sensitive tape. 
Wrap so as to protect smear. 

(55) SPECIMEN - PHOTOGRAPHS: 

(a) EVIDENCE (AMOUNT DESIRED) - All 

(b) SEND BY - Registered mail 

(c) IDENTIFICATION - If not developed mark outside 
"DO NOT X-RAY" 

(d) WRAPPING AND PACKING - If not developed wrap in 
lightproof container. 

(56) SPECIMEN - DENTAL STONE CASTS OF TIRE TREADS AND SHOE 
PRINTS: (See 13-19.1.2.) 



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(41) ABOVE.) 



(57) SPECIMEN - POWDER PATTERNS (SEE GUN SHOT RESIDUES, 



available 



(58) SPECIMEN - ROPE, TWINE, AND CORDAGE: 

(a) STANDARD (AMOUNT DESIRED) - One yard or amount 

(b) EVIDENCE (AMOUNT DESIRED) - All 

(c) SEND BY - Registered mail 



. (d) IDENTIFICATION - On tag or container. Typ7~o'F 

material, date, name or initials. 




11.3.2.) 



areas 



(e) WRAPPING AND PACKING - Wrap securely. 
(59) SPECIMEN - SAFE INSULATION: (See MIOG, Part II, 13- 

(a) STANDARD (AMOUNT DESIRED) - Sample all damaged 

(b) EVIDENCE (AMOUNT DESIRED) - All 

(c) SEND BY - Registered mail, UPS or air express 

a t . (d) IDENTIFICATION - On outside of container. Type 
of material, date, name or initials 

(e) WRAPPING AND PACKING - Use 35 mm film canister 
or pharmaceutical container. Seal to prevent any loss. 



envelopes. 



13-8.2.4.) 



(f) REMARKS - Avoid use of glass containers and 
(60) SPECIMENS - SALIVA SAMPLES: (See MIOG, Part II, 




(a) STANDARD (AMOUNT DESIRED) - Collect on saliva 
swab (cotton-tipped applicator), generally, five-inch long wooden 
stick with cotton tip. 

(b) EVIDENCE (AMOUNT DESIRED) - All 

(c) SEND BY - Registered mail 



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, PAGE 13 - 51 

(d) IDENTIFICATION - On outside envelope put type of 
sample, date and place of collection and collector's initials. 

(e) WRAPPING AND PACKING - Seal in envelope. 

( f ) REMARKS - Applicators can be purchased in 
individually wrapped sterile packets which contain a single sterile 
swab. Allow to dry before placing in envelope. 

n ( ^ 1} SPECIMEN " SH0E p RINT LIFTS (IMPRESSIONS ON HARD 
..SURFACES).: _.(S.ee_MI0.G, Par.t_II,_l_3-19_..l'...3..)_ ___ 



(a) STANDARD (AMOUNT DESIRED) - Photograph before 
making of dust impression. 

(b) EVIDENCE (AMOUNT DESIRED) - All 

(c) SEND BY - Registered mail 

(d) IDENTIFICATION - On lifting tape or paper 
attached to tape. Name or initials and date. 

(e) WRAPPING AND PACKING - Prints in dust are easily 
damaged. Fasten print or lift to bottom of a box so that nothing will 
rub against it. 

(f) REMARKS - Always rope off crime scene area until 
shoe prints or tire treads are located and preserved. 

„„,, (62 > SPECIMEN - SOILS AND MINERALS: (See MIOG, Part II, 
13~ 11.2. 2 and 13~1L2«3.) 



t 




(a) STANDARD (AMOUNT DESIRED) - Samples from areas 
near pertinent sj>ot. 

(b) EVIDENCE (AMOUNT DESIRED) - All 

(c) SEND BY - Registered mail 

'(d) IDENTIFICATION - On outside of container. Type 
of material, date, name or initials. 

(e) WRAPPING AND PACKING - Use 35 mm film canister 
or pharmaceutical container. 



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(f) REMARKS - Avoid glass containers and envelopes. 

(63) SPECIMEN - TOOLS: 

(a) EVIDENCE (AMOUNT DESIRED) - All 

(b) SEND BY - Registered mail, UPS or air express 

t * ► , ., U) . IDENT1FI CATION - On tools or use string tag. 
Type of tool, identifying number, date, name or initials. 



- 52 



-(d)— WRAPPING_AND..PACKING_-_.Wrap_each_tool„in. paper. 



Use strong cardboard or wooden box with tools packed to prevent 
shifting. r 

13-13.3, n-Js^.f^ 1 ^ " T00LMARKS: (See < 72 > ™* MIOG. Part II, 

(a) STANDARD (AMOUNT DESIRED) - Send in the tool. 
If impractical, call Firearms/Toolmarks Unit for instructions. 

(b) EVIDENCE (AMOUNT DESIRED) - All 

(c) SEND BY - Registered mail, UPS or air express 

„r „„ „ •► i d i IDENTIFICATI0N - On object or on tag attached to 
or on opposite end from where toolmarks appear. Name or initials and 

dab © • 

(e) WRAPPING AND PACKING - After marks have been 

«r"™ k Wlt V 0ft Pf pef ' Wra * in stron * capping paper, place in 
strong box, and pack to prevent shifting. 

(65) SPECIMEN - TYPEWRITING, KNOWN STANDARDS: 

'. . ,. (a) STAN DARD (AMOUNT DESIRED) - For instructions re: 
obtaining known standards see paragraph 13-17.2.4 in this section 

(b) SEND BY - Registered mail 

(c) IDENTIFICATION - Place name or initials, date, 
serial number, name of make and model, etc., on specimens.. 

, „„ ,^ (d) WRAPPING AND PACKING - Same as Anonymous 

Letters, (6) above. 



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(e) REMARKS - Examine ribbon for evidence of 
questioned message thereon. 



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(66) SPECIMEN - URINE: 

(a) STANDARD (AMOUNT DESIRED) - 50 cc minimum 

(b) SEND BY - Registered mail 

(c) IDENTIFICATION - Label container indicating 
"urine," name of subject, date taken, initials of Agent. 



(d) WRAPPING AND PACKING - Bottle witiTYailibU"top7 
surrounded with absorbent material to prevent breakage. Strong 
cardboard or wooden box, refrigerate if possible. 

(e) REMARKS - Mark package "Keep Refrigerated." 

(67) SPECIMEN - VAGINAL SAMPLES - SLIDES (MICROSCOPE) : 
(See (68) and MIOG, Part II, 13-8.2.5.) 

(a) EVIDENCE (AMOUNT DESIRED) - Minimum of two 
slides 

(b) SEND BY - Registered mail 

(c) IDENTIFICATION - Label with type of sample, name 
of donor, date and place of collection and collector's initials. 

(d) WRAPPING AND PACKING - Use commercial slide box. 

(e) REMARKS - Slide box available at hospitals. 
Doctor should not fix slides. No cover slips. Air dry. 

(68) SPECIMEN - VAGINAL SAMPLES - SWABS: (See MIOG, Part 
II, 13-8.2.5.) ' 

(a) STANDARD (AMOUNT DESIRED) - Two unstained swabs 
from same package as stained. 

(b) EVIDENCE (AMOUNT DESIRED) - Minimum of two swabs 

(c) SEND BY - Express mail 

(d) IDENTIFICATION - Same as (67) above. 



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(e) WRAPPING AND PACKING - Seal in envelope. 

. ( f ) REMARKS - Allow swabs to dry before packaging, 

refrigerate or freeze. 

(69) SPECIMEN - VIDEO TAPES: 

(a) EVIDENCE (AMOUNT DESIRED) - Always submit 

(b) SEND BY - Registered mail 



original 



(c) IDENTIFICATION - Place name or initials, date 
and identification number on cassette housing. 

(d) WRAPPING AND PACKING - Wrap securely. Strong 
cardboard box with three inches of paper crumpled around all sides of 
the video tapes. Do not use foam packing material. 

(e) REMARKS - Mark the package "Video Tape" or 
"Recorded Magnetic Medium." 

(70) SPECIMEN - VITREOUS HUMOR: 

(a) STANDARD (AMOUNT DESIRED) - All 

(b) SEND BY - Most, expeditious means available 

„ . W IDENTIFICATION - Label container indicating 

vitreous humor," name of subject, date taken, initials of Agent 

(d) WRAPPING AND PACKING - Glass bottle with 
sealable top and pack as indicated for "Body organs," (14) above. 

.. (e) REMARKS - Refrigerate only (do not freeze) until 
personally delivered. Keep cool during delivery time. Attach autopsy 
report. ' 

(71) SPECIMEN - WATER: 

(a) STANDARD (AMOUNT DESIRED) - 1 Liter 

(b) EVIDENCE (AMOUNT DESIRED) - 1 Liter 

(c) SEND BY - Registered mail 









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(d) IDENTIFICATION - Date and initial 



top. 



kink.) 



(e) WRAPPING AND PACKING - Use bottle with sealable 

(72) SPECIMEN - WIRE (SEE ALSO TOOLMARKS, (64) ABOVE.): 

(a) STANDARD (AMOUNT DESIRED) - Three feet (Do not 

(b) EVIDENCE (AMOUNT DESIRED) - All (Do not kink.) 



(c) SEND BY - Registered mail 

(d) IDENTIFICATION - On label or tag. Type of 
material, date, name or initials. 

(e) WRAPPING AND PACKING - Wrap securely. 

(f) REMARKS - Do not kink wire. 
(73) SPECIMEN - WOOD: 

(a) STANDARD (AMOUNT DESIRED) - One foot or amount 
available. 

(b) EVIDENCE (AMOUNT DESIRED) - All 

(c) SEND BY - Registered mail 

(d) IDENTIFICATION - On label or tag. Type of 
material, date, name or initials. 

(e) WRAPPING AND PACKING - Wrap securely 



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13-6.7.1 Hazardous Materials (See MIOG, Part II, 13-3.1(4) and 
I [13-15.1.6; MAOP, Part II, 2-4.4.3.) | 

Over 3,000 items, including flash paper,, live ammunition, 
explosives, radioactive materials, flammable liquids and solids, 
flammable and nonflammable gases, spontaneously combustible 
substances, and oxidizing and corrosive materials are currently 
considered as hazardous materials. All require special packaging and 
the amount of each item which can be shipped is regulated. Therefore, 
the applicable action listed below is to be taken: 

( 1) Flash pape r; Contac t Investigative Operations and 



Support Section for shipping instructions EACH AND EVERY TIME this 
item is to be submitted to the Laboratory. 



(2) Live ammunition: 
12.4.2 elsewhere in this section. 



For shipping instructions see 13- 




(3) Other hazardous materials: Contact the (Materials 
and Devices Unit) for shipping instructions EACH AND EVERY TIME any 
hazardous material, except flash paper or live ammunition, is to be 
submitted to the Laboratory. 



EFFECTIVE: 04/07/97 



13-6.7.2 



Nonhazardous Materials 




If evidence of this type is not found in this chart or 
elsewhere in this section, locate a specimen which is most similar in 
nature and take the appropriate actions or call the Laboratory at 202- 
FBI-4410 for general instructions. 



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13-7 FIELD PHOTOGRAPHY 

The purpose of the information under this caption is to 
provide some of the general guidelines pertaining to Bureau 
photographic matters and to list by name, description, and use the 
types of document copying, microfilming, general photographing, and 
surveillance equipment available to the various field offices. For 
information concerning photographic examinations conducted in the 
Laboratory seeJMIOG, Part II, 13-7.6 and 13-7.6.1.)! 



EFFECTIVE: 07/25/97 " " """ 

13-7.1 General Guidelines 

EFFECTIVE: 04/19/91 

13-7.1.1 Laboratory Photographic Responsibilities 



^K 



I (1) I The Sne^^ Photographic Unit (SPU) of the Laboratory 
(Room 3449, Extensionjj^^^His responsible for all photographic 
matters to include surve^TTance photography, nonroutine requests, 
unusual processing requirements, examination of photographic evidence, 
and all other photographic equipment requests, repairs, problems, or 
other inquiries. SPU has been funded to supply the field with most 
photographic equipment; therefore, requests for routine photographic 
equipment should be directed to SPU through the field office 
Photographic Technician. SPU|is|the funding| source) for all 
photographic equipment (there is no other source available to the 
field). If there is any doubt regarding equipment, contact SPU, for 
assistance and clarification. SPU also handles all photographic 
tradecraft in FCI matters. 

| (2) | The|SPU alsojhandles all general processing and mass 
production photographic work. This | includes | the capability of doing 
copy work on film of documents, objects, i.e., photographs, jewelry, 
etc., and duplication of slides and making of slides from original art 
work for training purposes. | SPU | handles equipment needs for darkroom 
and "mug shot" photography. This is defined as photographic 
processing and finishing, studio and "mug shot" areas to include those 

£ facilities in use within the field office and off-site facilities. 

$ ||SPU|will also handle the design of field office darkrooms and those 



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related areas due to moves or renovations. All related equipment 
selection, procurement, inventory and distribution, including sinks, 
cabinets, enlargers, miscellaneous darkroom equipment, processing and 
finishing equipment, mug shot and copying equipment that relate to the 
darkroom areas will also be handled by |SPU. | 

(3) |The SPU is responsible for the processing of the 
video imagery where the image requires enhancement and the 
preparation of a photographic print. This video imagery may 
originate from time-lapse or full-motion video tapes of any format or 
from still video disks. SPU can provide photographic prints and/or 
video t apes of these enhanced images. Requests for comparisons of 
vi deo imagery to known phoTograph~ic""pr r ints or to" other submitted 
evidence (guns, articles of clothing, bags, hats, etc.) should be 
forwarded directly to SPU. (See 13-7.6.1.) | 

| (4) | Submissions to the SPU should be by | electronic 
communication | under the case caption. 

\ I . | (5) | The|SPU|of the Laboratory Division oversees the areas 

*' of film processing, color and black and white enlarging and camera 

copy work, and slide reproduction, all on a quantitative basis. | These 

requests should be submitted with an FD-523. | 

| (6) j The film^processing functions are inclusive of color 
negative (C-Al) , color positive (E-6) , microfilms, and all black and 
white negatives. 

| (7) | Color and black and white enlargements made from 
negatives are processed to specifications which can vary in dimensions 
of 3 1/2 by 5|inches|to 40 by 60|inches.| There is also the capability 
of processing color enlargements from slides; however, this involves 
the preparation of an internegative which can result in the loss of 
resolution and color reproduction in larger prints. 



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Manual of Investigative Operations and Guidelines 
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13-7.1.2 Personal Identification ("mug") Photographs 
|(SeeMIOG, Part II, 11-4.9.) | 

Personal identification color ("mug") photographs should 
include the head and shoulders in full face view and profile. If not 
otherwise equipped, use the Mamiya 645, with flash equipment or flood 
lamps and, if available, a white background. Include identifying 
data and a visible gray scale in all pictures. If the equipment for 
this purpose isjyj^^vjilable, contact the | Special Photographic Unitf 
(Room 1 3449, I Ext. 




M 



k* 



EFFECTIVE: 07/25/97 



13-7.1.3 Polaroid Photographs 

Polaroid cameras and 4- by 5-inch (Speed Graphic) polaroid 
film holders are available in many offices. The use of polaroid 
should be limited to those situations in which an immediate 
photographic print. will definitely further the investigation. In 
other situations, conventional photography should be used. 




EFFECTIVE: 04/19/91 



13-7.1.4 Color Photography 

The use of color photography should be considered during 
the course of all investigations where a record of the color or color 
contrast may be a factor in the evaluation of the evidence. Color 
photographs may be 'particularly helpful and important in recording the 
bloodstains in a crime scene; | color negative (processing should be 
used. When color photographs are to be made, 120 or 35mm film is 
preferred. Closely follow the instructions provided with the film as 
to lighting and exposure data. Good quality color prints can be made 
from a color negative. If projection slides are desired, color 
reversal (positive) properly exposed film, such as Ektachrome or 3M CS 
Type Film and FUJI can be used. (Under no circumstances should 
Kodachrome film be used.) 



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13-7.2 



General Photographic Equipment 



G 



Name of 
Equipment 

Hamiya 645 



Canon j and Nikon | 
Camera Systems 



Description 

120mm roll film camera. 
Kit includes camera, 
motor dr i ye , ._ f 1 a sh and 
lens. 

35mm camera. Lens . 
available 24mm- | 2000 | mm. 
Numerous other special 
application accessories 
are supplied or are 
available on request. 



Use 

Aerial, crime scene, 
"mug" and document 
. pho t pgraphy. 



Primarily intended 
for use as a 
surveillance system. 
Also used in 
some concealments and 
remote applications. 



EFFECTIVE: 04/19/91 



13-7.3 



Microfilming Equipment 



Name of 
Equipment 

Attache 

photocopy 

units 




Description 

Portable, completely 
self-contained, collap- 
sible document copy 
equipment carried in an 
attache case, 18" by 12" 
by 4 3/4", weighing 16 
lbs. Electronic photo- 
flash lights powered by 
self-contained 6-volt 
(four "C" cells) battery 
pack or AC/DC. Camera is 
standard 36 exposure 35mm 
Olympus with lens. Newer 
models will have AC/DC 



Use 

Rapid photography of 
small number of 
documents including 
bound and large-size 
documents. Do not use 
color film. 



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operation and larger film 
capacity options. 



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13-7. A 



Deleted 



EFFECTIVE: 02/12/92 



13-7.5 



Photographic Surveillance 



The objective of surveillance photography is generally to 
obtain recognizable, identification images of individuals or items, or 
to record events as they occur, or over a long period of time. 
Conventional still photography should be used in all instances where 
recognition or identifiable detail is required. Still video is not to 
be used unless the immediate electronic transmission of the image is 
of prime importance and quality is secondary. Motion pictures (if 
detail is of high importance) or closed circuit TV (CCTV) ( should be 
used if the prime objective is to record the action taking place or an 
event that occurs over a long period of time. When both 
identification and action are required still photography and CCTV 
should be used simultaneously. CCTV images and motion picture images 
cannot be substituted for conventional still photography since it is 
not possible to make high-quality, hard-copy enlargements from these 
processes. (See Part II, 9-1(5) of this manual concerning the use of 
photographic technicians for photographic surveillances.) |The SPU 
will design and install unmanned automatic still-camera surveillance 
systems 




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13-7.5.1 Long Range Photography With Telephoto Equipment 

The lens used depends upon the distance from the subject 
to the cover available. 

(1) Telephoto lenses are available for still photography 
at distances up to 1500': 

Distance Range Rec. Lens Focal Length (2mm 's per foot) 

50' - 150' up to 300mm. 
150' - 300' 300mm to 600mm. 



300' - 600' 600mm to 1200mm. 
600* - 1500' 1200mm to 3000mm. 

(2) Fast telephoto lenses are available for photography 
in situations in which the intensity of the light available is low. 
These are limited to up to 400mm. 

(3) Deleted 
EFFECTIVE: 02/12/92 

13-7.5.2 Night Surveillance Equipment 

(1) Night photographic surveillance problems may be •■"* 
solved with the utilization of light intensification equipment 

provided to each Special Operations Group (SOG) and maintained by the 
Special Photographic Unit, Laboratory Division. Night viewing devices 
are not designed for photography. 

(2) Ultrahigh-speed films for surveillance photography in 
low-light-level .situations, such as a dimly lighted street or entryway 
at night, are available. The use of such films with available fast 
lenses extends surveillance photography to many nighttime. and other 
situations where the available light is extremely low. Film, 
equipment, and assistance for these applications can be obtained from 
the Laboratory. 

(3) Infrared photography can be used to obtain 
photographs in total darkness. High-speed infrared film, infrared 
flashbulbs, light sources and infrared filters for light sources are 
available for such installations. 



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appropri 
units. 



offices are equipped with a| 

Personnel in those offices have been 

rained. Only those personnel are to utilize the] 




M^ 



EFFECTIVE: 02/12/92 



13-7.5.3 Photography With Concealed Cameras 



_(1) Conceal ed.. earner as | are [ moj 

aents available incli 




^ le to solve specific problems. 

Special equipment and concealments are available for FCI cases. 
Contact the Special Photographic Unit on the secure phone system. 

(2) The concealments can be activated by individuals at 
the scene or by remote control for unmanned surveillances or camera 
traps. Such equipment can be operated by direct wire connection, 
timers, tripping devices or radio control. 

(3) Camera equipment is available which is readily 
adaptable for use from cover in mobile equipment-automobiles, panel 
trucks, etc. Reflex (through the lens) focusing cameras are 
particularly useful for this application. 




EFFECTIVE: 07/25/97 



13-7.5.4 Aerial Photography 

Aerial photography! can be used for planning, intelligence 
gathering and court purposes. The Mamiya 645 provided to the field 
is the recommended camera for aerial photography fro m fixed wing 
aircraft or heli< 



jontact the Special Photographic unit 
lor information and scheduling. 



extension J 



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13-7.5.5 



[Emergency Operational Support 



A specialized photographic Emergency Response Team will 
.provide immediate on-scene photographic intelligence during a crisis 
.situation or any case requiring immediate results. Equipment, 
including a portable darkroom system, is prepackaged for immediate 
deployment to anywhere in the world. This whole-team concept and 

equipment-is- designed ,to_ provide _photographic_results_.without_any 

outside source of personnel or other resources su^^^f^electricity. 
Contact the Special Photographic Unit, Extension^^^^Vfor 
information and scheduling.! ^^^^^ 



fc 



EFFECTIVE: 05/26/89 



I 13-7.5.6 Deleted 



EFFECTIVE: 11/20/90 




{ 13—7.6 } Photographic Examinations | (See MIOG, Part II, 10-3, 13-7, 
and 13-7.6.1.) (Formerly 13-18) | 

(1) Forensic examinations of photographic evidence are 
available from the Special Photographic Unit. Photographic evidence 
may include: 

* (a) Film negatives 

(b) Slides 

(c) Instant prints/slides 

(d) Photographs 

(e) Cameras 

(f) Video tape 



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(g) Unexposed film 

(h) Undeveloped film 

(i) Photographic accessories 

(j) Pornography 

GO FCI Tradecraft 

(1) Motion Pictures 

^ I^-g*g— pj; oce gg-£ jjg— picture^f i 1 es ~ ~— 

(n) Digital camera image files 



(2) Also, any other evidence may be submitted for studio 
photographic examinations using, for example, infrared, and 
ultraviolet techniques. This nonphotographic evidence includes, but 
is not limited to: 

(a) Documents 

(b) Clothing 

(c) Any obliterated writing or printing 

(d) Defaced or altered surfaces 

(e) Items with hollows or cavities 

(3) The following are examinations of photographic 
evidence available from the Special Photographic Unit: 

(a) Bank Robbery Film Examinations - Bank Robbery 
film (or video tape) is examined and compared to other submitted 
evidence (guns, clothing, mug shots, bags, hats, etc.). This 
examination may help establish a subject's presence at a crime scene 
by identifying clothing, weapons, or any other items linked to the 
subject. These examinations include surveillance video tapes that are 
increasingly popular for bank surveillance. Also subject height 
determinations may be made from these images (see Photogrammetry 
Examinations below at (3) (e)). 

Note: It is important to remember that the negatives or the original 
video tape are the best evidence and should always be submitted when 



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an examination is requested. Before submitting, any prints needed for 
continuing the investigation should be made from the negatives, and at 
least one copy of the video tape should be retained in the field 
division. 

In conjunction with the | Firearms/Toolmarks | Unit, bullet trajectories 
may be calculated through photogrammetric techniques. 

(b) Photographic Comparisons - Photographic evidence 
is examined and compared to other evidence or photographs of evidence. 
Various photographs of a subject taken at* different times and places 

may be co mpa red to det ermine if_ thephq^tographs^ are indeed_of the same 

subject. The subject may be a suspect individual, vehicle, weapon, or 
virtually anything that may be photographed. Also, any items within a 
photograph may be compared, for example, a pendant around an 
individual's neck, rings, or tattoos. 

(c) Time and Location Examinations - Photographic 
evidence may be examined to determine the location, time, and date 
that an image was taken. 

(d) Authenticity Examinations - Photographic 
evidence may be examined to determine if the image is the result of a 
composite, a copy, or of some other alteration method to cause a 
misrepresentation.. Evidence may also be examined to see if it is a 
copy of copyrighted or pornographic material. 

r 

(e) Photogrammetry - Actual dimensions may be 
derived from photographic images through the use of various geometric 
formulae. The most common is determining the height of bank robbery 
suspects. As an adjunct to this type of examination, plan drawings, 
or views may be generated. These are "overhead" representations of a 
scene depicted in a photographic image. These may be used for mapping 
a major crime scene from photographs taken of the scene. This may 
include onsite sjurveys by SPU personnel coupled with photographs taken 
by specially calibrated cameras. 

(f) Infrared (IR) , Ultraviolet (UV) , and X-Ray 
Examinations ~ Obliterated writing or other marks may be made evident 
by examining evidence with IR, UV, and X-ray photography. These 
examinations are based on the principle that various substances may 
reflect, fluoresce, or luminesce at different rates. Examples include 
overwritten documents, documents with altered writing, objects with 
defaced serial numbers, or other identifying marks, or marks that may 
be invisible against a similarly colored background. 



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(g) FCI Tradecraft - The Special Photographic Unit 
examines and maintains a collection of foreign counterintelligence 
tradecraft. This is not necessarily limited to FCI cases. Any cases 
of items designed for concealed cameras, money, drugs, etc., may be 
examined for evidentiary purposes. 

(h) Source and Age Examinations - In some cases 
photographic products (including film and prints) may be dated and 
source established by an examination of their manufactured 
characteristics. This may be helpful in establishing the time frame 
that a photograph may have been taken. 



(i) Camera Examinations - Cameras may be examined to 
determine if they exposed a particular image. Also they may be 
examined to determine if they have been altered (including serial 
numbers), and for the purposes they may have been altered. These 
examinations include any photographic equipment or supplies that may 
have been seized as evidence. 

(j) Image Processing - Photographic images that have 
been degraded as the result of being out-of-focus, blurred, under or 
overexposed, or any other problems contributing to a poor image may be 
corrected through the use of computer digital image processing. 

(k) Scene Reconstruction - Photography may be used 
to "reconstruct" what may have been visible to a subject or witness 
under a given set of circumstances. This may also be used to 
establish the veracity of photographs introduced in court purporting 
to depict lighting conditions at a certain time and place. 

(1) Analysis of Time and Motion - The speed of 
objects may be calculated in motion pictures, video tapes, or other 
images from sequential frame cameras. 

_ (m) Photographic Consultation - The SPU is available 
to provide assistance on how to best preserve and transport 
photographic evidence. In cases where exposed or unknown film or 
other photographic materials are seized as evidence, the SPU may be 
able to determine whether or not the items have been exposed, and if 
so how they should be developed. 



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| 13-7.6.1 | Video Tape Enhancement/Examination and Support 

| (See also MIOG, Part II, 13-7.1.1 and 13-7.6.1.) 
(Formerly 13-29, 13-29.1, 13-29.2 and 13-29.3) | 



The | Special J^^^zraphic Unit (SPU) | of the Laboratory 
(Room 1 3449, Extension ^^^Bf is responsible for the processing of video 
imagery where the imagerequires enhancement and the preparation of a 
photographic print. This video imagery may originate from time-lapse 
or full-motion video tapes of any format or from still video disks, 
j SPU | can provide photographic prints and/or video tapes of these 
._enhanced_images..__J Request s.|.f or _compar.is.ons_of_video,_imagery_to_known__ 
photographic prints or to other submitted evidence (guns, articles of 
clothing, bags, hats, etc.) should be forwarded to the | SPU. | 

| SPU I can also provide the following forensic video support 
services: 

(1) Reconstruction of physically damaged video tapes. 
This includes tapes that have been damaged due to mechanical 
malfunction of a video tape machine or video tapes that have been 
deliberately damaged. 

(2) |Slow-motionjor frame-by-frame playback of video 
tapes. This is often beneficial when actions | or (activities occur 
quickly and are not readily apparent to the viewer. This process is 
also valuable for recovering partially recorded video frames that also 
are not readily apparent to the viewer. 

(3) Conversion of foreign video standards. There are 
three primary worldwide video standards (NTSC, PAL, and SECAM) . These 
standards are not directly compatible. Tapes received from or 
destined to foreign countries may require standards conversion. In 
addition to providing this conversion process, the | SPU | can provide 
consultation and, technical assistance in determining proper video 
standards. 

(4) Production of demonstrative evidence video tapes for 
courtroom presentation. This is to include video tapes produced for 
crime scene documentation or reenactment and the preparation of video 
tapes containing English-translated subtitles of surveillance video 
tapes where the recorded conversation is in a foreign language. ' 

(5) Where appropriate, |SPU|can edit and/or compile video 
segments for briefings or as investigative or demonstrative aids- 



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[ (6) | Submission to the | SPU | should be by electronic 
communication under the case caption. Video frames or sequences that 
require enhancement or processing should be identified by using the 
time/date recorded on the video tapes when available. Should there be 
no time/date or an incorrect time/date recorded on the video tape, a 
complete description of the subject or activities in question should 
be provided and the tape stopped at the beginning of the pertinent 
segment. Also, if available, the manufacturer and model of the 
recording video tape machine should be. included. 

j (7) [ It should be noted that video-based imagery does not 
contain the resolution of film and should not be used as a replacement^ 
for film, where image detail for identification purposes is required. 

| (8) ( Attempts should be made to minimize the number of 
times a video tape is played or reviewed. Continued or repeated use 
of video tapes, especially time-lapse video tapes, can cause physical 
degradation of the tape and can severely limit enhancement efforts. 
Original video tape should always be submitted. 



EFFECTIVE: 07/25/97 



13-8 



SEROLOGY EXAMINATIONS 




(1) Forensic serology consists of the identification and 
characterization of blood and other body fluids in the crime 
laboratory. Evidence is received mainly in connection with violent 
crimes, such as murder, rape, robbery, assault-and~battery. Evidence 
in burglary, hit-and-run cases and game violation cases is also 
frequently received. 

(2) __ In cases where it has been determined that a person 
is infected with, or is suspected of being infected with either 
acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), tuberculosis or 
hepatitis | (A, B, or C) , the Laboratory MUST be notified of the 
condition both in the incoming communication and the evidence labeled 
accordingly. | 

(3) If an investigator is not familiar with or is unsure 
about the submission of any particular evidence to the Laboratory, 
he/she should call to get advice. 



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EFFECTIVE: 11/20/90 



13-8.1 



Blood 



EFFECTIVE: 11/20/90 



13-8.1.1 Blood Examinations Aid Investigations 
— — — (1) — in - location~of ~the~crime~scene Identif ication~of - 



huraan blood can pinpoint the area for a crime search. 

(2) , In determining the possible commission of a crime - 
Occasionally, the identification of human blood on a highway, 
sidewalk, porch, or in a car is the first indication of a crime's 
occurrence. 

(3) In identifying the weapon used - The|DNA typing) of 
human blood identified on a club, knife or hammer can be of 
considerable investigative and prosecutive value. 

(4) In proving or disproving a suspect's alibi - The 
identification of human blood on an item belonging to a suspect who 
claims an animal as the blood source. The identification of animal 
blood can substantiate the claim of an innocent person. 

(5) In eliminating suspects - The determination byJDNA 
typing | tests that human blood on suspect items is different from the 
victim's blood can facilitate the release of a suspect or help to 
substantiate a suspect's claim of injury. 




EFFECTIVE: 05/31/94 



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PAGE 13- 71 



{ (1) Identification of stains as blood - Chemical analyses 

are necessary to positively identify blood. The appearance of blood 
can vary greatly depending on the age of stains and on other factors. 

(2) Determination whether blood is of human or animal 
origin - If animal, determination of specific animal family. 

(3) DNA analysis of blood, 
(a) Deleted 



(b) Deleted 

(c) Deleted 






EFFECTIVE: 05/31/94 



13-8.1.3 Deleted 



EFFECTIVE: 11/21/97 




13-8.1.4 Collection, Identification and Wrapping of Bloodstained 
Evidence (See MIOG, Part II, 13-6.7 (9), (10), (11), 
(12), (13).) 

(1) Agents conducting crime scenes and handling any body 
fluids should wear latex gloves inasmuch as the status of infectious 
microorganisms (e.g., AIDS, Hepatitis B) that may be contained in body 
fluids will not be known. If aerosol droplets or airborne particles 
are produced during the crime scene search, surgical masks and eye 
protection are recommended. Particular care should also be taken when 
handling or searching for secreted sharp instruments such as knives 
and hypodermic needles. Agents should use mirrors and flashlights to 
look for secreted hypodermic needles and syringes prior to inserting 
the hand in areas they cannot clearly see. In any instance where an 
injury occurs and a body fluid comes in contact with a wound, however 



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minor, medical attention should be sought immediately. (See MIOG, 
Part II, 13-8.4 (5).) 

