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A history of Hartlepool Re-pr., with 
a suppl. history to 1851. inclusive 



)uthbert Sharp 




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HISTORY 

OP 

HARTLE POOL, 

BY THE LATE 
SIR CUTHBERT SHARP, KNIGHT, 

F. S. A. 

BEING A RE-PRINT OF THE ORIGINAL WORK, 

PUBLISHED IN 1816, 

WITH A 

SUPPLEMENTAL HISTORY, 

TO 1851, INCLUSIVB. 




/^l.r^^ 



ENTERED AT STATIONERS' HALL; V/ >--*='*^.^ 

-'<'^m^ 

HABTLEPOOL: 
PRINTED AND PUBLISHED BY JOHN PROCTER; 

AlVD SOLD BT 

SIMPKIN, MAB8HAT.L, AND CO., LONDON; MS. HXBNAMAN, NEWOABTLt ; 

ME. DOUGLAS, OATE8HBAD; TUTT AND OABB, ST7NDSBLAND; JINNETT, 

flTOOKTON; MS. GEO. PBOCTEB, DURHAM; 00ATE8 AND PABMEB, 

DABLINGTON ; MB. /OSDISON, MIDDLESBRO' ; MR. RSID NSW- 

SOME, LEEDS; MR. i. ALLLSON, ELOWEROATE WHTTBT; MR. 

THSAK9T0N, SCARBRO'; BELLRRBT AND SON, TORE; 

PHILLIP80N AND HARE, TTNB STREET, NORTH 

SHIELDS; MR. M'COLL, MARKET PLACE, 

SOUTH SHIELDS; THE PUBLISHER 

AND BOOKSELLERS, 

HABTLEPOOL. 



1851. 



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PREFACE TO THE SUPPLEMENT. 



The Publisher, on acquiring the Copy-right of the interesting History 
of Hartlepool by Sir Cuthbert Sharp, resolved, as the work had gone 
out of print, to re-produce it in a modem edition. 

In doing this, he became at the same time involved in another con- 
sideration. Hartlepool had changed its character since the former 
issue of said publication. An era of commercial activity and mari- 
time importance now strikingly contrasts with its condition then of 
Tyre-like decay ; whilst, close at its side, in addition to the old, a new 
and successful harbour has emerged in alliance with it, — ^besides 
which, there were many other events of local interest, though of minor 
note, which claimed to be recorded. Adverting to them all, he felt 
called upon, not to stop with the re-print, but to continue the narrative 
to the latest period ; which he has done in a Supplement accordingly. 

In preparing the latter he has laboured under many disadvantages — 
the principal being that of his inexperience. Consequently he fears 
that many imperfections wiU appear therein — ^for which he has to ask 
the reader's indulgence. But should he be found entitled to any credit, 
he would anticipate it with the confession that he is chiefly indebted 
for it to others — ^those gentlemen to whom he would now devote the 
most gratefal of his tasks — ^that of sincerely thanking them, one and 
all, for their kind assistance to him, both as to matter and illustration. 



Hartlepool, December 3 1st, 1851. 



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CONTENT& 



SIR C. SHARP'S HISTORY. 



Algs. — ^Appendix 

Arduteetare 

^rdi.^— Appendlix 

Bras Pedigree 

Oudybeide Spa 

Ghantriei... 

Chapel of St Helen 

Charter of Q^een Elixabeth. — Appendix 

Church 

Chnrch- jard 

difford Pedigree 

Commeiee 

Coiparation ... 

Coratet ... 

Beriration 

Piahes. — ^Appendix ... 

Piahcnnai 

Piaheriflt... 

ftiary 

Itiendfy Society ... 

G«ild.Han ... 

Hart 

Hiitoiy, General 

Hiatoiy, Modern 

ImpfOTOBients 

life-Boat 

Lnmky Pedigree ... 

ICamiot and Coftoms 

Mooaaterj 

Piar 

Plante.— i^endix ... 

Poor 

Population 

S ch ool ^ Prec 

School, Snndaj 

Seali, Town ... 

Sidk— Appendix ... 

WaDf 

Wcather.'Appendix 

l^canofHart, ace. 



PAGE. 

xii 
118 

XT 

18 
806 
120 
188 

It 
108 
128 

84 
197 

86 
180 
1 
xviii 
178 
178 
184 
208 
106 
207 

11 
188 
188 
204 

66 

176 

6 

168 

xi 
191 
187 
200 
202 

11 
xiii 
141 

XX 

129 



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LIST OF PLATES, WOOD CUTS, AND PEDIGREES. 



SIR C. SHARP'S HISTORY. 



Seals, Town ... 

Pedigree of the Fkmily of Bras 

Seals of Margaret de Ross, Sister of Peter de Bms and Robert de Bros 

Crests and Arms, varioos, of the Mayors, (nambering fifty-three,) Irom 

186 indosive. 
Seel of Robert de Bros 
Penny of do. 

Pedigree of the Family of Clifford 
Tokens of Roger Dobson, Mayor 
Town Hall, view of, from the Street 
Chnrch, St. Hilda, from the South... 
Norman Arch, Porch of St. Hilda's Church 
Church, St. Hilda, from the North., 
Matilda de Clifford ... 

Bell, Mrs 

Friary, two Views ... 

Walls, Ancient... 

Northgate, the 

Walls, part of, three Views 

Gate-way, Sandwell Chare, through the Town Wall 

Fish Sands, with Pier in the distance 

HartlepoeVgeneral View, frt)m the North 

Piers, proposed 

Hartlepool, Southgate-street . . 

Town, plan of. . . 

Rocks, Maiden Bower 

Fisherman's Wife, in Costume 

Fisherman, in Costume 

Garhmd, used on the death of a ^. 

Cobles 

Smith, Henry ... 
Hart, Font at 



Young unmarried Female 



PAGE. 

... 11 

16 
... 19 
20 to 

8S 

... ib. 

34 

... 88 

105 
... 108 

116 
... 118 

120 
... 16 
184-140 
... 141 

148 
149-152 

158 
... 162 

164 

...164-;5 

169 
... ib. 

172 

... 178 

ib. 

... 177 

178 
... 191 

207 



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CONTENTS. 



SUPPLEMENTAL HISTORY. 




PAOS. 


Modem Improvements in the Port of Hartlepool, (for particolais see Index) 1 


Costoms 


61 


Corporation ... 


68 


Smith's Charity 


78 


Crook's Free School 


85 


St Hilda's Chnrch 


86 


Holy Trinity „ 


90 


Weal^an MethodisU ... 
New Primitive Methodiste ... 


92 


96 


United Presbyterians ... 


96 


Independents 


98 


BaptisU 


100 


W^eyan Reformers 


101 


Wealeyan Association 


ib. 


Bethel 


ib. 


St. Mary's Roman Catholic Church 


102 




106 


Prissick Sdiools 


110 


BaggedSchool 


Ill 


Private Seminaries 


112 


Bible Society 


ib. 


Jews Society 


118 


Indigent-Sick Society 


ib. 


Town Mission 


114 


Benefit Societies ... 


ib. 


Odd Fellows 


ib. 


Ancient Order of Foresters 


116 




ib. 

116 


Masonic Lodge 


BoQding Societies 

PaUicBaths 


ib. 


117 


Savings' Bank 


118 


OtherBanks 


119 


Gas and Water Works 


120 


Com Market 


121 


Fisheries 


122 


Pilots 


124 


LifeBoats 


ib. 


Post Office 


125 


Collieri^, Shipping at Hartlepool 
Merchants, Brokers, etc. 


126 


ib. 


Port Charges, Vice-Consuls, Agents, etc. 


127-8 


West HarUepool, &c. 


129 


Hart Church and Vicarage 


186 


Charter of 1850.— Appendix ... 


i 


Freemen's land and Harbour Dues Act, 1851 


... liv 


Bridges across the Lock between the Tide Har 
Ma^es for Discharging BaUast from the Shi 


bour and the Slake ... xiiv 


pS ... ... ... XXX 


CoalDrops 

Perpetual Tide Table 


ib. 

xxxi 



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LIST OF WOOD CUTS. 



SUPPLEMENTAL HISTORY. 



Flan of the Harbours, Docks, and Bay, together with the Town of Hartlepool 

and West Hartl^ool ... ... ... ... ... 1 

View of Hartlepool firom the Bay ... ... ... ... 8 

Ronio Stones found at Hartlepool ... ... ... ...26-82 

l^ew of the Hengh light-House from the S. W. ... ... 47 

l^ew of the Dock Office, eto. ... ... ... ... ... 60 

Ancient Seal belonging to the Customs ... ... ... 61 

Corporation Seal ... ... ... ... ... ... 68 

View of St. Hilda Church from the South ... ... ... 86 

Holy Trinity „ ... ... ... ... 90 

View of the Wesleyan Chapel West ... ... ... 92 

New Primitive Methodist „ S. W. ... ... ... 96 

^United Presbyterian „ West ... ... 96 

-Independent „ East ... ... ... 98 

-Baptist „ N.E. ... ... 100 

St. Mary's Roman Catholic Church S. E. ... ... 102 

PubUc Baths „ S.E 117 

General ^ew of West Hartlepool from the Bay ... ... ... 129 

West Hartlepool AthensBum ... ... ... ... ... 188 

St. Magdalene Church, Hart, from the South ... ... ... 186 

Bridges across the LocJl, between the Tide Harbour and the Slake. — ^Appendix xxix 

Machine f(ff Discharging Ballast ... ... ... ... xzx 

CoalDrops ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ib. 



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HISTORY 

OF 

HARTLEPOOL, 



DERIVATION. 

It has been usual in topograpfaical works of tbis natarey to 
dedicate a few {wges to the consideration of tlie etymobgy (rf 
the name of ibt place to be described : and though these dxs* 
qoisiUons sddom lead to any decisive result, yet I have been 
inclined to f(dlow the general practice, more in compliance with 
custom, than with the presumption that I have been able to 
elicit any original information^ or tbat I have established any 
satisfactory condusion. 

Hartland Point (Co* Devon) is considered by Camden, as an 
abbreviation of Herculis promontorium,*^' and Mr. Cooke in his 
proofs that an oriental colony in very early times settled in 
Britain, considers Hartlepool as a manifest corruption of Her- 
adeopoUs. — ^'^ HartlepooV (he adds) ''I suppose to have been 
for a while the residence of a trading colony of these people^ 
(lonians of Asia Proper) who, by the mention of archi-sacerdotal 
offerings in the inscription on an altar to Hercules in Corbridge 
church-yardf and by the sacrifice of prime victims to him 

* Primam Ter6 k ComwaOia littos, qaod se in Sabrinianmn fretmn longd expor- 
rigit Herenlis Promontoriiim FtolemiBo dicitur, nominiBqiie tantilliim eona^vat 
iMrty point liodie dictum. — Camden Edit, 1607. 

t Hutchinson's Northmnberland, p. 161. 



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2 HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 

signified by the bull's head on the same altar^ and having called 
their city by his name, most have respected the Tyrian Hercu- 
les^ as a deity of the first class ; judging no honours extravagant 
which were paid to this adventurous and successful hero> who 
first taught the way to Britain/'* 

Without going quite so far for an etymon^ the ingenious Mr. 
Cade considered Hartlepool^ or the port of Hart> at Hartness^ 
an artificial Boman harbour^ and that it might derive its name 
from the redness of the stone or soil.f Mr. Hutchinson im- 
agines ^' the present peninsula was in former times completely 
insulated by the tide at high water^ through artificial means^ 
and being covered with a forest^ was the peculiar haunt of 

deer/'t 

Mr. Hutchinson^ though probably incorrect in his first sup- 
position^ that the peninsula was insulated at high water, yet 
has the authority of Bede and Huntingdon in his favour, when 
he says it was the peculiar haunt of deer. Bede calls it heoptu 
or heopteay eend aqua, § ;. d. the place where harts drink, 
and Huntingdon, cervi msula, the Island of Harts. 

The Town Seal, on which a stag is represented in a pool, 
(like the arms of Hert-ford, a hart in a river, and of Ox-ford, 
an ox in a ford, &;c.) can only be considered as a rebusjl on the 
ancient appellation. In the reign of Henry YIII., Leland, in 
his Itenerary, says, ^^ there resorte many redde ^fer^ stragelers 
to the mountaines of Weredale.''^ Within the last three years, 
several drains have been formed at the north-western extremity 

* An Enqfoiry into tlie Patriarohal and Droidical Religion, Temples, &c., by W. 
Cooke. 

t Mr. John Cade was an indnstrions collector, and fond of Antiquarian porsnits. 
— ^Vide NickoW* lAierary Anecdote*, vol. 8. 

% History of Durham, vol, 8. j». 16. 

f Lye's Saxon Dictionary. 

Q The rebos, or representation of names by fiamiliar images, was a custom in- 
vented in Picardy, and imparted to us by the English then resident in Calais. 
Monkish invention seems never to have had a more ample space, than in applying 
these rebusses to proper names. — Dallawa^i Enquiry into the origin, ^c, of Her- 
aldry, p, 121. Spectator, No. 59. 

f Froissart in his account of the pursuit of the Scots, by Edward UI. 1827, 



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HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 8 

of the slake of Hardepool^ where square holes have been dis- 
covered^ filled with htunan bones ; * trees also^ in whieh the 
wood was found in excellent preservation^ together with the 
antlers of deer> and an immense number of teeth^ which having 
been examined with attention^ are supposed to have belonged to 
these animals. Under the impression of these concurring cir- 
cumstancesj it appears that from the earliest period this part of 
the country had been the resort of deer, and the actual exist- 
ence of the remains of large forests of oaks^f together with the 
authority of ancient authors and local tradition^ all tend to 
confirm the opinion that Hart^ Hartness^ Sec derived their 
names firom iMs source^ and that Hart-in-pool was a distinctive 
appellation applied to this town^ in consequence of its peninsu- 
lar situation. 

The following derivation is also attended with a considerable 
d^ree of probability. The two last syllables of Hartlepool^ 
(anciently in^l, in or near the pool^ or sea^) have manifestly 
been added for the sake ci distinguishing it from Hart^ the 
ndghbouring town. Hart, according to Dufresne^ is a Teutonic 
word^ signifying a forest ; and that such a forest did formerly 
exist here, may easily be proved from the discoveries of large 
oaks^ &c.^ buried in the earth in this neighbourhood. It is 
evident therefore^ that the town Hart is of a higher date than 
Hart-le-pool; that it derived its name from the forest in or near 
which it was situated^ and that Hartlqpool i«eived its name 
from a similar situation^ with the addition of m^ol, in French 



(whotearmy marched from Durham, Jnly 18,) Bays "and whan they had thna 
ron foith often tymes in the day, the space of halfe a myle together towarde the 
cryc, wenyng it had hecn theyr ennemyes, they were deceived, for the crye ever arose 
by the reysyng of hartii, hyndis, and other savage beastis." — Lord Bemef't 

* They are Iband abont 5 feet beneath the sorfiioe in graves nearly 8 feet spnare ; 
tradition gives na no information respecting them. Yet as the IHmes frequently 
rsvaged the eastern coast with remorseless fary, it is very possible that these remains 
may have been the bodies of defeated " warriors in some forgotten battle elain." 

t The slake or outer harbour is filled with the remains of tiees of large dimen- 
sions, and similar remains are frequently perc^tible at low water along tbe coast 



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4 HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 

h'-pooi, for the sake of distinction. — ^This ezist^ce oi a forest 
here^ will sufficiently account for the modem diaoovery of antlera 
of deer^ &€., and also for Bede calling the peninsula of Hartle- 
pool heojitUj from the Angjo-Samn heojit, a stag^ <nr hart. 

from Hartlepool towards S€tton; they extend nearly two miles. Hazel nuts are like- 
wise fonnd in the day in wbioh the trees are imbedded. 



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mSTOBY OF HARTLEPOOL. 5 

THE MONASTERY. 

Thb few historical remainB which have escaped the devooring 
hand of time with regard to the monastery of Hartlepool, wonU 
render any lengthened detail of the introdnction of Christianity 
into this island xuineoessary andobtmsiye; yet a concise view of 
the progress of divine knowledge, may not be nninteresting^ 
and will tend materially to assist the narrative. 

Ohristiamty was first introduced into Great Britain, during 
the lives of the Apostles ; previous to which, this island, together 
with a large p roportion of the habitable world, was in a state of 
the grossest ignorance and idolatry. 

It has been asserted (without any conclusive authority,) that 
the Apostles St. Peter and St. Paul, diffused the light of the 
goepd in Great Britain ; be this as it may, it is certain that the 
progress of the Christian religion during those dark ages was 
not extensive, and though some few were convarted from the 
err(»rs of idolatry, to a knowledge of the divine precepts, yet 
the universal ignorance and superstition which prevailed pre- 
sented insuperable obstacles to the diffusion of the blessings of 
Christianity. However, about Hhe year of Christ 176, Lucius, 
a British King, was publicly baptised, and professed the Chris- 
tian religion ; he is even stated to have founded ehurehes in each 
of the twenty-eight cities then existing in Britain.* Towards 
the conclusion of the reign of the Emperor Diodesian, the pro- 
gress of Christiamty was such, that the institution itself became 
an object of his violent persecution, A. D« 808. However, mi 
the accession ci Constantine to the Imperial dignity, A. D. 307, 
the Christian religion again flourished with redoubted splendour. 
The Emperor himself became a convert, and exerted the whole 
of his power to promote the exercise of its rules and preoepts.t 

* Bede ffitt Bodes. Hb. 1. cap 4.— IfiAMr't Sui. qf WinchesUr, vol, 1. p, 
89. The^erinteace of Luciiis lioweTer, hat been donbted by modem authon.— v. 
Henf^t Bia. p. Ti. 186. 189. 

t Tbe first Christian emperor and the first Christian king, were naUfes of this 
island, " for which benefit and honor we seem in both instances to be indebted to the 



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6 HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 

£ai4y in the fifth century^ the Bomans returned to Italy, re- 
called by domestic miafortones^ when the Scots and Fiets taking 
advantage of their absence, fiercdy attacked the Britons^ whose 
apathy, or want of courage, was so great, that these ncnrthem 
invaders extended their conquests throughout the whole king- 
dom. Beduced to extreme distress, the Britons applied to the 
Saxons for aid, and in this application they were not unsuccess- 
ful. The Saxons landed in the year 449, and after having 
driven the invaders into their own country, succeeded in estab- 
lishing themselves in Britain, notwithstanding the incessant 
wars which subsisted between them and the natives. Christian- 
ity again suffered, for as the Saxon kings were all Pagans, it 
was subverted, and nearly annihilated. The kingdom bemg 
entirely subdued, became divided by the conquerors, into dis- 
tricts, states, or monarchies, since known by the denomination 
of the Heptarchy. 

Ethelbert, King of Kent, ascended the throne of that king- 
dom, A. D. 694: he married the daughter of Charibert, 
Christian Eling of the Franks, to whom the free exercise of her 
religion was secured by the treaty of marriage. 

A. D. 597, Augustin, sent by Pope Gregory to endeavour to 
convert the Saxcms, was received in Kent with respect. The 
long was shortly afterwards converted to the Christian religion, 
and gave Augustin and his attendants free permission to preach 
the doctrines of their faith. 

In consequence of this encouragement, the holy flame of 
Christianity spread rapidly into the adj(Hning kingdoms, and 
the ardent zeal of the missionaries was crowned with the most 
complete success. 

The introduction of the word of Gk>d into the kingdom of 
Northumberland, took place in the reign of Edwin the Great, 

▼iitiies and piety of Britiah ladiei, as it i^ipean that the ooiiTenion of King Lados, 
may in a great meaanre be ascribed to his iUnstrions amit, dandia Rnffina ; at all 
events it is certain that the seeds of Christianity were sown in the infant mind of 
Constantine, by his religions mother, St. Helen, who was nnqnestionably a native of 
this island, born at Colohceter. — v. UUnet't Winehater, v, 1. p. 51. 



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HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 7 

whooe second wife was Ethelburga,* the dan^ter ol Ethdbert, 
King of Kent: this fortunate event took plaee A. D. 625. The 
princess who had stipulated for the free exercise of her religion, 
was accompanied by Faulinns, ordained Bishop for the purpose 
of celebrating this important marriage. 

The influence ol this rirtaons prelate, together with theaid 
of accidental circomstances^t made a deep impressicm on the 
feelings of the monarch, and carried irresistible conviction to 
his mind. At the festival of Easter, A. D. 627, he was baptiz- 
ed by Fanlinns at York, together witli a vast number ci his 
subjects, who all publicly abjured the errors of Paganism, and 
embraced that blessed doctrine which is the sure guide to eternal 
salvation. 

Though monastic institutions were now generally introduced, 
yet we seek in vain the origin of our religious foundations ; in- 
volved in darkness and obscurity, ^'the improbabilities and 
fictions of monkish legends are often our only evidences, and we 
are frequently obliged to adopt the palpable anachronisms of 
such writings, in the place of authentic documents, and chrono- 
logical certainty /'J 

In Tanner's Notit. Monastica, under the title Hartlepoole, it 
is stated " at or near this place was the ancient monastery called 
Heorthu, founded upon the first conversion of the Northum- 
brians to Christianity, about A. D. 640,'^ by a religious woman 
named Hieu, or, as some copies have it, St. Bega,§ a native of 
Ireland. — She was the foundress of a monastery at St. Bees, in 
Cumberland, which derived its name from her residence : || her 



♦ " Snniamed Tace, a fit name for a woman."— i%»tf*rf, boot, 7, c*tfp. 9. 

t Vide Speed, book 7. chap. 9, &c. 

X Archdall's Monas. Hib. p. 147. 

i The hiftorj of Si. Bega ia not free firom the legendary flofa'ona of monkiah 
ciedoHty ; "the miracles of taming a bnll, and of a deep snow that by her prayers 
fbU on mid-snmmer day, and corered the yaUeys and tops of monntains," are ascrib- 
ed to her sanctity ; yet how for was she behind St. Bridget, who "hnng np her 
petticoat on a snn beam to dry ;" or, " St. Baldred, who by his prayers obtained the 
lingnlar priTilege of being bnried in three diflierent chmches." 

II Bum's Cmnberland, y. i, p. 40. 



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8 HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 

second foundation was at Madcweannouth, imd afterwards 
under the anqpiees ci Ai/dan, Bishop ci Idndisfam^ she founded 
the monastery at HartlepooL* 

Much oonfiision occurs in ancient historians respecting the 
precise periods above-mentioned, though there is a general oon- 
omrrence with regard to the facts. Bega was the first lady 
among the Northern tribes who assumed the monastic veil. On 
her leaving Hartlepool, she was suoceeded by Hilda, ''whose 
family, virtue, and abilities reflected a brighter lustre on the 
institutc^'t Hilda was ol noble birth, and nearly allied to the 
hings of East Anglia and Northumberland.]: She was bom on 
the 25th day of August, A. D. 614y and received the holy rites 
of baptism from the hands of Paulinus, A. D. 627. Having 
resolved to dedicate her life to the practice of religion, she re- 
tired to the kingdom of East Anglia, with the intention of gomg 
to the monaatery of her sister, HcKswitha, in France. 

However, after having renudned one year in Bast Ang^ she 
was recalled to her native country by Bishop Aidan, and with a 
few companions, took up her abode and lived according to mon- 
astic rule, on the northern coast of the river Wear. Shortly 
afterwards, on the departure of Hieu, die was appinted abbess 
in the monastery of Heretou. The rehgioua servant of Christ, 
Hilda, governed the monastery with exemplary virtue and regu- 

* Twtio Herat«j» qui loons latme sontt ctrvi ituula, oomimgnTii, e(Bnobiam%iie 
nrginmn ibi condidit, pauloque post Hildfe, sacne yirgini, oesdt, qos post yictoiiam 
Oswi regis acoepH "Rmffdiiin Tirginem, ^tis filiam, voto promissim com annuo 
j^innniin obqbil— i&r FUm. 8, Btifm. Leh M, i, a. p. 89. 

t lingard's Anglo-Saxons. 

X She was tlie dao^ter of Hereric and Bereswitha. H^reric is stated by various 
auOiors to btfe been the ^aurffon df Bdwm, King of Noitlinnbefknd : Bede tells 
ns that Hilda was "filia lupotu Sdwini regis, ▼ocabolo HerericL" If grandMn 
was meant, Edwin would be only S8 years old when Hilda was bom, but if it may 
be understood to designate the nephew of Edwin we ahall be better aUe to reconcile 
diBDordant dates. Chariton says, (History of Whitby, p. 2.) ** whatever some an^ 
thofs have ass erted to the contrary, Hererie was the son of Alia, and younger 
brother of Edwin, but probably a posthumous birth." The Rev. George Young; 
who is now engaged with " the history of Whitby," (finr whose kind oommunicationa 
I fed the most sensible obligation) wffl, I trust, be able to dispel the obscurity thsit 
hangs orer the pedigree of St. Hilda. 



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HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 9 

hrity; and Bishop Aidan and other pious men^ from their high 
estimation of her inherent wisdom, and her ardour for the di- 
vine ministry, were accustomed sedulously to visit, earnestly 
tobve, and diligently to instruct her.^ From all who witness- 
ed her exalted piety and active benevolencei she received the 
name of mother : she was not only an example for imitation to 
those around her, but the fame of her virtue extended to more 
distant parts, and afforded an excellent opportunity for salvation 
and reform. 

Oswy, who ascended the throne ot Northumberland, A. D« 
.648, being threatened by Penda, the Pagan king of Merda, 
made a solemn vow to heaven, that if his armies were victorious 
in the approaching conflict, he would build and endow a mon- 
astery, and consecrate his daughter, Adfleda, to the service of 
religion, and oblige her to perpetual virginity. The battle was 
fou^t, A. D. 655 ; Oswy gamed a great and decisive victory, 
and Penda was slain. In comjdianee with his vow, Aclfleda, 
who vras scarcely twelve months old, entered the monastery of 
Heretu, governed by the Lady St. Hilda.t 

In the year A.D. 658, Hilda, together with the princess 
AcWeda,t and ten viigins, leaving Hartlepool, took possession 
of StreaQshalch, or Whitby, a religious house endowed by the 
bounty of Oswy, king of Northumberland. 

Prom this period, no further traces are to be discovered which 
reflect any light on the condition of the monastery at Hartlepool, 
until the year A.D. 800, when the Danes, in one of their 
frequent predatory descents on the eastern coast, destroyed 
Tinmouth and Hertness ;§ which probably terminated the ex- 
istence of this celebrated foundation. ''Those were the tymes, 
when so many monasteries, which the devotion of former ages 

* Neartj a fitend iniiBlatioii from Bede. 
t Bede, chi^. 24, lib. 8. 

X "They told liow in their conyent cell 
" A. Ssxon princess once did dweD. 

'* Hie lovely Edelfled." Seotfi Marmion, 

i TCcdesisB de Hertenes & de Tinemonth spoliate sunt ii Panis. — Lei. Ool. v, iii. 
p. 888. 

£ 

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10 HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 

had erected^ had their Amends: then periahed that £unoiia 
Miiporium of Hartlepoole, where the religiouB Hieu built a 
nuxmery^ of which I may speake as Hildebert of Bomei 

' QDam magna fheris Integra, firactadooes/ 

whose mines shew how great shoe was in her glory^ but now 
remaynes to passengers both a monnment of devotion and 
hostility/'* 

The site of the monastery has not been preserved even by 
tradition. In some of the most ancient records of the corpora- 
tion^ the endosore in which the Friary stands is called '' Nun-, 
n^ Close/' and in the notes to Bede's Ecdes. EUst. it is stated 
that what remains of the monastery is not of the first institution, 
but of the order ci minor brethren.t Several fragments of 
Saxon mouldings have been found amongst the extensive 
foundations which are occasionally dug up therei so that in all 
^babihty the monastery was neariyon the same spot where 
the Friary was afterwards built 

* Legend of St. Cathbert, hj Robert Hq^g, 1626. 

t Smitk's Bede, chi^. 24. lib. 8. " Qood retiqanm eat ibi monasteni, non prime 
eit inatitiitiQiii^ led ordinia fratram minonm." 



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mSTORY OP HARTLEPOOL. 11 



GENERAL HISTORY. 

Thb oonntjr of Durham^ on the coast of which HarllqKM)! is 
ntaatedj formed^ previoiiB to the Boman conquest^ a part of the 
British principality inhabited by the Brigantea, a people totally 
unacquainted with the refinements (rf Hfe, and slaves to indolence 
andDroidicalsuperstitioD. After^ however^theYictorioiisCsesar 
had made a considerable inroad into Britain, and his successors 
had stin further extended his conquestSi this northern district 
beeame part of the Boman province, entitled Maxinuf CSsasariea- 
818. The BriganteSj sensible of their own inferiority, readily 
submitted to the dominions of the Bomans, and were content 
to be incorporated as a Inraneh of that extensive empire. But the 
period at last approached when that mighty fabric was to be 
dissolved. The Bomana, after having remained in Britab 
nearly five hundred years, were called home to defiend even Borne 
itKlf, from those immense armies of northern marauders, which 
were assailing the proud '^ Mistress of the World/^ 

At their departure, the Britcms, enervated by peacefiid habits, 
and almost unacquainted with the art of war, became an easy 
prey to their northern neighbours, the Picts and Scots, who 
immediately invaded the southern part of the island, and spread 
universal dismay and desolation. The wretched inhabitants, 
totally unable to defend themselves, repeatedly, and in the most 
presring terms* applied to their former masters for assistance, 
but without success. Becoming more and more harassed by 
their invaders, they at last came to a determination to request 
the protection of the Saxon brothers, Hengist and Horsa, who soon 
afterwards landed in the isle of Thanet with a considerable force, 
and generously assisted their supplicants in repelling those 

* One of thdr supplicatory letters to Miva the patridim, was thus inscribed, The 
Groamt of ih^ Britons; its contents corresponded with its gloomy title :—" The 
birfaaiians on thA one hand chase ns into the sen> the sea on the other throws ns back 
upon the hsibarians; and we have only the hard choice left os of perishing by the 
sword, or by the wares."— J**f, 1. 18. 



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12 HISTOEY OF HARTLEPOOL. 

destmcttFefieebooterSy from whom they ImuI raffered such dread- 



Whaterer present aid^ however, the Britons might luummi, 
thej in the end ezperienoed whole ages of distress from their 
Saxon auxiliaries. The latter, elated with their socoess in re- 
pulsing the Picts and Seots, soon formed a plan of reducing the 
Britcms themsehres into subjection, and in this design they were 
but too successful; for though the Britons long and bravely 
withstood their unjust attempts, yet they were finally obliged to 
submit to the victorious arms of Hengist, the surviving brother,* 
who established himself in the southern part of the island, and 
laid the foundation of the kingdom of Kent. 

The fame o! Hengisf s success failed not to excite the avidity 
of the other northern Germans, and accordingly, a new tribe of 
Saxons, under the guidance of Octa, Hengist's brother, settled 
themselves in Northumberland about the year of Christ 480. 

Notwithstanding, historians differ with regard to the bounda- 
ries and extent of this kingdom of Northumberland, the largest 
in the Saxon Heptarchy, yet it is universally allowed, that the 
present county of Durham was included in it, and formed the 
principal source of its opulence and strength. It was governed 
by a regular succession of kings until the memorable year 827, 
when all the seven petty monarchies, fatigued with war and de- 
vastation, became finally united into one state, under Egbert, 
the first king of all England. 

Previous to this union, in the year 635, during the reign and 
under the auspices of Oswald,^ king ol Northumberland, the 

* Horsa wis alain some tiine before tiiis in a battle with the Britons at Eaglesford, 
nowAilBlbrd. 

\ Oswald, it appears, was inferior only to St. Cnthbert in woridng mirafiles, for 
Bede gravely tells ns, that a sidr horse was once cored at the place of his interment. 
The same author informs as, that the king's right hand had the peeahar privilege of 
not being liable to corruption, from the following circomstanoe : — Sitting down to 
dinner on Easter day, and being tdd that an immense number of poor "pwjfic were 
without, waiting for his charity, he not only ordered his part of ihe buquet to be 
divided amongst them, but even commanded a krge silver dish to be cut in pieces, 
that each might receive a part of it. Aidon, who happemd to be present, was so 
delighted with his patron's munificence, that, seizing his right hand, he exdaimed 



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HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 18 

episcopal see of Dmham was fint estBUished at TandiHftyme^ by 
Aidan^ a presbyter of remarkable sanctity^ who became the first 
biahop. 

St. Cuihberty the sixth bishop, was so highly distingnished 
for his purity of life and maimers, and for the mtracnloQs pow- 
ers with which he was bdieved to be invested, that imTncffise 
gifts wwe conferred upon the church for his sake. He is re- 
corded to hare possessed, as a reward for his exalted piety, all 
the land between the rivers lyne and Tees, which immense tract 
is fireqnently denominated The Patrimony of 8mnt Cuikbert 
After his decease, he became the tatdary saint of the see; and 
thougli a little capricious with regard to his resting jdace,* 

"Mmj tliis lund nerer decay." A. iviah wliich, accocdug to Bede, was tkkOj 
acoosnplislied. 

On the old conTentoal seal of Barliam, naed from the conquest to the dissohition, 
U the head of Oswald, with thia maen^Hatt'^lLBVT SANCTI OSWALDI REGIS. 

* Nor did Saint Cnthhert's daughters fidl 
To vie with these in holy tale ; 
His body's resting-place, of old. 
How oft thdr patron dbang'd they told; 
How, idien the rode Dane bnm'd their pUe, 
The monks fled forth from Holy lale. 
O'er northern moantoin» marsh, and moor. 
From sea to sea, from shore to shore. 
Seven years Saint Cnthhert's coipse they bore. 
Tliey rested them in frir Melrose; 

Bnt though, alive, he loVd it well. 
Not there his reliques might repose ; 

Ytfr, wondrous tale to teQ 1 
In hia stone coffin forth he ridea, 
(A ponderous hark for river tides) 
Tet light as gossamer it glides, 

Downward to Tillmonth oelL 
Nor long was his abiding there, 
For southward did the saint repair; 
Chester-le-street, and Bippon, saw 
His holy corpse, ere Wardilaw 

Hail'd him with joy and fear ; 
And, after Hiany wanderings past, 
He chose his lordly seat at last, 
Whfira his cathedral, huge and vast, 
Looks down upon the Wear : — Ccm4. to page U. 



