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Avthor qfthe " Hutory ^fthe BritUk Empire in India." 

VOL. I. 

Wm. H. ALLEN and CO. 




J. L. COX & SONS. 


74 dc 7-% Ot Queen SL» LtncoIn'i-InD Fields. 


To justify the publication of a Gazetteer of the 
countries adjacent to India on the north-west, it is 
only necessary to advert to the manifest want of such 
a work ; more especially, since, from recent events, 
the countries to which it relates have acquired a new 
and extraordinary interest. It is obvious that no 
general Gazetteer can be expected to furnish the 
minute and varied information which a similar work 
of more exclusive character may conveniently afford, 
and it is to be lamented, that the only sources of in- 
formation accessible to general perusal are, in very 
many instances, calculated to mislead. To supply 
that which is wanting, and to correct that which is 
erroneous, are the objects of the present under- 
taking. In the preparation of the work, these ob- 
jects have been steadily kept in view, without regard 
to labour. Every published book known or sup- 
posed to contain infcmnation relating to the countries 
treated of, has been consulted : the examination has 
not been confined to English works ; it has been 
extended to those written in the languages of the 
Continent — works never translated, and, in this 
country, comparatively unknown. Further, as it was 



essential to completeness, that the knowledge pos- 
sessed by the ancients of those countries should be 
adverted to, and as the principle adopted throughout 
is to refer in every instance to original authorities, it 
became necessary to collect the notices of the sub- 
ject which are to be found in the Greek and Roman 

The Gazetteer is thus an epitome of all that 
has yet been written and published respecting the 
countries adjacent to and westward of the Indus. 
On this ground alone it might support a claim to 
the character of a convenient and useful compila- 
tion, presenting to the reader, within a brief com- 
pass, a mass of information which could not other- 
wise be obtained, except from a multiplicity of 
volumes in many languages, some of them of high 
price, and others not easily procurable. But this is 
not its only, nor even its principal claim. The stores 
of information derived from books are indeed con- 
siderable, but they yield in value, as well as in 
extent, to the amount of matter hitherto un- 
published, and even unexplored, excepting by those 
whose official duties have led them to the pursuit. 
Under the authority of the Court of Directors of the 
East-India Company, the treasures of their vast col- 
lections have been opened for the purposes of the 
present work, and from the researches thus sanc- 
tioned, its chief value is derived. 

Any minute account of the mode adopted in 
working up the materials thus available, would be 
tedious as well as useless. But it may not be im- 
proper to refer to the following heads as having 
been kept in view in framing the account of a 


country, province, or large territorial division. First, 
the name or names by which it is known, and the 
etymology, if ascertainable or important. Secondly, 
its local situation, the latitude and longitude of the 
extreme points, length and breadth in English 
miles, and superficial extent in square miles. 
Thirdly, its physical characteristics, mountains, 
rivers, climate, soil, geology, mineralogy, zoology, 
botany, &c. Fourthly, economic circumstances, 
agriculture, commerce, mining, and the means of ad- 
vancing those operations, roads, canals, &c. Fifthly, 
statistical, social, and political circumstances, not 
embraced in the foregoing heads, population, Ian* 
guage, manners, religion, form of government, civil 
arrangements, military organization. Sixthly, the 
principal cities, towns, fortresses, and public esta- 
blishments. Seventhly, the history and antiquities of 
the country or district, wherever they may present 
any points either useful, interesting, or curious. In 
framing the descriptions of cities, towns, villages, 
and stations, it has been sought to fix their relative 
positions with as much precision m possible, and to 
exhibit, with the greatest practicable brevity, all 
that is known respecting them. The principal 
chains of mountains are described with a mi- 
nuteness which their importance demands, and 
the chief rivers have received the same degree 
of attention. In this respect it is confidently hoped 
that, with reference to the existing state of informa- 
tion, nothing is left to be desired. With a view to 
simplicity, as well as to avoiding error, the state- 
ments of relative position of places is restricted to 
the eight principal points of the compass, the closer 


detennination of their mataal bearings being left to 
be collected from their respective latitudes and 
longitudes, which will invariably be given with the 
greatest ascertainable accuracy. 

It remains only to advert to a point which cannot 
be approached without some anxiety, in consequence 
of the contrariety of opinion prevailing among com- 
petent judges, and the impossibility of making a 
choice without apparent presumption. 

The mode of spelling the names contained in this 
work has been a subject of much perplexity. Few 
Europeans who have had occasion to use Eastern 
names extensively, and who have been desirous of 
maintaining consistency, can have been exempt from 
the same feelings. The difficulty is the result of 
various causes. Sir Charles Wilkins, in the Pre- 
face to his Glossary, observes, " that the con- 
fusion has arisen, in some degree, from there 
being no fixed rules for the notation of oriental 
terms in the letters of our imperfect alphabet, 
every one spelling according to his ear ; but, in a 
greater degree, from the ignorance or inattention of 
the native clerks employed in the public offices in 
India to copy the transactions of the East-India 
Company. To give an instance of the confusion 
occasioned from these circumstances, the word, 
which, according to its form and sound, in Arabic^ 
should be written mahal (A. JU-<), the first vowel 
short and the last long, occurs under no less than 
eight different shapes, not one of which is correct 
on any system of orthography ; viz. 7nal, maal, mahl, 
mehaly mehaal^ mehaid, mhal^ and rnohauV^ A very 
fruitful cause of diversity is to be found in the modes 


resorted to by travellers for exhibiting to the eye 
words with which they were acquainted only by the 
ear; in effecting which object they have often been un- 
consciously influenced by regard to the peculiarities of 
accent, quantity, and pronunciation prevailing in the 
countries or provinces of which they were natives. 
Systems have been devised for putting an end to these 
irregularities, but they have not altogether escaped 
the ordinary &te of attempts to give fixity to the 
ever-varying elements of speech and language. 
Of such systems, those of Dr. Gilchrist and Sir 
William Jones are the chief.* The former, charac- 
terized by representing the Roman i by ee^ u by oo, 
and some other peculiarities ; the latter by employ- 
ing, in place of these double letters, i and «, with 
the pronunciation given them in Italian, and dis- 
tinguishing the long vowels from the short by the 
use of accents. After much deliberation as to the 
choice to be made, it appeared most expedient — as 
the present work was intended, not for oriental 
scholars only, but for general perusal — to abstain 
from any attempt to secure scientific uniformity — 
to follow not the most regular and analogical mode 
of spelling, but that most commonly adopted — ^that 
with which the civil and military officers of the East- 
India Company, and all men of business connected 
with India, are most familiar. Accordingly, the 
names in this work will be found scarcely to vary in 
any instance from those given in Walker's map, drawn 
up, by order of the Court of Directors, firom docu- 
ments in their possession. 

* To these may be added the modification of the system of Sir William 
Jones by Mr. Treyelyan, with a Tiew of comprehending within it the many 
alphabets of eastern nations, and of Romanizing the Indian symbols. 

viii PREFACE. 

It is worthy of observation, that however 
loud the complaint respecting the corrapt mode 
of expressing Indian names in English, no such 
deviations occur vnth respect to them as we 
find in regard to the names of many places in 
Europe; such as Naples for Napoli, Leghorn for 
Livomo, Munich for M iinchen, Moravia for Mahren, 
Vienna for Wien, Germany for Deutschland, and 
many others equally glaring which might be quoted 
from the language of almost every European nation, 
with reference to places within the territories of 
their neighbours. Irregularity, indeed, has not 
been confined to foreign names. In England, the 
spelling of local names has been subject to much 
caprice ; the vowel employed in the latter syllable 
of the word Dover is sometimes e, sometimes o, and 
the spelling of Brightelmstone has been assimilated 
to the ordinary pronunciation of the word — 
Brighton. The most reasonable view of the ques- 
tion is, perhaps, to regard spelling as altogether a 
matter of usage. Those, however, who take a 
difierent view, will find by reference to the Index 
at the end of the second volume, that in addition to 
the ordinary spelling of the names of principal places, 
there is given also that which is most consistent with 
orthographical regularity. 



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Leech. Joum. As. Soc. Beng. 1839, pp. 1— 16. 

Description of the Passage of the Indus at Attok by a Bridge of 
Boats. By Lieut R. Leech. Indian Government Papers, sect ii, 
pp. 15-17. 

Commercial Information regarding Bhawal Khan's Country. By 
Lieut R. Leech. Indian Government Papers, sect. iii. pp. 55 — 59. 

Narrative of a Journey from Caunpoor to the Boorendo Pass in the 
Himalaya Mountains. By Major Sir William Lloyd. And Captain 
Alexander Gerard's Account of. an Attempt to penetrate by Bekhur to 
Garoo, and the Lake Manasarowara. Edited by George Lloyd. 
8vo. 2 vols. Ix>nd. 1840. 

Some Account of a Visit to the Plain of Koh-i-Damun, the Mining 
District of Ghorbund, and the Pass of Hindu Kush. By Percamt B. 
Iiord, M. D. Indian Government Papers, pp. 45^57. 

Medical Memoir of the Plain of the Indus. By Percamt B. Lord, 
M.D. Indian Government Papers, pp. 58—68. 



Memoir od the CoDBtnietion of the Map of AJghanUtmi and neigh- 
bearing Coantries. In Elphinstone'a Account of Caubul, Appendix, 
pp.631— 665. 

A Geographical Notice of the Valley of JnUalabad. By Lieut 
MacGregor. Jouzn. As. Soc Beng. 1842, pp. 117— 130L 

Journal of Captain C. M. Wade's Voyage firom Lodbiana to Mi- 
thankot, by the River Sutlaj. By Lieut Maekeson. Joum. As. Soc. 
Beng. 1837, pp. 169-217. 

An Account of the Country of Sindh, with Remarks on the State of 
Society, the Government, Manners, and Customs of the People. By 
the late Captain James Macmurdo. Joum. Royal As. Soc. 1834, 
pp. 223-257. 

Dissertation on the River Indus. By the Ute Captain James Mac« 
murdo. Joum. Royal As. Soc. 1834» pp. 20—44. 

The History of Persia from the most early period to the present 
time ; containing an account of the Religion, Government, Usages, and 
Character of the Inhabitants of tbat Kingdom. By Sir John Malcolm. 
4to.2voK Lond. 1815. 

Sketch of the Sikhs. As. Researches, zi. pp. 197—292. 

The Travels of Marco Polo, a Venetian, in the Thirteenth Century. 

Being a Description, by tbat early Traveller, of remarkable Places and 

Things in tbe Eastern Parts of the World. Thmslated from the 

Italian, with Notes. By William Marsden, Esq. 4ta Lond. 1818. 


Narrative of Various Journeys in Balochistan, Af|gfaanistan, and the 
Panjab, including a Residence in those Countries from 1826 to 1888. 
By Charles Masson, Esq. 8vo. 3 vols. Lond. 1842. 

Narrative of a Joumey to Kalat, including an Account of an Insur- 
rection in that Place in 1840; and a Memoir on Eastern Balochistan. 
By Charles Masson, Esq. 8vo. Lond. 1843. 

Memoir on the Ancient Coins found at Beghram, in the Kohistan 
of Kabul. By Charles Masson. Joum. As* Soc. Beng. pp. 153 — 

Second Memoir on the Ancient Coins found at Beghram, in the 
Kohistan of Kabul By Charles Massoa Joum. As. Soc. Beng« 
1836, pp. 1—28. 

Notes on the Antiquities of Bamian. By Charles Masson. Joum. 
As. Soc. Beng. 1836, pp. 707—724. 

Third Memoir on the Ancient Coins discovered at the site called 
Beghram, in the Kohistan of Kabul. By Charles Masson. Joum. 
As. Soc. Beng. 1836, pp. 537—554. 



Oo the Thide of Khurpoor, in Sinde. By Manthi Mohnn LaL 
Indum Oovemment Psptn, MCt. iS. pp. 36^39. 

On the Tnd9 of Behnwalpnr. By Mnntbt Mohnn LaL Indiaa 
GoTcrnment Papers, sect liL 70— >7R 

A brief Deicriptjon of Hent. By Mnnehi Mohnn LaL Jovni. As. 
Soc Beng. 1894. pp. 9^ia 

Further Information regarding the Siah Poeh Tribes or reputed De- 
■cendants of Macedoniani. By Munahi Mohan Lai. Jonm. As. Soe. 
Beng. 1831. pp. 76—79. 

Account of Kak Bagb, on the right Bank of the Indna. By Manahi 
Mohun Lai. Joum. As. Soc. Beng. 1838. pp. 25^87. 

A brief Account of the Origin of the Baud Putraa, and of the Power 
and Birth of Bahawal Khan, their Chie^ on the bank of the Gharaand 
Indus. By Munshi Mohan LaL Joum. As. Soe. Beng. 183& pp^ 

A Journey to Lake Manaaarovaia, in Un-dea, a Produce of Little 
Tibet, By William Moorcroft, Esq. As. Res. zil pp. 375—63*. 

Travels in the Himalayan ProTinees of Hindoetan and the Punjab, 
in Ladakh and Kashmir, In Peshawur, Kabul, Kundus, and Bokhara. 
By Mr. Wiltiam Moorcroft and Mr. Geoige Trebeck. From 1819 to 
1825. Prepared for the Press by Horace Hayman Wilson, Esq. 
F. R. S., Professor of Sanscrit ui the University of Oiford. 8vo. 2 vols. 
Lond. 1839. 


History of the Athens, translated bom the Persian of Neamet 
UUah. By Bernard Dom, Professor of Oriental Literature in the 
Imperial Russian University of Kharkoo. 4to. Lond. 1829. 

Description of Articles, mostly Russian, found in the Basaar of 
Cabool, and brought to it by way of Bokhara. By Nowrocjee Fur- 
dooi^ee. Indian Government Papers, sect iii. pp. 147-^154. 

Report on the Weights, Measures, and Coins of Cabool and 
Bokhara. By Nowrozjee Furdoonjee. Indian Government Papers, 
sect iiL pp. 155~164i. 

ORIENTAL MAGAZINE (Quarterly), Review, and R^ter. 8va 
1824-1826. Calcutta. 


The Court and Camp of Runjeet Sing. By the Hon. W. G. Os- 
borne, Military Secretary to the Earl of Auckland. With an Intro, 
ductory Sketch of the Rise and Origin of the Sikh State. 8va Lond. 



Rough NotM of the Gnupaign in Sinde and Afighanistan in 1838-9, 
being Extracts from a Personal Jonmal kept while on the Staff of the 
Army of the Indus. Bj Major James Outiam. ISmo. Lond. iMO. 


Notes of a Journey to Gimari in the ProWnce of Eattywar, for the 
purpose of copying the ancient Inscriptions upon the Rock near that 
place ; undertaken by order of the Bombay GoTemment Joum. As. 
8oc Beng. 18Sa pp. 865—867. 

A few Observations on the Increase of Commerce by means of the 
River Indus. By T. Postans, Bombay Army. 8vo. Lond. 1848. 

Personal Observations on Sindh : The Mianners and Customs of its 
Inhabitants, and its Productire Capabilities, with a Sketch of its 
History, and a Narrative of Recent Events. By T. Postans, Captain, 
Bombay Army. 8vo. Lond. ISiS. 

Travels in Beloochistan and Sinde, accompanied by a Geographical 
and Historical Account of those Countries. By Lieut Henry Pot- 
tinger, of the Hon. East- India Company's Service. 4to. Lond. 1818. 

On the Present State of the River Indus, and the Route of Alexander. 
By Lieut Wm. Pottinger. Joum. Roy. As. Soc. 183^ pp. 199—812. 

Chronological Retrospect, or Memoirs of the principal Events of 
Mahommedan History, from tbe Death of the Arabian Legislator to 
the Accession of tbe Emperor Akbar and the establishment of the 
Mogul Empire in Hindustaun ; from original Persian Authorities. By 
Major David Price, of the East- India Company's Service. 4ta 3 vols. 
Lond. 1891. 

Useful Tables, forming an Appendix to the Journal of the Asiatic 
Society. 8vo. Calcntta, 183i. 

Origin of the Sikh Power in the Punjab, and Political Life of Run- 
jeet Singh ; with an account of the present Condition, Laws, and Cus- 
toms of the Sikhs. Compiled, by Henry T. Prinsep, from a Report 
by Captain WiUiam Murray. Bvo. Calcutta, 1834k 

Notes on the Passes into Hindoostan from the West and North- 
west, and the use made of them by different Conquerors. Jounu As. 
Soc. Beng. 18i2, pp. 552—573. 


Memoir of a Map of Hindoostan, or the Mogul Empire ; with an 
Introduction UlnstrattTe of the Geography and present Division of 
that Country. By James Rennell, F. R. & 4Co. Lond. 178a 



Die ErdkimdU too Aficn» Ton Ctrl RUtar. 8fO. B. i.^Til Berlin, 

lUustimtioiw of the Botany and other branebei of the Natural Hittorj 
of the Himalayan Mountains, and of the Flora of Cashmere. Bj J. 
Forbes Rojie, Esq., F.L.a and G. a Folio. Lond. 1833--184(0. 


A Journal of the Disasters in Afli^hattistan* 1841, 9. By Lady 
Sale. 8va Lond. 184& 

Examcndes Ancteos Historiena d'Aleandre le Grand. 4to. Puis, 

Correspondence Relatife to Sinde, 1838—1843. rretented to 
both Houses of Parliament by command of Her Majesty. Folio. 
Lond. 1843. 


Travels in Kashmir, Ladak» Iskardo, the countries adjoining the 
mountain course of the Indus, and the Himalaya north of the Punjab* 
with Map, engraved by direction of the Hon. East- India Company. 
By G. T. Vigne, Esq., F. G. & 8yo. 2 vols. Lond. 18^2. 
Personal Narrative of a Visit to Ghuznee, Kabul, and Afgfaaniatui. 

Geschichte des Osnumischen Reicbs. 8vo. Pesth« 


Notes taken by Captain C. M. Wade, Political Agent at Lodiana in 
1829, relative to the Territory and Government of lakardoh, from 
information given by Cbaragh Ali, an agent who was deputed to him in 
that year by Ahmed Shah, the Gelpo or Ruler of that country. 
Joum. As. Soc. Beng, 1835, pp. 589—601. 


Map of the Countries between the Oxus and Jaxartes, and a Memoir 
regarding iu Construction. By Charles Waddington, Esq., of the East- 
India Company's Engineers. Prefixed to Leyden*s Translation of 
fiaber's Memoirs. 


A View of the History, Literature, and Religion of the Hindoos, 
including a minute Description of their Manners and Customs, and 
Translations from their Principal Works. By the Rev. W. Ward, one 
of the Baptist Missionaries at Serampore, Bengal. 8vo. 4 vols. 
Lond. 1817—1820. 



A Short Account of Kbyrpoor and the Fortress of Bukur in North 
Sind. By Capt G. £. Westmacott Joum. As. Soc. Beng. pp. 
1090-1113, 1187—1210. 

Roree, in Khyrpoor, its Population and Manufactures. By Capt 
G. £. Westmacott Joum. As. Soc. Beng. 184fl, pp. 393—479. 

On Mount Caucasus. By Capt Francis Wilford. As. Res. yi. 
pp. 455-636. 

Wilkins^s Glossary, in Appendix to Reports of the House of Lords. 
4to. 1830. 

Ariana Antiqua; a descriptive Account of the Antiquities and 
Coins of Afghanistan ; with a Memoir on the Buildings called Topes, 
by Charles Masson, Esq. By Horace H.Wilson, M.A., F.R.S. 
4to. Lond. 1841. 

An Essay on the Hindu History of Cashmir. By Horace Hay- 
man Wilson, Esq., Sec. A.S. As. Res. xv. pp. 1—119. 

Sketch of the Religious Sects of the Hindus. By Horace Hayman 
Wilson, Esq., Sec. A.S. Soc. As. Res. xvii. pp. 169^—313. 

A Personal Narrative of a Journey to the Source of the River Ozus, 
by the Route of the Indus, Kabul, and Badakshan, performed under 
the Sanction of the Supreme Government of India in the Years 
1836, 1837» 1838. By Lieut John Wood, of the East-India Com- 
pany's Navy. 8vo. Lond. 1841. 

Report on the River Indus. By Lieut John Wood, Indian Navy, 
in Appendix to Bumes' Personal Narrative. Also in Joum. As. Soc 
Beng. 1841, pp. 518-.660. 

A Geographical Notice of the South Side of the VaUey of the Cabool 
River, with the Topography of the Route leading from Khyber to 
Cabool. By Lieut John Wood, I.N. Indian Government Papers, 
sect iL pp. I — 7. 

Memoir to accompany a reconnoitering Survey of the Road from 
Cabool to Toorkistan, by the line of Bamian and the Pass of Hajeyuk. 
By Lieut John Wood, I.N. Indian Government Pftpers, sect ii. 
pp. 21—28. 


Geographische Analyse der Karte von Inner- Asien. Von Carl Zim- 
mermann. 4to. Berlin, 1841. 





AASNEE. — ^A village of Afghanifltan, in the district of Hur- e.i.c. Ms. doc 
rand and close to the south-eastern frontier. Lat. 29° 13', long. 
70^ 13'. 

ABAD.— A small village of Sinde, on the route from Shi- E.I.C. Ms. Doc 
karpoor to Sukkur, and three miles and a quarter north-west 
from this last place. Considerable cultivation is carried on 
around it. Lat. 27** 45', long. 68*» btf. 

ABAD.— ^A village in Beloochistan, twenty- two miles south- waikeHt Map of 
east from Gundava. Lat. 2^ 17', long. 67*> 49'. ^'^' '"""''' 

ABASABAD. — ^A small village in Afghanistan, three miles b.i.c. Mi. doc. 
vrest of Kandahar, on the road to GHriskh. Lat. 81° 36', long. 
65** 27'. 

ABDALLA-I-BOORJ. — A village in Afghanistan, thirty- b.i.c. Ms. Doc. 
seven miles north-east of Kabool. Lat. 35** 2', long. 69** 18'. 

ABDOOL. — A village in Afghanistan, thirty-five miles £.i.c. Ms. Doc 
nor^-east of Kandahar. Lat. 31** 40', long. SG" 3'. 

ABDOORUHMAN. — A village in the Punjab, two miles e.i.c.Ms.doc 
from the west bank of the Chenaub. Lat. 30° 40', long. 71** 49'. 

ABDULLA AZEER. — ^A village in Afghanistan, situate six e.i.c. Ms. Doc 
miles east of Kandahar. Lat. 31** 36', long. 65" 38'. 

ABDUL RAHIM KHAN.— A village in Beloochistan, inE.i.c.Ms.Doc; 
the valley of Shawl, two miles and a half north-west of the town f^^t^^'J^s'rM; 
of that name, and on the route to Kandahar. There is a good orifflth, Bar. tnd 
supply of water from a running stream, and considerable cultiva- 
tion. Here commences a gentle ascent towards the Pass of 
Koochlak, farther to the north-west. Elevation above the level 
of the sea 5,500 feet. Lat. 30** 10', long. 66** 54'. 

VOL. I. B 

2 AB-I. 

E.I.C. Hi. Doe. ; AB-I-GOOM (" thelost rirer"). in Beloochistan. — A limltizig> 

Ath, Iter, and Ther.tremity. It i8 SO Called because the Bolan stream is beic 
N«rr fifi : ^doi- absorbed by the shingly soil of the valley and disappears. Nev 
ix'i Jour. 290; Beebcc Nanee, about nine miles below, it again comes to ligiit 
110 ; Hareiock, The elcvation of Abigoom above the level of the sea is 2,540 feet 
K.l*::,r8il;<lf ^Lat. 29« 46'. long. 67<^ 23'. 

•Dd Kabooi. 1. 810. AB-I.KOORMEH. a halting-place in Western A%haziiste 

K.I.C. 1IS.D0C jg gituate about twenty-one miles north of the Furrah Rood 

(river), on the route from Kandahar to Herat, from which bit 

place it is distant 110 miles south. It lies in a hilly, burea. 

and uninhabited country, and owes its importance to a ^ring of 

indifferent water. The adjacent tract, though at present a desert 

bears marks of former irrigation and cultivation. Lat. 32^ 53^. 

long. 62° 26'. 

> E.I.C. Ms. Doe. AB-ISTADA LAKE, in Afghanistan, * is situate uxty-fin 

miles a little west of south from Ohuznee. The name in Persian 

signifies standing water. It lies between lat. 32** SC/ and 32^ 42", 

and long. 67° 5(y and 68° 5'. It is represented to be a little above 

forty miles in circumference, but this estimate seems to have 

been founded on observations made when the water was lowest, 

in which state the dimensions are materially leas than in tiaws 

*sindeandKabooi, of inundation. Kennedy* says — " We marched fully fifteen miles 

in length in sight of it, and never saw across it. It looked like 

an inland sea, and one felt surprised not to see the white sails of 

s Ttei. A4r. PaA). commerce or pleasure on its waters." Masson' also describes it 

4 Rough Notes, as stretching as far as the eye coidd reach. Outram* estiniates 

st'v ^ « .its diameter to be about twelve miles. Baber* calls it a wonder- 

■^BabeKs Memoirs, 

165. fully large sheet of water. Elphinstone, on the contrary, states 

booiTi"?. ^ *' ^^* ^ ^ weather it is only three or four miles in diameter, and 

7 E.i.c. Ms. Doc. about twice as much after floods. The dimensions^ given by the 

author of the estimate of its circumference first quoted are — length, 

in the direction north-east and south-west, eighteen miles; 

breadth at right angles to this direction, eight miles; circum- 

• MaiMii, ut TO- ference, forty-four. The water is salt,' and the banks are deeply 

» Baber's Memoirs, incrusted with that production. As the water-fowl with which* it 

" Ma^ ut su- abounds may be seen standing on the bottom * at a great distance 

pra. from the margin, the depth is probably not great. Some of 

« Memoirs, ut Babcr's* horsemen, in pursuit of the Afghans, rode above a mile 

supra. .^^ .^ without the water being higher than the horses' bellies. 

AB-I— ADA, 3 

Its principal feeder is the river of Ghuznee, which flows into it 

at the north-eastern part. Outram * found the hanks of this ' Rooffi^ NotM, 

river strewed with " thousands of dead fish," perhaps destroyed " "^^^ 

by the salt and hitter waters of the lake. Several small streams 

fall into the lake from the south-west and west. Its elevation 

must he very great : Ghuznee ♦ is 7,726 feet ahove the sea, and * Hough'i Narr. 

if we allow a fall of ten feet per mile for each of the ^ sixty-five s £.i.c. m«. Doe. 

miles which the river descends from the city to the lake, and 

-which would cause the current to he a very rapid torrent, the 

elevation of Ah-istada would he determined at 7,076 feet. The 

surrounding country is very barren and dreary, and has scarcely 

any inhabitants. 

AB-I-TULK. — ^A village in Afghanistan, on the road from e.i.c. Mt. Doe. 
Ohuznee to Dera Ismail Khan. Lat. 32"" 28', long. 68^* 53'. 

ABKHANA, in Afghanistan, a post on the Kabool river» 
where the Abkhana route from Peshawur to Kabool crosses that 
river for the second time. This route commences fifteen miles 
north-west of the city of Peshawur, and at Muchnee > crosses the ' i^«*i Khyber 
Kabool river to the northward, and thence proceeds in a north- 
westerly direction over the mountains for ten miles to the ferry of 
Abkhana, where it recrosses the river to the southern side. The 
passage of the ferry is represented as very dangerous.* Masson, * jJ^'J* ?Lg . 
who crossed it, observes, " I was astonished at its boisterous Bumet' Bokhara, 
state and the frightful scene presented by rocks, whirlpools, and ^^ Narr.'277. 
surges, with the rapidity of the current." From the ferry the 
Abkhana route winds upwards at a short distance from the right 
bank of the Kabool river, and at Duka joins the route through 
the Khyber Pass. Abkhana is in lat. 34^ 16', long. 71° 25'. 

ABKHOR-I-ROOSTUM.— A viUage in Western Afghanis- waikefiMap. 
tan. Lat. 31° 34', long. 62° 34'. 

ABOOKHAN.— A viUage in Afghanistan. Lat. 31° 36', b-'c. mi. Doe. 
long. 67° 9'. 

ACESINES RIVER.— See Chknaub. 
ACCRA.— See Akoha. 

ADAM-KHAN-KA-MAREE.— A village in Sinde, on the B.I.C. Mt. Doc. 
route from Subzulcote to Shikarpoor, and fifty miles north-east 
of the latter place. It is situate twelve miles from the left bank 
of the Indus, in a low alluvial country under water during the 
season of Inundation, but traversed by a good road when the 
river is low. Lat. 28° 9', long. 69° 34'. 


4 ADA— AFG. 

Mt. Surrey Hap. ADAMPOORA. — ^A Village in Sinde, twdve mOes 

Khyerpoor. Lat. 27^ 33', long. 68* 35'. 
E.I.C. Mi. Doe. AD AW AON. — ^A village in the Punjab, on the rcmd ham 

Mooltan to Bhawlpoor, six miles north of the latter place. 

Lat. 29* 29Mong. 71*38'. 
B.I.C. Ml. Doc ADEEAN. — ^A village in the Punjab, on the road from Am- 

ritsir to Vazeerabad, thirty miles north-west of the former place. 

Lat. 31* 54'. long. 74* 23'. 
E.I.C. Mt.Doe. ADHEE BAHR. — ^A village in the Punjab, twelve oBiks 

south-west of Mooltan. Lat. 29* 57', long. 71* 22^. 
E.I.C. Ms. Doc ADREK.— A village in A^hanistan, forty-six miles east of 

Kabool. Lat. 34* 29', long. 69* 56'. 
B.i.c.MiuDoc; ADRUSCUND, or ROOD-I-ADRUSCUND, in Westeni 
to^ndta. u.'soT'* Afghanistan, is a fine stream of clear water, which has been ex- 
jour. ab. SOC.1M0, piored upwards as far as the spot where it is crossed by the route 

P.71S; Conolly.E., ' ^ *^ ' 

sketehoftiMPhf. from Kandahar to Herat, fifty miles south of the latter place, 

sSi^T*"'*^ ^ and in Ut. 33* 40', long. 62* 16'. Its source is not well known, but 
is probably in the mountainous country, about eighty miles iiortfa- 
west of Ohore. It takes a course generally southerly, flowing 
by the town and plain of Subzawur, whence it is sometimes catted 
the river of Subzawur. Lower down it is called the Jaya, and 
subsequently the Haroot. After a course of about 160 miles from 
the spot where first explored, it falls into the lake of Hamoon, or 
Zirrah, in laX. 31° 49', long. 61* 38'. 

1 Eipuiutooe>t AFGHANISTAN,! signifying, in Persic, A^hanland, is the 

name given by the Persians to the northern part of the region 
lying between their country and India. The name of Afghan is 
only known to the nation through the Persian language, the ver- 
nacular denomination of that people being Pushtoon, in the pluiBl 
Pushtauneh, or, in some of their dialects, Puktauneh, and hence is 
derived the appellation Patau, by which they have become so 
celebrated in Indian politics and history. The word Afj^ian, sig^- 

* Malcolm's Per- nifying, in Persian, ' lamentation,' was, according to some,* given 

■ia, 1. 506. ^ ^^g j.^g ^^ account of their lamenting their expulsion from 

Judea, and consequently having reference to their alleged descent 

» Neamet uiiah, from the lost tribes of Israel. Many native writers* derive the 
name from a fabulous personage of the name of A%han, or 
Afghana, supposed by some to be the son of Japhet, by others 

♦Account of the grandson of Saul, King of Israel. Elphinstone^ observes, 

Caubul, ut supra. .1 . .« ^i_ • • *. 1 ^ a <• 1 .1 

that " the ongm of the name of Afghan is entirely unoertam. 


but it is probably modem/' The name of Afghanistan has of late 
been applied not only to the extensive region permanently occu- 
pied by tribes speaking Pushtoo vemacularly and of acknowledged 
Afghan extraction, but also to the large rugged and mountainous 
tract in the north-west, inhabited by the Huzarehs and £i- 
mauks, as these Tartars have of late been subject to the Afghans 
and partaken of their fortunes. Taken in this extent, Afghanistan 
is bounded on the north by Chitral» Kafiristan, and Kunduz, from 
which last it is separated by the crest of the Hindoo Koosh ; ^ on the ^ vigoe't Kuhmir, 
east by the rugged mountain tracts called GHlgit« Yessen, and some "* ^^ **' 
others of less note, all governed by independent rajahs ; and south 
of these the eastern frontier, throughout its whole remaining ex- 
tent, is formed by the Indus ; on the south it is bounded by Bhawl- 
poor, Sinde, and Beloochistan, and on the west by Persia. It lies 
between lat. 28** 50'— 36** 30', long. 62°— 72° 30'. Its greatest 
length, which is in a direction nearly from east to west from Tor- 
bela to a little beyond Herat, is 660 miles ; its greatest breadth, 
nearly in a direction from north to south, is 500 miles ; its super- 
ficial extent, as ascertained from calculations based on Walker's 
excellent map of the north-west frontier of India, is, in round 
numbers, 225,000 square miles. Such a process is necessarily 
merely an approximation to i^ccuracy, yet a dose and safe one, 
where the map, as in this instance, is laid down with great care 
from the most authentic data. 

The physical aspect of Afghanistan is characterized by the 
unevenness and great elevation of most of its surface. Much of 
the more valuable portion of its territory has a very consider- 
able elevation above the sea, and extends over the undulating, 
yet, in general, gradual slope southwards, from the crest of the 
Hindoo Koosh to the course of the Kabool river. The great 
range of Hindoo Koosh ^ is a prolongation of the Mustak and & EipMostone't 
Karakonim mountains of Tibet, which extend on the north, in c«"bui. w-s®* 
some degree parallel to the western part of the Himalaya range, 
and separated from it * by the valley through which the Sing-kha- ^^^^ i. as"" 
bab, or upper part of the Indus, holds its course. To the north Burnet' Bokhara, 

rr r ■ ^^^ 238 ; Hitter 

of this range is the table land of Pamir, elevated between 15,000 Erd. Kundevon 
and 16,000 feet above the sea, and where the line of perpetual ^^^^ood'loxlw, 
congelation, in lat. 87°, is of the extraordinary height of 17,000 8M,*, e; EipWn- 
feet. On the southern side this stupendous range, which has 637. Trans, of 
here a height averaging from 20,000 to 21,000 feet, slopes gra- ^l^^^^. 


Irwin, Mmnoir of doally, or rather in ridges diminishing in height as thej recede 
801 ; QriAth, ' ^^ ^® CTown. Elphinstone '' saw four of these ridges, or ter- 
▼*? ^^oiiibid ™***' rising to the north of the plain of Peshawur, and increas- 
M. ' ing in height as they approached the summit, which was ascer- 

tained by measurement to have an elevation of 20,493 feet 
•BariMfontiM These* subordinate ranges inclose, in succession westward, the 

Alfth PfMh flD*77 * 

EiphiiutoiM, 017 ; g^at vallcys of Suwat, Panjkora, Chitral, and Kafiristan, drained 
iSi' ^Tfl-^on ^y^ ^® rivers Lundye, Kooner or Kama, and Alishang. These 
jui on um Blah districts are deeply secluded and little known, especially 
Bia. Af^. PaA). lit ^^ ^^» inhabited by the Siah Posh, or black-clad people, 
101-936. caUed Kafirs or infidels by the Mahometans, and who, being 

persecuted by them, refuse all access to their country. Though 
of very uneven surfiace, these valleys are said to be re^ 
markably fertile and well watered, producing excellent grain, as 
well as the finest fruits, and pasturing numerous flocks and 
* Biphinrtone^ herds.' Where not cultivated, they axe in many places covered 
Jottr!^A^8oe. ^^ dense forests of the most luxuriant growth ; below, of oaks 
iMi,p.797; Oiif. m^^ Similar deciduous trees, and in the higher parts, of pine and 
birch. South of Chitral, Panjkora, and Kafiristan, a low ctosb 
range extends from east to west, separating them from the 
Afghan provinces of Lughman and Jebdabad. Westward of 
Kcdiristan, a long and high ridge proceeds from the crest of the 
Hindoo Koosh in a south-west direction, separating that un- 
explored country from the valley of Punchshir, and from this part 
westward the Hindoo Koosh has been explored until it sinks into 
the less elevated Huzareh mountains. The general bearing' of 
that part of the range dividing Pamir, or the elevated- table-land 
of Tartary, from the upper valley of the Indus, is in a gxeat mea- 
sure from north-east to south-west. Nothing is satisfactorily 
known of these mountains eastward of the valley of Punchshir, 
if we except the ascertained fru;t that there are passes from Ka- 
firistan to Pamir and Badakshan. But from the Punchshir valley 
■ B.I.C. Mt. Map. the crest takes a direction nearly west, and from it ^ proceed a 
great number of narrow, rocky, and very high ridges, mnning 
nearly due south, and parallel to each other. Twenty of these 
ridges have been observed in a distance of about 150 miles be- 
tween Punchshir and Bamian, at which last place the Hindoo 
Koosh is considered to terminate on the west. 

Proceeding to survey in detail the aspect of Afghanistan, we 
shall find that the north-western part, inhabited generally by the 


Huzarehs, is an extensive maze of lofty mountains (the Paropami* 
sua of classical writers), sending forth rivers in every direction, 
feeders of the Helmnnd to the east, ' the Adruscund and seve- * £.i.a Ms. doc. 
ral other rivers to the south, the Heri-Rood or Hury river to the ' Pnuer, jour. 
west, the Moorgaub» and others to the north ; so that in one day, Ab^^rHemuf ' 
' according to Baber,^ it is possible to drink of the waters of the "^ Khiv«, i. ao; 
Helnaund and the respective rivers of Kabool, of Kunduz, and of li. so. 
Balkh. The sources of some of these have great elevations ; that of * >*«°*>*^ i«- 
the Hehnund* has 10,076 feet, that of the Heri-Rood 9,600.« ITie 'i^'- ^•; ^- 
whole of the northern part of the western frontier is indeed very Bar. and Tber. 
high, as is evident from the great length of time during which e j^. ^a. Soe. 
the snow lies there. Some mountains south-west of Ohore are *®fj» p- "®5 ^^ 

nolly, Rep. oo 

computed to have a height of from 12,000 to 14,000 feet.^ The ^honuan. 
extensive tract between the western frontier and the Helmund c^oUy^^'JoSTto 
has never been explored by Europeans, but is described by Elphin- !»<"•. "• »• 
stone, ^ on native report, as very rugged and mountainous. The ^^«^*>'CBubui, 
ridges between Ghuznee' and the upper part of the Helmund are • b-'-C- ^a. Doc 
even in summer covered extensively with snow. They seem to i ^j ^ ^^ k^p 
he offsets from the celebrated Koh-i-Baba, which rises about o^^^t^ftv^nKa. 
lat. 34° 30^, long. 67"" 30",^ to the height probably of 16,000 feet, un; Bur^' b^. 
This is connected with the Hindoo Koosh* to the north-east by "S-^?"^*^' 
several ranges of inferior height, yet attaining an elevation of Wood's oxua, 
from 10,000 to 13,000 feet, and furrowed with the various i £.i.c.'ms. Map 
gorges which form the passes between Kabool and Bamian. Jj^i^j^^^^ 
At the south-western extremity of the Hindoo Koosh,' and sepa- ke*tao;Moorero(W 
rated from it by the long valley of Ohorbund, is the Pughman or u, ^si^Ysa- 
Pamghan range of mountains, rising dose to the west of the dty Jr'***®"^r^*^* 
of Kabool. These are always covered with snow, and are esti- Paqj. iu. 977,402 ] 
mated to have a height of 13,000 feet. From the south-eastern ^^|*' **" ^^' 
brow flow numerous streams, which water the Koh-i-Damun and ' Baber'i Mo- 
produce the luxuriant fertility for which it is remarkable. The £.i.c. Ms. boc. 
highest strata of the Hindoo Koosh-* are nearly vertical and of * ^'^'» ^oh-i- 

• r ^- •-. • -^ 1 i J • Dwnnii,40 61. 

pnmary formation — granite, gneiss, quartz, slate, and primary 
limestone. The general direction of these strata is east and 
west. The valley or basin of the Kabool river running on the 
south of the Hindoo Koosh is bounded on the south by the high 
land of Ohuznee, and by the Sufeid Koh or White Mountain, « jour. ai . soe. 
the former 8,500,« the latter above 14,000 feet high. 6 The Khy- ^^d^rhe?.'*'' 
her range stretches across this valley at its eastern extremity, the ^<>^ 
Kurkutcha fiirther west, and through them the river of Kabool fim, 9/ ^ ' 


oiakes its w«y» diichargiiig the water of the entire TaDer am 
tiie Indus near Attock. The vdley of Kabool. newly aOOmOes lone 
has a slope to the eastward from the neighboarhood of tiie city of 
Kabool, where the height is between 6»000 and 7»00O feet abow 
the sea, to the pkiin of Peshawar, where it is little more tfasm 1 ,00a 
This valley is highly celebrated and important in a military point 
of view, as through it lie from west to east the roates from Ki- 
bool to Attoek. They travene the Khyber range by two roads oi 
passes, in some degree parallel ; the Korkatcha ia in like manner 
traversed by fbm*, which, if not parallel, are at least coDateral. h 
the most southern of these last, the British army was exterminated 
in its attempted retreat in 1842. (See Kurkmicka ikd Kkyber,) 
^ Wood's oxw. Southward of the Khyber mountains, the Kala or Salt range' 
Caubuu 109 ; overspreads the country, and being mtersected by the ooune of 
fft™**' ****'*^ the Indus, continues beyond it, and is connected in the Ponjab 
with the most southern and lower ranges of the Himalaja. 
Southward from the Sufeid Koh, the great range of Suliflsaa 
extends to the southern frontier. The height of this last range is 
very considerable, that of the summit, called Tukht-i*Suliman, or 
•Wood*80xat,89; Khaisa Ghar, bcbg 11,000 feet.* Eastward of the Suliman range, 
caubui, 102 ; and bctwcen it and the Indus, is the long, low, nanow tract of the 
ILT?\?*^ ^' Daman. Westward is the extensive district of Sewestan, nnex- 
plored by Europeans. It is certainly of no great elevation, as its 
' Eiphinitone't heat is pFOverbial. ' The march of the British aimy in 1 839, from 
e!i!c! *mb. Doc Ghuznec to Shawl, has led to the knowledge of the fiact, that 
No. 10; Kenedy, ^^ countrv bctwccn those places has an elevation nowhere less 

Sinde and Kabool, ^ '^ 

iL 129-140. than 5,000 feet, and in many places much exceeding it. The 

narrowest part of this elevated tract is eastward of the plain of 
Kandahar, at which part it is about sixty miles wide, being bounded 
on the west by the Amran mountains, on the east by the Hala 
range. West of the Amran, the plain of Kandahar is compara- 
tively depressed, though more than 3,000 feet above the level 
1842, p. ft7; orif. ^f the sca.^ The water system of Afghanistan may be briefly 
Bar^and Thar, described as follows. By the Kabool river the country is drained 
s Jour. As. soe. eastward into the Indus, while the west is drained by the Hel- 
n^' E ^sketSrf ^^^^ *^^ ^^ tributaries, flowing into the sveamp of Hamoon,' in 
phriicai oeogn- Seistau. Between these is the Ab-istada Lake,* receiving the 
^ELCKuDoci^^^^ of Ghuznee and some others of less importance. The 
EipWiutooe't elevation here is very considerable, that of Ab-istada bein^ 

Caubul, 119-121; ^ « ^ 

BabeHt Hemoira, probaply not Icss than 7,000 feet. The principal mountains. 


Hindoo Koosh, Koh-i-Baba, Pughman, Sufeid Koh, Kurkutcha, les ; Kennedy, 
and Khyber, on the north ; the Kala, or Salt range on the east ; u!^?^^^^t^ 
^ the Toba, Tukatoo, Kurklekkee, and Amran, on the south ; the Roagh Note^ i4»; 

f Manon, BaL A%> 

Goolkoo and Punjangoosht on the south-east, will be found l 90s. 
' described under their respective names. 



Hindoo Koosh summit/ north of Peshawur, lat. 34'' Z(/, ^Maeartnej^inEi- 

long, no 40' 20,493 "^'^"•'""^"''- 

Hindoo Koosh summit,^ north of Jelalabad, in long. 70° * Wood's xhyber 

5(j ••• ••• •*• ••• ••• ••• ... 20,248 oxof, 104. 

Koh-i-Baba.« * lat. 34^ 30', long. 67^ 30', estimated ... 1 8,000 •B'«»-;BokiM«. 

Mm 170, U* JMl } 

Summit of Koushan Pass, '' lat. 35^ 37', long. 68° 55', esti- Sde'i du. m 

® Al|r. 419. 

mated ... ... ... ... ... ... ..« 15,000 7 x^rd, Koh-i- 

Summit of Sufeid Koh,» lat. 34° 5', long. 70° 10' ... 14,100 Il3*.,1^h7ber 
Highest accessible point of Koh-i-Baba,' lat. 34° 30', ozus, 104. 

W- 67030' 13.500 ;i7-tJ,fS-Hf. 

Khawak Pass, highest part of Punchshur valley,* lat. 35° «*»»' »"• »«" 

, , ^ , *^ ^ Ther. Heights In 

42', long. 69° 53' 13,200 a*. 

Summit in the Huzareh country,* visible from Herat, lat. 416. 

34Mong. 63° 30', estimated 13,000 »£J.c. Ms. Doc 

Pughman,' lat. 34° 30', long. 68° 40', estimated ... 13,000 » Ms. doc 

Summit of Erak Pass,* kt. 34° 40', long. 68° 5' ... 12,909 4 Griffith. 71. 

Summit of Kaloo Pass. « kt. 34° 40', long. 67° 48' ... 12,480 • orifflth,OD. 
Pass of Hajeguk,« lat. 34°, 40', long. 67° 55' ... 1 1.700 •b.i.c. Ms. Doe. 

Tukatoo, '' on the southern frontier, kt. 30° 20', long. ' Hafeiock'sWar 

66° 50', estimated 1 1,600 '°^**"*"' 

Pass of Oonna," lat. 34° 23', long. 68° 15' 11,320 •oru&th, 00. 

Tukht.i-Suliman,» kt. 31° 38', long. 69"" 55' 11.000' Wood»s0xus, 

^ 89. 

Kurzar,^ near the source of the Helmund, kt. 34°30', lOrifflth, 71. 

long. 67° 54' 10,939 

Kaloo,* hamlet of, kt. 34° 30', long. 67° 56' 10,883 * OHffltb. od. 

* Ontram makes the height 20,000 (Rough Notes, 127). Neither Wood 
(Oziu, 202) nor Eyre (Milit. Op. in Afgh. 357), who passed along its base, 
giyea any estimate of the height — See KoA'i'Badm, 



3Hough*tApp. 71. 

«E.I.G. MkHap) 

• Jour. As. Soc 
1841, p. 118; Cor 
noUy, E., Report 
on Khoraaan. 

• Grlfflth, 69. 
7 Grlfflth, 71. 
B Griffith. 60. 



■ Wood's Oxuiy 


• Griffith, 70. 

' Hough, 880. 

• Griffith, 64. 
A E.I.C. Ms. 
Map; Wood; 
Griffith, 68. 
•Griffith, 70. 

7 Griffith, 64. 

• E.I.C. Ms. Doc. 

* Hough's App.74. 
1 Hough's App.74. 
« Griffith, 65. 

> Griffith, 68. 

* Hough's App.74. 
5 Griffith, 62. 

* Griffith, 64. 
7 Griffith, 66. 
« Griffith, 61. 
•Hough's App.74. 
I Griffith, 66. 

' Griffith, 60. 

» Hough's App.74. 

* Griffith, 50. 
< Griffith, 67. 

Youart, or Oord.» lat. 34° 22^, long. 68*» 11' 

Gooljatooe.* lat. 34° 31', long. 68^ 5' ... 

Shebbertoo/ lat. 34° SC, long. 67° 20' ... 

Siah Sung, 6 kt. 34° 34', long. 68° 8' ... 

Gurdan Dewar, '' lat. 34° 25', long. 68° 8' 

Soktah. « lat. 34° 40'. long. 67° SO' 

Source of Hen Rood,* lat. 34^ 50', long. 66° 20' 

Khawak Fort,* lat. 35° 38', long. 70° 5' 

Topchee. * lat. 34° 45', long. 67° 44' ... 

Crest of Highland of Ghuznee,^ lat. 33° 40^, long. 68* 

20', estimated 

Chasgo or Shuahgao,* lat. 33° 43', long. 68° 22' 
Pass of Ispehawk. « lat. 34° 22', long. 68° 40^ 
Bamian, • lat. 34° 50', long. 67° 45' ... 
Huftasaya,'' lat. 33° 49'. long. 68° 15' ... 
Sir-i-Chushma, > principal source of Kabool river, lat, 

34° 21', long. 68° 20' 

Zoliak's Fort. 9 kt. 34° 50', long. 67° 55' 
Tezeen Pass,* kt. 34° 23', long. 69° 30' 
KiUa Sher Mahomed. « kt. 34° 16', long. 68° 45' 
Kot-i-Ashruf.^ lat. 34° 28', long. 68° 35' 
Maidan. ♦ kt. 34° 22', long. 68° 43' ... 
Ghuznee.* kt. 33° 34', long. 68° 18' ... 
Hyderkhel,« kt. 33° 58', long. 68° 37' ... 
Urghundee,'' lat. 34° 30', long. 68° 50' 
Yerghuttoo,» lat. 33° 20', long. 68° 10' 
Khoord Kabool, » lat. 34° 21', long. 69° 18' 
Khojuk Pass summit, ' lat. 30° 45', long. 6&' 30' 
Mookur, * principal source of the river Tumak, lat. 

50', long. 67° 37' 
Punguk,» lat. 32° 36', long. 67° 21' ... 

Shuftul.* kt. 32° 28', long. 67° 12' 

Kabool (Baber's Tomb),* kt. 34° 28', long. 69° 



Boothauk,6 kt. 34** SC/Jong. 69° 15' 

Sir-i-Aap,'' lat. 37^ 15'. long. 66° 54' 

Kelat-i-Gilji,* Ut. 32° 8', long. 66° 45'... 

Julduk.» lat. 32°, long. 66° 28' 

Jugduluk.* lat. 34° 25', long. 69° 46' 

Hydurzie,« lat. 30° 23', long. 66° 51' 

Hykulzie,* lat. 30° 32', long. 66° 50' 

Teer Andaz,* lat. 31° 55', long. 66° 17' 

Giindamuk,« lat. 34° 17', long. 70° 5' 

Kandahar, « lat. 32° 37', long. 65° 28' 

Crest of Khyber Pass.'' lat. 34° 8', long. 71° 15' 

Ali Mu8jid,» lat. 34^ 3', long. 71° 22' 

Jelalabad.* lat. 34° 25', long. 70° 28' 

Peshawur,* lat. 34°, long. 71° 40' 

Dera Ismael Khan.* lat. 31° 49', long. 70° 58' 
Mittun Kote,» lat. 28° 52'. long. 70° 26' 

... 6,247 « Orifflth, 78. 
... 5.973 7 Griffith, 59. 
... 5,773 •Oriffilh, 58. 

... 5,396 • ari«th. «- 

... 5,375 » Griffith. 74. 
... 5,259 "Hough's App. 74. 
... 5,063 ' Griffith, 65. 

... 4,829 ♦Griffith. 58. 

... 4,616 s Griffith, 74. 

... 3,484 • Griffith. 57. 

• •• 3.373 7Hough*tApp. 74. 

... 2.433 • Griffith. 79. 

... 1,964 9 Griffith. 70. 

... 1,068 «Hough»fApp.74. 
914 *Wood'iOxu»,89. 



The principal rivers of Afghanistan* are the following. The «E.i.c.Mi.Doe.; 
river of Kabool. which, taking its rise at the southern base of the ^^ ^Ib. *aS.**" 
Pughman mountain, flows eastward, receiving from the south the P"J- "• 28*-2»f 
river of Logurh. the SoorkhRood. the Kara Su. the Bara. and some caubui.'656; 
others of less importance— from the north the Punchshir, the Ta- ^^^^^^^\ 
goa. the Alishang, the Kama orKooner. and the Lundye — and after S77. 
a course of above 250 miles, falls into the Indus close to Attock. The 
Toe river, flowing from the Kala mountains, alsofalls into the Indus, 
and south of it the Kurum. taking its rise in the Suliman moun- 
tains, finds the same outlet. The Gomul. still farther south, rises 
in the Suliman range, and has a course of considerable length, 
generally eastward, but is ultimately absorbed by the arid soil. 
The Zhobe river rises in the west of Sewestan, and, flowing to the 
north-east, joins the Gomul. The Lora rises in Pisheen. and, 
flowing to the south-west, is lost in the arid expanse of Sho- 
rawuk. The Doree river rises on the western slope of the 
Amran mountains, and. flowing south-west, joins the Tumak a 
little above its confluence with the Urghundab. The river of 
Ghuznee discharges itself into the Ab-istada Lake. The Tumak 
flows in a direction from north-east to south-west, and joins the 


Urghnndab, having the same direction ; the united stream h^ 

into the Hehnund, which, flowing £uther to the west, diachmr^ 

its waters into the swamp of Hamoon. Into this last reoeptade 

are also discharged the Khash Rood, the Ibrahim Jooee, tk 

Furrah Rood, and the Adniscund, or river of Subzawur, sl 

flowing southwards from the Huzareh mountains. Xhe Hmy 

KhilSl!. «T" ®' ^®" ^^°^ ^^^* westward, the Moorgaub,* the river d 

Banm'BoUi.u J4; Andkhoo, and the Bund-i-Burbur,* flow northward frtm Iht 

mnd Khifa. i. 80. 8^°^^ range. The only lake of any importance is the Ab-iatads» 

h^T'i(»*^' ^^^ ^^^ ^ ^ small piece of water ^ of this description lour miles 

7 E.I.C. Ms. Map ; north of the city of Kabool.* The extensive lake, or swBmp, d 

187; Jour. As. Hamoon, on the south-west frontier, can scarcely be considered to 

^jij*Jf'»^*" J belong to Afghanistan. (See Hamoon.) Afghanistan, like tiit 

•ubject con. with neighbouring countries of Beloochistan and Persia, is chaLneta- 

^** ized by a great deficiency of water. 

Our information respecting the geology of Afghanistan b 
• Koh-i-DuBun, vcry imperfect. The great core of the Hindoo Koosb* is, ss 
^* might be expected, of primary formation, inclosed by altematii^ 

» Wood'* Khyber strata of morc recent date ; the Kurkutcha • range is also of 

PaM, 4 ; Jour. As., •!•»•• ». 

See. 1841, p.808; pnmary formation — ^blue slate, capped with limestone, and m 
orUBthonAf^. m^uy places overlaid with sandstone, conglomerate, and other 
recent deposits. This primary formation may be traced througii 
the Khyber range, whence it passes eastward into the Punjab.f 
1 Jour. As. Soe. The mountains of Bamian are of recent formation ^ — sandstone 
R^te^from*p«Ji- *"*^ Conglomerate, in some instances passing into clay, tboogk 
awur to Bokhara, granite occRsionaUy crops out. The Kala, • or Salt range, is of 

« Lord's Koh-I-Da- ^ ^. . .\- r- i- i 

mun, 4» ; Wood's recent formation, consisting of uron ore, alununous clay, gypsum, 

M^*iMi^\' ^^^^^^^^ shale,t spurious coal, sulphur, and rock salt, and 

jameaon on Salt yielding naphtha in many places. Little is known of the geo- 

"*^' logical structure of the Suliman mountains. Where examined by 

» Ghusnee, 102. Vigne ' in the Gomul Pass, they were found to consist of secondary 

formation, sandstone and limestone, abounding in marine exuoim. 

There are extensive indications of volcanic action along the 

southern base of the Hindoo Koosh, especially in the valleys of 

^Koh-i-Damun, Qhorbund and Bamian ;♦ and the great frequency of earthquakes 

in the valley of Kaliool shews that these operations have not yet 

* Baber states it to lie southward of the town, but this is oaquestioiiably 
a mistake, perhaps of the translator. 

t Jameson is of opinion that no coal worth working exists in this range. 


ceased .there. In February, 1842,* an earthquake extensively ^ Mint. op. in Af^. 

demolished the defences of Jelalabad, and destroyed a third of ^^^' 

the town ; a hundred more shocks were felt in the course of 

a There are also extensive traces of volcanic action ' mmmm's Bai. 

north-west of Ghuznee, about the sources of the river of * 


A%hanistan for four-fifths of its extent is a region of rocks 
and mountains, interspersed occasionally with well-watered val- 
leys of great fertility and picturesque beauty, and in many places 
containing elevated table-lands, cold, bleak, barren, and yielding a 
scanty pasture to hardy stock. With a sur&ce as rugged as that 
of Switzerland, and summits of much greater height, it exceeds 
Spain in extent, and, having the latitude of Barbary, Egypt, and 
Syria, its climate in the lower parts brings to perfection many of 
the productions of the tropics,'' whikt its lofty mountains produce ? Jour. As. Soc. 
the vegetation of the colder parts of the temperate zone. From Griffith, Rep. on* 
its geographical position, being traversed by the routes from »"bject» con. witii 
^Western and Central Asia to India, it has frequently been over- 
run by iuvaders, who seem to have speedily relinquished it as a 
prey hard to be retained and of little intrinsic value. The weak- 
ness and fluctuating character of its government have prevented 
it from having any well-defined and permanent political divisions. 
The customary and popular denominations of the various parts 
are generally based on natural circumstances, and will here be 
very briefly enumerated, a fuller account bemg given of each 
under their respective names in the alphabetical arrsngement. 
In the north-west is the Huzareh country, perhaps a fourth of all 
Afghanistan. It is for the most part very mountainous, cold, and 
barren, inhabited by a barbarous, yet, in general, peaceable Tartar 
race, bearing in the northern part the name of Huzareh, in the 
southern that of Eimauk. East of this is the small district of 
Bamian, still more elevated, few parts being less than 10,000 
feet above the level of the sea. It derives importance from con- 
taining a system of passes between Kabool and Turkestan. East- 
ward of Bamian, is the elevated valley of Kabool, in every point 
of view the most important district in the country. It has on 
the south the fertile district of Logurh, extending up the northern 
slope of the highland of Ghuznee. On the north it has the 
Koh-i-Damun, greatly celebrated for its fertility, high cultivation, 
and beauty. To the north also lie the fertile vales of Ghorbund, 


Punchshir, Nigrow, and Tagoa, and the plain of Begnun. East 
is the diatrict of Lughman. hilly, but in many placea fertile. 
Eastward of this ia the rich and beaatiftil vale of Jelalabad, and 
south of this last, the district caUed Nungnehar extends alc»g 
the northern base of Sufeid Koh, rivalling the Koh-i-Damnn 
in fertility, cultivation, and picturesque beauty. To the north-east 
of Jelalabad lie Bajour and the little-explored valleys drained by 
the Panjkora, the Suwat, and the Lundye rivers. This tract is 
generally known by the name of the £u8u£Eye country, being heU 
by the powerful tribe so called. The lower parts are well watered 
and fertile, and have a fine climate, though rather warm; the higher 
parts are generally clothed by dense and lofty forests. Southward 
of this is the district of Peshawur, low, level, rery fertile, and in 
climate and produce resembling Northern Hindostan. Furdier 
southward, the Salt range contains the rich and beautiful valleys of 
Murwut, Kohat, Banco, Bungush, as well as some others. Still 
farther to the south, the Daman, or Derajat (for the names are 
almost synonymous), stretches nearly to the northern frontier ol 
Sinde, which it resembles in climate, soil, and produce. Westward 
of this is Sewestan, hitherto unexplored, but ascertained to have 
a sultry climate, and in many places to be rich and abundant in 
some of the most valuable products of the earth, especially 
grain. Westward of Sewestan is the elevated plain or vaUey of 
Pisheen, possessing considerable fertility, and a climate cold in 
winter, but not to an extreme. North of Pisheen, and between 
it and Ghuznee, is the country overspread by the Toba, and some 
other less-known mountain ranges, and containing the basin of 
the Ab-istada Lake. It is generally rocky, rugged, barren, 
and in winter severely cold. The district of Ghuznee lies south 
of those of Logurh and Kabool, and is separated from them by a 
highland stretching nearly east and west, and having an elevation 
of nearly 9,000 feet above the sea. The valleys of theTumak and 
Urghundab are subdivided into numerous small and politically un- 
important districts, which stretch south-west to the plain of Kan- 
dahar, and are amazingly productive in grain, particularly wheat 
The plain of Kandahar, where watered, is fertile, and having an ele- 
vation of from 3,000 to 4,000 feet above the sea, it in some degree 
resembles Northern Hindostan both in climate and in the nature 
of its produce. To the south it has the little-known district ol 
Shorawuk ; to the south-west the sidtry, level, and swampy tract 


of Seiatan, in many places overspread with shallow waters, re- 
plenished by the Helmund and other rivers flowing from the 

Most mineral productions are obtainable in Afghanistan, espe- 
cially in the tracts of primary formation. Gold is procured from 
the sands of the Kabool river and of the Indus ;• it is also brought •BumefBoUumi, 
down from Hindoo Koosh in the streams of Lughman, and oiu^ i9s ; jour. 
Drummond believes that it exists throughout that vast ™ng^-* ^'^l^^Jl* ' 
It is unnecessary, however, to add that a vague belief is not en- on iitDenb or 
titled to the respect due to even the slightest degree of evidence. » j^. ai. soc 
He considers the Huzareh mountains to be the richest in gold, i84i,p.8e,80; 

, . , , . , , DniminoDd on 

and mentions a number of accounts which he received corrobora- Mtnermi 

tive of this opinion. A vein of silver ore was observed by Lord' ^ ^** 
in the mica-slate of the Ghorbund valley, and he heard that a mun, '47? 
very rich vein was formerly worked by the Jagatais, in the valley 
of Punchshir. Drummond* was informed that there are three *ut supra, 01. 
silver mines at present not worked in the Huzareh mountains. 
Cinnabar is reported to be found in the same group. Copper is met 
with in many places in Afghanistan. Masson ' found it more or > bai. ktg, Pu^. 
less abundant in the Kurkutcha range. Drummond* found the V utropra, 78. 
vitreous and purple sulphurets, containing from sixty to eighty 
per cent, of the metal, and is of opinion that abundance of 
ores could be obtuned, yielding from twenty to thirty per cent. 
In the vicinity of Tezeen, according to Masson, large speci- 
mens of pure malleable copper have been obtained. It is to be 
regretted that the specification of the localities by this last writer 
is very confused, but we learn from him that in general the 
richest deposits of copper ore are south-east of Kabool, and pro- 
bably in Sufeid Koh. Copper ore is also met with in Bamian.' 'Bumei' Bokhara, 
There are very rich and extensive lodes of lead in the Ghorbund nHmun, m. 
valley, in the lower part of Hindoo Koosh, north-west of 
Kabool. Antimony has also been discovered in the same vicinity. 
This mineral is abundant in Afghanistan, being met with at 
Bamian, and existing to such an extent in the Khyber range, 
that the water is rendered deleterious by it.s Bumes '' mentions • ReW, m quoted 
tin at Bamian, but so vaguely as to entitie the intimation to littie jfs. ""* ' *"' 
credit. Zinc occurs in the Ghorbund valley, as do sulphur, sal- ^^[J™„ '^" 
ammoniac, and nitre. " Iron ore (observes Lord)' occurs so abun- • ut mpn, m. 
dantly through the entire range (Hindoo Kosh), that I have 
thought it unnecessary to particularize its localities." At the Pass 


of Hajeguk, near Bamian, very rich black iron ore fonns entire 
hills. Bajour. and other places in the notth-east, aboat tlie upper 
part of the river Pbnjkora, contain inexhaustible deposits of oie 
of iron of the finest quality, bnt that portion only which is swept 
down by the torrents, in the form of sand, is at present used. It is 

> onimmoiid, 69. smelted with charcoal,* and the metal obtained is of such Bopericr 
quality, that it seUs in India at three times the price of commoa 
iron. Coal is found (as has been already mentioned) in the Kala 

1 Dniiiimond,8o. rwoge ; also at Dobundee,' in the north of the plain of Peaha- 
wur, and in the Huzareh country, in the north-east of Afghan- 
istan. The mountains and rocks, which so extensively over- 
spread the middle and central parts of Afghanistan, appear to be 
in general of secondary formation, and they yield no metal* ex- 

• Jour. Ai. 8oc cept, in some places, iron.* 

•on on^Hinera^^ There 18 much diversity of climate in Afghanistan, resulting less 
logy of Afg. i^jQ difference of latitude (though this extends to above seven de- 
grees) than to difference of elevation. The country is, however, in 
general, characterized by dryness and great extremes of tempera- 
ture, according to the season of the year, the cold being usually 
severe in winter, even where the heat in summer is great. Thus 
at Ghusnee, where the snow lies for three months in vrinter and 
3crawfurd,inApp. the thermometer sinks to from 10^ to 15® below zero,' it durimr 
Op. at caubui, the summcr months ranges from 90° to 94°,^ a degree of heat 
fjj' ,^ Narr 8^^*"^*^^y ®^®"^ known in Britain, even for a day. In Kabool snow 
App.os. lies for two or three months together, during which the people 

seldom leave their houses, sleep, like the Russians, dose to 
ft Hough, 282. stoves, and the thermometer falls to 5° or 6® below zero.* At 

• Hough, App. 08. Khoord Kabool,* 1,070 feet higher than Kabool, the cold on 

the 16th of October was intense, the thermometer being below 

zero all night, and the water in the water-bags frozen into solid 

ice. It is universally believed in the country that the entire 

7 Eiphiniitone*t population of Ghuzncc^ has been destroyed by snow-storms, and 

caubui, 187. ^^f^ (his drcsdful calamity has several times occurred. As there 

« Hough, 226. is great scarcity of fuel there,* it is by no means improbable that, 

in a very prolonged and severe winter, snow might interrupt 

communication and intense cold destroy the inhabitants. It 

may be concluded in general, on unquestionable grounds, that 

throughout Northern Afghanistan, with the exception of the 

plains of Jelalabad and Peshawur, the cold is intense in winter, 

varying, however, in degree according to the elevation of the 


surfiEU^ ; and that, in a latitude lower than that of Spain or Italy, 

tiie severity of a Russian winter in most places is endured. In 

the Kurkutcha mountains, not more than from 1,000 to 2,000 

feet above Kahool,^ the frost is in winter so intense as to hurst i wood's Khyber 

the rocks ; at Jelalahad,^ scarcely differing in latitude from ^*^ ^' 

Kabool, the winter is as mild as in Hindostan, and so sudden paai, 7. ^ ' 

IB the change of climate, that at Gundamuk, where the highland 

of Kabool sinks abruptly to the plain of Jelalabad, the traveller 

finds, at the same time, snow falling above and rain below the 

pass. This sudden change is noticed by Baber.^ The elevation suemoin, 41. 

of Jelalabad b 1,964 feet, 4,000 less than that of Kabool; 

but the mean temperature of Jelalabad is greater than this 

fact will satisfactorily account for.^ Wood attributes it to the « wood's Khyber 

reverberation of the sun's rays, and the radiation of heat from ^^^ ^ 

the surrounding hills. In Peshawur, though nearly 1,000 feet 

lower than Jelalabad, there are frosts, during the night, to the 

beginning of March.^ In Daman, also, though 400 or 500 feet ^ Eiphinstone's 

lower than Peshawur, there is generally frost during the nights " " ' 

in midwinter.^ In the Huzareh country, in the north-western • id. iss. 

extremity of Afghanistan,^ the cold is intense during the winter, ^m. 482; wood's 

the snow lying, without intermission, four or five months. ^^ ^^o^il 

Towards the southern frontier, where the table-land between 

the Hala and Amran mountains has an elevation exceeding 

5,000 feet above the sea, the cold is likewise severe in winter, 

and Masson,^ in some places, found the roads covered with ice. " ^ai. Afg. Panj. 

'^ 930, 831, 839. 

Kandahar has a mild climate in winter, snow is scarcely known, 
and water is for the most part but slightly frozen; circum- 
stances which are the more remarkable, as its elevation is consi- 
derable, amounting to 3,484 feet.^ The heat of summer is almost ' Hough's App. 
everywhere very great, except in the very elevated parts of Hindoo 1^2, p^sV ; orif* 
Koosh and other lofty mountains. In the lower parts of Sewestan ?*J^""* ^*'* 
the heat is proverbially compared to that of the infernal regions. 
In the Daman the summer heat exceeds that of Hindostan. In 
Peshawur it is also for some time very hot,^ the thermometer 1 Eipb. 182, iss. 
reaching 110° and 1 1^'' in the shade, but falling on the setting in 
of breezes frt>m the snowy mountains. In the confined plain of 
Jelalabad the heat is sometimes so intense as to produce simoom 
and destroy animal life. At Kandahar the thermometer, in 
summer, is frequently above 110^ in the shade,^ and the fatal * Hough, App. 64. 
simoom is felt. Even at Kabool, though having an elevation of 

VOL. I. c 


above 6,000 feet, the tfaermometer ranges firom 90^ to lOOP m 
I Boiigii,App.0o*7. Bummer.' The monsoon, which delages Hindostan, has acavoeh 
s Eiph. 199. any effect in Afghanistan fiother west than the Soliman maontaiiif r 
nor are the foils, either of rain or snow, heavy, during the oooi 
season, while, in the hot season, the rains are, for the moet pait 
slight and of rare occurrence. It may tend to ^ve a TiTid ia- 
pression of the great aridity of A%hanistan to compeme its measi 
for the transmission <^ water with those of France, a oountiy d 
inferior extent. Afghanistan, it may be said, has bot one river— 
that of Kabool — which sends its water to the ocean, the Toe and 
the Kurum being very insignificant streams, while France, heaids 
the two great rivers — the Loire and the Rhone — has the Gaxanne, 
the Seine, the Somme, and several others, exclusive of the laigt 
feeders of the Rhine. With respect to the effect of the dimale 
on the human constitution, Elphinstone expresses himself h 
> Eiph. 140. follows :^ — " Judging from the sise, strength, and activity of the 

inhabitants, we should pronounce the climate fitvourable to the 
human constitution, and many parts of the country are certainlj 
remarkable for their salubrity. But on an inspection of the facts, it 
appears doubtful whether the diseases of Afghanistan are not moR 
fatal than those of India. Yet those diseases are not nnmeroiis, 
and few of them are of those descriptions which make most havoc 
in other countries. Fevers and agues are common in aatumn, 
and are also felt in spring. Colds are very troublesome, and 
sometimes dangerous in winter. Opthalmia is common." These 
and small-pox are the more common diseases in Afghanistan. 

Notwithstanding that a large portion of the country is irre- 
claimable desert, that most is unenclosed, and that nearly every- 
where difficult fastnesses abound, there is no great variety nor huge 
number of wild animals. Lions are said to haunt the Kohistsn 
« Eiph. 141. of Kabool, and other places at the base of Hindoo Koosh,^ but 
to be neither so large nor so fierce as those of warmer re- 
gions ; their existence, however, seems doubtful. Leopards 
« Joar. Ai. Boe. are Very common in the Kohistan, but they do not attack men.^ 
inrin,^Memoir of '^^g^rs hauut the juuglcs of the Daman, and among the Suli- 
^?' i*:* «**' **• nian mountains, but both in strength and boldness they are 

078; Grif.Rep. on . , j. t». •» t» 

Atg. mfenor to those of Hmdostan Proper. Hyeenas are numerous, 

' Eiph. 141 ; Ba- <^^ attack shccp and large cattle. Wolves principally frequent 
7*Ha!^tj)ck, War ^^® ^^^ country, and in winter collect in troops and destroy both 
In Afg. ii. 04. domestic animals and men.* There are two kinds of bears^ — the 


black bear, common in many parts of India, and another of a dirty 
-white, or rather yellow colour. Elephants are unknown in a 
-wild state, and the few which are kept for the purposes of 
state have been brought firom Hindostan. The rhinoceros, com- 
mon in the time of Baber^ in the Eusufzye country, does not 'Hem. 253. 
now appear to be found there. Jackals and foxes are nume- 
rous, and in many places troublesome. Monkeys are found in 
the north-eastern part.* Wild sheep and goats are common * ^p*** "*• 
in the mountain tracts in the north. Antelopes are rare, elks more 
common. The markhur, a powerful quadruped, in size and 
figure betw^een the goat and elk, frequents the wilds of the Suli- 
man and some other mountains. One measured by Vigne * was * Ghurnee, se. 
five feet eight inches long, three feet three inches high, its horns 
each two feet seven inches long, the circumference of its foro 
hoof eleven inches, yet it was not considered a large one. 
Afghanistan also affords a home to the wild ass or gorkhar, the 
wild hog, the porcupine, various kinds of deer and goats, the 
wild dog, the mongoose, the ferret, and the hare.* The variety e i,^jn, loo?; 
of cat called the Persian properly belongs to Kabool. Of domes- ^J^^ ui^Im! 
tic animals, the dromedary, or one-humped camel, is the usual 
beast of burthen throughout the plain country. The Baotrian, 
or two-humped variety, ia of unfrequent occurrence. The horses 
of Afghanistan are not much esteemed, but some of those 
bred about Herat are valuable. In the Huzareh country is 
an excellent hardy race of ponies called yaboos. Asses are 
much used for burthen, but they are not of a superior kind. 
Buffaloes are scarcely known, except in the Daman, in Pesha- 
wur, and Kandahar. The cow is kept in great numbers in 
the Daman, but elsewhere receives little attention. The species 
resembles that of India in having a hump, but is in most respects 
inferior. In the cooler tracts, where the pasture is good, a 
quantity of milk is obtained which would scarcely be credited by 
those acquainted only with the dairies of Europe. Oxen are 
generally kept for the plough, and amongst the pastoral tribes 
for carrying their tents. The great dependence of those tribes is 
on their sheep, which are of the broad-tuled kind called doombaJ 1 Griffith, osi. 
Their tails weigh ten or twelve pounds, and the fleece is large and 
fine. Goats aie very numerous, and some are kept with each 
flock of sheep to lead them to pasture. Dogs are kept in great 
numbers, and in general of good breeds ; the greyhounds espe- 



cially are very fine and much valued, the people bdng^ gRtith 
addicted to the sporta of the field. The birds are eagles, 
hawks of several varieties (many of them excellent for fal- 
conry), swans* wild geese and ducks, herons, cranes, storks, part- 
ridgei, quails, and a variety of small birds. Parrots are found 
in the warmer parts. The snakes are seldom poisonous. Scor- 
pions are common at Peshawur, where their stings, though severe, 
are not often fatal. 

Our acquaintance with the vegetable productions of Afghanis- 
tan is not at all proportioned to the importance of the subject. 
Many European trees are common there, and several of our finest 
• Joar. As. Soc. firuits grow wild. ^ The principal forest-trees are the balooi, a 
Rep.' on Subjects sp^cies of oak gTOwing on the mountains, from the elevation of 
oon. with Aflf. 2,000 feet to 4,500 feet above the sea ; the zaitoom, or wild olive, 
from that limit up to 6,500 feet, where the deodar, a large and 
noble species of pine, begins to flourish and continues as fisr as 
the limit of 10,000 feet. With these are intermixed, at various 
heights, the cypress, walnut, birch, holly, pistachio mastrahp the 
sinjit (eleagnus orientalis), the pinus chilgozeh, producing edible 
seeds slightly flavoured with turpentine, the hazel, and the mul- 
berry. On the plains are found tamarisks, willows, planea, pop- 
lars, and some others. 

A large proportion of the population of Afghanistan is in the 
pastoral state, partly in consequence of imperfect civilization and 
hereditary habits, partly because a large part of the country is ao 
rugged, ill-watered, and barren, as to be unfit for cultivation, 
yielding only a scanty pasturage for camels, sheep, and goats. 
It is a proof of the barbarous nature of the government and of the 
> Burnee't Trade State of society, that in the Daman ^ and many other parts, large 
of theDenOat. 96. ^^^^^^ ^Ynch might bc Cultivated with the most successful result, 
are for a great part of the year overrun by the rude mountain 
tribes, who, during winter, seek there a milder temperature and 
more abimdant pasturage. The disturbed state in which the 
country has continued, with little intermission, from time imme- 
morial, may be regarded both as a cause and an effect of the pre- 
valence of the pastoral life. Such a life affords readier means than 
any other for eluding violence and oppression ; and it is notorious 
that a nomadic population is everywhere prone to marauding 
and plundering habits. Next to Peshawur and the Daman, the 
roost generally cultivated tracts are the valley of Kabool, with 


the lesser valleys which open into it, the country about Kanda- 
har, and the valley of Boree in Sewestan. 

There are two harvests in the year in most parts of Afghanis- • Biph. caubui, 
tan :^ the rvbbee, or behaureh, sown in autumn and the beginning i^^^ ^\ ir^„] 
of mnnter and reaped late in spring or early in summer ; and the Memoir ofAife. ; 

w T jm a. • m ^ • Jour. Ab« Soc* 

knureef, or panueh, sown m the end of spring and reaped in i84i,p. 082; Grif. 
autumn : the former consists of wheat, barley, addus (ervum lens), ^*';^°h^l5[r*' 
nukhod (cicer arietinum), beans and peas, rye and oats, the last 
two being cultivated for the straw for fodder. The khureef con- 
sists chiefly of rice, arxun (panicum Italicum), gall (panicum 
miliacum), jowauree (holcus sorghum), bajreh (holcus spicatum), 
maize. Wheat is the staple article of food for the Afghans, but 
rice is grown as high up as from 6,000 to 7,000 feet above the 
level of the sea. Maize is ground into flour, and is also, when 
unripe, roasted, and thus used as food. Cotton, sugar, safflower, 
madder, and tobacco, are grown in the warmer parts of the country. 
The description of cultivation called paulacz is very important ; 
it includes melons and various kinds of cucumbers, gourds, and 
pumpkins. Natural grasses are scarce, and hay is seldom made ; 
sometimes, however, the leaves and stems of thistles, docks, 
rhubarb, and other similar wild plants, are cut and dried for this 
purpose. Esculent vegetables are in general of inferior quality. 
Those cultivated are cabbages, cauliflowers, spinach, lettuce, 
onions, garlic, beet-root, egg-plant. The potato was introduced 
by Bumes, but became extinct. Kabool probably excels all other 
places in the variety, abundance, and excellence of its fruits, 
which are also surprisingly cheap. The principal are peaches, 
apricots, nectarines, grapes, poc^granates, flgs, apples, pears, 
plums, quinces, cherries, mulberries, walnuts. Citrons and dates 
are produced at Jelalabad. Fruit, both fresh and preserved in 
various forms, constitutes a considerable article in the diet of the 

Should Afghanistan advance in cultivation and commercial 
prosperity, its wool would unquestionably become its most im- 
portant element of wealth, unless the mineral resources of its 
extensive mountain ranges should prove available in a higher 
degree than is at present anticipated. The fine wool of Afghan- 
istan* is produced both from goats and sheep ; that of goats is 

* See a yalnable paper, by Hutton, in «♦ Transact, of Aa. Soc. of Bengal/' 
1840, Tol. iz. 327, '* On wool and woollen mannfacturea of Khoraaaan." The 
physiology of wool appears to be very little understood ; it is produced of 


a fine and remarkably soft down, lying at the roots of the outer or 
true hair. It is generally of a rich dark-brown hue, while the long 
coarse hair is jet black : it is sometimes found of a white colour, 
but not often. The breed of goats is short-legged and shaggy, 
but symmetrically and beautifully formed. The fleeces are ob- 
tained at two seasons : the winter covering is shorn in spring, 
and is cleared of the long hairs in a very tedious manner by 
I BunMtPWooi or hand-picking;^ the summer fleece, which is much finer, softer. 
s^Huuon! »7.^ and more silky ,^ is obtained only from the skins of the slaaghtered 
animals. The skins are rubbed with lime and potash, ^rhich 
loosens the long hair and renders it easy of removal from among 
the more tenacious short hair, which is taken off separately after- 
wards. The fine wool is manufactured throughout Afghanistan, bat 
especially at Kabool, into shawls and other fine fabrics. The long 
coarse hair is made into grain bags, tent cloths, ropes, and various 
coarse fabrics. The fleeces of the sheep are also finer in suouner 
than in winter, and these animals are in like manner shorn in 
spring, while in autumn the wool is obtained only from the 
slaughtered sheep. The winter wool, as that of goats, b manu- 
factured into coarse fiabrics, the autumn into shawls or cloaks, or 
sometimes it is prepared with the leather to form posteens or 
warm upper garments, well calculated to fence off the intense 
cold of the approaching season. The Huzareh territory in the 
north-west of Afghanistan produces and maintains great numbers 
s Burnet' Wool of of sheep, goats, and camels bearing the finest wool.^ The prin- 
Kabooi, 107. ^^^ placcs of woollcn manufisLCtures are Kabool and Kandahar, 
those of the former being considered the finer. The process of 
making a fine shawl is very tedious ; half a dozen men are 
* Kennedy, sinde generally employed on it at once,^ with implements of the rudest 
and Kabool, 11.101. j^j^^^ resembling those used in making hand-lace in Europe. 
The price is consequently very high, amounting to 100/. sterling 
and upwards ; yet these shawls are considered inferior to those 
of Kashmir, being stiff and harsh to the touch. The woollen fabrics 
of Afghanistan are seldom exported, as from the scarcity of arti- 
ficers, the want of machinery, and the great demand, there are not 
enough produced to supply the home market, llie rural popula- 

the finest quality, both in the sultry wilds of Kandahar and of Spain, and in 
the table-land of Pamir, near the limits of perpetual congelation. A dry at- 
mosphere and fine herbage appear the most indispensable requisites for its 


tion generally wear woollen cloths made at home by their own ^ 
milies. Felting* the earliest invented and most obvious methpd of 
forming cloths of wool, is conducted in a very simple manner.^ A ,„p^'^.''* 
mat of rushes is laid open on the ground and the wool spread over 
it ; the mat is then folded up and rolled backwards and forwards 
by men pressing on it, and the process is continued until a com- 
plete felt is formed. It is called vernacularly nummud, of which 
the finer and thinner kinds are used for clothing, the coarser and 
thicker for carpets and tent cloths. Vigne whimsically supposes, 
that the Ntamda and Nomade tribes in general received the names 
from using these nummuds. In a country where every one goes 
heavily armed the quantity of arms sold must be considerable :^ * Nowro^ee Fur- 
those of the finer and dearer kinds are of Russian manufecture, and 
a few of British, but the greater part of those in use are made at 
Kabod, especially the long and formidable jezail or rifle. The 
fire-arms, as well as all the cutlery and hardware made in the 
country, are of very coarse and clumsy febrication. A little silk 
is made up for the home market as well as a few coarse cottons, 
but in general the Afghans are dependant for these articles on 
foreign supplies. Manufisictures in leather, saddlery, trappings, 
and harness for horses, cameb, and bullocks, are the only im- 
portant branches of handicraft besides those already mentioned. 

That Afghanistan should retain any foreign trade, in spite of 
the exorbitant exactions of the men in power and the rapacity of 
the wUd tribes infesting the passes, may be regarded as an extra- 
ordinary illustration of the pervading force of mercantile enter- 
prise and perseverance. Commerce flows chiefly in two direc- 
tions — to the east with Hindostan, and thus circuitously with 
Ghneat Britain, and to the north-west with central Asia and Rus- 
sia. There is another course of less importance southwards, 
through Kelat to Sonmeanee, on the Indian Ocean. The three 
great eastern passes, the Khyber in the north, the Bolan in the 
south, and the Gomul between them, are capable of great im- 
provement by the judicious application of labour and engineer- 
ing skill ; but the country has been so often invaded by armies 
forcing their way to India, that it has been the poficy of the in- 
habitants rather to obstruct than to clear the channels of commu- 
nication. From the want of more commodious roads, goods are 
transported on the backs of beasts of burthen, principally cameb, 


* Irwin, ut lupn, to the total neglect of the facilities afforded by wheel caniageft.-* 
Yet, under all these discouraging circumstances, the amount of 

& App. iM. imported goods sold in Kabool annually is considerable.^ Barnes, 

in a report drawn up in 1838, states the amount of British ckitl» 
sold there in one year at 478,000 rupees value ; of Indian goods, 
at 933,000 rupees. Those most in demand are broad dothsp vel- 
yets, shawls, carpets, muslins, chintzes of various colours and 
patterns, long-cloth, loongees, or thick and costly stufi& of silk 
and cotton for scarfe, handkerchie£B, and various fancy articles in 
silk and cotton ; total value, 141,100/. Indigo and other dye 8tu&, 
of which there is a large consumption, drugs, groceries, cutleiy, 
fire-arms, hardware in general, leather, paper, jewellery, trinkets, 
porcelain, glass, and ivory, will probably raise the amount 
to about 300,000/. annually. The quantity of goods taken by 
Peshawur, Daman, Kandahar, and the wild tribes scattered over 

« Buraes, on Fftir the country, may make the whole amount taken from us 500,0001.* 
r e n UB, . ,j^^ retums are principally made in madder and other dye-stulfe, 
assafoetida and other drugs, dried and fresh fruits, raw silk, 
tobacco, wool, lead, sulphur, alum, zinc, horses, ponies, and 
camels. The communication with central Asia and Russia by the 
north-western frx)ntier is for more difficult than that with Hindos- 
tan. It is principally by the passes of Hindoo Koosh or by the Ba- 
mian route. Of the passes of Hindoo Koosh, the most frequented is 
that of Koushan, over the north-eastern shoulder of the principal 
sunmiit, and at the most elevated part of the road estimated to 

' Koh-i-Daman, be 15,000 feet high.^ It is described by Lord as " narrow, rocky, 
and uneven, with a fall of 200 feet a mile, so that it was impossible 
that it should have ever contained any other waters than those of 
a headlong rapid torrent." As this is the most frequented pass 
through Hindoo Koosh, it is probably the best ; but it is scarcely 
practicable for beasts of burthen at its upper part, where the trans- 
port of goods is effected on men's shoulders, and it is totally closed 
by snow in winter. The Bamian route, the principal course across 
the north-west frontier, lies for above 100 miles over a succession 
of mountain ridges, varying in height from 8,000 to 13,000 

8 Burne*' Bok. L fget ; « one of them, indeed, estimated by Outram to have 

178-206; Moorcr. , . - o r^ 

Paio. Bokh.ii.s85. an elcvatiou of 15,000 feet.^ There is also a caravan route across 
'^°"K**^°*^ the Huzareh mountains frx)m Herat, and this probably was 
I Arrian, iii. 28. taken by Alexander in his pursuit of Bess us. ^ The route south 


of Herat ftrom Yerd to Kandahar is scarcely used as a channel 
of commercial intercourse. Difficult as communication is, Ka- 
bool i8 supplied with manufactured goods in greater abund* 
ance from Russia than from either Oreat Britain or from India. 
Xhe imports from Russia are gold and gold-dust, jewellery, cop- 
per, fire-arms, cutlery, hardware in general, gold, copper, and iron 
wire, trinkets, glass, porcelain, paper, leather, dye stu£Fs, drugs, 
tea, refined sugar, broad-doth, velvet, satins, and other silks; 
chintzes, cidicos, muslins, and handkerchiefs. No accurate in- 
formation has been obtained how the returns are made. It 
is obvious that the raw produce of Afghanistan is in general 
too bulky to bear profitable transport to Russia, and that the 
return in goods must be made to Bokhara, Kunduz, and 
Kokan. The rapacious invasions of neighbouring countries, 
especially Hindostan, by the Afghans, and the heavy tributes 
exacted by them, must have diverted a large quantity of 
the precious metals into their country; but the stock, it is 
to be believed, must now be nearly exhausted. In addition 
to the imports already enumerated, much raw silk^ of fine > Nowro^ee Pur- 
quality is brought from Bokhara, and some tea and other goods **®**"J**' ^^• 
from China, by way of Yarkund, Kokan, and Bokhara. 

The denominations and value of the currency expressed in 
decimals of English currency are, respectively — 

Kowree ... 

... sheU 


... copper 

Ghaz ... 

... do. 


... do. 

Shahee ... 

... stiver 

Sunnar ... 

... do. 


... do. 

Rupee ... 

... do. 

Tilla ... 

.-. gold 

Boodkec or 

ducat do. 























Silver is virtually the standard, the value of gold fluctuating 
according to its abundance or scarcity. Thus the gold mohur is 
sometimes worth 15 rupees, sometimes 18; its average value 
may be taken at 1/. 10«.^ The toomoin is an imaginary money ^ Giouary to saie, 
of account, equal to 20 rupees, or 1/. 13«. 4rf. ^**"' 



* Noirfo^f«e Fuf^ 

In the oioaetery tnmsactionfl of tliia ooimtry,^ tiie xeiatbe 
value of gold coin, or bullion, to silver is found to be mcM^ lover 
than in Europe, being generally 11, 12, or 13 to 1, instead ctf 
14 or 15 ; but this anomaly (according to our notiona) prevafli 
through the greater part of Eastern Asia. 

The principal commercial weights are the^ 

lb. OS. gr. 

Nukhoad ,. », 2*958 

Miscal „ „ 71-CXX> 

Pow „ 12- 428 

oeer ... ••■ ••• «•• x^ xo ^^ 

Khurwar 1038* 6* •• 

The principal measures of length are 

Khoord • . • 

Oheerah or Pow 




Kroe orkoss 





















The commerce and carrying trade of Afghanistan are, to a 
considerable extent, conducted by tribes who combine pastond 
« Burnef Tnde of occupations with these pursuits.^ The principal of them are the 
tbo Donoit, 99. i^h^nis, perhaps the most extensively and regularly migratory 
7 Barnes* Rep. 99; race in existence.^ They amount to above 100,000 persons, and 
wuipur, 78. ^^6 v^^h them 24,000 cameb, of which 5,140 in one year were 
loaded with merchandize, and on that occasion they had, besides, 
with one of their companies, 60,000 sheep ; so that the whole 
train of domestic animals must have amounted to some hundreds 
of thousands. They winter in the Daman, which produces abun- 
dant pasture at that time, and has besides a delightful climate. 
Here the families, cattle, and bulky property of the tribe, are left 
in charge of a force adequate for their management and protec- 
tion, while the rest proceed to lay in merchandize at Dera Ismael 
Khan, Dera Ghazee Khan, or even at Bombay or Calcutta. 
When the return of spring opens the passes and brings forward 
the pastures throughout the higher parts of AfghamstaDi they 


rendezvous at the town of Drabund in the Demjat, and proceed 
with supplies suited to the markets of central Asia and Afghanis- 
tan. Their route is by the Gomul Pas8> where they are 
obliged to fight their way through the Vaziris, the Suleman Kal« 
and other predatory tribes.® This system is very ancient.* Sultan • ^Hp»^* Oamae, 
Baber relates that» in 1505, he robbed the Lohani merchants of » Memoin, lei. 
articles of the same kind as they now carry. 

There is considerable, though not complete, uniformity of reli* 
giotts belief in Afghanistan. The Afghans for the most part are 
Mahometan Soonnees,^ acknowledging the three first Kaliphs, and ' sipb. soo. 
rejecting the claim of AH to the immediate succession to the pro- 
phet's powers ; but the Huzarehs are Shias, a fact attested both 
by Wood^ and Masson.^ In Afghanistan, as elsewhere, there is * Roate or Kab. 
the bitterest animosity between the votaries of the respective ^ Toorketun, 
sects, insomuch that Persians in Kabool live in continual dread * boi. iik. pmJ. 
of massacre. More indulgence is shewn to Christians, and even 
to Hindoos, than to Shias. Both Elphinstone^ and Masson^ bear 4 901-906. 
ample evidence of the toleration shewn to Christians ; and it is ' ^^^"^^ 
not unworthy of remark, that in the late atrocious massacre of 
the Anglo-Indian troops, no exemption was made in &vour of 
Mahometans. The Shias, Elphinstone^ observes, are much more ' 9O0* 
bigotted than the Soonnees. The mooUahs or priests are very 
numerous.^ Their character and name are conferred by an assem- ▼ Eipb. sis. 
bly of members of the order, on candidates who have undergone 
a regular course of study and examination, the essential ceremony 
consisting in placing on the new member the turban of a moollah, 
which is white, very large, and of a peculiar shape. Besides the 
turban, the moollahs wear a distinctive dress, consisting of a large 
loose govm of white or black cotton. Neither in Afghanistan, 
nor in any other Mahometan country, is the priesthood so dis- 
tinct from the laity as in the chief Christian churches, whether 
Greek, Roman, or Protestant. They live in many respects as 
laymen, trading, farming, and lending money on usury. Some, 
indeed, are supported on pensions from the state ; and those who 
discharge religious duties throughout the country receive a pro- 
portion of the rural produce. Legacies are frequently made to 
them. Some subsist by teaching and practising the law, others 
by preaching, and in consequence receiving remuneration from 
the congregations to whom their exhortations are addressed; 
some are mere amateur priests and students, who, as Elphin- 


I Eipb. S18. 8tone obserFes,' " live on thdr own means, and pnrsiie tie \ 
studies and amusements at leisure." Hie same emiiiia c I 

• 5«ia. writer says,^ '• there are no corporate bodies of mooUals e 

there are of monks in Europe, nor is the whole orier 
under the command of any chief, or subject to any paiticaiB 
discipline like the clergy in England. All except those wk 
hold offices under the Crown are entirely independent, and tis 
co-operation among them is only produced by a sense of cooubck 
interest." There are sundry minor religious professors — Sjoda, 
who are considered to be descended from Mahomet, Denriaeg. 
Fakeers, Calenders: but a discriminating account of tb^ 
would occupy nearly as much space as a similar account odf the 
monastic orders in Europe. Extraordinary reverence is paid to 
those who aim at acquiring the reputation of superior sanctitT. 
3 2«. either by real or pretended austerity*^ and Elphinstone menUooe 

some of these aspirants before whom the king did not Tentare to 
be seated until pressed. Tombs, and other localities, associated 
with the names of these deluding or deluded saints, are of Ireqiieiit 
occurrence, and command the humble adoration of the people. 

Of the history of Afghanistan litde is known till comfMunatiT^y 
modem times. Its condition from the period of its being peopled 
has perhaps never varied much from what it is now. It was 
probably at all times occupied by fierce and lawless tribes, 
among whom regular government was scarcely known, and who 
recognized no authority that vras not enforced by the swoid. 
Their country has shared the fate of the greater part of the £ast, 
in being repeatedly overrun by conquerors, but the traces of 
conquest have been generally evanescent. The Afghans in turn 
have carried their arms beyond their own frontier, into Persia to 
the west and India to the east, gaining, like their enslavers, 
temporary triumph and supremacy, but, like them, establishing no 
permanent dominion. 

The dominant power in Afghanistan in later times has been 
exercised by the tribe of the Dooranees. Ahmed Shah, the 
founder of their government, after experiencing many vicissitudes 
in contests with the Persians and his own countrymen, procured 
himself to be crowned at Kandahar, in the year 1747. His reign, 
which continued twenty-six years, was occupied with wars, external 
and internal ; but at his death the dominions which acknowledged 

* Eiph. 657. his sovereignty extended from the west of Khorassan to Sirhind,^ 


and from the Oxus to the eea. His son and successor, Timur, 
Shah» seems to have been a man of tamer character than his 
father, and to have had no desire as to empire beyond that of 
preserving the dominions which he inherited. He did not suc- 
cseed even in this limited object of ambition, having suffered from 
the encroachments of the King of Bokhara^ against whom he 
was ultimately induced to march with an immense army. This 
movement, however, produced nothing but many professions 
of respect from the King of Bokhara, and a peace, by which that 
prince was allowed to retain all the fruits of his aggressions. By 
Hmur the chief seat of government was removed to Kabool.^ • Eipb. aso— sos. 

The ordinary rules of succession have little force in oriental coun- 
tries. Tlmur was succeeded by Zemaun Shah, a younger son of 
the deceased prince, to the exclusion of Hoomayon, to whom the 
throne belonged, if the right were to be adjudged according to pri* 
mogeniture. Zemaun Shah repeatedly threatened India with inva- 
sion ; the last time in the year 1800, when his design was arrested 
by apprehensions for the safety of his own dominions on the west. 
He was finally compelled to 3rield to his elder brother, Mahmood, 
by whom, in accordance with Asiatic precedent, he was im- 
prisoned and deprived of sight. Zemaun Shah had inflicted the 
like penalties on his elder brother Hoomayon. ^ Mahmood did < £iph. sto— fioo. 
not enjoy his success imdisturbed. His possession of the throne 
was contested by another brother, named Shoojah-ool-Moolk, 
and after a severe struggle the latter became master of the prize 
in dispute, and of the person of his rival. On this occasion 
Shoojah-ool-Moolk exercised unusual clemency. He imprisoned 
his brother, but he spared his sight. This humanity was but ill 
rewarded. In the course of the intrigues and convulsions which 
marked the reign of Shoojah, in common with all eastern princes, 
Mahmood obtained his freedom, and reappeared in arms against 
his competitor. The result was disastrous to Shoojah, who fled 
to Lahore, where he was confined and plundered by Runjeet 
Singh. He ultimately escaped and found a retreat in the British 
territory. ^ ' Hough, sso— 

Mahmood owed his success to the talents of his vizier, Fut- 
teh Khan ; but Kamram, the son of Mahmood, having taken an 
aversion to the minister, prevailed on his father to imprison him 
and put out his eyes. Eventually Futteh Khan was murdered 
with great cruelty. This treatment of the vizier laid the founda- 




tion of another reToliition» in which the brothers of that pens. | 
age were the chief actors. Mahmood fled to Herat, where k 
died, and was succeeded in the portion of authority whidi he hd 
been able to retain by his son Kamram. The rest of tk | 
country passed into the hands of the brothers of Futteh SoigL 
the most able and active of them being Dost Mohammed Kba. 
Shoojah made two attempts to recover his lost throne, but hSki 
and was compelled again to seek refuge beyond the limits of tk 
Houfh, 400— dominions which he claimed/ 

About the year 1837, the conduct of certain agents of Rmai 
in the countries lying to the westward of India, excited the w^ 
prehensions of the British government. It was oonseqoentlr 
desired to establish an alliance with the ruling powers in A%ha&- 
istan, and overtures were made to Dost Mahomed Khan. Tlief 
failed : the attention of the British authorities was then turned to 
the exiled prince. Shah Shoojah, and an expedition from Britidi 
India on a large scale was prepared for the purpose of restoring | 
him to the throne from which he had been expelled. At tliie 
time Dost Mahomed held Kabool and a considerable portion of 
the Huzareh country, having a revenue of 260,000/. His regufar 

• Hough, S8Q. army amounted to 14,000 men,^ of whom 6,000 were cavalry, and 

his artiUery consisted of 40 guns. The three brothers of Dost 
Mahomed, Kohen Dil Khan, Rehem Dil Khan, and Mehir 1)3 
Khan, held Kandahar with the surrounding country, and an in- 

• Hough, 140. come of 80,000/. per annum. ^ They were supposed to have at 

the same time 3,000 cavalry, 1,000 infjEmtry, and 15 pieces of 
1 Conoiiy, iL 12. cannon. ^ Herat, the fourth sub-division of Afghanistan, continued 
to be held by Kamram. 

The British force destined to act in Scinde and Afghanistan 
was famished partly from Bengal, partly from Bombay, and con- 
3 Hough, fi. sisted of 28,350 men. ^ These were to be aided by a Sikh force 
amounting to 6,000, and by a force nominally assigned to the 
Shazada (Shoojah's eldest son) of 4,000 ; while a Sikh army of 
observation, amounting to 15,000, was to assemble in Pesfaawur. 
The chief command was held by Sir John Keane, commander- 
in-chief of the army under the presidency of Bombay. The 
march of the invading force was attended by many difficulties 
and privations, but it was successfully pursued to Kandahar, 
where, on the 8th of May, 1839, Shah Shoojah was solemnly 
enthroned. On the 21st of the same month, the British army 


WBS before Gbuznee ; on the 23rd, the gates of that place were 
bloiKm in and the fortress successfully stormed. On the 7th of 
August, the Tictors entered the city of Kabool (Dost Mahomed 
liaviug preyiously quitted it), and the war was regarded as at an 
eud. A few months dispelled this illusion. The British troops, 
thougli engaged in maintaining the throne of the prince, who 
from the chief city of eastern Afghanistan claimed to exercise 
the power of a sovereign, found that they were virtually in an 
enemy's country. The wild tribes manifested the most invete- 
rate hostility to the English, and the 2nd of November, 1841, 
'was signalized by a fearful outbreak at Kabool, in which seve- 
ral distinguished British officers were massacred. Among them 
was Colonel Sir Alexander Bumes, whose authority is so fre- 
quently referred to in this work. From that time the situation 
of the British force at Kabool was one of continued danger and 
suffering. Akbar Khan, son of Dost Mahomed Khan, arrived 
to co-operate with the desperate bands previously engaged 
against them ; and late in the month of December, Sir William 
Macnaghten, the British envoy in Afghanistan, unfortunately 
agreed to hold a conference with him. At this meeting, the Bri- 
tish representative and several officers were treacherously mur- 
dered. A convention, under which the British were to evacuate 
Afghanistan, was subsequently concluded : in the belief that its 
terms would be observed, the renmant of the army began to 
move. They were attacked on the road, exposed to miserable hard- 
ships from cold, hunger, and fatigue, as well as from the annoyances 
of the enemy, into whose hands many fell, some as ordinary pri- 
soners, others (including the high-minded Lady Sale and several 
of her countrywomen) by arrangement with Akbar Khan. The 
remainder pushed on for Jelalabad, which was held by Sir 
Robert Sale ; but only one European* and four or five natives 
succeeded in reaching it. Such was the ^ette of a force which, 
about two months before, numbered 5,000 fighting men, with an 
array of camp followers more than three times as many. Other dis- 
asters followed, and Ghuznee, so recently and so brilliantly won, 
retomed by surrender into the hands of the enemy. The coiirse 
of events thus direful to the British army was not less so to the 
prince in whose behalf it was engaged. Shah Shoojah met the 
fate which had overtaken so many of his English supporters, and Public offldai 
died by the hands of assassins. Doc 

* Dr. Bryden, a medical officer of the Bengal army. 


Gloomy as were now the fortone and proapects of the British 
in Afghanistan, the darkness was relieved hy many displays of 
brilliant and successful valour. General Nott at Kandahar, and 
Sir Robert Sale at Jelalabad, must be especially named as having 
nobly maintained the honour and interests of their coimtry. 
Preparations were also in progress for vindicating them on a 
larger scale, before finaUy abandoning a spot where so much of 
treachery had been encountered, and so much of disaster incurred. 
A force of 12,000 men was assembled under General Pollock, and 
this army, having successfuUy advanced through the Khyber Pass, 
joined the force under Sir Robert Sale at Jelalabad. G^. Pollock 
subsequently advanced towards Kabool ; he was joined by the army 
under General Nott from Kandahar, and on the 15th September, 
1842, the British national anthem pealed forth by the band of her 
Majesty's 9th foot, with three vociferous cheers from the soldiery, 
marked the elevation of the British colours upon the spot 6om 
which they had not long before been driven under drcumstanoes 
of treachery and murderous cruelty. One of the most gratifying 
results of this success was the rescue of the European prisoners 
from the hands of Akbar Khan. It was not intended to retain 
possession of Kabool, and after destroying the fort, the magnifi- 
cent bazaar, the principal mosque, and some other buildings, the 
British army withdrew, leaving Afghanistan to the anarchy which 
it seems destined long to endure. Dost Mahomed Khan had 
been taken in the course of the war, and it was apparently 
intended to keep him permanently under surveillance within the 
British dominions, but on the abandonment of Afghanistan he 

1 pabiic Official was Set at liberty.^ 

uiTdoc Scarcely any country of the same extent has such a nuxture 

of races constituting its population as is observable in Afghan- 
istan. The two leading divisions set down by Elphinstone are 
Afghans, properly so called, and Taujiks, which last term, he 

3 sio. observes,^ is applied to all who, living where Pushtoo is most 

generally spoken, have Persian as their vernacular language. 
To these should be added Hindkees, or persons of Hindoo 
descent and Hindustani dialect, most numerous in the eastern 
part, and Huzareh, or those of Tartar descent, most numerous in 

3 Barnes* Pen. the north- wcst. The Kuzziibaushes,^ a highly influential body, 

Fac. In Kabool, 7. j^ proportion to their numbers, though often deemed Persians, 
are not actually of that stock, being members of that colony of 


Xoorks* who now predominate in Persia. They were settled here 
under the governments of Nadir and of Ahmed Shah, and owe 
much of their influence to the diplomatic affairs^ of Afghanistan * Bumet on Per- 
Deing in a great measure m their hands. But so great is the 
variety of language and race ^ in this singular country, that be- * £iph. soo. 
sides Pushtoo, the great national tongue, no fewer than ten 
dialects are enumerated as spoken vernacularly, and this extent • 
of variety often occurs in districts at no great distance from 
each other. In attempting to trace the origin and descent 
of the Afghans, we find that probably the first authentic 
notice of them is under Subuctageen^ and his still more cele- e prfee, Mfthom«- 
hrated son, Mahmood of Ghuznee, who ascended the throne *""*■'•"• *^^- 
A.D. 998, and extended his empire from the Ganges to the 
Caspian. The Afghan historians, however, pertinaciously, and 
without much violation of consistency, maintain that numbers of 
the Jews brought away captives by the Babylonians were banished 
to the mountains of Ghore, between Herat and Kabool ; that 
they there multiplied greatly, and as they had kept up corres- 
pondence with some of their race in Arabia, on the appearance 
of Mahomed^ acknowledged the authenticity of his mission ; that ? Malcolm, Ri*t 
Keis, an Afghan chief of that time, accompanied by some others, **' ^®"'*' *• '^' 
joined the standard of Mahomed, and assisted in his attack on 
Mecca, and that from this Keis the noble feuoiilies of Afghans are 
descended. This claim of descent is f&vourably entertained by 
Sir Wm. Jones,^ who says, "the Pushtoo language, of which I Jj^J^****^"**^' 
have seen a dictionary, has a manifest resemblance to the Chal* 
daic \\ but this last statement is very vehementiy and coarsely 
denied by Klaproth,* who asserts that neither in words nor ' aiu Poiygiotta, 
in grammatical structure^ is there the slightest resemblance be- ' 
tween Pushtoo and any Semitic language, and that unques- 
tionably Pushtoo is a branch of the great Indo-Germanic division 
of languages. Leech ^ also states that it is decidedly of a Sanscrit i jonr. As. Soe. 
complexion. Dom^ asserts that the " Pushtoo language bears ?^- '^^^'^^j*. ' • 
not the slightest resemblance to the Hebrew or Chaldaic," and Piuhtoo lui- 
concludes by expressing his opinion that though the Afghans may ^H^* ^ 

> Neamet Ullah, 
11.65, 72. 
* The Kazal-bashi (red heads), under which denommation of military 

force these colonists were classed, are considered to be the descendants of 

the c&ptiTes given to Shaikh Haidar by Tamerlane, and who wore red caps as 

a maik of distinction.— Shakespear in ▼. J^\i Jkj 

VOL. I. 


belong to the great Indo-Teutonic family of nations* they mn 
aboriginea of the land they now inhabit. Very different is die 
a Baptist Mittioni, opinion of the Serampore miseionaries,' to whom " the Pushtoo 
^' and Belochee languages appear to form the connecting link be- 

tween those of Sungskrit and those of Hebrew origin." Ade- 

* Mitbridatet, I. lung ^ Considers Pushtoo a peculiar and original dialect* but ac- 

• knowledges his acquaintance with it to be very slender. Elphin- 
» iwhioi. stone,* too, is not fully satisfied of the parentage of Pushtoo, as 

he states that " its origin is not easily discovered/' but be ob- 
serves that of 218 Pushtoo words, not one had the smallest 
appearance of being deducible from any of the Semitic langfuages. 
He thinks that a resemblance can be traced between it and the 
« Kiaproth, 7A. Curdish, considered to be an Indo-Ckrmanic ^ tongue. The 
Afghans use the Persian alphabet, and generaUy write in Nushk 

It cannot be denied that there is something in the strongly- 
f Moorcrofi, Pui\j. marked resemblance ^ which they are observed to bear to the 

Bokh. ii. 248. , , ^, "^ . .. ,.,-, 

Jews, that affords countenance to the opmion which found 
support from Sir William Jones. "Their tall figures, dark black 
eyes, marked features, and western complexions indicate a lace 
that may, without the least violation of probability, be referred to 

* Kennedy, sinde a Jcwish original."^ And though there may not be any certain 
andKabooi, ii.M. g^^jj^^ for admitting the Jewish descent of the Afghans, the 

whole system of society amongst them rests upon the supposi- 
tion that they are sprung from one ftimily. Elphinstone describes 
the population as divided into great tribes, and these into smaller 
sections, bearing the name of khail or clan, or one terminating 
with Zai, exactly corresponding with the O* of the Gaelic tribes, 
> Eiph. 161. the Mac of the Erse.® Thus Eusufzais means the son or de- 
scendant of Eusuf, like O'Donnell or Macpherson. 

Of the Afghan tribes, the Duranis are considered the greatest, 
both on account of the superior extent of the tract which they 
inhabit, and because the royal family and high ministers of state 
belong to it. They were called Abdalli until Ahmed Shah, the 
founder of the Durani dynasty, who, in consequence of the 
1 Malcolm, Hist, dream of a certain saint, assumed the title of Duri Duran,^ which 
Eiph!'SS."''^"*'™^y be translated "age of fortune," and styled the tribe 
Durani. It is divided into two great branches, Zeeruk and Punj- 
paw, and these again as follow : — 



Zeeruk. Punjpaw. 

Populzaif Noorzai, 

ADekkozai, Alizai, 

Baurikzai, Iskhaukzai, 

Atchikzai. Khouganee, 

Until late events, the Populzai was considered the royal stem, 
as the Suddozai, one of its families, gave a sovereign to the 
empire.' The Baurikzais latterly engrossed the office of vizir and * ^ii*. «8. 
some others of high importance. 

The Berduranis ^ also received their name from Ahmed Shah ; * Eiph. aM. 
they inhahit the north-east quarter, and comprise the 

Eusu&ais, Momunds and other trihes 

Otmnn KhaD, of Peshawur, 

Turcoulaunees, Bungush, 

Khyherees, Khuttuks. 

The Ghiljies are, after the Duranis, the most eminent of the 
tribes, as, in the early part of the last century, the head of them 
possessed the sovereignty, not only in Afghanistan but in Persia, 
and routed the Turkish armies, until their power was broken by 
Nadir Shah. They are divided into the two fBuoailies of Toraun 
and Boorhaun, of which the first is subdivided into two, the 
second into six clans. 

The Canker tribe, who hold the most southern part of the 
Khakas country, about the Toba and Khojeh Amran mountains, 
were amongst the least known of the Afghan tribes, until in 
conjunction with the Atchikzai they became notorious by inces- 
sant attacks and depredations on the British troops in their 
marches and countermarches through the Bolan and Kojuk 
Passes. Our limits do not admit the enumeration of a great num- 
ber of other less important tribes. The following table of popu- 
lation is given with much diffidence, though collected with great 
caution and care from the scanty data afforded by Elphinstone 
and others. 

Duranis ... ... ... ... ... 800,000 

Eusufzais ... 

Peshawur tribes 
Daman tribes 


D 2 


Khybcrecs 120,000 

KhuttukB 100,000 

BunguBb, Banoo, and Murwut 100,000 

Suliman tribes 100,000 

Otmun Khail ... ••• ••• ••• 60,000 

Momunda 40,000 

Nauaaeera and other wanderers 100,000 

Huzareh and Eimauk ••• ••• ••• 200,000 


Tajiks, Hindkeea, Hindooa, Kozzulbaoshes, 

&c. ... ... ... .-• ••• 1.500,000 

Total 5,120,000 

Being little more than at the rate of about twenty persons to die 
' M- square mile. Elphinstone ^ makes the population greater, but 

when we consider that the country is, for the most part, rugged, 
barren, and ill-cultivated, that there are few towns of any im- 
portance, and that destructive wars are of frequent occurrence, 
or rather that they are incessant, the smaller number will appear 
more probable. 

The resources of the goTemments, such as they are» may 
be judged from the following estimate, referring to a period 
subsequent to the expulsion of Shah Shooja. Kamram, who 
3 conoUx, Joan, held Herat, drew a revenue, loosely stated' at about 100,000/. 
to India, u. 12. ^^ anuum, in money, and perhaps as much more in produce. 
Dost Mahomed Khan, who seized Kabool and its immediate de- 
pendencies, is thought to have annually squeezed from those ter- 
ritories 240,000/. ^ His brothers, who made themselves masters 

* Burnet* Perso- 
nal Nut. App.Ui. of Kandahar and the adjacent territory, drew therefrom an 

» Hough, 140. annual revenue, stated at 80,000/.* Bumes^ estimated the 

• Perwnai Narr. gj^j of Dost Mahomcd at 13,000 horsc and 2,500 infimtry. 

The greatest force mustered by the Afghans during the late war, 
appears to have been about 16,000 men, brought against Gkneral 
f Mil. Op. in Atg. Pollock at Tezecu. ^ The discipline of the Afghans is very im- 
perfect, and they are embarrassed by the multitude of their arms. 
> Abbott, Reraut ^ military authority, ® well acquainted with them, observes, " an 
and KhiTa, u. 196. Afghan horsemau never thinks himself safe until he has a long 
heavy matchlock, with a bayonet, a sabre, a blunderbuss, three 
long pistols, a couteau-de-chasse, a dagger, and four or five knives. 


besides a shield and a complete rigging round his waist of powder 
flasks, powder measures, powder magazines, bullet pods, and fifty 
nameless articles." 

The whole state of society in Afghanistan is a wngiilar 
compound of the patriarchal and republican forms.^ Each tribe * ^'p*** **^- 
has, in general, its territory compact and confined to its own 
people. It is divided into ooloosses, or divisions of population 
descended from some one ancestor, and each of these is sub- 
divided, until the lowest portion is reduced to a few fi&milies. 
The chief of an oolooss is called Khan, and is alwa]^ chosen 
from the oldest family in the oolooss. In most cases the sove- 
reign of the country is able to secure a khan or to remove him, 
appointing one of his relations in his stead. Sometimes the 
khans are chosen by the tribes-men. Nothing seems fixed or 
certain, though primogeniture, property, and character have in- 
fluence ; and this unsettled state of succession prevailing through- 
out the political organization of the country, from the throne to 
the lowest office in the tribe, appears to be the f&tal cause of the 
incessant and devastating anarchy which prevails. Where there 
is no great deviation from the usual constitution of these tribes, 
the principal duties and powers of the khans are twofold — to 
command in war and to preside in the jeergas or assemblies, . 
which the chieftains of the tribe hold for managing its concerns. 
The stringency of obligation is very different in different tribes, 
being in some, as the Eusuizais, very weak, and in the Da- 
ranis and others in the west, for the most part sufficient 
to restrain the tribes-men from mutual injury.^ In general the * siph- m. 
clannish attachment of individuals is rather to the tribe than 
to the chief, and throughout all stations there is such a laxity of 
political and civil organization as accounts for the sudden and 
capricious revolutions which take place with regard both to the 
sovereignty and the great offices of state. Elphinstone compares 
the state of this distracted nation to that of Scotland during the 
feudal ages.^ Perhaps a closer parallel might be found in the ' its. 
ever-raging warfare and anarchy described by Bruce in Abyssinia. 
It is quite clear that at no time has there been in Afghanistan that 
reverential affection for the reigning family which has, through 
so many ages of decay, preserved the Ottoman empure from total 
dissolution. In the case of Ahmed Shah and of the Baurikzais, 
who lately seized the sovereignty, the object aimed at was 
attained by the sword, and the command of tliis was gained by 


talent and conrage, aided indeed to a certain extent hy faenditKT 
influence, and in the instance of the first mentioned chief Ij tk 
possession of treasure. The codes regulating the decisiona in tk 
trihes are the Mahomedan law, derived from the Koran and r- 

* Eipb. 160. oeived comments, or the Poosktoamndle^^ or usage of the A^am, 

and bearing some analogy to the common law of the Anglo- Saxaai. 
This code, being throughout pervaded by a pemicioua spnit 
ftivourable to retaliation and revenge, tends to sHmnlate the 
fierce tempers of the people, to perpetuate strife, and incrent 

The personal appearance of the Afghans difiers in different parts 
of the country. In the east they are more swarthy ; in the west 
they have olive complexions, and some are as fiur as Europeans. 

* Bipb. 346. i^e men are of a robust make,^ generally lean, bony, and mnscolsr, 

with high noses, high cheek-bones, and long feces, bearing, as 
has been already mentioned, a strong resemblance to the Jews. 

fi^J!uo^^^ The features of Dost Mahomed Khan* are described as having 
an exaggerated Jewish expression. The hair and beards of die 
Afghans are generally black, sometimes brown, rarely red, and 
always coarse and strong. They wear the hair in long, huge 
locks, hanging down each side of the head, according to the 

' u!' ^*' ^*^' ^^^^ ^^ the Asiatic Jews, so that, observes Masaon,^ " one of 
the latter on seeing them, unhesitatingly pronounces them to be 

in^Af "^u'N*^" ^^ ^^ Stock." The language,® dress, and manners of the Persians 
prevail among the higher order, especiaUy in the vicinity of that 
people. The original national dress, still retained among the 
lower classes, consists of a pair of loose trowsers of dark-coloured 
cotton, a large camiss, or shirt, worn over the trows e rs, and reach* 
ing down to the knees, a low cap, with sides of black silk doth 
and top of gold brocade, a pair of half-boots of brown leather, 
and in cold weather a portin, or large cloak, of well-tanned sheep- 

> £ipb. 230. skin thrown over all.* In the eastern part of the country, the 
dress bears considerable resemblance to that of Hindostan. The 
Afghan women are large, fiiir, and handsome ; they wear loose 
camisses like those of the men, but longer, and made of fine and 
highly- ornamented stuffs, when they can afford it, and a small 
hood of bright-coloured silk* A large, long outer dress, in the 

Hough, 196.' form of a fine sheet ^ * (it might, perhaps, be called a shroud), 

* Few of the women make their appearance abroad, and those who do so 
are completely enveloped in the long white veil called boorku. It has eyelet 
and breathing holes, but so entirely ahrouds the person as to give the form 


is throvm over the whole person when a stranger approaches. 
Their ornaments are in general cumhrous and inelegant chains 
of gold and of silver, or strings of coins of either of these metals ; 
rings for the fingers and thumhs, bracelets, earrings, and pen- 
dants for the nose. Unmarried women are distinguished from 
those uiarried by wearing their hair loose, and by their trowsers 
being iv^hite. Wives are purchased here, and, as a natural 
consequence, are considered property* — ^nay, currency '? for, in » Eiph. iw. 
some cases of delinquency, the penalty is paid in a certain ^^' 

number of young women. Thus, for murder, twelve young 
women are paid ; for cutting off a hand, knocking out a tooth, or 
destroying an eye. six are paid ; for breaking a tooth, the fine 
is three girls. After aU that has been stated as to the civiliza- 
tion of this singular people, such fects as these perhaps afford the 
best illustrations of its degree. The most usual age for marriage 
is about twenty in the man and fifteen or sixteen in the woman ; 
but if the friends of the former bring forward the price, the 
marriage takes place much earlier. Sometimes the husband has 
numbered only fifteen or sixteen years, the wife not more than 
twelve. But on the other hand, where funds are scarce, the men 
often remain unmarried till forty, women till twenty-five, so that 
the preventive checks devised by Malthus appear to be in opera- 
Uon in a country where his name was never heard. According 
to the well-known tenet of Mahomedan law, those who can afford 
it espouse four wives, adding to the number several other females, 
whose claim to the title is not recognized by either legal or social 
authority. In general, the measure of indulgence which a man 
takes in this respect is limited solely by his means. Women 
enjoy more freedom in the country than in towns. Those in 
easy circumstances travel on horseback, wrapped in cumbrous 
upper dresses, or in kajawars or panniers, slung on each side of a 
camel. They have more influence than among the neighbouring 
nations, and "their condition,"' it is said, "is very far from »Eipb. 184. 
being unhappy." 

As both wine and gambling are forbidden, and the Afghans in 
general pay little regard to intellectual pursuits, they are often at 
a loss for the means of passing their time when confined at home 

moving under it the appearance of a walking mommy. Not a glimpse can be 
obtained of either Uie features or the shape." — Havelock, ii. 147. 


by tbe weather. Smoking tbbaooo afibrds some resooioe ; aiiotfaer 
ifl furnished by bang» gnnjah, or hemp, the smoke of which is in- 
haled, or the extract swallowed. The effect is the productitm of tbe 
most powerful and illusory form of intoxication* of which tiie 
N«iw'M«r"*' human constitution seems capable.^ Even wine ib aometiiDes 
secretly indulged in by the wealthy. The use of snuff is a 
luxury well known. Music is discouraged by strict religionists, 

• Biph. 91ft. ^ho do not scruple to break lutes ^ and other instnunenta when 

they fidl in their way. Much time is spent in singing and in 
story-telling ; the latter ftumlty being exerted much in the manner 
common with children in Europe, the incidents bein^ famished 
by kings, viziers, genii, fairies, love, war, and exaggerated 
adventures. Their most usual repast is mutton, either roasted 
or boiled, and eaten with the broth; their drink sonr milk, 

• BniiMt' p«r*. sherbet, or tea,^ but this last being expensive, is only widiia 
*"' reach of the wealthy. The diet of the pastoral population con- 
sists largely of milk, roghan, or clarified butter, and koroot, or sour 

f CaaoUj, Jour. mOk inspissatcd, and of this last food they seem never to tire. ^ 

to itwiift, u. 101, , '^, , , . . ^ 

The rich indulge in highly spiced pilaws, ragouts, and aavomy 
stews. All classes are very fond of sweet-meats and fhiits. Tht 
favourite amusement of the Afghans is hunting, which is managed 
like tbe tinkal of old in the Highlands of Scotland, the country to 
a great extent being inclosed by large parlies of horsemen and 
footmen, who gradually contract their circuit, and collect the 
game into a valley, where they feJl on it with dogs and guns. 
They ride down partridges, one horseman taking up the pursnit 
when the horse of another is tired, and those of the party who come 
up with the bird knock it down with sticks. Horse-races are con- 
ducted on a great scale, twenty or thirty horses starting and run- 
ning from ten to twenty miles. Their national dance, the Attun, 
resembles the Albanian dance, as described by Hobhouse, and is 

• Biph. 288. very violent and exciting.^ It is performed by thirty or forty men, 

who bound with the wildest gestures round one who stands playing 

• Jour, to India, or singing in the middle. ConoUy® describes it in these words : — 

'' They stamped their feet in regular time, becoming more and more 
excited, and then with one accord they flung their hands loose, 
clapped their palms, and tossed their arms about, now making 

* See an extraordinary account of its effects on the human constitation in 
<* Joum. As. Soc. of Bengal," 1839| 732. It effectually calms the horrors of 


zneasured movemeats with their hands and feet» setting their 
teeth ti^ht, frowning, rolling their e^es* and granting, and then 
twisting their hodies round and round, like drunken men* wind- 
ing into each others' plaoe9, and shrieking and whooping as 
Scotchmen do in a reel." The dance lasted until the performer 
sank down in exhaustion. 