(2) Deleted 

(3) Garments and fabrics: 

(a) Investigator's identifying marks should be put 
directly on the fabric in ink, away from stained areas if possible. 

(b) Each item should be wrapped separately. 

(c) Stains which are moist must be dried out 
thoroughly before wrapping or putrefaction of blood will occur. 

(d) Drying should be done by exposure to the 
atmosphere in a secure, well-ventilated room and not be exposed to 
direct sunlight or heat. 

(4) Blood on surfaces such as walls or floors - If 
possible, remove stained portion of wall or floor. If this is not 
possible, stains can be swabbed from surface using swabs slightly 
moistened with water. Air dry swabs and place in paper envelopes. DO 
NOT PLACE IN PLASTIC. 

(5) Blood on automobiles involved in "hit and run" cases 
where a paint examination will also be requested should not be scraped 
off. It should be chipped off along with appropriate paint specimens 
with a sharp object such as a chisel or screwdriver and shipped to the 
Laboratory in one piece. 

(6) Blood on pieces of glass: 

(a) Pieces should be submitted if stains are too 
thin for removal, of adequate amount by scraping. 

(b) Specimens should be insulated in package to 
avoid breakage in transit. 

(c) Mark item itself or on container holding pieces 
or scrapings. 

(d) In circumstances where objects contain 
handprints or friction ridge detail present in blood, consideration 
should be given to removing sections of walls, floors, glass, etc., 
for submission to the Latent Fingerprint Section for examination and 



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chemical enhancement of these impressions for identification purposes. 

(7) Blood in dirt or sand: 

(a) If blood is encrusted on surface, the crusts 
should be removed and enclosed in separate pillboxes to avoid further 
contamination with dirt and sand during shipment. . Remainder of 
specimen may be submitted in circular ice cream-type container. 

(b) Mark containers appropriately. 

(8 ) Blood on l arg e metallic ob jects, such as c ar bumpers 



or pipes: 

(a) If shipped in wooden box, the use of wooden 
cleats or wires inside box is suggested to hold specimen securely and 
avoid frictional removal of stains during shipment. 

(b) Mark items themselves. 

. I (9) Liquid blood samples: (See MIOG, Part II, 13-6.7 

(9).) 



submitted. 



to the sample. 



(a) Samples from victim and suspect should always be 

(b) No refrigerants and/or dry ice should be added 



(c) Blood samples (at least five cubic centimeters) 
from the victim and suspect should be collected in two vacutainer 
tubes, one containing EDTA (purple top) for DNA analysis and the other 
with no preservative (red top) for serological analysis. Package to 
protect from | breakage and contain a spill. The internal packaging 
should include tjie "Biohazard" labels. |. (See also 13-8.4 (5).) 

(d) No other anticoagulant or preservative is 
recommended. . Package to protect from breakage, and submit at least 5 
cubic centimeters of blood. , 

(e) Sample should be shipped refrigerated without 
delay to the Laboratory (air freight or similar rapid transit method). 

(f) Stopper should be sealed with tape to avoid 
loosening due to air pressure differences in plane and possible loss 
of blood. 



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(g) While in storage, keep under refrigeration but 
DO NOT FREEZE. 



EFFECTIVE: 07/25/97 

13-8.1.5 Blood Evidence Transmittal Letter 
Th.e_l>U:er_Af_rje.ques,t_sAQ 



information: 

| (1) |A brief statement of the facts surrounding the case. 

| (2) | Any claims made by the suspect as to the source of 
blood on evidence items. 

(3) Deleted 

(4) Information concerning weather conditions to which 
the evidence might have been exposed, contaminating substances, etc. 

(5) Information concerning disease state (s) of subject (s) 
and/or victim(s) (examples: AIDS, Tuberculosis, Venereal Disease, 
Hepatitis, etc.) 



EFFECTIVE: 04/01/96 

13-8.2 Other Significant Body Fluids 

EFFECTIVE: 06/10/88 



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13-8.2.1 Body Fluid Examinations Aid Investigations 

(1) Seminal Stains: 

(a) Their identification by chemical and microscopic 
means on vaginal smears or swabs or on a rape victim's clothing may be 
of value in corroborating the claims of victim. Seminal fluid 
analysis will be performed by DNA analysis. 

(b) Deleted 

(c) Deleted 



| (2) Saliva Stains: In FBI cases, | suspected| saliva stains 

will be examined by DNA analysis. (See MIOG, Part II, 13-8.4 (3).) 

(a) Deleted 

(b) Deleted 

j (3) Urine Stains - May be qualitatively identified based 

on chemical testing; however, absolute identification may not be 
possible. DNA testing on urine stains may be attempted. 



EFFECTIVE: 07/25/97 



13-8.2.2 Deleted 



EFFECTIVE: 09/24/93 



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] 13-8.2.3 Limitations on Seminal Stain and Saliva Stain |DNA Typing| 

(1) Sometimes semen is mixed with urine or vaginal 
secretion of the victim and interpretation of DNA typing tests is more 
difficult. 

(2) Saliva on cigarette stubs and on cigar butts may be 
DNA typable. Ash trays SHOULD NOT be simply emptied into a container. 
Individual butts should be separately packaged and care taken to avoid 
ash and debris contamination of any saliva present. 



(3) Deleted 

(4) ACCURATE EVALUATION OF | DNA TYPING | RESULTS ON 
QUESTIONED SEMEN AND SALIVA STAINS REQUIRES KNOWN LIQUID|OR 
DRIEDl BLOOD SAMPLES FROM THE VICTIM AND SUSPECT. 



EFFECTIVE: 04/01/96 




13-8.2.4 Collection, Identification and Packaging of Evidence 

Stained with Body Fluids | (See MIOG, Part II, 13-8.2.5.) | 

(1) Semen Samples - Clothing or other material bearing 
suspected semen stains should be marked with dates and initials, DRIED 
IF MOIST, and each item packaged | separately in paper, NOT PLASTIC.) 

(2) Saliva Samples: (See MIOG, Part II, 13-8.2.5.) 
(a) Questioned samples should be handled as above 



for semen. 



13-6.7 (60).) 



(b) For Dried Saliva Samples: (See MIOG, Part II, 



1. Saliva swabs (also called buccal swabs) can 
be collected using sterile cotton-tipped "Q tip" applicators. 
Generally these applicators can be purchased in individually wrapped 
sterile packets which contain a single sterile swab — generally a five- 
inch-long wooden stick with cotton tip. 

2. The swab should be put in the mouth of the 
individual and placed firmly up against the inside of the cheek and 



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rotated. Generally two swabs, one from each cheek are collected. The 
swabs should be allowed to COMPLETELY AIR DRY, then packed and sealed 
in clean envelopes, paper packets, or in their original packet and 
conveyed to the Laboratory. After drying is. complete, label 
appropriate envelope with type of sample, collector's initials, date 
and place of collection. 

(c) NEVER submit liquid saliva samples. 

(3) For Dried Blood Samples: From a fingerprick, or 
whole blood sample collected in a purple top (EDTA preservative) tube, 
a bloodstain, ia made on sterile, clean cotton cloth (usually washed 
~cot"t"o"n""shTeets)T ^Two^t¥ins~"aTe"ljsuairy~pre^ared. The"stains~shourd 
be approximately one to two inches in diameter (about the size of a 
United States 50-cent piece). The stain should be allowed to 
COMPLETELY AIR DRY. The stain can be placed in a paper packet or 
envelope for shipping. The stains can then be stored in 
refrigerator/freezer conditions for a long period of time. (See MIOG, 
Part II, 13-6.7 (12).) 



EFFECTIVE: 04/07/97 



13-8.2.5 The Rape Case - Special Evidence Considerations (See MIOG, 
Part II, | 10-3, 13-6.7 (67) & (68).) | 

(1) Because of the possibilities of serological evidence 
in rape being composed of possible mixtures of body fluids, evidence 
collection and preservation in a rape case warrant special 
consideration. The forensic serologist can often provide the 
investigator with valuable information beyond the statement that 
"semen is present" on an item if the necessary samples are obtained 
and properly preserved prior to submission to the Laboratory. The 
situation outlined below represents the ideal case; however, in many 
instances, much of the evidence listed may be obtained without 
excessive difficulty. 

(2) It should be realized, however, that the majority of 
this evidence should be collected as soon as possible (within hours) 
of the crime. 

(3) The following evidence should be obtained FROM THE 
VICTIM in a rape case: 



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| (a) | Two liquid blood samples at least 5 cc in 
volume. One red-topped tube for conventional serology analysis and 
one purple-topped tube for possible DNA analysis. These samples will 
enable the laboratory examiner to determine the victim's DNA 
characteristics for comparison with the evidence and the suspect's 
samples. (See MIOG, Part II, 13-6.7 (9) i 13-8.4 (5).) 

| (b) | Four vaginal swabs (dry before packaging) . 
These would be used for jgenetic |grouping| determination. | 

| (c) | Two (2) vaginal smear slides for use as a means 

o f showin g that sperm atozoa (and semen ) are , in fact, present. Slides 

to be sent to the FBI Laboratory should not be fixed or | stained and 
all made from the vaginal swabs from step (b) . | 

(d) Two clean swabs from the same package as the 
above vaginal swabs. These would be used as unstained control swabs 
to show that any result obtained from stained swabs is or is not due 
to the cotton of the swabs themselves. 

(e) Deleted 

(f) In addition to the above, items of clothing, bed 
clothes, etc., would logically be obtained from the scene and victim 
at this time or as soon after as possible. 

(g) Appropriate hair samples should be collected 
from the victim (known head and pubic hairs, combed head and pubic 
hairs) . 

(4) Evidence collected from the SUSPECT (s) would 
logically include clothing, a liquid blood sample and a saliva sample, 
taken as described in 13-8.2.4 above, and hair samples. 



EFFECTIVE: 07/25/97 



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( 13-8.3 DNA Analysis |Unit l| 

The DNA Analysis | Units (DNA I and II) analyze| 
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) | from biological tissues | recovered from 
physical evidence in violent crimes. Evidence examined by the | units j 
consists of known liquid and dried blood samples, j hairs, bones, 
teeth, | portions of rape kit swabs and extracts, and body fluid stained 
cuttings from homicide, sexual assault and serious aggravated assault 
cases. These items of evidence are normally examined first to 
determine the probative value of DNA analysis. 



EFFECTIVE: 11/21/97 



13-8. A 



DNA Evidence Examination Policy 




In general, this policy states that the FBI Laboratory 
will accept evidence for DNA analysis from current, violent personal 
crimes where appropriate standards for comparison are available. The 
policy is specified as follows: 

(1) BUREAU CASES 

(a) Physical evidence submitted for DNA analysis in 
connection with FBI investigations will be examined where appropriate. 

(b) A known blood sample from the victim and suspect 
for comparison purposes is required. No DNA analysis will be 
conducted until known blood samples from both the suspect and the 
victim have been received. Preliminary examinations, such as the 
identification of blood or semen|or hair comparison, | may be conducted 
without a known -blood sample from the suspect, where appropriate. 

(2) NON-BUREAU CASES 

(a) DNA analysis on state and l'ocal cases will be 
limited to homicide, sexual assault and serious aggravated assault 
cases in which a suspect has been identified. In certain cases, 
evidence will be accepted by the FBI Laboratory for DNA analysis even 
though a suspect has not been identified. These exceptions include 
serial homicide/rape cases and sexual assaults on young children. 

(b) A known blood sample from the victim and suspect 



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for comparison purposes is required. No DNA analysis will be 
conducted until known blood samples from both the suspect and the 
victim have been received in the DNA Analysis (Units. j 

(c) Requests for DNA analysis on previously 
adjudicated cases should not be submitted to the FBI Laboratory but 
should be referred by the investigative agency to one of the private 
DNA testing laboratories. Names and addresses of these laboratories 
can be provided on request. 

(3) PCR TESTING (See MIOG, Part II, 13-8.2.1 (2).) 

(a) The DNA Analysis | Units | now | have | on-line a 
technique called PCR (POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION) testing. This 
technology allows the Laboratory to obtain a DNA type from| other | 
biological materials. Because of limited resources being devoted to 
this technology, strict case acceptance policy has been established by 
the Laboratory Division. 

(b) Evidence for PCR analysis will be accepted only 
in FBI cases when a known blood sample from the suspect has been 
obtained and submitted along with the evidence. The Laboratory will 
not accept state or local cases or domestic police cooperation cases 
for PCR analysis unless previously authorized by the Assistant 
Director, Laboratory Division. 

(4) REEXAMINATION POLICY 

(a) It is the policy of the FBI Laboratory that no 
examination will be conducted on evidence which has been previously 
examined by another expert. However, the Laboratory will accept 
evidence samples for DNA analysis even though another crime laboratory 
may have conducted traditional tests on the evidence items if that 
crime laboratory does not have the capability to perform the DNA tests 
and if the submitted samples are determined to be of a quality and 
condition conducive to DNA analysis. The, local forensic laboratory 
should be encouraged to contact the DNA Analysis |llnits | of the FBI 
Laboratory prior to submission of this kind of evidence. 

(b) Paternity or parentage testing involving a 
paternity index is not done by the DNA Analysis |Units, |even in 
criminal cases. The Laboratory does not currently perform these types 
of tests. Private paternity testing laboratories should be contacted 
for these services. 

(c) In cases where conventional serology and no DNA 



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analysis is requested because of judicial rulings, trial delays, etc., 
it is the policy of the Laboratory that no analysis will be conducted. 

(5) Evidence submitted for DNA analysis can be collected, 
preserved and transmitted to the Laboratory according to the • 
guidelines set forth in Section 13-8.1.4 ("Collection, Identification 
and Wrapping of Bloodstained Evidence") ; Bloodstained evidence should 
be completely air-dried before packaging and submitted promptly to the 
Laboratory. Two liquid blood samples, at least 5cc in volume, should 
be collected from both the suspect and victim; one red-top tube for 
conventional serology analysis (containing no preservatives) and one 
purplertop. tube._(containing_EDTA)„_.for_DNA_analysis._ .. These blood_ 



samples should be' submitted to the Laboratory without delay. In the 
event there will be a delay in submission of the dried stain evidence 
to the Laboratory, it should be kept frozen. (See MIOG, Part II, 
13-6.7 (9), 13-8.1.4(9) (c) & 13-8.2.5 (3).) 



EFFECTIVE: 11/21/97 



13-9 



MICROSCOPIC EXAMINATIONS 




EFFECTIVE: 02/12/92 



13-9.1 



I Trace Evidence 



Trace evidence (hairs and fibers) examinations are 
conducted by the Trace Evidence Unit.j 



EFFECTIVE: 07/25/97 



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| 13-9.1.1 jTrace Evidence | Examinations Aid the Investigation 

These examinations are valuable in that they assist in: 

(1) Placing the suspect at the scene of the crime 

(a) Transfer of hairs oir fibers between the victim's 
and suspect's clothing in crimes of violence such as rape, assault and 
murder. 

' .(b) Hairs_jjr_f ibers_f rom_a_suspect_lef t„at_the__scene_ ■ 



:■%¥. ' 





of crimes such as burglaries, armed robberies and car thefts. 

(2) Identifying the scene of the crime - Hairs or fibers 
left at the scene of crimes such as burglaries and armed robberies. 

(3) Identifying the weapon or the instrument of a crime - 
Hairs or fibers on wrenches, knives or clubs. 

(4) Identifying hit-and-run vehicles - Hairs or fibers 
adhering to suspect automobile. 



EFFECTIVE: 07/25/97 

13-9.1.2 Information Determined from an Examination of a Hair 
Whether animal or human 

(1) If animal, the species and/or family from which it 
originated (dog, cat, deer, beef, etc.) 

(2) If human, the race, body area, method of removal from 
the body, damage, and alteration (bleaching or dyeing) and suitability 
for comparison with known hair samples, may be determined. 

(3) A comparison with known hair samples will result in a 
possible association, an elimination or a no conclusion. 

| (4) If a microscopic association is made between a 
questioned and known hair sample, DNA analysis may be performed on 
the questioned hair and compared to a known blood/saliva sample. | 



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EFFECTIVE: 11/21/97 

13-9.1.3 Information Determined From Fiber Examinations 
(1) Identification of the type of fiber 

(a) Animal (wool) 

(b) Vegetable (cotton) 



(c) Synthetic (man-made) 

(d) Mineral (glass) 

(2) Determination as to whether or not questioned fibers 
are the same type and/or color and match in microscopic 
characteristics as those fibers comprising a suspect garment. 

EFFECTIVE: 02/12/92 



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13-9.1.4 



Limitations of Hair Examinations 



(1) Not absolute identification; however, is good 
circumstantial evidence. 

(2) Age cannot be determined. 

(3) Although racial | characteristics, hair color and 
length | may be of value for investigative lead purposes, [microscopic 
characteristics exhibited by hairs |are not. Furthermore, significant 
hair comparisons can only be conducted with known samples of hair, 
best obtained by collecting both pluckings and combings from an 
individual. 




EFFECTIVE: 04/01/96 



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13-9.2 Fabric 

A positive identification can be made if a questioned torn 
piece of fabric can be fitted to the known torn material. 

EFFECTIVE: 02/12/92 

13-9.3 Deleted 

"EFFECTIVE :~027 12/92 ~~~~ 



13-9.4 Cordage/Rope 

A piece of rope left at the scene of the crime may be 
compared with similar, suspect rope. 

(1) Composition, construction, color and diameter can be 
determined. 

(2) Manufacturer can sometimes be determined, if tracer 
present. 

EFFECTIVE: 02/12/92 



13-9.5 Botanical 

Botanical examinations are conducted where plant material 
from a known source is compared with plant material from a questioned 
locale. 



EFFECTIVE: 02/12/92 



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13-9.6 Anthropological 

(1) Frequent identifications are made through comparisons 
of teeth with dental records and X-rays with corresponding bone 
structures. 

(2) Examinations may be made to determine if skeletal 
remains are animal or human. If human, the race, sex, approximate 
height and stature and approximate age at death may be determined. 

| (3) DNA analysis may also be performed on the skeletal 

_remains-and-compared-to-known-blood/saliva-samples-in-an -at tempt— to 

assist in the identification process.) 



EFFECTIVE: 11/21/97 



13-9.7 Wood 

The presence of a suspect at the crime scene can often be 
established from a comparison of wood from his/her clothing, vehicle 
or possession with wood from the crime scene. 



EFFECTIVE: 05/26/89 

13-9.7.1 Types of Wood Examinations 

(1) Specific source 

(a) Side or end matching. 

(b) Fracture matching. 

(2) Species identification 

EFFECTIVE: 05/26/89 
13-9.8 iDeletedl 



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EFFECTIVE: 05/26/89 
13-9.9 Deleted 

EFFECTIVE: 05/26/89 
13-9.10 Miscellaneous Examinations 



These examinations include the' following: 

(1) Fabric impressions 

(2) Glove prints 

(3) Feather Identification 



•f: 

' EFFECTIVE: 05/26/89 



13-10 CHEMICAL EXAMINATIONS 

EFFECTIVE: 12/16/88 

13-10.1 Toxicological Examinations 

EFFECTIVE: 12/16/88 



13-10.1.1 Purpose 

Assists the medical examiner in determining the cause of 
death in suspected cases of poisoning. 



EFFECTIVE: 12/16/88 



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13-10.1.2 Types of Poisons 

(1) Volatiles, such as carbon monoxide, alcohols, cyanide 
and solvents. 

(2) Heavy metals, such as arsenic, mercury, lead and 
antimony. 

(3) (Nonvolatile organic poisons, such as drugs of abuse, 
pharmaceuticals and pesticides.) 

(4) Miscellaneous, such ,as„inorganic compounds, {plant _ — 

materials, caustic substances , | and insects. 

EFFECTIVE: 12/16/88 



13-10.1.3 Background Information Useful to Toxicological Examiner 
| (1) Copy of autopsy report. 

(2) Symptoms exhibited prior to death. 

(3) List of drugs administered to victim. 

(4) List of toxic chemicals normally encountered by 
victim in employment or at home. 

EFFECTIVE: 12/16/88 

13-10.1.4 Desirable Specimens for Complete Laboratory Examination 

(1) Brain (75 grams) 

(2) Liver (75 grams) 

(3) Kidney (75 grams) 

(4) Blood (20 cc) (add preservative and identify) 

(5) Urine (all) 

(6) Gastric contents (all) 



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(7) Vitreous Humor 

(8) Any suspect food, drugs or chemicals 

EFFECTIVE: 12/16/88 

13-10.1.5 Preparation for Shipment to Laboratory 

( 1 ) pia c e each organ and fluid in a se par ate sealed 



■■j<> 



container. 

(2) Have pathologist label and initial each specimen. 

(3) Place container in insulated box with dry ice | or 
freezer block] (do not allow| coolant | to touch glass jars). 

(A) Mark package "Keep Cool" and transmit by | overnight 
express. | 

EFFECTIVE: 12/16/88 

13-10.2 Pharmaceutical and Drug Examinations 

EFFECTIVE: 12/16/88 

13-10.2.1 Information Helpful to Laboratory Examiner 

(1) „ Interview of suspect regarding source and use. 

(2) Prescription data. 

(3) If possible, submit sample in original container. 

EFFECTIVE: 12/16/88 




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13-10.2.2 Collection and Preservation 

(1) Each item packaged separately and securely. 

(2) Each item and/or its container clearly identified by 
initials and item number. 

EFFECTIVE: 12/16/88 

13- 10. 2j3__j!if?.rJl^lL Q JLJl£?Argine<l fro m the E xaminations _._.. — 



(1) Weight of pharmaceuticals. 

(2) Quantitation of active ingredients. 

(3) Whether a controlled substance or prescription item. 



I EFFECTIVE: 12/16/88 



13-10.3 Arson Examinations 
EFFECTIVE: 12/16/88 

13-10.3.1 Reasons for Arson 

(1) Insurance | fraud. | 

(2) Revenge. 

(3) (Destruction of a crime scene. 

(4) Pyromania. 

(5) Civil disobedience. 

EFFECTIVE: 12/16/88 



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13-10.3.2 



PAGE 13 - 90 




| Arson Evidence | 

(1) [Location 

(a) Area of intense burning. 

(b) Multiple areas of origin. 

(c) "V" pattern areas. j 

(2) Arson | time delay) devices 

(a) Candle plants 

(b) Cigarette in matchbook 

(c) Molotov cocktail 

(d) | Fused chemicals | 

| (e) Electronic devices | 

(3) Fire trails 

(a) Cloth ropes 

(b) Burn trails on carpeting 

(c) Deep charring trails in hardwood 

(4) Removal of property - No typical remains of household 
goods in debris 

EFFECTIVE: 12/16/88 




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13-10.3.3 Types of Evidence 



|Any sample from the point or area of origin, especially 
specimens that are | absorbent in nature or of a type that will retain a 
flammable liquid, such as: 



10) 

I (2) 
|(3) 

| (5) 

M(6) 



Padded furniture 

Carpets 

Plasterboard 



Soil 

Clothing 

Molotov cocktails 






'•■$% 

}*^%ii 



EFFECTIVE: 12/16/88 

13-10.3.4 Preservation of Evidence 

Most readily flammable liquids are volatile and are easily 
lost through evaporation. 

(1) Use air tight containers 

(a) Clean metal cans (preferable) 

| (b) Kapak bags | 

| (c) | Clean glass jars , 

(2) ' Properly identify specimen - Initial specimen or 
container 



-<&• 
•,;.» ; - 




EFFECTIVE: 12/16/88 



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13-10.3.5 Interpretation of Laboratory Results 



PAGE 13 - 92 



(1) Gas. Chromatography examination of distillates 
recovered from suspected arson debris usually aids in classifying the 

{ product |with regardjto distillation range such as gasoline, fuel oil 
and paint solvents. 

(2) Limitations: Generally unable to identify specific 
brand of gasoline or fuel oil due to weathering, common intermixing of 
commercial brands and lack of distinguishing characteristics between 
brands . 



i 



EFFECTIVE: 12/16/88 



13-10.4 General Chemical Analysis Examinations 



EFFECTIVE: 12/16/88 



13-10.4.1 Definition 

Qualitative and quantitative analysis of miscellaneous 
chemical evidence. 



EFFECTIVE: 12/16/88 




13-10.4.2 Examples of Sources of Materials 
| (1) |Deleted| 

(2) ' Fraud cases: Verification or disproving 
specifications in government purchases, product verification in 
"pyramiding" operations, con games, replacement of valuable product 
constituents with worthless constituents, etc. 

(a) Desired information - Claims made for product by 
manufacturers or distributors, alleged constituents, complaints by 
users, etc. 

(b) Limitations - Products cannot be tested 
mechanically or to determine pros or cons of use. Analysis i& limited 



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to determination of constituents and literature search in reference 
thereto. Consideration of use of outside laboratories can be given to 
other necessary testing. 

(3) Chemical destruction cases: Destruction of paint 
surfaces, lawns, and other valuables with harsh chemicals. 

(4) Assault cases: Use of harsh chemicals on assault 
victims, lubricants used in rape and sodomy cases, miscellaneous 
unknown chemicals found at assault scene, etc. 

( 5) Sa botage: J^£sh_ch^mi_cal_s L _and other _aduJLJterants_jLn _._ 

fuel~tanks and oil pans, gears, etc., of drive trains; sea water 
contamination aboard ships. 

(6) Ink Analysis 

(a) Scope - Comparison of the formulations of 
questioned and/or known ink specimens including typewriter ribbons and 
stamp pad inks. 

(b) Limitations - When ink formulations are the 
same, it is not possible to determine whether or not they originated 
from the same source to the exclusion of other inks having similar 
formulations. 

(c) Standard ink reference files necessary for 
possible association of a questioned ink with a manufacturer are 
available to the Laboratory. 

(d) Determination of whether or not a document was 
written after the date shown thereon can only be made if a date 
taggant is in the ink. Only a limited number of companies utilize the 
taggant. 

(7) Explosives and explosives residue analysis 
(a) Post-explosion evidence 

1. Scope - Examine evidence after an explosion 
for the presence of residues left behind from an explosive. 

2. Types of Evidence - Metal, glass, plastics, 
rubber close to the seat of the explosion. Soil from the crater 
should be removed. Attempt to collect control samples from the 
surrounding area. 



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"■:$ 




contamination. 



in Kapak bags 



3. Take necessary precautions to avoid 

4. Containers for evidence 

a. clean metal paint cans 

b. plastic evidence bags' placed and sealed 

c. clean glass jars 



(b) Preexplosion - raw explosive samples 

1. Containers 

a. metal cans or glass jars 

b. be aware of shipping requirements for 
explosives. 

2. Limitations - In some cases the manufacturer 
of a material can be obtained. Comparison with samples for batch 
comparisons is possible. 

. (8) Paint and plastics analysis 

(a) Faints 

1. Scope - Comparison of paint samples from 
known source to a paint sample removed from a specimen. 

2. Limitations - When paint samples match, it 
can only be said that the specimen may have come from the known source 
or one just like it. Only in rare cases can a positive match, to the 
exclusion of all others, be made. 

3. National Automotive Paint File (NAPF) is 
housed in the Laboratory. 

(b) Plastics 

1. Scope - Analysis of plastic or polymeric 
materials. Plastic fragments from hit and run accidents can be 
reconstructed into its original shape. 



: i. 



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(9) Tape Analysis 

(a) Scope - Tapes come in a variety of forms such as 
masking, electrical, and duct tape. These materials have been used to 
bind homicide victims, cover drug packs, and components of improvised 
explosive devices. End matches are the most powerful results. 

(10) Miscellaneous chemical examinations such as: 

(a) Chemical agents on bank robbery packets 



(b) Dyes encountered in bank dummy packets or 
security devices can be compared with known standards in the 
Laboratory 



espionage cases 
TFIS cases, and 



cases, 



(e) Verification of stolen chemicals in ITSP and 

(f) Harsh chemicals or sugars in DAMV cases. 

(g) Adulterants in Tampering With Consumer Product 

(h) Trace drugs in money, clothing, suitcases, and 
other containers 

(i) Smokeless powder comparisons 

, (j) Food analyses 

(k) Cosmetic examinations 

(1) Button examinations 

(m) Lubricants - such as Vaseline in rape cases. 



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(c) Constituent determination in patent cases . 

(d) Flash and water soluble paper' in gambling and .-^ 



::>- 






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13-11 MINERALOGY EXAMINATIONS 

(1) Mineralogy is part of the Trace Evidence Unit. 



PAGE 13 - 96 



'-ill 









& 



(2) Mineralogy examinations are conducted on those 
materials which are mostly inorganic, crystalline or mineraL in 
character, and include glass, building materials, soil, debris, 
industrial dusts, safe insulations, minerals, abrasives , and gems. 



Compar isons - can , by 1 inference, connect a suspect or object with a 
crime scene, prove or disprove an alibi, provide investigative leads 
or substantiate a theorized chain of events. (See MIOG, Part II, 13- 
15 (2).) 









$> 



. % EFFECTIVE: 11/21/97 




13-11.1 



Glass 



>■<£'' 



Glass, a noncrystalline, rigid material usually exhibits 
excellent | physical, optical and, compositional (properties for 
comparison purposes. When a window breaks, glass particles can shower 
10 feet or more toward the direction of the force. Particles, 
therefore, get onto hair and clothing of the perpetrator. Particles 
|also|become embedded in bullets and/or objects used to break windows. 
Particles of broken glass from a hit-and-run vehicle are often found 
on the victim's clothing. 



;$ 



"704 




(1) [Deleted) 

(2) The Laboratory | examiner | cannot identify the source to 
the exclusion of ALL other sources; however, it can be stated and 
demonstrated that it is highly improbable that the particles came from 
a source other than the matching known source; if two or more 
different known sources can be matched, the conclusion is greatly 
enhanced. 



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EFFECTIVE: 11/21/97 




13-11.1.1 Glass Fractures 

Fracture patterns are unique. A physical match of two 
pieces of glass establishes that they came from a |mutual | source to the 
exclusion of all other sources; examinations also result in valuable 
information as to the direction of the breaking force. 

(1) Penetration of gl ass panes by bullets or high speed 

"projectiles - produces - ac^ne "pat fern from which the direction and the 

angle of penetration can be determined. If the cone is not present, 
stress line patterns as described below' are used to determine the 
direction of the force. 

(2) By a study of stress lines on radial cracks near the 
point of impact, the direction of the force which broke the glass can 
be determined. 

(a) This determination depends on identification of 
the radial cracks and the point or points of impact. A sufficient 
amount of glass must be submitted to reconstruct a portion of the pane 
from the edge to the point of impact. All, or as much as possible, of 
the pane should be submitted. 

(b) The pieces of glass remaining in the window 
after the breaking should each be labeled to indicate inside or 
outside, left, right, top or bottom prior to submission to the 
Laboratory. (See 13-11.1.3 below.) 

(c) The direction of the breaking force usually 
cannot be determined from tempered glass (commonly found in side and 
rear auto windows) or very small panes of glass. 

(d) Laminated glass, such as windshields, present 
special problems. Submit entire windshield if possible. 

(e) Heat breaks can be identified, but the side on 
which the heat was applied cannot be determined from fracture edges. 

(3) Pieces of glass may often be fitted together. 

(a) By fitting pieces together with microscopic 
matching of stress lines, the Laboratory examiner can positively 



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identify the pieces as originally having been broken from a single -■:• . 
pane, bottle or headlight. (See 13-11.1.3 below.) 

(b) If pertinent portions of a bottle or headlight 
can be fitted together, the manufacturer, type, etc., may be 
determined for lead purposes. 



EFFECTIVE: 11/21/97 



"13-117172 Glass Fibers arid~'Fib~erglass Insulation" 'Materials 

Glass fibers from boats, auto fenders, filters and most 
often building or duct insulations may adhere to the clothing or 
belongings of suspects. By|microscopic comparison, [glass fibers are 
identified and compared with the known source. 



EFFECTIVE: 09/24/93 



13-11.1.3 Collection of Glass Specimens (See MIOG, Part II, 
13-11.1.1(2) (b) & (3) (a).) 

(1) In cases where the direction of breaking force is 
required, pieces left undisturbed in the window must be marked as to 
inside or outside, top, bottom, left, right and all available glass 
must be submitted so. that enough pieces can be fitted together to 
identify the radial cracks near and at the point of impact. 

(2) Where pieces are large enough to fit together, all 
available glass must be submitted to increase the probability of 
finding matching edges. 