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14 HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL, 

prenoui to his final lettlemeiit at DnrliaiDj Med not to enriek 
the caSen of his monks, by the many mirarfcwi which were 
almost daily performed at his tomb. His fityonr and protection 
were not only courted daring hit hSt, but even after his death ; 
and many of his snceessors on his account became the fovonred 
objects of royal attention and mnnificence.^ 

The politic Canute humbled himself to such a degree^ as to 
visit the shrine of St. Cuthbert bare^footed^ having proceeded 
in that state from (Jarmundi or Chunnundsayj a place according 
to Sym. I)unelm.^t nearly five miles distant; offering at the 
same time the territories of Standrope (Staindrop)^ Scottim 
(Shotton), Rabi (Baby), Wacarfield (Wakerfield), Efenwuda 
(Evenwood), &c. 

By these and such like donations, the bishops o£ Durham 
soon became opulent and powerful ; and though it would be an 
uninteresting digression to enter into an historical detail with 
regard to the rise and progress of that authority which they 
exercised in this county, yet it may be necessary briefly to state 
a few of those privileges which they possessed, and which ren- 
dered their power so extensive. 

It was an ancient maxim, ''Quicquid rex habet extra comita- 
tum Dunelmensem, episcopus habet infira, nisi aliqua sit con- 
cesaio aut prescriptio in contrarium.^' The bishops levied taxes, 
made truces with their enemies, raised troops within the liberty, 
impressed ships for war, sate in judgment of life and death; 
and held execution of life and limb. 

Solum DimelmffliBe jnclicat ttoUL et enae. 

There, deep in Doriiam's Goihie ihede, 
Hie reliqiiee are in secret laid; 

Bat none may know tlie place. 
Save of his holiest servanta three, 
Deep sworn to solemn secrecy. 

Who share that wondrous grace. 

Manmon, canio ii. itastza jvr. 
* A cnrioQS poetical life of St. Cuthbert, extracted from an old MSS. apparently 
written in the beginning of the thirteenth century, belonging to George Allan, Esq., 
M. P. will be found in the Appendix, 
t Sym. Dunelm. p, 164. 



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HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 15 

They created baions^ who fonued their eooncil or ptrliament : 
the greater part of the lands within the Uberty were held of the 
hiahopa in eapite, as lords paramonnt ; they coined money^ built 
eborchesy instituted corporations by charter^ and granted fairs 
andmadcets; they had all manner of royal jurisdiction^ both dvil 
and military; they were lord hi^ admirals of the sea and waters, 
that lie within or adjoining the county palatine; had vioe- 
admirals and courts of admiralty, judges to deinBrmine ac- 
eording to the maratime lawB^ registers^ examinersi officers of 
beaconagei anchorage, awarded commissions to rq;ulate waters 
and passages thereon, &C., Sec* 

The above summary exposition concerning the bishops of 
Durham, and their privilege, was absolutely necessary, as 
HarilqK)ol formed part of their jurisdiction, and of course was 
obliged to submit to the same rules and regulations as the other 
parts of the county* 

BrevioQs to the invasion of the Normans, little more than 
ooigectQfe can be hazarded respecting the town of Hartlepool. 
It seems to have been unknown to the Bomans, although Mr. 
Cade imagines it to have been a Boman harbour, and that a 
Boman road once passed in this direetion.t These conjectures, 
however, are warranted neither by historical records, nor by 
any visible remains of Boman art in the neighbourhood. 

In ancienft writers, the peninsuk upon which Harti^ocrf 
is situated, seems sometimes to be called Heortness| and 
s o met im es the name Heortnesse appeaxa to be applied to the 
town itself. Lambarde^ in his Typographical Dictionary, p. 
146, describes Heortnesse ''asbeing a town in the north partes, 

^ Vide HnftdmiMa's BuL of Doiluan, and Spearman's Xnqniiy into tlie aneieiit 
•ad pnaent State of ilie County Palatine of Durham, 1729. 

t " There weorecertainlj two Boman roada across this comity, whidimig^be 
CH^ tneedhj a skilftd antiqiiarj, and as yet not notioed; the ooe, I ikoold coigec- 
tne lEom fkit sap of Draks's Boman roads in Yodakire» came dizeotly from Doans 
(Whitby) to the tr^jectos at the estiuoy of Tees, opposite BeDana^ which h^ 
been s eastram, and oontumed along tiie shore to Hertelpole, Weremonth, ho.** — 
V. NieMts JUterarf Jneedotei, vol, 8. 

% from niepe, promontorimn, nasos ; q. d. nasns teite-Hiose. 



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16 HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 

which Egred^ bishop of the holy isle, builded, and gave to the 
see for ever/' How far this quotation may warrant the as- 
sumption of the actual existence of a town here at that early 
period, must, however, remain in doubt and uncertainty, as 
Simeon, the Durham historian, who is certainly better authori- 
ty, seems to intimate that Heortnesse did not in his time 
signify any particular place, but the whole territory.* 

'' The first material account of this part of the county,^' says 
Hutchinson, v. 3. p. 17, ''is, that before the conquest, Fulk de 
Fanell, having vast territories in £nglttid, among other rich 
manors possessed Hart, and Hartness ; that Agnes his daughter 
intermarried with Robert de Brus, one of the attendants of 
William the Norman, whereupon her father's extensive property 
passed to that family/' This account, however, of the family of 
Brus, cannot support the rigid investigation and comparison of 
dales, the only sure tests of truth in historical disquisition. 

Robert de Brus is stated by Dugdale, to have been nobilis 
miles de Normandiajf and in the Role de ceux queux veignoni in 
Afiffleterre ovesque roy Win le Canquereur, It sires de Breaus e 
due sens des homezX are mentioned as forming a part of the 
army which conquered England. By this enumeration, where 
li sires is evidently in the plural, it would appear that there 
were several military chiefs of the name of Brus, although only 
one remains on record whose services were so liberally remunera- 
ted by the conqueror. 

Robert de Brus, by the foregoing statements, appears to have 
been a nobleman of considerable importance; and a modem 
author is even inclined to derive the family name ''from some 
town or estate on the continent," and that his pedigree might 
be traced ^^ perhaps, to the conquest of Normandy itself, in the 
beginning of the lOth century."§ 

* Doaa qaoqne Tillas IleGlifr& Wigedif aed & Bfllingham in Heorternease, quanmi 
ipse conditor fiient, lods saperioribiu quae pnedicto Confesaori donavent perpetao 
poBsidenda a^jedt. — 8jfm. Dun, p. 90. 

t Monaat. Aug. 

t LeL Cd. 1. 202. 

i Morray's Life of James Brace, of Kinnaird. 



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PaneU. 



Brtu of Annandaie. 
or, a saUire and ehirf gtUei, 



-t de Bnfl (3) 

le, Hert, HertneM, &e. 

ng in 1171. 



de Bros (4) 
Hert, &c., ob. 1191. 



laabel, nat. dan. of Wilbam 
tlie lion. King of Soott. 



de Brns, Lord of An- » 
, Her^ &c. ob. 1215. 



je Bras (5) 

Oe, Hert, ob. 1245. 



^BroB (6) 

adale, Hert, &c. 

of Seotland, ob. 1295. 



» Isabel, 2nd dan. of David, Earl 
I of Hantingdon, yomiger brother 



to Wm. I^ of Scots. 



Isabel, dan. of Gilbert de Oaie, 
Sari of Olonoester and Hereford. 



^^obert de Bros (7) «=» Margaret Countess of Canrick 
' AmiiindaK Heart, &e. 
Carrick/tfre uxorit, 
1804. 




lid, «, Bobert de Bros (8) 

IXarl of Carrick, &c. 
King of Sooiland. 



Elisabeth, dau. of 

Bichard Earl of 

Ulster. 




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HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 17 

On the death of William the Conqueror^ Bobert de Bros wai 
in possession of forty-thiee manors in the East and West Ridings 
of Yorkshire^ and fifty-one in the North Biding. Skdton 
was long the principal English residence of his descendants^ 
and the monastery of Oisbnm^ the bnnal place of the fam- 

fly.* 

There ^>pear8 to have been a strange misunderstanding with 
regard to the descent of this family^ which has arisen in all 
probability firom the constant occorrence of the name of 
Bobert ; as Dngdale is not satisfied that the first Bobert de 
Bros shonld merely have been the founder of Gisbum^ in the 
year 1129, but has even brought him to assist at the battle of 
the Standard, A. D. 1138, when he might with great propri- 
ety, stile him an '' Old Soldier/'t & period of seventy-two 
years having elapsed since the conquest of England. The iden- 
tity of the £Either and the son have thus been strangely con- 
founded, and the second Bobert de Brus has been entirely 
forgotten4 Becent investigations have, however, satisfactorily 
proved his existence, though it might be considered as an unin- 
teresting digression to pursue the subject any further. 

The second Bobert de Brus, who married Agnes de Panell, 
is stated to have received from her father, the manors of Hert 
and Hertness, though it is affirmed by Bugdale, that he received 
the manor of Hert from the crown for his '' many great ser- 
vices.''§ Unfortunately the memorable record, commonly called 
Domesday Book,|| does not include the county of Durham, and 
in consequence, it becomes extremely difficult to ascertain who 
was in possession of these manors at that remote period. 



* Kert^s Bobert tlie Brace, 1. p, xxri. 

t Baron. Aug. 1. 447. 

X Kerr's Bobert the Brnoe.— i>(Hf^/!«M* Peerage. CkaJmef^s Caledonia. 

$ Boff. Bar. 1. 888. 

H Bomeadftj Book was begun A. D. 1082, and finished 1087. It bas been sup- 
posed that this comity having saflisred so seferdy by the ravages of war, the lung's 
eommisaioiiers mic^t find it imposnble to take an exact sorrey— 9. KelAam's Dowus- 
day Qhutratedi yet the intermediate conntry from York to the county of Durham 

F 



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HISTOBT OF HARTLEPOOL. 



Tkb seal of Maigaret de Ross, sister &nd oo-heiress of the last Peter de Bros, 
Lori of SkeLton, appended to a Charter in the Author's posaeuion, relatire to 
propert7 near Kendal, dated A. D., 1281. 



Thdsoalof RebertdeBnu (2). affixed to the marriage settlement of hit dan^hier 
Agatha. ^ Vide p. 20; see alio the annexed pedigree. 



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HISTOBY OF HABTLEPOOL. 19 

At the period of the Nonnan conquest^ Egdwiii; the twenty- 
eighth bishop, held the see of Darham. This ambitious prelate, 
taldng advantage of the King's absence in Normandy, A. D. 
1068, united with Morcar, the powerful Earl of Northumber- 
land, and other discontented barons, in opposing the royal 
authority. The King, on his return to England, immediately 
advanced ncnrthwards with a numerous army, and the confeder- 
ates, unsupported by the people, were obliged to implore the 
deraency of the conqueror. — ^William appointed Bd[)ert de 
Comyn, governor of Northumberland, and placed a considerable 
body of troops under his command. On his arrival at Durham, 
however, the people rose in arms, and the whole garrison to the 
number of 700 men were massacred.* Malcolm III. at that 
time King of Scotland, had taken an active part on behalf of 
the rebellious barons, and although they had been reduced to a 
state of apparent subjection, he stiU continued to harrass the 
northern provinces. In one of his predatory irruptions into 
Eng^d, he penetrated as far as Cleveland, ''and from thence 
into the eastern parts of the bishopric of Durham, spreading 
miiversal desolation. Not even the edifices sacred to religion were 
spared. They who fled into churches for refuge, were burnt 
in their imagined sanctuary, and so great was the number of 
captives, that for many years they were to be found in every 
Scottish village, nay in every Scottish hovel.^'f ^ this expedi- 
tion he utterly laid waste the territory of Hertness,]: which soon 
afterwards suffered firom William himself, who marched with an 



Comu a ptrt of the reeo^, tHhoogk it had suffered from the uxob miifbrtones — v. 
Baioden*s Dowiesday of Toriskirf. To consider this ooonty exempt from the ob- 
•emnce of the orden it the coiiqiieror, ■• a coanty palatine, offien no better lolationt 
aa CSiester, nnder simihir circumstances is indnded in the generd surrey, Hatchinson* 
T. 1. 132, ahhongh he considers the omission to hare arisoi "as being a territory 
granted to the chnrch/' yet leaves the reader to " his own jadgment to 9Uffg$it tho 



* 28th January, 1068>9.— v. Sifm. Dm. p. 198. 
t Lord Halle's Annals of Scotland. 

X Nam depopolatA Clireland ex parte, iepentin& depqpnlsiioDe HtoHeHtuse oocu« 
pat indeqoe per terras Sancti Cathberti ferodter discurrcns, omnea omnibus rebns» 



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20 HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 

immense army/ not only to arrest the progress of invasion, but 
by spreading destruction on every side, to make the country no 
longer an object of attention, or capable of affording the means 
of subsistence to an invading enemy. '' He wasted all the hire 
country betwixt Torke and Durham, leaving all desolate for 
threescore miles space, which nine years after, lay untilled, and 
without any inhabitants, when grew so great famine that these 
northerns were forced to eate the flesh of men/'* 

It has already been stated, that Bobert de Brus, the second 
of that name, married Agnes de Panell, by whom he had two 
sons and a daughter ; Adam, the progenitor of the Bruces, 
of Skdton, in Engluid; and Bobert, the ancestor of the 
Bruces, of Annandale, in Scotland. His only daughter, Agatha, 
was married to Banulf, Lord of Middleham, and nephew to 
Alan Earl of Bichmond, receiving from her father the mancnr 
of Ailewic, in Uertness, as her dowry .f 

The second Bobert de Brus resided chiefly at 
the court of Henry I. where he lived on terms of 
intimacy and Mendship with David, Earl of Cum- 
berland, afterwards king of Scotland; a noble- 
man who had been ''polished by his education 
and familiarity in the English court, and had rubbed off all the 
rust of Scotish barbarism.''^ Soon after his accession to the 

nonnnIlfM etiam ipds axumaboB privat — Bo^. de ffavedem, p. 462. BepopalaU 
Clivdandift yenit ad Heortneue, omnia dcYastaiia. — Lei, Col, 1. 881. 

* Speed, 428. 

t The following short charter, containing the marriage tetUement, was transcribed 
by Dogdale, from the original^ in the Cottonian Library, and an engraving of the 
seal appended to it, may be seen in OMe Beffiitrum Honorit de Bichmond, p. 150 .- — 
« Carta B, de Brut de mam'io de JElwie dat Agatke fiF eue in maritagio,, 
" Hoc est marHagium q'd Bob'tus de Bros dedit Agathe, fil' sne in lib'ali mari- 
tagio quando earn Badnlfo Ribaldi filio dedit, vix' Ailewic in Hertenes com o'ib's 
reb's et terris que ad iHod man'iom pertinent ita libere sicot ipse Bob'tos in soo d'nio 
tenebat Test* Waif o Espec et Ricardo de Bolos Wiltiehno capellano et Petro de Bros 
et Emaldo Pcici Gerardo de Laod et Umfiredo de Tiirp et Williehno de Bogeris et 
Gofrido Loheren et Rogero Arondd et Gilberto PagUndlo et Wigoen Landri filio et 
Alano Pincema et Errando et Acario et Herveio Ribaldi filio et Gnerri et Bob'to 
Goeleganta et Gofrido de Walos et JadicheOo de Cotona et Hngone Gennagoen &c 
&c. qui dcsponsBvit cos." t W. Malmsbuiy. 



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fflSTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 21 

thronei he granted the brdship of Annandale to Robert de 
Bros, the £riend of his youth, in testimony of his esteem and 
regard. 

On the death of Henry I., David^ "with an honest but pre- 
cipitant zeal/' strenuously supported the pretensions of his 
nieccy the Empress Matilda, in opposition to the usurpation of 
Stephen. 

A peace however was soon concluded between the two sove- 
reigns, at Newcastle, which was of short duration; for in the 
year 1138, David marched a numerous army into the county 
of Dorham, where he wasted the eastern parts, and endeavoured 
to seduce the bishop, Galfrid Bufiis, firom his allegiance. Having 
advanced towards Northallerton, he was opposed by the troops 
assembled by the venerable Thurstine, archbishop of York, "in 
defence of Christ's church against the barbarians.'' Eobert de 
Brus held a distinguished conmiand in the English army, and 
endeavoured to advise with David as " a private Mend attached 
to him by gratitude ai^d affection : " he told him "that he was 
grieved to the heart at the thought that he should be forced to 
behold his good master and friend, who had been always so gra- 
cious, and liberal to him, with whom he had been bred, even 
from his earliest youth, and in whose service he had grown old, 
either disgracefally flying, or unhappily slain."* These tender 
entreaties which proceeded from sincere friendship and esteem, 
were unavailing; the battle of the Standard took place, and the 
army of the King of Scotland was defeated with immense 
slanghter.t 



* Lord LitOeton's History of Heniy II. 0. I. 

t Aug. 22.^This was called the battle of the standard, where the hannen of St. 
Peter of York, St. John of Beverley, and St. Wilfrid of Rippon, were displayed from 
the mast of a ship, fitted into the perch of a high fbnr wheeled carriage : on the top 
of the mast was a little casket, containing a consecrated host. — Lord HcMt Amudt, 
The ardibishop was at Thirak dozing the battle: above 10,000 Scots were killed or 
taken prisoners, with little loss to the English. The scene of this action was on a 
plaift between Cooton and Northallerton, and the holes where the Scots were buried 
ace still visibley and are caQed the Scot* s pits.— iSer/t^tiuv Oalcana, 



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22 HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 

Robert de Bras died shortly afterwards^ A. D. 1141^* and 
was succeeded by Adam^ his eldest son^ in the possession of the 
immense estates in Torkshire, and by his second son Bobert, in 
the lordship of Annandale^f together with the manor of Hert^ 
and territory of Hertness, for which he paid A. D. 1171^ one 
hundred shillings into the exchequer as eBcnage4 He ''flourish- 
ed under David I. Malcolm lY. and William the Lion/'§ and 
dying about the year 1171,|| was succeeded by Robert his son 
and heir^ the fourth of the same name. In the year 1178^ 
William^ King of Scotland, joined in a confederacy with King 
Henry the Second's eldest son, who had been crowned by his 
fftther A. D. 1170, and advanced into Engluid at the head of 
a numerous army, to Biq>port the unlawful pretensions of the 
Prince. Hugh Fudsey,! then Bishop of Durham, secretly fa- 

* He was a Hbenl bene&etor to idigioiis hoiisei, and amongti othert he founded 
and endowed the monastery of Gisbnm, A. D. 1129 ; the confinnation of his gnai 
by Heniy H. contains the following exoeUent sentiments : — " In the name of the holy 
and undivided Trinity— by the munificent gifts of kings and prelates, the dinrch is 
enlarged, and now spreads herself orer the world. We also rejoice that in onr king- 
dom the number is increased, by which religion is augmented, and the number of 
idigious multiplied, by whose prayers the strength of our kingdom is established, 
and a passage to that heaven is mercifully opened to such as truly seek it." — Amiif. 
ofFtirmu Abbey, 4io, p, 19. He gave the church of Middlebnig, and some land 
to the monks of Whitby, and his manors of Appleton and Hornby, to the monks of 
St. Maiy at York, &c 

t It is stated by tome authors that Annandale was transferred previous to the 
battle of the Standard. — v. AnndU of Scotland, p. 166, ^c. And Dugdale assigns 
the following curious reason for the gift of Hert and Hertness : — "being again with 
his parents, and telling his Cither thqr had no wheat bread in Annandale, he gave him 
the lordship of Hert, and territory of Hertness, in the bishopric of Bnriiam, to hold 
of himseli^ and his heirs lords of Skelton. — Baron, ii. p. 448. 

X Madox's Hist, of Exch. 1. 629. — Scutage, or shield money, has generally been 
considered " a sum of money paid in lieu of actual service in the field." A learned 
author, however, is of opinion, that scutarii or archers were meant, as the shield was 
not used in those days, and it is well known that the En^ish were ftmous for their 
skill in ardiery, and hence we hear so modi in the eariy part of our history with 
regard to the scutagium. — v. Barrington on the Statniet, p, 809. 

f Qiafaner's Caledonift. 

I He gave a capital messuage in Herterpbll, to the monks of Hofan Cultram, and 
Peter k Orannt gave lands and houses ^ere ; for which Robert le Graunt bound 
himself and his heirs by oath, to pay 20s. yearly. — Nickolson and Bnm*e Cmnber- 
iand, 2, 174. 

If In the return made by Bishop Pudsey, of the military service within his juris- 
diction, for an aid to many King Henry's dang^iter, Bhnd, A. J)., 1166., (Liber 



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HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 28 

yonred the design^ and allowed the troops free passage through 
the palatinate. 

They penetrated into Yorkshire^ committing the most bar- 
baioiis and merciless depredations; but on the approach of the 
English^ commanded by Bidiard de Lncy^ justiciary^ and Hum- 
phry BohuUj constable of England^ they retired^ and a truce was 
concluded between the hostik armieSj through the bishop's 
mediation. 

In the following year^ the King of Scotland was surprised 
and taken prisoner at Alnwick^ and on the same day^ July 18^ 
Hugh^ Count of Bar^ the bishop's nephew^ landed at Hartle- 
pool^* with a body of Flemings^ consisting of 40 knights^ and 
500 foot soldiers. On receiving intelligence of the King of 
Scotland's disaster, the infan^ were immediately sent back into 
their own country, and the 40 knights, under the command of 
the Count, were entrusted with the defence of the castle of 
Northallerton. The conduct of Fudsey excited strong suspicions 
of his loyalty; he was now glad to surrender to the King the 
forts of Durham, Norham, and (North) Alverton, and to pay a 
large sum of money to obtain the King's favour. 

This is the first time that Hartlepool is distinctly mentioned ; 
yet, if it was at this period a port of sufficient importance to 
receive the troops destined for the amstance of the King of 
Scotland, and Fudsey his abettor, it is natural to conclude that, 
as a port town, it must have been in existence for a considerable 
time previous to this occurrence. 

On the death of Henry II., in 1189, Bichard I. who ascend- 
ed the throne of England, made immediate preparations for a 

miper seaccarii, p. 806.^ Bobert de Bnis, BaHol, &e., are not motioned, wliich 
Hotchiiuon considen yoL L p. 172. a convincing proof that the royal grants to the 
aee of Dnrham, did not anciently extend between Tyne and Tees. The Boldon Bnke, 
a record in ^ nature of Domesday, which was composed during the episcopacy of 
Pudaey, "only rehites to the Bidiop's demesnes, or the yiBenage tenures, and takes 
BO notice of the barons, or tenants in capite." 

* Hngo Dunehnensis Episcopus tradidit Hugoni eomiti de Bar et Ilandre&iibiiay 
fd i^pukrant com eo npnd Hertlepole, castfiUnm soma de Alverton in custodiim,— 
JW. CqI. 1, 182. 



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24 HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 

cnuaHe against the infidels^ and the bishop^ inflamed with holy 
zeal, assamed the cross, and levied money to defray the ex- 
penses of the expedition. '' He built himself a beautiful galley for 
his passage, together with : several other ships to transport 
his retainers, retinue, and attendants ; ''* and as Hartlepool 
was the only port within the palatinate, it is natural to conclude 
that the fleet was built and stationed here. The King, however, 
dispensed with the personal services of the Bishop, and appoint- 
ed him one of the regents during his absence, demanding a 
loan of the sums which he had collected for this pious expedi- 
tion. 

The King's demands were pressing, and the ambition of the 
Bishop was amply gratified by the purchase of the earldom, 
wapontake, and manor of Sadberge, to be annexed to the see 
for ever, and the earldom of Northumberland for life, on the 
payment of the sum of £11,000. 

From this period, says Hutchinson, Hartlepool was held of 
the Bishops as chief lords of the see.t 

Bobert de Brus (the Fourth) was, upon his death in 1191, 
succeeded by his son William, Lord of Annandale. In the 
ninth year of Bichard I. he paid a fine of twenty marks to be 
excused from going beyond sea, and from King John he 
obtained a grant, empowering him to hold a ''market upon the 
Wednesday every week at his manor of Hertilpole.''| During 
his time the inhabitants of Hartlepool received a strong mark 
of royal favour, for the same monarch granted them a charter, 

♦ Hist, of Dnrliam, 1. 176. 

Temp. Bich. I. Bobert de Stoketon sailed the Bishop of Durham's great ship to 
London.— 5u/. Exeheg, p, 498. 

t Hist, of Dorham, 8. p. 20. 

i Dug. Bar. 1. 449. 

Abont the time of King John, Marmadwte de Tweng, and Margaret his wife, be- 
queathed a honse and some land at HarUepol, for the singular purpose of purchasing 
smocks tor the nuns of the priory of St Bartholomew in Newcastle, — Mado^tfor- 
mulare JngUcanum, BratuTs Newcartle, p. 2d9, r. 1. These gifts were not un- 
common. The lands are genenUy called Smokeacres ; "Thomas Rowney, sen., Esq. 
told me that he had four acres of land called iwu>ke acre; it was he said to buy 
amocks for nuns, &c." — r. Uber niger Scaccarii, p, 212. 



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HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 25 

tliat they should be free burgesses^ and enjoy the same priyi- 
l^es as the burgesses of Newcastle.* 

Of William de Bms^ says Dngdale^f ^ bave not seen any 
thing fieurther memorable^ than that he gave to the canons of 
Oiaebnme certain lands^ lying southward of the chapel of St. 
Hilda at Hertilpole, towards the sea.'' He died in the year 
1215, and was succeeded by Robert (the fifth) Lord of Annan- 
dale. 

During the episcopacy of Bishop Poor^ it appears that Peter 
de Brus^ Lord of Skelton^ whilst guardian of the territory of 
Hartness^ during the minority of the fifth Robert de BruS| op- 
posed the claim of the Bishop to the wreck of the sea, and that 
his servants even carried away a boat belonging to him, for 
which they were fined fifty shillings by the justices of Sadberge. 
Peter, upon this, sent (me of his servants, called Hugh de Haub- 
gere, together with several others, who seized a burgess of 
Hartlepool, called Gerard de Seton, and carried him to Skelton, 
where he was confined in the castle, and this punishment was 
inflicted upon him, because he had been favourable to the claims 
of the Bishop concerning the wreck. The Bishop, however, 
solemnly excommunicated by name all those who seized the 
burgess, in the liberty between the waters (Tyne and Tees); 
and in consequence of this procedure, the above named Gerard 
was allowed to return quietly home. 

Por the capture of the said burgess, fee., Peter de Brus was 
fined the sum of i620, by the justices of the Bishop. At the 
instance, however, of William, Earl of Albermrale, and John de 
Lacy, Earl of Lincoln, who came to the Bishop at Darlington^ 
where they remained three days for the express purpose of endea- 
vouring to bring about a reconciliation, the Bishop relaxed in his 
demand of the two fines, and the quarrel was brought to an amica- 
ble conclusion, upon this condition, that from that time the 
Bishop should have the wreck of the sea without contradiction. 

* ▼. Appendix, and Chapter on the Corporation, 
t Bff. Ang. 1 449. 

O 



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26 HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 

The justices of Sadberge ordered a memorial to be made out 
of the first wreck which fell to the Bishop after this transaction, 
and accordingly a wooden cross was soon after erected in a place 
called Blakelawe^ near Sadberge, by the side of the high road 
leading to HartlepooL This cross, which was standing nearly a 
century afterwards, was formed out of the mast of a ¥nrecked 
vessel, and from its yard was made a candlestick, appropriated 
to the use of the church of Sadberge.% 

Robert de Brus married Isabel, second daughter of David, 
Earl of Huntingdon, the younger brother of William the Lion, 
King of Scotland ; and this marriage, by which the family of 
Brus became allied to the royal blood of Scotland, was the title 
^vanced by their great grandson, when he claimed and acquired 
the crown of that kingdom. 

King John, '' in the seventeenth year of his reign, confirmed to 

* Iter JohiB de Vallib' et Hug* de Creujiigliam in Ebor* & Northmnbr*. 

Mem' q'd a primo temp' quo Epi Dimdm' huerot Wapp' qmlib't Epus hQit 
om'imodu wreccum ubiq' per coeteram maris per totam Hertnesse sine contradicco'e 
dnor* de Hertnesse. 

It'm tempe dci Bid Epi quonda Sarisbor* oppoeoit se Petms de Bros qui hiiit 
custodia de Hertnesse & fecit capt unu battellu. de wrek & asportari per qnosdam 
paupes bdea suos qui amerdati fnenmt cor' justic' apud Sadb'ge ad L sd' & paruerut 
amerc'. 

It'm tempi diet! B E]^ misit d'ns Petms de Bras nsqne Hertpde qoendam ser- 
▼ientem snum qui vocabat' Hugo de Hanbgere & plures alios qui oeput borgensem de 
Hertrepol cigos nomen erat Oerardns de Seton & doxerut eu nsque ad Skdton & ibi 
retenf fnit in castro q'd Fetus de Bros imposuit d eo q'd fait consentiens E]h de 
oontendoe que erat de wrecoo quo andito d'ns Epus sdempniter exco'iavit omes illos 
noiatim qui illu cepunt int' aquas & sic rediit dc'us Gerardus quiet' ad domu snd p' 
districoo'es & suspenc'ones qnas Epiis fedt in Hertnesse & p' caption' dc'i Gerardi 
amciat' fait Petrus de Brus p' justic' Epi ad xz lib' Et mem' q'd d'ns Epiis remiait 
d'co P. de Brus duo amerciament' &c. ad instandam Willi Coltis Albermarlie & Johis 
de Lacy Comitis Lincoln qui oomites occaco'e detencois pd'oe & ob aliam ca'm venerut 
ad Sp'm nsque Derlyngton & ibi moram fecerunt p' tree dies ad supplicand' & tnio- 
tand' de pace int' Ep'm & dc'm Petru ad dc'or Comit' infltAnwum padficata fuit con- 
tendo pd'ca. Ita q'd ab illo tempore dcs Ep's habuit wreccum maris absq' contra- 
dicco'e. Item temp' dc'i Bio'i Ep'i fuit contendo de quodam Batdlo sed Ball'i Ep'i 
oeperaut dc'm Batell' & retinuerut ad opus Ep'i & pceptu fuit vie' Sadb'g p' justic' 
q'd de maremio illius batelli fieret aliquod memoriale & de malo illius Batelli &cta 
fiiit quedam crux que adhuc stat in campo de Sadb'ge in quodam loco qui ▼ooaf 
Blakelawe in alta strata juzta Sadb'ge & H'trepol & de virga ydi dc'i B^elli fiiota 
Mt quedam p'tica sup' qua ponuitiir oere & caadde in eod'ia de Sadb'ge.-— ^tii<^ 



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HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 27 

Robert de Bros, the Wednesday market at Hartilpolej formerly 
granted to his father; and added thereto a fau% yearly^ for three 
daysj Tiz. upon the feast 'day of St Lawrence^ and two days 
following/'* 

This Robert de Bros gave a house and two boats to the 
monks of Durham^f H^ ^^ ^* ^* 12^> and was succeeded 
by Robert the sixth of that name. Lord of Axmandale^ who 
married Isabel, the daughter of Gilbert de Clare, Earl of Glou- 
cester4 In the year 1264, assisted by John Comyn, and John 
de Baliol, he led a numerous army from Scotland, to support 
Henry III. in opposing the pretensions of his turbulent barons ; 
and at the disastrous battle of Lewes, May 14, the King, 
Prince Edward, John Comyn, and Robert de Brus, with many 
others, were taken prisoners, and the Scotch auxiliaries almost 
entirely aQmhilated.§ 

He buflt the haven and wall about the town of Hartlepool, 
with ten towers on each side of the haven, which haven would 



* Bag. Bar. I. 449. 

t Carta BoherH de Brus de Memsura in JSertUpole et duobut bateUit, 

Robertos de Bras onmilnii videntibofl yel aodientibus has literas salutem Sciatis 
me conaentientibas et conoedentibat heredibtLs meis dedieee et conoeasisse et preaenti 
carta eonfirmaaae Deo et Sancto Catbberto et monachia qua de Donelmo pro amma- 
bui patztB et matris md et amBiam paientam meorom et pro me et ozore mea et 
iQiii meis mansoram iDam in Hertilpole qoto foit Gflberti ikbri com domiboa et toto 
ad eam pertmente et daos bateUos ad piacandmn in poram et perpetaam elemosinam 
liberam et qoietam ab omni contaetudine et serncio qood de terra yd bargagio exigi 
poasH. hiia test Roberto WiUelmo et Bamardo filiis meis. — Chartular IL Ecdee, 
Dmnelm,fo, 125. 

John Prior, and convent of CKsbum, gaye two marks annnity out of lands in 
HartlepoQl, to Robert son of Robert de Bros, in exchange for the manor of Castle 
£den» which the said Robert recognized in the Bishop of Dnrham's conrt at Sad- 
berge, in the 2d year of the pontificate of N. de Famham, then Biahop A. D. 1242. 
The same Robert confirmed the said grant, and gave the nativea of that TiDage, with 
an their funiHea and chattels, which was confinned by Bishop KeQow, 1811. — 
Burton' f Mcmatt. Ebor, p. 342. 

% Gilbert daze, Coonte of Olooestre, did greatly maynteyn the qoard of Robert 
Braise by csose he had married hia sister. — Leh Col. 2. 589. 

4 Id. Cd. 1. 174. — In the Bolden book, is a list of " les nomes des chivallers 
demorantea en le franchise de Duresme demy T^ne et Teys, q. ftirent a Baner en )e 
temps de Roy Henry fitz le Roy John, a le Battaille de Lewea, &c. Amongst 
whom is mentioned Fiere de Bmys, demorant a Hert 



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28 HISTOEY OF HARTLEPOOL. 

contain one hundred 99^.* At an inqnisition taken at New- 
castle^ before Hugh de Gressinghami and his fellow josticesj 
touching the liberties of the Bishop of Durham^ A. D. 1293^ 
it appeared that Bobert de Brus^f had at Hartlepool market 
and fair, the assize of bread and ale^ and all other liberties be- 
longing to market and fair — a sea-port^ where he received 
keelage^ viz. for every ship plying there eight-pence, and for 
every ship without a boat fourpence, and also the prisage§ of 
fish. Hartlepool, with other places within the bishop's liberty, 
bemg thereby found, by the same record, to be all within the 
county of Northumberland, by the reason that the Bishop ap- 
peared not as usual before the King's justices ; but the^ Bishop 
having pleaded his rights in parliament, had full restitution of 
his liberties. 