The A%hans * pride themselves on conventional hospitality* * Eiph. sse. 
and m each oolooss or khail a certain fund is set aside for the 
entertainment of strangers, who are considered as public guests; 
and the instance of Masson,^ who, without funds, traversed the < Bd. Afg, Pui^. 
country through its whole extent, corroborates the statement ** ^ **i-*'*- 
of Elphinstone, that " a man who travelled through the country 
without money would never be in want of a meal." It is also 
said that " a man's bitterest enemy is safe while he is under his 
roof." Such importance do the Afghans attach to the ostenta- 
tion of hospitality, that a common method of obtaining or 
enforcing a request is for the suppliant to go to the house or tent 
of the person whose f&vour is sought, and refuse to sit on his 
carpet or partake of his hospitality until the boon be granted.* 
Compliance is rarely withheld from thh mode of supplication, 
which is called Nannawauiee in Pushtoo—" I have come in." 
Another custom indicates a desire to secure a character for 
chivalric gallantry not less than for hospitality. The protection 
of an Afghan is commanded even more forcibly than by an appeal 
to his household pride, when a woman sends him her veil and 
implores assistance. It may, however, be conjectured, from the 
relative position of the sexes in Afghanistan, that there is, in 
reality, not much of that refinement of feeling of which such a 
custom would seem to imply the existence ; and it is certain that 
there is httle of real benevolence^ in the manifestations of hospi- t Eipiussr. 
tality and generosity previously noticed, since an Afghan will not 
hesitate to rob the man whom he has entertained as soon as he 
shall have left his residence. The sincerity of Afghan hospi- 
tality was strikingly exemplified at the commencement of the 
war with Persia, early in the last century. The first step of 
the Afghan leader^ was to invite the Persian governor of Kan- ' Malcolm, u oo7. 
dahar to his house and there massacre him with all his 
attendants. After Mahmood, the Afghan ruler, had taken 

* ThiB resembles the expedient of TTiemistocles, when he seated himselC 
on the hearth of the King of the Moloflsuns. 


Ispahan, he sought to conaolidate his power by sunilar aen 
« Malcolm, 11. 6»9. of hospitality.^ He invited 300 of the principal Peraians to 
a feast and murdered every one. He provided a feast for 
his Persian guards, in number about 3,000, and, as soon n 
they were seated, caused them to be attacked and alain to a 
man. He then, in cool blood, put to death every Persian who 
had been in the service of the vanquished monarch, and reduced 
that wretched people to such prostration of spirit that it wu 
common to see one Afghan lead to execution three or foar Per- 
sians, who, though doomed unsparingly to death, made no resis- 
tance. Mahmood and two or three of his f&vourites, with tfadr 
ovm sabres, massacred thirty-nine youths of the blood royal of 
Persia. Malcolm sums up the merits of the Afghan inrader of 
Persia in a few words, which recent events prove to be entiieilj 

• Maiooim, U.I9. applicable to the nation at large at the present day.* " He ap- 

pears to have combined in his character the most consummate 
deceit with the most ferocious barbarity." It is remarkable that 
the final consummaticm of the massacre of our brave but helplen 
troops, in the attempted retreat from Kabool at the commence- 
ment of 1842, was brought to pass by an exerdse of A%han hos- 
pitality. Six officers had made their way to within a few miles 
of Jelalabad, when, deceived by the friendly professions of some 
peasants, they stopped to satisfy their hunger with food brought 

• Bjre, 351. them by the miscreants,^ and, while partaking of the refreshment, 

were cut down by their villainous entertuners. This was the 
last specimen which the British allowed themselves to receive of 

7 Eiph. 851. ^g Nung-du-pooahtauneh, or " honour of the Afghan name." ^ 
The rapacity of the Afghans is prominent among their many 

B^'^isai* wT* ^^ qualities, and seems universal, from Dost Mahomed Khan, * 

• Eyre, 880. who plundered Honigberger, and Mahomed Shah Khan, ' who 

robbed Lady Macnaghten of her clothes and jewels, to the Cauker 
1 MasK>n, i. 808. wrctch who Stripped Masson,^ leaving him nothing but his trowsers 
and shoes. They are formidable in war, being ruthless and 
bloodthirsty in the extreme — active and alert to take advantage 
of every opportunity ; but they seem greatly deficient in intrepi- 
dity, and incapable of standing the charge of determined adver- 
saries. This appears from their defeats by the Sikhs, and still 
more from their being unable on any occasion, with enormous 
superiority of numbers, to withstand the British troops, whose 
disasters were the result of the treachery of their adversaries, the 


severity of the season, and the unexampled strength of the 

country. On the 29th of May, 1842, Qeneral Nott, at the 

head of 1,200 men, defeated, in the space of an hour, 8,000 

Afghans, driving them in the utmost confusion from a very 

strong position close to Kandahar. The victor, with natural and 

creditable exultation, observes,^ " I would at any time lead 1,000 • mu. op. in Atg. 

Bengal sepoys against 5,000 Afghans." On the 30th of Septem- "*• 

ber of the same year. General M'Caskill,^ at the head of two ' xu. op. in a%. 


brigades of infantry about 2,000 strong, stormed the town of 
Istalif, celebrated for its almost impregnable defences, and gar* 
risoned by A^hans and Taujiks, in numbers five times those of 
the assailants. It is worthy of note, that the Taujiks of Istalif 
are considered the most ferocious and warlike of the inhabitants 
of Afghanistan. * By some who seek in natural causes a solution * Bufdm* Pen. 

. . Narr. 140 ; 

of every difficulty, the choleric and sanguinary disposition of £ipb. sis. 
these Taujiks is attributed to the heating nature of their staple 
article of food,^ bread made of mulberries dried and ground to ' Bumet, Eiph. ut 
meal. Elphinstone, who is in general favourable to the Afghan '"^'** 
character, draws a frightful picture when he particularizes the 
state of society among them.^ " Scarce a day passes without a e Eiph. sso. 
quarrel.' If there is a dispute about water for cultivation on the 
boundaries of a field, swords are drawn and wounds inflicted, 
which leads to years of anxiety and danger and ends in assassi- 
nation. Each injury produces fresh retaliation, and hence arise 
ambuscades, attacks in the streets, murders of men in their 
houses, and all kinds of suspicion, confusion, and strife. As 
these feuds accumulate, there is scarce a man of any consequence 
who is not upon the watoh for his life. In every village are seen 
men always in armour to secure them from the designs of their 
secret enemies, and others surrounded by hired soldiers to the 
number often, twelve, and sometimes of fifty or one hundred." 
" Even within the clans there is nothing like peace or concord, 
the slightest occasion gives rise to a dispute which soon turns 
into an afPray." " In most parts of the country the inhabitanto live 
in perpetual fear, like savages, and plough and sow with their 
matehlocks and swords about their persons." No less conclusive 
on this point is the evidence of Bumes.^ " A week never passes ^ Pen. Narr. i4*. 
without strife or assassination ; and I have been assured, on the 
best authority, that a man frequently remains immured in his 
own tower for two or three years, for fear of his enemies, learing 


hiB wife to take charge of hU property and diBcharge his duties; 
nay, that in some instances, this durance has lasted lor ei^^ht cr 
ten years.*' The state of society here described is at Istalif, a 
the neighbourhood of Kabool. Such is the conduct of Afgbn 
' x^ to Afghan. Elphinstone,^ who regards the A%han character witk 
more complacency than most other observers, admits the exo- 
tence of many of those detestable elements which enter into it, 
though he gives them credit for qualities which there is little evi- 
dence of their possessing. He says '* their vices are revenge, 
envy, avarice, rapacity, and obstinacy. On the other hand, tbej 
are fond of liberty, faithful to their friends, kind to their depen- 
dants, hospitable, brave, hardy, laborious, and prudent; and 
they are less disposed than the nations in their neighbourliood to 
fJBdsehood, intrigue, and deceit." This last position seems quite 
at variance with the testimony of historic fact. 

Afghanistan, in its architecture and numismatic relics, presenti 
an ample and interesting field of research to the antiquary, thougb 
written documents afford but a scanty light to his course. Still 
the labours of Wilson, Lassen, and Prinsep, employed upon mate- 
rials furnished by the enterprise and industry of Masson and othen, 
have succeeded to a surprising extent in illustrating the obscure 
and difficult subject to which they have been applied. The chief 
ruins now to be found in Afghanistan appear to belong to a 
period of very remote antiquity, and denote a people numerous 
and powerful, but not highly advanced in the arts, the slaves of 
• Oziis,94. superstition and of their rulers. Wood,^ in describing Kafir 

Kote, on the border of the dreary valley of Largee, says, 
'* Slavery would seem to have been prevalent in those days, for 
without such a supposition it is impossible to account for the 
remains of many similar structures in Afghanistan and the ad- 
joining countries. Freemen would never have consented to the 
erection of such stupendous edifices on sites so arbitrarily chosen 
and so little calculated for the g^ieral good." This opinion, 
however, may be regarded by many as questionable. Wood 
considers those erections coeval in their origin with the pyra- 
mids of Egypt, the round towers of Ireland, and the sculptured 
caves and undeciphered antiquities of Hindostan, and that those 
who constructed them were by some political convulsion swept 
1 Erdkttnde Ton away before the time of the Macedonian irruptign. Ritter,' on 
Asien, B. vii. 200, ^^ contrary, assigns to their construction the prolonged period 


commencing eight centuries before the Christian era and termi- 
nating eight centuries after it, during which, according to him. 
Buddhism universally prevailed in Afghanistan and the adjacent 
countries, mitil destroyed by the furious fanaticism of the Maho- 
medans. He consequently regards the Macedonian irruption as 
having produced a very circumscribed efiect on the opinions and 
condition of the people at large. 

Several great relics of remote periods in Afghanistan, the caves 
and gigantic idols of Bamian,^ the fortress of Kafir Kote, already * Buhim, i. iss; 

, . Moore PuqJ.Bok. 

mentioned, Zohak Castle, in the vicinity of Bamian, the ruined u. sm ; MsHon, 
city of Ghulghuleh, in the same vicinity, and the fortress of Saiya- ^'x^.^'^JJIIm . 
dabad, also at no great distance, are described under their respective saie, DiMsten iq 
names. The topes of the natives, the stupas of the Sanscrit au- ma! op.* at cau- 
thorities, are vast and sohd masses of masonry of the shape of ^^ ^^' 
short cylinders surmounted by hemispherical domes. They are of 
most frequent occurrence in the plain of Peshawur and in the val- 
leys of Jelalabad, of Kabool, and of Begram, north of the town of 
Kabool. Similar remains are also found in the Punjab, especiaUy in 
the parts adjacent to the Indus. It is the most received opinion 
that they are monuments peculiar to the faith of Buddhism, or 
shrines inclosing some sacred relic — a hair, a tooth, a bone, a walk- 
ing-stick, for instance, of some character deemed by the Buddhists 
to have been eminent for sanctity ;® though Court, Masson, and ' wuion, Ariana 

Antiqufti 4ft ; Rit« 

some other authorities consider them to have been places of regal ter, Erdkunde 
sepulture. Prinsep * and Ritter are indeed inclined to consider TQutSV^Art?' 
both opinions correct to a certain extent, and to regard these «« Anuqua, 4ft. 
monuments as at once places of burial for the great and deposito* 
ries of superstitious relics. The size of any hitherto surveyed in Af- 
ghanistan is insignificant compared with some mentioned by Pro- 
fessor Wilson as having been constructed in Ceylon 400 feet high.* * ArUma Antiq. 4. 

The most interesting department of archeology connected 
with Afghanistan is the numismatical. No country has produced 
such vast quantities of antique coins as have been and are daily 
collected by turning up its earth. Masson, during the researches 
of several years, collected many thousands. Some account of 
his success will be found under the head Begram. 

It is remarkable that though numismatology displays to us 
such numerous and important traces of the Ghreeks, there are no 
architectural remains which can be attributed to them. The vast 
rumed fortresses of Kafir Kote, Zohak, Saiyadabad, and Ghul- ^ 
ghuleh are built generally in a massive style,^ and exhibit great os. 



architectaral Bkfll, but without any thing that appears hif- 
cative of (hvcian art. In the case of the three latter, tiie 
material ia kUn-bnmt bricks, of such superior quality as to hire 
in a wonderful degree resisted the assaults both of men and cf 
the inclement climate. 

The towns of A^hanistan are few in proportion to its extent: 
the principal are Kabool, Kandahar, Herat, Peshawur, Den 
Ohazee Khan, Dera Ismael Khan, Ghuznee, Istalif^ Charikar, 
Jelalabad, Kala Bagh, Kohat, GKriskh, Furrah, Subzawor, and 
Mittunkote. (See their respective names.) 

AGAUM, in Afghanistan, is a village in the district of Jek- 
labad. It is situated in a well-watered tract, abounding in gar- 
dens and rich cultivation, and studded with villages as fiEur as tiie 
eye can reach. Lat. 34* 25'. long. 1(f 26'. 

AGHOR, or HINGOL RIVER, in Beloochistan, rises in the 
mountains in the north of Lus, and, taking a southerly course, 
!^'A;c.^f j^n *all8 into the Arabian Sea, in lat. 25» 19', long. 65*> 2^. Its 
to Beyuh; Jour, stream ucvcr iutenuits, as most of those in this arid reeion. and 

k.%, Soc. 1840 p. o » 

147-iAo ; Hail, whcu iuundatcd by the melting of the snows on the mountains, 
it acquires a considerable volume of water. Where surveyed by 
Hart, about six miles from its mouth, it was found to be sixty 
yards wide and one foot and a-half deep, in January, when its 
stream is not swelled by melted snow. Its water is regarded as 
unwholesome, in consequence of the sand suspended in it. Near 
its right bank is the cave of Hinglaj, a celebrated place of pil- 
grimage, and in the bed of the river is a deep abyss, regarded by 
the credulous natives as unfathomable. The Aghor, or the Hingol 
as it is called in the uppermost part of its course, forms the 
boundary between the dominions of the Jam, or ruler of Lus, and 
the Khan of Kelat. 

AGRA. — A small village in Sinde, lying on one of the routra 
from Sehwan to Larkhana, is situate fifty-five miles north of 
the former place and two miles from the west bank of the Indus. 
The surroundmg country, part of the insulated district of Chand- 
koh, is fertile and well cultivated, Lat. 27° 8', long. eS** 2'. 

AHMEDABAD. — A fortress in Sinde, called also Dbejt, 
which see. 

AHMED KHAN. — A viUage in Sinde, on the route from 
Kurrachee to Sehwan. Lat. 25° 29', long. 67° 53'. 

AHMED KHAN KA MAGHA.— Asmall town of Afghan- 
istan, on the route from Shawl, or Quetta, to Ghuznee. Its posi- 


chUtan, 901 ; 
Jour. Ab. Soc 

Ace. of Jour, from 
Kurrachee to 

E.I.C. Ml. Doc. 

E.I.C. Ms. Doc. 

Leech, Rep. on 

AHM. 47 

tion is assigned, apparently from the report of natives, in lat. 3P 
21', long. 67° 20'. 

AHMED KHAN'S TANDA.— A large village of Sinde, in e.i.c. Mt. Doc. 
the route from Sehwan to Kurrachee, sixty-eight miles north-east 
of the latter place, about two miles south* west of Murraie Mu- 
kam, and lying above that place, on the river Murraie. Lat. 25^ 
27', long. 67° 54'. 

AHMEDPOOR.— A vUlage in the Punjab. Lat. 30° 34' , b.i.c. Mt. Doc 
long. 71° 46'. 

AHMEDPOOR. — ^A town in Bhawlpoor, sometimes called Leecb, sindh. 
Barra, or " the great," to distinguish it from Ahmedpoor Chuta, Both/iii/MH"" 
or *' the littie," in the same country. It is situate seventeen ??"f°"» ^- ^*- 
miles east of the Punjund river, on the route from the city of HouKh^Nwr.Ezp. 
Bhawlpoor to Khanpoor, and thirty miles south-west of the I^kfwaVirAife] 
former place. It was originally a military cantonment only, but *;"«? AtkiMon, 

^ ' ' ^ Exp. into A<^. 74. 

having been chosen as a residence of the Khans of Bhawlpoor, 

in consequence of its vicinity to the fortress of Derawal in the 

desert, it has become a place of considerable importance. The 

country aiound is saturated with moisture, so that water can 

everywhere be obtained by sinking wells to a slight depth. The 

water thus abundantiy available is raised by the Persian wheel, 

and poured over the surface of the soil, which is divided into 

small inclosures or beds of about twenty feet square. Under this 

management, the ground brings forth very luxuriant crops. 

" The verdure of each bed," observes Atkinson, " was of the 

brightest hue, the trees were numerous, roundly formed and full 

of foliage, which gave a richly picturesque garden-look to the 

whole view." The heat in summer is intense, and, acting on 

the moist soil, renders the air very unhealthy ; but the means 

of subsistence being abundant, the country is populous. The 

Khan takes much interest in the improvement of the town, and 

has lately built a sort of fort as a residence. There is a large and 

lofty mosque with four tali minarets, but the private houses are 

in general meanly built of mud. Ahmedpoor has manufactures of 

matchlocks, gunpowder, cotton, silks, and loongees, or fabrics for 

scarfs in which the two materials last mentioned are combined. 

The population may probably be about 20,000.* Lat. 29" 8', 

long. 71° 15'. 

* Hough (p. 12) stotes it at 30,000 ; AtkinflOD (p. 75) at between 9,000 
«nd 10,000. 

48 AHM— AKN. 

Leeeb, sindh. AHMEDPOOR CHUTA (or " the little "), a town of Bbavl. 

bSTa^! pI5"°" poor, 80 called to distmguish it from Ahmedpoor Barra, or " the 
i. 91, 89. great/' from which it is distant sixty-five miles south- west 

Notwithstanding the appendage to its name, it is hi from bong 
an inconsiderable town. It is inclosed with mud walls, and las 
a few scattered works, built of burned bricks, intended as de- 
fences, though, from their very unskilful construction, very ill- 
adapted to answer the purpose. Before the annexation of Sab- 
zulcote to the Bhawlpoor territory, in February, 1843, Ahmedpoor 
was the frontier town toward Sinde, defended by six cannon and 
between 300 and 400 men. Lat. 28"" 17', long. 69'' 48^. 
AIRUL.— See Arul. 
B.I.C. Mt. Doe. AISABAD. — ^A village in Afghanistan, on the route from 

Herat to Kandahar. Lat. 33" 22', long. 62" 2(/. 
Hough, S6S. AKALIGURH, in the Punjab ; a large town a little aaoHh 

of the route from Ramnuggur to Lahore. Is so called frtm 
having been built and peopled by the Akalis (immortals) or 
fanatic Sikhs, who live here in a state of desperate independence 
of the Sikh government, but are tolerated on account of their 
ferocious valour in foreign wars. Lat. 32® 17', long. 73° 37'. 
E.I.C.MS.DOC. AKKEHU. — ^A village situate in the north of Afghanistan. 

Lat. 36° 50', long. Sff" f. 
E.I.C. Ms. Doe. AKMUK.-^A village in Afghanistan, on the right bank of 

the Hehnund. Lat. 31° 31', long. 64° lO'. 

1 Joani. At. soe. AKNUR,^ in the Northern Punjab, is situate on the banks of 

i^Tv^'H^eL ^^ Chenaub, here a very large river. At the beginning of 

i. iM. August, when largest, it was found by Broome and Cunningham 

to have seven channels, the broadest* 920 yards wide, some of 

the others breast deep, and all having very rapid streams. The 

Chenaub is navigable downwards, from a point a short distance 

* vifme, Kashmir, above AknuT to the sea.^ The town, though mostiy in ruins, has 

to EipL^flwT"*^ a very fine and picturesque appearance when viewed from without, 

the remains of the old palace being strikingly contrasted with tiie 

buildings of the new fort. Here is a ferry over the river. 

Aknur is situated at the base of the lowest or most southern 

range of the Himalajra, where it first rises above the plain of the 

Punjaub. Lat. 32° 42', long. 74° 41'. 

* Vigne states the breadth of the river at Aknur, in the begumiDg of Jidj, 
at 100 yards, (i. 221.) 

AKO-^ALI. 49 

AKORA, the chief town of a small district of the saineBipii.Ace.ofCau- 
name belonging to the Khuttoks, is situate on the south or right Moorer. Pmu. 
bank of the Kabool river, about ten miles above its confluence ^JjJ; "j^,; 
with the Indus at Attock. At the commencement of the present Beng. Eng. ii. 54; 
century, it was a considerable and prosperous town, with a neat saTnough, Narr. 
mosque and a handsome bazaar, built of stone ; but has been jj,^^' ^ ^** 
nearly laid in ruins by the Sikhs. Lat. 84'' 3', long. 72'' 10^. 

AK SERAI. — ^A village in Afghanistan, twenty-two miles e-lc. mi. doc. 
north of Kabool. Lat. 34* 46', long. 69° 16'. 

ALEE BOOLGHAN.— See Ali Boohak. 

ALEM KHAN.— A village in Afghanistan, in the Daman, B.I.C. Mi. Doc. 
near the right bank of the Indus. Lat. 30° 23', long. 70^ 50^. 

ALGHOEE.'— A village in A^hanistan, nine miles north of ej.0. ms. doc. 
KabooL Lat. 34* 34', long. 69** 1'. 

ALIABAD. — A village in Western Afghanistan, on the ej.c. mi. doc. 
Adruscund river. Lat- £3*^ 24'. long. 62° 18'. 

ALIAR-KA-TANDA.— See Alla-tab-ka-Tanda. 

ALI BAGH.— A village in Sinde. in the eastern desert. Lat. » ' c- «■. doc. 
27° r, long. 69° 43'. 

ALI BOGHAN,» called also Surkh Dewar,^ in Afghanistan, 1JJ"{^^p^^^ 
is a small town giving name to a range of hills on the eastern Khyber psm, 6;' 
boundary of the valley of Jelalabad, and situate about ten miles p^.'iii.334; four. 
east of that town. Here, in October, 1842, the British army, tfi^!^^' ^' 

* I lo f M SCO rogop, 

under General Pollock, encamped on its march homewards, after oeogr. NoUoe of 
destroying the fortifications of Jelalabad. Lat. 34° 20', long. ^^.^^^^Sl!*' 
70° 34'. Elevation above the sea 1,911 feet.« W. 

ALI BUNDER. — In Sinde, a small town on the Gonnee, one Bokh. ». sss. ' 
of the offsets of the Indus to the east. Here is a dam made m ^xp^^a^'Im! 
1799 byFutteh Ali, one of the Ameers of Sinde. This, according 
to Pottinger,^ was " the only work of public utility ever made by * Boioochu, »». 
one of the reigning family," being intended to retain the water of 
the river for the purposes of irrigation, and to exclude the salt 
water, which, sent upwards by the tide, rendered sterile the sur- 
rounding country. This barrier had the natural consequence of 
causing in the channel of the Gbnnee a deposit of alluvial matter, 
which is gradually filling it ; so that, though formerly navigable 
throughout the year, this branch of the Indus had in 1809 be* 
come so shallow, that boats could ply only during four months of 
the mundation between Ali Bunder and Hyderabad. The channel 
below Ali Bunder has also become nearly obliterated,^ though * Bam«' Bokh. 

^ ° iU. 239, 811, 812. 

VOL. I. E 

50 ALL 

formerly by fieu: the greatest estuary of the Indus. The oontigooai 
part of Cutch also suffered the most disastrous oonsequenoes fnm 
the water being cut off; the district of Sayra, formerly remaik- 
able for fertility, ceasing to yield a blade of vegetation, and be- 
coming part of the Runn« or Great Salt Desert, on which it bor- 
dered. AU Bunder is in bif. 24^ IB\ long. 69^ 14'. 
B.LaMa.M4». ^^ MUSJID, in Afghanistan, is a fort in the Khyber Fsa^ 

about eight miles firom its eastern entrance, and b so called from 
I LeMh. Khyfacr a small mined mosque in its neifirhbourhood.^ The width of the 
Khyber TMt, s.' pass here is about 150 yards ;^ the elevation above the sea is 
E"^'*Ail*«;i' 2,433 feet. The fort is buflt on a peaked oblong rock,« about 

• Moorer. PuiU. 600 feet hiidi, nearly isolated, and with almost perpendicdar 

Bokh li 840 • o * • * ^ 

Mu. 0|».tai Aik. sides. It is commanded at a distance of 300 yards by two poa- 
« h; h 886 • <io*w»^ on« to ito routh, the other to its west, from which it oonld 
Alton, March ' be breached and the garrison dislodged by shells ; at its bas^ 
^roa^siiMtowd ^^^^ ^^ torrent which holds its way towards the eastern en- 

• HtTeiock, w« trance of the pass. There is no water within the fort, but die 

la A^- U. 191. 

garrison might be supplied from a well to which (according to 

• Van. ofEzp. to Hough^) there is a covered way. The water, however, though 
^mi Fwt. beautifully dear, ^ is very unwholesome, in consequence, it ia said, 
Narr. 181 ; Mm. of being impregnated with antimony,^ the spring rising from under 
i. 140. ' a rock composed of the sulphuret of that metal. It i^pean, in- 
hSSJii?^ 18 ^'^' **"^* "^ ^® water in the neighbourhood is so impregnated. 

From this or some other cause, the mortality by sickneaa of the 
British troops posted here in 1839 was frightful; of 2,442 no leas 
than 243 died in fifty-seven days. The fort at the time of its 

• H h^ia- MIL ^P^^'*'® ^y ^® British army was 150 feet long,* and sixty wide; 
Op. inAi^. 40* 188. it cousisted of two small castles joined by a dilapidated ynJl ; the 

whole inclosed space was 300 feet by 200, and a garrison of 

■ ,» ,» SOO or 600 men might be contained within the walls. Lieech^ 

■ Ut tapra, 10. ^ 

remarks, " It is situated at too great a height to be of much ser- 
vice in stopping a force passing below, while at the same time 
the steepness of the hill on which it is built would be a great 
obstacle to the same force storming it, which would be absolutely 
necessary to secure the passage of the main body or baggage in 
safety;" and Hough adds, "The garrison could not hold out 
against an enemy using shells ; from the narrowness of the pass 
and the height of the fort, there could not be a plunging fire from 

* MoorcFoft states that the defile here is in no place above twenty-five 
paoea broad, and in some not more than six or seven (ii. 349). 

ALL 51 

above/' In July, 1 839, the BritUh force under Lieutenant Macke- 
son, inyesting the fort, took up a position^ from which shells could !,"*2Sk?i«i 
be thrown into it, and it was immediately evacuated by the Afghan 
garrison. In November, 1841, it was invested by a large force 
of Afghan insurgents, whilst the garrison holding it for the Bri- 
tish government consisted only of 150 of the Eusufssai^ tribe, )MU.op. taAig. 
who remained fButhful to their engagements and maintained their ^' 
post until reinforced, though the enemy had succeeded in cutting 
off the water,^ blowing up some of the defences, and establishing * ^ ^« 
a position from which they galled the defenders with theiijezails 
or long rifles. In the January following,^ when a fruitless attempt * id. iss. 
was made by (General Wild to force the Khyber Pass, the garrison 
was reinforced by two regiments, who, a few days afterwards, 
succeeded in evacuating the fort, with the loes,^ however, of thirty* ^ id. u»-im. 
two men killed and 148 wounded. On the opening of the Khyber 
Fkss in the beginning of 1842, a garrison was again posted here 
by Oeneral Pollock, ^ and on the final evacuation of the country ^ id. «», sss. 
in November of the same year, it was entirely destroyed ^ by order * id. 4S8. 
of General Nott. Ali Musjid is in lat. 34*> 3', long. 71** 2(/. 

ALINGAR, 1 called- also the Kow, a river of Afghanistan, i Han. Bit a«. 
riong in Hindoo Koosh, and running south-west a distance of about ^^' ****» ***•"•• 
100 miles, until it joins the Alishang in the district of Lughman, 
and in lat. 34** 50', long. 70** 8'. After a farther course of twenty- 
five miles, the united stream falls into the river of Kabool on its 
northern side, in lat. 34"^ 36', long. 70° 4'. It derives its appel- 
lation from the valley of AUngar^ (part of the present district of 'Baber, Mem.iis. 
Lughman), through which it flows. Elphinstone,^ from native ' aoc of CmIwI* 
reports, describes this valley as very fertile, especially in grain. 

ALIPHUR, in the Punjab, a small town on the route from Hough, am. 
Surrukpoor to Ferozpoor. Here a road branches off on the north 
to Lahore. Lat. 31° 18', long. 74° 10'. 

ALIPOOR, a village in Sinde, on the left or eastern bank of Bumet' Bokh. 
the Indus. It is the usual landing-place for communication with ^^' ^' 
Khyerp6or, by means of the river. Lat. 27° 40', long. 68° 36'. 

ALIPOOR, a village in the Punjab, situate on the road from b.i.c. Mi. doc. 
Lahore to Ramnuggur, six miles from the latter place. Lat. 32^ 
18', bng. 73° 39'. 

ALISHANO, ' or river of Nadjil, in Afghanistan, rises in * Ma«on, Bai.Afg. 
the unexplored tract called Nadjil, on the southern slope of iu!s88. ' ' 
Hindoo Koosh, and flows southwards for about ninety miles, until 

B 2 

52 ALI— AMB. 

it joins the Alingar, flowing firom the north^eist. The i 

is at Tiigaree, in the province of Lugfaman, and in lat. 34"* 5Xf, 

long. 70° 8^ For the course of the united stream, see AKa^. 

ta^OT Sr'**' Th*** "* "^ in ^ province of Lughman a valley and a town, 

March of Ainu- cach Called Alishang, but scarcely any thing is known of either 

Bdwr, Mm. itf i AUZYE.— A Tillage in A&huiutaa, ritnate near the janctioQ 
181 ; Ei|di. 00. of two rosds, one from Kandahar, and the other from Babur-ka- 
E.i.a Mi. Doc yy^ ^ Quetta, from which place it is distant about forty milei. 

Lat. 30° 40'. long. 66° SO'. 
u»mm,BMi.kig. ALLAHABAD.— A town of Bhawlpoor, twenty-five miles 

PmJ. 1. 10-21. r • J 

south-west of Ahmedpoor. Lat. 28° 53', long. 70° 68'. 
RurM itop. OD ALLA- YAR-KA-TANDA.— A town in Smde, twenty miks 

Com. of Hyden- 

ind, 00; BofciMn, cast of Hyderabad. It is situate at the intersection of the two 
lu. 097. gi^^^ routes from Hyderabad eastward, and from Cutch to Uj^ier 

Sinde and the Punjab. It has some manufru^tures, principally 
in cotton and in dyeing. Population 5,000. Lat. 25° 21', long. 
68° 40^. 
E.I.C. M.. DOC ALLI JAH'S KILLA.— A village in Afghanistan, thirty-six 

miles north-east of Ohuznee. Lat. 33° 41', long. 68^ 50'. 
ALMA-DI-GOT.— See Amrajxi Kotb. 
ALTUMGOT.— See AMaAJxi Kotb. 
E.i.c.Mt.Doc ALTUMOOR.— A village in A^anistan, situate in the 

Sufieid Koh mountains. Lat. 33° 57', bng. 69° 35'. 
jonr. At. soc AM, in A%hani8tan, is a stronghold on the right or north- 

notiT (B.), noJT western bank of the Indus, and inclosed between that river and the 
«/*'bu^poi ^^ ^^ thickly-wooded range of the Mabeen Hilb, an offset 
pow. of sikhf, 1. of the Himalaya. The only access to it is frt>m the south, by a 
difficult path, cut in the face of the rock, which overhangs the 
river. It is held by Paiendah-Khan, a Mussulman freebooter of 
Mogul descent, who, though having no other possessions than 
this, with the adjacent stronghold of Chutter-bai, and a few vil- 
lages on the east bank of the Indus, has uniformly lived in open 
defiance of the Sikh power, and with impunity plundered its 
territory for the means of supporting his small armed force. Am 
is about fifty miles north-east of Attock, and in lat. 34° 17', 
long. 72° 54'. 
E.I.C.M..D0C AMAWANEE. — A village in the Punjab. Lat. 31° 20', 

long. 71° 45'. 
Moorcroft, 1. 110. AMB.— A small town in the Punjab, close to the southern 

AMB— AMR. 53 

base of the Himalaya, and on the route from Lahore to Nadaun. 
Lat. Sr 40^, long. 76* 10'. 

AMBAR. — ^A village in Afghanistan, on the ronte from the E.i.c. mi. doc. 
r>erajat to Kandahar, hy the Bazdar Pass. Lat. 29^ 51', long. 
70^ 12'. 

AMDABAD. — A village in the Ptinjab, situate two miles e.i.c. Mi. doc. 
from the right bank of the Jailum river. Lat. 32^ 33', long. 

AMEBNANA.^-A town in Binde, on the ronte from Lar- £.i.c. Mt. Doe. 
khana to Sehwan, and twelve miles north of the latter place. It 
is situate in the fertile island formed by the Narra and the Indus, 
and two miles west of the latter river. It is a considerable place, 
supplied with water from wells. Lat. 26^ 31'. long. 67'' 55'. 

AMEEN-LA-KA- JO-GOTB.— A village in Sinde, two miles e.i.c. m.. doc. 
from the left bank of the Indus. Lat. 25'' 56', long. 69* 23'. 

AMEER ALTALTA.— A village in Sinde, situate on the 
right bank of the Indus. Lat. 26** 40', long. 67** 56'. 

AMERKOTE.— See Ohbscotb. 

AMIL GOT. — A village in Sinde, near a ferry over the b.i.c. Ht. doc; 
Indus, on the route from Subzulcote to Shikarpoor, and ahout Jj^^'J^iJ?^*'^*" 
twenty miles east of the latter place. It is situate about a mile Hough, Nwr. of 

*^ Exp. In Afg. 15. 

from the right bank of the Indus, in a fine plain. Water for any 
considerable number of persons must be brought from the river, 
as the village has only a small well. At this ferry, the army of 
Shah Shoojah, amounting to 6,000 men, passed in January, 
18S9. The passage occupied seven days. Lat. 27^ 53', long. 

AMOO MAHOMED. — ^A village in Afghanistan, twenty- s.LC. Mt. Doe. 
five miles south of Lake Ab-istada. Lat. 32^ 8', long. 67^ 45'. 

AMRAJEB KOTE.^ — A small town in Sinde, situate on the i Rough Not««, 
left or eastern bank of the Indus, sixteen miles above Tatta. It MiLionlTsulue, 
corresponds, according to the statement of Outram, with Alum- ss. 
gote in the quartermaster-general's MS. map, and Altumgot in 
that of Walker, to which they assign lat. 24*» 51', long. 68** 4', 
and seems to be the place mentioned by Masson^ under the name « Bai. Afg. Pa^j.i. 
of Alma-di-got. *^^' 

AMRAN MOUNTAINS,' in Afghanistan, are a range bound- » e.i.c. mi. doc. 
ing the table -lands of Shawl and Pisheen on the west, as the 
Hala range does to the east. The elevated tract thus bounded 
connects the highlands of Tukatoo and the Toba mountains with 

54 AMR. 

* Ho«fh*s Nwr. those about Kelat. The Kojuk Pkun travenes this range, and ■ 
yjf;;»J"^"*the summit of the paw is 7,457 feet* above the aea, and the 
184S, p. 66; orif. Bummits of the Amran mountaiiu are about 1,200 feet hi^ier. 
Obi ; conoiij, the total eleralion of the highest part of the range can be littk 
Jo«r. to indta,u. 1^33^1^9 000 feet. This is the range called by Elphinatooe.* 

* Eiph. Aec of Macartney/ and Havelock,^ Khojah-Amrami. Lat. 30^ SO', long. 

Oaubut, 10ft, 194. - _ «/v/ 
MnMaptoElph. PO* 3(7. 

»w.riBA*.i. AMREE.— A viUage in Sinde, on the ronte firom Kobnee. 

Z.IJO, Ms. Dot. near Hyderabad, to Sdiwan, and tweaty-fonr miles sonth-east d 
this latter place. Amree is sitoate on the right bank of the 
Indus ; it is a small and apparently a poor village, but there is macb 
green cultivation near it. There is a small hill, abont fifty feet 
high, on its north side, from which a great extent of ciiltivatiGB 
is discernible in the dry bed of an oflfset of the Indus, running a 
conriderable distance to the north-west. The road here is in 
general good, though occasionally rendered rather difficult bj 
deep sands pnd sand-hills. Lat. 26'' 7', long. eS"" 2^. 

E.I.C. Mf. Doo. AMREE NULLAH, in Sinde, a water-course crossing the 

route between Sehwan and Kurrachee, eight miles east of the 
latter place. It takes a direction from north to south of about 
ten miles, and fells into the Gisry in lat. 24<' 52', long. 67^ 15'. 

£.i.c.iii.Doe. AMRIE.— A small river in Beloochistan, riees in the Pubb 

mountains, near the frontier of Sinde, and after a sontheriy 
course of about twelve miles, joins the Vehrab river in lat 
25*^ 40', long. 67*^ IC. 

AMRITSIR. — ^A city of the Punjab, is situate nearly half-way 
between the rivers Beas and Ravee. According to Baron Voo 

1 Ui.40O; BuniM' Hugel,! it is a larger town than Lahore, and the wealthiest and 

Bokhara, lii. 176 ; ° . , , . ^t i w ,. 

Malcolm on the most commercial place m Northern India. It owes its import- 
jlt^if AikTwf *°^® ^ * "^^^^ ®' i^eservoir, which Ram Das, the fourth Gm-u, 
Punjaub, SS1-8S9. or spiritual guide of the Sikhs, caused to be made here in 1581, 
and named Amrita Saras, or "fount of immortality." It thence- 
forward became a place of pilgrimage, and bore the names 
Amritsir and Ramdaspoor. Nearly two centuries after, Ah- 
med Shah, the founder of the Durani empire, alarmed and 
enraged at the progress of the Sikhs, blew up the shrine with 
gunpowder, filled up the holy Tulao, and causing kine to be 
slaughtered upon the site, thus desecrated the spot, which was 
drenched with their gore. On his return to Kabool, the Sikhs 
repaired the shrine and reservoir, and commenced the strug^e 


which terminated in the OTerthrow of Mahomedan sway in Hin- 
doetan. The T\ilao ia a square of 150 paces, containing a great 
body of water, pure as crystal, notwithstanding the multitudes 
that bathe in it, and supplied apparently by natural springs. In 
the middle, on a small island, is a temple of Hari or Vishnu ; 
and on the bank a dinunutive structure, where the founder. Ram 
Das, IB said to have spent his life in a sitting posture. The temple 
on the island is richly adorned with gold and other costly em- 
bellishments, and in it sits the sovereign Guru of the Sikhs, to 
receive the presents and homage of his followers.^ There are five 'AiiaticAim.ReR. 
or six hundred Akalees or priests attached to the temple, who uuiua, tv. 
have erected for themselves good houses from the contributions 
of the visitors. 

Amritsir is a very populous and extensive place. The streets 
are narrow, but the houses in general are tolerably lofty and 
built of burnt brick. The apartments, however, are small, but 
on the whole Amritsir may claim some little architectural supe* 
riority over the towns of Hindostan. It has spacious bazaars' ^5JJJ^jf"Jl'. 
furnished with the richest wares; it has also considerable Leech, tul a, p.7D; 
manufactures of coarse cloths and inferior silks, but especially ^^^^at, 9^ 
of fine shawls, made in imitation of the Kashmir fabric, ^^^'^ 
in which great quantities of goats' wool from Bokhara are con- 
sumed. There is besides a very extensive transit trade, as well 
as considerable monetary transactions with Hindostan and Central 
Asia, the prosperity of the place having, in these respects, re- 
sulted from the decay of Shikarpoor and Mooltan. Rock salt 
is brought on the backs of cameb from a mine near Mundi,^ * Mooter. Puiu. 
9bout 120 miles to the northward of Lahore, a large and solid vipJ^'Kadimir,* 
lump, resembling a block of unwrought marble, being slung on *- ^®'* 
each side of the animal. 

Runjeet Singh constructed a canal firom the Ravee, a dis- 
tance of thirty-four miles, but it is a mean and inexpensive 
work. The most striking object in Amritsir is the huge 
fortress Cbvindghur, built by Runjeet Sing in 1809, ostensi- 
bly to protect the pilgrims, but in reality to overawe their vast 
and dangerous assemblage. Its great height and heavy bat- 
teries, rising one above the other, give it a very imposing appear- 
ance. It contained, at the time of Hugel's visit,^ the treasure of » uj. aoo. 
Runjeet Singh, computed to amount to 30,000,000/. sterling, a 
sum which there b good reason to believe greatly exaggerated. 

56 AMU— AND. 

Here also it the mint of the Sikh goreniment. Aooaodiog to 

• 8. 400. Hflgel/ all the wealth of the Punjab is aocumnlated in AmiiiBr. 

and as it ia larger than Lahore, its population ia probmblj aboit 
1 20,000. Lat. 81* 42^, long. 74° 47'. 

AMUROURH.— A fortreaa in the north of the Punjab, 
two or three miles to the right of the route from Lahore to 1 
It belonged to Dyhan Singh, a powerful vaaaal of the Mahanp 
of the Sikha. The jealoua aTersion of the proprietor has pre- 

Kadimir, 1. stf. Tented any European from doaely surreying it, but Vigne, win 
at a diatanoe examined it by means of a telesoope, states it to be 
built on the precipitous bank of a ravine to the westward of it 
The outline is rectangular, and though built of stone and cf 
very solid masonry, it must fall before a regular attack, being 
eommanded from other eminences at no great diatanoe. It ii 
supposed to contain a large treasure and a magazine of artil- 
lery, ammunition, and smaU-arms, surreptitiously taken by Dyhaa 
firom Rnnjeet Singh. Lat. 32^ 55', long. 74« 11'. 

AMURNATH. — ^A cave amidst the mountains boundBag 
Kashmir on the north-east. It is a natural opening in a rock ol 

I Kadimir, u. 10. gypsum, and is, according to Vigne,^ about thirty yards higb and 

• PuiU.Bokh. u. twenty deep, but Moorcrof^ states it to be 100 yards wide, thirtf 
^^* high, and 500 deep. It is beUeved by the Hindoos to be titt 

residence of the deity Siva, and is hence visited by great crowds 
of both sexes and all ages. A great number of doves inhabit the 
cave, and these, being frightened by the shouts and tmnultiKyas 
supplications of the pilgrims, fly out, and are considered thus to be 
evidence of a favourable answer to the prayers offered ; the deity 
being supposed to come forth in the shape of one of these birds. 
Amongst other fables, it is asserted that those who enter the 
cave can hear the barking of the dogs in Thibet. It is mentioned 
»F. vonHugeu by Hugel^ under the name of Oumrath. Lat. d4^ 17', long. 

Kashmir, ii. 190. mco on/ 

E.I.C. Ml. Doc ANARDURRA.— A village in Western Afghanistan, aitoate 

on the Haroot or Subzawur river. Lat. ^T 46', long. 61"" SO'. 
E.I.C. Ms. Doe. ANDAVRE.— A village in Afghanistan. Lat 33^ 45', long. 

ir 59'. 

Barnes on Herat, ANDKHOO. — ^A towu in Afghanistan, on the northern 

M Jorcr. Trareh,' ^^^P^ of the Huzareh mountains. It is ruled by a petty chieftain, 

o ^' ^407 ^^^^' generally dependent on Kabool, though occasionally assuming a 

precarious independence. He has several Arabs in his aervioe. 

ANa— ARA. 57 

aaid can bring 500 hone into the field. The population, con. 
aiftting of Soonnee Mahomedans, is conudierable* and the dtiuu 
lion advantageous, being on the route to Balkh, but the country 
Buffers from the want of water, though the town itself is seated 
on a stream of some importance, which, flowing northwards from 
the Hozareh mountains, is lost in the lowlands of Bokhara, 
Here is grown a sort of wheat which produces its grain for three 
years. Andkhoo has a melancholy interest, as being the place of 
the death of Moorcroft, who came here to purchase horses. Lat. 
86** 54', long. 65** 28'. 

ANGEERA.*— A halting-place in Beloochistan, on the route »BJ.c.Mi. doc; 

Outnun, Rough 

from Kelat to Sonmeanee, and sixty miles south of the former Nouib t06. 

place. It is situate in a plain and on a water*course, one of the 

sources of the Moola river, which flows down the Gundava Pass 

to Cutch Ghmdava. It was formerly inhabited by Beloochees of 

the Zeehree tribe, but was found deserted at the end of 1839, 

when the British army, under General Willshire, after storming 

Kelat, passed it, marching to Sinde by the Ghindaya Pass. The 

road at Angeera divides ; one branch proceeding southwards to 

Sonmeeanee, the other eastwards through the Moola or Ghmdava 

Pass. At a short distance to the south^ are the remains of massive ' ^•"oa, Kai. 63. 

and extensive ramparts, skilfully constructed to secure the passes 

in that directian. Pottinger,^ in the beginning of February, found * Bcinochtfum, 37. 

the cold intense ; the water in the water-bags being frozen into a 

soM mass. This fact is readily explainable by reference to the 

elevation of the plain above the level of the sea, which is 5,250 

teet. Angeera is situate in lat. 28^ 1(/, long. 66^ 12^. 

ANGHORIAN.— A vilkge in A^hanistan, eight miles south ^-^ >>•- ^^ 
of Kandahar. Lat. 3^ 31', long. 65^ 28', 

ANIAN.— A village in Afghanistan, situate on the right bank b-i-c* Ms. Doe. 
of the Indus. Lat. 34'' 5', long. 72° 24'. 
ANJEERA.— See Angxxba. 

ANJYRUK.— A viUage in Afghanistan. Ut. 35'' 35', long, bic m.. doc 
64° IC. , 

ANTRB ROUSTAM.—A village in Afghanistan. Lat. 34*' b-xc. mi. doc. 
28', long. 72^*12'. 

AOWBUH. — ^A village in Afghanistan, situate on the Hen- bi-O. Mi. do«. 
Rood, or Hury river. Lat. 34° 19'. long. 63° 7'. 

ARABUL, in Kashmir, a beautiful cataract on the Veshau, vigm, 1. sor. 

68 ARA— ARU. 

one of the principal tributaries of the Behut cnr Jaflnin. 
3^ 85', long. 74** 40'. 
ARAK.— See Beak. 
B.IX;. Mt. Doe. AREDO. — ^A TiUage in A%haniittim, ritoate on the a 

river. Lat. 85* 6', long. 70* «. 
iLixx Ma. Doe. AREEJAW, in Sinde, a large village on the route from Sch- 

wan to Tiarkhana, in the fertile island indoaed between the 
Indus and its offset the Namu It is situate eight mDes a little 
west of south finim Iiarkhana, the same distsnoe west of the 
Indus, and one mile east of the Namu lAt. 27"* 22^, lon^. 69* 
I raph. Aee. of AROHASAN, or URaHESSANN.^— A river in AigfasmialBB, 

miimC ^BttL kfg, rising in the western declivity of the Amran mountaiiis, and 
Puo. u. iM. flowing westward to its confluence with the Tumak, abcmt laL 
31'' 31', long. 65''3(y. It is a rapid transient torrent, aeldaoi 
retaining any depth of water for more than two or three dajs, and 
leaving its bed dry for the greater part <^ the year. It was 
« HaTeioek, War found totally devoid of water' when the British army mardied 
^^*-*"**- across it in 1839. 

EI a Ms. Doe. ARS BEGHEE, in Afghanistan, is a small walled town, 

about sixty-two miles a little west of south from Ghuznee, and 

about twelve miles north-west of Ab-istada lake. It is situate on 

the great route from Ghuznee to Shawl, in a very fertile oonntzy. 

Lat. 32** 48Mong. 67** 41'. 

ootram, 47; ARUL, or AIRUL, in Sinde, is a water-course, or diaiind, 

Narr. 41 ; Ken- proceeding fiom the south-eastern part of Lake Manchur (an ex- 

nedf, L 170. pansiou of the Nam), and discharging its water into the Indus, 

on the western side, about four miles below Sehwan, after a 

course of about twelve miles. At Sehwan it is a deep, sluggish 

stream 200 feet wide. The Narra, the lake, and the Aral form a 

eontinuous channel communicating at both extremities with the 

Indus, and running for above 200 miles nearly parallel to it on 

the western side.* As the current is very moderate in this 

* OutnuD, on the authority of HoUand, statei (p. 46) that the Ami is a 
regurgitation from the main stream of the Indna in an opposite or nortfaeriy 
direction, expanding into Lake Manchnr, and in this he is followed bj Poe- 
Joar. At. Soe. tans ; but Westmacott, who giTes a minute, well-digested, and probably 
1840, p. 1907, correct account of this body of water, notices distinctly (p. 1207) its 
^vJ^^ ** mer^tfi^ from the east side of Lake Mnndiur," and states that there is 

ASL— ATT, 59 

duaimel during the immdatioD, it ifl then more frequented than 
fche main stream. Lat. ^S"" 25\ long. G?"" 5(/. 

ASLOO.— A Tillage in the Punjab, twenty miles south of b.ixx mi. Doe 
I^ahore. Lat. 31'' 20", long. 74<' 2(/. 

ASTOR, or HUSARA. — ^A large and turbulent river, flowing v%iMb KMhmir, 

If qjMI jIflO 900. 

generally from south-east to north-west, and discharging itself a^o. ' 
into the Indus on the eastern side, at Acho. It drains a valley 
called also Husara, which lies between kt. 85^— *d5^ 25^ long. 74^ 
3<y-— 75^ and is described by Vigne, periuqpe the only European 
vrbo has yisited it, as " narrow, picturesque, and fertile," but in the 
aouthem part desolate, in consequence of the devastations of the 
Sikhs and of the neighbouring marauders of Dardu. It is rich in 
botanical treasure, and produces a great variety of t r ees t he fir, 
pine, jelgotu, ot pine bearing edible seeds, juniper, mulberry, wal« 
nut* wild peach, apricot, almond, berberry, gooaeberry, currant, 
and vines. The rajah of this valley, who has been generally depen- 
dent on that of Iskardho, resides at the fort of Astor, situate on 
an angle formed by the confluence of a tributary stream and the 
river Husara, and built of wood and stones, with ramparts sur- 
rounded by square towers, so strong as, if well defended, to be 
proof against any attack by means of small-arms. The lang^uage 
of the people is Pushtoo. The fort of Astor is in lat. 35® 16', 
long. 74** 44'. 

ASTOLA. — An island situate eighteen miles ofi^ the southern Honimrgfa, e.i. 

Mr L 404 * K I G 

ooast of Beloochistan. It is three miles in length from east to Ht.'Doe. * " 
west, and of a moderate breadth. On the north side are shoals 
and inlete abounding in turtle. Between the island and the main 
land is a safe channel eight miles broad, with soundings from five 
to eight fathoms. Lat. SS'' 1\ long. 63'' 40^. 

ATGAH. — ^A village in Sinde, on the route from Omercote to vljljo. mb. doo. 
Nuggur Pbrker, and sixteen miles south-east of the former place. 
Lat. 25** 12^, long. 7(f 2f. 

ATLAH. — ^A village in Afghanistan, twenty-eight miles north- e i.o. m*. doo. 
east of Ghuznee. Lat. 33"^ 52^, long. 68® 33'. 

ATTAUREE. — ^A village in the Punjab, five miles from the iljjo. mi. noe. 
right bank of the Sutluj. Lat. 30*^ 37', long. 73** 53'. , ^^^ ^^ u^ . 

ATTOGK.i— A fort and small town in the Punjab, on the left Hoo^ nut. 

Bzp. In A4r. S84 ; 
through the weedy surface of the lake a channel fifty or sixty feet wide, in fr^Tj^'lJgj?' 
which the current sets to the eastward, towards the Indus, at about two AU«n, Marah 
miksanhour. through Sinde and 


60 ATT. 

pJ^^^qT^ or east boik of the Indus, 942 nukB horn the sea,^ and doR 
below the place where it receives the water of the Kabool rive, 
and first becomes navigaUe. The name, mgDifyrog oAsUude* is 
supposed to have been giyen to it under tbe presnmptioa tbit 

* AitatieB*- no scrupulous Hindoo would proceed westward a€ it ;' tat fim 
0as; wiiford, m vtrict principle, like many others of similar nature, is little acted 
**^^;*;jJ2;^ on. Some state that the name was given by the Emperor Aldiar,^ 
lA. ' because he here found much difficulty in crossing the river. The 
» wood,oziii»isi. river itself is at ^s place frequently by the natives called Attoek.* 

Here is a bridge, formed usually of from twenty to thirty boats 

• LMcb, Qt fupn. across the stream,^ at a spot where it is 537 feet wide/ la 

7 Burnet' Perg. , , •.*. • .'l t ^ -_- 

Nan. 110. sunmier, when the melting of the snows m the lofty moantaiBi 

to the north raises the stream so that the bridge beoomes 
endangered, it is withdrawn, and the oommunioBtkm is then 

• iieech,ut supra; effected by mcaus of a ferry.® The banks of the river are voy 
TuTE^ph. Ace. of high, so that the enormous accession which the volume of water 
caubui,7i*. receives during inundation scarcely ailects the breadtii, hut 

merely increases the depth. The rock forming the banks is of 

• Hoorer.puio. dark-cobured slate,^ polished by the force of the stream, so as 
Lord, Koh-i- to shiue like black marble. Between these " one dear htoe 
illSpJlii^****'' stream shot past." » The depth of the Indus here is thirty feet in 
» woodinDumea* the lowest State, and between sixty and seventy in the highest,' 
' Wood, ozua, 181. A^d Funs at the rate of six miles an hour. There is a ford at 

some distance above the confluence of the river of Kabool ; but 
the extreme coldness and rapidity of the water render it at afi 

* Bumea* Bokh. i. times very dangerous,^ and, on the slightest inundation, qnite 
Z\^iZ'^ unpracticUe. The bridge is supported by an .ssodation of bet. 
^j^Mo** ^^'^' ^^® receive the revenue of a village allotted for this purpose 

* Leecb, Attock, by the Emperor Akbar,^ and secured to them by the Sikh goven- 
^^ ment at present holding the place. They also receive a small 

daily pay as long as the bridge stands, and levy a tofl on all pas- 
sengers. On the right bank, opposite Attock, is Khyrabad, a 
» Leoch, Attoek, fort, built according to some by the Emperor Akbar,* according 
^ Eiph. 71*. to others by Nadir Shah.^ This locality is, in a military and 
commercial point of riew, of much importance, as the Indus is 
here crossed by the great route which, proceeding from Kabool 
eastward through the Kbyber Pass into the Punjab, forms the 
main line of communication between Afghanistan and Northern 
India, llie river was here repeatedly crossed by the British 

♦ Shakcspear, in v. i^<S\ . 

ATU.— AZE. 61 

Qirmies doling the late military operations in A^baniatan ; and 

liere, according to the general opinion, Alexander, subeequently 

Tiiniir, the Jagatayan conqneror, and still later Nadir Shah/ ^ Remeii, Me- 

crosaed; bat there is much uncertainty on these points. The hldttB.^p.86.*' 

fortress was erected by the Emperor Akbar^ in 1581, to com- • Leech, Attock, 

mand the passage, but though strongly built of stone on the high '^ 

9nd steep bank of the river, it could offer no effectual resistance 

to a regular attack,^ being commanded by the neighbouring »Eiph.ntrai>ra; 

beights. Its form is that of a parallelogram ; it is 800 yards long ^^"{i^] 

and 400 wide. The town, which is inclosed within the walls of Hough, Narr. Exp. 

the fort, was formerly considerable, but has now gone greatly to 

decay. The population is estimated by Bumes at 2,000.^ Run* > boUi. i. to. 

jeet Singh obtained possession of Attock with his characteristic 

trickery, having by a bribe induced the Afghan commander to 

surrender it to bim.2 Lat. 33° 64', long. 72*> 18'. I»!Irii"'2!^''^'*^' 

ATUK, in A%hani8tan, is a village in Jamrad, a well- watered e.i.c. ms. doc. 
district in the Diuimi country, about forty-five miles a little west 
of south of Ghuznee, and twenty-five miles north-west of Ab- 
iatada lake. It lies on the great route from Ohuznee to Shawl. 
Lat. 33*» 4\ long. 68°. 

ATUK. — ^A village in Bhawlpoor, situate on the left bank of B.i.a Ms. doc 
the Ghara river, and twenty-five miles west of the town of 
Bhawlpoor. Lat. 29° 24'. long. 71° 13'. 

AU600. — ^A village in Afghanistan, eighteen miles south e.i.c. ms. doc 
from Lake Ab-istada. Lat. 32° 17, long. 67° 48'. 

AUGOOMANOO.— A vilkge in Sinde, situate on the Poo- mi. Sonrej M«p. 
lana river and twenty-five miles south-west of Hyderabad. Lat. 
25° 6', long. 68° 43'. 

AUK TUPPA.— A village on the north-western frontier of bio. Mt. Doc. 
A^hanistan, situate on the banks of the Kooshk river, about five 
miles south from its confluence with the river Moorghab. Lat. 
86° 10', long. 62° 81'. 

AWAN.— A village in the Punjab, ten miles north-east of e.i.c. hi. doc. 
Lahore. Lat. 31° 41', long. 74^' 26'. 

AWCHIRI RIVER.— A river in the north of Afghanistan, e.i.c. Hb. Doc 
which takes its rise in the mountains north of the district of 
Fanjkora, in lat. 35° 45', long. 72° 88', and, after a south- 
westerly course of about forty miles, joins the Lundye river, in 
kt.35°30',k)ng.72°l'. .eicm^Doc 

AZEEZPOOR, 1 a village in Sinde, lies on the route from AtunMn'i Exp.'* 

Into Ali|.06. 

62 AZR— BAB. 

Salnuloote to Shikarpoor, and eighteen miles a little mtmA d 
west of the latter place. It is situate on the east bank of the 
Indus, oyer which is a ferry called Azeezpoor Pataiu Bf 

• Cor. M siBdt^ treaty of Norember,^ 1842, it was ceded, together with SuhzsL 

^^ ^^' cote and several other towns, to Mahomed Bhawlkhan, and in tibe 

following Fehmary it was transferred acoordin^y. Lat. 2T* 5f, 
long. 69^2^. 

s.i.a Ma. Doe. AZEREB CHUKEE, in Afghanistan, is a post and mill, oa 

the route from Kandahar to Ghuznee. It is situate an the r^ 
or west bank of the Tumak riyer, twelve miles south-west oi 
Kilat-i-Ghiljie, at a spot where a sort of pass is formed by the 
high ground on the west dosing down on the river. A road 
running off to the east over a small stone bridge is the boundnj 
between the Durams and Ghiljies ; and it is in consequence of 
this division, perhaps, that the country is peculiarly dangeroost 
from the marauding practices of the people. Lat. 30° 2^, long. 
66** 83'. 

B.I.C Ms. Doc. AZIM KHAN.^A village in Afghanistan. Lat. SI*' 59*, 

long, ee^ 25'. 


B.I.C. 1ft. Doc. BAB. — ^A village in Sinde, on the right bank of the ndiis. 

Lat. 28** IC, long. 69*» !(/. 

£.1.0. lit. Doe. BABA HADJEE. — ^A village in Afghanistan, twelve miles 

south-west of Giriakh, and seven miles from the right bank of the 
Helmund. Lat. 31° 39^, long. 64** 13', 

Walker's Map of BABA KARA. — ^A village in Northern Afghanistan, situate 

^' on a branch of the Lundye river. Lat. 35° 16', long. 71° 29'. 

E.I.C. Ms. Doc. BABA MOORGHAB.— A village in Western A%hani8tan, 

on the right bank of the river Moorghab. Lat. 35° 40', long. 63°. 

£.1.0. Ms. Doc BABER-KA-CHA, in South-western Afghanistan, is a col- 

lection of weUs, said to have been made by Sultan Baber for the 
relief of the travellers on the dreary and little frequented route 
from Ghuznee to Shawl. It is about eighty miles a little west of 
south from Lake Ab-istada. Lat. 31° 23', long. 67° 25'. 

BAB.— BAG. is 

BABLA.— A village in Sinde, on the nNui from Oarrah to £.i.g. mi. doc. 
"Fattah, and twenty^three miles south-west of the latter town. 
Lat. 24° 42^, long. 67** 40'. 

BABOORA RIVER, in Beloochistan, a small stream cross- eja ifa.ooe. 
ing the route from Kurrachee to Haja Jamote, in Lus« Lat. 25° 
SC/, long. 67° 6'. 

BABOOS.—A Tillage in A^hanistan. Lat. 34° 4\ long. Waiker*i]i^>or 
68^ 51'. ^• 

BABOO SABOO.— A village in the Punjab, situate on the B.i.a Ms. Doe. 
left bank of the Ravee river, and five miles south-west of Lahore. 
Lat. 31° 31', long. 74° !(/. 

BABUR-KA-KILLA. — A village in A%hani8tan, on the in- b.i.o. Ms. Doe. 
tersection of the eastern route from Ghuznee to Shawl with that 
from Dera Ismael Khan to Kandahar. Lat. 31° 34', long. 67° 56'. 

BABUTTJ. — ^A village in Sinde, situated on the Kukiwaree e.i.0. Ms. doc. 
month of the Indus. Lat. 24° 2', long. 67° 35'. 

BADABEER. — ^A village in A^hanistan, seven miles south- Wauur't Map of 
west from Peshawur. Lat. 33° 54', long. 71° 34'. ^' 

BADDRA. — ^A village in Beloodustan, about twenty miles bj.c. Mt. Doc. 
north of Dadur, and dose to the frontiers of Sewestan. It con- 
tains 500 inhabitants, who, though located in Beloochistan, are 
Afghans, ruled by a Barukzye chief. Lat. 29° 44', long. 67° 50'. 
BADOO RIVER.— See Badoor. 

BADOOR.— A river in Beloochistan. Pottinger^ who crossed MoodUrttii. i84, 
it in lat. 28° 37', long. 64° 30', found its channel 500 yards wide, 
and covered with jungle, harbouring wild beasts, but, at that sea- 
son, devoid of water, llie course of this channel is south-west, 
and Pottinger was informed that, about 150 miles below the point 
where he saw it, a large body of water rises in the bed, and, 
flowing south-west, passes by Kedge, where it is called the 
Mooleeanee river. Below that town it is called Bhugwar, and 
still further down, the Dustee, Ming into the Arabian Sea in lat. 
24° 5', long. 61° 50'. It can be traced upwards to the Ourm- . 
sehl, or depressed tract, about the lower course of the Hel- 
mund, and Pottinger supposes the water of that river to have 
been at a remote period discharged into the Arabic Sea by this 

BAGAE GOTE.— A village in Sinde, on the route from bic mi. Doc. 
Sehwan to Larkhana, and thirteen miles south of the latter place. 
It is situate in a very fertile country between the Indus and its 

64 BAG. 

afiiet the Narrmp seven miles firom the former andamiksiidty 
bam the latter. Lat. a?"" 20', long. 6d^ 12". 
BAGH.— SeeBHAo. 
E.La laoM. BAGHAW» in A%banistsn, is a small town of Sewestan; it 

is situate on the route from Dere Ghazee Khan to Kandalnr. 
through the Sukkee Surwar Pass, and westward of the SoHaiB 
mountains. A small stream rises here. Population about 2,000. 
Lat. 3(r 16', long. 68« 34'. 
E.i.c.Bfi.noe. BAGH-I-ALUM.— -A village in A^hanistan, situate in the 

plain of Begram, thirty-one miles north from Kabool. I^. ^' 
54', long. 69** 20'. ' 

BAGHWAN, BAGWANA, or BUNKAR, in BdoochisUn, 
on the road from Khozdur to Kelat, and seventy miles aoa&d 
the latter place, is a cluster of villages, situate in a fertile vaDe;, 
■ MMM»,Bd.Ai^. amidst gardens and orchards, ' producing figs, apricots, pomegn- 
PaiU- u- tf • nates, grapes, apples, plums, and melons. There is also abundance 
• Beioocbbtan, 87. of grain and grass. The cold here is severe in winter. Pottiuger- 
found the contents of the water-bags carried with his paitj 
frozen into solid ice in the beginning of February. Such a circom- 
stance in so low a latitude proves the elevation above the sea to 
be very considerable, probably not less than 5,000 feet. Far 
this reason the inhabitants emigrate to Ghmdava in winter. Ut 
27^55', long. 66° 18'. 
v«i Hociri, ui. BAGHWARRAH, in the Punjab, a considerable town near 

the western bank of the Sutluj, and on the route from Loodiana to 
Lahore. It is situate in a fertile region containing numeioQS 
gardens and orchards. The population is about 15,000. I^ 
31° 13', long. 75^47'. 
B.I.C. Ma. Doe. BAGKDO. — ^A village in Afghanistan, situate on the Hght 

bank of the Indus, twelve miles north-east from Mittunkote. 
Lat. 29^ 3', long. 70° 31'. 
B.I.C. Mt. Doc4 BAGKDODRA.— A village in Sinde, on the route from Sub- 

tato*A^?87f ***' Jralcote to Shikarpoor, and twenty^four miles south-west of the 
former place. It is situate ten miles from the left bank of the 
Indus, in a swampy tract liable to inundation, and dose to a 
considerable nullah, over which passes the road, which in many 
places is very indifferent. There is an encamping-ground oo 
the south of the village, supplied with five wells of good water. 
Lat. 28° 4', long. 69° 10'. 
S.I.C. Mt. Doc. BAGURAMEE.— A village in Afghanistan, eight miles south- 

BAG— BAJ. 65 

east of Kabool, on the left bank of the river liOguhr. Lat. M° 
27Mong. 69^ 11'. 

BAGWANA.— See Baohwait. 
BAHAWULPOOR.— See Bhawlpoob. 

BAHRAM. — A village in Sinde, on the route from Larkhana e.i.c. hb. dm. 
to Ghindava, and twenty-five miles north-west of the former place. 
Lat. 27** 43', kng. 67*» 55'. 


BAHUR, in Beloochistan, a torrent, the bed of which for a jour. as. Soc 
great part of the year is a ravine devoid of water. When the i^^' ft^i^^ 
stream flows, it falls, after a course of about eight miles, into the ra«hee toHingiaj. 
Bay of Sonmeanee. Lat. 25'' 12', long. Ser 43'. 
BAIDA.— See Boda. 

BAIDYANATHFUR, in the Northern Punjab, a small town Moorar. i. iso. 
near the eastern bank of the Binoa river, which lower down falls 
into the Beas. It is a very poor place, but contains a Hindoo 
temple. The surrounding country is very fertile, yielding every 
year two crops ; the first principally of rice, considered the finest 
among the hill states, the second of wheat. Lat. 32^ 8', long. 
76° 35'. 

BAIRAN. — A village 'm Afghanistan, situate on the Tur- e.i.c. Hs. i>oc. 
nak river. Lat. 32° 28', long. 67° 12'. 

BAJAR, in Sinde, a large village, about nine miles south- e.i.c. ms. Doc 
west from Sehwan, on the route from that place to Kurrachee. 
Lat. 26° 16', long. 67° 48'. 

BA JOORAH, in Sinde, on the route from Hyderabad to E.I.C. Ms. ooc 
Sehwan, and twelve miles south of the latter place. It is 
situate on the north-west bank of a dund, or extensive pool, left 
by the inundation of the Indus. Lat. 26° 14', IcMig. 68° 2'. 

BAJOUR,^ on the north-east of Afghanistan, is a territory ' aoc orcauboi, 
contBining a town of the same name. Though at no great dis- ^l^^^'*il^^ 
tance from the Punjab and the plain of Peshawur,* scarcely any ^7^° Akbery, u. 
thing is known concerning it beyond what was gleaned by the sa- 
gacity and industry of Elphinstone fix)m native information. It is 
a plain, or rather a spacious valley, on the south side of the Hindoo 
Koosh, from which a lofty ridge runs southwards, dividing Bajour 
on the west from Kafiristan. On the north-east it opens to 

* CoQoUy (Edward) had explored this territory to a conaiderable extent, jour. Af. Soc 
and waB preparing to give his information to the public— a step frustrated by ^^*^t P- ^^» 
Wa lamented but honourable death. EulSfcyw!**" 

VOL. I. F 

66 BAK— BAL. 

Pftojkora, by a tract of no great elevation called BerawuL Oa 
the east it is bounded by the hills held by the Otmannkhail ; on 
the south it communicates with the Suwat and the Eusufen 
country, by the valley, through which the Lundye river flows. 
It lies between lat. 34« 45'— 35*» Itf, long. 7P 5' — 71** 35'. 
and is about twenty-five miles long and fifteen broad. Hk 
mountains which inclose it are nearly inaccessible firom their 
steepness, and the forests, principally of oak and cedar, which 
cover them, are so thick as to exclude the rays of the sun. These 
afford covert for numerous wild beasts. The plain of Bijoor 
resembles that of Peshawur, and is very productive, especisJly in 
wheat. It is held by the Afghan tribe of Turcolaiinee, w^, 
unlike their neighbours, the Eusufzai, are ruled by a chief having 
considerable power, and bearing the title of Bauz, Their number 
is probably about 70,000 or 80,000 ; but as there are other 
inhabitants, descendants of Kafirs, Hindoos, Moguls, and others, 
the total number may be about 120,000. The chief is said to 
have an income of about a lac of rupees annually, and has usually, 
on emergencies, furnished a body of troops to the Afghan govern- 
* MU. Qp. In Ai^. ment. In the battle of Jelalabad,^ in April, 1842, he was among 
^^' the discomfited parties. Bajour contains an inexhaustible supply 

' Jour. As. soc of iron-ore of the finest quality.' It is found in the form of a 
Drnnmiond on the hkck sand, washcd down by the torrents from the deposits in the 
iiin. Retourcet of mountains, and fipom this source the greater part of Northern 
Afghanistan and the neighbouring states are supplied. The two 
chief towns, Bajour and Nawagye, have each about 5,000 inhabi- 
« Joar. Am. Soc. tants. Bajour is supposed to be the Bazira mentioned by the 
cSISt,^bJ2i:i. historians of Alexander.^ Lat. 35° 2', long. 71° 23'. 
Se^lr*"' BAKASIR.— A village in Sinde. Lat. 24° 46', long. 

E.I.C. Mi-Doc. 71° 11'. 

Hoogh, 849. BAKERALA, in the Punjab, a small town on the route from 

Attock to Rotas, is situate on the banks of the Kasee, which 
here winds its way through frightful defiles. Lat. 33° 5', long. 
73° 20'. 

BAKKAR.— See Bukkur. 

E.i.aMt.Hap; BALA BAGH, in Afghanistan, a small walled town in the 

Mttnon Ba.1 Alb 

Paqj. i.'i88» iii. ' Valley of Jelalabad, and about fifteen miles west of the town of 
MoonratL Puixj. ^^^^ name, is situate on the left bank of a large stream falling 
Bokh. li. 2fio ; into the Soorkh Rood. It is celebrated for its fruits, as well as 
Beng. Bng. u. w. ^OT its sugar-caue, which is here extensively cultivated, more. 

BAL— BAM. 67 

however, for a sweetmeat than for the manufectare of sugar. 
The ndghbourhood abounds in topes or monuments of an hemi- 
spherical form, usually standing on a cylindrical base, the date 
and object of whose erection have been the subject of much 
controversy. The best-founded opinion, however, appears to be 
that they were places of burial of eminent followers of the Bud- 
dhist creed.* By some they are considered to have been merely 
repositories of relics, to which veneration was attached by the 
Buddhists. In a commercial point of view, the town is the most 
important place in the valley of Jelalabad. Lat. 34^ 22^, long. 
7(r 14'. 

BALADEH.— -A village m A%hanistan, seven miles south £i*<^* ><•• i^* 
fiom Kandahar. Lat. 31° 32". long, ed"" SO". 

BALE RIVER.— A small river in Beloochistan ; takes its 
rise in the Sarawanee mountains, and, flowing by the town of 
Sarawan, disappears to the eastward of it, the water being 
totally absorbed or evaporated. Where observed by PotUnger, Beioocbistm, iss. 
in lat. 29^ long. 64° 42^, it was found to have a supply of 
excellent water, represented by the natives as never failing, and 
when swollen by rain, to become a large and rapid torrent. 

BALLA ATTA KHAN. — ^A village in Afghanistan, sitnafce e.i.c. ms. doc. 
on the right bank of the Helmund river, six miles north-east 
from Giriskh. Lat. 31° dff, long. 64° 26'. 

BALLOO JIRDA REE KA KOOBEH.— A village in Sinde. eic. m.. doc. 
Lat. 26° 20', long. 68° 47'. 

BALLYAREE. — A village in Sinde, situate about five miles e.i.c. Mi. doc. 
north from the Great Western Rin. Lat. 24° 11', long. 69° 37'. 

BALTI, or BALTISTAN.— See Bulti. 

BAMBOORA, in Sinde, near Ghurrah or Gharry-Kote, is aOutnm, o; 
ruined city exhibiting marks of great antiquity, displaying the is ; De la Hoste, 
remains of ramparts, bastions, towers, and houses, and bearing ^°^' ^gj^' 
evidence of former population and trade in the number of coins wood, oxus, is ; 
washed up in time of rain. Lat. 24° 40', long. 67° 41'. Jo"r"of ai. soc. 

BAMBUT POORA.— A village in Sinde, on the route from f ^T^l?'"* f ** 
Shikarpoor to Larkhana, and sixteen miles north-east of the Pottinger, 846. 

JB I C Ma TWm* 

latter place. It contains 300 inhabitants, and is supplied with 

water from a well. Lat. 27° 41', long. 68° 30'. 

* Much profound leanung has been displayed on this curious and recondite 
subject by Professor Wilson (Ariana Antiqua^ p. 62, et al.) and by Ritter 
(Erdknnde von Aslen, rii. 286—303). 


68 BAM. 

E.W. If.. Do«. BAMEEKUTAIR.— A village in the Punjab, sitaate on die 

left bank of the Ravee river.— Lat. 30° SS', long. 73" 26'. 

> Wood, Roate of BAMIAN/ in Afghanistan, a celebrated valley on the xtmte 
1^! «il mT"" frooa Kabool to Turkestan, is generally regarded as the bomukiy 

between the Hindoo Koosh on the east, and the Paropamisan or 
Huzaieh group on the west* It'uoi very great importance, being 
the only known pass across the Himalaya, or the Hindoo Koosh, 
practicable for artillery or heavy carriages. It is also the great 
commercial route, for though there are several passes to the 
eastward, they are less frequented, on account of their diffi- 
> BoniM' Bokh. L culty and the elevation of their higher parts. The valley' 
i^' xih-i- ** *^^^ * "^® broad, and very fertile, and is bounded on eadi 
Dunun,58t Jour, side by nearly perpendicular steeps, generally of conglomeiate. 
7; c^nrd, RouU It is situatc jttst withiu the frontier of Afghanistan, where it joins 
Jj^j^- ^ Kunduz. On the southern or Afghan side are four prindpal 
passes ; Oonna 11,320, Hajeguk 11,700, Kaloo 10,883, and Erak 
12,909 feet above the level of the sea ; on the northern or Kun- 
duz side, three ; Akrobat, Dundun Shikur, and Kara Kotul, each 
4B.i.c.Ht. Map; between 9,000 and 10,000 feet above the sea.^ As for as om* 
cttb, and Toork. information extends, it appears that the routes, both north and 
Puij^Bokr^iT' ^^^> *^ ^^'y complicated, but that all are at Bamian restricted 
SM-S0&. to one line, which holds its course through the valley. The 

* journ. Ai. Soc. elevation of Bamian is 8,496 feet,^ so that it is considerably de- 
^^.'^Th^!^' P^'essed below the passes north and south. 

obt. In Afgh. Bamian and its vicinity are remarkable for some of the most 

extraordinary relics of antiquity ; its colossal idols, the castle of 
Zohak, the fortress of Saiadabad, and the ruins of Ohulghuleh. 
Though we have published accounts of this wonderful place by 
several travellers of note, there is so great uncertainty concerning 
the details, that even the number of the idols is not agreed on. 

* Jour. Ai. Soc. Masson^ states that there are three, and is supported by the Ayeen 
onAntiq. ofBa- Akbery,^ m which it is stated, " Here (at Bamian) are three 
PmS' ih^'ms**^*' astonishing idols, one representing a man dghty ells high, an- 
f iL 188. other a woman fifty, and a third, which is the figure of a child, 

> Bokhara, i. 185. measuring fifteen ells in height." Bumes,^ Moorcroft,^ Eyre,' 
2^^* Bokh. 11. ^^^ Gerard,^ mention only two. Elphinstone,' adverting to the 
» MIL op. at ca- subject, observes, " I have heard two idols described, though it 

> u't lupra. is sometimes said there are more ; of these, one represents a man, 
VAocofCaubui, lyjjjj Qjjg j^ woman ; the former is twenty yards high, the latter 

twelve or fourteen." There is equal discrepancy as to the dimen- 


sions of the figures. Buraes states the height of the Smaller 
image at 60 feet, that of the larger at 120; Moorcroft 
states the height of the smaller idol at 117 feet, and his evi« 
cLence is corrohorated by the near approach to agreement of 
that of Eyre, who took extraordinary pains to arrive at correct- 
xiess, having ascended to the crown of the figure's head. Ac- 
cording to him, the height is 120 feet. Moorcroft states the 
height of the greater figure to be about 180 feet. Eyre about 
160 ; Wood,^ whose accuracy is remarkable, singularly enough, ' Ozuf,so6. 
makes no mention of the images. He perhaps considered that 
they had received sufficient attention from Bumes. The discre* 
pancy in the statements of different travellers upon this point is 
the more extraordinary, as there are stairs excavated in the rock, 
by means of which access can be had to the top of the heads of 
the figures, firom whence their height could readily be ascertained 
by a plumb-line. The images are rudely sculptured in bold relief 
in the diff ; they are represented standing in deep niches, and 
(dothed in flowing drapery. The ceilings oi the niches are 
covered with a profusion of paintings ; some, according to Moor- 
croft,^ *' of very beautiful delineation, and painted with much * Pan)* Bokh. it 
delicacy of colouxing." It is strange that this should have con- 
tinued fresh, exposed to the air in such an Alpine climate. The 
greater figure is caDed Sang Sal, and is supposed to be intended to 
represent a male ; the less, called Shah-Muma, is thought to repre- 
sent a female. Both figures are much mutilated, the greater 
espedaUy, whose legs and arms have been shattered by cannon- 
shot; the violence being attributed by some accounts to the 
orders of Aurungzebe, by others to those of Nadir Shah. Vast 
caves are everywhere excavated in the face of the rock for a 
distance of eight miles, and in some of these, caravans are 
occasionally sheltered. In that below the large idol half a regi- 
ment could find quarters. Some of the cells exhibit internally 
considerable architectural decoration, with tasteful and well- 
finished paintings in fresco, and also sculptures. 

There is much discordance in the opinions of those who 
have speculated on the views and motives of the firamers of 
these gigantic images and innumerable caves. Bumes says^ — •BoUi. Lisa. 
** It is by no means improbable that we owe the idols of Bameean 
to the caprice oi some person of rank who resided in this 
cave-digging neighbourhood, and sought for an immortality in 


• BtL A^. Pu^. the ooloMd images which we have now described." Maaaon* 
^H^»faii, WML attribntes these great works to the HiatiUa or White Hniis/ 
of p«nia, L 198. n^ho oonqiiered Transoxiana and Khorasan about the fifth ceo- 

tury of the Christian era, were subseqoently subdued bj die 
Turkish hordes, and finally exterminated by Zingis Khan. This 
opinion receives countenance from the weU-ascertained fiftct tiisl 
Zingis Khan destroyed Gbulghuleh, the extensive mina of which 
aie scattered over the valley of Bamian. Masson considera the 
caves to have been catacombs, and the gigantic imagea intended 

• pmo. Bokh. iL to represent illustrious persons deceased. Moorcroft, ^ fiuniliar 
"^ with the opinions, fiuth, pageantry, and buildings of the lamas 

of Thibet, is of opinion that Bamian was the residenoe of a great 
Lama, bearing the same relation to the Lamaism of tise West 
that the Lama of Lhassa does now to that of the East ; " that 
those excavations, which were connected by means of galleries 
and staircases, constituted the accommodations of the higher 
orders of the Lama clergy, and that the insulated cells and caves 
were the dwelling-places of the lower classes of the monastic 
society, as the gelums and anis, monks and nuns, and as aenus 
or hostels for visitors. The laity inhabited the adjoining city." 
On the whole, it seems most probable that these relics are of 
Buddhist origin, and this belief is countenanced by their reaem- 

• MMM»,Bai.Aik. blance to the images ci Buddha, in the island of Salaette.' hi 
Pw4. u. SM. ^^j conjectures to fix the date of the formation of the idols of 

Bamian, it should be borne in mind that they are nowhere 
described by the Greek historians, who, cursory as their notices 
on this country generally are, could scarcely have fiiiled to men- 
tion such extraordinary objects, if existing during the Macedo- 
1 168. nian campaigns. Elphinstone, ^ whose opinion seems to be the 

best supported, attributes these idols and the contiguous caves to 
the Buddhist princes of Ohore, who ruled the country between 

• Mniooim, i. 897. Kabool and Persia^ in the early centuries of the Christian en. 

They are noticed by Sherif-o-Deen in his account of Tameriane's 
campaigns, and this is perhaps the earliest authentic evidence 
which we have respecting them. If we consider them coeval 
with the topes or mounds of Jelalabad and other eastern parts 
of Afghanistan, we must assign them an origin not earlier than 
the Christian era, as the topes when opened have been found to 
3 MaMon, in wii- contain coins struck by some of the early emperors of Rome, ^ 
JSHlMo."* ^"' ^^ ^y ^^^ ^^ ^® Byzantine emperors as late as 474. As yet. 


much obscnrity envelopes this curious subject. It is remarkable 

that Baber/ in recounting bis march through Bamian, makes no * Memoir, 218. 

menticRi of those striking objects. 

The learned orientalist Hyde, though he never in person ex- 
plored this region, gives a detailed and in general correct descrip- 
tion of these colossal idols, but it will be observed that he con- 
founds Balldi and Banuan. " The Chinese and Hindoos, besides 
the huge images in their pagodas or temples, were accustomed 
to carve great, sometimes entire, rocks into idols, especiaUy if 
they found any having naturally a pyramidal form. Such were 
those near the city of Bamiyan, which was afterwards caUed 
Balkh or Bactra* They were those immense and prodigious 
figures, called in Persian Surch-But (red idol) and Chingh-But 
(grey idol). They were two vast statues carved out of the rock, of 
the hei^t and size of towers, being hollow within, so that a person 
entering at the sole of the foot could make his way through the 
whckie of the interior to the extremities oi the fingers and toes. In 
the book Pharh Gj., written in India, it is stated that these two 
statues are fifty cubits high, and that in the time of ignorance, 
the pagans used to congregate at them in a certain part of the 
city of Bamiyan, from the territory of Cabul, on the frontier of 
the country of Badacshan." "And at no great distance from these, 
is said to be another idol of the same sort, in the form of an old 
woman, called Netrem or Netr" Hyde recounts an opinion en- 
tertained by some, that they were identical with idols mentioned 
in the Khoran. This might give rise to some curious speculations 
as to whether the idolatry of the Arabians, previously to the rise 
of Mahomet, might not be connected with Hindoo superstitions, « ^ . ^ ^^^ 
and the black stone of the Kaaba be a Lingamfi gion« vet«nim 

Pertaram, 4to. 
* As the work is not of common occnrrence, and the paiMge very corioiUy ^^' ^^*^' *^' 
it 18 given at length in the original : " Chinenaea et Indi prster imaginea in 
pogodia, aen delnbria, prKgrandea, aliqnando etiamint^graa mpea (pneaertim 
ai natorft in pyramidalem formam vergebant), in idola formare aolebant. Talia 
prop^ urbem Bamiyftn (que postdk Balch, aen Bactra), erant immania et pro^ 
digiosa, ilia Peraicd dicta i^^} * ^ Surc'h-But, i. c. idolom mbrum, et 
l ^ ^ ^ ^ J^KfL^ C'hingh-Biit, i. a. idolnm griaeum aen dnereum. Hsec (ut in 
Ldbro Maadlik Mamdlik Peraice describnntnr), erant dns pnegrandea atatuas 
ad altitndinem et magnitndinem torrinm h mpibua exciase, intns caw, ita nt 
qnia per plantam pedia aabintrana, totam interiorem eanmdem partem naqne 
ad extremoa manunm et pednm digitoa permeare poaaet. In Libro Pharh. 6j. 
in lndi& conacriptOy h« dos atatiue dicnntiir quinqoaginta cnbitoa altie, ad 


On the suminiU of many cminencen in fWmian and its 
are slender towers remarkably well built» which Manon sappoaei 
were pyrethrse or fire-altars, perhaps similar in pmport, as tfaey 
are in construction, to the celebrated round towers of Ireiand. 

* Jour. X: sor. Great numbers of coins and rings are dug up in the Ticiiiity ;* 
on cofiM fottod^ai they bear Cufic inscriptions, and are generally of later date than 
^^**°* the era of Mahomedanism. Some, however, belong to tiie age 

of the Indo-Bactrian kings, and date previously to our en. 
Bumes considers Bamian the site of Alexandria ad CnnraiwuB, 

* Tii. 878. and his opinion is supported by that oi Ratter,* Qoaaelin,^ and 
Vi«i!^"criti^' ^^^ others. The establishment of a dty which might com- 
desHbtoriras mand the great communication between TransoTiana, Aia- 

chosia, and India, would seem well suited to the oomprefaeniife 
and sagacious views of the great conqueror. The whole vtlkj 
of Bamian is strewed with the ruins of tomba, moaquea, and 
other edifices, in such numbers as prove the destroyed city of 
Ghulghuleh to have been very extensive. Yet it must have 
been extremely difiicult to supply provisions to a numerous popu- 
lation in a district so barren. The ruins of the citadel are on a 

* ut Mipra, ii. S9S. detached hill in the middle oi the valley. Masson^ well desmbes 

the emotions excited in the spectator of those scenes of departed 
greatness, the origin and history of whidi are veiled in im- 
penetrable darkness, though the extinction is known to be the 
effect of the devastating fury of Zingis Khan, who» in 1221, 
stormed the city and exterminated the inhabitants.* " Tlie tra- 
veller surveying from the height of Ghulghuleh the vast and 
mysterious idols, and the multitude of caves around him, will 
scarcely fail to be absorbed in deep reflection and wonder, while 

quas tempore ignorantis oonfluebaut }^^ ^ Pigani in aliqoo loco orbis 
BandyAn ex territorio ^\^ CAbul, in limitibns regionis ^\j^OJ Badadi- 
■liftn. Hinc vemnnt Rubini fialaacii U«c idola (inqnit dictus antor) a qni- 
bafldam cenaentor eiae ea qaa Aiabiboa dicta rant ^* ^»% YagCUib, et xm 

YaCik tempore Nose : et ab aliia babentnr pro CL^l:^^ Man&t, et litt Et 

hand procol ab iatis, dicitnr ease aliud quamodi idolnm paul6 miniu, fonnft 

▼etal«, dictum <♦ -»j N^rem, sen ^ Near." 
» Pui^j. Bokh. ii. * Such is the statement of Moorcroft,' who does not give hia authority, 

> Mah. Hist. 410 '^^ seems to follow *' Mahomedan traditions.*' Price ' and Malcolm * assign 
MO, 6S8. the ravages of Zingis in Khorasan to A.D. 1221 — 1224. A well digested 

» Hbt. of Pcr-ia, ^^rticle by Prinscp (H. T.}, in Journal of As. Soc. Bcng. 1842, p. 557, states 

Zingi8*s march on Bamian, apparently on the authority of the Rosut-oos< 


BAM. 73 

^eir oontemplation will call forth yariouB and interesting aaso- 
dations in hia mind. The desolate spot itself has a peculiar 
solemnity, not merely from its lonely and startling evidence of 
past grandeur, but because nature seems to have invested it with 
a character of mystery and awe. The very winds, as they whistle 
through its devoted pinnacles and towers, impart tones so shrill 
and lugubrious as to impress 'mth emotions of surprise the most 
indifferent being. So surprising is their effect, that often while 
strolling near it the mournful melody irresistibly riveting my 
attention, would compel me involuntarily to direct my sight to 
the eminence and its ruined fanes, and frequently would I sit for 
a long time together expecting the occasional repetition of the 
singular cadence. The natives may be excused who consider 
these mournful and unearthly sounds as the music of departed 
spirits and invisible agents." 

Bight miles to the east of Bamian, and on one of the routes be« 
tween it and Kabool, are the ruins of the fort of Zohak,^ so called 'Wood,Oxiif,906. 
because its origin is attributed to the fobled demon-long of Persia 
of that name. It is built of fine burnt bricks, which in the con- 
struction of the towers, walls, and other buildings are arranged 
in a variety of quaint devices. These ruins, which, in conse- 
quence of the exoellenoe of the material, are in a state of wonder- 
ful freshness and preservation, are supposed by Maason^ to be « u. aso. 
places of sepulchral and religious privacy, as he finds it difficult 
to suppose that a fortress should have been built in so unprofit- 
able a locality. Yet the ramparts, which are between seventy 
and eighty feet high, indicate that defence was the object of 
their construction, and a purpose obviously sufficient is found 
in securing the command of the pass. Bamian is in lat« 34° SO', 
long. 67** 48'. 

BAMINACOTE.— A village in Sinde, on the eastern side of 
the Hujamaree mouth of the Indus, near Vikkur.^ Here, at the * Kennedy, sinde 
close of 1636, the Bombay army destined to act in Sinde and ' ' 

Afghanistan was landed and rendezvoused.^ Lat. 24^ 11', long. Jj^lJ^' ^"^ 
67^ 34'. 

BAMMOO CHAKUR.— A village in Sinde, on the route b.i.o. Ms. Doe. 
horn Subzuloote to Shikarpoor, and eight miles south-west of 
the former place. It is situate ten miles from the left bank of 
the Indus, in a low alluvial country, rendered swampy by inun- 
dation, but at other times affording a good road. Lat. 28^ IQ' 

?. 69° 44'. 

74 BAN— BAP. 

B.I.O. Ma. Doe. BANAHOU.— A village in Sinde, on the roote from Kant% 

Jeasnlmair, and forty-five miles soath-east of the former pbt 
Ut 27** 25\ long. 69^ dff. 
BANAUL.— See Bawihal. 
K,ixxUB.Dpo. BANDEB.— A village in Sinde, oitnate on the itMd km 

Bokkur to Hyderabad. Lat. 26^ 36^, long. €8? leT. 
BANDER VIKKAR.— See Vikkue. 
B.I.C. uu Doc BANGUDJEE.^A village in Sinde, on the route from S^ 

kur to Larkhana» ten miles north-west of the former place, h k 
situate on the right bank of the Indus ; has convenient encanqof- 
ground and abundant supplies of forage. The road fincHn Sokkar. 
though merely a footpath through the jungle, is not bad. IjL 
27*^ 42'. long. 68« 44'. 

BANIHAL, in the Northern Pim)ab, is a pass over the mos- 

tains of the same name, bounding Kashmir on the south. Ik 

formation is a mygdddal trap. The ascent is much more ogbb- 

derable on the southern than on the northern ude, where it d^ 

soends into Kashmir, which country has a greater elevation tin 

that part of the Punjab lying to the south. Though fay no mesis 

the highest, being but 8,500 feet above the sea, it ia one of tk 

1 VI KMbmir °^^^ difficult passcs into Kashmir, and is seldom attempted vitk 

I.8S4; vonHurei, horscs, though Viguc' passcd it in that way. Forster^ entereii 

mT ™ '' ' ^ Kashmir on foot through this pass. The pergunna, or distiict 

• Journey B«if. also bears the name of Banihal. Lat. 38*» 25', long. 75*» 10'. 

Eng. 1. S18. ^° 

siph. Ace. of BANOO, or BUNNOA.^A fertile plain, south- west of die 

B^J^ m Pow. I^ak' or Salt Range, in Eastern Afghanistan. It is well watered 

orSikbs, 4; U 
■on, Bal. Alhr. 
Pa^J. L85; 

Bdkh! u. Ml! From these advantages it might be expected to be populoua, wext 
it not exposed to the incursions of the Sikhs and of the neigh- 
bouring mountaineers, whose attacks keep the inhabitants in 
continual alarm, so that every house is a small fortress, and 
sometimes the whole population is obliged to fly and seek safety 
in conceahnent. Lat. 33° 15', long. 71° lO'. 
B.I.C. Ml. Doc. ; BAPAW.— A village m Beloochistan, in the Moola or Gun- 
PnU. 114. ' dava Pass, from Kelat to Gundava, and forty-nine miles south of 
the former place. The road here runs along the bed of the |bf oolt 
or Mulloh, which in some places is hidden in the sand ; in others, 
flows in a small stream a few inches deep. The mountains in- 
closing the pass are, in this part, of very great height. The ele- 

orsikbs, 4; Mm- by the rivcr Kurum, and produces abundant crops of wheat, rice, 

■on, Bal. A^. 

Pa^j. L 85; bariey, maize, and other grain, sugar-cane, tobacco, and ginger. 

BAP— BAR. 75 

vatian of Bapaw above the eea is 5,000 feet. Lat. 28° Iff, long. 
66° SO'. 

BAPPOO. — ^A small village in Sinde, on the route from Seh- ej.c. Mt. ooe. 
wan to Tiflrlfhana, and thirty-seven miles north of the former place. 
It is situate abont a mile and a half from the landing-place at 
Roolnm, on the Indus, from which place to Bappoo the road, 
which is close along the left bank, is bushy, but good. Lat. 
2ff» 54'. long. 67** 54'. 

BARA.i — ^A small but highly important river of A^hanistan, '^^jj"- ^*^' 
in the province of Peshawur. It rises in Tixsh, or the hilly tract cooni Mem', of • 
lying between Sufeid Koh and the Salt Range. From the bcoe- j^m^^m/' 
fits which it confers on the country through which it flows, it has, i"«*»» Mem. of 

' ^ Al^-i Mmmb, Bel. 

in conformity with oriental fedings, become an object of vene- ai^. vmy 1. 1«, 
xition ; and Shekhan, the spot where the apportioning of the ^ '^ 
water takes place, is regarded as sacred. Here a certain quan- 
tity, reckoned by the number of mills which it can turn, is taken 
for the town of Peshawur. The remainder should be equally 
dinded between the lower Momunds and the Khuleets of the 
plain, but the division is never effected without jealousy, discon- 
tent, and strife. The Afreedies, who possess the highlands 
through which the Bara flows, can stop its stream, and, since the 
occupation of Peshawur by the Sikhs, have caused the latter much 
vexation and injury, by frequently cutting off the supply. The 
Sikhs have lost many troops in conflicts with these mountaineers, 
originating in their attempts to restrict the flow of the river. 
On one occasion the Afreedies, by allowing the water to accumu- 
late and then cutting the mound, caused so great an inundation 
that Runjeet Sing's camp was nearly swept away, and those alert 
freebooters, who had watched the opportunity, secured great 
plunder. The length of the river is about sixty miles. Shekhan 
enters the plain of Peshawur in lat. 33« 53', long. 71° 32'. The 
^ grown in this plain is considered superior to any other, and 
ao highly esteemed, that in the Tripartite treaty of 1838, Run- 
jeet Sing stipulated to supply a certain quantity of it yearly to 
Shrf,Shoojiih.» LIIST^ 

BARADREE. ' — • A village in Beloochistan, on the route > e.i.o. mi. Doc 
from Kelat to Dadur, by the pass which enters that of Bolan 
from the west at Beebee Nanee. It is distant from Kelat sixty- 
eight miles north-east, and close to it is another village of the same 
>ize, called Jam. These villages are situate on a slightly elevated 
plateau, a little to the south of the road, in a very fertile valley. 

76 BAR. 


cf tkl 


prodacing abandanoe of fine fruit and grain, especially rioe. k I 
the river watering this valley flows into the Bolan at fie^ { 

* Jour. Ai. 8oc. Nanee, which is 1,695 feet above the sea,^ the elevatioa of \ 
Iter. J^ TiMr. ' groond about these villages must exceed that height. The i 
M6iL In ▲«. bitants are Belooches of the tribe called Prij. They do not i» j 

tribute to the Khan of Kelat, and, when circumstances call fior k. i 
are charged with the duty of guarding traveHera tfaroogh tk 
Bolan Pass. Ut. 29° 39^, long. 67^ 11'. 

E.LC.Mt.Doc BARAK.— A village in Afghanistan, on the roate, byAe 

Sakhee Surwar Pass, from Dera Ghazee Khan to Kandahar, m 
eighty miles west of Dera Ghazee Khan« LaL 30^ 3f, loeg. 

E.i.aMa.Doc BARAKAIL, in Afghanistan, is a collection of large opea 

villages contiguous to each other, on the route frouk Ohuznee ta 
Shawl, and about twelve miles south of Lake Ab-istada. I^ 
country is productive, and cqMible of yidding oonaideraUe sop- 
plies. It belongs to a Ghilji chief, who resides in a fort about ta 
miles from this place. Lat. 32"" 22^, long, e?"" 52". 

E.I.C. Mb. Doc. BARAKHAIL. — A village in Afghanistan, situate on tk 

road from Barakail to Quetta. Lat. 32^, long. 67'' 30^. 

£.1.0. Ms. Doe. BARAKZYE.— A village in Afghanistan. Lat. 35^ ks^. 

69^ 36'. 

S.I.C. Ms. Doe. BARAL.— A village in the Punjab, situate near the left ba& 

of the river Jailum. Lat. 32'' 32^, long. 72^ 42". 
BARAMGULA.— See Barumoula. 

BARAMULA, in Kashmir, is a gorge in the mrwmtanw 
forming the south-western boundary of the valley. Through this 
aperture the Jailum flows, draining the whole of this extensive 

1 vigne, Kathmir, basin. The Hindoos attribute its formation to Vishnu. ^ the 

* Asiatic Res. Mussulmsus to King Solomon ; some give the credit to a ssint 
Hut^ofSSmir ^^^ Kasyapa ^ by the Hindoos, and Kashib by the Mahome- 
9 i. 287 ; Yon Hu- taus. This remarkable opening, according to Vigne ' and Ber« 
8A0; Moonr? ' nucr,^ has been caused by the gradual operation of the river 
^i^.Bokh. ii. Jailum wearing away the inclosing barrier, or by eardiquake. 

* voy. aoz indes The 8oil and hilk in the immediate neighbourhood of Bars- 
Orienuiei, iL MS. ^^^j^^ j^j^ alluvial, but bclow the town the Jailum enters into 

a channel in the rock, the sides of which are from 500 to 1,000 

* Yiffne, Kashmir, feet high. * In onc pUce this river passes through an opening 

* vigne, i. 370. ^^Y fifteen yards wide. The scenery <^ in the pass is described 

as singularly beautiful. The town is situate on the west or right 
bank of the river, here crossed by a bridge of eight piers. There 

BARr-BAT. 77 

■re abcmt 300 hoiues and a small fort, ganiaoiied by the SOcha* 
This is the most practicable pass for an army invading Kashmir, 
and that by which the Sikhs themselves entered it, carrying a 
six-ponnder, their only artilkry, slung on a pole.^ Near this place t Mooter, u. sis. 
the river ceases to be navigable, and does not again become so 
until it reaches Oin, in lat. S^ 40^, long. 73"* 50^. It holds a rapid 
course until it enters the plain of the Punjab, near the town of 
Jailum. Baramula is in lat. 34"" 8', long. 74'' 1 1'. 

BARATA. — ^A village in North Afghanistan, thirty miles e.i.c. ms. Doc. 
north-east of Peshawur. Lat. 34° 16', long. 72° IC. 

BARRA AHMEDPOOR.— See Ahxxdpoor. 

BARSHOREE.^See Bueshorxb. 

BARSNOW. — ^A village in Sinde, situate on the route from b.i.o. Mt. Doe. 
Jeasulmair to Wadole. Lat. 25° 57', long. 69° 56'. 

BARUK, a village in Afghanistan, on the right bank of the b.i.c. Mi. Doe. 
Ponchshir river. Lat. 35° IS', long. 69° 30'. 

BARUMGULA, a town in the north of the Punjab, and on ^^^ ««»«»*'» 
the southern slope of the Pir Panjal, which bounds Kashmir on 
the south, is situate in the Pir Panjal, or Nandan Sar Pass, 
from the Punjab into Kashmir. The situation is beautiful and 
picturesque, at the extremity of a dark and deep defile, through 
which the Punch river flows. Close to the town is a small fort, 
garrisoned by the Sikhs. There are probably 400 or 500 inha- 
bitants, who are employed in weaving shawls. The height above 
the sea is 6,800 feet. Ut. 33° 30', kmg. 74° 18'. 

BARUS K£ GOT.— A village in Sinde, on the road from B.i.a m*. doc. 
T^ttah to Bander Vikkar. Ut. 24° 37', long. 67° 38'. 

BASHKALA.— A village in North-eastern Afghamstan. b.i.c. Mt. Doe. 
Lat. 34° 22', long. 72° 9'. 

BASHOREE.— See Burshorbx. 

BASSOWAL, in Afghanistan, a small walled town on the Hough, Nv. of 
route from the Khyber Pass to Kabool, thirteen miles from the Mucon, Bai. Afg. 
^rntern extremity of the pass. Ut. 34° 16', long. 70° 58'. ^^' »• ^•^• 

RASTER BUNDER. — ^A village in Sinde, situate on the b.i.c. Hi. Doe. 
right bank of the Koree estuary of the Indus, thirty miles frt>m 
its mouth. Lat. 23° 49^, long. 68° 41'. 

BATCHAW, orBUTCHA.— A smaU village in Sinde, on b.i.c. m. Doe. 
the route from Hyderabad to Sehwan, and ten miles south-east 
of the latter place. It is situate on the west bank oi a water- 
coarse a mile from the right bank of the Indus. Lat. 26° 16', 
long. 68^. 

78 BAU— BEA. 

B.I.C. M*. Doc BAU 800LTAN.— A viUage in the Punjab, two 

of the river Cbeniub. Ut. 30» 44'. long. Tl"* 51'. 
BAYLA«— See Bbla. 
B.IX3. Mt. Doe. BAZAAR-AHMED-KHAN.— A village in Afghanistan. U, 

32« 64'. long. 70^ 59'. 
waikar't M ap «r BAZARUK. — ^A Village in Afghanistan, on the PuncUir 
^*" river. Lat. 35° 16', long. 69*» 20'. 

BEAH RIVER.— See Bbas. 

BEAS. one of the great rivers of the Punjab, rises on tk 

southern veige of the Ritanka Pass, in Lahoul, a Himak^ 

region north-east of the Punjab, and at a point 13,200 fat 

above the sea. in lat. 32"" 34'. long. 77"" 12'. This infonnatiiB 

I Pu^j. Bokh. i. is derived from the lamented Moorcroft.^ who visited the sot, 


which is considered sacred by the Hindoos, like the other sobrcs 
of their great rivers, and has its name from being coosecnted to 
Beas or Vyasa. who is reputed to have compiled the Pumas, 
and arranged the Vedas of the Hindoos, about 5,000 yean ^o, 
and hence is called Beas Rikhi, or " the Sage." The mer 
takes a southerly course of about 100 miles to Miindi. and 
being increased by the access of numerous streams, has there i 
considerable body of water, and a width of from 150 to 200 yu^ 
with a depth of twelve feet. The depth, however, in the wan 
season constantly varies, beginning to swell in the evening, attun- 
ing its maximum by morning, and declining through the day, losing 
about one- third of its water. This periodical change results from 
the melting of the snow diumally by the heat of the sun. From 
Mundi the Beas takes a course of fifty miles, chiefly westeriy, to 

> KMhmir. i. 18S. Nadaun. where Vigne^ found it. in the low season, 150 yards wide, 
twelve feet deep, and running at the rate of three miles and a 
half an hour. Within this distance from its source, it has been 
joined by numerous feeders, of which only two require notice. 

»». rph^y ^^ ^^Yk from the north: the more eastern, the Hulku,' 
having a course of about thirty miles, and joining the Beas a few 
miles east of Mundi ; the more western, the Binoa (which is the 
greater), having a course of about fifty miles, and joining the Bess 

* >• ^^' about twenty miles west of the same place. Forster.^ who crossed 

the Beas a short distance below Nadaun. states that he found it to 

* 1. 60. have a rapid stream about 100 yards wide, but Moorcroft,^ about 

a quarter of a mile above the town, found it only 100 feet wide, 

* Kaschmir, U.79. and running at the rate of five miles an hour. B. Von Hugel^ 

BBD— BEE. 79 

describes it here as an unfnndable dear n^nd stream, runniiig 
between steep and lofty banks, access being obtained to the 
water by large and wdl-constmcted stairs. From Nadaon it 
takes a wide sweep of about eighty miles to the north-west, and 
having entered the plain of the Punjab, it, about lat. 32^ 5^ long. 
75° 2(f, turns southward, a course which it holds for about dghty 
miles further to its confluence with the Sutluj.^ A short distance ^ 
bebw Nadaun it recdves the river of Kunyar, flovnng from the 
aouth.^ Macartney measured it at the ferry of Bhyrawul, about • ^' ▼«■ hucbi, 
twenty m3es above the confluence, and there found it 740 yards 
wide, and so rapid that, in crossing, the boats were driven ten or 
twdve miles down the stream. This was in August, at a season 
when the river is at its greatest height. In the low or cold sea- 
son it is fordable in most places. By the competent observer 
last quoted, the Beas is regarded as krger than the Sutluj, though 
iQ length of course it is greatly inferior to that river. But Bumes 
states, that though they havethesame breadth each,about 200 yards, 
the Sutluj has the greater volume of water.* The confluence of ' ^"»- *• ^• 
tiie Beas with the Sutluj takes place at Endreesa, near the village 
Harekee, and in lat. 3P IS', long. 74'' 56', after a course by the 
former river of from 210 to 220 miles. The Beas is considered 
to be identical with the Hyphasis of Arrian,^ the Greek name '!*▼*•«•"; »«"- 

Dell, 8S. 

heing a cormption of Beypasha, given it by the natives. The 
uiited stream bdow the confluence bears the name of the Ghara 
mitil the confluence with the Chenaub. 

BED TILXA.— A village in Afghanistan, situate on the road ^^'^' ^ ^^ 
from Bamian to Giriskh. Lat. 33° 49^, long. 67'' 49^ 

BEEAH. — ^A large and fine village in Sinde, situate on the e*i-C- ^•^ i>o^ 
right bank of the Indus, amidst much cultivation and many trees* 
The road passes through the bazaar of the village, and about a 
forlong further reaches the river. It lies on the great route from 
Hyderabad to Sehwan, aiid twenty-five miles north of the former ^j^ ^^ j^^ . 
place. Lat. 25° 43', long. 68° 20'. J^"'- ai. soc 

BEEBEE NANEE. — ^A halting-place in the Bolan Pass, in ^ Md%«^'^'* 
Bekwchistan, situate twenty-six miles from the eastern entrance H^i^w^Ei. in 
of the pass. Here a road strikes off from the main pass, and auiM; Atkinwm, 
proceeds west to Rod Bahar and Kelat. Elevation above the sea i^^eiock, war'in 
1.695 feet. Lat. 29° 39', long. 67° 28'. ^- ^-^^j ^-' 

BEEBEENAUNEE. — See Besbbx Nanbx. Kabooi, i. 216 ; 

BEEBOO TRIGGUR.— A village in the Punjab, situate 00 2S!l\^*^ 

E.I.O. Ml. Doe. 

80 BEE— BEG. 

the light bank of the river Chenaub. Lat. 90* 28", koE 

B.I.C. Ml. Doe. BEELALPOOR. — ^A WUage in Sinde, about tiiirteen nia 

north of Sehwan, on the road from thence to Laxkhana. He 
surrounding country is level and, after rain, swampy. It 
ground for encampment. Lat. 26** d(f, long. 67^ 53^. 

B.I.C. Mt. Doc BEELUN. —A village in the Punjab, six miles nortli of Mod- 

tan, on the left bank of the Chenaub river. Lat. 30^ IS', ks;. 

HaTdoek, L 109. BEERALOO, in Sinde, is a small town near the left ir 
eastern bank of the Indus, and on the route from Khjerpoor to 
Roree, from which last place it is distant about four miles sooft. 
Lat. 27'' 39', long. 68*»54'. 

B.I.C. Mt. Doe. BEETUN. — ^A village in Sinde, situate on the right baakaf 

the Nana river. Lat. 26^" 38', long, e?"" 47'. 

BEGHRAM, in Afghanistan, a plain, with a collectiaD d 
ruins bearing the same name, is situate twenty-five miles nntii 
€i Kabool. It was formerly the site of a great city, the miDed 

I Bai. Ai^. umI walls of which were found by Masson^ to measure above sbtr 

PftiO.lU. 140. 

joor. Af. See. feet in breadth, and to have been built of unbumt bricka of ns- 
JJ^i'^;^ usual size. This locality has, however, principally attacted 
tb«AiicieiitcoiM attention from the enormous quantity of antique coins whick 
* Lord, Koh-i- Massou and others have coUeeted there.^ In the first yeir, 
Dunumso. ^^^ numbered 1,865 of copper, with a few of silver, together 
with many rings, signets, and other relics; in the next the 
number was 1,900; in the next, 2,500; in the next, 13,474; 
finally, in 1837, it was increased to 60,000; besides gvat 
numbers of engraved seals. These coins exhibited extraordi- 
nary diversity of origin : among them were Qreek and Ro- 
man coins, Ghreco-Bactrian and Bactrian, Indo-Partfaian and 
Indo-Scythian, Sassanian, Hindoo, and Indo-Mahometan* be- 
sides a great variety of others. In point of date, they ex- 
tended from the third century before the Christian era to the 
thirteenth century after that epoch. They were submitted to the 
examination and arrangement of the learned Ph>fessor Wilson, 
who, in his erudite treatise on Ariana Antiqva, has made grest 
and successfril use of them in throwing light on the history and 
antiquities of Afghanistan, India, and Central Asia. Massoa attri- 
butes the vast number of coins and other relics found at Begfaram 
to its having been the site of an immense cemetery, in which i 

BEH— BEL. 81 

tihey were deposited with the ashes of the dead, and regards the 
Fast quantities of hroken pottery mixed with the earth as the 
fragments of funeral vases. He considers the dty of Beghram 
BIS having been the Alexandria ad Caucasnm of the Greeks, and 
to have been destroyed by Zingis, since the historians of Timur 
make no niention of it in describing his march through the plain 
of Beghram, from which it may be inferred that it then no. 
longer existed. This opinion as to the locality of Alexandria ad 
Caucasum receives some support from Professor Wilson ;^ but ' Arisna AnUqua, 
on the other hand, it may be urged, that as Beghram is situate 
nearly opposite the mouth of the Koushan Pass,* ^ or Pass of * Lord, Rep. vui. 
Hindoo Koosh, which is only practicable in summer; and as 
Arrian* relates that Alexander crossed the Caucasus in spring, he * l- *^- «• ^*- 
must have taken the route by Bamian, which is open all the 
year round ;^ and as, according to the same authority, his march ' jonr. 
brought him to Alexandria ad Caucasum, we must assign Bamain k^ ' ^ '^^'^ 
as its locality. Accordingly we find Ritter,'^ Rennell, Vigne,^ i Brdkunde von 
(jos8elin,t and Bumes' of opinion that Bamian was the Alex- ^o^'^M^Vaff, 
andria ad Caucasum. I With reference to this controversy, it J^- 
is not unworthy of remark, that no traces have been discovered 
of Ghrecian architecture in the mud-built ruins of Beghram. The 
structures of Ghulghnleh and Saiyadabad have at least been 
more lasting. Beghram is in lat. 34'' 53', long. 69"^ 19'. 
BEHUT.— See Jailum. 
BELA, the capital of the province of Lus, in Beloochistan, b b.i.c. ms. doc. ; 

. Pott. Belooch. 19; 

a town containing 800 houses, built of mud, and 5,000 inhabit- icasson, u. 97; 
ants. It is the residence of the Jam, or chief of the province, fSSJ'^'l^Car- 

lOM, Jonr. to Bej- 
* At page 182 of hia learned work, Professor Wilson says, " The road by R^Jgij rJJJ^ 137, 
the Kboshal Pass, or some others nmning perpendicularly across the moun- 
tains, are much more likely to have beei) followed by the Macedonian army \** 
but be admits (p. ix.) that the Khoshal (the Koushan of Lord and Leech) 
is not open throughout the year. 

t In Sainte Croix, " Ezamen Critique des Historiens d' Alexandre, p. 

t In an article by Prinsep (H. T.), ** On Passes into Hindostan," in Jour. 
As. Soc. Beng. 1 842, in general exhibiting muchleaming, sagacity, andjudgment , 
it is taken for granted that Beghram is Alexandria ad Caucasum, and in a 
letter published in Jour, of Geog. Soc. of London, 1842 (p. 113), "On 
Comparative Geography of Afghanistan," by Rawlinson, we are informed 
that *' Beihram (Beghram) is certainly the Alexandria ad Cancasom ;" but in 
€«ch case nelifaer proof nor argument is given. 
VOL. I. G 

82 BEL. 

whose fortreM, buUt of mud, uid snrroanded with high batde- 
mented ramparts, iUnked with towers at the mnglea, foma a 
striking object. Within the indosnre of this forl«aia is a ha^ 
mosque, covered with a dome. The town is partly aarroaiidri 
by a mud wall. Its situation is dose to the Poorally ri^ 
in a hilly tract, but which is capable of cultivation in die 
▼aUeys. It is supported partly by being the seat of goTenmeot 
and partly by the transit trade from Sonmeanee to Kdat sad 
Khorasan, the road passing through it. The bazaar is small, \mt 
neat, and the streets, though nairow and humbly built, are said 
to possess the distinction, so unusual in an Oriental town, of hda^ 
clean. Lat. 26« 9', l<mg. 66*» 24'. 
BanMiPPw«.N«rr. BELOAT.— -A Village in Afghanistan, utoate oa the xiglit 
**• bank of the Indus. Lat. 32*» 1 T, long. 71* Iff. 

BELOOGHISTAN, an extensive country of Southern Asia, ii 
bounded on the north by Afghanistan, on the east by Sinde, oa 
the south by the Indian Ocean, and on the west by Peima. h 
lies between lat. 24'* 5(/ and 30» 20', and long. S?"" 4(/ and 69" 
18'. Its greatest length is from east to west, and is about 700 
miles ; its greatest breadth, from north to south, is 380 miles ; ill 
area is 160,000 square miles. The outline of the sea-coast is is 
general remarkably regular, running nearly due east and west a 
little north of lat. 25^, from Cape Monxe, on the border of Sinde, I 
I Honbogh, 1.407. in long. 66"" 35', to Cape Jask,i in long. 57"" 48'. It is. for the I 
most part, craggy, but not remarkably elevated, and has, in some 
places, for considerable distance, a low sandy shore, thou^ alnmt 
everywhere the surface becomes much higher inland. Tlie prin- 
cipal headlands, proceeding from east to west, are Cape Mcmze, or 

* Id. i. 408. Ra8 Moarree,^ which is the eastern headland of Sonmeanee Bsy; | 

* w tSi. Goorab Sing,* Has Arubah,^ Ras Noo,* forming the western head- j 

• Id. 484. land of Grwadel Bay ; Ras Jewnee,^ forming the eastern point of ; 

• Id. 486. ^ „ ^ ^ » , T , . r«. . 

7 Id. 487. Gwettar Bay, and Cape Jask^ at the western extremity. There is no 

good harbour along the coast, though extending about 600 miles ; 
but there are several roadsteads, having good holding-ground, and 
sheltered on several points. Of these, the best are Sonmeanee 
Bay and Choubar Bay, at which last point is the only place on 
the coast deserving the name of a town, there being elsewhere 
nothing but small and wretched villages. 

The most remarkable features of this country are its rugged 
and elevated surface, its barrenness, and deficiency of water. To 


the eastward, that lofty range of mountains, known by the name 
of the Hala range, and called the Brahooick monntaina by Pot- 
^nger,^ rises from the Indian Ocean at Cape Monze.* The ^^*****"'^» 
lureadth in the southern part is about thirty miles, but it increases 
to the northward, where the Lukkee mountains of Western Sinde 
shoot off to the east. To the west, the Brahooick or Hala range 
expands to a vast extent, fonning either rugged table-lands or 
intricate mountain groups. To the north*west,' these mountains * Pottingvrp sss. 
continually iJiminiA ia height until the ground sinks to the lerel 
of the desert, through which the lower part of the Helmund holds 
its course, and whidi is probably, on an a^rage, between 2,000 
smd 3,000 feet above the level of the sea. In the north-east, tlte 
Hala or Brahooick mountains j<nn the southern part of the Suli- 
man range. In the north,^ they join the Toba and the Khojeh * ^^p^- i^b- 
Amnm mountains, which attain a very considerable height, the 
peak of Tnkkatoo' being considered to have an elevation of above ' HaTeiock^i. 940 ; 
1 1,000 feet. Chehel Tan,^ a mountain to the south* west of that * wJL, ii. as. 
last mentioned, has an equal, or perhaps greater, elevation, as its 
summit is covered with snow to the end of June or beginning 
of July, and some remains throughout the summer in the deep 
ravines. The whole of the country in this region has a great ele- 
vation, the bottom of the valley of Shawl being 5,637 feet,^ and * Hough, 74 

Dasht-i-bedowlut, another extensive depression, 5,793 feet above ""^"' ''^' 

the sea. Pottingei^ considers Kelat the highest part of Beloo- * tfo. 

chistan ; bnt Ghehel*Tan and Tukatoo are unquestionably much 

higher, and on reteenoe to the tablet it will be seen that the 

height of Kelat is only 6.000 feet. The valleys here are for the 

most part sandy and barren, and all, in consequence of the great 

general ekvati<m, have a very rigorous climate, snow lying cm 

the ground from November to February, and the crops being 

later than in Great Britain.^ In brief, Beloochistan may be * Pottinger, sss. 

described as one maze of mountains, except on the north-west, 

in irbiek direction the surfrboe descends, as already observed, 

to the Great Desert on the south, where a low tract stretches 

along the sea-shore, exhibiting a dreary waste of inconsider- 

* Aooording to Pottinger, " it springs abruptly to a oonspicuovs height 
and grandeur ont of the sea." Horsbargh states it to be of ** moderate 
height" (p. 493). 

f Infra, 87. 



able rocks, or dry and barren sands;* and for a small 
on the east, where the burning plain of Cutch Gundava ex- 
tends along the eastern base of the Hala mountains. From tks 
plain to the elevated table-land lying to the west, the easten 
fiboe of the mountain range is furrowed by two long and ▼ery decf 

^ 900. ravines, through which the Bolan (called by Potdnger^ Koafaee) 

and Moola rivers hold their way. Along the ooarses of thoe 
rivers lie the celebrated passes bearing their names, and affordiag 
the means of communication between the valley of the Indns lad 

In the northern part of Beloochistan, the only rivers of air 
importance are the Bolan and the Moola, and these are littk 
more than prolonged torrents, being ultimately lost in the saadi 

•ss«. of Cutch Oundava. Pottinger^ observes that "there is not t 

single body of running water in this part of the country wtvtbj 
of a higher appellation than that of a rivulet, unless when swoDa 
by partial floods to a tumultuous aud unfordable torrent, nor one, 
even of that description, that can be said to flow through a regulir 
and unbroken channel to the main." The southern part abound s 
in torrents, which rise in the mountains, and cross the low sandj 
tract lying between them and the ocean. Near the base of tiie 
mountains, the channels are very small, and in the dry season 
are filled with vegetation. Towards the coast, they are modi 
broader, and deeper. Of this description of water-courK 
is the Hub, rising in that part of the Hala mountains whick 

• Hart, in Tnuu. Separates Beloochistan and Sinde. After heavy rains,^ it rushes 
186**" ^*' ^^' **' ^^^'^ ^^^^ * ^^^^ ^^y °^ water ; but, on the setting in of dry wea- 
ther, the flow ceases ; there is no longer any stream, the bed merdj 

1 Id. 141. containing a few pools. The Poorally,^ another of theae torrents, 

further west, has generally a very inconsiderable stream, which, 
in long- continued dry weather, totally ceases at Lyaree, about 
twenty miles from its mouth. Below that town it becomes a 

* Pottini^r,8oo ; crcek of the sea,^ navigable for small boats. The Aghor, fJEirther 
' west, passes by Hinglaj, the celebrated place of Hindoo pilgrim- 

MasKm, Kalat, S6. 

* At Bunpoor, in the Kohutan, in the extreme west, are two sandy deserts, 
each about twenty-five miles square. Between them is an oasis, or fertile slip 
of land, about six or seven miles broad and thirty long, well watered by nume- 
rous springs, and producing grain in such abundance as to supply most psrt 
of the surrounding countries. (Grant's Journal of a Route through Makian, 
in Transact, of Royid As. Soc. of Great Brit, and Irel. vol. v. 333.) 


age. It is thought to have a longer course than most of the 

streams along this coast, and to rise amidst mountains frequently 

coveiied with snow,' as at the setting in of hot weather, like rivers * Hart, 147 $ Pot- 

having such a source, its water becomes higher. Proceedmg "°*^'' ^*' 

westward from Hinglaj to the mouth of the Dustee, a distance of 

250 miles, we find that only a few small rivulets occur. The 

Bustee. where Pottinger crossed it, was, within 100 yards of the 

beach, about twenty inches deep and twenty yards wide ; yet, if 

his opinion be correct, it has a course of nearly 1,000 miles, rising 

in the Gurmsehl,^ near the southern course of the Helmund river.^ •>««• 

The upper part, called the Boodoor, makes its way, in the wet 

season, through the loose and parched sands of the desert south 

of Seistan ; but, for the greater part of the -year, its channel is a 

dry ravine. Pottinger makes a bold, yet perhaps not improbable 

conjecture, that this was formerly a channel through which the 

superfluous water of the valley of the Helmund was discharged 

into the ocean, but that now the whole is carried off by means 

either of absorption or of evaporation from the swamp of Hamoon. 

Westward of the Dustee, there are only a few small brooks, 

which discharge themselves into the sea, and, in fact, along the 

whole distance of 600 miles, through which the coast of Beloo- 

chistan extends, there is no stream which might not, in dry 

weather, be forded by a child. 

The climate of Beloochistan presents extraordinary varieties. 
In most parts, on account of the great elevation of the surface, 
it is mild, and even cool, bringing to perfection only the produc- 
tions of the more northern parts of the temperate zone, whilst a 
short journey will bring the traveller among the crops of the 
torrid zone. Thus, Pottinger, on the 31st of January, halted at 
a field of sugar-canes ; on the succeeding 7th of February, his 
water-skins^ and their contents were frozen, and at Kelat,* on the ^ «>-«7. 
14th of the same month, he found the frost so intense that water *^' 
froze instantly when thrown on the ground. Masson^ also found ' Bai. Jitg, Panj. 
the cold extreme, and the roads sheeted with ice, in the country ** '^'"^^' 
west of Shawl. He adds, that snow lies on the ground for above 
two months in the fertile valley of Shawl.^ In a descent of a few i Kaiat, sis. 
miles down the eastern face of the Hala mountains, the siuface 
sinks from this elevated table-land to Cutch Gundava, the com- 
mencement of that vast extent of level country which stretches 
into Hindostan. At Dadur, lying at the foot of the range, the 


beat u oTorpoweruig, and the nnbnriit bricks, aooardiiig' to tk 
•MMMMi,iitf.A%. report of the natives,^ are made red by tibe aoorcfain^ imys of 
^^' ^^^' tbe Sim. Sucb ia the reaolt of the diffetence of elevatkm, tk 

table-land being, on an average, between 5,000 and SfiOO fed 
»Ho«fk,App.74. |j)OTe the level of tbe aea,' and Dadur only 743. 

The climate along the low coast, which forms tlie sontben 

boundary of Beloochistan, is in some degree t e mpered by iSk 

* Jour. ab. sofl; Ticinity <tf the ocean ;^ but probably nowhere is the effect of a 
tet^aLiTter?^ soordiingsun more felt than in the Western Desert, soutli oi Sas- 
Ota. In ▲«. tan. Here the sand, so fine as to be almost impalpable, is nuaed 

by the wind and held in suspension. The surfieuse assames tk 
appearance of the waves of ^e ocean, gradually sloping on fSk 
windward side, but on the leeward diq>laying a front, steep sad 
even perpendicular, resembling a wall rather than a looee sad 
accidental aggregation of minute partides of sand. Duriiig tk 
> Pottinger, iM, hottest part of the summer, the winds are so scorching* m 
'*'* utterly to destroy animal life, and consequently to render tiie tract 

at t^t period quite impassable. 