(3) Do not place glass samples in paper | or plastic bags 
and | envelopes. Wrap each piece securely and package tightly. 

(4) Send all available items of clothing of the suspect, 
comb his/her hair and check for particles in sweat on skin and in 
wounds . 

(5) Where fiberglass insulation is involved, be sure all 
sources from various areas are sampled. .Look for added insulation 



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over older insulation. Send both. 



EFFECTIVE: 09/24/93 

13-11.2 Soils, Dusts, Debris 

Soil is defined as any finely divided material on the 
surface of the earth and may contain such' man-made materials as 
cinders, shingle stones .glass particles , paint, rust, etc. Soil;j»^ 
"a^Tfelory, - incl!Tdeir"debFir, indusfrial" dusts, oily"soil from under 
vehicles as well as natural soils. 












EFFECTIVE: 06/15/81 



??*. 13-11.2.1 Value of Soil as Evidence 



(1) Soil varies widely from point to point on the surface 
of the earth and even more with depth. Many small samples are better 
than one large sample. 

(2) Soil cannot be positively identified as coming from 
one source to the exclusion of all others; but the Laboratory expert 
can associate questioned soil with a most probable source, conclude 
that a source cannot be eliminated or that a point or area could not 
be the source of the questioned soil. Such conclusions have proven 
extremely valuable in the proof of criminal cases. 

(3) Industrial dust specimens or soil near factories, are 
often distinctive. 

(A) " Debris may contain particles characteristic of a 
specific area. 

EFFECTIVE: 06/15/81 



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I 



13-11.2.2 Collection of Soil Specimens 
13-6.7 (62).) | - 



(See MIOG, Part II, 



(1) The investigator should seek likely areas at the 
crime scene such as shoe prints, tire marks, burial sites or muddy 
areas where a transfer of soil to the suspect is logical. The 
investigator should attempt to get samples which visually appear to be 
the same as the soil on the suspect's shoes or belongings. 

(2) Several samples should be taken from crime scene 
areas because of the above-mentioned variation in small areas; 



additional samples in at least four directions up to 300 feet from the 
scene should be sampled to show that a variation does exist and to 
allow the Laboratory to "judge" the probability that the questioned 
soil could have come from the area. Samples should be taken from the 
surface no deeper than shoes or tires would depress the soil. Many 
small samples are desirable, a mixture from a large area or a sample 
taken too deep may introduce unwanted variations. 

(3) Alibi areas such as the suspect's yard or work area 
should be sampled. 

(4) |Deleted| 

(5) Where soil has fallen or been deposited inside 
buildings or cars send carpets or attempt to keep lumps intact by 
secure packing; lumps break up in a too large, unpacked container. 

(6) Soil from under car fenders may be in layers. Such 
soil should be chipped or cut off and packaged so that layers can be 
kept intact for comparison with similar lumps that may be found at the 
crime scene. 

(7) __ Shoes, tires and other items should be submitted to 
the Laboratory. ' Attempts to remove the soil in the field may destroy 
valuable soil characteristics. 




EFFECTIVE: 07/25/97 



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13-11.2.3 Packaging of Soil Specimens | (See MIOG, Part II, 13-6.7 
(62).) | 

(1) |Air dry soil before packaging. | 

| (2) | Do not use envelopes or glass jars for soil. 

| (3) | Use leakproof containers such as film canisters or 
plastic pill bottles. 



EFFECTIVE: 11/21/97 



13-11.3 Safe Insulations 



Safe insulation is found between the walls of fire 
■>, resistant safes in vaults and safe cabinets. It is readily 
transferred to tools and clothing. 



EFFECTIVE: 01/11/85 

13-11.3.1 Value as Evidence 

(1) ' Safe insulation can usually be identified as such. 

(2) The make of safe can often be determined by 
examination of the insulation. 

(3) Microscopic comparison of particles or deposits with 
insulation from the broken safe connects, by inference, clothing or 
tools with the safe. 

(4) Safe insulation on tools may "make" a case for 
possession of burglar's tools. 

EFFECTIVE: 01/11/85 



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13-11.3.2 Collection and Packaging 

(1) Sample near broken edge of insulation. 

(2) Send tools or clothing to Laboratory; do not remove 
deposits in the field. 

(3) Pack to keep lumps intact; protect deposits on tools 
by wrapping. 

EFFECTIVE: 05/11/87 



13-11.4 Building Materials 
EFFECTIVE: 05/11/87 

13-11.4.1 Value as Evidence 

(1) Where entry is through a roof or wall, particles 
adhere to clothing or tools and may be on the loot or in toolbags or 
vehicles. 

(2) These materials are usually common materials. 

[ Maximum value as evidence | is gained through | the presence of several 
types, such as brick, mortar, plaster, stucco, etc. 

EFFECTIVE: 05/11/87 

13-11.4.2 Collection and Packaging 

(1) The hole should be examined and materials of each 
type should be obtained. 

(2) Submit in leakproof containers. 
EFFECTIVE: 05/11/87 




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13-11.5 Minerals, Rocks, Ceramics 

These materials will be examined or compared as requested. 

EFFECTIVE: 05/11/87 

13-11.6 Abrasive Materials 

In sabotage and malicious damage to engines, cars, trains, 
etc., abrasive materials may be put in oil or lubricants. These 

-mat eria Is- can-be- identified -as-sand-or-commercial-abrasives-and-are-of 

some value for comparison. 

EFFECTIVE: 05/11/87 

13-11.6.1 Collection of Specimens for Abrasives 

(1) If oil, the oil from the engine sump and/or filters 
should be submitted; abrasives settle in oil or fuel. 

(2) Send affected bearings or parts; the abrasive may be 
embedded; scratches or cuts may be typical of abrasive damage. 

EFFECTIVE: 05/11/87 

13-11.7 Gems, Precious Stones, Synthetic and Fake Gems 

The Laboratory can determine whether gemstones are 
genuine, synthetic or fake. If expedient, a Laboratory examiner is 
available for on scene examinations. The Laboratory! can, on a limited 
basis depending on inventory, [provide identifiable or Bureau property 
gemstones for undercover | operations whether or not recovery of the 
gemstones is anticipated. | 

EFFECTIVE: 09/24/93 



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13-12 



FIREARMS IDENTIFICATION 



Firearms identif ication|deals with the comparison of 
bullets, cartridge cases and other ammunition components to a 
particular firearm to determine if they had been fired by that 
particular firearm to the exclusion of all other manufactured 
firearms. I 



EFFECTIVE: 04/07/97 



13-12.1 



Conclusions 




Either one of the three conclusions listed below can be 
reached. If either (1) or (2) is reached, that conclusion is positive 
as in fingerprint identification. 

(1) The bullet, cartridge case, or shotshell casing was 
fired by the weapon. 

(2) The bullet, cartridge case, or shotshell casing was 
not fired by the weapon. 

(3) There are not sufficient microscopic marks remaining 
on the bullet, cartridge case, or shotshell casing to determine if it 
was fired by the weapon or the condition of the weapon precludes the 
possibility of making an identification. 



EFFECTIVE: 01/31/78 



13-12.2 Terminology 



EFFECTIVE: 01/31/78 



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13-12.2.1 Caliber 

In general, caliber denotes the nominal bore diameter of a 
barrel measured in either hundredths of an inch (.01) or in 
millimeters (mm). This provides an initial grouping capability, such 
as referring to .22 caliber, .30 caliber or .38 caliber. 

EFFECTIVE: 01/31/78 





13-12.2.2 | Car t r i dge | De s igna t i on s 



These designations expand from the basic | cartridge J 
grouping in a variety of ways. Each one of these designations denotes 
a specific cartridge case size and configuration. While some 
cartridges will interchange, most are specific for a firearm of a 
particular cartridge designation. Among cartridge designations are 
the following: 
< 

(1) Descriptive words: .38 Special, .41 Magnum, .380 
Auto, 9mm Corto. 

(2) Original powder charge: .30-40 Krag. 

(3) Manufacturer's or designer's name: .30 Remington, 
6mm Remington, .257 Roberts 

(4) Velocity: .250-3000 

(5) Year of adoption: .30-06 Springfield 

(6) Diameter in millimeters and length of case: 9 x 19, 8 
x 57. 



EFFECTIVE: 07/25/97 



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13-12.2.3 General Rifling Characteristics 

These vary from manufacturer to manufacturer and consist 



of: 



(1) Number of lands and grooves. 
(2) The | widths | of the lands and grooves. 

(3) Direction of twist of rifling. 

(4 ) Caliber. 



EFFECTIVE: 07/25/97 

13-12.3 Types of Examinations 

EFFECTIVE: 05/26/89 

13-12.3.1 Bullets . 

Marks on bullets can be produced by rifling in the barrel 
of the firearm or possibly in loading. 

(1) Recovered evidence bullet: Determine manufacturer, 
specific caliber, type and make of firearm from which fired and 
whether sufficient marks are present for identification. (Make of 
firearm involved based on general rifling characteristics.) 

(2) , Bullet versus firearm: Determine whether bullet 
fired from firearm. 

(3) Shot pellets, buckshot and slugs from the victim or 
scene: Can identify size of the shot and gauge of the slug. 
Occasionally,- shot can be identified to the barrel of a particular 
shotgun. 

(A) When a bullet and/or fragments bearing no microscopic 
marks of value for identification purposes are encountered, it is 
often useful to perform a quantitative analysis of the bullet and/or 
fragment and compare them to the similarly analyzed bullets of any 



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recovered suspect ammunition (for example, cartridges remaining in 
suspect's firearm, cartridges in suspect's pockets, partial boxes of 
cartridges in suspect's residence). When two or more lead samples are 
determined to be compositionally indistinguishable from one another, a 
common manufacturer's source of lead is indicated. Lead composition 
information in conjunction with other circumstantial information is 
often useful in linking a suspect to a shooting. | (Lead examinations 
are conducted by the Materials and Devices Unit. See MIOG, Part II, 
13-14.) I 



Compositional analysis of shot pellets and rifled slugs can provide 
similar useful circumstantial information. 



EFFECTIVE: 07/25/97 



13-12.3.2 Fired Cartridge Case or Shotshell Casing 

Marks on a fired cartridge case or shotshell casing can be 
produced by breech. face, firing pin, chamber, extractor and ejector. 

(1) Fired cartridge case found at scene: Determine 
specific caliber, type and possibly make of | firearm | in which fired, 
and whether sufficient marks are present for identification. 

(2) Fired shotshell casing found at scene: Determine 
gauge, original factory loading and whether sufficient marks are 
present for identification. 

(3) Wadding or shot from victim or scene: From wadding 
determine gauge and possibly manufacturer of wadding. From shot, 
determine size. Shot not identifiable with a suspect | firearm. | 

(4) ' Fired cartridge case/shotshell casing 
versus | firearm: | To determine whether loaded into and/or fired in 
[firearm. I 



(a) Based on identifiable firing pin impression, 
breech face or chamber marks, can establish as fired in specific 

I firearm. I 




„t 



(b) Based on extractor or ejector marks, can only 
identify as having been loaded into and extracted from specific 
| firearm. | 



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EFFECTIVE: 04/07/97 



13-12.3.3 Unfired Cartridge or Shotshell 

(Note: See 13-12.4.2 regarding "Shipping of Live 
Ammunition.") Sometimes it is important to determine whether the 
unfired cartridge or shotshell was loaded into and extracted from a 
I f irearmjbased on the presence of extractor and/or ejector marks. The 
"following" can"'be~ determined: ~~ ~~~ ~ 



(1) Cartridge: Specific caliber, type of|firearm| 
involved and whether sufficient marks for identification. 

(2) Shotshell: Gauge and whether sufficient marks are 
present for identification. 

(3) Cartridge/shotshell versus | firearm: | Determine if 
loaded into and extracted from a suspect J firearm. | Does not apply to 
revolvers. 



EFFECTIVE: 04/07/97 



13-12.3.4 Gunshot Residues 

Gunshot residues may be located, depending on the muzzle- 
to-garment distance, by 

(1) Microscopic examination of the area surrounding the 
hole for gunpowder particles and gunpowder residues, smudging and 
singeing. 

(2) Chemical processing of area surrounding hole to 
develop a graphic representation of powder residues and lead residues 
around hole. Test patterns obtained compared with those produced at 
various distances using suspect firearm and ammunition like that used 
in the case — from same source if possible. 

| (3) The Firearms/Toolmarks Unit (FTU) only examines 
victim's clothing for gunshot residues in order to determine distance 



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of the muzzle of the firearm to the clothing at the time of 
discharge. Therefore, only the clothing from the area where the 
victim was shot should be submitted for examination for gunshot 
residues. For example, if the victim was shot in the chest, requests 
for examination of the victim's pants, shoes, etc., for gunshot 
residues should not be made. 

(4) In rare occasions the FTU will examine shooter's 
clothing for gunshot residues, primarily when there is evidence of a 
struggle between the victim and the subject. The FTU does not 
examine suspected shooter's clothing for the presence of gunshot 
residues in order to prove _that^ they discharged a firearm. In the 



event an examination of a shooter's clothes for the presence of 
gunshot residues is needed, the request should be directed to the 
Chemistry Unit. | 



EFFECTIVE: 07/25/97 



13-12.3.5 Shot Pattern 

The distance at which a shotgun was fired can be 
determined. It is necessary to test fire THE SUSPECT | firearm} at 
various distances using the same type of ammunition as involved in the 
case being investigated. Fired shotshells from the suspect | firearm| 
can be submitted. See paragraph 13-12.4.2 regarding the shipment of 
live ammunition. 



EFFECTIVE: 04/07/97 

13-12.3.6 Trigger Pull 

The amount of pressure necessary to fire a weapon can be 
determined. 

EFFECTIVE: 05/26/89 



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13-12.3.8 Identif ication.. of- Gun Parts- 



Gun parts found can be identified as to 

(1) Type of | firearm [from which it originated 

(2) In some cases, it might be possible to determine the 
part that came from a suspect firearm; however, in most instances, 
examination of the part will only determine if the part is consistent 
in observable physical characteristics with the type of parts utilized 
in the suspect firearm. 



EFFECTIVE: 04/07/97 

13-12.4 Submission of Evidence 

EFFECTIVE: 05/26/89 



1 



13-12.4.1 Clothing for Gunshot Residue Examination 

(1) Protect each, article of clothing at the time of 
removal and wrap each separately. (Each article of clothing that has 
blood on it must have a biohazard label placed on the outside of its 
individual package. A biohazard label must also be placed on the 
outside of the box containing the separate wrapped packages, as well 
as on the outer wrapping of the box. (See MIOG, Part II, 13-3.1 
(4)(e).)| 

(2) Make certain all garments are AIR-DRIED in shade 
before submitting to the Laboratory. 



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13-12.3.7 Determination of Accidental Firing 

("Accidental" is a determination of a state of mind; 
however, a firearm] can be examined to determine if it can or cannot be 
[fired without pulling the trigger. | 



EFFECTIVE: 04/07/97 




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(3) Provide autopsy reports and/or copies of autopsy 
photos if victim is deceased. Otherwise advise as to location of 
gunshot wounds. 



EFFECTIVE: 04/01/96 



13-12. A. 2 Live Ammunition (See KIOG, Part II, _13-6V7_(5) , J {16) , 

13-6.7.1, 13-12.3.3, 13-12.3.5, 13-12.4.3; MAOP.Part II," 
2-2.2.1, 6-2.3.9.)! 



Live ammunition cannot be sent through the U.S. |Postal 
Service | but can be shipped via Federal Express. The following 
guidelines must be strictly followed in order to comply with 
Department of Transportation regulations: 

(1) |Deleted| 

(2) Air Shipments (Federal Express) - 

(a) Cardboard box with appropriate label and 
invoices marked "Federal Express." 

(b) Shipper's certification for restricted articles. 

(c) "Small Arms Ammunition" stamped on outside of 
box. 



EFFECTIVE: 04/0Z/97 



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13-12.4.3 Bullets, Cartridge Cases and/or Firearms 

(1) Ammunition components such as bullets, cartridge 
eases, wads and firearms can be sent to the Laboratory by registered 
mail, U.S. Postal Service. Complete cartridges, gunpowder and/or 
unfired primers. must be shipped by Federal Express. (SeeJMIOG, Part 
II, 13-6.7 (5), (15), (17), (29);|MA0P, Part II, 6-2.3.9.) 

(2) Firearms have been submitted to the Laboratory with 
foreign objects such as flex cuffs, pencils, etc., in the 
barrel/chamber area, or the actions have been left open which allowed 
p acki ng m aterial (styrof oam /s hredded pa per) to e nter th e se are as. 

While safety is certainly paramount, and every effort' should be made 
to make sure a firearm is unloaded when it is sent to the laboratory, 

it should be recognized that certain practices, while serving the 
purpose of rendering the firearm safe, can adversely affect some of 
the Laboratory examinations for which the firearm is being submitted. 

(3) In firearms examinations, the most critical areas of 
a firearm are the bore, chamber and breech face. Placing a flex cuff 
through the barrel of a pistol, for example, could result in the cuff 
material rubbing against, and changing the microscopic marks in the 
bore and chamber areas of the barrel and the breech face area of the 
slide or dislodging trace evidence in these areas. Likewise, placing 
a pencil or rolled-up piece of paper in the action to keep it opened, 
could also adversely affect the marks on the breech face and also 
allow packing material to enter the firearm. In some instances, a 
firearm has been received which would not function due to shredded 
paper or styrofoam pellets having entered the action/chamber areas. 

(4) As an examination of a firearm can involve additional 
Laboratory examinations for latent fingerprints, blood, etc., firearms 
evidence should be packaged to eliminate or reduce as much as possible 
the likelihood of damage to such evidence. 

Firearms can be sent by registered mail, U.S. Postal Service. 



EFFECTIVE: 04/07/97 



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13-12.5 



Marking Specimens for Identification 



(1) |Bullets, cartridge cases, shotshell casings, 
cartridges, shotshells and other firearms-related evidence should be 
marked with initials or other personal identifying data on the 
primary evidence container only. (Caution: Do not place markings on 
the item(s) itself. Any trace evidence on the item and the 
microscopic marks need protection from possible loss or 
destruction.) | 

'"• | (2) | Firearms: (See MIOG, Part II, 13-6.7 (29).) 

| The primary container with the firearm should be marked 
with initials or other personal identifying data. (Caution: Do not • 
place markings on the firearm itself. The firearm may need to undergo 
various examinations, such as DNA, Trace, or Latent Fingerprint; 
therefore, protection must be afforded to the firearm to avoid 
possible loss or destruction of evidence.) | 



EFFECTIVE: 07/25/97 

13-12.6 Obtaining Test Specimens 

Whenever possible, the firearm should be submitted to the 
Laboratory. If the firearm cannot be submitted, j call the 
Firearms/Toolmarks Unit for instructions.) 



EFFECTIVE: 07/25/97 



13-12.7 Standard Reference Files- 



EFFECTIVE: 06/26/91 



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13-12.7.1 Reference Firearms Collection 

This collection contains over | 3 , 000 | handguns 
and|2,000| shoulder weapons and is used for such things as: 

(1) Locating serial numbers 

(2) Replacing inoperable | firearms | parts 

(3) Identifying gun parts 



EFFECTIVE: 04/07/97 



13-12.7.2 Standard Ammunition File 

| The Standard Ammunition File is maintained in the FBI 
Laboratory's Firearms-Toolmarks Unit (FTU) . This file is 
continuously updated and contains over 15,000 commercial and military 
ammunition specimens of both domestic and foreign manufacture. These 
specimens serve as standards which assist in the determination of 
ammunition type and manufacture. A computerized database permits 
comprehensive searching of this file on the basis of the observable 
physical characteristics present on unknown ammunition components.! 



EFFECTIVE: 04/01/96 



13-12.7.3 Reference Fired Specimen File 

This file contains test bullets and cartridge cases 
obtained from| firearms |which have been| f ired| in the Laboratory. 
(Note: An "Unidentified Ammunition File," "Open Case File" or 
"Unsolved Crime File" consisting of bullets and cartridge cases 
recovered from crime scenes is no longer maintained by the 
Laboratory.) 



EFFECTIVE: 04/07/97 



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| f 13-12.7.4 General Rifling Characteristics File (GRC) 

This computerized data file contains information relating 
to the general rifling characteristics of a number of firearms. In 
those cases in which no firearm is provided, the GRC file is used by 
the Firearms-Toolmarks Unit to provide a list of firearms which could 
possibly have fired the submitted bullet or cartridge case.] 



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-EEFECTIVE:-04/01/-96- 



| 13-12.8 Disposition of | Firearms | and Related Property 

The following guidelines are to be used in Bureau cases. 

\ | (1) Any | firearm | to be disposed of should be done so by 

the Laboratory. 

| (2) The Laboratory can dispose of | firearms | and related 

property with a court order, Declaration of Forfeiture, and a 
Declaration of Abandonment Vesting Title to the United States. If 
such cannot be obtained, see United States Marshal's Manual, Section 
709.01 (Prisoner's Property) or Section 322.01 (Abandoned Property). 
When obtaining a court order, the requesting attorney should be 

| advised to seek an order directing the j firearms | into the custody of 
the FBI "for its use or for any other official purpose." The court 
order must be signed by a judge. (See MAOP, Part II, 2-4.4.6.) 

[ (3) The Laboratory can dispose of j firearms) and related 

property purchased with Bureau funds when all investigations and court 
proceedings have- been adjudicated. 



EFFECTIVE: 04/07/97 



13-12.9 (Deleted! 



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EFFECTIVE: 05/31/94 



| 13-12.9.1 |Dele.ted[ 



EFFECTIVE: 05/31/94 



13-12.9.2 [Deleted! 




EFFECTIVE: 05/31/94 



| 13-12.9.3 |Deleted| 



EFFECTIVE: 05/31/94 



13-13 



TOOLMARK IDENTIFICATION 



I 



Toolmark examinations include, but are not limited to, 
microscopic studies to determine if a given toolmark was produced by a 
specific tool. In a broader sense, they also include the 
identification of objects which forcibly contacted each other; were 
joined together under pressure for a period of time and then removed 
from contact; and were originally a single item before being broken or 
cut apart. The inclusion of these latter areas results from the 
general consideration that when two objects come in contact, the 
harder (the "tool") will mark the softer. (Saws, files and grinding 
wheels are generally not identifiable with marks they produce.) 



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EFFECTIVE: 01/31/78 



13-13.1 Conclusions 

(1) That the tool produced the toolroark 

(2) That the tool did not produce the toolmark, or 

(3) That there are not sufficient individual 
ch aracteristics remain ing within the t oolroark to det ermi n e if the tool 
did or did not produce it. ~ 



EFFECTIVE: 01/31/78 



13-13.2 Types of Toolmark Examinations 



EFFECTIVE: 01/31/78 



13-13.2.1 Toolmark with Tool 

Several comparisons can be made between a tool and a 
toolmark such as the: 

(1) Examination of the tool for foreign deposits such as 
paint or metal for comparison with a marked object. 

(2). Establishment of the presence or nonpresence of 
consistent class characteristics. 

(3) Microscopic comparison of a marked object with 
several test marks or cuts made with the tool. 



EFFECTIVE: 01/31/78 



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13-13.2.2 Toolmark Without Tool 

Examination of the toolmark can determine: 

(1) Type of tool used (class characteristics) 

(2) Size of tool used (class characteristics) 

(3) Unusual features of tool (class or individual 
characteristics) 

__(4) .AcXi.on_emp,lpye.d3y_the_topJ^_in_.its operation 



(5) Most importantly, if the toolmark is of value for 
identification purposes. 



EFFECTIVE: 04/07/97 



13-13.2.3 Metal Fracture 

Fracture examinations are conducted to ascertain if a 
piece of metal from an item such as a bolt, automobile ornament, 
knife, screwdriver,- etc., was or was not broken from a like damaged 
item available for comparison. This type of examination may be 
requested along with ajmetallurgical | examination (see major topic 13- 
14 elsewhere in this section). 



EFFECTIVE: 04/07/97 



13-13.2.4 Marks in Wood 

This examination is conducted to ascertain whether or not 
the marks left in a wood specimen can be associated with the tool used 
to cut them, such as pruning shears, auger bits, etc. This 
examination may be requested along with a wood examination (see 
secondary topic 13-9.7 elsewhere in this section). 



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EFFECTIVE: 01/31/78 



13-13.2.5 Pressure/Contact 



Pressure or Contact examinations are conducted to 
ascertain whether or not any two objects were or were not in contact 
with each other either momentarily or for a more extended time. 



EFFECTIVE: 01/31/78 



13-13.2.6 Theftingate Cast Material 

Theftingate Cast Material impressions of stamped numbers 
in metal, such as altered vehicle identification numbers, can be 
examined and compared with other | cast impressions , | as well as 
with|suspect die stamps. Instructions for use of this casting 
material can be obtained from the Firearms/Toolmarks Unit, FBI 
Laboratory. | (See MIOG, Part II, 13-13.3.1.) 



EFFECTIVE: 07/25/97 



13-13.2.7 Lock and Key Examinations 

(1) The purpose of a lock examination is to 
possible, if toolmarks are present that indicate attempts 
pick the lock, or- if some type of tool or instrument was 
the lock. When such a request is made, only the lock or 
of the lock which have visible toolmarks on them should b 
For example, if "the outer doorknob was forced, then only 
should be submitted for examination. Also, in the case o 
marks that were already on the lock at the time of the cr 
noted in the request for examination. 



determine, if 
were made to 
used to force 
those parts 
e submitted. 
that knob 
f worn locks, 
ime should be 



(2) Examination of keys can determine their observable 
physical characteristics, such as number and depth of cuts, blade 
style, etc. A determination of whether key will operate a specific 
lock can only be made after the key is actually tested in the 
questioned| lock and does hot require an examination by an examiner 
from the Firearms/Toolmarks Unit.j 



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(3) As the main thrust of the FTU examination is 
concerned with toolmarks, if there are questions about the operation 
of a particular style lock, consideration should be given to 
contacting a local locksmith with those questions. 



EFFECTIVE; 07/25/97 



13-13.3 Obtaining Evidence in Toolmark Cases | (See MIOG, Part II, 
13-6.7 (64).) | 

(1) It is most desirable, if possible, to submit the 
actual toolmarked area for direct comparison. (Note: In number 
restoration cases, the Laboratory will routinely make a cast of the 
toolmark for a possible future comparison with[any suspect die| 
stamps.) 

(2) If it is impossible to submit the original, prepare 
and submit a cast, preferably | using Theftingate Casting Material or a 
suitable silicone-based material. | For instructions on how to prepare 
a plastic cast/impression see paragraph 13-13.3.1 below. 

(3) Photographs, although helpful in presenting an 
overall location of the mark, are of no value for identification 
purposes. 

(4) Do not forget to obtain samples of paint, safe 
insulation, and any other material likely to appear as foreign 
deposits on tools. 



(5) . DO NOT place the tool against the toolmark for size 



evaluation. 



EFFECTIVE: 07/25/97 



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13-13.3.1 Theftingate Cast Material Impressions (See HIOG, Part I; 
| 26-2.8; Part II, 10-3, 13-13.2.6, | 13-13.3.) | 

The following instructions are for making a plastic 
cast/impression of stamped numbers in metal. 

s 

| (1) All casts should be taken BEFORE ANY | small | number 

restoration is attempted. (See "Items with Obliterated Identification 
Markings" under secondary topic 13-14.2 elsewhere in this section for 
further information on number restoration.) 

(2) Casts should be ta ken usin g Theftinga te Ca st Material 




(made by Advanced Ceramics Services, Denver, Colorado, Telephone 
Number (303) 237-5456) which should be available in each {office or can 
be obtained by contacting the Firearms/Toolmarks Unit in the 
Laboratory Division. | 

(3) The number one priority in taking a cast of stamped 
numbers is cleaning the number area of any foreign matter as the cast 
material will duplicate any foreign material left in the stamped 
characters. Thus, paint and dirt should be removed from the stamped 
area with a suitable solvent (acetone, gasoline or a commercial paint 
remover). A toothbrush could be used to help clean down to the bottom 
of the stamped area and IN NO INSTANCE should a wire brush be used to 
clean the area as this will scratch the numbers and make subsequent 
identification of the stamps impossible. If there is any rust in the 
stamped numbers, use of "NAVAL JELLY" is helpful in removing the rust. 

(4) Having cleaned the surface, a dam should be built 

| around it to retain the liquid| casting material J while hardening and 
cooling. The liquid and the powder of the replica kit are mixed for 

| one minute in the | plastic bottle | that contained the powder. The dam 
material should be a soft pliable clay-like material such as caulking 
cord, "Play Dough" or modeling clay. Prior to forming the dam, nylon 
filament tape should be placed at each end of the characters, partly 
within the dam area to facilitate the cast removal. All voids around 
the dam should be sealed to prevent leaking. Once the liquid has been 
poured and hardened, lift up on the ends of the tape to lift out the 
cast. If the cast has a lot of paint and rust, additional casts 
should be taken until the best possible cast has been obtained and 
this should be submitted to the Laboratory. 

(5) The Theftingate Cast Material is available in three 
formulations for use in three different temperature ranges: 40 to 69 
degrees Fahrenheit, 70 to 80 degrees Fahrenheit, and over 80 degrees 
Fahrenheit. At very low temperatures, setting time can be several 



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hours even when using the low temperature range formulation. In this 
instance, if possible, the vehicle or metal should be moved to a 
heated building. Further the area can be heated by several methods 
such as heat lamp, infrared light bulb, hair dryer directed on the 
number area and then upon the cast, etc. The use of a torch to heat 
the area is not recommended. 



EFFECTIVE: 07/25/97 



13-13.4 Submitting Toolmark Evidence to Laboratory | (See MIOG, 
Part II, 13-6.7 (64).) | 

(1) Pack j the evidence, possibly with cotton, | to preserve 
the evidence and prevent contamination. 

(2) Properly identify each item to facilitate court 
presentation. Consider the possible need in court of the object from 
which the specimen was cut. 

(3) Submit the tool rather than making test cuts or 
impressions in field. 



(4) Hark ends of evidence which are or are not to be 



examined. 



EFFECTIVE: 07/25/97 




13-13.5 Reference Files | (See MIOG, Part I, 26-2.8.) | 

(1) National Automobile Altered Numbers File: 
Laboratory is maintaining in the National Automobile Alter 
File selected specimens, including surface replica plastic 
of altered vehicle identification numbers found on stolen 
and heavy equipment. The purpose of this file is to have 
repository for such specimens of altered numbers so that c 
can readily be made at any time in an attempt to identify 
stolen cars and possibly link such vehicles with commercia 
rings nationwide or other cases investigated by the Bureau 



The FBI 
ed Numbers 

impressions 
cars, trucks 
a central 
omparisons 
recovered 
lized theft 



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(2) iDeletedl 



EFFECTIVE: 04/07/97 



13-13.6 



Identification Manuals 




t^^l^ie^^^^^ 



Laboratory manuals concerning the identification of 
.automobiles.,_foreign__and domes tic.,_tracto.r_t rucks ,._trailers_and_ 
construction equipment are updated on a timely basis. 

lformation and photographs which indicat< 
j.nd provide'"investigative aids 
&ent examining LJleSe'Tnnds of equipment. Copies of these manuals 
be obtained by contacting the Firearms-Toolmarks Unit of the 
Laboratory Division. | 



EFFECTIVE: 05/26/83 



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13-14 METALLURGY EXAMINATIONS 
13-13.2.3.)! 



(See MIOG, Part II, 13-12.3.1, 



{Metallurgy encompasses the science of metals and other 
materials. These materials |may be metallurgically examined for 
comparison purposes and/or information purposes. 



EFFECTIVE: 07/25/97 




13-14.1 



Examinations for Comparison Purposes 



Determinations to ascertain if two metallic|or 
nonmetallic | objects came from the same source or from each other 
usually require evaluations based on surface characteristics, 
microstructural characteristics, mechanical properties and 
composition. 

(1) Surface Characteristics - macroscopic and microscopic 
features exhibited by the metal [or material | surface including 



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fractured areas, accidental marks or accidentally damaged areas, 
manufacturing defects, material defects, fabrication marks and 
fabrication finish. The fabrication! features reveal] part of the 
mechanical history of how a metal was formed; e.g., if it was cast, 
forged, hot-rolled, cold-rolled, extruded, drawn, swaged, milled, 
spun, pressed, etc. 