This Bobert took an active share in all the political trans- 
actions of his country, and at the advanced age of eighty-one, 
engaged in a competition for the vacant throne of Scotland. — 
The principal claimants were Brus and Baliol ; the former, as 
being the son of Isabella^ the second daughter of Earl David, 
brother to William King of Scots, and the latter as the son of 
Dervorgil, daughter of Margaret, Earl David's eldest daughter. 
King Edward, whose conduct towards Scotland was marked by 
the most consummate hypocrisy and injustice, gave judgment 
in 1292, in favor of John de Baliol, whom he declared ''the 

♦ Vide Chapter on " tlie waOfl." 

t Item, Robertas de Brus babet apod Hertdpool m libertate prsdicti episcopi 
xnercatmn et feriam et emendas assisae panis et cervisise firact', et ornnes libertates 
quse ad feriam et mercatmn pertinent, et portum maris, et capit ibi killaginm, 
BcUioet, de qoalibet navi cmn bateUo applicante ibi, octo denarios, et de qoalibet 
navi sine battello quatuor denarios, et capit ibi prisas pisdmn, &c — Bymer's Fded, 
r. 8. 572. 

X Keelage, whereby he had by custom what is here expressed, for the keel of every 
ship that came into his seaport with a boat — BUmnfs Tenures, Keel was the name 
of the ships used by the Banes, Saxons, &c. — W. of Mahuburyt Renrnfa Sist. of 
Eng. 62, chap 6. 

\ This term is more frequently applied to wine. " Prisage of wine. An. I, ff, e. 
6. is a word almost out of use, now called Builerage : it is a custom whereby the 
prince challenges, out of every bark loaden with wine, containing less than forty tun, 
two tun of wine, at his price'' — Blounfs Glostographia. 



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mSTOBY OF HARTLEPOOL. 29 

rightful heir'' to the kingdom of Scotland. Bobert de Briu 
resigned all his rights and pretensions to his son^ and retired to 
the castle of Lochmaben^ where he died on Good Friday, 1295.* 

Bobert (the serentii) succeeded to the power and pretensions 
of his father. He followed the banners of Edward into Pales- 
tine, A. D. 1269.t Shortly after his retnm from the crusade, 
he met by chance Martha, the only daughter and heiress of 
Adam, late Earl of Carrick, going on a hunting expedition, 
with a large retinue. Bobert de Brus is described as being at 
this time " an illustrious knight, and a most beautiful young 
man.'' The lady, according to Fordun, gave him the salutations 
and embraces ''usual in courts," and requested him to partake 
of her diyersions. " When he betrayed a reluctance to her pro- 
posal, she forcibly drew his reins back with her own hands^ and 
led the knight against his will " to her castle of Tumbery, 
where she kept him in gentle durance for '' fifteen days or 
more." They were shortly afterwards married without ^either 
the knowledge of their mutual Mends and relations, or what 
was still more requisite, the previous consent of her guardian, 
the Eling, who immediately seized her estates; but by a fine, 
and the interposition of their friends, her feudal delinquency 
was pardoned, and Bobert, by the courtesy of Scotland, became 
Earl of Carrick. From this marriage, says Fordun, sprung a 
son, ''the future saviour, champion, and King of the Scottish 
nation."! 

He was a nobleman of distinguished talents, and acted a 
splendid part in all the pubUc transactions of the times in which 
he liyed.§ He died in 1304, and was succeeded by his eldest 

* The competitor'B seal if engraved by Astle, pi. iii. No. 5. The motto "Esto 
fearox ut leo." 

t Edward I. lent £40 to Robert de Bros, Earl of Carrick; they had been oom- 
pmiona in arms during the wars of Palestine. — Lord HtMs AmuUi qf Scotland, 
B^, Fofd. 1. 178. 

X Scotichronicon. 

§ According to Fordun, Edward had promised to raise Robert de Bms the Seventh, 
to the throne of Scotland, and on being reminded of his promise, he replied ** Ne 
aooms ren aatres chose a £er que avonse reanys ganter." Have I nothing to do but 
to conquer kingdoms for you. 



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30 HISTORY OP HARTLEPOOL. 

snrviving son, Robert the Eighth^ who was Lord of Annandale 
and Earl of Carrick. 

" In his earlier years^'^ says Lord Hailes, "he acted on no 
regular plan ; by turns the partisan of Edward and the vice- 
gerent of BaUol, he seems to have forgotten or stifled his pre- 
tensions to the crown, but his character developed itself by 
degrees, and in maturer age, became firm and consistent/^ 

In the year 1305, after the death of Baliol in exile, Bruce 
thought the period was at length arrived, when he might at- 
tempt the deliverance of his country from the dominion of 
England. His measures were marked by deep sagacity and 
penetration, and conducted with extreme secresy ; and until the 
death of John Comyn, of Badenock, in the church of the minor 
Friars, at Dumfries, by the hand of Bruce, Feb. 10th, 1306, 
Edward seems to have entertained no suspicions of his inten- 
tions. This fatal event, which has been so variously repre- 
sented by historians,* and which was probably the result of a 
passionate altercation, obliged Bruce to the immediate declara- 
tion of his pretensions to the crown of Scotland, in order to 
avoid the almost certain consequence of an ignominious death. 

He was immediately declared a traitor and a rebel by Edward, 
and his manor of Hartf was granted to Robert de Clifford, and 
his heirs for ever, saving the rights of the church of St. 
Cuthbert; immediately afterwards, as an additional manifesta- 
tion of the King's satisfaction with the services of Robert de 
Clifford, he received a grant of the borough of Hertrepol, with 
its appurtenances, and also all other lands, tenements, &c. 
belonging to Robert de Brus, in the bishopric of Durham.]: 

* See Fordim, Lord HaOes, Bailxmr, &c. It ought to be remembered on thii 
occasion, that Comyn, the Earl of Bnchan, obtained from Baliol, in 1296, a grant of 
Annandale, and took poesession of Bmoe's castle of Lochmaben. — Lord HaU^a An, 
1. 240,-'Chalm€r's Caledonia, 

t Anthony Bek, then Bishop of Borham, asserting his right of forfeiture of war, 
seized the possessions of Robert de Bros, in the palatinate, but Edward I. by a stretch 
of royal power, soon deprived Bek of his anthority, and appointed Robert de Clifford 
guardian of the see. — ffUiory ofDurkam, I. 246. 

i Carta Jfrn Rob'ti de Clifford de man'io de H'te & Burgo de H'tepol. 

Edwardus &c. Archiepls &c. Sdatis q*d cu nup' p* bono & laudabili s'vicio quod 



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HISTORY OF HAETLEPOOL, 81 

Robert de Bras was crowned* at Soone, March 27, 1306, 
bat his power was ephemeral, and verified his wife'sf observation, 
that ''he would be a summer king, but not a winter king/' 
He was totally defeated near Perth, on the 19th of June follow- 
ing, and was obliged to fly to an obscure island, in the Irish 
channel, for safety.]: He was excommunicated by the Pope,§ 

dil*ciis k fidelis n'r Bob'tiu de Clifford nob' impendit, dederim' & ooncesserim' &oarta 
n'ra oonfinnaYerini' ma'nia de Hert cd ptin' in Epatu Danel'm qnod ftiit Bob'ti de 
Bros quondam Comitis de Carrik inimici & rebellis n'ri & quod rone inimidcie & re- 
beUionis cjuBdem necnon p' feloniam quam idem RoVtuB de Bros fecit int'fidendo 
fraodolenter & sedidose in ec^cljA ft'm minor* de DumMes coram magno altari Joh'em 
Comyn, de Badenagh ad paoem & fidem n'ram existentem sioq' aacrilegiu com*ittendo 
tanq* eachaeta n'ra ad manua n'ras devtoit, Hend & tenend* ddem Bob'to de Clifford 
& bedibua nua inp'petuu aalvo eodie sc'i CuthVti Dnnelm' & £pd cguadem lod ac 
sucoeaaorib* Ada jure ano &c. noa volentea p'fato RoVto de Clifford intuitu aenridi 
p'dicti gr'am nlnorem fiioe ac qua aecuritati quaen' potimua p'apicere in p'miaaia 
Yohmi' & concedim' p' nob' & hediV n'ria q'd idem Bob'tua de Clifford Burgu de 
H'trepol com p'tin neeon & alias traa & ten que d'cua Bob'tua de Brus huit in d'co 
Epatn die quo maniu Burgu traa & ten' p'dca erga noa foriafedt aicut p'dictum eat 
& que idem Bob'tua de Clifford yirtute donaoo'ia & oonceadonia n're p'dicte tanquam 
p'txn' ad man' de Herte eat ingreasua & que modo tenet be'at & teneat sibi & bedib' 
ima in p'p^uu tanqnam p'tinda ad maniu p'dictu una cu feodis militu adyocaoob' 
eediar dotib' cum aodderint k rer'sionib aliar' traa & ten' quorcur* chaceia & omi- 
media alua libta^' lilua conauetudiniV ad man' Burgu baa & ten p'dca qualit'r 
ptinentib, &c. Salfo Ecdie Sd Cuthb'ti &c. Hiia teatib' W. Coventren' & lidi Epo 
Thoma Comite Lancast'r Bado de Monte Hermeri Comite Glouoeatr' & H tfordie 
Guidone de BeUo campo Comite Warrewyk Adamaro de Valencia Jobe de Seg'ne 
Bob'to de la Warde aen' hoapidi n'ri & aliia Daf i^'d Lanreooat zr die Octob' anno 
regni trioeaimo qr'to. 

* The Counteaa of Bnchan, aiater to tbe Earl of Fife, whose fimiily enjoyed the 
priTikge of crowning the Kinga of Scotland, performed that ceremony at the corona- 
tion of Bobert de Brua. She waa aoon afterwarda ordered by Edward to be confined 
"in a cage to be constructed in one of the towera of Berwick." 

t Y. M. of Weatminater. Elizabeth, the aeoond wife of Bobert Bruce, waa taken 
priaooer by the Engliah, and treated with unmanly aererity ; the allowance for herself 
and femfly is stated at 208. by the week.~i^. Fad. iii. 468. In the number of 
serranta appointed to attend her is "a foot boy for her chamber, sober and not riotous, 
to make her bed. — "Eit de un ganon a ped, per demoror en sa chambre, t^ qui 
soit sobre, et ne un riotous, pour son lit taaeJ'^Fmd, ii. 1014. 

I And then was Bruise so beten with il fortunes, that he was left alone to take 
paaiage at the iales with ii mariners in a bote, that asked hym if he could td any 
tyding of Bobert Bruse.— Xe/. Col, 2. 548. 

§ That awful doom which canons tdl 
Shuts paradise, and opens hell ; 
Anathema of power so dread. 
It blends the living with the deid,— C^^, (cpagf 82. 



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82 HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 

and underwent a series of hardships and misfortunes^ which 
ahnost exceed credibility ; being frequently reduced to depend 
on his own exertions in hunting or fishings to supply the means 
of his daily subsistence, but ''the ardent zeal with which the 
nobles contended for the independence* of the kingdom^ the 
prudent valour of Bruce^ and^ above all^ a national enthusiasm 
inspired by such a cause, baffled the repeated efforts of Edward, 
and counterbalanced all the advantages which he derived from 
the number and wealth of his subjects/'f 

Edward I. died on the 7th of July, 1307, and even in his 
last moments he charged his son to prosecute his ambitious 
projects against the liberties and independence of Scotland ;% 
but Edward II. was a weak and irresolute prince, the tool of 
favourites, and ill qualified to carry into effect the unjustifiable 
designs of his father. 

Bids each good angel soar away. 
And every ill one daim his prey; 
Expels thee from the chnrch's care 
And deafens heaven against thy pray'r ; 
Anns every hand against thy life, 
Bans all who aid thee in the strife ; 
Nay, each whose socconr, cold or scant. 
With meanest abns rdievea thy want ; 
Haunts thee while living — and, when dead. 
Dwells on thy yet devoted head, — 
Bends honour's scutcheon from thy hearse. 
Stills o*er thy bier the holy verse 
And spurns thy corpse from hallowed ground, 
Plung like vile carrion to the hound I 
Such is the dire and desperate doom. 
For sacrilege decreed by Rome. 
Address of the Abbot to Bobert de Brus.— v. Zordqfihe Isles, Canto ii. Si. xxvin. 
* Barbour exclaims — 

A 1 fr«dome is a noble thing I 
Freedmn mayss man to haiff liking 
Freedom all solace to man giffis ; 
He levys at ese that frely levys ! Tke Bnoyse, 1. 825. 
t Bobertson*s History of Scotland. 

i Nothing can more stron^y mark Edward's antipathy to Scotland, than the 
inscription whidi was, doubtless at his command, engraven upon his tomb : — 
BDWABJ)VS PBIMVS SCOTTORVM MALLEUS HIC EST 
PACTVM SBRVA. 
Scmtyord's Oeneahyical ERitory qfiht Engs cf England, p, 186, 



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HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 38 

A. D. 1811^ the partisans of Brace had increased to a most 
powerM army, which invaded the bishopric of Durham, and re- 
turned to Scotland laden with spoil. In the following year, a 
similar inroad took place; the King established his head-quarters 
at Chester-le-street, and detached Sir James Douglass with a 
considerable force, ''who penetrated to Hartlepool^ carrying off 
much spoil, and many prisoners of both sexes/''*' 

In the year 1314, the celebrated battle of Bannockburn, so 
disastrous to England, firmly established Brace on the throne of 
Scotland. The English army, under the immediate command of 
the feeble Edward II. was routed with immense slaughter, and 
Robert de Clifford, Earl Marshal of England, who had succeeded 
to the possessions of Bras, in the bishopric of Durham, was 
amongst the number of the slain. 

^ HemingfoRl, 1. 262. Kerr's Robert the Broce, v, 8. p, 404. 



A PENNY OF ROBERT DE BRUS 
KING OF SCOTLAND. 



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34 HISTOBY OF HARTLEPOOL. 

The Scots foUowed up their successes^ laying the county of 
Durham under heavy contribution^ and in the succeeding year 
they again penetrated into the bishopric^* where they particu- 
larly plundered Hartlepool. This place, and the manor of Hart, 
had formed no inconsiderable portion of the extensive possessions 
of their gallant Eang ; and it is natural to suppose, that after 
it had been wrested from his family and given to another, it 
would become more particularly an object of jealousy, and con- 
sequently of plunder and destruction. According to Bidpath,t 
the inhabitants succeeded in saving a part of their property, by 
means of some ships which happened to be in the harbour. 

Hartlepool was at this period a port of considerable import- 
ance, and the continual wars waged against the liberties and 
independence of Scotland, by Edwards I., II., and III., would 
naturally attract the attention of these sovereigns, to a port so 
conveniently situated. In the 29th year of Edward L A.D. 
1299, a ship is mentioned belonging to Hartlepool, with a crew of 
twenty-seven men, which, together with two barges, was employ- 
ed in the transport of provisions for the use of the King^s army at 
Stirling and Edinburgh ; the rate of wages is stated at 6d. per 
diem for the master, and 3d per diem for each common sailor.]: 

* The Kyng Robert the marches whole destroied. 
The castles wanne, and bet them to the gromid; 
And an Scotland afore that he had noyed 
Obeyed^to him and were his lieges bound. 
And mainteined wd, then forth all Scotland groan'd. 
The bishopricke of Duresme, all throughout 
Northumberland, he went with host ful stout. 

Harding a Chronicle, 
t Border History, p. 249. History of Durham, 1. 262. 
X Will'mo le Jetour, magfo navis I)ei de Hertelpol, pro vadiis suis et 26 sodorum 
suorum nantarum cjusdem navis, et 2 bargearum ejusdem retentomm ad vad' B^^ 
pro victoalibus ipsius Begis salvo conducend' de Berewyco super Twedam usque 
Strivelyn, pro munidone ejusdem mensis, utroque comp.' per 8 dies, predicto Magro 
per diem 6d. et cuilibet alii uaute per diem Sd. £2 16s. Bidem pro vadiia suis et 
64 sociorum suorum nantarum eorumdem navis et bargearum retentorom ad vadia 
Begis ad suffidentem skipesonam habendam in eodem viagio, a 10 die Deoembr* usque 
21 diem gusdem mensis, quo die lioentiati fuerunt ad reeedend' versus propria cum 
dicta navi una bargea sua retenta, utroque comp', per 12 dies, cuil't per diem ut prius, 
£9 IBs.. Summa £12 148. Eidem, pro vadiia tsm et 24 sodonun nautarom 



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VOL. of Mauriee Lord Berkelj. 



, M atada, dao. of Thomas de Beanchamp 
Eail of Warwick. 



ftapnr » Ralph Earl of Westmoreland, 
I 2d husband. 



^Bail of Northumber) 



Percy, 



floarried 
4th' 



Ub 



2. Anne, dao. of William 
LordDacre. 



ladj Margaret BoBsd, 
. of Fnmda Burl of Bedford. 



de 



Erands, 4th Earl. 



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HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 86 

Frequent grants of murage* appear to have been received 
daring the reigns of Edward II. and III., and it may be 
naturally concluded that the fortifications were an object of 
great consideration. In the year 1310, when Edward II. was 
preparing for an expedition from Ireland to Scotland, the sea- 
port towns were ordered to send their service of ships due to 
the crown, and in the enumeration of those towns which '' were 
probably the principal trading sea-ports in England,*'t Hartle- 
pool is mentioned. 

Bobert de Clifford, who was slain at the 
battle of Bannockbum, was '' a person emi- 
nent for his services to the kingdom, and his 
deserved favor with both kings, Edward I. 
and Edward his sonne. And though hee were 
upon all occasions engaged in foreign differences, especially 
with the Scotts, yet wee find him not much entangled with broils 
at home: but hee always soe kept the king^s favor that hee lost 
not the love of the nobility and kingdom, and by that means had 
an easye access to the improvement of his honours and great- 
nesse. Hee was employed upon all occasions in ofSces and ser- 
vices of the greatest trust, both military and civil ; having the 
advantage of a most close education in his youth, under a prince 



assignatomm ad eondem in qnadam bargea qnsdem WOli yenoB Edeneburgh cnm 
Tictoalibos usque ibidem salvo condooend', pro mnnicione qusdem castri, a 22 die 
Deccmbr* usque 10 die Januar', utroque oomp', per 22 dies cuilibet per diem ut prius 
£6 10b,— y. 271, Wardrobe account of the 2Sth year of STinff Edward L published 
bff the Antiquarian Society. 
♦ V. Chapter on "The Walls." 

t Anderson's History of Commerce, 1. 279. Rym. Feed. ii. 222. In the 7th 
Edward III. the King orders the Bishop to distrain Peter de Marrajs, one of the 
collectors of the customs on sheep skins and hides in the port of Hartlepool, and that 
he be brought before the barons of the exchequer, at Wesbuinster, on the 10th day 
of February, The persons who seized the said Peter are 

ROGBEUS LEWYN, de Hertrqwl. 

HUGO LAMBE de eadem. 

HENRICUS de ASLACKEBY. 

WILLTS de HALTON. 

Bishop Kcttov^t Uegister. 



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86 HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 

most eminent for -both. Hee lived an active life, and dyed an 
honoorable death/^'i' 

He was succeeded by his son Boger, at that time a minory 
wben KeUow, bishop of Durham, immediately appointed W. de 
Elmedon his bailiff over all the lands and tenements, &c., 
" which belonged to Robert de Clifford, lately dead, in Hert, 
and Hertness,''t Matilda, his widow, being allowed one-third 
part of these manors as her dowry4 In the same year the 
Bishop granted a lease to Bichard le Mason, of the town of 
Hartlepool, together with the bake-house, water mills, and the 
mill of Hert, for the term of one year, at the rent of £84. 
saving to the Bishop prisage, customs, and all other things 
belonging to him, and to the church of Durham, on account of 
his royal dignity.§ This curious record (when the relative dif- 
ference of the value of money is considered) affords a satis« 
hctory account of the flourishing condition of Hartlepool at 
this period. 

Soger de Clifford joined the party of Thomas, Earl of Lan- 
caster, in opposmg the tyranny of Edward II. ; but their efforts 
were unavailing, and in the fSatal battle at Boroughbridge, A.D. 
1821, the barons were totally defeated. Roger de Clifford 
was amongst the immense number of prisoners. Judgment of 
death was pronounced against him, '' soe that all his lands were 
seized into the king's hands, as forfeited : but by reason of his 
great wounds, || being held a dying man, ye execution was res- 

* This and the following narrative of the Cliffords between inyerted commas, is 
from the MSS. of Sir Matthew Hale, entitled "Titles of Honour.and Pedigrees, 
especially touching Clifford,** quoted hj Whitaker in his History of Craven. 

t Bishop Kellovr's Register— the appointment is dated xix. Aug. 1814. 

i Cest endcnture entre Sire Bichard p* la g*ce de Dicu Evesq* de Doreame done 
parte et Dame Mauld que fti la feme Mons' Kob't de Clifford dautre p*t tetmoigne q 
le dit Bvesq' voet q la dite dame Maud du maner de H't et H'tdpole et onques 
me'bres avec tutes les aportcnanocs dunt le dite f Rob't iadis son baron morust seisi 
et les qucu le dit Evesq' dut cstre le dreit de sa eglise seint Cuthbert de Duresme est 
la tierce parti ateux en nom de dowrc sauv de dreit le dit evesq' de ccs successors, &c. 
&c. 23 Octob', 1314. 

§ Bishop Kellow's Register. 

U Syr Roger Clifford was sore wounded on the hcddc.— ie/. W. 2. 464. 



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HISTOEY OF HARTLEPOOL. 87 

piled for a tyme/^* The manor of Hert, and town of Hert- 
dpol^ forfeited by Clifford's rebellion, were now granted by 
Edward II. to John, Earl of Bichmond, who was the King's 
lieutenant, and cnstos of Scotland ;t titles which would natu- 
raUy render him extremely obnoxious to Bobert de Brus, by 
whose troops he was surprised at Biland Abbey,^ A. D. 1322^ 
when, by the determined bravery of his defence, he gave the 
King (Edward II.) an opportunity to make his escape. The 
Earl of Bichmond was taken prisoner, and Bruce is said to have 
"determined never to give him his liberty again/'§ " He was 
mollyfied at last, it seems, by the interposition of the Pope, who 
concerned himself in that affair, or rather by a great sum of 
money, towards the discharge whereof the King desired the as- 
sistance of Parliament in the 17th year of his reign, but not 
obtaining it, had recourse for it by his letters hortatory to the 
Earl's tenants, so that after about two years imprisonment he 



* He is stated to hare suffered death by Dogdale, &c. "and strait after Syr Roger 
Oifford, &c. were put to dcth at York."— X<?/. CoL 2. 465. 

t 1822. An. 15, Ed. II. Rex yicesimo tertio die Marti, pro bono et landabili ser- 
Tito, quod Jobanes de Brittannise Comes RichnmndsB regi bactenns impendit & impen- 
det in ftitnrmn, dedit et concessit, nt sapra, eddem comiti maneirinm de Hert & villam 
de Hertelpol, com pertinentiis, in episcopatu Dunebnensi qnse fderunt Rogeri de 
Clifford inimid & rebellis Regis. — B/ymef^a Tad. iii. 941. 

% Tbe King seyng femyne and detb jn bis bost recoylid. James Doglas, and 
Tliomas Randol, capitaines of tbe Scottes seyng tbis, made a greate rode into Nor- 
tbnmbreland, and destroiyng tbe country aboute went fortb to Nortbabreton, and 
brent it. And King Edward seyng tbis, reysid bis bost beyond Trent, and tbey en- 
coontcared witb tbe Scottes at Beigbknde Abbaye xv days after Micbebnes, and tbere 
were tbe Engliscb menne discnmfited. And tbere Jobn of Bretayne, Erie of Ricbe- 
mont, was taken prisoner. — Lei, Col, 2. 466. 

S Lord Hailes says tbat tbe King bad formerly received some discourtesies from 
tbe Earl of Ricbmond, — and Barbour states tbat 

" Wben be saw Jobn of Britain 

He bad at bim rigbt great engraigne 

For be was wont to speak bigbly 

At borne, and o'er despiteously, 

And bad bim bave bim away on by 

And look be keeped were straitly ; 

And said, '* were it not tbat be were 

Sik a cative, be sbould bny sore 

His words tbat were so angry." The Bncyte, 898, 894 



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88 HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 

was enlarged/'* and he afterwards ''went ynto France^ and 
never returned ynto England agayn/'f 

The Scots invaded England in the first year of the reign of 
Edward III. 1327, and lay at Stanhope Park, in the county of 
Durham. Edward assembled an immense army for the purpose 
of expelling the invaders, and a naval force was ordered to lie at 
the mouth of the Tees. The Scots retreated to th^ir own 
country,]: and the enterprise of Edward entirely failed in its 
object, and terminated in disappointment and dishonour. 

In the same year died Roger de Clifford, " childless and un- 
married.^' Robert de Clifford being his brother and heire, in 
parliament holden in the fourth year of Edward TIL was re- 
stored to the possessions of his ancesUnrs by " a general act of 
restitution.'' 

Hartlepool was now held under Lewis Beaumont, then Bishop 
of Durham, who advanced his claim in the early part of the 
reign of Edward III. to the lands forfeited during the reign of 
Edward I. in the palatinate. He stated that his predecessors 
had enjoyed time beyond memorj jura regalia inter aquas de 
Tine ^f Teee, and though Edward I. in the plenitude of regal 
power, had deprived Bishop Bek of his authority, when he 
seized the manors of Hert and Hertness, as a forfeiture of war, 
yet jthe right still subsisted, and the Bishop prayed restitution 
from the Parliament. It was adjudged that the Bishop should 



* Gales' Historical Discourse upon the Dacal Family of Brittany, and Earls of 
Bichmond. 
t Ld. Col. 2. 466. 

% When the young King knew that the Scottcs were fled without hurt, he wept 
tendrely.— X<?/. Col 2. 475. 

According to Barbour, artillery was employed by Edward during this campaign. 
Twa novdties that day the saw, 
That foroth in Scotland had been nane, 
Timbers for helmes was the ane. 
That they brought then of great beautie. 
And also wonder for to see ; 
The other crak^t were of war, 
That they before heard never air. 

The Bncyse, p, 408, 409. 



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mSTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 39 

bave bis royal liberty, and Hert and Hertness were agam 
placed under the jurisdiction of the see.* 

Daring the early part of the reign of this monarch, Hartle- 
pool is frequently mentioned in the Botuli Sootise, and from the 
constant requisitions of the Monarch for ships and sailors, it 
would naturally appear to have been at this early period a port 
of rery considerable importance. In his first year " two good 
and sujfici^it ships of 60 tons burthen and above/' are ordered 
to be selected fix>m the shipping of the port of Hartlepool, 
'^ equipped with armed men, victuals and other necessaries,'' 
to be placed at the disposal of the admiral of the fleet. In the 
8th year of his reign, the bailiffs of Hartlepool are ordered to 
detain all ships above 40 tons burthen, which having been carried 
rigidly into effect, a subsequent order liberates all vessels 
'^jfrom parts beyond the seas." In the 9th Edward III. the 
town of Hartilpole is ordered to provide one ship for the service 
of the King, which ship shall be manned with 100 men, as 
weU " seamen as archers." In the same year a burgess of 
Hartilpole, " Nicholas de Bruntoft,'' received the King's pro- 
tection for two ships of war, manned with his ''seamen and 
servants," which are to be employed in ''annoying the Scots." 

In the ISthf Edward III. two merchants at Hartilpole re- 
ceive permission to carry provisions " to those towns in Scotland 
in possession of the English." 

It will be unnecessary to quote a variety of similar records 
which all tend to the same object, but which evidently shew 



* BogeniB de Clifbrd tenuit etiam maneria de Hert ft Hertness in capite de Ed- 
wsrdo n. infra bl)ert«te8 Sancti Cuthberti. Sed Edwardns ista jossit episcopo 
Dnndmend per brevia ana restitm. — Zel. Col. 2. 892. 

t III this year, tlie King granted to Jolin de Strivelin {^ feodo) a yearly income 
of 200 marcs out of the customs of the towns of Newcastle upon Tyne and Hart- 
ilpole, imtil he should grant him the same yearly income from land, within the 
kingdom of England. — Calendartum Rotulorum PeUenHum, 

" In the year 1886, (says Hntchinson, v. 8. p. 21.) the Soots mider the condoot of 
Malcolm, raTaged all the country on the banks of the Tees, croeDy plundering and 
destroying the Tillages." This account howerer is evidently a mistake, as Halcohn 
IV. the last of that name, who reigned in Scotland, died in December, 1169, 



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40 HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 

the condition of tbe port^ and its means of assisting the gorem- 
ment in the prosecution of his wars against Scotland. 

Of Aobert de Clifford^ who succeeded his brother Roger in the 
possession of the manors of Hert and HertUpoIe^ much cannot 
be said. '' He rose with the rising sun^ King Edward III. by 
which means he had the opportunity to recover the inheritances 
which his elder brother's misfortunes^ and the troubles of those 
times^ had for a while lost/' He died May 20^ in the 18th 
year of Edward III. seized inter alia, "o{ the manors of Hert 
and Hertnesse^ in the bishopric of Durham.''* 

His wife Isabella survived him^ and she is likewise stated to 
have died possessed of the manor of Hart, with Hartilpole^f 
then in the county of Northiunberland, though Bishop Bury, in 
the same year, (the successor of Bobert de CMord being a 
minor,) seized the manors into his own hands, and ordered 
William de Morden, his escheator, ''to keep them in safety 
until he should give some other order, and to account for the 
revenues derived from thence,*' fee. J 

In the year 1345, Bishop Bury issued his mandate, in obedi- 
ence to an order from the King, to array ships at Hartlepool, 
which were placed under the command of Robert de Ufford, 
Earl of Suffolk, admiral of the King's whole fleet, from the 
mouth of the Thames, to the northward.§ 

* Dog. Bar. 1. 840. 

By an inquisition taken it the death of Bobert de Clifford, it appears that the 
manor of Hert, (then valued at £100 per annnm,) was held by him of the Bishop of 
Durham, for the servioe of two Knights' fees, &o« 

Comp*tu' est p' inqnis'coem capf ap'd Sadberg coram, &c. px' post fiesta* nativita- 
tis sc*i Joh'is Bspt* anno pont' d'ni Bic'i Ep'i Dunelm* undecimo q'd Petms de Brays 
nup* d'ns de Hert tenuit in capite maniu' p'dc*m com ptin' de p'deceesorib's d'ni ep'i 
nunc Dunelm' at de jure ecd'ie sue Dunelm' p' s'Tidu' door* foedor* miUta* & p> 
co'em sectam Wapp'n Sadberg de trib's septimanis in tres septimanas. £t Bob'tas 
de Clifford tenuit maniu' pd'cm in capite ut de jure eccl'ie, &c. £t pd'om man' valet 
p' ann' centum libras. £t Bob'tas fil' Bob'ti p'dd est heres ejus p'pinquior et etatis 
qnatuordedm annor. 

t Isabella uxor B. de Clif. Herth maner* com Hertilpole, Northumb. — Ltptii, 
jpoit mortem Calendaritim, temp, Ed. UT, 

t History of Durham, 1, 295. 19th May, 1844. 

i History of Darham, 1, 294, where the record is given at length. Dug 
Bur. 2, 48. 



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HISTORY OP HARTLEPOOL. 41 

He likewise iqppimited Jobn de Nesbyt, burgess of Hartlepoot^ 
to Cdlldct tlie pnage oi wines, and nlxsq^e of doih, wilkin the 
port of Hartlepool, and fhiouglioat the palatinate;'!' and he also 
granted a diarto to empower the bailifib of Hartkpool, to eol- 
leet tolls on certain articles expooed for sale, hr ii» space of 
twoyearstf 

Robert de Cfiflbrd, ihe son of Bobert and Isabella, "was 
but (tf the age of 18 yeacsj: at his Other's dmth, and in ward 
to the king/' He served in the French wars, and was with the 
Black Prince at the battle of Creasy. On the erent of this 
celebrated battle^ the king sent letters to sereral cities and 
towns in the kingdom ; and Hartlepool was one of those dis- 
tingiushed by the sovereign on this occaaion.§ In the same 
year, 1846, David IL King of Scotland, taking advantage ol 
die absence of Edward III. invaded Oigland, and fixed his 
caa^ «t Bear Ptszk^ (Bean-repaxre,) near Durham ;j{ the 17th 
day of October the battk cl NeviH's Cross took place, when 
the Scottish army was defeated, and the King taken priscmer. 

In tbe foDowing year, the fleet of Edward 111.^ lay before 
Calais, whidi was then besieged. It "consisted of 788 "RnglliJ^ 
shqps, carrying 14,966 mariners, being bitt twenty men to each 
sh^ oki an average, each having 4d per day for their pay,^ 



* mrtory 6t Diidum» 1, 298. Spetnaaa'ft Ehq. p. IS^ 

t ▼. Cbttpter M ''Hie CovpontioiL" 

t lAtlMliiq'. p'.m'.heitttitoitokiivebeeii U yaan old at his fktfaer's dMth. 

4 Bymei'sRBd.ft. 62». ''InlHiidi (bd;tI4 PhaipaidlittMsociates wencon- 
qaend. by diriiie umaitiDet, and Fhilip betook biniadf to flighty Mme of kie pwSffpiJ 
^Aeenboiag left dead eattefdd; meotieqaausewdgnretbiaikato Godalonewbo 
lai gSven tts Tietocy." ^ ^/ ( f nary jm^ die Septembrit, 

I Ikwid Bi^ray bj CKdrtatMQ of the King ef Ynaaob, zebeOi^ and cam yn to 
Kb#mI iritb a great berte ott to NefiBe's GroMe, and th' anbbiahqp of Yodc, with 
divene teB^onl bmd^ tegbt with byai* aid the aayd King of Scottea was takei^ and 
WiBiiB^ Xrk Bbi^i^ and the Bde «f Mem^ wen braii^ to Loadon, and maoj 
•DatLoidaa aiayae^ idiuh Daty did homage to Edward^ King of Snghnde^— JML 
arf.8.10. 

f An dB Wua 'i Hiatery of CMimBwe, 1, 880. 