Little is of course known respecting the geology of a oountiy 

* Bai. Aig. Pang, so extensive and so little explored. Masson * found the ranges 

about Kelat and Moostung generally to consist of a very compsct 
secondary limestone, oontsaiing numerous ammonites, coraflines, 
and other fossil remains, and he found that a similar formaliaB 

4 Kaiiu, 80. extends southward to the sea.^ It does not appear that primsrj 
formations have been observed in situ in any part of BeloodiistaB. 
though Hart found fragments of quartz in Lus. Tlie Bobm 
Pass, which cuts and discloses the strata of the Hala mountains to 
a great depth, lies through recent formations — sandstone, pod- 

» Hough. 08. dingstone, and secondary limestone.^ The low hills along tiie 
coast are of recent limestone, sandetone, conglomerate, and sheDs, 
as is the lower part of the Hala range, forming the line of sepa- 

* Jour. As. See. mtion between Beloochistan and Sinde.« The Kohistsn.^ or hill 

1840, p. 142-148; 

Hart, Jour, from country m the north-western extremity, bears strong marks of 

Htojii^ ^ existing volcanic action.* 

f Potunger, 179. The mineral wealth in a country so mountainous and exten- 

*8sa. eive may be expected to be considerable. Pottinger^ vaguely 

* In Liu u a singolar volcano, or geyter, of liquid mud, ejected at inter- 
vals from four circular basins on the tops of the same number of hills grouped 
together. This singular phenomenon bears a close resemblance to the Mala- 
cuba, or mud. volcano of Sicily. (Hart, 143.) 


states that the predous metals have been discovered near the 
to^wn of Nal, 150 miles south-west of Kelat. This statament, if 
taken in its full and literal meaning, is startling, as it is not easy 
to point out a locality where gold and silver are found together. 
Pottinger adds, that the ores are disposed of in the crude state 
to the Hindoos, who smuggle them to avoid duties ; but it is 
clear that ores of silver, at least, do not admit of furtive transport 
for several hundred miles through a rugged country. He says, 
also. ** Oold, silver, lead, iron, copper, tin, antimony, brimstone, 
aluoa, sal-ammoniac, and many kinds of mineral salts and salt- 
petre, are found in various parts of Beloochistan," but such vague 
and sweeping statements are of little value. It has, however, 
been ascertained by careful investigators, that in Lus, in the 
hills beti^een Lyaree and Bela, copper is found in large quan- 
tities.^ A Hindoo merchant, of Kurrachee, brought away twenty ^ Hart, 154 ;Tnm. 
camel-loads of ore, which yielded about thirty per cent, of metal. i84o/p. ao; oe 
" llie whole country," observes Hart,^ '* is indeed rich in mineral ^ "~*? °"^p- 

' p6r in IMX9 

productions, and well worthy the attention of an experienced * im, ut wpn. 

geologist." Lead, according to Masson,' is abundant in the '**•**• 

mountains of Beloochistan, and he mentions a hiU at Kappar, 

about eighty miles south-west of Kelat, as appearing to be entirely 

composed of lead-ore, * which is very easily reduced. The lead * ^^'^^ ^ 

is used for making balls for muskets and rifles, and, as it seems, 

for scarcely any other purpose. Antimony ^ abounds in the same J^**"^' '^**' 

range of hills. Iron-ore is of very general occurrence, but the 

want of skill in the natives prevents its being much worked. 

The principal deposits at present known are in the north of 

Lus.^ The mines of sulphur at Sunnee, south of the Bokn *id.408; PotUB- 

Pass, are very rich in that mineral, and were extensively worked s^p. on sindh. ' 

under the Durani sway. Alum is found in the same locality. ^™^' ^' 

Common salt is unfortunately too general, destroying vegetation 

and vitiatmg the streams and springs. 



Kelat,^ lat. 28« 53', long. 66** 27' 6,000 * bic. ms. doc. 

Sohrab,* lat. 28** 22', long. 66*^ 9' . . . 5,800 * eio. m.. Doc. 

Sinab,<^ in the table-land of Shawl, kt. Z0° 3', long, ee*" 53' 5,793 i^%. w; oiif. 
Munzilgah,^ near summit of Bolan Pass, lat. 29° 53', Heighu in a.^. 

long, e?** 5,793 E»p. in ahj. App. 



GrUBih. ». Shawl,^ or Quetta, lat. 30" lO", long. 66^ 57' 5^fiS 

B.I.C. Mi. Doc Angeera,« lat. 28^ W, long. 66° 12^ 5,250 

Sad. Bapaw.i lat. 28* 16'. long. 66° 20' 3,000 

Bad. Pee«ee.Bhent,» lat. 28* !(/, long. 66* 35' 4.6O0 

Hough's App. 74. Siribolan,* lat. 29* 5(f, long. 67* 14' 4.4S4 

E.I.C. Ms. Doc Putkee,^ lat. 28* 5', long. 66* 40' 4.250 

B.I.C. Ms. Doc Pbeesht Khana,» lat. 27* 59', long. 66* 47' 3.500 

Bad. Nurd,« lat. 27* 52^, long. 66* 54' 2.850 

Grifltb, M. Ab-i-goom/ Ut. 29* 46', long. 67* 23' 2.540 

Ei.c. McDoc Jungikoo«bt.8 lat. 27° 55', long. 67* 2' 2.150 

*»* Bent-i.jah,« lat. 28* 4', long. 67* 10' 1.850 

Hough's App. 74. Beebee Nanee,i lat. 29* 39', long. 67* 28' 1.695 

JB.I.C. Mi. Doc Kobow,2 lat. 28* 20', long. 67* 12' 1,250 

Hough's App. 74. Gurmab,« lat. 29* 36', long. 67* 32' l,OSI 

w. 74. Kundye, or Koban Delan,^ lat. 29* 22', long. 67* 36' ... SKM 

E.I.C. Mi. Doc Kullar,* lat. 28* 18', long. 67* 15' 750 

Oriffltb, 54. Dadur,« lat. 29* 26'. long. 67* 41' 742 

E.I.C. Mc Doc Kotree,7 lat. 28* 25', long. 67*, 26' 600 

Little attention baa been given to tbe investigation of tite 
vegetable kingdom in tbis country, wbicb is the more to be 
^ regretted, as tbe great varieties of soil and climate must neoes- 

450; potunger/ Barily make it very ricb. Tbe appurs,^ a species of Zizypkms 
^^' jvjuba, clothes tbe loftier ranges, where tbe soil is sufficiently 

deep. It affords an excellent timber, greatly resembling teak. 
The tamarind-tree also attains a great size, and yields exoellent 
timber : the babool, a species of mimosa, the lye, or tamazisk, 
and tbe mulberry-tree, in some places attain the size of timber- 
trees ; the oriental plantcun, the walnut, sycamore, mango, wild 
fig, willow, and wild olive, are found in various divisions of the 
country. Date- trees abound in the hot regions, and yield good 

The wild animals are lions, tigers,* leopards, hyenas, wolves, 
jackals, tiger-cats, wild dogs, foxes, various sorts of the lemur 

* Pottinger enumerates lions and tigersi but Masaon, who had traversed 
the country so often and in so many directions, does not mention them. 


id monkey genera,^ wild goats, wild sheep, wild asses, eagles, > pottsnger, sas ; 
itea, vultures, magpies, crows, falcons of various kinds, wild JJjJ'*"' *^*^ 
sese and ducks, phenicopters, herons, bustards, parroquets, 
dd almost every class of small birds. The jungle-fowl, the ori- 
Lnal stock of our barn-door fowl, abounds in the thickets in the 
ot districts. Neither reptiles nor insects are peculiarly abundant 
r remarkable. The rivers are too shallow and intermittent to 
ontain fish, which, however, swarm on the coast ; and the people 
here, like their ancestors the Icihyophap, principally subsist on 
his species of food.^ Of domestic animals, camels are the most * Pottiogw, sas. 
miversally valuable. The Bactrian variety, or that which has two 
lumps, is found only in the elevated tracts, where it is used only 
for burthen, for which it is admirably suited, being strong, clumsy, 
rough, and incredibly patient of hunger, thirst, fatigue, and ex- 
tremes of temperature. It is of a black colour. The light-cploured, 
taU, slender, one- humped species, called dromedaries, are peculiar 
to the low and hot regions, where they are much used by the pre- 
datory tribes in their plundering expeditions, in consequence of 
their superior 'speed.^ The best horses are in the north and west, ' id. ibid. 
where the* breed is much improved by the admixture of Arabian 
and Persian blood. The horses of Lus and Mekran are small, 
weak, and spiritless. Those imported into India from this country 
are generally from the south of Kelat and frY>m the more elevated 
part of Cutch Gundava. These are strong, well made, and large, 
but excessively vicious. 

In so barren and rude a country, the condition of most of the 
inhabitants must be necessarily pastoral ; and as the pastures are 
generally poor, sheep and goats are kept for milk in preference to 
cows or bufbloes, which are both very rare. The milk is gene- 
rally converted either into mass or curd, or else into roghan or 
clarified butter, known in Hindostan by the name of ghee. The 
process of clarification is performed simply by boiling in water, 
and the quantity of ghee prepared both for home consumption and 
sale is very great. Shelanch* the koroot of the Afghans, and so * Manon, xaiat, 
much relished both by them and by Belooches, is inspissated ^^'^^* 
buttermilk. Camels' milk is litde used, except in the hot region, 
where it is considered superior to any other. The sheep, how- 
ever, is the great support of the pastoral tribes, the milk and flesh 
supplying food, and the skins and wool (which last is of superior 
quality) furnishing clothing. They are generally of the species 


called in Penia Atmbat with kige tuht weigfaiap fruBa lOftLk 
151b8., and oonsiating of a rich fittt-like marroir. Hie wkjm i 
sheep and goata are also co av erted into bags for carryiiig vHb. 
milk, flour, grain, or other aitidea. The crops most cnitiviiri 
in Beloochistan are wheat, barley, oil-aeeds, miflet, madA^ 
various kinds of pulse, and, in the low and hot regions^ net 
cotton, maize in small quantities, indigo, and tobaooo. 

The management of gardens and orchards reoeiTes g^reatattB- 
tion about Kelat, Moostung, and Shawl. Apricots, pea ches, gnpo. 
almonds, pistachio-nuts, i4)ples, pears, plums, cherries, qaiBBB, 
figs, pom^tanates, mulberries, plantains, and small frdt d 

* Pouiagw, si4. various kinds are produced in great abundance. Melons * atd 

very fine flavour and of so great a size that, it is said, a man oa 
scarcely lift one of the largest kind. Apricots and some oife 
fruits are dried, and in this state used in great quantities as food. 
A mmmd, Kaiat, Mulberries,^ as in Afghanistan, are dried, ground into meal, ad 
^^' made into bread, which has a peculiar honeyed flavour, not miBt 

that of gingerbread. The principal esculent v^etables are tanoft, 
carrots, cabbages, lettuces, cauliflowers, peas, beans, radidie^ 
onions, celery, parsley, egg-fruit, cucumbers. Rhmwask, or e£Ue 
rhubarb, is consumed io great quantities in spring, but the grat 
delicacy of the natives of this country, as of other adjacent com- 
tries, is Atfi^, or assafoetida, so detestable to Europeans, both a 

* Maawn, Kaiat, to smell and flavour. Here it is called emphatically khmsA konkf 

or " pleasant food." 

This rude country can scarcely be considered to have aor 
manufetctures, certainly none destined for foreign markets. Hk 
skins of sheep, goats, and odier quadrupeds undei:go a coarse 
y Mmmw, Katat, and imperfect tanning ; wooF is felted by a process similar to 
^^* that used in Afghanistan. It also, as well as the hair of gosti 

and camels, is spun, made into ropes and strings, and woven iats 
carpets and coarse cloths, for making grain-bags or covering tentL 
Sheep's- wool is spun and woven into doths of finer fabric, whieb 
are dyed with madder or some other native product. The quality of 
the manufactured articles might^e greatly improved by the intro- 
duction of better processes, as the wool is very fine and natorai 

* Potunger, OS. dycs are plentiful. The notice of a few matchlocks^ and other 

arms made at Kelat may be considered nearly to complete the list 
of the manufactures of this barbarous people. The external trade 
of a country exercising little manufacturing industry and possess- 


ing no great abimdaiioe of raw material mnat neoeiaarily be very 

small. Sonmeanee,* its only port» contains abont 200 huts, con- '^'' ^^ 

structed of wattle and mud, and roofed with mat ; and, as Tesaels Hart, Jmu, Drom 

cannot reach the beach, horses, the principal artide of export, jung]^ . Hon- 

are swum out to Ihem in spring tides, when alone they can ^'^"^ ^ ^^ 

approach sufficiently near. The other exports are butter, hides, 

wool, a few coarse drugs, dried fruits, fish, a little grain, and 

vegetable oil. The imports consist of a small quantity of British 

and Indian manufiKtnres, rice, spices, dye-stuffs, and slaves from 

Muscat.^ In 1840 there were but six Tesaels of any size belong- > PottiDger, 904; 

ing to the port of Sonmeanee, five of which were the property of ^m. ' 

the Hindoos, who have most of the trade in their hands.^ There « Hart, ito. 

were, besides, twenty coasting and fishing boats. The customs 

were fanned for 34,000 rupees annually, and were on the increase.^ ' m* i<8. 

Beloochistan is usually considered to contain six provinces : 
Ist, Sarawan ; 2nd, Kelat ; 3rd, Cutch Qundava ; 4th, Jhalawan; 
5th, Los ; 6th, Mekran. These are noticed separately in their 
alphabetical <Nrder ; but, it is to be remembered that, under circum- 
stances so fluctuating and precarious as those of Beloochistan, any 
political divisions must be regarded as arbitrary and uncertain. At 
present, the four first-menttoned provinces are considered subject 
to Mir Nasir Khan, chief of Kelat, son of Mehrab Khan, killed by 
the British troops when they stormed his capital in 1839.^ Lus * if«»«>> k>]^ 

88m 1 xxotUKhf Ado* 

IS m vassalage to the same prince, the immediate government m; oatnm, i04. 
being exercised by a petty chief, whose right is hereditary, and 
^du> is styled the Jam.^ He is not considered actual ruler until * mimoii, xdat, 
recognized by the Khan of Kelat, but when fully established, soc'senK. iass, 
he possesses sovereign power, merely famishing a military con- J^^JJ^*^*^^**** 
tingent when required by his superior. Mekran, subjected in a 
certain sense by Nasir Khan, the great-grandfiither of the pre* 
sent Khan of Kelat, was at no time reduced to fiuther vassal* 
age than that implied by paying a trifling tribute, and lately 
this extensive district has thrown off even that badge of sub- 
ttassion.* It now enjoys the independence of anarchy, under the ^^^ ^^^^ 
«way of numerous wild chieftains. The Khan of Kelat is abso* ' 
lute, having no check to his acts excepting the ordinary check 
upon extreme tyranny, the dread of insurrection. This unli- 
mited power oyer life, person, and property is also possessed by 
subordinate ofi&cers. Mustapha Khan, the governor of Cutch 
ChiDdava, exerted himself much, and to a certain extent success- 


fully, to repress the predatory habits of the Belooclie triba. 
To exhibit the force of his authority, he caused roUs of da& 
and other articles of value to be thrown on the roads. U 
they were removed, a rigorous search was instituted for tk I 
» MMoa, Kaisi, offenders, who, when discovered, were impaled/ It is sud tiitt 
by this terrific mode of proceeding, he so restrained the lawiea- 
ness of the natives, that if they saw a piece of cotton cm ^ 
ground, they would run away in terror, leaving it untoudied. 
Similar relations exist as to other countries while in a state d 
comparative barbarism, and all such statements must he receM 
with allowance ; but it is not to be doubted that the decaabe 
proceedings of Mustapha Khan made him feared. 

• MiMoo, Kaiat, 1^^ amount of revenue ^ enjoyed by the Khan of Kelat is inoos- 

siderable, as the ruling races, Belooche and Brahu, pay no diner 
taxes, and their poverty and simple habits prevent them fnm 
contributing much indirectly. His income is therefore derived 
from his resources as a proprietor of lands or towns ; from a propor- 
tion of the produce paid in kind by the Afghan, Dehwar (Psrsee), 
and Jet cultivators ; from dues on direct and transit trade, sad 
from arbitrary exactions, a never-failing mode with eastern poten- 
'^M. tates of recruiting an exhausted treasury. Pottinger' estimates 

iKaiat,406. the amount at 350,000 rupees. Masson,^ who had ample 
means of acquiring information through colloquial c^anneh, 
at 300,000; which of these statements makes the nearat 
approximation to correctness cannot be determined, but neither 
seems improbable. With such a revenue, it is obvious that no 

* Kaiftt, 407. standing army can be maintained, and Masson,^ certainly ven^ 

competent to the task of acquiring information on this subject, 
states that Mehrab Khan, the late ruler, "nearly destitute of 
troops in his own pay, was compelled, on the slightest cause for 
alarm, to appeal to the tribes, who attended or otherwise as suited 

3 294. their whims or convenience." Pottinger^ computes the numben 

available for the service of the khan at 60,000 fighting men, but 
has not mentioned how so vast a host could, if collected, find 
food in this barren country. Mehrab Khan could, on no occa- 
sion, assemble more than 12,000, and in his final struggle for 
property, power, and life, the number of his troops did not amount 

oT^tSI^*" to 3,000.4 The Belooche soldier is heavily mcumbered with arms. 

Hough's App. 27; carrying a matchlock, a spear, a sword, a dagger, and a shield. 

Outrr— ''"- 


4 66. 

Jaeum)i8.' Pottinger^ considers them good marksmen, and states that in 


action they trust principallj to their skill in this respect, avoiding 
dose combat ; but their readiness in general to close with the 
British troops shews that he is in this instance mistaken. They 
formed the strength of the armies of Sinde, but the late decisive 
conflict there shewed how little, with great superiority of num- 
bers, they are able to withstand a disciplined force. The greater 
part serve on foot, but a number, not inconsiderable, have horses, 
and in their irregular forays, camels, which they often prefer, 
on account of their greater powers of endurance. 

The inhabitants of Beloochistan are, with few exceptions, 
Mahometans of the Soonnee persuasion, maintaining the autho- 
rity of the three first kaliphs, and are so bigoted, that, in the 
opinion of Pottinger, ^ a Shia or votary of Ali would encounter * 01. 
more enmity amongst them than would a Christian. ^ Even the * id. so. 
Dehwars, speaking the Persian language, and considered to be of 
Persian descent, reject the Shia doctrine so generally received in 
the country from which they derive their vernacular tongue, and 
it is supposed their origin. Passing from religious distinctions 
to those of race and tribe, we find the majority of inhabitants 
of this extensive region who may be styled by a common name, 
Belooches, to comprehend ^ five principal classes — Brahuis, Nha- ^ mumo, Kaitt, 
roes, Mughsees, Rinds, and Lumris. Of this widely dispersed '^' 
and incongruous population, Masson, who has had more ample 
means of information than any other European, observes, ** It 
is dear, that in this community are comprised many tribes of 
very different descent, inferring firom the physiological distinc- 
tions which prevail amongst them, setting aside the variety of 
dialects spoken by them." Of the Brahuis, Pottinger^ enumerates ■ 7S. 
seventy-four tribes ; of the others, who may be properly classed 
as Belooches, according to him forty-eight ; and he adds, no 
doubt with truth, that he might recount as many more. Masson ^ Kaiat, sss. 
gives a list of thirty-five tribes, but to such minute enume- 
rations, with regard to a country so imperfectly known as Beloo- 
chistan, a remark of Sir John Malcolm ^ may probably be > Hiftory of Per- 
applied with much justice — " It is a common fault of historians 
to be desirous of giving a finished picture of the nations of 
whom they treat, but such descriptions must, in many cases, be 
like finished maps of unsurveyed regions, which are calculated 
only to mislead." The Brahuis, according to Pottinger 2 and * «7i. 
Masson, are so called from the words bah-roh-i,^ on the waste, • Ktiat, ass. 



I Potttafw, 91. 




and are more erratic and more ezdiuBTely pnataral in lihdr 
habits and porsmts than the other Bebodies. They speai* 
their lives in roaming daring the oontinuanoe of smnmer, k 
winter seeking shelter nnder rode tents of felt or ooaxae cMk 
of goat or camel hair ; and they subsist almost exdnaiTcij ■ 
animal food. They are most numerous^ in the nartbeni mi 
vestem parts, hot may be found in less or greater nambn 
ererywhere. They differ from the other Beloochea in beingof 
much shorter and broader make, in having round £sces amd latial 
flat features ; their hair and beards are frequently brown, mrf 
Pottinger* observes, that they bear no resemblanoe to any dhs 
Asiatics that he had ever seen. Their dialect also varies oooei- 
derably from that of the other dassses of Bdooches, though k 
all can be traced a close affinity with the Teutonic langm^o; 
apparently justifying the classification by Klaproth, * who plsoes 
Belooche in the great Indo-€rermanic hnalj of languages. A 
few instances in illustmtion of this opinion may not be 



Mi .. 

. Ich 
. Das 
. Es 
. Der 



,, ••• .1 


Eras (Imp.) 






(Thou) art 

(You) are 

Mich (Ace.) Me (Ace.) ... Me 


Sechs . 

Mei My 

Tu Thou 

Qui Who 

Dao Two 

Sex Six 

Septem ... Seven 
(Greek Hepta) t 

* Zwuchen dem Lande der Afg'anen and I^raien wohnen langs den 
Meere die Belutzchen deren Spmche ebenfalla zum Indo-Gemumisdieii 
stamme gehdrt. (Asia Polyglotta, 74.) 

t Further information on this very interesting subject, too extensive and 
intricate to receive more than the most cursory notice here, may be fouDd in 
Leech's Brahoic and Belooche Grammars, Calcutta, being No. zii. (pp. 81— 


The Rinds and Mnagheeii^ are more stationary than the other • Potunger, 00 ; 
Belooche tribes, and are settled for the most part in the eastern f^^ ^^*^ 
tracts toward Sinde, and between it and Kelat. Hence they have 
constituted the strength of the armies of the Ameers of Sinde. 
They are considered to be less addicted to the predatory habits 
which oonstitate a general characteristic of the Belooche tribes 
than the jieople of the north and west. The Nharoes hold 
the extreme west, and being most remote from Hindostan, the 
great sonrce of such civilization as is known in this part of 
the world, are the rudest, most ferocious, and most predatory, 
but at the same time the most active and stirring of the 
Bdooclies/ Their great delight is in ckiqHiot, or plundering ^ P»'t*«>«w, ». 
expeditions ; during which, mounted on fleet camels, they will 
sweep over an extensive tnu;t of country at the rate of seventy or 
eighty miles a day, burning, slaying, and pillaging wherever they 
go, until, worn out by fatigue, or sated with blood and plunder, 
or dreading the vengeance of those who have suffered from 
their atrocities, they make homewards by a route different 
from that by which they advanced.* The Lumris, some- 
times caQed Numris, for the most part hold the maritime pro- 
vince of Lns. They are an active, hardy people, subsisting on 
their herds of camels, bufialoes, kine,^ and goats ; dwelling ' mmmhi, Kaiat, 
imder tents of felt or coarse cloth, obtaining such grain or 
other articles as their necessities require, but which their own 
avocation cannot furnish, by barter for wool, hides, butter, and 
other similar produce. The other branches of the population 
deserving of notice are few. The Dehwars,* inconsiderable in • Pottinger, so. 
number, are devoted to agricultural and other industrial pursuits. 
They are inoffensive in their manners, and of decent morals. They 
speak pure Persian, and, as already mentioned, are understood to 
he of Persian descent. The Jets, of Indian origin, constitute a 
kurge portion of the fixed population of Cutch Qundava ; others 
of them wander" over a great part of the rest of the country, » Uamon, K«itt, 
leading lives similar to the gypsies of Europe. They speak a 

115) of the geographical lection of ** Reporta and Ptipen, &c.," printed by 
order of goyemment, fol. CalcutU, 1839. 

Adelnnir mentions the Belooches, bat considers them merely an Afghan ICitbridatet, i. 
tribe. ^- 

* The hahita of these people seem not unlike those of the Pindarriea^ the 
Kowge of India, till put down by the Marquis of Hastmgs. 



^ Potti^tr, 6S. 

* L. tL oe. z&L' 


not unlike the frodcB worn liy waggoners and otiier 
country people in England, bot not ao long. Beneath are 
looee trow a er a , pndceied about the anclea» and a loomj^, or i 
abont the waist. The head ia covered by a cap^ fitting dose to 
the hair, which hUm down below it in the large locks for whatk 
the Belooches are remarkable. In winter, men of rank wear m 
upper coat or tunic of quilted cotton, the lower orders a roogk 
capote ^ of felt or coarse cloth. The women, within doors, dres 
much in the same way as the men, excepting tiiat their trowseis are 
wider ; and as their cotton tunic, the cmly covering of liie upper 
part of their persons, is open in firont below the boeom, thcv 
persons are a good deal exposed. When they go abroad, the^ 
muffle themselves from head to foot in the lon^ shroud-likt 
drapery worn in Afghanistan. They are in general treated wili 
more indulgence than among other Mahometan nations. 

It seems probable that Beloochistan was among the one huo- 
dred and twenty- seven provinces over which Ahasuems ruled 
" from India even unto Ethiopia."^ The first distinct account wliidi 
we have of this country is from Arrian,* who, with his usual brevitj 
and severe veracity, narrates the march of Alexander throiigfa it, 
which he calls the country of the Oritae and GKidrosii. He gives a 
very accurate and judicious geographical account of this farion 
tract, its general aridity, and the necessity of obtaining water by 
digging in the beds of torrents ; the food of the inhabitants, dates 
and fish ; the occasional occurrence of fertile spots ; tiie abundance 
of aromatic and thorny shrubs, and fragrant plants, and the violence 
of the monsoon in the western part of Mekran. He notices also 
the impossibility of subsisting a large army, and the canaequent 
destruction of the greater part of the men and beasts which formed 
> PottiDger, 888. the expedition. At the commencement of the eighth centnry,' 
this country vras traversed by an army of the Kaliphate. It 
was subsequently exposed to the transient and devastating inroads 
of the Moguls ; it became partially and nominally a portion of the 
empire of Akbar. Towards the middle of the eighteenth cen- 
tury, it was made tributary by Nadir Shah, who bestowed on 
Nasir Khan, the great-grandfather of the present ruler, the rank 
of begler beg, or commander-in-chief. In 1 839,^ when the British 
army advanced through the Bolan Ptos towards Afghanistan, the 
conduct of Mehrab Khan, the ruler of Beloochistan, was consi- 
dered so treacherous, hostile, and dangerous, as to require " the 

* Official An- 
nouncement of 
OoT.-Gen. In 
Hough's App. 84. 

BBL— BBR. 99 

exaction of retribation from that chieftain " and " the execution 
of such arrangements as would establish future security in that 
quarter." Gen. Willshire was accordingly detached from the 
army of the Indus at Quetta to assault Kelat. A gate ^ was * wniihire in 
knocked in by the field-pieces, and the town and citadel stormed ^^^ o^u^, 
in a few minutes. Above 400 Belooches were slain, and among ^^' 
tiiem Mehrab Khan himself: 2,000 prisoners were taken.^ The * Hoogh, 9o, si. 
British force consisted of 1,049 men.^ In the following year * M"«»'»7ft-»78, 
Kelat changed hands, the governor established by the British, toge- 
ther with a feeble garrison, being overpowered. At the close of 
the same year, it was re-occupied by the British under Gen. Nott. 
In 1841, Nasir Khan, the youthful son of the slain Mehrab Khan, 
was recognized by the British, who soon after evacuated the 

BELUR, in the Punjab, at a short distance east of the Burnet, i. 7i. 
Indus, has a tope or antique structure similar to that of Mani- 
kyala, but of smaller dimensions, being only fifty feet high. The 
lower part is a truncated cone, the base of which is uppermost. 
At an elevation estimated at fifteen feet, the building is encircled 
by a row of pilasters about five feet high. The upper part is in 
the shape of a dome. Lat. 33^ 50^, long. 72° 51'. 

BEMANJOPORO.-— A village in Sinde, situate on the road elc. m*. doc. 
from Bander Vikkar to Tattah, and thirty miles south-west of the 
ktter place. Lat. 24° 26', long. 67° 40^. 

BENEE BADAM.— See Bhbbnbb Baoam. 

BENEER.— See Boonbbrb. 

BENT-I-JAH. — ^A village in Beloochistan, in the Moola or b.ix!. ms. noc. 
Gundava Pass, between Kelat and Gundava, and seventy miles 
south-east of the former town. The village is situate on the river 
Moola, and is capable of yielding a few supplies. Elevation 
above the level of the sea, 1,850 feet. Lat. 28° 4', long. 
67° 10'. 

BERAWUL.— See Bhtbowalah. 

BERENG.— See Bubbno. 

BERMUL. — ^A village in Afghanistan, a few miles west of the e-ic. Ms. doc. 
crest of the Suliman mountains. Lat. 32° 50', long. 69° 45'. B.i.c.if.. Doc.; 

Elph. AccofCau- 

BERRAVOL. — A town of Northern Afghanistan, in the dis- boi, a6i ; Joar. 
trict drained by the upper part of the river Lundye, and generally ^^i J^IiS , 
known by the name of the Eusufzai country, being inhabited Aiexandw'i Exp. 

. . ,/ , , .1 ^ , r«, . . on the Wei«em 

pnncipally by the tnbe of that name. The town is situate near BKokof tiieindu>. 

H 2 

100 BBR-BHA. 

the right bank of a stream of the smine name. Lat. 35" S. 
long. 7P 40^. 

BERRAVOL.— A river, or rather atzmm, whidi, rimga 
the southern declivity cf the range of Hindoo Kooth, tikai 
south-easteriy oonrse of aboat fifty mDes, and &Us into &e 
Londye river on the western side, in lat. 35** IS", long. 71'' if. 
BERRAVOL.— A valley in Northern A^baniatan, in vlni 
the town of the same name is situate, and difough wliidi tk 
river Berravol flows. It is long and naixoir. and extendi hm 
the plain of Bajour up the slope of Hindoo Kooah. Hie k« 
part is fertile and well cultivated ; the upper, overgrown vilk 
thick forests of oak, cedar, and pines, abounds in wild httA 
Berravol is a distinct state, governed by its owm chief* 
R.I.C. Mt. Doc BETA.— A village in the Punjab, situate about six mikfl eat 

of the river Indus, in lat. Sd"" 20^, long. 72^ 3\ 
B.I.C. Mt. Doc BETSUL.— A village in Afghanistan, situate in the Goui 

Pass, about a mile from the Gomul river. LaU 32° Sf, ka^. 
69** 10'. 
E.i.aiis.Doc BEZAISE.— A village in Afghanistan, sixteen miles nortb- 

west of the city of Kabool. Lat. 34"* 4(/, long. 68^ 56^. 
E.i.c.M>.Doe.; BHAG, or BAGH, in Beloocbistan, a conaiderable tows ii 
iMa[ p!fi9 ; Qrif. Cutch Guudava, on the route from Shikarpoor to Dadiir, dote to 
M^ ta^Af*"" ^^ entrance of the Bolan Pass, and thirty-seven miles solid d 
Leech, Sindhian Dadur. It is surrounded by a ruinous mud wall, has a luge 
Nl!!i?E?p."n a2'. "x^^'sd bazaar well supplied with wares, and is estunated to eoa- 
41 ; Atkinson, tain 2,000 houses. These, however, are wretchedly built of mod. 

Exp. In Aiiir' lOflj _ . . _ . ^T • 1 i. .... - ^.j 

HaTeiock, War It IS Bituatc On the nvcr Nan, the current of which la jntempta 

S)n«!ii*7,*'jo?r! to ^'^ ^ wcathcr, when the mhabitants suffer much from the waX 

India, u. 216 ; of Water, that obtained from tanks and wells being braddsb aai 

Piu^MS. unwholesome. Adjoining to the town is an extensive cemetoyi 

containing some remarkable tombs, and near it a large mosgo^ 

surmounted by a white dome, and having numerous minaietSi 

covered with glazed green tiles. The only manufiicture of i2D« 

portance is that of gunpowder, the sulphur for which is obtuned 

from the neighbouring mine of Sunnee. Bhag, in consequeDce 

of its position on the great route from Sinde to the Bolan FaBS, 

has considerable transit trade. The neighbouring country is veij 

fertile in grain, where irrigated ; but, without moisture, it is & 

dreary, barren, treeless plain of hard-baked clay. The climate ii 

remarkably sultry. Lat. 28* 56', long. 67° 54'. 

BHA. 101 

BHAOAH-KI-TANDA.— A village in Sinde, on the road e.i c. ifs. Doe. 
from Hyderabad to Wanga bazaar, sixty miles south-east of the 
former, and twenty miles north-west of the latter town. It is 
situate abont two miles from the left bank of the Goomee river, 
eigbt miles frx>m its confluence with the Groongroo. Lat. 24° 42^, 
long. 68° 53'. 

BUAHALL.— A village in the Punjab, situated on an offset «-ic. m». Doc. 
oi the Indus, and two miles east ai the main channel. It is 
about eighteen miles south of the town of Bukkur, which is on 
the same stream. The road from Dera Ismael Khan to Mooltan 
crosses the Indus at the Kaheree ferry, nine miles south of this 
place. Lat SI** 25', long. 7V 3'. 

BHAT.— A village in the Punjab, situate on the left bank of ^JC Mm. doc. 
the Ravee river, on the route from Labore to Mooltan, thirty- 
three miles south-west of the former city. Lat. 31'' 19', long. 
73** 49'. 

BHAUDA.— A village in the Punjab, about fifteen miles b.i.c. Mt. Doe. 
from the right bank c^ the Ghaia river, and forty north-east of 
tiie <aty of Bhawlpoor. Lat. 29** 64', long. 71° 58'. 

BHAWLPOOR,' a state of Western India, is bounded on ' i^Mindh. 
the north-west for a short distance by Sinde, and for the rest of ""'* 
the long frontier in that direction by the territory of the Sikhs ; 
on the easty south-east, and part of the south, by the deserts 
ai Bhutneer, Beekanair, and Jessulmair ; and on the remaining 
part of south by Sinde. It is a long, narrow tract, of shape ap- 
proaching to that ai an elongated oval. It is three hundred and 
ten miles in length from north-east to south-west ; one hundred 
and ten in breadth at the widest part, measured at right angles to 
the line of its length ; and 22,000 square miles in superficial ex- 
tent, of which, however, only about a sixth part is capable of 
cultivation, or of supporting any considerable population. This 
fertile tract, extending along the river Gfaara, and having a com- 
pletely alluvial soil, bears a strong resemblance to Sinde, both in 
dimate and aspect. The remainder, though in many parts ex- 
hibiting signs of former cultivation and population, is now, from 
want of water, irreclaimable desert, either of hard dry clay, or of 
kxrae shifting sands. The north-western firontier is formed by 
a river-line, consisting in its successive parts of the Ghara, 
the Punjnud, and the Indus. The Ghara, constituting the 


most northern portion, is the great stream of the united vtts 
of the Sutlaj and Beas, the oonfluence of which b at 
distance above the northern extremity of this frontier. T^ 
Ghara flows in a direction from north-east to aouth-wot, t & 
tance of 200 miles, to its confluence with the Chenanb, ds 
which the united stream is called the Funjnud, which forms ib 
frontier of Bhawlpoor until its confluence with the Indus at 1& 
tunkote, a distance of fifty miles. The Indus is then the boandar 
for fifty miles, until it flows southward into Sinde. This perfofe 
a continuous river-line of 300 miles in length, and, alloving k 
sinuosities, about 350. 

Bhawlpoor is a remarkably level country, there beii^B 

considerable eminence within its limits, as the oocasfooal md- 

hiUs, seldom exceeding fifty or sixty feet in hei^t, caunt 

« Jour. A». 8oe. be Considered exceptions.^ The cultivable part extends tkm 

iiack««oii, Jour. ^^^ rivcr-Une for a distance of about ten miles in breaAk 

**/^*lf'*J^**f^ from the left or eastern bank. In the sandy parts of the desert 

down the Sutm. , , , , i • a- 

beyond this strip of fertility, both men and beasts, leavmg « 
beaten path, sink as if in loose snow. Here, too, the sand is md 
into ever-changing hills by the force of the winds sweeping ow 
» Eiph. introd.16. it.* In those parts of the desert which have a hard level salti 
clay, a few stunted mimosas, acacias, and other shrubs are pfo- 
duced, together with rue, various bitter and aromatic plants, ad 
occasionally tufts of grass. The mirage or sirraub, that stiasge 
illusive vision of lakes or sheets of water, mocking the sufferings 
of the wretched traveller over the more parched and sconial 
portions of desert lands, is here of frequent occurrence, and tk 
deceptive eflTect is rendered complete by the reflection of mea 
and animals passing along the plain, as if from the surface ofsa 
unrippled pool. Much of the soil of the desert appears to be 
alluvial ; there are numerous traces of streams having fonaedf 
MiiiMon,Bai.Ai«. passed over it,^ and still, where irrigation is at all practiabk, 
Paiij. 1. 19. fertility in the clayey tracts follows ; but the rains are scanty, ^ 

wells few, and generally 100 feet deep or more : that at Beekanair, 
in the desert eastward, is 300 feet. 

The transition from the desert to the cultivated tract is vtq 
3 Muckemn, ut abrupt and striking.^ In the course of half a mile, or less, tbf 
conoiiiy,^ jk>ur. to country chaugcs from a howling wilderness to a scene where 
India, u. 889. thick and verdant groves, green fields, and luxuriant crops (J^ 


light the eye, aad offer supplies for aU the wants of man. In 
this fine tract, if water cannot be distributed by means of canals, 
it is found everywhere at a little depth, and raised, in abundant 
quantities, by the Persian wheel. But by fv the greater part of 
the water required for irrigation is obtained from the rivers, and 
conducted to the crops by innumerable artificial channelB* In the 
season of inundation, the sur&ce is, for a great extent, completely 
flooded, the banks being in general low. The Ghara^ is a slug- • loti. Medioai 
gish, muddy stream, and, as the soil along its banks is a rich, pj^^ ^ 
alluvial, and tenacious mud, the moisture of the inundation is ^^o^ m. 
long retaiued. This circumstance, while conducing to the most 
luxuriant fertility, has a very unfavorable eflfect on the health of 
the inhabitants. The water also of the wells is impure and 
rather nauseous, having a taste as if decayed vegetable matter 
were steeped in it. From these causes result intermittents and 
disordered state of the bowels, producing inflammation, passing 
into induration of the abdominal viscera, and terminating in in- 
curable dropsy. In the hot weather, catarrh or influenza is uni- 
versal, no one escaping, at least, one attack. The chief crops 
are wheat, rice, and various other grains ; indigo, sugar, cotton, 
opium ; together with the finest fruits^ (including dates and man- « Hoagh, Narr. of 
goes, oranges and apples) and a profusion of esculent vegeta- ^.j^. 
bles. Just before harvest, the country exhibits a surfiice of fine 
grain and esculents, broken only by groves of fruit-trees, and 
quickly alter the crops have been removed, it is converted into a 
thick jungle, through which, in many places, roam numbers of 
wild hogs. This exuberant productiveness^ results from the ^ Wood's Ozuf^es; 
heat, which is intense in summer, acting on the rich soil, satu- j "J^^ 
rated with moisture. 

The wild animals are tigers^ (which, however, though nume- • Haroiock, wv 
rous,'' are tumd, seldom attacking man), wild hogs, vanous lands » Macke«>n, nt 
of deer, aquatic fowl, and winged game in great abundance. The '°^'** ^^' 
domestic animals are camels, very numerous, and fine cows, buf- 
faloes, broad-tailed sheep, and goats, besides vast quantities of 
the finest poultry. The milch cattle yield great quantities of 
ghee, or butter ; that of the buffalo is most prized ; that of the 
cow holds the next place ; after which ranks the produce of the 
goat and sheep. The flesh of the buflalo is preferred to any 
other. Wild fowl are so abundant that a wild goose, it is said, 


may be purchased for the value of a halfpenny; In few cona- 

• MaMon, Bai. tiies are provinons finer, more abundant, or cheaper,^ and great 
A^. Panj. i. 21. qQ^j^ij^^g m^ ggn^ jq ^^ j^gg productive tracts eastward. 

The principal exports are cotton, sugar, indigo, hides, ghee, 
and various sorts of provision; drugs, dye-stuffs, wool, and coarse 
cotton cloths ; the imports are not considerable, as the countrj' 
is rich in natural productions, the inhabitants simple in their 
habits, and having themselves some manu&cturing ingenuity. 
The principal imports are the wares of Britain and Hindostan. 

There are three principal routes through the state of Bhawl- 
poor : 1st, that from east to west, across the desert from Beeka- 
nair to the town of Bhawlpoor, and across the Indus, forming one 
of the chief lines of communication from Hindostan to Khorasan; 
2nd, that proceeding ncnrth-west from Jessulmair to Khanpoor, 
where it intersects the next described line, and then crosses the 
Indus at Mittunkote, so passing westward into Afghanistan ; 
8rd, that running in a north-easterly direction from Sinde to 
Bhawlpoor, through Khanpoor, and parallel to the river frontier. 

The population of Bhawlpoor consists chiefly of Jets of Hin- 
doo descent, of Hindoos of more recent settlement in the country, 
c^ Beloochees, and Afghans. The large admixture of the blood 
of the hardy mountsuneers of the west causes the people to differ 
widely in appearance and constitution from the m(»e eastern 
1 Eiph.introd. 17. Hindoos. They are bulky, ^ strong, dark-complexioned, and 
harsh-featured, with long hair and beards. The upper classes 
use the dress and language of Persia. The language of the bulk 

* Leech, Gram, of of the people is a patois^ of Hindostani, mixed with Pushtoo and 
MackeMD, ut ' Bclooche, and is rendered disagreeable to strangers by the nasal 
•upra, 188. drawling tone in which it Is uttered. The Khan and a great 

majority of the inhabitants are Mahomedans, but Hindoos are 

treated with much toleration. The dominant race are the Jets, 

'Leech, Report on generally known in the country by the name of Daudputrees^^ 

82 ; Manon, 1. 28. or SOUS of David, having been first collected, as is supposed, by 

Jour. As. soc David, a chieftain of Shikarpoor, in Sinde,* who, being driven 

Mohun Lai* Orif . thence, found refuge in the present location of those who bear 

of Dwid Putwes. j^jg name. Bhawl Khan, one of his descendants, founded the 

capital, and called it after himself, Bhawlpoor. The present khan 

is the lineal descendant of the founder of the race. The annual 

revenue is about a million and a half of rupees. 


The nilors of Bhawlpoor were* during the flouriahing etate of 
the Duiani m<Miarchy, nawabs* or deputy«govenion, for that 
power. On its dismemberment, consequent on the expulsion of 
Shah Shoojah, the nawab of that time, without a struggle, became 
independent, and assumed the title of khan* On the rise of 
Rnnjeet Sing, the present ruler, Mahomed Bhawl Khan, thought 
it prudent to admowledge his supremacy, and paid him an 
annual tribute of 800,000 rupees, more than half of his revenue. 
What may be the results in this respect, of his having been taken 
under British protectbn, it is impossible to predict. The khan 
has invariably acted as the steady friend of the British, and the 
support given by him to their troops in the wars in Sinde and 
Afghanistan, was rewarded in February, 1843, by the annexation 
to his territories of a porticm of the northern part of Sinde, in- 
cluding Subzulcote ^ and the fertile district of Bhoong Bara« ' Comsp. reiauva 

rwt 1 • * . - . ^ to Sinde, 507. 

rhe r^ular troops consist of seven regiments of inrantry, 
each containing 350 men, and having six field-pieces : the latter 
are worked by 400 artillery- men.^ Besides this force, 1,000 Af- < MaMon, Biii.Aig. 
ghans and 3,000 irregular h<nrsemen are retained, making a total ^' ' 
of 6,850 men ; but in a popular cause the ruler could draw out 
the whole of the armed men of the country, probably 20,000 ; 
the Jets alone are reputed to amount to 12,000. The total popu- 
lation of Bhawlpoor may, with probability, be rated at about 
250,000. The principal towns are Bhawlpoor, the capital, 
Ahmedpoor, Ooch, and Khanpoor. 

BHAWLPOOR, ^ the capital of the state of the same name, is * Leeefa, < 

« % „ t j^% « .li. « • cial Information 

Htnate on a branch of the Ghara, about two miles from the mam on Bhawlpoor, oo. 
stream and thirty miles above its confluence with the Chenaub. ^ * Eiph. acc of 
It is surrounded by a ruinous wall of mud, which is about four 90. 
miles in circuit, but part of the inclosed space is occupied by 
groves of trees. The houses are built, some of burnt, some of 
sun-dried bricks, but they are in general mean. The residence 
of the khan, like the rest, is in a very plain style of architect 
ture. ^ Bhawlpoor is celebrated for the manufacture of loongees, * «<>>»"« La'* 
for scarfs and turbans, made by Hindoo weavers, who are nume- 71. 
rous here. There are also manufactures of chintzes and other 
cottons, of the total annual value of 520,000 rupees. Its com- 
merce is considerable, the town being situate on the junction of 
three routes, from the east, south-east, and south. The Hindoo ^ * Bumeg* Bokh. 
merchants, who are very enterprising, send wares to Central ^^ jy^. p^^j. ' 

E.IX). M •. Doc 

106 BHE^BHO. 

L 91 ; Hoagh, Afiia, and even as £Eur as Astracan. The oountiy aboat Bhawl- 

aI^!^ 18 ; Atun- P^^^ ^^ remarkably fertile, producing in great abundance grain, 

son, Exp. into sugar, indigo, tobacco, and butter ; and abundance of mangoes. 

War in Af^.Lioo. oranges, apples, and other frmts m perfection. Population about 
20,000. Lat. 29° 26', long. 71*» 37'. 

EJciUDoc. BHEEM-KA-KUBBA.— A halting-place in Sinde, on the 

route from Hyderabad to Jessulmair, and fifty miles south-west 
of the latter town. It is a wretched place, devoid of water. 
Lat. 26° 42^, long. 70« 22^. 

B.I.C. Mi. Doc BH££N££ BADAM, in Afghanistan, is an extensive fertile 

and well-cidtivated plain, thirty miles south-west of Kabool. It 
contains several forts and is traversed by the great route from 
Ghuznee and Kandahar to Kabool. Lat. 34° 18', long. 68° 37'. 

BHEKEE.— A village in the Punjab. Lat. 32° 32', long. 
73° 17'. 

E.I.C. Ms. Doe. BHELAR. — ^A halting-place in Sinde, on the route from Sub- 

zulcote to Shikarpoor, thirty-eight miles south-west from the 
former place. It is situate ten miles from the left bank of the 
Indus, on a " dund" or stagnant piece of water, left by the in- 
undation of the river. I-at. 27° 56', long. 69° 12'. 

E.I.C. Ml. Doc BHERA. — A village in the Punjab, on the road from Lahore 

to Attock, and seventy miles south-east of the latter place. Lat. 
33° 18', long. 73° 5'. 

E.i.c.Mt.Doc BHERANAH. — A village in the Punjab, eighteen miles 

south-east of Lahore. Lat. 31° 30', long. 74° 29'. 

E.I.C. MS.DOC BHETLEE. — ^A village in the Punjab, situate on the road 

from Mooltan to Dera Ghazee Khan, and twenty miles south-west 
of the former place. Lat. 30°, long. 71° 12'. 
BHIMBUR.— See Bimbbe. 

B.I.C. Ml Doc BHIRA. — A Village in the Punjab, thirty-five miles east of 

Shahpoor. Lat. 32° 7', long. 72° 52'. 

E.I.C. Ms. Doc BH1RH1!EE. — A village in Sinde, on the route from Subzul- 

cote to Shikarpoor, and twenty-five miles south-west of the former 
place. It is situate ten miles from the left bank of the Indus, 
in a low alluvial tract, covered with jungle. Lat. 28° 3', long. 
69° 20'. 

BHOLAN PASS.— See Bolan. 

E.I.G. Ms. Doc BHOODLUH. — ^A village in Bhawlpoor, about three miles 

from the left bank of the river Ghara. Lat. 30° 27', long. 73° 29'. 

E.I.C. Ms. Doc BHOOL, in Sinde, a halting-place at the eastern foot of 

BHO— BHY. 107 

a pass over the Bhool hills, on the route from Sehwan to Kurra- 
chee, and ninety- nine miles south of the former town. There is 
a good supply of water from a water-course, and abundance of 
forage, the neighbourhood being covered with grass and jungle. 
A little south-west of it two roads pass off eastward, one to 
Hyderabad, another to Jurruk. Lat. 25"" !(/, long. 67° 38'. 

BHOOLDRA. — A village of Beloochistan, situate on the road e.i.c. ms. dog. 
firom Kedje to Punjgoor, about a mile and a half from the left bank 
of the Bhugwur, or, as it is caUed lower down, the Dustee river. 
Lat. 26^ 36', long. 6^ 81'. 

BHOONQ BARA. — ^A pergunnah or district of Sinde, in Corrapondence 

on SlDuCf Sfi5. 

the vicinity of Subzulcote. It contains fifteen villages, and, when 445, aoi, so?. 
subject to the Talpoor Ameers of Khyerpoor, yielded an annual 
revenue of 60,000 rupees. This territory had been wrested by 
the Ameers from the Khan of Bhawlpoor, but in the beginning of 
1843 the British authorities in Sinde transferred it to Mahomed 
Bhawl Khan, the ruler of Bhawlpoor, as a reward for his zealous 
and long-tried friendship. Lat. 28'', long. 69"". 

BHOOR. — ^A village in Sinde, situate on the road from td,c. m«. Ooc. 
Hyderabad to Kotree, and eighty miles south of the former place. 
This route takes first a southerly direction, and about thirty miles 
from Hyderabad verges slightly to the south-east. It is in lat. 
24° llMong. 68*»30'. 

BHOORAIWALA. — AviUage in Bhawlpoor, twenty-six miles e.i.c. ms. doc. 
north-east of the town of Bhawlpoor, and four miles from the left 
bank of the Ghara river. Lat. 29° SO', long. 72° 2'. 

BHOORKA-MU.— A village in Bhawlpoor, situate on the e.i.c. Mi. doc. 
road from Jessulmair to Mittunkote, and thirty-six miles from 
the left bank of the Indus. The siurounding country is in general 
sterile and uncultivated. Lat. 28° 31', long. 70*^ 47'. 
BHUGWUR RIVER,— See Badooe and Dustbb. 
BHULLEE-DE-CHUK. — ^A village in the Punjab, situated waiker. Map of 
close to the left bank of the Chenaub river. Lat. 32° 4', long. 
73° 19'. 

BHUSOOL, a small river in Beloochistan, has a course of Pott.Beioocfa.so9. 
forty miles, generally from north to south, and fells into the 
Arabian Sea in lat. 25° 18', long. 64° 44'. 

BHYRAWUL.— See Bh YEO WALAH. Macartiwy in App- 

BHYROWALAH.— A village in the Punjab, at a ferry over SciSblii^^T* 
the Beas river, here found to be 740 yards wide when crossed JJSSiS!*S!*b. 

40», s. 



If ooivr* Pu^l* 
Bokb. U.M0i 
Von Uoffel, 
Kashmir, L B. 
978. S. 

E.I.C. Ms. Doc 

VlciM, Kuhmir, I. 
Kashmir, 1. S6 ; 
Bernier Yojft, 

E.I.C. Ms. Doc. i 
Survey Map. 

Moorcr. Pui^. 
Bokh. i. 150. 

by the BritiBh mSMinw^ under Klphiiwtone, in tbe end of Jdr.t. 
which aeaaon the water IB highest. The current was bo npid« 
that occasion that Bereral of the boats employed were swept te 
miles down the streatti. Though the rirer is so formidahle, ^ 
boats are wretched craft, no better than small rails, with a pint 
one foot high, all round, and draw only six indies water. lit 
81* 21', long. 75* 7'. 

BUBAHAR, or VIOIPARA, m Kashmir, the lar^gest tcmk 
the Talley, after the capital, is sitnste on die banks of the Jsika* 
about twenty-five miles south-east of the dty of Kashmir. Ow 
the river here is one d those singular and simply-oonstniiiBi 
timber bridges, which, notwithstanding the apparently frail natne 
of their fabric, have endured for centuries, in oonseqnenee d 
the exemption of the country firom stonns or incJement weHkr 
There is nothing die wordiy of notice except a ocnaidenUe 
bazaar. Ut. 33'' 47', long. 75*' 4\ 

BUORE.— See Bajouju 

BILLUNDEE.— A village in Bhawlpoor, situate near the Mk 
bank of the Ghara river, and twenty miles north-eaat by esrt of 
the town of Bhawlpoor. Lat. 29° 30", long. 71"" 55\ 

BIMBER, in the Punjab, a town on the route from Lahore Is 
Kashmir, through the Baramula Psss. It in situate on a bbmI 
stream, which falls into the Chenaub,* from which river the tova 
is distant about forty miles. The houses are low and flat-roofed. 
Their number is estimated at 1,000, and that of shops at 15a 
About thirty years ago, it was governed by an independent 
rajah, who had an annual income of 60,000 rupees. He was 
seized and blinded by the Sikhs, by whom the place is now hdd. 
Lat. 32° 51'. long. 74*» 8'. 

BINDEH. — ^A village in Sinde, situate on the road fron 
Bukkur to Hyderabad (by way of Khyerpoor). It is about twenty 
miles from the west bank of the eastern Narra river, in kL 
26°37Mong. 68*>47'. 

BINOA, a river in the Northern Punjab, rises in the raj of 
Chumba, near the southern bank of the Ravee, and flowing 
south-east for about fifty miles, &Us into the Beas, east of lira, 
and opposite Kumla Guiii, in kt. 31^ 45', long. 76'' 36^. 
Like all the streams of the Himalaya, it varies greatly in volume. 


* Moorcroft lUtM that thu (treun falb into tbe JaUum (ii. 309). 

BIR-^BOL. 109 

according to the aeaaoa, being fordable in cold weather, but in 
the hot 8ea8on» in ooaaequenoe of the melting of the snow, 
becoming a deep and rapid stream. Where crossed by Moor* 
craft on skins, at the Gh>lden Ferry, it was sixty feet broad and 
eight feet deep. 

BIRALEE.^-A collage in the Punjab, sitoated near the jonc- B.i.a Ms. doc. 
tion of the Chenaub and Ravee rivers, on the route from Mooltan 
to Lahore, about thirty miles north-east of the former place. 
Lat. 30^ SC. long. 71M8'. 

BIROZABAD. — ^A village in Bhawlpoor, about seventy miles e.i.c. um. Doe. 
south-west from the town of the same name, on the* route from 
thence to Khanpoor, from which place it is dbtant about twelve 
mfles. Lat. 28'' 45', long. 70° 49'. 

BISULL — ^A town in the north-east of the Punjab and on one K-hmir, ». "i. 
of the southern ranges of the Himalaya, situate on the river 
Kavee, which is here about eighty yards wide. There is a large, 
irregulaily-built bazaar, but the place is chiefly remarkable for 
the huge palace of the rajah, regarded by Vigne as the finest 
building of the kind in the East ; " exhibiting in its square turrets, 
open and embattled parapets, projecting windows, Chinese-roofed 
balconies, and moat-like tank in front," a striking likeness to 
the great baronial mansions which in some parts of Europe 
remain as memorials of the feudal ages. Lat. 32^ 25', long. 75° 

BITNGEE. — ^A village in Afghanistan, situate about ten waiker^i Map or 
miles east of the range of the Suliman mountains, on a route from 
Ghttznee to Kala Bagh. Lat. 3^ 10', long. 7QP 21'. 

BODA or BAIDA, in Sinde, a large village on the route Ric. Ms. Doc. 
from Hyderabad to Sehwan, and ten miles north-west of the 
former place. It is situate close to the right bank of the Indus, 
akmg which a good road runs, and near the village is ample space 
for an encampment. Lat. 25'' 29^ long. 68^18'. 

BOKHARBE — ^A village in the Punjab, about three miles E.i.a m.. doc. 
from the left bank of the Chenaub river. Lat. 31"" 4 1^ long. 
72« 55'. 

BOLAN PASS,^ in Beloochistan, on the great route from i e.i.o. um, doc. 
Northern Sinde, by Shikarpoor and Dadur, to Kandahar and 
Ghuznee. It is not so much a pass over a lofty range, as a con- 
tinuous succession of ravines and gorges, commencing near Da- 
dor and first winding among the subordinate ridges stretch- 


ing eastward from the Hak chain of monntama, the farmra 

which it finally croaa-cuta, and thus givea aooeae from the im 

plain of Hindoatan to the elevated and uneven tract ertppdiag 

from the Hindoo Kooah to the Ticinity of the Indian Ocean, hi I 

oommenoement on the eastern tide, from the plain of Catch Gv- | 

dava, is about five miles north-west of Dadur, and in lat. 29°d(f. 

*jw.AM.Soe. long. 67"* 4(/; the elevation (tf the entrance bein^ about 800 feit 

Bv. aad Tber. abovc the level of the sea.' The valley through which the nai 

H^/iiwlkxp. ^^^^'^ ^ ^^^ about half a mile wide; the inclosing hilia, 500 or 

in Ai^. 40. 600 feet high, consist of coarse conglomerate.' The road aaooidi 

• Harelock, War 

In Ai^. L iiA; along the course of a river, called among the mountains the Boho, 

lu^ao^'^ orKaohee. The river in this part of the pass varies in depth fin 

a few inches to about two feet, and in the first five miles of the rod 

intoAijnif''*' " crossed eight times.^ The bed of the stream, in many phce 

Hough, 4». forming the road, is of round stones, afiPording unstable footi:^ 

to horses, but less inconvenient for camels, and presenting no »- 

rious obstacle to the passage of wheel-carriages, as the ascent b 

gradual. At Drubbee, about two miles and a half from tbe 

entrance, the pass expands into a small verdant valley, throBgii 

which the river flows, and in which a caravan of 1 ,500 persoas 

G^oif ' ^!ii?*to ' ^^S^^ encamp. At Kundye,^ or as it is sometimes called Kondibii 

Indil^ u. S88 ; six miles from the entrance, the pass again expands into a smafl 

E^f^ A^^o'; ^^ valley, 600 yards by 400, with a hard surfiioe of large stones 

AtkiDMn, 111. and pebbles. This in time of heavy rains becomes a lake,^ and 

• ConoUj, 11. 829. , 

TRoofhNotet,?!. then, as Outram^ observes, the steepness of the inclosing hiSs 
" would preclude the possibility of escape to an army caught is 
the torrent." Up to Kundye the course of the pass for six miks 
is south-west ; from this point, a route strikes off south-east to- 
8Conoii7, ii.8S4. wards Bagh,^ and affords means of entering the pass from die 
vicinity of that town, without taking the usual route by Dador. 
The elevation of this expansion is 904 feet above the sea. 
Immediately beyond it the road turns due north, the ascent be- 
comes greater, amounting to one foot in 304, and the route more 
K^^yrsi^' difficult, still lying up the course of the river, which in ten miles • 
and Kabooi, i.si5. and half as fer as Kista, is crossed seventeen times. This point, 
» Grif.utfupra,M. about seventeen miles > from the entrance of the pass, is 1,081 feet 
above the level of the sea. The breadth of the valley increases 
considerably firom this spot, being in some places three or foor 
miles : the direction also of the route turns north-west, and the 
9 Hough, 51. ascent becomes still steeper, bemg about one foot^ in seventy- 


seven as for as Beebee Nanee, twenty-six miles from the entrance, 
and having an elevation of 1,695 feet above the level of the sea. 
The surrounding mountains in some places in the lower part of 
the pass are described as consisting of " coral rock' of a grey- ' Kennadr, i. su. 
white colour, and a compact homogeneous substance, splinter- 
ing with a smooth surface of fracture, precisely like the stone 
used in lithography." At Beebee Nanee a road strikes off due 
west ^ to Rod Bahar and Kelat, while the principal road con- 4E.i.c.Mt.Doe.; 
tinues its north-westerly course towards Shawl and Kandahar. 5lJ^k*wwin 
Here the serious difficulties of the pass commence, from the ^^' *• s^- 
increased roughness and acclivity of the ground, and from its 
being commanded from various parts of the impending clifis. To 
these difficulties the want of wat^r is soon added, the river dis- 
appearing, and pursuing its course for several miles below the 
shingly deposit which forms the bottom of the valley. The route 
proceeds ten miles up the bed of this concealed stream, as fer as 
Ab-i-goom, or " the lost river," a post so called from the circum- 
stance just mentioned. This point is 2,540 feet^ above the level ftOri£ut»upn,64. 
of the sea. From thence the route continues its north-westerly 
course up the stream, now no longer choked up, but generally 
from two to three feet deep, and, after an ascent of eight miles 
and a half, reaches Sir-i-Bolan,^ where the river gushes out of e e.i.o. ms. doc ; 
an opening in the rock in a large clear spring. The elevation is ^^'^u.^io^ 
4,494 feet above the level of the sea, and the acclivity for the last Atkinaon. ii7 ; 
eight miles one foot in twenty-five, being the greatest met with in Kenn^r, i. 210 ;' 
any part of the pass. The distance from the eastern entrance Jl^JTi'^' ^^' 
is about forty-five miles, and so barren is the country, that only 
two green spots are observed in this interval. 

From Sir-i-Bolan to the top of the pass, the route takes a 
westerly course, and for a distance of ten miles is totally without 
water. The last three miles of this distance is the most dan- 
gerous part of the pass,^ " the road varying from forty to sixty t Hough, m. 
feet, and flanked on each side by high perpendicular hills, which 
can only be ascended at either end." The elevation of the crest 
of the pass is 5,793 feet. There is no descent on the western 
side, as the route opens on the Dasht-i-Bedowlut, a plain as high 
as the top of the pass. The total length is between fifty-four 
and fifty-five miles ;^ * the average ascent ninety feet in the mile. • e.i.c. m§. doc. 

* Outram erroneously states the length at seventy-five miles. Rough Note«, 75. 

112 BOLAN. 

The Bengal column in 1839 spent six days in mardiing 
through the pass, entering it on the 16th and leaving it on the 

• Hough, App. 78. 21st of March. Its artillery,^ including eight- inch mortare, 

twenty-four-pounder howitzers, and eighteen-pounder guns, were 
conveyed without any serious difficulty. The enunences bound- 
ing the pass have in general no great height above it, in most 

1 Hareiock, I.2S8. places not exceeding 500 feet ; but at Beebee Nanee,' they are 
very lofty. The air in the lower part of the pass is, in summer, 
oppressively hot, and excessively unhealthy, so that scarcely any 
persons then venture through it, except messengers on urgent 
business, whose poverty compels them to brave the danger, 

•is.i.c.Ms.Doc.;and these frequently perish. Some British troops^ who ad- 
^' ' ' vanced through it at this season found the climate ftttal. The pass 

> Leech on sind- is infested by Belooches,^ principally of the M aree and Khaka* 

Atkinioii/ii3. ' ^^ Cauker tribes, a lawless, treacherous, sanguinary race, living 
partly on the produce of their flocks of sheep, and partly by 
plunder, attacking indiscriminately all travellers who they think 
may be overpowered, murdering them, and carrying off the 
acquired booty to fastnesses among the adjacent IuILb. , In some 
instances whole caravans have been exterminated by them. They 
are as cowardly as cruel, seldom attacking where effectual resis- 
tance can be made. The Bolan Pass, though very important in a 
military point of view, as forming the great communicatiQn be- 
tween Sinde and Khorasan, is inferior in a commercial interest to 

* Burnet oo the the Gomul,^ farther north, through which the Lohani Afghans, in 
Trade ^f the Do- ^^j^, ^j^j^ij migrations, conduct the main portion of the traffic 

between Hindostan on the one point, and Afghanistan and 
Central Asia on the other. The western extremity and highest 
point of the Bolan Pass is in lat. 29** 52', long, 67** 4'. 
1 F..I.C. Ms. Doc. ; BOLAN,* a small river of Afghanistan, rises in the Bolan Pass, 
H^uih^Jwair.Exp. *^ Sir-i-Bokn, in lat. 29^ 51', long. 67*^ 8', and at an elevation of 
in Afg.' 48-64 ; 4,494 fcct abovc the level of the sea. The road through the pass 
Af^. i. 196; Jour. gcQci^y foUows the couTSc of the river, except for about ten 
^' ^^.V'S**' ^'a ""^^ between Kirta and Beebee-Nanee, where the stream winds 

oo ; Qrii. Bar. and 

Ther. Meai. in Considerably to the north-east of it. The declivity of its bed is very 
B^iAfJ'ptaj.i. rapid, as in fifty miles, from Sir-i-Bolan to Dadur, it falls 3,751 
884 ; pottinger, fget. After a coursc of about seventy miles remarkablv sinuous, 

Beloocliistan, 809 ; j j » 

Kennedy, Sinde but generally in a south-easterly direction, it, in lat. 29^ 24', 
2?2-M4rAtkin- ^^^E' ^7° ^8', forms a junction with the Nari, coming from the 
•on. E»p. into aHj. north, and loses its own appellation in that of the river with 

lll-litO. *^*^ 

BON— BOO. 113 

which it unites. The Bolan river is liable to sudden and great 

inundations, and as its bed, in some parts of the pass, occupies 

the whole breadth of the ravines through which it flows, and the 

clifis on each side are, in many places, so steep as to be inac* 

eessible, travellers are frequently overtaken and drowned by the 

furious torrent. By such a casualty, in 1841,^ a detachment of Alton, Mweb 

the Bengal army lost its baggage and forty-five men. The Bolan Aiij ^ n, 104-^14. 

liver IB also known among the natives by the name of Kauhee. 

BONAKOT, in the Punjab, is a valley, containing a village vigne^ XMhmir, 
of the same name, on the northern frontier of Kashmir. Here is 
the residence of a Malek or chieftain, whose family was once 
of considerable importance, but ia now much decayed. It is 
situated on the principal route from Kashmir to Iskardoh, in lat« 
S4*» 25', long. 74^ 82^. 

BONYR.— See Bubbiwdoo. 

BOODOOKE.-*-A village in the Punjab, situate near the right e-I-C Mi. Doc 
bank of the Ghara river. Lat. 30^ 46', long. 74° 13\ 

BOODOOR RIVER.— See Badoob. 

BOOLOO. — ^A village of Afghanistan, in " the Desert" south cbriitte in App. 
of the Hehnund. There is forage for camels, and sheep can be IS^**" b«i«»i». 
obtained from the pastoral population « the neighbourhood. 
Lat. 29* 34', long. 63*^ 4(/. 

BOOM. —A village in Afghanistan, situate on the route ej.c. Mi. Doe. 
from Oiriskh to Bamian. Lat. 32"" 8', long. 65"". 

BOOMBULPOORA.— A village in Sinde, on the route b.i.c. Mi. Doc 
from Tiarkhana to Shikarpoor, and sixteen miles north-east of 
the former place. It ib supplied with water from a well, and has 
about 250 inhabitants. Lat. 27'' 42^, long. 68'' 27'. 

BOONJ^RE, in Northern Afghanistan, is the tract lying vigne, Kadunir, 
north-west of the Indus, and north of the Kabool river, and bear- ofCauirai.'^.aSi 
ing the general name of the Eusufzai country. It is i'lclosed J^JI'^.^U^^,. 
by the Indus on the south-east, the Hindoo Koosh on the Map of Pahawur 
north ; on other sides by mountains separatifig it from Suwat on ^^c^?^^r!^ 
the west, and on the south from the country held by the Khut* Af.8oci84o, p. 

_ j-nii..-* ,. i.«v^i^t* 0S4-98S; Conolly, 

tuk and EusutEai tnbes, on the lower course of the Kabool nver. Notwon £oioft7« 
In its general character it is rugged, being composed of a number 
of small valleys, opening into one larger, through which flows 
the Buxrindoo,* a stream ftdling into the Indus on the west side, 

* The Borrmdoo river of Elphinstone ia the Bonyr (Booneere) ri^er of 
WaUcer^B map. 

VOL. I. I 

114 BOQ. 

a Htde below Torbda, in kt. W 8\ long. 72^ 37'. The 
fertile purtB lie along liie oonrae of this river, and are cultmited 
with much care, the scnl on declivities being formed into ter- 
races, xising one above the other. Some rice is produced, bat 
liie prindpai crop is millet. Booneere lies between kt. 34'' !(/— * 
84'' 40'. long. 7^ 15'— 73^ 
Jour. i«. 8o«. BOONOA. — ^A Village in Bhaw^poor, situate abont a mile 

^,%^ from the left bank d the Ofaara river. Lat. SO' 13', long. 

from Lodina to 730 lO' 

B.i.c.Mt.Doe. BOONOA. — A village in the Punjab, situate on the left 

bank of the Ravee river, on the route from Modtan to Lakoie, 
100 miles from the former, 110 from tibe ktter place. Lat. 30* 
39', bng. 7T 44'. 
YipM, KMhmir, BOONJ. — ^A nanow plain, stretching along the left bank of 

^ *^ the Indus, from north to south, in long. 74*' 28', and between 

kt. 35'' 20'— 35'' 35', being bounded on the north and west by 
the Indus, south by the Husora river, east by the lofty monntaina 
north of Kashmir. It is in general sandy and banen ; in a few 
places it is fertile, but ill cultivated, in consequence of tiie incur- 
sions of the predatory tribes surrounding it. 
B.I.C. u». Doe. BOOQLJIE.— A small village in Sinde, on the rente from Seh- 

wan to Larkhana, and three miles south of the latter place, to 
which there is a good road. Lat. 27" 28', long. 68" 17'. 
Hough, S87; BOORHAN, in the Punjab, is a small town situate on the 

Moorcr. u.«i. jj^j^^qq ^^^^ twenty miles south-east of Attock, to which there 

is a good road. Lat. 33" 48', long. 72" 35. 
B.I.C. ici. Doe. BOORKHOE. — A village in Beloochistan, ei^teen miles 

east of Sonmeanee, from which there is a good road. Lat. 25" 
24', long. 66^ 50'. 
I B.I.O. Mf. Doe ; BOOTHAUK.— A fortified village, twelve miles east of Ka- 
Kjibooi, fo[^'sJie, ^^^> <^ ^e route to Jelakbad. According to some,^ the name 
H*' *h.1?' ^' ^ properly But-Khak * (idol-dust), bestowed in consequence of 
Ezp. to Aiis.*808 ; Mshmood of Ghuznee having broken some idols here. This 
a!^! uTns^Miir <l^^&tion, like many others of similw nature, rests on popular 
Op. in A4r. aog, tradition. At this place commence the series of defiles which 


3 MaMon, BiO. intervene between Kabool and Gundamuk. The pass of Boot- 
wom^oQi'mJ ^^ ^^ ^^^ miles long and, where narrowest, about fifty yards 
wide, hemmed in on each side by heights rising almost per- 
pendicularly to the elevation of 500 or 600 feet. Close to it 
* i^\^ *^-* Sbakespear, in tt. 

BOO— BUB. 115 

on the eastward^ the route to Jdalabad divides into two lines, that 
to tlie north prooeediog through the Luttabund Pass, and that 1x> the 
Bonth by Khoord Kabool and the Taugee Turkai Pass. Near Poot- 
houk the British troops, under command of Grenerai EJi^unstone, 
attempting to make their way to Jelalabad, in 1842» first en* 
countered that attack of the Afghans, which did not cease until 
the whole army wa3 either butchered or captured, almost with^ 
out exception. Lat. 34'' 29^ long. 69"" 15'. 

BOOTIA.— A village in Sinde, situate on the route from mi. sarT«y lUp. 
Hyderabad to Jodhpoor, by way of Omeroote, from which last 
place it is distant eighteen miles east. It is in lat. 25^ 22^ long. 

BOOTLA.— A Tillage in Bhawlpoor, situate on an ofbet of bj.g. mm. doc. 
the Indus, about three miles from the left bank of the main 
stream, in lat. 28^ 3(/, long. 69'' 54'. 

BOREE. — ^A large fortified town of the proyiQoe qf Sewestan, 
in Afehamatan, inhabited by Caukers. By it proceeds the route 
called the Boree Pass,^ leading from Dera Ghazee Khan to i Leech, Api>.4o; 
Kandahar and Ghuznee* Baber led his army through it in 1505, M«»oir^ las; 
and it is still used by caravans. The country^ in which this > Eiph. Aec of 
town is situate is fertile, well cultivated, and has a dense popu- ^^*'*'^* ^^* 
lation almost ezolusively agricultural. It is irrigated by nume- 
rous kareezes, or subterraneous water-courses and brooks, which 
discharge themselvea into a considerable stream, flowing south- 
weat, and which is lost by absorption and evaporation, without 
reaching the sea. Lat SQP o^\ long, ed"" 35'. 

BOWYNUH.^A village in A%hanistan, among the Huza- walker's if «p of 
reh mountains, on the route from Bamian to Sir^i-pool, from 
which latter place it is distant about thirty miles. Lat. 35'' 50^, 
long. ^"^ 57'. 

BJlENG.-**«See BvwNa. 

BRUK Y. — ^A village in A feh a ni ajba n , on the road frx>m Ghuz- e.i.c. ms. doc 
nee to Dera Ismail Khan, on a route collateral with the Gomul 
Pass and north of it. Ijkis seiMiuty luiles sauth-east of Ghuznee. 
Lat. 33^ long. 69^ 14'. 

BRYGY.— A village in A^ghamstei, situate on the .i&verB.i.c.Mi.Doo. 
Gomul, about sLsty miles south-east of Ghuznee. It is .in lat. 3^ 
46', long. 68*» 53'. 

BUBUK. — ^A village in Sinde, situate on .the north-east shore x^ Map of sinda. 
of Lake Mauchur. Lat. 26^ 26', long. ^T $2'. 


116 BUC— BUG. 

BJ.o.if«.Doc BUCHOO.— A village in the Punjab, situate on the right 

bank of the Ravee river, forty miles south-west of Lahore. Lat. 
31^ 19Mong. 73M8'. 

E.I.C. Ms. Doe. BUCKRANEE.— A village in Sinde. on the route from Seh- 

wan to Larkhana, and seven miles south of the latter place. It 
is situate in the extensive island contained between the Indus 
and its offset, the Narra ; being distant eleven miles from the left 
bank of the former and about half a mile from a ferry over the 
latter, known as the ferry of Buckranee. From this ferry to the 
ford opposite Tonia Hassem, the distance is about a mile and a 
half. The neighbourhood is fertile and well cultivated. Lat. 27'' 
25', long. 68« 17'. 

fS^^^JSf: BUDDEEABAD, in Afghanistan, in the province of Lugb- 

Op.atKabooi,aoo. man, a large and strong fort, belonging to a Ghilji chief. It is 
a square, each side being eighty yards long, with a tower at each 
comer. The walls, twenty-five feet high, are strengthened by a 
fausse-braye and deep ditch. Here, the sixty-three British captives, 
spared from the massacre in the attempted retreat from Kabool in 
1842, were imprisoned for a short time. Lat. 34® 55', long. 70° 14'. 

Ms. SuTTtj Map BUDEENA. — ^A village in Sinde, seventy miles south-east of 

Hyderabad, and seven miles west of the Goonee river, a great 
offset of the Indus. Lat. 24"" 33', long. 68"* 52. 

» vigiMs KMhmir, BUDRAWAR* ("the stronghold of Buddha").— A town in 
the Northern Punjab, on the southern slope of the Himalaya, 
near the left bank of the river Chenaub, and on one of its feeders. 
The neighbouring country is beautiful, picturesque, fertile, and 
well cultivated. It was formerly governed by an independent 
Rajpoot rajah, but is now subject to the Sikh chief of Chumba. 
There is a large and well-supplied bazaar. The population is 
probably about 2,000, of whom a considerable proportion are 
Kashmirian weavers of shawls, employing about 250 looms. 
There is a large square fort, built of stone. It is about 5,000 

• vigne, u. 906. feet above the sea.* Lat. 32^ 53', long. 75° 28'. 

B.I.O. Ms. Doe. BUDWAN, in Western Afghanistan, a village on the route 

from Kandahar to Herat, from the former of which places it is 
distant about fourteen miles south-west. The road here is good, 
and the place important, from having a plentiful supply of water. 
Lat. 31** 34', long. €5° 16'. 

i cwieii. surrej BUGGAUR,» in Sinde, is the western branch of Ae Indus, 

ofUi« Indus, 1; ' ' 

BamM' Bokhara, diverging a little below Tatta, at the head of the Delta, the Sata 

ill. S20. 

BUG— BUK. 117 

beinfl: the eastern branch. In 1699, when visited by Hamilton,' • Nev Aoe. of th« 

-* -. *-^ • ui L- I. T 1. EMt Indies 8to. 

it was a very great stream, navigable as high as Lahoree- sdin. its?, l ii4. 
bander, twenty miles from the mouth, for vesseb of 200 tons, 
but now, except daring the inundation,^ it has scarcely any ' Komedj, sinda 
stream, in consequence of a sandbank five or six feet above the ^ 
level of the water stretching across the channel at the place of 
divarication. Where forded by the British army during the season 
of low water, in 1839, it was two feet and a half deep, and fifty 
yards wide ; lower down, the channel was completely dry. When 
the stream was g^reater, it parted into four branches, entering the 
sea by the Pittee, the Pintianee, the Joah, and the Richel 
mouths. These have all become merely inlets of the sea, con- 
taining salt water, excepting during the inundation. The word 
Baggaur signifies destroyer, a name given in consequence of the 
effect of the river on the lands through which it flowed. Its main 
course is generally westeriy, extending about eighty miles from 
the place of divergence, in lat. 24'' dS', long. 68'' 1', to the 
Pittee mouth, in lat. 24'' 42^, long. 67'' 8'. 

BUGUT. — ^A village in Afghanistan, six miles west of the Waik«r, Map. of 
road firom Ghuznee to Shawl. Lat. 31° 47', long. 67" 13'. ^* 

BUKAPOOR, in Sinde, a large village on the route from B.i.a Mi. Soo. 
Sehwan to Larkhana, and two miles south of the latter place, to 
which the road is good. There is an abundant supply of water 
from wells, and ground for encampment. Lat. 27° 29^ long. 
68° 11'. 

BUKERALA.— See Bakbbala. 

BUKKUR, in Sinde, a celebrated fortress on an island in 
the Indus, between the towns of Roree on the eastern and Suk- 
kur on the western bank.^ The eastern channel, dividing it frt>m > Wood, in R«p. 
Roree, on the left bank, is 400 yards wide and thirty feet deep ^ app "''to' 
in the middle, with a current of four miles an hour ; the western, BuniM'Pen.Ntfr. 

. 84S; Burnw* 

dividing it from Sukkur, on the right bank, ia ninety-eight sokh. m. ts, S70. 

yards wide, and fifteen feet deep in the middle, with a current of 

three miles an hour. Such is the measurement when the river 

IB lowest, and made in a right line across the island from the 

eastern to the western shore of the Indus ; but at some distance 

to the north of this right line, a spit of land from the island of Buk- 

kur projects westward into the river, leaving between its extremity 

and the western shore a channel only fifty yards wide, seven feet 

deep in the middle, and with a current of four miles an hour. In the 

lid BUK. 

lUTdS'^Wtt in ^f^^^ ^ 1889,^ the engineers of the Bengal amy, marddng 

A«. 1. iw. to A^fadnistan, threw here a bridge of boats over the Indna. The 

number of boats employed for this purpose was nineteen for die 

Western or narrower channel, and fifty-fire for tiie eastern, and 

on this the army, with its baggage and battering-train, puraed 

» In Jour. At. Soe. over.* Scton afterwards the bridge was swept away. Macmurdo' 

^' states that the water In the western channel disappears in the 

* BoUi. m. 871. season when the river is lowest ; and Bumes,^ that the < 

is said to have been once forded in the same season. Wood, 
however, found the former seven feet deep, and the latter thirty, 
in the dry season. 

The island of Bukkut is a rock of limestone, interspersed widi 
flint, of an oval shape, 800 yards long, 300 wide, 1,875 in drctiit, 
« LeMh, Rep. on and about twenty-five feet high.^ Almost the whole of it is 
nfi^u^2U covered by the fortress, the walls of which are double, from 
plS^'r'sM^' thirty to thirty-five feet high, built partly of burned, partly of 
Wood's ozus, 61 ; tmbumed bricks, with sixty-one bastions, loop-holed, and having 
JjJIJJjJ^u. 90o'' ^ a weak parapet. There is a gateway facing Roree on the east, 
WMtmaeott, in ^^j another facmg Sukkur on the west, and there are two 

Jour. Am. Soc ° 

. 1841, p. »6 ; 1840, wickets. Though apparently so strong, it could offer no effectoai 
^ ^'^' resistance to a regular and well-sustained attack, as it is com- 

manded from the heights on both die east and west sides of €be 
river, and might be successfully assaulted by escalade from a 
small island lying to the north, and separated from it by a narrow 
channel of easy passage. In 1839, the fortress was ceded by the 
Ameers of Khyerpoor to the British, to remain occupied by their 
garrison during the then existing war. To its ultimate destination 
it would be premature to advert. Lat. 27° 41', long. 68° 52^. 
Leech, Lefa, OS ; fiUKKUR. — ^A Commercial town in the Punjab, on a small 

^^^*^'^' oflBct of the Indus, and about three miles eastward of the main 
stream. It has a well-supplied and busy bazaar, and the neigh- 
bouring country is so well cultivated and productive, diat provi- 
sions are probably as cheap as in any part of the world. It yields 
a revenue of about 10,000 rupees per annum. Pbpulation 5,000. 
Lat. 31° 39', long. 71° 7'. 

BUKRALA.— See Bakbrala. 
Ms. Surrey Map. BUKWA.— A village in the "Litde Desert" of Sinde, 

* So states Wood (34 7) , who was on the spot ; but Havelock, also present, 
states (i. 158), ** The whole of our siege-train and park had been safely 
Ibrried across ths InAttft on rafts." 

BUK— BUL. 119 

utoate sixty-five miles sooth of Omeroote. snd twenty miles 
from the north boundary of the Great Western Rono. Lnt. 
24** 27', kmg. 69* 45'. 

BUKWA-A-KARAIZ.— A village in Afghanistan, situate on Waik«r»B ifap of 
tibe road from Fnirah to Oiriskh, about fifty miles east of the ^' 
former place» and ninety miles north-west of the latter, in lat. 
32** 17', long. 62** 66'. 

BULAMEEN. — A village in A%hanistan, situate on the b-lc. Mf. Doe. 
roote from Ghuznee to Kohat. Lat. 33'' 30', long. 7(r 31'. 

BULBUT. — ^A viUage in the Punjab, situate on the east ej.o. mi. Doe. 
bank of the river Chenaub, twelve miles south-west of Mooltan. 
Lat. 30° 3'. long. 71** 18'. 

BULEA6.— A village in the Punjab, situate on the right wtikeftMap of 
bank of the Veyut or Jailum river, and on the route from Bara- ' ' "^ ' 
mula to Mazufuiabad, thirty-five miles west of the former, and 
eight miles east of the latter. Lat. 34"" lO', long. 73"" 29'. 

BULLOO. — A viUage in the Punjab, situate near the left bj.c. mb. Doe. 
bank of the Chenanb river, on the road from Mooltan to Ram- 
nuggnr, a hundred and ten miles north-east of the former, and 
a hundred and fifty soudi-west of the ktter place. Lat. 31'' 16', 
kmg. 72^' SO'. 

BULRIA.«— A small village in Sinde, a short distance to the bj.c. u§. Doe. 
left of the route from Sehwan to Trfirkhana, and nine miles north 
of the former place. It is situate in a populous and well-culti- 
vated tract, dose to an offset of the Indus, and a mile from the 
right bank of the main channel. Lat. 26° 30^, long. 67° 57'. 

BULTI, or BULTISTAN. >— A small state north of Kashmir, ■ uttar. Bid- 
and bearing also the name of Little Hbet, by which prefix it is {j]^/**** ^***^ 
distinguished finom Middle Tibet or Ladakh, and Great Tibet 
or Southcam Taztary. Bulti is also sometimes called lakardoh, 
frtHn the name of its capital. It is bounded on the north by 
Chineae Tartary, from which it is separated by the Mustag or 
Mooz*Taugh ^ (icy mountains), and the Karakorum mountains, • siph. Aoe. of 
prolongations of the Hindoo Koosh, to the eastward. On the ^^tS^fss^^/' 
east it has Ladakh or Middle Tibet, ^ on the south Deotsuh and «»; wide, Notes 

nlatiTe to Iskar- 

other devated and desert tracts, which separate it from Kashmir ; doh;Biiniei'Bokh. 
on the west, Ghilgit, Yessen, and Astor, small independent states, t'u^nr. Prnj. 
Its limits have varied with circumstances, and at no time have Bokh. i. sss. 
they been weM defined; but as the result of the safest estimate of 
them, Bulti may be stated to lie between lat. 34° 40'— 35° 30^, 

1:^0 BUL'n. 

long. 74** 40'— 76^ 2(/. Its greatest length, which is about 170 
miles, is from south-east to north-west; its hreadth not more 

* vifne. KMhmir. than fifty or sixty. Its superficial extent is about 1 2.000 * square 
miles. It consists principally of a Talley. having an average 
elevation of from 6.000 to 7,000 feet above the sea. and through 
the lowest part of which the Indus flows in a north-westerly 
direction. It is inclosed by enormous mountains, rugged, bare, 
and neariy inaccessible, which rise above it to the height of 6.000 
or 8.000 feet, except where the Indus rushes with vast rapidity 
from the south-east, and makes its way to the north-west, pre- 
viously to its turning towards the lower country, north of Attock. 
From the valley of the Indus numerous gCM'ges and ravines furrow 
the inclosing mountains, serving as the channels of streams feed- 
ing the main river, and form passes, by which access is gained to 
the neighbouring countries. Geologically, the formation of the 
mountains is generally of gneiss, that of the low ground akmg the 
banks of the Indus of shingle and sand, mixed with a little alluvial 
mould, requiring frequent irrigation from the streams to render it 

A Wade, MO ; productive, as rain scarcely ever falls there. ^ and in consequence 

vigne, ii. 906. n^^ atmosphcrc LB very clear and dry. But though rain is almost 
unknown, snow falls and lies to the depth of from one to two feet. 
The cold in the elevated parts is intense in winter ; on the high 

« vigne, u. 967. and uusheltcred table-land of Deotsuh, it at that season^ totally 
precludes the existence of animal life. The heat in the lower 
parts in summer lb considerable, the thermometer ranging from 
7(f to 90^ in the shade at noon. 

Besides the principal valley of the Indus, there are two others; 
that of Shighur, down which the large river of that name 
flows from the north to join the Indus at Iskardoh^ and that of 
Shyyok, the great river flowing down which has its confluence with 
the Indus a few miles farther to the east. (See Shiohub and 
Shytok.) Numerous mountain torrents fall into these main 
streams, both on the right and the left. At the confluence of 

" vigne, ii. 316. the Shjryok and Indus ^ the former is above a hundred and 
fifty yards wide ; the latter is only eighty yards in width, but 
it is deeper and has a larger body of water than the Shyyok. 
The average breadth of the Indus, in its course through Little 
Tibet, is from one hundred to two hundred yards ; near Iskardoh 
it is comparatively tranquil, but elsewhere it is a rapid tor- 
rent. There are five lakes known in this country: that of 

BULTI. 121 

Satpur-Tsnh, in the Satpur Pkiss, a few miles south of the town 

of lakardoh ; that of Juha-Tsuh, in the valley of Shighur ; the 

shallow lake of Ranga, near the Indus ; and the two small lakes 

of Kutzura, near the western boundary* Satpur-Tsuh, the ' ^f '^JjJ^. 

largest of all tiiese, is only one mile long and three-quarters of a vodaiImi, lu. esr! 

mile wide. 

A careful search would probably be rewarded by the db- 
covery of mines of gold in Bolti, as almost* every stream *yigM.iL 946- 
brings it down, but the quantities being small» the process ofjm^^QQ^^ ' 
washing the sands is attended with little profit. Arsenic is met 
^Hth in Bulta, and sulphur abounds. Little else is known respect- 
ing the minerals of this country. Thermal springs ^ are nume- ^ vigne. ii 27s- 
rouB, some so hot as to scald those who incautiously expose^' wad«,W8. 
themselves to their operation. 

Of beasts, the most worthy of notice is the " yak'* or 
grunting ox, which attains the size of our large domestic ox. 
The hybrid between this animal and the common cow is called 
the " hxho** and is more useful as a beast of burthen than 
either of the pure races. There are various wild animals, 
of species allied to the sheep, goat, or deer ; the " kuch-kar,'* 
a gigantic mouflon, or wild sheep ; the " rass," supposed by 
Bumes^ to be an enormous sort of goat, with horns so • Bokh. u. soe. 
laige that one man could not lift a pair of them ; a species of 
ibex, larger than that of Europe, and with longer horns ; the 
" markhur," a species of large goat ; the " ska," a quadruped 
intermediate between the goat and the deer ; the " ana," similar 
to the last, but smaller ; the musk-deer, the marmot, the hare, 
the leopard, the bear, the wolf, and the fox. The eagle is fre- 
quently seen ; more rarely, the " vulture on Imaus bred." The 
red-legged partridge is common, as is a gigantic species of the 
size of a common hen. The rivers abound with the Himalaya-trout, 
but have scarcely any other fish. Serpents are rare, and do not 
appear to be venomous. 

The country is not fertile, but the inhabitants are indus- 
trious and make the most of it, forming terraces on the sides 
of the mountains, and giving great attention to irrigation. By 
these means they raise crops of wheat, barley, millet, buck- wheat, 
turnips, and a little rice. The cockscomb* or crested amaranth » vigne. u. 968, 
(Celosia cristata), is cultivated for its seeds, which are ground into ' 
flour for making bread. There is a variety of excellent fruits : 

122 BULTI. 

tpriootB 80 abound that the Kaahmirians call the cmmlry Son* 

• vigne, li. 940. Btttan,^ or Apricol Tibet. The other fruits are peaches, apples, 

pearsi grapes, mulberries, walnuts, melons, 
« TigMp 11.171; The inhabitants^ are of the Tanety of the human race called 

Wadtb fi07 

by physidlogiits Mongolian, bearing a strong resemblance to 
their Tartar neighbours on the north, but shewing an admix- 
ture of Hindu and Persian blood. They are usually sallow, 
thin, and care-worn, from dieir laborious habits and scanty 
hte, and are seldom hmg-liTed. They are considered to be 
phlegmatic, but peaceable and well-intentioned. The food of 
the majority of the population is grain, prepared in Tarioos 
ways, and dried fruits ; the higher classes alone being enabled 
to eat flesh. Tea, though very expensive, is much used, being 
the great luxury of all who can at all command the means of its 
purchase. It b prepared by boiling the leaf with soda, and add- 
ing salt-butter and cream to the decoction, in which mode it is 
said to be both palatable and nutritious. The people have 
a singular amusement — the "Chaughan," which may be described 
as cricket played on horseback wilii long sticks, having at the end 
large wooden knobs. They shew great eagerness, activity, and 
dexterity in this exercise. As to religion, they are Mahometans, 
of the Shia persuasion, or such as reject the succession of the 
three first kaliphs ; but many adhere to a portion of Hindu 

• vifiie, u. 967. usages. Their language is Tibetian,^ with a slight admixture of 

Arabic and Persian. Their dress, a long fiiU tunic and cap, is 
generally made of the wool of their sheep and goats, but some- 
times, though more rarely, of cotton. The government, until the 
late Sikh ccmquest, was vested in a hereditary rajah, who, undertbe 
native tide of Gylfo, exercised an unlimited but mild sway. The 
military force was a rude militia, in which almost all free men 
capable of bearing arms were bound to serve in consideration of 
the lands allotted to them. The amount of population has some- 
times been preposterously exaggerated, being stated at 300,000 

• Wade, 507. frmulies,^ or (if five persona be allowed to each family) at 1 .500,000 

souls ; a twentieth part of this amount, or 75,000, would proba^ 
Uy be not remote from the truth. Such a supposition would rate 
the density of the population at a little more than six to the square 
mile. The principal place is Iskardoh, a straggling collection 
of houses, situate at the base of a lofty isolated rook, on which 
is a fort, the residence of the gylfo. (See Ibkau>oh.) The 

BUL.— BUM. 123 

only other places leqniring notice in Bolti are Parknta, Kho- 
polu* Keris» Katakchtmd, and Tolti* (See the respective names.) 

The principal routes into or through Bulti are — ^first/ one, vtry ^ vicm* u. soi. 
difficult, from the north-west, following the course of the Indus up- 
'wards to Iskardoh ; second,^ one joining the last on the east side, • id. u. sm; 
and afibrding a communication with the Eusufeai country ; third,^ ^^I^ ^Ia-i ,^ 
firom y^Kmir to Iskardoh, by the GKirys valley, and across the ^ ^^ *^^ 
table-land of Deotsuh ; fourth,^ another route from Kashmir, by * Moorcr. Pmu. 

«,,« • , *i,*> ^ . Bokh. iL 1-U, 

the Bultul Pass, down the course of the Duras or Dras nver, gs-M; vigne^u. 

to its confluence with the Indus ; fifth,^ that proceeding in a fj^i^^^,, p,^, 
■outh- eastern direction up the course of the Indus to Ladakh. Bokh.u.t-8} 
There is a path from Iskardoh to Yarkund over the Mustag, but ul^i, ssi. '' 
now scarcely ever frequented,' from dread of freebooters or of * vigne, u. sos. 
perishing in the snow. Some have idly supposed that the peo- 
ple of Bulti^ are descended from some settieis of the army of < wads, oes; 
Alexander, and that Iskardoh is a corruption of Iskanderia, or ^*^°^ "' ^^' 
Alexandria, but they might as plausibly assign such a descent to 
the Esquimaux. Their physical, moral, and intellectual qualities, 
as weU as language, prove them related to the inhalHtants of Great 
or Eastern Tibet, and conseqentiy members of the great Mongo- 
lian fiunily of Central Asia. The ancestors of Ahmed Shah, tiie 
present gylfo, are said to have ruled here uninterruptedly for 
fourteen generations ;^ but, two or three years ago,* Iskaidoh and « wdn, 000. 
the other strongholds of Bulti were seized by (Hiolab Singh, the ' ^^^^ ^ ^^ 
cruel and rapacious Sikh ruler of Jamu. 

BUL-TUL, or KANTAL,' in Kashmir, a pass over the range 1 vigae, Kuhmir, 
of mountains inclosing that valley on the north-east. It forms on^lt^ mi«!!*^^ 
the water-summit between Kashmir and Littie Thibet, as from its ^^^* p- ^^^ 
northern declivity the Duras river flows northward to the Indus, t^ beyond the 
and from its southern flows southward a feeder of the small river b'^'*!*^ 
Sinde, a tributary of the Jailum. Its elevation above the level 
of the sea is 10,500 feet. It is also called the Shur-ji-La, gene- 
rally pronounced Zoj-i-La ;^ and in old maps this summit bears • uwm. Pcutf. 
the name Kantal, signifying "lofty-hiU." Lat. 94^ Itf, long. BoUi.u.9ft. 
75° 15'. 

BUMBEYA, in Sinde, on the route fron Sehwan to Lar- b.i.o. Ma. Doe. 
khana,«nd nineteen miles north of the former place. It is situate 
dose to a channel through which the waters of the Indus ind 
their way in time of inundation, and a mile from the right bank 
of the main channel. Lat. 26° 38', long. 67° 5d\ 

124 BUM— BUN. 

BJX. Ml. Doc BUMBRA.— A village in 8inde, on the ronte from Hydei»- 

bad to Sehwan, and twenty miles south-east of the latter pUioe, 
is situated near the right bank of the Indus. Lat. 26** 3^, long. 
68*^ 6'. 

BUMBUTPOORA.— See Boombulpoora. 

E.I.C. M*. Doc BUND.— A small village in Sinde, on the route from Lar- 

khana to Bagh, and twenty-two miles north of the former place. 
It is situate on the border of the Runn or Desert of Shikarpoor. 
It has no claim to notice beyond that of possessing a supply 
of water from a well. Lat. 27"" 50", long. 68*" 8'. 

E.I.C. ifa. Doc BUNDA. — A village in the Punjab, situate on the road from 

Julalpoor to Attock, forty-five miles north of the former. Lat 
33° 23', long. 73° 3'. 

E.I.C. Ml. Doc BUNDEE BOREE.— A village in Afghanistan, on the left 

bank of the Urghundab river, thirty miles south-west of Kelat-i- 
Ghilji, and sixty miles north-east of Kandahar, hat. 32° 6^, 
long. 66"" 15'. 

BUNDER GURREE.— See Ghurrt. 

1 BanM'Bokh. iL BUND-I-BURBUR,^ near the north-western frontier of Af- 

Soc' isTirp. 118; ghanistan, twenty miles west of Bamian, is a celebrated dam or 

conoiij, Report mouud, the origin of which is ascribed to a miracle,* but which 

on KliofSMn. 

appears to be in reality nothing more than a vast mass of earth 
that has fallen into a ravine from an adjacent height. Near it, 
in lat. 34° 40", k>ng. 67"" 18', is the source of the stxeam gene- 
rally called the Bund-i-Burbur river, and sometimes the Durya, 
which flows from a large lake, the result of the accumulation 

* Moorcroft, Pai^. of watCT caused by the dam.^ It is in the mountains a dear 

rapid stream, which has a course of about 250 miles, generally 
northward, to the vicinity of Balkh, where it is divided into 
eighteen canals, and totally expended in irrigation. Its praises 

* LftiiA Bookh, OS. have been celebrated by Thomas Moore,^ under the name of the 

vig»^K«ibmir, BUNDIPUR, or BUNDURPUR, in Kashmir, a Ullage at 

^ ^^' the commencement of the route to Iskardoh over the range 

bounding the valley of Kashmir on the north. Close to it, two 
considerable streams flow into the Wulur Lake from the north. 
The water of the lake formerly reached to the village, chut at 
present is a mile distant, in consequence of its outlet, the river 

299. * In Bnrnes' Personal Narratiye a cnrioiu account is ghren of this tradi- 

tion, but it is too long for insertion here. 

BUN. 125 

Jaflum, contmuBlly deq>eiiing its bed. Bandurpnr is in lat. 34^ 
as', long. 74** 31'. 

BUNGALA.— A Tillage in the Punjab, six miles from the >< «p of n. w. 
right bank of the Suduj, and ten miles north of the town of 
Ferozpoor. Lat. 31° 5\ long. 74** 29'. 

BUNGOOL DBHRA, in Sinde, a village on the ronte from e.i.c. mi. doc. 
Shikarpoor to Larkhana, and twenty-two miles north of the 
latter place. It has abont 250 inhabitants, and is supplied with 
^ater from a well. Lat. 27° 43', long. 68° 27'. 

BUNGUSH, in Afghanistan. A valley extending across the 
Suliman range, in lat. 33° 20', long. 70° 30', and expanding into 
a plain about twelve miles in diameter.^ The valley is called ' Eiph. aoc. of 
Upper and the plain Lower Bungush. The plain is fertile, and ' 
well watered by a stream, which flows south-east, and is probably 
the same which, near the Indus, is called the Kurum river. The 
oncultivated parts are covered with dwarf palms, but there are few 
other trees. Upper Bungush is well watered, productive in the 
bottoms, and considerably wooded^ in the mountainous part, which ' MafMn,Bai. A<ir. 

^ ., /^ -_ '^,/ Pud. L 116. 

IS covered with snow as late as March, though there is seldom any 
below. It is subject to the chief of Kohat,^ who has an income • wood's Ozos, 
of 80,000 rupees per annum. Through it lies one of the routes i^^mt* Trada 
from Hindostan to Khorasan, now much frequented in oonse- ^ ^ Do^at. 

Map ; Id. on Pair 

quence of the depredations committed at the Khyber Pass.^ for the indua. 

BUNIAH WALLEE, in Sinde, a halting-place on the route b.i.g. Mi. doc. 
from Sukkur to Jessulmair by way of Khyerpoor, and seventy- 
seven miles east of the last-named place. There is here a pool 
filled with rain-water during part of the year, but dry in the hot 
season. Coarse grass is plentiful. Lat. 27° 23', long. 69° 54'. 

BUNKA.^A village in the Punjab, on the route from Feroz- ejjc, ub. doc. 
poor by way of Hureeke to Lahore, and thirty miles south-west 
of the latter pUice. Lat. 31° 23', long. 74° 39'. 

BUNKAR.— See Bagrwan. 

BUNNA, in Sinde, is a town on the route from Cutch to BunMt' (JanMt) 
Hyderabad, and on the east or left bank of the Indus, which at ^^^ ^ ®*^' 
this place is nearly a mile wide, and even in its low state filling the 
channel from bank to bank. Here the Pinyaree, a great branch, 
diverges firom the main stream, and, flowing southwards, is dis« 
charged into the sea by the Sir mouth. Bunna is in lat. 25° 4', 
long. 68° 18'. 

BUNNOO.— See Bamoo. 

126 BUN— BUR. 

BUNPOOB, in BdooduBtui, in the district of Mnlaraa. 
It consiflts of a fertile tract, thirty miles long and five broad, 
stretdiing from east to west, and having a sandy desert of 
about twenty-five miles broad on each side of it. On the soatli 
it is bounded by the Mukran mountains, on the north by a range 
* jow. At. Soe. parallel to them. Grant > describes it as well irrigated, and in 
Gnuit,%ottr.'ora oonsequcnoe producing grain in abundance; yet Fottinger' 
w!!!!tora'^ dr* '^''^' ^^ ^ devoid of rivers, having merely a brook, which, as 
Makran. early as April, gave indications of speedily becoming dry. It is 

s Beiooch. 818. ^ present held by a Belooche race, called Narrois, who seized 
it about fifty years ago, and whose exact origin it is vain 
to seek in this barbarous and extensive tract. Their force 
amounts to about 300 cavalry and 2,500 in£uitry, and these 
support themselves by predatory incoads on the neighbouring 
countries, especially Persia. Among their multi&rious booty the 
wretched inhabitants are considered an important part, being 
sold as slaves to traders coming from the nortlL. The chief resides 
in the fort of Bunpoor, built on a mound of earth, visible £nom a 
distance of twenty-five miles, and said by the natives to have been 
made by order of a Guebre chieftain, who commanded his innume- 
rable cavalry to fill the nose-bags of Bieir horses with earth and 
' ut niim, 177. empty them here. The mound is described by Pottinger^ to be 100 
yards high and SOO in circuit. It is ascended by means of flights 
of stairs practised in the body of the mound. Half-way up is a 
very deep well of fine water. Though rudely built of mud, the 
Ibrt would probably, from the strength of its site* be impreg- 
nable against any force which the Persians conld bring against it. 
In addition to the results of his forays, the chief has a fixed 
revenue, stated by Pottinger at 26,000 rupees, 140 camels, 140 
matchlocks, 140 sheep or goats, 140 measures of wheat, and the 
same of dates, each measure being 1061bs. Lat. 27^ 20^, long. 
60* 45'. 
Bxa iii.noe. BURA.— A village in the Punjab, situate on the right bank 

of the jriver Bavee, eighty«five miles south-west of Labare. LaL 
80^ 66', long. 73« 11'. 
B.I.C. Mt. Doe. BURAKHAIL. — ^A village in Afghanistan, on the route fiNun 

Ghuanee to Kohat, for^ miles west of Kohat and sixty miles 
south-west of Peshawur. Lat. SS"" 30', long. 70° 48'. 
E.I.C. lit. Doc BURANGHUR.— A village in North-western Afghanistan, 

forty-five miles south-west of Sir-i-Pool. Lat. 35'' 54', long. 64° 

BUR. 127 

BUKEEN CHBNON.— See Buiuixh Chinab. 

BUR££N GHINAR.— A TiQage in Beloochistan, on the route e.i.c. Mt. Doc 
from Shawl to Kelat, and sixty miles south-west of the fcnr- 
mer place. It is supplied with water from an aqueduct, and there 
18 much cultivation around it. The road here is ezoellent. Lat. 
29^ 26', long. 66° 27'. 

BURENG, BERENG, or BRENG.— A valley of Kashmir, 2^'^^: 
extending in a direction from south-east to north-west, hetween f. Von Hagei, 
kt. 33« 20'— 33° 30', long. 75° 10'— 75° 26'. Its upper ex- 11^,^?^. 
tremity reaches neaiiy to the aummit of the Snowy Ptanjal 
moimtain, hounding Ka^mir on the east, and the route by the 
Mirhul Pass, over that ridge, proceeds up the valley, which is 
drained by the river of Bnreng. The whole of the valley 
appears (as Vigne expresses it) honeycombed by caves and sub- 
terraneous water-channels, and in consequence aboimds in springs 
of great volume and force. Of these the principal are the in- 
termitting fountain of Sondibreri, and the vast spring of Echi- 
bul, which last is supposed to be the efflux of the engulfed 
water of the Bureng river. (See BuasNe Ritsb, Echibui*, and 


BURENG RIVER, in Kashmir,^ flowing through a valley of > vigne, i. ss7. 
the sarme name, is formed by the junction of two streams, one 
having its source in a large sprii^ near the summit of the Wurd- 
wun Pass, and flowing southwards, the other rising on the western 
declivity of the Snowy Panjal, and flowing north-west. After 
their junction ^ a great part of the water sinks suddenly by an * Moorer. Pmi. 
opening in the rooky bed of the stream, the rest is saved by H^l,'i^iduBir 
means of a canal, ^.nd conveyed north-westward toward Islamabad, ^ ^^ 
beyond which, in lat 33° 42', long. 75° 2', it joins the Lidur 
river, fanning one of the principal feeders of the Jailum. The 
length of the course of the Bureng is about forty miles. 

BURG. — ^A village in Beloochistan, on the route over tiie e.ic Mt. Doc 
elevated country between Shawl and Kelat, and distant fifteen 
miles west of tiie former place. The road here (which is excel- 
lent) passes through a well-watered valley, about eight miles 
wide. Lat. 30° 6', long. 66° 45'. 

BURGUNA.— A village in Afghanistan, situate on the road E.I.C. m^ doc 
from Kandahar to Quetta, and thirty-two miles south-east of the 
former place. Tins route takes a south-easterly direction from 
Kandahar to Piaheen valley, when it runs due south to Quetta, 

i. 104. 

128 BUR. 

where it branches off, one roate to the south of Beloochistan, 
through Kelat and Bela. the other westward, through the Bolan 
Pftss. It is in lat. 31'' 22^, long. SS"" 57'. 

YigM, KMhmir, BURMAWUR, a small town in the north-east of the Punjab, 
among the southern ranges of the. Himalaya, is situate on the 
river Ravee, and on the route from Ghumba to Lahoul. Lat. 32° S(f» 
long. 76* aC 

E.I.G. Mi. doo. BUROBERA.— a considerable village in Sinde, on the route 

from Hyderabad to Sehwan, and thirty-two miles south-east of 
the latter place. It is situate a mile from the right bank of the 
Indus, amidst considerable cultivation, Lat. 25° 58^, long. 
68° 12'. 

B.I.C. Mt. Doc BURRA CHICHER.— In Sinde, a thriving village on the 

route from Hyderabad to Sehwan, and sixty-two miles north-west 
of the former place. It baa a large mosque, in front of which 
are numerous tombs. The road is good; there is space for 
encampment, and an abundant supply of water. The village is 
situate in a well-cultivated country, on a small water-course, dis- 
charging itself into the Indus a mile to the east. Lat. 26° 13^ 
long. 68°. 

jovr. Aa. Soe. BURRAN. — ^A river in Sinde, which takes its rise in the 

^Stn^^Lp^ Keertar mountains, in kt. 25° 54', long. 67° 45', and, after a 

eTcI^^doI Bo^th-easterly course of sixty-five miles, faUs into the Indus. 
Lat. 25° 14', long. 68° 17'. In the upper part of its course it is 
called the Dhurwal. For a mile before its confluence with the 
Indus it has a large body of water. 

Eiph. 8». BURRINDOO, or BONYR.*— In Northern Afghanistan ; a 

small river, which, rising in the ridge dividing Booneere or Bonyr 
frx>m Suwat, takes a course in a south-easterly direction of about 
forty miles, and discharges itself into the Indus on the west side, 
in lat. 34° 12', long. 72° 36'. It drains the fertile valley of 

E.I.C. Ms. Doe. BURROOKULLAN. — ^A village in Afghanistan, situate on 

the road from Peshawur to Kabool, about a mile south of the 
Kabool river, and eighteen or twenty west of the western ex- 
tremity of the Khyber Pass. Lat. 34° 16', long. 70° 43'. 

E.I.C. Ms. Doc; BURSHOREE.— A halting-place near two walled villages in 

E^fbiAuTiof ^looc^*twi» oa the route from Shikarpoor to Gxmdava, and 
thirty-five miles east of the latter town. It is situate on the 

* Called by the Utter name in Walker's Mi^. 

BUR— BUT. 129 

border of the Runn or Desert of Shikarpoor» and is supplied with 
water of indifferent quality from wells. In the vicinity is a little 
cultivation, and some scanty supplies may be obtained. Lat. 28^ 
27\ long. 68** &. 

BURT. — A village in Sinde, near the right bank of the In- Ms. Survey Map. 
dus, forty-four miles north-east of Sukkur, in lat. 28^ 15', long. 
69** 18'. 

BURUKHANU. — ^A village in Afghanistan, eleven miles waikeKs Map of 
south-west of the Koh-i-Baba mountains, and fifty-four miles ^^' 
south-west of the town of Bamian. Lat. 34° 18', long. 67'' 6'. 

BUSSEEN. — ^A village in the Punjab, on the route from b.i.c. Ms. doc. 
Amritsir to Lahore, and midway, or twenty miles, from either 
town. Lat. ZV 40', long. 74° 37'. 

BUSSEERAH.— -A village in the Punjab, situate about ten b.ic. mi. doc. 
miles east of the river Indus, and twenty-two miles south-west by 
east of Mooltan. Lat. 30° 6', long. 71° 5'. 

BUSSOOR KHAIL, in Afghanistan, is a village having ^i-<^- ^•- ixx"* 
several others in its immediate vicinity, lying on the route from 
Ghuznee to Shawl, from which latter place it is distant about 
a hundred and thirty miles north. Lat. 31° 54', long. 67° 23'. 

BUSSOUL.— See Bassowal. 

BUTCHA.— See Batchau. 

BUTCHEAL LUGAREE. — ^A village in Sinde, situate on the mi. Surrey Map. 
right bank of the Western Narra river, on the road from Sehwan 
to Larkhana; fifiy miles north-west of the former, and forty miles 
south-west of the latter. Lat. 27° 5', long. 67° 47'. 

BUTCHRAL. — ^A village in Sinde, situate on the road from Ms. Surrey Map. 
Bukkur. by way of Khyerpoor, to Hyderabad. Lat. 27° 1 1', long. 
68° 54'. 

BUTORA, in Sinde, is a smaU village or station on the route Bumes* (j.)> Mis- 
from Cutch to Hyderabad. Lat. 24° 25', long. 68° 30'. '^ ^ ^^^^ ^' 

BUTTE KOTE.*-A village and desert of the same name, at wood, Khyber 
the eastern extremity of the district of Jelalabad, lying between ^^^i[ i^o^^ 
the Khyber and Ali Boshan mountains. Here, the heat of sum- Poorer. Ponj. 

' ® . Bokh. U. 850 ; 

mer acting on the bare stony surfeu^ of the ground, and the air jour. as. soe. 
confined by the adjacent mountains, produces a dreadful simoom |^iJ*ii*^oir <m 
or pestilential vnnd, which scorches like the blast from a furnace. • Map of Petha- 
The bodies of those attacked by it are covered with blue spots, TiT; uLgngor, 
and death and putreftu^on immediately follow. Lat. 34° 16'» j^JaJ^^fHough. 

long. 70° 51'. Narr. of Exp. to * 

, An?, aoft. 

VOL. I. K 

N.W. Frontier. 

130 BUZ--€AR. 

BUZDAR PASS.— See Sakoao Pasb. 

E.I.C. Ms. Doc BYABANCK, in Western Afgham8tan» is a Tillage on the 

route from Herat to Kandahar. It has a supply of fresh water 
from a karetx or subterraneous aqueduct, which renders it of im- 
portance in this country, where there is a general dearth of that 
indispensable necessary of life. Lat. 32^ 14\ long. 64''. 

E.I.C. M«. Doo. BYE DERA.— A village in the Punjab, situate on the rircr 

Ravee, on the route from Mooltan to Lahore, by the left banks 
of the Chenaub and Ravee riven, sixty miles south-west of La- 
hore. Lat. 3P 2^, long. 73« 26'. 

waikCT^s Msp of BYE DERU. — ^A Tillage in the Punjab, about four miles from 
the left bank of the Ravee riTcr, forty-four miles south-west of 
Lahore. Lat. 31^ 12^. long. 73^ 40^. 


CABOOL, or CABUL.— See Kabool. 
BanH»(Jamet). CABULPOOR, iu Sinde, a town on the left or eastern bank 

M lalon to Sinda^ 

88. of the Indus, and on the route from Cutch to Hyderabad. Lat. 

24* 45', k)ng. 68° 28'. 

CAFERISTAN.— See Kafibistak. 
CANDAHAR.— See Kanuarab. 
Lmch. Khyber CAROPPA, or KADAPA, PASS.— This pass lies across the 

1^. AM. of mountains between the plain of Peshawur and that of Jelalabad. 
caubui, 854. The routc by it is Tery circuitous, proceeding northward from 
Peshawur, crossing the Kabool and Lundye nTers to Husht- 
nuggur, then again crossing the Lundye riTer and proceeding 
westward to Lalpoor, where it again proceeds southwards across 
the Kabool riTer, and joins the main route to Jelalabad. It is a 
tolerably good road and considerably frequented, not being in- 
fested by the Khyberees. Lat. 34* 20', long. 71* 30'. 
E.i.c.Mi.Doc.; CARWAN CAZEE, in Western Afghanistan, a halting- 
1841%. 880;' placc ou the route from Kandahar to Herat, considered to be 
of*Tw!»eta'iD^**"'' about half-way between those two places, or about a hundred 
sebttn. and eighty-fiTe miles from each. It is important merely on 

account of its haTing a supply of water. Lat. 32* 31', long. 
62* 58'. 

CAS— CHA. 131 

CASHMERE, or CASHMIR.— See Kashxib. 

CATARH. — ^A vilkge in Sinde, ten miles east of Omercote, mi. surrejMap. 
on the road from thence to Balmair. Lat. 25^ 22^, long. 69^ 57^ 
CAUBOOL, or CAUBUL-— See Kabool, 

CHACHER. — A village in Sinde, situate on the right bank elc. ms. doc. 
of the Indus, forty-fi^ miles north of Bukknr, and ninety south- 
west of Mittunkote, from which place there is a road. Lat. 
28** 12', long. 69^16'. 

CHAGHERA. — ^A village situate in the Little Desert of e.i.c. Ms. doc. 
Sinde, thirty-five miles south-east from Omercote« on the road 
to Nnggur Ptokcr. Lat 25** T, long. 1(f 20'. 

CHADOOH.— A village in Sinde, twelve miles sonth-east of ^^ Surrey Map. 
Khyerpoor, on one of the routes from Bnkkur to Hyderabad. Lat. 
27** 24', long. eSP 51'. 

CHAGAI, in Beloochistan, a village on the route from Maaion, Bai. Afi;. 
Sonmeanee to Kelat, and five miles north of the former place. "^' *' ^ 
Close to it, the route westward to the celebrated shrine of Hing^j 
branches off. Chagai is in lat. 25'' 28', k>ng. 66" 23'. 

CHAGA SERAI. — ^A village of Chitral, in Northern elg. mi. doc. 
A%faanistan, situate on the river Kooner, about forty miles north 
of the town of Bajour. Lat. 85" 37'. long. 71" 14'. 

CHA GOOROO.— A viBage in the province of Sarawan, in ej.c. ms. doc. 
Bdoochistan, situate on the road from Shawl to Kelat, forty 
miles south of the former place. The road near this place is 
level, and there is a supply of water from a well. Lat. 29" 36', 
long. GG" 46'. 

CHAH-I-JEHAN, in Afghanistan, a halting-place on the e.i.o. m*. doo. 
route from Kandahar to Herat, about ninety-five miles frt)m the 
latter place. It has a supply of water, but the surrounding 
country, though capable of yielding forage in abundance, is un« 
cultivated and nearly desert. Lat. 33" 20', bng. 63" 22'. 

CHAH-I-MEERZA.— A village in Western Afghanistan, e.i.c. Ms. doc. 
situate twenty-six miles south of Khash. It is about eighty miles 
south-east of Funrah. Lat. 31" 25', long. 62" 45'. 

CHAH-I-MOOSUK. — ^A village in Afghanistan, on the road e.i.o. ms. doc. 
frt>m Giriskh to the province of Seistan, eighty-five miles east 
of GHriskh, and twenty miles from the town of Khash, through 
which this route passes. Lat. 31" 41', long. 63". 

CHAIKAL. — A considerable village of the Koh-i-Damun» in uwm, Bai. Afg. 

Pull iii 1S4 

A^hanistan, on the route from Istalif to Charikar, and fifteen 

K 2 



Ms. Suirej liap. 

Ai. Rcf. tUI. 970 
Gerard, Obt. on 
SpiU Valley ; 
Trebeek, la 
Moorer. ILfil. 


E.I.a M«. Doc. 

E.I.C. Vs. Map. 

B.I.C. Ms. Doc 

miles north of the former place. The vicinity is fertile, beauti- 
ful, and well cultivated, like the other parts of the Koh-i-Damnn. 
Lat. SS**, long. 69° 2'. 

CHAIN.— A village in the Punjab, situated about a mile and 
a half from the right bank of the river Ravee, and sixty miles 
south-west of the city of Lahore. Lat. 31^ 7', long. T^ 26^ 

CHAMORERIL.— A lake in Ladakh, in the elevated talde- 
land of Rupshu, situate between the vaUey of the Sutluj and that 
of die Indus, called by Trebeck, Tsummureri. It is 15,000 feet 
above the level of the sea, and is surrounded by mountains which 
rise in some places 5,000 feet above the surface of the water. 
The general breadth is about a mile and half ; the length, which 
is in a direction finom north to south, is between twenty and 
twenty-five miles ; the circumference about fifty. The vrater is 
brackish, of a blue colour, and Trebeck conjectures it deep. He 
also states, but apparently rather rashly, that it contains no fish. 
Though fiar above the limit laid down by theorists for perpetual 
congelation in this latitude, it remains unfrozen during the sum- 
mer months, according to the testimony of Gerard, who colored 
it in the end of September. Though receiving several consi- 
derable streams, it has no efflux, the water being carried ofiT by 
evaporation, a process which is here found in operation more 
actively than in the most burning tropical regions. Lat. 32® 45^ 
long. 78° 20'. 

CHANDEE. — ^A village of Bhawlpoor, situate on an ofilaet 
of the river Indus, and on the route from Roree to Mittunkote. 
Lat. 28° 24', long. 69° 50^. 

CHANDEE-JA-GOTE.— A viUage in Sinde, situate about 
eight miles from the east bank of the river Indus, on the route 
from Bukkur, by way of Nowsharra, to H3rderabad, and fifty- 
three miles north of the last-named place. Lat. 26° 7^ long. 
68° 12'. 

GHANDIA. — ^A village in Sinde, on the route from Sehwan 
to Larkhana, and thirty-eight miles north of the former town. 
There is some cultivation in the neighbourhood. Lat. 26° 56', 
long. 67° 55'. 

GHANDIA.— See DaHass Kote. 

CHANDKHOTE.— A village of Sinde, situate on the right 
bank of the river Indus, ten miles south-east of Larkhana. Lat. 
27° 22^, long. 68° 15'. 

CHA. 133 

CHANDKOH» ^ in Sinde. a district stretching along the > BaniM, Bokh. 
right bank of the- Indus, between lat. 26° 40'— 27° 20', and ^^;^^'^ 
long. 67° 45'— 68° 10'. It is intersected by the Narra, the great 8inde»«8. 
western ofl^t of the Indus, and seyeial other water-courses ; it is 
lerel, and extensively flooded during the season of inundation. 
From the latter circumstance and the nature of the soil (a rich 
mud deposited by the river), it has a fertility scarcely anywhere ex- 
ceeded. Under the Talpoor dynasty, it belonged to the Hyderabad 
Ameers, and yielded a considerable proportion of their revenue. 
It is called Chandkoh from being principally held by the Be- 
looehe tribe of that name. Pottinger, ^ who mentions it under ' Beiooeh. 957. 
the name of Chandookee, estimates the revenue derived from it 
by the Ameers at 100,000/. per annum, but there can be little 
doubt that this is an exaggeration. 

CHANDOO, or CHANDRA.— A village in Beloochistan, e.i.c. Ms. doc ; 
situate on the high road from Kelat to Bela, about twelve miles NotflTssaT'^^ 
north of the latter place, and near the left bank of the river 
Pooially. Lat. 26° 19', long. 66° 23'. 

CHANDOOKEE.— See Chandkoh. 

CHANDRA, in Beloochistan. — See Chandoo. 

CHANDRA, the principal feeder of the Chenaub. After re- Moorer. Punj. 
ceiving the water of the Surajbhaga, it bears the name of Chan- ^***^ *• wi-i»5. 
drabhaga. (See Chenaub,) 

CHANDRABHAGA.— The Chenaub bears this name in the id. i. loe. 
upper part of its course after it has received the water of the 
Surajbhaga. (See Chenaub,) 

CHANG. — ^A village in Sinde, on the road from Bukkur to Ms. Mapof sinde. 
Hyderabad, by way of Khyerpoor. Lat. 26° 57', long. 68° 46'. 

CHANNI-KHAN-DIGOT.— A smaU but thriving town of M«ttcm, boi. a*. 
Bhawlpoor, on the route from the city of that name to Khan- ^^' *' ^'* 
poor, and eighteen miles north-east of the latter place. The 
surrounding country is generally dry, sandy, and overspread with 
tamarisk jungle. Lat. 28° SO', long. 70° 54'. 

CHAOGAONWA. — ^A village in the Punjab, situate on the e.i.c. Ms. doc. 
road from Amritsir to Vazeerabad, about fifteen miles north-west 
of the former place, and twenty-three miles north-east of Lahore. 
Lat. 31° 45', bug. 74° 35'. 

CHAPPAR, in Beloochistan, an elevated table-land, a short Manon, Kaiat, 
distance west of the town of Kelat. It is at present thinly in- ^^' 
habited. Fragments of pottery, which occur in vast quantities. 

134 CHA. 

and aimiiar traoea of haman babitatkm, indicate it to have been 
formerly the seat of a dense population. It is well watered hf 
streams, and produces abundance of melons and similar esculents 
for the Kelat market. Lat. 28" bff, long. 66^ 2^. 

Ms. Surrey Map. GHARAN. — ^A Village in Sinde, situate on the Nam river, 
on the route from Larkhana to Sehwan, lorty-fife miles north of 
the latter place. Lat. 26" 56', long. 67" 49". 
CHARATTA.— See Chareatta. 

E.I.C. Ma. Doe. CHARBAQH. — A village in A^hanistan, situate on the 

route from Herat to Bamian« twenty-eight miles north-east of 
the former place. Lat. 34" 31', long. 62" 38'. 

Walker's Map of CHAR BOORJUK. — A village in A%hanistBn, on the road 

^' from Kandahar to Herat* a hundred and diirty miles south of 

the latter place. Lat. 32" 36', bug. 62*» 30'. 

B.i.c.Ms.Doe.; CHARDAR PASS.— A pass from Afghanistan to Kunduz 

L«eeh Hindoo 

Kooih. n. over the Hindoo Koosh. Lat. 34" 55'-^5" 15', long. 68° 35'. 