(2) Hicrostructural Characteristics - the internal 
structural features of a metal as revealed by optical and electron 
microscopy. Structural features include the size and shape of grains; 
the size, shape and distribution of secondary phases and nonmetallic 
inclusions; and segregation and other heterogeneous conditions. The 



microstructure is related to the composition of - the metal~~atul - to th~e~ 
thermal and mechanical (histories of the metal, including post- 
fabrication exposures and/or deformations. | 

(3) Mechanical Properties - describes the response of a 
| [material | to an applied force or load, e.g., strength, ductility, 

hardness. 

(4) Composition - the chemical element make-up of the 
[ |material | including major alloying elements and trace element 

constituents. Because most commercial metals and alloys are 
nonhomogeneous materials and may have substantial elemental 
variations, small metal samples or particles may not be 
compos itionally representative of the bulk metal. 



EFFECTIVE: 07/25/97 




| 13-14.2 Examinations for Information | Purposes | 

Some of the kinds of information that can result from 
| metallurgical examinations of {materials | in various conditions are 
listed below: 

| (1) j Damaged metallic or nonmetallic items] 

| (a) Cause of the failure or damage. 

(b) The magnitude of the force or load which caused 
the failure. 



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(c) The possible means by which the force or load 
| was transmitted to the|item|and the direction in which it was 
transmitted. 

(2) Burned, heated or melted metal 

(a) Temperature to which the metal was exposed. 

| (b) Nature | and/or direction | of the heat source which 

damaged the metal. 

I (c) Whether thelitemlwas involved in an electrical 



short-circuit situation. 



(3) Rusted or corroded metal - length of time the metal 
had been subjected to the environment which caused the rust or 
corrosion. Requires that the investigator submit information 
J concerning the environmental conditions. 

i | (4) Cut or severed|material | 

V' 

p 
? I (a) Method by which thefmaterial |was severed - 

sawing, shearing, milling, turning, electrical arcing, flame cutting 
(oxyacetylene torch or "burning bar"), etc. 

[ (b) J Temperatures and/or type of equipment required. | 

| (c) |Deleted| 

| (5) | Fragments | 

(a) Method by which the fragments were formed. 

(b) If fragments had been formed by high velocity 
forces, may determine if an explosive had been detonated and the 

| [relative jmagnitude of the detonation velocity. 

(c) Possible identification of the item which was 
the source of the fragments. In bombings, timing mechanisms can often 
be identified as to type, manufacturer and model; determinations are 
often possible as to the time displayed by the mechanism when the 
explosive detonated and as to the relative length of time the 
mechanism was functioning prior to the explosion. 

^%l (6) Watches, clocks and timers 



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(a) Condition responsible for causing the timing 
mechanism to stop or malfunction. 

(b) Whether the time displayed by the mechanism 
represents AM or PM (calendar-type timing mechanisms only). 

(7) Deleted 

(8) Lamp bulbs 

(a) Whether a broken lamp bulb was incandescent at 
the time the glass portion broke. 



(b) Whether an unbroken lamp bulb was incandescent 
at the time it was subjected to impact forces such as those developed 
in vehicular collisions. 

(9) Objects with questioned internal components: X-ray 
radiography can reveal the interior construction and the presence or 
absence of cavities or foreign material. 

(10) Items with obliterated identification markings - 
Obliterated identification markings are often restorable, including 
markings obliterated by melting of the metal (welding, "puddling"). 
Obliterated markings can also be restored on materials other than 
metal. Because different metals and alloys often require specific 
methods for restoration of obliterated markings, the Laboratory should 
be contacted before any field processing for number restoration is 
attempted. | (See MIOG, Part I, 26-2.8 (1); Part II, 10-3, 13-13.3.1.)) 

| (11) Speedometers: Speed indicated at impact. | 



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13-15 



MATERIALS ANALYSIS EXAMINATIONS 



(1) |These examinations are made by. the Chemistry Unit. 
(See MIOG, Part II, 13-10.) | These examinations entail the use of 
microscopic, mierochemical and instrumental techniques such as Fourier 
transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, pyrolysis gas 
chromatography - mass spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy, 
differential thermal analysis, capillary electrophoresis, liquid and 
ion chromatography, etc., for both organic and inorganic analyses, 
identification and/or comparison of the compositions of paints, 
plastics (polymers), tape (electrical, masking, and duct tapes), 
-glues,— caulker/sealants, -cosmetics, _expi os ives-and_expl os ive_residues._ 



(2) Mineralogy is part of the|Trace Evidence|Unit 
(seeJMIOG, |Part II, 13-11 for mineralogy examinations). 



^^i f Jj^*' 



EFFECTIVE: 07/25/97 



j 13-15.1 Paints, Cosmetics, Plastic ^Products, and Tapes | 



EFFECTIVE: 09/03/93 



13-15.1.1 Automobile Paints 




It is possible to establish the color, year and make of an 
automobile from a paint chip by use of the National Automotive Paint 
File which conta-ins paint panels representing the original paint 
finish systems used on all makes of American cars, light trucks, vans, 
and most foreign cars. A very careful search of the accident or crime 
scene should be made to locate small chips because: 

(1) Paint fragments are often found in the clothing of a 
hit-and-run victim) during Laboratory examinations.! 

(2) Paints may be transferred from one car to another, 
from car to object, or from object to car during an accident or the 
commission of a crime. 



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|(3)The paint particles may not be big enough to 
recognize/detect with the unaided eye so suspected transfer items 
should be submitted to the Laboratory for complete analysis. Also, 
thinly deposited, smears of paint may vary in color and should not be 
eliminated during a field examination. I 



EFFECTIVE: 05/31/94 



Q 



13-15.1.2 Nonau tomob ile Pain ts and Other Coa t i ngs _ 



(1) Coatings of all types can be analyzed and compared. 
Paint on safes, vaults, window sills, door frames, | furniture, 
bicycles, |etc, may be transferredjwhen forcible contact is made with 
another object. | For example, a comparison can be made between the 
paint on an object and the paint on a tool to determine if there was 
contact with a particular painted surface. However, the manufacturer 
cannot be determined (other than original automotive paint finishes). 

(2) Fine art authentication through complete chemical 
analyses of the coatings/materials utilized in the painting|can be 
performed. I 




EFFECTIVE: 05/31/94 



13-15.1.3 Cosmetics and Related Items 



Known and questioned samples of cosmetics, such as 
lipstick, face powder, | body lotions and lubricants, | and various other 
make-up mater ials can be compared with each other but 
they | normally | cannot be associated with a j specific source, 
manufacturer or distributor.! 



EFFECTIVE: 05/31/94 



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13-15.1.4 Plastics/Polymers 

It is|usually|not possible to specifically identify the 
{particular jsource, use, or manufacturer of plastic items from 
composition alone but comparisons such as the following can be made: 

(1) Trim from automobiles, depending upon the uniqueness 
of the composition, is compared with plastic remaining on the victim 
or property struck in a hit-and-run. 

(2) Plastics comprising insulation on wire used in 
bombings or other crimes are compared with known or suspected sources 

"of "insula ted~wi r e . "~ ~~ " ~~ 



(3) Miscellaneous plastic material (including buttons) 
from crime scenes is compared with possible sources. 



EFFECTIVE: 05/31/94 



13-15.1.5 Tape 

A positive identification may be made with the torn or cut 
piece of tape left at the scene of the crime or on a victim and a roll 
of suspect tape (similar to fabric examination). 

(1) Associations of tapes left at the scene and from 
suspected sources are determined from physical and compositional 
characteristics. 

(2) Deleted 

(3) J Trace Evidence | Unit maintains a duct tape reference 
file. 



EFFECTIVE: 07/25/97 

[[13-15.1.6 Explosive Residues 
'^1% | See Part II, Section 13-6.7.1. 



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13-15.2 Fluorescent Powders and Other Marking Materials 



EFFECTIVE: 09/03/93 



13-15.2.1 Purpose 



Marking materials are used to prepare an object, be it a 
decoy package, cash box, money, etc., in order that a detectable trace 
will be left on a person or the property of a person who handled the 
object. 



EFFECTIVE: 05/26/89 



13-15.2.2 Selection Factors 

(1) The choice of material depends on factors inherent 
with each situation. | These materials can be obtained as kits from 
commercial vendors.) 

(2) The material used can be a dry powder, liquid, or 
grease and be available in many visible and fluorescent colors. 

(3) Fluorescent materials require a source of ultraviolet 
light to examine the subject's hands or clothing. 

(4) * Deleted 

(5) Deleted 



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EFFECTIVE: 09/03/93 

13-15.2.6 Fluorescent Materials 

(1) Have the advantage of not being visible to the 
subject. 

(2) Have the capability of being subsequently identified 
as the same powder used, by analysis of deposits on clothing, etc. 

(3) Have the disadvantage of requiring a source of 
ultraviolet light (see item (7) below). 

(4) Phosphorescent materials are different from 
fluorescent powders and must not be used since these may be detected 
by the subject even without an ultraviolet source. 

(5) Must be applied in a finely ground or powdered form. 

(6) Choice of form depends on object to be marked, for 
example: . 



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(a) Contact areas of tools can be coated with a 
grease, such as vaseline, mixed with a fluorescent powder without 
creating suspicion. Richer deposits are transferred when grease film 
is used. 

(b) Normally dry surfaces, such as gloves, money, 
doorknobs, steering wheels, etc., would arouse suspicion if coated 
with a grease. After coating an appropriate surface with grease, the 
remainder of object and/or container may be dusted with dry powder. 

_______ (c) — Time, amount. of _light,.. and other factors. may . 

limit application to dusting since the dusting procedure is rapid and 
does not require meticulous attention. 

(d) Liquid fluorescent materials normally used as a 
writing medium. Care [must be taken to prevent liquid marks or 
discolorations on paper or surface treated. 

(7) Availability of fluorescent materials: Questions on . 
availability and appropriateness of chemicals to particular problems Jj A 

| can be resolved by con^eting th^^race Evidence | Unit of the 
Laboratory, extension^^^^Bor^^^^B 

(8) Procedures for application: 

(a) In applying grease, use bare fingers or an 
appropriate applicator and rub it over the surfaces of the items to be 
marked so as to leave a thin film. Avoid. large "globs" of grease. 
The common fluorescent materials available from the Laboratory are not 
dangerous or toxic substances and will not be readily absorbed through 
the skin. However, normal precautions should be made to avoid direct 
inhalation or contact with the eyes and mouth. 

- (b) In applying powder form, numerous methods are 
commonly used, such as shaking powder over items, dusting with a 
powder puff or pad of cheesecloth, or brushing over the surfaces in a 
manner similar to that used to dust with fingerprint powder. 

(c) Liquids can be applied with a clean pen, small 
paint brush, or spray-type dispenser. 

CARE SHOULD BE TAKEN SO THAT THE FLUORESCENT SOURCE IS NOT DIRECTED AT 
THE EYES, SINCE THE ULTRAVIOLET RAYS FROM THE LIGHT CAN CAUSE DAMAGE 
TO THE EYES. 



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13-15.2.7 On-Site Laboratory Assistance to Field 

Any requests for on-site assistance by|Trace Evidence |Unit 
personnel in a high-priority crime scene situation oust be made by 
direct communication between the SAC and the Assistant Director, . 
Laboratory Division. Such requests should only be made when the 
-available -ser-vices-.of-the-field-crime-scene-search..team-will_not-fully- 
meet the needs of the situation. This on-site support would include, 
but is not limited to, detection (i.e., explosives, drugs or drug by- 
products), recovery, preservation and delivery to the Laboratory of 
trace evidentiary materials considered to be of probative value in the 
investigation. 



EFFECTIVE: 07/25/97 



13-16 (SUPPORT SERVICES AND EXAMINATIONS IN BOMBING AND 
EXPLOSIVE MATTERS! 



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13-16.1 (Deleted! 



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13-16.2 Handling, Transportation and Storage of Explosives | or 
Suspected Explosives (See MAOP, Part II, 2-4.4. 11. )'| 

(1) Explosives | or suspected explosives | should only be 
handled by trained Laboratory Division personnel or certified Special 
Agent bomb technicians. The handling, transportation and storage of 
explosives should always be carried out in a safe, reasonable and 
prudent manner consistent with applicable laws and regulations. 

(2) Each field division, through liaison contacts with 
-local- law enforcement -agencies .and_U. S._ mi 1 i tary commands , should.. 



establish suitable and proper storage for explosives seized in the 
course of Bureau investigations or for use in training matters dealing 
with explosives. In the event suitable and proper explosives storage 
arrangements cannot be achieved to meet a field division's 
requirements, the purchase of a portable magazine (s) may be required. 

(3) Any problems or questions regarding the handling, 
transportation and storage of explosives should be immediately 
resolved through contact with the Laboratory (Division's Materials 
and Devices Unit. I 



EFFECTIVE: 04/07/97 



13-16.3 



Render Safe Assistance to the FBI 




All offices are to have established liaison with| public 
safety bomb squads and | United States Military Explosive Ordnance 
Disposal (EOD) Units | in order that assistance can be promptly obtained 
if explosives | and/or bombs are encountered in connection with official 
investigations. -| The public safety bomb squad response is an integral 
part of the FBI Counterterrorism and narcoterrorism programs, and as 
such, liaison with these squads ia an extremely important 
responsibility whichjshould be handled by the Special Agent field bomb 
technician. 

(1) The United States Army has EOD Units stationed 
throughout the continental United States plus Alaska and Hawaii. 
These Units have provided support to the Bureau in the past and have 
personnel qualified to handle explosives and bombs. Due to emergency 
conditions, requests for assistance from Army EOD Units will usually 
be oral. Such oral requests are to be confirmed by letter addressed 



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to the Commanding Officer of the EOD Unit involved. 



PAGE 13 - 135 



(2) The Army does not have an EOD Unit in Puerto Rico. 
Therefore, the San Juan Office should have established liaison with an 
appropriate United States Navy facility. 



EFFECTIVE: 02/12/92 



13-16.4 



On-Site Laboratory Assistance to Field 



Any reques 
personnel in an explos 
communication between 
Laboratory Division, 
available services of 
fully meet the needs o 
but is not limited to, 
scenes, participating 
encountered and techni 



ts for on-site assistance by Laboratory 
ives-related situation must be made by direct 
the SAC and the Assistant Director in Charge, 
Such requests should only be made when the 
the field division bomb technician will not 
f the situation. This on-site support includes, 
I forensic investigation at|major bombing crime 
in raids or searches wherein explosives may be 
cal support for principal bomb squad. 



EFFECTIVE: 02/12/92 



13-16.5 




oiled by the Laboratory and 
explosive specialists from the 
{Materials and Devices Unit.] 

(1) The Laboratory maintains a collection of J 

[from which to draw upon when this technique is deemec 

appropriate. Additionally, items not in stock may be obtained from 
manufacturers where aporooriare 1<>ari Kme is allowed. Items in this 



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(3) For this technique to be implemented, approval must 
be obtained from the applicable Criminal Investigative Division 
section supervising the parent case. Coordinationwi^^^l^^made 
with the Laboratory regarding the specifics of thJHfl^^^H|Hfc 
proposal^tt^^^^^^^j^^y^^^yyj^^T p^r^^n^T^^ffi^t to 

appropriareapprovaT^n^coorSTna^Snv^^^^^ffaboratory| Materials 
and Devices Unit.E 



EFFECTIVE: 04/07/97 




13-16.6 



material, 



Shipping Explosives, Hoax Bombs, and Bomb Components to 
the Laboratory for Examination (See MIOG, Part II, 
13-6.7 (44).) 

(1) Explosives are currently classified as hazardous 
Therefore, special packaging is required and the amount 



which can be sent in each shipment is regulated. 

(2) The Materials and Devices Unit is to be contacted for 
shipping and packaging instructions EACH AND EVERY TIME an explosive, 
hoax bomb, or bomb component is to be shipped to the Laboratory 
Division for examination. The shipping instructions furnished must be 
strictly adhered to because the improper packaging and shipment of an 
explosive is a serious matter affecting safety, and violations of 
shipping regulations will not be tolerated. 

(3) |Prior to mailing/shipping items between Bureau 
offices which, when x-rayed, might appear suspicious, an immediate 
teletype must be sent or a telephone c'all'made to the recipient. The 
teletype or telephone call should identify the shipping method 
(United States Postal Service Registered, FedEx, etc.) 
identifying/tracking number, office of origin, description of 
contents, date it was mailed/shipped, and any other information which 
may be beneficial to the recipient. 

(a) Upon receipt of the above-mentioned information, 
the recipient must complete an FD-861 and post it on or near the 
x-ray machine in a conspicuous manner. It is the responsibility of 
each office to designate an appropriate area for the posting of such 



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information and advise all employees responsible for x-raying 
incoming mail and related material of the designated area. Also, 
appropriate security must be afforded to the Mail/Package Alert Forms 
to prevent possible compromise. That is, the posting of such 
information in unsecured FBI space (i.e., loading dock, reception 
area, etc.) is strictly prohibited. 

(b) The form must remain posted at all times until 
the item in question is received. Upon receipt of the questionable 
item, the FD-861 should be removed from the x-ray machine or 
designated area, and the bottom portion of the form completed 
(initials of the em ploye e who identified the package and date 



received). The completed form should be retained for 90 days, 
Thereafter, the form should be disposed in official receptacles. 

(c) The same procedures apply for mailing/shipping 

to the J. Edgar Hoover (JEH) FBI Building. An immediate teletype . 

must be sent to FBTHO. Att-enti nn; Mail Services Unit (MBU ) . Room L^ 

'1 orflHBfe v^ 



must be sent to FBIHO^Att|ntion: Mail Services Unit (MSU)^Joom 
iBOO^^^^call ■Hj|j^^^^H(8 - orflHHfc 

^^^^^^B(24 hours^a^ay^^even days a week). The MSU wilT^H^^^ 
^esponsiDle for ensuring appropriate JEH FBI personnel are advised 



•pons l Die for ensuring appropriate JEH FBI personnel are advised of 
the questionable item. 

(d) When mailing/shipping possible suspicious- 
looking items OUTSIDE the Bureau, offices should make a courtesy 
telephone call to the recipient, providing the same information as 
described above (i.e., shipping method, identifying/tracking number, 
date sent, description of contents, etc.).| (See MIOG, Part I, 91~8 
(ID.) 



EFFECTIVE: 06/04/97 



13-16.6.1 Examination and Tests of Explosives and Explosive Devices 

| (1) The Laboratory|Materials and Devices Unitjwill 

conduct all forensic explosive testing and examination of explosive 

I devices at the Quant ico explosives J ranges, or other ranges deemed 
appropriate, | in support of FBI investigations and prosecutions. 

(2) Such examinations or tests which must be conducted in 
the field due to exigent circumstances must have the approval of the 
Laboratory Division. Special Agents of the |Materials and Devices 
Unit [will be assigned as appropriate to ensure that all forensic 



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considerations and safety requirements are in accordance with 
applicable laws and regualtions. 

(3) This requirement extends to the handling, shipping 
and storage of explosive materials and verification testing of live 
explosives or devices to be carried out in the field where 
investigative matters are involved. 



PAGE 13 - 138 



EFFECTIVE: 04/07/97 



13-16.7 



Examinations of Bombs and Explosives 



(1) Bombing evidence is examined to identify the 
components and fabrication techniques utilized in the bomb, to 
reconstruct the bomb, find clues that will assist in the 
identification of the bomb builder and to determine if the bomb is 
like previously examined bombs. The|Materials and Devices Unit| 
is primarily responsible for the examination of all explosive devices 
and hoax bomb devices. All bombing evidence should be shipped 
to the Laboratory to the attention of the (Evidence Control Center and 
the Materials and Devices Unit.| Forensic bombing examinations are 
subdivided into five categories: (1) the main charge explosive, (2) 
the fuzing system (initiation system), (3) function tests, (4) 
destructive capability evaluations and (5) intercomparison 
examinations. 




jroDO&gdJiS 
I^^^Pa^eWa 



(2) The|Materials 
se of explosives bj 
n conjunction withTtne i nmi i uu inve stigate 
Tals and Devices Unit [will provide guidance and^ 




truction 




Hint 



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13-16.7.1 Explosive Examinations (See MIOG, Part II, 13-15.1.6.) 

The | Chemistry | Unit conducts instrumental examinations of 
explosive materials from unexploded bombs and residue from exploded 
bombs. These examinations can yield the following information: 

(1) Explosive residue examinations often identify the 
_type_of-.explosive.(s)_used _in..the_.construction_of...the_bomb,_i..e..,__ 

dynamite, slurry, military, gun powder or homemade. 

(2) Analysis of unexploded materials can very likely 
identify the manufacturer of the explosive, i.e., Dupont, Atlas, 
Hercules. 

(3) Analysis of unexploded materials from bombs can also 
provide detailed compositional information about the explosive that 
can permit comparisons with explosives seized from caches and 
suspects. 

(4) It is important to know that most residues of an 
explosive are water soluble, and, therefore, these residues must be 
protected from moisture. Also, other residues evaporate quickly 
necessitating the immediate sealing of collected debris in airtight 
metal cans. Also recognize that modern chemical analytical techniques 
are capable of detecting extremely minute amounts of explosives. 
These capabilities require that personnel handling bombing evidence be 
absolutely sure they are not contaminating evidence with residues on 
their hands or clothing that they have picked up elsewhere. 

(5) DO NOT USE A HEAT-SEAL CONTAINER, SCREW-ON LID OR 
OTHER HEAT-, FRICTION- OR STATIC ELECTRICITY- PRODUCING CONTAINER TO 
HANDLE, SHIP, TRANSPORT OR STORE LIVE EXPLOSIVES OR SUSPECT EXPLOSIVE 
MATERIALS. THIS DOES NOT INCLUDE SHIPPING OF EXPLOSIVE RESIDUE 
FOLLOWING THE COLLECTION OF DEBRIS FOLLOWING AN EXPLOSION. 



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The fuzing system of a bomb is the mechanism that, when 
activated, makes the bomb explode. A fuzing system can be something 
as simple as a burning fuse, or as complicated as a radio control 
mechanism. Examinations of a fuzing system can provide valuable 
investigative information as well as forensic information. 



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EFFECTIVE: 02/12/92 



13-16.7.3 Function Tests of Bomb Fuzing Systems 

Routine examinations of unexploded fuzing systems include 
evaluations to determine if the system could function the bomb if it 
were activated. Statements concerning these tests will be included in 
the Laboratory report. If requested, bomb fuzing system plans can 
also be evaluated to determine if they are workable. 



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13-16.7.4 Destructive Capability Evaluations 

Routine examination of unexploded bombs includes an 
evaluation of the bomb's destructive capability. Statements 
concerning these evaluations are set forth in the Laboratory report. 
If important to the investigative effort, on-site evaluation of a 
bomb '8 blast effects can be made and expert testimony rendered about 
the size and type of explosive utilized. 



EFFECTIVE: 02/12/92 



13-16.7.5 Intercomparison Examinations 

Intercomparison examinations of bombs, bomb debris and 
bombing related evidence are conducted to determine if the same 
person(s), plans and/or source of materials are involved in multiple 
incidents. The case Agent should request these types of examinations 
when investigation indicates a common link between bombing incidents. 
It should be noted that in certain situations the suspect and bombing 
incident can be positively linked through intercomparison examinations 




<u|m 



EFFECTIVE: 02/12/92 



13-16.8 



Explosive Reference Files 



The |Materials and Devices {Unit maintains extensive 
reference files on commercial and military explosives and improvised 
explosive devices or homemade bombs. These files contain technical 
data plus known standards of explosive items and bomb components. 
Information in these files is routinely compared with bombing evidence 
under examination and any associations will be reported. 



EFFECTIVE: 04/07/97 



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| 13-16.9 (Bomb Data Center | Program 

| The additional mission of the FBI | Bomb Data Center | is to 

provide state of the art training to and develop technology for public 
safety bomb disposal technicians, provide operational support to law 
enforcement agencies during special events and/or crisis management 
situations and to gather and disseminate information pertaining to 
bombing matters. 



EFFECTIVE: 04/07/97 



13-16.9.1 Technical Publications 





The FBI I Bomb Data Center | is responsible for the 
collection, collation and dissemination of up-to-date statistical and 
technical information concerning improvised, explosive devices, render 
safe procedures, explosive research and technical equipment used by 
public safety bomb technicians. 

The principal publications of the j Bomb Data Center | are 
disseminated through three distinct mailing lists: 

(1) PUBLICATIONS CONTAINING UNRESTRICTED INFORMATION - 
These publications provide information of a general nature. They set 
forth the results of tests conducted on bomb handling and detection 
equipment and other data of general interest. The dissemination of 
these publications is not restricted to law enforcement agencies. 
Public utilities such as electric power, natural gas, water or similar 
companies which carry out functions relating to welfare and security 
of a community, and corporate security offices may be placed on the 
mailing list to .receive unrestricted information. These publications 
are mailed to the heads of participating organizations, or they may be 
addressed to the head of any subordinate unit designated by the 
department head, e.g., commander, bomb squad; lieutenant, burglary 
squad, and require, no special security precautions. The publication 

. is known as the GENERAL INFORMATION BULLETIN (GIB) . 

(2) PUBLICATIONS CONTAINING RESTRICTED INFORMATION - 
These publications, available only to public safety agencies and 
certain military units, provide information of sensitive nature and 
are labeled RESTRICTED INFORMATION. The present information about the 
design and functioning of specific bombs which have actually been 



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constructed, current and vital information concerning new or potential 

bomb-type hazards, methods of coping with certain bombs, and other 

information of specific interest to the bomb incident investigator. 

Because the information is considered restricted, the distribution of 

these bulletins is limited to those participants who have a need to 

know. They are mailed to the heads of participating organizations or 

they may also be addressed to the head of any subordinate unit 

designated by the department head, e.g., commander, bomb squad; 

lieutenant, burglary squad, for dissemination only to those persons 

who have a need for the information contained therein. They must not 

be made available to unauthorized persons. All participants who 

receive these public ations a l so receiv e thos e containi ng un restric ted 



information. Recipients of restricted material must agree to 
safeguard the information. This publication is known as the 
INVESTIGATORS' BULLETIN (IB). 

(3) SPECIAL TECHNICIAN'S BULLETIN (STB) - These 
publications, containing technical information intended only for the 
trained bomb technician, are also labeled RESTRICTED INFORMATION. 
They detail information regarding disarming procedures which have been 
employed against specific bombs, new or novel commercial items which 
may ultimately be encountered in improvised explosive devices, and 
other technical data which will be of specific interest to bomb 
technicians. Any attempt by an untrained person to apply the 
techniques or procedures contained in the STB could result in injury 
or death. Because of this, the STB is not mailed to the agency head 
but to the bomb squad commander for dissemination to qualified active 
members of the bomb squad. After receipt, it is the specific 
responsibility of the individual bomb technician to assure that these 
publications are not made available to unauthorized individuals. To 
obtain the STB, each bomb technician must be certified by his/her 
chief or supervisor in accordance with the following instructions: 

(a) For Hazardous Devices School Graduates - The 
name and rank or title of the technician, the name and mailing address 
of the department or agency to which he/she belongs, and the date that 
he/she is presently employed as a bomb technician. 

(b) Others - Active duty military EOD personnel will 
receive STB's through their parent commands. 

(4) In addition to the established mailing list program, 
the | Bomb Data Center | can supply FBI offices, public safety agencies 
and corporate security personnel with boob threat cards, physical 
security manuals and handout material on the bomb threat challenge. 



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(5) The | Bomb Data Center | compiles and publishes quarterly 
statistical summaries on bombing incidents throughout the United 
States. Data utilized in these summaries is reported to the Bureau by 
Form FD-436. Use of this form is not restricted to incidents bearing 
the 174 classification (Explosives and Incendiary Devices; Bomb 
Threats). The statistical integrity of the bomb incident summaries 
requires that all explosive incidents in the following categories be 
reported: (See Correspondence Guide-Field, 3-5.2.) 

(a) ACTUAL use of an explosive or incendiary device 
— (b) — ATTEMPTED use -of_an explosive or incendiary.- 



device 



(c) RECOVERY of an actual or hoax device 



EFFECTIVE: 04/07/97 



13-16.9.2 



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I 



13-16.9.3 Technical Research • ' " " _-.-*■""" 

i rv«r= center I manages research programs 

'^i^^-^t^hnlrog^expiosive^reaching, 

jfcvwflevices and firii 




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EFFECTIVE: 04/07/97 ^ - " 

.'./■■ 

23-16.9.4 FBI,HazaTdous Devices School (FBI HDS) 




_____ (1) Basic training of public safety bomb technicians in 
<T United States is provided at the FBI Hazardous Devices School. (FBI 
HDS), Redstone Arsenal, Huntsvi lie, Alabama. The FBI has funded and 
/ administered FBI HDS through the|Bomb Data Centerjsince 1981 when 
Congress mandated that the FBI would assume responsibility for the 
training of public safety bomb technicians. An annual Interagency 
Support Agreement with the U.S. Army provides military support at 
Redstone Arsenal, .The U.S. Army. provides a staff .comprised of full 
time military and civilian personnel. 

\" ~~" (2) The basic course is designed to train | state J and local 

public safety officials as bomb technicians. The basic course 
combines classroom and range instruction in explosives technology, 
electronic circuitry and components of explosive devices, nonelectric 
components and priming, use of special equipment for the detection and 
handling of explosive devices, and render safe equipment and 
techniques. The basic course is given eight times per year with 18 

J students enrolled in each course. 

(3) HDS basic course applicants must be committed to five 
years of continuous service on an active bomb squad. Travel, lodging, 



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and other expenses at the basic course are the responsibility of the 
trainee's agency. 

(4) The one-week refresher course reviews basic 
principles and explores current developments in bomb disposal. The 
bomb technicians are placed in a variety of simulations which 
challenge their technical ability. HDS conducts twelve refresher 
courses each year with sixteen bomb technicians enrolled in each. The 
HDS refresher course is open to all basic course graduates. 
Reimbursement for travel, lodging, and subsistence is available from 
the FBI. 



■a 

•1 -c 



(5) ATTENDANCE PROCEDURE: „.; 

Any | full-time, sworn. employee of a| local, state or 
federal public safety agency|with a render safe responsibility|may be 

selected forjthe|HDS attendance. Priority selection status is given ,^% 

to local and state personnel with full-time render safe -^ 

responsibilities. (Departments which sponsor students for the basic ^ 

course must certify that the required safety equipment (full-coverage 
bomb suit, portable X-ray system, disrupter, demolition kit, and 
quality hand tools) is in the agency's inventory. Applications must 
be reviewed by the field office Special Agent bomb technician working 
with the Police Training Coordinator. I 



13-16.9.7.) 



(a) All applicants must: | (See MIOG, Part II, 



1. Be volunteers; 



2. Be full-time, sworn, salaried officers 
assigned to bona fide public safety agencies; 

3. Not be color blind; 

4. Have vision in each eye which is not worse 
than 20/200 uncorrected and correctable to 20/20; 

5. Not have a hearing loss in either ear which 
is greater than 60 decibels; and 

6. Be in good health with no permanent or 
limiting disabilities. 

7. Must fall within the Bureau weight chart 
(National 'Academy Standards) or have no more than 22 percent body fat. 



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(b) All applicants should: 

1. Be committed to bomb technician work for a 
minimum of five years after graduation from HDS; 

2. Have a minimum of five years' experience 
with their respective agencies prior to the date of the application; 

3. Upon graduation, be assigned to duties 
normally associated with those of a bomb technician; and 



4. Upon graduation, attend the one-week 
refresher course every 36 months. 

(c) Requests for attendance must be directed to the 
local FBI field division, Attention: Police Training Coordinator. 
The requesting agency will receive: 

Form FD-731 Information Form 

Form FD-732 Waiver Form 

SF-88 Medical Examination Form 

Form 2-205 Attachment to Medical Form 

FD-406 Authority to Release Information 

[Performance Standard Test Certification 
(Refresher candidates) | 

(d) The FBI field division submitting the 
application is responsible for the following investigative steps: 

1. Office indices check 

2. Birth date verification 

3. Credit and arrest check for five-year period 
preceding date of application. Authority to Release Information (FD- 
406) must be obtained from the nominee at onset of the investigation. 
Credit checks will be conducted by contractor personnel at FBIHQ. 

Any information developed which reflects unfavorably upon 
character or reputation of nominee must be completely resolved. SAC 
should make his/her recommendation based on results of investigation. 
Selection will be based on availability of space, number of 
technicians already trained in that area, and specific need of 
department. 



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13-16.9.5 Bomb Technician's Seminar 

| Regional seminars are conducted by|Bomb Data Center | staff 

and field Special Agent bomb technicians on the construction and 
utilization of improvised explosive devices, techniques for remote 
neutralization, discussions of research and development and a review 

— of n ew tec h nical eq uipment. This seminar is o jLly_^ya^abjLieJto trained 

bomb technicians who are graduates of the FBI Hazardous Devices 
School. -.. 