•• "The ran of the huge fleete of Bdwaid the Third befon Calioe, extant is the 
King*! wardrobe in London, whenby the wondccM atcoigth of Ing|and by ^ in 
tlioae d^ea may ^peace."— JSoclAiffi^t Foy^yii^ 1,181. msi^JCS; mi Qfie, Jnm. 

I 



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42 HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 

Of this immenBe fleet, London furnished 26 ships, and 662 
men; Newcastle 17 ships, Hull 16, Scarborough 1, &c. and 
Hartlepool 5 ships, and 146 mariners. 

If this statement may be considered as a fjEubr criterion to 
determine the relative importance of the port towns in the 
kingdom, Hartlepool must have held a distinguished rank. 
The ships it furnished appear to have been manned much be- 
yond the average rate of equipment, and were probably larger 
vessels than the rest of the fleet. 

In the year 1354, the King (Richard II.) issued his mandate 
to his Admiral in the North Seas, to grant Bishop Hatfield* 
three ships from the ports of Tyne, or HertQpole, ''or any 
where else where it shall suit the said Bishop,'^ properly equip- 
ped and manned, to convey him to parliament.t 

The precise period of the death of Bobert de Clifford, who 
died without issue, in France, is not correcdy ascertained, 
though it is placed about the year 1862. j: 

Tlie rate of pay granted at the leige of Calais, is stated to haye been to mj Lord 
t}ie Prince, per diem £1 ; Bishop of Durham, 6s. 8d. ; 18 Earls, each 6s. 8d. — See 
Qroettt Mil. JfUiq, p. S78. 
* In Hatfield's siurey of the possessions of the See, 

D'ns Bog'us de Poltoip miL t. nn'm. ten. in Hertpol yoc. le heryn hawes 

r. p. ann. ad t. mar* ..XHd. 

Willms Daweason t. co'e. fom'm cum tdaet infir. bnig. r. ad fest. pasch. 

AMart Vlld. 

Johe's Hapsam & Bobtn's fiL ejns t. moL Tent, qns quid, mdend. ft 

fbm'm. vaL p. ann. LXXYIIs. VHd. 

Bishop Ha^eld granted to Boger Fnlthorp and his heirs for ever, a messuage at 
HertQpole, on the payment of 2s. per ann. Oct. 1. \%^,SutUeT^t MSS. Jkm md 
Ouiptei't Qfiee, 

Ckriefopher Euitier, M, 2). w<u ham in 1675 ; he wu an ewwteHi pJ^tieUm ai 
DurMam, and " very exact and maeterly in ike knowledge of anHqmHee:* He had 
aeeesi io the most valuable records in the possession of the Dean and Chapter, and 
made many volumes of eoUeetions for a history of the county. He unfortunately 
spilt a bottle of ink over the oriyinal magna eharta, for which apparent negUyenee 
he warexduded all access to the records in future. He retired from Durham to 
Unthank, in 1757, ufhere he died in the SSd year of his age. His MSS, consisting 
qf several volumes, written in a fair and curious hand, were purchased by the Dean 
and Gutpter for £40, from which numerous extracts are given in this kistory^-^, 
IRcholFs Literary anecdotes, vol, 8. p 288. 
t»History of Durham, 1, 808. 
4 Nichdion and Boni'i Cumboclaad, 1, 279. 



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HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 48 

He was saeceeded by his brotlier^ Boger Lord Clifford^ of 
whom ''there is KtUe extant upon record/' He Uved in the 
busy times of Edward III. and Richard IT. ; was a military 
man^ however, of distinguished gallantry and valonr, and 
''retained Sir Robert Mowbray, for peace and war, at ten 
pound per annum salary/' He was himself retained as a war- 
rior, according to the costom of those days.* 

In the year 1383, Bishop Pordham granted certain tolls to 
the burgesses, &c. for five years, in aid of enclosing the town 
of Hartlepool, and repairing and makmg the pavement of the 

same.t 

Bishop Skirlawj: also (temp. Richard 11.) granted similar 
commisnons, which will be more particularly noticed here- 
after. 

Roger de Clifford died " in peace at home, (which few of his 
ancestors or successors did,) in the 18th year of Richard II.''§ 
possessed (inter aUaJ "of the manors of Hert, and Hertilpole, 
with the towns of Elwyke, Stranton, and Brerton in Com. 

* Wliitikff's BMarf of Crsren, where the indentnret aie giyen at length in the 
origmal Ynmix, p, 245. 

Temp. Hatfiell The King (Richard II.) directs a writ to the Bishop, on the 
complaint of WiU. Canynges, Joh. Canynges, &c. merchants of Bristol, stating that 
divers carders had been issued Johi Hesilden, sen. Andrea Bronntoft, Joh. Hehneden, 
Joh. Goldsmyth, jnn. Tho. Landmote, Henr. Potter, WilL Midlam, Joh. Hexham, 
Tho. Appilton, Will. Sclyngeshj, Joh. Jacsoo, and IliomsB Gronnsot, (who had taken 
" with bnt little justice," a ship laden with goods and merchandise, as it was sailing 
towards Calais, and carried it to Hartlepool, within the liberty of the bishop, and did 
not restore the goods, or the yalne of them,) to appear before the King on a certain 
dtj, (then passed) to answer to the charge. However they " did not care " to appear, 
or to repay the denmnd, and it seemed that, being within the liberty of the bi^op, 
they considered themselyes beyond the reach of the law. The mayor and oommonalfy 
of the town of Hartlepool, by their letters sealed with the common seal, had likewise 
certified that the said persons took the ship and goods. Hie King therefore charges 
the bishop by his love and fidelity, that he do compel the said persons to appear 
without dehty before him at Westminster, to answer, &c., &c. Dated 18th Oct 
187«.— Dr. ITuHter^s MSS, 

t History of Durham, 1, 817> and y. Appendix, p. iy. 

He Hkewise granted his licence to commissioners, "ad levand' consuetudinem 
pecun' pro villa sen pera d' HartilpoL — Spearman* t Eng. p 16." 

{ History of Durham, 1, 824. — SpearmatCt Enq. p. 16. 

4 Nicholson and Bum's Cumberland, 1, p, 288. 



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44 HISTORT OF HARTLEPOOL. 

NQrthiimb.''* His widow died m tibie 4th yevr^ Heiirf IV. 
'^ seised of the manor of Bjui, with Harti[epool."t 

Of Thomas Lord Cliflbrd^ who suecoeded his firiher Bsgqr, 
"there is not msich to be ssid, for bo lived not widi 9b(0^ 
two yea^ after his £ither*s death/' and "dyed in the pwte 
beyond the seas on the 6th day after the f east of SU llidbaali 
in the 16th year of the reign of Bidiardll." 

He was sneeoedsd by his son John, who was on^ two y^ars 
of age ait his father's death* " Hee was a sonldierjaadheeliyed 
vnder a martial prinee, who by indentmo^ Peb, 9thj in the 4^1 
year of Henry V. retained him in his sendee^ for the wanre in 
ZVasoe, for one yeare,t it being oosnted no dishanoiirable 
thmg for peosons to malce themselTes an advantage : indeed^ it 
was in those martial times the trade of the nobility and great 



Im the year 1406^ it wis i^peeed in Parliament;, that the giaard 
of the seaa should be eommitted (agaiii) to the merdiairts of the 
kingdom, £rom May, 1406, to Miohadmas, 1407, for which 
service they were allowed certain duties. The King (Henry lY.) 
wrote to the piineipal towns and eitiei^ amongst which Hartle- 
pool is included, to demand their information, concurrence, and 
as8istance.§ 

Jobm, Lord Cliff<»d was killed at the si^ of Meaux, m 
Prance, March 8, in the 9th year of the reign of Henry Y . and 
was succeeded by his s(m TlM>mas, then<mly sei?en years of age. 

* Dug. B«r. 1, 840. 

One Bobert de Hede, knight, rBleased and quit daimed to this Boger, Lib heirft 
and asaigna, aH the right and daim in one measnage and tenement, in Fleet-Strect» 
next to St. Dnnatan'a church, which ia now one of the Inna of Chanoeiy, and still 
called Glifibrd'a hoL^l'ficMolson and Bum's CkmbtrUmd, 1. 279. 

t Inq. post mort amongst the papers of George Pooocke, Esq. M. P. 

X The rate of pay waa for himself 4a. for every Knight 2a. for eveiy Ssqnire la. 
and for every archer 6d. per diem. 

4 Anderson's History of Cbmmeroe. Bym. Foed. 8. 487. 

Temp. Neville Episc. Dun. He issued oommissiona for anaying ahipa, annia IS, 
17, et 21. Henry YLh^Mistory qf Durham, 1. 840. 

By an inquisition p. ul on the death of Isabella Sayer, in the second year of the 
episcopacy of Bishop Neville, it appears that ahe died aeised de uno hurgugio ^oito 
cum crojto, in the town of Hertilpole, which she held of the Lord Clifford. 



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HISTORY OF HABTUEPOOL. 45 

He was a militBiy man of great conaidecatioD^ and at ibe hattfe 
oi Voktien is stated to hare dothed Im men m wbifa^ ''it 
being then snow/' and by that means to bavie surprised tine 
townj abomttiie year 1488. He took part viih Henry VI. 
SgaiBflt Bidbard Plantagenet^ and his name beqwoHj ooesm 
vifli distineiicm in the mflifeary amuds of that period. 

On May 22, 14£5, he was slttn al the fiisfc bailie of fit. 
Alban'fl^ fighting fior his aovieeeign. Nothing xeinarkshk ap- 
pears to have occurred at Hartlepool during his life, except that 
in the year 1438 ''a warm inquisition was hddcn hy royal 
authority, against Bidiop Lang^ey,''^ and his royal prenogalireSy 
first at Hartib^odbSf and afterwards at Newcastle;^' the pro- 
neediag^ howeFer, though yioknt, pro¥ed a remarkable support 
to the tmmunities and privileges of tlie palatinate.t 

Thpmas was succeeded by his aon, John Lord CiiffodI, who 
was M «ealoos partisan in £he dril wars betweoi the rival houses 
of Todc and Lancaster, and pursned the adhftrentj of tibe latter 
with unrelenting enmity. 

In the year 1478, Bishc^ Booth granted a commisabn to the 
aayor and burgesses of Hard^ool, to make a fiet in the port 
of their town, and IScewise a4H)inmxs«ion to levy moixey for the 
aid of Hartlepool.! 

After tine second battle of St. AIban\§ King Henry TI. 
was brought to Iiord Cliffiord's tent, wheve he met Jm Quaes, 
and llieir son, Kince Edward. In the same year, tiie King's 
party was entirely defeated at the battle of Towton: John 
Lord Clifford, however, did not wttness the overthrow of his 

* Biflliflp Xtngky granted to John of Wdihj, «a4 ILiobajrfL VlJMum, mSkn of 
Hartlepool, (idio, idiilst in tlie eemoe of 1^ King, Bailing towuKLs Calaia, ^v«re 
taken by the men of Brittan7, and oUien the king'a epepiiei^ and eon^Pielled to pay 
ja hmfj fine and nnaom. to dl^tain tlieir liberty^ hia permiaaiQB that thej night 
xeoetre the eontributiona and idma of the faithftil, wtil the festival of the Mrth pf 
our Sanoor, next ensoing. Dated ^7ih March, I486.— ^fi«^# MSS, 

t Boone'a Newcaitle, p, 211. Hiftory ni Pnrham, 1. 882. 

i T. Appendix and Chapter on ^Tbe Pier." fiistoiy of Bnrham. 1. 860. 

§ The Sail of Butland (a younger aonne to the Dolce ol Yocke,) beng about 12 
yeem old, was also alaine by the Lord Clifford, a deed which wortldly Hc an iAe d the 
anthor.— ^»eni; S47. 



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46 HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 

Sovereiga, having died the night preceding the engagement, 
March 29, 1461, firom the wonnd of an headless arrow which 
pierced his throat. 

His attainder in the first year of the reign of Edward IV. 
was not reversed until the first of Henry VII. 1485.* He was 
socceeded by his son Henry, then only seven years of age, who 
daring the space of twenty-five years remained concealed in 
Cumberland, under the disguise, and with the manners of a 
shepherd. 

In the year 1501, Bishop Fox was removed from the see of 
Durham, in consequence of a controversy with the Earl of 
Cumberland,t " touching their right to the town of Hartlepool.'' 
Hutchinson says, the dispute was with the Earl of Northumber- 
land, but produces no authority to support ike assertion, nor is 
the precise subject of altercation to be discovered. Henry 
Lord Clifibrd was not exalted to the dignity of Earl of Cumber- 
land, until the jrear 1525, but these occasional errors in dates 

* The origmal petitioii, qaoted hy Tyiiitaker, is as follows :— 
" In most hmnUe and lowly wise, besecheth y'or highness, y'or true sahjecty and 
fiuthfiill Uefi^man, Heniy Clifford, eldest sonne to John, kte Lord Clifford, that when 
the same John, amongst other persons, for the tme service and £uthM legiance w'oh 
he did and owed to King Henry the aizt, yo'r nnde, in the parliament of Westmin- 
ster, the 4th day of November, in the first year of King Edward the fourth, was 
attainted and convicted of high treason; and by the same act yt was ordained, that 
the said John, late Lord, and his heires, from thenceforth should be disabled to have, 
hoold, inherite, or enjoy, any name of dignity, estate, or preeminence, within the 
realms of England, Irelande, Wales, Calais, or the Tnaw»liA> thereof and should for- 
feit all his castles, manors, landes, &c. he desireth to be restored. To the Vch 
petio'on the King, in the same pariiamH subscribeth, 

"Son PATEE COXB S8T DE8IBX." 

t Translatos erat ad Winchester ratione controversiB ortas inter emn et comitcm 
Cumberiandia pro jure de Hartlepoole. — Jm^, Sae. 1. 770. Hilner in his history of 
Windiester, says, the King (Heniy VII.) fining that his frequent sbsence at so ^eat 
a distance firom the court, vras prejudicial to his service, and wishing to have his advice 
on ai&irs of c on sequence, procured to have him removed in the same year that Lang- 
ton died, to 'Winchester. In Biog. Brit 8. 2017, he is stated to have "repaired 
Hartlepole oastle," which is evidently a mistake. 

In the Ifith year of Henry VIIl. Sept. 26. Johan prioress of the eonvent of St. 
Bartholomew, at Newcastle, granted to Perdval Lambton, for his life, a burgage;, or 
waste of theirs " in vioo vocat' Southgate, juxta cruoem ibidem," at the yearly rent 
of l^^Brand's BUhry iffNeweatOe, 1. 209. 

By an Inq. p. m. A. D. 1467, Tliomu Fnlthorp held 20 burgages in HcrtlepooL 



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HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 47 

are not tmconmioii in andent authors;* and it appears more 
probable that the Bishop's dispute should have been with Henry 
Lord Clifford^ the immediate Lord at that time of the manor of 
Herty and borough of Hartilpole^ with regard to the extent of 
their respective prerogatives. 

la the year 1613^ Henry Lord Clifford held a principal com- 
mand at Flodden Fields '' and shewed that the military genius 
of the £unily had neither been chilled in him by age^ nor 
extinguished by habits of peace/'f 

He died A. D. 1528^ and was succeeded by his son^ Henry 
Lcnrd Clifford, created Earl of Cumberland by Henry YIII. and 
Knight of the Garter4 appointed Lord President of the norths 



* Aaglia Sae. 1. 779. f Wlutaker^s Crvrm, p. 254. 
In order nei t 

The liutj Imiglit, Lord Clifford went. 
Who had been ahrood in sh^herd's earn. 
While twice twelve years were gone and spent. 

For when his fsither at Wakdieia 

The Duke of York his son had slain, 
Bj friends in this wise was concealed. 

Tin th' Earl of Richmond 'gan his reign ; 

Who him restored to all his right. 

And seated him in his sire's land ; 
Or else to death he had been dig^t. 

While the house of York had the np-hand. 

Now, like a captain bold, he bronght 

A band of lusty lads deet ; 
Whoae corions coats, conmngly wrought. 
With dreadM dragons* were bedeckt. 

The baltU qfJUMen Field, ediiid iy Wehtr. 
* The crest of the Clifford ftmily was "a redd dragon lokyng 
ftirtheofawhitcasteU." 
X "My Lord's coste from Skipton to London, and att London, att his Lordshipp 

ereafon in Com' anno XVII. Hen. Vlll. 
Mjf LortPt expenee, — ^First paid for my Lord's expenoe, and 88 servants, riding 
from Skipton to London, as i^yperith by the hooaehould booke, VII/. Xy#. \d, 

CotU if my Lordt home att London, — ^Item, paide for the ezpence of my Lord's 
house att London, for five weeks and one daye, in June and July, anno XVII. Hen. 
Vin. with horses, meat, and fewdl, and all other charges, with all other neoessaryes 

thereimto belongyng, with His. Xld. ; wyne His. ; cheries lid. ; rishes 

Cnuhes) IVd.; thred Id.; sakket (q. sacking) IVd.— XLVI/. YUf.-^WhiMc/t 
Omen,p, 2M,Jivm an acconn4 cogiid by JMtworih. 



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48 HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 

and deverftl tiiAes Lord Wftnlen of the Marches. He was a 
xiobleman who in his youih was gmlty of great etcesses, and 
resoi^ted to unjustifiable means ot obtaidng money. With ''a 
band el diss(dute f(^werS| he harassed the religious houses/'* 
but having ''reclaimed/' he became ''one of the most eminent 
IcMrds of his iim6, for nobkness and gallantry^ through which 
he wasted some part ci his estate.''t 

Socm liter the accession of Wdsey to the see of Durham^ 
A. D. 1523^ it would appear by the following ^tract of a letter 
from his temporal Chancellor^ that Hartlepool was either en- 
tirdy neglected by the Bislu^s^ or that it was out of their 
jurisdiction. The fortMealicms also seem to have been neglected 
and gone to decay. 

"And after your liberties be enacted and conlS^myd^ your 
grace maye straight waye by writt of restitution entre possession 
in Hartlepoole^ whiche with, membris is worth two hundrethe 
markes a yere, standyng rents^ bysids casualities. The re- 
coveryng and fortyfieng of that haven town^ shuld be a gret 
profett^ and strenkithe to all the bishopricke, refuge to our 
Englishe shippis^ and myghte do many Asplesurs to the king's 
enemies^ for which purpose it is thought to stand best of any 
hanm ioume tn England, the p'misses would be remembred at 
this p'sent p'liament^ or dls your grace shall lese many com- 
modities and profetts." 

In 1585 an act of parliament was passed^ declaring Hart- 
lqK>ol, whose inhabitants "deymed" to be a "parcell of the 
county of Northumberland/' to be, in future, parcel of the 
county of York only.J 

* Wbitaker^B Crayen, p. 256. 

t Bvn and NkikolBon's Cnmbeiland, p. 288. 

" 1526 Wolsey iBstdd hii commisrioBB, for anraying diips in the ports of tiie 
coimtj palatine, to attend uid serve under the King's Admind in the North Sete.'* — 
Sistory qflhtrham, v, 1. p. 408. 

{ Journals of the House of Lords, 29th Jan. 1585, "^Ha eonoemenB dondnia de 
Berna7 Castle et Hertrepol, esse pareeOas oomitatas elxnraoens', ter leeta. Hie act is 
given at length in the Topographer for 1790, ejc earf JnH^ in Colh Sari 58, R 5. 

"For as moche as ther be Wq djrstinct Mid gitttt loidships, the one callyd Barney 



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HISTORY OP HARTLEPOOL. 40 

In the year 1546, however, HarUepool still appears to have 
been conridered as forming part of the county of Northumber- 
land.* 

Henry, the first Earl of Cumberland, died April 22, 1542,t 
and was succeeded by his son, Henry Lord Clifibrd, second 
Earl of Cumberland. 

A distinct account of the vicissitudes which befd the see 
during the reigns of Edward YI. and his successor Mary, with 
the subsequent and final establishment of Protestantism, under 
the auspices of Elizabeth, does not properly belong to a work 
of this nature ; it will be sufficient for the purpose of the nar- 
ration, to state that in the year 1653, John Dudley, the power- 
ful and ambitious Duke of Northumberland, procured an Act 
of Parliament for dividing the see into two distinct bishc^cs, 

OiBtdle which a the Kyngs enheiitanoe, and the other ctUljd. Hertyll Pole of the 
CDheritaimoe of the Erie of Cumblande, which two lordBhipe be within the watera of 
1^ and Teae^ and anppoaed hj the Byshop of Durham to be witiiin the aame 
Biahoprycke, and within hia jniiadiction ; and aU canaea, qnanela, actiona and anyta, 
to be ordered, herde, and determyned, before hia jnaticea within the aaid Biahopryke; 
aaid for that flie inhalntconta of Barney Caatle, &c. &e. bhewiae the inhabitanta 
within the aame Lordship of Hertyll-Pole have preaynted, add, and deymyd, that th6 
aame Lordship of Hertyll-Pole is parcell of the conntie of Northumberland, and that 
aU actiona, anyta, and qnarreUa, ought and have nayd to be <nrdered, herd, and deter- 
minyd, befbfe the Klng'a jnaticea, in the aayd oonntie of Northnmberland, by 
reaaon of whiche preteneya, daimya, and ambignytiea, diyera and many mnrdera, 
felonyea, and other great offenaea, haye ben nnponyahed, and not ordered and 
direded according to the dne oonrae of the lawea of thia realme, to the great com- 
fbite and embd^^mge of diTerae and many malefiujtora, and offendera, and to the 
great discmnforthe and ntter nndoynge of divera and many of the Kynga tme lubjecti^ 
dweOinge within the aame kvrdahipe: it ia therefore ordeyned, and enactyd, by 
antoritie of thia present Parliament, to th'entente that better rule and ordre ahall be 
hereafter kepte, within the seid lordships, &c. that they shall be from henceforth to 
an ententa parcell of the aeid conntie of Toike, that ys to aey paroella of the North- 
lyd^nge of the aame conntie, &c. &c. 

* "Marmad. iU. et her. Willi. Lambton de Bdsia Oen. pro amn'a pecnniae sibi 
per Bad'nm Balton Gen. pne manibns, &c. conflrmat ddem nn bnrgag in Hertilpole. 
(hm, Nortkumb, jaoena inter burg* pertin dec & ci^. Buidm et bnrgag pertin« 
Honaaterio S. Mathei. Anno. 1546." 

t In bia win he ordered that "every corate within Weatmoreland, and the Beanerj 
of Graven, and daewhere wher I have any land in England, doe eanae a maaae of 
insqiDm and dirige to be songe or said lior my aonl, w'thin every p'iah chnrch, and 
they to Idtve for doing thereof vu. mnd. or aoe much therof aa my ez'ora ahatt 
think litt^ the rcmaynder to be given to the poore/' 



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60 HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 

and in tbe same year, on the accesaion of Queen Mary, the see 
waa ordered to be re-eatabliahed, and '' fully and wholly revivedj 
erected, and have ita being in the like manner and form, to all 
intents and purposes, as it waa of old time used and ac- 
customed.''* 

In the 9th year of the reign of Queen Elizabeth, a court 
leet was holden at Hartlepool, for Sir Ingram Clifford, Knight, 
the second son of the first Earl of Cumberland.f 

Henry, the second Earl of Cumberland, was created a Knight 
of the Bath, at the coronation of Queen Anne Sullen. In the 
latter part of his life, he retired from the bustle of a court, to 
spend his days in peace and retirement in the country. About 
the year 1547, he '' fbll into a languishing sickness, and was 
^uced to such an extreme state of weakness, that his physi- 
cians thought him dead. His body was already stripped, laid 
out upon a table, and covered with a herse-doth of black Tclvet, 

* TonoB of the Aoi of Parliament. 
t Mr. Pooock's Pk^Bers. 

In the wDl of his fother he ii thus notioedt *' It'm I giff to my ion Ingelram a 
aheit of plate, sta'ding in mj cha'ber, and <me chayne of gold.** He waa interred 
in the church of Cowthorp, in Yorkshire, with the fcdlowing qnaint epiti^h :— 
Since growsome graye of force mnst have 

Sir Ingram Cliffard, Imight ; 
And age by kind were} out of mind 

Sach worthy Hying wight ; 
And ainoe man mnst retom to dnst 

By course of his creation* 
As doctors sage in every age 
To ns haye made rekationa 
Ton Gentika aU, no more let &11 
Your tears firam Unbbered eye^ 
But pray the Lord, with one aooord. 

That roles ahoye the skye: 
For Christ hath wronght, and dearly booght. 

The price of hia ledcmptioa; 
And therefore wee» no doobt^ s^ see 
His joyftil reanrection. 

1666s, Ap. 7. By the will of Bob. Conyer^ of Cotam, in the parish of I«Dg 

:N«wton, he kayea to his son Jamea^ baae begotten, aU hia honaea in Hartelpoyk^ 

dniing ye terme of hia yerea in them; and if he fide, to William his son, and for 

the defect of William, to hia aon Bichard, and in dofeet of Bichard, to ye xest of hia 

exMoton.-'Xi^. Tut. 248. 



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HISTORY OP HARTLEPOOL. Bl 

ivben some of his attendants^ by whom he was greatly bdkrred, 
perceired symptoms of returning life. He was once more put 
to bed^ andy by the help of warm clothes without^ and cordials 
within, gradually recovered. Bat, for a month or more, his 
onlysostenance was miDc sacked from a woman's breasts, which 
testored him completely to health, and he became a strong 
man.^'^ 

He joined Lord Scroope in fortifying Carlislei in ISOO, m 
which year he died at Brougham Castle, in Westmoreland. 

George the third Edrl of Cumberland, was twdre years of 
age at the death of his fiither. In the same year, the Earls of 
Northumberland and Westmoreland, two declared Papists, with 
their Mends, broke out into open rebdlion, for the pmrpose of 
restoring the Catholic religi<m. The Duke of Alva had promised 
to land a body of men at Hartlepool, as soon as the rising 
should take effect.t 

On the 18th of November, the itbds ent^ed Durham, doi- 
stroyed the Bibles, Prayer Books, &c. and restored the mass in 
every place where they came. The Lcnrd Sussex, President of 
the North, watched their motions, and marched against Ihem 
with what troops he had been able to collect, when these am- 
bitious noblemen, " as weak in conducting, as they had been 
rash in undertaking the revolt, fled into Scotland, and left 
their deluded followers to the unmerciful discretion of the 
Provost ICartial, Sir William Bowes, who is said to have exe- 
cuted on a gallows sixty-six petty constables, and some himdreds 
of others/'l Hartlepool was for a short time in the possession 
of the rebels. § 

* Wlitaka's Cnnm,p. S64. 

t Guthrie't Hiitary of Engbna, ▼. 8, 6. 1. 

t Aa&rews* Hlctofj «f Gieait Britein.-* 

F un many a galhnt wight, 
They erneDye bereov'd of life ; 
And mupf a diilde made fttherlesse, 
And widofivtd many a teader ivife. 

l%e fiirn^ of ike Nbrik.-^Pereys BiilkuU, 
I LeHer from ^ WaUor Hildmaj, to Sir Bxoi Sadldr, Sd Beeember, 1M0;— 
"Hw nbeb an now at Baby ai I haya inteUigctiee, and it is aayedUMt yettcrday, - 



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62 HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 

The Queen aeiied the landB of the Earl of Westmoreland^ in 
the biahopric, and although it had been formerly determined, 
that where the bishop ^hath jura reffoUa, he shall hare f<Mr- 
feitore of high treason,'' yet it was enacted^ that *^far thai 
Hme/^ the forfeitare should belong to the crown. 

George, the third Earl of Cumberland, inherited aU the 
martial spirit of his ancestors^ and his life was devoted to the 
service of his country. 

" He performed nine viages by sea in his own person, most 
of them to the West Indies, with great honour to himself, and 
servis to his Queue and country, haying gained the strong 
town of Piall, in the Torrous (Asore) Islands, in the year 1689, 
and his last viage, the strong fort of Portereco, in the year 
1698. He was made a Knight of the Garter by Queue Elisabeth, 
and Counsellor of State by King James.'' 

He ^was a man of many natural perfections, of a great wit 
and judgment of a strong body and full of agility, of a noUe 



or to-daj, they wiU be daing with Sir G. Bowei, at Bvnej CMtle, what thqr intenae 
forther I cannot teU. But they hare gotten Hartilpole as I here, and hare pot CCC 
men into it, to ke^ it for them, which hath proceeded throng the negligence of nidi 
■a my Lord XJeatenant pot in tniat to go thither, and to lefie the nnmhcr of GC 
men nearest to the same, to be pot into the town, which for lacke of good dilligenoe 
in them, is now prerented by the rebells, whereof I gather, that they meane to kepe 
that towne for their refoge, and to sdu their escape by sea, or dls be in hope to 
leeeyye there some fbieign ayde, wherefore it were good, that one or q of the Qwnes 
nujesties ahippes on the sea, should lye on this ooste to prerent the same." 

In a letter from Secretary Cedl, to Sir B. Sadldr, Windsore, y. Dec 1669, he 
aqrs, " I fear Hartil^ool will brede some longer troohle." 

From Sir Banf Sadleir to Mr. Secretary, 24th December: — 

*'Am soon as his Lordship (the Eari of Sussex) nnderstode of the fli^t of the 
rebdls from Doreame, he forthwith to ease her Migesties charges, caahed aU the 
northern foroes of fotcmen, saying yii (700) left at Todce for the garde of the citie, 
lor her migestie, and COG sent to Hertilpole, nnder the leading of Sir H. Gate, and 
now his lordship hathe also taken order for the discharge of aU those at Yorke, leay- 
ing Hertflpole yet for a tyme in garde. In another letter of the 27th of December, 
from Exham, he mjf% 8 M (8000) fotcmen haye been disdiarged, and atthens he hath 
disdiarged the rest» saving iii (800) in HertilpQle, whidi we thinke may also be dis- 
diarged; bat that because yon seme there to make so grete an aocon^ of that place, 
his Lordship therefore doth forbeare to discharge them nntJU he may be adyertiaed of 
the Qpenes migesties pleasore in that behalf."— jbill^i SMe Fapers, 



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mSTOEY OF HARTLEPOOL. 68 

mind^ and not subject to pride and arroganoe, a man generaDy 
beloved in hia kingdom/'^ 

He excelled all the nobles of his time^ in tilting^ horse- 
ooorsingy shootings and other active^ but Gqpensiye exercises^ so 
that these recreations^ next to his sea voyages^ many of which 
were sustained at his own proper cost^ were the great occasion 
of the sale of his lands«t 

In 1570^ he succeeded Sir Henry Lee, as champi<Mi to the 
Queen, who invested him with much form, and in the true 
spirit of chivalry and romance, in the presence of the whole 
court, armed the new champion, and mounted him upon his 
horse, t 

In 1588, he took an active share, as a naval commander, in 
the destruction of the Spanish Armada. * 

In a speech to his mistress, on the 17th of October, 1600. 
he says, ''It is not, as I have often told ye, that, after he had 
throwne his land into y* sea, y* sea would cast him on the land 
a wanderer,^' which evidently alludes to the money he had spent 
in naval expeditions in her Majesty's service : for '' the wealth 
which he acquired was devoted to the service of the state, and 



* Inicription on a iSynily pictaxe at Skipton Cattle, where he ii dreteed in annonr, 
fpotted with itan of gold. 

t In 1679, he ordered a soryey of the manor of Hart, &c. to he taken. — 1^, 
Foeoci^t Papers, 

In a letter to Lord Bnzleigh, High Treanffer, Sept. 29, 1586, he aays, "I nowe 
moet earnestly dealer that it would please hir M^jeati to lende me tenne thooaand 
ponnde. I will paye it agayne by a thonaand pounde a yeare, and for the aaaorance 
either panne andi lande as yonr Lo. ahall lycke, or pntt aoe many jentellmen in bonde 
as ahall he thou^t sufficient." 

X Pennant's London. 

In the ennmeration of the " New yeares gnyftea giyen to the Qnene'a Mqestie," 
1599—1600, the Earl of Camberland is stated to have presented " one pettycote of 
idute 8aroenett» embrothered all orer with Venyce silver plate, and same cama'con 
alke like cohunhines." 

"By the Conntcas of Comberland, one paire of braoeletts of golde, contcyning 8 
peeeea Hke knottea and 8 roonde peecea garnished with small ^arka of mbyea, peark^ 
Mid half peade." 

In letnm " the gnyftea given by the Qoene," were "to the Earle of Comberlande, 
in gnilte plate, 22oz. ; to the Countess of Comberiande, 21ios."— iVi^A^r# Pro- 
grtutt of ()^en JSlizabeiA, 



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64 mSTOBY OF HABTLEPOOL. 

he spent not only the ecqtdsitions of his voyages, bnt modi of 
his paternal fortune/^ 

His necessities compelled him to sell a great portion of his 
estates^ and amongst others, the manors of Harte^ Hartneu^ 
Hartlepool^ Thnrston^ Over Thurston^ Nether Thturston^ and 
Nelson^ in the eonnties of Northumberland and Dnrham^ and 
all their messuages^ lands^ tenements, and hereditam^ts, which 
were purchased by John Lord Lomley, of Lumley Castle, in 
the county of Durham, in the year 1586, for the sum of 
£6850. Thus these manors, which had remained in the 
possession of the noble and gallant family of the Cliffords 
nearly three centuries, were at length alienated by the patriotic 
profusion of the third Earl of Cumberland. 

Although the dtates no longer remained in his possession, yet 
it may be allowed to mention, that this celebrated nobleman was 
neariy killed in 1600, by a fall from his horse,t but having re- 
covered, he died five years afterwards, on the 29th of October, 
"penitently, willingly, and christianly,''| and his remains wens 
interred in the vault of his ancestors, at Sldpton, in Craven.§ 

In the year 1598, Queen Elizabeth, (at the suit and request 
of Sir John Lumley, Lord Lumley,) granted a charter|| to the 
burgesses and inhabitants of Hartlepool, wherein are enumerated, 
amongst other advantages, a weekly market, a yearly fair, a court 
of Fie-Powder, &c. This grant is considered by Hutchinson as 
a great innovation on the privil^es of the bishopriclf 

* Peaunat's Tour in Scotknd. 

t '* Mj Lord of Cumberland in Inmtingtlielnieke before the Queen, wmi in great 
dannger to have broke his necke, by the fall of ahorse, bot he isprety well reoorered; 
he was for a tyme senoeless." — ^Letter firom Rowland Whiter Esq. to Sir Bobect 
Sydney. — Sidney Papen. 