E.I.C. Ms. Doe. CHARDEH, in Afghanistan, a fort on the route from Kanda- 

har to Ghuznee, about thirty miles south-west of the latter town. 
The surrounding district, called Karabagh, is veiyfertile* being in 
harvest time one large field of wheat as frff as the eye can reach. 
Lat. 33" 13', long. 68". 
E.i.c.Mf.Doe. CHARDEH.— A village in Afghanistan, situate in the valley 

of Ghorbund, twenty-eight miles west of Chatikar. Lat. 34^ 55', 
long. 68" 37'. 
E.I.G. Ms. Doe. ; CHARDEH.— A village of Afghanistan, in the valley of Jek- 
Ezp. In Afg.'aoi ; Isbad, is situate on the right bank of the Kabool river, at the 
PwJT Tiist^^' couHvience of a small stream from the Sufeid Koh. The neigh- 
jour.As.soc. bourinff country is in seneral very sandy and barren, and in 

1848. p. 77; Grit . \. ^ il -.1. ..i *: i • 

Bar. and Thor. Summer u somctimcs swept over by the pestilential nmoom, or 
Moas.iJiA%. scorching blast, feital to animal life whenever exposed to its in- 
fluence. The elevation of Chardeh above the sea is 1,822 feet 
Lat. 34" 20', long. 70" 50'. 
E.I.C. Ms. Doe. CHAREE CHUCKOO.— A village in the Punjab, situate on 

the road from Ramnuggnr to Attock, ten miles north of the 
former place. Lat. 32" 29', long. 73" 36'. 
1 Bunifls,p«rs. CHARIKAR.^ — ^A town in the Kohistanof Kabool, and close 

oxnsi 187*; Lord,' to the entrance of the Ghorbund valley, in Hindoo Koosh. It is 
MMson^BST*'*^' the residence of the governor of the Kohistan, and has considera- 
Afg. Fwaj. iii. 125. ble transit trade to Turkestan and Central Asia, through the 
several passes which cross the Hindoo Koosh from the Ghorbund 

CHA. 135 

▼alley, bo tliat tibe duties, it is said, exceed 10,000 rapees per 
annum. It has also a direct trade in the coarse cotton doths 
manufactured throughout this district. The most remarkable 
object in the town is a large castle, the residence of one of the 
great chiefs of the country. Charikar is the most Bourishing, as 
^weH as one of the largest towns in the Kohistan, having a popu« 
lation of 5,000. 

In 1839,^ when the British took military possession of the * Ejn, Miuop. 
greater part of Afghanistan, Charikar was garrisoned by a regi- ** ^^■*~***» ^'^^ 
ment raised from the native population, but towards the dose of 
1841. this was replaced by a Groorkha regiment in the service of 
Sliah Shoojah, and under the command of Captain Codrington. 
On the outbreak of tiie insurrection in the Kohistan soon after, 
the ganriaon was attadced by an overwhelming force, and their 
commander slain. The position being completely commanded, 
and the supply of water cut off, an attempt was made to retreat 
on Kabool, but the result was disastrous, the whole force, after 
a most determined resistance, being destroyed, with the excep- 
tion of Major Pottinger, Mr. Haughton, and a Goorkha sepoy. 
Lat. 35° 2^, k)ng. 69° 3'. 

CHARNA.— See Chilnbt. 

CHARRATTA, in Afj^ianistan, a small town in the Derajat, b.i.c. Ms. Doc 
about twelve miles west of the Indus, and nine miles west of Dera 
Ghazee Khan. It lies in a low country intersected by canals from 
the Indus, and has two wells for the supply of water when other 
sources &il. PopulatioQ about 1,000. Lat. 30° 3', long. 70° 42^. 

CHARSIA. — ^A village in Afghanistan, ten miles south of e.i.o. Ub, doc. 
Kabool, and. situate on the route from thence to the Pisheen 
valley. Lat. 84° 23Mong. 69° 4'. 

CHASGO, or SHUSH6A0, in Afghanistan, a duster of e.i.c. m ■. doc ; 
villages with a mud fort, situate in a fertile spot thirteen miles ^^^^ Af^'^; 
north of Ohuznee, and on the route from that place to Kabool. Haveiock, war 

In Afr 11 Qfi ■ 

It is 971 feet above Ghuznee, or 8,697 above the sea. Between jour. as.'soc'. 
this place and Ghuznee, and about eight miles from the latter, o^^^f^ 
the road passes over a rising ground, and is there estimated to Tber.iieM.inAib. 
have an elevation of 9,000 feet. This is regarded as the highest 
part of the route from Kabool to Ghuznee. The country be- 
tween Chasgo and Ghuznee has some very strong and defensible 
positions, but it is in general barren. In consequence of the 
great elevation, the air here was found sharp and bracing when 



E.I.C. Hf. Doe. 

E.I.C. Ms. Doc. 

Walker's Vap. 

E.I.a Ms. Doc. ; 
Conoli J, Jour, to 
iDdia, ii. e8. 

on Sinde, 408. 

Masson, i. 466. 

E.I.C. Ms. Doc. 

E.I.g. Ms. Doc. 

E.I.C. Ms. Doc 

E.I.C. Ms. Doc. ; 
Moorcr. PuqJ. 
Bokh. ii.adO; 
Masson, Bal. Alj;. 
PaoJ. i. 181. 

the British army marched by, notwithstanding tiie march was 
performed in the month of July. Lat. 33^ 43^ long. 68° 22^. 

CHATCHUR.— A vilkge in Bhawlpoor, situate on the east 
bank of the river Indus, opposite to Mittunkote. Lat. 28° 53', 
long. 70° SC. 

CHECHENEH.— A village of A%hamstaii, in Loghman, 
situate at the confluence of the Punchshir with the Kabool river. 
Lat. 34° 36', long. 69° 50'. 

CHECHOKE.^A village in Bhawlpoor, sitaate near the left 
bank of the river Ghara. Lat. 30° 8\ long. 73** KK. 

CHECKAU, or CHECKAUB, in Western Afghanistan, a 
fort, having a good suj^y of fine water from a spring, situate 
on the route from Kandahar to Herat, from which latter place it 
is distant 160 miles south. Though the neighbouring country is 
hilly, there is considerable cultivation, and good crops of wheal 
and barley are obtained. The roads are good. Lat. 32° ^4^ bug. 
62° 53'. 

GHEEAFUT, in Smde, a smaU town, between Hyderabad 
and Khyerpoor, and fifty miles south of the latter place. It is 
important as forming, with the contiguous town of Dingeei a 
commanding post in the communication of Khyerpoor and 
Emauro-Ghur with the part of the desert adjoining this last fort 
Cheeaput is in lat. 26° 52", long. 68° 34'. 

CHEECHAWUTNEE.— A village in the Punjab, situate on 
the left bank of the Ravee river, across which, at this place, is a 
much-frequented and important ferry. Lat. 30° 29', long. 72° 

CHEELA, a large water-course in Sinde, is a branch of tiie 
Narra, the great offset of the Indus to the west. It flows by 
several villages, of which the two more important are Kulorah 
and Dera. Lat. 27° 20', long. 68° 6\ 

GHE^NDEE.— A village in the Punjab, on the road from 
Ramnuggur to Attock. It is situate on a small branch of the 
Swan river. Lat. 33° 23', long. 73° 14'. 

CHEGHA.— A village in Sinde, situate in the " Litde 
Desert," forty-two miles south-east of Omercote. Lat. 25° 5', 
long. 70° 24'. 

CHEHAR BAGH.— A village in Afghanistan, five miles west 
of Jalalabad, on the road from thence to Kabool. Here are the 
ruins of a royal garden, said to have been made by Sultan Baber, 

CHE. 137 

and restored bj Shah Zeman, of KabooL It is merely an in- 
closure of about 200 yards square, with a few small buildings, all 
now in ruins. Lat. 34° 23^ long. 70° 21^ 

CHEHEL TAN.*— A lofty mountain of Beloochistan,! over- > mmmb. Bai.A«. 
hanging the town of Moostung, lying to the south. Its elevation 
probably exceeds 1 1,000 feet, as snow remains on its summit as late 
as the beginning of July, and is found throughout the whole summer 
in the indentations of the upper part. On the summit is a ziarat, 
or place of pilgrimage, much frequented by the Mahometans, in 
consequence of its being the locality of a superstitious tradition 
related differently by different persons. Pottinger,^ who calls ' Beiooeh. 272. 
the mountain Kohechihultun (the mountain of forty bodies), states 
the tradition of the natives to be, that Mahomet paid them a visit 
one night mounted on a dove, and left several peers, or saints, 
among them for their spiritual guidance, whose remains are buried 
on this mountain. Masson's account is, that forty children bom 
at one birth were exposed here, and being miraculously rescued 
from death, still in their infantine forms haunt the mountain. 
Lat. 29° 40^, long. 66° 55'. 

CHEHL BUCHA GUM C' the forty lost children "), in Af. E.i.a ic Doc 
ghanistan, a place of pilgrimage, regarded as the burial-place of 
forty children, concerning whom there is a superstitious tradition. 
It is six miles south-west of Ghuznee, on the route from that 
place to Kandahar. Lat. 33° 32^, long. 68° 13'. 

CHEHL DOCHTUR,! Shrine of, on the north-west frontier > e.i.c. Ki. noe. 
of Afghanistan, situate on the left bank of the river Kooshk, a 
tributary of the Moorghaub. The tradition connected with this 
shrine is thus related by Abbott,^ probably the only European • Heraat ud 
who has visited the place : — ** A couple of mud huts near the left 
border of the valley were shewn me as the residence of forty 
Oosbeg virgins ; and a little rude altar, or tomb, under the hills, 
as the place of worship to which they had resorted when surprised 
by a force of some neighbouring tribes* In this extremity the 
virgins prayed for death, and were instantly translated, but whether 
by men or spirits does not appear." ** The place is called Chehl- 
Dochtur, or the forty virgins. The tradition, as well as the name, 
is obviously Persian." Lat. 35° 7', long. 62° 9^. 

GHEIRJAGARAIN. — A halting-place in Afghanistan, on the b.i.g. mi. doc. 

^ Jour. Ai. Soc. 
* Thifl is the mountain called Chiltern by Griffith,' and Chiltiin by i84], p. 803. 
A ii»n ' ' March through 


138 CHB. 

route hj tiie Oomul Pus firom Ohumee to Den Ismael Kfaai. 
and sixty miles west of the latter town. There is abnndanoe of 
good water, but the road in the yidnity is very bad. Lat. 31° 59^, 
long. 70° 4\ 

GHENAUB.— A river in the Punjab, and genersllj coo- 
sidered the largest of the five by which that country is traversed* 
1 Pui^. Bokh. i. Moorcroft,^ who ascended, as he conjectured, to within thirty 
'^' miles of its source, supposes it to rise about lat. 32° SOf, long. 

77° 40", in Lahoul, south of Ladakh or Middle Tibet. The 
source must be very elevated, as the river holds its coune 
through the Ritanka Ffess, which is 13,000 feet high. Tlie 

* KMhmir, L iM. Bpot from which it proceeds is, according to Vigne,^ a small lake 

called Chandra-Bhaga, or die Garden of the Moon, and in the 
upper part of its course the river is caUed the Chandra. At 
Tandi, lat. 32° 40", long. 73° 55', it is joined by the Surajbhagha, 
a stream of about equal magnitude, running firom the nordi, 
and tiienceforward the river is known by tiie name of the Che- 
naub or Chinab, and sometimes of Chandra-Bhaga. The length 
of each of the streams contributing to its formation may be 

3 i. 196. about fifty miles. After their confluence, Moorcroft' found the 

stream about two hundred feet broad, with a full steady current. 
It takes a north-west course of about a hundred and thirty miles 
to Kishtawar, in lat. 33° 15', long. 75° 43', and there receives 
the Muruwurdwun, a considerable tributary firom the north. 

4 i. «e. Vigne^ cakuktea the height of Kishtawar at 5,000 feet, and con- 

sequently, the Chenaub must have descended 8,000 feet in less 
than two hundred miles, or at the rate of above forty feet in the 

^ i. 908. mile. At Kishtawar, Vigne^ found the Chenaub flowing in a 

deep rocky channel twenty-five yards wide. The river thence 
proceeds south-west by a very tortuous course, through a 
rugged country, to Rihursi, a distance oi about ninety miles, 
where it leaves the mountains, and flows into the lower ground 
of the Punjab. It is here about two hundred yards wide, deep and 

< Id. i. 217. tranquil, yet rapid. At Aknur,^ about fifty miles lower down, it 
becomes navigable, at least for timber*rafts, which are despatched 
from it down the Punjab. It continues a south-westerly course to 
Vazeerabad, about seventy miles lower down, in lat. 32° 30^, long. 

7Kadimir,ui.u7. 74°, where Von HugeF found the stream unfordable and half a 

• Eiph. Ace. of mile wide.* Macartney^ measured it there in the month of July, 
Caubui, eeo. 

* Vigne (i. 238) , in his cursory style, says between 200 and 300 yards. 


when nearly at the fdlleet, and found it one mile three fdrlongs 
and twenty pOTches wide, with a depth of fourteen feet, and a 
current running five miles an hour. From this pomt it holds a 
south-west course for about thirty miles, to Ramnegurh,' where, ' Bumef* nok. i. 
in the middle of February, and consequendy the low season, it was 
found three hundred yards wide, and with a depth of nine feet where 
greatest, the current running a mile and a half an hour. Hough^ ' Narr. Exp. in 
states that it is fordable near this place in the season, but there is 
much reason to question this statement. It thence pursues a south- 
west course for about 150 miles, to its confluence with the Jailum, 
a little above the ferry of Trimo, in lat. 81° IC, long. 72*» 9'. 
Arrian,' in the spirit of exaggeration, with which, according to *£zp.Atez.L.Ti. 
ancient testimony,* the Greeks were not unfiimiliar, describes the ^ ' ^' 
turbulence of the confluence as terrific; but Bnmes,^ who visited ^ ui. i27. 
it at midsummer, when the streams are usually highest, found it 
free from violence or danger. The total length of the course of 
the river to this point is about five hundred and forty miles. 
Below the confluence with the Jailum, the Chenaub flows south- 
west for about fifty miles, to its confluence with the Ravee, a 
much smaller river,* which joins it in lat. 30° 33', long. 71° 46', * »«»•» i". i26. 
through three mouths close to each other. The Chenaub was 
here, at the end of Jime, the season of the greatest height of 
water, three-quarters of a mOe wide, and above twelve feet deep. 
From this place, it continues its course south-west for a hundred 
and ten miles, to the confluence of the Ghara, in lat. 29° 21', 
long. 71° &, At the intervening ferry opposite Mooltan, Bumes 
found it a thousand yards wide at midsummer, the season of 
greatest inundation. The meeting of the Chenaub and Ghara* is • M. tu. fls. 
very tranquil ; the water of the former is red, that of ihe latter 
pale, and these respective colours may be distinguished for some 
mUes downwards in the united stream, the red on the right or 
western, the pale on the left or eastern side. The total length of 
course from the source to this confluence is about seven hundred 
miles. There the united stream is called Punjnud (five rivers), a 
name which it bears to its fedl into the Indus. The ancient 
name of the Chenaub^ is admitted unquestionably to have been > Renneu, 82. 

* ** Quidqnid Gneda mendax 
Aadet in liistoria/'—JaT. x. 174. 

140 CHE— CHI. 

B.i.c.Mf.Doe. CHEPKEDAR. — A village in North-eafitem Afghanistan, 

situate near the right bank of the river Lundye. Lat. 34° 19', 
long. 71'' 38'. 

E.i^.M.. Doc CHERAN. CHERAT, or SHAH NURUD DYN.— A village 

in Kashmir, fifteen miles south-west of Sirinagur. 1st, 33^ 52^, 
long. 74° 37'. 

B.I.C. Mm. Doe. CHERRA. — ^A village in Western Afghanistan, on the roate 

from Kandahar to Herat, and a hundred and eighty-six miles 
north-west of the former town. It has a small fort with a good 
supply of water. Lat. 32^31', long. 63° 9'. 

E.I.C. Ms. Doc. CHERRA. — ^A small river of Western Afghanistan, rises in 

the mountains south of Ghore, and takes a south-westerly course, 
prohahly joining the Furrah Rood. It is crossed hy the route 
from Kandahar to Herat, in lat. 32° 35', long. 63°. 
CHESGOW.— See Chasgo. 

Kennedy, sinde CHEYCHUN, in Siude, a flourishing town on the Indus, be- 

«uiKrt»oi.u.a)7. ^^^ Hyderabad and Sehwan. Lat. 26° 5', long. 68° 6'. 

Ms. lUp of Sinde. CHEYLAR. — ^A village of Sinde, lying on the route from 
Omercote to Deyphlah, in the little Desert. Lat. 24° 53', long. 
69° 58'. 

Mt.H«p of Sinde. CHEYLEE. — A viUage in Sinde, situate on the road finom 
Hyderabad to Omercote, about thirty-two miles west of the 
latter place, and sixty from the former. This route from Hyde- 
rabad runs due west. Lat. 25° 24', long. 69° 18'. 

Walker, Map of CHIAGUZ. — ^A village in Afghanistan, on the road from 

^^' Furrah to Kandahar, thirty-six miles east oi the former place. 

Lat. 32° 17', long. 62° 45'. 

B.I.C. Ms. Doc CHIARBAG. — ^A village in North Afghanistan, about three 

miles from the left bank of the Suwat, and twenty mUes south 
from the range of Laram mountains. Lat. 35° 3', long. 72° 36'. 

E.I.C. He. Doc CHIARBAGH. — A village of Afghanistan, in the district of 

Lughman, situate on the Kabool river, near the junction of the 
Alishang river. Lat. 34° 34', long. 70° 9'. 

E.I.C. Jif. Doc. CHIBREE. — ^A village in Beloochistan, situate on the route 

from Dadur to Bagh, about fifteen miles south-west of the former 
place, and thirty north-west of the latter. Lat 29° 17', long. 
67° 40'. 

Walker's Map . CHICHUNDEE. — ^A village in Afghanistan, on the road from 

Babur-ka-killa to Dera Ismael Khan, a few miles west of the* 

CHI. 141 

Soliman mountainB, over which this route passes. Lat. 31** 42^ 
long. 69^ 49'. 

GHIGANUK. — ^A village in Afghiinistan, near the source of E.I.C. m§, doc. 
the Moorghab river. Lat. 34'' 56', long. SS"" 58^. 

CHIKON.— See Ghbckau. 

GHILIYA. — ^A halting-phice in Sinde, on the right of the b.i^. ki. doc. 
route from Tattah to Hyderabad, and seven miles north-east of the 
former town. It is a wretched place, not affording even water. 
Lat. 24° 51". long. 68° 8'. 

CHILNEY, or CHURNA, a small island at the western HonbarBh.i.408; 
extremity of the coast of Sinde, is four miles north-west of jonr. ai. Soe. ' 
Gape Monze, or Ras Mooarree. The intervening channel has, {^'^^L^IJ/ ^n 
for about a quarter of a mile, a depth of six or seven fathoms. Coantrj between 
This isLmd is of a white colour, rocky, completely barren, desti- g^^,„. 
tate of water, and uninhabited. Lat. 24"* 5V, long. 66° 34^ 

CHINAS.— See Ghbnaub. 

CHINEE. — ^A large village in Sinde, on the route by the Ms. doc. 
Aral river from Sehwan to Larkhana, and thirty miles north-west ^'^ «'8*'«>«- 
of the former town. SuppHes and forage are good and abundant, 
but the people have the character of being dishonest. The road 
in its vicinity is good. Lat. 26° 40", long. 67° 46". 

GHININI, in the Northern Punjab, on the southern slope of vigne, Knhmir, 
the Himalaya. It is situate on the Taui river, which, about fifty j'oq,. 3909.1 »u. 
miles lower down, falls into the Chenaub. Ghinini is a place of 
considerable size, is neatly built, and has a palace still belonging to 
die deposed rajah of the town and district, though his possessions 
have been seized by Gholab Sing, the usurping Sikh chief of Jamu. 
As its elevation is considerable, it commands a noble view south- 
wards over several mountain ranges, and beyond them across the 
vast plain of the Punjab. Ghinini is in lat. 32° 55', long. 75° 8^. 

GHINJAN. — ^A village in Afghanistan, on the road from e.i.c. Ms. Doc. 
Cutch Toba to Dera Ghazee Khan. Lat. 30° 52", long. 68° 5tf. 

GHIOUKIATAN.— A village in the Bajour country, in the e.i.c. mi. doc. 
north-east of Afghanistan, situate about a mile from the west 
bank of the Lundye river, and a few miles south of the Laspissor 
range. Lat. 35° 36', long. 72°. 

GHIR. — ^A village in Sinde, situate on the route from Hyde- Ms. Map. 
rabad to Bukkur, sixty miles north-east of the former place. Lat. 
26° 9^, long. 68° 46'. 

GHIRNAT.— A village in Sinde, situate on the road from s.i.c.Mi. doc. 



Vigne, Karimdr, 
it. 810; MaMoo, 
Bi]. A%. PuOL 
196 ; Burnei' Bok. 
1L900; Wood, 
Oiui, 9B9; 
Moorcr. Pui^. 
Bokhara, U. 969, 

MOOKT. ii. 969. 

E.I.C. Uf. Doc 

Walker's Hap of 

Ml. Map of Sinde. 
E.I.C. Ms. Doe. 

E.T.C. Ms. Doe. 
Ms. Map. 

Sehwan to Larkhana, two miles and a half west of the imr 
Indus. Lat. 26** 38', long. 67** 53'. 

CHITRAL.— A secluded country on the southem slope of 
the Hindoo Koosh. It consists of a long valley extending in a 
direction from south-west to north-east for about a hundred miles, 
with a breadth of from fifteen to twenty miles. Along the middle 
flows the Koona: river, which falls into the Kabool river near 
Jelalabad. Chitral is also called Kashgar-i»Khurd, or Little 
Kashgar, and sometimes Katawar. It is bounded on the north 
by the summit ridge of Hindoo Koosh, east by Ftojkoia and 
some other petty independent states, south by Afghanistan 
Proper, west by Kafiristan. Access is generally had to it by 
ascending along the bank of the Kama or Kooner river. The 
inhabitants are for the most part idolaters, but Mahometanism is 
represented as making progress among them. The valley of 
Chitral Hes between lat. 35° 45'— 36° 25'. long. 71° 20'— 73^ IC/. 

CHITRAL, the capital (or the Mastuch, as it is called by 
the natives) of the country bearing the same name, is little 
known. It has been ascertained, however, to have a baxaar and 
between three and four thousand inhabitants, principally Shia 
Mahometans, mixed with a few Hindoo traders. It is situate in 
kt36°ll', long. 71° 59'. 

CHITTROOREE.— A village in Sinde, situate fifty-five miles 
north-east of Hyderabad, on the road from that dty to Bnkkur. 
Lat. 25° 58', long. 68° 32'. 

CHOAKEE.— A village in North Afghanistan, situate on 
the right bank of the Kooner river, forty miles north of Jela* 
labad. Lat. 34° 53', long. 70° 50'. 

CHOATILLOH.— A village in Sinde, on the road from Jes- 
sulmair to Halla, fourteen miles east of the Nana river. Lat. 
26° 16, long. 69° 18'. 

CHOBARA, in Afghanistan, is a considerable village of 
Sewestan, on the road from Raknee to Kandahar. It is supplied 
with water both from a rivulet and from tanks. Lat. 30^ 6', 
long. 69° 58'. 

CHOHO.«-A village in Sinde, situate on the road from 
Hyderabad to Nuggur Parker. Lat. 24° 21', long. 69° 54'. 

CHOKUNDEE.— A village in Sinde, situate about two miles 
frt)m the left bank of the Mulleeree river, twenty miles east of 
Kurrachee. Lat. 24° 53', long. 67° 18'. 

GHO. 143 

CHOLALAJ PASS leads from AfghaDistan to Kunduz, Leeeh, Hind. 
over the Hindoo Kooah. Lat. 34** 54'-.85° lO^, long. 68« S^. ^~^' **' 

CHOLL. — A duster of Tillages in Sinde, on the route from e.i.c. ms. doc. 
Sehwan to Larkhana, and forty-two miles north*west of the 
former place. It is situate on a branch of the Western Nam, 
amidst much cultivation. Supplies and forage are good and 
abundant. The road from Chinee, distant twelve miles south* 
east, is a good one. Lat. 26** 55'. long. 67^ 49'. 

CHOOASHAHGUNEE. — A village in the Punjab, thirty B.i.a Mt. Doe. 
miles north-west of Julalpoor. Lat. BT 51', long. 72" 49'. 

CHOONEE.— A village in that part of Afghanistan called £ ic Mb. Doc. 
Daman, five miles west of the river Indus. Lat. 31" 17', long. 

CHOONGA.' — ^A village in Sinde, on the route from Sub- > klcmi. Doe. 
znlcote to Shikarpoor, and forty miles east of the latter place. 
It ia situate on the east bank of a deep and extensive thmd or 
pool of water, replenished by the inundations of the Indus. The 
road in this part of the route is free from jungle, and there is a 
good encamping-ground. Choonga, ^ by the treaty of November, * Corroipondenee 
1842, was, with several other towns, ceded to Mahomed Bhawl °" " *** 
Khan, and accordingly transferred in the following February. Lat. 
27" 56', long. 69" 4'. 

CHOONKA, in Sinde, a halting-place on the route from id. 405. 
Khyerpoor to Emanm Ghur, in the Thurr or Ghreat Eastern 
Desert. It is forty miles south-east from Khyerpoor. There is 
abundance of water, but other supplies are so scanty, that the 
British force proceeding in the beginning of 1843 to the de- 
struction of Emaum Ghur found difficulty in obtaining forage for 
fifty horse. Choonka is in kt. 27" 2', long. 69" 3'. 

CHORE.-— A village in Sinde, situate on the route fromMi.Mai». 
Omercote to Jessulmair, eight miles north-east of the former 
place. Lat. 25" 25', long. 69" 51'. 

CHORLA. — A small river of Sinde, rises in the Keertar e.i.c. Mi. Doe.; 
range of mountains, about lat. 25" 50', long. 67" 50'. It has a JS^''^*?^''''p; 
course generally northerly, of about thirty-five miles, and is lost ^lo ; De la Hotte, 
in the arid tract west of Sehwan, in lat. 26" 20', long. 67" 45'. ^^ b<^een 
In the upper part of its course it is called the Mulleeree, lower ^^** "** 
down, the Joorunb, and, finally, the Chorla. It is dry for the 
greater part of the year, but water may be always obtained by 
digging in the bed. 

144 CHO. 

E.i.aMt.Doe. GHORLA MUKAM.— A baltiiig-place in Sinde, on the 

roate from Sehwan to Kmrachee, and twenty-four miles south- 
west of the former place. There are here aome ancient tombs 
and several pools of water. Lat. 2&* ^, long. 67'' 5(/. 

EJ.C. Ma. Doe. CHOTA, or NAWA SUN.--A small Tillage in Sinde» on the 

route by the right bank of the Indus from Hyderabad to Sefawan, 
and fifty*five nules north-west of Hyderabad. Lat. 26^ 8^, long. 

B.I.C. Ms. Doe. CHOTTA CHURNAUT.— A village in Sinde, on the route 

from Sehwan to Larkhana, and seventeen miles north of the former 
place. It is situate on the bank marking the limit of the inun- 
dation of the Indus, and a mile and a quarter from the penooanent 
channel. Lat. 26^ 35', long. 67° 58'. 

E.I.C. Ms. Doe. CHOTTA OULLOO.— A village in Sinde, a little to the right 

of the road from Sehwan to Larkhana, and forty-five miles north 
of the former place. It ia situate four mUes from the right bank 
of the Indus, on the west shore of a small lake or dund, deriving 
its supply of water frt>m the inundations of the river. Hie 
country around is flat, but in some places is rendered diflicnlt for 
travellers by being overgrown with thickets and intersected by 
numerous water-courses. Lat. 27°, long. 67° 56'. 

E.i.c.Mt.Doe. CHOTTA LASSAKEE.— A village in Sinde, on the route 

from Sehwan to Larkhana, and thirty-three miles north of the 
former place. Though situate in a flat alluvial tract, only two 
miles from the west bank of the Indus, there is a scarcity of 
water in its immediate vicinity. Lat. 26° Stf, long. 67° 55'. 

B.LC. Ms. Doc. CHOTTA SEETA.— A village in Sinde, on the route from 

Sehwan to Larkhana, and forty-six mOes north of the former 
place. It is situate on the right bank of the Indus, in a flat 
country interspersed with bushes, but traversed by a practicable 
road. Lat. 27° 2', long. 67° 58'. 

E.I.C. Mi. Doc; CHOTYAALI, in Afghanistan, a village of Sewestan, on the 

OMbuC^M?' '^^ ^^ ^^ Ghazee Khan to Kandahar. It is situate in a 
valley of the same name, which is continuous with the valley of 
Tull. There are some discrepancies of statement in the accounts 
furnished of the adjacent country, but the balance of testimony 
inclines to the conclusion that it is neither productive nor well 
supplied with water.* Of that article, so indispensable to the 

* Baber states that he oould not get forage even for his own hone. 
(Memoirs, 164.) 

CHO-^HU. 145 

liealth and comfort of the Eastern traveller^ the quality is repre- 
sented as being indifferent, as well as the quantity scanty. Lat. 
Mf S\ long. 69"* 18'. 

CHOUCHUCK.— A town in the Punjab, situate on the left e.ix3. ift. Doe. 
bank of the river Ravee, on tiie route from Modtan to Lahore. 
lAt. 3P. long. 73° 22'. 

CHOUKOOLI. — ^A village in the Bajour territory, north-east e.i.c. hs. Doc 
of A^hanistan, situate about a mile from the west bank of the 
Lundye river. Lat. 35° 5', long. 71° 51'. 

CHOUTRA.— A village in the Punjab, situate on the right eic. Mi. Doe. 
bank of the Ravee river, fifty-five miles north-east of Mooltan. 
Lat. 30° 34', long. 72° 16'. 

CHUCH, an extensive plain to the east of Attock, and, from 
its proximity to that place, sometimes called the Plain of Attock. 
Its extent from east to west is, according to Vigne,' twenty miles,* i u. 139. 
and from north to south about fifteen miles. Bumes ^ observes, "as BoUum, i. 75. 
horde as numerous as that of Xerxes or Hmour might encamp on 
this qMcious plain, which is an entire sheet of cultivation." Vigne,^ * Kubmir, u. 
cm the contrary, describes it as " covered with long grass and low 
jongle." Everywhere occur rounded boulders of granite, home 
to their present places by the fririons inundations of the Indus. 
Here the Afghans, under Vizier Futteh Khan, were defeated by 
liie Sikh general Mokham Shand, and finally driven over the 
Indus. This plain ^ is remarkable for a numerous breed of goats * von Hflgei. 
laiger than common-sized asses. Lat. 38° 50', long. 72° 20'. k««*°»*'» "»w- 

CHUCK. — ^A village in Sinde, situate on the left bank of the Hap of sinde. 
river Indus. Lat. 28° 16', long. 69° 31'. 

CHUCKERALA. — ^A village in the Punjab, situate about e.i.c. Hi. Doc 
eighteen miles east of the river Indus, on the route from Kala 
Bagh to Baral* Lat. 32° 52', long. 72°. 

CHUCKRKALEE. — ^A village in the Punjab, situate on the e.i.c. Mf.Doc. 
road, by way of Vazeerabad, from Amritsir to Julalpoor, twenty 
miles east of the latter place. Lat. 32° 38', long. 73° 30'. 

CHUCKREE.— A village in Afghanistan, twenty-four miles e.i.c. Ms. Doe. 
south-east by south of Kabool. Lat. 34° 14', long. 69° 20'. 

CHUCKWUNDEE.— A village in the Punjab, situate on the waikefiMap of 

° •* N.W. Frontier. 

* Vtgne states that ** its extent from Attok to tiie west is about twenty 
miles ;" but it seems that he must have meant to the Mt ^ as the Indus flows 
on the west, and the country beyond the river is hilly. 
- VOL. I. L 

146 CHU. 

left bank of the river Ravee, on the route from Modtan to Lahore. 
Lat. 30° 35', long. 72« 39^. 

E.I.C. Ml. Doe. CHUHKOWAL.— A village in the Panjab, aituate forty-two 

miles from the left bank of the Indus. Lat. 33'' l\ long. 72^ 33^. 

B.I.C.MS.DOC CHUKKOBA-NULLA. in Sinde, a halting-place on the 

route from Kurrachee to Hoja Jamote, and twenty miles north of 
the former place. There is no village, nor is any article of re- 
freshment procurable excepting water, and that is brackish. Lat. 
25° 9', long. 67°. 

E.I.C. Um. Doe. CHUKRA. — ^A village in Sinde, on the route from Sehwaa 

to Larkhana, and thirty-one miles south of the latter place. It 
is situate two miles from the right bank of the Indus. It has a 
good supply of water, and an open ground for encamping. Lat. 
27° 15'. long. 68« 14', 

B.I.C. Ms.Doc. CHULLUK. — A village in Afghanistan, on the road from 

Ghuznee to Dera Ismael Khan, and thirty-two miles south-east 
of the former place. Lat. 33<> 18', long. 68*^ 42'. 

> vigne, Kadimir, CHUMBA,! in the north-east of the Punjab, among the 
southern mountains of the Himalaya, is situate on the river Ravee, 
at the foot of a lofty peak covered with snow.* Its situation is 
very picturesque and beautiful. The number of houses is esti- 
mated at a thousand. They are built of wood, and ranged about 
a rectangular open space, five hundred yards long and eighty broad. 
Chumba is the residence of the rajah of the neighbouring countiy. 
The population is probably about 5,000. It appears to have de- 
cayed since the time of Forster, who calls it Jumbo, and describcB 

* L 988. it as " a mart of the first note in this part of the country."^ Lat. 

32° 22', long. 75° 56'. 

B.I.C. Ml. Doe. CHUMBA. — ^A village in the Punjab, situate on the road from 

Attock to Torbela, about thirty miles in a north-easterly direction 
from the former place. Lat. 34° 4', long. 72° 43'. 
CHUMMUN.— See Chumubt Chokbb. 
CHUMOREREEL.— See Chamobbril. 

Hough, Narr. of CHUMUN GHOKEE.— A watch-tower and halting-post at 

RLC.^Mi?Doc. ; ^^® wcstem or Kandahar side of the Khojuk Pass. It is 5,677 

Hareiock, War Id feet abovc the sca. There are some springs here, but the supply 

Af^. i« 301 i Kcii' 

nedy, Sinde and of Water would be found Very insufficient to meet the wants of any 
w*A.*.' sSj! ^g« number of traveUers. Lat. 30° 50', long. 66° 25'. 

Bar. and Tber. * ^HP^ congratulates himself on being the first European that visited this 

Mens, in Ai^. place ; but Forster had anticipated him. 

CHU- 147 

CHUND.— A village in the PoBJab, mtnate about thirty miles b-io. Mt. Doe. 
from the left bank of the Indus. Lat. SI** 57', long. 71° 39^. 

CHUNDERWON.— A village in Sinde, eighteen miles south Ma. Baxter Map. 
from Omercote. Lat 25** 6\ long. 69° 43'. 

CHUNDHA, in Sinde, a village and halting-pkoe on the e.i.0. Ma.Doc; 
route from Khyerpoor to Hyderabad, and thirty-five miles south oS^^SHT^ 
of the former town. It is situated twelve miles west of the Narra 
river, and at the western base of the low range of limestone hills 
which stretch in a south-eastern direction from Roree. Lat. 27° 6', 
long. 68° 42^. 

CHUNDIA.— A village in Sinde, on the route from Larkhana e i.c. ifa. doc. 
to Bhag, and situate twenty miles north of the former place, near 
the borders of the desert. It has four wells, and is capable of 
furnishing abundant supplies. The road is good and level. Lat. 
27° SC, long. 68° 8'. 

CHUNDIA. — A village in Sinde, situate on the route from e i.c. Mt. doc. 
Vikkur to Tatta, and eighteen miles south-west of the latter place. 
Lat. 24° 36', long. 67° 47'. 

CHUNDRANEE.^A village of Bhawlpoor, situate about E.La mi. Doc 
three miles from the left bank of the river Ghara. Lat. 29° 55', 
long. 72^ 42'. 

GHUNDUN.— A village in Sinde, on the route from Mi. Map. 
Hyderabad to Lukput, and seventy-five miles south of the former 
place. Lat. 24° 21', long. 68° 28'. 

CHUNGAL. — ^A village in Sinde, on the road from Hyderabad mi. Map. 
to Omercote, twenty- two miles west of the latter place, and eighty 
from the former. Lat. 25'' 24', long. 69° 28'. 

CHUNGOND.— A viDage in the north-east of the Punjab, waikert Map of 

^^ , , , •' N.W. Frontier. 

Situate on the Duras nver, in lat. 34° 31 , long. 76°. 

CHUNGUR.— A cluster of villages in Sinde, twelve miles b.i.c. Ms. doc 
north-west of Sehwan, on the route from that place to Lar- 
khana by way of the Arul river, a branch of which flows to them. 
The road is good here, and supplies and forage are plentiful. 
Lat. 26° 29', long. 67° 47'. 

CHUNNA.-^A village in Smde, on the route from Sehwan s.LC.Ms.Doe. 
to Tiarkhana, and sixty-seven miles north of the former place. 
It ia situate on the right bank of a large water-course, which, 
parting from the Indus on the west side, insulates a tract about 
seven mOes long. Lat. 27^ 14', long. 68^ 12'. 


148 CHU. 

K.I.C. Ml. Doe. CHURCHA. — A village in Cutch GhmdAva, in Bdoochisten. 

eitnate gyi llie route from Bhag to Hmroond, and twenty-fiDor 

miles east of the former place. Lat. 29^, long. 68** l&, 
CHURNA.— See Ghilhst. 
CHURRA FORT.— See Chbska. 
E.I.C. Ms. Doe.: CHUSMA I JADEE, in Afghanistan, a halting-plaoe cm tihe 
Bxpfto A^iu; route from Kandahar to Ghuznee, from which last pttLce it is 
N^t^iof^Jour ^^^^^ seventy.five miles south-west. It is situate about a mile 
At. See. I84S, p. from the right or western bank of the Tumak river* and ooa- 
and Tber. Hew. ^u^* several Springs of fine water. The surrounding country ia 
*a ^^' crowded with forts of the GhOjies* The road in the vicinity is 

good and passable for wheel-carriages. The elevation ia 6«6$8 

fret. Lat. 32** 33', long. 67* 15'. 
E.i.c.iit.Doe.; CHUSMA PUNGUK, in Afghanistan, a halting-plaoe on 
£irp.*to A^Tiu; ^® ^^^ ^iQ Kandahar to Ghuznee, from which last place it 
outrem, Rough ig seventy milcs distant south-west. It is situate two miles 

Note*, 104; Jour. . i.t ««j.«*m »• ^ •-• < 

Af. soe. 1848, p. from the ngbt or west bank of the nver Tumak, m a fertile and 
ThB^M^ta^ well-cultivated valley, and contains several fine springs. The 
A4r. adjacent hills contain numerous forts of the Ghilji tribe. Tlie 

road in the neighbourhood is in general good, and available for 

all purposes of military as well as commercial communication. 

The elevation of this place is 6,810 feet. Lat 32^ 36^, kmg. 

67" 20'. 

CHUTA AHMEDPOOR.— See Ahicbdi-ooe. 
Ml. Baxwf Hap. GHUTKA. — ^A village in Sinde, situate on tlie wes te rn side 

of the Narra river, on the road from Sehwan to l4tfkhana. Lat. 

27** 23', long. 68« 6'. 
B.I.O. Ms. Doc. CHUTTAI KA GOTE.— A halting-plaoe in Sinde, about four 

miles and three-quarters north-east of Tattah, lying to the left of 

the route which leads from that town to Kotree, near Hyderabad. 

It is a wretched pkce, and destitute even of water. Lat. 24° 50^, 

bng. 68° 2'. 
iMo^'jwk Co- CHUTTERBAI, in Afghanistan, a stronghold in the Eusuf- 
noiijr (E.\ Note* zai country, on the right bank of the Indus, in a position which 
Trib^ ot^Ai^J'!' renders it almost inaccessible. It belongs to Polndu Khan, a chief 
Id. 1880, p. 813; of Mogul lineage, who, possessed only of this and of Am, a 

Court, Alexander . ., ^ ^ ., ^ , , . . . , , 

Exploits on the Similar post, a few miles further down the nver, with about two 
WflstBankoftiM hundred and forty square miles of territory, is completely inde- 

CHU— CUD. 149 

pendent. He supports his small anned ibroe by plundering the indu; BumM* 
Sikhs. Lat.34°20'.kHig. 72*>58'. mhlT""^ 

CHUWARI. — A small town of the Panjab» on the route from vigne, xuhmir, 
Nurpor to Chomha, and ten miles south-west of the latter place. '' ^^' 
It is situate on a feeder of the river Ravee, and at the south* 
western base of a mountain above 8,000 feet high, over which 
the road to Chumba passes. Lat. S2^ 17', long. Td"" 45'. 
COHAN.— See Kahun. 

COHAST GURMODE, in Beloochistan, a considerable vil- E.i.a Ma. Doe. 
lage, about twenty miles north of the Bolan. It is inhabited hj 
about a thousand freebooters, who bear the name of Dhiimad 
Khal^as, and appear to be an offset of the Afghan tribe of Khakas 
or Kakurs, that so severely annoyed the British troops in their 
marches between Sinde and Afghanistan. Lat. 29^ 5&, long* 

COLEEW.— A village of Sinde, situate three miles north- EJ.o.Mt.Doo. 
west of Munoora Fort, on the same promontory. Lat. 24^ 50^, 
hmg. 66^ SSr. 

COL-NAKAWA. — ^A pass into Kashmir. It is more gene- 
nlly called Kuligum, which see. 

COLUL. — ^A village in Afghanistan, on the route, by the exc. Mi. Doe. 
Gomul Pass, from Ghuznee to Dera Ismael Khan, and one hun- 
dred miles south-east df the former place. It is situate near the 
left bank of the Gomul river, in kt. 32° 19', long. 69'' 5'. 

COONDOR.-— A viUage in Afghanistan, on the road from Map of ai^. 
Babur-ka-Killa to Dera Ismael Khan. Lat. Sr 36', long. 68° 

CORACHIE.— See Kurrachbb. 

CUCH£E.*-A large village in Sinde, on the right of the e.i.c. ml Doe. 
mate from Sehwan to Kurrachee, and nine miles south-west of 
^ former place. Lat. 26° 18', long. 67° 50'. 

CUCHEE. — A doab or narrow peninsula east of the Indus, butdm, poi. pow. 
and between it and the Punjnud. It is embodied with Dera l^^J^^^^Jf ^ ^. 
Obazee Khan, and with it forms one of the districts of the Sikh ^^ m. 
government, yielding it nine lacs of rupees annually. It is 
everywhere permeated by water-courses from the Indus, and is 
remarkably well cultivated and productive. Lat. 29"" 20'— 30°, 
kmg. 70° 40'— 71^ 10'. 
CUDDAN.— See Kuduk. 

150 CUD— CUT. 

Hommrgh, ind. CUDJERAH, or KUTCHERIB, in Beloochistan, a small 
Dir.L4M. headland, forty-two miles west of Sonmeanee. It is low, but 

terminates precipitously at the water's edge, projecting there 
into the Arabian Sea. The adjacent land is low near the sea, 
but high and craggy further inland. The ground all along the 
coast is bold and safe to approach, there being a depth of twenty- 
five to thirty fathoms to a distance of about ten miles from land, 
and there the bottom shelves suddenly, so as to afford no sound- 
ings. A little to the westward, the rocks forming the site of the 
celebrated shrine of Hinglaj are visible. Cudjerah is in lat. 25* 
20^, long. 65*^ 5(y. 

CUNDYE.— See Kundtx. 

1 B.I.C. Mt. Doc CUTCH GUNDAVA.i— A district of Beloochistan, bounded 

on the north»east by Afghanistan, south-east by Sinde, and west 

by the Belooche districts of Jhalawan and Sarawan. Its shape 

is an irregular triangle, the vertex of which is directed towards 

the east, and the base forms the western frontier. It is situate 

between lat. 27° 40' and 29*» SC, and long. 67° 20' and 69* 17' ; 

is a hundred and sixty miles in length from north to south, a 

hundred and thirty miles in breadth frY>m east td west, and con- 

*Matt(m,Bai.AJtr. tains ten thousand square miles of surface.^ The Hala range 

Bviooch. 256-357; of mountaius cxtcuds along its western frY>ntier, and forms 

?r^^*^i;^" *" ^^e eastern wall or face of the elevated table-land of Central 

Afg. 1. 197. 

Beloochistan. Through this range are two great passes; 
the celebrated Bolan Pass in the north, leading in a north- wes- 

* MaMon, Bai. Afg. tcrly direction, and the Moola,^ or Chindava Pass, which, more to 
"^ ' ' the south, takes an extensive circuit, the two extremes pointing 

towards the north, and the convex and middle part towards the 
south. (See Bolan and Moola.) Cutch Grundava lies rather 
low, few parts having an elevation of 500 feet above the sea ; and 
this circumstance, combined with the general vrant of virater and 
of forests, and the remoteness of the country from the ocean, 

4E.i.c.Ms.Doe.icauses the climate to be intensely hot.* The temperature in 

Manon, Kelat, •' *^ . 

88S; POU.9S3. summcT excccds that of Sinde, lying further south: even m 
Ex^^to^AS^Ipp! February^ the thermometer reached 98''. The simoom or scorch- 
01- ing wind is very frequent and fatal. In consequenqe of the mild- 

ness of the winter, the inhabitants of the elevated and cold region 
« E.I.C. Ml. Doc.; of Kelat emigrate hither extensively during that season.^ In 
on. 81 , 821. ^^ north-east is a hilly tract of considerable extent, being a pro- 


longatiion of the mountains of Hurroond and Dajd/ in Southern f pott. 311. 
Afghanistan. The climate there is very pleasant, heing alike 
exempt fronx the extremes of heat in summer and of cold in winter. 
The great disadvantage of Cutch Gundava is want of water. 
The Nari, the Kauhee, and other streams of less importance, 
descend firom the mountains, hut are all lost hy evaporation or 
abfsoTption.^ (See Naui and Kauhbb.) ' ConoUy, Joar. 

, , to India, ii. 2SS6 ; 

The soil is in general a hard-baked clay, probably deposited uaMon, Bai. Ai|r. 
by the numerous torrents holding their transitory and violent ^^' *" **** 
course over the surfeu^e. The aspect of the district is dreary and 
lepulsive, especially in the south-eastern part, where the Put Runn, 
or Desert of Shikarpoor, stretches for a distance of forty miles. 
Kennedy' describes it as " a boundless level plain of indurated 'sindamdKabooi, 
day, of a dull, dry, earthy colour, and shewing signs of being ^^* 
sometimes imder water. At first a few bushes were apparent 
here and there, growing gradually more and more distant, until 
at last not a sign of vegetable life was to be recognized." The 
only vegetation to be met with in these horrid wastes consists of 
a few Euphorbia salina plants and stunted bushes. The scene is 
often rendered still more dismal by the tantalizing mirage, or by a 
thick haze ^ everywhere overspreading it. In such tracts, when ■ Atkhuon, Ezp. 
the rains and torrents fail, water can only be obtained from wells, 
which are generally dug in the beds of the channels. As in other 
places, the water yielded is brackish. Yet this apparently stubborn 
ttDil becomes highly productive under a carefid course of irrigation 
and tillage, yielding annually two successive crops of pulse ^ and ' uuaon, xaut, 
grain, principally millet, besides cotton, sugar-cane, madder, and 
similar products of a warm climate. Dates, oranges, limes, 
pomegranates, and mangoes are also grown in perfection. Cutch 
Gundava, indeed, could not fail to be a prosperous as well as a 
populous country under the dominion of a just and vigorous 
government, able and willing to protect the inhabitants in their 
labours, to aid the objects of the husbandman by saving and pro- 
perly distributing the water of the various streams for the pur-* 
poses of irrigation, and to secure to those who till the soil the 
enjoyment of the fruits of their industry. 

The existing state of things is widely different from this ; the 
cultivators, generally Jets of Hindoo descent,^ and of indus- ^id. 932. 
trious and peaceable habits, are miserably harassed and plun- 
dered by the Belooches of the neighbouring mountains. " It was 

152 CUT— DAB. 

«B»i.Aik. PM4. wonderful/' obienres Maaaon.^ " to tee the immcnae fields d 
Bajara (Holcui ipicahu) in the most thriving state, and sp- 
parently mature for the sickle, but not a soul to reiq) them or evca 
to claim them. The cultimtors had fled before the hill maranden 
who had scoured the country." Notwithstanding this unhappy 
condition, Cutch Ghindaya is the most populous part of Bdoo- 

• MaiMNi. Kiut, chistan, the number of its inhabitants being estimated at lOO.OOO,* 

and that of the whole country at 450,000. The population, be- 
sides the Jet cttltimtors, comprises a considerable number of Rind 

• id.s87; Poti. Belooches * and Brahuis, both of which tribes have settled in the 

country at a comparatively recent period. All these daaaes aie 
Mahometans, generally of the Sunni persuasion. There are also 
a few Hindoos, who live in the towns, and principally conduct the 
commercial afikirs of the country. Cutch Gundava ocmstitutea the 

7 Pott Beioocb. most Valuable part of the dominions of the Khan of Kelat/ who, 
during winter, resides at the chief town, Ghindava, to avoid the 
inclemency of the climate of Kelat. The other towns of any note are 
Dadur, Bhag, Lehree, and Kotree ; of which some notice will be 
found under their respective names. Cutch Oundava poeaeases 
some commercial importance, in consequence of bdng tra v e r s ed 
by the two routes, one through the Bolan, the other through the 
Moola Pass, connecting Sinde with Khorasan. 

E.LC. Ml. Doc CUTCH TOBA, in Afghanistan, a halting- station on the route 

from Ghuznee to Shawl, and at the northern base of the Toba 
mountains. It is held by the tribe of Khakas or Kakurs, who 
have numerous hamlets in the neighbouring hills. Lat. 31^, long. 
67° 28". 


£ J.C. Hi. Dog. DAAMRAH.— A Small village in Sinde, on the route from 

Larkhana to Kyra-ka-Ounee, and twenty miles north of the 
former town. The road here is good, and water may be obtained 
from two wells, but other supplies are scanty. Lat. 2T 46^ long. 
68° 12'. 

£.i.c. Mt. Doc. DABHU.— An estuary of the Indus, branching oflF from the 

Buggaur or great western branch, in lat. 24° 34', long. 67° 20^. 

DAD. 153 

After a coime of about fourteen milee due west« it opens into the 
Arabian Sea or Northern Indian Ocean. 

DADARAH. — ^A large village in Sinde» situate two miles &i.c. mi. doc 
£rom the right bank of the Indos, on the route from Larkhana to 
S^wan, and thirty-two miles south-west from the former place. 
A little northward, the road to Peer Punja takes a direction due 
north, sepaiating'irom the main route lying north-east* through a 
well-cultivated tract. Dadarah is in lat. 27'' 3^ Imig. ea"". 

DADCX)LA.i— A village in Sinde, on l^e route from Shikar- * b.i.c. ms. doc. ; 
poor to Subzulcote, and forty miles south'-west from the latter into Afg/os. 
town. It is situate four miles from the left bank of the Indus, in 
a populous and well-cultivated country, and is supplied with 
water from three wells. It was ceded, with a few other villages 
and the districts of Bhoong Baxa and Subznlcote, to Mahomed 
Bhawl Khan, of fihawlpoor, by treaty dated in November, 1842,' • Comsp. on 
and transferred to him by the British authorities in the February am. * 
following. Lat. 28'' 2^, long. 69'' 8'. 

DADUN KHAN FIND.— See Find Dadun Khan. 
DADUR,^ in Beloochistan, a town of Cutch Gundava. It is > E.i.c.Mf.i>oc; 
situate near the base of the Hala range, and five miles east of the Ex^to'iSr'is. 
entrance of the Bolan Fass. Thouirh the Kauhee or Bolan river, *^i Atkinioo, 

° Exp. In Aig. 109, 

on the banks of which it is built, sometimes rushes down with a no. 

large volume of water,^ the channel, for a great part of the year, ' Pott. Beiooch. 

is quite dry,^ and the town is then supplied by means of tanks ^ joor. to^indu^ii. 

or weHs dug in the bed ; but the water thus obtained is brackish* ^^^^^^ 

and unwholesome. Dadur is described by Masson as a place of i- aoe. 

oonaiderable size, containing many well-built houses, and inclosed 8si.*^°' 

byawafl. The populatiwi is probably about 3,000. The heat ^^^^^J^" 

is intense ; in evidence of which, the inhabitants point to tiie red ' Muion, Bia jl^. 

colour of the unbumed bricks, asserting that it has been produced ^^' '* ^^' 

by their torre&ction in the rays of the sun. Its heat probably 

exceeds that of any other place on earth in the same parallel of 

latitude. The Rev. J. N. Allen, ^ who resided there in February, * Mudi through 

thus describes its state in this respect at that early season, when ^^°^ '^ 

even the warmth of spring could not have been attained : " It is 

indeed a dreadfrd place, and seems from its situation formed to be, 

as it really is, one of the hottest places in the world. It receives 

the reflected heat of the sun from the towering bank of bare rocky 

mountains under which it lies, and which, surrounding it on three 

ndes, casts down the rays upon it as upon the focus of a reflecting 

154 DAE— DAL. 

mirror." Its state at a more advanced period of the year, wiien 
the influence of the sun is greater, is thus noticed by the same 
author, together with the feelings of those compelled to endure its 
torments : " The descriptions given by those who have passed a 
hot season there are most painfiU. Men by no means given to ex- 
aggeration assured me that they envied the dead, and that they 
would rather die than pass another season there ; that the ther- 
mometer in tents was at I3(f, with an entire stagnation of air." 
Describing the state of weather early in March, Mr. AUen adds, 
" But Sunday, the 6th, exceeded all. There was a hot wind 
whirling clouds of dust into my tent, and the plague of flies was 
most intolerable. The heat in the house was such that I fiaiily 
staggered, and the mountains for the last two days, though close 
at hand, had been but dimly outlined through a flickering mist, 
like that over a furnace." 

Here, in November, 1 840, a British force was attacked by 
Nusseer, the son of Mehrab Khan, who had Mien in the storm 
of his capital, Kelat. Nusseer's army, amounting to 4,000 Be- 
looches, was quickly routed, and in the pursuit, the headless body 
7 jacbon»vieirf of lieut. Lovedsy,^ who had been located at Kelat as political 
■on, Kaiat,* 268. agent to the British government, was found chained in a kqfawa, 
or seat, fastened on a camel. Dadur is in lat. 29^ 26^ long. 67° 41'. 
Ml. 8orT«7 Map. DAEBRAZ, in Sinde, a village on one of the routes from 
Bukkur to Southern Sinde, fourteen miles from the left bank of 
the Indus. Lat. 27° 8', long. 68° 26'. 
B.I.C. Ml. Doe. DAHO. — A village in Afghanistan, among the Marree moun- 

tains, on the south-eastern frontier. It is situate on the route 
from Bhag to Kahun, and twenty miles north-west of the last- 
named place, Lat. 29° 26', long. 68° 58'. 
Buraet' Trade of DAJEL.— -A fort, town, and district on the route from Dera 
Poi.PowlofSikiu, Ghazee Khan to Bhag, situate among the mountains of Dajel 
tL^^^^' ^^^ Hurroond. The town is a small but rather flourishing 
looch. 811. place, and important as commanding the communication through 

the Derajat to Cutch Gundava and Beloochistan by the Bolan 
Pass. It was seized by Runjeet Singh, and is still held by the 
Sikhs. Lat. 29° 37', long, 70° 28', 
waiker^i Map of DAKA. — ^A village in the Punjab, situate in the Doab of the 
^^' Punjnud and Indus, and twelve miles north-east of their con- 

fluence, Lat. 29° 5', long. 70° 40'. 
£.1.0. Ml. Doc DALANA. — ^A village in A%hanistan, situate on the route 

DAM— DAN. 155 

from Ghuznee to Shawl» by Ab-istada lake, and thirty-six miles 
aoath-west of Ghnznee. Lat. 33® T, long. 67° 58'. 

DAMAJEE.— See Dumajbs. 

DAMA-KA-KOT» in Sinde, a small place on . the route Bamei'MiMioB to 
from Cutch to Hyderabad. Lat. 24*» 36', long. 68° 28'. ^**' **' 

DAMAN,! or THE BORDER, so called because it stretches > Burnet* poi. 
between the Suliman mountains and the Indus. Where not 5,*7; w. on 5w' 
under the influence of irrigation,^ it in general presents the Sj^^'.^^S*" 
appearance of a plain of smooth, hard day, bare of grass, but aoc. of outboi, 
sprinkled with dwarfish bushes, tamarisks, and occasionally trees s sipb. mq. 
of larger size, but seldom exceeding the height of twenty feet, 
the soil c»- climate being unfavourable to their farther growth. 
In place of the clay, the surface in some places consists of a loose 
and irreclaimable sand. The clay appears to be deposited by the 
waters either of the Indus or of the numerous small rivers which, 
during the season of the melting of the snow, stream down from 
the mountains, and add to the inundation. Where duly irrigated, 
the day is very productive, and few countries are more fertile 
than the Derajat, or that part of the plain which extends along 
the western bank of the Indus. The Derajat, so called from the 
three towns, Dera Ismael Khan, Dera Fati Khan, and Dera 
Ghazee Khan, abounds in towns and good villages. In summer, 
the heat in the Daman is intense, and the productions in a great 
measure resemble those of India. The Sikhs hold military occu- 
pation of this province, and levy on it an annual tribute of about 
fifteen lacs of rupees, or 150,000/. sterling. 

The Daman is two hundred and twenty miles long, from the 
Kala or Salt range on the north, to the confines of Sinde on the 
south, and has an average breadth of about sixty miles. Lat. 
80o_33o^ long. 7a»— 71^ 

DAMUNKOH. — ^A village in Western Afghanistan, twenty- e.i.c.mi. doc. 
four miles north of the town of Furrah, and forty-four miles 
south of Subzawur, is situate about ten miles to the right of the 
road between these two towns. Lat. 32** 44', long. 62** 10'. 

DAN, in Belooohistan, a village on the route from Kelat to 
Sonmeanee, and forty miles south-west of the former place. As 
it is 5,800 feet^ above the level of the sea, the climate is tempe- > e.i.g. mb.Doc. 
rate in summer, and very cold in winter ; but the soil is fruitful, 
and being well irrigated^ by means of canal cultivation, ia very *M«aM>n,Bai.Afg. 
productive. Lat. 28** 20', long. 66° 10'. ^^' "• *^- 

156 DAN— DAR. 

Jour. Am, 8oe. DANEH CHEKO W.— A town in North-eastern A^glianiBtin. 

cwTittoJiif. **^ ™^e« «*^^ ^ ^« *o^^ ®^ Bajour. LAt. 34*> 37', kng. 

dantTAfff.; M»p yi© 25'. 
to Ezploitf of 

AiezaadOT. DAR.<»A Tilkge in the Punjab, on the road from Jama to 

B.I.C. Ml. Doe. chumba, and eight miles north-west of the latter place. Lat. 
S2« 24', long. 75<» 49'. 

E.I.C. Mi.Doe. DARA. — ^A village in the Punjab, eighteen miles from the 

left bank of the Indus, and fiftem miles soatii-east of the town of 
Bukkur. Lat. 31* 81', long. 71*» aO'. 

B.I.C. 1U.D0C DARAH.-*-A village in the Punjab, situate in the Doab be- 

tween the Indus and the Chenaub, twenty miles from the left 
bank of the former, and thirty from the right bank of the latter. 
Lat. 30M2', long. 7V 20^. 

DARAJEE, in the Delta of Sinde, a small town on the Bug- 
gaur, or great western branch of the Indus. When, about two 
hundred years ago, this branch was navigable irma the sea to the 
main channel of the river, Darajee and Lahorybunder, aboat two 
miles lower down, were the principal ports of Sinde, being acoes* 

» E.I.C. Ml. Doc.; gible for vcssels of 200 tons burthen.^ The Bugganr.^ howew, 

Hunilton (Alex.), 

New Aoc of Eaftf- has uow, for many years, ceased to be navigable during the sea- 
> ovbra^^B^. OD ^^ ^^ ^^ water in the Indus, and goods landed at Darajee are,* 
Indus, 1 ; by mcaus of cameb, conveyed to Tatta overland, a distance of 

Burnet' Bokh. Ui. '. ., ,«.,,. , i- i 

280. thirty miles. Though, during the season of low water, the 

s^nmet'TRtte, Buggaur is UDuavigable above Darajee, it has, at all times, a 

«BunMi' BokhjiL depth of at least twelve feet^ from that place downwards as fu 
as the Pittee mouth of the Indus, a distance of twenty-d^t 
miles. This easy access from the sea renders Darajee the port 
of Tatta and the greater part of the Delta, as Kurrachee is the 
general haven for the upper part of Sinde. The closure of the 
port of Vikkur, in consequence of the great alteration which 

« Kennedy Sinde took place in the HujanuuTce mouth,^ in 1839, will probably cause 
' an increased resort to Darajee. Bumes estimates the population 
of Darajee at 2,000. Lat. 24<> 30^, long. 67'' 23'. 

1 Burnet, Bokh. DARAPOOR,! in the Punjab, a small village, about a mile 

from the right or west bank of the Julum. Close to it are ex- 
tensive ruins, called Oodenuggur, which Bumes supposes to be 

s Arrtan,L.T.ziz. those of Nicsea,^ built by Alexander, to conunemorate his victory 
on this spot over Poms. Lat. 32^ 49', long. 73'' 26'. 

Exc. Mm. Doe.; DARAZOO-KA-KOT, in Afghanistan, a smaU town of the 
Derajat, on the route from Dera Ghazee Khan to Kandahar, 

DAIU^DAS. 167 

being sizty-fiTe miles west of the fonner place. It has a good 
supply of water from a stream called Han, and sheep and grain 
of various kinds are abondant. Popnlation about 3,000. Lat. 
SO** 3', long. 69** 45'. 

DARBARRA, in Afghanistan, a large fortress of the Daman, mmmo, BaL Afg, 
It is situate twelve miles north-west of Tak, and at the mouth of ^*^' ^ ^ 
a pass into the Suliman mountains. Its walls are very lofty, but 
it does not appear to be otherwise of importance, and it is situate 
in a very barren and secluded country. Lat. 32^ 18^, long. 70^ 

DARRAGOTE.— A small village in Sinde, on the route from e i.c. mi. Doe. 
Sehwan to Larkhana, and seventeen miles south of the latter 
place. It is situate in the extensive and fertile island inclosed 
between the Indus and its great offset the Narra, and is seven 
miles 6om the right bank of the former and three miles from the 
left bank of the latter. The toad lies through a thin jungle. 
Lat. 27^17', k>ng. 68^15'. 

DARUNTA,^ in Afghanistan, a smaU district in the valley of > Mmms, ib wn- 
Jdalabad, and lying west of the town of that name. It is a »" V/^^ f^^' 
gorge or valley in the Siah Koh or Black Mountains, where the *•• f*^ *"^'JJi 
river of Kabool makes its way eastward through that range. It kunde ton iiim, 
contains eleven topes or mounds, similar to that of Manikyala, in ^'^^ 
tbe Punjab, but of smaller sice. These topes have been opened 
by Masson, Houiberger, and Pigou, and found to contain coins 
(mostly of the Ghneco-Bactrian princes), jewellery, and bones. 
They are generally situate on artificial eminences of earth, are 
of cylindrical form below, and above are surmounted by a hemi- 
sphere or dome. Much of our information on the antiquities of 
this country we owe to Mr. Masson, an inquirer whose singular 
aptitude for a pursuit very dissimilar from that to which his 
earlier attention was devoted has frequently called forth sur- 
prise and praise. Lassen^ says, "Mr. Masson, I believe, first * on lodo-Bte- 
served in the artillery, and he knows, certainly, much better ai. soc. Beng. 
how to deal with numismatic inquiries than most numismatists ^ ^^ 
would know how to serve a gun." Darunta is in lat. 34^ 36^ 
long. 7(y 19'. 

DASHT-I-BEDAULATi (the wretched plain), in Beloochistan, ' bic m.. doc.; 
between the summit of the Bolan Pass and Shawl. It is descnbed Qrif. Bar. and 
by Masson as " a good march in breadth, nor (he adds) is its ^.'; aJJ^hr 
length less considerable." The British farce which invaded Af- Narr. szp. in 

168 DAV— DBE. 

Bzp. into A%. ghanistan found it about eighteen miles across, destitute of water, 
jw. touUii "*^ coTered with wild thyme and southernwood, the food of a 
u. «i8; Hareiock, scanty stock of goats and camels belonging to the wild tribes 

War in A^. i« « i a* i «• • -v^ • « 

896; Kennedy holding the surrounding mountams. During spring, crocuses, 
L wirAiSr*^' tulips, and yarious other wild flowers render the scene " unprofit- 
iiareh ttmMigh ably gay." Such was the appearance which it presented in the 
ii«; Bph. Aoe. prime of that beautiful season when our troops marched over it. 
^K^iit!' Masson,^ departing from his usual accuracy, describes it, from 

hearsay accounts, to be at that season a pastoral paradiae, and he 
even provides it with harvests. The elevation exceeds 5,000 fieet 
above the level of the sea. Lat. 30^, long. 67"*. 

E.I.C. Ml. Doc DAVOUCH. — ^A village in Sinde, on the route from Sehwan 

to Larkhana, and thirty miles north of the former town. It Lb 
situate two miles from the right bank of the Indus, in a well- 
cultivated country. The road in the neighbourhood is not very 
good, being broken up by water-courses and ditches. Lat. 2&* 48'. 
long, e?'' 52^. 

B.I.C. Mt. Doc DAWUN.^— A village in Sinde, situate ten miles east of the 

river Indus, on a cross road between two of the high roads from 
Bukkur to Hyderabad. Lat. 27° 6', long. 68° 19'. 
DEBALPOOR.— See Dbpaulpoob. 

wauor't Map. DEEDLED.— A village of Afghanistan, in the Daman. It is 

situate near the right bank of the Indus, and twenty miles south 
of Dera Ghazee Khan. Lat. 29° 50", bug. 70° 54'. 

Walker's Map of DEEDWAL.— A village in the Punjab. Lat. 32° 57', long. 

N«W. Frontier. ^__ ._. 

72° 43'. 

Leeeh, on sindh DEEJY. — ^A fort in Sinde, which belonged to the Ameer of 

Bnroef Pen.' Khyerpoor, from which town it is distant ten miles south. It is 

maoott^A ^^ ^^t ou a range of low limestone hills, proceeding in a direction Jour, from south-east to north- wcst, and reaching the Indus at Roree. 

iiM ; correepcm- ^^ cousists of a number of fortifications crowning several eminences. 

denoeon siade^ and connected by a single mud wall pierced with loop-holes. 

Here, in January, 1843, the British army was encamped during 

the advance of Sir Charles Napier to destroy Emaum Ghur. 

Though stronger than most of the fortresses of Sinde, Deejy is 

open to capture by escalade. There is a large tower, which was 

intended to contain the treasure of the Ameer, and which is 

covered by an irregular outwork in a singular style. On the 

south side of the fort is a magazine and manufactory of powder. 

This fort is caUed also Ahmedabad. Lat. 27° 24', long. 68° 58\ 

DEB— D£H. 159 

DEELA.^ — ^A Tillage in AfghaniRtan, ntaate on the river of > £.i.c. Ms. Doe. 
Ghnznee, three or four miles above its efflux into Lake Ab-istada. 
Outram^ found the banks of the river hereabouts covered with*B©ufhNot«,i40. 
vast quantities of dead fish. Deela is in lat. 32^ 43', long. 68^ ^^ 

D££MBRA.-*-A village in Sinde, on the route from fihawlpoor B.I.C. m^ Surrey. 
to Itoree« and fortj-six miles north-east of the latter town. It is 
situate twelve miles from the left bank of the Indus, in an allu- 
vial tract, in many places subject to inundation. Lat. 27^ 56', 
long. 69** 11'. 

DEENARH. — ^A village in Sinde, situate on the road from e.i.c. mi. Doe. 
Omercote to Joudpoor, and twenty-five miles east of the former 
place. Lat. 25'» 23', long. 70** 14'. 

DEENGAH. — A village of Beloochistan, in the province of e.i.c. vi. Doe. 
Sarawan, on the western route from Quetta to Kelat, and twenty- 
five miles south-west of the former place. Lat. 29° 52', long. 
66° 43'. 

DEENGANA.— See Dincana. 

DEENGURH.— A village in Bhawlpoor, thirty miles south E.I.C. Mi. Doe. 
of the town of that name. Lat. 28"" 56', long. 71"" 48'. 

DEERAH JALLAH.— A village in the Punjab, situate ten e.i.c. mi. Doc. 
miles from the left bank of the river Jailum. Lat. 31° 48', long. 
72** 14'. 

DEESHOO. — ^A village in Western Afghanistan, situate on Joar. At. Soe. 
the river Hdmund. Lat. 30° 33', long. 62° 52'. ^Jmj(ITmJ^ 

DEEWALIK, in Afghanistan, is a ruined fort,, formerly of ^^'^' ^^ 
great importance, on the eastern route from Kandahar to Ghuz- 
nee, from the former of which places it is distant about ninety-five 
miles north-east. The country in the vicinity is tolerably culti- 
rated, and is crowded with the forts of the Ghiljies, who hold it. 
Lat. 32° 9', long. 67°. 

DEH HINDOO.— A village of Northern Afghanistan, in the b.i.o. M«.Doe. 
district of Lughman, situate on the river Alingar. Lat. 34° 56', 
long. 70° 16'. 

DEH-I-HAJEE, in Afghanistan, is a waUed town, on the b.i.c. Mi. Doe. $ 

° M «.u C*™?'^^^! Hare- 

route from the Khojuk Pass to Kandahar, and twenty miles south- loek, war in A4r. 

east of this last place. The houses, which are from twenty to gindf iidS^^ 

thirtv feet hiffh, are built of sun-dried bricks, with dome-shaped i. aw; Hough, 

^ ® -it-v. 1.JJV Narr. of Bxp. to 

roofs constructed of the same matenal, which is so naraenea by ^. gs. 
the heat of the sun as to form a good protection against all 
weather. There is a good stream of water, and the surrounding 

160 D£H. 

countrj is very productiTe. Population about 2»0(X>. Lat. 31"" 
23'. long. 65° 44'. 
B.i^.ifi.Doe.; DEH-I-KEPUK.— A village of Afgrhanistan, in the Koh-i- 

Mj— Ha] Afir 

PuU. UL 110/ Daaran, cloae to the western extremity of the lake of Kabool, and 
five miles north-west of that city. Like most places in the Koh-i- 
Damun. it is rudely fortified, being surrounded by a wall of 
little strength* The population is about 500. Lat. 69'' l\ long. 
34* 32^. 

B.i.c.Mf.Doc DEH-I-NOU.— A village in Afghanistan, on the road from 

Kandahar to Quetta, and twenty-five miles south-east of the 
former place. Lat. 3r 2S\ long. 65'' 50^. 

E.i.c.if«.Doe. DEH-I-SUBZ.— A village in Afghanistan, situate twelve 

miles north-east of Kabool, and on a feeder of the Pundishir 
river. Lat. 34° 36'. long. 69° 14'. 

E.I.C. Mf.Doe. DEH KOONDEE. — ^A village in Afghanistan, situate on the 

river Helmund, one hundred miles north of Kandahar.. Lat. 32° 
59', long. 65° 49^. 

Ej.c.]fs.Doe. DEH LAHOUR.— A village in Afghanistan, thirty-two 

miles north of Kandahar. Lat 32° 4', long. 65° 42'. 

DEHR, in the Punjab, on the right or north-western bank of 
the Sutluj, where there is a ferry, generally crossed on inflatpd 

i. 40; vigne. 1. 78. hidcs of buflfaloes or bullocks. Moorcrofk here forded the river at 
the beginning of March, when it is nearly at the lowest. It was 
then a hundred and fifty feet broad, and running at the rate of 
five miles an hour. Lat. 31° 42', long. 77° 38'. 

E.I.C. Ml. Doc. DEHRA. — ^A village in Sinde, situate on the route from Jes- 

sulmair to Halla, twenty-five miles north-east of the latter place. 
Lat. 25° 57', long. 68° 46'. 

Biinie,' Rep. «. DEHRA- JAM-KA, or AURUNGA BUNDER, in Sinde, waa, 

at the commencement of the eighteenth century, the seat of an 
English factory, the first founded in this countiy. At that time, 
a branch of the Indus, the Mugrah, now dried up, ran by the 
town. When the channel became deserted by the stream, the 
factory was removed to Shahbunder, twenty miles west, and the 
town fell to decay. Lat. 24° 10', long. 68° 2'. DEHRA KHAN GANCHA.— A large village in Sinde, on 

the route from Hyderabad to Sehwan, and thirty miles south- 
east of the latter place. It is situate close to the right bank of 
the Indus, amidst much cultivaticm. Lat. 26° 5', bng. 68° 5'. 

E.I.C. M.. Doc. ; DEHREE KOTE, or DERA GHABI (the station of Ghabi), so 

Corresp. on Sinde, ' 

DEH— DEP. 161 

caUed beeanse built hj Ghabi* a cfaieftain of the Cbandi tribe of 487.4M; utmm, 
Belooches. It is a small town of Cutch £Kindava, consisting i»| 
only of huts and mud houses, the best of which belong to Hin- 
doo traders. The Chandi tribe have been the most formidable 
supporters of the Talpoor dynasty of Sinde, of whose armies they 
formed the principal part during the late conflict with the British, 
and Dehree Kote appears to be at present the place of refuge for 
the refractory members of the late ruling £Eunily. Wali Mahomed, 
the present chief of the Chandi tribe, is said to be able to raise 
12,000 men. Dehree Kote lies at the base of the Hala range, in 
a level coimtry, weU cultivated, and especially productive of mil- 
let. Lat. 27** 38', long. 67*^ 34'. 

DEH ZIRGARAN.-*-A village of Afghanistan, in the Koh-i- mumd, Bti. a^t. 
Damun, twenty miles north-west of the town of Kabool. It is ^**^' "*• "^" 
situate on an eminence near the south bank of the river of Furza. 
a small feeder of the Punchshir river. It commands a fine view 
over the adjacent country, which is populous, fertile, and singu- 
larly picturesque. A deep artificial cave leads into the interior of 
the eminence on which the village stands, where there are spadous 
ruins. Lat. 34'' 42^, long. 68"" 5tf. 

DEO CHUNDAISUR MAHADEO.— A village situate in the mi. m^m. 
Great Desert of Sinde. Lat. 26° 17', long. 69^" 56'. 

DEO(K)NDA.^-A village in the Punjab, on the route from ej.c. Ms. Doc. 
Lahore to Kashmir, by the Banihal Pftss. It is situate near the 
right bank of the Chenaub river, a hundred and twenty miles north- 
east of Lahore. Lat. SB'', long. 75'' 6'. 

DEOTSUH, in Bultistan or Little Thibet, is an elevated table- 
land, south of the valley of Iskardo. It is a dreary tract about 
thirty miles long, with a breadth of about half as much, unin- 
habitable in winter from excessive cold, having a rocky surfsioe of 
granite and gneiss, and though 12,000 feet above the sea, sur-i. sio; Hoorcr! 
rounded by mountains which tower to a still greater elevation. ^°J- ^"*- "• 
Numerous small streams rise in this tract, those on the south flow- 
ing into the Jailum, and those on the north into the Indus. Lat. 
34^ 30', long. 75*^ 20'. 

DEPAULPOOR.— A town in the Punjab, situate in the E.i.c.ia.i)oc.; 

., i" AyeenAkbery, 

Doab, between the Ghara and the Ravee, twenty-nve mues from u.806. 
the right bank oi the former, thirty frx>m the left of the latter. 
In the time of the Emperor Acbar it was the chief town of a dis- 
trict, which yielded an income of 3,233,353 rupees, a much 

VOL. I. M 

162 DER. 

larger sum than could at present be levied on it. Lat. 30^ AXf, 
bng. 73* 27'. 
Mf. Snrrej Map. DERA. — A Village in Sinde, situate on the Narra river, 
fifteen miles south from Liarkhana, from which there is a good 
road. Lat. 27*» 20', long. 68*» 6'. 
DERABUND.— See Drabund. 
E.I.C. Ml. Doe. ; DERA DEEN PUNAH— A town of Afghanistan, in the Dera- 
Wood, 0xttt,88. jat, on the right or west bank of the Indus. It was nearly de- 
stroyed by the great earthquake of 1819 and the overwhelming 
floods which at the same time descended from the Suliman moun- 
tains. Lat. 30* 40^, long. 70*51'. 
« E.I.C. Ms. Doe. DERA DEEN PUNAH.*— A town in the Punjab, situate near 
the left bank of the Indus, on the route from Mooltan to Leia, 
and forty miles north-west of the former place. Attached to it 
• Aoe. orcanbai, 18 a Small but fertile district, which, at the time of Elphinstone's ^ 
*^- visit, yielded 150,000 rupees to the Afghan chief, who held it in 

jaghire. Lat. 30* 34', long. 71*. 

MaMon, BiO. Aifc. DERA FATI KHAN.— A town in the Derajat, ia situate 

'^■'•^- in a very fertile country, on a small western branch of the Indus, 

and at no great distance from the main stream. The crops in 

the vicinity are principally cotton, grain of various kinds, indigo, 

and some sugar and opium. The bazaars of Dera Fati Khan are 

good, and well supplied with wares ; and the town is altogether 

in rather a thriving state, though under the Sikh sway, which is 

much disliked by the Mahometans, who form the bulk of the 

inhabitants. It is retained in subjection by the fortress of Gerong, 

about four miles west of the town, where is maintained a garrison 

of 300 men. The population of Dera Fati Khan may be estimated 

at 5,000. It was, about three hundred years ago, a dera, or camp, 

of Fati Khan, an adventurer in this region, and hence its name. 

Lat. 31^ 7', long. 70° 52'. 

> Buraes'Poi. DERA GHAZEE KHAN.i— The most southern and also the 

rroiT'tS'Tnide "^°®* important of the three towns which contribute to give to 

oftheDer^|at,ioo; the Dcrajat its name. It is a large, populous, and commercial 

Id. Bokh. Ui. S83; . . . o » r r » 

id.Pen.Narr.88; placc, situatc in a low alluvial tract, four miles from the right 
Wood, oxQt, 80. ^j. ^gg|. ^yoj^ q£ tijg Indus, and contains numerous ruins of 
*Mattoii,Bai.Ai^. mosques,^ and of the extensive and well-constructed residences of 
Paqj.i.8i. ^^ former Durani governors and officers. It has in many 

respects decayed since it passed under the sway of the Sikhs, 
but has notwithstanding retained considerable transit trade. 

DER. 168 

The retention of this advantage is attributable to its being 
sitoate at the point where one of the great routes from Eastern 
India and the Punjab into Beloochistan and Khorasan intersects 
the great route from north to south into Sinde. The bazaar 
contains sixteen hundred shops, the inmates of five hundred 
and thirty of winch are engaged in weaving and selling doth. 
It is in other respects well supplied with goods, but ill-built 
and dirty. Some manufactures are carried on here in silk, 
cotton, and mixed fJEibrics of silk and cotton, called loongees, in- 
tended for scads and waistbands. Coarse cutlery is also manu- 
fJEictured to a considerable extent. The entire value of the various 
manufactures is estimated to be 200,000 rupees per annum. 

The surrounding country is very unhealthy during the hot 
season, but remarkably fertile, being well irrigated, and producing 
grain, fruits in abundance and of fine quality, sugar, cotton, and 
mnch indigo, in which a considerable traffic is driven. Both the 
transit and the direct carrying trade are conducted almost ex- 
dusively by the Lohani Afghans, who are at once a pastoral and 
a mercantile tribe. 

Dera Ghazee Khan, in consequence of its advantageous 
position, has been recommended by Bumes and others as the best 
site for a great annual fiur, to be held under the protection of the 
British government, commanding, as it does, such important 
routes and the navigation of the Indus north and south. The 
population is about 25,000, of which nearly one-half are Hindoos, 
the rest Mahometans. It was a dera, post, or camp of Ghazee 
Khan, who, about three centuries ago, figured as an adventurer 
here. Lat. 30* 5', long. 70* 52'. 

DERA ISMAEL KHAN,^ in Afghanistan, a considerable *e-I.c. Ms. Doe. i 

P6TB Nftrr 01 * 

town of tiie Derajat, built a short distance from the right or poi.Pow.ofSikbt, 
west bank of the Indus, to replace the former town, which, i* T?T?*,^**** 

' 1^ ' ' Denjat, 102; 

having been situate only a hundred yards from the river,^ was, Bumes. 

a few years ago, swept away by it so completely that not a caubui, 28^' Mas. 

restige was left. The town is well laid out, but is ill built of^'ii'^ «• 

^ , '80; Wood, Ozus^ 

unbumt brick, and in general has an air of desolation, though in oo. 
spring there is much business, it being then crowded by the 
Afghans of the Lohani tribe, who purchase great quantities of 
goods to transport by their caravans for the supply of Afghan- 
istan and Central Asia. The most important article of com- 
merce is white cotton cloth, of which two millions of yards are 


164 DER. 

* BnnMt'Tnda of yearly bM here, and eighteen mUlkms of yards taken throng,' 
Der^at^ioe. ^ transit £rom Hindostan to the north and west of this place. 

There is also a considerable trade, by way of the Indus, soutli* 
ward, in grain and salt, from Kala Ba§^. The position of Dera 
Ismael Khan is important, being situate on one of the great routes 
from the north to Sinde and the Southern Punjab, and also in the 
ricinity of the ferry at Kaheree, one of the most frequented over 

* Borne.' Pen. the Indus. There is another ferry over that river * three miles to 

Nut. 01. - ,-, 4., 1 

the eastward of the town. About three centuries ago, there was 
here a dera, post, or encampment of Ismael Khan, an adventurer 
in this country, and hence the name which the town bears. It 
was wrested from iht Duiani eminre by the Sikhs. Its poptt- 

* Bonie.> of lation is Stated to be 8,000.* Lat. Sr SO', long. 70^ SS'. 
^u^tI^oI DERAJAT,! in Afghanistan, a fertfle. p(^uk>us, and wdl- 
the DenUftt, 06 ; cultivated tract, extending along the western bank of the Indus, 
sikhi, «. ^^' ^ about three hundred miles, from the Kala or Salt range of moun- 
tains to the northern frontier of Sinde. Its situation is low ; its fer- 
tility owing to irrigation from the Indus. It is of small breadth, 
being hemmed in by the Suliman range of mountains and the desert 
stretching along its eastern base. The name is derived from the 
three towns of Dera Ghazee Khan, Dera Fati Khan, and Dera 

iS.'pS.^i), ^*°"**^ Khan, which were originally the three deras,^ posts, or 
41* encampments of the three chiefs whose names they respec^vely 

bear. The revenue exacted by the Sikh government amounts to 
1,400,000 rupees annually, and would be cheerfully paid by the 
inhabitants for the protection afforded them against the pre- 
datory hordes of the Suliman mountains, were not their opinions 
and feelings grievously outraged by their conquerors, who dese- 
crate their mosques and prohibit the public exercise of the 
Mahometan religion. The Derajat, in addition to its intrinsic 
resources, is very important, as the Kaheree and some of the 
other chief ferries over the Indus, and several of the chief routes 
from India to Khorasan, are in this territory. The inhabitants, 
according to Masson, are favourably distinguished from the 
neighbouring Afghans and Belooches, being peaceable, kind, in- 
dustrious, and unostentatiously hospitable. The Derajat fmns 
the eastern or more fertile portion of Daman, or " the border," 
an extensive tract so called, because it borders on the Suliman 
v^'i'on H^eTlli! I^ERBEND.^— A military post of the Sikhs, on the north-west 

DERr--DHA. 165 

frontier of the Punjab. ItiBaituateon theleft biuikof tiie Indus, S8$ Bunufivd. 

where the Btream, preroualy stnutened in its passage through the S5L,"i.**** 

mountains, expands on entering into the plain, and hence pro- 

bably the name of Derbend, which signifies the place of a dam or 

atrait.2 In its neighbourhood, in 1827, Sheer Singh, the Sikh*vigiie.Ka«hmif, 

commander, defeated Saiyid Ahmed, the fanatic Afghan, who had "*' '^ '^' 

excited a religious war against the Sikhs. Lat. 34*^ SC, long. 73*^ 5'. 

DERISTAN. — ^A village in Afghanistan, about six miles 6om Wtiiwr's Map of 
the left bank of the Uighundab, and eight miles from the right ^' 
bank of the Tumak river. Lat. 32^ 26', long. 66^ 58'. 

DERRA GUZ — ^A village in Afghanistan, on the northem Mi. doc 
declivity of the Huzareh mountains. It is situate on the Durya-i 

or Bund-i-Burbun river, thirty miles south of Balkh. Lat. 36^ Id', 
long. 66^ 57'. 

DERWAZEH.—A village in Afghanistan, eighteen miles waikeft Mtp or 
from the right bank of the Hebnund river. Lat. 30° 59', long. ^' 
63° 2'. 

DEWALAN.— A village in Westem Afghanistan, on the road eJ-c Mm. doc. 
from Kandahar to the province of Seistan, a hundred miles west 
of Kandahar, and forty miles south-west of the town of Giriskh. 
It is situate fourteen mUes from the right bank of the Helmimd, 
and a small branch of that river crosses the road at this spot. 
Lat. 31° 29', long. 63° 47', 

DEWALIK.— See Dkbwalix. 

DEYHIFAIZ.— A village in Afghanistan, on the circuitous Waiker't Map. 
roate from Bamian to Mymunuh» and fifty miles south-east of the 
latter place. It is situate on a small feeder of the river of And- 
khoo, and deeply embosomed among the Huzareh mountains. 
Lat. 35° 35', long. 65'' 14'. 

DEYPLAH. — A halting-place in Sinde, on the route from b.i.c. Mf. Doe. 
Hyderabad to Bhooj, in Cutch, and a hundred miles south-east 
of the former town. It is situate in the Thurr, or desert, a few 
miles north of the boundary of the Great Westem Runn* Lat. 
24° 20', long. 69° 29'. 

DEYRAH.— A post and defile in South-eastern Afghanistan, b.i.c. Mi.Doc.; 
among the Murree mountains. It is on the difiicult and perilous 
route from Northem Sinde to Kahun, and thirty miles south-east 
of this latter place. Lat. 29° 1', bug. 69° 33'. 

DHAK.--A village in tiie Punjab, situate four miles from the ^-^'O- Mi. Doc 
right bank of the river Jaihim, in lat. 32° 20', long. 72° 20'. 

166 DHE— DHY. 

B.I.C Mf. Doe. DHBEN6.---A small river or rather torrent of Stnde, rises 

in the Lukkee mountains, about lat. 2&* Kf, long. 67"" M. 
After a north-westeriy course, estimated at twenty miles, it is 
lost in the barren country west of Sehwan. 

Houfh, ssa. DHEENGEB, in the Punjab, a town on the route between 

the towns of Jailum and Ramnuggur, and about twenty miles 
from the right bank of the Chenaub. It contains a considerable 
number of well-built houses. Lat. 32*" 42", long. 12^ 38^. 

E.LO. Ml. Doc DH£R.^-A village in the Punjab, situate on the left bank of 

the Indus, a little north of the mouth of the Hirroo river, and 
about eight miles south of Attock. Lat. SS"" 48^, long. 72*" 2C/. 

B.i.a Ms. Doc. DHERI A GOTE, SOE, or SOVEE, in Sinde, a village on the 

route from Sehwan to Larkhana, and sixty-three miles north 
of the former place. It is situate on the right bank of an of&ct 
of the Indus, in a low, alluvial country, having considerable cul- 
tivation. Lat. 2T 13', long. 68* 5'. 

s.La Mf. Doe. DHEYRIALEE. — ^A viUage in Sinde, on the south-east fron- 

tier of that country. Lat. 24"" 43', long. IV 8'. 

E.I.C. Ml. Doc DHODA. — A village in A^hanistan, situate eight miles south 

of Kohat, and forty of Peshawur. Lat. 33** 27', long. 7P 29^. 

Mi. Survey Map. DHO DAEE. — ^A village in Sinde, on the route frt>m Lar- 
khana to Shikarpoor, and four miles north-east of the former place. 
It is situate near the left bank of an intermitting stream, or rather 
torrent, which, descending from the Hala mountains in the season 
of inundation, flows by Larkhana, and dischaiges itself into the 
Indus. Dho Daee is in lat. 27"" 36', long. 68*" 16'. 

E.I.C. Ml. Doc DHOWLER.— A vilkge in the Punjab, situate in the Doab 

or tract between the Ravee and the Ghara rivers. It is twenty- 
four miles from the left bank of the former, and eighteen from the 
right bank of the latter. Lat. 30*^ 33', long. 73** 17'. 

E.I.C. Mi. Doc. DHUNNEEAL. — ^A village in the Punjab, on the route from 

Attock to Pind-Dadun-Khan, and fifty miles south-east of the 
former place. It is situate on the left bank of the Swan river, 
among the hills connecting the Salt range with the southern 
Himalaya. Lat. 33* 12', long. 72° 31'. 
DHURWAL.— See Burran. 

1 vigiicKiMhiiiir. DHYR.' — A town of Afghanistan, in the Kohistan or high- 

ii. sii. igj^^ north of Bajour, is situate on a feeder of the Lundye river. 

s Eiph. Ace of Its chieftain^ is the most powerful of the Eusufrais, having, by a 

aTsUI;'.^^ ^'' ^°°S course of daring and decisive policy, rendered himself abeo- 

DIA— DIN. 167 

late. Very little is known of tiie town or surrounding country, oso; can6aj(E,\ 

and the prospect of obtaining authentic information on the sub- JISS* xrSl^"' 

ject was destroyed by the death of Captain Edward ConoUy, 

who, in 1840, after his journey in the district, was killed in 

action in the Kohistan^ of Kabool. About three miles to the ' b*i-c. Mi. Doe. 

west of the town of Dhyr is a large collection of ruins, attributed 

by the natives to the Kafirs or heathens of remote times, and 

considered by Court ^ to be the remains of Dirta, mentioned by ^sxpioitt of aiu- 

the historians of the exploits of Alexander. Dhyr is in lat. 35^ soc i839, p. so9. 

acr, long. 72**. 

DIARMUL, or NANGA PURBUT— A lofty mountain on J^.^y^X 
the northern boundary of the Punjab, is covered with perpetual 804. 
snow, and estimated by Vigne to be 19,000 feet above the sea. 
Its summit is finely peaked, with very steep sides. Lat. 35** 10', 
long. 74'* aO'. 

DIE.— A village on the southern frontier of Afghanistan. It ^ Surrey Map. 
is situate among the Murree mountains, on the route from Bagh 
to Kahun, and forty miles west of the latter place. Lat. 29^ 2S\ 
long. 68° 40^. 

DILARAM, in Western Afghanistan, is a ruined fort and s-i-c. mi. doc. ; 
halting-place on the southern road from Kandahar to Herat, and Bens. Eng. u. i84. 
about a hundred and forty-five miles a little north of west from 
the former place. Hence the southern route between the towns 
of Furrah and GKriskh is called the Dilaram road, in contradis* 
tinction to that which runs ten or twelve miles north of it, and 
nearly parallel to it. This ruin is situate near a rivulet, on the 
margin of which are a few trees, almost the only ones found in 
this barren and uninhabited country. Lat. 32^ ll^ long. 63° 

DILAWUR.— See Dirawul. 

DILAZAK. — ^A village in Afghanistan, in the plain of Pesha* Mi. Surrey Map. 
wur, and twelve miles south-east from the city of that name. 
Lat. 33° 53', long. 7P 49^. 

DILIAR. — A halting-place in Sinde, on the route from Walker's Map or 
Bnkkur to the fortress of Omercote, and twenty miles north-west ^' 
of the latter place. It is situate close to the channel of the 
Eastern Narra, which is sometimes dry, but during extensive 
inundations bears along a vast volume of water from the Indus 
to the Koree estuary. Lat. 25^ S6\ long. 69"^ 39'. 

DINCANA, or D£ENOANA.-*A village in th« Punjab, e.i.c. Ms. Doe. 

168 DIN— DOD. 

situate near the right bank of (he rirer Jailum. There n a 

road from this place to Bukkur, distant aixtjr niika norlii-west. 

Lat 31'' 18', long. 72« 3'. 

waikei't if^> of DINGANA. — ^A viUage in Sinde, on the route Arom Bokkv 

^' to Hyderabad, and fifty miles north of the latter place. Lat. 26" 

lO', long. 68° 3(y. 
conwp. on sbnte, DIN GEE, in Sinde, a fort between Khyeipoor and Hyderabadi 
^^^'^^^ and fifty miles soalii of the former town. It is surroonded hj 

walls fifteen feet high, and has an abundant supply of water frrai 
wells. Here, in the beginning of 1843, the Ameers of Sinde col- 
lected an army, preparatory to their final struggle with the British. 
Lat. 26*^ 52^, long. 68° 40'. 
> Leech. Rep. on DIRAWUL or DILAWUR^ (the / and r being intendiange- 
Surat'^r/ilJi.'' able).— A fortress of Bhawlpoor, situate in the desert, forty miles 
iii. 991 i uauou, from the left bank of the Punjnud. It is strongly fortified ac- 
85.' cording to the notions of native powers, and with reference to 

their practical skill in the arts of defence ; but its safety princi- 
pally lies in the difiSiculty of access to it, the road lying througli 
a parched desert totally devoid of water, so that a besieging army 
must draw its supply from a distance of fifteen miles. It contaiss 
'Atkinson, Exp. the treasure of Bhawl Khan, vaguely estimated at 700,000/.* 
Here also is his zenana, and thither he retires for relaxation from 
the fatigues of business (as far as he ever endures them), or for 
security when threatened with invasion. There is here a maun* 
factory of gunpowder for artillery, but the produce is of very iadif- 
ferent quality. Lat. 28° 44', long. 71° 17'. 
£.1.0. lit. Doc DOBRE.— A village in Afghanistan, situate in lat. ZV 57', 

long. 71" 1'. 

< Macartney in DOBUNDEE, in Afghanistan,^ a village on the right bsnk 

p . pp. ^£ ^g Kabool river, just below where three channels unite. The 

river here is about three hundred yards wide, and navigable for 

large boats, and so far appears to be the greatest length of nari* 

gation from the sea by the channel of the Indus and its great 

'Wood,Ozttf,id6; tributary, the Kabool. Higher, the navigation can be safely 

Narr. S77 ; Jour, effected ouly by mcans of muchUcs or inflated hides.^ Coal strata 

sn -^riffith^'R ^°P °^* here,^ but as yet only thin seams have been discovered, 

on Afg. ' and these yield merely pulverulent specimens, resembling rather 

Drummond OT ' coal-dust than any thing of superior quality and value. Lat. 34® 

vjgne^'i. soi. DODA. — A town in the Northern Punjab, amidst the moun- 

DOD— DOO. 169 

tains scmth of Kashmir, ataate on tiie right or iiorth-'W€8tbaiik of 
the Chenanb, nearly opposite its oonflnence with the river of Bndra- 
war. The Chenaub, here sixty yards broad, is crossed by t^jhoola 
or bridge, farmed by a cable stretched from bank to bank, and tra- 
Y&ned by a suspended seat, drawn backwards and forwards by 
means of a rope. Doda is a neat, well-built town, with a good 
bazaar, and a square fort baring a tower at each angle. The 
fort is garrisoned by the Sikhs, which power is in possession of 
the adjacent country. Lat. 33'' 2f, long. 75'' 18^ 

DO DUNDAN (two teeth) is a lofty mountain in Beloochis- Uuum, BaL a«. 
tan, with two peaks towering over the Qundova or Moola Pass, 
from Kelat to Gundava. Lat. 27'', Sif long. 66"* 50'. 

DOLA. — ^A village in the Punjab, situate on the right bank of w»ikert v^> of 
the Ravee river, in lat. 31", long. 73" 16'. N.w.PronUer. 

DOOBAH. — ^A small river of Sinde, rises in the southern Ms. doc; 
part of the Keertar mountains, about lat. 25" 54', long. 67" 45'. fJS; J^JJ^De 
After a course which may be estimated at forty-five miles, ge« ia HofU>, Rep. on 
nerally in a south-easterly direction, it forms a junction with Kumehee Jid^ 
the Damajee river, coming from the south-west, and below the Se^wan. 
confluence the name is changed for that of Dhurwal. In the com- 
mencement of its course it bears the name of the Pokrun river, 
and lower down, that of the Kajoor. It is dry for the greater 
part of the year, but water may always be obtained by digging 
in its bed. 

DOOBAH.— A halting-place in Sinde, on the river Doobah, E.i.a vs. Doc 
and on the route from Kurrachee to Sehwan, sixty-six miles 
south of the latter town. Forage may be obtained, though in 
no great quantity. The road in the ridnity is tolerably good, 
though in some places impeded by water-courses. Lat. 25" 34^ 
long. 67" 58'. 

DOOBGAU. — ^A village in Kashmir, situate on the river e.i.c. Ms. Doe. 
Jailum or Veyut, eight miles north from Bazamuk. Lat. 34" 12', 
long. 74" 18'. 

DOOBOORJIE. — ^A village in the Punjab, on the road from e.i.c. mc Doe. 
Ferozpoor to Mooltan, and eighteen miles west of the former 
town. It is situate three miles from the right bank erf the Ohara 
river. Lat. 30" 54', long. 74" 15'. 

DOODEE GHAT. 1— A village in the Punjab, situate on the 'e.i.c. m».Doc 
right bank of the river Ghenaub, and five miles north-west of 
Mooltan, from which there is a good road. It is mentioned by 

170 DOO— DOR. 

sAocofCaubu], Elpbioitoiie' under the name of Oodoo-ka-Gh>te. Here is a 
much-frequented ferry, by which the great route lies from Mod- 
tan to Dera Ghazee Khan. Lat. 3QP IV, long. 71'' 22". 

wauw't M«p of DOO KOOEE.^A village in Afghanistan, situate forty mOcs 
south of Ghuznee» and in the elevated and mountainous tract 
lying between that place and Lake Ab-istada. Lat. 32^^57', long. 
689 2^. 

E.I.C. Ms. Doc DOONAH. — ^A village of Afghanistan, in the Daman* distant 

eight miles from the right bank of the Indus. Lat. 30^ 5(/, long. 
70** 48'. 

E.I.C. Ml. Djc DOONDEY. — A village in Sinde, on the road from Hyder* 

abad to Lucput Bunder, and thirty miles south of the former 
town. It is situate close to the left bank of the Indus, in the low 
alluvial tract insulated by that river and its oflFaets the Fukike 
and Piniaree. Lat. 24° 59', long. 68"" IT. 

E.LC.MS. Doe. DOORA.— A village of Beloochistan, situate in the district 

of Lus, and twenty miles north*east from Sonmeanee. Lat. 25*^ 
38', long. 66** 41'. 

DOOSHAK.— See Jslalabad. 

B.I.C. Ms.Doe.; DOOSHAUK, in Western Afghanistan, is a village, Bur« 

ludji'ii'. w" ^ rounded by a mud wall, surmounted by towers, on the route 
from Herat to Kandahar, and a hundred and ten miles a litde 
north of west from the place last named. It is situate at the 
eaBtem base of some hiUs, over which the road passes at the 
height of about nine hundred feet. The road is hard, but uneven, 
near this town. Water and forage may be obtained here. Lat 
32° 11', long. 64^5'. 

Von Hngei, ui. 65{ DOR, a Small river of the Punjab, rises in the mountains west 

Vine, ii 187 

of Mazufurabad, which divide the valley of the Indus from that 
of the Jailum. It holds a westerly course of about fifty miles, 
and, uniting with the Sam, falls into the Indus on the eastern 
side, near Torbela, in lat. 34° 12', long. 72'' 39'. 

wtiko**! Map of DORAHA. — ^A village in Afghanistan, situate in the moun- 
tainous tract north-east of the town of Furrah, from which it is 
distant thirty miles east. Lat. 32"^ 22', long. 62^ 40'. 

B.i.aMt.Doe.; DOREE RIVER, m Afirhanistan, takes its rise near the 

Houf h, Narr. of o ' 

Exp. to Ai^. OS; Kojuk Pass, ou the western side of the Khojeh Amram moun- 

SdJ^!i.n"*^ tains. It holds a westerly course of about ninety miles, and 

Hareiock, War falls into the rivcT Tumak a little above its confluence with the 

in Aiif. 1. 398. urghundab, and in lat. 31° 24', long. 65° 18'. The water, though 

DOS— DOZ. 171 

Tery braddsh, was drunk most greedily by the soldiers of the 
Sritish army in their dreadful extremity during the advance on 
Kandahar in April, 1839. Where crossed by the route from 
Shawl to K a n da h a r , thirty miles south-east from the last place, 
the river is four or five yards wide and eighteen inches deep. 

DOSHAK.— See Dooshauk. 

DOST MAHOMED'S FORT, in the district of Meknm, in b.i.c. Ms. Doc 
JBeloocbistan. It is situate on the route from Belah to Kedje, 
and a hundred and fifty miles west of the former place. Lat. 
26** 22", long. 64° 1'. 

DOULUTPOOR.J— A village in Sindc, situate near the left > wrikefi Map of 
hank of the Indus. It forms part of the district of Bhoonj ^'^' '«««•' 
Bhaxa,^ and was comprised in the transfer of territory made by * comspotideDoe 
the British, in 1843, fix)m the Ameers of Khyerpoor to Mahomed ''°^*°^' ^'^' 
Bhawl Khan, in reward of his steady friendship. Lat. 28'' 21^ 
long. 69^ 41'. 

DOUR. — A village of Afghanistan, situate in the Daman, on waikv't Map of 
the road from Ghuznee to Kala Bagh, and sixty miles west of the ^^' 
latter place. Lat. 33o &, long. 70° 35'. 

DOWD KHAIL. — A village in the Punjab, situate on the E.I.C. Mi. Doe. 
left bank of the Indus. It is about eight miles lower down the 
river than Kala Bagh, and on the opposite side. Lat. 32"" 52^, 
long. 71° 33'. 

DOWLATABAD, in Western Afghanistan, is a ruined fort ei.c. mi. Doc; 
on the route from Kandahar to Herat, from which last place itiJ^]l^'^ 
is distant ninety-five miles. It is situate on the bank of the 
Furrah-Rood, in a fertile valley, yielding abundant supplies, espe- 
cially southwards, towards the town of Furrah. Lat. 32^ 36', 
long. 62° 27'. 

DOWLUTDYAR.— A village in Afghanistan, lying among bjx;. mi. Doe. 
the Huzareh mountains. It is situate on the Sir-i-Jungle, near 
its confiuence with the Heri-Rood. Lat. 34'' 15', long. 65''. 

DOWLUTPOOR. — ^A village in Sinde, situate two miles mi. Surrey Map. 
from the left bank of the river Indus, on a road leading from 
Bukkur to the south of Sinde. Lat. 26'' 37', long. 68° 1'. 

DOWULUTPOOR.— A village in Sinde, situate on the left 
bank of the Indus, ten miles north-east of Sehwan, in lat. 26° 
27', long. 68°. 

DOZAN. — A village in Sinde, on the route from Sehwan to K.i.0. u§. Doe. 
Kurrachee, aud twelve miles north-east of the latter town. It is 

172 DRA— DRU. 

situate on the bank of the Amree, which, thoogh dry during^ 
greater part of the year» in the season of rain beoomes a tomBk, 
discharging itself into the Oisry river, about eight miles to tiie 
south of Dozan. This village lies in lat. 24'* 54', long. 67"" 15'. 

B.I.C. Ms. Doc. DRABOGAM.— A village in Kashmir, situate on the iwd 

from Shahbad to Baramula, and seventy miles nordi-vest of the 
former place. Lat. 33^^ 48', long. 74'' 40^. 

E.I c. Ml. Doc. J DRABUND, or DERABUND, in Afghanistan, a small town it 

Elph. Ace. of Cau- wn. 

buip 81 ; Leech, the Derajat, about thirty miles south-west of Dera Ismael Khan. 

T^e*!f the u^ ^* ^ ^^^ P^e o^ rendezvous of the Lohani and other caraTOns. 

nuiit,08i Muson, ^hich cvcry spring depart westward with the annual supply of 

79 ; vigue, ohux- British and Indian wares for Central Asia. These Lohanis desceDl 

nee, 67. ^^ ^^-^ camels and other cattle, to spend the vnnter in the miU 

climate and luxuriant pastures stretching along the western bsok 
of the Indus, and at the same time to furnish themselves nidi 
articles suitable for supplying their customers in Afghanistan and 
the countries north and west of it ; and they assemble at Dn- 
bund to muster their strength for resisting the predatory tribe in- 
festing the roads through which they have to pass. In one year 
they have taken with them above five thousand camels laden widi 
merchandize, twenty-four thousand camels attending them for 
other purposes, and above a hundred thousand sheep, bendes 
other animals. The town of Drabund is a small ill-built place* 
but bearing evidence of having been more prosperous, until 
ruined by the predatory attacks of the Vaziris .and other maran* 
ders from the west. The permanent population is scarcely 1,000. 
Lat. 31°45Mong. 70** 32^. 

DRAS.— A river falling into the Indus. (SeeDuBAS and 

Bj.a Ml. Doc DREY.— A village near the south-east frtmtier of Sinde, on the 

route from Omercote to Nuggur Parker, and six miles north-west 
of the latter place. Lat. 24° 25', long. 70° 40'. 

DRIBBAR.— A village in Southern Sinde, situate on a road 
twenty miles from the north bank of the Ghreat Western Rin. Lat 
24° 25', long. 69° 39'. 

E.I.C. Mi. Doc DROUBUND.— A village in Afghanistan, situate about three 

miles from the right bank of the Indus, and ten miles south of 
Dera Ismael Khan, on the route from thence to Mooltan. I^* 
31° 42', long. 70° 56'. 

Hough, Narr. of DRUBBEE, in BekxKshistan, a part of the Bdtuk ftu», where 

£zp. to Alir. 49 i ' *^ 

DRU— DUK. 173 

the indofiing hills reoeding, leare room for a small TsUey^ covered Hareioek, War in 
with green sward, and having space for an encampment of 1,500 
men. There is a plentifal supply of excellent water from the 
Bolan river, whidi flows through the valley. Lat. 29^ 27^ long. 

DRUMTOOR.— See Dumtavb. 

DUB, in the Ponjab, a pass over a monntain on the route p* ▼<» Hugei, 
from Attock to Kashmir, by the Baramula road. It was at a 
recent period infested by freebooters, who held possession of the 
liort of Futighur and spread terror over the whole vicinity. 
Hari Singh, the intrepid and energetic Sikh chieftain, attacked 
them, drove them out of a jungle where they took refuge, by 
firing' it, and put the whole body to the sword. The Dub 
Fass 18 situate on the water-line dividing the feeders of the 
Kishengunga, and consequently of the Jailum, on the east side, 
from those of the Indus on the west. Lat. 34"* 17^ long. 
73*^ 21'. 

DUBAR, in ^uode, a village on the route from Roree to Sub- mmmd, Bai. atg. 
zulcote, and twelve miles north-east of the former place. It is 
situate near the left bank of the Indus and close to a water-course. 
Lat. 27^50',long. 69*»4'. 

DUBLEE, in Sinde, a village on the route from Sehwan to E.i.a Ms. doc 
Lazkhana, and eighteen miles south of the latter town. It is si- 
tuate in a level alluvial country, and dose to a water-course com- 
municating wilii the Indus. The road in the vicinity is narrow, 
and cut through the jungle, here overrunning the country. Lat. 
27** 16', k)ng. 68° 15'. 

DUCHIN.— A village in the Northern Punjab, situate on the Ei.a Mb. Doe. 
Mum Wurdwun river, a short distance above its confluence with 
the Chenaub. Lat. 33"" 25', long. 75" 45'. 

DUFEHR.— A village in Sinde, on the Western Nam, a e.i.c. ms. doc. 
great offset of the Indus ; it is situate on the western road from 
Sehvran to Larkhana, and thirty-five miles south of the latter 
plaee. Lat. 27" 5', long. 67" 52'. 

DUKA, or DAKA, i in Afghanistan. There are two villages '^^J^^ 
of this name, one at the western extremity of the Khyber Pass, Bai. Mg. Paqj. 
caUed Duka •* Kula," or " the great ;" the other, about twoimUes N^m Exp^l^tolV 
to the east of the other, called Duka " Khurd," or " the little." «»; »»"«' ,^ 

Bokh. 1. 110 ; Id. 

The latter is on the road by which the two northern passes, the Pen. Narr. iso; 
Abkhana and the Tatara, debouch westward. Both villages ^^^;^^^^^ 

Afg. U. 187. 

174 DUK— DUM. 

are situate on the south or right bank of the Kabool river, and 

are surrounded by walls. The ground is saturated with soda, 

and, in consequence of this and the contiguity of the river, is 

very damp. The immediate vicinity is barren, but as the pkin 

of Bassowal, at a short distance to the west, is fertile and weD 

cultivated, considerable supplies can be obtained here. Duka 

was a place of importance in 1842, during the time that the 

British force, under Sir Robert Sale, was cooped up in Jelalabad, 

•Mil. Op. In A«k.M it commanded the Tatara and Abkhana passes, ^ by which 

4a, «. communication with the garrison was frequently effected, whilst 

the Khyber Pass was completely closed. On the evacuation of 

the country, towards the dose of 1842, a portion of the Brilidi 

•Id. 417. army encamped here,' previously to making its way throng 

« Hough, Ntrr.ofthe Khyber Pass. The elevation of Duka above the sea* is 

Exp. i. ku. aoe. ^^^^ ^^ La^. 3^0 15/^ j^^g 7^0 ^cj'. 

DUKKEE.— See Dubkhbb. 
Walker*! Map of DULHUK. — A village in Afghanistan, on the road firom 
t** Furrah to Giriskh, and thirty-seven miles north-west of the last- 

named place. Lat. 32^ 4', long. 63° 48'. 
E.I.C. Ms. Doc. DULLAH.— A village in Afghanistan, situate on the rigbt 

bank of the Indus, twenty-two miles north of Dera Ismael Khan. 
Lat. 32« 6', long. 71° K/. 
B.I.C. Mi. Doc. DUMAJEE.— A village in Sinde, on the route from Sehwan 

to Kurrachee, and sixty miles north-east of the latter town. 
The road near Dumajee is represented as indifferently good, 
and forage can be obtained to a considerable extent. The 
supply of water is rather scanty : there are two wells wWch 
afford it, but they are liable to ftdl in the dry season. After 
rainy weather, a torrent, called the Dumajee river, flows by the 
village and falls into thebhurwal river, about twelve miles to 
the north-east. Dumajee is in lat. 25'' 21', long. 67*" 52". 
E.I.C. M». Doc. DUMBA, a small river in Sinde, rises in the southern part 

iMoi P*oio!' o^ *^e Keertar range of mountains, about twenty miles north- 
Do La Hortelaep. east of Kurrachee, in lat. 25M', long. 67° 18', and, after a 

on Cottntiy be- . , . , .» * n • *. ^.u -:«or 

tween Sehwan southerly coursc, estunatcd at eighteen nules, mils mto tne nver 
aad Kurrachee. ^ularce, in lat. 24° 48', long. 67° 15'. About ten mUes above 
its mouth it is crossed by the route from Kurrachee to Sehwan, 
and is at that point, during the rainy season, a small stream. In 
the dry season, the channel has no stream, though water may be 
obtained by digging in the bed. The place where it is crossed 

DUM— DUN. 175 

by the road as above mentioned is caUed the Dumba Camp. The 
road there is generally good, and forage may be obtained in con- 
siderable quantities. 

DUMDUM.^ — A yalley in Kashmir, and also a river, along ^ von Hngei, i. 
the course of which lies a pass over the mountains which inclose 
Kashmir to the south. This pass, situate between the mountains 
Futi P^jal and Pir Panjal, is generally called the Pir Panjal Pass, 
but sometimes the Nandan Sar Pass. It is 1 1,800 feet above the 
sea, and through it lies the route into Kashmir from the Punjab, by 
Rajawur. The river rises about the summit of the pass, and, 
flowing north-east, faUs into the Vehut or Jailum, which drains 
the whole of Kashmir. It is called the Huripur river by Vigne.^'i-SM. 
Lat. 33** 40'. long. 74*> 40^. 

DUMTAUR, or DHARUM TAWUR, in the Punjab, aEiph.Accof 
valley extending nearly in a direction from east to west, in lat. ^^'H^Beu**' 
340 5'-_34o lo', and long. 72° 45'— 73^ 15'. It is described by Kashmir, lu. as- 
Baron Hugel, who explored it, as giving the impression of having 
been once the bed of a vast torrent. It is still furrowed by nume- 
roQs water-courses, discharging themselves into the river Dor, 
which flows with a scanty stream in a stony channel half a mile 
wide. Here the traveller, descending from the elevated country 
lying to the north, finds the vegetation assuming the character of 
that which prevails in Hindostan. The sugar-cane especially is 
grown in such abundance, that it forms a principal article of 
fodder for cattle. The mountains which inclose the valley on the 
north-west are clothed with dense and luxuriant forests of oak, 
pine, walnut, wild olive, and plane trees. The valley is populous, 
and abounds in villages, each defended by a small fort. Dumtaur, 
^which gives name to the valley and district, is a smaU and poor 
place. The inhabitants are Eusufzai Afghans, who yield a very 
reluctant obedience to the Sikh government. 

DUMTAUR, in the Punjab, a small town, a few miles east of voa Bogei, iii.64. 
the Indus, lying on the route into Kashmir by the Dub Pass. It 
is situate in a beautiful, well-watered, and productive valley, 
crowded with small forts, erected and maintained on account of 
the dangerous proximity of the Eusufzais. Lat. 34** 5', long. 
73** 6'. 

DUND, in Afghanistan, is a village on the route from Dera e.i.c. m§. doc. 
Ismael Khan to Ghuznee, from which last place it is distant 
twenty-seven miles south-east. The road here is good, and the 

176 DUN— DUR. 

supply of water abondaat from the river of Ohnznee. lAt 33 H'> 
long. 68° 16'. 
e.Ijc. Mb. Doe. DUNDAL. — A village north-eaat of Kashmir, and situate in 

the valley of Duras, on the river of the same name. Lat. 34' 
21', long.75M2'. 
B.I.C. Ml. Doe. DUNDEB. — ^A village in the Punjab, situate on the east 

bank of the river Indus, twenty-four miles south-west of AttocL 
Lat. SS'^ 36', long. 72*» 4'. 
E.I.C. Mb. Doc.; DUNDI GOOLAI, in Afghanistan, is a halting-pkoe, with i 
ta^k^M^^t J^^ervoir of water, on the route from the Kojuck Pass to Ksndsr 
lock. War in har, from which town it is distant seventy miles south-east. The 
nedr, shide ud rescrvoir is supplied with water by means of a canal from the 
KAbooi, I. S48. mountains to the north-east, so that the supply may be cut oflF, by 
damming up the channel. This was done when the British anny 
was encamped there, in April, 1839, and dreadful eafksaDg 
thereby caused. The reservoir is 4,036 feet above the sea. Lit 
30° 56', long. 66° 16'. 
B.I.C. Ms. Doc DUNDYA. — A village in Beloochistan, in the province of 

Lus. It is situate near the road from Belah to Souneanee, 
about seven miles south-east from the former place. Lat 26° 
6', long. 66° 30'. 
S.I.C. Mb. Doe. DUNWULLEE, in Sinde, a small village on the route from 

Sehwan to Larkbana, and twelve miles south of the latter place. 
It is situate in the fertile island inclosed between the Indus and 
its oftset the Western Narra, being distant eight miles from the 
right bank of the former, and two horn the left bank of the 
latter. The country around is level and fertile, occasionally 
overspread with jungle, and the road near Dunwullee is aaid to 
be good. Lat. 27° 2^, long. 68° 15'. 
DURAJEE.— See Darajbb. 
Moorcroft, ii. DURAS, or DRAS, in Ladakh, at a short distance north of 

88-44; vigno, u. ^^ northem frontier of Kashmir, is a collection of villages in 
a valley of the same name, through which lies the route 
from Le to Kashmir by the Bultul Pass. Through the middle 
of the valley flows the river of Dras, which, rising in the 
Bultul or Kantal Pass, a littie to the south, flows 'northward to 
the Indus, which it joins opposite the village of Morul, in lat. 34° 
44', long. 67° 9'. Dras is 9,000 feet above the sea, and in hit. 
34° 22', long. 75° 30'. 
wkert Map of DURASIND.— A village in Sinde, on the right bank of the 

N.W. Frontier. ^ ^^ 

. DUR. 17T 

Folailee or Ooongroo, a great branch of the Indus. It is mtuate 
on the route from Hyderabad to Lucput, and fifty-two miks 
south-east of the former place. Lat. 24** 41', long. 68^ 37'. 

DURA WAT. — ^A Tillage in Afghanistan, fifty-five miles north Walker's Map of 
from Kandahar. Lat. 32** 22', long. 65^ 40'. ^' 

DURAZ, in Sinde, is a small town about twenty miles south westmaoott, acc. 
of Khyerpoor, and oo the great route from that place to Hyder- of Ai.'8oc!"i8^y 
abad. The population is entirely employed in the manufacture of p- ^^^^' 
loongees and cotton cloths. Lat. 27** 8', long. 68*" 28'. 

DURBAN. — ^A Tillage in Northern Afghanistan, a short dis- vap ot/dg. 
tance south of the Hindoo Koosh, and near the source of the 
Tagoo river. Lat. 35*» 46', long. 7(f 30'. 

DURE£.«— A village in Sinde, a few miles from the west E.I.G. Ms. Doc 
bank of the river Indus. Lat. 28*^ 8', long. 69^ 4'. 

DURIA KHAN. — ^A village in the Punjab, situate on an off- b.i.c.m». Doc 
set of the Indus, about three miles from the main* channel, and 
fourteen miles north of Bukkur. Lat. 31'' 50', long. 7P 9'. 

DURKKEE, in Afghanistan, is a large village of Sewestan, B.i.a Mi. Doe. 
on the route from Dera Ghazee Khan to Kandahar, by the 
Sakhee Sarwar P^ss. The surrounding country is very pro- 
ductive in grain, but the supply of water is uncertain, so that at 
times it must be procured from Baghaw, ten miles to the north- 
west. Lat. 30* 9', long. 68« 47'. 

DURMAOEE.— A village in Afghanistan, situate on the waiker'* Map. 
river Adruscund, or Haroot, ten miles south of the town of Sub- 
zawur. Lat. 33^ 12', long. 62« 10'. 

DURNAMEH. — ^A village of Afghanistan, in the Kohistan of Man. Bai. a%. 
Kabool, and thirty miles north-east of the city of that name. **"^* "*' '*** 
This village has an infamous reputation, frx)m the character of its 
inhabitants, who are desperate robbers, infesting the more peace- 
able districts lying feather south ; and it a£Pords a place of refuge 
to outlaws compelled to fly from better regulated communities on 
account of their crimes. Lat. BS"", long. 69° 25'. 

DURRAHA.^A village in Sinde, on the route from Shikar* e.i.c. Mt. Doc. 
poor to Sukkur, and seven miles north-west of the latter town. 
It is situate four miles from the right bank of the Indus, in a well- 
cultivated country abounding in trees. The road near it may in 
general be described as pretty good ; but water-courses intersect- 
ing it are of frequent occurrence. Lat. 27° 49', long. 68° 52'. 

DURRUK RIVER.— See Nal Rivbr. 

178 DUR—ECH. 

wokt^UKp^i DURWAZA PASS» in Afghanistan, situate on the load 

^* from Giriskh to Fnrrah, in lat. SS^" 6", long. 621" 45\ 

DURYA.— See Bund-i-Bvebue. 

Ms. Barff Map. DUSTALEE.— A Tillage in Sinde, situate on the road from 
€hindava to Larkhana, and twenty-five miles north-west of the 
last-mentioned place. Liat 27'' 38', long. Gl"" 58'. 

DUSTEE. — ^A riyer of Beloochistan, discharging itself into 

Beiooehirtai, sot. the Arabian Sea, in lat. 25'' 3', bng. Sr 50'. Pottinger states 
that at low water the depth within a hundred yards of the beach 
is about twenty inches, and the breadth from ten to thirty yards. 
The tide flows up a mile or two, and those who then see it might 
suppose that they were viewing the estuary of a large river. The 
author just quoted, who has furnished all the information at pre- 
sent to be had on the subject, conjectures that, though so diminu- 
tive, it has a course of nearly |t thousand miles, and considers it 
identical with the Badoor, or Bhugwur, a stream which he crossed 
about four hundred miles from the mouth of the Dustee, and 
supposed to have been at one time a branch of the Helmund. 

B.I.C. Ml. Doe. DUTURNA. — ^A village in Sinde, situate near the right bank 

of the Indus, on the road from Larkhana to Sukkur ; twenty- 
seven miles north-east of the former, and eighteen miles west of 
the latter place. Lat. 27'' 43', long. 68^ Z6\ 


* vigM, Kadimir, ECHIBUL,' in Kashmir, a fine fountain, discharging a vast 

1 litfl_ 840 • « « o o 

' "^ quantity of the most beautifuDy limpid water. It is situate in 

the eastern part of the district of Bureng, and has four or five 
orifices, from the principal of which the spring rises with snch 
force as to form what may be termed a mound of water, a foot 
and half high, and twelve feet in diameter. Vigne, with much 
probability, supposes it to be the efflux of that portion of the 
water of the river Bureng which sinks into the ground about ten 
miles to the south-east. If, however, this opinion be correct, 
the sunken stream must receive large additions from springs in its 
subterraneous course, as the volume of water discharged at 

EEJ— EMA. 179 

Echibul far exceeds that vtldch disappears in the bed of the Bu- 
reng. (See Burbng.) According to Vigne, the water is not very 
good for drinking. Bemier,^ on the contrary, who describes this * v<7ig«^ u. sos. 
▼ast fountain under the name of Achiavel, states the water to 
be excellent (admirablement bonne) ; he adds, that it is so cold 
as to be almost insupportable to the touch. At the time of his 
visit (1665), it was surrounded by a superb pleasure-ground, be- 
longing to Aurungzebe, having been made by order of his grand- 
father, Jehangir ; but all is now in utter ruin. Lat. 23° 39^, 
long. 75^ 12'. 

EEJMUT, in Sinde, a small town, on the route from Sub-B.i.aiiB.Doe. 
zulcote to Shikarpoor by the Amil Got, or ferry over the Indus, 
from the right bank of which river it is about a mile and half 
distant. The water in the neighbourhood is obtained from wells, 
and is but of indifferent quality. Lat. 27^ 55', long. 68° 56^. 

EEKUNG-CHOO,> or RIVER OF GHERTOPE, in South- » Moorer. m am. 
cm Tibet, is by some ^ considered a branch of the Indus, by ^ *"* **^' ***' 
others,* the main stream of that great river, in the upper part of * Q«««i» Koona- 
its course. Moorcroft crossed it at a place which he considered ' Ritter, Erd- 
near the source, and, in lat. 31° 25', long. 80° 30,' found it two S^^^Se.^**^ 
and a half feet deep, eighty yards wide, and very rapid. After a 
course of between forty and fifty miles in a north-westerly direc- 
tion, it joins another river,* flowing from the south-east, and the 
united stream thenceforward bears the name of the Sinh-kha-bab, 
and, lower down, of Sindh or Indus. (See Indus.) 

EESA KHAN.— A village in Western Afghanistan, twelve Waikert Map of 
miles from the right bank of the Haroot or Subzawur river. 
Lat. 32° 33', long. 61^ 30'. 