EFFECTIVE: 04/07/97 



13-16.9.6 jPost-Blast Investigator | Seminar 

Regional seminars are conducted by|Borab Data Centerjstaff 
on explosives recognition, investigative techniques and bomb crime 
scene procedures. This seminar is available to law enforcement 
personnel with investigative responsibilities in bombing cases. 



•EFFECTIVE: 04/07/97 



13-16.9.7 Special Agent Bomb Technician Program 

The Special Agent bomb technician program is voluntary and 
requires attendance at a four-week explosives course at the Hazardous 
Devices School, Redstone Arsenal. The purpose of this training, 
initiated more than fifteen years ago, is to provide specialized 
explosive training to Special Agents to improve the technical 
proficiency in bomb investigations and to establish a liaison link 
with public safety bomb squads. When the FBI assumed administration 
of the Hazardous Devices School in 1981, the cadre of Special Agent 
bomb technicians became an integral part of the Bureau's program of 
bomb technician and bomb investigator training. 



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I W Special Agents nominated for this training I shall Imeet 

the following criteria: 

(a) I Be an experienced investigator with a minimum of 
two years in the field. | 

/ (b) [Have an overall Performance Appraisal Report 

rating of "Superior." | 

(c) | Be in good physical condition, meeting the 
minimum standards detailed in section 13-16.9.4 (5) (a) . I 



(d) |Haye a minimum of five years of service 
remaining prior to retirement.) 

(e) (Successfully complete the recommended elements 
of the "Performance Standard Test."| 

(f) | Be a volunteer, recognizing the inherent dangers 
of working with live explosives.) 

(g) | Be recommended for the program by the SAC, to 
include observations regarding the candidate with the respect to: 



conditions. 



1. oral/written communication skills. 

2. ability to function well under stressful 



3. availability for travel, both overseas and 
domestic, to assist in Bureau special assignments; major incidents, 
and regional police training. 

4. demonstrated ability to work in a team 
environment. (See (i).)| 

(h) | It is recommended that candidates for the 
program serve as members of the field division's Evidence Response 
Team; become certified police instructors; and have no other 
significant collateral duties. 

(i) Following successful completion of the HDS Basic 
Course, Special Agent bomb technicians will serve an 18-month 
probationary period. Probationary Special Agent bomb technicians 
will be evaluated by Materials and Devices Unit personnel in the 
areas outlined in 13-16.9.7 (1) (g) 1. through 4. and performance of 



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the duties outlined in 13-16.9.7 (2) (a) ADMINISTRATIVE, (b) LIAISON, 
(e) TACTICAL, and (d) TRAINING. Additional evaluation will take 
place during the annual recertif ication seminar and through 
participation at a Regional Bomb Technician Seminar. | 

(2) Special Agent bomb technician, in addition to other 
duties as a field investigator, has the following responsibilities: 

(a) ADMINISTRATIVE 

1. Provides information and advice to the SAC 
.in. a i r_ in aX t e i :s__involving the_use, possession or transportation of 
explosives. " " ~ — ~ 



2. Coordinates the recovery of explosive 
evidence in FBI investigative matters as well as its safe shipment to 
the FBI Laboratory. 

3- Compiles and reports to the|Bomb Data 
Center I information involving explosive devices encountered by public 
safety bomb squads and military EOD units. 

4. Expeditiously reports to the Laboratory 
Division by telephone extraordinary bomb related events. 

5. Assists the field office management in the 
development of emergency planning for a bombing occurrence. 

6. Assists the office crime scene coordinator 
as. necessary regarding bombing crime scene examinations and evidence 
collection. 

7. Obtains and controls proper bunker space for 
the storage of explosive evidence, training devices, and tactical 
items. 

I . 8 « Advises the | Bomb Data Center | of upcoming 

special events where specialized equipment may be required. 

(b) LIAISON 

!• Establishes and maintains communication with 
local military and civilian bomb disposal units. 

2. Establishes and maintains communication with 
professional organizations (i.e., International Association of Bomb 



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Technicians and Investigators - IABTI) in their area, to include 
membership in and attendance at organizational functions. 

. 3- Establishes and maintains communication with 

other federal agencies to ensure information is obtained regarding 
their encounters with explosives. 

, , '*• Stimulates participation in the | Bomb Data 
Center [publication program by encouraging innovative research or 
recording of unusual incidents by local bomb squads. 



-(c) TACTICAL- 



*• Acts « an information link between field 
office management and its tactical units in situations involving 
explosives. 

2. Assists in assessments of potential 
explosive and/or booby trap devices encountered during investigative 
arrest and search operations. ' 

„ 3 * Is available to tactical units for "on 

scene technical assistance and direct liaison with supporting bomb 
squad personnel. 

(d) TRAINING 

1. Plans and conducts periodic training for FBI 
personnel as office needs dictate. Such training may include bomb 
threat assessment, search techniques, explosives recognition or other 
similar courses. 

2. Assists | the Materials and Devices Unit] in 
its national training program conducted regionally throughout the year 
by participating injat least one regional school. | 

3. Assists the field office police training 
coordinator with local requests for bomb-related instruction. 

. . A. In addition to regional schools MUST 

participate in the (Materials and Device Unit | sponsored annual 
recertification program to assess technical abilities and safe 
explosive handling practices., 

EXPLOSIVE BREACHING TECHNIQUE IS NOT AUTHORIZED FOR ANY 
FBI OR POLICE TRAINING PROGRAM 



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The Laboratory Division has trained personnel to provide 
additional support to the SAC in situations in which explosives may be 
anticipated. BOMBING TECHNICIANS OF THE|MATERIALS AND DEVICES 
UNIT | are available to provide advice on safety perimeters at a bomb 
location, remote handling procedures for the render safe of an 
improvised explosive device, effect liaison with the faculty of HDS, 
direct access to the worldwide system of bomb data centers and provide 
direct liaison with public safety bomb squads. EXPLOSIVES SPECIALISTS 
OF THE | MATERIALS AND DEVICES UNIT | will provide assistance in the 
processing_o.f^JmBh^i^^^pe scenes, searches of bomb factories, I ^ j l^tt^ 




uppor.t -and -necessary-forensic assistance. 



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'J' 




13-16.9.8 Render Safe Equipment 

(1) The primary goal of the bomb technician training at 
the Hazardous Devices School (HDS) is to save lives. Bomb technicians 
are taught remote render safe techniques so as to minimize the dangers 
inherent in bomb disposal activity. NO "HANDS ON" RENDER SAFE 
PROCEDURE IS RECOMMENDED UNLESS A LIFE IS IN IMMINENT DANGER AND THERE 
IS NO ALTERNATIVE. In order to support this philosophy, the FBI has 
included a wide range of high technology equipment in its training 
program. This equipment is utilized to illustrate the variety of 
remote techniques, to stimulate the acquisition of similar equipment 
by bomb squads and to provide an assessment of the capabilities of the 
equipment. 

(2) The Laboratory Division possesses two self-contained 
bomb disposal vehicles. The vehicles contain a state-of-the-art bomb 
containment sphere which is designed to absorb the deadly pressure and 
fragmentation of an explosive device. Each truck also contains a bomb 
disposal robot and a bomb protection suit. When combined with other 
render safe equipment on the truck, the response package provides a 
variety of low-risk alternatives for a render safe operation. All of 
the equipment is designed for use during the critical time between 
detection of the bomb and detonation. The technology applies to 
initial assessment of the improvised explosive device, remote removal 
or on-site disruption. This equipment is available to augment public 
safety bomb squad or military EOD equipment at special events. 

(3) All SA bomb technicians are trained in the use of 



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general bomb disposal equipment, such as x-ray machines and 
disrupters. |Bomb Data Center | and HDS personnel also train on the 'use 
of more technical bomb disposal equipment. 



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13-16.9.9 Deleted] 



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\ 



13-16.9.10 Requests for Assistance 

(1) All direct operational support performed by the 
iMaterials and Devices Unitjroust be in response to requests made by the 

SAC and coordinated with the Criminal Investigative Division. 

(2) Laboratory Division personnel and equipment as well 
as field SA bomb technicians can provide assistance in the following 
situations wherein the use of explosives might be anticipated: 

(a) Major Case - When situation involves FBI or Task 
Force jurisdiction, raid or arrest planning should include the 
availability of the local public safety bomb squad or military EOD 
units (Note Posse Comitatus restrictions on military seizure or 
processing of evidence). If other agency support is not feasible, SAC 
may request FBIHQ assistance. 

* (b) Special Event/Major Case - Local or state law 
enforcement is usually the lead agency in physical security matters 
with FBI jurisdiction aligned with terrorism possibilities. Public 
safety bomb squad may request priority training assistance at HDS or 
in a regional seminar. Technical support for the principal bomb squad 
may be requested through the local SAC and FBIHQ. 




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13-17 DOCUMENT EXAMINATION | (See MIOG, Part I, 7-14.9 (1) and 
NFIPM, Part 1, 7-6.1.) | 

Document examination consists for the most part of a side- 
by-side comparison of handwriting, typewriting, and other written 
and printed|items|to establish! origin or authenticity. In addition 
_tolsubmitting_documents_for_document_examinations,_consideration_ 

should always be given to submitting them for latent fingerprint 
examinations (see Part II, Section 15 of this manual). | Latent | 
fingerprint examinations | are conducted, if requested, |after the 
original document has been photographed and the requested document 
examinations have been conducted. 



EFFECTIVE: 07/25/97 



13-17.1 



Conclusions 




Conclusions are positive and reliable when the 
examinations are conducted by competent experts. (Note: Age, sex, 
character, etc., cannot be determined in handwriting. Pseudoexperts 
in this field, "graphologists" or "graphoanalysts," purport to have 
this ability, but have no scientific validity.) 



EFFECTIVE: 07/25/97 



13-17.1.1 J Identification 

This conclusion is a definitive conclusion stating to the 
exclusion of all other sources. | 



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113-17.1.21 



"No Conclusion" Examinations 



In some document examinations, a "no conclusion" is 
reached as opposed to an| "identif ication"|or | examination! conclusion. 
Some of the reasons for a "no conclusion" are: 

(1) Limited questioned material 



(2) Inadequate known material 

(3) Lack of contemporaneous standards (long interval of 
time exists between the preparation of the questioned and known 
material) 

(4) JDistortion/disguise| (definite conclusions often 
impossible) 

(5) Lack of sufficiently identifying characteristics 
(although ample quantities of both questioned and known samples are 
available) | and/or | 

| (6) Elimination of a suspect source. | 



EFFECTIVE: 07/25/97 



13-17.2 



Documentary Evidence 



All efforts must be made to maintain and preserve 
documentary evidence in the same condition as it was received. This 
evidence must not be folded, torn, tampered with, marked or touched 
unnecessarily, stamped, soiled, subjected to indented writing, 
mutilated, etc. Each item of evidence should be placed in a separate 
envelope/container. Photocopies should be placed in paper rather than 
plastic envelopes as photocopies often stick to plastic mutilating the 
document . 



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13-17.2.1 Marking for Identification 

|Evidence will be marked according to FBI Laboratory 
policy. | 



-EFFECTIVE: 07/25/9.7. 




13-17.2.2 Original vs. Photocopy 

The original evidence itself rather than a photocopy 
(copy made with a photocopier machine) should be submitted because 
many examinations can be | conducted | only on the original. Also, the 
original is utilized by the examiner to prepare court exhibits. 
I Limited | examinations, however, can be made using good quality 
photographs of the original evidence. A photocopy is normally 
satisfactory for file searches. In no case should the inability to 
forward the original evidence constitute a valid reason for not 
requesting an examination. 



EFFECTIVE: 07/25/97 




13-17.2.3 Obtaining Known Handwriting Samples (See|MI0G, Part I, 
87-5.2, 91-17.1.5; Part II, | 13-6. 7 (44).) 

The following guidelines are to be used to obtain known 
handwriting and/or hand printing samples from a person (writer). 

(1) Reproduce the original conditions as nearly as 
llpossible, the same text.jsize of paper, size of writing, space 
available for the writing, type of writing instrument, etc. 
Should always try to duplicate. Obtain the full text of the 
questioned writing in word-for-word order at least once, if possible. 
Signatures and less extensive writing should be prepared several 
times, each time on a different piece of paper. In hand printing 
cases, both upper case (capital) and lower case (small) samples 



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(2) Obtain samples from dictation until it is believed 
normal writing has been produced (the number of samples necessary 
cannot be determined in advance) . 

(3) Do not allow the writer to see either the original 
document in question or a photograph thereof prior to or during the 
taking of the samples. 

(4) Remove each sample from the sight of the writer as 
_s oon_as__i.t_i s_comp let ed . . _ _____ ____ 



(5) Do not give instructions in spelling, punctuation or 
arrangement. 

(6) |Deleted| 

| (7) | In forgery cases the Laboratory should also be 
furnished with genuine signatures of the person whose name 
is j allegedly | forged. 

| (8) | Obtain samples with both the right and left hands. 

| (9) | Obtain samples written rapidly, slowly, and at varied 
slants. 

| (10) | Obtain samples of supplementary writings such as 
sketches, drawings, manner of addressing an envelope, etc. 

| (11) | Writer should initial and date each page. 

| (12) | Witness each sample with date and initials | (and| 



name 



). 



| (13) | Deleted 

j (14) | If readily available, samples of undictated writing 
should be obtained, such as application for employment, social or 
business correspondence, school papers, | canceled checks, |etc. 




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13-17.2.4 Obtaining Known Typewriting Samples (See MIOG, Part II, 
13-6.7(64)) 

The following guidelines are to be used to obtain known 
typewriting samples. 

(1) | If the typewriter is equipped with a carbon film 
("one-time") ribbon, remove the ribbon prior to taking exemplars and 
submit it to the Laboratory whenever available. | 

| (2) | Obtain a full word-for-word text of the message in 
qtii.at-fnn^ising ^s_nearJLy as possible the same degree of_t_ouch_a_s_u3ed__ 
in the questioned text. 

| (3) | Obtainjat least two|samples of the complete keyboard 
(all letters, numerals and| symbols both upper and lower case) . | 

| (4) | Obtain pertinent identifying data regarding the 
typewriter (make, model, serial number, etc.) and type this data as 
well as information such as the date sample was obtained, name of 
person taking the sample, where the typewriter was located, etc., on 
the sample. 

| (5) | Obtain data, if available, regarding when the machine 
was last serviced or repaired. 

| (6) | Properly witness each sample (initial and date on 
reverse side) . 

' I (7) | If the typewriter uses a cloth ribbon also obtain a 
stencil sample as follows: 

(a) Physically remove the cloth ribbon from the 
typewriter or mechanically move it by placing the ribbon mechanism in 
the stencil position 

(b) Place a piece of carbon paper over a piece of 
ordinary paper and insert them both in the typewriter 

(c) Begin typing and allow the faces of the type to 
strike the carbon paper directly, and 

(d) Submit the stencil sample, which is the typed 
text on the ordinary paper, to the Laboratory. (A stencil sample 
gives very clear impressions of the typefaces.) 






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| (8) | If the typewriter contains no ribbon and one is not 
readily available, obtain a stencil sample by following steps (b) 
through (d) above. 



EFFECTIVE: 07/25/97 



13-17.2.5 Obtaining Known Photocopy Samples 
The __fol lowing guidelines..are_to_be.. used when, obtaining- 



known samples from photocopy machines. 

(1) Obtain at least 10 samples with no document on the 
glass plate and the cover down. 

(2) Obtain at least 10 samples with no document on the 
glass plate and the cover up. 

(3) Obtain at least 10 samples with a document on the 
glass plate and the cover down. 

(A) Identify each sample as to make, model, and 
conditions under which sample was made. 

(5) On the transmitting communication to the Laboratory, 
if possible, list any of the following information that can be 
obtained from the known photocopy machine: 

(a) Toner - Locate toner supplies and record toner 
components, manufacturer, and descriptive information 

(b) Paper - Sheet or Roll fed 

(c) Options 

1. Color - Determine if the machine has 
optional color capabilities and what colors are available 

2. Editor - mask and trim, or editor board 

3. Reduction, enlargement, and zoomj 



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13-17.3 Requesting Examinations 

When a document examination is desired, follow the 
instructions in paragraph 13-3.1 (Requests for Examination of 
Evidence) elsewhere in this section, and include in the requesting 
communication the following: 

(1) Which of the submitted items are the questioned and 
"" tKe^Knowh" specimens ~ — ~~~ 

(2) Which questioned items are to be forwarded for latent 
fingerprint processing, and 

(3) Personal characteristics of the writer, such as any 
| -nervousness, jdisability, | illness, injury, etc. 



% 



EFFECTIVE: 07/25/97 



13-17.4 Types of Document Examinations 
(1) Handwriting (script) 

(2) Hand printing 

(3) | Signature | 

(a) If a traced] signature, | try to locate the 
document containing the pattern or master signature from which traced. 

(b) If a simulated or copied] signature, | include 
samples of genuine signatures to determine the extent of simulation. 

(c) If a freehand | signature, ] the forger has no 
knowledge of how the genuine signature looks. 




U|J>1fc 



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ba\bie 



(b) An examination of questioned typewriting can 
assist in determining a possible make and model of typewriter|and/or 
typewriting element | used to prepare the material. 

(c) Questioned and known typewriting specimens of 
the same size and style of type cannot be identified unless individual 
defects or wear characteristics are exhibited in the samples. 



(5) Paper 




(a) Definite identification is seldom possible. 

(b) Consideration should be given to indented 
writing, watermarks, tool or knife marks along the edges, whether the 
paper was torn in a manner to leave stubs in a tablet, and whether 
torn edges are suitable for comparison with torn edges on a source 
item. 

(c) Some paper examinations are partially 
destructive and will not be conducted unless specifically advised. 

(6) (Paper-fiber transfer 

An examination of the original document must be 
conducted with the suspect carbon film typewriter ribbon to determine 
whether or not the typewriter ribbon was utilized in the preparation 
of the questioned document.! 



point pens) 



I 



(7)1 Writing instruments (pencils, pens, crayons, ball- 



(8) I Checkwr iters 



(a) Examination of checkwriter impressions assists 
in determining the manufacturer of the machine used to produce the 
impressions. 

(b) Positive identification of questioned with known 
samples is infrequent because the construction of checkwriting 
machines inhibits the development of unique identifying defects and 
wear characteristics. 

I (9) j Printing, photocopying, and other duplication 



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processes 

(a) Printed documents may be associated as 
originating from a common source or may be identified with known 
printing paraphernalia. 

(b) Photocopies may be associated as originating 
from the same source or may be identified with a particular machine. 

| | (10) | Indented writing 

__ (a) Photographic, ..electrostatic, and lighting.. 

techniques are used to determine the context of indented notations. 

(b) The document should not be folded or creased. 

(c) Care should be taken to ensure accidental 
indented writings are not made in a document after its collection as 
evidence. 

| | <11) | Obliterated or eradicated writing 

(a) Nondestructive methods include photography, 
using ultraviolet and infrared techniques, and microscopic 
examination. 

(b) Staining methods may produce minor stains. The 
Laboratory should be "advised whether minor staining may be applied. 

| | (12) | Used carbon paper 

(a) Carbon paper should not be folded or creased. 

(b) Examination may disclose the context of 
handwritten or ..typewritten material pertinent to an investigation. 

j | (13) J Burned or charred paper (See MIOG, Part II, 13-6.7.) 

(a) Questioned entries on charred or burned paper 
I may be|observed| with appropriate examination. 

(b) Charred paper should be protected by a polyester 
film encapsulation method or shipped to the Laboratory in the original 
container in which it was burned at the crime scene. Contact the 
Laboratory for more specific instructions. 



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(c) If above options are not feasible, ship the 
charred paper between layers of cotton in a rigid container. 

| (14) Dating | of a document 

(a) May be based on watermarks, letterhead or other 
printing, and typewriting. 

(b) Determination of exact dating is|highly 
unlikely; however, it is possible to determine when items became 
commercially available.! 



| (15) | Wet documents 

(a) Material should be frozen before shipping items 
to the Investigative Operations and Support Section. 

(b) Freeze-dry methods of preservation will permit 
items to dry and reduce risk of decomposition. 

I (16) Deletedl 



EFFECTIVE: 07/25/97 



13-17.5 (Standards Files (Containing Known Standards Supplied by 
Manufacturers and/or Gathered by FBI Employees) | 

(1) |0ffice Equipment File] 

(a) Consists of original samples of | typewriting, 
photocopy machines, printers, and facsimile machines, from both 
foreign and domestic countries. | 

(b) |Portions of this file permit (classification of 
questioned|printed material |on the basis of make and model. 

(2) Watermark Standards 

(a) An index of watermarks and brands used by paper 
manufacturers. 

(b) Aids in tracing source or origin of paper. 



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(3) |Deleted| 

(4) Checkwriter Standards 

(a) Collection of original checkwriter impressions. 

(b) Permits classification of questioned checkwriter 
impressions as to make and model. 

(5) Shoe Print and Tire Tread Standards | (See MIOG, Part 
1 1 , 13-19.1.5.)| __ „_ _ 



(6) National Motor Vehicle Certificate of Title File 
See 13-17.6(4) of this section for further 



information. 

(7) |Deleted| 

EFFECTIVE: 07/25/97 







13-17.6 [Reference Files - Material Collected Through Casework| 

(1) NATIONAL FRAUDULENT CHECK FILE 

(a) Contains computerized and| copies of j samples of 
checks, writings, and other documentary material used by persons 
involved in fraudulent check schemes. 

(b) Assists in identifying individuals involved in 
fraudulent check schemes and associates questioned material in various 
cases as having originated from a common source. 

(c) A search through the file will be made even 
though the questioned material was previously searched through a check 
file maintained by a state or local agency, or technically examined by 
another agency. 

(2) ANONYMOUS LETTER FILE (See MIOG, Part I, 91-17.2.) 
(a) Consists of a| computerized) reference collection, 



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including|digitized|copies of|notes and| extortion and threatening 
| letters. The criteria for an Anonymous Letter File search is as 
follows: 

1. Kidnapping 

2. Bomb threats 

3. Case of the times (Abortion Clinics, Church 



Burnings, etc.) 



A. Threats to Federal Officials 



5. Contamination Issues. | 

(b) Assists in identifying the source of such 
questioned material and associates questioned material in various 
cases as having originated from a common source. 

(c) Letters of | domestic | abusive or "crank" nature 
are neither searched nor added to the file, unless mitigating 
circumstances so warrant. 

(d) Letters determined to be of no prosecutive value 
are not to be submitted to the Laboratory, unless mitigating 
circumstances so warrant. 

(3) BANK ROBBERY NOTE FILE (See MIOG, Part I, 91-17.1.) 

(a) Consists of computerized and| digitized) copies of 
writings of known bank robbers, of holdup notes found in the 
possession of known suspects and of notes used in actual holdups, or 
attempted holdups, of banks and other establishments. 

(b) Assists in identifying questioned notes with 
known writers and associates questioned notes in various robbery cases 
as having originated from a common source. 

(c) Notes and miscellaneous questioned writings 
found on counters and wastebaskets in banks which are obviously the 
work of mischief or prank will NOT be searched, and will NOT be added 
unless mitigating circumstances so warrant. 

(A) NATIONAL MOTOR VEHICLE CERTIFICATE OF TITLE FILE (See 
MIOG, Part II, 13-17.5 (6).) 



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(a) Consists of a questioned section comprised of 
copies of counterfeit and/or altered motor vehicle titles, by state, 
utilized in the transfer or saleof a stolen motor vehicle. 

(b) Consists of a known section comprised of 
authentic motor vehicle titles from each state. 

(c) Assists in identifying counterfeit titles as 
having originated from a common source. 

(d) Will provide a known standard for a 
determination to be made as to the authenticity of a questioned title. 



(5) Deleted 

(6) Deleted 



EFFECTIVE: 07/25/97 



13-18 PHOTOGRAPHIC EXAMINATIONS | (MOVED TO 13-7.6) 



EFFECTIVE: 07/25/97 



13-18.1 Deleted 



EFFECTIVE: 07/25/97 



| 13-18.2 |Deleted| 



EFFECTIVE: 02/12/92 




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13-18. A 



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G 



13-19 



SHOE PRINT AND TIRE TREAD EXAMINATIONS 



EFFECTIVE: 02/12/92 



13-19.1 How to Collect|the|Physical Evidence | (See MIOG, Part II, 
10-3, 13-6. A. 6.) | 

Shoe | and tire tread impression | evidence found at the scene 
of a crime provides important evidence for investigation and eventual 
prosecution of the case. All impressions should first be 
photographed. The|evidence or item bearing the|original impression 
should then be transmitted to the Laboratory, if | possible. This is 
easily, possible in cases when the impression is on broken glass, 
paper, or on another surface which can be removed from the crime 
scene; however," it should also be seriously considered and extended 
to bulkier items such as doors, pieces of flooring, etc., 
particularly in violent crimes. If the original imprisoned item 
cannot be removed from the scene and transmitted to the Laboratory, 
examination quality photographs, followed by casting or lifting 
techniques should be made to complete the recovery of that evidence. 
These techniques are described below. | 



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13-19.1.1 Photographing and Documenting the Evidence (See MIOG, 
Part II, 13-6.4.6.) 

(1) GENERAL CRIME SCENE PHOTOGRAPHS AND- NOTES 

General crime scene photographs are those which are taken 
from various distances and angles to capture the general appearance of 
the scene and to document certain facts about the scene. When taking 
-general crime scene photographs of' a shoe or tire impression,- - 
they should include both | long-range, mid-range and close-range | color 
photographs of the evidence. ISO 200 or 400 color film should be 
used. These photographs should be taken to create a zoom-in effect to 
show the relationship of the impressions to the surrounding area. 
THESE PHOTOGRAPHS ARE NOT SUITABLE FOR DETAILED FOOTWEAR OR TIRE 
EXAMINATIONS. 

(2) EXAMINATION QUALITY PHOTOGRAPHS 

Examination quality photographs are those which are taken 
from directly over the impressions utilizing a tripod, a scale and 
special lighting. The purpose of these photographs is to take a 
photograph which can be enlarged to the natural size via the scale and 
which reflects a high degree of (detail. THESE PHOTOGRAPHS ARE USED 
FOR FORENSIC EXAMINATIONS.) 

The following is a procedure list for taking examination 
quality photographs: 

(a) USE A SCALE IN EVERY EXPOSURE. Position a 
finely divided and accurate scale, such as a flat metric ruler, next 
to and on the same plane as the impression. A label may be placed in 
the picture to -identify which impression you are photographing, m 
order to associate the photograph to the general crime scene 
photographs, crime scene sketches, etc. 

I (b) USE | A QUALITY | CAMERA. The camera should ideally 

be a larger format camera; however, suitable photographs can be taken 
with ajMANUAL FOCUSJ35 mm camera if proper procedures are followed. 
The camera should be equipped with a normal macro|lens or a zoom lens 
in the 35-80 mm range. f Load the camera with fine-grained color 
or black and white|lSO 125 film. Check the ISO setting on the 
camera if the camera does not adjust to it automatically.! Attach a 



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Manual of Investigative Operations and Guidelines 
Part II 

cable shutter release if needed. 

(c) Adjust the height and position of the camera on 
a tripod and position it"( directly| over the impression so that the 

|shoe impression and ruler nearly fills the frame. | Make sure the film 
is parallel to the impression's surface, i.e., the lens is 
perpendicular to the impression. 

(d) Determine what special lighting will be used. 
In most cases, oblique lighting should be used. 

(e) For ob Ll/lVf^LiS h ii^St_aj5-fojoOLash e xtension 




I 



cord must be used so that "the flash can be | held | about 4-5 feet 
from the impression. This distance will | allow for an even] exposure 
across the impression. For a two-dimensional impression, such as a 
dust impression on a bank countertop, the flash should be positioned 
about 4 feet away from the impression but only about 1 inch above 
the surface the impression! is on|so that the light will graze the 
impressioned area. For a three-dimensional impression, first decide 
what the height of the flash should be for the impression. The deeper 
the impression the higher the flash. The more shallow the impression, 
the lower the flash. |The purpose of the oblique light is to lighten 
the higher areas of the impression while shadowing the lower 
depressed areas of the impression, thus providing increased contrast 
between the two.j Block out any bright ambient light, particularly if 
the impression is outside in daylight. This can be achieved by 
draping a black cloth around part of the tripod or simply having 
someone hold the black cloth or a piece of cardboard or position their 
body next to the impression to block out the light and darken the 
(area being photographed. | This|is very important andjwill maximize 
the benefit of the oblique light and result in much greater contrast 
and detail in the photograph. Several photographs with the oblique 
flash should be taken from at least three different sides of the 
impression. Always use a scalet 

(f) For three-dimensional impressions, close down 
the f-stop|to f-22|for greater "depth of field." Always make sure the 
camera is set on flash synchronization. 

(g) ALWAYS FOCUS THE CAMERA! FOCUS THE CAMERA ON 
THE IMPRESSION, NOT THE SCALE, PRIOR TO EACH EXPOSURE. Use a cable 
shutter release or the camera timer to prevent movement of the camera 
during exposure. 

(h) |Take several j exposures at each position, 
Ivarying the light position, [particularly if you feel this impression 



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is a difficult one to photograph. 

(i) TAKE SEVERAL PHOTOGRAPHS OF EACH IMPRESSION. 
(3) PHOTOGRAPHIC EQUIPMENT KIT CHECKLIST 

Having a photographic kit prepared in advance, will help 
result in the proper photographic treatment of the evidence. Below is 
a list of items which should be included in a crime scene kit to cover 
both the needs of general crime scene photography and "examination 
quality" photography: 



"Ca~me"ra(s) with manual focus and interchangeable! lenses. Macro or 
zoomllens or wide angle lens for general crime scene photos. Cable 
shutter release. Electronic flash. Long "Flash Extension Cord (.6 
feet). Light meter (for incident light as well as flash). Device for 
checking focus (focus loop or macro focus aid). Tripod (preferably 
the inverted type). Fine-grained black/white and color films (ISO 125 
or less). Color film for general crime scene (200-400 ISO). Scale 
(rigid and flat ruler, at least 6 inches long). Labels and writing 
instruments. Numbered cones or markers for general crime scene. 
White chart board for backfill lighting. Black cloth or screen for 
ambient light shield. Lens filters. 



EFFECTIVE: 07/25/97 



13-19.1.2 Casting Three-Dimensional Shoe and Tire Impressions 
(See MI0G, Part II, 13-6.4.6jand 13-6.7 (56).) | 

Casting is the filling of a three-dimensional impression, 
usually in soil, sand or snow, to capture the maximum amount of detail 
in that impression for examination purposes. DENTAL STONE 
with a PSI rating of |8,000|or more should be used for casting footwear 
and tire impressions. Dental Stone (or Die Stone), available through 

f . , ?__ . I_;.:_..« OCT „-F ft nnnlnr above. 



8, 000 | or above, 
The PSI is a 



local dental supply houses, having a|miniraum|PSI of 
preferably colored, is the, desired casting medium, 
compression strength measurement which should be listed on the 
container along with the proper ratio of powder to water which should 
be used for mixing. | There is no need to buy pretnixed or modified 
dental stone from forensic suppliers, some of which have not been 
satisfactory. 



NOTE: 



|Plasters,|plaster of paris or dental plasters are NOT 



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SUFFICIENTLY HARD, do not resist abrasion when they are cleaned and, 
therefore, should NOT be used. 

(1) ZIP-LOCK BAG METHOD FOR DENTAL STONE CASTING 

(a) "Zip-lock" bags are highly recommended as a 
means of conveniently storing premeasured amounts of dental stone 
powder. A zip-lock bag measuring approximately 8 by 12 inches can 
easily store 2 pounds of dental stone material. Each footwear 
impression normally can be cast with 2 pounds. With several 
premeasured zip-lock bags stored and on hand, the casting of 
impressions at the c rime scenewill only involve the addition_of_a few_ 

"ounTes of water to each bag as needed. The bag can be used to both 
mix and pour the dental stone mixture. Those who have tried this 
method have found that it is a quick, clean, and convenient method of 
casting. 

(b) Dental stone, like other gypsum materials is 
usually sold in quantities of 25, 50, or 100 pounds. By obtaining a 
source of zip-lock bags, approximately 8 by 12 inches in size, these 
larger containers of dental stone can be quickly divided into 2 pound 
portions in each bag. The bags can be laid on their side and 
flattened out to remove the excess air and zipped closed. The bags 
will keep the casting material dry and will be convenient to use when 
needed. 