% Inscriptum on the fionily picture before qfooted. 

i October 29^1605, departed this lyf George Sai^ of CombRland^I^vdCa^^ 
Viponnte and Vesaie, Lord of the honor of Sldpton, in Craven, Knyg^it of the moat 
noUe order of the Garter, one of his hig^mess priTie ooonseU, Lord Warden of the 
dty of CaricQ and the West Marches, and wis hononhly buried at Sldpton, the 
zzixth of December, and his ftmeraU was solemnised the xidth day of Marshe next 
then fdlowing. — Parish JiegiiUr qfSkiptam, 

I History of Durham, 1. 474. 

f T. Chapter on "The Corporation;* 



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HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL* 



55 



John Lord Lnmley was a persoiij according to Camdai, "of 
entire virtae^ integrity^ and innocence^ and in his old age a com* 
pleat pattern of true nobility." He died without issue^ A. D. 
1609. 



Jane, dr. of Hen. riti-=f 

Allan, Earl of | 

ArandeL I 




JohnLordLnmleyy^EUzabetti, dr. of Jobn 
died 1609. Lord Darcy, nurived 
her hosbancCdied about 
1620. 



Chaidea Tboinaa Mary 

who all died in the Hfe time of their &ther. 



Bichard Lmnlej, 
hmghted 16th Jvlj, 1619, created 
Viaooant Lmnle j, of Water- 
ford, in Ireland, Jnlv 12» 
1628, died 1660. 



JoLj 



I Lnmley, Esq. 
died in his fsther^a life time. 



•^^ 



Bichard '^^aconnt Lnmlej. > 

created Baron Lomley, of Lnmley 

Oasik, Go. Doriiam,May 8,1681, 

created Earl of Scarborongh, April 

16, 1690. died Deo. 17, 1721. 



Frances, daughter of 
Shelly, Esq. of War- 
minghnnt. 



"" Haiy, dan. of Sir Hen. Comp- 
ton, youngest son of Hen. 
Lord Compton. 



Frances, dan. of Sir HeoiL Jones, 

of Aston, Co. Ox<m. died 

1787. 



Hemy 
Viseoont Lnmley, 
died Ifardi 24^ 
1710. 



Bichaid2dEarl 

of Scarborongh, elected 

Kniriit of the Garter 

Jnne 9, 1724, died 

Feb. 4, 1789. 






'niomas,8dBarl — fieaaees. 



of Scarborongh elected 

Knic^toftheBath 

May 27, 1721. 

diedl&rehl5»1762. 



2d dan. 
of Geo. 
Hamilton, 
Earl of 
Orkney. 



Bifihard 4th Earl of Scvbocoagh. 
died May 12, 1782. 



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66 HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 

He had many disputes with Bishop Matthew, concerning 
their respective rights, which were at length finally determined 
by a deed of arbitration.* 

Richard Lomley^ the eldest son and heir of Boger Lomley, 
son of Anthony Lumley, brother of John, grandfather to the 
late Lord John Lomley, was the chief heir male of the family ; 
and by a deed of settlement, and the will of the late Lord, he 
inherited the greatest part of the estates of his ancestors, and 
amongst others the manors of Hart and Hartlepool. 

In the year 1614, the privilege of sending representatives to 
Parliament from certain towns in the comity of Durham, was 
discussed in the House of Commons, and the debates on that 



* His instnimait recites thai — 

*' WbereaB for many years now last past, tliere hath been yarianoe and difference 
between the Bishops of Dorham and the Lords and Owners of the manors and lord- 
ships of Harte and Hartlepool, with their members, whether the said manors and 
lordships were within the liberties royal of the said Bishops, lyinge between the rivers 
of Tfot and Tees, or part of, or within the county of Northumberland, or some other 
county, as the owners of the said manors pretended." The arbitrators, (John Savfle, 
seijeant at law, and Bobert Cooper, of the Inner Temple,) "haying scene, perused, and 
considered the anndent records and former proceedings, touching the said difference, to 
the end common justice might be better executed within the said liberties and man- 
nors, did signify that they did take the said manners, with their members, to be within 
the precyncte of the liberties royal of the Bishops of Durham, between the said riyera 
of l^me and Tees, and thereby did also declare that they did think meet and conveni- 
ent, and that the said Lord Dmiley might, without prejudice to his inheritance, con- 
yeniently condescend that his Lordship's tenants, and other the inhabitants within the 
said manors, might and should confonn, and submit themselyes to all ordynance of 
justice, within the said liberty royal, as other the inhabitants, within the said liberty 
royal, and dwelling within the said manor of Harte and Hartlepool doe, and to con- 
tribute to all assessments, snd cmnmoa charges of the said liberty royal, after the rate 
of one hundred marks inheritance by year. Also they did think meet and conyenient, 
that all process, and precepts, whereby personal arrests should be made, or executions 
of judgmenta should be done within the manors aforesaid, should be first directed to 
the baaUfb of the said manor for the time being, and in de&nlt of due execution of 
anye suche process, that the Sheriffs, or other officer, of the said liberty royal, mif^t 
in default of the bailiff of the said liberty, enter and execute such process, and upon 
like defiinlt, is used in other parts of the reahne, in de&ulta of bailiffi, of libertys and 
firancheses, having retume of writs ; and that the said Lord Lumley, and his heirs 
shall, and might bave, continue, and use such liberties, and proffittes as aforetime, the 
said Lord Lumley, and other the Lords and owners of the said manors, and burrong^e 
of Hartlepoole, had formerly lawfulHe used and had."— C^fporo^iofi Beeordt IIM 
November, 40M SUscabetk. 



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HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 57 

oocanon their that although Hartlq>ool was a poor town^ yet it 
held its privileges from the crowiii and that it was the only port 
town in the county.* 

* Extracts from the Journals of the Souse of Commons. 

Matf 81, 1614. An act for knights and bnigessea to have places in parliament, for 
tiie county palaiyne, city of Dnrhun, and borough or town of Bemerds-Castle, alias 
Castle-Bamerd. 

Sir Thomas Hobby, for the commitment ; and that Heartinpoole, the only port 
town within that county, may be thought of by the committee, to have burgesses. 

Sir George Moore. — Not to. — 

Sir John Savyle. — ^The bill reasonable. — ^Thinketh, my Lord of Durham disliketh 
not the biU; but thinketh. — Committed to the King's learned counsel, to all that 
have spoken, &c. 

March 14, 1620. Sir Thomas Hobby reporteth the bill for knights, — ^burgesses 
for the county palatyne of Durham, with amendments. — ^Agreed, knights for the 
county, citizens for Durham. 

Barnard-castle agreed by the committee to have burgesses ; because the Prince his 
town, and he desireth it. 

Hartipook, by opinion of the committee, to have burgesses ; because a port town. 

The rest rtjected; because of pestering the house; and because these incorporated 
by the bishop, not by the king. 

Sir W. Earle. — ^That the number of burgesses here too great ; to have bat as many 
as Chester, viz. two knights, and two burgesses. 

Sir Bo. Payne, accordant, for no reason, because an haven. 

Sir Thomas Hobby contra. 

The bill to be recommitted. 

Brought in again, withont amendment. 

Sir Thomas Wentworth. — ^Bather to leave out Baniard-castle, which a dry town, 
nther than Har^oole. 

Sir T. Bowea. — ^They as much charged with public charges, as they which have 
oght burgesses ; more for purveyance and arms, than the East Biding of Yorkshire. 
In Hartipoole not a sufficient man dwelling to serve; in Bamard-castle many. Thia 
the prince his town, Hartipoole a subject's. 

Mr. Ctrvyle, — ^for Hartipole, in respect to the andentness, walled strength, &e. 
hath an the privileges from the king ; where Duriiam dty the Bishop's. 

Mr. Secretary, for nx burgesses, and particularly for Hartipode, for Bomaid'a 
Castle; because the prince his desire to have it. 

Mr. Brooke. — ^To have but two knights, two burgesses. 

Sir John WaUer.—'Diat Hartipoole, a poor town, deahre it not; that thought fit, 
Barnard-castle should have burgesses, to speak for the pnnoe, whose town it is. 

Mr. Malloiy for Hartipoole and Barnard-castle. 

Sir Thomaa Bow for Bamaida-casUip. rather than Hartipoole, becanse much given 
to Popery. 

Sir Prands Goodwynn. — ^To have but four burgesses at moat, 

Mr. Whitson. — ^To have either of these towns have one burgees. 

Upcm question, roolved, Durham to have knights, and Durham to h«ve two bur- 



BoBaid-CMtte to have two burgesses. 



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58 fflSTORY OF HAETLEPOOL. 

In the yetr 1686, Haitibpocl, with Stockfam, Snsderland, ftc. 
WIS charged with one ship for the service of the State^ manned 
with fourscore men, and donble equipage, with ammunition, 
wages, and victuals ; about this period orders for ship money 
are very frequent. 

In S^tember^ 1640, the Scottish army entered Northumber* 
hmd and Durham, where they remained until the fcdlowing year. 
The inhabitants of the bish(^ric were taxed at the rate of £850 
per diem, ^'which they were enforct to pay,'' to the amount of 
i£12,250, ''to preserve their country from destmctioii/'* 

In the year 1641, Morton, Bishop of Durham, was accused .of 
high treason by the House of Commons, and soon afterwards 
the see was dissolved. 

In January, 1644, the Scots again entered England, invited 
by the Parliament, and in the month of August, ''the Earl of 
Callender, with some of the Scots forces, took Hartlepool, in the 
lushopridce of Durham, and Stoddoi^ jiac9B of imp<nianoe, for 
the Parliament, "t 

In 1645, Lieutenant-Colond Dowg^ass was governor of Hart- 
lepool.''t 



HaiilepodetohAfenolnirgMfes; Hartlepoole stricken ont^bjoarte of the HosMi 

lliat Wm. ImmI, SniiH ^M^ Miad «f 80 ]BfliMi«ei, 80 

Aoro of laB4» 100 icnt of mflaaoir, 1000 aent «r partiKc, 80 aeni ^ 

poundi rental, in Stranton, Seton, Newbome Bowe, Mmtiq)ool, TnnftdQ, Diewton, 

Biwton, Hirt» Over llvo^on, NetiMr ISuPorton, fi^^ 

and Cowpon, wliieh lie Iwld m oapite hf anliteiy aervioe^ and the wliole waa woirA 

■beve zqpriies £180 per annnm. 

* £300,000 was voted hj the Hauie of Cemmona, m a fit proportion ftr the 
friendly aaaiBtanoe and reliflf of theloaaei^ and neeaMitiw of their hr€tkrm of Seoi- 
bad, and, in eonvenient tisM the Hoaae frill oonider Inar to laiie it— GMMf't 
Eutorp ifEHfUmd. 8. lOOS. 

t Whitlock's Mqnoriala, p. 98. 

Bymer'fl Fcsd. y. n. ji. 668, a gamaon menfiwiad at Hartkpool, A. 1)« 1645. In 
Hart Pariah B^giatcr, " Jamea, ton to Addam Banner, a kmretenant in j« Sooka 
anne at Hartinpoole,'' wm baptbed JmiB B8, 1646. 

X Which appears finnitlwfQDofwinginaQriplian, foniM^ kgiUe an a grareston^ 
in the ohanoel of St Nidiolas' diundi, Newoastle :— 

"Here lieth the bodj of Mrs. Maigaret lindn^, late wife of Lientenant-OoL 
Biohacd Dowghias, Esq. and gOYcnior of HartcDpool, ton 4o Sir WiQiam I^^ 



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fflSTORT OP HARTLEPOOL 69 

By the tenor of the resdutions of the Hoose of Commons, it 
wonld appear thAt the Soots nrmj did not engage against the 
eoewj, aooording to the desiies of both Honses of Pariiament, 
and that their oontinnanee in the northern parts contrary to 
thoae desires, was not only nnservioeable, bnt prejudicial to the 
ends for whidi their assistance was desired, and de s lruct i ve to 
those parts of the kingdom; as the Scots army, irregularly 
paid, was obliged to subsist by plunder and oontribntioas. 

The Scots remained in possession of Hartlepool, until the 



Callen, Knight and Sheriff of l^yiotdale, who departed this life the 81st of Beoem- 
bcr,ie45. 

" In life belored, in death deplored of aD, 
" Here lyeth the world's loes, to he&v'n a gayn . 
''She liying died to yioe, and now dead shall 
"Her ffetioQB name still lire ftced from aU tt^rne." 

SramPs Eutoty of HfeweoiOe. Lr, JSlUton's MS8. 

'*In January, 1644-5, a ship of Scarhorongh, driven hy storm into Hartlepool, 
was there asind ipon hj the Fariiamoifs foroea^" (peth^hy the Scots fbr the Par« 
tiamentt) "and her two braaa^ and four iron pieces of ordnance, with st<nre of arms.'* 
'^Wkiielocl^t imewtoruds. 

April 11, 1646, " Aknander Wood, an Ensigne," was hmeaL^Bartiepool Famh 
BeyUier. 

Oct 18, 1646.— Beaobed, that it he desired, that saiiafiicticm may be given to this 
kingdom, that such forces of the Scotch nation as have been pot into the several 
garrisons of Newcastle npon lyne, the dty of CarMe, the town of Eartlepooi, &c. 
without the oonaent of both Hoosea of Parliament, may be fbrthwith removed; to 
the end the same may be disposed of in sooh manner as shall be thoa^t fitting by 
both Honaea of the PariiameBt of Bnghnd.— ^otffwolf cftAe Bouse of Oommoni, 

Dee. 8, 1646.— -Sir Phillip Stapilton reports from the oommiasioners of Scotiand a 
propostion tooching of their receiving the £200,000, and of the mardiing of their 
tatrcn ont of tins IringcJom, and after some al t erati o ns the said proposition awarded 
waa in luce verba, vis.:— 

" It was once agreed on betwixt their Lordships and ns, that the money shonld be 
hroQgfat to Hartlepool or Stockton, and we acquainted yoor LcHrdshipe, that we were 
positively limited theremito by oar instmctions ; and it being a matter idierein yoor 
liordsh^ need not to difo with ns, whether the other £100,000 remain at Yorke or 
be broo^ to Hartlepool, Stockton, or to the north aide of Tees; to the end there 
■ay be no retardment of this agreement^ we pn^osa that after the receipt of the first 
£100,000 aaiaexpreaaed in your Lordship's p^er; and after the garrisons <^ Hartle- 
pool, Stoddon, Durham, and aU other garrisons and passes on the south side of I^ne 
an quitted by our fbreea, and after thai all oor forces are removed to the north side 
of lyne, (from which they cannot, in a day and a half, march over the bridge to the 
aeoth side, there being at this season no other pass upon that river,) car hostages 
also remaining." 



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60 fflSTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 

begiiming of 1647^ when it was finally evacuated''' by treaty 
with the Parliament. Shortly afterwards it was resolved by the 
House of Commons ''that the new works of Hartlepool be 
slighted, and the town disgarrisoned.^'t 

Hartlepool was now garrisoned by the Parliamentary forces ; 
for on the 24th of November, 1648, there was presented to his 
Excellency Lord Fairfax^ Lord General, at Windsor, a petition 
and representation of the officers and soldiers of the garrisons 
of Newcastle, Hartlepool, Holy Island, and of several officers 
of Berwick upon Tweed, wherein the King is charged with 
being '' the occasion of a seven years unnatural bloody war, by 
deserting his Parliament, and the principal author, contriver, 
abettor, and manager of all the bloodshed^ massacres, devasta- 
tions, and whatever ruin have befallen, not only this kingdom, 
but also Lrdand,^' declaring ''that all other endeavours are 
to little purpose, while the grand delinquent is untouched, as 
being not an acceptable sacrifice to the justice of God, to offer 
him ought else while the Agag is spared ! '^| 

* The title of a 4to pamplilet, presented b j his preeent Mijeety to the Britiah 
Muaeom, records the &ct. " The last newes from the North, shewing our brethren's 
fidelity in delivering np Newcastle, Carlisle, Dorham, Hartkpoofe, &e. into the hands 
of the Parliament, 164?/' 

t Febmary 26, 1647. 

In the clandestine treaty between the Scotch oommisiioners and King Chailes 1st, 
signed at Carisbrook Castle, 26th December, 1647, it is stipulated, that "his M^eaty 
was willing and did authorize the Sootish army to possess themselves of Berwick, 
Carlisle, Newcastle, the Castle of Tinmonth, and the town of Harilepool, which were 
to be " places of retreat and magarines." — BfOpm, vol. 2. 544. 

In December, 1649. — " Pirates lay lurking np and down in those seas, and did 
great mischiet That one of them went into the river Tees, and took oat of a vessel, 
as she lay on ground, 200 firidns of butter, and went on shore, and took divers gen- 
tlemen ; but being pursued by a party of ibot from Hartlepool, they left the gentk* 
men behind and got to their ship." 

In Februaiy, 1650. — ^An Irish frigat boarded a Newcastle ship near Hartl^ool, 
which the governor seeing, caused some of his guns to be so planted, that they shot 
the Irish frigat through and through, and caused her to hasten away, and leave her 
prize behind, which came in sa£B to HartlepooL" — WJUtiocJfM JfewtonaU, p. 486 
ajM;441. 

X From a tract in quarto, printed by John Partridge.— 1648.— .ShmuTi Sitiary 
ofNewautle, v, 2. 476. 

1648, October 29. Captain Errington shot to death, and hwcjeL^BtrtUpool 
Farish BegUier, 



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HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 61 

In the year 1649^ Captain Richard Webb was governor (tf 
Hartlq>ool.* 

Bichard Lnmley was knighted by King James, and created 
Tisconnt Lnmley, of Waterford, in Ireland, July 12, 1628. — 
Daring the Bebellion, his loyalty to the King was unshaken, 
and he formed his castle at Lumley into a formidable garrison. 
He was a principal commander under Prince Rupert, and was 
at the siege of Bristol, where he remained until it surrendered 
to the Parliamentary forces, A. D. 1645. " He was also among 
those loyal Peers, who subscribed a memorable declaration, just 
before the meeting of the Parliament, that restored King 
Charles II., which (as my Lord Clarendon observes) very much 
contributed to it, by appeasing the minds of many people who 
had incurred gnilt.'^t 

Shortly after the restoration in 1660, the see was re-estab- 
lished, and John Cosiu elected Bishop, though a considerable 
portion of its possessions had been sold during the usurpation. 

Richard Lord Viscount Xumley (eldest son of John Lumley, 
who died during the life time of his father,) succeeded his 
grandfather Richard, above-mentioned, about the year 1662, 
in his estates and Irish honors. '' In consideration of his great 
merit, approved fidelity, and his descent from noble ancestors, 
ancient Barons of this kingdom, he was advanced to the state 
and degree of Baron of Lumley Castle, in the county palatine 
of Durham/^ He commanded a regiment of horse, and had a 
principal share in gaining the victory of Sedgemore. He also 
took an active part, and contributed essentiaUy to the success 
of the glorious revolution of 1688. In consequence of which 
services he was appointed one of the gentlemen of the bed- 
chamber, by King William, advanced to the dignity of a 



* Tbe 2d of October, 1649. 

"Md. That the daj abo?e written, Bkhaid Wd>b, captaiiie and governor of 
" Har^pode, was swome free borgesse of Hartinpoole, before Jdm Walker, major, 
"and other diief bnrgesses, here p'sente." — Corporation Becordi, 

i CoOin'i Peerage. 



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62 HISTORY OF HABTLEPOOL. 

Viflconnti April 10^ 1689, and to the, title of Earl of Scar- 
borough, April 15, 1690. 

He was Lord Lteatenant and Coatoa Botnlomm of the county 
of Northumberland^ Lord Lieutenant of the county of Durham, 
Lord Lieutenant and Gustos Botulorum of the town and county 
of Newcastle upon Tyne, and Vice- Admiral of the sea-coasts of 
Durham and Northumberland. The several offices of stat^ 
which he filled with seal and ability, prove that he was a noble* 
man of exalted talents and character. 

He died December 17, 1721, and was succeeded by his eldest 
surviving son Bichard, the second Earl of Scarborough, who 
was called by writ to the House of Peers, during the life-time 
of his father. The command of the second regiment of Foot 
Guards, with the Order of the Garter, was conferred upon him, 
as well as the offices of Lord Lieutenant and Gustos Botulorum 
of the county of Northumberland, and Lord Lieutenant and 
Gustos Botulorum of the town and Gounty of Newcastle upon 
Tyne, and Tice-Admiral of the county of Durham. He died 
unmarried, aa the 4th of February, 1740, and was succeeded 
by his next brother and heir. Sir Thomas Lumley Sanderson^ 
Knight of the Bath, third Earl of Scarborough, and his 
Majesty's Envoy Extraordinary to the King of Portugal, Lord 
Lieutenant and Gustos Botulorum of the county of Northumber- 
land, and Vice-Admiral of the county of Durham, who died 
March 15, 1752, and was succeeded by his son Bichard, fourth 
Earl of Scarborough, who sold the estates of Hart, Hartness, 
&c. in the year 1770, for the sum of ie72,000. 

Sir G. Pocock, E. B. the purchaser, ''en« 
tered early into the naval service of his 
country, under the auspices of his uncle, 
Lord Torrington, and emulating his great 
example, rose with high reputation to the 
rank of Admiral of the Blue. His abilities 
as an officer stood confessed by his con- 
duct on a variety of occasions, but his gallant and intrepid 



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HISTOEY OF HARTLEPOOL. 1 63 

gpirit iras more folly cdqpbyed by the diitingaijBlied pert he 
bore at the taking of Geriah^ and in leading the attadc at the 
reduction of Chandemagore; and afterwards, when, with an 
in£snor force, he defeated the French fleet, nnder M. de Ach^ 
in three genenl engagoDoentSi shewing what British valour can 
aehieye, aided I^ professional skill and experience. Inde&tiga- 
bly active and persevering in his own duty, he enforced a strict 
observance of it in otiiers, but at the same time with so much mild- 
ness, and such condescending manners, as to gain the love and 
esteem of all who served under him, whose merits he was not 
more quick in discerning, or more ready to reward, than he was 
ever backward in acknowledging his own. Betuming from 1m 
successful career in the East, he was appointed to command the 
fleet on the expedition against the Havaanah;* by his united 
efforts in the conquest of which, he added fresh laurels to his 
own brow, and a valuable possession to this kingdom. Upon 
his retiring from public employment, he spent the remainder of 

* In atoB expeditioii, the troops were oommimded by tlie £vl of Albemark. The 
spirit, mumimi^, and penereranoe of the anny and navy, were eminent^ conspica- 
ODs. Kerer, indeed, waa there a period of such cordial co-operation between the huid 
and tea forces, or such a ponctnal attention to orden. The spoil consisted of an 
immense quantity of artiUery, small aims, amTnimition, warlike stores, tobacco, and 
▼afaiaUe merdiandize, togettier with £8,000,000 steding in tatfetr-Berienkoufs 
Qmikmatiom qf QmfbeUi Uva qfAchmrtOit 6. 175. 

Thomas Pocock, A. M. » Joyce, danriiter of James Master of 

BastLangdon, Kent,Ssq. 



Sir GeoiigelPocock, K. B, „ Sophia, daughter of Geo. F. Brake, Esq. 
and grand daiuditer of the celebrated 
Sir Frands Brake, first married 
to Commodm Bent. 



I 



George Pooock, Bsq. M. P. » Charlotte Mary, Sophia„ ^KtSar John Earl 
• dan.ofBdw. | ^'"'^ Poulett. 

longi Esq. 



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64 HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 

his life in a state of dignified ease and splendour^ hospitable and 
generous to his friends^ and exhibiting a striking picture of 
christian benerolenccy by his countenance and support of public 
charities^ and by his liberalities to the poor. A life so honorable 
to himself^ and so endeared to his firiends and family, was hap- 
pily extended to the age of eighty-six, when he resigned it in 
the year 1793, with the same tranquil and serene mind which 
peculiarly marked and adorned the whole course of it/'* 

He was succeeded in his possessions by his only son, G^rge 
Pocock, Esq. of Holwood-House, in the county of Kent, and 
Twickenham, in the county of Middlesex;, Member of Parlia- 
ment for the borough of Bridgewater. 

* Inscription cm the monument erected to his memory by his son, and ezecated 
hj Beoon, in Westminster Abbey. 



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HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 06 



THE CORPOEATION. 

Tbb advantages which other counties have derived from the 
survey of William the Conqueror^ are unfortunately denied to 
the county of Durham : hence^ the property of individuals at 
this early period^ as well as the peculiar rights and immunities 
which might have been possessed by particular towns^ are in- 
volved in considerable obscurity. It appears unnecessary in this 
place^ to enter into any lengthened disquisition on the origin 
of communities, which still opens a wide field for antiquarian 
research and discussion : the present chapter, with the exception 
€i a few prefatory remarks, will therefore be entirely confined 
to the local interests of Hartlepool. 

. It is said by Dr. Brady, in his Historical Treatise of Cities 
and Burghs, that the burgesses (by which he conceives were 
meant all the housekeepers and tradesmen in towns who paid 
taxes) had, in the Saxon times, and afterwards in the reign of 
the Conqueror, their patrons, under whose protection they traded^ 
and paid an acknowledgement therefore; or else were in a more 
servile condition, as being in DamhUo Regis vel aliarum, alto- 
gether under the power of the king, if in his demesne, or else 
under some temporal lord, biahop, or abbot, as part of their 
demesne lands; and in this last case, they were at the disposal 
of their lords, whether king or subject, without whose consent 
they could not devise their estates even to their own children. 
Under their authority they were permitted to carry on their re- 
fpective callings or trades; for which, in return, they were 
bound to pay them such customs, duties, &c. as should be im- 
posed.* 

Bobertsonf is of opinion that the establishment of commu- 
nities or corporations was posterior to the conquest, though he 
considers it as ^'not improbable that some of the towns of 

* y. Andenon'fl Hiitorj of Commerce. 

t History of Chariee Y. note xviii. toL 1. See likewiie Lord lytUeton'i Histoiy 
of Hemy H. toL 2. 

M 



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68 HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOX. 

England were fonned into corporations nnder the Saxon kings^ 
and that the charters granted by the kings of the Norman race, 
were not charters of enfiranchiaement from a state of niarerj, 
bat a confirmation of privileges which tliey abeady enjoyed.'^ 
It appears, however, from Domesday, that ''the greatest 
boroughs were at the time of the conquest, scarcely more than 
coimtry villages, — ^that the inhabitants lived in entire depend- 
ence on the king and great lords, and were of a station little 
better than servile/'* 

The great end for which franchises were wont to be granted 
by the Kings of England, (says Madozf) was gd eremmUum, ot 
meliarationem vSht, not to defeat themselves of their fiennet 
due from the towns, but to amend and improve them, ^'to 
enable the townsmen to live comfortably, and to pay with mott 
ease and punctualness, their yeariy ferme and other duties to 
the king.^ It is certain that the kings and chief lordM derived 
considerable revenues from the towns they enfranchised; the 
people likewise experienced an amelioratuHi in their habits of 
life, and were released from a state of the most degrading 
^servitude* 

Tb6 earliest Hartrepodl diarter on record, was granted by 
King John, who was ''either the first, or the chiefest, (says 
Bpeed, p. 672) "who app<nnted those noUe formes of civiU 
{government in London, and most cities, and in corporate towns <tf 
England, endowing them also with the greatest franchises/' In 
the second year of his reign, A. D. 1200,§ he granted his cbax^ 
ter to the men of Hartlepool, that they flhoold be free burgesses, 
and that they should enjoy the same liberties and laws as the 
burgesses of Newcastle, truly, folly, send in tranquility: "wfaidi 



* Hmne^s History of EhglfliicL Appendii. 

t tinoM Bmgi, ehiqp. xL md, ii 

X Fenn rent, fee turn ngnifies peipetnal frnn or rent For erer nnee ftodmi, 
fee, WMi bj vsige in England applied to aignif^ » perpetual eitate or inheritance m 
land, it hath been naed alio to aigniiypeKpetuity in an office, and inn reni or teiB.*-* 
Mfubs Brum Bwyi, cht^. 1. ho* 4. 

f Vide AppendiXi p. L 



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HI8T0EY OF HABTLBPOOL. 67 

libeiiy gnnted to tbe burgs, and bnrgeBsei^ (for all the iohabil- 
anta cxf bmga wore not saeb) was a freedom to buy and ael^ 
without diaturbance, a liberty from paying toU, pontage paaaage 
money, laatage, ataUage, &c.* in the mereatea and fain in tbeae 
buiga, and in coming to, and going from them, and for tbeae 
things the burgs were called free burgs, and the burgesaea free 
buigessesy &c«''t 

When the king granted liberties to any of his demesne towns, 
(says Madoz in his History of the Exchequer, c. xL p. 291) 
he waa moved to it by two reasons: one the fine paid in hmd, 
the other, the improFcment, or (as they anciently called it) the 
amendment of the manor, or town. Accordingly, on this oo- 
casion the Idng was not unmindful of the first consideiation, 
and the burgesses paid into the king's exchequer the sum of 
thirty marks for their charter4 

Thus w^e the inhabitants of Hartlepool formed into a com^ 
munity, possessing most valuable privileges and immunities: 
similar establishments, ''more perhaps than any other eause^^ 
contributed to '' introduce regular government, police, and arts, 
and to diffuse them over Europe,''§ and likewise prepared the 
way for the gradual progress and encouragement of commerce 
in this kingd(mi.|| 

The peculiar dreumstances underwhich Hartlepool was placed 
in ita early history, sometimes under the immediate authority of 

* Pontage, toll paid for passage OTer bridges with horses, carriages, &c and under 
tilflm with \)oats, ships, &c. 

Passage, mosey paid hj passeagnrs at bridges* gates, &c. 

Xastage^ a liberty to cany their goods ap and down in £urs and mereates, whess 
thej please. 

Stallage, » payment tat a stall, or a right to hare one inftirsor morcates.— Jhu^ 
omBwyMs. Appendix, 

t Brady on Biir|^ ji. 88. edit 1771. 

) Homines de Herbrepd, reddnnt oompotnm de zxz maicis, nt hitomt libertaies 
h leges in TiDa soa de Hertrepol, q[nales habent Bnrgenses de No?o Castello snper 
Tinam in TiDn sua; et pro habenda inde Carta Begis : & at dnt liberi Bnrgenses. — 
Mado^^i MH&rjf qf tht Exekequer. Thirty marcs were at thattime needy eqnal to 
the snm of £800 at the present day.— v. Bitkop FUeiwood^i Chramcon Fncumm, 

% BobertsonV History of Oiarles V. ▼. 1. 

I Andenon's History of Commerce. 



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68 HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL, 

the lords of the manor of Hart, Hartnessc, &c. occasionally nnder 
the domination of the bishops of Durham, and not unfireqnently 
seized into the kings hands, will account satisfiBU^rily for the 
charters which have at various times been granted to its inhabit- 
ants. 

The next grant of liberties to the burgesses of Hartlepool, was 
firom Bichard Poor, Bishop of Durham, in the year 1230. This 
charter recites ^' that with the assent of Balph the Prior, and our 
Chapter of Durham, we have given, granted, and confirmed to 
the inhabitants of the town of Hartlepool, that they shall be 
free burgesses, and that all their tenements in the borough of 
Hartlepool shall be free on payment of their just and right rents 
yearly for all services, aids, customs, and taxes. That in the 
said town of Hartlepool there shall be every year at the festival 
of Samt Laurence, a free fair, to continue fifteen days, and in 
every week a free market on Tuesday. That the said burgesses 
shall have good and right liberties, and free customs as free 
burgesses, free ingress and egress with our perfect peace, and 
that of our successors, of going and returning with all their 
goods, as well by land as by water, in our bishopric, through 
the whole of our territory. That the said burgesses shall enjoy 
the full Uberty of having a mayor, and a merchant guild,* as 
honorably as other burgesses have in the boroughs of our Lord 
the King in England; saving to ourselves, and to our suocessorsi, 
the usual customs due to us, and wont to be paid in all things ; 
and saving to us and our successors, prisage of wine, as our 
Lord the King takes it in his dominions in England ; and saving 
to ourselves and successors, the reasonable pre-emptionf of all 

* Gilda mercatoria, a merchant goild. — Madox JPirma Burgi, chap. 1. 9eci. 9. 

t The law of purveyance after William the Conqueror, was softened and modified 
into the prerogatiTe of pre-emption, in virtoe of which a right was vested in them, 
(the Kings or chief lords) of seizing npon any com, cattle, or other provisions, vs^khbl 
paying a stated, or rather an optional price ; a prerogative, although not quite so op- 
pressive, yet almost equslly disliked with the former, as it bore with equal violence 
against the liberty of the sulq'ect ; it was not until the reign of Charles 11. that this 
statute was finally abolished, when the exertion of it was made penal as ineuning the 
punishment of prsemnnire. — SatodtcetCt Domtsda^ qf TcrktMrf, 



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HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 09 

things eaqpOBed to sale, as our predecessors in their time had the 
privilege^ or as oor Lord the EJng has it in the horonghs of his 
baroniesin England; and saying to onrsdves and saccessors, 
that as well as onr free-men^ as others onr feudal tenants^ and 
the men of the Friorj and convent of Durham, as well free as 
otherwise, shall be for ever exempt from tolls in the aforesaid 
borough of Hartlepool. But we and our successors in the fore- 
mentioned pre-emptions of every thing exposed to sale, must 
be preferred to all others. Wherefore we will, and firmly 
dia^e, that the above-mentioned burgesses have, and possess 
well, and in peace, quietly, and honorably, all the aforesaid 
liberties and customs, and that this our gift and concession, and 
confirmation of the present charter may possess a perpetual 
validity, we have caused our seal to be placed to this present 
writing. — Given by the hand of Valens, at Alverton, 8 kal. 
Oct. in the third year of our episcopacy .'' 