ELEEGILL. — A village in the Punjab, situate on the road B.I.G. Mi. Doe. 
from Attock to Ferozpoor, forty miles north-west of the latter 
place, and twenty miles south-west of Lahore. Lat. 31^ 21', 
long. 74*> 9'^ 

EMAUM GHUR, in Sinde, was lately a strong fortress oomtpondence 
in the Thur or Great Sandy Desert, separating that country ^of 4^*25 SJ,* 
from Jessulmair. As scarcely a drop of fresh water can be had <^> 6<^ 
on the route from Sinde after leavmg Choonkee, distant about 
fifty miles from Emaum Ghur, this fortress was generally con- 

* The existence of this river and confiaenoe is aUegedf on the credit of the 
map accompanying Moorcroft's travels, and stated to have been compiled 
from his notes and field-books. 


180 BMB— ERA; 

-sidere'd by the Ameers as an inexpugnable pkoe of refdge. On 
this account, when the disputes between them and the British 
came to extremity. Sir Charles Napier determined at all risks to 
attempt its seizure. Setting out with fifty cavalry, two twenty- 
four-pound howitzers, drawn by camels, and three hundred and 
fifty European infantry, mounted on animals oi the same descrip- 
.tion — ^two on each, he, after a very trying march of three days, 
over a succession of steep sandhills, reached the fort, which was 
immediately surrendered. The captor describes it as " exceed- 
ingly strong against any force without artillery. The walls are 
• forty feet high, one tower is fifty feet high, and built of burned 
brides. It is square, with eight round towers, surrounded by an 
exterior wall of fifteen feet high, lately built. There are some 
bomb-proof chambers." Twenty thousand pounds^ of powder 
were found in various places built up for concealment. These 
Were employed in springing thirty-four mines, which reduced the 
fort to a mass of ruins, shapeless and irretrievable. The grain 
found in store had been previously distributed in rations. Tlie 
British force marched back to the interior of Sinde without any 
loss. Emaum Ghur is in lat. 26^ 31', long. 69" 31'. 
E.I.C. M«. Doc. EMENABAD. — A village in the Punjab, on the great route 

from Amritsir to Vajeerabad, thirty miles south from the last- 
named place. At Emenabad, a road branches off southwards to 
Lahore, about seventy miles distant in that direction. Lat. 32** 7', 
long. 74'' ir. 
Airnn'Bokh. ENDREESA, in the Punjab, a village situate inthebifur- 

^^'^' cation where the Beah and Sutluj rivers unite. Bumes sought 

here in vain for the altars dedicated by Alexander to commemo- 
rate his conquests. He found nothing but a brick ruin, unques- 
tionably of Mahometan origin. Were this even the actual locality 
of those altars which have given rise to so much controversy, the 
probability of their still existing is perhaps not great ; it being 
unlikely that the natives would allow the trophies of the invader's 
triumph to remain after his disappearance. Endreesa is in lat. 31" 
11', long. 75". 
Jour. At. soc ERAK, in Afghanistan, is a pass on the most north-easterly 

Grif.' Rep. on of the four routes which, diverging from the vaUey of Siah-Sung, 

Subject* connect- debouch in that of Bamian. These passes are the lines of corn- 
ed with Afg., *^ 

alto, 1842, p. i9; municatiou between the valley of Kabopl and Kunduz, and lie 
^.^Md^ThCT. ^v®^ ^^^^ range which connects the south-western extremity of 


£R£— FAR» 181 

Hindoo Koosh with the Koh-i-Baba mountain fieurther south. It 
is the highest of the four passes, and has an altitude above the 
sea of 12,909 feet. Lat. 34^ 40', long. 68^ 5'. 

£RE£. — A village of Cutch Gundava, in Beloochistan, about e.i.c. Ms. vap ; 
fifteen mUes south-east of Dadur. It is situate on the Nari, a ^"'Mal^Ka- 
violent and rapid torrent, but intermitling for a great part of the ^ ^^^ 
year, so that the channel at such times becomes quite dry. Lat. 
29^ 25'. long. 6S\ 

ES0T1\— A village in Afghanistan, forty miles south of Lake Walker's Map of 
Ab-istada. It is situate on the eastern route from Ghuznee to 
Shawl, and one hundred and ten miles south of the former place. 
Lat. 32^, long. 68*» 6'. 

ESSUN DE WUSTEE.— A village of Afghanistan, in the e.i.0. Mi. Doc. 
Daman. It is situate about eight miles from the west bank of 
the Indus, and eleven miles south of Dera Ghazee Khan. Lat. 
29*^ 56', long. 7(f 49'. 

EYZULAT KHAN.— A village in Afghanistan, situate e.i.c. m ». Doc. ' 
about two miles from the left bank of the Tumak river, near the 
route from Kandahar to Ghuznee, and distant sixty miles north- 
east of the former town. Lat. 31** 54', long. 66° 25'. 


FAKIR MAHOMED KA KOTE, in Sinde, a halting-place e i.o. mi. Doc 
on the route from Hyderabad to Sehwan, and forty- seven miles 
north of the former place. It is situate two miles from the right 
bank of the Indus, in a level fertile coimtry, intersected by nume- 
rous water-courses, and bounded by the river on the east, and the 
rugged Lukkee mountains on the west. Lat. 25° 56', long. 
68** 15'. 

FALOUR.— See Filob. 

FAPREE.—-A village in Daman, Afghanistan, situate three waiker't Map of 
miles from the right bank of the river Indus. Lat. 30° 19', long. ^^' 
70° 50'. 

FARAJGHAN.— A village in Kafiristan, on the southern e.i.c.m». Doc; 
declivity of Hindoo Koosh, near the source of the Tagoo river. ^^^ ^^^ 
It is a mart for the trade between the Afghans and Kafirs, who 

182 FAT— PER. 

bring for barter alayes and the rude produce of their country; 

and the village therefore ia, in the case of war, conaideied a 

neutral place. Lat. SB"" 42", bng. 70° 22^. 
]fi.8vT^ Map. FATTA DUR.— A Tillage of Sinde, in the Great Thur, or 

Sandy Desert. It is situate on one of the routes from Hyderabad 

to Jessulmair, and is sixty miles south-west of the latter place. 

Lat. 26^ l&, long. 70^ 19'. 
MMKm.Bid.A«. FAZILPOOR, in Bhawlpoor, on the east bank of the Indus, 

Pttnl I Oft flftft. 

' is a small town, defended by a fort of kiln-burnt bricks, now 

greatly decayed. The adjacent country is very fertile, but 
low and swampy, being laid extensively under water in the 
season of the inundation of the river. The numerous ruins 
scattered over the neighbourhood shew the district to have for- 
merly been much more densely peopled and prosperous than at 
present. Lat. 28'' 30", long. 69° Btf. 

Maiwm Bai. Ai^. FERAI KHOLM, m Afghanistan, an elevated district, 
inclosed between the river Helmund on the east and south-east, 
and the Koh-i-Baba range on the west and north-west. Though 
situate amidst rugged hills, it is fertile, populous, and well culti- 
vated. It contains numerous castles and small forts built by the 
Huzarehs for their defence. Lat. 34° 20^, long. 67° 54'. 

^t M4."i5. FERINGABAD.— A village in Beloochistan, on the route 

from Moostung to the Bolan Pass, and six miles north-east 
of Moostung. It is advantageously situated at the foot of the 
range of hills over which the road passes from Moostung to 
Shawl, and on the right of that route. The climate is delightful, 
and the vicinity fertile and pleasant, abounding in orchards and 
gardens. The population is about 800. Lat. 29° 50^, long. 
66° 50'. 

E.i.c.Ht.Doe.; FERZAH, in Afghanistan, a village in the Koh-i-Damun» 

Psqj. ill. 118. ' thirty mUes north-west of Kabool. It is situate at the eastern 
base of the Pughman mountain, on a small stream called the river 
of Ferzah, discharging itself into the Punchshir. The scenery 
is very beautiful, the country highly cultivated and very produc- 
tive, especially in fruit, which is of fine quality. The small 
district of Ferzah contains twelve villages and four forts, and an 
aggregate population of about 4,000, partly Afghans, and partly 
Tajiks. In the north-western and highest part of the valley is a 
delightful garden, formerly held and enjoyed by some ruler ai 
Kabool, but at present quite in ruins. Its great natural beauty 

FER— POO. 183 

is heightened by a flmaU bat pictureaque cascade. Lat. d4^ 45^ 
long. 68* 5&. 

FERENGAL.^ — ^A lead mine in the valley of Ghorbund, in ie.i.c. Ms. Map; 
Northern A%hani8tan» worked at a period bo remote that its ^J^^^^^JS^^, 
ftxi^^t^ncff was unknown to the neighbouring inhabitants until Koh-i-Dainun,M; 
rediacoTered by Dr. Lord. The ore is very abundant and valu- i^arr. im. 
able« being a rich sulphuret of lead. Lord^ observes that the shaft ' Beport, 64, 
descended a hundred feet perpendicular before it reached the ore« 
and that " the galleries have been run and the shafts sunk with a 
d^ree of skill that does no little credit to the engineering know- 
ledge of the age." He farther remarks that tiie diaUing (as a 
Cornish man would call it) " shewed an acquaintance with the lie 
of the mineral and the level at which they had arrived, that could 
scarcely be exceeded in the present day." So extensive were the 
workings, that Lord employed three hours in exploring them, yet 
without ascertaining their full extent. The mine of Ferengal is 
distant eighteen miles south-west from the village of Ghor- 
bund. A pass little frequented proceeds from the mine north- 
ward over Hindoo Koosh into Kunduz. Lat. 34* 55', long. 
68** 33'. 

FEZAN KHYLE«— A village in Afghanistan, on the road E.La Mi. Doe. 
from Kala-Bagh to Dera Ismael Khan, and twenty-six miles south- 
west of the former place. It is situate in the dreary Largee 
valley, near the left bank of the river Kurum, and three miles 
from its confluence with the Indus. Lat. 32*" 37', long. 71^ 22^. 

FILOR, or FALOUR. — ^A town in the Punjab, on the route f. VonHogd, ui. 
from Amritsir to Loodiana, and about six miles north-west of the ^^^ ^^' 
latter place. It is situate on the right bank of the Sutluj, and is 
defended by a fort built on the high steep rising from the river. 
The fort, which was constructed by order of Runjeet Singh in 
1809, is small, affording accommodation for a garrison of only 
a hundred and fifty men, but it is rendered conspicuous by its 
large barbican. Here is the ferry over the Sutluj, for the commu- 
nication of Loodiana and its neighbourhood with Amritsir and 
Lahore. The Sutluj, in inundation, forms extensive sheets of 
water round the town, and these remain after the river has shrunk 
to the confines of its usual channel. Lat. 31° 2^, long. 75° 49'. 

FOOTAKEA.^A village in the Punjab, situate on the road Waikt^i Map of 
firom Julalpoor to Attock, and twenty-five miles north of the ^'^* *'«»**«'• 
former place. Lat. 33° 3', long. 73° 7'. 

184 FOBr-FUR. 

E.I.C. Ms. Doe. FOR GHAFFER.-^In Afghanistan, a monntain on the route 

from Dera Ghazee Khan to Kandahar, hy the Sakhee Sarwar 
Pass. The road along its base is nearly level, with a slight and 
gradual ascent, and close to it is a supply of water from a rivulet* 
The country is uninhabited. Lat. 30^ 23', long. 68"". 
FRINJAL PASS.— Sec Fbrbkoal. 

I BurnM* Dokh. FULAILEE.^ in Sinde, is a branch of the Indus, leaving the 

Beiooch.368: ifisin chaunel about twelve miles above Hyderabad, and in lat. 

wo^n^RBp. by ^o q^^ j^^^ qqo 24/ It flows Southward, after proceeding a 
short distance to the east of Hyderabad, which it insulates by 
sending off to the westward a branch which rejoins the main river 
about fifteen miles below the town. Below this last divarication 
it bears the name of the Goonee, takes a south-easterly course, 
and again divides, discharging part of its water eastward into the 
Purana, or Phurraun, and ultimately into the sea by the Koree 
mouth, and part westward into the Pinyaree, or Goongroo, dis- 
emboguing itself by the Sir mouth. On the Pinyaree, or Goon- 
groo, a bund, or dam has been thrown up below the town of 
Maghribee, by which the water above is retained, and the sea 
prevented from flowing up the estuary. The formation of this 

s Bokb. ui. 811. dam is attributed by Bumes ^ to a malignant intention in the 
native Sindhian government to deprive the western part of Cutch 

» Pottinifer, Be- of the supplv of Water necessary to its fertility; but others,* 

looch. 868; Pott. , . , ' , , .,. ■ • 1 -^ j 

(w.), on tbe pre- perhaps With more probabihty, mamtain that it was made to secure 
TnduT^ Jour* * Supply of Water for the purposes of irrigation, and to exclude 
As. Sec. 1834, p. the sea from overspreading the cultivated lands, and rendering 
* ^ ' them barren. Below the bund this branch is navigable to the ^ 
mouth, a distance of about fifty miles. 
Ms. Surrej Map. FUQUEERKA KOOH.— A village in Sinde, on the eastern 
route from Bukkur to Hyderabad, and sixty-five miles north- 
east of the latter place. It is situate on the border of the Thurr, 
or Great Sandy Desert, and ten miles from the right bank of the 
Eastern Narra. I^t. 26° 13', long. 68** 51'. 
Walker's Map of FUREEDABAD.— A village in the Punjab, situate on the 

N.W. Frontier. ^^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^ ^^^^ j^^^^ ^^ ^ ^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^„ ^^ 

1 E.T.a Ms. Doc.; FURRAH,^ in Western Afghanistan, formerly a considerable 
xour."to^hidia, ii. ^^^^» ^ situate a hundred and forty miles south of Herat, in a 
®7. fertile, though in some places swampy, valley, watered by a fine 

«in App.toPott. stream called the Furrah-Rood, or River of Furrah. Christie ^ 
describes it to have been at the time of his visit, in 1810, a large 

FUR— PUT. 185 

walled town» with a good bazaar, and it seems probable that then 

the population was about 10,000 ; but when Conolly visited it, in 

1839, it had been reduced to ruins in the course of hostilities '^o";A«-8^ 

between the chieftains of Herat and Kandahar, so that no part conoiiy (e.% 

was inhabited but the fort, which was fortified by walls of consi- ^Z^kS^^ 

derable thickness, and contained about twenty houses^ built of mud, ^pp- ^* i^ ; 

SInh Aec of 

with domed roofs of the same material. Lat. 32** 24^ long. 62^ 7\ caubui, 12s. 

FURRAH-ROOD, or RIVER of FURRAH, in Western e.i.c. m. doc ; 
Afghanistan, rises among the mountains in the unexplored coun- j^^, ^ j^i^ n, 
try of the Tymunees, north-east of Toot-i-Gusseerman. It has \«; chrirtto, 

•f J ' Journal In App. 

bten traced as fEtf up as Dowlatabad, on the route from Kandahar to Pott. 411 ; 
to Herat, and in lat. 32*» 36', long. 62° 27'. Here it was found, S^Xp'Tsq. 
in the middle of July, thirty-five yards wide, from two to three 
feet deep, with an uneven bed, and a current of a mile and a 
half an hour, the water being remarkably fine and clear. In 
spring, when swollen, it becomes a large, rapid, and unfordable 
stream, so that caravans are sometimes detuned for weeks in con- 
sequence of its being impracticable to cross it.* At a short 
distance below Dowlatabad it turns to the south-west, and runs 
about ninety mOes to the point where it falls into the Lake of 
Hamoon, about twenty miles below Laush and in lat. 31° 45', 
long. 61° 40'. 

FURZA RIVER.— See Fbrzah. 

FUTEH JUNG.— A village m the Punjab, thirty miles e.i.c. Mi. Doc 
soath-east of Attock, and the same distance east of the left bank 
of the Indus. Lat. 33° 31', long. 72° 39'. 

FUTEHPOOR.— A village in the Punjab, near the right bJC. Mi. Doc 
bank of the Ghara river, thirty miles north-east of the town of 
Bhawlpoor. Lat. 29° 89', long. 72° 2'. 

FUTIGHUR. — A ruined fortress in the north of the Punjab, e,i.c. ms. Docj 
on the route from Attock to Kashmir, by the Dub Pass. It is K,JlhmiJ,"Hi!'8e ; 
situate on a steep and lofty mountain, an offset from the Hima- vigne, 
laya, and close to a torrent which a few miles lower down falls 
into the Jailum. Formerly it was held by a band of freebooters, 
who kept the adjacent country in alarm. Being attacked by 
Hari Singh, the Sikh chieftain, they took refuge in a neighbour- 

* Conolly (Edwftrd), " Sketch of the Physical Geography of Seistan," 
Journ; As. Soc. Beng., 1840, p. 712, states that it is nearly dry daring the 
greater part of the year, though water may be always found by digging in its 
bed. . ' 


186 PUT, 

ing jungle. This was fired by their enemies, by whom tlKj 
were interoepted and cot to pieces in attempting to escape. Lit. 
34« 17Mong. 73«2(y. 
YifM, KMfamJr, FUTI PANJAL. — ^A mountain in Kashmir, is one of tliat 

range which bounds the valley to the southward. According to 
the estimate of Vigne, its height must exceed 12,000 feet, as iti 
summit rises above the lake Hosah Nag, which has that elec- 
tion. Its name signifies the mountain of victory. Its culmi- 
nating ridge in some measure resembles the arc of a aide, 
the extremities of which are east and west, and the northern or 
concave part, directed towards Kashmir. Its total length is 
about forty miles. Lat. SS** 20^, long. 74* SO'. 
Burnflt' PoL Pow. FUTTEGHUR.— A fort built by the Sikhs, to command die 
Hc^g^jfJ,. of eastern end of the Khyber Pass. It is situate a mile north-eMt 
Exp. in AUs. 239; from Jamrood, and beine close to the entrance of the pass, hu 

Mil. Op. in Allf. . r™ , * . - e 

48. great command over it. The defmoes consist of a square ot 

three hundred yards, protecting an octagonal fort, in the centre 
of which is a lofty mass of buildings commanding the surround- 
ing country. The supply of water from the mountain-streams is 
liable to be cut off by the hostile Khyberees of the adjacent hills. 
In the hope of providing a remedy for this inconvenience, the 
Sikhs have sunk a well two hundred feet deep, but without reach- 
ing water. Lat. 33*» 58', long. 7P SO'. 

j(mr.As.8oe. FUTTEGURH. — ^A town in the north-eastern extremity of 

wtLrji^.'of a Bhawlpoor, about a mile firom the left bank of the Ghara river. 

\ofg9 down the Lat. 30° 26'. lonff. 73° 54'. The surroundinir country forms a 
distnct bearmg the same name. 

> Mil. Op. in A*. FUTTEHABAD.i— A small town in the plain of Jelalabad, 

«7». occupied by the British troops, under Sir Robert Sale, during 

the advance on Kabool in 1842. The elevation above the sea is 

» Hough, 808. 3,098 feet. » Lat. 34° 21', long. 70° 13'. 

E.I.C.1I1.D0C FUTTEHPOOR, in Beloochistan, a village in the province 

of Cutch Gundava, situate on the road from Gundava to I^- 
khana, five miles south of the former place. Lat. 28° 25', long. 
67° 35'. 

E,i.c. lit. Doc FUTTEHPOOR.— A town in Sinde, on the great route from 

Hyderabad to Bukkur, and forty miles south-west of the latter 
place. It is situate at the northern extremity of an extensive 
plain, stretehing above a hundred miles in a southerly directioiz» 
and at the distance of eight or ten miles from the left bank of 

FUT. 187 

the Indus. Thia plain haTing an elevation of from thirty to 

axty feet above the river, and consisting of a hard tenacious 

marl, generally free from saline efflorescence, is considered by 

Lord? the most salubrious part of Sinde, and consequently the ' Medkai Mem. 

best locality for the cantonment of troops, Futtehpoor is in 

Lat. 26° 2(/, long. 68° l(/. 

FiriTEHPOOR, in the Punjab, a village situate on the left £J.c.Mi.Doe. 
bank of the Indus, thirty-eight miles above the confluence of the 
Ponjnud. Lat. 29** 24', long. 70** 49'. 

FUTTEHPORE, in Afghanistan, a halting-place on theB.i.c.iii.Docf 
route from Kandahar to Ghuznee, and thirty-seven miles south- ims, p. oo : qal 
west of this last place. The country is open, well watered, and ^ "^J?*'' 
fertile, but intersected by numerous water-courses. It is in an 
elevated tract 7,426 feet above the level of the sea. Lat. 33"" ^, 
long. 67*' 44'. 

FUTTEYULI JULLAILEE.— A village in Sinde, situate on Mt. Bunwy Map. 
the right bank of the Poorana, a great offset of the Indus. Lat. 
24° 52'. long. 68° 56'. 

FUTTIHPOOR.— A town in the Punjab, on the route from e.i.o. Mi. doc; 
Lahore to Mooltan, and a hundred miles south-west of the former ^^^ 
place. It is situate in a fertile and well- cultivated country, on 
the left bank of the river Ravee. Lat. 30° 50', long. 73° 2'. 

FUTTIPOOR.— A large village in Sinde, on the right of the B.I.C. Mi. Doc 
route from Sehwan to Larkhana, and seventy miles north of the 
former place. It is situate on an offset of the Indus, and three 
miles from the right bank of the main stream of that river, in a 
level and fertile country. Lat. 27° 16', long. 68"" 15'. 

FUTTOOLAH KILLA, or PUTTOOLA KILLA, in Afghan- e.i.c. Mi. Doc ; 
istan, is a village with a fort, on the route from the Kojuk Pass B^f^ aSTw' 
to Kandahar, from which town it is distant fifty miles south-east. ConoUy, jour. to 

. India, ii. 116. 

It is dependent for water upon a canal, by which that important 
agent to the maintenance of existence and comfort is brought 
from some hiUs lying about fifty miles to the north ; so that the 
supply can be easily intercepted. From this cause the British 
army was subjected to severe suffering when encamped here in 
April, 1839. The elevation of this place above the sea is 3,918 
feet. Ut. 31° 7', long. 66'' 4'. 

FUTTY KHAN.— A village in Daman, Afghanistan, situate waiker*! Map of 
on an oflbet of the river Indus, four miles west of the main ^^ 


188 FYZ— GAN. 

stream* fifty miles south of Dera Ismad Khan, and seventy miles 
north of Dera Ghazee Khan. Lat. Sr 5', long. 70° 49'. 
WaikAr*! Map of FYZABAD. — A village in Western Afghanistan, situate on 
the river Hury or Heri Rood, thirty-two miles east of the town of 
Herat. Ut. 34<» 22^, long. 62° 44'. 


B.I.C. Ms. Doc. GAD or GHAR, in Afghanistan, is a fort on the right bank 

of the river Tumak, and on the route from Kandahar to Ghuznee, 
from which last place it is distant seventy-five miles south-west. 
When Kandahar and Kahool were under separate and independent 
governments, this place belonged to the former, being just within 
the firontier-line dividing the two states. Lat. 32° 4(/, long. 
67° 34'. 

B.i.c.Mt.Miip. GAHAYJA, in Sinde, a village on the route from Shikarpoor 

to Larkhana, and fourteen miles south-west of the former town. 
It is rather a thriving place, having about five hundred inhabitants. 
There is a supply of water from wells. Lat. 27° 47', long. 
68^ 30'. 

GAHRAH.— See Garbab. 

E.I.C. Mi.Doe.; GAJEN. — A village of Cutch Gundava, in Beloochistan, is 

MaMon, Kaut, gjtuate about eight miles north-west of the town of Gundava. 
Lat. 28° 33', long. 67° 28'. 
GAJIN.— See Gazin. 

B.I.C. Ms. Doc. GANCHA, in Sinde, a village on the route from Kotree to 

Sehwan, and thirty-nine miles south-east of the latter place. It 
is situate a mile from the right bank of the Indus, in a fertile and 
well-cultivatcd tract. Lat. 26° 4', long. 68° 4'. 

Map of N.w. GANGA. — A village of the Punjab, situate on the right bank 

Frontier, ^£ ^^ Cheuaub rivcr, forty miles south-west of Mooltan. Lat* 

29° 38', long. 71° 11'. 

B.I.C. Ms. Doc. GANGREH GOTE, in Sinde, a village on the route from 

Kotree to Sehwan. It is situate on the right bank of the Indus, 
in a fertile and well-cultivated tract. The road near this place/ 

GAN— GAR. 189 

tho^igh not altogether free from impediments, is in general good. 
Lat. 25^ 44', long. SS"" 20'. 

GANSYH BUL.— See Guntsh Bul. 

OARDOU.^ — A halting-place in Afghanistan, situate on the ' Ms. Surrey Map. 
route from Kandahar, by Babur-ka-Killa, to Dera Ismael Khan, 
and one hundred miles west of the latter place. This route Ues 
between the Gomul route on the north and the Boree on the 
south. It has been very little explored, but seems, westward of 
the Suliman mountains, to join that described by Leech,^ under the • App. 4o. 
name of the Hyob, or Wahwa Pass, from Dera Deen Puna to 
Kandahar. Lat. 31° 40', long. 69** 29'. 

GARRAH. — ^A village in Sinde, on the north-western border outnm, Rough 
of the Delta of the Indus, and twenty-five miles from its western 
bank. Lat. 24° 44Mong. 67° 36'. 

GARRAH.-— A small stream in Sinde, flowing by the village Pott.Beiooeh.M6; 
of the same name, and falling into a long creek opening into inr.i.Zi] Maw. 
the Indian Ocean ten miles east of Kurrachee. The mouth of the ^j^„^' 

i. 460 ; Kennedy, 

Garrah creek is in lat. 24° 45 , long. 67° ICX. As the country sinde and Kabooi, 
on each side of Garrah is low, both westward, to the mouth of this 
creek, and also eastward, and the stream communicates with the 
Indos, it seems probable that a ship-canal might be formed, to 
connect Kurrachee with the deep and wide part of the Indus, near 
Tatta. The country between the (Garrah river and the port of 
Kurrachee, it is to be observed, is also low and suitable for the 

GARTOPE, GARDOKH, or GARO.— A village, or rather At. ReMareh. m. 

JiQ-AOO • Moorcr 

pastoral station, in Southern Tibet, close to the border of Ladakh. jour. to' Lake 

Moorcroft (who, with his companions, are the only Europeans w*"^'^]^' i 

known to have visited it) describes the village as consisting of aos, so4. 

little more than a number of felt tents, with a few houses of un« 

burnt brick. It is, however, a place of some trade in summer, 

when the productions of Tibet and China are exchanged for those 

of Kashmir and Hindostan. Amongst these articles of commerce, 

tea and shawl- wool are the most important. The place is almost 

deserted in winter; the elevation, which exceeds 16,000 feet, 

then rendering the climate too severe for animal life. Its vicinity 

is the natural and favourite habitat of the shawl-goat, and besides^ 

it in summer feeds numerous herds of yaks and kine, and flocks 

of the hardy Himalayan sheep. Moorcroft states those that he 

190 OAZ— OER. 

saw here to be not fewer than 40,000» though vast nnmben bad 
juBt perished by an epidemic. The stream which flows by Gar- 
tope, and which is called the Eekung Choo, is supposed by Moor- 
croft to be the principal stream of the nascent Indus, though the 
truth of this position may be doubted. GK>id abounds remarkaUj 
in this region, being principally found in a red auriferous eartii, 
but the quantity extracted is inconsiderable. This is owing 
partly to the scantiness, weakness, and ignorance of the popula- 
tion, and partly to the operation being discouraged by the Chinese 
authorities, who entertain a dread that the knowledge of sodi 
natural wealth would incite foreign aggression. Liat. SV 4(f, 
long. SOP 24'. 
I B.I.C. lit. Doe. GAZAH,> in Beloochistan, a halting-place, with a oollectioa 
of springs from subterraneous aqueducts, on the route from Jif m- 
zilgah, at the western entrance of the Bolan Pass, to Kelat, and 
forty miles north of the latter place. The elevation must be very 
• joor. At. Soc. great, as Munzilgah^ is 5,793 feet above the level of the sea, and 
^* «d mr?*'' Kekt* 6.000, and the road between them level. Hence the cold 
obe. *" ^- is SO severe, that the population, generaDy of a migratory and 
pastoral character, descends every autumn, to spend the winter in 
the level warm plains of Cutch Ghmdava. Gazah i& in lat. 29° 24', 
long. 66** 35'. 
B.I.C. Mt. Doc GAZIN. — A village of the province of Jalawan, in Beloo- 

chistan, about forty-two miles south of Kelat, and near the west- 
em extremity of the Gundava or Moola Pass. Its elevation above 
the sea is about 5,000 feet, yet neighbouring mountains rise to a 
great height above it in many directions. Lat. 28^ 18^, long. 
66° 29'. 
Jour. Ai. Soc. GEEDUR GULLEE.— In Afghanistan, in the province of 

Rep! on subjecto ^^*^'''^^» ^^ * P"® between Peshawur and Attock, and has le- 
oonnected with ccived its name, the Jackafs Pass, or Neck, from its beine: so cx- 

Ai^. ; Hoagh, N«r. it-. i i 

of Exp. to A4r. tremely narrow, that the natives, m exaggeration, say that a jaclraz 
nSitt^tf.^'* *" only can make its way through it. The defile is not more than 
ten or twelve feet wide, and is bounded on each side by rather 
high and rugged hills. Though much frequented, it does not 
appear to be regarded as important in a military point of vieir, 
probably from the facility with which it can be turned. It is i:n 
miles west of Attock. Lat. 33** 56', long. ITT 10'. 
E.I.O. Mt. Doc GERAEE REMAN, in Afghanistan, is a village of the Dera- 

GER— GHL 191 

JBt, on the Gk>mnl route from Ghuznee to Dera Ismael Khan, and 
alx>iit eighteen miles westward of the latter place. The road is in 
tlus part goody and there is a copious supply of water from a 
kareez, or subterranean aqueduct. Lat. 31° 48^ long. 7QP 34^ 

GERAMNEE. — ^A village in the south-west of Sinde, four b.i.c. mi. Suryey 
or five miles north of the border of the Ghreat Western Rin- Lat. ^^' 
24*> 28', long. 70° 36'. 

GHAH KIRBEH. — A village in Afghanistan, situate on the Waiker*! m^^ of 
road between Kandahar and the province of Seistan, seventy-five ^' 
miles west of the town of Giriskh. Lat. 31° 42^, long. 63° 6'. 

GHAIN-I-BALA. — ^A village in Kafiristan, situate on the Waiker*s Map of 
Tagoo river, seventy miles north-east of Kabool. Lat, 35° 15', 
long. 69"" 54'. 

GHAR.— See Gao. 

GHARA, the name by which the united streams of the Beas 
and Sutluj are known, from their confluence at Endreesa to the 
confluence with the Chenaub, in lat. 29° 2(/, long. 71° 5'. The 
length of course between these points is about three hundred 
miles. After the confluence last mentioned, the united streams 
are called the Punjnud. At the ferry of Hurekee, a short dis- 
tance below the confluence of the Beas and Sutluj,^ Bumes found > Bokh. i. 6. 
" the Ghara a beautiful stream, never fordable," two hundred and 
seventy-five yards wide at the lowest season, and twelve feet 
deep, running at the rate of two miles and a quarter an hour. In 
the same locality Vigne found it two hundred yards wide.^ It is • Ghamea* lo. 
remarkably direct in its general course, which is south-west, but 
tortuous at short intervals. In the lower part of its course, where 
it forms the boundary, it is a slow muddy stream,^ with low * LoM, Med. Rep. 
banks of soft alluvial earth, overflowed to the extent of several ^^^ ^^ ' 
miles on occasion of the slightest swell. The confluence with 
the Chenaub takes place without any turbulence, in a low, marshy 
track, in which the channels of the rivers are continually chang- 
ing.^ Each river is about five hundred yards wide, and the 4 buhmi, m. 08, 
united stream about eight hundred yards. The water of the^^' 
Chenaub is reddish, that of the Ghara pale, and for several miles 
downwards the difference of hue may be observed, the right side 
of the stream being of a red, and the left of a pale hue. 

GHAZEE- ABAD. — A village in Northern Afghanistan, situate Walker's Map of 
on the left bank of the Alishang river. Lat. 35° 18', long. 70° 19'. ^• 
GHIZNL— See Ghuznbb. 

192 OHO. 

E.I.O. Ml. Doc. ; OHOJAN^ in A^hanistan, a fort and district on'an elevated 
NotoTios; part of the valley of the Turaak river, from the right bank of 
K^to'^'iM. which the fort i» distant ahout four miles- TTiis valley is watered 
by several clear streams, and is fertile and well cultivated. The 
elevation above the sea is 7,068 feet. It is on the route from 
Kandahar to Ohuznee ; from which last place it is distant eighty 
miles south-west. Lat, 32*' 42', long. 67** 23'. 
outrmm. Rouich OHOLAM-SHAH-KA-KOTE, in Sinde, a small but thriving 

dMj^ ' sinde and ^^^ ^ ^^ delta, is situatc on the right or western bank of the 
Kabooi, 1. 76. Buggaur, or western branch of the Indus, and on the route from 
the sea-port of Vikkur to Tatta. The surrounding country is 
well cultivated and productive, especially of sugar-cane. Lat. 24® 
39', long. 67° 41'. 
Walker's Hap of OHOLAM SHAH. — ^A viUage in Afghanistan, now in ruins. 

N.W. FronUer. ^^ ^90 35', long. 64° 23'. 

E.I.C. Mr Doe.; OHONDAN, in Afghanistan, is a mountain, giving name to 

andKaiMoi/u.i86. & district ou the route from Shawl to Ohuznee, and about a hun- 
dred and twenty miles south of this last place. The country here 
is very rugged, and the road presents difficulties which render it 
nearly impassable for wheel-carriages. There is a good supply of 
water brought to the foot of the mountain hy a small canal. Lat. 
32°, long. 67° 33'. 

B.I.C. Ml. ooo. OHONDEE JOOMA. — ^A village in Afghanistan, on the road 

from Ohuznee to Kandahar, about one hundred miles south-west 
of the former place, and one hundred and twenty miles north-east 
of the latter. Lat. 32° 22', long. 67° 13'. 

waikert Map of OHOORKA.— A village in the Punjab, forty-five miles south- 

N.W. Frontier. *•»! ^ a ■v^ » 

east of Lahore, on the road from Attock to Ferozpoor. Lat. 31° 
16'. long. 74° 58'. 

OHORABAREE, in Sinde.— See Vikkto. 

1 B.I.C Mt. Doc OHORA TRUP.i — ^A village in Afghanistan, situate on the 
right bank of the river Indus, eleven miles south-west of Attock, 
and thirty south-east of Peshawur. The river here has a very 
dangerous rapid, with a sudden fall of a foot and a half, resulting 
from the lateral contraction of the high and rocky banks inclosing 

« Oxut, 128. it, as the depth is no less than a hundred and eighty-six feet. Wood^ 
describes the passage as very dangerous. " Though the fall was 
shot with startling rapidity, the boat, when over, seemed spell- 
bound to the spot, and hung for some time under the watery wall 
in spite of the most strenuous efforts of her crew. At last she 

GHO. 193 

moved, the men cheered, and out she darted into the fair chan« 
nel." The breadth of the Indus here, is only two hundred and 
fifty feet, and through this narrow gut the whole of its immense 
volume of water rushes at the rate of from nine to ten miles an 
hour, and with the noise of thunder. Ghora Trup is about six 
miles below Nilab, and the whole of this distance may be described 
as one immense and irresistible rapid. Lat. 33^ 46', long. 72** 9'. 

GHORBUND.i — ^A village in Northern Afghanistan, in a ' Lord, Koh-i- 
gotge on the southern sbpe of the Hindoo Koosh. It gives name ^er, uim. 445; ' 
to the valley of Ghorbund, in which it is situated, and also to the 7^^* ^'"^ 

' . 186-187; Burnet* 

river, which flowing down the valley, falls into the river of Punch- pen. Narr. 109. 
shir, on the western side. The valley of Ghorbund is fertile, and 
extends about fifty miles in a direction from south-west to north- 
east, between cliflPs of slate and quartz, occasionally interrupted 
by basaltic rocks, amygdaloid, volcanic ashes, sulphate of lime, 
and other indications of igneous action. It abounds in minerals, 
and at Ferengal, a mine of very rich lead ore has been worked to 
a great extent and with remarkable skill. (See Fbrekgal.) There 
are also deposits of lapis-lazuli and veins of silver, of antimony, 
and especially of iron in the valley of Ghorbund. ^This valley is au. iss. 
mentioned in the Ayeen Akbery, as having an inconceivable va- 
riety of fragrant shrubs and flowers, there being thirty sorts of 
tulips. Mention is also made of mines of silver and lapis-lazulL 
The village of Ghorbund, which is surrounded by fine and pro- • 
ductive gardens and orchards, is in lat. 35^ 4\ long. 68^ 47^ 

The Ghorbund Pass proceeds from Charikar, in the Kohistan, 
up this valley and debouches into the Pass of Hageguk. . About 
ten miles from its entrance, the Koushan Pasis diverges to the 
north and crosses the Hindoo Koosh into Kunduz. 

GHORE,^ in Western Afghanistan, is a ruinous, ill-peopled * £.i*c. Ms. doo. ; 
town, the capital of a petty province, professedly dependant on india, u. 70!^' 
Herat, from which last city it is distant a hundred and twenty 
miles south-east. It is, however, actually independent ; the weak 
governor who represents the Shah of Herat being unable to levy 
any taxes on the chieftains and people who inhabit forts scattered 
over the surrounding country, or lie encamped in the neighbourhood 
of those strong holds. Though now so insignificant, Ghore was 
at one time the capital of sovereigns whose power extended over 
Khorasan, Afghanistan, Sinde, and Lahore. In the year lOlO,^* Price, Mahome- 

iftn Hick li MM 

it was subdued by the celebrated Mahmood of Ghuznee, but forty- aoo-aie. 4sa-4M ; 

VOL. I. o 

104 GHO— OHU. 

Maieoim, Hiit. of onc yean afterwards the Prince of Ghore revolted, and, taking 
Fmta, i.s44.M0. Qhumee, earned the principal inhabitants to Ghore, where be 
caused their throats to be cut, and used their blood in the pre- 
paration of mortar for repairing the fortifications. In 1 186 Mah- 
mood, sultan of Ghore, made himself master of Lahore. He left 
no successor, and his dominions were seized by his slaves. The 
Ghorian sovereignty then disappears from history, and the rdics 
of its dominion were finally swept away by the Tartar hordes of 
* Aee. of Culm], Zingis Khan and his successors. Elphinstone' supposes Ghore 
ifis, us. ^ ^^^^ I^^Q ^^^ ^ ^^ earliest seats of the Afghan race, and to 

have been, in the ninth century, subject to an Arabian sovereign. 
Ghore is situate in lat. 32^^ 58', long. 63"* 2l\ 
B.I.C. lb. Doc GHORO TROP.— See Ghora Trup. 

GHOSGURH, or ROOKHUNPOOR, in Bhawlpoor, is situate 
in the Ghreat Desert, on the road from the city of Bhawlpoor to 
Jessulmair. It is eighty-four miles south oi Bhawlpoor. Lat. 
28« 24'. long. 72« 4\ 
MapofN.w. GHOSPOOR. — ^A village in Bhawlpoor, eight miles south* 

Fnmtiar. ^^^ ^^ ^y^^ ^^^ Indus, and eighteen miles north from Khan« 

poor, firom whence there is a road. Lat. 28^ 51', long. 7(f 36^. 
GHULGHULEH.— See Gulqula. 
Wdkert Map of GHUNYMUT HUZARUH.— A village in Afghanistan, two 
^* miles north of the Moorghab river. Lat. 34*» 59^, long. 65° 12'. 

Uu sonrej ifa]>. GHURRUK.— A vilkgc of the province of KeUt, in Beloo- 
chistan, on the road from the town of KeUt to Nooshky, and 
eighteen miles distant from the former place. Lat. 29^ 6\ long. 
66^ 21'. 
B.LC. Ml. Doe. GHURRY, in Sinde, a village on the route from Roree to 

Jessulmair, and sixteen miles south-east of the former place. 
It is situate on the northern boundary of the Thurr or Great Sandy 
Desert, and about three miles east of the left bank of the Eastern 
Nanra, a great offset of the Indus. This stream in time of inun- 
dation is here fifty yards wide and twenty feet deep, but it becomes 
nearly dry at other times. Ghurry is a c<msiderable village with 
about a dozen shops, and is capable of furnishing supplies in 
moderate quantity. Lat. 27° 31', long. 69° 7'. 
E.I.C. Ml. Doc. GHUZAMURIDEE. — ^A village in Afghanistan, situate on 

the road from Ghuznee to Dera Ismael Khan, about two miles 
from the right bank of the Gomul river. Lat. 32^ 22', long. 
68° 58'. 


GHUZNEE J — ^An ancient and celebrated town and fortress i e.i.o. mi. Doc; 
of Afghanistan, situate on the western extremity ^ of a range <rf f^^jj^ jj*?^ 
hills running east and west and rising a moderate height above Exp- to ai^.887. 
the plam.^ As the plain itself hes very high, the site has an ele- Ben^.Eiig. ii.iio. 
vation of 7,726 feet above the sea * The shape of the whole I^'*p.'*Sif^;it 
inclosed fortress is nearly an irregular square, the angles of which Bar. and Th«r. 
8tand in the direction of the four cardinal points,^ and the total s pianofFortreM 
cir<niit is about a mile and a quarter. The face of the '^^JJotaTm.^''''^ 
on. vrhich the waUs are built is about thirty-five feet high, and 
scarped nearly perpendicularly ; the walls themselves are about 
the same height, so that the parapet is seventy feet above the 
ditch.* This wall is flanked by numerous towers, uid surrounded l^'^^T*^ *" 

. Despatch In App. 

by a fau99e hraye, A wet ditch runs along the bottom of the to Kennedy, 8ind0 
steep on which the wall is built, but for about a furlong on the ^.^rhomion* 
north-eastern side from the northern angle this defence is ■"<* ^*«»*» *^*** 
ii^anting. The ditch is supplied with water from the river of 
Ghuznee, which flows round the western angle, and is crossed 
by two bridges. The citadel, in the north of the town, is an 
irregular square, having a magazine in the west quarter and a 
granary in the east. Under the rule of Dost Mahomed Khan, it 
was occupied as the palace of the governor, one of his sons. 
Though much higher than the town, and from this cause pre* 
senting a formidable appearance, it is commanded by neigh* 
bouring hills, from which shot and shells could be showered down 
on it with great effect.^ There are three gates : the Khenak, ^ RaTeiock, War 
at the bridge-head over the river, at the western angle ; the Kan- Alien. March 
dahar gate in the south-eastern side ; the Kabool in the north- througi sinde and 
eastern. The two former had been walled up previously to the Op. in ai^. aos. 
arrival of the British army ; the Kabool gate was left unobstructed* 
in the expectation of reinforcements from that quarter. The 
river was at one time dammed up by a mound eighty feet high 
and six hundred feet long, made by the Gaznevide Sultans, to 
collect water for irrigation and other purposes ; but wh«i Alla- 
hudeen, the Prince of Ghore, stormed and destroyed Ghuznee, 
he also destroyed this useful work.^ • Baber, Mem. 

The present population of Ghuznee has been variously esti- iJ®iSSf'«^ 
mated. By some it has been computed at not more than 
3,000,^ exclusive of the garrison. By others it has been thought * Honi^h, ut ra- 
probable that in ordinary times the population amounts to'^'*'**'' 
10,000.1 The bazaars are extensive, and the town is repre- 1£.i.c.Mb.Doc 

o 2 


sented as an entrepSt for merchandize between the Pomjab, the 
Indus, and Kabool. There are many villages and much cnlti- 
yation in the neighbourhood. Ghuznee was one of the stages of 
the Dawk, or mounted post, during the reign of the Mogul kings. 
It is thirteen miles and a quarter from the ruined Chupar- 
kana of the Dawk, near Ranee ; the road from thence is for the 
first six miles moderately good. In that distance it crosses one or 
two dry nullahs and five running streams. Afterwards it becomes 
sandy, and a broad river-bed is crossed. At seven miles and a 
quarter from Ranee, a deep narrow water-course is passed, and 
thenceforward the road to Ohuznee is good. 

In consequence of the elevation of the site, the cold is intense in 

winter, causing the mercury to fall frx>m 10° to 20° below zero, and 

' Cimwibni In App. freezing the streams and pools to the depth of several feet.^ There 

!!t Ki^boor^o^ ^^ accounts of the population having been several times destroyed 

* Eiph. Ace. of by snow-storms.^ Three miles to the north-east of Ghuznee are 
oiabtti, 137. ^^ ^^^ ^£ ^y^^ ^jj ^j^^ destroyed in the middle of the twelfth 

* i^Heriwiot, century by the Prince of Gbore.^ Amidst the destruction which 
m?2ie^*Prioe! overtook nearly all beside, the conqueror spared the tomb of the 
Mahom. Hbt. u. rcnowncd Mahmood of Ghuznee, the ruler of Persia, Turkestan, 
167*; Maiooim, Afghanistan, and a considerable part of India. The tomb is a 
^t. of Pen. L yjj^g jyj^ humble structure, consisting of an oblong chamber, 

thirty-six feet long and eighteen wide, with a mud cupola. Tlie 
grave-stone is of marble, covered with inscriptions and highly 
polished, the result of being handled by numerous visitors during 
several centuries. The interior is hung with ostrich eggs, pea- 
cock feathers, and other trumpery. The apartment in which repose 
the relics of the " mighty victor, mighty lord," was, previously 
to the British invasion, closed by the gates which it is believed he 
triumphantly removed from the temple of Somnauth, in Guzerat. 
These gates, to which a rather disproportionate importance has 
been attributed by ChristiaQ, Hindoo, and Mussulman, are of 
sandal-wood, eighteen feet high, each five feet broad and three 
inches thick, very beautifully carved in tasteful arabesques. As 
Mahmood is said to have removed these gates in 1024, they 
must, in this view, be above eight hundred years old, yet 
they are still in perfect preservation. In 1842, when the 
British, under Greneral Nott, dismantled Ghuznee,* they car- 

* It hu been doubted whether these gates were those of the Temple of Som- 
nath at Pattan, in Giuerat, and the donbt has probably arisen (h>m the absence 


Tied otf these gates, with the view of restoring them to their 
original place in the temple at Pattan, in Guzerat. The mace,^ * Atkinion.Exp. 
asserted to be that of " the destroyer," the name nnder which MaMon,Bai.Aife. 
Mahmood is familiarly designated in Oriental history and tra- ^^' '^ ^^* 

of any mention of the drcnmstanoe in Feriahta,* in the Rozet as Sefk,' and in * Ferithte, L 78. 

seyeral other works, lliese anthorities, while they recount the well-known „^ '"?'*1*?, 

Kltto6t in Note] 
Story of the idol which Mahmood broke with his maoe, and which, thereupon on Somnath, 

(according to the current tradition), was found to contain vast treasure, make 'o^c. Ac Soc 
no reference to the gates. In this silence thej are followed by the Ayeen t^^\ 
Akbery,^ D'Herbelot,^ Price,* Malcolm,* Gibbon,^ and Wilson.' There is « Ubl. Ori«DtaIe, 
certainly a deficiency of written evidence on the side of those who maintain i" J^*' . 
that these gates were once those of the Temple of Somnath ; but, on the other Hist. li. 9Q0. 
hand, the voice of tradition is very loud and general in their favour. Elphin- ' Hist, of Pen. L 
stone,' who has drawn so large an amount of information from oral state- t^^^^^j p^m 
ments of the natiyes, having described the tomb of Mahmood, adds, — ''Hie • on RoUsioiu 
doors, which are very large, are of sandal-wood, and are said to hare been S^**** ^^^ ***°' 
brought by the sultaun as a trophy from the famous Temple of Somnaut, in aeardMi! xtU^iss. 
Guzerat, which he sacked in his last expedition to India." To the same effect ' Ace. of Caubul, 
are the statements of Wood,* Hough,' Havelock,' Kennedy,* Atkinson,* ^ 
and Masson.' The Govemor-General, Lord EUenborough, who, it is to be > Narr. of Exp. in 
presomed, would be careful to proceed upon accurate information in a matter Mr- 288. 
oonoeming which the government was about to be committed, writes thus to q^ ^ ^' 
General Nott : " You will bring away from the tomb of Mahmood of Ghuznee * Slnde and K«- 
his dub, which hangs over it, and you will bring away the gates of his tomb, ^^' ^.^l" .. 
which are the gates of the Temple of Somnaut.''^ Allen,' mentioning their « BaL A%. PaiU* 
removal, gives the following vivid description of the affliction and humiliation U- ^^• 
of the Afghans at their loss : '* This morning the sandal- wood gates were q^^u^Od. 
taken from the tomb of Mahmood of Ghuznee and brought into camp, previous in Aij;. 888. 
to their being removed to Hindostan. Upon the possession of these gates the * ^^ '"P'^ ^^» 
people greatiy prided themselves, and the numerous fakeers attending at the 
tomb wept at their removal, as they accounted them theur most valuable trea- 
sure." Bumes,' writing in 1832, several years before any intention of in- ' BoUiara,i. 176. 
vading Afghanistan was entertained, thus refers to the position ascribed to 
these gates by the prevailing belief: ** It is worthy of remark, that the ruler of 
the Punjab, in a negotiation which he Utely carried on with the ez-king of 
Cabool, Shooja-ool-Moolk, stipulated as one of the conditions of his restora- 
tion to the throne of his ancestors, that he should deliver up the sandal-wood 
gates at the shrine of the Emperor Mahmood, being the tame which were 
brought frt>m Somnath, in India, when that destroyer smote the idol, and the 
predous stones fell from his body. Upwards of eight hundred years hare 
elapsed since the spoliation, but the Hindoo still remembers it, though these 
doors have so long adorned the tomb of the Sultan Mahmood." 

With reference to the controversy that has arisen, as well as for the pur- 
pose of presenting a minute description of the gates in their present state, the 
subjoined report of a committee of engineer and artillery officers, assembled 
by order of Greneral Nott, may possess some interest. It also affords informa- 
tion, completing the account given in the text of Mahmood's tomb. 


ditian, has been usually exhibited by the priest who officiates at 
his tomb, and it is, as might be expected of one assigned to 
the use of so mighty a hero, too ponderous to be wielded by 

** Camp, near Peahawiir, 8th NoTcmber, 1842. 
** Cofundering the great age of these gates, the probable injury snstamwl bj 
them in their displacement from the temple of Somnath and transport to Ghax- 
nee, the circmnstance of their having been taken down and buried daring the 
inyasion of Afghanistan by Chimghh Khan, topreserre them from destnictiaii 
by the troops of that conqueror, and their subsequent disinterment and re- 
erection, they must be deemed in good presenration. Great care has been 
obsenred in their packing and carriage since their removal fitmi the tomb of 
Mahmood at Ghuznee, and they do not appear to have sustained any mafrrial 
damage fix>m their transport thus far on their return to India. 

** The tomb of Mshmood of Ghuxnee has been for ages a place of pilgrimage, 
almost of adoration, to Mahomedans, and the gates objects of especial atten- 
tion ; it is not, therefore, matter of surprise that the lower portions of the 
gates, within the reach of a man's hand, have suffered greatly ; the canred work 
has in some places disappeared, small portions having, probably, from time to 
time, been abstracted as relics. Here and there, pieces of carved wood, per- 
haps of the same antiquity as the gates brought with them from Somnai&, dia- 
similar in pattern, have been used to replace the original carving, and in other 
places inferior material and workmanship have been employed to repair the 
iabric. But the upper portions of the gates still retain much of the original 
carving, which is in high relief, of beautiful execution, and in a wonderful stats 
of preservation. 

'' The gates appear to have been formerly decorated with plates of some 
precious metal, fixed to the wood-work round tiie carved compartments by 
small slips of iron. Many of these slips still remain, in regular patterns, over 
the top of the gates ; lower down they have altogether disappeared. 

'* The frames of the gates are in double folds, hinged in the centre ; their 
height is eleven feet, and their aggregate width nine and a half feet. 

'* The gates are surrounded by a framing, composed of small pieces of carved 
wood, united by numerous joints in regular pattern. This portion of the 
work, though of great age, seems of more modem and slighter manufacture 
than the gates themselves. The exterior dimensions of their framing (now in 
four separate portions) are sixteen and a half feet in height, and thirteen and a 
half in width. The framing is in very fair preservation, excepting near the 
ground, where seats seem to have existed on either side the gateway, and the 
portions of the framing in this position, to the height of a man's shoulders, 
have been fairly rubbed away. The construction of either framing, and the 
numerous joints of the work, render it peculiarly liable to damage from tra- 
velling over rough roads, or from frequent removal. 

'* We are of opinion that it will not be difficult to restore all essential por- 
tions of the gates that are now wanting, and to fix them in serviceable condition 
in any building destined to their reception ; but some judgment would be re- 
quired to make any repair or restoration harmonize with the air of extreme 
antiquity possessed by the original portions of the gates. 


any of the present race of men. Freyionsly to the captore of the 
place by the British, it had been removed, that it might not fall 
into their hands. The building is environed with luxuriant gar- 

" In conaonance with the Major-General's request, we haye the honour to 
forwaurd herewith sketches of the gates, with the dimenaions aocnratdy entered 
on the face of the drawing. 

** The Major-Genial having desired the committee to state their opmion 
as to the expediency of oonTcying the gates in a frame adapted to elephant- 
carriage, we h^ to state oor apprdiension that such a mode of oonveyanoe 
mi^ht be productive of serious injury to them. The wood is extremely dry 
and brittle, and the greatest care is requisite to guard against the more delicate 
portions of the work being even touched. The gates are not heavy — they do 
not probably exceed 500 lbs. in wei^t— and we estimate the entire weight of 
the gates and framing at less than half a ton ; but their surface is great com- 
pared with the scantling of the frame-work ; and the swaying motion of the 
elephant, and the necessity that would exist for daily loading and unloading 
the animal, could scarcely fail to open the joints and dislodge the frailer por- 
tions of the work, however carefully secured. 

** We would, therefore, respectfully suggest that a car, with a double fram- 
ing, between which the gates should be placed, and to which they should be 
■ecnred by wedges well padded, measures being taken to prevent the entire 
weight of the gates falling on any portion of their own frame-work, might be 
expediently prepared at Ferozepore to receive them, sudi car being adapted to 
elephant-draft. But the gates alone should, we think, be thus carried, the 
framing being transported to its destination, packed as (with the gates) it is at 
present, in felts and tarpaulins. In any case, we would recommcmd that, oa 
their arrival at Ferosepore, both gates and framing should be carefully ex- 
amined, and some strengthening, by ties and braces, given to the slighter por- 
tions, to guard, as far as possible, against the chance of small pieces becoming 
dislodged, and perhaps lost on the road. 

*' In examining, on this occasion, the framing surrounding the gates, the 
committee observed a Cufic inscription carved in the wood, with a copy and 
translation of which, appended to our report, we have been furnished by Mijor 
Rawlinson. We think that it will give an interest to this document if we 
attach to it a translation of the inscription on Mahmood's tomb, with which 
vre have been faTOured by the same distinguished Orientalist. Lieut. Studdart 
has also enabled us to annex a drawing of the sarcophagus, with an exact copy 
of the Cufic inscription thereon." 

(Signed) Edw. Sandbrs, Major, Eng., and President. 
C. Blood, Capt., Bombay Art., and Member. 
John Studdart, Lieut., Bombay Eng., and Member. 
C. F. North, lieut., Bombay Eng., and Member. 

Tramlation of an Arabic Imcription on the Oatet qfSomnaih. 
" In the name of the most merciful God ! (May there be) forgiveness from 
God for the most noble Ameer, the great King, (he who was) bom to become 
the lord of the state and the lord of religion, Abul Kasim Mahmiid, the son 


dens and orchards, watered by an aqueduct discharging an 
abundant supply of fine water ; and this delightful suburb is 
hence denominated Roza» or the garden. 

The ruins of the old city consist of a vast extent of ahapelesB 
mounds. The only remains of its former splendour are two mina- 
rets, four hundred yards apart, which are said to mark the limits 
of the bazaar of the ancient city. Ihey are of brick, above a 

of Sabsktagin ! >Iay themercyof Godbe vponhim ! [the remaining phxBK 

lyatulation qftkt InMcriptUm in (Sfie Ckaraettrt on the Sareaphagm^ ^f 
the Tbmb qfthe Sultan Mahrnddai Gkuznee. 

" May there be forgiTeness from Ciod apon him, who is the great lord, die 
noble Nuam-ud-din Abal Kasim Mahmiid, the son of Snbaktagin ! May God 
have mercy upon him !'' 

Mem, — On the reverie of the aaroophagns there is an inscription, in tiie 
Neakh character, recording the date of the decease of Saltan Mahm6d as 
Uraraday, the 7th remaining day (t. e. the 22nd or 23rd) of the month of Rabi 
Akhir, A. H. 421. 

T)rmulaHon qftke Cu/ie Inaeription, in the 8uU ekaraeter, on the Mmant 
neareet the viUage qfBojoK 
'* In the name of God the moat merdful ! 
" The high and mighty Saltan, the melic of Islam, tbe right arm of the 
state, trastee of the fiuth, the Tictory-crowned, tbe patron of Modems, the sid 
of the destitute, the monificenoe-endowed Mahm6d (may God glorify hv 
testimony !) , son cf Snbaktagin, the champion of champions, the emir of Mos- 
lems, ordered the oonstmction of this lofty of loftiest of monoments : and of a 
certainty it has been happily and prosperously completed." 

Translation qftke Cufie Jntcription, in the Sule character, on the Minaret 
neareet the town qf Ghumee. 
" In the name of God the most merdfol ! 
*' (Erected.) By order of the mighty Sultan, the melic of Islam, tbe stand- 
ard of dominion and wealth, the august Maso*od, son of the supporter of the 
state/ Mahmiid, father of Ibraheem, defender of the faith, emir of Moslems, 
the right arm of dominion, the trastee of the faith, the master of the necks of 
the nations, the noble and imperial Saltan, lord of the countries of Arabia and 
I '^uioQ {q ^,^ Persia. May the great Grod perpetuate lus throne and kingdom I Comme- 
Retearchm, xtU. morated be his beneficence ! May God foigire the sins of himself, his parents, 

J*f- ^ ^ and of all Moslems I" 
' Jour. As. 8oe. 

1 8S8 n M)A MM 

Notes on a Jour. ' Sonmath, or Somanath,^ was a name of Siya. The temple is still in sack 
to Gimar. a state of preservation as to shew that it was skilfully constructed in a mas- 

Bo<r"l8M ^*' aive and imposing style of architecture, but it is utterly neglected and filthy. 
104, 107, ' Aec of ^^ '^^ excellent accounts of its present condition are given by Postans,' 
the Temple At Kittoe,' and Bumes.' 
Fsttan Somnath. 

GHUZNEE. . 201 

hundred feet high and twelve in diameter'; and their proportions 
and style of architecture give them an interest for the eye equal 
to that afforded hy their antiquity and historical associations 
to the imagination. One of them has a winding staircase within, 
and inclines considerably over its base. That buildings so easily 
demolished should have been spared in the destruction of the old 
city by the Prince of Ghore, may perhaps have resulted from 
some religious feeling with which they were associated. 

Probably the earliest authentic notice whidi history affords of 
Ghuznee is of the date 976, when it was made the seat of govern* 
ment by Abustakeen, an adventurer of Bokhara. He was, after a 
short interval, succeeded by Subuctageen, the father of the re- 
nowned Mahmood the destroyer. Few pursued the career of con- 
quest with more perseverance or success than Mahmood, whose 
empire extended from the Tigris to the Ganges, and horn the Indian 
Ocean to the Oxus. It fell to pieces on his death ; and in 1151, 
his capital, Ghuznee, was stormed by Allahudeen, Prince of 
Ghour, who massacred the inhabitants on the spot, with the ex- 
ception of those of rank, whom he^conveyed to Ghore, and there 
butchered them, using their blood to moisten the mortar with 
which he constructed fortifications. From that period Ghuznee 
ceased to be independent, and at the time of the British invasion, 
was held by a garrison of 3,000 men, under the command of 
Mahomed Hyder Khan, son of Dost Mahomed Khan. On the 
23rd of July, 1839, it was stormed by the British army, com- 
manded by Sir John Keane, amounting to 4,863 men ; 514 of 
the garrison were killed, 1,500 prisoners taken, with a loss on 
the part of the captors of only seventeen killed. In place of the 
tedious process of breaching, for which tiie assailants were but 
ill-prepared. Captain Thomson, of the Bengal Engineers, under- 
took to blow in one of the gates with gunpowder. This was 
effected in a most masterly and effective manner, and an opening 
thus made for the entrance of the storming party, who, after a 
severe struggle within the town, succeeded in planting the British 
colours on the citadel. In 1842, Ghuznee was surrendered by 
the British garrison to the Afghans ; and shortly after, in the 
same year, retaken by the army under G^eral Nott, by whom it 
was dismantled, and immediately evacuated. Lat. 33^ 34', long. 

68° 18'. E.IC Mi^Doc.; 

Bad. Map ; 

GHUZNEE, River of, in Afghanistan, rises in the Huzareh outram, Rough 

Notes, 149. 



E.I.C. Ml. Do«. 

Walker*! Map of 
N.W. PronUar. 

Tigne, Kaahmlr, 
Jour. As. Soc 
1890, p. 913; 
Court, Expl. of 
Bumea' Bokh. il. 

E.I.C. Ml. Doc. 

E.I.C. Ml. Doc ; 

Forster, Jour. 
Bcng. Eng. li. 
Jour, to India, ii, 
87; Hough, Narr. 
Bxp. to Afg. 107, 
1 10; Elph. Ace. 
of Caubul, aoS; 
Jottm. Ai. Soc. 
1840, p. 718 ; 

mountains about lat. 33^ 6(/, long. 68^ 2(/. It takes a ooone, 
generally southerly, to the town of Ghuznee, and flows along 
the western base of its rampart. Thenoe it continues a genezatty 
southerly course, as ftur as lat. 33^, from which the directioQ 
changes to south-west, and, after running in its entire length 
about sixty miles, the river fiills into Lake Ab-Istada at its 
northern extremity, in hit. 32^ 42^, long. 68'' 3'. 

GIDRAWALA. — ^A village in Bhawlpoor, on the route from 
Khanpoor to Subzuloote, and twelve miles north-east of the latter 
place. It is situate fourteen miles from the left bank of the 
Indus, in an alluvial tract extensively flooded during inundatioa. 
Lat. 28° 17Mong.69°52'. 

GIDURI KE PATUN.— A village in the Punjab, situate oo 
the River Ravee, forty miles north-east of Amritsir. Lat. 32^ lO', 
long. 75° 8'. 

GILGHIT. — A small unexplored and independent conntiy on 
the southern declivity of Hindoo Koosh ; lying between Bol- 
tistan, or Little Tibet, on the east, and Chitral on the west 
It consists principally of one large valley, down which the 
stream called the river of Gilghit flows, and ficdls into the Indus 
on the right or north-western bank in lat. 35° 28^ long. 74^ 28^. 
The inhabitants of this country appear to be Mahometans of the 
Shia persuasion, recently converted from idolatry of the same 
kind as that followed by their neighbours of Kafiristan^ whom 
they still resemble in their social habits, and more especiaUy in 
their great fondness for potent home-made wine. Their country 
is very rugged. The mountainous parts are barren ; the lower, 
though sandy, are rendered productive by irrigation and indus- 
trious culture. There is also a village of the same name on the 
right bank of the stream, in lat. 35° 35', long. 74° 15'. 

GIRDEE. — A village in Afghanistan, situate on the Kabool 
river, three miles south-west from Lalpoor, and near the entrance 
to the Khyber Pass, on the route from Peshawur to Kabool. 
Lat. 34° 15', long. 71° 5'. 

GIRISHK. — A fort and village in Western Afghanistan, on 
the high road from Kandahar to Herat, nearly twenty-four miles 
from Khak-i-Chapan, the road frt)m which is generally good. 
The march from that place, however, is inconveniently long,. and 
might be shortened by resting at a halting-place about half-way, 
were there a certainty of procuring water. But this is not to be 

OIR— GOB. 203 

depended cm, as, though there is a well, the supply is scanty. A oonoiiy. (e.\ 
garden with an artificial water-course lies a little beyond this spot, ^^^^^^ 
but the whole is in a state of decay. It is said that it would not pby (^ Seiitan. 
be a work of much labour to re-open the water-course, and thus 
secure that which alone is wanting to render practicable the 
division of the march. When a British force passed by this 
route in 1839, a line of a hundred laden cameia performed the 
march in nine hours. 

Girishk is situate on the Helmund, here a deep and rapid 
river in the spring, and when at the highest, a thousand yards 
wide ; but in autumn, when lowest, easily fordable, and not more 
than three hundred and fifty yards wide. The British detach- 
ment, which occupied it in 1839, passed the river on rafts made 
of empty casks. The country immediately adjacent to the river 
is very fertile, but its productive resources are to a great extent 
unimproved, in consequence of the oppression of the government. 
At a short distance from the river cultivation entirely ceases, and 
a harsh gravelly bank, with an almost desert plain above, extends 
several miles to the northward. Forage, however, is procurable, 
both for camels and horses, excellent in quality, and abundant in 
quantity, but the place was found so unhealthy by the British, 
that its early evacuation became necessary. The fort, which is 
not of great strength, is built upon a mound about two miles 
from the right bank of the river. The village is wretched, con* 
sisting only of a few mud huts* Lat. 31'' 46', long. 64'' 18'. 

GIRONEB, in Beloochistan. A collection of villages on the E.I.C. Ms. Doc; 
route from Moostung to Kelat, and twelve miles north of the s^^ * ** 
latter place. It is situate in a pleasant but very elevated plain. 
The water is remarkably fine and abundant, and the road is good. 
The population consists of about two hundred Brehooes, but these, 
for the most part, emigrate in winter to Cutch Gundava. Lat. 
29^ 5', long. 6&* 25'. 

6ISRY, in Sinde, is a creek of the sea, receiving a small Bullies' boUl uu 
torrent flowing from the southern part of that mountain range **^' 
called, farther north, the Keertar and Lukkee hills. It Ms into 
the sea by three channels, between the Garrah creek and Kurra- 
chee harbour, and four miles east of the entrance of this last. An 
army not possessed of Kurrachee would find this the best position 
for landing a force in Sinde. Lat. 24° 48', long. 67° 8'. 

GOBERUNCE.— A village in Afghanistan, situate on a waikert Map of 

N.W. Frontier. 

204 GOD— OOO. 

stream tributary to the Helmund river, forty miles nxxfk ofi 
Giriskh. LAt. 32^ 21'. long. 64° 16'. 

waiiur'tMaiicf OODA.— A Village in Afghanistan, fifty miles south-wertd 

^' Kabool. Lat. 34° 5'. long. 68*» 18'. 

B.i.a Mt. Doe. GOHAR TULAO, in Sinde ; a tank on the sommit of a 
strong pass on the route firom Kurrachee to Sehwan. and tiurtj- 
ioxa miles north-east of the former place. Tlie importance d 
the place results merely from its having a supply of vrater. h 
other respects it offers nothing to the traveller, the country 
around having a rugged surface of bare rock, and yielding neither 
forage nor provisions. Lat. 25° 5', long. 67^ 30^. 

E.I.C. Mt. Doe. GOINDWAL.— A village in the Punjab, situate on the road 

from Lahore to Loodiana. on the right bank of the Beas river, 
fifty-two miles south-east of Lahore. Lat. 31^ 21^ long. 75° 4'. 

B.i.a Mt. Doc (K)L.— A village in Bnlti, or Bultistan, eighteen miles esst 

of the town of Iskardoh. Lat. SS"" Kf, long. 75"" 46\ 

B.I.C. Mk Doe. GK)LAK£E. — ^A village in South-eastern Afghanistan, on the 

road from Dadur, by vray of Tull, to Dera Ghazee Khan, and 
twenty-eight miles south-west of TuU. Ut. 29"" 54', long. 68° 42'. 

B.I.C. Ms. Doe. GOMA GHONDU.— A village in the Shighur Valley of 

Little Tibet. Lat. 35* Ztf, long. 75** 24'. 

B.I.O. Mt. Doe.; GK)MUL. — ^A rivcT or rather a prolonged torrent, rising ffl 

vigiw, ohttuM^ ^c eastern part of A%hanistan. and making its way through ^ 

J?*^!'^,^**' ^ Suliman range of mountains towards the Indus. After a comse 
of about a hundred and sixty miles, it is lost in the sands to the 
east of the Suliman range. Its bed for a great distance farm^ 
the Goolairee Pass, or great middle route from Hindostsn to 
Khorasan, by Dera Ismael Khan and Ghuznee. the nartbern 
being through the Khyber Pass, and the southern through the 
Bolan. It crosses the Suliman range about lat. 32"^. 

E J.C. Mt. Doe. GOMUL. — A village in Afghanistan, on the road from Ghuz- 

nee to Dera Ismael Khan, and forty miles west of the latter 
place. It is situate near the eastern entrance of the pass of 
Gomul, and on the river or torrent of the same name. Lat. 
3P 59'. long. 70^ 12^. 

GOMUL PASS.— See Goolairbe. 

GONNE. or GOONEE RIVER.— See Fulailbb Rivbb. 

Ml. Map of Sinde. GOOBLA.— A village in Sinde. situate on an offset of the 
Indus, and two miles from the right bank of the main channel. 
Lat. 28° 17'. long. 69'' 22\ 

GOO. 205 

GOODAKE.— A village in the Punjab, on the right bank of waikert m«p of 
the Ghara river. Lat. SOP 21', long. 73*> 29'. ^'^' ^^^'' 

GOODEOOBUSHD. — ^A village in Afghanistan, situate on ej.c. m a. Doc 
the northern route from Ghuznee to Dera Ismael Khan, sixty- 
eight miles south-east of the former place. Lat. 82'' 57', long. 
B9^ !(/. 

GOOGOO.— A village in the province of Gutch Gnndava, in Mi. Sunrex Map. 
Beloochistan, situate on the route from Shahpoor to Lehree, and 
eig^ht miles north-west of the latter place. Lat. 28^ 47', long. 
€89 34'. 

GOOGROE BHEERUN LUK, in Beloochistan, an inlet e.i.c. Ms. Doe. 
oix the sea-coast of the province of Lus. It was visited by Hart isM^^ux^' 
in his journey frt>m Kurrachee to Hinglaj, and is mentioned by 
him under the name of Ghooroo Bherund. Lat. 25^ 24', long. 
65° 56'. 

GOOJAH,^ in Sinde, a town on the route from Kurrachee. > PDtt.M6. 
to Tatta, and ten miles west of the latter town. Masson^ de- * Ba^- '^• 
scribes it as " a small bazaar town, with pools or deposits of rain- La Hofte, in 
^atcr." It is situate close to the head of the Kulairee, which fS'f' ^J^ 

1941, p. vW. 

communicates with the Indus above Tatta. Situate only eight 
miles east of Garrah, and on a navigable creek debouching into 
the Indian Ocean close to Kurrachee, it is believed that an 
inland navigation might easily and advantageously be effected 
here between that sea-port and the main channel of the Indus, 
the intervening ground being low and level. Lat. 24^ 45', long. 
67° 48'. 

GOOJERANWALA.— See Gujueu Walla. 

GOOJERAT.— See Gujbeat. 

GOOLAB SEAH, in Sinde, a small village on the route from b.i.o. ms. doc 
Larkhana to Kyra ka Ghurree, and twenty-seven miles north of 
the former place. It is situate on the southern boundary of the 
Pat or desert of Shikarpoor, a waste producing only a few stunted 
bushes. It is a wretched village, scantily supplied with bracldsh 
water. Lat. 27° 54'. long. 68° 8'. 

GOOLAIREE.^ — ^An important pass across the Suliman * Bonw^ Trade of 
range, from the Derajat into Kabool. It holds its course along jj^ch, App.4S;' 
the channel of the Gomul river, or (in the words of Bumes) ^°^ Qtumc*, 
" leads by broken rugged roads, or rather the water-courses 
of the Gomul, through the wild and mountainous country of 
the Muzarees." It is a pass of great importance* being the 

206 GOO. 

middle route firom Hindoatan to Afghanistan, as the Khyber is 
the northern, and the Bolan the southern. Immense caravaos, 
* joar. As. Boe. oousbting principally of Lohani Afghans,^ every spring trayene it 
H^ibi^^J^ Jour, westward from the Indus and the adjacent countries, and, returning 
of Route tnm in autuum, wiutcr in the Derajat. The Goolairee Pass enten tk 
to KAbooL Suliman mountains at their eastern base in lat. 32^, long. 70° Zff. 

Its course is very winding : for about twenty miles from its en- 
trance into the mountains the direction of the road is north-west; 
then for about eighty miles it proceeds in a south-west directioo, 
though with numerous deviations at short intervals : it thentunis 
to the north-west, in which direction generally it holds a einooos 
course to Ghuznee. It is much infested by freebooters of the 
Vaziri A%han tribe, and the caravans have often to fight their 
way with much loss of life and property. 
iCf.8«rr«j Map. GK)OLAM ALL — ^A village in Sinde, situate on the Poonm 
river, a great offset of the Indus, and forty-two miles south-esst 
of Hyderabad. Lat. 24° 56', long. 68° Sif. 
E.I.O.MS. Doc GOOLAM HOOS£INGOLA.— A village in the Punjab, on 

the route from Mooltan to Roree, situate on the left bank of the 
river Chenaub, a few miles fix)m its confluence with the Ghan 
river. Lat. 29° 26', long. 71° 7'. 
E.i.aM..Doc GOOLAM HUSSAIN SEIR KA GOTE.— A small village 

of Sinde, on the route from Tatta to Kotree, and five miles north 
of the former place. It is a wretched place, said to be defident 
of water, and incapable of yielding even the slightest and most 
ordinary supplies. Lat. 24° 48', long. 68° 2'. 
B.I.C. Ml. Doe. GOOLAM JA GOTE.— A village in Sinde, on the ronte 

from Bukkur to the south-eastern frontier, and thirteen miles 
north-west of Omercote. Lat. 25° 26', long. 69° 37'. 
GOOLAUB SHEE.— See Goolab Sbah. 
Walker*! Map of GOOLISTAN. — ^A village in Afghanistan, twenty-two milea 
^*- south-west of Ghuznee. Lat. 33° 20', long. 67° 56'. 

E.I.C. M», Doc; GOOLJATOOE, in Afghanistan, a village on the route from 
Wood, oxui, 908. Kabool to Bamian, and seventy miles west of the former place. 
It is situate on a feeder of the Helmund, and near the eastern 
base of the Hajejuk ridge. Elevation above the sea 10,500 feet 
Lat. 34° 31', long. 68° 5'. 
E.I.C. Ms. Doc. ; GOOLKOO, in Afghanistan, a range of mountains thirty 
Not^i'oJ**"*^ °^®* south-west of Ghuznee, and bounding on the west the basin 
drained by the river of Ghuznee. lliese mountains are covered 

GOO. 207 

-^th snow throughout the year, and their altitude ahove the sea 
'was estimated by the British engineers to exceed 13»000 feet. 
Lat. Sa^ 22^, long. 67^ St/. 

GK)OLKUTS. — ^A village in Afghanistan, situate on the Waikews Hap or 
Gomul river and in the Gomul Pass. Lat. 31° 58', long. 69° 22'. ^' 

QOOL MAHON. — A village in Sinde, situate about eight ]ft.SttrT^ Map. 
miles from the left bank of the river Indus, eight miles west of the 
river Goonee, and thirteen miles south of Hyderabad. Lat. 25° 1 2'» 
long. 68° 25'. 

GOOMERAN. — ^A village in Afghanistan, situate on the b.i.c. m s. Doc 
river of Logurh, and nineteen miles south of the town of Kabool. 
Lat. 34° 15', long. 69° 4'. 

GOONDEE AZIM KHAN, in Afghanistan, a town of the b.i.g. Um, Doe. 
Derajat, on the route from Ghuznee to Dera Ismael Khan, from 
%7hich last place it is distant, west, about twelve miles. The road 
in this part is good, and there is water obtained from a kareez, or 
subterraneous aqueduct. Lat. 31° 50', long. 70° 44', 

GOONEE RIVER— See Fulailbb. 

GOONGREE.— A village in the south-east of Sinde. Lat. Waikefs Map of 

OAO A At 1 H1Q At N.W. Frontier. 

24° 44', long. 71° 4 . 

GOONGROO RIVER.— See Pinyareb. 

GOORAB SING is a rock about half a mile from the coast, e.i.c. ms. doc 
in Bdoochistan, in lat. 25° 14'. long, ^h"" 36'. 

GOORBAN, in Sinde, a village on the route from Sehwan to B.i.a MkDoe. 
Kurrachee, and thirty miles north-east of the latter place. It is 
situate on the river of the same name, where it receives a small 
torrent called the Kuttagee. Water consequently may readily 
be obtained, and even when the rivers have ceased to run it may 
be had from pools or wells dug in their beds. The country 
Hereabouts is very rocky and barren, and supplies are scanty. Lat. 
25*> 5', long, 67** 28'. 

GOORBAN. — ^A river in Sinde, so called from a village of e.i.c. Ms.Doe.; 
that name on its bank. It rises in the mountainous tract between j^' p.'oiof 
Kurrachee and Sehwan, about lat. 25^ 20', long. 67** 38', and, »• i; Hcte/ Rep. 

, , on theCountrj 

after a south-westerly course of about sixty miles, falls mto the b«tween Kur- 
Bay of Kurrachee by the Gisry creek, in lat. 24*» 48', long. 67° 6'. ^^^^ 
Like most of the streams in this part of Sinde, it is known by 
different names in different parts of its course, being called Vuddia 
near its source, Groorban in the middle, and Mulleeree lower down. 
Though occasionally flooded, and having then a considerable body 

208 GOO— OOP. 

of water, it is dry for the greater part of the year ; but water, u 
stated in tiie preceding article, may at all times be obtained bj 
digging in its bed. It is crossed by the route from Kunachee to 
Sehwan, at the Tillage of Goorban. 
B.I.C. Ml. Doc GOORDOO BAGH.— A Tillage in Afghanistan, five mDa 

south of Herat, situate on the Hury river, and on the road from 
Herat to Subzawur, in lat. 34'' 20", long. 62^ U'. 
TkiuwB. i. S4; (K)ORJEANUH. — ^A town of Bhawlpoor, near the nor&eni 

Ibs?! p^imT frontier, and about two miles south of the river Ghara. It has a 
If ftckewn. Jour, good bazaar, and some trade. A regiment with six pieces of cannon 
down the Sotii^. are usually stationed here by the khan. Lat. 30° 1 7', long. 73° 35'. 
Ms. Map. GOOROO.— A village of the province of Jhalawan, in Beloo- 

chistan, situate on the road from Gundava to Khozdur, fifteen 
miles from the latter place. Lat. 27"" 5(f, long. 66^ 40". 
waikor*! Map of GOOROO KILLA. — ^A village in Afghanistan, eighteen miks 
^*- south-east of Kilat-i-Ghilji. Lat. 32^ 4', long. 67° 2'. 

Walker's Map of (K)ORUH. — A village in Bdoochistan, situate near the coast. 

Beloochisun. ^^ ^^o 14/^ i^ng. 63° !(/. 

Walker's Map of GOORZYWAN.— A village in the district of Mymunnh, in 

^*- North Afghanistan. Lat. 35° 45', long. 64° 58'. 

B.I.C.MS.DOC. GOOSTANG.— A village in Beloochistan, situate on the 

route from Kedje to Belah, about thirty-five miles east of the 

former place. Lat. 26° 22', long. 62° St/. 
Walker's Map of GOOTIE. — A village in Afghanistan, about ten miles west of 
^^' the Khyber Pass, and sixty miles west of the town of Peshawnr. 

Lat. 34° 11', long. 70° 53'. 
B.I.C. Ms. Doc GOOZARAT. — ^A village in the Punjab, situate on an o^ 

of the Indus, about three miles from the main stream, and thirty 

miles north-west of Mooltan. Lat. 30° 11', long. 71°. 
jour.As.8oc. GOOZUR-I-KHASHI.— A village in Western Afghanistan, 

1840, p. 724; ^ 

concluy (6.), twcuty milcs south-west of the town of Khash, on the road from 
rf tfat^. US'. ^^^™^ ^ ^® province of Seistan. Lat. 31° 29', long. 62° 26'. 
Walker's Map. GOOZURISTAN.— A village in Afghanistan, situate a mile 

from the left bank of the river Hebnund. Lat. 33° 35', long. 

67° 14'. 
B.T.C. Ms. Doc GOPANG, in the Punjab. — ^A village situate about eight 

nules north-east of the junction of the united streams of the rivers 

Chenaub and Ghara with the Indus. Lat. 29° 1', long. 70° 36'. 
E.i.a Ms. Doc. GOPANG, in Sinde, a village on the route from Kotree to 

Sehwan, and fifty-six miles south-east of the latter place. It i* 

GK)Il— GOT. 209 

situate on the right hank of the Indus, in a fertile and well-culti- 
vated tract. Lat. 25° SC, long. 68° 18'. 

60RAZAN. — ^A village in Afghanistan, on the road- from b.i.c. Ms. Doc 
Kandahar to Herat, forty-eight miles north-west of the town of 
Giriskh. Lat. 32° 16', long. 63° 45'. 

GOREE. — See Munnbjah and Kookbwabbb. 

GORBEWALA, in Afghanistan, a village on the right waikeft Map of 
hank of the river Kurum and fifteen miles west of the town of ^' 
Kala Bagh. Lat. 33° 1', kmg. 71° 12'. 

GORIAN. — ^A village in the Ghreat Desert of Sinde, sixty- Ms. Bmrvy Map. 
five miles south-east of Omeroote. Lat. 24° 45', long. 70° 35'. 

GOTKEE, in Sinde, a small town on the route from Suhzul- E.La Mt. Doc ; 
cote to Shikarpoor, and twenty-seven miles west of the former itl^^S^wS* 
place. It is situate six miles from the left hank of the Indus, in 
a low, level, alluvial country, much overspread with jungle. 
Though the houses are meanly huilt of mud, there is a showy 
bazaar, with numerous verandahs, decorated with various fiintastic 
devices. The town also possesses a mosque of considerahle size, 
surmounted hy a cupola covered with glazed tUes. The vicinity 
k in&mous on account of the predatory and sanguinary character 
of iU inhabitants. Lat. 28° lO', long. 69° 17'. 

GOTTARAO, in Sinde, a fort on the route from Roree to £.i.o. Ms. Doe.; 
Jessulmair, and fifty miles north-west of the latter place. It is ^«'' **■«>• 
situate near the eastern frontier, in the Thur or Sandy Desert, the 
surface of which undulates in a succession of sandhills, not totally 
banren, as they produce a spare vegetation of stunted bushes and 
tufted grass. Water in this district is scarcely to be had except 
during rains, and even then in small pools barely capable of sup- 
plying a hundred men. The fort of Gottarao is built of brick, 
and forms a square of about two hundred yards. The wall is 
from twenty to twenty-five feet high, and a keep in the interior 
is about ten feet higher. On the east and the greater part of the 
north side is an outer wall of about ten feet high. There are 
about a dozen round bastions in various parts of the walls. The 
fort is supplied with water from a depth of a hundred and fifty 
feet by five wells. Two of these are within the waUs ; the re- 
maining three without, but close to them. During the sway 
of the Talpoor dynasty this place belonged to the Ameers of 
Khyerpoor, and was defended by two guns and a garrison of a 
hundred and fifty matchlock-men. An inconsiderable village is 

VOL. I. p 

210 GOU— GUJ. 

attached to the fort. It ib firequently called Sirdar Ghur (the 
Sudur Ghur of Walker's map). Lat, 27° IS\ long, 70° 15'. 
(K)URJEANUH.— See Goorjbaituh. 

B.I.C. mlDoc GUDDRA.— a village near the aouth-eastem frontier oC 

Sinde, two miles from the border of the Great Western Rin, and 
twenty miles north-east of Nuggur FUrker. Lat. 24° 35', long. 
70° 57'. 

E.I.C. Ms. Doc GUDDRA. — A village in Sinde, on the route from Omeroote 
to Balmair, fifteen miles from the eastern frontier of Sinde. Lit 
25° 37', long. 70° 37'. 

GUGAH.— See Goojah. 

Us. 6urT«jifap. GUGGEIRA.— A village in Sinde, situated about two miles 
from the right bank of the Narra river, on the route from 
Bukkur to the south-east frontier of Sinde. Lat. 27'' 19', loi^. 

E.I.C. M«.ooe. GUGGUR. — ^A village in Sinde, situated on a suEiall stream 

falling into the Garrah creek, thirteen miles north-west of the 
town of Garrah, and twenty-eight miles east of Kurrachee. lAt. 
24" 51', long. 67" 26'. 

P. Von Husei. GUJERAT.— A considerable walled town of the Punjab, 

III. 147. about ten miles from the right bank of the Chenaub, and on 

the great route from Attock to Lahore. It was invested by Maha 
Singh, who sickened and died in the course of the siege. It sub- 
sequently fell into the hands of his more fortunate son, Ronjeet 
Singh, early in the course of his career. It is situated in lat. 
32** 38', long. 73° 14'. 

p. Von Hugei, GUJURU-WALLA, in the Punjab, a town on the route 

KaK^hmir, iii. 154; f^^ Amritsir to Vazeerabad, and twenty-two miles south of the 

Vlg;no, Kasiimir, * 

1.236; Atkinwn, former placc. Here is a large square fort with mud walls* sur- 
' ' rounded by a ditch. It was the origmal residence of tiie fiuoily 
of Runjeet Singh, whose grandfather, bom at this place, was a 
common soldier. The ashes of Runjeet Singh's father and mother 
are deposited here in tombs of plain appearance. It a few yean 
ago was the residence of the celebrated Hari Singh, the most 
dauntless of all the Sikh chieftains. The interior of the fort ifl 
very highly decorated, and the garden is described by Baron Von 
Hugel as one of the finest he saw in India. It abounds in fine 
fruit-trees, especiaUy orange-trees, covered with fruit, superior 
to that of China. The fragrance from the superb collection 
of trees, shrubs, and flowers, is described as almost overpowering. 

GUL. 211 

Numerous ornamental buildings appropriately embedliflhed, and a 
fountain always playing so as to send forth a broad sheet of lim- 
pid water, complete the attractions of the scene. Gujuru Walla 
is in lat. 32*^ 36', long. 73^ 57'. 

GULAMURG, in Kashmir, a mountain at the north-west- yig^e, Kashmir, 
em extremity of the Pir Panjal range. At its south-eastern 
base is the Pass of Gulamurg, which is not passable for horses, 
but is practicable on foot from the middle of April to the end of 
November. Lat. 34^ 2', long. 74° 12^. 

GULBAHAR. — A village in Northern Afghanbtan, twenty- Waikert Map. 
two miles south of the Hindoo Koosh. Lat. 35° 13', long. ° ^ 
69** 13'. 

GULGULA,^ in Afghanistan, a ruined city of great extent, ' e.i.c. ms. Map. 
in the valley of Bamian. It is situate on the south side of the 
valley, and on the right bank of the river of Kunduz, here a very 
small stream. Nearly opposite are seen the fort of the governor 
of the district, the vast idols of Bamian, and the adjacent cliffs, 
excavated for miles into innumerable caves. The ruins are scat- 
tered over and about a conical hill,^ and are so extensive as to * Moorcr. Puqj. 
prove that the population must have been formerly very con- Salron" Bau Ifc. 
siderable. As the neighbourhood in every direction is remarkably p«»^I' "• «»; 

. . . . Burnes* Bokh. 

deficient m provisions and even fuel, the means of subsistence i. iss. 
must have been brought from afar ; but the instances of Tyre, 
Onnuz, and many other places, prove that motives of policy, 
religion, or military expediency have often led to the establishment 
and maintenance of large cities in the most barren and repulsive 
spots. The awe-inspiring local superstitions, and the com- 
mand of Bamian, the principal pass from Turkestan to A%han- 
istan and India, may have determined the site of Ghilgula. On 
the summit is a ruined citadel of great height, considerable size, 
and skilful construction. The ramparts have loopholes, appa- 
rently for the discharge of arrows. The material is unbumt 
brick, which must have singular tenacity, as the ruins are in 
good preservation.' Numerous excavations everywhere penetrate ' Eyre.MU. op. 

Tk 1.-11 ^ . , . ^ . /Vi. atKabool, 800. 

the hill, and some contam the remams of reservoirs, which con- 
tained water for the garrison. Moorcroft states that, according to 
Mahometan traditions, the city was built by Jelul-ud-din, King of 
Khwarism, but he adds with justice that it is of much earlier date. 
It was in fact destroyed in the reign of that prince by Zingis 




Orientals, U. 07 ; 
y. CMnghls-Kluui, 
Price, MthoDM- 


BJXI. Ml. Doe. 

Tlgne, GhasDM^ 

Tigne, Ghusnee^ 

Ml. Map. 

B.I.C. Ml. Doe. 

Leech, Visit to 
towns of Khyr- 
poor, 94. 

Khan, probably in the celebrated campaign of 1221-1222,^ in 
which he sacked Herat and drove Jelol-ud-diii over the Indns. 
Wilford,' without stating his authorities, relates the horrible 
event in the following words :— " ITiere were even kings d 
Bamiyan, but this dynasty lasted but a few years, and ended in 
1215. The kings and governors resided at Ghulghuleh, called 
at that time the fort or palace of Bamiyan. It was destroyed by 
Cknghiz-Khan in the year 1221, and because the inhabitants hid 
presumed to resist him, he ordered them to be butchered, with- 
out distinction either of age or sex ; in his rage he spared neidier 
animals nor even trees. He ordered it to be called, in his own 
language, Mau-balig, or the city of grief and sorrow ; but the 
inhabitants of that country called it, in their own dialect, Gfaul- 
ghuleh, which word, used also in Persian, signifies the cries d 
woe. To have rebuilt it would have been ominous: fortfaii 
reason, they erected a fort on a hiU to the north of Bamiyao, 
which is called to this day the imperial fort. This fort also was 
destroyed by Zingis the Usbeck, in the year 1628, and has not 
been rebuilt since." Gulgula is in hit. 34'' 49', long. 67"" 46'. 

GULISTAN KAREZ.— A village in Afghanistan, situate 
on the river Lora, in the valley of Pisheen, ninety miles south- 
east of Kandahar. Lat. 30^ 36', long. 66'' 32^. 

GULLAH, in the Punjab, a smaU town about seven miles 
firom the right bank of the Ghara. Lat. 31° 5', kmg. 74"" 30^. 

GULLAH, in the Punjab, seven miles west of the feny over 
the Sutluj, near Ferozpoor. Lat. 30° b(f, long. 74°. 

GULLEAN KA GOTE.— A viUage in Sinde, situate near 
the left bank of the river Indus, about three miles from the place 
where the Fulailee branch diverges from the main stream. Lat. 
25° SC/, long. 68° 21'. 

GULLOO GOTE, in Sinde, a village on the route from 
Sehwan to Larkhana, and forty-five miles north of the former 
place. It is situate a mile and a half from the right bank of the 
Indus, in a fertile country, in many places well cultivated, but in 
others overrun with bushes. The road northwards to Larkhana 
is made with considerable care. Lat. 26° 57', long. 68°. 

GUMBUT, in Sinde, a town about twelve miles south of 
Khyerpoor, and ten miles east of the Indus. Though one of the 
principal places in the country for the manufrusture of cotton 

GUM— GUN. 213 

goods, the process is very rude, and die quantity produced does 
not exceed 5,000 pieces in the year. The population is about 
3.000. Lat. 2r 24', long. 68^ 23'. 

GUMHA. — ^A small town in the north-east of the Punjab, Mooror. l los. 
and on the southern slope of the Himalaya. The houses are 
built of stones, cemented with mud, and strengthened with tim- 
bers of fir laid horizontally. The roofs are of fir spars covered 
with slates, but as these are laid loose, they form a very imper- 
fect protection against the weather. There is here a mine of 
rock-salt, which is worked to considerable extent, but in a very 
rude manner. The salt is of a reddish colour, and \a very compact 
end heavy. The Rajah of Mundi clears 16,000 rupees a year by 
its sale. I^t. 31^ 56', long. 76^ 38'. 

GUNAIDIO.— A village in Eastern Sinde, on the route firom b.i.c. iff.Doe. 
Jessulmair to Halla, and ninety miles south-west of the former 
place. It is situate on the bank of a small lake, the water of 
which is saturated with natron. Lat. 26° 22', long. 69° 48'. 

GUNDAMUK.— A walled village, on the eastern brow of the wood, Khyber 

o Pass, i. S, 6; 

Kurkutcha range, on the road from Jelalabad to Kabool, twenty- Bumes* boUi. i. 
eight miles west of the former place. As it is 4,616 feet above ^^ uf Eylli,*" 
the sea, the chmate is mild in summer but severe in winter, and mil Op. at xa- 
there is so marked a difference between the temperature of the Dis.'!n Jdg.vrri 
high table-land to the west and the lower plain of Jehdabad, that !f**"«J»' ^!^'!L 

, , ^ lixp. to Alg. 800 ; 

it is said that when it rains on the eastern side of Gundamuk it Ha^eiock, war in 
snows on the western. Here, during the disastrous attempt to pollster, iout. 
retreat from Kabool made by the British army at the beginning ^<^- ^°«* <*• 
of 1842, the last surviving force, amounting to about 100 soldiers 
and 300 camp-followers, were finally overpowered, only one man 
making his escape. LAt. 34"" 17', long. 70"" 5'. 

GUNDAVA PASS.— See Moola. » 

GUNDAVA, a town in Beloochistan, the capital of the pro- ei*c. ifa. Doo. ; 
vince of Cutch Gundava, is situate on the Baddra, a small torrent aoo; Manon, xa- 
which flows down from the Hala Mountains, and is lost in the ^^ ^'^' 
desert farther east. It is a small place, surrounded by a high mud 
wall, and has little trade, the slight importance which it pos- 
sesses resulting from its being the winter residence of the Khan 
of Kelat, who, before the inclement season, leaves his elevated 
capital, and with his family, officers, and principal subjects, 
descends to the warm lowland of GKindava. Pottinger describes 

214 GUN. 

it as smaller than Kelat, but built with more regulaxitj. The 
inhabitants are for the most part Jets, a race of Hindoo deacesx, 
but converts to Mahometa^ism, and are little better than serfe to 
the Belooches, who own the greater part of the lands. There 
are a few Hindoos, of more recent introduction into the coontrj, 
who carry on trade by barter, in this way collecting grain and 
other raw produce, which they subsequently export. Lat. 2SF 
29', long. 67° 32'. 

M>. surrej Map. GUNDERRA.— A Tillage in Sinde, situate on the Western 
Narra river, thirty-two miles north of Sehwan. Lat. 26° 49^, 
long. 67° 5(y. 

E.i.c.ifi.Doc. GUNDUTSAN, in Afghanistan, a small stream or rather 

water -course, on the route from Kandahar to Herat, and eighty- 
six miles south-east of the latter town. It is important in a mili- 
tary view, as water cap be obtained in pools in the bed of liie 
channel even when the stream ceases to flow. The place where 
it crosses the route is in lat. 33° l(/, long. 63° 20'. 
GUNEEMURAH. — See Gunneemurgh. 

vigne, i. 168. GUNGA BAL.— A small lake in Kashmir, on the Haramuk 

mountain, on the north-eastern boundary of the valley. It is a 
mile and a half long, and two or three hundred yards wide. Its 
appearance presents nothing remarkable, and its dimensions, it 
has been seen, are inconsiderable, but it is regarded with a super- 
stitious veneration of the deepest kind by the Hindoos. Pilgrims 
flock to its banks, and into its waters are thrown such fragments 
of bone as remain undestroyed by the fires lighted by Hindoo 
feeling to consume the fleshly habitations from which the spirit has 
departed. Lat. 34° 25', long. 74° 39'. 

E.I.C. Ms. Doe. GUNGATEE. — ^A village in the Punjab, eighteen miles south 

of Lahore. Lat. 31° 22', long. 74° 12'. 

E.I.C. Mi. Doc. GUNGUNI. — A village in the north-east of the Punjab, 

situate on the right bank of the river Duras, and on the route 
from Bultistan to Kashmir by the Bultul Pass. Lat. 34° 36', 
long. 76° 2'. 

Hough, 850. GUNJATEE, in the Punjab, a small town about ten miles 

from the east bank of the Ravee, and on the route from Suiruk- 
poor to Ferozpoor. Lat. 31° 17', long. 73° 58'. 

E.I.C. Ms. Doc GUNNEEMURGH, in Western Afghanistan, is a small val- 

ley on the route from Kandahar to Herat, and about half-way 

GUN— GUR. 215 

between those places. It is watered by a fine stream, and is sur- 
rounded by both garden and field cultivation. Lat. 32^ 26\ long. 
63^ 14'. 

GUNYSH BUL, in Kashmir, a place of Hindoo devotion, at KaAmii-. u. s. 
the eastern extremity of the valley, on the route to the celebrated 
cave of Amur Nath. According to Vigne, the name signifies 
" the place of Gunysh'' or Ghinesa, the only son of Siva. The 
object of superstition is a large fragment of rock lying in the 
Iddur river, and worn by the current into what the Hindoos fancy 
a representation of an elephant's head, to which a trunk, ears, 
and eyes have been added by human art. The superstitious feel- 
ing caused by this object results from the belief that Ganesa 
has tiie head of an elephant. Here, the pilgrims proceeding to 
Amur Nath make their preparatory ablutions and prostrations. 
Gunysh Bui is in lat. 34°, long. 75° 12^. 

GURANEE. — ^A village in Afghanistan, situate on the Furrah waiur'gMap of 
river, twenty-four miles north-east of the town of the same name. ^' 
Lat. 32^ 37', long. 62° 25'. 

GURDAIZ. — ^A village in Afghanistan, on the route from e.i.c. Hi. doc. 
Ghuznee to Kohat, fifty-five miles east of the fonner town. Lat. 
33°32Mong. 69° 12^. 

GURDAN DEWAR,! in Afghanistan, a village in a small val- * b.i.c. Ms. doc; 
ley where the river Helmund, a few miles from its source, crosses 
the route from Kabool to Bamian. It is situate between the pass 
of Oonna, on the south-east, and Koh-i-Baba mountain, on the 
north-west. The Helmund is here knee-deep, and about ten yards ^^'^J^^*^' 
wide.^ The elevation of GKirdan Dewar is 10,076 feet. Lat. 34° Joar. a^ soc*. 
25Mong.68<'8'. i^L«J^ 

GURIBAI PASS. — hi Afghanistan, on the eastern route firom Ther. ou. m a^. 
Ghuznee to Shawl, and a hundred and twenty miles south of the 
former place. It is situate where the rough country between 
I^e Ab-istada and Toba mountains slopes down eastward to Se- 
westan. Lat. 31° 64', long. 68° 8'. 

GURILLA, in Sinde, a large viUage on the route from Sehwan e.i.c. m«. Doc. 
to Larkhana by the Ami river, and nine miles south of Larkhana. 
It is situate on the Cheela, a water-course connected with the 
Western Narra. The road in this part of the route is good, and 
supplies are attainable in moderate quantities. Lat. 27° 24', 
long. 68° 8'. 

GURMAB. — A village in Afghanistan, on the route from waikert Map of 

216 OUR. 

Giriflkh to Farrah, by the Dilanm road* and twenty-eight mDa 
east of Furrah. It is situate among the monntaina rising north of 
Seistan, and stretching into the Huzareh country. Lat. 32° 24', 
long. 62^ 37'. 
wjikefsMapof GURMAB.— A vilkge in Afghanistan, eighteen mOes east 

of Giriskh. Lat. 31° SO^, long. 64° 36'. 
I E.I.C. Ms. Doe. ; GURMAB,^ in Beloochistan, a halting-phice in the Bolan Pass. 
Punj. L S25 ; ' about half a mile south of the village of Kirta, and seventeen miki 
Ex"*?i Afa*^ ao' ^™ ^® eastern entrance of the pass. Here is a rather copious 
Allen, March Spring, the Water of which flows into the Bolan river, or torrent 
■ndTik. 106.* '^^ name, signifying " hot water/' seems to indicate that it is a 
thermal spring ; but there does not appear to be any satisfiactoiy 

• Jour As soc ®^^^°^ ^** *^^^ ^ *^® fact.* The elevation of this place above 
1842, p. 54; Grit the sca is 1.081 feet.2 Lat. 29° 36', long. 67° 32'. 

Obi. In Aig. '* GURMSEHL (warm place), in Afghanistan, a narrow de- 

pressed tract, extending along the lower course of the Hehannd. 
> Jour. Ai. Soc According to ConoUy,' the current of the river holds its course 
Sketch of the ^^^^ much forcc and rapidity along the left bank, and, deserting 
iwiiui^"*'' ^ ^® rigbt, leaves between the water's edge and the line of dife 
which formerly bounded it on that side, a low and very fer& 

* Aeo. of Kaboou Strip, of the average breadth of two miles. Elphinstone ^ calls 
neir. G«ogr.M~ein. ^^ Gurmseer (warm region). It is laid down in the map accom- 
Pttnia, S16. panying his work, and attributed to Macartney, as extending be- 
tween lat. 30° 50'— 31° 50', long. 63° — 65°, and is thus assigned 
an extent probably too great. There is no mention made of it in 
the map given by ConoUy, though the course of the Helmund is 
laid down in that part where he in his sketch describes it as flowing 
through the Gurmsehl. This omission is the more remarkablei 
as the map is crowded with details of inferior importance. Fot- 

» BdoochifltBn, ^nger' describes this tract as exceedingly productive of wheat, 
rice, and other grains,, in consequence of great natural fertility 
and the copious and well-diffused irrigation from the river Hel- 
mund, which, in this part of its course, has at all times a large 
body of water, and in the season of inundation is a vast, deep, 
and rapid stream. The inhabitants are notorious robbers, being 
outcasts from the neighbouring people. At the beginning of 
the present century it paid a revenue of 4,000 rupees to the 

War in Atg. i. S34. * Havelock, indeed, states cursorily, that '' near Kirtah, a tepid spring is 
found in the mountain-Bide,'* but the other authorities make no mention of a 
point so remarkable. 

GUR— GWA. 217 

Shah of Kabod, but latterly it appears to have attained a sort of 

vague and precarious independence, under a native chief, pro- v « . ^^ 

tected by the Shah of Herat.^ iso. 

GURNAGH. — A village in the Punjab, situate on the road e>i.c. mi. Doe. 
from Mooltan to Ferozpoor, and ten miles north of the Ghara river. 
Lat. 30° 14', long. 1^ 59^. 

GURNEE. — ^A village in Afghanistan, eighteen miles north- Map of A^r. 
east of Kandahar. Lat. 31° 46', long. 64° 45'. 
GURREE.— See Ghubby. 

GURSEAH. — ^A village in Sinde, about thirteen miles from Mi. Surrey Map. 
the eastern frontier. Lat. 26° 57', long. 70° 8'. 

GURUK TEELAH.— -A village in the Punjab, situate on the B.LaMs. Doe. 
Salt Range, about seven miles north-west of Julalpoor, and five . 
miles from the right bank of the river Jailum. Lat. 32° 43', 
long. 73° 10'. 

GURUNEE.— See Gibonee. 

GURYS, in Bultistan or Little Thibet, is situate dose to the vifne, KMhmir, 
northern boundary of Kashmir : it is an elevated valley five miles 
long and one mile wide. The upper part of the Kishengunga 
flows in a direction from east to west along the bottom of the 
▼alley, which, though 7,200 feet above the sea, is surrounded by 
lofty and very abrupt peaks, chiefly of limestone. Lat. 34° 33', 
long. 74° 36'. 

GUSWAP, in Afghanistan, a halting-place at a piece of stand- b-I-c Mi. Doc, 
ing water on the route from Kanhahar to Herat, and a hundred 
and thirty miles north-west of the former place. It is situate 
on a road a little south of the main route, collateral to it, and in 
some degree preferable, on account of the more abundant supply 
of water. Lat. 32° 12^, long. 63° 54'. 

GUZ. — ^A village of the province of Jhalawan, in Beloochistan, b.i.o. Mi. Doe. 
situate a few miles west of the Gundava, or Moola Pass, on the 
road from Gundava to Khozdur, and twenty-two miles east of the 
latter place. Lat. 27° 50', bug. 66° 47'. 

GWADEL, a bay on the coast of Beloochistan, is formed by Honbarvh's ind. 
Cape Ghwadel, or Rass Noo, on the east, and Ras Pishk on the ^^'•'•^•*' 
west. It is three leagues from east to west at the entrance, and 
about as much from north to south, with regular soundings of 
eight and seven fathoms at the entrance, and six, five, and four 
&thoms inside. The bottom is entirely mud, and there is good 



Honburgh, Ind, 
Dtr. i. 405. 

E.I.C. Ms. Map; 
lifech. Hind. 

E.I.C. Mt.Map; 
Leech, Hind. 
Koosh, 92. 

shelter from all winds, ezceptiiig those which blow between eut 
and south-south-west. The ooast is of moderate height, hot the 
country inland is lofty and rugged. At some distance inland, and 
directly north of the bay, is a remarkable cleft in the mocmtain, serr- 
ing as a landmark. Eastward of Gape Gwadel is another inkt, 
sometimes called Owadel Bay, but not so well sheltered as that 
just described, yet having a good bottom of sand, with soondings at 
the entrance of ten or twelve &thoms, decreasing inside with con- 
siderable regularity to six, five, and four fiithoms, and sheltered 
from south-west, west, and north winds. The eastern bay lies 
m lat. 25^ 6'— 25° !(/, long. S^ 12'— 62° 20'; the western in 
long. 61° 57'— 62° lO^, and same lat. as the eastern. 

GWADEL CAPE, or RAS NOO, in Bebochiatan, projectB 
southward from the coast into the Aiabian Sea, between the eastern 
and western bays of Gwadel. It is a peninsula of moderate height, 
six miles in length, and joined to the mainland by an isthmus 
not half a mile over. There are remains of a wall with towen 
on this isthmus, constructed for the defence of a town which 
formerly stood on the cape, and the site of which is still maiked 
by the ruins of houses and wells. The few inhabitants now reside 
three or four miles north of this, in wretched hov^ds of mats. 
The water of the wells is brackish, so that supplies of this artide 
for shipping must be obtained from the interior. A few goats, 
sheep, and fowls may be purchased. Lat. 25° 5', long. 62° K/. 

GWALIAN PASS.— A pass in Afghanistan over the Hindoo 
Koosh mountains, on the route from Kabool to Kunduz. The 
route proceeds from the Koh-i-Damun, and, entering the valley of 
Ghorbund, takes a south-westerly direction for about twenty 
miles to the point where the Ghralian Pass turns off northward, 
and holds its way in that direction about thirty miles to the 
summit of the range of Hindoo Koosh, which it crosses ten miles 
east of the great peak of that name. Though easier than the 
Koushan Pass further east, it is less frequented, through dread of 
the predatory tribes which infest it. The summit of the pass is 
m lat. 35° 25', long. 68° 42'. 

GWAZGAR PASS, in Afghanistan, over the Hindoo Koosh 
mountain from Afghanistan to Kunduz. The route by this 
pass first proceeds up the valley of Ghorbund, and at the ruined 
town of the same name turns off in a direction nearly due north. 

GWE— HAG. 219 

It is scarcely frequented by tFaveUen, in consequence of the 
predatory character of the Huzareh tribes who hold it. Lat. 35^ 
15', long. 68° 38'. 

GW£TTER> in Beloochistan, an inlet of the Arabian Sea, is Honimrffb, ind. 
five leagues wide at the entrance, and nms three leagues up the ^^'' '* ^^* 
country. The depth of water at the entrance is about six 
fathoms, shoaling fEother in to four, three, and two, dose to 
shore. Ras Jewnee headland forms the east side of the bay ; on 
the west side the land is low, so that it cannot be seen at a short 
distance, with the exception of two hummocks, which appear like 
islands. The land at the northern side or head of the bay is 
so low as to be scarcely discernible until approached very closely, 
and then it becomes visible principally by means of the bushes 
growing on it. A village, called Gwetter, is situate on the 
north-west side of the bay, and another, called Jewnee, lies 
dose to the point forming the eastern limit of the entrance. 
Gwetter Bay is between lat. 25° 2'— 25° 12^, long. 61° 18'— 
61° 40'. 

GYDUR KHYLE. — A village in Afghanistan, situate in waiurt M«p of 
kt. 33^ 40', long. 71° 32^. '^'^■ 


HAGAH, in Afghanistan, a village in the district of Nungna* e.i.c. Hi. h&p; 
bar, at the foot of the Sufeid Koh mountain. It is situate on the JI^^i.^Biraw' 
southern road between the Khyber Pass and Kabool, and seventy- pw»« »•"• !»• 
five mOes south-east of the latter place. This road, though more 
direct than that lying farther to the north through less 
frequented, in consequence of the sanguinary and rapacious charac- 
ter of the people and the number of difficult passes. The adjacent 
country is watered by numerous streams descending from Sufeid 
Koh, and is remarkable for picturesque beauty. It abounds in 
fertile valleys, thickly peopled and well cultivated. Hagah is in 
lat 34° 14', long. 70° 20'. 

HAGEGUK.— A mountain in the north-west of Afghanistan, J^.^"^*J^,. 
extending frx)m north to south transversdy frx)m Koh-i-baba to kittan, S4; id. 

9dO HAI— HAL. 

oni, 904; Hindoo Kooth. Iti summit is 1 1 ,700 feet above the sea.* It is 

181 ; ii. MO J travened by two paBses, that of Hageguk near the aouthem ex- 
4wl J^r^'j^' *«"^^» •ad t^t o^ ^S™*^ «*«^ ^« northern. By both of these 
soe. 1849, p. 00; passes, roads proceed from Kabool to Bamian, and thence to Knn- 
Th'?;.SSi.toA*.iduz. Lat. 34° 30'— 40^. long, e?^' 55'. 

outrmm, Rough HAIDARBB, in Afghanistan, a viDage of the Khybexces, 

B.I.C. Ml. Doc I situate about a mile south of the Khyber Pbss, and four miles from 
J:;^lg"^^ iU eastern entrance. Lat. 33*' 58', long. 7 1° 22'. 

HAJAMARBB.— See Hujamebs. 
Walker's iftp ci HAJBBCHURM.— A Tillase in the Punjab, situate on the 

N W PfwmHnf 

road from Mooltan to Ferozpoor, about forty miles south-west of 
the latter place. Lat. 30° 41', long. 73° 5^. 

B.I.C. Ms. Doe. HAJBBKA.— A village in Beloochistan, situate a short dis- 

tance to the right of the road from Kelat to Sonmeanee, thirty- 
five miles in a direction nearly south from the former. Lat. 28° 
26', long. 66^ 12'. 

Ms. SarTey Map. HAJBBKAJOKB.— A Village of Cutch Gundava, in Beloo- 
chistan, situate on the road from Bagh to Larkhana, eighteen 
miles south of Bagh, and thirty-two miles north-east of Gundava. 
Lat. 28° 43', long. 67° 56'. 

B.I.C. Ms. Doe. HAJBB KURRBEMDAD. — ^A village in Afghsnistan, situate 

about ten miles from the right bank of the river Urgundab. forty- 
five miles north-east of Kandahar, and the same distance west of 
Kelat-i-GhUji. Lat. 32° 8'. long. 65° 59'. 

BJ.C. Ms. Doe. HAJEEPOOR, in the Punjab, a village situate on the left 

bank of the river Chenaub, eighteen miles firom its confluence 
with the Ghara river, and forty-two miles south-west of Mooltan. 
Lat. 29° 36', long. 71° 12'. 

HAJEGUK.— See Haobouk. 

vigM, Kashmir, t HAKRIT SAR (or Lake of Weeds), an extensive but 
shallow lake, nearly in the middle of the valley of Kashmir, 
and on the south side of the river Jailum, from which it is 
separated by an embankment. Lat. 34° 6', long. 74° 30^. 

B.I.C. Ms. Doe. HALACHEE, in Beloochistan, a village in the Moola or Gun- 

dava Pass. It is situate near the left bank of the Moola rivo-, in 
a vicinity which, though mountainous, is capable of yielding a 
moderate portion of supplies. Lat. 28° 2', long. 67° 9'. 

1E.T.C.MS.D0C HALA MOUNTAINS,^ in Beloochistan, an extensive and 

* This ifl the hdght given by Wood in Map E. I. C. MS. Burnes 
(u. 240) gives 12,400 ; Griffiths, as quoted sbovo, 12,190. 

HALA. 221 

lofty range, stretching from north to south, generally between the 
meridians 67^—68^. They are connected with the elevated region 
of Afghanistan by the Toba mountains, of which they may be 
considered a prolongation, and which rise in the two summits of 
Tukatoo, in lat. 30^ 18', long. 67^ to a height estimated at be- 
tween 11,000 and 12,000 feet.^ If we consider this mountain 'Hareioek, ww 
as the northern limit of the Hala range, it will be found to ex- EiplifAe^. of' 
tend, from north to south, a distance of about four hundred miles, c«»i)ui, lOft. 
and to terminate at Cape Monze,' projecting into the Arabian Sea ' Potunger, 
in lat. 24° 48'. About lat. 29° SO', a large offset extends east- ^**°*^' **** 
ward, forming the mountains held by the Murree tribe of Kahun, 
and joining the Suliman range about Hurrund and Dajel. South- 
ward of this, the Hala range becomes rapidly depressed to- 
wards the east ; descending with considerable steepness in that 
direction to the low level tract of Cutch Ghmdava; viewed 
from which, these mountains present the appearance of a 
triple range,^ each rising in succession as they recede west- * HaTeiock,iLsos. 
ward. The elevation above the sea of the plain of Cutch 
Gundava at Dadur, close to the mouth of the Bolan Pass, 
is 742 feet.* The height of the mountains in that part has not */«»'• ^•' ^oc. 

° *^ , 1849, p.64; Gilf. 

been ascertamed; viewed firom the British encampment m the bw. tndTher. 
plain, they gave the impression of great elevation. According to ^^*^ " ^' 
the graphic account of an intelligent observer ,• " the Bolan J^^J^ jjjj^',^ 
(Hala) range of mountains was the great attraction throughout 
the march. It would be little to say that they towered towards 
the clouds ; for the clouds were rolling along their breasts, and 
their peaks rose high above them. Ridge appeared above ridge, 
and the effect of light and shade from passing clouds, now throw- 
ing prominentiy forward, and now obscuring, their inequalities and 
chasms, was so varied and sublime, that the eye was never wearied 
with watching it. Though at the distance of at least fifty miles, 
they were so vast that their bases appeared within a moderate 
morning's canter." Viewed from the west, they appear of far 
less elevation, as the table-land stretching from their bases in that 
direction has a height in few places less than 5,000 feet ; thus the 
valley of Shawl is 5,560 feet high,7 tiie table-land of Kelat 6,000.8 \^'-^f^^ 
The Hala forms the great eastern wall or buttress of the highlands Bn. •nd Th«r. 
of Kelat, marking their descent to the vast plain of Western s £.'|.g. miL Doe. 
Hindostan. This huge mountain brow is furrowed by two main 
passes— the Bolan and Moola, each the channel of a considerable 

223 HALA. 

torrent, and each [affording a tedious bat not very difficult acecsB 
from the plains on the east to the western highlands. Thus die 
Bolan Pass is a little more than fifty miles in length, in which dis- 
tance the ascent is 5,000 feet, or something less than a bmidred 
feet in a mile. The length of the Moola Pass is about one hmidind 

» E.I.C. M%, Doe. miles, and the ascent in that distance about 4,500 fleet,* or fiarty. 
five feet in a mile. (See Bolan and Moola Passes.) Such as 
angle of inclination admits the transport of artillery and heavy 
goods, and altogether the communication between the tables 
land and the plain is probably as easy as between any 
places having, at the same distance, as great difference of 
level. About one hundred miles south of the Moola Fuv, 
and in lat. 26^ 30^, the Hala range stretches with diminished elevs- 
tion to the south-east, forming the mountains of Jutted, Keertur, 
Lukkee, and others of less note, which constitute the dreary and 

' Jour. At. Soc sterile tract occupying the greater part of Western Sinde.* A 

L» H<Mte, oo little farther south, the range becomes much lower and narrower, 

T^uSdslhS^. ^^^ exceeding thirty miles in breadth, being defined on the east 
by the low alluvial tract of Sinde, on the west by that of Lus. 
In the most southern part it is called the Pubb mountains, and, 

« Beiooeb. 9S8. ^s already mentioned, terminates at Cape Monze. Pottinger * calls 
the Hala the Brahooic range, to which he assigns very extensive 
limits, comprehending under the name the table-land rising be- 
tween the plains of Sinde and of Kandahar, and the extensive and 
intricate highlands stretching far to the west into Mekran, and ul- 
timately joining the mountains of Persia. The greatest height 
ascertained of any point in this mountain system is that of Kelat, 

3 E.I.C. Ms. Doc amounting to 6,000 feet,* but other parts rise muchabove this ; Che- 
heltan, for instance, north of Moostung, is, with probability, esti- 

< Biu. Afg. Pii\|. mated by Masson^ to have a height of above 1 l,000feet, as, though 
its summit is divested of snow in summer, some is always found 
in the deep ravines, a circumstance indicating a very great height 
in this latitude. In a country so barbarous and so little explored, 
our information on the geology of this vast range is necessarily 
Id. u. 78. scanty in the extreme. Masson * tells us that the huge Chehel- 

tan is of secondary limestone, abounding in marine exuvia. Similar 

« Kenntdy, Sinde formations are observable in the Bolan Pass,* where the strata are 

and Kabool, i. 

214; Havoioek, cross-cut by that great ravine. Overling were observed vast 

" "* .223. ^[epQgitg q{ more recent and diluvial formations-conglomerate and 

pebbly mud — to the depth of a thousand feet and upwards. There 

HAL— HAM. 223 

18 scarcely any evidence of the existence of primary formation in 

this range, except the well-ascertained feet that the Pubb moun- ]^lf^t^ 

tain contains a rich deposit of copper/ perhaps nowhere foand tJi is^> p- m> 

• - • - - ^ . De La Hostoy on 

ntu in recent formations. the Existence of 

HALAN SYUDS, in Sinde, a village on the route frbm Hy- ^lo! mTd^*" 
derabad to Sehwan by way of Kotree, and forty miles north of the 
last-mentioned place. It is situate about a mile and a half from 
the right bank of the Indus, and close to a shikargah or hunting 
preserve, formerly belonging to one of the Ameers of Hyderabad. 
Lat. 25^ 52'. long. 68^ 18'. 

HALIPOOTRA, in Sinde, a village on the route from Sehwan £.i.c. mi. Doc 
to Larkhana, and four miles north of the former place. It is 
embosomed in high trees, and is situate two miles from the right 
bank of the Indus, in a tract overrun with jungle and interspersed 
with pools and water-courses supplied from the river. Lat. 26^ 
23^, long. 67° 64'. 

HALLA, in Sinde, near the left or eastern bank of the wood, oxiu, ae- 
Indus, is situate in a tract of no great fertility, the soil being im- 
pregnated with salt. The new town is larger and more wealthy 
than the old one, which is contiguous to it. There is here a 
much-frequented shrine of a reputed Mahometan saint. The 
bazaar, which is partially roofed over, is well supplied, and con- 
siderable business is transacted there. Sindian caps, the general 
head-dress of all in the country except the Hindoos, are made 
here in great numbers, and of excellent quality. Halla new 
town is celebrated for its earthenware, the coarser kinds of 
which are manufEustured from clay taken from the bed of the 
Indus. In the finer kinds this material \& mixed, in a large 
proportion, with ground flints : the decorations are very showy, 
and sometimes tasteful; the colours, which are obtained 
from the oxides of copper, lead, or iron, being remark- 
able for brilliancy and richness. A sort of unctuous earth, 
called " chunhiah/* is obtained from lakes near the town, and is 
csiten in considerable quantities, especially by the women. Esti- 
nuites of the population differ widely, and Bumes upon this point 
is not consistent with himself. In one place (vol. iii. 264), he 
states it at 2,000, and in the same volume (p. 227) at 10,000. The 
^a^r seems the more probable amount. Lat. 25^ 45', long. 

HAMOON, on the south-western frontier of Afghanistan, is 

224 HAMOON. 

a shallow lake, or rather a very extensive reedy morass, of Seistm. 

The word Hamoon is a generic term, signifying, in Persian, a pbia 

level ground ;* it is applied by the inhabitants of Seistan to any 

« Joof. Ai. soc shallow lake or morass,' of which great numbers are formed in 

1840, p. 715 ; . ° 

Oonoiiy, Sketch time of inundation, by the Hdmund and other nvers pouring 
q^.^/mbumi. ^^ waters over that level region. The name, however, is 
peculiurly and emphatically applied to the principal and permanent 
watery expanse, which is of an irregular elongated form, about 
seventy miles in length from north-east to south-west, and from 
fifteen to twenty miles in breadth. At the north-east aide is an 
opening about five miles wide, communicating vrith the Duk- 
i-Teer, an expanse similar to the great Hamoon, and about a tbiid 
of its extent. This smaller morass was formerly a separate 
Hamoon or swamp, but about fifteen years ago, the Helmund, 
which had previously discharged itself into the great Hamoon on 
its eastern side, poured a vast volume of water into the Duk-i-Teer, 
which in consequence was so swollen as to sweep away the divid- 
ing bank, and become permanently united with the larger swamp 
or lake. At the same time, the channels, by which hitherto die 
water of the Helmund flowed eastward into the Hamoon, became 
nearly deserted and obliterated, and the vast volume of that 
great river is now principally discharged into the Duk-i-Teer, 
from which it expands over the sorfBu^e of both swamps. " The 
* ut nipni, 710. more fitting appellation of the Hamoon," observes ConoUy,^ " is the 
classical one of Ari-a-Palua, for it is in reality almost everywhere 
a mere marsh. It has rarely a depth of more than from three to 
four feet, and is almost entirely covered with reeds and rushes/' 
Insulated in the Hamoon, and above a mile from its eastern bank, 
is a hill, called Koh-i-Zor, or Roostum by some, Koh-i-Khwajeh 
by others. It has a fort accessible only by means of a channd 
cut through the reeds, which are so close and strong as to pre- 
clude the passage of either man or beast unless thus cleared 
away. By means of this channel, which has a breadth of 
about three feet, and is filled with water having an average 
depth of about th^ same number of feet, very salt, thick with 
mud, black and putrid, horses, cows, and even men vrade 
to the island. Some of the richer and more fastidious inhabi- 
tants are conveyed on rafts formed of reeds and pushed 

HAMOON. 225 

forward by men wading in the mud. The view from this fortress 
is very extraordinary. Conolly^ thus describes it : " Immediately ' ut mpn, 7i7. 
beneath me lay a yellow plain, as level as a calm sea, formed by the 
tops of reeds, and extending north and south far beyond the reach 
of vision. On the east it was bounded by a paler yellow, mark- 
ing the borders of the lake, where the less thickly growing reeds 
are annually burned down, and a few poor Kheels clear away the 
ground for the cultivation of water* melons. Beyond, again, in this 
direction, appeared the dark- green tamarisks, whole forests of 
which fringe the lake. Here and there, as we looked around on 
every side, were seen patches of blue water, and on the west, a 
large clear lake stretched away until out of sight." The latter 
part of this quotation is at variance with the author*s previous 
statement that the Hamoon " is almost entirely covered with 
reeds," and should probably be qualified, by assuming that he 
means that the water of this vast swamp is, to a great extent, free 
from reeds to the west of the island. The saltness of the water 
varies in different parts, according to the depth, nature of 
the soil on which it rests, and proximity to the mouths of the 
rivers. Though so brackish at the Koh-i-Khwajeh that the 
horses of the travellers refused it, the people drank no other, and 
boasted that it was the best in the world, causing appetite, pro- 
moting digestion, and conducing to general health. The sur- 
face of the Hamoon is considered to be on the increase, probably 
in consequence of the quantity of water brought down by the 
rivers being constant, and the depth being continually diminished 
by the alluvial deposit. There is no vent whatever for the water, the 
increase of quantity being checked merely by evaporation. In- 
numerable wUd hogs harbour in the reeds and commit great havoc 
on the cultivated grounds. They congregate in herds of thirty or 
forty, and when hunted, often kill the huntsmen or dogs, though 
the latter are very powerful as well as courageous. To the 
people of many countries these animals would be acceptable 
on account of the value of their flesh as an article of subsist- 
ence, but the natives, being Mahometans, use it only as 
food for their dogs. The reeds form an excellent pasture for 
cows, which animals eat them with greediness and soon fatten 
on them. Gkese, ducks, and some other water-fowl are, as 
might be expected, very numerous. The pelican is common, and is 

VOIi. I. Q 



' ConoUy, ot 
tupra, 716. 