(c) When the time comes to prepare a cast, the 
preprepared zip-lock bags of, dental stone are ready and conveniently 
available. To reach the necessary viscosity, dental stone requires 
approximately! 5 to 6 | ounces of water per pound. Die stone will 
require even less water. For a 2 pound bag of dental stone, 
approximatelyJ9 to 10| ounces of water will need to be added. This can 
be conveniently done by utilizing a 12 ounce soda can or other 
measure. Since the exact amount of casting material will vary 
slightly from bag to bag, and the powder-to-water ratio will vary 
slightly from one brand of dental stone or die stone to another, the 
following procedure is recommended. Pour about two thirds of the 
estimated water needed into the bag. Allow the water to soak into the 
dental stone for two minutes. Zip the bag closed and mix the casting 
material by massaging and gently squeezing the bag. If more water is 
needed, add an ounce of water and continue to mix the material. Make 
sure that all of the material in the corners of the bag is mixed. If 
too much water is accidentally added, simply add a small amount of 
dental stone from another bag. The proper viscosity should be that of 
pancake batter or thick cream. The mixture should not be watery nor 
should it be so thick that it won't flow into an impression. When the 



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water and dental stone are completely mixed and the proper viscosity 
is reached, the casting material is ready to be poured. This is 
easily accomplished by unzipping "the bag and, holding it at ground 
level next to the edge of the impression, |and| carefully pouring the 
material into the impression. 

(d) The zip-lock bag method has proven to be a very 
popular one and provides a convenient, clean and rapid way of 
preparing a quality cast. If more than one cast is being prepared, 
the person conducting the casting can solicit the help of other 
individuals to assist in the mixing portion of this process. 




~^~ ~~ (2) MIXING DENTAL STONE IN A BUCKET 

Although the zip-lock bag method is distinctly favorable 
for footwear impressions, the normal size of most tire tread 
impressions would necessitate the mixing of larger amounts. If a 
large quantity of dental stone is to be mixed at one time in a bucket, 
such as for a tire impression, | the quantity of powder to water should 
first be determined. For instance, if 10 pounds of dental stone 
identical to the aforementioned example is used, where every 2 pounds 
of dental stone required 9.6 ounces water, 10 pounds would require 48 
ounces of water. | The water should first be added to the bucket and 
then the dental stone should be | sifted into the water. The mixture 
should be stirred thoroughly when adding the powder and continuously 
for at least three minutes. | Once the material is thoroughly! mixed, | 
the material can be poured into the impressioned area. 

(3) POURING THE CASTING MATERIAL 

(a) Whether a form is used or not and whether the 
casting material is mixed in zip-lock bags or in buckets, the 
procedure and precautions for pouring the casting material into the 
impressioned area are the same. Casting material has sufficient 
weight and volume to easily erode and destroy valuable detail if it is 
carelessly poured directly onto the impression. This is especially 
true in the case of fragile soil and sand impressions. When pouring 
the casting material from the zip-lock bags, the bag should be placed 
next to the impression so that the casting material does not cascade 
onto the impression, but instead, falls on the adjacent ground after 
which it will flow into the impression. When pouring the material 
from a bucket into the impression, a flat stick or a spoon should be 
held over an area to the side of the impression. The casting material 
can be poured from the bucket onto the stick or spoon in a way so that 
the spoon or stick will absorb the impact of the dental stone which 
will then flow harmlessly into the impression. With impressions which 



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are on a slope or with impressions which have forms around them, the 
casting material could be poured from the bucket onto the higher 
ground next to the impression in a way so that the casting material 
would then naturally flow into the impression. Again, it should be 
emphasized that the entire impression must be filled with casting 
material until it has OVERFLOWED. 

(b) Sometimes when mixing large amounts of dental 
stone in a bucket the viscosity of the dental stone may be ideal at 
the beginning of the pour but too viscous by the end of the pour. 
This is due to the settling of the mixture. Making sure the dental 
stone and water are thoroughly mixed immediately before pouring each 

— impression caiFHelp offset - this. 

(c) Occasionally, whether the dental stone mixture 
is in a bucket or a bag, it is not apparent that the mixture is too 
viscous until it has been actually poured. Of course, then it is too 
late to change the mixture. The viscous mixture can be encouraged to 
flow into the impression simply by taking your finger or a small stick 
and vibrating it back and forth on the surface of the mixture. This 
will help the dental stone to relax and flow into the impression. Be 
careful not to put the stick or finger more than about 1/4 inch below 
the surface of the casting material as it might damage the impression. 

(d) Before the cast completely hardens, it is 
possible to scratch the date, your initials and other needed 
information onto the back side of it. An alternate way of identifying 
the cast is to set a paper clip into the back of the cast before it 
sets. When the cast sets, an identifying tag can be attached to the 
paper clip. 

(e) The cast should then be left undisturbed for at 
least 20 to 30 minutes in warm weather. If the temperature is cold, 
the cast should be allowed to sit considerably longer. Many casts 
have been destroyed or damaged because they were lifted too soon. 
When the time has come to lift the cast, care should be taken so as 
not to damage it. If the cast has been poured in sand or loose soil, 
it should lift very easily. Casts which are poured in heavier soils 
such as mud or clay, may require more careful treatment when being 
lifted. 



(f) 
before cleaning it. 
hours. 



Allow the cast to air dry for AT LEAST 48 HOURS 
It does not reach its total hardness for 24 to 48 



(4) CLEANING A DENTAL STONE CAST 



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Cleaning a dental stone cast should be left to the 
examiner after drying for 48 hours and thoroughly attaining maximum 
hardness. Dental stone casts made in sand or light soil can be 
cleaned simply by using water and a soft brush. Those casts poured in 
heavy clay soils which adhere to the cast surface can be cleaned by 
submerging the cast in a saturated solution of potassium sulfate for 
about 30 - 60 minutes. This will assist in the removal of soil from 
its surface. A soft brush can be carefully used to help free stubborn 
soil. Afterwards, rinse the cast thoroughly in water and then allow 
the cast to thoroughly air dry. 



EFFECTIVE: 07/25/97 




13-19.1.3 Lifting Two-Dimensional Impressions from Surfaces 
(See MIOG, Part II, 13-6.7 (61).) 

Lifting an impression allows for the transfer of a two- 
dimensional residue or dust impression to a lifting film giving it 
greater contrast. It also allows for it to be transported to the 
laboratory and photographed. 

Lifting can be accomplished with an electrostatic lifting 
device (useful for dry impressions of dry origin), with gelatin 
lifting materials (useful for both dry and wet origin impressions) and 
adhesive lifting materials (used only for lifting impressions which 
have been developed with fingerprint | powder and which are on nonporous 
surfaces) . | 



IMPRESSIONS 



(1) ELECTROSTATIC LIFTING DEVICE FOR LIFTING DRY RESIDUE 



- (a) With the electrostatic lifting device, footwear 
impressions, can be lifted from virtually any surface, both porous and 
nonporous. The device works best on DRY DUST OR DRY RESIDUE FOOTWEAR 
IMPRESSIONS WHICH ARE ON SURFACES THAT ARE RELATIVELY CLEAN. For 
impressions which fall into that category, the lifting device is 
excellent at lifting footwear impressions. If the impressions were 
wet when they were made or if they become wet or damp prior to 
lifting, the electrostatic lifting device WILL WORK POORLY, OR NOT AT 
ALL It is important to understand that THE ELECTROSTATIC LIFTING 
DEVICE IS USEFUL FOR DRY IMPRESSIONS AND NOT IMPRESSIONS OF WET 
ORIGINS. It is also important to remember that impressions which do 



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not lift are NOT destroyed. Therefore, in cases where it is unknown 

whether an impression is of wet or dry origin, the use of the 

electrostatic lifting device will not risk the loss of or damage to 
the impression. 

(b) It has always been a difficult, if not 
impossible, to successfully photograph and retrieve certain types of 
dust and residue footwear impressions, particularly if the impressions 
were on a surface where contrast was poor, on textured surfaces or m 
instances where the impressions were either latent or were barely 
visible. The electrostatic lifting device now makes it possible to 
both locate and retrievejgotwea r impression s of this t ype which have 
"been previously overlooked, ignored, or lost in unsuccessful attempts 
to retrieve them. In fact, it may also be used to lift totally latent 
impressions from surfaces where it is suspected footwear impressions 
may be present even though they cannot be seen. It is therefore an 
excellent crime scene device which can be used to make a blind 
search" of areas where it is likely that the suspect walked and 
therefore could potentially contain latent but retrievable dry residue 
impressions. 

(c) The best way to familiarize oneself with the 
usage, applications and limitations of the electrostatic tiding 
device is to try a variety of lifting procedures on a variety of both 
dry and wet origin impressions and on a variety of surfaces. Equipped 
with this knowledge and experience, the use of the electrostatic 
lifting device at crime scenes and in laboratory casework becomes an 
easy routine. 

(d) Not all dry impressions can be "successfully" 
lifted Attempts to lift residue footwear impressions on a dirty 
surface which itself contains loose residue will result in both the 
impression and the background residue being lifted together. The 
lifting film will be covered with residue and the footwear impression 
will be lost in it. However, if the shoes of the suspect are damp or 

I stickyland walkthrough a dirty surface, it may be possible to detect 
"negative" impressions where the residue on the surface was removed 

| and adhered to the shoe and the negative image of the shoe|sole| 
remained. 

(2) PROCEDURE FOR USING ELECTROSTATIC LIFTING DEVICES 

Most electrostatic lifting kits will be accompanied by 
instructions; however, some basic instructions are supplied here. To 
lift an impression with the electrostatic lifting device, the 
following procedures should be used: 



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(a) POSITION THE GROUNDING DEVICE 

The ground wire of the electrostatic lifting device 
must be attached to the ground plate or other grounding material. The 
ground plate should be positioned as follows: 

1. If at all possible, position the ground 
impressioned item. This would be the best choice in 
sions on paper, loose carpeting, and other movable 
lifting film may be larger than the impressioned 
lear chart board or similar nonconductive mate rial 
sTparat"^arrd^h^lild~b"e^raced between the" 



plate beneath the 
the. case of impres 
items. Since the 
item, a piece of c 
"must - be used as a 



impressioned item 
separated from the 
lifting film is in 
and the device wil 



and the ground plate to keep the lifting film 
ground plate. If the metal laminated layer of the 
contact with the ground plate, arcing will occur 

1 not work. 



2. Very often the impression will be on a 
surface, such as a tile floor, where the ground plate cannot be placed 
beneath the impression. In those instances, position the ground plate 
at least 2 inches away from the lifting film and with the metal side 
of the ground plate facing the ground or surface. 

3. If the impressioned item is on surfaces such 
as a door, chair seat, etc., place the ground plate in the best 
position to be most effective. In the case of a door, the ground 
plate can be taped to the rear side of the door with the metal side 
facing the impression. In the case of the chair, it can be taped 
alongside the impression on the chair or beneath the seat. To be most 
effective, the metal side of the ground plate should be m maximum 
contact with the adjacent surface whenever possible. 

4. Occasionally, the footwear impression will 
be on a metal object such as a car hood, metal cabinet or other metal 
object. In those cases, the ground plate can be used or the ground 
lead can be attached directly to the car frame or metal object. « N 
METAL SURFACES AN ALTERNATE PROCEDURE SHOULD BE USED FOR THE PLACEMENT 
OF THE LIFTING FILM. (SEE STEP #2 IN (b) BELOW.) 

After positioning the ground plate, attach one end of the ground wire 
to it or in the case of a metal object, connect the ground lead to 
that object. Plug the other end of the ground lead into the voltage 
source. 



(b) PREPARE AND POSITION THE LIFTING FILM OVER THE 



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IMPRESSION 

1. Position a piece of lifting film over the 
impression with the black side facing against the impression. The 
black side will face down and the metal laminated side will face up. 
The placement of the lifting film should be handled carefully so as 
not to disturb or smear the impression. NEVER slide the lifting 
material over the surface. The lifting film should not touch any part 
of the ground plate. It may be necessary to place a piece of clean 
chart board between the impressioned item and the ground plate or to 
make other adjustments so that the film and ground plate are not in 
c on tact w i th one a no th er . ___ _ _ _._ ___ 




2. In cases where the impressioned surface is 
metal, carefully place a piece of clear, very thin (1 or 2 mil) mylar 
or polyester over the impression. Then place a slightly smaller piece 
of lifting film, black side down, over the mylar. The mylar should be 
bigger than the lifting film to assure that none of the black lifting 
film is touching the metal surface. Continue with the lifting 
procedure as outlined; however, remember that the lifted impression 
will now be on the mylar. The mylar and the black lifting film can be 
lifted and kept together to provide the necessary contrast. 

3. The electrostatic lifting of some 
impressions, particularly those which are latent or which may not be 
detectable until after lifting, can leave the crime scene technician 
with a lifted impression which can no longer be oriented as to its 
direction in the crime scene. It has been suggested that marking the 
lifting film and the' impressioned surface will later facilitate the 
orientation of the lifted impression. The need for this step should 
be considered prior to making any lifts. 

(c) PLACE THE PROBE ON THE LIFTING FILM 

1. The tip of the hand-held probe should be 
held in contact* against an edge of the metal laminated backing of the 
lifting film. There is no need to move the probe around during the 
charging of the film. It should remain in contact with the film 
during the entire procedure. THE VOLTAGE CAN NOW BE TURNED ON. It is 
usually only necessary to turn the voltage on a low setting although 
in cases where the current must travel through thicker materials, a 
higher setting will be required. The application of sufficient 
voltage will cause the lifting film to be pulled down tightly against 
the impression. In some instances air bubbles will be trapped beneath 
the film. These will often disappear in a few seconds. If any air 
bubbles remain trapped beneath the film they may be rolled out with a 



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clean fingerprint roller or brayer. This should be done very gently 
by lightly passing the roller over the film. The weight of the roller 
is all the pressure that should be used. Excessive pressure while 
rolling the film may damage the impression. If arcing occurs between 
the film and the ground, either the power is set too high or part of 
the lifting if ilm is touching or too close to the ground plate. 

2. After the power is turned off, allow the 
probe to remain in contact with the film for approximately five 
seconds for the purpose of discharging the film. When this is done, 
the film can be seen to relax as the charge leaves it. 



"(d) REMOVE THE LIFTING FILM 



1. The film can now be removed from the 
impressioned area by carefully peeling it off from one end to the 
other. Once the film is removed, lay it on a clean flat surface with 
the black side facing up. In a totally dark room examine the film 
carefully with oblique light to see if an impression has been 
transferred to it. If this is not possible at the crime scene, then 
all lifts should be saved until they can be examined in TOTAL 
DARKNESS. Film should never be discarded without first CAREFULLY 
EXAMINING THE FILM IN A DARKENED ROOM WITH THE AID OF A STRONG OBLIQUE 
LIGHT. Many times, film which is viewed in ambient lighting or 
without a strong oblique light source will initially appear to contain 
no impressions. Further examination of that film in total darkness 
with a strong oblique light often reveals the presence of valuable 
impressions. 

2. Often many residue impressions are so heavy 
that the first lifting process actually results in a lifted impression 
with too much residue. In those cases, a second lift of the same 
impression should be made as it sometimes results in an impression 
which appears clearer and much better for examination. 

(3)* STORAGE OF THE LIFTING FILM AFTER LIFTING 

(a) Lifted impressions are fragile and can easily be 
damaged if the film is not secured. The film often contains a 
residual charge which can attract other dust and debris or cause the 
film to cling to another surface. For that reason, the lifting film 
should be protected immediately after being removed from the 
impression. 

(b) To properly preserve and store the impressioned 
item or lifting film containing an impression, it should be stored 



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securely in a folder or in a shallow photographic paper box. Do not 
use pizza boxes or similar low-grade cardboard or cardboard boxes as 
the residual charge on the lifting film will pull dust from the 
cardboard and interfere with the lifted impression. If a folder is 
used for the film, place the film on one side of the folder and secure 
it with a piece of tape. If the film should slide around in the 
folder or is pulled out of the folder while it is closed, the delicate 
lift will be damaged. Whenever the lift must be removed, the folder 
should be opened first, followed by removal of the lift. When a 
shallow box is used, the impressioned item or lift can be taped 
securely into the bottom of the box. 



-(c)- 



w "Items "which contain a dry residue footwear 
impression SHOULD NEVER BE WRAPPED IN PLASTIC OR STORED IN A PLASTIC 
BAG. If they are, a partial transfer of the impression to the plastic 
will take place. 



.'■*■*, 






\ 



EFFECTIVE: 07/25/97 



13-19.1.4 jOther Enhancement /Recovery Considerations 

Specialized photographic, physical and chemical 
enhancement techniques may be utilized in the Laboratory for all 
types of impressions, providing the original impressioned item can be 
removed from the scene and submitted to the Laboratory.! 



■£* 



EFFECTIVE: 04/07/97 



■;!f 




13-19.1.5 Laboratory Examinations | (See MIOG, Part II, 13-17.5.) | 

(1) Footwear Computer Database Collection 

Extensive footwear design and reference materials are 
maintained in the Laboratory to assist in determining the manufacturer 
of a particular shoe or tire design. 

(2) If known shoes or tires of suspects are obtained and 
transmitted to the Laboratory along with the questioned impression 



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Manual of Investigative Operations and Guidelines 
Part II 

evidence, the Laboratory can make forensic comparisons and can 
determine: 

(a) If the suspect's shoes or tires correspond in 
design and size with the questioned impressions. 

(b) If the suspect's shoes or tires correspond in 
wear and other identifying characteristics allowing for A POSITIVE 
IDENTIFICATION. 

(c) That the shoe or tire designs can be eliminated. 



**** 

;■*&!) 

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;£&. 



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EFFECTIVE: 07/25/97 
| 13-20 | RACKETEERING | RECORDS ANALYSIS 
f EFFECTIVE: 05/25/90 

13-20.1 Types of Specialized Assistance and Examinations Available 



-*" 






EFFECTIVE: 05/25/90 



13-20.1.1 Bookmaking/Numbers Operations 

Analysis and interpretation are made of handwritten and 
printed systems of recording wagering on sports events; policy and 
numbers betting based on horse and dog racing, stock market data, 
drawn numbers, etc. Testimony is given concerning interpretation of 
records and/or "manner of conducting such gambling operations and 
terminology. 



EFFECTIVE: 05/25/90 



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Manual of Investigative Operations and Guidelines 

Part II . r . 

13-20.1.2 Loan Sharking (Shylocking) Records 

Analysis of accounting-type notations to determine amount 
of outstanding loans, amounts paid in accrued interest and principal, 
total number of loans, and true annual rate of interest computed by 
the actuarial method. 



■■& 



EFFECTIVE: 05/25/90 



13-20.1.3 Prostitution 



Prostitution records are analyzed to determine the scope 
P f the business, including the number of employees, their roles, gross 
and net revenues, and other financial information. 



"'is:?'' 




EFFECTIVE: 05/25/90 



13-20.1. A Drug Records 

Analysis and interpretation of records relating to illicit 
drug operations. Records are examined to identify the type of drugs 
being distributed, their gross and/or net weights or quantities, 
income generated, money flow, number of persons involved and other 
like information. Emphasis is placed on supporting drug cases 
resulting in judicial proceedings such as grand juries, criminal 
trials, sentencing hearings and forfeiture hearings. 



EFFECTIVE: 05/25/90 






. Ci"""" 












13-20.1.5 Lotteries, etc. 

Evidence of this nature would include lottery tickets, 
sports parlay cards, sweepstakes, tip tickets and boards, punchboards, 
and machine tickets. If the printing plates or numbering dies are 
located, it may be possible to prove that evidence collected was 
printed by the particular plate or die. 










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. •# 



13-20.1.6 Deleted 



EFFECTIVE: 05/25/90 



£T$' 



| | 13-20. 1.7 Money Laundering 








■ — ~ Anal ys"i"s~ana"Tnt er pr e ta t : i oh of records relating to money 

laundering business. Cryptic and actual business records are examined 
to determine the financial flow of the operations.! 



EFFECTIVE: 05/25/90 

13-20.2 Types of Gambling Evidence 

(1) Sports wagering slips. 

(2) Numbers wagering slips. 

(3) Summaries of wagering slips or tallies including 
adding machine tapes used to calculate wagering or to summarize 
writer's accounts. Charting of wagers, systematically done to 
determine volume of wagering on various events. 

(4) Accounting and financial records or "bottom sheets" 
showing numerous accounts (sometimes code-designated), amounts and/or 
commissions paid to writers. 

(5X Related paraphernalia - sports schedules or line 
sheets, sports records materials, dream books, cut cards, parlay 
manuals, conversion charts, scratch sheets, racing forms, etc. 

(6) Semidestroyed material such as charred, shredded, 
torn or wet water-soluble paper. 



conversations, 



(7) Transcripts of pertinent legally obtained telephone 



(8) Mechanical, electro-mechanical and electronic video 



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gambling devices, including coin-operated slot machines as well as 
devices which electronically simulate or depict the playing of card 
games, casino games, bingo, keno, lotteries, and horse races. 



EFFECTIVE: 06/26/96 



13-21 



CRYPTANALYSIS 



Because of the unique nature and wide scope of these 
examinations and of the material which may be available for - 
examination, it may be appropriate to telephonically contact the 
| Investigative Operations and Support | Section of the FBI Laboratory to 
resolve any questions that might arise. 



EFFECTIVE: 03/21/95 



13-21.1 Types of Examinations 



EFFECTIVE: 11/21/89 




13-21.1.1 |Cryptanalytic| 

(1) Cryptograms or codes. 

(2) Notes or notebooks containing cryptic notations. 

(3)- Material containing symbols or unusual literal or 
numerical notations. 

(4) Correspondence or documents which might contain 
hidden intelligence, such as 

(a) Marked letters or numbers. 

(b) Double meaning, wherein certain words and/or 



|j. phrases are given arbitrary meanings by the writer. 



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(c) Concealment ciphers, where letters or words are 
significant according to their positions in the document. 



EFFECTIVE: 06/26/96 



13-21.1.2 Deleted 



EFFECTIVE: 11/21/89 



13-21.2 Material to be Furnished to the Laboratory 
EFFECTIVE: 11/21/89 

13-21.2.1 |Cryptanalytic| 

(1) Any work papers available. 

(2) Identity of foreign languages that might be involved. 

(3) Information as to what the intent or subject area of 
the document might be. 

(4) Complete background information on the case. 

(5) Special training subject may have received. 

(6) Books, code books, cipher machines, pads, tables, 
etc., in the subject's possession. 

EFFECTIVE: 06/26/96 
13-21.2.2 Deleted 



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EFFECTIVE: 11/23/87 



13-22 



POLYGRAPH EXAMINATIONS 



EFFECTIVE: 11/23/87 




I 




13-22.1 General Information 

The following general information applies to the polygraph 
technique and its use in the FBI: 

(1) The theory of detection of deception is predicated 
upon the principle that individuals usually manifest certain 
physiological reactions when practicing deception, particularly if the 
truth might produce an undesirable effect on their personal welfare. 
The reactions are primarily involuntary in character and normally 
cannot be controlled. During a polygraph examination, changes in the 
examinee's respiratory cycle, galvanic skin response and mean blood 
pressure and heart rate are recorded simultaneously and continuously 
on chart paper during a series of questions. The polygraph chart thus 
produced is evaluated to determine if the recorded reactions are of 
the type normally associated with truth or deception. |A polygraph 
test, however, only determines the examinee's perceptions of the 
truth, not actual truth. | 

(2)- Based upon the examiner's study of the degree and 
nature of changes and variations in the recorded parameters, one of 
the following opinions can be reached: 

(a) That the recorded responses were not indicative 

(b) That the recorded responses were indicative of 

(c) That the recorded responses are inconclusive; or 



of deception; 
deception; 



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(d) That the examiner expresses no opinion as to the 
truthfulness of the examinee due to the incomplete nature of the 
examination. 

(3) Findings and conclusions resulting from 
interpretations of polygraph charts are generally not admissible in 
court. There appears to be a trend, however, toward admissibility of 
the polygraph test results. 

(4) Statements, admissions and confessions obtained 

during a polygraph examination are admi s sible^j.n court . 



: «s 




* 



(5) The polygraph may be used for the following purposes: 

(a) To aid in determining whether a person has 
pertinent knowledge of a particular matter under investigation or 
inquiry. 

(b) To aid in determining the truthfulness of 
statements made or information furnished by a subject, victim, 
witness, informant, and/or an individual making allegations. 

(c) To obtain information leading to the location of 
evidence, individuals or sites of offenses. 

(d) To assist in verifying the accuracy and 
thoroughness of information furnished by applicants and employees in 
certain situations as specified in section 13-22.12 (Applicants) and 
section 13-22.13 (Employees). 

(6) To enable the Bureau to realize the maximum benefit 
from their specialized training and skills and in order that they may 
retain their proficiency in the technique, polygraph examiners are to 
be utilized primarily as polygraph examiners/interrogation 
specialists. F<fr this reason, and in order to ensure that each field 
office has equal access to an examiner, "territorial assignments have 
been made for polygraph examiners. Examiners assigned to particular 
offices are responsible for a territory which includes their own 
office of assignment and designated neighboring field office. 
Requests for examinations are to be handled on a priority basis 
without regard to the examiner's office of assignment. In the event 
that the examiner responsible for covering a particular office is 
unavailable to conduct an examination that is needed on an expedite 
basis, SACs are authorized to coordinate directly with another 
neighboring office to obtain the services of an examiner. 



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13-22.2 General Policy 

The following general policies apply to the use of the 
polygraph by the FBI: 

(1) The polygraph technique is highly reliable and 
valuable as an investigative tool when used by a competent and ethical 
examiner. 

(2) The polygraph is to be used selectively as an 
investigative aid and results considered within the context of a 
complete investigation. Polygraph results are not to be relied upon 
to the exclusion of other evidence or knowledge obtained during the 
course of a complete investigation. Use of the polygraph for 
dragnet-type screening of large numbers of suspects or as a substitute 
for logical investigation by conventional means is prohibited. 

(3) Polygraph examinations will be administered only to 
individuals who agree or volunteer to take an examination. In 
criminal cases, information concerning a person's refusal to take a 
polygraph examination shall appear only in the unproductive 
investigation section of the prosecutive report or in the 
administrative section of other reports. 

(4) The following areas are not to be probed unless 
directly relevant to the investigation or inquiry. 

(a) Religious beliefs or affiliations 

(b) Beliefs and opinions regarding social matters 

(c) Information concerning sexual opinions or 
practices 

(d) Political beliefs and organizational 
affiliations of a nonsubversive nature. 

(5) Polygraph examinations may only be conducted when the 
examiner, in his/her professional judgment, believes the results will 
be accurate. All reasonable efforts must be made to ensure accuracy 
of the results. 



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EFFECTIVE: 11/23/87 



13-22.3 Authorization/ Approval for Conducting Examinations 

The following guidelines govern authorization for the 
conduct of polygraph examinations: 

(1) The SAC or person acting for that official may 
authorize polygraph examinations in connectio n with an ongoing Bureau 




m 



case, except as follows: 

(a) For authorization regarding polygraph 
examinations of Bureau employees and persons who make allegations 
against Bureau employees, see 13-22.14. 

(b) Examinations conducted as a cooperative service 
to other federal agencies must receive prior authorization of the 
Assistant Director, Laboratory Division, or person acting for that 
official. SACs should forward such requests to Laboratory Division, 
Polygraph! Unit, | with recommendations concerning the propriety of the 
polygraph examination by a Bureau examiner, consistent with the 
factors of 13-22. A, and other pertinent interests of the Bureau.. All 
such requests will be considered on a case-by-case basis. 

(c) No polygraph examination will be conducted by a 
Bureau examiner for a state, county or municipal law enforcement 
agency as a police cooperation matter. 

(d) Regarding polygraph examinations of defendants 
in post-conviction and presentences situations, the SAC may authorize 
examinations in those postconviction situations where the polygraph is 
used in furtherance of continuing investigative interests, such as 
determining if "the defendant perjured himself/herself during trial, 
verifying that defendants have fully complied with plea bargaining 
arrangements and conditions, determining the accuracy of information 
provided by convicted cooperating witnesses and testing the validity 
of extenuating and mitigating circumstances bearing on sentencing 
considerations. FBIHQ authority is necessary to conduct a polygraph 
examination in those situations where the purpose of a proposed, 
polygraph examination would be to determine the veracity or guilt of a 
defendant with respect to an issue previously determined by trial. 
Such situations would include a presentence request or order for a 
polygraph examination by a presiding judge to determine in essence 



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whether the defendant was really guilty of the offense for which 
he/she was convicted. 

(2) ) In cases where FBIHQ approval is required, the 
authorizing FBIHQ official shall be identified on the Polygraph 
Examination Report (FD-498) which is forwarded to FBIHQ. 



(3) Only Bureau polygraph examiners are to be used in FBI 



cases. 



(4) Prior to SAC authority for a polygraph examination in 

a Financial Institution Fraud case, Jrt«JJSA_«hould_b^cjmUcte_4.to 

ensureThe USA will consider prosecution should a subject be 
identified. The result of contact with the USA should be confirmed in 
writing by appropriate communication to the USA and reported in all 
subsequent communications relating to the polygraph examination. ((See 
MIOG, Part I, 29-5.) | 

(5) The decision as to whether or not to employ a 
polygraph examination must be made with the awareness that it "j" 
impact on other prosecutive actions. Therefore, consultation with the 
office of the USA should take place where deemed appropriate. 

(6) Bureau polygraph examiners are trained to evaluate 
the suitability of the polygraph technique and they should be directly 
consulted, when possible, as to its applicability and l""t»tiont « 
particular situations. Unresolved issues will be referred to the 
FBIHQ Polygraph | Uni t. 1 



.? 



EFFECTIVE: 10/13/95 




(13-22.4 Factors to be Considered in Approving Examinations 

When evaluating the advisability of utilizing the 
polygraph the following factors should be considered: 

(1) Determine if investigation by other means has been as 
thorough as circumstances reasonably permit, the proposed examinee 
has been interviewed and, consistent with the circumstances of the 
case, the development of additional information by means of a 
polygraph examination is believed essential and timely for further 
conduct of the investigation or inquiry. 



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(2) Ensure that there is reasonable cause to believe that 
the person to be examined has knowledge of or was involved in the 
matter under inquiry or investigation or if the person is withholding 
information relevant to the inquiry or investigation. 

(3) Determine if age is a factor. If a minor is to be 
examined, ensure a waiver is obtained from a parent or guardian. 

(4) Are there any known physical or mental abnormalities? 

(5) If the examinee is in custody, can full security and 
control be assured? ____— — — — ■— 



(6) Will the use of the polygraph jeopardize any local or 
Federal prosecution? 

(7) What were the results of any prior polygraph 
examinations afforded the examinee? | 




EFFECTIVE: 09/15/80 v 

| 13-22.5 Verification of Information 

When information is supplied to the FBI and that 
information is not reasonably subject to verification by other 
investigative methods, use of the polygraph could be of value. 
Utilization of polygraph should be considered prior to making 
significant commitments of the Bureau's manpower or financial 
resources solely on the basis of unverified information Use of 
nolverauh will in no way absolve Agents of their responsibility to 
conducTan logical investigation possible by conventional means in 
order to verify the truthfulness and accuracy of information 
furnished. I 




EFFECTIVE: 09/15/80 



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Manual of Investigative Operations and Guidelines 
Part II 

13-22.6 Responsibilities of the Case Agent 

The case Agent is normally the first person to realize 
that a polygraph examination may be helpful to the investigation. In 
this regard it is important for the case Agent to understand certain 
aspects of polygraph procedure and to be fully aware of the existing 
policies concerning the use of the polygraph. A case Agent has the 
rollowing responsibilities in connection with polygraph examinations. 

(1) Before a case Agent attempts to determine whether a 
proposed examinee will consent to an examination, it must first be 
ascertained that the SAC concurs in the need for and authorizes the 

-4s 1 eVthe-irol y ^aph---ra^ of indtV * du » ls to 

submit to a P poIygraph examination is not an efficient or effective 

investigative procedure. 

(2) When a polygraph examination has been authorized, the 
case Agent should promptly reinterview the proposed examinee and 
ascertain if he/she will agree to submit to the examination. If the 
examinee is agreeable to the test, the case Agent will notify an 
examiner from his/her office or, in the event no examiner is assigned, 
the examiner of another office assigned to provide such support. The 
case Agent will then schedule a time and place for the examination to 
be conducted which is mutually agreeable with the examiner and the 
proposed examinee. 