A confirmation of the preceding charter by Ralph the Prior, 
and the convent of the church of Durham, states that they have 
given their consent to the bishop's grant, saving however for ever 
their liberties, which are expressed in the charters of William 
and Robert de Brus, and saving likewise the privilege of pur- 
chasing their provisions in the borough, without impediment 
from the burgesses of Hartlepool.* 

Peter de Brus, who then held the borough of Hartlepool in 
his own hands during the minority of the 5th Robert de Brus,t 
consented to the grant of the bishop, saving however the right 



* Oibs Chiisti fiddibiu ad qaos pnesena scriptum perrenerit Bad. Prior & cony. 
Donelm Ecdie SaL Noverit imiyersitaa vestra nos assenwnTn pnebuisse donatioxd con- 
068886 & confirmatioxd quam yen. pater Ricard' d. g. Dunekn epis. fecit Borgeniibm 
de Hertilpole super rectb libertatibiia, & liberis coiiBuetiidiiiibas Bargi de Hertilpole 
sicat in antentico ipdos Epis. plenios continetiir, Salyis nobis in parpetnmn Libertati- 
bos nottris in eod. Borgo, sicnt in Cartis Willehni & Bob. de Brus continetor. Salyo 
etiam in perpetuun quod liberi sinms in emptione yictnaliun nostrorom in eodem 
Borgo ita quod non lioeat eisdem Burgensibus de Hartilpoole aliqnod impedimentum 
lacere Nobis super eisdem yictualibus nostris. £t in boo rei test, presenti scripto ap> 
positmn est Sig. Yen. Patris Bicardi d. g. J>uielm. Episcopi. 

t Tidepage25. 



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70 HISTORT OP HARTLEPOOL. 

of the hdn of Robert de Bros, when they BhooldeometolAwfial 
age, the Ubertiet granted by William and Robert de Brosy and 
the pre-emption of proviaions^ 

Unfortonately the chartera of William and Robert de Bma 
are not to befbiind^ ao that it iaimpoaaibleto aacertain what pecu- 
liar priyilegeti the bnrgeaaea received from their immediate lorda. 

From thia period, therefore, the dection of Mayora would 
naturally commence, although the first on record does not 
q>pear before the year 1815. 

The Bailiffii seem to have been originally appointed by the 
King, and subsequently by the Bishops, when the see was in 
tranquil possession of its rights : they appear to have possessed 
some authority, and were likewise the Collectors of the Customs. 

MAYORS. BAILIFFS. 

1815 Andreas Bruntoft* Ric'us Masunf 

1817 Andreas Bruntoft Will' de Famelly 
1822 Job's Goldsmith* 

1828 WiU' filius Oilberti* Tho. Lamberd 

* Oibt [Terbatiiii itt in gapetiori] hat Domino Petrt ds Bm toper netit Ubcrta- 
tibna & liberia oonfloetodimbiu Bingi de HertQpdle neat in antentico ipnu Epii. 
plemoB oontinetiir Sal^o in oibe. jure haredum BoberH de Brut eum ad leffUimam 
triaUm penrenerint, & Salvia Nob. in perpetoom Hbertatilma nrit in eod. Bnrgo aiont 
Sn Cartia Willelmi & Bob. de Broa continetor. Salro etiam in perpeimun q[Qod Ubeii 
limna in emptione yictoalimn noatronun in eod Burgo ita qnod non licett dicto Petro 
aliqnod imped, faoat nobia anper eiadem. Et in hoc rd teat preaenti acripto ez nnn 
parte appoaitmn eat S. eapitnli noatri & ez altera parte S. dci Petri de Brua. 

t Whoae leaae of Hartlepool, &c. from Biahop KeQow ia aa foUowa, y. p. 29. 
Compoeicio inf Ep'm & Bic' le Maoeon de Hertrepd Hoc acriptn' indentat. teat'r 
good noa Bi'cna fte. oonoeaaim. &e. et ad iinnam dimiaaim' Bic' leMaceon de Hertre- 
pol villam n'ram de Hertrepoel en' famia molendinia aqnaticia et molendino de Hert 
ft h'end. k tenend. naq' ad f m nni' anni plenarie oo'pletn*. Beddo' nob Ac. q'tor 
Tiginti & qnatnor lib'r «d dnoa cjnadem anni terminoa. Salvia Nob. & ancoeaa. nVia 
enatonia & oiba. aliia ad noa et eeel'iam nram Dooelm p'tin. ratione n*re regie digni- 
tetia. In ciq. &c. dat. apnd Kypier XIIII die mena. Not. anno MCCCXmi & oona. 
n're qnarto. 

The King'a bailifTa at Hartlepool are mentioned aa early aa 26t]i Edward L 1297 ; 
in an order to them, "that no abbot or monk of theCSatocian order, ahall go liejood 
aeaa, withont the King'a permiaaion." — Byleft Plaeita FarHameniaria, p, 475. 

The liat of mayora and bailiib at thia early period ia extremely defective : thoae 
marked with a * are taken from oartnlariea in the Bean and Chapter'a OfBoe, at Dor- 
ham; iienly the wh<^ of the remaiiider.imtfl the grant of QMenEUnhelh'a charter, 



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HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 



71 



1824 

1835 Nidu de Bnmtoft^ 

Nich. Lamberd 
1887 Job's de Nesbet 
1840 Hdyas de Brancepatk 
1348 JoVes de Nesbyt 
1844 Helyas de Brancepath* 
1846 Joh'es de Nesbet* 
1347 Job'es Ward 
1848 Andreas fil' Bogeri« 
1851 Helyas de Brancepatb 
1857 Wm* de Bruntofk 
1862 Job's de Seton 

Benedictasffl'Will'i 
1864 Ada' Dowson* 

1885 Job'es Nesbyt* 

1886 Job'es de Wbitroat* 

1887 Job's de Wbitrout* 
1898 Andreas Bnmtoft 



1897 Job's Wbitrout* 

1898 Job' Gddsmitb^ Jan.* 



Will' fiHas Benedieti 

BenedictQs filios Will' 
Job's Ward 
Job'es de Nesbam 

Job'es de Nesbyt 

Job'es Nesbet 
Will' fil. Benedict! 

Will' de Gretbam 

llio'deEglescliff 

Elya Brancepatb, Job' Bayde 

Bob. Bnmtoft, Will' de Slingisby 

Will's de Birtby, Will' de Slin- 

gisbyt 

8am« Morland, temp. Bic. II. 

22 Bic. n. 



■xe from HntdriiMwn's Hiftaiy of Durham, yoL S. p. 18, (whore ihef are atated to 
haife been ydnaftOj ooBected from ancient charten) except where a particular refer- 
CDoea is given in the notes. 

The charters of moiage, &c. granted hj serenl hishops to the burgesses of Hart- 
lepool, win i^pear in thoae dieters to which thej have a direct refioenoe. 

t The major and hoM^ together with John Whitrent, John of Whitby, John 
Goldamith, jnn. and John Sanderson, burgesses, were boud in the sun of 1000 
marcs in this year, (Jnlj 11) to keep the peace towards Sir BaJ^ Loml^, hufjb^ 
hk servants, &c.; a sixnilar recogniiance was given by Sir B. Imkjr^Sutorf qf 
J>urika9t,vol.B.p.n. 

The dispote seems to have been occasioned, in conseqaenoe of Bobert de MapiKon, 
•nd 117 others (princ^paUy inhabitants of Hartl^odQ lumng taken a ship vi wt MmU, 
of the value of £20, of the said Balph from Stianton, and having canned if to HaxC; 
tins occasioned a serions quarrel, which seons to haive been fomented by Matilda^ 
widow of Roger de CUiford. Hie King (Biohard U.) at kngth intoftml nd or- 
doed the bidiop to prercnt all farther diaNiitigai. 



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72 HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 

1407 BogeroB Hood Joh'es Fellow, Will. Slmgsby 

1410 Bic. Bnmtoftt 

Joh'es Goldsmith 
1417 Job's Goldsmith* JoV Fellowe 

1485 Bob. Howden 
1476 Bic'us Yayasomr 

Bob. Pert 11 King Henry VIII. 

Job's Whitrout 8th of Bishop Skirlaw 

1585 Bic' Lasynbyt 
1568 Job' Brown 
1582 Job' Brown§ 
1588 Bicbarde Hatone|| 

In the year 1598, ''at the bnmble suit, request, and petition, 
of Sir John Lumley, Lord Lomley,''* Queen Elizabeth was 
pleased to grant a charter of incorporation to the borough of 
Hartlepool; in the preamble to which, it is stated, that the 

t Bic. Bmntoft, mayor, and the eommonaltjof Hartlepool, were bound in the som 
of 1000 marcs to keep the peace towards Thomas Sparrowe, John FoUowe, WilL 
Slyngesbye, WiU. CoUing, Bic. Garrdl, Steph. de Ehnedon, and WOL Tobj, towards 
all hb M^esty's sulgects/ &c. Sqtembcr 8th, in the 5th year of the e^soopacj of 
Bishop Langky. 

i Bandall's Farrago. 

Tike Etv, Thomat BandaU, who was matter qfihe Free School, at Dmrkaim, had 
free meeeu to the Ubrariei and pubUe cffieet; kU JOSS, eoneieting qf about twenty 
wflumee in quarto, he bequeathed to the late George Mian, JStq, cf Orange, Re 
died in the gear 1775. 

% Deeonber 8, 1600, John Brown, '* sometime maior of ys town iras bozied." — 
Tarieh B^gieter, 

I Extract from the Will ofBichard Hutone, 

In dd nomine Amen. T^lastdayof Deeonber, A. D. 1682, 1 BidiardeHntone, 
msgor of ye town of HartiDpole, within the bishopridn of Dureime, pnised be God» 
being of perfect and good remembrance, do make this my last will and testament in 
manor and forme foOowinge : — ^First, I beqnithe my sonle only into ye handes and 
merde of Almightie Qod my creator and Redemcar, by whose merits I hope to be 
saTed. And my bodye to ye earth from whence it came, to be bniied within ye 
chnrche of 8. Hilde, hi Hartillpole afbresaide, in ye mydde halleye, before ye qniere 
dore theire with my mortoarye dewe, and accustomed by ye laws. Item. I ge?e and 
beq^the io ye reparinge of ye same chnrche, iii#. iiii^f. &c. 

Witnesses ( ^^^ Browne, Alderman. Ub, Tut. p. 86. 

I John Sti^ltoD, docfce, &c. 

* Tide page 56. 



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HISTORY OP HARTLEPOOL. 73 

InurgetBeB and inhabitants of Hartlepool, have enjoyed their 
liberties^ franehiaeij &c. as well by prescription^ as also by virtoe 
of aoen groMU and confirmations, made of old by her pre- 
decessors, Kings of England. 

The principal danses of this charter state, that the burgesses 
ahaU be, and oontinne for ever, abody corporate and politic, and 
that they shall have a common seal; that the mayor shall be 
chosen oot of the bnrgesses, who shall continue in office one 
year; that twdve of the best-approved and most discreet bur- 
gesses shall be called capital burgesses and common council, for 
all things concerning the town and the goyemm^it thereof, and 
be aiding and assisting the mayor; that they (i. e. the mayor 
and capital burgesses) shall have a council-house or guild-hall; 
that they shall have power to hold a court of the mayor and 
burgesses, and in the same court to determine of the statutes, 
laws, &c. ; that they shall have power to constitute and ordain 
such laws, &C. as shall be honest and necessary for the govern- 
ment of the mayor, burgesses, inhabitants, sojourners, &c.; 
that they shall provide punishments, penalties, and imprison- 
ment, to be inflicted on those who break the laws, &c. such 
laws, however, shall not be rq^ugnant to the laws of England ; 
that they shall choose one of themselves, yearly, to be mayor, 
on the Monday next after the feast of St. Michael the Archangel| 
and if he die, or be removed, they shall choose another ; that 
if any person so diosen and appointed mayor, or to any other 
inferior office, shall refuse to act, then the mayor and capital 
burgesses may commit the offending party to gaol, or impose a 
reasonable fine ; that in case of the death or removal of a capi« 
tal burgess, a common burgess shall be appointed in his place; 
that there shall be two Serjeants at mace; amarketonTuesdayH^ 
in every week, and a yearly fair, bq;inning on the vigil of St. 
Lavnrence, to continue 15 days; a court of pie-powder, &C 
with toQage, stallage, &c. : it is likewise expressed, that the 
mayor and burgesses shall have so many, as great, and the like 

* Now holdeii o& Satwdagr, hj preicriptkm. 

N 



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74 HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 

privileges^ &c. as the mayor and burgesses of -Newcastle upon 
Tyne,* 

This charter was granted on the 3d day of Febroary^ and on 
the 8ih day of Jnne following^ £dmnn4 BeU the mayor^ and 
the chief borgessesj ''in consideration of the great pains taken 
'' by Lord Lnmley, for enlarging the franchises of the borough^ 
''granted to him and his heirs^ one moiety of all the finesi 
^' amerciaments, issues, sums of money to be taken tot all 
'^punishments, corrections, bloodahedsy and flffiray8,-^f all 
"fines taken for making burgesses, Ar free merchants,^— of all 
"fines arising upon any ordinances, customs, or constitutions, 
"within the said borough. And also that Lord Lumley, and 
" his heirs, shall have keelagOyf viz. eight-pence for every ves* 
" sd arriviog with a boat, laden or unladen, within the port, 
"and for every vessel without a boat, four-pence; and also for 
" stallage of every shop and booth, upon every one of the market 
" days, one farthing; and for passage of every horse on every 
" market day, one halfpenny; and for every shop and booth in 
"the time of the fairs, one halfpenny ; and forpassage of every 
borse at any fietir, one halfpenny/'^ 

1593 Edmund Bell, mayor.§ 

1594 Perceval BelL|| 
1599 Bobert Forrett. 

The Town Records comm^ice at this period, though frequent 
references are made to other books of a prior date, which are 
no longer in the possession of the corporation. The first book 
in which the proceedings are detailed, begins with a Farish 
Bister, from the year 1566 to 1597 inclusive; then follow 



♦ "^^de Appendix, p. v. 

t Tide p. 28. The fifth Robert de Bnu poeteMed the same pri?ilege. 

% Hr. Pooock's papers. 

\ Appointed to be the first and new mayor, hj the charter of Qaeen Elizabeth. 

D His election would take place according to theeharter, on the Monday after the 
feast of St. Michael the Ardiangd, 1598. His wife died on the 6th of Januaiy, 
1593-4, according to an inscription on a brass plate presenred in the churchy where 
she ii styled "late wyfe to FttcayeU BeU, wi9 maire." 



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HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 75 

the orderSj statutes, ke. &c.* for the regulation of the town 
written with great care, [adorned with many well-formed initial 
letters,] and as they afford curious memorials of the times, the 
most interesting will be occasionally given in the notes. 

* The fint entry appears under the impoeing title of 



ttrens in Ctmnttt 



*' Tkt booke conteyninge in ytt, the fbrme of the dection of ye maior of this towne 
of Hirtiepoole, his ostihe, the election of the chief bni gesee s , and there oathes. And 
the oaOie for all other officers^ and fremen of this town, and also all the orders, 
statutes, ordynanoes and decrees of the same town newly corrected, made and sett 
forthe, for ye well goremynge of this town of Hartlepole, by Robert Porrett, maior, 
PercyveQ Bell, Edmnnd Bell, James Xtnre, Cuthberte Conyers, Will'm Porrett, Baphe 
Porrett, Thorn's Harte, "^S^'m Wrighte, Will'm WyDdnson, Will'm Shipp'de, and 
Bichard Hnmble, chief bnigesses, common connsell assystante to the sayd maior, and 
the same redd over this nyneteynthe daie of October An'o d'ni 1599, beinge the 
coorte daye, before all or the most p'te of the free bnrgesses, and other the 
inhabytants of this town whoe willyng^y dyd snbmytt themselves to be governed 
by the same.** 

The first port of these orders relate to tiie dection 6f the mayor,, who after having 
been dected, mnst take the following oath : — 

^ S 0||AII wdl and trewly to the best of my power, execute the oflyce of mat.- 
altie of this town of Hartlepole, fixr this yere next to come, and wdl and fiiythftilly 
govern and mayneteyne the same, and all the franchises, fiedomes, lyberties, usages^ 
costomes, statutes, orders and degrees yrof. I diall trewly mayneteyne the hdye 
churehe, and doe jnstyce trewly, as wdl to the poore, as to the ridie, I shall judge 
indifferentley betwene p'tie and p'tie, w*thout anie &vor or displeasnre I owe unto 
any nutn, and without any private gayne to myselt Soe hdp me God, and the con- 
tents of this booke." 

Then follows an order, that "yf anie of the twdve chiefe bu rg es s es of this town 
shall bee dected to bee maior thereof, and he nott beinge p'sente att the same dection, 
1M then bee or they soe beinge dected, shall upon notyce thereof given unto hyme^ 
repaycr home w*th what speed convenycntly hee may, to take upon hyme the sayd 
oflyo^ aiul yf bee soe beinge pbsente and dected, and haveinge notyce thereof geven 



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76 HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 

as afixreaaya, thall lefiue by words or denye by wiytinge to tike upon hyme the sayd 
ofl^ce of maraltye, and the ezecntioii theareof for one wbde ycre then next after, then 
hee or they soe rcfiueinge, shall for cmy soeh rcfaaeal paye to the nae of this town 
XE". Then the chief bnrgessea proceed to a fireah election, and when the election 
ahaU frn oat to be e?en ''in yoyoea, that then the aneyente xnaior ahaU have the 
easting Toyoe." 



VSfMmttn, maSeanO Mis 
agrees ttvon &t ^e goo9 
gob*metite of fbi» tohm 
of ifavflepoolt lis ^BM'U 
yottet^ icu 



The first section, or "ordien for the church," wiUbefoondin the chapter to which 
it particnlady relatea. 

The second seetwn oontaina "ocden fi» the town," amongst which are the f<a- 
lowing:— 



10 fin* ytt ys ordeyned, that whosoever 

of this town shall be lawfhlly elected, 
and chosen to bee one of the twelve 
chiefe burgesses, comon connseU to the 
maior of this town, and refoseth to 
tske v^n hyme the same plsoe of a 
chiefe burgees, oomon oonnsell of the 
same town, ahaU for every tyme soe 
reftiseing, paye to the nse of this 

towne ^• 

11. WVX* ytt ys ordeyned, that the maior of this towne, and every of the twelve 

chief burgesses, oomoa coonfldl assystaate to the sayd maior, ihaU p'vyde fcr, and 



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mSTOBY OF HAETLEPOOL. 77 

liATe in Umm lioKiBet at aU tjmei^ <nie fofCBoej^ 

and one poande of powder, mitohe and ihott, wbidi shall hee redya, at aU timea and 
aoe often aa yti ahaH pleaae the maior to take viewe thereof i^onpayne to pa7e...zx#. 
* 2%e taUper woi a lighter kind qfrnusguet, with a mateh-iock, and was made 
to UJired wiikoui a reet^^Oroee on JneUnt Jrmonr, 2. 295. 

12. Ttt ya ordeyned, yt whoaoerer bee bee of this town that malycyoiuly against 
the peace, smytethe or affirayeth upon anie num w'thin this town in the p'ns of the 
maior shall paye for ererye tyme soe doeinge to the nse of this towne is. 

And also bee further punyshed att y* discreaion of y« maior. 

18. Ytt ys Qordeyned, that whosoever they bee ct this town that frayethe or 
breskethe y* peace, w'thin the lybertiea of this town, shall paye for eviye suche 
finje or assalte > iiii. iiqi^ 

And for bloode, yf there bee anie lU, i^, 

14. Ytt ys ordeyned, that whosoever they bee that w'thin the lyberties of this 
town, disobeyethe the mair in his ofljrce, or nsethe anie r^rocheftill, or oontemptioos 
apeaches against the sayd maior for the execotinge of the sayd ofi^oe, yf the same 

may be p'ved, hee or they shall paye for every tyme soe offimdinge xx#. 

Or be ponyshed att the discresyon of the maior. 

16 ''Beproveinge or fidcyfyeinge a chief bnrgess" in the presence of the 
maior ts, 

16. For caDing a diief bargees "false." vir. viiiJ. 

17. For calling a commoner "false or a Iyer." ii#. vidL 

26. Ytt ys ordeyned yt whosoever hee or tiiej be w'ch hereafter shall be made 

free bnrgease of this town, shall over and beaydea his or there fynes to the town, 
paye to the poore man's box , xiii/. 

^tUtt% fox t^ JSIl^fiifl^ 

81. Ttt ys ordeyned, yt whatsoever inhabytante of this towne, goeth aborde of 
any shippe, or hoye, w'thin this wycke or hazborongh, and boyeth anie manor of 
oorne, victnaUs^ beare, or anie other goods, or como^ties whatsoever, bee ytt but 
portage of anie vahie, w'thoot the lycens of the maior, and before there bee a piyce 
thereof sett down by the sayd maior, of the sayde come, goodes, or other merchandyse 
or victoala, ikat then hee or they soe offiendinge^ shall not ondy paye for evoye tpaa 
aoe offendbge, to the nse of this town ten duQings, bat alsoe the sayd goods, or 
oomoditica soe by hyme or theme bonghte, to be taken from the p'tyes soe bi^inge, 
and the same to be seqaestred att the discressyon of the maior, twelve ehiefe borgeeses, 
oosnon ooonsdl of this town, or the greater p'te of theme i#. 

etOttn tot tn^otottn, Sn* 

89. Ttt ya ordeyned, that evoy inhabytante of ys town that brewethe eyther ale or 
bcaie for sayle, shall sdl y«sanie after soohe measure and aa^yse, aa shall bee sett 
down by ye maior, twdve diieiB burgesses, comon counsctll of this town or the greater 
p'te of thcme^ upon payne to paye for every tyme not soe doeing to the use of this 
town ms.md. 

The farm qftk^presenimeiUfar ye consiaiies:— 

** Mof ii please pmr worship. We, ike cone$ables qf Earikpool, do eertifie, ^ we 
kme no aUe houses, tipiars, nor drawers, M what is and hath been iiseHcedfyye 
maior and aiderwun time out of mind** 

48. Ytt ys Oldened yt whatsoever victualer, inholder, or ale-honse keeper, of this 
tfwn, raeyrethe and k)dgethe in hisortheie honseor houses, anie maner of vagrante. 



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78 HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 

or mikiMmii p'sonB, noU bcbginge.the sayd p*ioiis to the sudor or his depatye, ihaU 
pay for 01^70 tpat boo dodnge, to the use of this town yU, ymd, 

54. Ytt ys ofdeyned yt what servant soever of this town, shall he taken forthe of 
his maister's hovse, after nyne of the docke att ny^t, except ytt hee npon his 
maister's bnsyness, or for some other lawfoU cause, or in the twelve daies of 
CSiristenmes, shall pay lor every sndi ofifence xii^. 

60. Ytt ys ordeyned ^t whosoever they hee of this town, that casteth fonrthe of 
there houses into the stnates anie garbage or stynckinge water, shall pay, for eveiy 
suchede&lte yid, 

62. Ytt ys ordeyned, yt idiosoever ys fonnde lystening about anie man's wyndowes 
to hers his secretes, shall pay for eveiy tyme hee or they shal bee founde.,, xii^. 



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HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 79 

1600*Bobert Forrett BELL. 

1601 James Etxiref 

1602 Perceval BeU 

1603 William Wright 

1604 William Porrett 

1605 Perceval Bell 
1606tWilliam Wright 
1607§Perceval Bell 

65. YU JB ardeyned, yt yf anie man play at foot-ball or jowell, w'thin anie of tlie 
streates of this town, nee or they soe playing shall paye, for eveiy such of- 
fence mtmid, 

(J6. Ytt ys ordeyned yt whosoever ys taken scolduige or rcryleing one another in 
ye streates, or w'thin the lybertyes of this town, yf ytt may bee p'ved to the maior, 
twelve chdfe bnrgesses, comon counseU of this town, or tiie greater p'te of theme, 
thev soe offendinge shall eyther bee pnnyshed att the discression of the maior, or dls 
ahflll pay to the nse of this town, fior evrye snch offence us,i\d, 

^9ff!l fox fitXtt^ttt^ 

71. Ytt ys ordeyned, yt whosoever hee bee of this towne, that keepeih anie mastyvo 
dogg w'thin this town, nott mnsled in the daye, and in the honse npon the nyghte, 
sh^Spay for every snch de&olt iii*. iiii^. 

[The " orders for y* sandes and fishermen " win be given hereafter, nnder the 
chapter on the fisheries.] 

•rDet0 fm fit 9Mtwct. 

. 86. Ytt ys ordeyned, that noefireebnrgess of y I town shall pott aaie horse or meare 
npon the oomon pasture of this town, before they shall bee seene and allowed of by the 
maior, twelve cheife bnrgesses, comon oonnsell of this town, or the greater p'te of 
theme ; and that evrye siuh horse or meare, soe vewed annd seene, shafi, by the sayd 
maior, twelve cheife burgesses, comon connsell of this town, or the greater p'te of 
theme, bee thought to be worthe, in there judgment, \he some of four marks of lawful 
English money, up<m payne to paye, for evrye tyme suche horse or meare ys taken 
upon this pasture, and nott seene and allowed of as aforesaid zii/'. 

94. Ytt ys ordeyned, yt noe inhabytante of this town shall kepe anie geese or swyne 
w'thin the precynctes td this town, except upon there own badEsyde, upon payne to 
paye, for evrye swyne which shal be tiJrai abroad » zii^. 

And for evrye goose vi^. 

95. Ytt ys ardeyned, yt yf anie inhabytante of tlus town doe kcpe anie jpett att anie 
tyme hereaSEler in this to^, to the anoyance of his neighbors ; and yff ytt may be 
p'ved, that the same pett hath been kepte thereby the space of fowerteyne dayes, hee 
or they soe offendinge shall pay to the use of this town, for evrye such offence, iir. vu/. 

96. Ytt ys ordeyned, yt noe inhabytante of this town, shall kepe anie Horse or 
meare upon the comon pasture, after the feast daye of St. Martyne the Byshopp, in 
wynter, nntyll the feast-daye of St HeDyn then next after yerdy, upon payne to paye, 
for evrye such offenee vii. vini/. 

* In the mayor's account, finr this and several of the succeeding years, appears this 
item. — "To the maior for his stypend xliiiii." 

At this period a town's house was building, and towards the expences, the chief 
burgesses contributed yearlr x#. 

The common burgesses (amongst whom is Sir WilL Bowes, knight) v#. 

And every inhabitant ii*. vii/. 

t 1602, 10th July. Marie, y« good wife of James Bture, buried.— PariiA 
BegUter, 

X Tlie mayor's salary is stated, in his account, to be £10 this year, at which sum 
it continued for several years following. 

i 1607. To the duef Lcord (Lord Lumley) for his moyty of all towell, &c. and 

finW ...M..t.....«iiiMnnMniMiMiifit»-« •» »• Mtif«.«.«t.„MM >« li' ^KV*. vliirf. 

Mayof't Aceonnt* 



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80 



HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 



WILKINSON. 



NICHOLSON. 



I608*William Wright 
1609 Bobert Forrett 
leiOtEdmond Bell 
leiltRobert Forrett 
1612§William Wilkinson 
♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ 

1616||WiUiam Wilkinson 

1617 Bobert Forrett 

1618 Ferceval BeB 

1619 Bobert Forrett 

1620 Thomas Wright^ 

1621 Thomas Nicholson 

1622 Edmond Bell 

1623 Thomas Nicholson 

1624 Bobert Bidlington 
1626 William Wright 
1626 Bobert Bidlington 

* Eor tpiiBB, frayes, for drawing of beare, and other casnaUtaes I]]^j#. ud, 

t In the mayor's aoooont is the foUowing item : — 

"Eor the use of Bight Honorable the Ladye Elizabeth Lomley, w'ch is for the 

rente of her lande, and other dues w'thin this towne SU," 

X April 1. It is ordained, " w'th the generall consenteof all the inhabitants hen, 
for the p'petaaU good of this towne, for the repayreinge the chorch and peare, for 
renewinge the chuter, and for the indoseinge the slykn, and for other good canses^ 
thai the nudor for the tyme beinge and his sncoessors," the chief bnrgeeses, common 
borgesses, and inhabitants shall pay, " daring the terme of fower yeres " iht mayor 
20«. chief burgesses lOf. freemen 5«. and nnneemen S#. 6dJ* Tlus stopendons mi- 
dfflialring of endosing the slykes, seems to hare had no ftirther resnlt, as the subject 
is not again mentioned. 

$ In this year's aoooont, 5 shillings were paid to "John Thorp, for moldy warpe.** 

B i. d. 

I Sesment of the maior and brethren • vg 

T^remen xi yi yiq 

Unfremen q yiq Tiq 



Sotaie 



% Thomas Wri^t, of Hartlepoo], 
Mayor, 1620. 



ZX XT li^ 



Boeia Wright, of Hartlepool, 

Mayor 1682; 1684, 1686, 1687, 

bur. May 18, 1687. 



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mSTOBY OF HARTLEPOOL. 



81 




THEOCKMOETON. 
1627'('Jolin Throckmorton 

1628 Sobert Eidlington 

1629 Waiiam Wrightf 
1680 Sobert Eidlington 
16Sl^oma8 Nicholson 
1682 Soger Wright 
1688 Thomas Nicholson 
1684 Boger Wright WEIGHT. 
1685§Thoma8 Nicholson 

1686||Eoger Wright 
16871[Eoger Wright 
1688 EichardGhrace 
1689**Thomas Nicholson 
1640 Nicholas Joyce 
1641ttThomas Nicholson 

* Amongst tlie fynes and amercem'ts thiB jcu, are #. dl 

Bichard Walton, a fray upon Wm. Ranghton 8 4 

Tliomas Humble, for twoe frays opon B. Walton 6 8 

Balph Qieene, Ibr caOing Bob. WiUdnson (cbief bugess) a knave 6 8 

Stephen Dizonf for bis goose npon the pasture 1 

fBoried Aprfl 28, Ui^i^Pariih Remitter. 
X OnihelstofBeeember, 1681, Lord '^^sooont Lomley granted a lease to tbe 
mayor and oonoration for 21 years, at £12 per annnm, of '* one-balf cf the tolls, 
anehorage, and peerage, fines, and amerciaments, and sllhonses, burgages, and 
burgage steads, waist unds, oat rents, land maile, and all other the premises, with 
thoe appvtinents," excepting howerer "all feUons lands, and goods of frUons, 
and tntors, and goods of oathwes, and of foQons of themselyes^ and all deodands, 
wanes, estrms, treasure trove, and wrecks of all kinds." 

5 Hem. Jan. 22. The names of the brethren, who have g^ven ihen consent to 

layie the slipeat for the maior to tenn poonds :-» 

Mr. Chr. Fnlthorp Bobert Wilkinson , 

Mr. Clement Fnltnoip James Niehblson 

Mr. Tho. Nicholson Tho. Bobinson 

Mr. Boger Wright Wilhn. Heck 

Jolv 27, 1686. Mr. William Bnhner, of Wilton, admitted a freebnrgess, by 
''parncntage^ and paid 4f ." 

I The rsoords are defective for severs! years at this period, and the rnmes of the 
mavors have, oeeasionaDy, been preserved bythe Parish Beffister. 
1686, Jan. 27, Jeane, y« wife of Boger Wright, maiar, buried. 
Ap. 26. Mr. Anthony Dodesworth admitted a free burgess. 
fMey 18, 1687. Mr. Boger Wright, wtajfor, was hnrjiSL^Parisk Eegirier. 
** In this year a suit is mentioned as having been institiit^ against the mayor 
in the Star Chamber by Bobert Porrett» thonf^ the sal^eet is not specified. A soit 
is likewise mentioned in 1658, and in tiie ooonty ooort m 1666 ; it was determined, 
however, on all these occaiimis that the town should ** defend the same." 

ft 1641, May 80. James ye son of Mr. James Lindsey* biq^tised. ISiomM 
Nidiolson, wumor, &o. witnesses. — Parith Beffuier. 
ThmDM Nicholm wm bnned the 16th of Jannary, IfM.^Pmak BiegiiUr. 

o 



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82 HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 

FULTHOEP- 
1646 Richard Grace 

1647*Jolm WcDb 

1648 Christopher Fulthorpt 

1649tBichard Grace 

1650§John Walker 

1651 Richard Langley 

1652||John Walker 

1658f John Wella 

1654 John MarahaU 

1655 Roger Dohson 

1656 John MarahaU** 

1657 Roger Dobaon 

1658 John Marahall 

1659 Roger Dobaon 




WALKER. 



* In the major'B aoeoonts for thii and the two tnooeeding jean, 
mentioiied as heing impoaed i^on the town " hj reaaon of a ganiaon hoe." 

t Of Tonstan. 

X Oct. 2. John Benson was sworn fireebnrgess, and "jxs, promiaed to be allowed 
him, in respecte of his Sondayes'dinnen, w'dnr^derke osoally had at the mayor's taUe." 

5 On the last day of Sratember, John WeDs, one of the chief Iniigessea, hafing 
beoi elected mayor, reftised to take the oath, (a similar zefosal having taken place the 
year before by Robert Webster) for the execution of the oflSoe, ** wherenpon he was 
fyned £x. and to be committed to p'son nntill he payd or compounded for the said 
fyne." He was choeen again on Oct 6, 1661, and having (dven a similar refosal, he 
was fined two pounds. Bobert Webster was likewise fined x pounds. On the 9th 
October, in the following year, however, John Wells was excused his fines^ and took 
Hie oath and execution of the office. 

I Inthisyear, Sir BichardLomley, Knight, l0rdVi8ooantLamley,nanted a lease 
to the mayor and burgesses of '* all that moitye, or one halfe of the toUs, anchorage, 
and peerage, fines and amerciaments of courts, and all poffitts thereoif or therranto 
belonging, within the said town of Hartlepoole, which belong, or in any wise i^par- 
tayne unto the said Lord Yiscount lAmiky," finr 21 years, at £10 per annum. 

% October 14 of this year, several of the inhabitants aie ordered to be "charged 
with a muskett." 

** *'Mr. John MarahaU, najat of Hartilpoole, and Mistrisse Anne Askwith, of 
the p'ishe d Greatham, was three aevenU Lord's dayes puhlidied in the parishe ehurdi 
of Oreatham, according to the act of p'liament, and was maried before Justice Ful- 
thorp, in Greatham cu^ppel, upon Tuoday the 20th day of May, 1656." — Oreatham 
Fartth Beyuter. 