"> Beloocb. SIO. 

bdiered by the natives to carry water fax into the desert, and tiiere 
barter it with other birds for food ; a process, the authenticatiou 
of which would shake the definition given by some philosophers of 
man — that he is an animal that contracts or makes a bargain. 
Fish does not appear to be abundant. The Hamoon, in addition 
to the Helmund, receives the Adruscund, the Furrah Rood, and 
* rpto^' 190*'* ^^^ other rivers of less importance. Some geographers^ have 
confounded the Hamoon with the Lake of Zirreh, a little farther 
south, which is nearly if not entirely dried up.^ Elphinstone* 
gives a general and brief, but accurate, description of the Hamoon, 
and adds judiciously, " I suspect it has no name at all in the 
neighbourhood, but is merely called the lake, or the sea." In 
both the maps, however, accompanying his work, it is laid down 
erroneously, and equally so in that of Pottinger, who gives a 
short and rather inaccurate description of it7 In the hypso- 
metrical map accompanying the Asie Centrale of Humboldt it 
is also erroneously laid down as to shape, and placed a d^ree 
more to the west and likewise to the north than it ought to be. 
Hamoon, in its average extent, Lb in lat. 30^ 42f — 31^ 54\ long. 
610 8'— 62** Itf. 

HANGU, or HANGOO.^A small town at the southern base 
of the Salt range or Kala Bagh mountains, fifteen miles west 
of Kohat, and on the route from India to Khorasan, through 
Bungush, It is situate in a pleasant and fruitful country, 
well watered by numerous fine springs. There is a small bazaar 
and a stone-built fort. The inhabitants are Afghans, ruled by 
their own chiefs, but the Sikhs make continual incursions, and 
levy contributions. Population about 1,500. Lat. 33^ 31', long. 
7P 15'. 

HARAMUK. — A lofty summit in the range bounding 
KashnHr on the north. Vigne states, that " Haramuk signifies 
all mouths or faces, and that the application of the word in this 
case is either derived from the square-sided, rick-shaped figure of 
its summit, or from its being visible from all sides by reason of its 
insulated situation and superior height." Its mass appears to 
consist principally of basaltic amygdaloid, though granite has 
been observed on it, but not in situ. In a depression on the 
northern declivity is a small lake, called Gunga Bui, " the place 
of the Ghmges," which, like many other reservoirs of water, is 



. Bid. A%. 
. 107. 

Vigne, Kashmir, 
il. 151. 

HAR. 227 

held in liigli*veneration by the Hindoos. The elevation of Hlura- 
muk above the level of the sea is estimated by Vigne at 13,000 
feet. Lat. 34° 26', long. 74° 43', 

HARAPA.^— A village of the Punjab, close to the left bank of 'Ma-on, Bai.Aft. 
the Ravee, and seated amid very extensive ruins, the most striking Bumes' Bokh. 
being the relics of a large brick fortress. This is considered by Mas- *"* "^' 
son to be the site of the Sangala of Arrian, where the Indians made 
such an obstinate defence against Alexander ; but this opinion 
18 regarded by eminent authority as open to question. Professor 
Wilson observes,^ " Whether they (the Macedonians) followed the • Arfana Anttq. 
course of the Iravati (Ravee) to Harapa, may be reasonably 
doubted." Harapa is in lat. 30° 37', long. 72° 43'. 

HARAWUG.— A castle in the north of the Punjab, on the vipie, Kashmir, 

i. 420. 

route from Lahore to Kashmir, by the Banihal Pass, and twenty- 
eight miles south of the last-mentioned place. It is built of 
wood, in a ravine on the right bank of a stream which, at a short 
distance below, falls into the Chenaub. From the hill above 
is a noble view up that river, which here flows for fifteen or 
twenty miles in a straight line. The coldness of the water of 
the Chenaub causes its course in hot weather to be marked by 
dense vapour, which floats over it. Harawug is in lat. 38° 1', long. 
75° 7/. 

HARlPOOR, in Kashmir, a small town situate in the Punch p.vonHttgei, i. 
Pass from the Punjab into that valley, and near the spot where '**' 
the pass opens into the low ground of Kashmir. It is close to 
the right bank of the Rembeara, a considerable feeder of the 
Veyut, or Jailum. Hence the Rembeara is sometimes called the 
River of Haripoor. The town is small and mean, remarkable 
only for its picturesque site beneath the Pir Panjal mountain, 
which on the south rears its towering summit, covered with 
snow during the greater part of the year. Lat. 33° 37', long. 
74° 37'. 

HARIPOOR, in the north-east of the Punjab, among the p. von Hugei, 
lower mountains of the Himalaya, is a fort, surrounded by a small * 
town, which contains a good and we 11- supplied bazaar. The name 
signifies the town of Hari, one of the incarnations of Vishnu, and 
Hindoo superstition here flourishes in the highest degree of 
vigour. The town and its vicinity are crowded with apes and 
pea-fowl, considered to be under the protection of the deity, and 
enjoying in consequence such a measure of respect as secures 




F. Von Uugel, 
Hi. 07. 

Leech, App.88. 

them from all molestatioii. Haripoor is in lat. 31^ 54', long. 

HARIPOOR, in the Punjab, a town on the great route by the 
Dub Pass into Kashmir, is a populous and thriving place, with a 
handsome and well- supplied bazaar. Von Hugel conside;^ it one 
of the wealthiest places in the Punjab, the streets being thronged 
with a busy and cheerful crowd, exhibiting evident indications of 
prosperity, and the shops supplied with all that can contribute to 
the gratification of Indian taste. It is situate on the river Dor, 
which, about ten miles westward, faHs into the Indus near Torbek. 
Lat. 34° 4', long. 72° 53'. 

HARNAVEE. — ^A pass little frequented, leading across the 
mountains from TuU to Dadur. It is very difficult, and scarcely 
practicable for horses. Lat. 29° 27', long. 68°. 

HAROOT. — See Subzawur and Adruscund River. 
Moorcr. Pui^j. HARU. — ^A smsll river of the Punjab, rises at the base of the 

Hough, Narr. Exp. Himalaya, and receiving the Nilab from the north-east, and several 
1?/'!'?^' smaller streams, flows into the Indus on the eastern side, a few 

Wood, Oxui, 12S. , - - 

miles below Attock, after a course of about sixty miles. This con- 
fluence is in lat. 33° 49', long. 72° 16'. 

HASHIM CHICHER, in Sinde, a village on the route from 
Hyderabad to Sehwan, by Kotree, and fifty-five miles north of the 
last-mentioned place. It is situate in the narrow alluvial tract be- 
tween the Lukkee mountains and the Indus, and a mile from 
the right bank of the main channel. The road, for some miles 
north and south of the village, is good, but water is scarce ex« 
cept when obtained from the Indus. Lat. 25° 58', long. 68^ 

HASSAN KHAN.— A village in Afghanistan, on the route 
from Ghuznee to Shawl, and fifty miles north of the latter place. 
It is situate on the right bank of the river Lora, and on the descent 
from the Toba mountain to the valley of Pisheen. Some sup- 
plies are obtainable here, but they are not abundant. Lat. 30° 45', 
long. 67° 20'. 

HATTYAREE, in Beloochistan, a village in Cutch Gundava, 
is situate on the Moola river, twenty miles south-east of the town 
of Gundava. Lat. 28° 14', long. 67° 43'. 

HAVALEE, in the Punjab, a village on the route from Mool- 
tan to Ferozpoor, and seventy-five miles south-west of the latter 
place. Lat. 30° 28', long. 73° 31'. 

E.I.C. Ml. Doc. 

B.I.O. Ml. Doc. 

E.I.C. Ms. Doc. 

N.W. Frontier. 

HAZ— HEL. 229 

HAZ ARJOOFT.— A village in Afghanistan, situate on the e.i.c. Mb. doc. 
left bank of the Helmund river. Lat. 31°, long. 63° 45'. 

HEDDEEALEE, in the Punjab, a village situate about six waiker*8 Map of 
miles from the right bank of the river Jailum. Lat. 32° 3', long. ^•^' P«>«"er. 
72° a'. 

HELAL— See Hilita (in Sinde). 

HELMUND,* a river in Western Afghanistan, has its re- i E.i.o.Mg.Doc 
mote source on the eastern declivity of the ridge of Hageguk, Q^ij/i!]Sl^ 
which connects transversely Hindoo Kooshj with Koh-i-baba. ^^ Bamian ; 
This ridge divides the waters flowing southward and eastward 904 ; Baber, Mem. 
into the Helmund, from those flowing northward and westward, Af^V^T^Ms- 
into the Oxus or Central Asia. The spot where it rises is well Jour. ai. soc. 
ascertained, as it is three or four miles on the right of the route rard' Route from 
from Kabool to Bamian. A little below this point the elevation ^^^^^ ^ 
of the bed of the stream above the level of the sea is 11,500 
feet,2 and this may be taken as the height of the source of the Hel- a jour. At. Soc 
mund, which b in lat. 34^ 40', long. 68° 2'. Its fall in the early JJ^J' p- ^i*. 

' ' ~o / Qrtf. Rep. on 

part of its course is very rapid, as at Gurdan Dewar, at the western subjects oon- 
end of the Oonna Pass, and about fifteen miles further down the JT^iT^w* ' 
stream, the elevation is 10,076 feet. According to Elphinstone, Q^'- Bar. and 
who, however, writes on report, the Helmund holds its course outram, Rough 
for two hundred miles through the Huzareh mountains, and hoiSj/ns^. 
leaves them to enter the Durani possessions, through which it pur- Exp. in Af^. App. 

^..11 .. , , f 74; Wood. Route 

sues a south-westerly course to Ginskh, situated about three of Kab. and 
hundred and fifty miles from its source. The same authority ^ J^/ h**jj^; ^' 
states that it is in this part breast-high at the fords during the Cabui, lis. 
season when lowest ; and Griffith intimates that it is navigable^ * Jour. As. soc. 
downwards, though upwards, navigation is impracticable, in con- ject« connected" " 
sequence of the rapidity of the current. At GKriskh, where it has ^'^*^ ^'s- 
been surveyed by Europeans, the banks are about a thousand 
yards apart ; in spring, at which season it is fullest, in con- 
sequence of the melting of the snow, it spreads beyond these 
limits, and has a depth of ten or twelve feet, with a very power- 
ful and rapid current. At this time it is said to be a favourite 
trial of skill in archery to attempt to shoot an arrow across, 
though it does not appear that the object is ever effected. As 
summer advances, however, the water becomes much lower as well 
as narrower,* and is in many places fordable. Conolly, who crossed Conoiiy ta.), 
it at the lowest season, near Girishk, found it stirrup-deep, with a °"'* ° ** 
clear, smooth, rapid current, and three hundred and fifty yards wide. 

230 HER. 

' joarn. Benf . Forstcr/ who CTOBsed it at Girbhk, in November, descnbea it as 
£nf. ii. 121. « a small stream of good water." The immediate banks are very 
fertile, but at a short distance from the river the country on each 
side is an arid, barren desert, nearly uninhabited. At about 
twenty-five miles below Girishk, it receives the Urgundab, flow- 
ing from the east ; a hundred and twenty miles lower down, it 
takes a westerly direction, and, after a farther course of thirty 
miles, turns at Pullaluk north-west. At Pullaluk it was crossed by 
• In App. to Christie,^ who found it, at the end of March, four hundred yards 
^t. ooc . ^j£[g^ gnjj y^ry deep ; but by proceeding some distance down the 
stream, he succeeded in fording it. In this part of its course it 
flows through the valley of Gurmsehl, two or three miles in width, 
and luxuriantly fertile, being formed, apparently, by the violence 
of the broad and rapid river in time of inundation. Everywhere 
traces of former cultivation, wealth, and civilization are visible, in 
the ruins of buildings and contrivances for irrigation ; but the 
country is at present occupied by a few barbarous Afghans and 
Belooches, both nomadic and predatory. Here, however, as in 
an earlier part of the course of the Helmund, the country, a few 
miles from the river, is a desert of the most forbidding aspect. 
Holding a north-westerly course of about a hundred miles, the 
» Jour. As. Soc. river pours its water over a country perfectly level,* and divides 
ConoUj (E.), ' ^^^ numerous channels, forming various marshes and pools, and, 

nTa!^^} t *^"^ ^*'* ^^° ^^' ^°°^" ^^°' <^**^**^g®s ^^^^ p*^y ^^ ^® 

Seistan; Pott, extensivc lake of Hamoon, and partly into the smaller lake of 
ooc . 816. Duk-i-Teer, situate at a short distance to the east of the former, 
and commimicating with it. Both have brackish water, are very 
» Beiooch. 80S. ghallow, and are overgrown with reeds. Pottinger^ supposes, 
with some probability, that it formerly held a southerly course 
across the desert of Beloochistan to the Indian Ocean, and de- 
bouched by the estuary of the Dustee, a scanty, shallow stream, 
but the channel of which can be traced nearly to the most southern 
flexure of the Helmund. The total course of the Helmund at 
present is above six hundred and fifty miles. 
>B.i.c. Mi.Doc.; HERAT,* in Afghanistan, is a city near the western frontier, 
to India, \i,2i ' the Capital of a state formed in 1818 by Shah Mahmood, on the 
Khonaan?*App. ^lismemberment of the Durani monarchy. It is situate three miles 
^f 80. north of the Hen Rood or Hury river ; from which it is supplied 

with water by means of aqueducts. The valley in which it is 
Pott'StooSi. 414^ seated is very fertile and well watered,^ but was left in a state of 

HERAT. 231 

utter desolatioii by the Persians, on their retreat, when baffled in ponter, joam. 
their attempt to take Herat in 1838. The city is of an oblong ^'^^^'* 
shape, one thousand six hundred yards in length and one thou- 1884,; Mo- 
aand four hundred broad. It is entirely inclosed by an artifi- D^ri^<^H^iat; 
cial mound of earth, varying from forty to sixty feet in height, S^*f*^°' 
surmounted by a wall rising from twenty-five to thirty feet above 
the mound. There are about thirty round bastions on each face, 
those at the angles being much larger and higher than the rest. 
The bastions, as well as the wall, are built of unbumed brick. 
The mound of earth slopes down from the base of the rampart to 
the ditch, at an angle of from thirty-five to forty-five degrees ; its 
breadth at the base is from ninety to a hundred feet. On this ex- 
terior slope, a trench, about seven feet deep, runs all round, 
parallel to the rampart, from which it is distant about thirty feet ; 
and at the same distance outside this and parallel to it, there is a 
similar trench. These communicate with each other and with the 
town by subterraneous passages. At the bottom of the mound,' > Bnmes on 
a deep wet ditch, thirty feet wide, runs entirely round the town. "®"^ ^' 
There are five gates, each defended by a small outwork. At 
the northern end of the town is a citadel, flanked with large mas- 
sive towers of burned brick, sixty or seventy feet high, sur- 
rounded by a deep wet ditch, twelve yards wide, and accessible 
only by a bridge, which might be destroyed in a few minutes. 
The citadel is so strong, that it might probably be held for a 
CQasiderable time after the fall of the town. On the northern face 
of the town is an outwork, which covers the citadel and one of the 
gates. On the same side, and about five hundred yards from the 
walls, is an immense mound, raised by Nadir Shah * when he be- * Maieoim, Hist, 
sieged the town. From the extent of the place, it has been calcu- ^®"*'' "' *^* 
lated that from 25,000 to 30,000 men would be required to 
invest it, and that at least 10,000 would be required to adequately 
garrison it. Its great strength would render its capture under 
any circumstances a work of extraordinary difficulty. Water is 
abundant, there being several springs in the ditch, and numerous 
wells, not more than twelve or fourteen feet deep, in the town ; 
besides which, the water brought from the Hen Rood by means 
of aqueducts is stored in numerous extensive reservoirs of masonry 
covered over. 

The city is divided into quarters by four long bazaars, 
covered with arches of brick, and meeting in the centre in a small 



pnw U.9. 

* Price, Mahom. 
Hbt Ui. 044. 

•u. ao. 

quadrangle, Burmounted by a dome. The houses are genenDf 
two stories high, and have very small doors. Herat is one of the 
' dirtiest places in the worlds Many of the small streets branching 
from the main ones are built over, and form dark, low tunnds, 
loaded with revolting filth. There are no channels for drainage, 
and the waste water is allowed to collect and stagnate in pools. 
The streets, the receptacles of every sort of refuse, are filled with 
heaps of dung, and are often encumbered with the putrifying car- 
cases of animals. So gross a disregard of cleanliness is necessarily 
productive of infectious disease, but, independently of this source 
of sickness, the climate is in general considered healthy. Tlie 
residence of the Shah is a mean building. The Musjid-i-Juma, or 
principal mosque, once a very grand one, is going feist to decajr. 
It was erected in the thirteenth century, to replace a similar 
fabric destroyed by Zingis Khan. When perfect, it was four hun« 
dred and sixty-five feet long,^ and two hundred and seventy-five 
feet wide; it had four hundred and eight cupolas, a hundred 
and thirty windows, four hundred and forty-four pillars, six en- 
trances, and was adorned in the most magnificent manner with 
gilding, carving, mosaic, precious stones, and other elaborate 
and costly embellishments. About a mile to the north of the 
city are the magnificent ruins of a Moosullah or place of wor- 
ship, dedicated to the memory of the Imaum Reza, and still 
exhibiting the remains of a vast series of beautiful and costly 
buildings. Behind a lofty front is a court of a hundred yards 
square, the cloistered sides of which are embellished with beau- 
tiful designs of flowers and other light and fanciful objects, 
executed in highly-finished mosaic. Opening into this is a large 
circular hall, covered by a dome, and communicating with 
other fine apartments. There are the remains of twenty minarets, 
among many buildings at once chaste and costly. " We 
ascended," observes Conolly,* " by one hundred and forty steps, 
to the top of the highest minaret, and thence looked down 
upon the city, and the rich gardens and vineyards round and 
beyond it — ^a scene so varied and beautiful, that I can imagine 
nothing like it, except perhaps in Italy." There are numerous 
fanes, public buildings, and gardens, scattered over the neigh- 
bourhood, affording evidence of the former splendour of the city, 
which, if native contemporary writers may be credited, was, in the 
fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, one of the finest in the world. 

HERAT. 233 

Baber ^ obsenret, " that in the whole habitable world there was ? Mem. 904. 
not such another city." But all this glory has departed, under 
a course of oppression and misrule, and amidst the long-con- 
tinued and devastating wars of the Persians and Afghans. Co« 
nolly,® who visited the city in 1830 (eight years before the last • li. a. 
ruinous siege by the Persians), computed that there were 4,000 
dwelling-houses and 1,200 shops, with a population of 45,000. 
Cbristie,* above twenty years before, stated, " No city has less • App. to Pott. 
ground unoccupied, and none of its extent can boast of a greater 
population," which he computed at 100,000. 

Herat is still of importance, from its position in a very fertile 
country. The valley in which it is situate is thirty miles long 
and fifteen broad. " The space between the hills," observes Co« 
nolly,^ " is one beautiful extent of little fortified villages, gardens, > u. 4. 
vineyards, and corn-fields; and this rich scene is lightened by 
many small streams of shining water." The fruits are remark- 
ably fine, and the bread is proverbially good. The elevation of 
the city above the sea is probably very great. The height of the 
source of the Heri Rood is 9,500 feet,^ and if we assign to it a * Jour. At. Soc. 

Ift41 n 1 Ifl • 

fieJl of twenty feet in the mile, which would make it a very rapid Euneu from 
torrent, its descent to Herat would be 7,000 feet, and conse- D«ni-p«ciai 

Rep., ConoUy (E.) 

qaently the height of this city 2,500 feet.* In consequence of this 
elevation, the winters are cool, and snow lies for several days, 
though the latitude is below that of any part of Europe. The 
beat ^ is excessive for about two months in summer. • Conoiiy (a.). 

Jour, to India, 

The position of Herat is also important in both a military and u. 5; Jour. am. 
commercial view, as commanding the most frequented route from conon^ckx'**^* 
Persia to Afghanistan. In settled times, perhaps no inland place ^^^^^ of Phyt. 

. . . Qeog. of Seistan. 

in Asia has so brisk or lucrative a trade, and hence it has received 
the name of Bunder, or port. From Hindostan and Eastern 
Afghanistan it receives shawls, indigo, sugar, spfces, muslins, 
chintzes, brocades, "loongees" or rich scarfe, peltry, dressed lea- 
ther, and hides ; from Persia, Turkey, Russia, and Central Asia, 
bullion, tea, fine sugar, porcelain, glass, silk, and fine fabrics of 
cotton, broad-cloth, coarse woollens, felts, carpets, shawls, metals, 
and hardware. Silk is produced in the neighbourhood, but not 

* Hnmboldt, in the hypsometrial map accompanying Aaie Centrales states 
the elevation of Herat at four hundred and thirty-eight toisea, or two tfaon- 
gand seven hundred and fifty-nine feet, but does not give any authorities for 
this estimate. 

234 HBR. 

to an extent adequate to tbedmnand. Lamb-akinB and aheep-akiiii 

are made up into cloaks and caps in great quantities. Hie car- 
peta of Herat have been long much esteemed for their sofbieai 
and the brilliancy and permanency of their colours ; these aie 
fully equal to those of Turkey. The price varies from one to a 
hundred pounds^ but the manufacture is considered to be de- 
caying. The native articles of commerce are not numerous nor 
4 Jour. to Illdll^ important; the principal are safiron and assafoetida. ConoUy^ 
* On Herat. statcs the annual revenue of Herat at 89,248/. Bumea^ thinki 
that " it is doubtful if the revenue amounts to thirteen lacs of ru- 
pees" (about 130,000/.). The chief of Herat is Kamran, the son of 
Mahmood Shah of Kabool, and nephew of Shah Shoojah. Hk 
dominion extends but a few miles northward of the city ; on the 
east it reaches to the Khaush Rood (river), half-way to Kandahar ; 
on the south it includes Seistan. It is closely pressed on the west 
by Persia, by which country, a few years ago, the important pro- 
vince of Ghorian was seized. The population both of the dty 
and territory is of a mixed character — Persian, Afghan, Taujik, 
Belooche, Mogul, Hindoo, and a few Jews. Commerce, capital, 
and the monetary transactions are for the most part in the hands 
of the Hindoos. The Persians are generally Shias, the other 
Mahometans Sunnis. Herat is in lat. 34"" 22', long. 62"" 9\ 
> E.I.C. Ms. Doc. H£RI ROOD, or HURY RIV£R,i in A%hanistan, is a con- 
siderable stream rising in the Huzareh country, on the western 
declivity of Koh-i-Baba, and about lat. 34° SO', long. 66*^ 20'. 
s Jour. As. Soe. Its source is described by ConoUy ^ as " a pool of gently bubbling 
COToir(E t' springs, where the boiling point shewed an elevation of 9.500 
Extracufh>m feet." It heucc holds a course generally westerly for about 
Dem - ep. ^^^ hundred and fifiy miles, to the vicinity of Herat, running 

about three miles south of that city, at a place where the 
great route from Kandahar to Herat crosses it. The passage 
» Jour. A». soc. OY&r the river here was formerly* made by means of a bridge 
'***• P; ^J ! ^^ four hundred yards in length,^ built of brick, of thirty- 
DeMrip. of Herat, three archcs,* but about ten years ago three of them were 
jour!u)'iiidi^' swept away, and, in consequence, the communication is inter- 
"• ^^' cepted in time of inundation, when the river is often deep and very 

rapid. When low, it is here divided into several channels, the 

* Abbott occupies ten doiely printed pages in relating a tradition respect- 
ing tbis bridge. It is an extravagant, idle, whimsical story, whimsically told. 
(Heraut and Khiva, 1. 239—249.) 

HID. 235 

widest of which has a breadth of about forty yards, and a depth of 

about eighteen inches.^ At that time the diminution of its water is * Christie^ App. to 

produced in no small degree by the large quantity drawn off for ^^^^' ^**^***^*- 

irrigation. It is remarkable for the great purity of its water. 

The bridge bears the name of Pal-i-Malan, by which appellation 

the river is also commonly known.^ From Herat it takes a north- '^^p**; ^,^' °' 

^ Caabul, 117, 665. 

westerly course of about two hundred and fifty miles, to its 

junction with the Moorghab,^ and the united stream is subsequently ' PrMur, Joum. 

Ipst in the desert of Khorasan. ^pp 57, * 

HIDDA.^ — A village in Afghanistan, five miles south of the * e.i.c. Ms. doc. 
dty of Jelalabad. It is remarkable for several topes, mounds, and 
caves, the relics of a people of whom no other memorial exists. 
The topes may be described as structures of rude masonry, 
having generally a cylindrical base, surmounted by a hemisphe- 
rical dome. They are sohd,* as the fact that they have been ' wnion, Ariana 

, . ' ' ADtiqua, 80. 

found in most instances to contain small cases, the depositories 
of relics, cannot be considered to negative this position. There 
are thirteen or fourteen topes at Hidda. Those which have been 
opened have been ascertained to contain ashes, bones, and other 
decayed animal matter, metallic and earthen vessels, gold and 
silver ornaments, and many gems and coins ; to quote the words 
of Masson, *• the major part sUver Sassanian, but also seven gold 
ones, of which, singular to relate, are five of Roman emperors — 
two of Theodosius, two of Leo, and one of Marcianus."^ As those \^'' ^L?^' 
emperors reigned between A.D. 408 and 474, there is thus con- acc. of MaMon's 
elusive evidence that the structures in which these coins have ^rf^*" ^***^" 
been found must have belonged to an era not earlier than the 
fifth century ; and as they are by the best judges regarded as un- 
questionably Buddhist monuments, they cannot be referred to a 
^ter period than the eighth century, at which period Maho- 
metanism became predominant in Afghanistan. The conclusion 
of Professor Wilson^ on this subject is as follows : "It seems * Ariana AnUqua, 
likely that the interval between the beginning of the Chris- 
^ era and the sixth century was the period when the 
chief topes of this part of India were built, and the most 
perfect of them in the present day may be dated about the 
fourth and fifth centuries." Accordmg to the same high 
authority, the topes were erected as depositories of Buddhist 
relics. Others regard them as places of sepulture for eminent 

236 HID— HIN. 

» Prinaep, quoted penoiiB deceased. Others,' again, consider them as deToted to 
in w ii»D45. ^^^j. pyjposes. Hiddais in lat. 34° 19', long. 70° 25\ 
E.I.C. Ms. Doc HIDDAWGOTB.— A village of Sinde, on the route from 

Sehwan to Larkhana, and twelve miles north of the former place. 
The road north and south is rendered inconvenient hy numerous 
water-courses, which aid the cultivation of this fertile and popu- 
lous tract. The village is situate about a mile from the ri^ 
bank of the Indus. Lat. 26° 32', long. 67° 53'. 
HILIYA.— See Hillata. 
HILIYA.— See Chilita. 
E.I.C. Ms. Doc. HILLAYA, in Sinde, a small town on the route from Tatta to 

»Ii™'^IirN«r. Hyderabad, by Kotree, and thirty- two miles south of the last- 
19 ; Lord, Ued. mentioned place. It is situate near the eastern extremity of the 
Plain of the Kunjur Duud, a considerable expanse of brackish water, abound- 
indus,flo. jjjg jjj ggjj^ j^^ surrounded by low sandstone hills. Close Shi- 

karghas, or " hunting-preserves," intervene between the town and 
the right bank of the Indus, distant about a mile and a half to 
the east. Plenty of forage may be obtained, and water is supplied 
from a small pond near the town. Lat. 24° 55', long. 68° 8'. 
Buraoi (jamei\ HIMIUT, in Sinde, a small village, having a scanty supply 

^ "° 'of brackish water, on the route from Cutch to Hyderabad. Lat 

24° 8', long. 68° 40'. 
E.I.O. Ms. Doc HIND AN, in Afghanistan, a viUage on the route, by the 

Gomul Pass, from Ghuznee to Dera Ismael Khan, and twenty 
miles west of the latter place. Lat. 31° 49', long. 70° 39'. 
> B.I.C. M». Map. HINDOO KOOSH.*-— A vast and lofty mountain between 
Afghanistan and Turkestan. It is also frequently called the 
'At. ReaeaKhes, Hindoo Koh (Hindoo mountain), but this, Wilford^ states to be 
ciu^'u^ *'°""' * distortion by Persian authors and travellers ; and he intimates 
that the correct name is Hindoo Koosh, and that it must have 
originated with the Tartars, amongst some nations of whom 
3 Id. 458. Chasu^ signifies snow, from which the derivation of the name is 

natural and obvious, the range being remarkable for the number 
of its snowy summits. The natives, according to Wilford, be- 
lieve " that this name, Hindoo Koosh, was given to the moun- 
tains from a certain giant, who used to lie there in wait to catch 
(cash) or to kill (kesh) all the Hindoos who passed that way." 
* Asio centraie, Not Icss trivial is the et3^ology of Ibn Batuta (which, however, 
SErikunde von ^^^ ^^^^ thought worthy of uotice by Humboldt ^ and Ritter*), 

Alien, vil. 190. 


that the mountain waa so called from being, in consequence of the 
cold, the destroyer or killer * (keesh) of the Hindoo slaves whom 
the slave-dealers attempted to transport into Tartaij.t But, how- 
ever the appellation may have originated, it is at present that most 
usually given to thj^ountain. It has often been observed, the 
Koh Kosh, or mountain of Kosh, offers a plausible etymology for 
the Caacasxis of the classical writers. It is supposed by Hitter ^ * '^- 
and Wilford ^ to be that mentioned by Pliny under the name of ^ ai. Reaetrchei, 
Graucasus, but slightly deviating from the Sanscrit Grava- "''"p™- 
kasas^ (shining rock). Humboldt regards it as a part of a •Humboldt, l 
Tast range to which, from Chinese authorities, he gives the name ^^' 
of Kouenlun, and represents as the " most striking geological 
phenomenon amongst all the mountain-ranges of the old world.*' ^ ' AiieCentmie, 
He considers that the range may be traced from Taurus, in Asia u. u/io. ' ' 
Minor, across Persia, then, in the maze of the Huzareh moun- 
tains, to Hindoo Koosh, and subsequently, in the Kouenlun, to 
the frontier of China Proper, from the thirtieth to the ninety-fifth 
meridian east, and between the parallels 34° — 37° lat. north. 
He regards this prolonged range as altogether distinct from that 
of the Himala3ra, farther south, and the distinction as not verbal 
merely, but substantial, having reference to the origin of the two 
ranges. Both, according to his theory, have arisen from the 
disruption and upheaving of the crust of the globe by the ex- 
pansive force of the igneous interior, the Kouenlun in a direc- 
tion nearly due east and west, the Himalaya, inclined to this 
direction, and a few degrees farther to the south. Whatever 
may be thought of the theory, it is certain that the two ranges 
are physically discriminated by the vast depression down which 
the Indus flows in a north-westerly direction, which, with its 
temerous rocky irregularities, it ds not easy to believe could 
have been hollowed out by the waters even of that great river. 

It is obvious that there must always be something arbitrary in 
defining and marking out a portion of a vast range to be desig- 
nated by a particular name. Humboldt places the eastern limit 

♦ Shakespeare, in v. *^ 

t Tlie words of Ibn Batata are—" After this I proceeded to the city of 
Banran, in the road to which is a high mountain covered with snow, and 
ooeedingly cold ; they call it Hindu Konah, t. e. Hindoo alayer, hecaiue moat 
of the daTea brought thither from India die on account of the intenseneas 
of the cold." Pp. 97, 98. 


1 Aiie centrmto, of Hindoo Koosh at Thflouiigling,^ where the great range of die 

*'&h 87 Bolor, or Beloot Taugh,' passes off to the north at right an^es. 

*Bokh. U.8S8. Bomes* places the eastern limit at the place where the range 

" crosses the Indas/' or, as he explains it, takes a course due 

west. From this expression, he seems to place the eastern 

* 85. limit about long. 73°. Elphinstone ^ fixes the eastern limit about 

the meridian of the centre of Kashmir, or 74° 3(/, observing, 
" from Kashmir to Hindoo Koosh the whole range is known hf 
the name of that peak." Ghriffith narrows its limits, placing the 
i^rp.^?^ eastern extremity at 01ipore,« in lat. 34° 54\ long. 70° IS*. 
R«p. on sui^eeti Humboldt^ and others, who have attempted to draw infor- 
Af^. mation from Chinese sources, praise strongly the accuracy and 

xxu— M^'25* ' copiousness of the writers of that nation on topography ; yet ac- 
90, curate information with regard to this part of Asia is limited to 

those portions from which the jealous and vigilant government of 
China has not been able to exclude Europeans. Thus in pro- 
ceeding westward, our knowledge commences with the elevated 
region of Tibet, north of Lake MansEsa Soravara, which was first 
made known to us by Moorcroft and Oerard. Here the Kailas 
mountain rises to a height perhaps not less than 30,000 feet 
f Royifi, introd. abovc the sca.^ One of the surveyors (probably the late Captain 
Him2ayaMoM- C^crard, who has been already mentioned), states that from the 
tains, xL xxiii. cTcst of the Hungaruug Pass, he saw, in front, a granite range, 
upon which the snow found a resting-place only at 19,000 feet: 
beyond it, through a break, were discernible snowy mountains, 
appearing to rise out of the table-land on the banks of the Indus, 
" pale with distance, and like the memory of something that we 
have seen." From the angles of altitude observed, the pale out- 
line of the mountains and the broad margin of the snow, the sur- 
veyor estimated that they could not be less than 29,000 feet in 

• Koonawur, 141. elevation. Gerard,^ also, elsewhere estimates the height of this 

part of Kouenlun at 30,000 feet; and this is probably the 
most elevated part, not only of the range, but of the surfece of 
the globe. Westward of the Kidlas summit, and commencing 
about long. 79°, the Kouenlun range is generally known by 
the name of Mooz Taugh (ice-hill), and sometimes by that of 

Eiph. 80. Karakorum.^ It has been, to a certain extent, explored by Moor- 

1 Puqj. Bokh. i. croft ^ and Trebeck, who travelled a considerable distance along 
f?"*^- , its south-western base, and by Falconer,^ who ascended to the 
xxiY. limit of cultivation, where he was informed that a region of ice 


extended in the direction of Tartary for a oonnderable distance. 
Mir Izzet Ullah, an agent despatched by Moorcroft, croased the 
'Mooz Taugh from Leh to Yarkund, by the pass of Karakorum, 
in lat. 35"" 3(/, long. 77"" 40'. This person found the ground 
sheeted with ice, and experienced much sickness and difficulty 
of breathing, from the height above the sea ; but notwith- 
standing, the range here must be considerably depressed, as it 
permitted of his passage at the end of October.^ This view * Trnveia beyond 
of the subject is confirmed by Vigne, who ascended the Mooz { u^iiMn'^Quar- 
Taugh for a short distance, and expresses his opinion " that ^^^r orient. Mag. 
its elevation was not so great as that of many other passes in 
Tibet/' He adds, " putting together all I heard on the sub- 
ject, I should say that it will be found somewhat under 15,000 
feet."^ Between Yarkund and Karakorum lies a waste, nearly * Kashmir, u. S84. 
three hundred miles across, which, like the table-land of Pamir, 
farther west, is too elevated to admit of being permanently in- 
habited ; and should winter here overtake the traveller, he must 
of necessity perish of cold or hunger. Westward of the Kara- 
korum Pass, the Kouenlun becomes still more elevated, as Vigne ^ * ut«up™,ii. sos. 
states that " the snowy Sierra of the Muztuk, extending from 
Hunzeh to Nubra, arose with conspicuous and most majestic 

About a degree forther west, Vigne explored this great range, 
called variously the Kouenlun, Mooz Taugh, or Hindoo Koosh, 
and still found it a series of summits covered with perpetual snow, 
and having in the valleys vast and to the eye interminable gla- 
ciers. Describing the valley of Tsutron, he states : " Enormous 
mountains of gneiss rose on either side of it. Those over the 
fiBurther end were very elevated, and covered with eternal snow."* 'Kashmir, u. S7o. 
To the north of this part of the range is the elevated region ex- 
tending south of Yarkund, comprising the Bolor mountains, and 
extending east of them. This tract of frightful desolation appears 
to have been brought to notice in recent times by the inquiries 
of Vigne. and the journey of Mir Izzet Ullah. In the middle of 
the thirteenth century it was referred to by the celebrated Marco 
Pok).^ Having mentioned the journey across Pamir, he adds : < Trareia, tranaia- 
"After having performed a journey of twelve days, you have still j^^ ' ■ ®"' 
forty days to travel in the same direction, over mountains and 
through valleys in perpetual succession, passing many rivers and 


deaert tracts, without seeing any habitation or the appearance of 
verdure. Every article of provision must therefore be carried 
along with you. This region is called Beloro."* 

Here, about long. 74^ lat. 36^, Humboldt, in his map» 
lays down Thsoungling, the place of junction of the great moun- 
tain-range of Bolor, running from north to south, with that of 
Kouenlun, or Hindoo Koosh, running nearly east and west, oi 
rather inclining towards a direction from north-west to south-east. 
This view corresponds with that of Waddington, in his excellent 
^ xztU. map and memoir^ prefixed to Baber's Memoirs. This supposed 

junction of the two great ranges is, however, matter of conjec- 
ture, as it does not appear to have been ever explored. Arrow- 
smith, in his elaborate map accompanying Moorcroft's Travels, 
> Map of Um embellishes it with a goodly peak. Walker,^ with his usual ad- 
toe"suthu m?**" mirablc accuracy, leaves it a complete blank. Humboldt, indeed, 
oziu. here in his map lays down the peak of Tutuean Muteani as 

having an elevation of 3,000 toises, or 18,900 feet, but ap- 
pears to give no authority, except a reference to Elphinstone 
which is erroneous. The silence of native report with regard 
to this part of the range appears to indicate its moderate 
height, as very lofty mountains have a prominent notice in 
popular accounts, in consequence of the awe and admiration 
which they cause. North and north-west of the place which 
Humboldt assigns to Thsoungling, is the elevated region of 
Pamir, giving rise, among other great rivers, to the Oxus, which 
flows from Lake Sir-i-Kol, at an elevation of 15,600 feet. Hindoo 
Koosh, or Kouenlun, he found here to be 19,000 feet above the sea. 
"The elevated expanse of Pameer," observes the intrepid and 
judicious traveller just quoted, "is not only a radiating point in 
the hydrographical system of Central Asia, but is the focus from 
which originate its principal mountain-chains," being " common to 
India, China, and Turkistan ; and from it, as from a central point, 
» wood'8 0xu», their several streams diverge."^ The line of perpetual congelation 
^- is at the height of 17,000 feet, in lat. 37° ; and the ice is melted 

on the lake ; by the end of June it becomes covered with 
water-fowl, and the surrounding plain, for a short time, yields 

Aiie Centrale U. * Humboldt, with his asual acoteness and diligence, points out aerenl 
8M. passages in Marco Polo, which prove that his work was not a personal nar- 

rative, but an admirable compilation. 


luxuriant paatare. In winter, it is an awM waste, utterly de- 
aegrted by every form of animal life. That the range of Koneulan, 
or Hindoo Koosh, is considerably depressed at Thsoungling, or 
about lat. 36^ long. 75^ is attested by Wood, who observes,' > Oni> m. 
" from Pamir, the ground sinks in every direction, except to the 
south-east, where similar plateaux extend along the northern face 
of the Himalaya into Tibet. An individual who had seen the re- 
gi<Hi between Wakhan and Kashmir, informed me that the Kuner 
river had its principal source in a lake resembling tliat in which 
the Oxus has its rise, and that the whole of this country, com- 
pirehending the districts of Gilgit, Gunjet, and Chitral, is a series 
of mountain defiles that act as water-courses to drain Pamir." 
It should be borne in mind that the Kuner falls into the river of 
KabooL While the Hindoo Koosh to the north has the elevated 
table-land of Pamir, from its southern side stretch numerous 
ridges iu a south or south-west direction, inclosing the valleys 
of Suwat, Panjkora, Chitral, Kafiristan, and some others further 
west. These subordinate ridges pass off nearly south in a direction 
inclined to the culminating ridge of Hindoo Koosh, which runs a 
little south of west for about three hundred miles, from Thsoung- 
ling, the locality of which has been already stated, to the peak of 
Hindoo Koosh Proper, rising, in lat. 35^ 40', long. 6BP 5(y, with 
pre-eminent height and grandeur. From this culminating ridge, 
the ground has a general slope to t^e banks of the Kabool river 
and the Indus, in some places from an elevation of 20,000 feet, 
in others of little more than one thousand. As the ridges which 
inclose the valleys just described are usually very lofty, their ex- 
tremities, seen obliquely from the valley of the Kabool river, pre- 
sent the appearance of a range : accordingly. Wood styles this 
series of elevations the Himalaya, both in his map and text, 
and in this he is followed by Humboldt in laying down his map. 
The former states that the Himalaya, " as is well known, 
bounds Hindustan on the north, and after crossing the river 
Indus, extends westward to the valley of Punchshir and the meri- 
dian of Kabool."^ But there is surely very great laxity both of • Oim, aer. 
language and thought, in designating as a continuous range a series 
of extremities of distinct ranges, separated in several instances by 
spacious valleys and considerable rivers. Indeed, Wood* sub- 'id. 
sequently observes, " the Himalaya is pierced by both the 
Kuner and Indus rivers." He might have added, by the Suwat, 

VOL. I. R 




> Blpli.M. 

the Lundye, the Alingar, the Aliahang, and the Tagow riven. 
Elphinstone' describes the mountaios soath of the cnlfniiwting 
range of the Hindoo Kooeh as forming three several ranges, 
rising in succession as they recede from the plain of Peshawur, 
but certainly giving no appearance of a great continuation of die 
Himalaya, or of Southern Hindoo Koosh, as Humboldt lays it 
down in his map, slightly inclined to the great or northern range. 
With respect to the height of the culminating ridge of Hindoo 
Koosh, nothing, perhaps, can be regarded well ascertained, bat 
the measurement by Macartney^ of a point, probably about 
the meridian of Peshawur, or 71"* 40', and in lat. 35® 3(/, which 
was found to have an altitude of 20,493 feet ; and again, the 
• Kbyber PMt,s. measurement by Wood* of summits from the valley of Jelala^ 
bad, and about long. 70® 30^, which were found to have a mean 
elevation of 20,248 feet. Between the part on which this last 
measurement bears and the Khawak Pass, situate some distance 
to the west, we know little of the culminating ridge. It iqypears, 
however, that Timur, the Jagatain conqueror, crossed it some* 
where from Inderab to Kafiristan, but his army was obliged to 
leave their horses behind, and slide down the mountain on the 
ice.^ Kafiristan has hitherto been unexplored, but must in many 
parts be considerably depressed, as the climate is so warm as to 
allow the growth of the vine in great excellence, and from its 
abundance the Kafirs have become notorious for their wine-bibbing 
propensities. — See Kaviristan. 

At the western extremity of their country our intimate know- 
ledge of Hindoo Koosh commences with the Khawak Pass, ex- 
plored and surveyed by Wood. It lies in lat. 35® 38^ long. 70^, 
and from it the river of Inderab^ flows to the north to join the 
Oxus, and the Punchshir to the south to join the river of Kabod, 
and ultimately the Indus. The ascent of the pass on the north side 
is an inclined plane, as Wood expresses it, " remarkably uni- 
form, not a ridge occurring in the whole ascent to vary the same- 
ness of its surfece." Its highest point is 1 3,200 feet above the sea. 
It is probably the most practicable of the passes for an army, and 
was that taken by Tamerlane ^ in his invasion of India, on which 
occasion he rebuilt the fort of Khawak, visited by Wood, and 
situated ten miles on the Kabool side of the summit. Westward 
of the Khawak Pass, the culminating ridge takes a direction, for 
about fifty miles, nearly due west, as far as the summit of 

• Price, M fthom. 
Hist. iii. 828. 

' Wood's Oziu, 

* Price, Chronol. 
Retrofpect, U1.880. 


Hindoo Koosh Proper^ or that great collection of peaks wbicli 
gives name to the entire range. The surfieu^ to the north of the 
part of the ridge just described sinks very suddenly, so that the 
town of Kunduz, only eighty miles distant, is less than five hun- 
dred feet above the level of the sea,* or nearly 20,000 feet below • ^"*» Koh-i- 

. , DamuD, 40 ; 

the average height of that part of the range. This circumstance wood, Kiiyber 
forms a remarkable contrast with the state of the surfiEuse on the ^**^ ^ 
south side of the range, as there the highlands of Kabool, 
Ohuznee, and Beloochistan extend, with an elevation averaging 
firom 5,000 to 8,000 feet, to within ^ forty or fifty miles of the ' ?<>«• m-*^. 
Indian Ocean. Consequent on this arrangement of surface are 
some remarkable peculiarities of climate observable in this vast 
mass of mountains. On Pamir, where there is a very great 
extent of surfiioe having an average elevation nearly equal to that 
of the summit of Mont Blanc, the limit of perpetual congelation 
is probably, if compared with the latitude (37° 38^, much more 
elevated than in any other part of the world, being at the 
height of 17,000 feet,* while farther west, where the surface de- • wood'i oxui, 
clines rapidly to Kunduz, the climate is much more severe, aad 
the line of perpetual congelation proportionably descends.^ Even 'Lord, ut supra, 
on the southern face of the Himalaya, snow lies lower down than 
on the northern, to an extent corresponding with 4,000 feet 
perpendicular descent. On this Lord observes, " But the Hima- 
laya and Hindoo Koosh have the same aspect, the same general 
direction, lie nearly in the same latitude, and in fact are little 
more than integral parts of the same chain. The local circum- 
stances, however, connected with each are precisely reversed. 
The Hima]a3ra has to the north the elevated steppes of Central 
Asia, and to the south the long low plains of Hindostan. Hindoo 
Koosh, on the other hand, has to the south the elevated plains of 
Kabool and Koh-i-Damun, between five and six thousand feet above 
the level of the sea, while to the north, stretch away the de- 
pressed, sunken, and swampy flats of Turkestan." Perhaps no- 
where does the determination of the limit of perpetual congelation 
appear subject to greater anomalies than in this vast mountain 
system ; but with httle exception, it seems to be more elevated 
than abstract reasoning would lead us to expect. Nowhere are 
more strikingly manifested the intricacy, variableness, and uncer- 
tainty of the data for ascertaining the position of the isothermal 
^«s. An illustrious writer, though foremost amongst those who 



have attempted to xeduce to system the speciilariniw and bOM 
connected with this subject, has shewn that the task involves 
the consideration of so great a variety of points as to render 
it one of the most difSicult and hazardous within the range 

«HDmboidt, Ail* of physical inquiry. He^ obeerres, that it is "a proUem 

c«ntnto, iu. 947. ^^5!^ Ynon Complicated than it was at first considered. In 
proportion as greater number of elements are ofiTered to our 
discussion, we have found that the limit of perpetual congelation 
is not exclusively a function of the latitude, and that it is not at 
the equator that this limit attains the greatest elevation above the 
level of the sea. It is, in the first place, requisite to ascertain the 
fiacts and arrange them suitably. The variation of temperature in 
different seasons; the dryness of the air; the thickness of the maaa 
of the clouds ; the proportion of the limit to the total height of the 
summit ; the proximity of neighbouring summits equally covered 
with snow ; the steepness of the slopes ; the extent, the position, 
and the height of the plains; the radiation from those plains, ac- 
cording as they may be wooded, dothed in grass, or overspread 
with arid sands; the direction of the prevailing winds, and dieir 
contact with the sea ; such are the causes, acting simultaneously, 
and one of which only*-the variation of the temperature— depends 
mainly on the latitude. This last cause is undoubtedly the most 

•iu. 944. energetic." From such considerations, he concludes * " that the 

prodigious elevation of the snows on the Tibetan slope of the 
Himalaya, betvreen the rivers Gundhuk and Sutledge, admitbed 
of a satisfiEu^tory solution by means of the radiation of heat from 
the adjacent table-land, as well as from the serenity of the sky 
and the scanty snows which frJl in an air intensely cold and ex* 
tremely dry." Thus he, in the main, coincides with the opinion of 
LfOrd, that the anomalous height of the limit of perpetual congehh 
tion on the southern slope of Hindoo Koosh results from the great 
extent and elevation of the country stretching southvnirds of it 
The great summit of Hindoo Koosh Proper, remarkable for its 
vast mass and elevation, as well as for giving name to the whole 
range, is situate at an angle where the culminating ridge, previously 
running east and west, turns to the south-west, or rather in a direc- 
tion still more inclined to south. It is in lat. 35^ 40', long. 68® 50,' 
and at Kabool, distant above eighty miles to the south, is dis- 

• Barnet' Bokh. tincUy visible, overtopping the lofty eminences intervening,^ and 
entirely enveloped in snow. Viewed from Kaita Sang, in the 


Konshan Pb88> and distant ten milea south, its appearance ia 
very sublime. The outline is serrated^ it being crowned by a 
Buccession of lofty peaks, with sides often perpendicular, and it is 
wrapped in a perpetual covering of snow ^ in all parts not too steep f e.i.o. MtJ)oc 
to admit its lying. This vast summit is visible from Kunduz, a 
hundred and fifty miles north.^ Though the engineers belonging * BumM, boUi. 
to the British force stationed at Kabool were for two yearsin sight '^^* 
of Hindoo Koosh, it does not appear that any measurement has been 
made of its height. Lord and Leech, who ascended the Koushan 
Pass, which traverses the eastern shoulder of the summit, con- 
jectured the crest of the pass to be fifteen thousand feet above the 
Bea,^ and as the highest peaks towered hi above them, the ele- 1^^ ^''~ 
vation of the culminating point may, with much probability, be 
conjectured to exceed twenty thousand feet. East and west of 
this great summit, numerous subordinate ridges stretch from the 
culminating range in a direction nearly due south, and paraUel to 
each other, inclosing between them a succession of gorges or nar- 
row vallejTS, up which various passes run, and afford communica- 
tion between A^hanistan and Turkestan. Above twenty of these 
Talleys have been ascertained to exist in a distance of about a 
hundred and fifty miles, between the Khawak Pass and Bamian, 
where the range of Hindoo Koosh may be considered to terminate 
to the west. Of these passes, the most important, the Khawak, 
the Shutul, the Sir Ulung, the Purwan, the Koushan, the Gwa« 
lian, and a few others, are described under their titles in the alpha- 
betical arrangement. The total length of Hindoo Koosh, or that 
part of Kouenlun extending from Karakorum to Bamian, is about 
eight hundred and fifty miles. At the south-western extremity 
the range becomes considerably depressed, so as generally to be no 
longer regarded as part of Hindoo Koosh, but deemed merely a 
connecting elevation between that range and the Koh-i-Baba, 
running east and west, a little to the south. Yet so high is that 
tract, though depressed as compared with Hindoo Koosh, that the 
crests of the passes which traverse it have elevations which 
in other regions would be thought extreme: Kaloo, 10,883; 
Oonna, 11,320; Hajeguk, 11,700 ; Erak, 12,909 feet.* To the 
west of Bamian we may, in the Huzareh mountains, trace the con- 
tinuation of the great chain, called by Humboldt the Kouenlun, 

* See Bamian, and the table of heights in Afghanistao, and the aathori- 
ties there quoted. 


and more generally Hindoo Kooah (see Huzabbh Mountaihb) ; 

and still farther west, in that table-land which, with an elevatiaa 

of from three thousand to four thousand feet, extends across 

> FFMer, Khor*. Persia,^ and is connected both with the Caucasus, properly so 

boidt, Aiie cen- Called, and with the Taurus of Asia Minor. This has been shewn 

•'w'i'iJu xxui. ^y Humboldt 2 not to have escaped the comprdiensive views and 

ISO. research of the (heek geographers. Of the passes orer Hindoo 

•Wood's omui, Koosh, that of Khawak, though probably the easiest,' aa already 

mentioned, is little frequented, partly because the country 

lying immediately north of it is less important, in a political, 

commercial, and military point of view, than those fturther west ; 

partly on account of dangers apprehended from the Kafirs wfao 

infest it. The Koushan Pass has of late years been much fire- 

* Hind. Ko<Mb, qucnted, as Leech ^ observes, " not so much from its being kse 

free of material difficulties, as from its being less infested by rob- 
bers than others." The route by Bamian i^pears to be the only 
one ascertained to be practicable for artillery, which has been con- 

* Wood. Route of veyed over both the Hajeguk and the Erak passes.' Though the 

Kabool and Tur- / . _ . Jj . _^i. rn • • i J- • 

koftan, 24. clevatiou of the ground to the north of Bamian m general dmu- 

nishes as the road proceeds northwards, the height in many 
places is considerable. The heights of the passes, traversed on the 

* Id. ut nipra, road northwards, in Kunduz, are as foUow-^that of Akrobat,^ 
*^ (lat. 34** 56', long. 67*^ 40') 10,200 feet ; Kara Kotul Oat. 35*» 26', 

long. 67*" 53'), 10,500 ; of Dundun Shikun (lat. 35"* 12', long. 
67** 42'), 9,000 ; the fort of Kanrard, four miles north of the last- 
mentioned place, 5,600. 

The passes, already described as traversing the range in a direc- 
tion north and south, cross-cut the strata, and afifbrd a remarkable 
insight into the geological structure of the mountain in the vicinity 
of the summit of Hindoo Koosh Proper. In the Koushan Pass, it 

7 Lord, Koh-i- wss fouud to cousist of a core ^ of granite of beautiful appearance, 

"°' ' ' the felspar being purely white, and the hornblende glossy, black, 
and collected into large spheroidal concretions, varying in size 
from two or three inches to upwards of a foot in diameter. 
This granite has been ascertained to form the interior part of the 

8 Burnw, u. 840. range to a great extent, being seen, both by Lord and Bumes,^ at 

the western extremity of Hindoo Koosh, north of Bamian, and 
there assuming an appearance resembling basalt. On each side 
of the granite are huge strata of slate, gneiss, chlorite, carbonate 
of lime, quartz, and, exterior to these, secondary limestone and 


fossQiferouB sandstones. The slate formation is much thicker on 
the south than on the north side of Hindoo Koosh ; in the former 
positioii it is between twenty and thirty miles thick,* in the latter, * Loid, p. so. 
only four or five miles. The strata run due east and west, and 
have an angle of seventy-five degrees with the horizon. There 
are strong indications of volcanic acticm in the valley of Ghor- 
hund^i at the base of Hindoo Koosh, and these are continued > id. ss, m. 
'westward beyond Bamian, being traced for one hundred miles in 
that direction. It maybe presumed that the earthquakes fre- 
quent at Kabool and in the valley of Jelalabad originate frx)m this 
cause. The principal minerals are silver,^ lead, iron, zinc, and *id.fi5. 
antimony. Gold' is obtained, according to Bumes, at Fouladut, > Bumai, u. 346. 
in the vicinity of Bamian, as well as copper and tin ; but the last 
is of such rare occurrence, that his cursory and unsupported men- 
tion cannot be received as sufficient evidence of its existence. Lord 
states that copper is not to be found in the parts of Hindoo 
Koosh lying north of Kabool, but that it is met with at Bajour, 
farther east, where also iron-ore of the finest quality abounds. 
Lead-ore of the richest quality is abundant firom Hindoo Koosh 
Proper to Bamian, and is extensively worked, but not so 
much so as formerly, as appears from the vast and skilful 
excavations of the Moguls still visible in the neglected mine of 
* Ferengal, at the base of Hindoo Koosh Proper. The black iron- 
ore of Hajeguk, near Bamian, is in such quantities as to form 
great hills, and is of very rich quality. 

Hindoo Koosh is in general characterized by barrenness, and 
in a remarkable degree by want of timber. Wood^ observes, 4 0zvi,ao6. 
that what most forcibly strikes a traveller in these regions is the 
nakedness of the country. " There are," he bajs, " no timber- 
yielding trees indigenous to the Hindoo Koosh, in which appel- 
lation I include the range from its first rise in Pamir to its 
termination at Koh-i-Baba, a remarkable mountain to the north- 
west of Kabool." There are, however, dwarf firs,* willows. » Mooter, i. 900. 
poplars, and birches, besides a few others introduced by man, and 
numerous fruit-trees, also owing their existence to his fostering 
care. The general fuel is a scrubby sort of furze-bush, affording 
a very scanty and insufficient resource in this bitter climate. 
Some indigenous vegetables are highly useful. The prangos, 
according to Moorcroft, is the most valuable fodder in the world.^ 'PunJ.BoUi. i. 


It varies in size, according to its age, from a smgle leaf, not 


covering mora than an inch in snifiMse, to a duster of leaves and 
flowers, spreading to a eircomfaence of twelve or eighteen feet. 
The leaves are long and feathering. When full-grown, they 
attain a length of two feet. The flowers are yellow, and produced 
in tnfts at the tops of stalks five or six feet high. The plant is 
perennial, hut does not attain perfection until three years dd, 
after which it sows itself, and, as the natives assert, never dies. 
Hie leaves, flowers, stems, and seeds are made into hay, which is 
said to he so nutritious as to fetten sheep in twenty days. Grow- 
ing in the bleakest and most sterile spots, and requiring no culture, 
Moorcroft observes, " that it might be introduced with national 
advantage into many parts of Britain, and would conTcrt her 
heaths, and downs, and highlands, into storehouses for the supply 
of innumerable flocks." The seeds which that public-spiiited 
man sent home had lost their yegetating quality. It is dassed 
by botanists among UmheUifent, and supposed to be iden t i c al 
^ iu. e. sa. with the tt^iltKiii mentioned by Arrian.^ Rhubarb ^ grows wild 

Mooter* L SOS. i.w.ji-c^i. 

m vast quantities, and the eastern part of Hindoo Kooah may, 
perhaps, be regarded as its most fevourite locality. The quality 
has been found equal to that produced in any other region. 

The zoology of Hindoo Koosh is varied and interesting. 

MoSSTlJo. "^^ l^ang? an equine quadruped, roams in large herds over the 
table-lands, valleys, and less rugged mountains. Its height is 
that of a small horse. In shape it resembles the horse in some 
degree, but partakes also of the peculiarities of the ass, so that it 
might be considered a quagga, but that it is without the stripes 
which distinguish that beast, whose haunts, moreover, in the 
burning deserts of Africa, are much at variance with those of 
the kiang. Its fleetness enables it easily to distance pursuers ; 
but it may sometimes be surprised in rugged places. The yak^ 
or grunting ox, is also wild in these mountains, which seem to 

*Moorer.L800; be its native soil, and where it most appears to thrive.* It 

Vifiu^ U. 977, 

requires no care, and is of great use for the saddle, for burthens, 
and for yielding milk. This animal seems most at ease when the 

* Wood's ozot, temperature ^ is below zero. The zho, a mule between this crea- 
^^' ture and the cow, is a very valuable animal. The other 

animals most requiring notice are the hUchkar, or wild sheep, 
of the size of a small horse, and bearing huge curling horns ; 
the rass, apparently a large species of antelope, considered by 

* ILSTS. Vigne^ to be identical with the mar-khur, or gigantic goat; 

HIN— HOH. 249 

the miuk deer, the ibex, the horn of which is generally above 
four feet in length ; the goat-deer, the bear, the wolf-leopard, 
a nofndeacript animal, having some resemblance to a tiger ; the 
lynx, fox, ounce, marmot, hare, eagle, vulture, raven, and various 
kinds of partridges. 

Besides the heights set down above, as ascertained in the 
▼icimty of Bamian and in Kunduz, the elevation of the fol- 
lowing points has been stated (9 — 10) in the article on 
Afghanistan. Summit north of Peshawur; summit north of 
Jelalabad; summit of Koushan, Khawak Pkss, Khawak Fort. 
According to the limits assigned to Hindoo Koosh in the present 
article, it extends between lat. 34<* d(/— 37"*, long. 68^— 78^". 

HINGLAJ, in Beloochistan, on the Aghor river, about 
twenty miles from its embouchure in the Indian Ocean. It is a 
celebrated place of pilgrimage for Hindoos, in consequence of 
being one of the fifty-one^ pitas or spots on which the dis- J^J^'^Jt^ 
severed limbs of Sati or Doorga were scattered. Pottinger ^ 'W. 
states that it is dedicated to KaUe, or the goddess of fate, who 
in Hindoo mythology is identical with Doorga.' He informs us ^ * iT-'rlralS!' 
that, dose to the temple, is a well, into which several hundred Sketch of Reii- 
iifithoms of rope have been let down without reaching the bottom. Htoduf^ir' 
The pagoda is a low mud edifice, containing a shapeless stone, * *^ 
the object of idolatrous adoration. Lat. 25"" 33', long. 65"" 3(/. 
HINGOL.— See Aghob Ritbb. 
HISARUK.— See Hissabuck. 

HISSARUCK, in Afghanistan, in the valley of Jelalabad, and B.i.o.Mi.Doe.; 
fifteen miles south-east of the town bearing that name, is a village i848, p. lao, ' 
on a small river also called Hissaruck, winch, rismg in the Sufeid ^^'^'I^^IS^' 
Koh, flows northerly, and faUs into the river of Kabool. The bMt 
village is situate in lat. 34'' 13', long. 1(f 35'. 

HISSARUCK.— A valley in Afghanistan, about thirty miles b.i.c. uu Doe.; 
west of the village of the same name above described. It is pm^s; id.oxvi, 
sitoate on the Kurkutcha P^s, which is south of the main route ^^' 
firom Kabool to Jelalabad. The road is very difSicult at this 
place, and impassable for wheel-carriages. The neighbourhood 
abounds in gardens, fiimous for their fine pomegranates, which 
have no seeds. Lat. 34'' 14', long. 69"" 53'. 

HOHLAL, in Sinde, avillage on the route from Bukkur to bjxi. Ms. Dee. 
Hyderabad, and a hundred miles north of the latter place. It 

250 HOJ— HOO. 

IB situate in a jungly tract, eighteen miles from the left bonk d 
the Indus. Lat. 26'' 41', long. 6S« 14'. 

E.I.C. Ml. Doe. ; HOJA JAMOTE KA OOTE, in Beloochistan, near die mxtib. 

iMoi miTTd* ®™ frontier of Lus, a village, or rather encampment* hebnging to 

La Hotte, Mem. Hoja Jamotc, a chieftain of the Jamote tribe. It consists of about 

Ttrrii. of LuB. forty huts, made of mats, and is capable of sending into the 6dd 
about a hundred men armed with matchlocks. The heat here is 
so excessive in summer, that the people are then obliged to tab 
refuge from it in*the mountains to the north-east. Though an in- 
considerable place, it has of late attracted attention, in cooseqoeoee 
of its being ascertained that rich lodes of copper have been d»- 
covered in its vicinity. The ore which has been extracted and 
smelted in small quantities, afforded a large per-oentage of metiL 
but further operations have been stopped by the Jam or mkr of 
Lus, who threatened the Hindoo adventurers that they should be 
buried alive if the works were renewed. The ores of antisuiiiji 
lead, and silver are also reported to be abundant in the same 
vicinity. Hoja Jamote is in lat. 26^ 13', long. 66'' 55^ 

B.I.C. Ms. Doe. HONSHAIRA. — ^A village in A%hanistan, twenty-two mik» 

north of Mittunkote. It is situate on an ofibet of the ri?er 
Indus, and a mile from the main channel. Lat. 29^ ll'» long* 
7(y 88'. 

MaMOD, Kaiat, HOORMARA, in Beloochistan, a small town and port on the 

shore of the Arabian Sea. It formerly belonged to the province 
of Mekran, but has lately placed itself under the protection of the 
Jam of Lus, to avoid being reduced to subjection by the Imam of 
Muscat. The port has a few small vessels, which trade to the 
shores of Arabia, Persia, Sinde, and Cutch. The Jam of has 
appoints the governor, and receives a revenue annually of 1,000 
rupees. The surrounding country for several days' journey is oi 
the most barren description and dreary aspect. The populatian 
of the town is about 2,000. Lat. 25* 18', long. 65** fi'. 

Hough, Nwr. Exp. HOORMUK.— A small town in the Punjab, on the read 
made by the Mogul emperors from Rotas to Attock. It is situate 
in a very difficult country, abounding in intricate, deep, and nairow 
defiles. Lat. 33° 45', long. 72*» 51'. 

£.i.aMs.Doo. HOOSENEE, in Afghanistan, a village on the route from 

Kandahar to Furrah, and ninety miles east of the latter placC' 
Lat. 32** 8', long. 63*» 38'. 

HOOSHIARPOOR.— See Hoshtabpub. 

HOO— HUB. 251 

HOOSSEIN BELA, in Sinde, a Tillage on the route from e.i.c. m*. doc. 
Subznicote to Shikarpoor, and fifteen miles east of the latter place. 
It is situate on the left hank of the Indus, here crossed by a 
much-frequented ferry, generally called the ferry of Azeezpoor» 
which place, however, is above a mile north-east. The Indus is 
here divided into two branches : the eastern, called the Dtmd, is 
about a hundred and fifty feet broad and twenty-four feet deep ; 
the western branch is very wide, between thirty and forty feet 
deep, and is separated from the eastern by an island a nule and a 
half in breadth. At a short distance higher up there is a good ferry 
over the undivided stream of the river, and that would be a pre- 
ferable place for the passage of any considerable number of persons, 
but the boatmen prefer the lower ferry, as nearer their village. 
This latter ferry is sometimes called Amil Got, from the village of 
Amil on the western side. (See Amil Got.) Hoossein Bela is 
in kt. 27*> 52^. long. 69*». 

HOSHYARPUR» in the Punjab, a small town near the m oorar. i. 119. 
eouthem base of the Himalaya mountains, and on the route from 
Lahore to Nadaun. Lat. 31^' 36', long. yS"" 56'. 

HOUZI AHMED KHAN, m Afghanistan, a village on the e.i.o. xi. Doe. 
route from Kandahar to Shawl, forty -five miles south-east of the 
former place. Lat. 31° 6', long. 65° 56'. 

HOUZI-MEER DAOUD, in Western Afghanistan, a halting- e-i-c um. Doc 
place, important on account of a reservoir of water. It is on the 
route from Herat to Kandahar, and fourteen miles south of the 
former dty. Lat. 34** IC, long. 62** Itf. 

HOUZ-I-MUDDUD KHAN, in Western Afghanistan, is aB.i.c.ifs.Doe. 
halting-place and reservoir for water, on the route from Kandahar 
to Herat, and twenty-six miles neaily in a westerly direction from 
the former place. It is situate about four miles north of the right 
or northern bank of the Urghundab river, on an excellent road, 
and is important on account of the abundant supply of water from 
a canal which nms parallel to the road for several miles. The 
country in the immediate vicinity is rather barren, and yields 
Httle forage, except Juwassi, or camel-thorn. There is, however, 
at intervals the appearance of considerable cultivation, and large 
flocks of sheep and goats are to be seen. Lat. 31° 31', long. 
65° 5'. 

HUBB.— A small river in Beloochistan, rises in the hilly fS^'p^ifiTTcw- 
country north-east of Bek, in the j^ovince of Lus. It takes a ie«> Mem. <m 

252 HUB— HUF. 

■oath-westerly ooune, and four mUes north-east of the town of 

Lyaree falls into the Poorally riter, in lat. 25'' 40", long. 66° 26^. 

> B.I.C. Ml. Doe. ; HUBB. ^ — ^A river forming for a considerable distance the veit- 

*jMr1u!!^l^' ^™ frontier of Sinde, and dividing it from Beloochistan. It has been 

1840, p. Qio, traced downwards from Hoja Jamote,^ on the northern boimdarr 

comitrj betron ^ ^^* ^ ^^» ^^ 1^> ^<^' ^^ ^^'» <^^ ^ Supposed to riseiMv 

^|2|][^||^*^ that place. For abont twenty-flve miles in the upper part of its 

course it flows south-easterly, and then turning doe south, hoUi 

its way for about fifty miles in that direction. It then turns to the 

south-west, and, after a total length of a hundred miles, ftllsinto 

the Arabian Sea, on the north-west side of Cape Monxe, in kt 

• i^ 0^ 24^' 50", long. 66^ 36'. De la Hoste < states, that for a distance d 

fourteen miles from the mouth, water was in the end of summer 
found to the depth of eight inches, and that in some places deep 
pools exist, abounding in fish and alligators. He adds, that tiie 
4Kaist,9oa. river is said never to fail in the driest seasons. Masaon^ however 
states, that it is only on extraordinary occasions that the water of 

• Joor. Af. soe. the Hubb reaches the sea, and in this he is supported by Hart,^ wbo 
Joor! ftoinKam- ^^^^^^^^ ^^ about fifteen miles above the mouth, where the channel 
ohM to HiDffiij. was a hundred yards wide. Though, in consequence of hnvj 

rains, there was then a large body of running water, he found but 

a small stream on his return a short time after, and was infbnned 

it would soon cease to flow, and that water would then be found 

only in detached pools. The whole course is described as a sac- 

cession of rocky or gravelly gorges in the rugged and barren 

Pubb mountains. 

B.i.c.Mi.Mtp; HUDEAH KHAD, in A%hanistan, a village on the nmte 

Wood, Khybar fi^ni the Khyber Pass to Kabool. It is distant ninety miles esst 

of the latter place, twelve miles south of Jehdabad, and dght^. 

miles north-west of Peshawur. It is situate on the southern route, 

which passes through Nungnehar and along the base of Snfeid 

Koh, and which, though more direct than the northern by Jdala- 

bad, is less frequented, on account of the great number of passes 

and the turbulent and predatory character of the tribes in its 

neighbourhood. The village is in lat. 34° 16', long. 70° 24'. 

B.I.C. Ml. noe. ; HUFT ASYA, or HUFTASAYA, in Afghanistan, is a viDsge 

si^ Ai^MO; ^th a fort, on the route from Ghuznee to Kabool, and distant 

AtkinMo, Exp. twenty-three miles north-east from the former place. There are 

into Afic* S4Ba 

numerous streams and a fine tank of water. The country is well 
cultivated, the soil being formed into terraces carefully constructed 

HUF— HUL, 253 

on the slopes of the hills. The road near it is in general good, 
though rather sandy. It is 8,420 feet ahove the sea. Lat. 
33*^49'. long. 68** 16'. 

HUFT KOTUL,' in Afghanistan, is on the route from Jela- > e.i.c. mi. doc; 

Rmufli'c Maw t^ 

labad to Kabool, and ahout thirty-two miles east of this latter szpT^Aik. ma; 

place. The name signifies " seven passes/' though Hough s^ di*. in ai^. 

reckoned eight, and remarks, " an enemy might dreadfully annoy op. at xabooi, 

a column moving down this last descent, as they would have a ^,^.^[^27j|i. 

flanking fire on it ;" and in frkct, in this defile, ahout three miles ^8- 

long, was consummated the massacre of the British force in the 

disastrous attempt to retreat from Kahool at the commencement 

of 1842. Here also,^ in the September of the same year, ^^^^^^^ ^^- 

Afgfaans, after their defeat at Tezeen, attempting to make a stand, 

were again utterly routed with great slaughter by the British 

army under General Pollock. Lat. 34'' 21^ long. GQ"* 27^ 

HUJAMREE,^ in Sinde, is an offset of the Sata, or great > OKAmt, onioiai 
eastern channel of the Indus, and is called in the upper part iilSduT^ bLim^, 
of its course the Seeahn. The Hujamree mouth is wide, *"•*•* •!^*'*' 

1 'ii •■*! « *■!»» •% Id. P6ft.N*rr. 7. 

but rapidly narrows mland to about five hundred yards; at 
Vikkur, twenty miles from the sea, it is only about a hun- 
dred and seTenty yards wide; and still higher up, near its 
junction with the Sata, its breadth is found not to exceed 
fifty yards. In 1831 it was navigable for boats from the 
sea to the entrance into the Sata, as the small flotilla which con- 
veyed Captain Bumes and his party in that year passed this way. 
According to the statement of that ofiicer,^ there were then fifteen ' ^^^^ 
feet of water on the bar at high tide, and a depth of four fei- 
thoms all the way to Vikkur. He observes, however, adverting 
to the changing character of the river, " the next season per- 
haps Vikkur will be deserted." The anticipated change occurred, 
though not so early as suggested. In 1839 the British troops, 
inandung from Bombay to Afghanistan, ascended the Hujamree 
and landed at Vikkur ; and in the course of the same year this 
branch^ was closed by a change in its channel, caused by the 'KaniMdy, u.»i. 
violence of the current. The Hujamree mouth is in lat. 24** K/, 
long. 67^28'. 

HULEEJEE, in Sinde, a village on the route from Kurrachee e.ixl Mi. Doe. 
to Jurruk, and fif^ miles east of the former place. It is situate 
among the low hiUs north-west of Tatta, and near the western 
Bhore of a considerable dimi or piece of water communicating 

254 HUM— HUR. 

with the Indus by the KuUeree water-ooune. Lat. 24® 5tf, lao%, 
67® 46'. 
E.I.G. Ml. Doc. HUMBOOWA, in Sinde, a village on the route from Shikar- 

poor to Larkhana, and eighteen miles south-west of the former 
place. It is situate twelve miles from the right bank of the Indus, 
and in that scantily cultivated tract where the fertile alluvial sofl 
adjoining the river degenerates into the Pat or desert of Shikar- 
poor. Lat. 27® 48', long. 68® 37'. 
HUNGOO.— See Hanou. 
B.I.O. Ml. Doe. HUNJUNBY, in the Punjab, a village on the left bank of the 

Chenaub river, nineteen miles south from its confluence vnth the 
river Ravee. Lat. 30® 20', long. 71** 37'. 
Wftiker*! Map of HURDEH, in the Punjab, a village on the route from Attn± 
N.w. Prontier. ^^ Fcrozpoor, scvcnty miles north-west of the latter phice. Lat 

81® 49', long. 73® 54'. 
I B.I.C. Ml. Doe. HUREEKE,^ in the Punjab, a village situate on the ri^t bank 
of the Ghara river, three miles below the confluence of the Suthij 
and Beas. The name Ghara is in this instance given to the river 
with some latitude, as it is not usually so called above a spot 
« Jour. As. 6oe. twdve milcs below Hureeke.^ The site of the village is on the 
wade'i voxaga high bank of the river, and, when the water is low, distant a mile 
brM^Ve^n?^' and a half from the ferry. Though a smaU phioe, the trade is 
Atkinion, Exp. very important, as nearly the whole traffic with Hindoetan, from 
> Wade, ut Miprm. Afghanistan, Kashmir, and the Punjab, passes through it.^ There 
is besides great local traffic between the districts in its immediate 
vicinity on both sides of the river. During some days that Wade 
remained there, thirty-two boats, with three men to each, were 
incessantly employed, from morning till night, in transporting 
loaded carriages and beasts of burthen from one side to the 
other. No diminution of activity was observable during the 
period, but there was throughout a uniform scene of bustle and 
business. A body of 400 or 500 horse is stationed here by 
the government of the Punjab, to prevent its fanatic Sikh subjects 
« Barnes' Bokh. from crossing to devastate the British territories.^ Hureeke is 
*• *• in lat. 31° 10', long. 74° 53^. 

HURIPUR FORT.— See Hakipoob Fort. 
HURJPUR.— See Haripooh. 
1 E.I.C. Ml. Doc HURREAH, in the Punjab,^ a village on the route frx>m 
Ramnuggur to Pind Dadun Khan, and twenty miles east of the 
latter place. It is situate near the left bank of the river Jailum, 

HUIU-HUS. 255 

in a country described by Bumes^ as a sterile waste of underwood. *Bokh. l 4o. 
Lat. 32** 38'. long. 73° 8'. 

HURROO.— See Hahu. 

HURRUND, or HURROOND.— A smaU and hilly district, L««h, Rep. on 
with a town of the same name, in the south-eastern angle of b "ro^^PtoL'^. 
Afghanistan, westward of the Derajat. The town of Hurrund is of sikiu, 6; Mat- 
situated on the route from Dera Ghazee Khan to Cutch Ghmdava. ^t Bdooch. ' 
It has been lately taken by the Sikhs. It has a fort and a con- '"* 
siderable number of houses. Lat. 29"^ 25', Ipng. 70° 12^. 

HURVOOB.— A village in Afghanistan, one hundred miles Waiker, Map of 
east of Ghuznee, and seventy miles south-east of Kabool, in lat. ^^'' 
33° 43', long. 69° 52'. 

HURY RIVER.— See Hbri Rood. 

HURYH. — A village of Kashmir, at the south-eastern base vigne, Kashmir, 
of Seta Sar, a lofty and picturesque mountain bounding the 
valley on the west. On the mountain side above the village is a 
spring hemmed in with masonry, and adjoining a forest, called by 
the natives Dunduk Wun, signifying " the wood of abduction," 
in consequence of a tradition of Hindoo mythology. Lat. 34° 29', 
long. 74° 3'. 

HUSARA.— See Astor. 

HUSHTMY, in Afghanistan, a village situate on the Dura-i- e.i.c. Mi. doc. 
Sarwan, a stream tributary to the Moorghab river. Lat. 35° 14', 
long. 64*> 48'. 

HUSHTNUGGUR (or "the eight towns ")•— A town and BumeiToi. Pow. 
fortress of the province of Peshawur, situate north of the Kabool ^f ^■; Afg.**"" 
river, and twenty miles north of the city of Peshawur. The sur- P«nJ- *• »«; 

J. . J. .1 t >^ 1 1 !• ji 1^ Jour. At. Soc. 

nmndmg country is very fertile, beautiful, and well watered, but i8m, p. 479, 
much exposed to the attacks of the restless and fierce tribes to MaV^f r^'awu* 
the northward. Lat. 34° 16', long. 71° 45'. 

HUSSAINWAH. — A village of Sinde, on the route firom b.i.c. mi. doc 
Sehwan to Larkhana, and sixteen miles south of the latter place. 
It is situate on the western bank of a dund or stagnant piece of 
water, in a country rendered rough by jungle and water-courses. 
Lat. 27° 16', long. 68° 12'. 

HUSSEE. — A village in the Punjab, about eight miles south e.i.c. m>. doc 
of the left bank of the river Chenaub, and sixteen miles east of 
its junction with the river Jailum. Lat. 31° 6', long. 72° 22'. 

HUSSUN ABDUL,! in the Punjab, near the east bank of » Moorcrofi, Puiy. 
the Indus, is so called from containing the tomb of a reputed BomM, Bokh. i. 


256 HUT— HUZ. 

Mahometan aaint of tlial name. It is ritaate ia a dcUgbtfoi 
s Bph. Aec of valley,^ watered by numerous springs, which gush firom amoog 
^"^ the rocks.* Here are the ruins of a pleasure*groand and small 

palace, tastefully formed by the Mogul Emperor Akbar, tad 
though much decayed, displaying yet an exquisite com bi nati o n of 
elegance and refined luxury. Lat. 33^ 54! ^ long. 72^ 42^. 
B.1^ xi. Doe. HUTIAL.— A village in the Punjab, situate on the route 

from Chumba to Doda, fifty-two miles north-west of the fanner 
place and thirty-five southof the latter. Lat. 32» Z^, Icmg. W^. 
Bxo. Ml. Doe. HUWELEE.— A village in the Punjab, situate near the left 

bank of the Chenaub, about eight miles south of the oonllueace 
of the Jailum with that river. Lat. SI"" 3', long. 72^ T. 
BonMi^ Bokh. L HUZARA, or HUZROO, in the Punjab, a commercial town 
^ situate on the route from Lahore to Attock, and twenty-seven 

miles east of the latter place. The inhabitants are Afghans, and 
speak the Pushtoo language. Lat. 33"" 50". long. 72^ 45'. 
»r^ Jour, la HUZAREH COUNTRY,' in Afghanistan, an extensive moon- 
tainous region, so called because inhabited by a numerous Taitir 
race of that name. It is by some geographers considered to be 
the Paropamisua of the Cheeks, and, viewed as coextenrnve with 
• Aoe. ofCnibai, that maze of mountains, is described by Elphinstone ^ as extend- 
ing " between Caubul and Herat, having the Uzbeks on Hie north, 
and the Dooranees and Ghiljies on the south ;" he states the 
length to exceed three hundred miles, and the breadth to be 
about two hundred. The shape is compact, and the suifaoe is 
about eighty thousand square miles. Hie population generallj 
of this extensive tract, considered in a physical point of view, 
have the Mongolian or Tartar physiognomy, and are divided by 
Elphinstone into two great classes ; the Eimaoks, for the most 
part, holding the southern, the Huzareh Proper, the northern 

Probably the following are the safest limits to assign to 

* Barnes states, '* some hundred springs;'' Von Hfigd, three 
(ill. 97). This last writer (iii. 71) denies that the place is a TaOer; he 
also reproves Moore and Hamilton for giving too flattering a descriptiaa of 
it ; but it is not to be forgotten that the gorgeous Akbar expressed the feel- 
ings excited in his mind on the Tiew of the spot, by exclaiming Wah I the 
nsnal interjection of admiration, and hence the rained garden is still lo 
named. Elphinstone styles it a valley, and the aathorities to which we hare 
referred, and even the banm himself sabseqoently (98, 99), are warm intiieir 
praises of the beaaties of the place. 


this region : cm the north, Tarkeatan ; eaat, the xvrex of Kun- 

duz, the Pughman range, and Koh-i-Baha ; 4outh-eaat, the valley 

of the Urghundab ; south, the mountain-ranges rising to the north 

of the plain country, about the lower part of the Helmund ; 

^vest, the Khooshk, or Khaskh river, and that of Subz^wur. 

Though very little explored, we know the general surfieuse to be 

lofty, as considerable streams flow fi^m it in every direction ; to 

the north, the Kooshk,» Moorghab.^ tl^e river of Andkhoo, the Jlnd'^h^^"^"*. 

Bund-i-Burbur ;^ to the north-east, the river of Kunduz ; to the * i<l i. so-, jour. 

south-east, the river of Ghuznee ;* south-west, the Urghundab^ lie. cokoiiy.'Rep. 

and Helmund ;8 to the south, the Khash Bood, the Furrah Rood, onKhorMnn j 

Prawr, Jour, in 

the Adruscund ; to the west, the Heri Rood. This would indicate KhonMn, sm, 

a considerable general elevation, yet not so great as to reach that s c^tohV, ut 

lofty region of the atmosphere where the highly rarefied air is ^p"** "Ijvh. u 

unable to hold much moisture in suspension ; it being known that u. 109. 

the air on very lofty mountains is characterized by a want of 7 g,p J^' j^*' ^^' 

moisture * quite unknown near the level of the sea. Besides the • b ic. Ms. doc ; 

^ . Eiph. 115 J Mas- 

elevation of the Koh-i-Baba, and of the passes connected with aoo, Bai. ai^. 

Bamian, which have heights varying from 9,000 to 16.000 feet, J^^; ^^ 

others very considerable have been ascertained in the Hu- im«, p. « ; orif. 

zareh country. The Goolkoo range,' west of Ghuznee, is 13,000 obs! in Afg.T 

feet high ; some mountains on the southern border of the Huzareh ^*^'* ^*""» 

have heights varying from 10,000 to 13,000 feet ;* the elevations » aL ResMrches, 

r • '^ f 1 ^ . 1 ^ 1. J J -1 XTlli.«M. Gerard, 

of vanous summits of a range about eighty or a hundred miles ^a vaiiey of 
east of Herat are computed at from 12,000 to 14,000 feet.* f pJ"- „ ,^ 

'^ 1 J E.I.C. Ms. Doc 

The country of the Eimauks, or that more to the south and 
west, according to Elphinstone,^ who wrote from the reports of the < 479. 
natives, " is reckoned less mountainous than that of the Huzareh ; 
but even there the hills present a steep and lofty f&ce towards He- 
rat, the roads wind through valleys and over lofty ridges, and some 
of the forts are inaccessible, so that all visitors are obliged to 
be drawn up with ropes by the garrison. Still the valleys are 
cultivated, and produce wheat, barley, and millet." ConoUy *' i^'* ■«?«»» "7. 
considers the difficulty of the country to be greatly overrated, ajid 
states that the extensive route which he pursued nearly from east 
to west shewed it to be by no means so difficult as generally 
represented. The climate in the northern, or Huzareh part, is 
dreadfully severe, snow^ lying for six months continuously. « Barnes* sokh. 
The distress thence resulting is increased by the want of fuel, *' ^^' 
as, from some unexplained cause, neither the hills nor vales 

VOL. I. 8 


of this country produce trees, and the inhabitants are con- 
sequently reduced to the necessity of burning brushwood and 
cow-dung. The principal bush used for this purpose is 
a sort of furze ; and so laborious is its collection, that the 
population employ all the time that can be spared from agri- 

ft Wood, 0x111,908. culture in cutting and conveying it home.^ It its olmoustfaat 
such physical circumstances must ever preclude any great advance 
in civilization. Still something might be done by a consolidated 
government of a mild, firm, enlightened diaracter. At present 
the people are deplorably poor, in consequence of the oppressiou 
of their numerous barbarous chieftains, their incessant intestine 
wars, and the attacks of the neighbouring powers, who enslave 
the population, and carry off the catde, the only wealth of the 
country. Money is not current, its place, as with the pimitife 

• conoiiy, nt Latius, is Supplied by sheep,* which constitute the medium c£ 

Bokh. L177. ™** exchange where mere barter cannot be effected. Traders from 
Herat, Kandahar, and Kabool bring checked turbans, coarse cotton 
cloths, and chintzes, tobacco, dyes for felts, and carpets ; thoee 
from Turkestan bring rice, cotton, and salt. The Kimawks and 
Huzarehs give in return for these, slaves, kine, sheep, butter, as 
well as strong woollens, felts, grain, sacks, carpets, made from the 

7conoUj, utfapm, wool of their own flocks: they export no raw wool.^ In addition 
to the articles above mentioned, they bring to market lead and 
sulphur, and, with much probability, state that their mountains 
contain mines of copper and silver, but these they do not work, 
perhaps from the knowledge that to render these sources of 
wealth productive would only be to make them the prey of rapa- 

' i^* cious rulers and invaders.^ The trade of the country is alto- 

gether very small, in consequence of its general poverty, which is 
so severe tiiat salt is but rarely tasted by a large portion of the 

Subject to the most cruel treatment from all around them, the 
Huzarehs are cowardly rather than desperate men ; their spirit 
being broken by their misfortunes, they seem in general incapable 
of making a vigorous and combined effort to assert their rights. 
An exception to this, however, occurred some years ago, when 
Mir Yezdanbaksh, one of their chiefs, contrived to acquire the 
command over a great number of his countrymen, and gave great 
alarm to Dost Mahomed Khan. The simplicity, however, 
which characterizes the Huzareh was his ruin, as he was cir- 


cnmvented by the most detestable treachery, and cruelly put to 
death by Haji Khan Khaka,^ the infiimous and notorious Machia- • : 
yel of Afghan politics. So great is the simplicity of the Huzarehs, 
according to Elphinstone,^ that they believe the ruler of Kabool ^ m- 
to be as high as the tower of a castle. Like other rude people, 
they are much addicted to falsehood and theft. Their patient, 
laborious, and humble dispositions render them useful to the 
proud and impetuous Afghans, and hence considerable numbers 
find a livelihood in Kabool as scavengers, and in the exercise of 
similar employments of drudgery.* Wood, describing their * wood, oiw, 
appearance, states that " they are quite a Tartar race, and even ' 
more marked with the features of that nomade people than 
the Uzbeks in the valley of the Oxus. They strongly re- 
semble the Kirghiz of Pamir." ^ According to Elphinstone, s id. 109. 
the regiments of the great Tartar conquerors were called 
Hazanrehs, and he conjectures that some of those bodies, ori- 
ginally left to occupy the conquered country, may have given 
rise to this people.^ That their settlement in this region cannot 3 Eiph. 482; 
be of very remote date, is clear from the feet, that it was the NiHJrML*'"* 
original seat of the Afghans of Ghore, who destroyed the empire 
of the Sultans of Ghuznee, and foimded the Patan dynasty of 
Hindostan.^ The sweeping change of the population probably 4 p,ice, Mahome- 
took place about 1220-1225, when Zingis Khan, destroying J^„"^- "iJi®' 
Herat, Gulgula, and several other cities of Afghanistan, conquered 
the country as fer as the Indus.^ * It is singular that their lan-> ' Price, ii. 410- 
guage is Persian. The Huzarehs are Shia Mahometans ; the bj^; S^J^'^JJ]*'*' 
BSmauks, Sunnis. Elphinstone ® estimates the number of the J*' ^» **» ^• 
Huzarehs at from 300,000 to 350,000 persons ; Bumes,' at about ^ ^^ ^^^ ^ 
the same amount; Wood,^ at 150,000, which last seems alto- •oxut.aoo. 
gether too small a number for a country more extensive than 
England, and does not allow three to the square mile of a 
population, agricultural as well as pastoral. On the west, these 
tribes are subject generally to the Shah of Herat ; on the north, 
to the rulers of Bokhara and Kunduz; on the east, to Kabool ; 
but nothing can be more precarious than the authority of 
these powers, as the tribute must usually be levied by an armed 

* In the Ayeen Akbery, this event is stated to have taken place in the 
time of Halaku, the son of Zingis : — " The tribe of Hezareh are the remains 
of the Chaghtai army which Manga Khan sent into those parts to the assist- 


260 HUZ— HYD. 

force. In the whole oountiy, there are no places which can 
properly be called towna, Ohore» Meimuna* Siripool, Andkhoo, 
and some others, generally so denominated, being little more than 
fortified villages. The Huzareh and Eimauk country, with the 
limits which are above assigned to it, lies between lat. SP 80' 
— 37^ long. 62^—68**. 

B.I.O. Ml. Doc HUZRELWALA.— A village in the Punjab, twenty-three 

miles north-east of Mooltan, on the road from thence to Feroz- 
poor, and twelve miles from the left bank of the river Indus. Lat 
30» 16'. long. 7P 49'. 

HUZROO.— See HuziJtA. 

> Pott Ml, 800; HYDERABAD,^ in Sinde, is generally considered die chkf 

BanoB, ill. so ; ^, i..,., ,, 

Lord, Med. Mmn. towu of that coimtry, m consequence of its having been selected 
thVindu^V' ^ ^^^ residence of the chief Ameers, or those ruling the southern 
Lc«eh, on tho and principal part of the country. It is situate four miles east d 
79; Macmuido, the castem bank of the Indus, on an eminence of the low rocky 
jiror^Rf^t*" ""*g® called the Ghinjah hills, and in an island inclosed between 
soe. 18H P.8S4; the Indus and the Fulailee, a branch which, leaving the main 
Otttram, SI ; ' Stream about twelve miles above the town, communicates with it 
?!!"r^ ^^1??) about fifteen miles below. The Fulailee flows about a thousand 
yards east of the town, the base of the rampart being vreshed hj 
a creek from it in the season of inundation, though the whole 
branch Lb dry when the river is low. This fortress, which is es* 
teemed very strong by the Sindians, and would no doubt prove bo 
in their mode of warfare, was built nearly on the site of the an- 
cient Nerunkot, by Futteh Ali, the first Ameer. The outline is 
irregular, corresponding with the winding shape of the hill's brow, 
on the very edge of which the walls, for the greater part of their 
extent, rise to the height of horn fifteen to thirty feet. Tliey 
are built of burnt bricks, and are thick and solid at the base, but 
taper so much, and are so greatly weakened by embrasures and 
loop-holes with which they are pierced, that a few well-directed 
shot would demolish any part, and expose the defenders to the 
fire of the assailants. The ramparts are flanked by roimd towers 
or lofty bastions, at intervals of three or four hundred paces, whicb, 
combined with the height of the hill, give the place an imposing 
appearance. Where the walls do not rise immediately from the 
edge of the declivity, the defence is strengthened by a ditch of ten 
feet wide and eight deep. The rock is too soft to admit of being 

Miadon to Slndo. 


iMaurped, and slopes bo gently, that if the wall were breached, the 
rubbish would rest on the face of the bill, and afibrd footing for a 
storming party. The plateau ^ of the hill on which Hyderabad is * Wood, Owm. ao. 
built is a mile and a half long and seven hundred yards broad ; 
the height is about eighty feet, and on the southern part are the 
fortress and the suburbs or Pettah. There are about five thousand 
houses, meanly constructed of mud, one half of that number being 
within the fortress, the rest in the Pettah. The fortress contains 
the residence of the Ameers, and a massive tower, built as the re- 
pository of their treasures. The bazaar Lb extensive, forming one 
street the entire length of the town, and it displays considerable 
bustle and appearance of business. The most important manu- 
facture of Hyderabad is that of arms of various kinds, match- 
locks, swords, spears, and shields, and the skill of the workmen 
is said to be scarcely inferior to that attained in Europe. There 
is also a considerable manufacture of ornamental silks and cottons. 
A cemetery,^ which overspreads the northern part of the eminence, ' ^^ ^^' 
contains the tombs of the deceased members of the Talpoor d3masty, 
and of the preceding one of the Kaloras. lliat of Gholam Shah Ka- 
lora is a beautiful quadrangular building, with a handsome central 
dome. It la lined with fine marble, is highly ornamented with 
mosaic, and inscribed with sentences from the Koran. The tomb of 
the late Ameer Kurum Ali is also a handsome quadrangular building, 
surmounted by a dome and having a turret on each, comer. When 
the Belooches, under the conduct of Futteh Ali, of the Talpoor tribe, 
overthrew the Kalora dynasty, that successful chieftain gave to 
one branch of his relatives Khyerpoor, with a considerable district 
attached ; to another, Meerpoor, and allowed his three brothers to 
share with himself the government of Hyderabad and its depend- 
ent territory, comprehending the greater part of the country. 
Some light might be thrown on the relative power and resources 
of these divisions of Sinde by the statements furnished of their 
respective revenues. The Hyderabad family is said to have had 
an annual revenue equal to 150,000/. sterling,^ that of Khyerpoor, < Bunwt, Bokh. 
a revenue of 100,000/., and that of Meerpoor, of 50,000/. The *"**'* 
treasure accumulated by those chiefs is estimated by Btimes^ ' lud. 
to have amounted to 20,000,000/., but the whole appears to be 
conjectural, and such vague and baseless statements can command 
little confidence. As the Talpoor dynasty did not last quite a 
century, it is obviously impossible that the members of it could 

262 HYD— HUK, 

have accumulated so vast a treaBure from a revenue so moderate. 

Hyderabad is supposed to have a population of 20^000. Lat. 

25** 22^, long. 68^ 22^. 
E.I.C.M..DOCI HYDERKHAIL, or HYDERKHEL. in Afghanistan, is a 

is4s%.e4, oric village in a pleasant valley, watered by a feeder of the river of 
oblii^?**'* Logurh, very well cultivated, and highly productive. The village 
Houffhp Narr. of lies ou the route from Kabool to Ohuznee, from which last place 
AUinson, Exp. ' ^^ is distant thirty^five miles north-east. It is 7,637 feet above 
S'^y'^L*^' u. the level of the sea. Lat. 33« 58'. long. 68° 37'. 

Harelock. War in ^ 

Atg. u. y9. H YDER KHAN, in Afghanistan, a village on the route from 

SIC ICc Doc * c? ^ 

Ma^n, Bai.A%. Pcshawur to Jelalabad, by the Abkhana Pass. It is situate in 

Fu^. iii, «7. tjig hiiig which rise on the north-east, above the Kabool river. 

The population, about eight hundred, is supported by feirying 

travellers over the river on jalawans, or inflated hides, a vocation 

in which they exhibit wonderful intrepidity, activity, and address. 

Hyder Khan is in lat. 34° 13', long. 71° 28'. 

HYDRABAD.— See Htdbrabad. 

E.i.c.Mi.Doc.; HYDURZIE, or HYDURZYE, in Afghanistan, a village in 

imila, u. IS?'; ^ ^^ Valley of Pisheen, on the route from Kandahar to Shawl, and 

Hough, Narr. Exp. twcnty-five mUes north of the latter place. It is situate on the 

in Af|(. 70 ; Jour. ^ '^ 

As. See 1842, p. banks of a good stream, which appears to have no other name 
TiieSdL^A^!| ^"^ ^"^ (*^® Pushtoo word for river), and is inhabited by 
Atkiiiaoo,Eip.into Syuds, or alleged descendants of Mahomet, who are considered by 
ram. Rough Notes, the Afghans to be eudowed with high and miraculous powers. 
wir^ AfTusas. ^^ country is fertile, well cultivated, and rather populous. 

The elevation is 5,259 feet above the level of the sea. Lat. 3(f 

23', long. 66° 51'. 
'E.I.C. Ms. Doe. ; H YKULZYE,! in Afghanistan, is a large walled village on the 
1842, p.'fi5.^orif. route from Kandahar to Shawl, and thirty-five miles north of the 
Bar. •«<! Ther. latter place. It is situate about two miles south of the river 

Ideas.; Mil. Op. '^ 

in Afg. 221 ; Lora, iu a fertile and well-cultivated country, and has a copious 
£^pj^*Af|^77; supply of water from a canal. The inhabitants are principally 
Haveiocii, War in Syuds, or reputed descendants from Mahomet, much venerated 

Afjf . i. 288. ' 

by the superstitious Afghans. Here, on the 28th of March, 1842, 
a British army, under General England, met with a severe repuLse 
in attempting to force its way to Kandahar. Here, too, 
on the 28th of the next month, the same commander, with 
his army reinforced, totally routed the enemy, and marched 
through the pass. The number of the Afghans, on this 
last occasion, was estimated at fifteen hundred; of whom 

HYP— ILL. 263 

about thirty were killed. The village was then reduced to 
aahes. The bodies of eightecfn British soldiers who had fallen in 
the former action were found, after having been subjected to all 
the indignities suggested by feelings of barbarous triumph, and 
buried with due obsequies. The clergyman,^ who officiated on * Alien, Manh 
that occasion, makes the following reflection : " But little more SSTurf*"*** " 
than a month before, I had seen them in all the vigour of life ; 
nuiny of them so young that they seemed like blooming boys; and 
then to look at the blackened, sun-dried, and half-devoured 
skeletons before me— could they be the same !" Elevation above 
the sea, 5,063 feet. Lat. 30° 32', long. 66° 50^. 
HYPHASIS.— See Beas. 


IBRAHIM BANNAS.— A fort on the route from Kedje to e.i.c. mi. Doe. 
Belah, in Beloochistan, one himdred miles east of the former 
town. Lat. 26* 26Mong. 63*» 47'. 

IBRAHIM JOEE RIVER,^ in Western Afghanistan, rises b.i.c. Ms. Doe. 
in the Tymuni country, near Ghore, and, flowing southward, 
crosses the route from Herat to Kandahar, in lat. 32^ 22', long. 
63^ 20^, and one hundred and seventy miles north-west of the 
latter place. Its banks are high, irregular, stony, and a con* 
siderable distance apart. In time of flood, it Lb a large, rapid, 
unfordable stream, sometimes precluding the advance of caravans 
for several days together. When surveyed by a British emissary, 
in July, it was found to be thirty-seven yards wide^ eighteen 
inches deep, and to have a velocity of about a mile and a half an 
hour. Conolly,^ who crossed it in October, describes it as " hav- * Jour, to India, 
ing a little water in abroad bed, which is filled in spring ;" and s jour. Brag.^ 
Forster,* by whom it was crossed at Dilaram, caUs it a rivulet. J**- "• ^^ 

„,'•'.,... , , , ^ , » Jour. As. Soc. 

Below this, its direction is south-westerly, and after a total course i84o, p. 714, co- 
of, probably, a hundred miles, it is lost in the marsh of Ashkinuk, ^"oi^^ ^^" 
in lat. 32**, long. 62^ 50^. 8««»ttti. 

ILLIASSEE, a river, or rather torrent, in Afghanistan, rises ms. Doe. 
in the mountains held by the Murree tribe, between Kahun and 

264 INDUS. 

Humind* tmd in lat. 29^ iSf, long. 69^ 44'. After a coane of 
ninety miles, generally in a westerly direction, it la lost in die 
sultry plain of Cutch Ghindava, near Lehree, about lat. 29*^ l(f, 
long. 68^20'. 

INDUS, a great river of Asia, is the boundary of India on 

the west. Among the various tribes and people through whose 

territories it flows, it bears diflbnent names ; but that by which it 

is most generally known and most highly celebrated, is Indus, de- 

i wnford, in Ai. rivcd from the Sanscrit Sindhu^ * which word, changed by the 

Res Hi S48 SOB * 

▼m.'8i8,88i'.8Sft| Greeks into Sinthus, and by the Latins mto 8indus,'\' ultimately 

EMinimie Too^^' passcd into the name now in ordinary use. Though the vigilant 

Atien. ii. 11 ; ▼. jealousy of the Chinese, who rule I'ibet, has excluded Europeans 

▼., Indus in i^z fr^m that country, the inquiries of Moorcroft,' Trebeck, and 

ud PwtMript, Gerard have established, beyond any reasonable ground of doubt, 

• Moorer. 1.90S, that the souroc of the longest and principal stream of the Indus 

(J. Q,\KooDM^ ^ ^^ ^^ north of the Kailas mountain,} regarded in Hindoo 

J""; I**; mythology as the mansion of the gods,* and Siva's paradise, and 

Ret. iti. 401 ; whlch is probably the highest mountain in the world, being esti- 

Id! Jm. Mfl! 858. niated by Gerard ^ to have a height of 30,000 feet, and described 

♦Koonnwiir. f4i. by Moorcroft,* who viewed It from a table-land between 17,000 

' and 18,000 feet high, as a stupendous mountain, whose sides, as 

well as craggy summits, are apparently thickly covered with 

snow. The exact locality of the source may be stated vrith much 

probability to be in lat. dl"" 20^, long. 81® 15^$ Near its source 

e Moorer. Tr»- it bears the name of Sinh-kha-bab, or " lion's mouth,"* from a 

vei0, i.sei. superstitious belief that it flows from one. It first takes a 

north-westerly direction to Tuzheegung, about a hundred and 

twenty miles from the place of its reputed source. It is there 

* ifX>^ Sind or Sindhu, " the sea." Shakespear in v. 

f PUnyobseires, *' Indus incolii Sindns appeUttni." 

X Ritter (Erdkunde yon Aaien, i. 13) deriyes the name Kailas, or Kailasa, 
from JHl, '* to be cold." Ideler, in the index to that work, translates it hock 
gipfeh *' high sommit." Hodgson sUtes ** that Cylss is a general appellation 
for high ranges always covered with snow." (As. Res. xiy. 92.) Humboldt 
states that kylas signifies " cold mountain " {mtmiagM JMd)^ and ^^Mim* 
any '* yery elevated summit." (Asie Centrale, i. 112.) 

§ This is the opinion of Gerard, probably the highest authority on the sub- 
ject. Moorcroft, in the map accompanying his Memoir in voL zii. of As. 
Res., considers the source of the Eekung Choo as actually that of the Indus. 
The same opinion is given in his Travels (i. 363), and repeated by Bumes 
(Bokhara, ii. 223). See BiatTKa Cfioo, in the alphabetical arrangement. 

INDUS. 265 

jcHned OQ its left/ or soutib- western side, by the Eekung Choo* or 7 oma^ 

" river of CJartope," which rises on the western base of the Kailas ^^* *•*• 

mountain. Moorcroft ^ found the " river of Chotope/' at about * ab. Rat. zu. 

forty miles from its supposed source, " a clear, broad, and rapid, ***^"**^» "•***. 

but not deep, river." Within eight or ten miles of its source, 

in lat. 81'' 24', long. SO"" 34', it was found at the end of July to 

be two and a half feet deep, and eighty yards wide. The 

country through which these streams flow varies in elevation 

finom 15,000 to 18,000 fe^t. It is one of the most dreary 

regions in existence, the sur&ce being for the most part formed 

by the disintegration of the granite of the adjacent mountains* 

It is swept over by the most furious winds, generally blowing 

from the north. These are at once piercingly cold and parchingly 

dry, and no vegetation is visible but a few stunted shrubs and 

some scanty and frost-withered herbage. It is, however, the 

proper soil for the production of shawl-wool, which is obtained 

from the yak,** * the goat, the sheep, certain animals of the deer * Mooror. in ai. 

kind, and even, it is said, from the horse and the dog. OeraM (j. o!). 

The united stream bears the name of the northern confluent, J^y, aI.?S!I!xvi«. 
Sinh-kha-bab ; and, near the La Ghmskiel Pass, about thirty miles ^^ ; ^^^ ^adi- 
below the junction, the river leaves the table»land through which ' 
it had previously flowed, and enters the deep gorges of the great 
depression dividing the Kouenlun or Mooz Taugh from the Hima« 
lava. To this point, five miles from the Chinese frontier,^ and ' Tnbeek, in 

'^ Moorcr. J. 440. 

having an elevation of 14,000 or 15,000 feet, its course has been 
explored by Trebeck, the companion of Moorcroft. It is situate 
in lat. 32^ 56^, long. 79^ 25^ on the border of a sandy plain, or 
rather wide valley, studded with small lakes, having their edges 
incrusted with soda.f The river was here found to be about 
sixty yards wide, apparently deep, and in the middle of November 
frozen over in most parts. It is, however, fordable occasionally 
in this neighbourhood, becoming in summer shaUower during the 

* Gerard, just quoted, obeenres (245), '* the silky softness of the goat's 
fteece, and eyen its existence, depends on the arid air and yegetation," as the 
coldest tracts of the Himalaya, where not characterized by dryness, fail to sap- 
port this state of animal life in perfection. Tliis view of the subject is sup- 
ported by the observations of ConoUy on the Angora goat. (Jonmal of Roy. 
As- Soc. 1840, p. 159.) 

t This appears to be the farthest point to which the Sinh-kha-bab has 
been ascended by any European, though, as has been seen, its feeder, the " river 
of Gartope," was crossed and surveyed by Moorcroft much higher. 




Moorcr. Pui|J. 

* Ui npn, MO. 

• 0«nnl (A.), 
Map of Koona- 
wur ; fee also 
Genid (J. O.), 
Koonawur, IM, 
and Colebrook 
(H. T.). on the 
8aUi<Jf iour. 
As. Soc. 1. 808. 

* Moorcr. i. 969, 


• Yigna, U. 9« ; 
Moorcr. I. SOB ; 
Gerard (J. O.). 
oo the Spiti Val- 
ley, At. Rea. 
zviU. 2S8, *XSL 
» U. 10. 

progreae of xiight,'aiid deeper as the day advances* in oonaeqiiaioe 
of tlie melting of the snows on the adjacent summita, through the 
sun's heat. A few miles below this, the river turns neaily doe 
west for a short distance, and then takes the direction of north- 
west. At Uk-shi, which is about three hundred miles from the 
source, it was surveyed by Moorcroft,* and found to be about 
fifty yards wide. Close to Le, the capital of Ladakh, and thir^ 
miles below Uk-shi, the elevation of its bed is not less thsa 
10,000 feet; and if that of its source be aswnmfd st 
18,000, and its length, so fer, at three hundred and twenty 
miles, its fell * will be found to be twenty-five feet per mile ; 
above seventy times greater than (according to Renndl^ 
the fall of the Oanges through the plain of Bengal. Yet 
the descent of the bed of the Sinh-kha-bab is fer less rapid 
than that of the Sutluj,^ which in thirty miles descends 2,300 
feet, or about seventy-six feet in the mile. Holding its oonrse in 
a direction approaching to north-west, the Sinh-kha-bab, about 
fifteen miles below Le, is joined, opposite to Niemo, by the river 
of Zanskar, flowing fiom the district of the same name, and in 
a direction from south-west to north-east. The Zanskar* 
is a very rapid, turbid river ; the Sinh-kha-bab, a dear and 
placid stream. About twenty-five miles below this, and 360 firom 
its supposed source, Vigne^ found the river, at Kulutzi, crossed 
by a wooden bridge, and only twenty-five yards wide. The small 
size of the river, after a course of nearly four hundred miles, can 
only be accounted for by the excessive aridity^ of the elevated 
tract through which it has held its way. Moorcroft^ estimates 
t^e breadth of the river at this place at only twenty yards, but he 
found that it rose nearly forty feet during the season of inundation. 
Having flowed between seventy and eighty miles below this place, 
in a north-west direction, it receives from the south the river of 
Dras, which, rising in the mountains forming the north-eastern 
frontier of Kashmir, holds a north-easterly course of about ninety 
miles, and, receiving several streams both from the east and west. 

* Vigne (KaBhmir, ii. 341) states the eleyation of Le at about 10,000 
feet, according to which, the bed of the Indus there most be beloir that 
1. 417; u. 250. height. Moorcroft states the elevation of Le to be above 11,000 feet, and 
that of the confluence of the Zanskar riyer and Sinh-kha-bab, about twenty 
miles farther down the stream, and consequently less elevated, at nearly 
12,000 feet. 

INDUS. 267 

liscbaxges a considerable volume' of water at its confluence. > vigne^iLsso; 
Prom this confluence the Sinh-kha-bab takes a more northerlj >'«>'«'•*•*•*• 
Jirection. for about forty miles, to the fort of Kens, in lat. 35^ 
8', long. 75** 5(y, where^ it receives, from the north, the water of ' ^~r ~ ^ 
the Shy-yok, by far its most important tributary above the river indai, Jour. as. 
of Kabool. The Shy-yok, though not explored to its source by ^. y^^ J; 
any European, is considered, from the concurring testimony of the *'*; Moorcr. l 
natives, to have its origin at the southern end of an extensive 
glacier, or frozen lake, embosomed in a gorge on the southern side 
of the Karakorum or Mooz Taugh mountains, and in lat. 35^ 
20^, long. 77^ 35'. It holds a generally southerly course for about 
eighty miles, and then turns, first to the north-west, and after- 
wards to the west, for about one hundred and forty miles farther, 
to its junction with the Sinh-kha-bab. 

The accamiilation of ice in the great glacier from which this 
river proceeds, its subsequent dislodgement, and the obstruction 
thereby caused in the channel of the Shy-yok, have from time to 
time caused the water to make violent irruptions through its 
ordinary barriers, leading to dreadful inundations. The great 
and sudden flood of the Indus, which, in the summer of 1841, was 
felt as far as Attock, and even beyond it, has been generally 
attributed to such a cause.^ At the confluence of the two rivers, • Joam. Ai. soc 
the Shy-yok is about one hundred and fifty yards broad, the Faio^ner. catn- 
Sinh-kha-bab not more than eighty ; but the latter is the deeper. Jjjj^^' ^ 
and has a greater body of water. Below the confliience, the river 
is known by the name Aba Sind^ (Indus Proper). About twenty- * Moorcr. Pui^. 
five miles below the point of junction, and westward of it, the 
Indus, opposite Iskardoh, receives from the north the river of 
Shyghur. No European appears to have examined the downward 
course of the Indus between Iskardoh and Makpon-i-Shagaron, 
iu which interval it runs a distance of about seventy miles in 
a direction west-north-west.^ At Makpon-i-Shagaron, in lat. • vi^ne, Kadimir, 
as** 34', long. 74^ 26', according to Vigne, who viewed the place "•**' 
at the distance of eighteen miles, the river emerges from the 
mouQjkainous region, and, turning nearly due south, a course 
which it thenceforth continues to keep generally to the sea, takes 
Its way through the unexplored country north of Attock. Vigne 
ctmsed the part intervening between Iskardo and Makpon-i- 
S^^agran to be explored by his native servants, who found it to 
flow through a succession of rocky gorges and deep and narrow 

268 INDUS. 

▼alleyi. rugged tad difficult, but preaentiiig nodungdse remnk. 
able. About twelve miles south of Makpon-i-Shagaroa it recero, 
from the north-west, a considerable stream, called the river of 

• Id. 80S, Oilghit.^ Vigne, who viewed the Indus at Acho, about ten niki 

below this confluence* describes it there as a vast torrent msfai^ 
through a valley six or seven nules wide, and holding a sootlt^ 
westerly course, which might be traced downwards for st kitf 
forty miles. This mUopsff of the course of the Indus would ex- 
tend to a point about eighty miles north-east of Derbend. For 
these intervening eighty miles its course is throug^h countries in- 
habited by barbarous* sanguinary, and fanatical tribes of Moffiil- 
mans, and which does not appear to have been ever explored bj 
7 Barms. Put. EuTopeans/ At Derbend, at the north-western angle of tbe 
Nmt. ij». gyj^ territory, it was, in 1837, surveyed by Lieutenant Leecfc 

of the Bengal Engineers, and there, in the middle of Augost, 
about which time it is fuUest, he found it a hundred yards wvk. 
From this place* about six hundred and fifty miles from its sup- 
posed source, and in lat. 34"" SO', long. 73"" 5^ he descended tlie 

* Leech, on the river ou a raft to Attock, a distance of about sixty miles.^ Is 
^^0*^^^^^ this interval* the river, flowing through a plain, has a broad 
Fen. Narr. 110; channel of uo great depth* containing many islands, and b 

fordable in five places. 

The fords are only available in winter* when the river is lowest, 
and even then* the attempt is perilous* from the rapidity of tihe 
current and the benumbing coldness of the water. If the aocouot 

' i. 140. given by Masson^ be correct, 1,200 horsemen were swept away 

and drowned on one occasion when the Indus was crossed by 

1 SS4. Runjeet Singh at one of these fords. Hough ^ states the number 

' Eiph. Aoc of lost at 7,000. Shah Shooja forded the Indus in 1 809 ^ above At- 
' tock, but his success was considered to be almost a mirade. 

» Jour. u. 08. Where crossed by Forster,* about twenty miles above Attock, in 
t^e middle of July, and consequently when fullest, it was three- 
quarters of a mile or a mile in breadth, with a rough and rapid 
current, endangering the ferry-boat* though large enough to con- 
tain seventy persons, together with much merchandize and some 
horses. Close above Attock, the Indus receives, on the western 
side, the great river of Kabool, which drains the extensive basin of 
Kabool, the northern declivity of Sufeid Koh, the southern de- 
clivity of Hindoo Koosh and Chitral* and the other extensive valleys 
which furrow thb last great range on the south. Both rivers have 

INDUS. 269 

tazge yolumes of water and are very rapid/ and as they meet « buhm*, Bokh. 
amidst munerous rocks, the confluence is turbulent and attended i^hfSi; ^*** 
with great noise. The Kabool river appears to have nearly as 
much water as the Indus, and in one respect has an advantage 
over it, bein^ navigable for forty miles above the confluence,^ ^ Macwm^, in 
while the upward navigation of the Indus is rendered impracti- BimiM, Pen. 
cable by a very violent rapid, immediately above the junction. ^^' "*"^*>* 
Both rivers have gold in their sands, in the vicinity of Attock ;* * Baraw' Bokh. i. 

, 80; WoodpOxut, 

it is obtained in various places along the upper course of the 199. 
Indus, or its tributaries ; as at Gbutope,^ in Undes, and also near ^ Moorar. 
the confluence of the Shy-yok, and near Iskardo. Attock, just s^m, a^' 
bdow the confluence of the Kabool river, about seven hundred ?f' **V.*!!?i 

Vijpie, ii. 84ft, 

miles firom the supposed source of the Indus, and in lat. 33^ 54^ S87. 
long. 72^ 18', is remarkable, as being the limit of the upward navi- 
gation of the latter river, and the place most frequented for passage 
over it from Hindostan to Afghanistan. The passage is,^ for the ' Burnet, Bokh. 
greater part of the year, made by bridges of boats, of which there Pen!vm 119; 
arc two ; one is above the fort of Attock, where the river is eight ^^^"^ 

, ® work, S46, and 

hundred feet wide ; the other, below, where it is above five hun- oxus, 121 ; Leech, 
drcd and forty feet wide. Wood found the depth at Attock, in SSHIflt Attack, 
August, to be sixty feet ; the rate of the current six miles an ^^* 
hour ; the breadth, where he measured it above the place of the 
bridge, eight hundred and fifty-eight feet. The inundation afiects 
the depth and speed of the current, rather than the breadth, at 
Attock. This remarkable point is about 1,000 feet above the 
aea, and consequently about 1 7,000 feet below the source of the 
Indus,* which falls, therefore, to that extent in seven hundred 
miles. This is at the rate of about twenty-four feet per mile. 
The length of its channel from Attock to the sea is nine hun- 
dred and forty-two miles,* and consequently, in tliat lower » wood, in 
part of its course, it falls little more than a foot per mile, jfj^^ 
At Attock, the river, flowing generally south-south-west, as it 
does below Derbend, enters a deep rocky channel in the Salt 
^^^gc> or secondary mountains, which connect the eastern ex* 

* Burnes (Peraonal Narrative, 112-120) reached Peshawur by water, a 
^iiitBooe of about fifty miles from Attock, and, conaeqnently, the Kabool rirer 
ttd Hi tributary, l^ ascending which this was effected, cannot have a fall 
modi exceeding a foot per mile. Ghriffith (Append, to Hough, 74) ascer- 
tained the height of Peshawar to be 1,068 feet. It may, therefore, be salely 
conduded that the height of Attock above the sea is abont 1,000 feet. 

270 INDUS. 

tremity of Sufeid Koh with the base of the Himalaya, in the 
Punjab. In this part of its course, the river, as well as the fort 
on its left or eastern hank, is known by the name of Attock. a 
CQnsequence, as is generally supposed, of the prohibition nnder 

• Wood, Ozuf, which the Hindoos originally lay of passing it westward.^ * (See 
*^' Attock.) For about ten miles below Attock, the river, tfaon^ 

in general rolling between high cliffs of slate-rock, has a 
calm, deep, and rapid current ; but for aboye a hundred 
miles farther down, to Kala Bagh, it becomes an enonxuNs 
torrent, whirling and rolling among huge boulders and 
I Id. lu. ledges of rock, and between precipices^ rising nearly peqni- 

dicularly sereral hundred feet from the water's edge. The 

• wiiford. In At. water here is a dark lead-colour, and hence the name NUah,^ 

or " blue river," given as well to the Indus as to a town on 
its banks, about twelve miles below Attock. At Ghora Tmp, 
about twenty miles below Attock, the immense body of water 
passes through a channel only two hundred and fifty feet 
wide, but having a depth of one hundred and eighty feet, the 
velocity being about ten miles an hour. 

Wood, describing the course of the river from Attock to Kala- 
' ''^- Bagh, says,^ " it here rushes down a valley varying from one 

hundred to four hundred yards wide, between precipitous baab 
from seventy to seven hundred feet high/' During inundatioD, 
the river rises in this part about fifty feet. It is obvious, that at 
the season when this occurs, extending from the end of May to 
September, the upward voyage is impracticable. The downward 
voyage may at all times be performed, though attended with con- 
siderable danger during inundation. It has been suggested, that 
there are several places along this rock-bound channel where it 
would be practicable to construct an iron bridge across the riv», 
the breadth at various points not exceeding three hundred feet 
(sometimes fiedling short of this), and the banks being solid lime- 

• Id. m. stone.* ITie natives frequently venture down this vast torrent float- 

• Id. 110. ing on a mussuk, or inflated hide.^ The boats employed here are 
pei N^^r.^oi?**' ^^^^ duggahs? and are heavier and more strongly built than the 

* Aocordmg to Wilford (As. Res. vi. 529), Attaca, or <* the forbidden." 
The probibitioii of crossmg seemSf however, pretty generallj set at nought, 
as was seen in the case of the Hindoos in the British armies invading A%iiao- 
istan. Hough (334) derives the name from Atuk, or Utuk^ ** prevention," 
or ** obstacle." 

INDUS. 271 

fUmdis, or lx»at8 UBed in the lower part of the river. The upward 
voyage, when practicable, is effected by means of tracking, — sails 
resorted to previously, being either useless, from the prevalence 
of dead calm, or dangerous in consequence of the varying and 
violent squalls produced in the current of air by the effect of the 
lofty and inreg^ular banks. As the river approaches the plain coun- 
try below Kala-Bagh, the channel expands nearly to the breadth 
of five hundred yards ; just above that town the width is four 
hundred and eighty-one yards.'' Below Kala-Bagh, in lat. 32° 57', ^ Wood, oxm, 
long. 7P 36^ and about eight hundred miles from the mouth, ^^* 
the river enters the plain, the east or left bank here becoming 
bw, while on the right the Khussoree hills rise abruptly from the 
water, having, as Bumes^ observes, "the appearance of a vast ■pen.Narr.97. 
fortress, formed by'nature, with the Indus as its ditch." Along 
the base of these hills, which stretch south-south-west for about 
seventy miles, the channel is deep, generally having soundings 
about sixty feet.® On entering the plain, the water loses its • Wood, in App. 
clearness, and becomes loaded with mud. In inundation, the Nam^ ^*"' 
depth of the stream is not so much affected in this part of its 
course as are the breadth and velocity ; and here, as well as in 
the Delta, the river, when swollen, overflows the adjacent country 
to a great extent.^ From Kala-Bagh, southwards to Mittunkote, ' Lord, Med. 
distant about three hundred and fifty miles, the banks, either right ^*^o?Jd^ ^^ 
or left, or both, are in several places so low, that the first rise of the ^^' ^^- <>' 

Cuibal, 87, 

nver covers the country around with water, extending, as the inun- 
dation advances, as &r as the eye can reach. On this portion of the 
river's course Wood ^ says — ^"So diffused was the stream, that * Oxna, 09. 
fiom a boat in its centre no land could be discovered, save the 
islands upon its surface, and the mountains on its western shore. 
From Dera Ismael Khan to Kala-Bagh, a distance of above a hun- 
dred miles, the eastern bank cannot once be seen from the opposite 
side of the river, being either obscured by distance or hidden by 
interjacent islands." These islands, when the river is low, are 
gentle elevations of the mainland, much frequented on account of 
the luxuriant pasture ; but during the season of inundation, they, 
as well as the immediate banks, are deserted, in consequence of 
the danger resulting from the sudden, irregular, and irresistible 
irruptions of the current. "In this month" (July), observes 
Wood,' "the islands are abandoned, and as the boat swiftly glides 'Oxus, 100. 
amidst the mazy channels that intersect them, no village cheers 

272 INDUS. 

the sight, no human Toioe is heard; and, out of ugbtolluid, 
the voyager may for hours be floating amidst a wilderness of gieen 
island fields." Hie halutations are generally placed at a god. 
stderable distance from the banks. If this precaution be (&- 
Md.90. regarded, they are exposed to the fate of Dera Ismael Khtn.^ 

a large town, which, with its flourishing palm-groves, vis 
totally swept away in 1829. Sometimes the Indus suffers toj 
sudden and extraordinary changes. For instance, on one occaaoo, 
at the setting in of night. Wood found it to have an unbrokn 

• 14. 84. expanse of 2,274 yards in breadth,^ and next morning its bed vu 

a confused mass of sand-banks, in which the main channel wss odif 

two hundred and fifty-nine yards wide ; this extraordinary diange 

having occurred in consequence of a great body of the wster d 

the river having made its escape into a low tract in the vidnity of 

its course. As the inundation originates in the melting cf tie 

snows in the Hindoo Koosb and the Himalaya, it commcaoes 

with spring, and retrogrades as autunm advances ; and so regular 

< In carieii,offic is this proccss, that, according to Wood,^ it begins to rise on tk 

Surrey, 90. ^Snl of MaTch and to subside on the 23rd of September, its 

maximum being about the 6th or 7th of August. The avenge 

rise of the inundation between Kala-Bagh and Mittunkote is eigfat 

7 Wood, In An), feet and a half ;^ the declivity of the water's edge is eight inches per 

N ""sot' ^"^ ™^®* ^° ^^ P"* ^^ ^^ course the Indus receives scarcely any 

accession to its water. Higher up it has a few tributaries, though 

of no great importance. Thus, on the right, or west bank, in lat. 33° 

• so ; Wood, 22", long. 7 1'' 52^, theToe, described by Elphinstone ^ as a deep and 
oziup ISO. ^g^. stream, faUs into it ; and lower down, on the same side, in 

lat. 32"" 37', long. 7r 24', the Kurum, a broad stream, bat so 
» 85, lu ; Mn- shallow, that where Elphinetone * crossed it was only a foot deep. 
SS^.^7?w<Sd, On the left, or east side, in lat. 33^ 49', long. 72^ 16', the Indw 
?l^** ?V. receives the Hurroo,* a small stream, and on the same side, lover 

• Wood, OxiUf 

180-123; Hough, dowu, lu lat. 33^ l', long. 71° 46', the Swan»^ also an inconsider* 
»^Ma^ey, In ^^^ Stream. The Indus, between Kala-Bagh and Mittun, in con- 
Eiph. 067; Hough, gequcuce of the great breadth of its channel, is scarcely sflfected 
loe', 116.' by rain ; but in the narrow part, above Kala-Bagh, it sometimea 

rises eight or nine feet in a short time from this cause. In id>d7 
places, where the river flows through the plain, there is an inner 
to Bum J* Pen! and an outer bank. The outer banks* run at a great distance bom 
L^ ^i^uLn. ®^^ ^^^^^' "*^ between them, during inundation, the vast body 
on the Plain of of Water roUs oftcu lU several channels, separated by shifting 

the Indui, M. '^ '^ 

INDUS. 273 

islands; when the riyer is low, this great course becomes a 
shallow valley of very irregular breadth, and the shrunken river 
meanders along its bottom. If the outer banks were continuous, 
the river would roll along in a stream varying in breadth according 
to the greater or less degree of inundation ; but at all times, even 
when fullest, in a defined channel of moderate breadth, though vary- 
ing greatly in different parts. In many places, however, the outer 
bank is wanting, and, during inundation, the river expands over the 
country, converting it into an extensive lake. Between Mittunkote 
and Bukkur, the inundation extends sometimes twenty miles from 
the western side of the river, in its low state, and ten or twelve from 
the eastern side.^ Wood^ gives the width of the shrunken river «wood,iiiBumn' 
as varying from four hundred and eighty to one thousand six f|J*^5j['* •**' 
hundred yards, and the average width at about six hundred and 
eighty yards ; its usual maxima of depth at nine, twelve, or fifteen 
feet ; but its bed is so irregular, and so liable to be obstructed by 
shifting shoals, that though it cannot be regularly and safely 
forded in any part, except that intervening between Torbela and 
Attock,* its navigation, even below the confluence of the Kabool, < Leech, Rep. on 
cannot be effected at all times, and continuously throughout ^^tJ'l^^jn 
its whole course, by boats drawing more than thirty inches Bumei, sso, ms. 
water. The general velocity of the stream in its shrunken 
state is estimated by Wood at three miles an hour; but he 
observes,^ "it is scarcely necessary to remark, that the three ^inApp. to Bumet* 
last items (breadth, depth, velocity) are very inconstant. At no "** *"' 
two places are the measurements exactly alike, nor do they con- 
tinue the same at one place for a single week." In fact, the 
Ineadth, during inundation, is only two hundred and fifty feet at 
Ohora Trup;^ and below Mittunkote,* it in one place amounts to • wood, oxm, 
thirty milea ; the depth at the same time and place is a hundred and 0^ Bumee' Pen. 
eighty-six feet, and in other places only twelve feet : the velocity Nair. 84i. 
at Ghora Trup, during the inundation, is ten miles an hour ; at 
other pkices, not half that, and when the river is low, often not 
moie than two miles an hour. 