(3) The case Agent should bring to the attention of the 
examiner any previously determined illness or psychiatric condition 
which would preclude the conduct of a meaningful polygraph 
examination. 

(A) If the examinee is suffering from any current illness 
or physical condition, consideration should be given to rescheduling 
the examination. 

(5)* The person to be examined should not be subjected to 
lengthy interrogation immediately prior to the examination. 



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(7) An investigator who is thoroughly familiar with the 
investigation, preferably the case Agent, should be available to 
assist the polygraph examiner as required during the test. This 
investigator should also be available to take any statement or 
confession which the ejtam«eej«yj ! l(5ct_toj£v^ 



is concluded. 



m 



EFFECTIVE: 10/13/95 




13-22.7 Mental and Physical Fitness of the Examinee 

Due to the nature of the polygraph examination the 
following guidelines apply: 

(1) Persons who are not in sufficiently sound physical or 
mental condition will not be afforded a polygraph examination. 

(2) A person to be examined should have had adequate food 
and rest before the examination. Examinee should not, at the time of 
the examination, be under the effects of alcohol, narcotics, drugs, 
stimulants, or sedatives. During the pretest interview, the examiner 
will specifically inquire of the person to be examined whether or not 
he/she is presently receiving or has in the past received medical or 
psychiatric treatment or consultation. 

(3)" Polygraph examinations will not be conducted if, in 
the opinion of the examiner, any of the following inhibit the 
individual's ability to respond or otherwise cause the individual to 
be an unfit candidate for examination: 

(a) It is apparent that the examinee is mentally or 
physically fatigued. 

(b) The examinee is unduly emotionally upset, 
intoxicated, or adversely under the influence of a sedative, 
stimulant, or tranquilizer. 






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(c) The examinee is known to be addicted to 
narcotics. 

(d) The examinee is known to have a mental disorder 
which causes the examinee to lose contact with reality or which could 
reasonably result in the examinee becoming violent during a test. 

(e) The examinee is experiencing physical discomfort 
of significant magnitude or appears to possess disabilities or defects 
which? in themselves, might cause abnormal physiological reactions. 



W 



w ShoultTthe examiner or examinee have any doubt 
concerning the above conditions, the- matter should be referred to the 
FBIHQ Polygraph|Unit[for determination and appropriate action. An 
examiner will not attempt to make a psychiatric or physical diagnosis 
of an examinee. 

(5) If an examiner has any doubt concerning the ability 
of an examinee to safely undergo an examination, a statement from the 
examinee's physician must be obtained before proceeding with the test. 



-$•-■■ 



■"St. 



EFFECTIVE: 01/11/85 



13-22.8 Polygraph Examination Room 







EFFECTIVE: 01/11/85 

13-22.8.1 Considerations in Selecting Polygraph Room 

The polygraph examination room is of the utmost importance 
to professional" and successful examinations. The room should be 
relatively free from outside noise and distraction which could break 
the mood carefully created by the examiner or which could cause 
distortion in the chart tracings and make them difficult or impossible 

to interpret. The polygraph room should also have a neat, 

professional appearance as such will contribute to the confidence the 
examinee has in the examiner-an essential prerequisite for a . 
successful examination. Each should include an observation device and 
sound reproducer to allow authorized witnesses to see and hear the 
activities of the examination. 



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EFFECTIVE: 01/11/85 

13-22.8.2 Specifications for Polygraph Room 

Offices undergoing remodeling or occupying new space 
u *a t „ Ill FBIHQ Polyiraph|Unit|for detailed recommendations 
should contact the FBIHQ "lygrap | I rooms and furnishings, 
and construction specifications for poiygrapn 



EFFECTIVE: 10/13/95 

13-22.9 Legal Representation of the Examinee 

in criminal matters if so requested, the examiner should 
provide examinee's attorney a briefing on JJ^^ToSm'th. 
Consistent : with othe, : case „ ^J^ •^jSJ^lS'.tt.rn^ .houl* 
nT^'he'same room^re the examination is being conducted. 

EFFECTIVE: 01/11/85 

13-22.10 Pretest Interview 

During the pretest interview the following items will be 
covered with the examinee by the examiner. 

(1) The examinee will be advised: 

( a) Of his/her rights/if appropriate, in accordance 
with the "self-incrimination clause" of the Fifth Amendment to the 
Constitution anithat an attorney may be obtained and consulted. 

(b) That the examination will be conducted only with 
the examinee's prior consent. 

(c) Of the characteristics and nature of the 
. t «- ht,« nroeedures to be followed during the 

3fc , phase of the examination. 



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(d) Whether the area in which the examination is to 
be conducted contains a two-way mirror or other observation device, 
and whether the conversation during the examination will be monitored 
in whole or in part by any means. 

(2) An appropriate consent or agreement form will be 
executed. Should the examinee agree to be examined, but refuse to 
sign the consent or agreement form, this should be noted on the form 
by the examiner and witnessed by one other person. The following 
forms will be used for this purpose: 

(a) FD-328, Consent to Interview With Polygraph.' 
This" form "is to"be~executed" immediately prior' to each - examination7 
except those of applicants and employees who are examined under the 
provisions of 13-22.13.1 of this manual. 

(b) FD-328a, Employee Agreement To Interview with 
Polygraph In Connection With An Administrative Interview. This form 
is to be executed prior to each examination under the provisions of 
13-22.13.1. 

(c) FD-328b, Applicant Agreement To Interview With 
Polygraph. This form will be executed prior to each examination of an 
applicant. 

(3) The examiner will discuss the examinee's background 
with the examinee and obtain information to complete the necessary 
forms and to properly formulate questions. 

(4) The matter under investigation, inquiry, or at issue, 
will be discussed in detail with the examinee. 

(5) The test questions will be formulated by the examiner 
based on the case facts and the pretest phase of the examination. 
Each question to be used will be thoroughly discussed with the 
examinee. Words* and terminology in questions must be completely 
understood by the examinee and wording will be in the vernacular of. 
the examinee insofar as is possible. The examinee must understand the 
full meaning of each question. The questions should be simple, 
direct, and designed to elicit a "yes" or "no" answer only. They 
should not imply guilt, on the part of the examinee. 



.vi* 




EFFECTIVE: 12/16/88 



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PAGE 13 - 196 



The following procedures shall apply in reporting the 
results of the polygraph examination: 



(1) Normally within ten working days following the 

the examiner will forward, by special 



completion of each examination, »...« ^^....^ „*..* *.w*..»*u, » 3 *?■*>.*. 
preprinted envelope, the following items which will reflect his/her 

ults for quality control review by a 



rest 



^1 V^L4ll|,«w **ll w v x W£l*- , LUC J. VI A J. 

preliminary opinion of test r 

second certified Bureau examiner 



(a) Polygraph Examination Worksheet (FD-497) - 



submit original and one copy - to FBIHQ. 

(b) Polygraph Examination Report (FD-498) - submit 
original and one copy to FBIHQ. 



FD-328b) 
(if used) 



(c) Consent or Agreement form (FD-328, FD-328a, or 

(d) Copy of Interrogation, Advice of Rights (FD-395)- 

(e) All polygraph charts 



(2) As polygraph examination results are not considered 
final until completion of the quality control review, preliminary 
opinions of truth or deception should not appear in any other document 
prior to concurrence in that opinion by polygraph review personnel of 
FBIHQ. This includes airtels, teletypes, etc. Examiners should 
advise case Agents of the danger involved in transmitting unofficial 
or preliminary findings. The Polygraph Examination Report (FD-498) is 
to be considered as a draft report until approved by supervisory 
personnel at FBIHQ. 

(3)* In criminal cases, upon completion of review at FBIHQ 
all polygraph documents will be returned to the field. In inquiry 
type examinations and those otherwise involving Bureau employees or 
applicants, the polygraph documents will be retained at FBIHQ. 

(4) In the event it is determined that further testing or 
reevaluation is necessary, all documents and charts will again be 
forwarded to the Laboratory for additional quality control review 
following such reevaluation or retesting. , 

(5) Upon completion of the polygraph examination, an FD- 



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302 should be prepared to reflect all relevant admissions made by the 
examinee. However, the opinion of the polygraph examiner regarding 
indications of truth or deception will be recorded only on the 
Polygraph Examination Report (FD-498) , which will be submitted to the 
case file in the same manner as other laboratory reports after review 
by FBIHQ quality control personnel. If no admissions are made, an FD- 
302 is not necessary as all relevant information will be on the FD~ 
.498, 

(6) A copy of all correspondence pertaining to polygraph 
matters should be designated for Bufile 80-5, the Polygraph Matters 
control file. 

(7) Data regarding polygraph examinations and results 
(FD-498) is to be reported in the body of investigative reports in the 
same manner as other investigative matters. 





EFFECTIVE: 10/13/95 



13-22.12 Polygraph Examinations of FBI Applicants (See MIOG, Part 
I, 67-7.10, Part II, 13-22. 1 (5) (d) .) 

(1) All FBI applicants for support and Special Agent (SA) 
positions (including on-board support employees who apply for SA 
positions) must undergo a polygraph examination focusing on national 
security issues, use or sale of illegal drugs and completeness of the 
FD-140 (Application for Employment). Standardized testing formats 
have been provided to each field polygraph examiner for their use. 
These examinations are to receive priority attention and should be 
handled in a manner that will expedite the applicant process. 

(a) Deleted 

(b) Deleted 

(c) Deleted 

(2) The Special | Agent Applicant Unit (SAAU) and the 
Bureau Support Applicant Unit. (BSAU) , | Personnel Division will ensure 
that all applicants are advised that they will be required to submit 
to a polygraph examination during the processing of their application 
and prior to their employment to assist in the resolution of issues 
directly related to national security, the FBI guidelines regarding 



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the sale and use of illegal drugs and the accuracy/completeness of the 
FD-140 (Application for Employment-FBI). 

(3) Any pertinent information developed during the 
polygraph examination should be provided in writing by the applicant 
on a supplemental information form. 

(4) A preemployment polygraph examination is one element 
of the overall applicant screening process. It is not to be 
considered as a substitute for a thorough and complete background 
investigation. The preemployment polygraph test is NOT designed to 
assess trustworthiness and suitability in areas NOT covered by the 

"examination; ~" ' 

(5) Failure to submit to a polygraph examination, or 
failure to satisfactorily cooperate during the examination will be 
considered in determining whether the applicant shall be hired. Prior 
to the examination, the examiner will obtain the applicant's agreement 
in writing to take the polygraph examination (FD~328b) . 

(6) Deleted 



'-'#* 



.*£ 



EFFECTIVE: 04/29/97 




13-22.12.1 Polygraph Examinations of FBI Applicants 
Issues (See MIOG, Part I, 67-7.10.1.) 



Drug 



(1) All applicants for permanent employment with the FBI 
are required to submit to a polygraph examination on specific issues, 
i.e., those which relate to their trustworthiness and eligibility for 
a "Top Secret" security clearance (security issues) and those which 
relate to their use of illegal drugs (drug use) as well as veracity of 
information furnished on their application. To address questions and 
concerns regarding use of the polygraph for drug issues, an applicant 
will be placed in one of three specific categories: 

(a) Passed - No Indication of Deception 

(b) Failed - Deception Indicated 

(c) Inconclusive - Unable to Determine Results 

(2) Concerns raised regarding use of the polygraph to 



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address drug use and/or results of drug use examinations predominantly 
are associated only with the second category — those cases in which an 
applicant failed the examination. Cases involving a failed polygraph 
examination on drug use will be readily categorized as follows: 

(a) Failed - Subsequently Admitted Deception - Drug 
Use EXCEEDS FBI Suitability Standards 

(b) Failed - Subsequently Admitted Deception - Drug 
Use DOES NOT EXCEED FBI Suitability Standards 

__ (c) Failed ~ Denies Deception 



(3) Applicants whose polygraph results fall into the 
first category above merit NO further consideration for employment. 
These applicants do not meet FBI suitability standards regarding drug 
use. 

(4) Applicants who fall into the second category above 
are NOT eligible for further applicant processing. A lack of candor 
displayed by an applicant during the polygraph phase warrants their 
disqualification. Each applicant should be advised of the 
significance of candor during the applicant process and advised to 
tell the truth prior to their polygraph examination. 

(5) Applicants whose drug use polygraph examination 
results fall into the last category, "Failed - Denies Deception," 
warrant particular review. In those instances in which an applicant 
fails the polygraph on drug use issues and maintains that he/she has 
told the truth and can offer no explanation for the deceptive outcome 
of his/her polygraph, the FBI will take the following action: 

(a) On-Board Support Personnel Applying for the 
Special Agent (SA) Position: When an on-board support employee fails 
a polygraph examination regarding drug use issues, that fact must be 
reported to the Office of Professional Responsibility (OPR) so that an 
appropriate inquiry may be conducted. In such cases, the employee 
will be required to submit to an interview conducted under the 
auspices of an OPR investigation regarding his/her use of, or other 
association with illegal drugs, and a signed sworn statement will be 
taken from the employee regarding his/her involvement in the illegal 
use of drugs. In addition, OPR will conduct appropriate investigation 
to determine if the employee has used illegal drugs post-employment 
with the FBI and/or used illegal drugs preemployment and failed to 
disclose the exact nature or extent of that use to the FBI. During 
the course of the OPR inquiry, the employee will be required to again 



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submit to a polygraph examination regarding drug use. The second 
polygraph examination will be conducted by a polygrapher other than 
the individual who administered the first examination. If the 
employee fails the second examination, the administrative inquiry will 
continue, as may be appropriate, in accordance with current FBI policy 
in such matters and no further processing for the SA appointment will 
be conducted. If the employee passes the second polygraph examination 
regarding drug use and has not admitted deception on the prior 
examination or involvement with or use of illegal drugs previously 
unknown to the FBI, OPR will complete its inquiries and forward its 
findings to the| Adjudi cat ion | Unit. Upon adjudication, | SAAU| will once 
again consider the employee for the SA position. 



(b) Outside Applicants Who Fail the Polygraph 
Examination regarding Drug Use and Deny Deception: Individuals who 
seek FBI employment and fail their polygraph examination regarding 
drug use will be disqualified from further consideration except in 
limited circumstances. Each applicant will be advised by the 
Personnel Division of the results of his/her examination and whether 
he/she has been determined eligible for further processing. 

(6) If an applicant from outside the FBI fails the 
polygraph, and maintains that he/she has not been deceptive, he/she 
may request to be considered for further applicant processing. This 
request should be sent by the applicant directly to the FBIHQ division 
head or SAC that previously has been sponsoring the applicant's 
employment application. If deemed appropriate by the FBIHQ division 
head or SAC, the applicant should be thoroughly interviewed regarding 
his/her use/involvement with illegal drugs. This interview should be 
conducted by an experienced Special Agent other than the polygrapher 
or SA previously involved in processing the applicant for employment. 
The result of that interview must be documented in detail in an FD- 
302. It will be the responsibility of an FBIHQ division head or SAC 
to personally review the applicant's file to determine if further 
consideration is warranted on the merits of the case. An FBIHQ 
division head or SAC may submit a written recommendation to the 
Personnel Division to request that an applicant be given a second 
polygraph on the basis of the information developed subsequent to the 
polygraph examination. Such information should, of course, provide a 
basis justifying the applicant's reexamination. To ensure consistency 
and equity in decisions to afford such applicants further 
consideration, the Deputy Assistant Director - Personnel Officer, 
Personnel Division, will be responsible for approval of the decision 
to afford an outside applicant a second polygraph examination. 



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EFFECTIVE: MIISIVI 



13-22.13 Polygraph Examinations of FBI Employees 

In addition to other pertinent requirements, the following 
policy applies to all polygraph examinations of Bureau employees. 



EFFECTIVE: 01/11/85 




13-22.13.1 Polygraph Examinations of FBI Employees Who Are Required 
to Submit to an Employee Interview (See MIOG, Part I, 
263-6(3); II, 13-22.10(2), 13-22.13.2(1), (3), 
13-22. 13. 4(1), (3), 13-22.14(2) (c); MAOP, Part I, 
1-20(2) (e), 13-4.1.) 

(1) When approved in accordance with 13-22.14, an 
employee who is required to submit to an employee interview may be 
requested to submit to a polygraph examination. The Bureau may draw 
an adverse inference from an employee's refusal to submit to such a 
polygraph examination, provided that such refusal alone shall not be 
the sole basis for disciplinary action against the employee. 

(2) In the case of a security clearance adjudication, an 
employee's refusal to submit to a polygraph examination has the effect 
of denying the Security Programs Manager (SPM) the ability to complete 
a favorable security adjudication on the trustworthiness of the 
employee. The inability of the SPM to make an affirmative finding of 
trustworthiness will result in the revocation of an employee's Top 
Secret (TS) security clearance. Since a TS security clearance is a 
condition of employment, the FBI Personnel Officer is simultaneously 
advised of the revocation decision and thereafter the employee is 
dismissed from .the rolls of the FBI. 

(3) The following requirements must be satisfied if an 
employee is requested to submit to a polygraph examination pursuant to 
(1) and (2) above: 

(a) The polygraph examination must be conducted in 
accordance with Bureau regulations for employee interviews; 

(b) The employee must be advised of the consequences 
of a refusal to submit to a polygraph examination, and that failure to 



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satisfactorily cooperate during a requested polygraph examination will 
be considered a refusal to submit to an examination; 

(c) Prior to the examination, the examiner will 
obtain the examinee's agreement to be examined or polygraph (FD-328a, 
Employee Agreement To Interview With Polygraph In Connection With An 
Administrative Interview); and 

(d) The investigation must concern a serious 
violation of law or policy involving one or more of the following 
situations: 

1; — The-intentionaland-unauthorized-release-of 



sensitive protected information (including, for example, classified 
information, investigatory material and information, the disclosure of 
which is prohibited by law or regulation) with the reasonable 
expectation that it would ultimately be disclosed to those from whom 
the information is protected and would seriously and adversely affect 
an FBI function; 

|j 2. Serious questions concerning an employee's 

relationship with or allegiance to a foreign power; 

3. The illegal or improper exercise of 
influence, coercive or otherwise, by an individual or group on an 
employee which could reasonably be expected to seriously affect or 
inhibit the employee in the impartial and effective performance of the 
employee's duties; or 

4. The intentional and unauthorized 
destruction, mutilation, alteration, misplacement, taking, 
falsification, or other impairment of previously existing Bureau 
documents or evidence in the Bureau's possession or control. 

5. Use of or unauthorized dealing in controlled 
substances, as -defined under the Comprehensive Drug Abuse and 
Controlled Substances Act of 1970, Title 21, United States Code, by 
Bureau employees during the course of their employment. 

6. The furnishing of false statements or the 
failure to candidly disclose information concerning prior criminal 
activities requested during the course of his/her employment 
processing. (See MIOG, Part II, 13-22.13.4.) 

| 7. Allegations, evidence or indications of 
theft, fraud and/or misuse involving money, credit cards, securities 



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and/or property belonging to, or in the posession of or under the 
control of the United States Government.] 



EFFECTIVE: 10/13/95 - 



13-22.13.2 Polygraph Examinations of Bureau Employees Who Are 
Subjects of Criminal Investigations 

A polygraph examination may be given to an employee who is 
"the subj ect~~ of~a criminal" i nves tT ga t"i bnTi f ~the~"f 61 lowing "requirements 
are satisfied: 

(1) If the employee is required to submit to the 
interview then the polygraph examination given in conjunction with the 
interview shall be governed by the policies set forth in 13-22.13.1 
above. 

(2) If the allegations involve violations of Federal 
statutes within the Bureau's investigative jurisdiction, and the 
employee is not being required to submit to the interview but is doing 
so voluntarily, a polygraph examination may also be given if each of 
the following conditions are satisfied: 

(a) Current Bureau regulations and procedures for 
employee interviews are observed; 



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(b) Current Bureau regulations and procedures -• in- 
applicable to polygraph examinations in criminal investigations are -<i|F 
observed; "?$£. 

(c) The employee is requested to submit to a -' ' 
polygraph examination only in circumstances, in which a nonemployee 

would be requested to submit to a polygraph examination; and " 

(d) The employee agrees to take the examination 
(FD-328, Consent to Interview With Polygraph). 

(3) If the allegations involve violations not within the 
Bureau's investigative jurisdiction^ polygraph examinations may only . %£. 

be given pursuant to 13-22.13.1 or 13-22.13.3. 






TcrasaresTsresayre;- 




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.«* 



EFFECTIVE: 08/17/84 



13-22.13.3 Voluntary Polygraph Examination of Employees 

An employee may be asked or an employee may ask to undergo 
a polygraph examination in the following circumstances: 

(1) If the employee is the subject of an FBI criminal 
investigation, the use of the polygraph shall be governed by the 
policies set forth in 13-22.13.2. 



(2) If the employee is not the subject of an FBI criminal 
investigation, and the employee is not being required to submit to an 
employee interview, but is doing so voluntarily, then the employee may 
also be asked to submit to the interview in the form of a polygraph 
examination, or the employee may ask for the examination if the 
following requirements are satisfied: 



:Jt (a) The employee must be advised that the . , 4 , 

examination is totally voluntary; that the employee may change the 
decision at any time without any disciplinary action being taken or 
adverse inference being drawn; 

i 

(b) The employee must signify in writing that he or 
she is voluntarily submitting to the polygraph examination by 
executing FD-328, (Consent To Interview With Polygraph); and 

(c) FBI regulations and procedures for employee s 
interviews must be observed. "i 

EFFECTIVE: 08/17/84 

13-22.13.4 Routine and Periodic Use of Polygraph Examinations for v::,i> 

Bureau Employees 

Is' 

(1) Except as provided in 13-22.13.4, routine polygraph -.£ 
examinations of employees not suspected of being involved in any of ,;i£- 
the situations listed in 13-22.13.1 (2) (d) are prohibited. "'■■•$% 

(2) Employees who are subjected, or whose circumstances 
suggest that they could be subjected, to extremely coercive influences 
by an individual or group may be requested to submit to a polygraph 






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examination on a periodic basis to determine if the coercive 
influences are significantly affecting the performances of their 
duties. Coercive influences include, but are not limited to, 
relative-hostage situations, extortion, blackmail, and similar 
circumstances where it is reasonable to believe that the individual or 
group could significantly influence the employee's work performance. 

(3) Polygraph examinations authorized by 13-22.13.4 shall 
be conducted consistent with the procedures and policies set forth in 
13-22.13.1. 



EFFECTIVE: 08/17/84 





13-22.14 Approval and Conduct of Employee Polygraph Examinations 
(See MIOG, Part I, 263-6(3); II, 13-22.3, 13-22.13.1; 
MAOP, Part I, 13-4.1.) 



| (1) All polygraph examinations of FBI employees and those 

who have made allegations against FBI employees must be approved by 
the Assistant Director, Inspection Division, or another person 
designated by the Director. In the case of polygraph examinations 
requested pursuant to a security clearance adjudication, the Director 
has delegated approval authority to the Assistant Director, National 

| Security Division. 

(2) The following standards apply for approval of 
polygraph examinations: 

| (a) No employee may be requested or asked to submit 

to a polygraph examination without an adequate demonstration of facts 
or circumstances indicating the need for a polygraph examination of 
that individual. 

(b) All reasonable efforts must be made to resolve 
j allegations or questions before requesting an employee to submit to a 
polygraph examination. 

j (c) Before any employee is requested to submit to a 

polygraph examination, the refusal of which may be used as a factor in 

| determining whether the employee| will be [subjected to disciplinary 
action (13-22.13.1), there must be a substantial objective basis to 
suspect that the individual may be involved in one of, the situations 



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| listed in 13-22.13.1. . 



PAGE 13 - 206 



(d) (Employees | who are requested or asked to submit 
to polygraph examinations will be fully advised of their options and 
the potential consequences of the exercise of those options. 

(3) Use of the results of polygraph examinations. 

(a) Disciplinary action will not be predicated 
solely upon the results of a polygraph examination, or upon the 
refusal to submit to a polygraph examination. (See (d) .) 



(b) The results of a polygraph examination may be 
considered with other evidence. 

(c) Employees will be furnished the results of a 
polygraph examination prior to being subjected to any disciplinary 
action based in part on the results of the examination. 



(d) An employee's refusal to submit 
examination in the case of a security clearance adjudi 
effect of denying the Security Programs Manager (SPM) 
complete a favorable security adjudication on the trus 
the employee. The inability of the SPM to make an aff 
of trustworthiness will result in the revocation of an 
Secret (TS) security clearance. Since a TS security c 
condition of employment, the FBI Personnel Officer is 
advised of the revocation decision and thereafter the 
dismissed from the rolls of the FBI. 



to a polygraph 
cation has the 
the ability to 
tworthiness of 
irmative finding 
employee's Top 
learance is a 
simultaneously 
employee is 




(e) The results of a polygraph examination may be 
maintained with the records resulting from the investigations. 
Dissemination of such information shall be strictly limited to persons 
who have a legitimate right or requirement for access to the 
information. 

(f) Deliberate or negligent misuse of the results of 
polygraph examinations shall be grounds for administrative action. 

(A) Polygraph examination of employees will be 
administered away from their own office of assignment. This procedure 
will help protect the confidentiality of the inquiry/investigation and 
lessen the outside pressure on the employee which could be associated 
with employee's friends' and associates' knowledge of employee's 
participation in examination. (See MIOG, Part I, 263-6(2); MAOP, Part 
I, 13-4.1.) 



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(5) Polygraph examinations of Bureau employees are to be 
administered by. an FBIHQ examiner. In the event an FBIHQ examiner is 
not available, the examination will be conducted by an examiner 
selected by FBIHQ. 



EFFECTIVE: 10/13/95 



13-22.15 



Sel ecti on, Training, a_nd_ Certification of Polygraph 
Examiners 



Requirements have been established to ensure that Bureau 
examiners meet . the highest standards of integrity, competence, and 
professional excellence. 




V:* 




EFFECTIVE: 11/23/87 



13-22.15.1 Selection and Training of FBI Polygraph Examiners 

(1) To meet future needs for polygraph examiner trainees, 
a pool of candidates will be maintained by FBIHQ from which trainees 
will be selected. Any Agent interested in being trained in this 
investigative specialty should submit a memorandum to the SAC who will 
forward the requesting memorandum, with personal recommendations, to 
FBIHQ, Attention: Laboratory Division. Interested Agents should 
indicate if they are willing to accept transfer or if they desire 
consideration only for their current division. 

(2) When vacancies occur, trainees will be selected by an 
FBIHQ selection board, in coordination with affected SACs. 

(3) No Agent will be transferred to fill a polygraph 
examiner vacancy without his/her prior concurrence. 

(4) Prior to selection, Agents will be interviewed by the 
selection board at FBIHQ and undergo a nonspecific polygraph 
examination. 

(5) The following factors will be evaluated in selection 
of Agents to receive polygraph examiner training. 



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(a) At least five years' investigative experience 

(b) Experience and demonstrated success as 
interviewer/interrogator and as case Agent in complex investigations 

(c) Ability to perform well under stress and in 
confrontational situations 

(d) Availability for travel to conduct examinations 
in other divisions and throughout own field office territory as 
required (should NOT be in a hardship assignment or | have medical 

mandates (restrictions) that w ould prohibit the employee from required 

travel.)"! - " ~ : ! 




13-22.15.2 Certification of Examiners 

To be certified as an FBI polygraph examiner the following 
must be satisfied: 

(1) The examiner must be a graduate of a Bureau-approved 
polygraph school. 

(2) The examiner must successfully complete an internship 
consisting of conducting a minimum of 12 examinations with supervision 






(e) Good judgment, maturity, dependability, self- 
motivation, and ability to work well alone should be clear attributes 
of Agent 

(f) Willingness to be assigned to a headquarters *- 
city office, devote full time to polygraph examiner duties, and forego j& 
involvement in other collateral/coordinator-type activities. '^f 



'7*- 



<:■ 



■«S*7> 



(6) Agents selected for the program will complete the 
Polygraph Examiners Training Course at the Department of Defense 
Polygraph Institute, Fort McClellan, Alabama. The course, which is 
approximately 14 weeks in length, includes instruction in polygraph 

theory and procedures, psychology, physiology, semantics, question 'jS 

formulation, instrumentation, and legal matters related to polygraph. ,ff 

During the course students also conduct 50 polygraph examinations of "Z 

persons who participate in mock crime situations. ;■]' 



EFFECTIVE: 12/27/93 






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(1) Submit requests (Optional Form 170) along with 
appropriate details to FBIHQ, Attention: Polygraph Unit. 



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Manual of Investigative Operations and Guidelines - ;■«& 

Part II •.:.., ■•„ ..,, PAGE 13.-209 Jp 

- •• - - - ■ ' -. v . - • ' " . . '■- ' ' fTTi' 

of a certified Bureau examiner. " ■ #ti& 

(3) The continued demonstration of proficiency in the ,. Jfa 
polygraph techniques. , ■ ,:,^» 

(4) The examiner should, if possible, conduct a minimum ••;, 
of 48 examinations per year. Examiners assigned duties in direct "■:"%:' 
support of the FBI's quality control program at FBIHQ are exempt. \S 

(5) The examiner should attend at least one FBI polygraph "jj ; 
in-service training course or Bureau-approved polygraph refresher ' -J^. 
c ourse or seminar at least every two years. __ • '-"*& 






(6) Any examiner who has lost the requirements for 

certification can be recertified by successful completion of a Te 

Bureau-approved refresher course. In addition, the examiner being _4SJ£ 

recertified will be required to conduct a minimum of 12 examinations r 0^, 

under the supervision of an FBI certified examiner. Upon the "HHC 

completion of the above, the FBI certified examiner supervising the ||*t: 

examiner for recertif ication will, in writing, forward his/her fjsv 

recommendations as to recertif ication to FBIHQ. w' 

-ft*.' 

EFFECTIVE: 11/23/87 '^; 

■ •••■# 

13-22.15.3 Refresher Training and Polygraph Seminars •#&■: 

Requests to attend refresher training courses, polygraph . ;3 »fe 

seminars, and/or meetings of professional polygraph associations ~#|? 

should be handled in the following manner: -"iff?' 






(2) Expenses incurred in conjunction with approved Cjfij? 

attendance at such functions are to be claimed on an expense voucher. 



i-rniM 

..\tJ. 



(3) Pertinent information gleaned at meetings, especially 
results of polygraph research, should be furnished to FBIHQ for . 
possible distribution to all Bureau examiners. . ( '■"-' . ';fit£ 



>";•**. 






EFFECTIVE: 12/19/86 •:"*§ 



.■A: 






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13-22.15.4 Performance Appraisal ; ""' 

(1) Field polygraphers have been assigned two critical 
elements by which their performance as polygraph examiners is \i 

evaluated. Because of the uniqueness of their responsibilities, i.e., 

frequently serving more than one field division and the review of each «■■. 

examination both technically and procedurally through a mandated 
quality-control process, these particular elements are rated and 
reviewed by Supervisory Special Agent Polygraph Examiners assigned to 

FBIHQ. This procedure does not preclude, at the SAC's discretion, the ., 
addition of critical elements generated by field offices reflecting 
other duties and responsibilities handled by their assign ed 



polygraphers. 

(2) Only the critical elements relating to polygraph 
performance will be rated and reviewed by FBIHQ. If additional 
elements are established by the field office, they are to be rated and 
reviewed by appropriate field supervisors. All critical elements (the 
two prepared for the Polygraph Program and any prepared by the field) 
will be combined to determine the overall rating of the employee prior 
to forwarding the performance appraisal to the Performance, 
Recognition and Awards Unit, jPersonnel {Division. 



EFFECTIVE: 04/21/94 



| 13-22. 15.5 [ Voice-Stress Devices Prohibited 

Use of voice-stress devices to determine the truthful or 
deceptive nature of a person's oral statements is prohibited. Only 
Bureau-approved polygraph examiners using true polygraph instruments 
designed to record at least three physiological parameters including 
respiration, heart rate/blood pressure, and galvanic skin response 
(GSR), are authorized to conduct detection of deception examinations. 



EFFECTIVE: 12/19/86 



13-23 I TRANSLATION POLICY (See MAOP, Part I, 22-6.) 



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EFFECTIVE: 09/08/93 



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EFFECTIVE: 09/08/93 



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13-23.3 Deleted 



EFFECTIVE: 09/08/93 



| 13-23.4 [Deletedj 



EFFECTIVE: 09/08/93 




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Manual of Investigative Operations and Guidelines 

p ar t II PAGE 13 - 212 

13-24 ARTIST CONCEPTIONS 

Consideration should be given to the preparation of artist 
conception portrait drawings of unknown subjects in selected Bureau 
cases. These sketches are prepared by Visual Information Specialists 
(VIS) at Headquarters from "look-alike" reference photos selected from 
the FBI Facial Identification Catalog and other descriptive data 
furnished by witnesses or victims. 