The writer of the Elwick Parish Register exclaims that "maryinge by justices, 
election of registersby the parishoners, and the use of ruling dden, first came into 
&shion in the times of rciodlion, under that monster of nature and Uuty tyrant, 
OUyerCromwdlll" 

Oct. 6, 1656. John Tong, of lAtterinffton, gentleman, admitted a firee burgees. 

In the same year, the mayor appointed the following officers: — 1 town dak, 

1 seijeant, 2 ehamhedains, 8 auditors, 4 constables, 4 bread weighers, 4 nier masters, 

2 ale tasters, 2 graMmoDy 1 hod, 2 nnd ckinen^ 2 Tiewm of weat^ ana 1 m^^ 
[of doth.] 



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HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 



88 



WELLS. 




1660*Jolm Wells 

1661 John Marshall 

1662 fioger Dobsonf 

1663 Josqph Speeding^ 
1664§B(^ Dobson 
1665||John WeM 
1666 Roger Dobson'Mc 



* In this jtKt June Sth, it is dedsred, that 

"In pmniaiiee of the gradoos deelsntion of his most ezoeEent Miiettie Chailes 
the Seoondy of England, Scotland, France, and Ireland, King, defender of the feith, 
&c given nnder his Maieeties sign mannell and priry signett, at his court at Bred% 
the 14th April last, and upon the 1st of May inst, ordored hj the Comons in 
Parliament aaseEDibled, to he printed and pohluhed," (oflSsring a free and gimeral 
pacdon to all persons, who should take adrantage of the sam^ Ij any pahUc act 
within fortj days), *' We whose names are imderwritten, dwelling m the towne of 
Hartlepool, doe with most hunhle and hartie thankfolnesse, lay hold upon his 
Majfistifs free and gradoos p'don hy the said declaration granted, and we doe hereby 
poUiqndy dedare, that we do and dedre to lay hold imon his Maiesties grace and 
nroor, and thai we are, and still will continne his Maiesties loyall and obedient 
subjects. &c See." Skned Jo. Wells, Boger Dobson, Simon AsVwith, John 
Marshall, Jos^ SpeecBng, Bobert Merriman, Bobert Bontledge, John Claxton, 
John Henisoo, Jno. WeUs, and Bar. J>ann, (town derk.) 

A nmHar minate to the abore, is likewise ngned by John Bowey, minister of 
Blwidu; John Brabant^ minister of Midlam; and Henry Doughty, preacher of 
Sedgefidd. 

t No copper ferthings having been iasoed during the usurpation, thepractice of 
iasoing tokens became very common amongst tradesmen, which continued until 1679, 
when they were superseded by a royal coinage of copper half-pence and farthings. — 
V, Leake <m EngUth Money, p, 868. 

Boser Dobson issued tokens in 1668, bearing on the obverse a Stag, or Hart, being 
intenctodpah^ to denote the tfrsu of Hartlepool, dreumscribed BOGBB DOBSOI^ 

D 
1668, and on the reverse IN HABTLEPOOLE, with B B in the centre, formmg 
the initial letters of the names of himsdf and his ifftfe. 




i Bedgned Oetober 8, 1664. 

9 S^. 9th, William Howard, Esq. of Thorp Bulmer, was admitted a free burgess. 

I April 25, Gilbert Jarrett, (Garrard) Baronet, was admitted a free bmj^ess by 
composrtioiu 

f Of Hartlepool— he redgned his office of chief burgess, September 2, 1670. 
And on Oetober 9, 1678, " old Mr. John Wells was buryed."— PamA BegiHer, 

♦• Buried January 8, 1668.— Pm#A Megitter. 



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84 



HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 



MARSHALL. 




1667 Jolrn MarshaU 

1668 Robert PoweU 

1669 Robert Merriman 
1670«John MiUer 
1671tWiIIiam Bellasis]: 
1672§Antlio]i7 Dodsworth|| 
1678f John Claxton 
1674 Samuel Smatbwaite 

* July 19, "Charles Lord Saint Jonea, (afterwaordB Marquis of Windiester, and 
Doke of Bolton^ tooktheoaihof afiteebiiig«ss,aiiddidgiYetotheiiseof themayor 
and burgesses •••• iOsJ' 

t Sept. 28, "Sir David Fowlea, (Foplis) Kni^t and Baronett; Sir Robert Laton, 
Knightk (of Saxbow, in the North Biding of Yorkshire) ; Anthony Lowther, Esq. 
WsL Fowles, (Fonlis) Esq. Bichsrd Fenn, Esq. ; in the county of York, were ad- 
mitted free bmgesses; and on Oct 2, CoroneU&nry Ubaok, of the dty of London, 
was admitted a free bmgess." 

{OfOwton. 
Sept. 26, Mark Brrington, of Stookton, Esq.; Anthony Bandby, of Yorkshire, 
gentleman ; Bidiard Miles, Schoolmaster; ai^ Bobert Wilsfm, merchant tailor, were 
admitted free burgesses. 

I Of Stranton West HaD, (foimeriT parcel of the land belonging to Onisbroodi 
Abbey) whidi he add in 1688 to William and Bichaid Bead, of Baxt, and afterwards 
li?ed in Elvet, Dnihsm. 

% On April 16, it is ordered at a general guild, "that whosoever he be, of any 
merchant trade, or honse>caipenter, joyner, ship-caipenter, draper, taylors, plnmen^ 
glaisers, cordiners, bntchers, glovers and skinners, whitesmiths, blacksmiths, wallers, 
wine coopers, tallow chandlers, ei aUoi, that shall presume to come in, and within tiie 
liberty of this corporation, to trade or occapye an^ snch trade, without the liberty, or 
consent off any such who are iigpyned to tl^ prcgudioe of the free trades, and com- 
panyes within the corporation, as now is ordered for the good off the free burgesses 
and inhabitants theiroff, and for the better preservation off all the company and in- 
couragement of them, to them and their successors for ever hereefter, we doe hereby 
order and have fully agreed upon, that whatsoever he be that shall com within the 
corporation aforesaid, shall pay to the use off 'the migor and buixesses of this towne 
for every such time soe offendmg as he or they shall trale, comment being made by 
one or two more of the companys afbiresaid, to the migor and burgesses, for eveiy 
suchofRmce z#. 

The companys of tradesmen " shall from time to time, and at all times hereafter, 
within their hall, or com'on hall and meetings, order, and with the consent of their 
warden, and migor partt of them at theire quarterly meetings, make such lawes and 
orders, for the better incouragement of their trades and callings hereafter, for the 
better suppressing of all those yt shsU hereafter make any brash* within the corpora- 
tion, to the damage of all, or anv of the said companyes aforesaid, shsll upon every 
such offence pay to the warden of tiie said company, over and above the fine above 
mentioned, for every tame so offending the sum of • z#. 

Unfortimately no other record exists respectinff the free trades, excepting the above: 
a reference is given in the margin to fi>lio 12, which however is no lon^ in pos- 
session of the corporation, ai^ on a subject so interesthig to the inhabitants, even 
local tradition offers no reasonable coigecture. 

* Broih. (SeotehJ — an ^ort, an attack, an OMsault; as in EngUih brush mma^. 
October 16. It is ordered that the bill of Bobert Fenwick, gentletnan, shall be 

deved, (which is certainly extreme^ moderate) — s, d. 

For my own charge in going to Durham 8 times ....••? 6 
And to Kirkleadum one time 2 6 



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mSTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 



85 



BARNES. 

lerS'i'Robert Rontlegef 
1676j:Henr7 Barnes 
1677 William Bellasis 
1678§Richard Uoote\\ 
1679 John Folthorp 
leSOf John Pulthorp** 

mffliti^ a678) to come within the libertica of the town, when the freemen wm 
not work at a reasonahle rate. 

1 ^'^^i.l'y^T!*!?*"^.^**^^ as many, and ai 

LirgefrMuAMe^hJertMS priffieges, and pre-emineiSi, are fS^ granted ^^tTonr 
corporation of Hartlepoole, astheWttiye of Newcastle upon T^rbywl^w 
imme or names of ooriKHjte or incorporate, had or should^^^ 

i^ ^A * ^^"li'^ ^ ^^ 9™^ ^"^'^g'l* 0^* o^ ti^e adjacent counties there- 

S^iJT^ '*? 5^'°''^'- ^«^?**>«t^e W,&c.doehe^yorder,thattheS^ 

^iS^^d'^W?^^^ graine m like mamier bron^t intS this ^^ration o? 

Hartlepoole, and tjiat for ^e prevention of wrong betwSt the buyer and^dler. just 

m««ipeabep^ 

law, &c.— Owwro/kw Uecordt, Dee, 8, 1676: 

;:!1SS2^^?S?^:^^^ """"^'^ ^''- if«;>^. of Hartlepool, 

Jo^^?5^ L*^"^^^-.^- ®^K« T"****^* Nicholas Conycrs, ^Imd 
John derke, gent, were admitted free burgesses 

I Janrjary ll, 167», Kchaid Moore, Aldenian, was buiyed. 

T ^ttis y«r the followmg persons were admitted free burgesses :— Feb. 20. 
Jolm Butler, gait Thomas Butler, grocer, Edward Marley, l«Sr!«irgeon, and 
WilHam Loxon, tallow chandler and barber-suiKeon, 
BSLLASIS. 

A iT^ ^"^ foflowing persons were also admitted free 

^^^P ^_^ h^ ^M^ Augusta. John Parkhurst, Esq. 

^ .d«Hiilb^ ^ Sent. 17. Thomas Featherstonhalgh, Esq. John 

Elstob, and Arthur JoUin, gentlemen. 

Sep. 25. William Lee, Esq. and John Davis, 
gentleman. 

Oct 1. Capt. Wm. Behisis, lieut. J. Belasis, 
Mr. George Tocketts, Mr. Thomas Hodgson, gold- 
smith, ana John Swainston, Mariner. 
Oct 6. Mr. Bobinson, minister of Sedgefield. 

♦♦ M^18. Ll compliance with the coiporation act (18 Charles 11.) the monbers 
of the corporation dedaze that "no obligation is imposed by the solemn leasue and 
coTenant,"^&c. ^ 

(Signed) John Fulthoorp, mayor EdmondBeU 

Wm. Davison, recorder Robert Boutledge 

CL Fulthorp llLomas Thompson 

Anthony Dodsworth John Merriman 

John Miller John Marshall 

Anthony Easton Joshua Smith. 

June 12. John Trotter, Esq. and Christopher Fulthorp, rector; and on July 19, 
Cauistopher Fe«th«rstoD, Esq. were admitted free buigesses. 




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HISTORY OF HABTLEPOOL. 



1681*William Tempestf 

MORLAND. August 12, 1680. George Morlaiid fiiq. (M. P. for the 

city of Dm^am, 1688) and on Ckioher 4, Stedben Tea- 
nant, vicar, (of Stranton) were admitted firee Durgeties. 
* Srat. 22. Nicholas Gonjera, Yioe-oomes, JolmSnd- 
bniy, £80. Mr. Thomas Cowper, Mr. Robert Viggoner» 
Thomas Stoddert» Thomas Watson* Thomas W J^, and 
Charles Easterbyi were admitted firee burgesses.. 

Oct. 8. It is ordered yt Nicholas Comer, and George 
Patteson, taylors, fireemen of this town, shall be ready at 
an times upon request to them, or either of them made, or 
notice giyen, to work at any of the chief burgesses houses, 
as often as occasion shall require, vpon payne to paye for 
eyerie n^^ect or leAisaU to ye mqor •••••• Sir. ^» 



t William Tempest of Old Durham.. 
Esq. M. P. for the dtv of Dur- 
ham, mayor 1681, 1687, and 
1698, bur. March 16, 1690. 




John Tc 



Teimpest, of Old Durham,, 
Esq. M.P. for the county of Dur- 
ham,Mayor 1702, 1715, 1720, 
bur. Jan. 80, 1787. 



John Tempest, Esq. ofSherbum,, 
&c. M. f, for the city of Dur- 
ham, mayor 1747, 1768. 
ob. 



John Tempest, Esq.. 
M. P. for the city of Dur- 
ham, nuqror, 1778, 
ob. Aug. 12, 1794. 



Prances^Sir H. Vane, 
Bt. L.L.D. 



John Wharton, Ttonqpeit, 
ob. 8. p. 



r H.V.I 



SirB.V.Tbnpest,Bt. 
M. P. for the dty, 
■fterwaida for the 
County of Durham, 
mayor 1798, 1806, 
ob. Aug. 1,1818. 



Franoe8i.M.A.Taylor 
E8q.M.P. 



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HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 



87 




1682 Joshua Smith SMITH. 

1683 John Miller 
1684*EdmoiidBell 
1685 Joshua Smithf 
1686| William Gibson 
1687 William Tempest 
1688§Oeorge Heath 
16S9 Edmond BeU 

1690 John Merriman 

1691 John Crooks 

1692 William Gibson 

1693 William Tempest HEATH. 

1694 George Heath|| 

1695 Anthony Wood 

1696 William Gibson 

1697 John Crooks 

1698 Edmond Bell 

1699 Thomas Snowdonf 

1700 Joshua Smith** 

1701 James Hirdmanft 

1702 John Tempest 

1703 John Crookes 

1704 Edmond BeU 

1705 Robert Wrighttt 

* Oet.6. George Sanders, mimster of M(mkHeflleton,WB8 admitted a free buraws. 
t Died July 6, nOl,-~Tombstone in the Church, 
^ X D ecember 16. Rowland Tempest, and William Sanders, Esq. admitted free 
burgesses. 

f September 28. Mr. Stephen Woodifield, Mr. James Hope, and Mr. William 
Marahail, ministers, admitted free burgesses. 
I Of LtttlB Eden, in the oonnty of Durham. 

f Mr. Thomas Snowdon, "Merchant and Alderman," bur. Feb. 8, 1716.— 
Farith Register. 

** Mr. Joshua Smith, of Hartlepool, mayor 1700,» 
ob. Feb. 8, 1707.— 7b»i*#<(wi^ I 
til the Church, I 



tt Of 
ttOf 



Mr. Anthony Smithy of Hartlepool, mayor 1718, 

ob. July 11, 1721, aged Zl.-'T^fwMonc in (hi Church. 
ban«a there Oct. 8, 1782. 



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88 HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 

1706 Jolrn Speannan'*' 
1707tJolin Thompaon 

1708 John Wflron CLAVERING. 

1709 Jolrn Tempest 

1710 Thomas Davison]: 

1711 James NichoIson§ 
1712||Sir John Clavering, Bart,f 
1718i°l'Anihon7 Smith 

1714 John Edcntt 

1715 John Tempest 

* Of Hetton-in-thd-Holey oonntj of DmliaiiL 

t Sept. 6. Mark Shaftoe» Saq. Thomas DaTiaon, Esq. ; Sept. 6. Thomas Gon- 
yers, Sao. (M. P. for the dty of Durham) ; and Sept 8, William Hart Atkiiisoii» 
mi^or of Stocktoiiy were admitted free buigessea. 

t Thomas DtTison „. 
of ]3lakistoii» Esq. 
mayori 1710* 
oh. Sept. 9, 1748, tsL M, 



Thomas Dafisoiif ^ 
of Blakistoot Esq. 
mayor 1788| 
oh. Feb. 6, 1756, ust. 48. 



^ M. P. for the city of Doiham, nephew to Sir John Dnek ; (his eldest danghtcr 
married Thomas, 8th Etfl of Strathmore,) ob. 1727. « 

Sep. 26. Robert Shafto, (M. P. for the dty of Diiiham») George Baker, John 
Blimd, and Thomas Forster, Esqrs. were admitted free borgesses. 

f The third baronet, ob. Angnst 11, 1742. 

** November 8. James Co^ce, Esq. admitted a free burgess. 

ft John Eden, Esq. » 

succeeded his ^ther, the 

Ist baronet, in 1720, M. P. 

for the eitjr. of Durham, 

mayor 1714, 1722 

ob. May 2, 1728. 



Sir Robert Eden, 8d. Bart.« 
ob. 26th June, 1755. I 



Sir John Eden, 4th Bart., 

M. P. for the county of 

Durham, mayor 1775, 

1786, ob. Aug. 28, 

1812. 



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HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 



89 



HEDWORTH. 




1716*John Hedworthf 

1717 George Heatli 

1718 John Thompsoii 
1719]:Robert HutdiiiUKm « 
1720 Jolm Tempeit 
1721§Oeorge Heith 
1722||Sir Jdm Bden 
1723 William fiomaine^ 

* Oet 1. Wherett tiie guild jvrj, on belialf of tfaenudyes and Te rest of /e free- 
■MQ and inbaMtantw of tl^ oorpwratieii, ha?e petitioned na, and therein represented 
tiia nnnoiiB condition of ye ehnrck and town walls of tliis corporation, whidi, if not 
timciy mended, mnst inevitably M to tiie ground. It is ordered, that "ewery sne- 
aaediig major shafl ba freed and discharged from making such yearly treat or enter- 
tsfamwit to ye said inhabitants ft^ the ftitnre; and yt ye accustomed sess of five 
ddllings for every freeman, and two shillings and sijqpence for every unfi«eman or 
hihahitant in ya said eorpontion, being time immemorial yearly doe and paid to ve 
mayor for ye time bei^ be from hence forward" applied to the repairing of tha 
aftfesaid chiroh, 9m. 

t Of Chester BMpenr, M. P. for the county of Durham, mayor 1719, 1728, and 
1740. He died in his eboiot near Leicester, on his journey home from Bath, April 4, 
1743, aged 65 years. 

} In the mayor's aeoounta are the following diarges : — To two feasts, £10 19s, ; 
to ye rejoicing night» Is. ; to ye sojeants' dinners, at 4d. per time, 18s. 8d. 

i Bichaid Hilton, of Hilton Cairtle, admitted a free burffess. 

I Preeentments^^Bobert Wheat in contempt, to work aid trade as a weaver against 
y« laws andjrivilages of this town, as being a foreigner and no freeman 10#, 

Bobert meat for Ina second contempt „ Bl, 

f Bobert Bomaine «. 
admitted a burgess^ 
Aug. 187, 1088. 




William Bomaine^ ^a. 
mayor 1788,1786, 1745, 
bur. July 9, 1757. 



Wijliam Bomaina 

bom September 25, 1714, 

ob. July 26, 1795. 

Hr. William Bomaine, who is atSIl remembered at Hartknool with respect, "was," 
(or mther his fother Bobert), according to Ui, Cadogan, ^amons the Ytench pro- 
testants, who took refbge |n "B ^pi— »^j upon tlie revocation of the emct of Nantes : he 
lettkd here aa a merchant andSecame amember of the corporation. In 1741, there 
waa a very ooosideraUe aovance in the price of wheats from six to fifteen shillings per 
boU; on this occarion the pec^le rose and canie in great numbers, a fonnidabie mob to 
HarU^ooL Mr. Bomaine wM o«l to meet then, askid them their wants, and waa 
answered, that they wanted com cheaper. He put an immiwliatfi and an effsctual stop 
to these riotous proceedings, first by prpmiang to aaU all the corn that he had at fiiv 
ahiUiDgs a bushel, and then by performing hia promise; for he sold to all that oame^ 
while Sie other morehanto rdfiised to sen any/' OVBeir.Wm. BomaiiM, A.M. waa 
second SOB of the above. Hewwsbornat &artlepoal,onthe^th of Sept, 1714; 
cdncated at Houghtgn^le-I^riiig, ind afterwards sent to Oxford, where he was first 
entered at Herlmcl CoUe^ and thence removid to Christ Ghuch, Be published 



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90 HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 

THOMPSON. 

1724^ James Nichokon 
1726tCatlibert Baftonj: 

1726 John Greve8on§ 

1727 John Thomp8on|| 
1728f John Hedworth 



"IV Dmne Legiiioii of Moiei, demooftnted from lus hsruig made exprcM men- 
tion o(, and insisted so moch on the doctrine of a faivae state, whereby Mr. War- 
Imrton's attempt to prove the Divine Legation of Moses from the omission of a IntorB 
state, is prored to be absurd, and destractiTe of all religion ;" and a new edition of 
Calasio's Conoordanoe to Uie Hebrew Bible. He was rector of St. Andrew hj the 
Wardrobe, and St Ann, Blackfriars, and lecturer of St Donstan in the West, Lcradon. 
He died July 26, 1796, aged 81. He was a veiy eloquent and Dopakr pieadier on 
tiie Calvini^iGal scheme of divinity, and a truly pious and good man. His woiks 
were published in 8 vols, by W. B. Cadogan. 

* Hie d^nty mayor's wtoderaU charge "foor horse hire, &c to Durham, to speaka 
to Mr. Mayor about the guild dhmer," amounts to 8#. 6^. 

t For y*dfidimnspotestatem, and £vqualifpng myself by taldng the oaths £2 li.M^ 

£ #. d. 

The Mayoi^s ezpences when at the Sessions and AsBiies» at Duriiam 1 10 

Hie Mayw's dinner at Michaehnas 10 4 

Guild Dinner 7 18 

Mr. Beoorder, his salary 2 8 

Te Town Cleric, his salioT 2 

Ye Seijeanfs salanr 4 

Te Sejjeant's Sondiy's dinners 17 4 

Sxpenoes on nine ocmrt days 17 6 

The Beoeipts this yew, £45 Is. 9d.— Jfoyo/i JeamnU. • 

t Cuthbert Bafton, of Hartlqpool, "= 



Cuthi 



ibert Bafton, of Hartlepool, 

or 1725, 1786, and 1746, 

S^. 12, 1762. 



Joshua '. 



Bafton, of Hartlepool, 
mayor 1764, bur. October 10, 1766. 



^ John Greveson, of Hartkpool, «» 

mi^or 1726, 1787, 1762, 1766, 

bur. April 25, 1776, 

sged88. 



John Greveson, of Hartlepool, „ 
mayor 1769, 1774, 
bv. S^tcmber 8, 1786, 
aged 60. 
I Of Shotton, in the eoanty of Durham. 

f June 1. The Hon. Loefais G3iarks Gszy, (6th Yiseomit MUand) Gcoige 
Bupton, Balph Lambton, H3ton Lawson, Bobat I«wBon, John Modand, and John 
Lamb, Es^rs. admitted frte burgesses. 



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mSTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 



91 



1729*Henry Lambtonf 
1730 John Hilton]: 

* October 8. Bobert Wright, an alderman, who had not attended the service of 
the corporation for aome years pist, and who was at this time beyond the seas, was 
A'amiiMMi^^ and another elected m his place. 

LAHBTON. 






t October 6. Hedworth Lambton, Esq. the Rer. 
William Wekett, rector of Branoepeth, William 
Mosgroye, WilHam Lambton, and Jdm Lambton^ 
Esqrs. were admitted tnt bozgesses. 



Henry Lambton, Hedworth, 

M. P. for the city of Dnrham, nugor-general, 
mayor 1729, 1741, 1758, ob. Jane 1, 
ob. June 26, 1761. 1768. 



oooncfllor 
at law. 



Ralph, 
collector of 
customs at Sun- 
derland, 
ob. Sept. 21, 
1781. 



John Lambton, 

nugor-genersl, colonel of 68th 

rndment of foot, 

mayor, 1762, 

ob. 1787. 



William Henry Lambton, ^ 
M. P. for the dty of Dor. I 

ham, mayor 1794, 
ob. at Pisa, Nov. 80, 1797. 



Ba^ John Lambton, 

M. P. for the city of Durham, 

mayor 1800. 



John Georae Lambton 

M. P. for the county of 

Durham. 

1 Of Hilton Castle, mayor 1780 and 1742. 

He was a good and pious man, and was the last male heir of that ancient and 
honorsble &mily, who had flourished at Hilton Castle, from the Saxon sera.* His 
portrait is still preserved at Hilton, let into a pannel above the fire place, in the 
mat duung room. It represents a gentleman of middle age, with blue eyes, light 
hair, fiur complokm, somewhat high cheek bones, of a placid and benevolent 

* 1m Caritf^a Honor JUdimus, it u stated that " Adam Bilton, living in ike 
time of King AtheUtan, (A. JD. 924J gave to the monastery of Hartlepool, apixor 
cm^fix, which was in weight twenty-five ounces in silver, and caused his arms to be 
engraven on it; arg. two bam ax. which are get seen upon the gate of Hilton Castle.** 



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92 



1781 George Heath 
1732 George Bowes* 
1783 William Cant 

1734 John WHamt 

1735 William Komain^ 

1736 Cutlibert Bafkon 

1737 John Greveaon 
1788§Thomas Davison 



HISTOBY OF HARTLEPOOL. 
BOWBS. 




ooonteiiftzioe, and open aspect. There wer6 in tike aamft hvaae, % ooBBdenUs anmber 
of other hualj portraits, all bearing a striking resemUanoe to aaeh other. One in 
particular represents a lady, young and handsome, of whom, strange to mf, tlMft is 
presented another portrait exhibiting her in a state of mental dfiraDgemflmt t 

"Oh I I am altered since jow saw me last, 

And time has written stnmge misfeatures on my cheek : 

That rosy blush Wt in amy yeil. 

Is now with morphew OTergroi^ and pale." 

• M. P. for the county of Durham, mayor 1782, and 17B4, ob. Sept. 17, 17«0. 
His only daughter Mary Ekaiior, married John I^on, the 9th Sail of Stratiimare, 
and after his decease, the notorious Andrew Robinson Stoney^ 

t M. P. for Newcastle, called "Parliament Carr," ob. May 16, 1742. 



t John Wilson, 
collector of the cus- 
toms, at Stockton. 
0>. Brewter'i Stock-^ 
tonJ^VLayor 1784, 
1744, 1765, & 1771, 
bur. July 10, 1776, 
at Hartlepool 



Eobert Wilson, of Hartlepool, , 
and of Woodhouse, East Ham, Sssex, 
mayor 1781, and 17»7 
ob. March, 1807. 



Eobert Wilson, of Hartlepool, 

and of Woodhouse, East Ham, Sdset, 

mayor 1818. High Sheim 

for the county ^ Essex, 

1818. 



Th<ittAS Wilfloa,. 
of AiitiepooL 



Thomas WDson, . 

of Hartlepool, 
iflayor 1772 and 1777, 

bur. at Hartlepool, 
Nov. 4, 1787. 



S August 7. Charles Bathurst, Esq. ; Marwood William Turner, Esq. ; lliomas 
liddel, Esq. ; the Iteir. Thomas Hilton ; Thomas Davison, Jun. Esq. i and on Octo- 
ber 2, Matthew White, dt Blagdon, Esq. were admitted f^ burgesses. 



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fflSTOEY OP HABTLEPOOL. 



88 



HILTON. 



1789«Sir Henrf LiddeU, Baronet 

1740 John HedworOi 

1741 Hemy litnbtont 

1742 John Hilton 

1743 George Bowet 

1744 John WHaon 
1745j:WiIIiam Bomaine 
1746§Cuthbert Bafton 
1747 John Tempeat 

* October 1. Walter Calmly BIad[eH, Saq. ekcted a coital biirgets. 





Sir Heoiy liddeD, 4ih Bart. Tbomas LiadeU^Iiq.^ 
created Baron 
Bavensworth, m 
the coimty of DmliaiD, 
June 29. 1747, 
mayor 1789, ob. Jan. 80, 1784, 
witbont male isane. 



Sir Henry George, 5tb Bart. 

of Bayensworth Castle, 
mayor 1785,ob. Nor. 26, 1701. 

He imdertook an exonntoii to Lapland, fbr a wiger, and retomed wHb two Ii^laad 
l^b, and some rein deer. An account of this journey was published by M. Consett. 
The giila wers returned safe to their native oount^, with £60, and a cargo of 
trinkets i and the rein deer hAYe bred in England. — OeiUleman*» Magtmne, 

t An anecdote of one of the members of this aneient and honooraUe fimiily, may 
not prove uninteresting : — ^William Lanibton, Esq. commonly called Will Lambton, 
(grandson to Sir William Lambton, killed at Marston Moor,) was one of the rustiest 
ind^endent old fellows in the House of Conmions. Once on the meeting of a new 
parliament, the door-keraer seeing him dressed in a plain grey home-spun coat, made 
of the wod of his own sheep, and thick shoes, would not admit him nrther than the 
lobby, where he sat auietly enough until a friend in a Jiner coat came up, who re- 
monstrated with the door-leeper on his shutting out one of the most honourable and 
reapectahla memben of the House of Ccnomons. The door-keeper changed his tone, 
and hoped hii honor would give him something as a remembrance. Up started Will 
mcce yexed at the fellow's servility, than at ms former rudeness, and gave him a 
heartyboz on the ear^saying, " there^s a godspenny for thee; I think thoult ken 
anld Win Lambton again ! " 

% July 0. Walter Blackett, and John Eenwick, Eaqra. elected chief burgesses. 
October 80. To expenoes in drinking his Mijes^s health £1 6#. 

MoffOf^i Aeeomii, 
i To CDqpenoea In rqoicing at the victory (nrer the rebels., £1 

KofOf'i Account. 



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94 



HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 



1748 The Hon. Henry Vane* 

1749 Robert Leighton 

1750 Henry Vane, Jan. 

1751 William Allison 

1752 John Greveson 
1763 Henry Lambton 

1754 (jeorge Bowes 

1755 John Wilson 

1756 Cuthbert Rafton 

1757 Robert Leighton 

1758 John Tempest 



LEIGHTON. 



y 



itopher Vane, ^, 
Baron Barnard, 
onnty of Durham, 
ily 8, 1699, 
October 28, 
1728. 



Gilbert Vane, 2d Baron Barnard, «. 
ob. April 27, 1763. 



y^ 



* Henry, 8d Baron Barnard, 

created Yiflconnt Barnard, and Earl 

of Darlington, Lord lieutenant 

and '^ce- Admiral of the 

county of Durham, 

mayor 1748, 
ob. March 6, 1758. 



William 
created Baron Dun- 
eannon, and Yiacount Vane. 
June 11, 1720, 
^ ob. May 20, 1784. 






y^ 



Hen 



ieniy, 2nd Earl of Darlington, 

Lord Lieutenant of the county of 

Durham, &c. mayor 1750, 

1768, and 1784, 
ob. Septtanber 10, 1792. 



Wm. Harry, 8d Ead of Darlington,; 

Lord Lieutenant, and Yice-AdimrBl 

of the county of Durham, &c. &c. 

elected a capital burgess, Oct. 18, 

1798. 



Baby Vane, 

M. P. for Durham 

and Carlisle, mayor 1759, 

ob. October 1769, s. p. 



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HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 



95 



1759 The Hon. Baby Vane 

1760 Robert Allison 

1761 Sir Thomas Clayering, Bart.'*' 

1762 John Lambton 

1763 Henry Earl of Darlington 

1764 Joahna Rafton 

1765 William Allisonf 

1766 John Oreveson 

1767 Oeorge Baker]: 

1768 Robert Allison 

1769 John Greveson, Jon. 

1770 Sir Thomas Clayering, Bart. 

1771 John Wilson 

1772 Thomas Wilson 



ALLISON. 





* Sir Thomas ClaTering, 
7th Bart. M. P. for the 

oouniy of Durham, 

miqror 1761. 1770, 1788, 

ob. October 14, 1794. 



George daTering, Esq.» 



Sir Thomas Claverinff, Sth Bart. » 
mayor 1801. | 



t WUham Allison* of Hartlepool, 
m^or 1751, 1765, 
hoiied Febmarj 0, 1780. 



Bobert Allison, of Hartlepool, 

mayor 1760, 1778, 1780, 
hmied Jnly 8, 1798, aged 77. 



X George Baker, of Crook, » 
H. P. for the dty of Dorham, ' 
ob. June 1, 1728. 



Baker, of Crook, » 
and ^kmore, nuqror 1767» 
ob. May 15, 1774. 



George Baker, of Elemore, ». 
mayor 1702. | 



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96 



HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 




MILBANKE. 



1778 Robert AUiaon TEMPEST. 

1774 John Greveaon^ Jan. 

1775 Sir John Eden, Bart. 

1776 Jonathan Davison* 

1777 Thomas Wilson 

1778 John Tempest 

1779 Thomas Davison 

1780 Robert Allison 

1781 Robert Wilson 

1782 Balph Milbankef 

1783 Sir Thomas Clavering, Bart. 

1784 Henry Earl of Darlington 

1785 Sir H. George LiddeU, Bart. 

1786 Sir John Eden, Bart 

1787 Anthony Hall^ 

1788 John Tempest 

1789 John Marley§ 

1790 Charles Spearman|| 

1791 Ralph Milbanke 

1792 George Baker 
1798 Carr IbbetaonlT 

1794 William Henry Lambton^ 

1795 The Rev. Thomas Flacett 

1796 Timothy Johnson 

1797 Robert Wilson 

1798 Sir H. Vane Tempert, Bart.]:]: 

* Cdlectar of the automB at Stockton,— Fufe Brewiter^t 8U)eHm,p. 68. 

t Sofioeeded his fiitlier, the 6ih Baionflt, Jamiarj 8, 1708; H. P. for the ooontj 
of Dorhun, in serenl pariiaoMntB. In eompliMioe with tiie will of tiie late Thomaa 
Nod* Yisooont Wentworth, he changed his Mms to Nod in 1815. 

t Of Ilass, in the county of Dmam. 

§ Of Hartlepool, oh. January 14, 1806. 

II Of Thoimey, in the coon^ of Durham. 

^ Of CodEcn, in the county of Pwhiya; mayor 1708, 1805, and 1810. Boied 
at Hartlcnool, Angost 10» 1815f at. 68, 

♦♦ Vide arms, page 01. 

ft Bector of KirUinton, Yorkshire. 

ii Of Wynyard* oh. Aiu^ist 1, 1818. He was horied at Long Newton, on the 
12lh of Angnst; the dinr^ was crowded to esceaa, aid the aolenm aorioe was in- 
tem^ted 1^ the ng^ and tears of tibe congregation. It seemed as if eyoy one 
praent had lost his dearest fiiend, ud nearest OQnnexion; so tmly was Sir H. Y. 
Tempest hdored and lamwited. 