The general course of the river is a little west of south from 
Attock to the confluence of the Punjnud, the channel which con- 
veys the collected streams of the Punjab. This confluence is on 
the left or eastern side of the Indus, two or three miles below 
Mittunkote, in lat. 28"" 55', long. 70° 28', and about four hundred 
uid seventy miles from the sea. Above the confluence, the 

VOL. I. T 

274 INDUS. 

breadth of the Indus ib less than that of the other riTer, bat, in 
consequence of the greater depth and Telocity, the former has the 
▼ inBnniM'Pwi. greater volume of water. Wood^ found the Indus haTing a 
Narr. 9U. breadth of six hundred and eight yards, a velocity of about five 

miles an hour, a depth of twelve or fifteen feet, and dischargii^ 
91,719 cubic feet per second. The Punjnud had a breadth of one 
thousand seven hundred and sixty-six yards, a velocity of about 
two miles an hour, a depth of twelve or fifteen feet, and discharged 
68,955 cubic feet per second. Below the confluence, the Indus 
IS in its lowest state two thousand yards wide. Its aspect in this 

• lUfwwft and part is well described by Boileau.^ " At the place where wt 

poor, . ^jy,^gg^ ^jjg Indus, almost immediately below its junction with 
the Punjnud, its stream is two thousand and forty-one yards, or 
nearly a mile and a quarter, in breadth, at a pkce where its width 
was unbroken either by islands or sand-banks. The banks are 
very low and the water very muddy, having just begun to rise, from 
the melting of the snows at its sources; nor is the stream of very 
great depth, except in the main channel; but with all these 
drawbacks, it is a magnificent sheet of water — ^a very prince 
of rivers." For a considerable distance above and below 
Mittunkote, the country is low,* and the inundation exten- 
sive, reaching to Shikarpoor, and even to some places dis- 
tant from the river twenty miles to the west, and extending eight 
or ten miles to the east. Lower down, at Roree, the stream 
makes its way through a low ridge of limestone and flint, which 

• HftTeioek, Stretches from the mountains of Cutch Ghmdava,^ eastward, to 
Hed.Mem. on Jcssulmair. There are strong indications that the stream, in 
piainof indtti, remote ages, swept far eastward along their northern base, and 

80; WMtmaeott '"B » r o 

on Roree, In Jour, irrigated the level tract at present desert, but exhibiting numeroos 
SMfKennedyr proofs that it once was traversed by large streams, ^ and was both 
iL ISO; Burnci' fertile and populous. At present, this ridge is cut, not only by 
Wood, In App. to* the Indus, but, a few miles fJEurther east, by the Eastern Nam. 
Stfrii^oxni, which diverges from the main stream, on the eastern side, 
61; Hottgh, 80; a diort distaucc above Roree, and takes a south-easterly coarse 
Armjlid, through the desert, in which it is usually lost, though in no- 

Mainiurdo «f the ^^^^ inuudatious it toIIb onward to the sea in a great volume of 

Indus, Jour. ,. 

Am. Soc. 18S4, p. * Such is the statement of Wood (in Barnes' Personal Nanr. 341) ; 
41 ; Vigne, Kaih- Lord, on the contrary (Medical Mem. 64), states that the banks below 
"^ ' ' Mittunkote are not much inundated ; but Wood's indoatrious researdi and 

general aocuracj are well known. 

INDUS^ 275 

water, discharging itself through the Koree, or most eastern mouth, 
which is in general quite deserted by the fresh water. At Roree 
there are four rocky islets, the largest of which, that of Bukkur, 
contains an extensive fort, and divides the river into two chan- 
nels. A few miles below this place, the Western Narra, a great 
and permanent branch, divaricates from the Indus on the western 
aide, and» after a tortuous course of nearly two hundred miles, 
rejoins the main stream about four miles south-east of Seh- 
wan. A little above that town, the Narra has a large but 
shallow expansion, called Lake Manchur, varying in circuit from 
•Uurty to fifty miles, according to the greater or less degree of inun- 
dation. This great water-course, in the part intervening between 
Lake Manchur and the Indus, has a name distinct from that of the 
Narra, being called the Anil. From Sehwan, downwards, to the 
efflux of the Fulailee, a distance of about eighty miles, the bed 
of the river is much depressed below the level of the adjacent 
country, and the banks are elevated from sixteen to twenty 
feet^ above the surface in the low season ; in this part of the *Wood.inBunies, 
course, inundations rarely overspread the country, and irriga- ^^' ^^ J}^ 
tion is effected by raising the water with the Persian wheel. Mem. on the Plain 

of the Indui* 6S. 

The Fulailee, a large branch, though yearly diminishing, 

leaves the Indus, on the eastern side, about twelve miles 

north of Hyderabad, and, flowing south-east, insulates the 

Gunjah hills, on which that town is built, as, about fifteen 

miles below it,^ an offset running westward rejoins the main 'Wood^faiBarnet' 

stream. At Triecal, where is the point of re-union, in lat. 25^ 9^, w"; c1!rie2J*' 

long. S^ 21', the Delta commences ; all below it, and contained o«ciaJ s«''«^ 

, 17; Burnet, iii. 

between the Fulailee on the east and the extreme western branch 26i ; Pott. sss. 

of the Indus, being, with little exception, alluvial, and obviously 

deposited by the river. The Fulailee holds a south-easterly course, 

in the lower part of which it bears the name of the Gonnee, and 

about fifty miles below Hyderabad divides into two channels, one of 

which continues to hold a south-easteriy course, communicating, 

daring high inundations, with the Fhurraun, by which it is 

discharged into the sea through the Koree mouth ; the other 

iows south-west, and joins the Finyaree, which diverges from 

the Indus at Bunna,^ about forty miles below Hyderabad. The * Burn« (j.), 

V , , , i i. , Mlwlon to SInde, 

Aoree mouth may more properly be termed an arm of the sea, as 40. 
the water is salt, and it receives a current from the Indus 
only during inundations of unusual height. Bumes^ found it<iu.39o. 


276 INDUS. 

seren mDes wide and twenty feet deep at Cota«r, aboat twenty 
miles from the open sea. Some suppose it to have onoe bees 
the principal mouth of the Indus, constantly discharging the 
water of the Narra, which they consider to have been ^ 
chief branch. It is at present the most eastern of the estoaiiei 
connected with the Indus. The Pinyaree, a wide branch, is 
navigable, downwards, to within fifty miles of the sea ; st dat 

* Bunicf (A.), distance the navigation is closed by a bund^ or dam, thnnni 
BoUl 8S8, 830. ^^^^j^^^ -j^ ^^ Maghribce ; but as the water makes its way throagk 

small creeks in time of inundation, the navigation recommencei 
below the bund and continues to the sea. The Pinyaiee dis* 

• Banci, ill. 8S8. charges itself through the Sir estuary,^ two miles wide at its 

mouth, with a depth on the bar of one fathom, and of from fooi 

to six inside : it is next, westward, to the Koree mouth. Ataboot 

six miles above Tatta, the Kulairee, a small branch, leaves the 

Indus on the right or western side, and may be considered to 

mark the commencement of the Delta on that side. Were not 

its vmter lost by absorption and evaporation, it would genenJfy 

TBurnei^Peifl. insulate Tatta,^ as it now does occasionally. At about five 

•iZ'iaii Car- °^^B below Tatta,^ and fifty miles from the sea, ^e bdus 

leM, Official sur- ^as formerly divided into two great branches, the Bugganr, 

i. 79. ' '' which flowed westward, and the Sata, which maintains the 

previous course of the Indus southvrard, and is in strictnesB 

the continuation of that river. But the Buggaur has no current 

during the season when the Indus is low, there being a sand-bsnk 

at the entrance five or six feet above the surface of the water st 

that time. The Sata, below the division, is about a thousand 

• CariMv, 1. yards wide. The Mull * and the Moutnee, formerly ff&X 

branches leaving the left or eastern side of the Sata, are now so 
diminished in the season of low- water as to be almost dry. The 
I Buraei,iii.3S7. estuaries,^ however, remain : that of the Mull is navigable for 
boats of twenty-five tons as far as Sbahbunder, about eighteen 
miles from the sea ; it is the mouth next westward of the Sir 
mouth, and next westward of this is the Kaheer, or estuaiy of 

* Id. 887. the Moutnee, at present unnavigable.^ Two branches, the 

Ked3rwaree and Hujamaree, formerly left the right side of the 
Sata, and fell into estuaries of the same names. 

The main stream of the Sata, known near the sea by the names 
Munnejah and Wanyanee, pursues a course a little to the west of 
south, and frdls into the Indian Ocean by the Kookewarree mouth. 

INDUS. 277 

forming in 1837» when Garless published his account, "the 
gnnd embouchure of the Indus." ^ This principal mouth is in ' Cariew, s. 
kt. 24'' 7f, long. 67"" 32^ It is the next mouth to the westward 
of the Kaheer, and is 1,100 yards wide.^ The mouth is rendered * '^* ^' 
difficult of navigation by a great bank stretching across it, and ex- 
tending five miles out to sea. There are two channels across this, 
and through them the current of the Indus rushes with a great 
noise, forming vast cascades when the tide is out. There is 
another channel, communicating with the Kedywaree mouth, 
more northerly than these, as well as more accessible, less intricate* 
and deeper, having nine feet at low-water where shallowest ; and 
this, when Garless wrote, appeared to have been the only en- 
trance, affording at all seasons a communication between the sea 
and the main channel of the upper part of the river. Even this 
becomes dangerous after the setting in of the westerly winds in 
February, as the sea then breaks violently across it. Under fa- 
yourable circumstances, it may be safely entered by vessels not 
drawing more than seven feet water, which, consequently, are the 
largest capable of passing from sea into the main channel of the 
river during the season of low-water. The Kedywaree is the 
next mouth, proceeding westward, and is merely a small creek 
affording a vent to the northern channel of the Munnejah, just 
mentioned, and also to the Ked3rwaree branch, which, as already 
observed, left the Sata on the right side,' but which is now shallow * Bamet, ui. sse. 
and little frequented. The Hujamaree estuary, next to the west- 
ward, was, until lately, the most important mouth of the Indus, 
because, though not affording a navigable communication with the 
main river during the season of low- water,* it was the most easily • carie«, 4; 
accessible of all the mouths, admitting vessels not drawing more m^wb\ Pen. 
than seven feet and a half of water as high as Vikkur, twenty f*"*'»^*"°*^'^' 
miles from the mouth. In 1838, the English force advancing on 
Afghanistan was landed here, but soon afterwards, according to 
the account given by Kennedy,^ this branch was closed by a ^ u- ssi. 
change made in its channel, llie Richel mouth, next in succes- 
sion in the same direction, is now nearly filled up, though at a 
former period one of the most frequented. The Joa, next v^stward, 
is also nearly obliterated. Both these last appear to have at one 
time communicated with the Sata. The Pinteeanee is next to the 
west, and once communicated with the Buggaur branch, which, 
being now deserted by the stream during the season of low- water. 

278 INDUS. 

iiL no. the Pinteeanee month is of coune deserted alBO.* Its entraux is 
rendered intricate and dangerouB by aand-banlu, but there ne 
fifteen feet of water at low tide» and boats of thirty tons can »- 
oend it above thirty miles. Next and last, is the Pittee mouth, 
the most important at the commencement of the eighteenth om- 
" HamiitoB, New tory, when the branch to which it gave exit ' was acoenUe 
uldim! Liit^' as &r as Lahoree-bunder, twenty miles from the aea, for Tesads 
1^ two hundred tons burthen. It was the principal outlet of tie 
Buggaur branch, and as that has been deserted by fresh water, 
when the river is low, the estuary u in the like condition. It his 
nine feet of water at low tide, and eighteen at high-water, 
spring-tides, and it is navigable for thirty miles far vessels of 
twenty-five tons burthen. The width is five hundred yards at the 
mouth, and in general, for three hundred yards higher up. The 
Oarrah creek, an estuary of an obliterated branch of the Indot, 
enters the sea still fardier westward, and, according to Banies 
I On the NftTif. and Carless,^ has an inland oommumcation with the harbour of 
cmrieM, offiebd' Kurrachee, though this seems very doubtful.' The distance tea 
Rep. of tiM indu, the Korec estuary, in the south-east, to the mouth of Grarrah creek, 
' K«iuMd]r,u.8ie. in the north-west, is about a hundred and thirty miles, and soch 
is, consequently, the length of the sea-coast of the Delta. That 
are several mouths of less imp<Nrtance, and the enumeration of 
which is unnecessary. There are also numerous intricate crosB- 
channels, allowing an inland navigation for small vessels betweeo 
the various creeks and branches. To sum up briefly this involved 
subject — during the season of low-water, the Indus falls into the 
sea by only one channel of any importance: this, called the 
Sata, Munnejah, or Wanyanee, has its efflux by the Kookewanee 
mouth, the entrance of which is in general very unsafe, in conse- 
quence of shoals, and the great violence of the current : it '» 
navigable with safety only in one narrow gut, and that but for 
vessels drawing not more than seven feet water. The other 
mouths are, in the season of low-water, little more than creeka 
silted up, and closed at various distances from the sea. The num- 
ber of these creeks, or estuaries, at present at all worth noticing* 
is eleven, occurring in the following order in proceeding from 
south-east to north-west : the Koree, Seer, MuD, Kaheer, Kooke- 
warree, Kedyvraree, Hujamaree, Richel, Joa, Pinteeanee, Rttec. 
s wood,inBuraos' The tide influences the Indus nearly up to Tatta,' a distance of 
Pen. N»rr.808. q^^q^^ seventy miles. llie spring- tide rises nine feet. 

INDUS. 279 

The descriptioii above giyen of the mouths and lower branches 
of the Indus is mainly applicable to their state when the river is 
lowest. ^When the river is at its height, as Barnes^ observes, * m. 840. 
" the great branches of this river are of themselves so numerous, 
and thirow off such an incredible number of arms, that the inun- 
dation is general, and in those places which are denied this ad- 
vantage by fortuitous circumstances, artificial drains, about four 
feet wide and three deep, conduct the water through the fields." 
For about twenty miles from the sea, the whole country is nearly 
submerged. At this season, the water of the sea is fresh for 
some distance from the land, and discoloured for a still greater.*^ * id. m. 9» 
The quantity of water discharged by the Indus is by no means 
proportionate to the enormous supplies derived frt>m its nu- 
merous tributaries ; the larger portion seems lost by evaporation, 
absorption, and employment for irrigation in a sultry climate 
where rain seldom falls. Wood and Lord^ state the maximum, • inBuraet* p«n. 
discharge in August, at 446,080 cubic feet per second, and in m*^']!^.^^ 
December, at 40,857 cubic feet per second, and the total annual Plain of indm^as. 
discharge, at 150,212,079,642 tons avoirdupois. The water, in 
the early part of the season of inundation, is very unwholesome, 
in consequence of the great quantity of decayed vegetable and 
animal matter held in suspension by it. Lord,^ who made ex- i ibid, 
periments by desiccating the water and weighing the residuum, 
computes that the quantity of silt annually discharged by the 
river, during the seven months of inundation, would suffice to 
form an island ot bank forty-two miles long, twenty-seven miles 
broad, and forty feet deep ; but it is clear» that this computation 
must be received with great allowances, as, according to it, the 
land of Sinde must have been much £Eurther advanced into the 
Indian Ocean than it is found to be. After the early part o^ the 
season of inundation, if this water be kept until the earthy ad- 
mixture has subsided, it is both palatable and wholesome. 

The Indus is infested by alligators ;^ they are of the guryial •wood, Ozm, so. 
or long-snouted kind, the common kind being unknown in the 
river, though numerous in lagoons near Kurrachee. The holtm? ' Bamet, Pen. 
a cetaceous animal, the size of a porpoise, is common. Nowhere 

* The jimctioii of the fresh and salt water, according to Barnes, is " without 
^olenoe, and might be now and then discorered by a small streak of foam 
and a gentle ripple." Pottinger states, that it causes " a very oonlased rip* 
Plin«." (p. 9.) 

280 INDUS. 

are fish finer or more abundant, and they form a large portion of 
the sustenance of the population of the adjacent country. Wett- 
I Ace. otKhjr- mocott^ enumerates sixteen kinds, some as long as six or seven 
iT soa nw[ ^^^* '^^ pulia, a species of carp, is a rich and delicious hk, 
though bony to a degree dangerous to an incautiona eater. It is 
> Uw*, on tiM largely consumed on the spot and also dried for exportation,' 
Ctttch, 61. forming an important article in the scanty trade of Sinde. Tlie 

fisherman of the pulla floats, with his breast downwards, on in 
oblong earthen vessel, closed in all parts except an orifice, which 
he covers by applying his stomach to it. In this position, he paasei 
along, taking the fish with a net at the end of a long bamboo, and 
depositing it in the vessel. 
* Ohm, 104. Wood' obscrves, that " the population of the banks of the 

Indus are almost amphibious. The boatmen of Lower Sinde, ix 
example, live, like the Chmese, in their boats. If a native of tiie 
Lower Indus has occasion to cross the stream, a puUapjar wafii 
him to the opposite shore. At Bukkur, the jmusuk (inflated hide) 
supersedes the pulla-jar, and finom Mittunkote upwards, eveiy 
man living near the river has one. Kossids (couriers) so moonted 
make surprising journeys, and the soldier, with sword and match- 
lock secured across his shoulders, thus avoids the fiitigne of a 
long march." The leisure time of every description of peraaoi 
is spent in the water, or floating on it. Such familiarity with 
the water naturally inclines the population to regard it as the 
« New Aec of great medium of commercial intercourse, and Hamilton,^ who 
L*ii4^ie[™"**' visited Sinde at the dose of the seventeenth century, found the 
traffic considerable. Of late years, the trade of the Indus has been 
obstructed, and in many places destroyed, by the oppression and 
vexatious rapacity of the various petty powers and tribes claim- 
ing sovereignty over divers parts of its course. The success ci 
the British arms may be expected to lead to the restoration of a 
better state of things. Latterly, the commerce of the Indus has 
in a great measure been limited to the transport of grain from 
» Wood, inBuniet' the Upper to the lower part of the river.* The doondak,^ or boat 
« Id. 830. ' generally used in Lower Sinde, is a clumsy vehicle, flat-bottomed, 
of capacity varying from thirty to fifty tons, with bow and stero, 
each forming a broad inclined plane, having, the former, an angle 
with the surface of the water of about twenty, the latter of aboot 
forty degrees. The jumptees, or state barges of the Ameers, weie 
of considerable dimensions. Wood measured one a hundred and 

INDUS. 281 

twenty feet long* eighteen and a half bioad, and drawing two feet 
six inches water. In the upper part of the Indus, the boat chiefly 
naed is the zohruk, in most respects resembling the doondah» ex- 
cept that it is smaller, lighter, and more manageable. The duggah^ 
used only in the boisterous part of the current above Kala-Bagh, 
is very strongly built, with stem and bow greatly projecting, to 
keep away the hull from the bank in case of collision with it. 
It is so heavy and unmanageable, that if brought hx down the 
river, it is usually disposed of there, to save the labour and ex« 
pense of tracking it back.^ In proceeding up the stream when the 'wood,! 
wind is iinfovonrable, as is generally the case during the half-year ***"* '*■"•'**• 
between tlie autumnal and vernal equinoxes, way must be made ex. 
dusively by tracking. During the other half-year^ southerly winds ' wood, m mpn, 
prevail, and the boats run up under sail before it, except where the 
use of sails becomes dangerous from peculiar circumstances. It 
may be expected that steam, under judicious management, will 
be found highly efficient in navigating the Indus. Wood ^ sug- * in Buraat' Pwi. 
gests that steamers for this service should have a draft of two *"' 
feet six inches, no keel, great breadth in proportion to their 
length, and high steam power in proportion to their tonnage ; and 
Carless ^ recommends them to be one hundred and forty feet long * in Portut, ob- 
and twenty.five broad. The principal obstacle to the employ- T^!^!^oto^ 
ment of steam is the deamess and inferior quality of the firewood ™®'^ <>' ^^ in- 
of Sinde, which renders it doubtful whether it might not be more 
economical, as it certainly would be more efficient, to use coal 
imported from England. Coal^ has been discovered near theswood^inBoniet, 
banks of the Indus, both in the Punjab and on the Afghan side, ^Jj^^\^^ 
but further investigation is required as to its quality and quantity. ^; Bamei, Rep. 

«..,- .1 m t ..on Coftly 78 ; 

In estunatmg the advantages to be drawn from the navigation Pen. vw. us; 
of the Indus, reference should be had not so much to the petty ^*i^p,i^ 
demand from Sinde, as to that of the countries on the upper part of J 

the river, through which Afghanistan, Khorasan, and Central Asia 
are largely supplied; and the best means of advancing this most 
important branch of trade seem to be the establishment of great 
periodical ^sdrs, at suitable points on the banks of the Indus, and 
the affording feunlities of communication and protection to the com- 
mercial classes. Bumes ^ and Wood ^ regard Dera Ghazee Khan, * on the eite- 

• ,, ' ^ J* bUihmeot of ft 

in the Derajat, as the best site for this purpose* Fair for the Indus 

Both the prosperity of Sinde and the commerce of the Indus J^* ^^* 

283 INDUS. 

have much decayed since the commencement of the eighteentii oen- 
7 New Aoc of tiM tury. Tatta, at the time of Hamilton's visit/ is said to have ooa- 
EMt-iBdiei, L ^gio^ gj^^g 150,000 inhabitants ; and the Indus and its tributuies 
then formed a moch-frequented channel of commiiniratinn with 
Lahore* and other remote parts of the Punjab. At that time, 
the whole of the navigable course of the Indus was throng the 
dominions of the Great Mogul ; now, the fluctoatiiig imposts and 
extortionate demands of several petty powers holdiiig diffiaent 
parts of it have operated so as to obstruct almost entirely inter- 
course by means of the river. In these mischievous proceedings* 
the Ameers of Sinde have been foremost, partly from ignorance 
and short-sighted rapacity, partly (it is generally supposed) from 
a jealous anxiety to exclude from their dominions foreigners, and 
especially the English. 

Although some of the particulars following have been already 

noticed, it may be convenient, in conclusion, to bring them into 

one view. The length of the navigable part of the river from 

• wood,inBuniet* (he sca to Attock hss been ascertained,® by measurement, to be 

Pen. Narr* SOS* 

nine hundred and forty-two miles ; that of the upper part is about 
seven hundred miles ; making a total length, in round numbers, 
of one thousand six hundred and fifty miles. The average decli- 
vity of the water-course from the supposed locality of the source 
to Attock is, per mile, twenty-four feet ; from Attock downwards 
to Kala-Bagh, a distance of about a hundred and ten mfles, it is 
twenty inches ; from this last place to Mittunkote, a distance of 
about three hundred and fifty miles, it is eight inches; and 
thence to the sea, six inches. The Indus u probably destined 
to be an important channel of political and commercial commu- 
nication; but those speculating on the advantages to be derived 
from its navigation should bear in mind the weighty remark of 
» Oxut, 75. Wood,* " that there is no known river in either hemisphere, dis- 

charging even half the quantity of water that the Indus does, 
which is not superior, for navigable purxx)ses, to this fiir-£uned 

* Hamilton states (L 123), that it required aix or seren weeks to reuh 
Lahore from the sea by the upward navigation of the Indus, and that the 
return occupied sometimes eighteen, but at other times not more than twelre, 
days. The leisurely voyage of Bnmes occupied above three months. (Bok- 
hara, iit 39—147.) 

INL— ISK, 283 

INLKA'W1>J.— A village in Smde, on the route from Omer- B.I.C. ici. mip. 
cote to Joudpoor, and fifty miles north-east of the fonner place. 
It is situate north of the Little Desert, about twenty miles from 
the eastern frontier, Lat. 25** 34', long. 70* 32'. 

IRAK MUKAM, in Sinde, a halting-plaoe on the route from BJ.a mm, Doc. 
Kurrachee to Sehwan, and fifty-five miles north-east of the former 
place. It is situate on the Irak river, or rather torrent, and at the 
eastern base of the Bhool hills. Water can at all times be ob* 
tained in the channel of the river, and there is an abundant 
supply of forage. The road in this part of the route is good, 
but generally passes through jungle. Lat. 25^ 11', long. 67^ 

IRAK RIVER, in Sinde, rises at the base of the Bhod hills, E.I.& Ms. Ooc. 
in the mountainous tract between Kurrachee and Sehwan, and in 
about lat. 25'' 20', long. 67'' 45'. It holds a course of about 
forty miles in a south-easterly direction, and empties itself in lat. 
24"^ 53', long. 6&^ 6', into the dund, or lake, of Kunjur, a con- 
siderable body of brackish water, abounding in fish. Though the 
stream fails in time of drought, water may always be obtained by 
Egging in the bed. 

ISHIKAGHASY.-^A village in Afghanistan, on the north- waikeKtMapof 
em slope of the Huzareh mountains, where they decline to the ^' 
low country of Bokhara. It is situate on a feeder of the river of 
Andkhoo. Lat. 36^ 6', long. 64° 48'. 

ISHPAN, in Afghanistan, a small town near the right or b.lo. Mf. Ooe. ; 
eastern bank of the Soork Rood, in the district of Jelalabad. JJ^^S;^ 
Here, in 1801, Shah Shooja received a severe defeat from Shah i^^s, p. las; 
Mahmood» and was obliged to fly from the kingdom. Lat. 34^ caublii, «i ; 
47', long. 7(y>. SXiSr*^*** 

ISHPEE.— 'A village in Kafiristan, on the river Tagao, ninety E.i.a]ii.'Doo. 
miles north-east of Kabool. Lat. 35** 26', long. 70° 3'. 

ISKARDOH,^ the capital of Bultistan, is situate m an elevated ^JJ*™** ®**^ ^ 
plain, forming the bottom of a valley embosomed in stupendous 
nngea of mountains. The plain or valley of Iskardoh is nineteen 
miles lone: and seven broad.^ Its soil is formed of the detritus * vigne, Kaihmir, 

• ■ IL 940. 

brought down and deposited by the Indus, and by its great tri- 
butary the Shighur river ; the confluence being at the northern 
base of the rock on which the fort is built. The killah, or rock, 
the site of the fort, is on the left bank of the Indus,^ here a deep * Moorer.Pui^. 

BoUu 11. SOS. 


and npid torrent, abore a hundred and fiftj yards wide.* It is 
two miles long, and at the eastern end, where it is highest, rises 
nearly perpendicularly eight hundred feet above the lirer, from a 
buttress of sand, loose stones, and broken rocks. The IdUah his 
this mural hce on every side, except the west, where it elopes 
steeply to the plain. Vigne considers that it could be rendered 
as strong as Gibraltar, to which, in appearance, it bears modi 
resemblance. The castle of the Gylfo, or soverdgn of Bultzstm, 
stands on a small natural platform about three hundred feet abofe 
the bed of the river, and is built of stone, with a framework of 
timber, and numerous strong defences against musketry. Itb 
approached by a steep zig-zag path, traversed by gateways and 
wooden defences, several of which are also disposed in sach parts 
of the sides of the rock as require to be strengthened. Tliere is a 
look-out house on a peak, a little above the castle, and another 
on the summit above that. Every thing in the interior of this 
stronghold is constructed for defence rather than comfort, the place 
" being a confusion of break-neck stairs, low doors, and dark pas- 
sages." There is a splendid view of the valley and the river from 
the windows. The highest summit of the rock is a small lerd 
space of a triangular shape, and here are piled stones, ready to be 
roUed down for the destruction of assailants. It is scarcely access- 
ible, except on the western side, and there, at a height of about two 
hundred feet, the acclivity is strongly fortified by walls and square 
towers. The formation of the rock is gneiss. There is no water 
in the upper part of the killah, but below the castle is a fine 
spring. The residence of the population attached to the seat 
of government of this petty state is on the plain at the base 

«ii. 840. of the rock, and can, according to Vigne,^ "hardly be called 

a town, being a straggling collection of houses." The number 

• u. 908. of these houses is estimated by Moorcroft ^ at one hundred and 

fifty. Vigne displays the enthusiasm of an ardent admirer of the 
picturesque in describing the appearance of this singular and 
secluded place, as viewed by him on his first visit to it from 
the direction of Kashmir. "I, the first European who had 
ever beheld them (so I believe), gazed downwards from a height 
of six or seven thousand feet upon the sandy plains and greeD 

* According to Vigne (ii. 245)^ Moorcroft states it to be three hundred 
yards wide. (ii. 262.) 


OTcbards of the valley of the Indus at Iskardo.'^ " The rock of 
the same name itself with the rajah's stronghold on the east end 
of it, 'was a very conspicuous object. The stream from the yalley 
of Sliighur, which joins the Indus, as it washes its foot, was visible 
from the spot where I stood, but the latter river was hidden by 
the lieight of its left bank, whilst on the north, and wherever the 
eye could rove, arose with surpassing grandeur a vast assemblage 
of tlie enormous summits that compose the Tibetian Himalaya." ^ * iLsss, sse. 
ReBpectingthe origin <rfl8k«rdoh.Wade«mentioi« an absurd tradi.;^-*^^ 
tion which at least has the interest of novelty for those whose know- 
ledge of the exploits of " the great Emathian conqueror" is derived 
from classical sources. It is, " that Alexander the Great came here 
on an expedition towards Khata, or Scythia (modem China), and 
tHat the Koteh Mustak, or the Mustak mountains, which lie 
betireen Yargand and Khata, being at that time impassable on 
account of the depth and severity of the snow, the Macedonian 
baited on the present site of the capital until a road could be 
cleared for his passage ; when, leaving every part of his super- 
fluous baggage, together with the sick, old, and infirm of his 
troops, behind in a fort which he erected while there, he advanced 
against Khata. These relics of the army founded a city, which 
they named Iskandaria, or Alexandria, now pronounced Iskardoh." 
The tradition received no countenance from Ahmed Shah, the 
intelligent gylfo, or sovereign, of the country, to whom Moorcroft^ L»I^* ^^^ **' 
applied for information on this curious subject. Neither the 
gylfo, nor any other inquirer, has been able to find any trace of 
Gh-eek colonists. (See Bultistan.) Vigne,® who at one time * ^•*°^» "• •*•• 
maintained the fabulous Greek origin of Iskardoh, in retractation 
states, that " Iskardo, Skardo, or Kardo, as it is sometimes called, 
ifl obviously only an abbreviation of Sagara Do, the two floods or 
livers." He then mentions, that the people of Ladakh call it 
Sagar Khood, and adds, *' Sagara is an old Sanscrit word for the 
ocean ; and in this case Sagar Khood may signify the valley of the 
great flood or river : do signifying two in Persian ; and its cog- 
nate is added to the name Sagar, because the open space is 
formed by the junction of two streams, the Indus and the Shighur 
river." The plain or bottom of the valley of Iskardoh is 6,300* * ^^v»»» ^ «»• 
feet above the sea, and the summit of the rock is 7,100 above the 
same level Ahmed Shah, the native sovereign^ has ruled the 
country with a moderation and paternal regard for his peoplelittk . 

286 ISL. 

known among Asiatic despots. He made some onsaccessfol efforts 
to become a protected vassal of our Indian government, as he jnsdy 
dreaded the power, rapacity, and cruelty of the Sikhs. His Cears 
have proved true, as. a short time since, Iskardoh, notwithstanding 
> vign^ u. S74. its great natural strength, was seized by Ghilab Singfa,^ the crod 
and grasping Sikh chieftain of Jamu. Iskardoh is in lat. 35° lO', 
teng. 76*> 27'. 
uoarer. iL SM; ISLAMABAD, in Kashmir, a town situate on the north side 

vi^'^'ni- ^^ ^® Behut, or Jailum, here navigable, and running with a gentie 
Von Hufd, L 978. curreut. The river is about eighty yards wide, and is crossed by a 
wooden bridge. Islamabad u built at the extremity of a long, 
low eminence extending firom the mountains eastward. At the 
foot of this eminence is a spacious reservoir, of a triangular shape, 
supphed by a copious spring of dear water, slightly sulphureous, 
and from vriiich gas is continually evolved. This spring, called 
Anat Nag, is supposed to have been produced by Vishnu. The 
gas does not prevent the water from swarming with fish, whidi 
are considered sacred. There are about three hundred shops of 
shawl-weavers at Islamabad, and a considerable quantity of 
chintzes, coarse cottons, and woollens are also manufactured here. 
It is a very filthy place, crowded with mendicants and unem- 
ployed and starving artisans, the victims of Sikh misrule. Its 
name was originally Anat Nag, which, in the 15th century, was 
changed to that which it now bears. Lat. 33° 43', long. 75"^ 5'. 
Leeeh, R«p. on ISLAMCOTE.— A fort and village of Sinde, in the Eastern 
Siodh. Army, 77. D^g^^, near the frontier of Cutch. The fort, three hundred and 
fifty yards firom the village, is seventy yards square, with walls of 
burnt brick thirty feet high, having a tower at each angle. There 
is but one gateway, which is on the eastern side. Lat. 24® 32^, 
long. 70° IC. 
E.I.C. Mi. Doc; ISLAMGURH, or NOHUR.— A fort of Bhawlpoor, on the 
nlwl-^jeroiimeer "^^^ ^™ Khsnpoor to Jcssulmair, and sixty-eight miles north 
nnd Jodhpoor, 60. of the latter placc. It is a recent acquisition of the Khan of 
Bhawlpoor, who has made himself master of it at the expense of 
Jessulmair. The fort is a very ancient structure of small bricks, 
and has an area of about eighty yards square, with very lofty 
ramparts, varying in height from thirty to fifty feet. At the 
north-east angle is a high gateway, covered by an outwork. 
There are numerous bastions on the north and east fieu;es, but few 
on the others. There is no ditchi and the situation is unfavour- 

ISL— 1ST. 287 

able for defence, as it is oommanded on every side by sand- 
luUs eighty feet high, and less than a quarter of a mile distant. 
Iliere are a few buildings in the interior, and some straggling 
l&onses outside. Water is supplied from two wells. Islam- 
gurli is in kt. 27° 62', long. 70° 55'. 

ISLAM KILLA, in Afghanistan, a halting-place on the B-ici. Ms. Doc. 
route from Ghuznee to Shawl, and distant from the former place 
^nearly sixty miles south-west. The road is good, sloping gently 
to the south. Forage and supplies are abundant. Lat. 32° 51', 
long. 67° 40'. 

ISLAMKOTE.— See Islamcotb. 

ISMAIL PUTTAN, in Sinde, a village on the route fix)m b.i.c. Ms. doc 
Hyderabad to Sehwan, by Kotree, and four miles west of the first- 
mentioned place. Here is a fine grove of trees and a garden, 
-which formerly belonged to one of the Ameers of Hyderabad. It 
is situate about half a mile from the right bank of the Indus. 
Lat. 25° 22^, long. 68° 17'. 

ISPHAWK, in Afghanistan, the lowest and most eastern of b.i.c. ms. Map; 
the passes between Kabool and the valley of Bamian. It com- KabooiuidToor- 
mences sixteen miles south-west of the city of Kabool, and winds ^^^»^> ^ 
round the south-eastern comer of the Pughman range. Though 
the inclosing dififs are steep, the road is so good and the acclivities 
BO gradual, that, according to Wood, a mail-coach might be driven 
through it. Lat. 34° 22', long. 68° 40'. 

ISPINGLEE.— A considerable village of Beloochistan, on bic Mt. Mtp. 
the route from Kelat to Beebee Nanee, in the Bolan Pass, and 
sixty-five miles north-east of the first-mentioned place. The road 
in this part of the route is level and good, and there is an abun- 
dant supply of water from wells. The population, amounting 
to about 2,000, consists of Belooches. Lat. 29° 42', long. 
66° 56'. 

ISPUNOLEE,* in Beloochistan, a village on the route from ^ Ump ot n. w. 
Quetta to Kelat, by way of Moostung, and four miles west of the JSit^^is.**"***"' 
first-mentioned place. The route from Quetta to Kelat, by 
Ispunglee, is more circuitous than that farther east, but better 
suited for military purposes, as it is practicable for artillery, which 
cannot pass by the other. The road is excellent,^ and well suited * ontram. Rough 
for the passage of a large army. Lat. 30° 9', long. 66° 54'. ^""'"^ ""* 

ISTALIF,* a town in the Koh-i-Damun of Kabool, is twenty- » wood's oxu.. 

, ... 177; Lord, Koh- 

two miles north-west of that city. Its utuation is very pic- i-Dunoo. 47 ; 

288 1ST— JAD. 

Bater, iff«m.]47; tore8qiie» in an elevated country, at the base of the Hindoo 
pS!!ui. wo.^*' Kooah, here riaing to an elcvadon of from 15,000 to 20,000 
feet. The town ia emboaomed in beautiful groTea, gardeoa, 
and orcharda, the latter loaded, in their aeaaon, with the most 
delicioua fruits. Each orchard has a tower, to which, during the 
fruit aeaaon, the proprietor repairs, with his family, and lives in a 
round of festivity. The streets, being built on the acclivity of a 
steep hill, rise above each other ; and though the houses are bat 
mean, their arrangement presents a very striking appearance 
when viewed from the neighbourhood. The inhabitants aze 
Taujiks, conaidered to be a mixed race, Arab and Persian, the 
descendants of the Mahometan conquerors under the Kaliphate. 
A considerable proportion of the population is engaged in mann- 
fectures, especiaUy the spinning, weaving, and dyeing of cottons. 
The lower orders subsist, in a great measure, on bread made ci 
mulberries, dried in the sun, and ground. This diet is conaidered 
very heating and exciting, and to this cause, it is said, the in- 
habitants themselves attribute the irascible and violent character 
• Bunei' Peri, for which they are remarkable.^ On the re-oocupation of Kabool 
^'m LL Op. in Ai^. ^7 ^^^ British troops, in September, 1842, a detachment,^ under 
4is> General McCaskiU, pushed on to Istalif, defeated a greatly 

superior force of Afghans, stormed, and partly destroyed the 
town. The population, previously to this event, was estimated 
at 15,000. Lat. 34° 46', long. 68° 58'. 
Lard, Koh-i- ISTURGATEH, or ISTURGETEH.— A town in the Koh-i- 

Damun, 45; 

Minon. Bai. Atg. Damuu of Kabool, remarkable for its picturesque beauty and fine 
Baber^iienuiM. ^^^^^^ ^^^ gardens. It is situate twenty-six miles north-west 
' of Kabool. Lat. 34° 52', long. 68° 58'. 


Walker's Map of JACKREE.— A village in the Punjab, situate on the left 

bank of the Jailum, or Hydaspes river, in lat. 32° 21', long. 

72° 28'. 

B.I.C. Mt. Doc.; JADAK (Khaud of), in Afghanistan, is a halting-place, with 

1842, p. fiS; Qrif. ^ villsge, ou the route from Kandahar to Ghuznee, and seventy 

JAF— JAL 289 

mQes^ north-west of the fonaer place. It is situate near the right Bur.and Thcr. 
bank of the Tumak river, in a spot exhibiting considerable culti- Exi».'into Aig!^ 
vatioxi, and marked by ruins indicating former importance. Its ^^ 
deration above the sea is 5,396 feet. It is generally called Julduk 
in the maps. Lat. 32^, long. eS"" 28^ 

J AFFRABAD, in Sinde, a village on the route from Shikar- bj.c. Ms. noe. 
poor to Sukkur, and five miles north of the latter place. The 
country is fertile and well cultivated, and the road in this part of 
the route in general good, except where cut up by water-courses 
from the Indus. Lat. 27"" 46^ long. 68"" 5(/. 

JAFUR, in the Punjab, a village in the tract between the walker's Map of 
river Swan and the Indus, fourteen miles from the right bank of ^'^' ''^^^' 
the former, and twenty from the left bank of the latter. Lat. 33^ 
SO', long. 72^ 19^. 

JAGAN. — ^A small town, with a fort, in the Northern Punjab, vigne, KMhmir, 
near the left bai^ of the Tohi, is neatly built on the summit of *' '^' 
an eminence. It is held by the Sikhs, who some years ago ex- 
pelled the Rajah. Lat. 32^" 43', long. 75'' 5'. 

JA6HAN, or JAGHUN, a place in Sinde, twelve miles north- b.i.c. Mi.Doe. 
west of Shikarpoor. It consists of a fort and village with some 
lofty square fortified buildings outside. It has a small, but rather 
well-furnished bazaar. Supplies may be procured in moderate 
quantities, and forage, both for camels and horses, is plentiful. 
Jagfaan is eleven miles and a half from Janehdurra, from which 
place the road lies over a level country with much wood. There 
is an encamping ground on the south-east of the village. Lat. 
28*^ 4', long. 68** 39'. 

JAILPOOR.— •A village in the Punjab, sixty-six miles south- e.i.0. mi. do«. 
west of Lahore, and twenty miles firom the right bank of the 
Ghara river. Lat. 30** 45', long. 73^ 46\ 

JAILUM, or JELUM.i— A town of the Punjab, on the right > von Hugei, m. 
bank of the river of the same name. Jailum is a town of consider- 
able extent, and, though the streets are narrow and intricate, it is 
a dean place.^ It is, however, rendered unhealthy by the inun- * Moorer. u. sos. 
dation, which extends widely over the eastern bank of the river. 
The principal crops in the vicinity are wheat, barley, and cotton. 
During the season when the river is lowest, there is a ford 
nearly a mile above the town. The passable part of the bed 
describes two sides of a triangle, the vertex of which is down the 
river.* By this ford the British army crossed in the middle of^^^^'j^J^"^ 

VOL. I. u 

290 JAILUM. 

December, 1839, in its return from Afghanistan, and though thk 
is the low season, several were swept down the stream, and eterea 
persons, including an officer, drowned. Hough, who was present 
on the occasion, states, " the ford extended over a line of about 
five hundred yards, and had more than three feet water and a 
strong current near the south bank." It is obvious that, for the 
greater part of the year, the ford must be totally impassable. The 
elevation of Jailum above the sea is estimated at 1,620 feet. It 
is in lat. 33* 2^, long. 73*» 36'. 

— A river of the Punjab ; the most western, and probably the prin- 
cipal, of the five great rivers, which intersect that region east of the 
Indus. It rises in Kashmir, the whole valley of which it drains, 
iyigne,i.877-885; making its way to the Punjab, through the Pass of Baramuh,^ 
oorcr. . • in the lofty range of Pir Panjal. Its most remote source is the 
head of what is regarded by some as its principal feeder, tiK 
* p. Von Hugei, Lidur,^ which rises in the mountain range, bounding the vaUey 
K^Kdimir, It. 144. ^^ ^^^ nortfi-cast, and in lat. 34'* 21', long. 75° 33'; and having 
drained the small mountain lake called Shesha Nag, takes a 
south-westerly course of about fifty miles to its conflnenoe 
with the Breng, flowing from the south-east, with nearly aa 
equal length of course. — (See Brsno.) About ten miles to the 
north-west, this united stream forms a junction with a lazgc 
feeder flowing from the south, and itself formed by the junc- 
tion of the Sandren, the Veshau, the Huripur, and some other 
streams of less importance, none having a length of course ex- 
ceeding forty miles. Of these, the Veshau is the principal, and, 
according to Vigne, so far exceeds in size the other upper feeders 
of the Jailum, that its fountain-head should be regarded as properiy 
the source of that great river. The Veshau flows by a subterra- 
neous passage from Kosah Nag, a small but deep lake, situate 
near the top of the Pir Panjal mountain, and at an elevation of 
' ut lupra, i. 898. about 12,000 feet above the level of the sea. Here, Vigne^ 
states, " its full strong torrent is suddenly seen gushing out from 
the foot of the last and lofty eminence that forms the dam oa 
the western end of the lake, whose waters thus find an outlet, 
not over, but through, the rocky barrier with which it is sur- 
rounded." This remarkable spot is in lat. 33'' 25', long. 74'' 45'. 
The stream thus produced and reinforced, subsequently receives 
numerous small feeders; passes through the City Lake, the 

JAILUM. 291 

Kfanasa Lake, and the Wulur or Great Lake, and sweeps 
through the coantrjr, confined by embankments, which prevent 
it from orerflowing the lower part of the valley. Previously 
to entering the Wulur, it receives a considerable tributary 
named the Sinde, which rises in the lofty range bounding the 
iralley on the north. The whole course of the Jailum through the 
valley, before it finds an outlet through the Pftss of Baramulainto 
the lower ground of the Punjab, is about a hundred and twenty 
miles/ for seventy of which it is navigable. It is the opinion of * v<m Hugei, u. 
Vigne,' that the river made its way gradually through this pass • i. 287. 
and thus drained the lake, which, according to tradition,^ formerly < Renneii, 107. 
occupied the site of the valley. At Baramula,^ where the stream ^ ^<»^ Hug«i, n. 
is four hundred and twenty feet broad, is a bridge of seven 
arches. At Mazufurabad, about a hundred and fifty miles from 
its Bource, it is joined by the Kishengunga, a stream of nearly 
equal volmne, which rises in Little Tibet, receives a considerable 
tributary from the valley of Gurys, ands subsequently makes its 
way through the mountains stretching from Kashmir to the vici- 
nity of Attock. The united stream takes a course nearly due 
south, from Mazufurabad, and about two hundred and twenty 
miles from its source, leaves the mountains, and enters on the 
plain of the Punjab. It is here a very great stream, though 
considered by Bumes^ less than the Ghenaub. Von Hiigel,* J Jj^^-^ 
at the commencement of January, when the rivers of the Punjab 
are lowest, crossed, at the town of Jailum, on a bridge of 
twenty large boats, and estimated it to have a greater volume of 
water than the Indus at Attock. Moorcroft,' at the same place, ' u. 304. 
found it, in the middle of October, a hundred and fifty yards wide, 
and from twelve to sixteen feet deep ; but six hundred yards wide 
at a short distance both above and below that point, and flowing 
at the rate of about a mile an hour. At this place the direction 
of the Jailum changes from southerly to south-westeriy. The river, 
on emerging from the mountains, is first navigable at Oin, about 
a hundred and ten miles above the town of Jailum, and continues 
so to the Indus.^ At Julalpoor, from which point Bumes ' de- ' Moorer. u. so4. 
scended by boat to Pind Dadun Khan, the stream was muddy ' ^' 
but rapid, with a current of three or four miles an hour. Elphin- 
stone * crossed the river at Julalpoor in July, when he found it * Macartney, in 
one mile, one furlong, and thirty-five perches wide, with a depth ^ ' 


292 JAI— JAM. 

of from nine to fourteen feet, and a current ninning four nuks 
an hour. It abounds in fish, and is infested by great numben 
of crocodiles. Below Julalpoor, it takes a direction neuiy south- 
erly, and joins the Chenaub a little above the feiry of Trimo, in 
lat. 31'' l(/, long. 72^ 9^ alter a course of about four hundred 
and fifty miles. The Jailum was, at the confluence, when ob- 
served by Bumes at the end of June, about five hundred yards 
• US- wide.^ After the union, the channel of the united waters was a 
mile broad and twelve feet deep.* 

The Jailum was unquestionably the Hydaspes of the Gredcs. 
It is still known to the Hindoos of the vicinity by the name of 

• vigne, u. 181 ; Betusta^^ corrupted by the Greeks according to their usage with 

Eiph. 80; Ron-* respcct to foreign names. The scene of the battie between Porus 

^**^' ^^ and Alexander is generally placed at Julalpoor. 

JjJJJ^ ^' ^ JAINPOOR, in Afghanistan, a small town on the route from 
Dera Ghazee Khan to Dadur, through the Hurrund Pass. Lat. 
29° 32', long. 70° 35'. 

MipoftiMii.w. JAIRULA.— A village in the Punjab, situate about twdve 
miles from the right bank of the Ravee river. Lat. 30° 39', long. 
72° 7'. 

E.I.C. Mf. Doc JAITANU, in the Punjab, a vilkge situate on the road from 

Julalpoor to Pind Dadun Khan, fifteen mOes from the former place, 
and six miles north of the Jailum or Hydaspes river. Lat. 32° 
42', long. 73°. 

JALENDHER.— See Julindbb. 

Mip of Aijr.; JALK. — ^A town in Afghanistan, situate a little north 6i the 

Pott. Beloocfa. 

188. route from Nooshky to Bunpoor, and near the southern border of 

the Sandy Desert. Lat. 28° 20', long. 62° 1'. 
JALLINDER.— See Julindrb. 

E.I.C. Ms. Doc JAM, in Beloochistan, a village situate to the left of ^ 

Bholan Pass, on the route to Kelat, from which place it is distant 
about seventy miles. Lat. 29"^ 39', long. 67^ 13'. 

E.I.C. Mf. Doc JAMHALLAKA TANDA, in Sinde, a viUage on the route 

from Hyderabad to Allah Yar Ka Tanda, and nine miles east of 
the former place. Lat. 25° 21', long. 68° 30'. 
JAMOTE HOJA.— See Hoja Jamotb. 

* Barnes, who visited the conflaenoe when the rivers were foUest, ex- 
presses his wonder that it should be so tranqnil, oontruy to the description of 
Arrian. (L. y. c. xx.) 

JAM. 293 

JAMPOOR.— -A vOlage of Afghanistan^ in the Daman, fifteen e.i.c. mi. doc 
miles west of the Indus, and forty miles south-west of Dera 
Ghazee Khan. Lat. 29» SS', long. 70° 38'. 

JAMPOOR, in Bhawlpoor, a village on the route from the e.i.c. Ms. Doe.; 
town of Bhawlpoor to Khanpoor, and thirty-six miles north-east jl^utoe^and*'' 
rf the latter place. Lat. 29° 2', long. 71° 6'. Jodhpoor.Map. 

JAMROOD.' — ^A small town in the province of Peshawiir, ' Banetf poi. 
ten miles west of the city of that name, and at the eastern en- i^. pen. nut. 
trance into the Khyber Pass. It was seized by the Sikhs in 1837, ^^)^t^^' 
and an attempt of the Afghans to retake it led to a battle, in 
irhich the Sikhs were defeated, and their general, Hari Singh, an 
officer of high reputation, slain. The Sikhs have strengthened 
their podtion here by building the fort of Futighur, on the west , ^ . ^^^ 
side of Jamrood. The town^ is 1,670 feet above the sea. Jam- Rxp. inAfg.3i9; 
rood is described by Forster under the name of Timrood.' Lat. mil Op. inA%. ' 
33^ 59', long. 71° 32^. '»• "^ 

^ * Jour. Beng. 

JAMU.i — A considerable town in the north of the Punjab, Eng. u. es. 
and among the mountains forming the southern range of the ^^ ^*^'' 
Himalaya, is situate on a small river, which, rising about forty 
miles to the north, takes its course below the town for about 
twenty miles, in a south-westerly direction, and faUs into the 
Chenaub. The town and palace are built on the right or western 
bank of the river ; on the east is the fort, elevated about a hun- 
dred and fifty feet above the stream, which is here fordable when 
lowest. The place, with the lofty and whitened palace and fort, 
has a striking and pleasing appearance when viewed ^m with- 
out. The bazaar is large, well built, and well supplied; the 
streets are extensive, and the population considerable, amounting, 
according to yigne,^ to about 8,000. The palace ia a spacious ' ^* i^* 
and handsome building. The fort, built with great cost and 
labour, is untenable against a regular attack, being commanded 
by an adjacent height of easy access. There is an extensive and 
beautiful pleasure-ground, belonging to the rajah. About the 
town are numerous ruins of great size, the evidence of its pros- 
perity under its hereditary rajahs before the expulsion of their 
feunily by the Sikhs, who at present rule it with great rapacity 
and cruelty. After the Maha Rajah, the ruler of Jamu, Golab 
Singh is the most powerful of the Sikhs. Jamu is in lat. 32° 
33', long. 74° 56'. 

J AMUT THURA, in the Punjab, a viDage on the right bank waikert Map of 

N.W. FroDtier. 



£.I.C. Ms. Doc 

Hough, Narr. 
£zp. In Afg. 338. 

E.I.G. Ms. Doc. ; 
Hougb, Narr. 
Exp. in A^. SB ; 
Navelock. War In 
Afg. I. 176; At- 
kimon, Exp. into 
A%. 103. 

E.I.C. M». Doc. 

E.I.C. Ms. Doc. 

Map of Sinde. 

E.LG. Mfl. Doc. 

Jour. As. Soc. 
1840, p. 713. 
Conolly(E.), Phy- 
sical Oeog. of 

Id. 1B41, p. 322, 
Id. Jour, of 
Trarelling in 

E.I.C. Ms. Doc. ; 
MU. Op. in Afg. 

of the Raree river, and forty-two miles north-east of Mooltan. 
Lat. 30° 32^. long. 72*». 

JANA. — ^A village in Afghanistan, on the road from Dera 
Ismael Khan to Ghuznee, thirty miles west of the former place. 
Lat. 31° 50', long. 70° 24'. 

JANEE KA SUNG.— A small town or village of the Pimjah, 
on the route from Attock to Rotas. Lat. 33° 45', long. 72^ 4^. 

JANEHDURRA, in Sinde, a village on the route from Shi- 
karpoor to Bagh, and twenty miles north-west of the former town. 
It is situate near the border of the Pat, or desert of Shikarpoor, 
yet the immediate vicinity is fertile, and was at one time wdl 
cultivated ; but it has suffered much from the devastations of the 
marauding Belooches, who lately laid the village in mins. 
There is a fort of considerable size, containing a good wdL 
There are three other wells outside the fort. Lat. 28"" IC, 
long. 68° S&. 

JANGUR. — A viUage in Sinde, situate ten miles south friora 
Lake Manchur, and the same distance south-west from Sehwan. 
Lat. 26° 16', long. 67^46'. 

JANNOO KAREEZ.— See Jdhhoo Karxbz. 

JANPOOR.— A viUage in Sinde, situate on the left bank of 
the Indus. Lat. 28° 13', Icmg. 69° 25'. 

JANSER, in Sinde, a village on the direct route from Kur- 
rachee to Sehwan, and seventy miles south of the latter town. 
It is situate at the western base of a low range of hills in a 
wretched country destitute of supplies. Lat. 25^ 28^, long. 
67° 54'. 

JAREJA. — ^A village in Sinde, five miles fr^m the left bank 
of the Indus. Lat. 28° 2'. long. 69° 7'. 

JAYA. — See Adbuscund and Jbja. 

JEHANGROO.— A village in the south-eastern frontier oi 
Sinde, eight miles from the northern boimdary of the Great 
Western Rinn. Lat. 24° 27', long. 70° 29'. 

JEJA, or JAYA. — ^A town of Seistan, on the route from 
Herat to Furrah, and forty miles north-west of the latter 
place. It is situate in a narrow valley of the same name 
and on the left bank of the river Adruscund, which, in this part 
of its course, is in consequence generaUy called the river of Jaya. 
Lat. 32° 53', long. 61° 55'. 

JELALABAD.-*-A province of Afghanistan, so called from 


the name of the principal town. It is a valley forming a natural 907 ; Jour. ab. 
anbdivision of the great valley of Kabool, being enclosed on the n7;*M*^rogor, 
north by the Siah Koh and the mountains of Lughman, on the o«o- ^oUce of 

.,._._-_.__ , , w^, , 1 , Jullalabad; Wood, 

east by the Ali Boghan hiUs and the Khyber range, on the south xhjber Pug, i,2; 
by the Highlands of Nungnehar. on the west by the Kurkutcha ^^^^i,j^^^ 
range. It is in its greatest extent about sixty miles in length Paqj* 1. 177; 
from east to west, and thirty miles in breadth from north to BokhTii. sm^ 
south, and lies between lat. 34^ K/— 34^ 40', long. 70°— 71°. P^'^'J^''?; 

^ 1. 122; Bao. Mem. 

Jelalabad is very well watered by the Kabool river flowing nearly ui ; Jour. As. 
through the middle from west to east, as well as by the Soorkh ^^^^',T\ 
Rood and numerous other streams falling into that river from *'*p^^®***'^'- 
the south, and the Alishang and river of Kama or Kooner from 
the north. It is a beautiful district, and in general fertile, yield-* 
ing all the vegetable productions of the finest part of the tem- 
perate zone. As its elevation above the sea in few parts exceeds 
two thousand five hundred feet, the climate, though not disagree- 
able in winter, is in summer so warm that the more wealthy inha- 
bitants retire to the higher grounds adjacent. The mean tem- 
perature is altogether warmer than would result from the latitude 
and elevation above the sea; and the circumstance is to be 
accounted for by the radiation and reflection of heat from the 
high surrounding mountains. So high, indeed, is the mean 
temperature, that the sugar-cane, first planted by Sultan Baber, 
is produced in abundance and perfection. In the desert tract of 
Butte Kot, at the eastern extremity of the valley, the heat some- 
times produces a violent and fatal simoom. Men or beasts 
exposed to its influence are struck dead, and their frames so 
disorganized, that the limbs can with little efibrt be torn from 
the body. The valley is not only productive and well cultivated, 
but densely peopled and crowded with villages and castles — the 
latter rendered necessary by the turbulent and rapacious habits 
of the Afghans. In regard to natural advantages, it is altogether 
a delightful tract, the beauty of the vale being contrasted with the 
aubHme i^pearance of the stupendous snow-clad mountains which 
surround it. Masson, an eyewitness, observes, " Few countries 
can possess more attractive scenery, or can exhibit so many grand 
features in its surrounding landscape." The revenue is now 
calculated to amount to Rs. 300,000. It is stated by Moorcroft 
to have been at one time 652,000, but under so unsettled a 

296 JEL. 

government aa that of Afghanistan, snch eatimatea must be liable 
to great inaccuracy. 

JELALABAD, the capital of the province of the same name, 
is situated nearly a mile from the south bank of the river of 
Kabool, and five miles bdow the confluence of the Soorkh Rood. 
It is stated to have been founded by the Emperor Akbar, called 
also Jelal-ad-din. Two other towns of greater extent fbrmeriy 
stood near the site of the present, and their ruined defences can 
still be traced. Jelalabad is wretchedly' built of unbumt brides, 
and has little either of manufiBUstuies or trade, thougb advan- 
tageously situated on the main road from the Punjab to Kabodl. 
The amount of population is doubtful, but probably does not 
t War In Af^. H. exceed 3.000, though Havdock^ estimates it at 10,000. A con- 
siderable portion of the number are Hindoos, here, as in other 
places, the monopolizers of trade. This place owes its importance 
to the fact of its being the residence of the governor of the fertile 
province of which it is the chief town. It will be ever cdebraled 
in history, in consequence of the heroic and successful defence 
made during the winter of 1841-42 by a handful c^ British 
troops, under Sir Robert Sale, against a numerous and infuriate 
army of Afghans. The fortifications were destroyed in October, 
1842, by order of General Pollock on his final evacnation of 

> Mil. Op. in All;. Afghanistan.^ Elevation 1,964 feet above the sea. lAt. 84'' 25', 
***" long. 70° 28'. 

JELALABAD, called formerly Dooshak, is an andent dty of 
Seistan, situate four or five miles from the right bank of the 
Hdmund. The extent of the ruins in and about the' town prove 

> In App. to Pott, that it once was large and flourishing. Christie ^ considers 
Hut. of^^uil i. ^^^ ^^ could not have been inferior in size to Isfiedian. It was 
90i ; ii. 238 ; \yy^f^ of suu-dricd bricks, the houses beine two stories hig-h, with 

Elph. Ace of , , ^ rw« . , . \ . 

caubui. 494; Vaulted roofs. The present town is neat, and m a state of un- 
1840, ^724^ provement ; it has a tolerable bazaar. It belongs to a chieftain 
conoiiy (E.x ^ho has su annual income of about Rs. 30,000, and appears to 

Map of Selitan. _ ,,, i«ii^ii<.v<r rw« •» 

acknowledge the supremacy of the Shah of Herat. The popula- 
tion is about 10,000. The name of Jelalabad is recent, having 
been given to Dooshak in the beginning of the present cen- 

3 Pott. Beiooch. tury in honour of Jelal-ad-din,^ the son of its chief, Beheram 

^"- Khan. Lat. 31° 10', long. 61° 40'. 

JELALPOOR.— See Julalpoor. 

JEL— JES. 297 

JELLOOOHEER, in A^faanistan, a narrow pass in a dia- e.ijo» mi. doc; 
trict of the same name, on the route firom Kandahar to Ghuznee, ?'*^^/^• ^' 

£zp. into Aig* 

and fifty-two miles north-east from the former place. Near it 147. 
the clifia ahut so closdj on the river Tumak that it was neces- 
sary to hew a road for the British army on its advance to 
Ohuznee in 1839. Lat. SI"" 55', long. 66^ 17'. 

JELUM.--See Jailtjm. 

JEMEL KHANS KOOA, in the Punjab, a village on the B.I.C. Jif.Doe. 
route from Mooltan to Bhawlpoor, twelve miles north of the 
latter, and forty mOes south of the former place. Lat. 29^ 35^ 
long. 7P 35'. 


JENDOUL, near the north-eastern frontier of Afghanistan, a ki<^- Ms. Doe.) 
to^wn of the Bajour temtory, situate on a feeder of the iiundye isw, p. sis, 
river, and twenty miles north-east of the town of Bajour. Lat. ^1^^^^!^'^^ 

35^ 1 1', long, 7 1° 41'. the W«teni Bank 

JESOOL,* in the Punjab, a small town on the route from 1 £LaMi.i)oc. 
Mooltan to Leia, and ten miles south of the latter place. It is 
situate near the left bank of the Indus, the water of which of late 
years has in this part of the course been directed to the right or west 
side, so that the former bank on the east side now bears the appear- 
ance of a low brow or continuous eminence, running in some degree 
parallel to the main channel, and seven or eight miles distant 
from it. Elphinstone ' well describes this part of the country — ' aoo. of Caubui, 
" It is a narrow tract, contested between the river and the desert. 
If in hunting we were led many miles to the west of the road, 
we got into branches of the river and troublesome quicksands 
among thickets of tamarisk or of reeds ; and if we went as far to 
the right, the appearance of sand, and even in some places of 
sandhills, admonished us of the neighbourhood of the desert, 
llie fertile patches of ground, which are of frequent occurrence, 
are remarkably well cultivated, and produce grain, cotton, tobacco> 
and other less important crops." The intelligent traveller just 
quoted remarks how much he and his party were struck by the 
contrast afforded by the style of farming, and of agricultural 
structures and arrangements here, to that prevailing in eastern 
India. " Some of the houses near the river," he says, " attracted 
our attention, being raised on platforms, supported by strong posts^ 
twelve or fifteen feet high. We were told they were meant to 
take refuge in during the inundation, when the country, for 



Von Hug«l, 
Kaschmir, 1. ISO. 

Outrun, Roufb 

1 Wllion, in 
Moorcr. i. 70. 

' Von Hugel, i. 

twenty milea from the banks* wu under water." The people, 
he adds, were remarkably civil and weU-behaved, personable, 
well dad, and altogether of thriving appearance. Jesool is in 
lat. 30° 51', long. 7r. 

JESROD, or JESROUTE, a small raj and town in the north- 
east of the Punjab, among the mountains of tbe southern rai^e 
of the Himalaya. The residence of the rajah (the last occupant 
of which fell a victim to the rapacity of Runjeet Singh) is a 
stately mansion, with four towers. The town has a bazaar of 
small size and inconsiderable business. Lat. 32^ 30', long. 75^ lO'. 

JEWA, or JEW AH, a fertile valley of Beloochistan, is tra- 
versed by the route from Kelat to Sonmeanee, and is atoate 
seventy-five miles south-west of the former place. Though 
bounded by rocky hills, which render it rather difficult of access 
from the north, the road through it is good, and supplies of forage 
and water are abundant. Cultivation and population are more 
considerable than in most parts of this barbarous country. 
Lat. 2r 58', long. 65^ 50'. 

JEWALA MUKI, in the north-east of the Punjab, a cele- 
brated Hindoo place of pilgrimage, ten miles north-west of Na- 
daun, situate in an elevated nook, immediately under the moun- 
tains of Changa, is frequented by votaries from all parts of Hin- 
dostan, anxious to worship the mythological personage called 
Devi, wife of Mahadeo, her presence being indicated, as they 
believe, by some inflammable gases which issue from fissures in 
the rock. The name Jewala Muki is composed of two Sanscrit 
words, Jewala, flame, and MM, mouth. The flame, according to 
the legend, proceeds from the fire which Sati, the bride of Siva, 
created, and in which she burned herself. Siva,^ finding that this 
flame was about to consume the world, buried it in the hollow of 
the mountain. The temple is about twenty feet square, and the 
principal place of flame is a shallow trough,' excavated in the 
floor, where it blazes without intermission. There are several 
jets of less importance. The gas also lies on the surface of some 
small reservoirs of water, and, when ignited, continues to bum 
for a short time. The roof of the temple is richly gilt, but tbe 
interior is blackened by the smoke of burned butter, sugar, and 
other gross offerings. In 1839, Runjeet Singh, when ill, made 
an offering of butter, to the amount of £1,500, hoping the reno- 
vation of his health from tbe favour of the deity, llie weight of 

JEY— JHA. 299 

the o£Periiig was probably about sixty or seveinty tons ; and Vigne,^ ' i. iss. 
'who was at the place while the burning was going forward, found 
** tlie stench similar to that of a candle-maker's shop." Near.the 
principal temple is one smaller, called Gogranath, and hence con- 
dueled by Von HugeH to be of Buddhist origin. The ground 4 1 37. 
adjoining to the group of sacred buildings is crowded with cows. 
Brahmins, pilgrims, and mendicants, and loaded with filth. The 
pilgrims, most of whom are paupers, are supported for one 
day from the funds of the temple. The town is dirty and 
neglected, but has an extensive bazaar,^ containing great quan- *id. 1.83. 
titles of idols, votive garlands, rosaries, and other trumpery of the 
like description. The population is about 3,000. Near the town 
is a mineral spring, the water of which is found to be singularly 
efficacious in discussing bronchocele. Moorcroft was unable to 
analyze this water, but it probably contains some form of iodine^ 
now known to possess much efficacy in resolving glandular tu- 
mours. The offerings are, in a great measure, appropriated by the 
rajah, who derives from them an annual revenue of Rs. 30,000.* ' o«™^. Koona- 

, , , war, 1»0. 

Lat. 31** 46', long. 76^ Itf. 

JEYKEIR, in Sinde, a village on the route, by the Narra 
river, from Sehwan to Laikhana, and twenty miles south of the 
latter place. It is situate on the right bank of that great offset 
of the Indus, and in a low, alluvial, fertile tract. Lat. 27° I6'> 
long. 68^ 4\ 

JHALAWAN. — ^A province of Beloochistan, bounded on the 
north by Sarawan and Kelat ; on the east by Cutch Gundava and 
Sinde ; on the south by Lius and Mekran, and on the west by 
Mekran and Sarawan. It lies between lat. 26° and 29°, and 
long. 65° and 67^ 30^. It is two hundred miles in length from 
north to south, one hundred and fifty miles in breadth from east 
to west, and has an area of about twenty thousand square miles. 
It is extremely mountainous and uneven, containmg only three 
level spots of any extent — ^the valleys or plains of Wudd, of 
Sohrab, and of Khozdar.^ The climate is temperate ; rain falls > Pott ms; 
frequently, and there are several streams, the principal of which JJjJ***"' ^^^^ 
are, the Moolah, the Oomach, the Nal or Durruk, and the head- 
water of the Poorally river. The Moolah is remarkable as form* 
ing by its channel the Moolah, or (rundava Pass, one of the great 
lines of communication between the valley of the Indus and the 
countries westward. Jhalawan is very barren and thinly peopled ; 



Bdoodk. Map. 

Walker's Map of 
N.W. Frontier. 

EJ.C. lUDoc 

Walker's Map of 
N.W. Frontier. 

Moorer. Pui^. 

Wood, Rep. on 
the Coal of the 
Indus, 80. 

Carless, Official 
Surrey of the 
Indus, S; Bumes, 

Walker's Map of 
N.W. Frontier. 

Otttram' traversed sixty miles, in two suooessiye marches on 
horseback, across the country, without meeting a sign of human 
habitation; and Masson' estimates the whole population at 
90,000 ; about three persons to every two square miles. Una, 
indeed, seems incredibly small, even for a pastoral population, 
of which description is that by which this country is generally 
held. The principal places are Nal, Khozdar, and Zefaree. 

JHOW, in Beloochistan, the chief place of a petty district 
of the same name, in the eastern extremity of Mekran. Ancient 
artificial mounds, of frequent occurrence, prove that this country 
was formerly less desolate than at present, a conclusion confirmed 
by the existence of extensive ruins, where coins, arms, trinkets, 
and other relics are frequently found. Lat. 26^ 11^ long, 
65* 35'. 

JHUBBHER. — A village in >the Punjab, forty-two mika 
north-west of the city of Lahore. Lat. 31* 55', long. 73* 39^. 

JHUNO.— See Juno. 

JILUM. — See Jajlum. 

JIMPOOR, in Sinde, a village near the route from Kurradiee 
to Hyderabad, and forty miles south-west of the latter place. It 
is situate in the Doab, or tract between the Irak and Rodh rivers, 
and five miles north-west of the Dmui, or small lake of Kunjur, 
into which they discharge themselves. Lat. 24* 59', long. 

JINDALA.— A village in the Punjab, forty-five miles north- 
west of the city of Lahore. Lat. 31* 51', long. 73* 32'. 

JINDIALEH, in the Punjab, a town on the route from Loo- 
dianah to Amritsir, and ten miles south-east of the latter place. 
Lat. 31* 36', long. 74* 56'. 

JOA, in the Punjab, a large and flourishing town in the Salt 
range, about fifty miles east of the Indus. Here are said to be 
satisfactory indications of the existence of good coal. Lat. 
32* 50'. long, 72* 30'. 

JOA, in Sinde, is a mouth of the Indus, by which, in time of 
inundation, the water of the Buggaur, or great western branch of 
that river, is discharged. In the season when the water is low, 
Joa is merely a salt-water creek. Lat. 24* 15', long. 67° 19'. 

JOAGEH WALLA, in the Punjab, a village situate on an 
offset of the river Indus, and two miles from the left bank of the 
main channel. Lat. 29* 26', long. 70"^ 53'. 

JOA— JOO. 301 

JOALI, in tlie north-east of the Punjab, at the base of the vonHog*!, 
Mori motintams (one of the southern ranges of the Himalaya), and 
on the rente from Nadann to Nurpar. It is a small town haying 
seven or eight hundred inhabitants. Lat. 32®» long. 75^ 38'. 

JODHAKE, in Bhawlpoor, a village between Gouijeanah and b.ix;. ms. Doo. ; 
the town of Bhawlpoor, and eighty miles north-east of the latter ,^'' wi^Voy. 
place. It is situate on the left bank of the Ghara river, in lat. ^'"^ *^ Sa^* 
29^ 59', long. 72** 44'. 

JOGA SYN, in.Sinde, a village on the road from Kurrachee i^ Surrer Map. 
to Jurruk, and fifty miles east of the former place. Lat. 24^ 55', 
long. 67'' 46'. 

JO HAN, in Bdoochistan, a halting-place on the route from e.i.c. ms. doc. 
Kelat to Beebee Nanee, in the Bolan Pass, and thirty miles north- 
east of Kelat. It is supplied with water from a stream. The in- 
habitants are Belooches, of the Johanni tribe. Lat. 29^ 1(/, long. 
66» 51'. 

JOK,^ in Sinde, a village on the route from Hyderabad to i £.i.c. Ms. Doe. 
Meerpoor, and thirty-eight miles south of the former town. It 
is situate in the fertile alluvial tract insulated by the Indus and 
its great offsets the Fulailee and Fin3raree. The adjacent country 
is described by Pottinger^ as very fine, and capable of producing ■ Beiooch. 875. 
rich crops, but in general waste, from the oppression of the 
Ameers. Lat. 24« 52'. long. 68*» 19'. 

JOKE, in Afghanistan, a village of the Daman, situate on the e.i.g. Ms. Doe. 
right bank of the Indus. Lat. 3 1'' 8', long. 70° 5(y. 

JOKHAY, in Sinde, a village in the barren and rugged tract Ms. Snnrej Map. 
between the Pubb and Lukkee mountains. It is situate twenty- 
eight miles north of Kurrachee. Lat. 25° 13', long. 67° 11'. 

JOKHE, in Sinde, a village on the Pubb river, here forming B.I.C. Ms. Doe. 
the boundary between Sinde and Lus. It is situate sixteen miles 
north-west of Kurrachee, in a rugged, barren, and desolate tract. 
Lat. 25° 7', long. 66° 59'. 

JOLUNEE, in the Punjab, a village situate on the right e.i.c. Mi. Doc. 
bank of the Ghara river, seven miles north of Ferozpoor, in lat. 
31° 2', long. 74° SC/. 
JOOA.— See Joa. 

JOOEE CIRCAR, in Afghanistan, a village situate on the waikei'f Mkp of 
left bank of the Hehnund river, and ten miles south of the fort of ^' 
Giriskh. Lat. 31° 38', long. 64° 15'. 

JOOGEWALLAH.— Sec Joaobh Walla. 



E.I.O. Ml. Doe. 

E.I.C. H«. Doe. 

E.I.C. Ml. Doc 

Walker*! Hap of 
N.W. FronUer. 

B.I.C. Ms. Doe. 
E.I.C. Iff. Doe. 

liralker'i Map of 
N.W. FronUer. 

E.I.O. Ma.Doc. 

iB7i«, Mll.Op. 
at Kabool, 848- 
9fil ; Sale, Dia. In 
Alg, 862. 
*Mil. Op. inAlir. 

* Hough, Narr. 
of Exp. in Af^. 
296; Have- 
U. 178; Wood, 
Khyber Pais, 6. 

JOORG, in AfgbaniBtan, a small town of Seiatan^ near die 
left bank of the Adruscund, here generally called the river of 
Subzawur. It is thirty miles south-east of Furrah, and twenty- 
five miles north of Hamoon lake. Lat. 32*^ 9^ long. 61° 42^. 

JOORGEE, in Beloochistan, a viUage and halting-place on 
the direct route from Kelat to Pandura, in the Moola Pass, and 
eighteen miles south-east of Kelat. The road by Joorgee, 
though shortening the route through the Moola Pass above 
twenty miles, is not available for purposes requiring the use of 
wheel-carriages, being impracticable for them. Joorgee is in lat. 
28** 42^, long. 66*» 39'- 

JOREEND, in Sinde, a village on the route from Bukkur to 
Hyderabad, and seventy miles north of the latter place. Lat. 26^ 
20'. long. 68** 22'. 

JOSA, in the Punjab, a village situate on the right bank of 
the Ravee river. Lat. 30° 30', long. 72° 7'. 

JOUREY, in the Punjab, a village eight miles from the right 
bank of the Jailum river. Lat. 31° 47', long. 7r 55'. 

JUBBRA, in Afghanistan, a village on the route from Kan- 
dahar to Kabool, and one hundred and eighty miles north-east of 
the former place. Lat. 33° 5', long. 67° 58'. 

JUGBARAH, in Bhawlpoor, a village on the left bank of the 
Ghara river. Lat. 30° 20', long. 73° 40'. 

JUGDEE KHAEE.— A village in the Punjab, situate on the 
right bank of the river Ravee, forty-two miles south-west of 
Lahore. Ut. 31° 16', long. 73° 40'. 

JUGDULUK.— A village between Jelalabad and Kabool at 
the point where the road to the latter place separates into three 
branches. It was one of the principal scenes ^ of the atrocious mas- 
sacre of the British troops in their attempted retreat from Kabool 
in the commencement of 1842. Here also, the British^ onder 
General Pollock, in their advance on Kabool, in Aug^t in the same 
year, totally defeated a large army of Afghans. Jugduluk may be 
considered the commencement, in the direction from east to west, 
of the series of defiles between Jelalabad and KabooL Hough' 
observes, " From the entrance to the Khoord Cabool Pass to 
Jugdulluk, a distance of forty-two miles, there is a succession 
of passes and defiles more difficult than any road we had yet 
seen. They beggar description." Its elevation above the sea 
is 5,375 feet. Lat. 34° 25', long. 69° 46'. 

JUJ— JUL. 30S 

. JVJJA, in Bhawlpoor, a town on the route from Khanpoor to e.i.c. Ms. doc.; 
Mittunkote, and ten miles north-west of the former pkice. It «" B^i^lSi^r, 
is situate about fourteen miles from the left bank of the Indus, ^- 
in the alluvial tract extensively laid under water during the 
inundation of that river. It contains forty shops, a number 
which, according to the proportion usually found in such Indian 
towns, would indicate a population of about 600. Lat. 28" 46', 
long. 7(y» 39^. 

JULALPOOR, a town in the Punjab, on the right or western 
bank of tbe Jailum, situate in a narrow valley of great fertility, 
extending between the river and the eastern extremity of the 
Kala, or Salt range. According to Elphinstone, ^ this was the i so. 
scene of Alexander's battle with Poms, but Bumes^ thinks it > i. 57. 
must have been at Jailum, higher up, where the river, according 
to him, is fordable at all times except in the monsoon ; but where 
Hugel^^ found it, at the beginning of January, when lowest, asm. 143. 
great stream, larger than the Indus at Attock, and bridged with 
twenty large boats. It is therefore unquestionable that the river 
could not at that point be forded at the season of inundation 
(when, as Arrian* informs us, it was crossed by Alexander) ; 
and where, indeed, the British army lost eleven men in ford- 
ing it in December* which is the low season.^ Julalpoor is * Hougb, Narr. 
one of the great passages over the Jailum, on the route from Hin- ^^* *°^'* ***" 
dostan to Afghanistan. Lat. 32'' 42", long. 73"* 15'. 

JULALPOOR. —A village in the Punjab, situate near the e.i.o. if •. doo. 
left bank of the Chenaub or Acesines river, sixty miles south* 
west of Vazeerabad, and fifty-two miles south of the town of the 
same name. Lat. 31° 58', long. 73° 15'. 
JULDUK.— See Jadak. 

JULINDER, in the Punjab, a considerable town near the von Hngei, m 
western bank of the Sutluj, was once the residence Of the Lodi- ^^^ 
Afghan dynasty. It is situate in a tract of great fertility, amidst 
flourishing orchards of mangoes and other trees. The vast num- 
ber of large and finely-built mausoleums which are around, bear 
evidence of its former greatness. It has still a population of 
about 40,000. Lat. 31° 19', long. 75° 36'. 

JULL, a town of Cutch Gundava, in Beloochistan, seventy- MMion, Bai. a^t. 

* 'Ev fikv rf r6rt oc troraftol vdvrig cX *lvSoi toXXS r« (J^aroc Kai Ke]at,j»l; 
^oXepS i^^tov Kai 6|roc rfi (niffULroQ. L. v. ix. ^•- ^^^^^ ^P* 

304 JUL-JUM. 

two miles toatfa of the town of GimdaTa» on the road from tbence 
to Lwkhana. Ut. 28» 10", long. Sr 33'. 
JULLAL KAET.— See Jullalkots. 

Kennedy, 1.60; JULLALKOTE, in the delta of Sinde. a small town on the 

ice. SttTTtf MM>. ^^^ ^^ Vikkur to Tatta, thirty-fiTe miles south-weet of the 
latter place. Ut. 24" 22". long. eT** 39^. JULLAL KHAN, in Afghanistan, a Tillage on die route 

from Kandahar to Kabod, and a hundred and eighty miles north- 
east of the former town. Lat. 33" 6\ long. 67" 54'. 

B.i.o.Me.D(M. JULLAREE, in the Punjab, a village on the route from 

Mooltan to Lahore, and forty miles north-east of the former 
place. It is situate on the left bank of the river Ravee. LsL 
30° dC, long. 71" 58^. JULLAWGOTE, in Sinde, a village on the route from 

Sehwan to Larkhana, and seventeen miles north of the former 
town. It is Situate on the right bank of a great water-ooorae, 
filled by the inundation of the Indus, and a mile and a quarter 
from the main channel. Lat. 26" 37^ long. 67"54\ 

B.LC. Me. Doe. JULLOO KOTUL, in Afghanistan, a pass on the route from 

Ghuznee to Shawl, and on the southern slope of the height bound- 
ing the basin of the Ab-istada lake on the south. The road here 
is very difficult, and scarcely practicable for wheel-carriages. Lat 
32" 4\ long. 67" 33'. 

Sde, pie. In Ai^r. JULRAIZ, in Afghanistan, a town on the route from Kabool 

417 ; Jour. Ai. Soe. ° 

1M9, p. 71, orif. to Bamian. It is situate in abeautifrd, fertile, and well- cultivated 

Bar. and Thar, y^lley. Watered by the Kabool river. Numerous forts surround 
the town, which is rather large. Its elevation is 8,082 fleet above 
the sea. Lat 34° 23', k)ng. 68*» 29^. 

B.I.G. Me. Doc JUMA, in the Punjab, a village situate about eighty-six miles 

south-west of Lahore, near the right bank of the Ravee river. 
Ut. 30° 54', long. 73° 4'. 

* E.i.a Me. Doc JUMA JAMOTE, in Bdoochistan, a halting-place in Lus. on 
the Vinder torrent, which, rising in the hills in the south of Jha- 
lawan, flows south, and is lost in the arid region of Lus. Hiis 
desolate and repulsive country has lately attracted attention, in 
consequence of the rich lodes of copper which have been discovered 

UkUti^iaCop' there.^ Juma Jamote is in lat. 25° 56', long. 66^ 56'. 

^^itter'iMapof JUMBURUM, a village in Afghanistan, situate on the road 

N.w. Frontier, from Giriskh to Herat, sixty-six miles south of tiie latter place. 

*Jour. Ae.Soc 
1S40, p. ao, Do 

JUM— JUP. 805 

and ten mOes north-east of the town of Snbzawur. Lat. 33^ 
27', long. 62^ 20', 

JUMEDARAH, in Sinde, a village situate near the left bank Ms. icapof sinde. 
of the Indus. Lat. 26^ SC, long. 67^ 58'. 

JUMEEAT, in Afghanistan, a small village, affording a halt- 
ing-place on the route from Ghuznee to Shawl, a hundred miles 
& little west of south from the former place, and twenty miles 
aouth of Lake Ab-istada. The neighbourhood abounds in 
villages, and the road is in general good. Lat. 32^ 18^ long. 
67** 40'. 

JUMLAIRA. — A village in the south of the Punjab, situate waikefaicap of 
on the right bank of the Ghara river. Lat. 30*» 1 , long. ^'^'^'^^'' 
72** 44'. 

JUMRAJEE WUSSEE.— A town in Smde, near the left or BoniM' (j.), Mb- 
east bank of the Indus, and on the route from Cutch to Hydera- '^^ ^ **"'*' ^' 
bad. Lat. 24'' 54', long. 68"" 3(f. 

JUNDRA, in Sinde, a village on the route from Roree to MLBurreyicap. 
Khyerpoor, and five miles south-west of the former place. Lat. 
27** 39', long. 68^51'. 

JUNG, in the Punjab, an important manufacturing town two Bomes, on the 
or three miles from the left or eastern bank of the Chenaub. DenJ^J^l los. 
Here, and at Meengana, and some other places in the same tract, 
are manufactured great quantities of white cotton cloth, princi- 
pally for the Afghan market. Lat. 31'' 14', long. 72"" 21'. 

JUNGALEE, in the Punjab,^ a village on the route from * Ej.c.]fi.Doe. 
Lahore to Ramnuggur, and fifty nules north-west of the former, 
place. The adjacent country ia described by Bumes^ as sandy, * Bokhara, i. 48. 
yet rather productive, being irrigated from iimumerable wells, 
which yield water at a depth seldom exceeding twenty-two 
feet. Lat. 32^ 5', long. 73*» 45'. 

JUNNOO KAREEZ, in Afghanistan, is a stream flowing £.i.c. Ms. Doe. 
from a subterraneous aqueduct on the route from Kandahar to 
Ghuznee, and distant from the former place about eighteen miles 
north-west. The neighbourhood is well cultivated and produc- 
tive. Lat. 31** 41', k)ng. 65^ 45'. 

JUNRUCK, in the Punjab, a village on the route from Lahore B.i.a ni. Doe. 
to Mooltan, and eighty miles south-west of the former place. It 
is situate on the left bank of the river Ravee. Lat. 30^ 57', 
bug. 73° 12^. 

JUPP, in Sinde, a village between Bukkur and Hyderabad, >(•• ^^p* 

VOL. I. X 

306 JUIU-JUT. 

and a hundred and five miles north of the latter pkce. Itu 
forty miles dbtant from the left bank of the Indus, and lies in the 
tract where the rich alluvial country begins to assume t^e cha- 
racter of the desert to the east. Lat. 26^ 50', long. 68° 32". 
E.I.C. Ml. Doe. JURROOP, in Sinde, a village on the route from Hyderabad 

to Omercote, and fifty miles east of the former place. Lat. 
25° 24'. long. 69° 9^. 
1 Kennedy, sinde JURRUK,^ a town of Sindc, is situate on an eminenoe of 
wtld.*o!^ut.*»** ^^^ elevation, which forms a headland projecting into the 
Bttrnes' Pen. Indus ou the wcstem side, and risinir about thirty feet above the 

Narr. 29; E.IX!. ««^ . . , -^ , , , j. ,^ 

Ms. Doc. water. The site is beautiful and advantageous, commanding the 

navigation of the river in both a military and commercial pcHiit 
of view. Here the rude tribes of the neighbouring part of Beloo- 
chistan come to supply themselves with manufactured wares. 
The advantageous position and salubrious air of Jurruk caused 
it to be recommended by Bumes as the best location for a 
British settlement in this part of Sinde. The principal manu- 
£Bicture is turnery of a very tasteful and highly-finished kind. Its 
» Burnet' Bokh. population is probably about 1,500 or 2,000.* Lat. 25° 3', long. 
^' 68° 15'. 

E.i.a Ml. Doe. JUSSA, in the Punjab, a village situate thirteen nules north- 

east of Bhawlpoor, on the right bank of the Ghara river. Lat. 
29° 32^, long. 71^49'. 
E.i.c.Mt.Doc. JUTTA KA GOTE, in Sinde, a village on the route from 

Tatta to Hyderabad, by way of Kotree, and twenty-two miles 
north-east of Tatta. It is situate a mile and a half from the 
right bank of the Indus, and half-way between that river and the 
brackish Dund, or lake of Kunjur. The adjacent country is 
plain, and occupied principally by a Shika^ah, or hunting- 
ground, lately belonging to one of the Ameers of Hyderabad. 
Lat. 24° 55', long. 68° 8'. 
E.I.C. Mi. Doc ; JUTTEEL MOUNTAINS, in Sinde, form a portion erf that 
184^, p.'oii ; mountain system, which, stretching eastward from the great Hala 
OT uwoTntrJ*'*' "^g«» terminates abruptly on the right bank of the Indus Tiear 
between Kiu- Schwau. The Juttccl Mouutaius run south-west from Sehwan to 
{|^^ *° ' Dooba, a distance of between sixty and seventy miles. They axe 
steep and of considerable height, probably in few places less than 
two thousand feet* The direct road from Sehwan to Kurradiee 
lies between them and the Keertar range, which is equally high, 
and holds a parallel course, but more to the. west. The Jutted 

JUT— KAB. 307 

range extends between lat. 25** 26'— 26*» 20', and long. 67** 46'— 

JUITOO, in the Punjab, a village on the route from Mooltan B*i*c. Mi. Doe. 
to Dera Ismael Khan, and eighteen miles north-west of the former 
town. It is situate ten miles from the right bank of the Chenaub 
river, in what Elphinstone calls the Little Desert, extending be- 
tween the Chenaub and the Indus, and which he describes as 
having a length of two hundred and fifty miles from north to 
south, and, in the latitude of Juttoo, a breadth of two days' 
march, or about forty miles. It is a dreary tract, ill supplied 
with brackish water, and overspread with sandhills of a grey 
colour, among which the only vegetation is a scanty growth of 
stunted bushes. Lat. 30^ 20^, long. 71° 19'. 

JYM KILA.— A village in North-Westem Afghanistan, "^^^^^ ^^ ^ 
situate on a branch of the Moorghab river, in lat. 35° 48', long. '•""'• 
62° 47'. 


KABOOL,' a city of Afghanistan, is the capital of the <e.i.c.mi.doc.; 
province of Kabool, and before the dismemberment of the Durani cJ^^ 4M*; 
empire was the seat of its government. It is seated on the ^•*^' **"**• **•• 
Kabool river, immediately above its confluence with that of 
liOgurh. The immediate vicinity of the town is highly pictu- 
resque, well watered, and fertile. It is especially productive of the 
finest fruits ; and the beautiful gardens, orchards, and groves are 
a source of great deHght to the citizens during the fine season. 
Masson,^ who had often joined their festive parties, thus describes 'Bai Atg. Panj. 
the environs of the beautiful site of the tomb enclosing the remains 
of the illustrious emperor Baber : — " Baber Badshah, so the 
interesting spot is called, is distinguished by the abundance, 
variety, and beauty of its trees and shrubs. Besides the imposing 
masses of plane-trees, its lines of tall, tapering, and sombre 
cypresses and its multitudes of mulberry-trees, there are wilder- 
nesses of white and yellow rosebushes, of jasmines, and other 
fi^agrant shrubs." " The place is peculiarly fitted for social 
enjoyment, and nothing can surpass the beauty of the landscape, 

X 2 

308 KABOOL. 

and the purity of the atmoi^here." The river of Kabool, thoo^ 
giving name to the great body of water which is poured into tiie 
InduB at Attock, adds nothing to the charms oi the landscape, 
at least below the city, being there a amall and filthy atream. 
The city la situated at the western extremity of a plain of con- 
siderable extent, and in a recess formed by the junction of two 
ranges of hiUs. One of these ranges is on the south, the other 
*iionica>Bokiu ^^ ^ north- wcst.' On the north-east is another eminence, 
1. 148; MaMon. TDUch. Smaller than those just mentioned.^ Baber's tomb is 

Bftl Alk 11.848* __ 

Hoi«h. M^. ' on one of the eminences to the south. The Bala Hissar, 
Fo^jQ^^^* at once the citadel and the residence of the sovereign, is on 
Benf. Enf . iL 70» the south-cast side of the city, and is built on the aodivity 
Eip. into^. of a hill. It joins the city, the street and lanea of v^ch nm 
wwto AflT?* "P *® ^® counterscarp of the western ditch. It is about half 
las; Eyre. uu. a mile long, and a quarter of a mile broad, the length h&ng from 
AnmlManh'^' ^^^ to west. The walls are of stone, lofty, and strengthened at 
ttiroughSind«aiid ju^fiervab by towers. A broad stagnant moat defiended by a 
oedy. siDd« wad foMsse hvoye Burrouuds the whole. Within this extensive circuit 
j^^Mira,"v^ ]Q is a small town, of which the population is estimated at 5,000, 
A%* 1- the rest of the space being occupied by the royal palaces and 

in cdmi (Plan), gardens, and various government offices. The whole is com- 
manded by the upper fort within the same enclosure, and one 
hundred and fifty feet above the city. Both this upper citadd. 
and the more extensive enclosure surrounding, are commanded by 
a steep eminence, which rises above them to the south, but it 
would be difficult to form batteries on ground so elevated and 
hard of access. The ^^lole city and its defences are also com- 
pletely commanded from the eminences on the north-west. The 
city, about three miles in circuit, is not surrounded by a wall, 
being merely defended by a line of weak r&mparts, running on 
the western side from one hill to another, and of course, if 
turned, afibrding no defence. Its greatest leng^, in a direction 
generally east and west, is two miles and one furlong ; its breadth 
at the widest part, which is at the west end, \& one thousand 
two hundred yards, and it narrows to a few yards at the east 
end, where it joins the Bala Hissar, The entrance near the 
eastern extremity of the north side \& called the Lahore gate ; 
here in former times commenced a wall constructed partly of 
burnt, partly of sun-dried, bricks, but which has completely fedlen 
to decay. There are two other entrances on the north side, one 

KABOOL. d09 

towards the east, another towards the west, but none from ttke 
south, probably because the ground is precipitous and elevated in 
that direction. At the western extremity of the city is a gate ad- 
mitting the Kandahar road. There are two principal bazaars, run- 
ning in some degree parallel to each other. The Shor bazaar, the 
most southern, runs west from the Bala Hissar, a distanoe of three- 
quarters of a mile : the other, more ncMth, terminates in the Chahur 
Chatta, once the finest of the bazaars of Kabool. This consisted of 
four covered arcades, exhibiting considemble architectural beauty, 
each of equal dimensions, being one hundred and fifty feet 
long, thirty high, fifty wide, each separated fi^m the rest by 
square open areas, containing wells and fountains. Such a con- 
struction is judicious in a sultry climate, as is that of Kabool 
during summer, the shelter above excluding the scorching rays 
of the sun, while the intervening spaces allowed a free circulation 
of air. These successive bazaars, with the intervening uncovered 
spaces, formed a continuous commercial street, which, during the 
prosperous period of Kabool, had a very ^me appearance. Gerard, 
whose visit was in 1832, describes them as displaying " a scene 
which, for luxury and real comfort, activity of business, variety 
of objects, and foreign physiognomy, has no living model in India. 
The fruits which we had seen out of season at Peshawur loaded 
every shop. The masses of snow for sale threw out a refreshing 
chill, and sparkled by the sun's heat. The many strange faces 
and strange figures, each speaking in the dialect of his nation, 
made a confusion more confounded than that of any Babel, but 
with this difference, that here the mass of human beings were 
intelligible to each other, and the work of communication and 
commerce went on. The covered part of the bazaar, which is en- 
tered by lofty portals, dazzled my sight even quite as much as the 
snow of the Himalayan peaks when reflected against the setting 
sun. In these stately corridors the shops rise in benches above 
each other ; the various articles, with their buyers and sellers, 
regularly arranged in tiers, represent so many living strata. The 
effect of the whole was highly imposing, and I feel at a loss ade- 
quately to describe the scene presented to our eyes."* But this » Jour. ij. Soc 
magnificent bazaar was demoHshed by the British on their re- of^i^'and" 
capture of Kabool, in revenge of the murderous treachery of the g*'"** 
inhabitants a short time previously. 

The bazaars during the peacefrQ occupation of the town by 

810 KABOOL. 

the British used to be greatly crowded. Before the shops were 
counters, on which sat, with heaps of coin before them, the 
money-changers, and close to these their various wares diadoeed 
to view, goldsmiths, jewellers, silk-mercers, tulors, cap-maken, 
shoemakers, saddlers, braziers, ironmongers, armourers, book- 
binders, furriers, and various other tradesmen. Cook-shops 
abounded, in which, together with more substantial indulgendes, 
ice and sherbet were to be obtained, and all at very moderate 
rates. In addition to native wares, the bazaars contained in 
abundance those of Grreat Britain, Russia, and India. Of these 
Russia supplied the largest proportion. 

The gold which Kabool receives from Russia is in the 
form of Venetians or ducats, called here boodkees, on account 
of the figure stamped on them. About the value of 20,000/. 
is annually imported in this form, and sent forward to Hin- 
dostan ; their value at Kabool varies from ten to fourteen 
shillings. The business done in them is contraband, to avoid 
the duty of one per cent, on the import, and of one and 
three-quarters on the export. Gold is also imported ham 
Turkestan, in the form of tillas, of good standard, though not 
equal to the Venetians. Their value is fourteen or fifteen shillings 
each, according to the demand. Silver is obtained from Russia 
in the form of soours, or roubles, which bear a disproportionate 
value to gold, being rated in currency of that metal at five shil- 
lings. Silver is also brought frt>m China in yamoas, small ingots 
in the form of boats. They have a Chinese stamp in the middle, 
and are very pure, having only *01 part of alloy. They are not 
always of the same weight, but the standard ingot ought to con- 
tain four pounds and a half. Gold-dust is brought from Turkes- 
tan, where it is obtained from the sands of the Oxus. Some gold- 
dust is also brought frx>m Russia. The total value imported is 
about 10,000/. or 12,000/. This is all sent to Hindostan. Fire- 
arms are imported in considerable quantities from Russia ; but 
those from England are greatly preferred, being Hghter, neater, 
and more to be depended on. Russian cutlery and locks, needles, 
pins and trinkets, glass and porcelain, are also of common occur- 
rence. The only paper to be obtained is Russian, and the 
quality is inferior. The tea brought from Russia is highly prized, 
and sold at a dear rate, about fourteen shillings per pound ; an 
inferior sort is brought from China, by way of Yarkund, which is 

KABOOL. 311 

cheaper, and a small quantity ia brought from India» through the 
Punjab. Russia likewise sends cottons, especially chintzes* 
broadcloths, velvets, dye-stuffs, particularly kirmiz, producing a 
brilliant crimson, and by some erroneously confounded with 
cochineal, iron wares, such as trays, cooking utensils, and 
similar domestic articles, gold, brass, and iron wire. Raw silk, 
of excellent quality, ia brought from Turkestan, to the amount of 
about two hundred camel-loads, of four hundred- weight each ; 
the total value being estimated at from 40,000/. to 50,000/. per 
annum. It is, for the most part, sent to India.« bS*?i8**'i{?" 

The manufeusture and sale of spirits is confined to the Anne- No^iTo^ee PuA 
nians, who obtain them of great strength from grapes. Abim- ^J^jJJ^^^T' 
dance of fine white sugar is received from Persia, and of opium i^- 
from Turkey and India. The tobacco is in general of home growth. 
The fruit market displays a greater profusion and luxuriance of 
fruits and flowers than is probably an3rwhere else to be met with ; 
and the consumption of all kinds, especially melons, is very great. 
Besides these markets, there are a cattle market, one for wood 
and charcoal, and two for grain. Provisions are very fine, and, in 
general, cheap, with the exception of grain, of which there seems 
scarcely enough for the supply of the population ; the conse- 
quences are, occasional scarcity, high prices, and even fieunine, 
especially in winter, when, communication with the country is 
difiicult, frY)m the roads being blocked up with snow. 

The city is divided into districts, and these are subdivided into 
sections, each well enclosed, and accessible only by small gates, 
which are waUed up in time of siege or intestine war, and thus each 
section becomes a fortress. This arrangement has in general pro- 
duced a narrow and intricate style of building. The dimensions of 
the streets are in many cases so contracted as to render it imprac- 
ticable for two horsemen to pass each other. They are paved with 
stone* but the pavement is in very bad repair, and in some places 
broken into deep holes. By the termination of winter, the streets 
become difficult of passage, in consequence of the accumulation 
of snow thrown off the roofs of the houses, and never cleared 
away from the ground. The houses are in general two or three 
stories high, built of sun-dried bricks, with a large admixture of 
wood, as a security against earthquakes, which are here not of 
unfrequent occurrence. The roofs, generally made of wood 
coated with mud, are flat» and surrounded by a coarse frame- 

813 KABOOL. 

waric of wood, and here, in mnn weatlier, die imniteB ikep. 
So little attention is paid to comfort, that, notwitiurtaoding 
the Mveritj of the winters, the windows are not glazed, bdi^ 
closed only hy kttioea or shutters. The houses of the gmft 
hare extenaiTe courts and gardens, ornamented with foantuas. 
llie mosques and other public buildings have nothing to recom- 
mend them in an architectural point <tf view. Tliere is but one 
madre$90, or cdlege, and this has been allowed to hJl into decij. 
The serais, or public buildings for lodging and entertaining 
strangers, are about fifteen in number, and are remarkable neither 
for elegance nor oonvenienoe. There are several hamanms, or pab- 
lic baths, repulsive alike from want of cleanliness and from an of- 
fensive smell, originating in the disgusting nature of the fuel naed 
for heating them. Water is sufficiently supplied, both for the ir- 
rigation of the adjacent country and for domestic purposes, by the 
Kabool river. The river is crossed by three bridges. One, tiie 
Pul Kuhti, is in the middle of the city, and is substantially bd3t 
of brick and stone ; another, the Pul Noe, is a frail fribric of wood, 
trembling under the weight of foot-passengers, who alone can 
cross it ; a third, to the west of the town, is a fortified bridge, 
crossing the river, where it passes through the gorge between tlie 
hills which endose the city on that side, and by this means du 
lines are continued across the stream. 

In the south-west quarter of the town is a strongly fortified 
district, called Chandol, inhabited by the Kuzzilbashes, or Persians; 
descendants of those settled here by Nadir Shah, and who have 
continued a distinct and important dass, though exposed to die 
jealousy and ill-will of the Afghans. For the existence of these 
feelings there are two causes. The Kuzzilbashes are regarded 
both as fcnreigners and heretics. Both Kuzzilbashes and Af^tam 
are indeed Mahometans, but the former are Shias, or votaries cl 
Ali, while the Afghans are furious Sonnees. In spite of these 
circumstances, however, the Kuzzilbashes contrive to maintun 
their position and exercise considerable influence. Their number 
is estimated at between 10,000 and 12,000.* They have some- 
times supplied a body-guard to the sovereign, and they ezdusrvelj 

* 12,000 familien, according to Ritter, (Erdkunde Ton Asien, t. 317); 
bat this, allowing five to each family^ would make the number of Km- 
zilbaahci amount to 60,000, equal to the whole amoimt of the populatioD. 
The aoooukt here giren is careloDj colkcled from the report of Bumek 

KABOOL. dl3 

manage diplomatic afiain, every Afghan of importance haviiig a 
Knaszilbaa^ secretary/ They appear to he decidedly superior to ^Buimi, Pmiaitt 
tlie Afghans, hoth in talent and civilization, hut are reproached ' 

iwith being inferior to them in personal bravery. The Afghans do 
wxGt in any respect appear to regard them in the light of inferiors, 
ancL freely intermarry with them. The mother of Dost Mohamed 
Klian was of this stock. The people of Kabool, according to 
Kennedy, who, as a medical man, may be suj^posed to have par- 
ticularly directed his attention to their ph^sique^ present the 
«Ferwish type in " their tall figures, dark black eyes, marked fea- 
tures, and western complexion." In fine weather the men live 
mucsh abroad, so that then the streets are greatly crowded. Wo- 
men, to whose humanizing influence Christians owe much of their 
superiority to the rest of the world, here seldom appear out of 
docns, and when visible they are enveloped from head to foot in 
the boorku, a covering which has a net-work over the eyes and an 
opening for breathing, but which so completely enwraps the 
fig^ore, that not a glimpse either of the features or the shape 
can be obtained. The women of Kabool, however, enjoy the 
reputation of possessing both beauty of face and elegance of 

As the elevatbn of Kabool is 6,396 feet,^ the winters are very • joar. as. soc. 
severe, setting in at the beginning of October and continuing to ^^JJ^^**** 
the end of March. During this season the more opulent inha- oteiin ai^. 
bitants rarely stir out of doors, spending their time in such seden- 
tary indulgendes as they can command. They lounge through 
the day at the sandali, which is a table placed over a cavity in the 
ground or some other receptacle for fire, and covered with a num- 
ber of thick and large cloths drawn over the lap and lower part of 
the body ; and at night, when settling for sleep, they merely lie 
back and draw the coverings of the sandali over them. The fuel 
used is charcoal, and the occasional explosicm of an ill-pre- 
pared piece sometimes causes severe bums. The fiunes of the 
charcoal are never known to produce death, the reason being that 
the rooms in Kabool are not sufiiciently secured from the access 
of tiie external air to admit of such a result. Such a mode 
of life ia necessarily unhealthy, and the limbs become so 
benumbed and cramped as to require much care and skil- 
ful treatment to revive their vigour and flexibility on the 
return of the fine season. The opening of spring is a time of 


314 KABOOL. 

high enjoyment. The inhabitants then form parties to mm 
thxx>ugh the country and enjoy the fine scenery, the genial vea- 
tiier, and the expanding beauties of nature; and Elpbinstene 
expresses his surprise at the enthusiasm which these half- 
civilized people exhibit on these subjects, a taste for wfaidi is 
so intimately connected with refinement. The summer is rather 
hot, the thermometer in the shade at noon being found to range, 
on different days in the month of August, from 91** to 75°. Its 
height generally exceeded 80^, though on one day (13th) it wu 
• Qrif. lud. only 63''.^ 

The higher orders in Kabool speak Persian with fluency and 
purity, Pushtoo, the vernacular dialect, being for the most part 
spoken only by the lower classes. From the absence of any poiiee 
arrangements or any regular administration of the laws, and from 
the unprincipled character of the people, there is little security 
either for life or property, and when the British were cantoned 
near it, in 1839-41, the banditti of the town committed with 
impunity continual acts of rapine, breaking into houses, mur- 
dering the inmates, and carrying off every valuable moveable. 
Their conduct towards the British during the disastrous events of 
which their town was the scene, at the commencement of IS42, 
was characterized not only by the most atrocious cruelty, but bj 
» Saie,Dis.iii the most abandoned falsehood and treachery.* 
Ejn, Mil. Op. In Though the great proportion of the population is A%ha]t 
csabui, iMMim. (^th the Persian colony already mentioned), there is the nsna/ 
admixture of Taijiks, Hindoos, Huzarehs, Armenian Chiistians, 
Jews, and others. The manufactures of Kabool are few and rade. 
They consist principally of leather and iron, with the weaving of 
cotton and of shawls, in imitation of Kashmir. It is supported 
by the transit trade, which it commands by its position on the 
great routes from north to south and from east to west. It i» 
further the great mart for the extensive valley of Kabool, 
and since chosen as the capital by Timur Shah, has continued 
the seat of such government as existed in this part of Afghan- 

Kabool,'though displapng no important relics of antiquity, ifi 
known in history at least from a.d. 977, when Subuctageen, the 
grandfisither of Mahomed of Gbuznee, and the founder of the 
Gaznevide dynasty, made himself master of it. At the close of 
the fourteenth century it fell before the arms of Tamerlane ;aod» 

KABOOL. 315 

above a century later, his great-grandson, the illustrious Baber, 
made it the seat of his government, as it is the resting-place of 
his mortal remains. In 1738 it was taken by Nadir Shah, after 
a brief attempt at resistance; and towards the close of the 
eighteenth century was made the capital of the short-lived 
Durani empire, by Hmur Shah, the son of Ahmed, the founder 
of the dynasty. The tomb of Timur, though considered one of 
the ornaments of Kabool, has no pretensions to magnificence or 
beauty. It is an octagon of brick, surmounted by a cupola, shat- 
tered by cannon-shot, aimed at it wantonly by one of the de- 
scendants and kinsmen of him who sleeps within. In 1809 the 
empire was dismembered, and the sovereign. Shah Shooja, ex- 
pelled by a knot of powerful chiefs. It is unnecessary here to 
pursue the subsequent history of the country with minuteness. 
It is enough to state that Herat, Kandahar, and Peshawur, being 
severed from Kabool, the latter came ultimately into the hands 
of a chief of some talent and great ambition, named Dost Maho- 
med Khan, who for some time maintained an unquiet and pre- 
carious rule. In 1839 a British army marched into Afghanistan, 
to restore to the throne Shah Shooja, who took possession of 
the City of Kabool, and retained it until the commencement of 
1842, when a dreadful outbreak of native fiiry and perfidy de- 
prived them of it. The chief civil officer. Sir WUliam Mac- 
naghten, was basely assassinated, the troops cut off from their 
magazines and stores, and compelled to attempt a retreat under 
circumstances which rendered its successful accompHshment 
hopeless. Of 3,849 soldiers, and about 12,000 camp-followers, 
only one man, severely wounded, escaped. In the same year a 
British army took the town, recovered some prisoners, including 
the heroic Lady Sale, wife of Sir Robert Sale, and having de- 
stroyed the principal bazaar and some other public buildings, 
returned, leaving the place to its fate. The population of Kabool 
is about 60,000. Lat. 34« 30', long. 69° 6'. 

KABOOL, a province of Afghanistan,^ of which the city of i App. m. to 
Kabool is the chief town, once the centre of an extensive but ^J^' ^^' 
short-lived monarchy. This ephemeral empire was founded by 
Ahmed Abdalli (subsequently Durani), an Afghan, after the assas- 
sination of Nadir Shah,^ in 1747. It comprised, at the death * Maiooim, ti. 
of its founder, Afghanistan, Beloochistan, Khorasan, Tur- JJJ^*^**' 
l^estan, Sinde, and the Punjab. After his decease it rapidly 


declined^ and, in 1809, on the ezpulnoa td the aoverdgn, 
Shah Shooja» by his insurgent chieftains, it fell totally to 
ineces. Herat was erected into a separate state under Shah 
Mahmood, brother of Shah Shoojah ; Peshawur and the Damans 
were overrun by the Sikhs ; Kandahar became independent under 
the Sirdars ; the brother of Dost Mahomed Khan, and the last- 
named personage, seized the province of KabooL This province 
extends from Hindoo Koosh, on the north, to some distance south 
of Ghuznee ; and from Bamian in the west, to tlie Khyber moun- 
tains in the east. Its length is about two hundred miles from 
east to west ; its breadth one hundred and fifty from north to 
south ; its superficial extent probably about ten thousand sqniie 
miles. The principal towns are Kabool, the capital, Istalif, 
Ghuznee» and Jelalabad. Dost Mahomed is reputed to have 
drawn from it a revenue of twenty-four lacs of rupees, or 
!q'""87o"* 240,000/. per annum ; » but Masson^ states the amount at only 
« i. 407. fifteen lacs, or 150,000/. per annum. TThe military force of Dost 

Mahomed Khan amounted to 2,500 heavy infantry, armed with 
the formidable jezails or long muskets, fired with a rest, and 
12,000 or 13,000 horse, about 1,000 of whom were Kuzzilbashes, 
or descendants from the colonists planted here by Nadir Shah. 
About 9,000 of these were considered highly efiective, and 3,000 
received regular pay. The late violent and well-known revolutions 
and struggles, and the utter confusion which yet prevails, render 
it as impracticable to give any account of the present condition 
of this immature and feeble state, as to indulge in any iatioo>l 
speculation as to its future destiny. The infonnatzon existing 
w<^?Khy^' * respecting Ae country over which it extended will be found under 
PiM, 1. 7 ; Lord, the head Afghanistan. 

tu^^Ti^!^. KABOOL RIVER,! or JUl SHIR,^ the only great tributary 
?Bum«; B^kb. ®^ ^® ^"^^^» ^™ ^^ ^«t, drains the district of Logurii, 
1.174; Wood's' the valley of Kabool, the Sufeid Koh, and the southern slope 
jou^aTsoc of the Hindoo Koosh. The Kabool river is genendly aup- 
oriJ;R;p!on I»8^ ^ ^^ *^ Sir-i.Chushmuh, where, in lat. 34» 21', long- 
Subject, con. 68* 20',« at a height 8,400 feet above the sea, a very copious 
iTisia, Bar. ' spring bursts out of the ground, and forms the chief source of the 
^ ^^'•^«7; principal stream. But the extreme head is about twelve mifes 
Aii^. 41?'; Em, farther west, on the eastern declivity of the Oonna ridge.^ Ini^ 
b^i! uft! ** ^^ course it is joined by many tributaries from much higher regions. 
♦ outmn. Rough i|. '^ g^|. ^^^ ^ inconsiderable stream, everywhere fardaUe for 


sixty miles, as £ur as Kabool ; at a short distance beyond which 
place it receives the river of Logurh from the south, and thence- 
forward is a rapid river, with a great body of water.* About forty * Ma«», Bti. 
miles below Kabool it receives from the north the Punchshir river, ^ '' 
which has a course of a hundred and twenty miles, and brings a 
large accession of water, draining the Kohistan of Kabool and the 
adjacent part of Hindoo Koosh. About fifteen miles below this 
it receives the Tagoa river, also from the Hindoo Koosh, and hav- 
ing a course of about eighty miles from the north. The united 
streams of the Alishang ^ and Alingar, also flowing from the « id. i77-ao6. 
Hindoo Koosh, join the Kabool river about twenty miles £euther 
down, after a course each of about a hundred and twenty miles. 
At the distance of about twenty miles more, the Soorkh Rood, or 
Red river, so called from the colour which its water derives from 
the earth suspended in it, falls into the Kabool river firom the 
south, after a north-easterly course of seventy miles. As it drains 
the northern slope of the lofty Sufeid Koh, or snowy mountain, it 
shoots along with great velocity, and discharges a considerable 
body of water. Twenty miles ^Eurther east, the Kabool river 
receives from the north the river Kama, called also the river 
of Kooner, which rising in Chitral on the southern slope of 
the Hindoo Koosh, flows south-west through Kafiristan. Though 
the course of this last river is above two hundred and twenty 
miles, it, according to Moorcroft,"^ has no great body of water. 7 p^, boUi. u. 
After all these accessions, the Kabool river becomes a large ^^' 
stream, sweeping with prodigious rapidity and violence along 
the northern base of the Khyber mountains, and, in conse- 
quence of its boiling eddies ^ and furious surges, not navigable, ' Matnii, Bai ai^. 
except on rafts of hides. Eastward of these hills it divides joar. ^.soc.' 
into three branches, which, at Dobundee, twelve miles lower ^j};J;"^ 
down, reunite, and thence^ the river is navigable for boats of su^ecti «m. 
forty or fifty tons to Attock, near which it joins the Indus. BnmMTen. Narrl 
Just below Dobundee it is joined from the north by the Lun» ?^'ag,rtiiw in 
dye, or river of Panjkora, which, rising^ in that unexplored Eiph. 866; 
region of the Hindoo Koosh lying east of Chitral, passes south* ^^!'i2^^ 
west by Panjkora, receives the river of Sewat from the north-east, !?••' p- ^> 

,.,..,. - , - - Court, on Alezan* 

and some tnbutanes of less importance from the west, and has a der*! Exploits on 
total course of above two himdred miles. After this confluence, SiikI'o?Sg 
the Kabool river continues to flow eastward for forty miles, and ^^^ 
falls into the Indus on the western side, nearly opposite Attock, 

818 KAC— KAF. 

having a total course of about three hundred and twenty mib. 
Ab both the riven are very rapid, and have great bodies of crater, 
Caubai', 71*. the Confluence produces turbulent eddies and violent surges.' 
s.i.c.iij.Doe. KACHEE, in Sinde, a town on the route from Hyderabad 

to Sehwan, by the way of Kotree, and thirty miles north of 
Hyderabad. It is situate on the right bank of a large offset d 
the Indus, and three miles from the main channel of the liTcr. 
Lat. 25^ 54', long. 68^ 18'. 
H.. SttrT«7 M•^ KADIRPOOR.— A village in Sinde, between Subznfcote 
and Shikarpoor, and twenty-four miles west of the fonner place. 
It is situate near the left bank of the Indus, in a level coiintiy, 
in some places overrun with jungle, but capable of successfol 
cultivation, in consequence of the facility of irrigation by means 
of water-courses from the river. Lat. 28° Kf, long. 69** 2(/. 
Haimi. B.1. A«. KADURRA.— A town of Afghanistan in the Koh-i-Damun of 
BuraM* Pm. Kabool, and seventeen miles north-west of the city of that name, 
l^it^1:l1;7. Lat. 34- 44', long. 68° 56'. 

Ej.c.ii«.Doe. KAEE, in Sinde, a village on the route from Subzulcoteto 

Shikarpoor, and twelve miles east of the latter town. The road 
in this part of the route is practicable for wheel carriages, bot 
travellers by it suffer from the quality of the water, which is 
drawn from wells, and is very indifferent. Kaee is in lat. 27® 50^, 
long. 68" 52^. 
E.I.C. Ml. D«^ KAFFIR KA BUND, in Sinde, a village on the ronte 

from Kurrachee to Hyderabad, and sixty miles south-west of the 
last-mentioned place. Lat. 24'' 58', long. 67"" 37'. 

KAFIRISTAN.— A country adjoining the north-eastem 
boundary of Afghanistan, and remarkable because, though sur- 
rounded by powerful and implacable enemies, it is not known to 
have ever been conquered. The name Kafiristan, signifying 
" land of infidelity " * has been given to the country by the 
neighbouring Mussulmans, in consequence of the rejection of 
Mahometanism by the inhabitants. These are called Siyali 
ii.^2io^H^ Posht, or " black-clad," from wearing black goat-skin dresses.* 
Ace. of caabai. According to Elphinstone, " The people have no general name 
Ai.'*8S.*is»?,"Ji'. ^^ ^eir nation. Each tribe has a peculiar name, for they are all 
iSfemilu*""***' divided into tribes, though not according to genealogies, but geo- 

ip«cUnK the ShUi 

Po»h Tribe; Mae- ♦ ..,t--»iS [Shakespear in v.] 

•on. Bal. A*. i^^^J^ •- *~- -» 

PaiU.t.818. t *y ifUrf [Shakcipearinv.] 


graphical position, each valley being held by a separate tribe/' 
Bumes, however, states, " in speaking of their nation, the Ka** 
Srs designate themselves, as the Mahomedans do, Kafirs, with 
Bvhicli they do not couple any opprobrious meaning." Kafiristan is 
bounded on the north by Badakshan,on the west and south by Af- 
ghanistan ; the exact boundary on the east does not appear to have 
been ascertained, as in that direction lies the unexplored country of 
Chitral. Masson considers the Kama river the eastern boundary. 
13efined by these limits, this country, which from the undaunted 
courage and singular character of its inhabitants has excited 
so much interest and curiosity, is but of moderate dimensions, 
being a hundred and twenty miles in length from north-east to 
south- west, sixty miles in breadth from south-east to north-west, 
and having a superficial extent of seven thousand square miles. 
It lies between lat. 35° and 36°, and long. 69° 2(y— 71° 20'. 
Blphinstone, from the report of an intelligent emissary whom he 
despatched from Peshawur, thus describes this region : " The 
whole of this alpine country is composed of snowy mountains, 
deep pine forests, and small but fertile valleys, which produce 
large quantities of grapes, wild and cultivated, and feed fiocks of 
sheep and herds of cattle, while the hills are covered with goats. 
Grain is inferior both in importance and abundance. The com- 
mon kinds are wheat and nullet. llie roads are only fit for men 
on foot, and are often crossed by rivers and torrents, which are 
passed by means of wooden bridges, or of swinging bridges made 
of ropes of withy or some other pliant tree." 

It is drained by four considerable rivers, the Kama, the 
Alingar, the Alishang, and the Tagoa, which are reported to rise 
on the southern declivity of Hindoo Koosh, and which, holding 
a course generally to the south-west, pass into Afghanistan, and 
fall into the river of Kabool.^ Each river flows down a great ' uim. Bia. ai^. 
valley enclosed on each side, south-east and north-west, by lofty '*^* 

mountains, having in various places summits covered with per- 
petual snow, and frurrowed by numerous vaUeys of inferior size 
to that through which the river takes its course. The Siyah 
Posh hold the ravines in the culminating ridge of Hindoo 
Koosh, and part of its northern slope towards Badakshan, 
with which last territory they maintun commercial intercourse.* ' Burneg' Bokh. 

« , , i. , . , • 1^ Ml Ii.210; Wood, 

So steep are the slopes of the mountains, that m the villages, oxm, 887. 
which are always built on the dedivities, probably from re- 


gard to purpoaea of defence* the hooses are reared aeveni 
atories high, with their hacka against the precipice hehind. in 
auch a manner that the roofs of one row form the street for the 
« Biph. 010; one immediately above it.^ The more southern part, contigooos 
Pu!^^ ^ ^ ^^^ Afghan district of Lughman, appears to be the most lerd. 
and from the Koh Karing, a mountain on that frontier, an exten- 
sive view can be had of Kafiristan; which there, according to 

• ut lopn, 810. Masaon,^ consists of low rounded hills, with few promiaeot 

ranges, or particular mountains of great devation. The ooon- 
try is everywhere traversed by innumerable torrents and men, 
but these fail to render it productive in consequence of the 
deficiency of cultivable soil; though no spot admittbig of 

• If iMoo, at rapn, tillage is neglected, and terracea are formed on the sides d 
'>^- the hills to obtain space for the growth of crops.^ Baber 

mentions that rice was largely cultivated; at present the 
f Biph. eio; principal crop of grain is either wheat, maize, or millet;* bat as 
Man. ttt fuprt. ^^ cultivated spots are altogether too limited to yield subsiateaoe 
to the population, they live principally on flesh, cheese, milk, 
" Bokh.u.911. curds, and fruits both fresh and dried. Bumes^ seems scanda- 
lized at their indiscriminate diet, and observes, "the Kafin 
appear to be a most barbarous people, eaters of bean and 
monkeys ;" yet these animals are eaten without scruple by M* 
ized Christians in Europe and America. They detest fish, but 
' Biph. 088. do not reject any other animal food.' They are noted for bdog 
■ Uemoin, 144. addicted to wine. Baber,^ who made this oppressed people the 
victims of his remorseless butcheries, mentions that t^ey drank 
wine instead of water, and " that every Kafer had a khip or 
leathern bottle of wine about his neck." Their wine is prepared 
by boiling : probably the climate is too cool to produce a must 
sufficiently strong to yield a generous wine without such manage- 
ment. Besides grapes, there are walnuts, apples, almonds, apricots 
and mulberries. Honey is also produced in abundance. 