EFFECTIVE: 12/10/91 

13-24.1 Policy 

EFFECTIVE: 12/10/91 



13-24.1.1 General |. (See MI 0G, Part II, 13-25. 1. 1(1) .) | 

(1) Because of a limited staff of VIS, requests for 
artist conceptions other than those where the FBI has investigative 
jurisdiction must be approved on the merits of each individual request 
by Assistant Director of the Laboratory Division. 

(2) In most instances, VIS prepare drawings from 
descriptive data transmitted to Special Projects Section via facsimile 
machine. If special handling is requested, a composite drawing can be 
completed in 2-4 hours. On cases of national import, consideration 
will be given to sending the VIS to the field location. A composite 
drawing prepared during a hypnosis session would be one such instance. 
VIS will participate in accordance with Bureau policy governing use of 
hypnosis as an investigative aid. 

(3) Offices utilizing Identi-Kits | or other automated 
systems [can have these composites modified or redrawn according to 
specifications submitted by field office. Although the Identi-Kit 
cannot duplicate the skill and versatility provided by the VIS in the 
illustration of a facial likeness, it can serve a useful purpose as 
one of the methods Bureau offices can employ to prepare composites if 
the VIS cannot respond within time limits the field investigation in 
progress requires. 

(4) As the investigation progresses, the Laboratory, 



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Part II ,, PAGE 13 - 213 

Attention: Special Projects Section, should be advised of the use and 
effectiveness of the drawing as an investigative aid. 



EFFECTIVE: 06/26/96 "*•: 

13-24.1.2 Dissemination 

(1) The SAC may approve releasing Bureau prepared artist 

concept ijons_for LPubHc^t^on_by_the_news^ J55di_a in^ unknown __subject_cases ^_ 

in which the witnesses have stated the drawing is an excellent 

likeness to the unknown subject. After approval is received, file 

numbers and issue date information must be removed from the prints 

prior to releasing them. This is done by cutting off the bottom •-;: 

portion of each print. ^ 



(2) FBIRQ approval is required before an artist 
conception can be used in a circular letter. 



EFFECTIVE: 08/16/82 



13-24.1.3 Administrative Identification 

All artist conceptions should, whenever possible, carry a 
Bureau file number, field office file number, and the date that the 
drawing was issued. This data will appear at the very bottom of the . 
photographic prints of these drawings and may, if desired, remain on 
these prints while they are used for investigative purposes. The data 
must remain on the prints when they are produced as evidence at trial. 

EFFECTIVE: 087 16/82 






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13-24.2 Requesting an Artist Conception 

(1) The "look-alike" references from the FBI Facial 
Identification Catalog are recorded on an FD-383 (Facial 
Identification Fact Sheet) which, along with other detailed 
descriptive or illustrative material, is forwarded to the Laboratory, 
Attention: Special Projects Section. Requests should be limited to 
those cases in which the witnesses can provide detailed descriptions, 
have selected a sufficient number of characteristics from the Facial 
Identification Catalog, and be reasonably confident they can recognize 
a likeness of the unknown subject if a sketch is produced. 



"(2) AlT~office~s antl"l ; eTilielit~^gencres - h"aving a facsimile - 
device should consider using this device for transmitting the FD-383 
and related reference material directly to the Laboratory, Attention: 
Special Projects Section, between 8:00 a.m. andJ5:30|p.m. , Washington, 
D.C., time. The telephonenumber of this facsimile in the Special 
Projects Section is^^^^^^^| Contact FBIHQ during other hours. 



(a) Use of the facsimile device will ensure 
expeditious handling of the request. 

(b) Also, use of FTS line can provide a direct 
communication between the artist and the interviewing Agent or witness 
when necessary. 



EFFECTIVE: 08/16/82 



13-24.3 



Results of Request 



(1) The drawing will be prepared in the Special Projects 
Section in the shortest possible time existing priorities permit, and 
transmitted to the requesting office by facsimile device for 
evaluation by the witnesses. Revisions may be requested by the field 
as needed until a good likeness is developed. 

(2) Three polaroid copies of the drawing will be sent to 
the requesting office by routing slip on the same date as the 
facsimile transmission. If more than three Polaroid copies are deemed 
necessary, they may be- made using field office facilities or from 
suitable local sources after approval of the likeness by the 
witnesses. If the extra copies cannot be obtained in the field, they 
may be ordered from the Laboratory, Attention: Special Projects 
Section. 



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(3) A similar methodology is used in aging adult 

| subjects; however, family photographs are|generaily|not incorporated, 
with the subject to achieve the aged image. The addition of facial 

| | lines and hair, | increase or decrease in body weight, and a change of 
hairstyle are the most common factors used in this process, and these 
are borrowed from other facial images available to the artist. . 

(4) The value of this technique lies in the fact that 
when the computer system is used by an experienced artist, the 
rendering is more technically accurate than those produced entirely by 



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EFFECTIVE: 03/23/92 

13-25 FACIAL AGING 

Consideration should be given to the preparation of 
facially aged photographs of children and adults, using a computerized 
aging system located at FBI Headquarters. These aged photographs are 
prepared by Visual Information Specialists (VIS) of the Laboratory 
Division, ' 

EFFECTIVE: 03/23/92 

13-25.1 Policy 

EFFECTIVE: 03/23/92 J, 

13-25.1.1 General 

(1) As set forth in the policy statement for Artist 

Conceptions, (13-24.1.1) requests for facial aging must be restricted ^ 

to those cases where the Bureau has jurisdiction. Any exceptions must " 1 %. 

be approved by the Assistant Director of the Laboratory Division. --X- 

(2) In situations requiring a child's photograph to be 7!*' 
aged/updated, photographs of a parent, brother, or sister. 

| are | requested as they may be | scanned into the system and incorporated ,.(_'. 

with the victim's photograph to produce the aged or projected image of •_;.'" 

how the child is likely to appear. 






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Manual of Investigative Operations and Guidelines 

Part II PAGE 13 - 216 

hand, and it can be produced much faster. 

(5) In some instances, it may be advisable or necessary 
for the Bureau artist to accompany the case Agent in interviews with 
the victim's family. 



EFFECTIVE: 06/26/96 

13-25.2 Administrative Identification 



All aged photographs should, whenever possible, carry a 
Bureau file number, and the date that the photograph was issued. This 
data will appear at the very bottom of the photographic prints and 
may, if desired, remain on these prints while they are used for 
investigative purposes. The data must remain on the prints when they 
are produced for, or used as, evidence at trial. 



EFFECTIVE: 03/23/92 



13-25.3 Requesting a Facially Aged Photograph 

In order to ensure the accuracy with which a photograph 
may be aged, the requesting office should submit several of the 
highest quality photographs available of the victim/subject, as well 
as all pertinent descriptive data regarding the victim/subject, i.e., 
date of birth, facial characteristics, etc. This information should 
be forwarded to the Laboratory Division, Attention: Special Projects 
Sectiori|by an FD-790 (Special Projects Section Work Order) . | 

EFFECTIVE: 03/23/92 



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13-25.3.1 Results of Request 

(1) The aged photograph will be prepared in the Special 
Projects Section in the shortest possible time existing priorities 
will permit. Revisions may be requested by the field as needed until 
a projected likeness is developed. 

(2) One black and white, 4" x 5" photographic print of 
the aged rendering will be shipped to the requesting office. If more 
than one print is deemed necessary, they may be made using field 
office facilities or from a suitable local source. If the extra 
copies cannot be obtained in the field, they may be ordered from the 

"Laboratory _ Di v"iTi on , Atten fion: ~SpeciaT~Proje"c£s — Secfi'oru 



EFFECTIVE: 03/23/92 




13-26 



VISUAL AIDS 



The Special Projects Section, Laboratory, has the ability 
to design and prepare visual aids for investigative and prosecutive 
assistance, law enforcement training, as well as for administrative 
and informational purposes. (For information concerning artist 
conception portrait sketches, see paragraph 13-24 above.) 



EFFECTIVE: 03/23/92 



13-26.1 



Requests 




EFFECTIVE: 03/23/92 



13-26.1.1 From FBIHQ 



All requests from FBIHQ must be directed to the Special 
| Projects Section by|an FD-790| (Special Projects Section Work Order), 



EFFECTIVE: 03/23/92 



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13-26.1.2 From the Field 



PAGE 13 - 218 



All requests from the field must be directed to the FBIHQ 
Laboratory Division by an FD-790 to the attention of the Special 
Projects Section and. must contain the the following: 

(1) A general description of the work requested 

(2) The purpose and its use 

(3) All available reference and explanatory data, and 




(4) A sketch, if applicable, which does not have to be 
drawn to scale but must contain detailed measurements. 

(a) If the request is for an investigative or 
prosecutive aid, it is to be submitted to the appropriate substantive 
investigative desk at FBIHQ for approval. 

(b) Deleted 

| (5) The case caption and file number if applicable. | 



EFFECTIVE: 09/03/93 




13-26.2 Drawings 

(1) Two-dimensional visual aids include prosecutive and 
investigative aids such as: 

(a) Street map for locating evidence, buildings, 
witnesses or routes. 

(b) Plat map for locating evidence, buildings, 
subjects or witnesses. 

(c) Terrain map showing wooded areas or other 
physical features. 

(d) Combination map and photographic display to 
illustrate appearance of specific areas. 

(e) Floor plan for locating evidence or movement of 



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subjects. 



PAGE 13 - 219 



(£) Diagram to explain check-kiting, telephone 
contacts or organizational structures. 

(g) Statistical charts, graphs and bar charts. 

(h) Enlargement of accounting papers or bank forms. 

(2) Drawings will be prepared from information furnished 
or if the situation warrants, from on-the-scene data collected by 
FBIHQ personnel. Source material that can be used by the Special 
Pro jects Sect ion~as~FefeFence"for^Ye^a^ 

found at municipal and other government offices. 

(a) Floor plans at building inspector. 

(b) Plat plans at tax assessor. 

(c) Street and curb plans at highway department. 

(d) Maps at U.S. Geological Survey. 

(3) All source material must be verified for accuracy 
before submission. 

EFFECTIVE: 03/23/92 



13-26.3 



Models (Three-Dimensional) 




(1) When deemed essential and approved by FBIHQ, a 
three-dimensional model can be prepared in major cases. The model 
will be constructed from measurements, photographs, and on-the-spot 
observations' made by FBIHQ personnel to ensure authentication for the 
admittance of the model as evidence. 

(2) The construction of three-dimensional models for use 
in aiding the United States Attorney to present his/her case are 
limited to instances when a clear illustration of the facts cannot be 
achieved with a two-dimensional chart. In most instances they are. 
prepared to scale and are necessarily constructed from data collected 
on the scene by the VIS from Special Projects Section. 

(3) The cost of preparing the three-dimensional trial 



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Part II -" ..' PAGE 13 " 220 

model limits its use to major cases or those where alternate means of 
illustration cannot be used to supply a vital point to the prosecution 
of the case. Circumstances often falling within these guidelines 
include: 

(a) Sections covering two or more physical levels 
such as between floors of a building or decks of a ship. 

(b) A replica of a mechanical device which cannot be 
transported to the courtroom. 

(c) A re production of terrain showing altitudes and 



distances. 



(4) Requests for models should be made reasonably soon 
after occurrence of the crime to enable the VIS to construct the model 
to represent the scene accurately at time crime was committed. 



EFFECTIVE: 05/26/89 



| 13-26. 4j Special Investigative Equipment 

Special equipment or enclosures can be constructed with 
approval of FBIHQ. 



EFFECTIVE: 05/26/89 



| (13-26.5) Special Surveillance Graphics 

With approval of appropriate FBIHQ substantive desk, a 
variety of graphic items can be designed and prepared as a 
comprehensive package to assist in the staging and operation of 
special surveillance activities. 



EFFECTIVE: 05/26/89 
I 13-27 I RADIATION HAZARDS 




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EFFECTIVE: 05/26/89 



13-27.1 



Introduction 



■•-,*ps 







Radioactive materials are in use in the nuclear power 
industry, nuclear weapons industry, academic and industrial research 
environments and in medicine. Accidents, death and injuries resulting 
from the handling and transportation of radioactive materials have 
been few; however, the role of radioactive materials in a terrorist 
incident, an extortion or a theft presents a spe cial haz ard to the 



investigator. Radiation is invisible and insensible; therefore, 
special knowledge about it will enable the investigator to 
intelligently evaluate its hazard. 



EFFECTIVE: 05/26/89 



13-27.2 



■id' 



Terminology 






■m 

. ■,'pms. 

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EFFECTIVE: 05/26/89 



<•"*■ 



[13-27.2.1 | Atoms 

Atoms are small particles of matter which have the 
characteristics of an element. For example, gold and silver are both 
elements and the smallest particle of gold or silver which can be 
identified as gold or silver is an atom of gold or an atom of silver. 






EFFECTIVE: 05/26/89 






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||13-27.2.2| Isotopes 

Isotopes are varieties of the same element which have the 
same chemical properties but have a different nuclear structure and 
therefore different physical properties. For example, we have three 
isotopes of hydrogen; namely, Hydrogen One, Hydrogen Two and Hydrogen 
Three. 

(1) Stable isotopes are ones which are incapable of 
spontaneous change and thus are not radioactive. 

(2) Unstable isotopes undergo spontaneous changes and 
emi f"nuc 1 ear radi¥t i ons . " 



EFFECTIVE: 05/26/89 




[ J 13—27.3 1 Nuclear Radiations 

I Nuclear radiations involve the emission of energy or 

particles from a nucleus. 

EFFECTIVE: 05/26/89 



| 1 13-27.3. 1 1 Alpha Particle 

Alpha particle is a positively charged particle emitted 
from a nucleus and similar to a helium nucleus. It has a relatively 
large mass with low penetrating power and a short range. Alpha 
particles will usually not penetrate the skin but danger occurs when 
alpha emitters are introduced into the lungs or intestines. 

EFFECTIVE: 05/26/89 




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| 13-27. 3. 2| Beta Particle 

Beta particle is a high speed negatively charged electron 
emitted from a nucleus. It has little mass, low penetrating power and 
a short range. The more energetic particles will penetrate the skin. 
Danger is due to skin burns and internal damage if the emitter enters 
the body and lodges in a body organ. 



EFFECTIVE: 05/26/89 



13-27.3.3 Gamma Ray 



Gamma ray is a unit of radiation energy similar (to, but 
more energetic than, |x-rays. Gamma rays can do body damage even when 
the source is located outside of the body due to their penetrating 
power. 



EFFECTIVE: 07/25/97 




13-27.3.4 Neutron 

Neutron is a subatomic particle which has no electrical 
charge and it is one of | two principal jparticles in the nucleus. 



EFFECTIVE: 07/25/97 



||13-27.4| Radiation Effects 

Nuclear radiations avoid detection by all our senses. 
Excessive dosages are normally hazardous. Police activity in or 
around radiation areas requires special vigilance. Radiation hazards 
are usually considered as either external or internal hazards. ♦ 



EFFECTIVE: 05/26/89 



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| J 13-27. 4.1 1 External Hazards 



PAGE 13 - 224 






"Bodily damage can result from overexposure to gamma rays 
even though the radioactive material is outside the body. Gamma rays 
are external hazards. 



•**- 



j|l3-27.4.2| Internal Hazards 



Bodily~damage~can~resul"t"if-"radioactive~material — emitting' 

alpha and beta particles contaminates ' our food or the air we breath 
and in this manner is taken into our bodies in excessive amounts. 
Alpha and beta particles are considered internal hazards. 






) 



EFFECTIVE: 05/26/89 



| | 13-27. 5 | Detection Equipment 



■fee"' 



EFFECTIVE: 05/26/89 



j | 13-27. 5.1 | Survey Meters 

Survey meters are portable instruments designed to enable 
one to evaluate a particular radiation. They may be designed to 
detect and measure alpha, beta and gamma radiation and are used for 
the evaluation of contaminated foods and water. Survey meters read 
either in roentgens/hour or milliroentgens/hour (1,000 milliroehtgens 
- 1 roentgen) . 



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} [ 13-27.5 . 2 j Dosimeters 



PAGE 13 - 225 



Dosimeters are pocket-size instruments used to measure the 
total beta-gamma dosage accumulated by the person wearing the 
dosimeter. Some dosimeters can be read at any time by the wearer 
(self-reading dosimeters). Other dosimeters, such as film badges are 
not self-reading. These latter-type dosimeters are processed in a 
laboratory. Dosimeter readings are normally in roentgens or 
milliroentgens. 



EFFECTIVE: 05/26/89 



13-27.61 



Significance of Detection Equipment Readings 



EFFECTIVE: 05/26/89 



| 13-27.6.1 | Roentgen 

Roentgen is a standard unit of measure of the energy of 
X-ray or gamma radiation which is absorbed. Often the term 
milliroentgen, which is one thousandth part of a roentgen, is used. 
The following table is a listing of radiation doses and their effects. 



Acute Dose (roentgens) 
to 50 

80 to 120 

v 

130 to 170 
180 to 220 




Probable Effect of Total Body Dose 

No obvious effect, except possibly 
minor blood changes. 

Vomiting and nausea for about 1 day in 
5 to 10 percent of exposed personnel. 
Fatigue but no serious disability. 

Vomiting and nausea of about 1 day, 
followed by other symptoms of 
radiation sickness in about 25 percent 
of personnel. No deaths anticipated. 

Vomiting and nausea for about 1 day, 
followed by other symptoms of 
radiation sickness in about 50 percent 
of personnel. No deaths anticipated. 



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270 to 330 



Vomiting and nausea in nearly all 
personnel on first day, followed by 
other symptoms of radiation sickness. 
About 20 percent deaths within 2 to 6 
weeks after exposure; survivors 
convalescent about 6 months. 



400 to 500 



Vomiting and nausea in all personnel 
on first day, followed by other 
symptoms of radiation sickness. About 
50 percent deaths within 1 month; 
survivors convalescent for about 6 



months. 



550 to 750 




750 to 1000 



Vomiting and nausea in all personnel 
within 4 hours from exposure, followed 
by other symptoms of radiation 
sickness. Up to 100 percent deaths; 
survivors convalescent for about 6 
months. 

Vomiting and nausea in all personnel 
within 1 to 2 hours. Probably no 
survivors from radiation sickness. 






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Incapacitation almost immediately. All 
personnel will be fatalities within 1 
week. 



EFFECTIVE: 05/26/89 



13-27.7 



Radiation Protection 



the following factors should be considered when evaluating 
available protection. 

(1) If all containers of radioactive material are sealed 
or closed and are INTACT it is unlikely that radioactive hazards are 
associated with the incident. Efforts should be made to protect the 
integrity of the containers during essential rescue, salvage and 
clean-up operations. . . 



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(2) If radioactive isotopes become loose from the 
container or are liberated by a handling accident the following 



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factors should be understood. 



PAGE 13 - 227 



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(a) DISTANCE. The distance between individuals and 
the isotope source appreciably decreases radiation] intensity with this 
reduction being described by an "inverse R squared" relationship, j In 
most cases, for example, the distance of 2 feet from the source will 
decrease the radiation to one-quarter its value at 1 foot; a distance - 
of 10 feet from the source will decrease the radiation to one- 
hundredth its value at 1 foot. 






J 



- (b) TIME. The time one spends in the radiation 
field should be kept to an absolute minimum. A 2-hour exposure in a 
radiation-field-wi-1-l—be -twiceas- large-as-a-1-hour exposure. 



(c) SHIELDING. Dense materials such as steel, 
concrete and dirt between the individual and the source can cut down 
the intensity of gamma radiation. Most gamma-emitting radioisotopes 
emit radiation of less than one million electron| volts per gamma ray. | 
Generally, the radiation may be cut in half by 1 1/2 inches of steel, 
4 1/2 inches of concrete, 7 1/2 inches of earth, or 10 inches of 
water. 

(d) CONTAINMENT. Restriction of the radioisotopes to 
a limited area will help to establish boundaries for the hazard. 
Efforts should be made to keep the radioisotopes from scattering. If 
there is a fire associated with an incident, high pressure hoses might 
break open containers and widely distribute the radioisotopes. 
Vehicles and individuals repeatedly entering the area could track away 
any radioisotopes from incidents involving spills of radioactive 
materials. Such travel should be limited to that which is absolutely 
necessary. 

(3) External and/or internal hazards can be present 
whenever radioactive materials are found. If it is not known what the 
hazards are, assume both to be present. To protect against internal 
hazards, personnel- should wear breathing masks or some type of filter 
system over the nose or mouth. If possible, all personnel should be 
kept upwind from the scene of the incident and all smoking and eating 
should be prohibited in the restricted area. Personnel entering the 
area where there is radioactive dust should be wearing disposable or 
washable outer clothing. 






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Emergency Procedures for Accident or Incident 



(1) Keep all but essential rescue and investigative 
personnel away from the immediate accident scene. 

(2) Report the accident or incident immediately to the 
nearest Department of Energy facility or military base, whichever is 
appropriate. ^ 



(3) | Contact the Strategic Information Operations Center 
(SIOC) at FBIHQ, which will in turn contact the Hazardous Materials 
Response Unit (HMRU) of the Laboratory Division. | 



possible. 



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(4) | Keep sightseers away - 500 yards or more, if 



(5) | Stay out of smoke or vapors if there is fire. 



| (6) | Hold people who may have been exposed to the 
contamination in an area for appropriate examination by emergency 
personnel. 

| (7) | Do not fight fires involving explosives except under 
the direction of an expert. 

| (8) j Do not permit the taking of souvenirs. 

| (9) | Keep unauthorized personnel from entering the scene. 






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113-30 



COMPUTER ANALYSIS AND RESPONSE TEAM (CART) 



IS 



EFFECTIVE: 02/28/97 



| 13-30.1 General Information 

(1) Since 1984, when the FBI Laboratory began examining 
computer-based evidence, the widespread use of computers and the 
rapidly developing technology of computer systems, have combined to 
dramatically increase the volume and complexity of computer evidence 
seized by FBI Agents. Today, FBI Agents routinely encounter 
computers in cases dealing with health care fraud, child pornography, 
terrorism, murder, drugs, financial institution fraud, public 
corruption, and in almost every other investigative classification 
for which the FBI is responsible. 

(2) A real danger exists that well-intentioned efforts on 
the part of untrained field investigators can affect important 
evidence and may either render it unavailable to the investigator or 
inadmissable at the time of trial. Another danger is that the FBI 
will incur some civil liability for damage or destroyed computer data 
belonging to a subject or a third party. In 1992, the Laboratory 
Division's Computer Analysis and Response Team (CART) was formed to 
address these problems. 

(3) The primary mission of CART, whether in the field or 
in. the Laboratory, is to provide the investigator who encounters 
computer evidence with reliable, comprehensive, and timely 






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PAGE 13 - 231 



information and technical support necessary to the investigation and 
prosecution of the case. These mission objectives are met through a 
mutually supporting task organization consisting of: 

(a) A state-of-the-art forensic capability comprised 
of computer scientists. and engineers, CART, centrally located in the 
Laboratory Division; 

(b) A network of specially trained and equipped 
Field Examiners (FEs) , assigned to selected field offices and serving 
regional requirements. 



In a typical case: 

1. The case Agent who expects to encounter 
computer-based information (usually in executing a search warrant) 
consults with an FE who is trained and equipped to handle most 
situations. The FE will determine whether or not he/she can operate 
independently or needs CART HQ assistance. 

2. At the search site, the CART Examiner will 
determine what computer systems should be seized and brought back to 
the office for examination. If the warrant does not allow the 
seizure of equipment, the CART Examiner should be able to copy the 
data onto medium suitable for examination at the field office. CART 
HQ will be on stand-by to offer consultation should unsuspected 
circumstances be encountered. 

3. After the equipment is seized and 
transported to the field office, the FE will conduct triage to 
determine if the examination can be handled in the field office or if 
all, or part, must be sent to the Laboratory Division for 
examination. Every effort will be made to examine the evidence in 
the field office. 



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4. The FE in consultation with the case Agent 
will determine what data is necessary from the seized computer and in 
what format to best present the data. "\ 

5. The FE will recover the necessary data using 
techniques and protocols developed by CART and provided to the FE by 
CART. These utilities reside on specialized hardware platforms which 
have also been provided to the FE by CART. The examiner will be 
familiar with these procedures and trained in their use under CART 
direction. 



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PAGE 13 - 232 



6. At trial, the FE will be able to describe 
and defend his/her actions. If questions arise regarding the 
protocols used, CART will provide, when needed, experts who can 
explain CART's protocols. 

(4) FEs are assigned to serve regions. These regions 
represent the best allocation of resources based on analyses of 
evidence submissions to CART and in consultation with the Criminal 
Investigative Division (Clb) concerning investigative priorities. 



"EFFECTIVE: 02/28/97" 





13-30.2 Authorization/Approval for Conducting Exams/Searches (See 
MIOG, Part II, 13-30.4.) 

(1) No action with respect to original computer evidence 
should be taken without consulting with one of the certified Computer 
Analysis and Response Team (CART) Examiners on the field list or CART 
at FBIHQ. In addition, no review of computer evidence should be 
performed without the supervision and/or consultation of a CART 
examiner. 



(2) The following guidelines govern requests for CART 



support: 



Any Agent who requires an examination of computer evidence or requires 
search assistance must contact their regional Field Examiner (FE) . 
During emergency situations, if an FE is not able to be contacted, 
the CART Program Manager or Unit Chief should be contacted. After 
hours, contact CART through the FBIHQ switchboard operator. All 
requests for search assistance or computer examinations must be 
forwarded as a lead to the appropriate FE by an electronic 
communication (EC) or teletype. The EC should be sent to the field 
office of the FE and the Laboratory Division, Attention: CART. The 
first CASE ID# must be 66-HQ-C1 155003 with the second CASE ID# as 
the substantive Universal Case File Number (UC FN) . The EC should be 
titled "Computer Analysis and Response Team, Field Examiner 
Operations." If desired, the title, of the case may be included as a 
dual-captioned title or included in the synopsis field of the EC. 
Whenever possible, FEs should be telephonically contacted prior to 
sending a written communication and that FE should be named in the 
attention line of the EC. 



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13-30.3 Responsibilities of the Case Agent 

(1) The case Agent is normally the first person to 
realize that Computer Analysis and Response Team (CART) support may 
be hel pful t o the investi g ation. In this regard , i t is i mporta nt for 
the case Agent to understand certain aspects of computer evidence 
searches and examinations and to be fully aware of the existing 
policies concerning computer evidence searches and examinations. A 
case Agent has the following responsibilities in connection with 
computer evidence searches and examinations: 



- ?$~ 




Before an affidavit in support of a search warrant is written, the 
case Agent should consult with their regional CART Field Examiner 
(FE) to ensure proper justification is given for seizing the 
equipment and software needed to properly analyze the seized computer 
evidence. The case Agent should attempt to identify the types of 
computers, networks, and operating systems in use at the location to 
be searched. This will help the FE to determine what assets will be 
needed to conduct the search and process the evidence. The case 
Agent should advise the FE as to the types of electronic records 
believed to be contained on the evidence to be seized. This 
information is required in determining what equipment should be 
seized as well as how the examination of the evidence will be 
conducted. 

(2) By providing the above information, the case Agent 
will maximize the results of the search warrant and ensure the 
forensic examination of their evidence will proceed in a quick and 
efficient manner. :~ 




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13-30.4 Submission of Evidence 

(1) When it has been determined that evidence needs to be 
shipped either to a regional Field Examiner (FE) or the FBI 
Laboratory, the evidence must be processed through the field office's 
Evidence Control Technician (ECT) . The ECT will ensure that proper 
chain of custody rules are followed. For assistance in packing 
computer evidence for shipping, the. case Agent should contact the ECT 
in their field office. 

(2) The evidence should be accompanied by an electronic 
communication (EC) as d'escr"ibe"d~in _ MI0G~Part~II7" 13-3072, 
Authorization/Approval for Conducting Exams/Searches. 



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13-30. 5 Types of Computer Analysis and Response Team Support 

(1) The Computer Analysis and- Response Team (CART) can 
provide timely and accurate examinations of computers, diskettes, 
optical disks, tape backups, and other electronic media. CART can 
provide on-site field support as needed for execution of search 
warrants and examinations of computer systems which cannot be sent to 
a regional Field Examiner (FE) or the FBI. Laboratory. CART can also 
provide on-site consultation with investigators and prosecutors in 
the development of strategies for the seizure of computer records and 
equipment. CART examiners will provide testimony as to examination 
procedures andresults. 






''If 



(2) " In addition to the retrieval of records, CART V" 
Capabilities include but are not limited to the retrieval of deleted, 
erased, and hidden data, the ability to break passwords and 
encryption schemes, and the examination of computer code to determine 
the effect of that code. 



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| 13-30.6 Field Examiner Program 



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| 13-30.6.1 Selection of Field Examiners 




" (1) Computer Analysis and~Response Team (CART)~FIeTd — 

Examiners (FEs) are selected by the CART Program Manager and 
scientific staff from among candidates nominated by Special Agents in 
Charge (SACs) based on education, training, experience, desire to 
participate in the program, and willingness to travel extensively 
while servicing needs of Bureau offices within the FE's region. 
Candidates with formal education in science or engineering will be 
preferred. Investigative skills and experience complement the 
forensic work and Special Agents are preferred as FEs. 

(2) Selectees will have sufficient academic background 
and experience towards qualifications as an expert witness and to 
communicate technical matters effectively to nontechnical audiences. 
They will be technically innovative, demonstrate excellent problem- 
solving abilities, and be able to work independently. They will be 
available to devote at least 50 percent of their time to FE-related 
duties to ensure their special skills are used sufficiently to retain 
proficiency". They must meet the certification requirements of the 
Laboratory Division and CART and be able to serve at least two years 
as an FE. , 



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13-30.6.2 Training and Certification of Field Examiners 

(1) Continuous education and training will be provided by 
the Laboratory Division's Computer Analysis and Response Team (CART)' 
in the form of yearly in-service courses, commercially available 
training at- the Field Examiner's (FE) home city, unique law 
enforcement courses provided by such professional organizations as 
the International Association of Computer Investigative Specialists 
(IACIS) and the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center (FLETC) , etc. 
This continuous training will be sponsored and paid for by the FBI 
Laboratory or Government Employees Training Act (GETA) funds as 



appropriate. 

(2) The CART training program will provide examiners with 
a broad base of computer knowledge for performing effective searches 
and proper forensic examinations and ensure that examiners are 
qualified and prepared to testify in court. 

(3) CART training consists of two phases. The first 
phase, known as the general-education phase, lasts one to two years 
and ensures all examiners share a common knowledge base and 
qualifications. The second phase, known as the continuing- 
education phase, allows examiners to hone their skills and gain 
exposure to many technologies. The continuing-education phase 
continues throughout the examiner's career. 

(4) The general-education phase culminates when the 
examiner receives his/her CART certification. Certification hinges 
on several factors. First, the examiner must complete all of the 
commercial training required. Second, the examiner must demonstrate 
technical proficiency. FEs accomplish this during a Lab Practicum at 
the FBI Laboratory. Finally, the FE must successfully complete moot 
court at a CART In-Service. ''•■'.' 



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13-30.6.3 Field Examiner Equipment 

For each Field Examiner (FE) , hardware and software 
modules are provided by the Laboratory Division. This equipment 
remains on the inventory of the Laboratory Division but is assigned 
to the individual FE. Likewise, the software is assigned to 
individual FEs in their own names. When an FE leaves the program 
his/her equipment and software will either be reassigned to another 
FE or will be returned to the Laboratory Division. 



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13-30.6.4 Field Examiner Work Space 

Field Examiners (FEs) have several unique requirements for 
their work space. The most important requirement is a secure work 
space to store evidence as it is being examined. Therefore, a secure 
room with access controlled by the FE is preferred. There should be 
adequate electrical service to support simultaneous operation of 
several computer systems. There should also be adequate ventilation 
to dissipate the heat generated by multiple computer systems. A 
telephone line is required in the FE's space to facilitate electronic 
communication between the FE and Computer Analysis and Response Team 
(CART), FBIHQ. 



EFFECTIVE: 02/28/97 



13-30.6.5 Reporting Procedures for Field Examiners 

Upon completion of a forensic examination, the Field 
Examiner is required to send an FD-302 report and any documents 
printed to the case Agent for inclusion into the substantive case 
file. A copy of the FD-302 report should also be sent to the . 
66-HQ-C1 155003 control file.i 



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