In person, the Siyah Posh are strongly-marked specimens of 
what is called the Caucasian variety of the human race, and in 
their fine figures, frdr complexions, and regular features, bears 
strong resemblance to the Circassians. Bumes, who had many 
opportunities of marking the physical peculiarities of the Siyafa 
Posh, thus notices them : *' He (Deenbur, a Siyah Posh captive) 
is a remarkably handsome young man, tall, with regular Grecian 
features, blue eyes, and fair complexion, and is uow a slave of the 


Ameer. Two other Kafir boys, who came along with him, had 
ruddy complexions, hazel eyes, and auburn hair ; they also had 
less beauty and high cheek bones, but they were still handsome, 
and remarkably intelligent. None of these Kafirs, or two others 
which I saW| had any resemblance to the Afghans, or even Cash« 
merians. They looked a distinct race, as the most superficial ob- 
server would have remarked on seeing them .2" Wood^ describes • Bumea' siah 
a Siyah Posh with whom he was acquainted, as an uncommonly a oxii, sse. 
handsome man, with an open forehead, blue eyes, and bushy 
arched eye-brows ; his hair and whiskers black, and his figure 
well set and active. He invited Wood to visit Kafiristan, pro- 
mising him " plenty of honey and oceans of wine." Atkinson^ * Exp. in Aiij. 
thus describes a Siyah Posh woman whom he saw : *• She had, ^'®***'**- 
as is usual among her tribe, blue eyes and brown hair, but her 
complexion was dark, though the general tincture of the skin 
in Kafiristan is comparatively ftdr." The neighbouring Maho- 
metans give them credit for superior intelligence, comparing them, 
in this respect, to the Europeans, or, as they call them, Firingi. 
A Siyah Posh slave is considered worth two of any other race. 
Wood * states that " they pride themselves on being, to use their » oius, aso. 
own words, brothers of the Firingi ;" and the Mahometan from 
whom Bumes * derived much of his information assured him • ut Bupra, 72. 
"that he had never seen people more resembling Europeans in their 
intelligence, habits, and appearance, as well as in their hilarious tone 
and familiaiity over their wine." Their intelligence is displayed 
in the construction of their houses, which are in general of wood, 
several stories high, and embellished with much carving ; for the 
Siyah Posh are skilful carvers and joiners. They are also good 
smiths, and take considerable quantities of the iron of Bajour. 
Their silver drinking cups and bowls are worked and embossed 
in a very elaborate and tasteful manner.^ The exercise of their ^ Maas. Bai. At^y. 

PaiO. i. 2S8. 

skill in woodwork is encouraged by the abundance of timber in their 

country ; for though in general the Hindoo Koosh is characterized 

by great barrenness and want of wood, Grriffith ® found that the » jour.AB. Soc. 

woody character of the Himalaya continues in the mountains {f/p'JJ; subjecu 

as far westward as Kafiristan. The Siyah Posh appear to be connected with 

scarcely under the influence of any form of government. Elphin- 

stone observes,' "It is uncertain whether there are any acknow- ^ut sapra, oss. 

ledged magistrates; if there are, they have very little power, 

every thing being done by consultations among the rich men. 

VOL. I. T 


They seem to practise retaliation like the A%haii8, and I know of 
' ^'^ no other administration of justice." Elphinstone ^ giyes tk 

names of nearly forty of their tribes, but it is needless to lepeak 
*BaLA«.Puu. them here. Masson*^ on the contrary, states that, "as for u 
regards the division of the Siyah Posh into tribes, no one knovs, 
or pretends to know, any thing about them." This last-quoted 
author mentions several towns reported to have some one thou- 
sand, some two or three thousand, and one as many as six thoo- 
sand houses ; the latter, if five persons be assigned to each house, 
containing thirty thousand inhabitants. His remarks on tlus 
point appear very just : " It may be reasonably suspected that 
those calculations are above the truth ; still, when it is known 
that there are large and populous villages in a country, it is diffi- 
cult to reconcile the feuct with so complete a state of barbarism as 
is imputed to the Siyah Posh, or to avoid the impression, that men 
assembled in such communities must have a certain kind of order 
prevalent amongst them, and be subject to some of the influences 
' If aMon, 1.915. inseparable from society." ^ Elphinstone,^ also, remarks, that 
" the valleys must be well peopled ; that of the Gaumojee tnbe 
contained at least ten villages, and the chief place, Caumdaish, 
consisted of five hundred houses." The Kafirs- are a very martial 
race, being engaged in incessant warfare with their Mahometan 
oppressors by whom they are surrounded. On this point an intelli- 
* oxn«, 990. gent Siyah Posh observed to Wood* — " The Mussulmans were re- 
sponsible for the blood thus spilt, for since they hunted down the 
Kafirs to make them slaves, the latter had retaliated, for the loss 
of liberty was worse than the loss of life." They bear shields 
for defence, and for ofiensive arms, swords, spears, bows and 
arrows, and knives; of late years they have begun to provide 
themselves with matchlocks purchased from the Afghans. In the 
« Jour. At. soe. simple language of Mohun Lai ^— " They fight with great ferocity, 
fomiation re-° gnashing their teeth, and roaring like a lion." Though making 
siah*PMh*** * desperate resistance when driven to extremity, they, like most 
semi-barbarous and undisciplined troops, prefer surprise, strata- 

7 Wood, ozuf . gem, and ambuscade, to open conflict.^ Such was the informa- 

8 ut supra, 827. ^^^ obtained by Elphinstone ® — *' Their commonest mode is by 

surprisals and ambushes, and they expose themselves to the 
same misfortunes by neglecting to keep watch by night. They 
often undertake remote and difficult expeditions, for which they 
are well suited, being naturally light and active. When pursued 


tibey unbend their bow» and using it as a leaping- pole, make sur- 
prising bounds from rock to rock." Though readily admitted to 
quarter by the Mahometans, in consequence of their marketable 
▼alue as captives, they seldom spare the life of an enemy at their 
mercy. This want of clemency is attributable partly to their 
fierce hatred towards their persecutors, partly to the high honours 
and privileges awarded to the slayer of a Mussulman, and the 
slights endured by such as have not attained that distinction. The 
successful warrior wears a black fillet, ornamented with cowry 
shells, one for each slain Mussulman. For each, the victor also 
is allowed to fasten a small bell to his belt and to insert a feather 
in his turban. He is further entitled to erect a pole before the 
door of his house with a hole to receive a pin for every one of 
these detested enemies whom he has killed, and a ring for every 
one whom he has wounded, and none but a warrior distin- 
guished by the possession of these privileges is allowed to 
flourish the war-axe over his head in their solemn dances. 
According to Masson,^ on the return of a party from an ex- ' ut lupra, i. 834. 
pedition, those who have slain Mahometans are presented by 
the maidens with dried fruits, whilst those who failed in at- 
taining this distinction are pelted with ashes and other dirt; 
and, at the feast of rejoicing which succeeds, the former are re- 
galed with great honour and abundance, the latter receive a 
scanty portion from the hands of the manager of the feast, 
who delivers it to them over his shoulder. In case of mar- 
riage, a bridegroom who has not slain his enemy is, as a 
mark of humiliation, given his food behind his back.' The ' Bum« on the 
female relatives of those who have slain Mahometans are al- ' ' 

lowed the exclusive use of certain honorary distinctions in dress. 
The Siyah Posh have made so good use of the natural strength 
of their country that, as has been already observed, they have 
never been conquered. Tamerlane, who subdued so many kingdoms 
and empires, and overcame all other resistance, from the Hellespont 
to Central India, and from Syria to Moscow, retired baffled from 
his attempt to subjugate Kafiristan. One of his principal gene- 
rals, to use the words of Price,^ with " ten thousand men at his « Mahometan 
disposal, had fled ingloriously before an inferior force of bar- "**^*"*^' 
barians;" and Tamerlane, after much loss inflicted and suf- 
fered, thought it best to make his way back to his fort of 
Khawak and proceed on his route to India. About sixty years 



ago, the adjoining Mahometan powers confederated for the pur- 
pose of waging a religious war and forcings this people to embnce 

s Eiph.S97. Islamism.^ The Khan of Badakshan, the chiefs of Kooner, of Ba- 
jour, and of several of the Eusufeai tribes, by simultaneoos 
marches, met in the heart of Kafiristan, but, unable to keep 
their ground, were forced to evacuate the country after suf- 
fering considerable loss. It seems strange that a people so 
formidahle in war have never burst fiiom their mountain fast- 
nesses in a career of conquest. 

Our information is very limited and vague respecting the 
feelings, belief, and practices which hold the place of rdigioD 

4 820. among this rude people. According to Elphinstone,'* they be- 

lieve in one Supreme God, called by some Imra, by others 
Dagun, but they also worship numerous idols, which, they 
say, represent great men of former days, who intercede with 
God in favour of their worshippers. It is supposed that m 
certain instances a resemblance may be traced between their 
idolatry and some points of Hindoo mythology. Thus thef 
venerate stone posts resembling linga$, and make offerings br 
throwing flour, butter, and water on them; but, on the other 
hand, they sacrifice various animals, not excepting kine, bom- 
ing part of the flesh as an offering, and feasting on the rest 
The privilege of deification after death is generally attained, lOs 
municipal honours with us, by plenteously regaling the community. 

»id. Elphinstone^ observes, " Caufirs appear, indeed, to attach the 

utmost importance to the virtues of liberality and hospitaHtj ; 
it is they which procure the easiest admission to their paradise." 
At their sacrifices they pray for exemption from sickness 
and other afiSictions, for power to kill Mussulmans, and /or 
admission into paradise. They offer to their idols the arms 
and clothes of Mussulmans whom they have slain, and shoidd 
any of these be made prisoners in attacks on the Siyab Posh 
villages, they are sacrificed as burnt-offerings. 

Though so furiously hostile to Mahometans, they hold in- 

• uaMon, BaL tcrcourse with various neighbouring tribes, called Nimchas,^ who 

Lwch^^Appiw!* profess partial Mahometanism, retaining however their original 
idolatrous belief, akin to that of the Siyah Posh. By means of 
trafiic with these, they supply themselves with coarse cottons, 
hardware, firearms, gunpowder, salt, and a few other articles, and 
in return give dried fruits, honey, wine, vinegar, slaves, and § 


The alaves are all of their own nation, as they do not spare the 
lives of Mahometans. They are captiyes taken in their intestine 
^»rs» or even individuals of their own tribes ; for Elphinstone ^ ^ fls*. 
"Was informed that it was " quite common for powerful men to 
seize on the children of weak ones, and sell them to the Mussul- 
maxiSp or keep them for their own use : a person who loses his 
relations is soon made a slave." The gold^ is obtained from the > Manon, Bai. 
sands of their innumerable streams. Aife. p*m. i. 21a. 

The dress of the poorer Siyah Posh is truly primitive, 
bein^ composed of four goat-skins, two of which form a 
vest, and two a kind of petticoat. They are worn with the 
hair outside, and fastened round the waist with a leathern 
belt. The arms are left bare, as is the head ; but any man 
-who has killed a Mahometan wears a small red turban, or 
rather bandage, as a distinction. The Siyah Posh allow their 
hair to fall down in ringlets on each side of the head, and 
the beard of the chin to grow. Those who can afford it wear 
trowsers and shirts of cotton or black hair- cloth, and a blanket 
over the shoulder, after the manner of the Highlander's plaid; they 
also wear worsted stockings, and short boots of white goat-skin. 
The women have their hair plaited, and fastened on the top of the 
head, and over it a smaU cap, round which is a little turban ; 
their dress in other respects differs little from that of the men. 
Both sexes wear rings round the neck, bracelets, earrings, and 
similar trinkets, sometimes of silver, but more generally of brass 
or pewter. They cannot endure to sit cross-legged, like the other 
people of this part of Asia, but use habitually stools shaped 
like drums, and if forced to sit on the ground, stretch out their 
legs before them.^ The new-bom babe is made to choose its own * Mafton. Bai. 
name, by means of a curious ceremony : when first applied to the ^ *'**' 
breast, a number of names are repeated in succession ; and that 
during the pronunciation of which it begins to suck, is adopted.^ * £iph- <b9. 
The age of marriage is from twenty to thirty for men, and about 
fifteen or sixteen for women. The bridegroom purchases the 
bride, paying her father a number of kine proportionate to the 
extent of his means or the ardour of his love. The marriage 
ceremony consists in procuring two rods or twigs, of the re- 
spective heights of the bride and bridegroom, and tying them 
together. These are preserved by the couple as long as they 
choose to live together ; but if desirous of separating, they break 



* Amu Polytflutu, 


* On the Siah 
Podi, 71. 

* ii. 171. 

* Ai quoted in 
Elph. 617. 

7 Barnes' Bokh. 
ii. 214. 

* Wood, Oxus, 

> Ozus, 288. 

* Jour. As. Soc. 
1834. p. 78, 
Information re- 
specting the Siah 

3 Wood, Ozus, 

* Burnes' Per*. 
Narr. 907. 

the twigs, and thus dissolve the imion. The women perform not 
only all the work of the family, but even bear the main part of 
agricultural labour, and similar out-door toils. It is said that the 
nuptial bond is little regarded. The bodies of the dead are dreased 
in their best clothes, and being placed in coffins, are laid in some 
retired spot, where they are allowed to decay above-ground. A 
procession of both sexes attends the corpse to its last home, the 
men performing a war-dance, the women lamenting'. In dis> 
position, the Siyah Posh are a jovial race, much addicted to wine- 
drinking, dancing, and merry-making; and, though beyond 
measure murderous in hostilities, readily become reconciled to 
their enemies. 

Of their language, according to Klaproth,^ nothing is known. 
Elphinstone, however, states unreservedly, " There are several 
languages among the Caufirs, but they have all many words in 
common, and aU have a near connection with the Shanscrit ;" ' and 
Burnes "^ observes of the specimens which he examined, that they 
bear an evident affinity to the Hindoo stock. Hiere is great di- 
versity of belief as to the parentage of this people. An opinion* 
perhaps first broached in the Ayeen Akbery,^ and brought into 
notice by Rennell,* attributes their origin to colonists planted by 
Alexander the Great. Such a claim of descent has also been 
made respecting the inhabitants of Bulti,^ of Wakhan,^ and of 
various other places, and probably has arisen from some confused 
traditions respecting the Greco- Bactrian empire. Elphinstone' 
comes to the conclusion that " the most general and only 
credible story is, that they (the Siyah Posh) were expeUed by the 
Mussulmans from the neighbourhood of Candahar, and made 
several migrations from place to place before they reached their 
present abode." Wood ^ supposes them to have been Tajiks, the 
aboriginal inhabitants of Badakshan, on the north of Hindoo 
Koosh, who retired to these fieistnesses when the low country was 
conquered by the Mahometans. Not the least plausible opinion 
is that of the unpretending Mohun Lal,^ that they are descendants 
o£ Grreco-Bactrians, who survived the destruction of their empire, 
by taking refuge in the mountains. They are themselves fond of 
claiming affinity with the Feringis, or Europeans,^ and on the in- 
vasion of Afghanistan by the British, sent a mission to express 
their gratification at the arrival of so many brethren.^ In con- 
clusion, it may be observed, that nothing cogent can be urged 

KAF— KAH. 327 

against the opinion that they are the abori^nal population of the 
cotmtry which they now inhabit. 

KAFIR KILA, in Afghanistan, a village in the Huzareh bj.c. Mt. Doe. 
cx>iintry . It is situate on a feeder of the river of Andkhoo. Lat. 
36*». long. 64** 56'. 

KAFIR KOTE.— See Kafe Kot. 

KAFIR TUNJEE, in Afghanistan, is a foot-path collateral Hough, vm. of 
with the most eastern part of the Khyber Pass. It runs from the Suop. ^a^^ ' 
vicinity of Jamrood to the right or north of the main pass, which ^^^ 
it joins about two miles south-east of AH Musjid, and in conse- 
quence is of much importance when the eastern entrance of the 
pass is contested. It was occupied by the Khyberees when the 
Britisli commenced operations to force the pass in 1839. Lat. 
34° 3', long. 71** Kf. 

KAFR KOT, or THE INFIDELS* FORT.— A huge, lofty, and Wood, oxui, oo; 
massive ruin near the west bank of the Indus, and between that p„j^ ij los*. 
river and the Lareee valley. It consists of a number of towers Bumc*' Pen. 
bearing every mark of extreme antiquity, rising on the very 
summit of the mountain chain. These are connected with the 
Indus by a dilapidated wall extending from them to the edge of 
the water. Wood, who surveyed the spot, expresses his astonish- 
ment at the^toil and skill which must have been directed to the 
construction of this stupendous edifice, singularly contrasting 
with the mean mud hovels which, with this exception, are the 
only buildings to be found throughout this region. The time and 
circumstances of its erection are totally unknown. Lat. 32° d(/, 
long, yi"" 21'. 

KAGGAL WALLA, in Afghanistan, a village in the Daman, Biph. acc. of 
is situate on the river Koorum, about three miles west of the place " ' 
where it Ms into the Indus on the right side. Lat. 32° 37', 
long. 71° 21'. 

KAHAO, in Kashmir, a village, the capital of a district of the b.i.o. mlDoc. ; 
Bame name. It is situate at the north-eastera base of the lofty nf^e?. ^ '' 
mountain of Fir Panjal, and eighteen miles south-west of the city 
of Sirinagur, or Kashmir. It is remarkable for a spring of very 
fine water, with which the old Hindoo monarchs used to be sup- 
phed. Lat. 33° 58', long. 74° 29'. 
KAHEE.— See Kabb. 

KAHEER, in Sinde, is a mouth of the Indus, by which the b.i.c. Ms. doc; 
Moutnee, formerly a large offset of the Sata, or great eastern S^J^'ofUie** 

328 KAH. 

Indus, % ; Bunm* branch of that river, discharged its water into the sea. hi oqq- 

"***'•*"••''• sequence of the channel of the Moutnee having been ahaolt 
entirely deserted by the stream, the Kaheer mouth has become 
little more than a salt-water creek. Lat. 23*» 58'. long. 67° 38'. 

Eiph. Arc. of KAHEREE. in Afghanistan, a village of the Damtn. ii 

situate on the right bank of the Indus. Here is one of the piin- 
cipal ferries on that river. It is on the route from HindoBtam to 
Afghanistan, by Dera Ismael Khan and the Gomul or Goobim 
Pass. Elphinstone, who crossed here at the b^inning of Jsmiaij, 
when the water is lowest, found the main channel a thousand and 
ten yards wide, and it is known to be much broader during the 
sweU. Lat. 31^ 25', long. 70** 57'. 

BJ-CMt. Doc KAHUN, in Afghanistan, a fort and town among the mm- 

tains inhabited by the Murrees Belooches, and extending fsom 
the southern extremity of the Suliman range to that of the Hah. 
It is situate in an extensive valley, or rather plain, fifteen miles 
long and six broad. It \a tolerably well built, and is surromided 
by a thin wall, twenty -five feet high, nine hundred yards in cir- 
cuit, of a hexagonal outline, with six bastions and one gateway. 
The chief of the Murrees, with his immediate foUowen, harc 
usually inhabited the town, but the rest of the tribe live in bats 
of mats outside tlie walls. The air is very pure, and the heatksfi 
than in the plains of Sewestan or of Sinde ; but there is a scarcity 
of water, the town having no supply but from rain, which is col- 
lected in a tank before the gateway. In the beginning of Maj, 
1840, a British force, consisting of three hundred of the fifth 
Bombay native infantry, two twelve-poimder howitzers, and fifty 
Sinde irregular horse, was pushed forward from Poolajee, in 
Sinde, to Kahun, which was found deserted, and was forthwith 
paced by the invaders in charge of a garrison of a hundred and 
forty men, with one gun. The remainder, having left the foit 
with a return convoy for Poolajee, were cut off, except about 
twelve men, who escaped by flight. At the end of the foUowing 
August, Major Clibbom marched from Poolajee, with a con- 
voy for the relief of Kahun, and, after suffering dreadfully toB 
heat and thirst, reached the bottom of the Nuffoosk Pass, distant 
from Kahun about four miles. The road through the pus 
had been rendered almost impracticable by the Beloochees, 
who, in greatly superior numbers, manned the nearly inacces- 
sible heights which commanded it, and, rushing from various 

KAI— KAK. 329 

fastnesses in rear and flank, commenced a furious and well- 
sustained attack, destroying with stones the party which at- 
tempted to move forward into the opposite gorge. At length 
the Beloochees drew off, having lost foiur hundred of their 
bravest men ; but by this time the strength of the beasts of 
burthen was found so prostrated by the excessive heat and 
total want of water, that they were totally unable to move, and 
numbers of men were Mling dead from the same causes. In 
consequence the force was withdrawn to Poolajee, which it 
reached in a state of the most deplorable exhaustion. On this 
disastrous occasion one hundred and seventy-nine of the British 
force were killed, ninety- two wounded, and one thousand and 
seventy-six camels, a great quantity of ammunition and stores, 
and three pieces of artillery, fell into the hands of the enemy. At 
the close of September, the Murrees offered the little garrison of 
Kahun an unmolested retreat to Poolajee, which place was reached 
without loss, the Beloochees strictly observing their promise, pro- 
bably being terror-struck at the carnage of the late action. Kahun 
is in lat. 29° 2(y, long. 69° 15'. 

KAILLEEAWALA, in the Punjab, a village thirteen miles £.i.c. Ms. doc 
south-west of Ramnuggur. It is situate in the level tract be- 
tween the rivers Ravee and Chenaub, and six miles from the left 
bank of the latter. Lat. 32° 14', long. 73° 31'. 

KAIMPOOR, a village in Bhawlpoor; situate on an offset of b.i.c. hs. doc. 
the Indus, and about eight miles from the main stream. Lat. 
28^ 38'. long. 70° 15'. 

KAJOOR, in Sinde, a halting-place, on the route from Kur- e.i.0. Mi. ooc. 
rachee to Sehwan, and fifty-eight miles south of the last-men- 
tioned place. It is situate on the right bank of the Pakrun 
river, lower down called the Dhurwal. There is a good supply 
of water from the river, but forage is scarce. The road in this 
part of the route is good, though in a few parts rocky. Kajoor 
is in lat. 25° 40', long. 67° 53'. 

KAJOOR.— See Doobah Rivbr. 

KAKA, in Sinde, a village situate on the left bank of the Mt. Hspof Sinde. 
Indus, and six miles north-east of Sehwan. Lat. 26° 21', long. 

KAKAJAN, in Afghanistan, is a village forty miles south of e.i.c. hs. Doc. 
Ghuznee, on the route from it to Dera Ismael Khan, by the 
Goolairee Pass. The road here is good, and there is a supply of 

330 KAK— KAL. 

water from a kareez, or subterraneoiu aqoiedact. Lat 33° 4', 

long. 68** l(y. 

E.i.a Ms. Doe. KAKAPORE, in Kashmir, a village sitoate eleven miles wadi- 

east of the town of Sirinagur, or Kashmir, near the left Unk of 

the river Jailum. Lat. 33*» 57', long. 74'' 50'. 

E.I.C. Ml. Doe. KAKUR, in Afghanistan, a village close to the roate from 

Shawl to Kandahar, and forty miles north-west of die fonner 

town. It is situate in the valley of Pisheen, near the sondi- 

eastem base of the Amran mountains. Lat. 30° 43', Icmg. 66^4(f. 

« Eiph. Aoc.of KALA BAGH.' — ^A town on the right or west bank of die 

Sll^'p^i, Indus, where it finds a passage through the Salt range, whidi 

N«rr. 107; Wood, stretches from Afghanistan into the Punjab. The breadth 

Oxtts, 108, Joor. _, ,,,, «i. , «i-i. 

▲•. See. 1898, p. of the Stream, bounded by very lofty and steep banks, is noe 
Acc."f kIoJ^' about three hundred and fifty yards. The road, a gaUery cut in 
Bitfta. the side of the cliff, and about a hundred feet above ^e edge of 

the water, is so narrow as not to allow a laden camel to pass. A 
great part of this excavation is through rock-salt, eztremeljr 
hard, pellucid, clear, and nearly colourless as crystal. Some 
specimens are so hard that they are worked into platters. Tbe 
town rises as though it were stuck against the precipitous emi- 
nence overhanging the road and river, and, together with the 
salt rock, the stream, and the prospect over the country to the 
east, forms a striking scene. The heat in summer is here ex- 
cessive, and the air unwholesome, as well naturally as firom the 
effluvia of alum-works. The alum is obtained from a sort of 
slate, which is in vast quantities in the neighbouring mountams. 
This is placed in layers between wood, and the pile thus formed 
is set on fire ; the residuum is boiled in iron pans, filtered, 
and by means of evaporation, rendered solid alum. There are 
fourteen manufactories for the purification of the mineral. Great 
quantities of salt are extracted here for the supply of Western 
India and A%hanistan. There is also coal in its vicinity, but of 
' Journ. Ai. See. poor quality, and in inconsiderable seams.^ The Indus is oan- 
I^'LetS/JSm &*^^® ^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^ ^ seasons. The population probably 
KaUBa«h; Id. docs uot cxcccd 2,000. Lat. 32^ 57', long. 71° 37'. 
OT G^K of"puiU. KALAGUR, in Afghanistan, a village and halting-place on 
RLa Mi.Doc *^® "^"^ ^°™ Ghuznee to Dera Ismael Khan, and eighty mles 
south-east of the former place. The road is indifferent, and the 
place owes its importance to a supply of water from a streun. 
Lat. 32** 32', long. 68*» 41'. 

KAL.— KAM. 331 

KALAICHI, a town of the Derajat, ten miles south of Dera mmmd, b^ . aj^. 
Ismael Khan, and four mfles from the west, or right bank of the ^^^' *• ^** 
Indus, has considerable commerce, so as to be enabled to pay a 
tribute of about 30,000 rupees annually to the Sikhs. Lat. SV 43', 
long. 70° SC. 

KALA KULLAI, in the Punjab, a village thirteen miles ej.c. Mi. doc. 
north-east of Lahore, and four miles from the right bank of the 
river Ravee. Lat. Zr 47', long. 74*» 23'. 
KALEE, CAVE OF.— See Hinglaj. 

KALEESA RABAT, in Afghanistan, a village on the route Walker's Map of 
from Kandahar to Khash, and thirty-five miles west of the former ^^' 
town. Lat. 31° 29', long. 64*» 54'. 

KALE SURA, in the Punjab, a village and caravanserai on e.i.c. Mi. doo.; 
the route from Attock to Rawul Pindee, and thirty-two miles t^in A^ass. 
south-east of the former place. It is situate on the river Kalee, a 
tributary of the Hurroo. The Kalee, though of short course, is 
deep ; the passage across it is effected by an old stone bridge. 
It is the Toomrah of Walker's Map. At a short distance to the 
north-west of the village is a bauli, or great well, the water of 
which is reached by a descent of a hundred steps. The sur- 
rounding country is remarkably rocky, rugged, and barren, and 
the roads are rough and difficult. Lat. 33'' 44', long. 72° 49'. 

KALLOO, in the Punjab, a village situate about sixteen ^i-C- "»• Doc- 
miles west of Lahore, on the road from Ferozpoor to Ramnuggur. 
Lat. 31° 38', long. 74° 1'. 

KALLORA,^ in Sinde, a village on the route from Hyderabad ^ bj.c. hi. doc. 
to Bukkur, and thirty-five miles north of the former town. 
It is situate twelve miles from the left bank of the Indus, in a 
levd, uninteresting country ,2 in many places overgrown with jun- *^<*^ Oxui, se. 
gle. Lat. 25° 51', long. 68° 33'. jour.A..8oc 

KALOO, in Afghanistan, is a lofty pass on one of those ^^^ p* ^' 
routes into which the Kabool road to Turkestan divides westward Ther. Heat, in 
of Gooljatooe, and which debouch in various parts of the valley iSlh.L^™'ii. 
of Bamian. It has an elevation of 12,480 feet, being the highest ^^ ; ^<»d* 
of the passes, except that of Erak. The Kaloo Pass is in lat. and Toorkostanp 
34» 40'. long. 67° 48'. ^^Ji^!^'^' 

KAMA RIVER, so called from a district of that name Bokh. u. ass ; 
through which it passes, bears also the name of the river Kooner, NotoTiss.^"^ 
^m a town on its eastern bank. It rises in the valley of Chitral, Baber, uem. 144 ; 
in the Hindoo Koosh, and, flowing south-west, traverses Kafir- p^l 170'; 

Jour. Ai. Soc. 

332 KAM— KAN. 

iuo»p.too, istan, whence it proceeds 8tiU in a fiouth-west direcdcm into 
E^pitoiu !^bl^''* Lughman, a province of Afghanintan, and falls into the Kabod 
wwtern Buk of ^yer at its northern side, in lat. 34*» 24', long. 70^ 35'. Though 
iioorer. PunJ. about two hundred and twenty miles in length, it is. according to 
t^ph.' L^'of Moorcroft, of no great size, 
caubui, 805, «55. KAMALIA,* in the Punjab, a small town five or six miks 

iiL "i«r ^^' ^°™ ^® "6*^^* ^^ ^^* ^*°^ *^ ^® Ravee. It has an appearance 
of antiquity, and is built of burnt bricks. There is a foztzesB, 

* Bai. A«. Pu\j. constructed of the same materials, and a bazaar. Masson^ supposes 
i. 40S. « ^^^ Kamalia may have been the fortress at which the great 

Macedonian hero had nearly become the victim of his temerity." 

' Ti. 7, 8. Arrian ^ distinctly states that Alexander was marching throogfa 

the Doab, or peninsula between the Chenaub, or Acesines, and the 

* Ti. 7, 29. Ravee, or Hydraotes; that he crossed the Hydraotes^ in pursuit <rf 

some Indians who had fled over it ; that he again crossed (re- 
crossed) the same river in pursuit of the fugitives, and there 
attacked this unnamed city, in the storming of the citade] of 
which he received his wound. This certainly very exactly desig- 
nates the country in which Kamalia is situated, and affords coon- 
tenance to Masson's opinion, though he states that he had nothing 
to rely on but his memory. Still there is no sufficient evidence 
to fix this very town as the actual scene of the event. Kamalia 
is lat. 30° 44', long. 72° 38'. 
viffne, Kuhmir. KAMBAR, in the north of the Punjab, and among the moun- 

tains south of Kashmir, is a fort finely situated on an insulated 
rock to the left of the route from Lahore to Kashmir, by Kotii. 
At the time of Vigne's visit, it belonged to the powerful Sikh 
chieftain Dbihan Singh. Lat. 33° 12', long. 73° 55'. 

* E.I.C. Ml. Doc. KANAJEE,^ in Beloochistan, a village on the route from Sod- 

meanee to Kelat, and ninety miles north of the former town. It 

is situate in a hilly country of considerable elevation, and in coo* 

sequence of this, notwithstanding the lowness of the latitude, the 

s BeioochisuD,as. wifitcrs are severe. Pottinger ^ and his party found, on the l$t 

of February, that " the night was piercingly cold." Kanajee is 

inlat. 26° 31'. long. 66° 26'. 

' E.I.C. Ms. Doc. J KANDAHAR,* the principal city of Western Afghanistan, 

ciubiii^aii"' and the capital and stronghold of the Duranis, is situate in a 

fertile and cultivated plain, well watered by canals from the Ur- 

ghundab river, which flows about four miles to the west of it, and 

from the Tumak river, at a somewhat greater distance to the 


east. The produce, for a small space round the city, is excellent 

and abundant, consisting of grains of various kinds, the finest and 

most delicious fruits, grapes, peaches, figs, apricots, nectarines, 

and various others.^ This rich tract is, however, of no enre&t ex- l^®"??'* ^?"*'' 

tent» as precipitous and rocky hills rise around it at no great 117. 

distance on the west and north.^ Though the present city was ^^ 

built by Ahmed Shah,^ the founder of the Durani dynasty, and lj.*^*.^i'79. 

hence in public documents is called Ahmed Shahi, the vicinity 

has from remote antiquity been the site of a large town, and has 

repeatedly suffered from the attacks of invaders. Kandahar 

vvas taken by Tamerlane, in 1384;* by Sultan Baber, in 1507 ;« LSuSfHbfw.w. 

by Shah Abbas, of Persia, in 1620;^ by Nadir Shah, in 1 75 1 .» ! Memoi«, 229. 

^t,. - ,, . , .<i«.tii_ji J Malcolm, Hist. 

Nadir founded a new city close to that of which he had made of Penia, 1.544. 
himself master, and styled it Nadirabad ; but this feU into total J^"* "' ""»"» "* 
decay on the foundation of Ahmed Shahi.' The importance which ' Atkinson, Exp. 
brought down upon the city these attacks resulted from its com- 
manding the southem route from India to Persia and the west, 
as Kabool does the northern. The present city is of the shape 
of an irregular quadrangle, enclosed by a mud wall, twenty-six 
feet thick at the bottom, fourteen and a half at the top, and 
twenty-seven feet high, formed of curtains, and semicylindri- 
cal bastions, fifty-four in number, strengthened by a low 
/auase braye, and farther protected by a ditch from fifteen 
to twenty feet wide and ten feet deep, capable of being fiDed 
with water from the canals of the Urghundab. The western 
face of this is one thousand nine hundred and sixty-seven 
yards in length, the northern one thousand one hundred and 
sixty-four, the eastern one thousand eight hundred and ten, the 
southem one thousand three hundred and forty-five. The 
circumference of the city is consequently three miles and one 
thousand and six yards.' There is a large tower at each of the 1 Hou^b, Nam 
four corners, and each of the six gates is protected by double has- ^^p* *" ^*- ^^• 
tions. The citadel containing the palace where the sovereigns re- 
sided is in the middle of the ilorth side, near the gateway. Though 
originally beautiful,^ it is now little better than a heap of * Alien, Mareh 
ruins, both within and without, the defences as well as the ^^"fw.*^*** *"** 
enclosed houses having nearly fallen to pieces.^ Kandahar has» Kennedy, Sinde 
two principal streets which proceed from opposite gates and '°**^**~*^''*'^*- 
cross in the middle, at right angles, under a large dome, 
called Charsoo,^ about fifty yards in diameter, and beneath « Haveiock, war 

inAfg. U.8. 


which is a public market-place, surronnded by ahops. The 
private houses are wretchedly built of mud; they are seldam 
more than two stories high» and, in consequence of the scsr- 
city of timber, the roofs are made of the same material as the 
walls, the mud being moulded into the shape of a dome. 
In the few instances where timber is used the roofis axe fist. 
The mansions of the gpreat are enclosed with high walls, and 
contain three or four courts with gardens and fountains. Hie 
accommodations for the inmates generally consist of large halls, 
into which a number of small apartments open, the walla being 
ornamented with paintings and mirrors ; the intervals between 
these are covered with a curious coating of talc, finely powdered 
and thickly dusted over a varnish of size whilst wet, an operatian 
which produces a brilliant frostwork resembling silver. The 
ceilings are of wood, either painted or curiously carved. The 
houses of the poorer classes have generally only one room, with no 
ornament and little furniture; a coarse carpet and a few cushiona 
of felt constituting the whole. 

The town in general exhibits strong symptoms of oppression, 
poverty, and decay. The principal business arises from the transit 
trade, which brings a great number of foreigners in proportion to 
the resident population. Hence there is a surprising diversity of 
costumes in the bazaars, and the more crowded parts of the 
town. Even among the natives, the variations in costume are 
considerable. Some wear long cloaks, either of chintz or broad 
cloth, with huge turbans, and beards of large growth stained red 
with henna; others are closely shaven, and wear jackets and 
trousers of blue linen, or tunics of drab doth with hanging 
sleeves, and skull-caps of cotton of various colours. The women, 
when abroad, wear the boorka, a long white veil from the top of 
the head to the feet, a piece of network before the eyes allowing 
them to see. 

The mosques in this city are in general mean ; and with the 
exception of the dome-shaped central bazaar, already mentioned, 
the only building worth notice is the tomb of Ahmed Shah, the 
founder of the Durani dynasty ; even this, though remarkable 
from the paucity of architectural decoration at Kandahar, 
would be little regarded elsewhere. It is raised on a platform of 
stone, and is an octagonal building, surmounted by a cupola 
having minarets at the angles. It is about forty feet in diameter. 


and serenty feet high. The materials are mean enough, being 
coarse stone from the neighbouring hills, intermixed with sun- 
dried bricks, and having outside a coating of stucco gaudily 
painted red and blue, and embellished with figures of flowers and 
other devices. The inside is finished in a similar manner ; the 
pavement is covered with a carpet, and the sarcophagus with a 
shawl. Twelve smaller tombs of the children of the deceased 
Shah are ranged about the principal one. Light is admitted by 
windows of trellis- work in stone ; and many a holy text of the 
Koran strewed around, afford solemn impressions and associa- 
tions to the Mahometan visitors. An establishment of MooUas 
is attached to the tomb ; one of their number constantly attends 
in the building, and reads aloud a portion of the Koran. 

Kandahar is well supplied with provisions, which are both cheap 
and of excellent quality. There is great variety of the finest fruits, 
and these are purchasable at extremely low prices. Several pounds 
of grapes can be obtained for a sum not exceeding a hal^nny, 
and in quality they are considered superior even to those of 
Kabool. Water is excellent and in great abundance ; a small 
watercourse passes through the courts of every residence of 
importance. This abundance is, however, attended by a serious 
evil. The site of Kandahar is very moist, and water can in 
most parts be obtained by digging three or four feet ; in con- 
sequence, low fevers, dysenteries, intermittents, and liver com- 
plaints are very prevalent. Fuel is very scarce and dear, and 
this is severely felt, as the elevation above the sea being three 
thousand four hundred and eighty-four feet,* the winters are * J<m'. a§. Soc 
rather cold. The summers are hot, the thermometer sometimes Bar. and Ther. 
reaching one hundred and ten in the shade. ®*** *"'^*' 

The amount of population is variously stated at twenty-five 
thousand, thirty thousand, eighty thousand, and a hundred 
thousand. As the greater part of the area within the walls is 
occupied by courts and gardens, the houses, in proportion to 
the extent, being few and in general small and ruinous, it is 
improbable that the population exceeds fifty thousand. The 
greater part is Afghans, the remainder a mixed multitude of 
Persians, Usbegs, Beloochees, Jews, Hindoos, and various other 
races. The commercial transactions are generally managed by 
Hindoos. Under Ahmed Shah, Kandahar was the seat of 
government, which was removed to Kabool by his successor. 

336 KAN. 

Timur. On the dismembermeiit of A%hanifltan, subsequent to 
the expulsion of Shah Shooja, the brothers of Dost Mahomed, 
by his connirance, established themselyes in Kandahar, andle?ied 
contributions over the neighbouring districts. Their weak and 
pernicious rule was terminated by the occupation of their capital 
by a British force in 1839. The army of occupation, notwith- 
standing the frequent and desperate attacks of the natiyes, made 
good the defence until the autumn of 1842, when it finaDr 
evacuated the place, and commenced its triumphant march on 
Ohuznee and Kabool. When the British took possession of 
Kandahar, the revenue of the town and adjacent territory was 
estimated at 800,000 rupees. It is now suffering all the hoTTois 
of the sanguinary anarchy consequent on the murder of the 
Shah and the evacuation of the country by the British. Lat. ZV 
87', long. eS** 28'. 

waikert Map of KANDAIROH, in Bhawlpoor, a village in the desert near tbe 
south-western frontier. Lat 28° 1', long. 70° 15'. 

E.I.C. Ms. Doc. KANEGORUM, in Afghanistan, a village on the route from 

Dera Ismail Khan, by the way of Tak to Ghuznee, and sixty miles 
north-west of the former place. It is situate in the hilly country 
between the range of Suliman and the Salt range, and which, 
though pleasant, well watered, and rather fertile, is rendered 
nearly a waste by the predatory Vazerees. Lat. 32° 27', long. 
70° 21'. 

E.I.C. Ms. Doc KAN6HUR, in Sinde, a town on the route from Shikarpoor 

to Shahpoor, and twenty-two miles north of the former place. It 
is situate in a tract overrun with stunted jungle, and where the 
country assumes the aspect of the Pat, or desert stretching to the 
north-west. Lat. 28° 13', long. 68** 35'. 
KANHI.— See Bolan Rivbr. 

E.I.C. Ms. Doc KANOTEH-KA-GOTE, in Sinde, a town on the route from 

Hyderabad to Sehwan, by way of Kotree, and twenty-six miles 
north of Hyderabad. It is situate close to the right bank of the 
Indus, in a fertile and well-cultivated country. Lat. 25° 43^, 
long. 68° 27'. 

vigii«, Kashmir, KANTAL, in the north-east of Kashmir, a lofty mountain 

**''^' south of the pass called Bultul by Vigne and modem geo- 

graphers.* Through this pass lies one of the principal routes 

Kuchmir, u. 185. * Hugel, however, whose opinion should have great weight, considen the 

KAN— KAR. 337 

from Kashmir to Ladakh and Bultistan. Its crest forms a 
division between the basin of the Indus and that of the Jailum ; 
the Dras river, which rises here, flowing northwards to the former 
river, and the Sinde, in a south-west direction, to the Jailum. 
The elevation of this pass i& 10,500 feet. Lat. 34'' 10", long. 75'' 
15'. (See BtTL-TUL.) 

KANTASIR, in Sinde, a village on the route from Hyderabad E.i.a mb. Ooe. 
to Lucput, in Cutch, and eighty miles south of the former place. 
Lat. 24** IS', long. 68Mr. 

KAPOORTHELLA.— See Koptothella. 

KAPOURDIGUERI, in Afghanistan, a viUage in the Eu- Jour. a*. Soe. 
sahai country, on the northern boundary of the plain of Pesha- couru'^Ezpi! of 
wur, and forty miles north of the town of that name. Lat. Alexander, uap. 
34° 2(/, long. 7^ 12\ , 

KARA BAGH.— A town, with a large fort, on the route from ?ic- mi. Doc.; 

« O ' Jour. Ai. Soc 

Kandahar to Ghuznee, and thirty- five miles south-west from the 1842, p. ao, 
latter place. The surrounding district, called also Kara Bagh, is o^iJfobt!?^ 
remarkably fertile, well cultivated, productive in grain, populous. Hough, Nwr. of 
and crowded with forts and villages, held partly by Afghan Leech, Rep. on 
Ghiljies, partly by Huzarehs. The elevation above the sea ig »»«»• Annj. 8». 
7,426 feet. Lat. 33« lO', long. 67° 59'. 

KARACHI.— See Kurrachbb. 

KARAILA. — A village in the Punjab, situate near the right Walker's Map of 
bank of the Ravee river. Lat. 30° 33', long. 72° 34'. ^''^' ^~°'*"- 

KARA-SU, or BLACK RIVER, a stream which descends from MaMm, bbi. ai^. 
the Sufeid Koh into the plain of Jelalabad, and faUs into the J^' ][.)^ 
Soorkh Rood, a little above its confluence with the Kabool river, i®*** p- ^^f 

MacGreRor, Geoff. 

m lat. 34° 24', long. 70° 14'. Notice of the 

KARA TUPPA FORT, in Afghanistan, a ruined fort on the l^^ «' J«»i^- 
poute from Herat to Mero, and sixty mUes north of the former Abbot. Heraut 
town. Kara Tuppa (black mound) is an artificial hill, a hundred 
and fifty feet high, crowned by ruined ramparts. It is situate near 
the left bank of the small river Khooshk, and in a pleasant 
▼alley, overlooked by lofty hiUs on the west. It is a favourite en- 
campment of the Jumsheedee tribe of Eimaks, who may gene- 
rally he observed here located with their substantial tents of black 
felt Lat. 35° 16', long. 62° 11'. 

Kantal of the old maps, and described by the missionaries, to be identical with 
the vast bifurcated summit, Mer and Ser, situate about fifty miles east of 

VOL. I. z 

338 KAR--KAS. 

Walker's ictp of KARATUPUH, in Afghanistan, a village in the hilly coantrr 

N.w. Prootier. ^j^efe jh^ Huzareh mountains sink towards Bokhara. It ia 
situate on the left bank of the river of Andkhoo, and sixty miles 
south-west of the town of that name. Lat. 36^ 15^ long. 64^ 

E.I.C. Ms. Doc. KARDO» in Sinde, a village situate on the west bank of &e 

Koree estuary of the Indus, twenty miles from the sea. Lat. 
23° 43', long. 68° 35'. 

E.I.C. Ms. Doc KAREEZ DOST MOHAMED. in Beloochistan, a village on 

the route from Quetta to Kelat, forty miles south of the former 
town. It is well supplied with water by means both of a small 
stream and of a kareez, or subterraneous aqueduct, whiidi con- 
ducts a supply to the village from some neighbouring hills. The 
road in this part of the route is excellent, rising with a gentle 
acclivity southwards towards Kelat. The inhabitants emigrate 
to Cutch Oundava in winter, to avoid the cold, which is severe, 
the elevation of the country above the sea exceeding 5,000 feet 
Lat. 29° 40', long. 66° 34'. 

I E.I.C. Ml. Doe. KARMEL,^ in the Punjab, a village on the route from Ramnug- 
gnr to Find Dadun Khan, and six miles north-west of the former 
town. It is situate near the right bank of the Chenaub, and 
close to the ferry, which is one of great importance, as the river, 

s Hoagh, Nar. when fullest, is above a mile broad,^ and the traffic considerable. 

Exp. inAfg. 848. Lat. 32° 26', long. 73° 34'. 

E I.C. Ms. Doe. KARORA, in Sinde, a village on the route from Roree to 

Jessulmair, and sixty miles south-east of the former town. 
The road in this part of the route is over a sandy surface (often 
rising into low sandhills), producing a scanty jungle. There are 
three good wells m the village. Lat 27° 27', long. 69° 40'. 

Walker's Map of KARUK, in Afghanistan, a village amidst the hills of the 

N.w. Frontier, g^^ nnge, and on the western route from Kala Bagh to Kohat, 
from which last town it is distant thirty miles south. Lat. 33° 
10', long. 71° 16'. 

E.I.C. Ms. Doc. KASBAH, in Sinde, a village close to the south-eastern 

frontier, and about two miles from the northern boundary of the 
Great Western Rin. Lat. 24° 17', long. 70° 44'. 

Hough, 845. KASEE. — ^A small river in the Punjab, which flows by the 

fort of Rotas, and falls into the river Jailum, on the right or 
western side, in lat. 32° 56', long. 73° 36'. Its course, which is 
in general from north-west to south-east, is about thirty miles 

KAS. 339 

long*. The bed of this river forms a road or pass into the strong 
country between the river Jailum and Attock. 

KASHGAR.^ — ^This name has been given by Elphinstone ^ e.i.c. Ms. Doc. 
and Barnes to a locality in the north-eastern part of Knfiristan 
and the adjacent region. The eminent writer first named de* 
scribes it as " an extensive but mountainous and ill-inhabited 
country^ lying to the west of Badukshan, from which it is divided 
by Beloot Taugh, having Little Tibet on the east, the Pamere on 
the north, and the ridge of Hindoo Koosh (which separates it 
from the Eusofzyes) on the south." ^ i^ig locality corresponds « acc. of caubui, 
closely with that which Humboldt assigns to Thsoungllng, the 
supposed junction of the Kouenlun and Bolor ranges."' Burnes ^ ^ Bokh. ii. sss. 
gives a very confused account of it from native report, which 
stated it to be situate north of Peshawur, and in high repute for 
coarse blankets ; and Vigne,^ in half a dozen words, tells us that * Kashmir, h. soo. 
Chitral is " called Little Kashghar by the Patans." Wood, who 
bas more extensively explored this region than any other Euro- 
pean, does not notice this name in his map.* There seems, in * Accompanying 

*; ' . , - . . . hit Jour, to the 

ract, to be no evidence for its existence except native report, source of the 

wbich, with inaccuracy not unusual in such a quarter, may °*""* 

have assigned a locality too far south to the well-known town 

and territory of Kashgar, in Chinese Tartary. Such is the view 

of the subject taken by Klaproth,* who, with much vehemence, • Quoted by 

, ^ , ,:. . , ., , , Bumes' Bokh. ii. 

censures " the mass of absurdities received with open arms by the 825. 
compilers, and among which the double Kashgar holds the first 
rank." The question, however, is not to be considered as settled 
on the authority of Klaproth. Waddington,^ whose geographical 7introd. toBaber, 
information respecting these regions is entitled to the highest 
respect, distinctly recognizes the lesser or more southern Kash- 
gar. In Walker's Map of the North-west Frontier, it is set 
down in lat. 35° 58', long. 71° 41'. 

KASHMIR, north of the Punjab, is an elevated tract, inclosed 
by very lofty mountains, having in the middle a level and alluvial 
soil, watered by the river Jailum, and in all other parts a very 
uneven surfiEice, formed by numerous ridges and gorges, extending 
firom the plain to the culminating line of the surrounding range. 
The etymology of the name of this celebrated region has singu- 
larly perplexed antiquarians. Wilford^ derives the name from 1 q„ 5,^^^^^^^,^, 
the Chasas, a very ancient and powerful tribe, who inhabited the <»«"■» A"- ^^ 

' ^ Marched, tI. 456, 

* See the hypsometrical map accompanying Ane Centrale. *M- 



Himalaya and Hindoo Koosh, from the eastern limits of India to 
the confines of Persia. They are mentioned in the Institutes of 
Menu and other sacred books of the Hindoos, and still hold la^ 

• Memoir*, SIS. tracts in Northern Hindostan. Baber^ mentions them under tbe 

name of Kas, and is of opinion that Kashmir may have taken in 
' introd. xxrii. name from them ; and his judicious commentator, Waddington.^ 
observes on this — " The conjecture is certainly happy, and the iaA 
on which it is founded important ;" he adds, that mir is stOl 
united with the name of several districts, as Jeselmir and Ajmir. 

* Von Hugei, According to others,* it is derived, by the Brahmins, from Km^ 
» Asie ccDtnie lig^*» *"^^ Mira, sea. Humboldt^ states that its primaeval name 
i. 108. was Kasyapamar, signifying " the habitation of Kasjrapa," a 

mythological personage, by whose agency the valley was drained. 

• p. Von Hii8«i, Kasyapa, according to the Hindoo authorities,^ was the grandsoa 
zv. 9 ;'*wnson! ^^ Brahma, and lived as an ascetic on the mountain contig;aous to 
Hist, of KMhmir. the lake which originally occupied the valley. Having, by hs 

austerities, great influence with the gods, he fervently prayed to 

Matta, the wife of Siva, that she would change the watery expanse 

into a garden. Siva, complying with the entreaties of Matta, struck 

his trident into the bottom of the lake, and made an opening, 

by which the water passed away. The city founded in the country 

thus drained was called aft;er the saint, Kasyapur, or "Town 

of Kasyapa," converted in ordinary pronunciation into Kasb- 

7 Kasehmir, 1. 0. appur, and passing ultimately into Kashmir.* Hugel ^ calls 

the ascetic Kasha, and adds " that Mar signifies, according to 

■ Erdkunde tou them (the Hiudoos),^ a garden, and the name Kasckak Mot, 

?^"'*"'^^*" ' Garden of Kasha,' which the valley thenceforward bore, was 

subsequently changed into Kashmir." According to Mahometan 

traditions, the drainage was effected by Kasheb, a Deo or Genk 

subject to the power of Solomon, king of Israel, at whose com- 

I Ai. Res. XT. 0. mand he performed this work of benevolence. ^f Vigne ' states, 

« Kashmir, ii. 47. « jhc word Kashmir is Kashuf-mir (the country of Ka8hnf).-as 

Kasyapa is called by tbe Mahomedans, — so at least the Shah 

Sahib and other authorities in the village used to inform me." 

Abul Fazel, in his abridgement of the Raja Taringini, merely atates, 

that Kushup, an ascetic, first brought the Brahmins to inhabit 

* In ConTersation * c t • i.i. » . ^. . , * ., 

with Vigne, Kash- ^'^^^ ** ^"® denvation given by one of the most learned inquirers into 

mir (ji. 47). the subject— Professor Wilson.* It is also adopted by the Rev. Mr. Re- 

\^7t^T ''°^**'' «>d apparently by Bitter. 
Jour. Beng. Eng. t Forster attributes the drainage to Solomon himself, 
i. 19. 


the country after the water had subsided.^ Kashmir has on the * Ajeen AVberj, 

HGrtkk, Bulti, or Little Thibet ; east, the mountainous tracts of 

Zanskar Kishtewar ; south, Jamu, Ghumba, Kajawur, and some 

otHer small hilly districts occupying the southern declivity of the 

mountains inclosing the vaUey in that direction, and sloping to 

the plain of the Punjab ; on the west is the wild unexplored 

country held by the Dardus, and the remnant of that once power«> 

fill race — the GKiikkers. All these, as well as Kashmir itself, 

have been overrun by the Sikhs, so that the valley at present is 

altogether embodied into the dominions of that upstart race. If the 

limits be considered as determined by the culminating ridge of the 

tortuous range of mountains which on every side inclose it, Kash* 

mir will be found to be one hundred and twenty miles long, from the 

snowy Panjal on the south-east, to the Durawur ridge in the north, 

and seventy miles broad, from the Futi Panjal on the south, to 

Shesha Nag at the north-east. The superficial extent is about 

four thousand five hundred square miles, or a little less than 

four-fifths of the size of Yorkshire.* The shape of the outline 

is irregular, but has a remote resemblance to an oval. The tract 

thus defined, lies between kt. 33° 15'— 34'' Stf, long. 73° 40'— 

75^ 3(/. HiigeM estimates the plain forming the bottom of the ^u- iss. 

valley to be seventy-five miles long and forty miles broad. 

The general aspect of Kashmir is simple and easily compre- 
hended, it being a basin bounded on every side by lofty moun- 
tains, in the inclosing range of which are several depressions, 
called popularly passes, as they afiford means of communication 
between the valley and the adjacent countries. In the middle is 
an extensive level alluvial tract, intersected by the Jailum and its 
numerous feeders, which flow down from the mountains, and are 
fed by the abundant snow and rains falling in those elevated 
regions. All these numerous streams find their way by the sole 
channel of the Jailum, through the Baramula Pass, to the plain of 
the Punjab, in their course to the ocean. With the exception 
of one summit south of Bultul Pass, the elevation of the in- 
closing range falls far short of that attained by the summits of 
the Himalaya or of the Hindoo Koosh. Thus, the elevation of the 
Pir Panjal, bounding the valley on the south-west, and probably 

* The extent of surfaGe given in the text is deduced from Vigne's mapf 
published by Walker, ll^gel makes it 5,000 square miles. il. 1M. 


A u. 180. the highest of the Kaahmirian summits, is stated by HugeL^ to be 

above 15,000 feet.* On the north-eastern side of the vaUey^ the 
highest summit appears to be that of Haramuk, having an eievatiitin 

viane, ii. 151. ®^ 13,000 feet.* Vigne ^ states, that when he surveyed the valley 
7 1. sto7. from an eminence, he found it on every side to be surrounded hj 

snowy mountains ; but as he does not mention the time of the year 
when this view took place, this statement proves nothing* as to the 
general height of the range, or the relation which the elevation 
bears to the limit of perpetual snow. In his map, however, he 
distinctly states, that the Fir Panjal, there laid down 13,500 feet 
high, is always covered with snow, and consequently the limit 
of perpetual congelation is, on that mountain, below its posi- 
tion in places several degrees fieurther north.t The less eleva- 
tion of the limit in the Kashmirian mountains results, pro- 
bably, from the rapid slope southwards to the vast plain extend- 
ing to the Indian Ocean, so that there is in that direction no 
lofty table-land to raise the temperature by tiie radiation of 
heat. The Panjals, or mountains forming the range which in- 
closes Kashmir, appear, with little exception, to be of igneous 
origin, and "basaltic, their usual formation, being a beautiful 

B vigne, 1.275. amygdaloidal trap."® Vigne found rocks of this character on the 
summit of almost all t^e passes, except that of Dras, which is 
three days' journey beyond the limits of the valley, and on the 

» Vigne, i. 27.'i. crcst of which slate occurs.* In the north-west, in the vicinity of 
Baramula, " the bare cliffs of schistoze rock rise perpendicular! j 

' Vigne, 1. 278. to the height of from five hundred to a thousand feet." ^ There 
are several basaltic eminences of small elevation scattered over 
the bottom of the valley. Such a physical conformation cannot 
fail to suggest the notion that this singular region was once the 
crater of a vast volcano ; and such was the first impression of 

* i. 283. Vigne,^ on viewing from a commanding eminence the valley in its 

whole extent. " There are," he observes, " many elevated points 
of view firom which this extraordinary hollow gave me, at first 
sight, an idea of its having been originally formed by the falling 

* Hugel elsewhere states the eleyation at 14,092. (ii. 155.) 

t In Pamir, for instance, in lat. 37°, or above three degrees north of the 

1 Oius, 804. Pir Panjal, Wood ^ found the limit of perpetual congelation to be above aeren- 

teen thousand feet ; and in Koonawur, only a degree south of the Pir Panjal, 
' Koonawur, 150. Gerard ' found the limit to be above nineteen thousand feet. 


in of an exhausted volcanic region." It seems, however, at one 
time to have formed the bottom of the ocean, as there are in many 
places great beds of limestone containing organic remains prin- 
cipally marine.^ Gypsum occurs in the north-west of this * ^*p»«' *• ^«' 
region. Primary formations appear of very rare occurrence ; 
erratic blocks of granite are scattered over the slopes of the Hara- 
znuk mountain, on the north-east, and in the Baramula Pass, but 
this formation has nowhere been observed in situfi Veins of •"• 1-278. 
quartz, however, so usually accompanying schistoze formation, 
have been observed of large dimensions. The subterraneous dis- 
turbance, of the past activity of which the results have been just 
hriefly traced, continues to the present time. In June, 1828, the 
city of Kashmir was shaken by an earthquake which destroyed 
about twelve hundred houses and one thousand persons.^ The earth ^ vigne, i. 28i. 
in several places opened and discharged fetid warm water from the 
clefts, and masses of rock rolled from the mountains amidst repeated 
explosions. For above two months, every day, from one hundred 
to two hundred shocks were felt, each accompanied by an explo- 
sion. Deleterious gases appear to have been extricated on that 
occasion, as the cholera then broke out and caused very dreadful 
fatality.'' Abul Fazel,® describing the country above two centuries ' id. i. 283. 
before, mentions the frequency of earthquakes. In his time the u. i^ ^' 
houses were framed of timber, as a precaution against destruc- 
tion by the shocks, and the same precaution is still observed. 
Some years ago, at Suhoyum, near the north-western extremity 
of the valley, the ground became so hot, that the sand was fused, 
and appearances seemed to indicate that a volcanic eruption wa» 
about to take place.* Moorcroft * observes, " Indications of vol- » vigne, i. «8o. 
canic action are not unfrequent, hot springs are numerous at par- j^^' ^*^* "* 
ticular seasons, the ground in various places is sensibly hotter 
than the atmosphere, and earthquakes are of common occurrence.'* 
Vigne supposes that the great calcareous deposits have been raised 
to their present position, from the bed of the ocean, by the up- 
heaving of volcanic masses from beneath. Pebbly conglomerate, 
sandstone, and clay, in many places, extensively overspread the 
moimtain slopes.^ ' vigne, i. sso; 

_ , _ _ _ „ . , ,. 1 1 <! 1 Moorcroft, il. 

Besides the low alluvial tract, extending along the banks ioq. 
of the Jailum, and forming the greater part of the cultiva- 
ble soil of the valley, there are several extensive table-lands of 
slight elevation, stretching from the mountains ^ various dis- * vigne, i. V7. 


tanoes into the plain. These Karywu, aa they are calkd by dx 
natives, are described by Vigne as " composed of the fioest aUu- 
vial soil, usually free from shingle. Their surface is Terdant, and 
generally smooth as a bowling-green, but they are divided and 
deeply furrowed by mountain streams." He considers the appear- 
ance which they present a strong proof of the truth of the tnr 
dition, that the whole valley was once occupied by a lake. " The 
flat surfaces of the Karyvras, whose cliffs are from one hundred 
and fifty to two hundred feet above the lowest part of the TaDeyp 
are attributable to their having for ages remained at the bottc»n of 
a still lake, perhaps at least three hundred feet above its present 
< vifnf, L SM. level, at the bottom of that valley." * Some who have vJevred the 
scenery of the valley consider that they have found corroboration 
of the tradition, that it was once occupied by a lake, in a sac- 
cession of horizontal stages observable on the sides of the moun- 
tains, and which apparently have been breaches formed succes- 

• Moorcr.ii. 100; fiively by the waters of the lake in the course of subsidence.^ 
^^' ' The soil of the lowest part of the valley appears to have been 

deposited from a salt lake, as the water obtained from wells dug 
•id. i.s8s. there is brackish,^ and none perfectly fresh can be had, except 

from the river, which is of course supplied principally from the 
snows and rains falling on the mountains. The great opening 
at the north-western extremity, by which at present the aggre- 
gate waters of Kashmir escape to the lower country, has pro- 
bably been coeval with the original upheaving of this region, as, 
though an earthquake might have caused a fissure sufficiently 
large to drcun the supposed lake, it is more difficult to suppose 
such an event to have removed the enormous mass of matter 
requisite for filling up the space of the present valley of Ba- 
ramula. Such is the view taken by Vigne, who considers 
the Baramula opening to have been from the first filled with 
submarine shingle and soft conglomerate, through which the 
Jailum has worked its way, assisted, in some degree, by openings 
» Id. I 383, 280, resulting from earthquakes.^ " So far," observes Rennell, •* am 
^^- I from doubting the tradition respecting the existence of tlie lake 

that covered Cashmere, that appearances alone would serve to 

• Memoir of a conviucc me, without either the tradition or the history." ^ This 
ta^.'^ior"'"^"^ lake, according to Kashmirian tradition, bore the name of Saiisa- 

ras, or " the lake of the chaste woman," as it was considered 
peculiarly to belong to Uma, tlie wife of Mahadeo, one of whose 


iia.i]te8 ia Sati» io the character of a chaBte womaa.^ Baron Von * wiiMm, in As. 
Hiigel, however, whose opinion nn questionably merits very high IJ^rAkbery, ii. 
regard, is quite incredulous respecting the existence of the lake. ^*'» ^- ^°^ 
He observes, " There is not in the valley the slightest appearance 
of ita having been drained. The pass through which the Jhelum 
found its way is one of the most beautiful in the world : its bed, 
1»000 to 1,500 feet. I do not believe more in the traditions of 
tlie Kashmirian Brahmins than in the fables of Manethou." * * * ^■- J^"'- ^^■ 

1880, p 66, xxi. 

As might be expected, from the rare occurrence of primary for* n.s., von Hugei 
mations in Kashmir, its mineralogy is not rich. Iron-ore, however, **" ^"**™*''- 
abounds,^ and Vigne* says, " veins of lead, copper, and, as I* Moorer.ii.ioj; 
ivas informed, also of silver, and even of gold, are known to exist 244.**" " ' 
in the long grass-covered hills in the neighbourhood, but the iron * *• ^^• 
alone is worked." Snch a statement is too vague to be relied 
on. The iron-ore is found in the south-eastern extremity of 
the valley, embedded in limestone,^ near Shahbad. Lead-ore * p- ^o" Hugei, 
^was found in the same vicinity by Jacquemont,® and has been « id. iL 
ivorked i^ce 1833. Hiigel found copper-ore, but the mines 
are not worked. He informs us that neither gold nor silver 
has been found, nor do the streams bear down gold-dust, as 
in the neighbouring countries. Plumbago abounds in the Pir 
Panjal mountain.^ Sulphureous springs are numerous, but the^'^'-"-^^* 
mineral has nowhere been found in a solid state,^ and the country * id.ib.; Moorcr. 
is supplied with it from the Punjab. Excellent limestone exists 
Id inexhaustible quantities in many places ; some kinds of it 
are a fine black marble. The inclosing range bears different 
names in different parts : the Snowy Panjal on the east ; the Futi 
Panjal and Panjal of Banihal on the south ; the Pir on the west ; 
the Durawur mountain on the north; the Haramuk and Sona- 
murg mountains on the north-east.f We have no satisfactory 
data to determine whether they, throughout, enter into the 
limits of perpetual congelation, but it is probable that such 
is generally the fact, as travellers frequently mention the striking 

* Could Moorcroft and Vigne have mistaken the nsnal appearance of trap- 
rocks for beaches formed by the lake in the successive stages of snbsidence ? 

t The Bultul mountain, near the north-eastern boundary, is supposed by 
Vigne to be the Kantal of the old maps, but Hiigel considers the Kantal to ii. 166. 
be a mountain haying two very lofty summits of the same shape and 
height, the one quite black, the other covered with snow of a dazzling white- 
ness. These summits are respectively called Mer and Ser. 

U. 161. 


effect which their snowy Bummits prodace on the l andawy. 
•11. 194. The fullest information on this point is given by Hugel,' 

who states that the mountains *' form a regular oval of snovf 
summits, which inclose Kashmir. Only south-west of the tovii, 
and for a fifth part of the circumference, is the oval intennpted 
and continued by a lower range." The soft and beautiful soenoj 
of the valley is on the southern side, where the mountains slope 
gently to the lower part ; on the northern side, the scenery is wild 
and sublime, as there the mountains rise in rugged precipices of 
stupendous height, down the bare sides of which the numercNis 
p. Von uugei, Streams rush in prolonged cataracts.* The scientific traveler so 
frequently quoted well describes this alpine region. " From the 
summits one can seldom see any thing of the valley, as it is con- 
cealed under the perpendicular brow which first rises from the 
plain. Wherever the view is directed, little can be seen hot 
endless snow. I know scarcely any prospect more gloomy ; no 
tree, no bird, no living creature can be beheld. On these sum- 
mits reigns a terrific silence, and the name of Raan, ' the waste,' 

• Id. ii. iM. which the natives have given it, is admirably just."^ 

The number of the passes into Kashmir over these mountains is 
» Ayeen Akbery, very variously Stated ; by Abul Fazel * at twenty-six, Ferishta^ at 
"Hi^LiT 440 ^^^^> Elphinstone* at seven. Hiigel* mentions twelve, and adds 
A Ace of caubui, that the four following of these are practicable at all times of the 

• ii! 171. year s If The Nabog, on the eastern frontier, in lat. 33° 37', long. 

75° 20' ; 2, the Banihal, on the southern frontier, in lat. 33° 24'. 
long. 75° 8' ; 3, the Baramula Pass, southwards, or Punch Pkss, 
on the western frontier, and in lat. 34° 2^, long. 73** 54' ; 4, 
Baramula Pass, westward, or Dub Pass, on the same frontier, and 
' u. 140. in lat. 34° 1 0', long. 73° 33'. Vigne ^ enumerates twenty, and adds, 

that " an active mountaineer could enter the valley in many pkces 
besides the regular passes. Eleven of these passes are said to be 
practicable for horses ; there is no carriage-way into the valley, 
but the Mogul emperors frequently brought elephants by the Fir 
Panjal Pass, or that through which the Bimber road lies. These 
huge animals, being wonderfully sure-footed and capable of 

• Beraier, Voj- making their way in difficult places,® were used to convey the 
ages, ii. 266. femalcs of the household. The Sikhs invaded the valley through 
9 Vigne, u. 181. the Baramula Pass, and took with them a six-pounder,* slung on 

poles and borne by thirty-two men at a time. That European 
skill and perseverance could make these passes practicable for 


artiUery cannot be doubted. The Pir Panjal Pass is in lat. 

33^ 32^, long. 74'' 27', its elevation above the level of the sea 

1 1 »BCK) feet.^ This and the passes of Baramula and Banihal, > vigne, l 864. 

alre&dy mentioned, are the principal between Kashmir and the 

Punjab. There are two other important passes, that of Bundi- 

pvir,2 on the north-east, in lat. 34° 37', long. 74° 40', through « vigne, u. los. 

'wKich lies the route to Iskardo ; and that of Duras or Dras,® ' oriental M«ga- 

.« ^>.r^^^/t *...»-/^/ 1 . % line, 1825, March, 

in the east, m lat. 34° 11, long. 75° 18'; elevation above p. 105, iiiet 
tlie level of the sea, 10,500 feet. When the Mogul emperor J^^*^*^'^?;^^^. 
A!kbar visited Kashmir, in 1587, he appointed seven Maleks, vigne, ii.906; 
or chieftains, as hereditary wardens, one for each of the passes ^"^' 
considered to be the most important,* and allotted to each * ^- ^^^ ^ugei, 
a revenue, from lands and villages, proportioned to the support of 
an armed force deemed requisite to defend the post committed to 
bis care. The descendants of these Maleks retain the titles, but 
their revenues and powers are now little more than nominal. 

The grandeur and splendour of Kashmirian scenery results 
from the sublimity of the huge inclosing mountains, the 
picturesque beauty of the various gorges, extending from the 
level alluvial plain to the passes over the crest of the in- 
closing range ; the numerous lakes and fine streams, ren- 
dered often more striking by cataracts; the luxuriance and 
variety of the forest trees, and the rich and multiform vegetation 
of the lower grounds. The attractiveness of the scenery, the mild- 
ness of the climate, and the fertility of the soil, make Bemier^ * voyages, u.27. 
conclude that it was actually the site of the garden of Eden ; and 
Abul Fazel describes it "as a garden in perpetual spring." • f Ayeen Akbery, 
Jacquemont, on the contrary, expresses himself concemmg it in * 
very disparaging language. " The appearance of the inclosing 
mountains (he observes) is grand, rather than beautiful, present- 
ing a striking outline and nothing more, as nature has done 
nothing to embellish the interior ; so that it is a grand frame 
without a picture, and totally devoid of the picturesque charms of 
the Alps ;"7 but Vigne, who was infinitely better acquainted with ^ Corrwpond. 
the scenery, and untainted by affectation, is untiring in its praise, ' ^' 
calling to his aid the mellifluous eloquence^ of Milton : " ii. as. 

' Sweet interchange 

Of hill and valley, rivers, woods, and plains ; 

Now land, now lakef and shores with forest crowned, 

Rocks, dens, and caves." — Par, Lostf ix. 115. 



• ii. 74. 

s li. 108. 

*l. «M. 
* II. u«. 

» Moorer. H.Hl 
F.Von Hii<«l, 11. 

• Kaschmir, it. 

7 Ifoorcr. H. 109. 

Whilst Jaoquemont accuses Moore of too high embeUiahment 
" according to the practice of lying usual among the gentlemen of 
Parnassus/'* Vigne * " thought that the departure from truth oa 
the score of ornament was far less wide than might have been 
expected from a perusal of Mr. Moore's poem." * The extent of 
the level alluvial tract in the lowest part of the valky is varicMisiy 
estimated — ^by Hugel,^ at seventy-five miles in length, and fron 
forty to six in breadth ; by Vigne,' at ninety miles in length, 
and twenty-five in breadth ; by Moorcroft,^ at fifty miks in 
length, and from fifteen to five in breadth. The superficial ex- 
tent is probably about two thousand square miles, of which by 
much the greatest part is on the left or south-western aide of the 
; Jailum. So flat is this alluvial tract, that the Jailum,^ which flows 
through it from south-east to north-west, is navigable for boats 
of considerable burthen throughout the whole of this part of its 
course, from Kaniball, within a mile of Islamabad, to Baramula; 
and as its channel is very winding, scarcely any part of this 
level is deprived of the benefit of inland navigation. A great 
part of the alluvial tract is lower than the channel of the Jailum, 
and preserved by means of embankments from being overflowed. 
There are three lakes on a level with the Jailum, or Behut, and 
communicating with it, gradually decreasing as the river deepens 
the exit at Baramula, or sweeps into them shingle, ailt, or other 
deposits. Though Hiigel denies that the whole valley was (ori- 
ginally a great lake dried by a vast and rapid efiiux of its contents 
through the Baramula gorge, he admits that there was once a 
considerable expanse of water, which has disappeared in conse- 
quence of the cavity which it occupied being silted up.* 

The soil on the sides and at the bases of the less pre« 
cipitous mountains is of clay, and in the level part of the 
valley a rich vegetable mould, which, where uncultivated, 
throws up a thickly- matted turf, of fiorin or other natural 
grasses, unmixed with rank vegetation.^ Hugel describes it 
as a light slimy earth of a clear colour, and mixed with fine 
sand, its appearance not indicating its wonderful fertility. 
The most fertile part of the country is that in the vicinity of 
Pampur, ten miles south-east of the capital. ITie soil there con- 

* Those who have had occasion to direct their researches to the subject! 
on which Moore's oriental fictions turn, have found that hia information is hoth 
extensive and in general accurate. 


tains a large admixture of loam, and is resenred principally for 
tlie cultivation of Baffiron, for which Kashmir ia highly celebrated. 
At tHe base of the Pir Panjal, on the south-west side of the val- 
ley, are several gorges^ the bottoms of which are filled, to a great 
depth, with rich, dark-coloured mould, the result of the decay of 
le&vea and other vegetable matter. Where the highlands have 
mould, it consists of peat.^ The eminences throughout the valley, " p- yo° Hugd, 
except those connected with the great inclosing range, are few 
and inconsiderable. According to Vigne, Huri Purbut rises two 
bundred and fifty feet above the City Lake.^ Tukt-i-Sulimani at ^ vigne, u. 8&. 
no great distance from it, rises to the height of four hundred and 
fifty.® The hill of Shupeyon,* at the south-eastern extremity, to ^ u. u. 42. 
tiunee hundred and fifty feet. Aha Thung, in the north-east, three » id.i. as?, 
hundred.^ There is no other eminence of any importance. As the 1 j^, i, 7, 
city of Kashmir is situate on the Jailum, which is navigable both 
upwards and downwards from it, the elevation at that place may 
be taken as the average elevation of the valley, which may be 
set down at between 5,500 and 6,000 feet."^ 

The three principal lakes of Kashmir are on a level with the 
Jailum, and communicate with it. They all are on the right, or 
north-eastern side of the river, and in the following order down 
the course of the stream. The City Lake,* generally called em- 'p.von Hngei, 
pbatically Dal, " the Lake," is close to the city on the north-east, ^/ Moorcr. iu * 
and communicates with the river Jailum by a channel, about two ^^^* 
miles in length, the lake itself being six miles long, and four broad. 
The Manasa Bui, the most beautiful lake in Kashmir, is a mile 
and a half long, three-quarters of a mile wide, and in general 
very 'deep. The Great, or Wulur Lake, is about twenty miles f 
long, and nine wide, and is merely a shallow expansion of the river 
Jailum. Between the City and Manasa lakes, on the right side 

* Hugel states the elevation of the valley, aa determined by the ther- 
mometer, at 5,818 feet. He states it elsewhere at 6,300 feet* Jacquemont,* * Ab. Jour. 183«, 
at 5,350. Humboldt, in his hypsometrical map accompanying Asie Cen- , com»p' ii as 
trale, at 910 toises, or 5,733 feet. Vigne,' at 5,000 feet. ' l.2U. ' 

t The editor of Moorcroft (ii. Ill) states that flugel fives the length 
of this lake at thirty miles, quoting, no doabt, from a communication pub- 
lished in Jour. As. Soc. Beng. 1836, p. 186. But the baron, in his later and 
(as may be presumed) more correct work on Kashmir,^ states the dimensions * Kaihmlr, ii. 103. 
as given above in the text. ** Der WuUer-See ist der GrOsste und erstreckt 
sich 21 meilen, vielleicht etwas weniger von W. nach O., und 9 von N. 
nach S.'' 



4 vigne, it 147. o^ ^® riyer, are two small lakes, the Opon and Wusilraia.* 
There are sereral small moantain-lakes, or iams as they woold 
be called by a North Briton, as Nandan Sar, and Kosah Nag, 
in the south, Shesha Nag in the east, Oonga Bui in the 
north-east, and a few others not worth notice. The water- 
system of the valley is very simple, consisting of seyeral tri- 
butaries, all discharging themselves into the Jailum, by which 
their aggregate contents are conveyed through the Baraznula Pass 
to the low country of the Punjab. They are the Breng, or 
Bureng, Sandren, Lidur, Sinde, Rembeara, Chanz, Lolab, besides 
a great number of small streams too inconsiderable for separate 
notice. No country more perfectly enjoys the advantages of 
extensive irrigation without the inconvenience of attending general 
periodical inundations. 



^ Jaeqaemont, 
Voyage Dans 
L'lnde. t. 810. 

• P. Von Bugel, 
IL 180. 

f Id. il. 182 ; 

Jacquemont, w. 


' Jacquemont, t. 


» Id. 287. 

1 Vlgne, il. 151. 
« Id. 1.278. 

» Vigne, I. 203. 
* Id. II. 151. 
ft Id. i. 212. 

Mountain south of Bultul Pass,* lat. 34° 10', long. 75** 5\ 

estimated^* ... ... ... ••• ... ... 19,650 

Kr Panjal,« south-west side of valley, lat. 33<» 5(f, long. 

74° 15' 15,000 

Ranged north side of the valley, lat. 34° 15', long. 74° SC 15,000 
Highest Point ^ reached by Jacquemont on PirPanjal, lat. 

33° 40', long. 74° 20' 14,300 

Mountain east of the Pergunna of Vehi,^ lat. 34° 5', 

long. 74° 55' 13,100 

Haramuk Mountsdn,' lat. 34° 25', long. 74° 40' ... 13,000 

Shesha Nag,2 lat. 34° 7', long. 75° 35' 13,000 

Pir Panjal Pas8,t lat. 3£° 30', long. 74° 25' 12,500 

Kosa Nag,« lat. 33° 25', long. 74° 45' 12,000 

Gunga Bul,^ lat. 34° 25', long. 74° 42' 1 2,000 

Nabog Nye,* summit of pass above, lat. 33° 45', long. 

#0 jivJ ••• ... ••• ••• ••• ... ••• X ^jULIU 

» li. 155. 
7t. 826, 

* Six thousand metres, estunating the metre at 39*3 inches. See Lambton 
in As. Res. xiii. p. 1 1 7. 

t By Hugel,* 12,952; by Vigne,« 1 1 ,800 ; by Ja<xinemont,M 1,970. 



Crest dividiDg the water systems ^ of Bulti and Kashnur, 

lat. 34° 12', long. 75° 18' 

Ratan Fanjal,^ south-west of Pir Panjal, Lat. 33^ 40', 

lOD^v 74 ICT ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• 

Boheur, or Mirbul Pass,' lat. 33° 20', long. 75° 30' ... 
Nunnenwarree,^ highest point of the pass from Bundur- 

pur to Iskardo, lat. 34° 40', long. 74° 40' 

Summit overBanihal Pass,^ lat. 33° 25', long. 75° 10' . 

Bultul Pass.4 lat. 34° 10', long. 75° 15' 

Wurster Wun mountain,*^ lat. 33° 58', long. 74° 55' ... 
Small glacier on northern slope of Fati Panjal,^ lat. 33° 

30', long. 74° 50' 

Pass of Banihal,7 * lat. 33° 25', long. 75° 7' 

Bultul 8 village, lat. 34° 8', long. 75° 12' 

Poshiana,» lat. 33° 33', long. 74° 23' 

Doubjonn,! lat. 33° 35', long. 74° 32' 

Sonamurg,2 lat. 34° 13', long. 75° 10' 

Duras vaiage,» lat. 34° 24', long. 75° 37' 

Punch Pass,4 lat. 33° 52', long. 73° 54' t 

Huripur,* lat. 33° 40', long. 74° 40' 

Height in Kol Naruwa Ridge,« lat. 33° 30', long. 74° 55' 

Dudina summit,^ lat. 33° 54', long. 75° 5' 

Sar-i-Bul,8 lat. 33° 21', long. 75° 20' 

Summit of Shupeyon,* lat, 33°. 42', long. 74° 48' 

Tukt-i-Suliman,i lat. 34° 5', long. 74° 44'J 

Bahabad, in the Punch Pass,* lat. 34°, long. 73° 55' ... 

Baramgula,8 lat. 33° 30', long. 74° 1 7' 

Summit of Aha Thung,^ lat. 34° 14', long. 74° 35' ... 

Shupeyon town,* lat. 33° 42', long. 74° 45' 

Suhoyum,« lat. 34° 16', long. 74° 4' 

Khulid,7 lat. 33° 30', long. 75° 4' 

* Vigne estimates the height of the pass at 8,600 feet. 

t 8,780, by Jacquemont, p. 169. 

t Jacquemont makes the height of Tukt-i-Suliman 6,396. 


* Jacquemont, v. 


' F. Yon Hugel, 


11,400 * Jacquemont, t. 

' P. Von Huge], 
IL 106. 


10,807 ' J«cqn«mont, t. 

10,500 * VIgne, 11. SOS. 

10.116 'Jacquemont, t. 

< Id. aes. 
9,690 ' i^ ^' 

9,660 • Id. 804. 

9,500 • Vigne, 1. aw. 

9 160 ' Jacquemont, r. 

9,120 '"•«»• 
9,000 ' v*«°®' "• *^- 
8,500 '"•*• ^«- 

8,180 * Jacquemont, v. 

8,180 'Id. 202. 

8,100^ VIgne, 11.26. 

8,000' Id- *W7. 

7 480 ^ Jacquemont, t. 

' 219. 

6.950 * ^' Von Hugel, 

' li. 155. 

6,860 " w- !»• 

6,800 'Vlgne,!. 260. 
6,600 * JacquwnoBt, r. 
6,500 « VIgne, 1.271. 
6,100 « Id. 11.281. 
6,000^ Id. 1.822. 

i. 882, 886. 

▼. 210. 



• vigM, I 8». Shahbad,8 lat. 33^ 30', long. 75* 9^ 5,600 

City of Kaahmir. * lat. 34° 5', long. 74** 41' 5,500 

» jicqueoumt, T. Kahouta, in Punch Pa»8,» lat. 33° 58', long. 73*» 54' ... 4,^20 
«^ w. iM. Serai, in Punch Pass,! i^t. 34* 2^, long. 73* 54' 2,734 

In consequence of the great elevation of Kashmir, the cold ai 
winter is considerahle, being, on an average, much more severe 
than in any part of the British Isles, and this in a latitude 
lower than that of Sicily. Snow usually begins to fall earij 

• p. Von Httfrei, iu December.' Night frosts set in as early as the mMdle 
Pu^B^h!T' ^ November, and, by the end of that month, the trees are 
107; vifM, u. 88. stripped of their leaves, and all annual vegetation is cut off. 

A thick haze overspreads the whole valley, and the lakes and 
rivers send up clouds of vapour. Every movement of men or beasts 
raises great quantities of dust, and the haze becomes so great, that 
even at midday, and under a cloudless sky, no object can be seen 
at a mile's distance, lliis murky state of the air extends for 
about two hundred feet above the level of the valley, and those 
who ascend beyond that height see the snowy mountains of a 
dazzling whiteness, and the sun shining clearly in a cloudless 

• p. vonHugei, sky, whilst the low country lies hidden in dim obscuritj.'* The 
"•*^' first fall of snow restores the deamess of the air. Though 

snow lies to the average depth of two feet from the early part 
of December to the middle of April, the cold in general is a few 
degrees only below the freezing point. The Jailum is seldom 
completely frozen over, though ice invariably covers the surface 
of the lakes to a considerable distance from the banks. The snow 
begins to disappear in March. " The end of March and begin- 
ning of April are distinguished by the popular term of dirty 
spring or mud season, and these appellations, in regard to the 
mire of the surface and the rapid succession of gusts of wind and 
» Moorer. u. 108. ^^^ ^^^^ short glcams of sunshine, are well deserved." * Up to the 
beginning of June much rain falls, though Kashmir is beyond the 

* Hilgel, in his oommunication in Jour. As. Soo^ Beng-. 1836, p. 185, etatcs 
the height at 6,300 feet He seems elsewhere to intimate it to be 5,818 
(Kashmir, iL 155). Jacquemont states it (Correspondence, ii 65) at 5,350, 
and (Voyage, 219), at 1,635 metres, or 5,354 feet Humboldt, in thehjpso- 
metrical map accompanying Ane CeniraUf states it at 610 toises, or 5,723 
feet. Vigne vaguely intimates it to be 5,000 (Kashmir, 1 253). 


mfiaence of the periodical monsoon, which bo extensiyely deluges 
parts of Asia.^ During the April which Moorcroft passed in Kash- • ^- ▼«» «"«•'» 
mir there were only three days of sunshine^ and in the following 
May scarcely a day passed without a shower. After a prolonged 
residence in the very arid climate of Middle Tibet, he, on entering 
Kashmir, found reason, from the contrast, to complain of the 
humidity of the atmosphere, and considered it more favourable to 
vegetable than to animal life/ Hugd,^ on the contrary, considers f u. 107. 
the air dry, and supports hb opinion by reference to the facts, that ' ^' '^' 
mosses and lichens are rare, and that a decayed tree is not to be 
found throughout the valley. This dryness of the air he attributes 
to the lightness of the soil, which quickly absorbs the rain and 
melted snow, though the volume of water derived from these 
sources is sometimes so considerable as to cause the Jailum to 
rise thirty feet. The air of Kashmir is in general remarkable for 
stillness. According to Hiigel,^ " the wind Lb never violent ; the > u. ise. 
extensive surface of the Wulur lake is at no time ruffled by a 
wave, and a boat passing over its mirror-like surface leaves a 
trace extending for miles until lost on the distant bank." This 
statement, however, must be received with considerable qualifica- 
tion, as, according to Vigne,* *' the sur&ce of the Wulur lake, ' "-im. 
like every other lake surrounded by mountains, is liable to the 
action of sudden and furious hurricanes, that sweep over it with 
such extraordinary violence, that no boatman can be induced to 
fiioe it."* A gust of this kind, encountered by him, made the sur- 
fact of the lake one sheet of foam like that of the sea under the 
influence of a white squalL In the passes, the wind is in general 
very violent, the cold air of the adjacent elevated tracts rushing 
in to supply the place of that which ascends from the low and 
warm parts of the valley. In consequence of the general still- 
ness of the air, the heat appears much greater to the feeUng than 
it is ascertained to be by the thermometer. Jacquemont describes 
his sufferings from this cause as excessive, and he found no relief 
by immersion in the neighbouring lake, as the water gave no 
sensation of coolness.^ He remarks, however, that such high tern- « comcp. 11. ui. 
perature is of rather unusual occurrence in Kashmir, and was felt 
so distressing and injurious by the natives, that they had re- 
course to religious processions and supplications to implore 

* See also, with reference to gusts of wind in the spring, the quotation 
from Moorcroft, supra. 

VOL. I. 2 a 


a remission of it from heaven. The hottest season is from 
the middle of July to the middle of August, during whidi 
time the thermometer in the shade at noon ranges from 80° to 
85^. In June, the ayersge height of the thermometer at noon 
is about 75°. Kashmir has this great advantage respecting^ cli- 
mate, that any depression of temperature can be obtained by a 
s u. 106. journey of a few hours in ascent of the mountains. MooTcroft' 

• ii. 88. intimates that the climate is unwholesome ; and Vigne * states, 

" though nothing can be more delicious than the air of the Talley, 
yet in 'many places it is affected by a miasma frx>m stagnant 

• v<>y«Wi ^^' water." Yet Jacquemont^ expresses his surprise at the extremely 

rare occurrence of intermittents, amidst so many causes which 
elsewhere invariably produce them, and Hugel styles the climate 

• u. 107. of Kashmir one of the best and healthiest in the world .^ Hie 
f Fonter, u. 8S. remarkable fecundity ^ of marriages among the Kashmirians may 

perhaps be regarded as evidence of the salubrity of the climate. 
The zoology of Kashmir does not appear to be rich. Bears, both 

• F. Von Httgei, browu and black, are very numerous.^ The brown bear is between 
li! 10. ' ' six and seven feet long, and, though a very formidable animal, 

does not molest man unless previously attacked, when his onset 
is most ferocious. The black bear, though much smaUer, is &r 
more dangerous. They are said at particular seasons to de- 
scend from the mountains and rob the fruit-trees. The wolf is 
rare ; Vigne mentions the hyena, but doubts its existence. A 
panther, or sort of leopard, of a white colour with small black 
spots, is common in the mountains. The other beasts of prey 
are the jackal, fox, otter, mongoose or ichneumon, and stoat. 
A large and fine variety of stag occurs wild in the more retired 
valleys, and sometimes in severe weather great herds enter 
from the neighbouring wilds and commit great havoc in the cul- 
tivated grounds. The gazelle, ibex, wild goat, musk-deer, and 
some other species of deer frequent the wilder parts. The wild 
goat, though not larger than the common tame goat, has 
enormous horns, those of a specimen examined by Hugel being 
four feet long, and so heavy that the pair formed a load for an 
able-bodied porter. It also yields a remarkably fine wool or 
fiir, which is wrought into highly-prized cloths. The flying 
squirrel, and various other sorts of that animal, some varieties 
o . » » 1 of marmot, and divers marine animals, may be considered to 

• F. Von Huge], ' » / 

iL 808; Vigne, Complete the list of quadrupeds. There are no hares' in 


Kashmir. Birds of prey are numerous. The highest mountains 
are the haunt of a huge species of vulture, according to Hugel» y'^°" ""«^'' 
the largest in the world. As they cannot suddenly rise from th6 
ground, the natives steal cautiously towards them, and often 
succeed in killing them by the throw of a cudgel. The naked 
skin of the breast is formed into a cap, to which the credulity of 
the natives attributes various marveUous qualities, and, in con- 
8equen<:e, it is very highly valued.' These wild tracts are also * ^' von Hugei, 
frequented by the bearded vulture of the Himalaya, the. black 
▼ulture of Hindostan, and the white-winged and black-winged 
vulture. Here are also a brown variety of eagle, another 
variety of a dark-brown colour, with white on the shoulders, 
and a fishing-eagle of a brown and white plumage. There are 
several kinds of falcons and hawks. The heron ^ is considered * Jacquemont, 
important, as yielding the feather- tufts worn in the turbans of the vi^ne, iLsoe; 
Sikh chieftains of rank. Each heron has twro feathers, which J- ^ ""«®^' 
grow downwards from the back of the head ; and these, in the 
moulting- season, are carefully collected by men who watch in the 
heronries for this purpose. The birds are also often netted, and, 
after their feathers have been plucked, are set free. A fine of five 
hundred rupees is inflicted for killing one. The finest feathers 
only cost a rupee each ; and the feather tuft, the badge of Sikh 
dignity, consists of from ten to twenty, fixed in a funnel-shaped 
stem, covered with gold wire, and often richly jewelled. There 
are two other species of herons, but they do not bear the valued 
feathers. The gigantic crane frequents the marshes on the banks 
of the Jailam. There are also various kinds of geese, ducks, 
divers, bitterns, baldcoots, snipes, woodcocks, and a small kind 
of pelican. So numerous are they, that in some places they 
almost hide the surface of the water on which they alight. 
The gallinaceous tribe contains peacocks, pheasants, partridges, 
both the common red-legged kind, and a gigantic species four 
or five times its size. The hulbul, or nightingale, of Kashmir is 
a distinct species from the genuine one of Europe, and greatly 
inferior in note, but amusing, on account of its bold familiar 
habits, taking greedily the food offered to it, and expressing its gra- 
tification by warbling. A kind of maina (coracias Indica), a species 
of jay, is very common, and being a restless, bold, turbulent bird, 
is the tyrant of the grove. The hoopoe is also common. A bird, 
resembling the thrush in size and shape, enlivens the wood with 



its beautiful plumago and lull melodioua tang. There are a vist 
number and much Tariety of the smaller kinds of birds. To tUi 
last cireumstanoe must be attributed the paucity of insects iv 

« Id. ii. S80. which Kashmir is remarkable.' The purple butterfly of Ksshmir, 
introduced by Byron into one of his most beautiful aniDa, 
may be regarded as caUed into existence by the imaginatinn of 

' a. MQ. the poet» as Hugel found no butterfly peculiar to the yaSej.' 

Bees abound, and are skilfully managed so as to yield reiy fise 
honey. There are no scorpions nor poisonous centipedes ; Tenom- 
ous serpents are rare, though the cobra di capello is sometimei 

* 11 *^* found. Vigne^ asserts that the boa constrictor is known m 

Kashmir, but as that terrible reptile delights in the swamps and 
forests of the warmest countries, it is scarcely credible that it 

* u. 81. could live in a climate so cool as that of Kashmir. Vigne^ nco- 

tions, under the name of aphia, a venomous snake about a yani 
long, and another of a smaller size, which darts upwards to 
seize the throat of the person whom it attacks. Lizards are nre, 
but frogs are very numerous. Hugel enumerates fourteen kinds 
of fish found in the waters of Kashmir; of these, the laigest, 
called shiruh, is often taken of the weight of twenty-foor 

* H. 159. pounds : it is firm and of fine flavour. Moorcroft,' who, as 

manager of the East-India Company's studs, must be believed to 

be a competent judge, considers the horses of Kashmir to be bat 

' *^ indifferent ; and Jacquemont,^ describes them as miserable pooies. 

* u.tt7. 1^^ opinion of Hugel is much more favourable. By him ^ the^ 

are described as excellent; though smaU, strong, livdy, of 
great bottom, and very tractable. It is represented as amnang 
to see one of them, mounted by a native, dash at a gsUop 
across a shallow river, over the bed of which, covered with 
loose stones, no other horse could venture but with the 
greatest caution. Hiigel has known these hardy creatnref 
carry each a weight of three hundred pounds during the 
course of a day nearly forty miles across the elevated Pass 
of Pir Panjal. Their price is usually from two to three pounds 
sterling. There are veiy few kine, and those few are ug^fi 
wretched animals. The natives do not like milk, and prefer 
vegetable oils to butter; and, as their fiinatic Sikh tyraotv 
prohibit the slaughter of kine under pain 6i death, there is no 
inducement to incur the care, trouble, and expense of keeping 
these animals during the long winter. Sheep are numeroos, 


and thebr flesh and that of goata constitute the animal diet of 

the natives. Moorcroft ® states that the mutton is well flavoured, • »• i». 

and the fat particularly white ; while Hugel,^ describing the sheep ' u* 

as hideous, lean, and frowsy, with its neglected fleece hanging in 

tatters about it, adds that the quality of the flesh is suitable 

to its wretched appearance. Though the climate is so cold, 

tiie Kashmirians unaccountably make scarcely any use of the 

native wool. The dumba, or broad-tailed kind, in these regions, 
called hindu, has become extinct.^ Goats are very numerous; SF.v<»Hugei,ii. 
of sheep the breed is small but good, and yields excellent milk ; ^^* 
the price of one is seldom more than two shillings. Asses and 
mules abound. Dogs are abhorred, as among other Mahome- 
tans, and are in general wretched animals. The mountaineers, 
however, keep a very fine breed for protection against wild 
beasts. This variety is about the size of a small Newfound- 
land dog, which it resembles in the head and curling tail, but 

is more strongly built. It has short pricked ears, is covered j 

with long hlack hair, intermixed with tawny, and has close to 
the skin a short fine fiir or wool, resembling that of the shawl- 

goat' 'Vlgne, 11.149; 

° • . , F.VonHiigel,U. 

The dimate, in its effect on vegetation, is described by 280. 
Jacquemont^ as wonderfully resembling that of Lombardy, and « Coneip. u. so. 
we consequently are not surprised at finding its flora bearing a 
strong affinity to that of Europe.^ Of the character of the vege- ' Bojrie* Botany 
tation, an accomplished naturalist. Dr. Royle, remarks, that there ^' 

is " so great an extension of the herbaceous parts as well as of 
the flowers of plants, that many of them rival in luxuriance those 
of tropical climates." Of trees, the deodar, or Himalayan 
cedar (cedrus deodara), merits the first notice. Its botanical range 
extends from seven thousand to twelve thousand feet above 
the level of the sea, and in its most congenial locality attains 
a great height and a circumference of above thirty feet.*«Royie,utiupri, 
When young it closely resembles the real cedar, but never sends ^ "** ' 
forth spreading branches. The cone resembles that of the cedar, 
«id is preceded by a catkin of a bright yellow colour, so that the 
tree when in full blossom appears covered with a rich mantle of 
gold7 These catkins are loaded with a golden dust, which the ? id. u. 240. 
wind shakes from the branches in such quantity that the 
ground, for a considerable distance about the tree, becomes 
as it were sheeted with gold. So durable is its timber, thai; some 


used in the Wilding of one of the wooden bridges over Uie Jailina 
was found little decayed, after exposure to the weather fDr abofe 

• Moorcr. ii. isa, four hundred years.® The forests of Kashmir also contain the 
pinna longifolia, and two other species of pine, a species of fir, ooe 
of yew, and one of juniper. The cypress, and a Tariety of tkaj%, 
are common in gardens, but they do not appear to be indigenous. 
The chunar {platamu Orientalis) is also considered an exotic, but 
is probably nowhere found more abundant or luxuriant than in 
Kashmir. By order of the Mogul emperors, a grove, composed 
6f chunars and poplars, was planted in every Kashmirian village ; 
and these, now arrived at their full growth, are among the greatest 
ornaments of the valley. Most of these are ascribed to the phi- 
lanthropic governor of Kashmir, Ali Mirdhan Khan, who exer- 
cised his office under Shah Jehan from 1642 to 1657. So taste- 
fully have they been disposed, that, according to Hugel, a judi- 
cious landscape-gardener could scarcely wish one to be added or 
removed throughout the whole valley. They are protected by a 
fine equal to fifty pounds sterling for each tree cut down ; but as 
this penalty does not reach the governor, the tasteless Sikhs have 
destroyed many. Hugel proves the chunar to be exotic, from die 
fact that it has ceased to be reproductive in this soil, and as many 
of the trees already exliibit symptoms of decay, the valley is likely 
soon to be deprived of these magnificent ornaments. The wood is 
highly esteemed for purposes requiring a tenacious grain. Pop- 
lars and lime-trees attain great size and luxuriance. The moun* 
tain glades produce a species of wild chesnut-tree,"^ which attains 
a size in. general far exceeding that of the European variety. 
Hiigel met with some, of which the trunk measured a hundred 
feet from the ground to the parting of the branches, and the total 
height exceeded that of the tallest pines. This author does not 

1 In vigne, u.4fi8. mention the oak. Dr. Royle^ states, on the authority of Falconer, 
*' that few, if any, oaks descend on the northern side of the Pir 
Panjal into the valley." The maple, willow, and white thorn are 
common. Birch and alder trees approach the limit of per- 
petual congelation, and as their trunks and branches are weighed 
down by deep snow for the greater part of the year, they 
never recede more than five feet from the surface of the steep 
declivities of the mountains, though their total length is gene- 
rally thirty feet or more. The birch is more hardy than the 

* Probably the Casianea Indiea of Royle and Roxburgh (Royle, 345). 


alder, and extends to a greater elevation. The inner bark ia 

called ius ^ by the natives, who were accustomed to write on it, * ''• ^®° Hugei, 

, -. , . , . * . . . . „ U.2fi0iAyeen 

before tne introduction of paper ; its present use is principally to Akbery, il ise. 
furnish wrappers for packing fruit for exportation ; it is also wound 
round the long curved tubes of hookas. The sanjit, a species of 
el4eaffnus^ according to Moorcroft ^ is of " a beautiful appearance ; '^*- 1-'^^* 
its flowers are exquisitely sweet, and its fruit, by distillation, yields 
a beverage which the Chinese hold to be not inferior to that of 
the grape." He states that it is plentiful in Kashmir; but 
Hiigel is silent on the subject, and there is reason to conclude 
that it is not common. Junipers and rhododendrons grow on 
the mountains at the elevation of eleven thousand feet. There 
is also a species of daphne, and several of barberry; one of 
these last bears clusters of blue berries the size of a small plum, 
and of a sweet and pleasant taste. Roses, both wild and culti-> 
vated, grow in vast profusion, besides syringa, jasmine, ivy, and a 
species of smilax. Of wild plants, the most deserving of notice 
are rhubarb, various kinds of chrysanthema and primula, and saxi- 
frage, lilies, narcissuses, crocuses, irises, and a host of annuals."^ 
Ferns are scantily produced, but funguses abundantly, and the 
edible sorts are gathered in great quantity, and form an article of 
trajQic. Hiigel, a sound and well-informed botanist, considers Kash- 
mir superior to all other countries in the abundance and excellence 
of its fruits. Those which attain maturity are the apple, pear, 
peach, apricot, plum, almond, pomegranate, mulberry, walnut, 
hazel-nut, pistachio, and melon. Neither orange, lemon, nor any 
other species of citrus arrives at maturity, though many attempts 
have been made to introduce them, as the cold of winter proves 
invariably fatal to them. No mention is made by travellers of fig 
or oHve trees in Kashmir. The most valuable product of the uncul- 
tivated vegetation is thesinghara^ (trapa bisptnosa), or water- nut, '/*t^'^i^*f"^ 
which grows on the bottom of the Wulur lake in such quantity that sii ; f. von hu- 
sixty thousand tons are raised every year, aflfording subsistence |J^j|^',^fige. 
to twenty thousand persons. These nuts are eaten raw, boiled, Fonter, Jour. 

1.^ , ,. , J, ,. Beng. Eng. U. W. 

roast, or ground mto flour, and made into gruel, and though m- 
sipid, are so nutritious that those who live exclusively on them, are 
in no respect inferior in strength or condition to the rest of the 

* Much valuable information Ib given on this subject by Royle in his great 
work on the Botany of the Himalayas, and in his Appendix to Vigne's 



' Royto, Botaaj 
of the HImalaja, 

Md.M; P. Voa 
If oorer. 11. 187. 

> P. Von Hugel, 
ibid.; Vlgne, U. 

• p. Von Uugol, 
ii.37S; Moorcr. 
11. ISO. 

population^ and find this diet so agreeable to tfaeir constitiitioD, 
that they sicken if obliged to have recourse to any other. The 
inhabitants consider this nut so great a blessings that tiiey attri- 
bute its introduction to Lacshoni* the goddess of prosperity. As 
the superficial extent of Wulur lake is about one hundred square 
miles, it supports two hundred persons to the square mile, or a 
number shewing a relative density of population greater thsn 
that of France. The Nymphaa hint, or Egyptian water-lily 
(nelumhium tpeciontm), adorns the City Lake, and most other 
standing waters, with its foliage and large poppy-like rose- 
coloured flowers.^ The beans which it bears are regarded as a 
delicacy when eaten unripe, and the leaf-stalks are consumed in 
great quantities, being boiled till tender, in which state they are 
both a palatable and nutritious food.^ As the flowers and leaves 
are never covered by vrater, it is regarded by the Hindoos as a 
mystic emblem of the reappearance of the world alter having 
been submerged beneath the ocean. Hence it is viewed with the 
utmost reverence,^ and its introduction attributed to the ddty 
Vishnu. Rice is the principal crop, and the staple article of 
diet in Kashmir. It is cultivated with great skill and cor- 
responding success, in consequence of the fertility of the 
soil, the facility of irrigation, and the warmth of the sum- 
mer. The returns are from thirty to forty fold, and in fiavoor- 
able seasons sometimes as high as fifty or sixty .^ Hie 
other sorts of grain cultivated are wheat, barley, milkt, 
maize ; but in consequence of the scanty rains in smnmer, 
the produce is both precarious and small, being often only two- 
fold. Gram and other kinds of pulse, buck- wheat, and amaranth 
{celosia cristata), are also extensively cultivated. Artifidal float* 
ing gardens are common on the City Lake, where they produce 
abundant crops of fine cucumbers and melons. For forming these 
islands, choice is made of a shallow part of the lake, overgrown 
with reeds and other aquatic plants, which are cut off about two feet 
below the surface, and then pressed close to each other without 
otherwise disturbing the position in which they grew. They arc 
subsequently mowed down nearly to the surface, and the parts thus 
taken off are spread evenly over the floats, and covered with a thin 
layer of mud drawn up from the bottom ; on the level thus formed, 
are arranged, close to each other, conical heaps of weeds, about 
two feet across and two feet high, having each at top a small 


hcUow filled with fresh mud. In each hollow are set three plants 
of encumber or melon, and no farther care or tronhle is required 
but to gather the produce* which is invariably fine and abundant. 
Each bed is about two yards wide; the length is variable; 
the bed is kept in its place by a stake of willow sent through it 
at each end and driven into the bottom of the lake. The melons 
produced in this way are obviously wholesome, as those who live 
entirely on them during the season soon become fat^ Tobacco 7 jioorcr. u. 144. 
is cultivated to a very limited extent ; ^ cotton (gossypium herba- ' ^- ^<» Hugei, 
ceum), more largely, for the manufacture of cloth, both for home 
consumption and exportation. Kashmir supplies most of Hin- 
dostan vnth saffron : it is produced almost exclusively in therdis- 
trict of Pampur, on the right bank of the Jailum, from three dis* 
tinct varieties of crocus ; the root of one sort continues productive 
for fifteen years ; of another, for eight ; of the third, for five.^ As * id. sra. 
vegetable oil is a favourite article of diet with the Kashmirians, 
sesame, mustard, flax, hempseed, and some others, are cultivated 
for the purpose of obtaining it. Wild hemp, or bang, is used 
for its inebriating qualities. Those addicted to it, either smoke 
the dried blossoms or swallow confections or decoctions of the 
resinous secretion with which it abounds.^ The climate, soil, < id. il sss. 
and disposition of the surface in Kashmir, appear well suited 
for bringing the grape to maturity; but as the management 
neither of the vine nor of its produce is well understood there, 
the wine made is very poor.^ This inferiority is probably the*Moorer.u isi. 
result of the prohibition of fermented beverages during the 
Mahometan sway, which preceded that of the Sikhs. At 
present, vinegar and brandy, as well as wine, are obtained 
from grapes. There is great variety and abundance of esculent 
vegetables, — ^the kidney-bean, turnip, cabbage, beet-root, radish, 
capsicum;^, and Hugd enumerates fifteen different sorts not * Koy'«» Botany 
known in Europe.-* Grrass is stored for winter fodder by being * p. von Hugei/ 
formed into thick ropes and hung on the branches of trees.* " 'jj^'^, ^ i55^ 
The leaves and small branches of walnut, willow, mulberry, elm, 
and many other trees, are cut in their most succulent and luxuri- 
ant state, and packed in the forks and between the large branches, 
and ^thus preserved to the severe part of winter. The 
cattle greedily eat this provender, which is considered more 
warming and nutritious than any other .^ Clover^ and the prangos • W- *bM- 

1 \ w . ^ , , «« , « , , ^ Royle, Botany 

are largely used for wmter fodder. Though mulberry trees abound, of the Himalaya, 


and the climate well suits the silkworm, very little silk is pro- 

The most celebrated manufiEu:ture of Kashmir is that of 
shawls. The wool used for this purpose is of two kinds : one 
cHlled pashm shal (or shawl wool), and obtained from the tame 
goat ; the other, the fleece of the wild goat, wild sheep, and other 
animals, named asali tus,* In all instances it is a ^e down, 
growing close to the skin under the common coat, and is iband 
not only on the animals just mentioned, but also on the yak or 
grunting ox, and on the dog of the intensely cold and arid tracts 

• vifne, ii. ia4. of Tibet.® The greater part is supposed to be produced in Chaa 

Than, a tract in the west of Tibet, and is in the first instance sold 
at Rodokh, a fort near the frontier towards Ladakh, to whidi it 
is conveyed on the backs of sheep, there usually employed as 
beasts of burden. It is purchased by the Kashmirians at Le, the 
chief place of Ladakh, and carried thence to Kashmir, either on 
men's shoulders or on the backs of horses. There is also some 
brought by Moguls from Pamir, or from the vicinity of Yar- 

* Mooier. Ii. 166. kuud.^ About a third of the quantity imported is dark-coloured, 

and the price of this is little more than one -half that of the white, 
in consequence of the latter being better suited for dyeing. At 
the time of Vigne's visit, the white sort sold at the rate of 
about four shillings a pound. The long hairs are picked oDt 
by the hand, and this is of course a very tedious process. 
The residue is carefully washed, rice-flour being used as an 
abstergent instead of soap, and then hand-spun by women, 
■ u.iTS. who are stated by Moorcroft^ not to earn more than half-a- 

crown a month by incessant toil. There is much division of 
labour in this manufacture: one artisan designs the patterns, 
another determines the quality and quantity of the thread 
required for executing them, a third apportions and arranges the 
warp and woof (the former of which is generally of silk) for the 
border. Three weavers are employed on an embroidered shawl, 
of an ordinary pattern, for three months; but a very rich 
pair will occupy a shop for eighteen months. They are dyed 
in yam, and carefully washed after the weaving has been 
finished. The Kashmirian dyers profess to use sixty-four difller- 

Ml. io,j. * Such is the account of Moorcroft,* who must be allowed to be the 

3ii.s05. highest authority on the subject Bernier is censured bj Hugel' for caliing 

the wool tout, but his criticism seems erroneous. 


ent tints, and some of these are obtained by extracting the 
colours of European woollens, imported for the express purpose. 
The embroidered border of the finest shawls is generaUy made 
separately, and joined skilfully by sewing to the field or middle 
part. According to Hiigel,^ shawls of this description are alto- 'u.sio. 
gether patchwork, consisting of as many as fifteen pieces, joined 
by seams. The charge incurred for bringing a pair of fine 
shawls to market is thus stated by Hugel — for the labour 
of twenty-four artisans, for twelve months, 80/. ; materials 
aDd dyeing, 30/. ; duty, 70/. ; charges of the establishment 
^0/. ; total, 200/. The highest price mentioned by Moor- 
croft,^ for any fabric of this kind, is 700/. He states the total •«• !»»• 
annual value of the shawls manufactured in Kashmir at 300,000/. 
The amount is now much less, the diminution having resulted 
from several causes. Hugel computes that 13,000 weavers 
perished, in the course of a few years, from cholera and famine. 
Great numbers have emigrated to avoid the intolerable oppression 
practised by the Sikhs in the valley. The demand also for shawls 
has much diminished in Hindostan, where British oflicers have to 
a great extent superseded the class of natives with whom 
this sort of manufacture was in chief demand. The reduced 
prosperity of the Ottbman and Persian nations has also greatly 
contracted the demand from those quarters. In Europe the taste 
for these costly articles is on tJie wane, and even in India shawls 
of British manufacture are beginning to displace those of 
Kashmir. To give full effect to these various causes of decay, 
the Sikh governors, with short-sighted rapacity, have so com- 
pletely wrung capital from the merchants and manufacturers that 
they are destitute of means to carry on the process of production. 
The manu&cture neither of sheep's-wool, cotton, nor silk, ap- 
pears at any time to have been extensive. Kashmir has been long 
famous for gun and pistol barrels. The artisans employ ex- 
traordinary pains, care, and time in the process of fabricating them, 
and succeed in producing work of great beauty and excellence 
and of various kinds— plain, twisted, or damasked. The iron em- 
ployed is that brought from Bajour, in the Eusufzai country, and, 
though loaded with impurities, in consequence of the rude mode 
of smelting practised in the first instance, it is sold in Kashmir ^ * Jour. a». soc. 
for three times the price of that raised in the valley, or the neigh- Dnimmond on 
bouring mountains, and by suitable processes is rendered a mate- *J*"*^***"'*** 




F.Von Hugtl. 
Moorer. U. 917. 

rial ofgreat parity, tenacity, and strength.* Thi8mannfkctnie.Hb 
all othen, haa much decayed under the domination of the Sikhs, 
who are furnished with anna from Lahore, llie Kashmiriaas 
manufacture excellent leather for saddlery. Mooicnoft^ describes it 
as " strong, soUd, heavy, and pliable, without any dispoeition to 
crack ; some of the pieces had been in use eighteen or twcntj 
years, and were none the worse for constant wear." The pqKr 
of Kashmir is the finest manufoctured in India,^ its saperioritj 
F.VMHiigti'.a»; consisting in its great amoothness and whiteness. Tlie inferior 
qualities are made of rags, ropes, and sacking; the finest, of the 
filaments of wild hemp. These materials are reduced to pulp, under 
hammers worked by water-power, and the sheet of paper is 
formed on a fine mat instead of wire- work ; it is then pumiced, 
receives a thin coat of rice-paste, and is finally poUsbed very 
carefully with an agate. It is very dear, a quire of twenty-four 
sheets of the finest costing from five to six shillings. Hiere 
are seven or eight hundred copiers of MSS. in Kashmir. They 
are wretchedly remunerated, the best not earning moie than 
threepence per day, and the results of their labour may be bad 
for a very low price. Thus a copy of the Shah Nameh, whidi 
contains sixty thousand distichs, costs only seven or eight pounds 
sterling.^ The lacquered- ware of Kashmir is very fine, comprising 
bedsteads, seats of various kinds, cabinets, boxes, pencasea, and 
similar articles, tastefully painted and ornamented with foil and 
overlaid with a fine hard varnish.^ The bipidaries of Kashmir have 
produced specimens of their skill and taste for superior to any in 
Europe. They principally work in the rock crystal and chal* 
cedony of Iskardo ; and Hiigel^ saw a vase of the former ma- 
terial, which four men could scarcely lift; but this branch of 
elegant industry is fast disappearing amidst the depreadon and 
misery produced by Sikh oppression. The essential oil, or 
celebrated attar, of roses,t made in Kashmir, is considered 
superior to any other; a circumstance not surprising, as, ac- 
cording to Hijgel,^ the flower is here produced of surpassing 
fragrance as well as beauty. A large quantity of rose-water twice 
distilled is allowed to run off into an open vessel, placed over 
night in a cool running stream, and in the morning the ofl is 

* The ingeniotui process by which those adminble fire-arms are made 
li. 105-213. u given very fully and satisfactorily by Moorcroft. 

t Vulgarly caUed otto of i 

^ Ja(M|0iiMmt, T. 

' P. Von Hugvl, 
888; Moorcroft, 

» ii. 828. 



bund floating on the Burface in minute specks, which are taken 

off very carefully by means of a blade of the sword-lily. When 

cx>ol, it is of a dark-green colour, and as hard as resin, not be- 

ooming liquid at a temperature below that of boiling water. 

Between five hundred and six hundred pounds weight of leaves 

are required to produce one ounce of the attar. It is never an 

article of commerce, being reserved for the use of the Sikh court ; 

and that which is known in Europe under the name of Persian is 

a very inferior article to the produce of Kashmir. The species 

used for distillation is the Rosa biflora. Some other fragrant oils 

are also made in Kashmir. There is an inconsiderable manufacture 

of glass, producing a few bottles, small mirrors, and other trifling 


The Kashmirians have a strong natural bias to commerce, 
but this has been almost utterly crushed by their unfor- 
tunate political circumstances. Hiigel estimates the total value 
of the exports at 400,000/., which he thus apportions : woollens 
of all kinds, 250,000/. ; rice, 100,000/. ; other articles, 50,000/. 
The imports he values at 50,000/. ; of which, the value of the shawl 
wool is 34,000/. The enormous excess of exports over imports 
would be regarded by a political economist of the old school as 
evidence of great prosperity ; but it is in reality the amount 
wrong from the industry and talent of the natives by the rapacity 
of the Sikhs. The commercial intercourse is principally with 
Ladakh, Afghanistan, the Punjab, and the remoter parts of Hin- 
dostan. So vigorous and efficient are the measures of the Sikhs, 
in matters of police, that open robbery is unknown, and two or 
three men can conduct in safety a string of twenty ponies laden 
with merchandise.^ The weights most in use are— * f. vonHugei. 

1 Kurwar =» 16 Tarock. 

1 Tarock 6 Pau. 

1 Pau 74 Tola. 

The kufwar is equal to one hundred and ninety*seven pounds 
twelve ounces avoirdupois.* The Kashmirians do not use 
either dry or liquid measures, weighing not only grain and simi- 
lar articles but even fluids.f 

* Hie weights of KaBhmir do not appear to be given either by Frintep 
(Tables), or KeUy (Oriental Metrology) ; the appreciation of them in the 
text is from HiigeL ii. 140. 

t Bxu^jeet, in his carousals, used to drink by weight. (Bumes' Bokhara, 


Hie measures of length are the — 

Kro = 10 Tenab. 

Tenab 400 Gaz. 

• p. Von Bttgei, The Guz contains thirty-three inches,^ and consequentlj the kro 
is equal to eleven thousand feet, or two mUes one hundred and 
forty-six yards. 

Superficial measures are the — 

Bega = 900 Danda. 

Danda 4 Square Guz. 

Calculations are universaUy made in the decimal notatioik 
and Arabic cipher. 

The currency consists of a great variety of coins struck at 
different times and under various authorities. The gold moiair 
of Runjeet Singh is worth fifteen Nanakshi rupees, each equal to 
a sicca rupee,* The Herat dinar is worth six of the same deno- 
mination of rupee. The Iskardo hun is a small, thin, gold emu 
worth 1*6 sicca rupee. The Kabool rupee is equal in value to the 
sicca ; the rupee of Hari Sing, 1*4 of the sicca. The nana is the 
money of account, and the sicca rupee is worth sixteen of them. 
The anna contains five pau, the pan twenty ganda, the poadk 
four kouri; the ganda is actually an almond, the kouri the small 
shell (cypraa moneta), so well known in semi-civilized commerce. 
There is the utmost confusion in the copper currency ; in the 
names, forms, and value of which there is almost endless diver- 
sity, and coins of very remote ages and countries are found in 

* Jour. Beng. ind. the bazaars. According to Forster,^ the revenue,t in his time 
"* ^' (1783), amounted to between 200,000/. and 300,000/. Elphin- 
< Ace. of caubui, stone,^ about thirty years after, states it at nearly 500,000/. 
f^'isr. Moorcroft,^ in 1823, estimated it at 290,000/., besides a consi- 
derable sum extorted fraudulently from the people. In 1836, 

• II. 361. Hugel« estimated the revenue at from 200,000/. to 220,000/. ; 

but adds that if the country had a short respite from oppression 
the amount would soon increase to 340,000/. from the following 
sources ; — 

Government share of the produce of the soil and 
of the Mn^Aara nut £284,000 

House-tax in Kashmir 20,000 

* The sicca rapee is of the yalae of 2«. Oid. (E.I.C.'s Records.) 
{{. j{4o. t In the Ayeen Akbery, an account is given of the revenue, but Abol 

Fazel is there inconsistent with himself and altogether unintelligible. 


Tax on boats 5,S00 

Duty on shawls and other woollens 25»000 

Monopolies 2,200 

Tribute from neighbouring pettj powers ... 3,000 

The annual expenditure amounts to about 115,000/., which 
^would consequently leave 225,000/. to be transmitted to the 
Malia Raja of the Punjab, but it is supposed that latterly he has 
not been able to draw 100,000/. annually.^ The government of ^ vigne, u. 119. 
Kaahmir, since its conquest by the Sikhs in 1819, has been con- 
ducted by an officer of that nation, as a representative of the autho- 
rity of the Punjab. He has under his command two regiments 
amounting in the aggregate to about fifteen hundred men. The 
nominal pay of a private is sixteen shillings a month, with arms 
and ammunition and a red frock every year. A lieutenant has 
three pounds a month, a captain four, the commanding officer fifty.® • f- von Hngei. 
The pay, however, is very irregularly disbursed; Vigne* men- '"*"**• 
tions that one regiment had not been paid for fourteen years. 

The greater part of the population are Mahometans, of 
whom the Sunis, or those considered the orthodox class, are 
much more numerous than the Shias, or votaries of Ali. 
All the Afghans, and those descended from that people, are 
Sunis, the Shias are generally either Persians or of Persian 
descent. There are also a few of the mystic Mahometan sec- 
tarians called Sufis. The Sikhs do not allow ' the muezzin to 1 p. von Hngei, 
intonate from the mosque the solemn call which summons the "' ^^' 
people to prayers, in countries where the Mahometans have the 
supremacy. All the Hindoos of Kashmir are Brahmins, who are, 
in a physical point of view, distinguished from the rest of the 
population by darker complexions, a circumstance the reverse of 
that observable in other parts of India, throughout which that 
caste is remarkable for the comparative lightness of their hue. 
The native Brahmins in Kashmir informed Hiigel, that subse** 
quently to the establishment of Mahometanism, the number of 
their caste was by oppression reduced to eleven, and that it was 
recruited by the settlement of 400 ^ Brahminical families from ^ id. u. 866. 
the dark-complexioned natives of the Deccan. Their number 
is at present estimated at 25,000. Their only visible object 
of worship is the linga, though there are various other idols 
in Kashmir set up by foreign Hindoo pilgrims. The Ma- 
hometan rulers prohibited satis, or widows from being burned 


with the ocwpses of their hoBband : there have been t few 
instancea of these revolting . murders sinoe the Sikh oq&. 

* TifM, u. lAi. quest.' The Sikh population consists almost exdouvdj of 

the troops and the followers of the governor, and the entire 
number does not exceed two thousand. All classes of Kiali- 
mirians are remarkably superstitious. Hiey visit in pilgrimage 
numerous places of reputed sanctity* and they firmly beliere m 
the existence of various supernatural beings, resembling is 
character the fairies, satyrs, and nmilar phantoms, which haunt 

* Id. L aas-aso; the imagination of the credulous in other countries.^ 

sn-^ "**' The Kashmirians probably excel all other branches of thegreat 

• iL 141. Indian nation in physical qualities. Vigne * describes the men as of 

" broad Herculean build and manly features ;" Moorcroft regards 
the aboriginal race as in general tall and of symmetrical proportioDs, 
and adds that amongst the peasantry " are to be fomid figures of 
robust and muscular make, such as might have served for modds 
« it. iM. of the Famesan Hercules." * Elphinstone ^ and Forster^ also bear 

600. evidence to their athletic and finely proportioned conformatioD. 

iVm!''"*^' '"^ "^^ porters in the service of HUgel carried each a burden of 
above a hundred pounds, besides his bed, cooking utensils, and 
provisions for eight or ten days ; and one of them, without com- 
plaining, carried over the Pir Panjal a load considered too heavy 

• p. voB Bttgei, fQf a mule.® Forater expresses himself rather disparagin^j re- 
I ii. lAS. specting the beauty of the females; but Vigne ' and Hiigel ^ repre- 

"' ^^' sent them as having full-formed symmetrical figures, being light 

brunettes in complexion, with regular and beautiful features, 
blooming cheeks, fine white teeth, and large, dear, dark eyes. 
These attractions make them in great request in the Punjab 
and adjacent parts of Hindostan, where they are frequently found 
as dancing girls or inmates of the harem. They have gene- 
rally aquiline noses, and bear so strong a resemblance to the Jews, 
as to induce Bemier to maintain them to be sprung from the lost 
tribes of Israel. 

' vigiw, I. SS5 ; Lively, ingenious, witty, and good-humoured,^ the Kashmirians 

are much addicted to the never-feuling vices of slaves, lying and 

^Fonter, U.98. trickery, and inordinately devoted to amusement and pleasure.^ 
Moorcroft, engaged against them in a course of commerdai 
rivalry, shews no mercy in delineating their moral qualities : — " In 
character, the Kashmirian is selfish, superstitious, ignorant, sup- 
ple, intriguing, dishonest, and false ; he has great ingenuity as a 


mechanic, and a decided genius for mannfactnrea and commerce, 
but his transactions are always conducted in a fraudulent spirit, 
equalled only by the effirontery with which he faces detection."* •moowt. il ias. 
Hiigel' describes them as venal, dishonest, and dreadfully ad-'*^*^^~^^ 
dieted to sexual immorality, the diseases resulting from which no- 
where appear in more numerous or appalling forms.'*' Among 
their most estimable qualities is their remarkable aversion to 
shedding blood; and hence crimes of violence are almost un- 
known.^ Though at a remote period of their history not devoid ' ^-^^ Hugei, 
cf martial quaHries, a long course of oppression teemB to have 
so brdcen their spirit, that they never entertain the notion of 
throwing off the foreign yoke which so fri^tfiiliy afflicts them. 

The dress of both sexes is very simj^, consisting of 
a long loose wrapper and trousers, the former of woollen 
cbth.^ In cold weather both sexes carry a small wicker basket, ' Moofer. u. isi. 
containing an iron or earthenware vessel about f