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HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 9r 

1799 Henry Meihold 

1800 Ba^h Jolm Lambton 

1801 Sir Thomas ClaTering, Bart 

In tiie year 1794, Sk Henry Vane Tempest wasdectedamemberof Parliament for 
tiie dtj of I)nili«m» on the daith of his unde^ John Tonpest, Esq. at a time when, 
tram hit long absence in a fordgn oonntry, his precarions health, and the total want 
of intdligence, the knowledge of his existence was rendered extremely doabtfoL 

This honoorable testimony of respect towards his fiunily, was always acknowledged 
by him with pride and ^prntitode. 
He servad the dty with seal andfiddity. 

On his marriage with the Conntess of Antrim, considerations of the hu^est per- 
sonal importance rductantly obliged him to resign a seat which hadbeen so 
hooonrabqr conferred, to the sincere regret of his oonstitoents. 

In the year 1807, the representation of the county was eagerly sought by four 
different candidates, who were snccesdydy offered to the cho& it the freeholders; 
and the zeal of party spirit raged with its utmost violence. 

Sir H. V. Tempest had jnst returned from IreUind : no soonerwashis return made 
pdUic, than all eyes weve turned towards him ; and though labouring under the 
oppreanon of severe indispodtion, the entreaties of his fnends prevailed, and he 
stood forward a can d i d a t e on the " Independent Interest." 

The short-lived struggle strongly evinoed the esteem in which he was hdd ; and Sir 

H.y. Tempest was returned with Sir R. Milbaoke,to represent the county in Parliament. 

Every suooeeding year increased the confidence of his constituents, and afforded 

him freah opportunities of proving that he was not unworthy of their thoace, by his 

BHWiiBittiiig attention to fheir interests. 

On the mssolution of Fkrliament in 1812, he was again returned without qppod* 
tkm ; this honorable re-deotion, and the universal regret expressed for his untimdy 
death, are the best and surest proofe of the purity and fidelity with which he d^ 
diarged the important trusts committed to his care. 

In his politics. Sir H. V. T. was warmly attached to the administration of Mr. Pit^ 
and he afterwards supported the leading measures of Mr. Perceval, wludi he firmly 
believed were calculated in the arduous times in whidi he Hved, to promote the best 
interesti of the country ; in many instances, however, he voted m opposition to 
mimfters, and never became the tool of party, nor slavidil^ fdlowed the qpinions of 
any set of men ; but oonsdentkrady voted to the best of his judgment 

In his regular attendanoe to painamentary duties, he was always to be fimnd at 
his post : and the wants and wishes of the county were attended to, and forwarded 
to urn tttmoat of his power and abilities. 

He never spoke in the House of Commons, nor at public meetings in the county, 
exoept he felt deeply interested in the snl^jeet of ddiate i idien si^ was the nobk 
encny of his dchvery and Tnasmline strength of his language, that he governed the 
fizedattention of his auditors, and carried irresistible conviction to the mind. 

Sir H. v. Tempest died in his 42d year. Descended from a noUe and respectable 
fenuly, he added dignity to his birth, by the possesdon of those acquirements whidi 
distii^^Qish and adorn the aooom^ished gentleman. 
His fbrm was manly and graoeftal : his oountenanoe was emesdve and i 
t; ladtherewasapeeuharityinhiBadAreBa, whichinsennhlywononthefl 
dgood opinion of those who spproaohed him. 

Hk ednntion had not been condncted witii that regular system and attention, due 
to the distingaiahed rank he was destined to hold in public life ; yet his fedlity of 
appnkension was aodi, thai he seemed to aoqnire with ^roarent ease, what in others 
was the result of eonthmed laboor and iqyplicatiaa; and tbere were few subjects on 
whieh he oould not ocmvcrse with ihiflncjr and advantage. 

In the various duties of domestic lifis, the conduct of Sir H. V. Tempest was 
Cdendly and aibetionate; to his servants he was ever a kind master, andtohia 
tenantry a considerate landkrd. 

Wyi^ard was the abode of plenty, the seat of hospitality; and if his friends had 
crer reason to contain, it was, ^at by his obliging and endearing attention, they 
•oinetinct forgot the more rigid niaiims of prudenoe, in the charms of his sod^. 



^ 



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98 HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 

1802*Sir Ralph Milbanke, Bart. SEDDON. 

1808 Thomas Wilkinson 

1804 John Douihwaite Neshamf 

1805 Carrlbbetson 

1806 Sir H. Vane Tempest, Bart. 

1807 Sir Martin Stapylton, Bart.^ 

1808 Daniel Seddon§ 

1809 Cuthbert Ellison || 

In all public charities, the name of Sir H. V. T. was proudly conspicuous : he was 
ever ready to relieve the distresses of the poor : and his purse was never dosed to the 
calls of suffering humanity : his charity did not arise from a cold sense of duty, it 
was the spontaneous emotion of a benevolent heart. 

Such were the leading qualities whidi insured to Sir H. Y. T. the esteem of a large 
and respectable portion of the community ; his nntimely death has left a mdanchdry 
blank in that society which his presence adorned. 

His memoiy will live in the bosom of his friends, and in the unceasing regret of 
his fiunily. His loss can never he repaired : — and while truth and honour sbaH he 
regarded as virtues. Sir H. Y. T. will never be forgotten by the " Independent Free- 
holders of the county of Durham." 

* In consequence of dismites which had arisen between the mayor and burgesaes 
of Hartlepool, and <^e bra of the manor of Hart, respecting the extent of th& re- 
spective boundaries, the corporation commenced an action against the lord of the 
manor ; but the matters in dispute were referred to the arbitration of James Loah, 
Esq. of Newcastle, who determmed, that the township of Hartlepool ia within and pari 
of the manor of George Pocock, Esq. oonmionly called and known by the name of the 
manor of Hart : that the white, at north wall, and the line of this wall extended till it 
meet the sea or tide each way, is the division or boundary line of the landed property 
and possessions of the corporation of Hartlepool, and of George Pocock, to ueN. E. 
of the town of Hartlepool ; that George Pocock, his tenants, and assigBs have the sole 
and exclusive right to work, win, take, and lead away stones, from the rocks and shorea 
between the high and low water marks, in all and every part of the township of Hart- 
lepool, subject however to restraints and regulations ; that George Pocock, &c. shall not 
work, win, nor lead away any stones from any part of the sea ihore, witiiin the slake, 
or bay at Hartlepool, b^;i]iiiiog from the most westerly noint of tiie boundaxr line, 
viz. from the most westeny point of the line of the wall, called the white or north wall, 
where such Une meets the tide, and extending thenoe tothepierof the harbour of Hart- 
lepool ; that Geon;e Pocock, &c. shall not take away any stones either from the up- 
right rocks or dim, which protect the fields and land of the township of Hartleoool 
from the sea, and divide the fields andland from the sea shore, or from any part of the 
rocks or shore, within twenty yards from the upright clifis or rocks ; though the same 
should be between the high ai^low water mariis ; the distance of twenty yards to be 
measured from the bottom of the upright difb or rocks ; that aU wrecks of the sea 
cast on the shore in any part of the manor of Hart, induding the township of Hartle- 
pool, bdong to G. Toooek, and all wrecks of the sea floating within the liberties of the 
port of Hartlepool, bdong to the mayor, &c.; that the sea ware, and sea weed between 
high and low water marks, within the township of Hartlepool, bdong to G. Pooock, 
except that the mayor, &o. have a right to take a reasonable quanti^ of the loose 
parts for manuring their lands within the township. 

IkOed January 26, 1802. 

t Of Houghton •le-Spring, in the county of Durham. 

X Of Myton, in Yoruhire. § A M^'or-G^eneral in the Army. 

II Of Hebbum Hoaae,^M. P. for Newcastle upon l^ne. 



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HISTOBY OF HARTLEPOOL. 

COOKE. 



99 



1810 Carr Ibbetson 

1811 George Pocodt* 

1812 Wmiam VoUom 
1818 Bobert Wilson 

1814 George Allanf 

1815 John Cooket 



POCOCK. 



WILSON. 



• Vide p. 68. 

t Of Hartlepool, and Grange, near Darlington, M. P. for tlie dij of Durham. 

i Of Hartkpool, and Broom, near Dorliam. 




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100 HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 

BECOBDEBS. 

1605 Matthew Dodsworth'i' 1702 John Fawoett 

1640 Edward Wrightf 1741 ChriBtopher Tawoett 

1647 John Tomert 1747 David Haton§ 

1667 John Swinburne 1758 Ralph Hopper 

1669 William Dayison 1781 Bobert Hopper|| 

1696 John Middleton 1795 William Waltont 

* He was likewiie judge of the adminlty for the 
North ; his oath« as reoorder, is as foHow^ viz. . — 

I, Matthew Dodsworthe» shaU be leile (loyal) feile 
(ftMful) and tnie to the maior, cheif burgesses, oomon 
counsellvOfthistownofHartlepole. AndweUandtroely 
grpre the sayd maior comisell, ^ his brethren, the twehe 
%flif bnrgcMeSyin all the lawftil mattersand causes tonch- 
inge the state of this town when I ahatt knowe theme. 
And shall, to my power and conynge tme coanseQ gyre 
imto the said maior when I shall be theieonto required, 
&c. 
t OfDiirium^CkHmodloratLaw. 

r of London, 

le, previoos 

lame name, 

ns of Bnr- 

HOtons of 

iches. The 

now repre- 

Bd at Stock- 

to Bishops 

arUepoolas 

tedwitkthe 

above David, left a son, Gothbert, of (oreet notoriety, who having taken orders in no 

chorch, but having been trained as bifie derk under his &ther, is thus described by a 

quaint writer — " Cuthbertos Hilton qoi solebat quosdam ei quasdam Alios et fiUas ini- 

Quitatis illidtA coiqugii copolA irretire super pontem Castri Bemardi nempe in medio 

flumine inter Com. Bsl. Dunehn. et Ebor. ubi breve domini episcopi non currit." The 

old ryhme made use of by him on these occasions, after having made the parties leap 

over a broom-stick, is stfll remembered : — 

" My blessing on your pates, and your groats in my purse. 
You are never the better, and I am never the worse." 
This pontifez maximus left six sons, who seem to have derived no stain firom their 
father's fllegal practices. They were remarkable only for their industry and ingenuity, 
and were the first artisans in Bamazd-Oastle, who practised the art of dydng doth of 
various colours. Of these brothers, ^on whom their fi^er had quaintly bestowed the 
names of Abraham, Job, Solomon, l3avid, Cuthbert, and Alexander, the eldest was 
fiither to that veiy respectable dtizen df Durham, David Hilton, of Sadler-street, 
from whom most of the preceding information has been derived. 

II Now Robert Hopper Williamson, Chanodlor of the Court of Chancery of the 
county palatine of Durham. 
^ Attomejr-Oeneral of the county palatine of Lancaster. 

The fbllowmg persons appear to have filled the office of town Clerk :~In 1604 
ooeors John T&up,— 1618 oc. William Hubbock,~1648 oc. John Benson,— 1655 
oc. Barnard Donn, — 1665 oc. Joseph Speeding, — 1675 oo. Barnard Dunn,— 1670 oc. 
Bichard Miles,— 1708 oc. Oerrard Donkinge,— 1724 oc. Andrew Mather,— 1726 oc. 
Laurence Hodgson, — 1788 oc. Andrew Mather, — 1748 oc. Edward Goddard, — 1768 
oc. Bobert Bobinson, — 1767 oc. John Wilkinson,— 1 769 Bobert Preston,— 1 781 
Bobert PrestoUi jun., — 1818 Leonard Baisbedc. 



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HISTORY OF HABTLEPOOI. 101 

Members of the Coqpontkn ia the yew 1816. 

ttUtSOtt 
SIB CUTHBEBT 8HABP, Knioht. 

VMOXUtt, 
WILLIAM WALTON. 

€a9iM Vmg/nm*, or 9lli«vnwti» 

SIB BALPH NOEL, BABomT, 

WILLLiM HABBT, EABL OF DABLINOTON, 

BOBEBT WILSON, 

SIB MABTIN STAFTLTON, Babokbt, 

GEOBOE POCOCK, 

WILLIAM YOLLTTM, 

GEOBOE ALLAN, 

JOHN COOKE, 

BOBEBT WILKINSON, 

THE Bet. WILLIAM WILSON, 

WILLIAM SEDGEWICK, 

^h ^h ^r ^P "^P 

LEONABD BAISBEGK. 
ANTHONY POUNDEB. 



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102 HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 

Hartlepool is the only corporate town in the county of Dur- 
ham^ which has received its duurter from the crown. 

The mayor of Hartl^KX)! is in the annual commission of the 
peace finr the county. 

The revenue ot the corporation, which is derived prindpaUy 
from the tolls and harbour duesy* has not for some years past 
exceeded the sum of £22 per annum.f This sum however, 
would be sufficient to defitiy the incidental ezpences of the 
town; were not the mayor unfortunately burthened with an 
annuity of twenty-four pounds, incurred by an improvident 



* The principal toQs, &c. doe to the mayor of UarUepool are as fbUowitr- 

Com — ^firom erery last brought into Hardepool Specks 

From every hoshd 1 pint 

Ale or porter, from each anker l^d. 

Fish, from every pannier ,.. i<f. 

Timber, from every load going from Hartlepool 4i^. 

Potatoes, i^ples, onions, &c. from every two-hone cart broo^t to marint... 4d, 
One hone cart 2d, 

And smaller q^iantitiea in proportion. 

From every person hawking oatmeal, yegetaUes, &o. ,„. Id. 

Stalls in the marint : from erery double stall, 4d. gromidage Id. hd, 

iini^ do. 2d. do. Id. S^. 

And on fiur days double. 

Harbonr dnes— from every decked vessel (groondage &c.) 1#. 4d. 

From every nndecked vessel do 4(f. 

And from foreign vessels double. 

Herrings— from each boat (not belonging to the town) the mayor's sample, or half 

a hundred. 
Oyitcn, from each boat load, the mqror's sample 

Apples, onions, potatoes^ &e. from each boat load i pedc 

One half of the aboye, however, (excepting the harbonr dnes,) belong to the lord 
of the manor, who receives likewise one hal^enny from each staU. 

t Foot aoditon are appointed annnally to examine and allow the mayor's aooouits, 
two of whom are common burgesses ; and on the court days the bo6ks are open to 
the inspection of all the burgesses. 

The deficiency of the revenue to defray the expences of the town 

wasinlSll £17 9 10 

1812 12 7 7 

1818 10 4 8 

1814 18 6 4 



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HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 108 

ocmteit wiA the lord of liie manor.'i' Notwithstanding tliisi and 
other £fficidtie8|howeyer^ the members (^theeorporatioa are moat 
anxious to adrance the ocmdition of the town^ and to effect many 
salutary improyements in its general cleanliness and appearance. 
It cannot be omcealed that the police of the town has become 
extremdy relaxed; yet when it is considered that the officers 
entrusted with this important part of the municipal administra- 
tion, receive their salaries from the mayor's private purse, it is 
not to be expected (during the continuance of the annuity at 
least) that the same vigilance can be exercised here, which is 
observable in those corporate towns where the revenues are 
flourishing, and where the jurisdiction of the corporation has 
been constantly and equally exercised. Add to this the general 
character of the inhabitants, principally fishermen, who possess 
an hereditary aversion from all restraint, and who are apt to 
regButd with suspicion and dislike every attempt to reform long 
eodsting abuses, however conducive to the comfort and well- 
being of society. A steady perseverance, however, in the line 
of conduct which has been adopted by the corporation, together 
with the expectation of amendment in the finances, will, it is 
hopedj in the course of a few years, restore the long neglected 
police of the town to order and regularity. 

A court leet and a court baron are holden twice a-year by 
the recorder, who is the steward of the borough, or by his 
deputy. The grand jury present all offences contrary to good 
order, and to the statutes and ordinances of the corporation* 
The court leet takes cognizance of all debts under the amount 
of 40 shillings, and is of infinite advantage to the inhabitants, 
who are so frur removed from the more expensive courts at Dur- 
ham. These two courts are holden by prescription : the records 
of the court leet have not been preserved beyond the 9th year of 
the reign of Queen EUzabeth.f — ^The minutes are preserved in 

♦ Viae p. 9S. 
t Tide p. 50. 



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104 fflSTOBY OF HIRTLEPOOL. 

the corporation books from 1679. The brd of the manor ap« 
peara frequently as a aoitor at the leet, but few of the cauaea on 
record seem yery interesting. The table of fees prescribed for 
the attomies does not invite the display of forensic talent in the 
courts of Hartlepool, the parties consequently plead personally, 
and many exhibitiona of natural eloquence and shrewd ability 
are witnessed, which would not disgrace the higher courts of 
judicature. 



ngL i • < A 




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HISTOBT OF HARTLEPOOL* 106 



THE TOWN-HOUSE, OR GUILD HALL. 

Ik the mayor'a acooimts for 1600, and in Bevend subsequent 
yean, it appears that a Town-House was then buildingi which 
stood moat probably oa the site of the present, which is a 
modem buflding, and is said to have been erected about 1760.* 
The court room is about 50 feet in length, by 22 and a half in 
breadth, and 15 in height* At other times it is used as a 
news-room, for eyen at Hartlepool 

" News is the nuuma of the day." 

An adjoining room has now become a public library, which is 
of modem establishment, and still in its infancy. 

Hie firanchiset of Hartlepool may be obtained by gift, compo« 
sition, patrimony, or servitude. 

* Loed tndition. 

t Ottkefcrefcvyeoom'oiilmrgew:— 

I fthall be tme unto the maior, and to the franchiiea and fredomea that bekngethe 
to Ihe bnrgiahipp of this town of Hartlepole. And kepe the fbreaayd maior^a oonnsell 
for mflfctcn oonoernynge the aame when I knowe ytt I ahaU come onto the foresaQfd 
maior where I si^pose hee bee, upon the towellinge of the com'on beU, or wanyge 
geren me bj the lexjannte. I ahiJl fellowe myBelf w'th no stnmge man in bnyinga 
er leDiBge to the p^indyee of the fMoma of the buzgenes of thia town. I ahall kepe 
all the com'on orders, itatutee, and decrees* made for the gor'nemait of thii tows^ i^ 
mj peril and willingly submit myself to be gov'ned by the i 

B 



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106 fflSTOBY OF HARTLEPOOL. 

The ddest ton of a oommon burgess^ when he attains the 
age of twenty-one yean^ may elaim the franchise. If a father, 
possessed of the right of franchise^ should die before admission, 
his eldest son forfeits all claim. The eldest son living of a 
common bnrgess may claim the fanchise, provided the first- 
born hath not been admitted. An apprenticeship of seven years 
to a common bnrgess, confers the right of* franchise. The 
widow of a common bnrgess enjoys the privileges of her hnsband : 
on a second marriage^ however, she forfeits all right thereto. 

The common burgesses have the privilege to stint one horse 
and one cow on the town pasture; they have no right in the soil 
which is vested in the mayor and the capital burgesses. Com- 
mon burgesses are likewise exempt from the payment of tolls to 
the mayor. 

^TotDtl Seafo* These three seals are of great antiquity. 
The two larger, which have doubtless formed the obverse and 
reverse of the same seal, were in all probability made on the 
incorporation of Hartlepool by King John, in the year 1200. 
The architectural ornaments, and the costume of the figures 
strongly warrant this supposition. In the centre of the first 
stands St. Hilda, the tutelar saint of the place, with a monk on 
eadi side, celebrating mass. The inscription round the margin 
is, perhaps, the prayer which the engraver wished to proceed 
from thdr mouths,— SVBVENIAT FAMYLIS NOBILIS 
HILDA SVI8. 

The second contains a rebus upon the name and situation of 
Hartlepool; a hart at bay in a pool, with the inscription — 
SIGILLYM COMMYNITATIS DE HEBTEBPOL. 

The third, though not so old as the former, has notwithstand- 
ing considerable claims to antiquity. Its architectural canopy, 
though not so ancient as in the fcHrmer instance, has, by no means, 
all that profusion of ornament and deooration, which occurs upon 
seals even at the beginning of the fourteenth century. Here, 
again, the patroness St. Hilda makes a conspicuous figure, sup- 
ported by two bishops. These three figures stand upon a 



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fflSTOBY OF HARTLEPOOL. 107 

prostrate hart (another allusion to the name of llie place) andare 
incirded with the insoiption SIOILLYM OFFICII MAJORIS 
DE HEBTILPOL. The large seal appears to haye belonged 
to the conunnnity at large^ and the small one to the office of 
the mayor, for the time being. The original matrices, made of 
brass, still in good preservation, are in the possession of the 
coiporation. 

A seal similar to the second, cut on steel, has been presented 
to the corporation by Bobert Snrtees, Esq. of Mainsforth. 



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108 fflSTOBY OF HARTLEPOOL. 



THE CHURCH. 

Thb churchy or chapd of HardqKX)!, is dedicated to St. HSda, 
of whom a short account has been giyen in the chapter on the 
monastery. The foundation charter of the monastery of Oisbnm^ 
in the year 1129, recites that ''Robert de Bros (the 2i*) 
moved by the counsel and advice of Pope Calixtus 11. and of 
Thurstme, Archbishop of York, hath founded, in honour of 
God and the blessed Mary, a monastery of regular canons, and 
hath given to the church of the same, the whole of Gisbum, 
&c., and inter alia, the churches of Hart and Stranton, in the 
county of Durham, with all their dependencies and lands be- 
longmg to them.t " As in the succeeding grants the chapel 
of St. Hilda at Hartlepool, is mentioned as a dependency (m the 
church of Hart, it is natural to conclude that this chapel 
formed a part of the above grant, allliough it is not eaqpressly 
named therein. 

In the year 1195, Hugh Pudsey, Bishop of Durham, granted 
to God, and the church of llie blessed Mary at Gisbum, and 
the canons there, the church of Hart, and chapel of Hartlepool, 
&c. saving to the clerks ministering in the church of Hart, two 
ozgangs of lands, and their proportion of all tithes, &c.t 

♦ Vide p. 20. 

t Dogdale's MonaBticoii, voL 2. p. 148. "Sodmam de Herte & 
Stnntofia, com onmilNifl qipendicns & tenis fllamm." 
% Mr. Pocock's papers. 



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HISTOBY OF HABTLEPOOL. 109 

A diarter of tonfirmation ct Bobert de Bnu (the BUh*) mm 
of William de Bniiy xeeites that he hath granted and confirmed 
to God^ and ike church of St Mary of Gisbmm, and the 
canons there the donation <tf Bobert de Bros his grandfiither, 
and which hia fiither William had confirmed to them, vis. the 
chunhea of Anand, Lochmaben, &c.; and that he hath also 
granted and confirmed to the cancms, infreci pnre^ and per* 
petnal alm% six oxgangsof land, via. firein Stranton, and one 
in Herty &c. and all the other lands which Bobert de Bros 
his grand&ther, and William de Bros his father, had giren 
and confirmed to lliem, aa well in Hertlepole aa in all other 
plaoea.t 

In the year 1269, Walter (de Kirkham), bishop of Bnrham, 
confirmed to Ood, and the church of St. Mary at Oisburn, &c. 
the grants which the venerable fiithers his predecessors had 
made, vis. the churches of Hertness, which Banulph (Balph 
Flambaxd,) Bidu^ of Durham, of lu^py memory had granted, 
and the chapel of St. Hilda, at Hertilpol^ belonging to the 
church of Uert, which Philip (de Poicteu), Bishop of Durham 
confirmed to them, and also the church of Stranton, with the 
chapel of Seaton, the manor of Trimdon, with its appurtenan- 
ces, which Bichard the second, (Poor), Bishop of Durham, had 
given to lliem in firee, pure, and perpetual alms, &c.| 

In the year 1278, Bobert (Stitchell) Bishop of Durham, with 

* Videp.SS. 

t Dog. MmL T. it p. 161. 

% Conlfarmstio oirte de GyBlnirg. 

Omnib's ftc. Waifs di' gpr*' Pmielm ep^a aal*. Nor'H imnr'titaa rr'a noa conceaaiaae 
cl p'aenti acripto eonflnniaad dM ft eod'ia aoa* Marie de Oiaburn, &e. donaco'ee, fte. 
q'a feoenmt eia ten' p'rea ae predeoeaaorea n'ri Dondm' Ep*! &c. adl' Boc^m de 
Hcrtnea tpaB eia dooaTit Bannlphna bone memorie Dimelm Ep'a k capellam See' Hilde 
de Hei^ol wSl eoenim de Heri pHin q. eia ooaflrmaTit bone memorie Fh' Dmiefan Ep'li 
ei eooliam de Straatom en' eapdk de Seton q'a eia oonfiimsfit bone memorie idem 
PhiDipp' Dmidm Bp*. Inanper manin' de Tremdon ca' p'tmciia q'd eia dedit inHb'am 
paum ft p^petnam elemoainam bone memorie Bic' a'ed'a Buiehn IBp's qoondam lip's 
Saleabj*r. Bt capdiam viDe q'm eia d<ma(rit bone memorie Bic prim' Dondm' IP's. Et 
manis' da OaaHeeden q'd eb dooATii Ifo deSeton & q'd eia conflimatfit bone memorie 
Miflli'iia Dm' l^a fte. aicut in eavtia eor^ phn' oonftinetiir. In o^ &e. Dit. i^d 
Stoketoa, Anno g're MOOUX poof n'ri anno deeio. 



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110 HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 

the oonient of the prior and convent of that place, again con- 
firmed* to the canons of GiBbom, the vicarage of Hart^ and 
the chapel of Hartlepool, ftcf 

In the year 1288, a diarter of Anthony Bek, Bishop of 
Dnrham, recites, that on aocoont of the burthens with which 
William de Middlesburg, prior, and the convent of Gisbnm 
are oppressed^ in consequence of theb great expenditure in 
charities, &c. he hath granted to the said William and the con- 
vent, the vicarage of Hart, with the customary obventions and 
appurtenances, during the life of the said William, which they 
may convert to their use and relief, so that the vicarage be duly 
served by two virtuous and discreet canons, who must practice 
hospitality to the poor as fiur as they are able. On ihe demise 
of ihe said William, however, it is stated that the vicarage shall 
be vacant, unless the prior and convent shall have canonically 
presented to the same within the time prescribed by the canons : 
that then the rig^t of presentation may devolve to the bishop 
and his successor per lqman.X 



* This was a practice wliich had long prevailed. No monasteiy thought itself per- 
fectly safe and "at ease in its possessions," ontQit had obtained a oonfirmatoiy charter 
from each succeeding Inshop, who, as the fee was yeiy considerable, was by no means 
inclined to dispense with the custom. 

t Mr. Pocock's papers. 

X Concessio yicariatsB de Hcrt 

Pateat nnirenis sanote MsArisecclesiefiliis, qnodnosAntoninsdeigratiAepsoopQs 
Dandmenis, ooncedimns de lelo pietatis et de nostra gratia speoiali, et ob oiien» piaa 
demosinas et grata indigentinm sobsidia, quod dileeti et prsecordiales in Cairisto Slii 
WiOefanns de Middlesbmg prior et oonyentos de Gisbome agnosonnt onerose et mxp" 
portent mnltipliciter lus diebns, eidem WiDehno et co n ve nto i nt Tieariatam de Hert 
nostrs diocens, com obventionibas soMtis et psrtinaitiis, ad ?itam qnsdem WiBdnii 
IMoiis in prnsenti qoem viscenliter amplectimnr & dfligimns in nsns eorondem 
relerationislibereretineantetooinrertant. Ita qnod eidem vicariate per dooa honestoa 
et discretoa canonioos fadant interim congroe debite et asaidne deeerriri et hospital^^ 
panpemm,ineademYioaiiataqiiatennspotenmt,dbaarvari Nohmmstamenqfood prior 
oomfentos de Gisbnm cat can o nid ibidem deserrientes posaint post decfisnni pnedioti 
Willdmi none prioris eorondem qnicqfoam jnris td nsos in eadem vicariata ex hajoM 
modi gratia findioare, sed in deceasn Td oessUmeipaios VnUdmi earn Tieariatam Toln- 
mos et deeemimns pronos Tacare; adeo qood, nid ad ipaam a Umpan deoessos vd 
cesnonis higos modi infra tempos a canone pnefinitom canonioe prasentaTerint^ extone 
•d not dye loooeiiont nottroi jos oontondi per l^son tcDpods Ubcve defi)lystar. 



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HISTORY OF HABTLEPOOL. HI 

In tlie year 1808> Anthony (Bek) who had then beocmie patri<» 
arch of JeroBalem, as a mark (tf his espedd favoor^ in conseqiience 
of the religions devotion^ the continual observance of hosfotality^ 
&C. of the prior and conyent of Gisbnm, granted them the in* 
dnlgence that in the chnrch of Hart^ and chapel of Hartlepool^ 
where .the core of souls had previously been exercised by a 
secular vicar^ divine service should after that time be perpetually 
performed by a canon of Gisbum, &c.* 

In ihe year 1811^ a charter of Bichard (Eellow) Bishop of 
Durham^ confirms to the canons of Gisbum^ the churches of 
Hart and Stranton^ with their appendages and lands^ which 
Bobert de Brus^ and Hugh (Pudsey) Bishop of Durham^ had 
confirmed to the said canons^ together with the chapel of 
Hartlepool belonging to the church of Hart, &;c. and all lands 
and rents given to the canons by William and Bobert de Bms, 
in the towns of Hert and Hartlqpool, viz» firom ike street called 
St. Mary's street, and other rents in the said town^ &c.t 



In quorum tettimoniiim &c. hme scripto dupBcato et penes not et pnedidos priorem 
et ooDTentnm de Gitbiizn pro purtibiis remanent! nostrom et ipeorom ngiUa mntno 
appommtnr. Data Banelmue iiii. kalend Aprilis, An. Dom. 1288 et oonaecrationiB 
nostri qtdnto. 

* Antonhu pcnnis. dei S. JerosolTmitanse eocliae patriarcha et epis. Bimolm. dilectia 
in Ghritto iOiis P. et C. Mon. de Giiebum Ord. 8. Aug. Ebor. Bioc. SaL Grat et 
Bened. Perror et ReKgionia derotio, oontinna hospitalitatu obaenratio et demosinanua 
pia largitiOf cvteraqne caritstif opera, q[iife in Testro Men. prsdictojngiterexeroentm; 
noa TiaeecalHcr ezatant et indneont fiTore tos proaequi gratia apecialis. Hino est 
q;aod in eecL par. de Hert nostras dioc, nnk com capeUa de Hertl^dle in eadem paro- 
diiA in Qsoa propcioB oanonioi posaidend et in qna per ficariom secnlaran eora ani- 
marnm regi consoef cnt, nt per Testrom comfianonicnm popolnsqnsdem paroehigregator 
etammaonmioiiraenroeaiarineademperpetaistempoiibosinftitonmiT^ anetoii- 
tate potttUkali pro nobis et snooessoribns nostris tenove prasentimn spedalitor 
indntganns; Ita sciHeet quod nunc et alias qnotiea opoB erit> idem ooncanonicns Tester 
qid in diet* ecdesia ministrsnt nobis et snccesaonbos nostzis per tos presentabitiir» et 
per noa et SQo. nostaros admittetor et institiietiir,nobiB et sue. nostris de spiiitiMdibos» 
Tofais antem de temponlibns re^tmsoms. ProTiso qood copcanoma> pnediotis de 
ihuitibiis etpsoventabns diets eodesisB tantimidem assign^ 
ctlio^italitaiisonnscongnieTideantsiqn?ortare; anctoritate nostra diocesanft^jareet 
digmtate eoakaie nostra IXmelm, in omnibas sempflir sahis. In e. r. t. sigiUnm 
epiwopale pnoMntibiu est appositsm dat apod AokL nono die flebr. an. dom. 1308. 
Pstriareiiat noa* 8» Pontif ZTi«. 

t Bngd. Hon. t. 2. p. 162. 



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113 fflSTOBY OF HARTLEPOOL 

In the year 1400, King Henry IV. meditated an expedition 
into Scotland, and in order to ascertain the strength of theking«» 
dom, mutters were every where made, as well of the dergy as of 
the laity. An array of lliedergy took place on St. QiW Moor, 
in the connty of Durham, on the 24ith day of March, where 
the vicar of Hertypull (Hert cum Herlalpool) appeared with 
(me lancer, and three archers in his train.'*' 

No further account of the church of Hartlepool occurs until 
the year 1599, when the statutes for the government of the 
diurch appear in the ccnrporaticm rec(Mrds.t 



* Airaitio ftcta saper monon S. Sgidy 24 die Martii Anno Regni Regis Henrici 
TV. ft Ghxisti 1400 p«r eoBunissanos, Rev. FstremPrioremDaneliiL €>fiSei«knL Dim^ 
Constabolar Dun. Bectorem de Wermonth & Decanmn de LangcheBter Comnussaiios 
td pnedictam arraitionem fiudendam depntatos at patet per commiasionem eiadem 
«xmde feetam* 

The total £DCce of the dmrch milUaaU sionmoned, amomited to fifty-two lanoers^ 
five hoblen, and 117 archen. 

The gwta ftmiahed b j some of the neigfaboozing poriahea waa aa Ibllowa r— 

Rector of Elwyke 1 lancer 2 archers 

Vicar of Stranton 1 2 

of Hesylden • 1 — 2 

of Norton 1 2 — 

of Byllinghani 1 2 — — 

of Grindon -^_ 1 -_ 

Rector of Lang Newton 1 hobler 1 ^— 

Dr, Htmief't MSS. 
t Amongst which are the following : — 

It'm. Imprimis ytt ys ordeyned, that whosoever hee or they bee, of the twehre chiefe 
bnrgessesy that upon eany Sahaothe daye and otiier hdye daks ecHneinge to the 
dinrehe, doe nott seait and phee hyme or themeselves in his or their aoeostomedplaees^ 

ahall paye for eveiy tyme soe doeinge xiiif. 

Ttt ys ordeyned, that whosoever of this town ys Ibimd throweinge ti anye stones 

upon the chnidie leads, shall paye ibrevery socheoffienee, tothe nseof thetown.. q^. 

Ttt ys ordeynedy that whosoever of this town dothe shootatt or withm the ehnreho 

or chnrch ste]^ of tiiys town, wHh gnn, erosbowe, or ame other ahott, for the kyllinge 

of any dove, pigeon, or anie other loalfiy shall paye, &c • .xiiA 

Ttt ys oideyned, that the spootes of the chnrdi bee nsed in eonum in the tiaie of 
rayne, and the water to bee p'ted eqoaDye betweene p'tie and p'tie, onely <me spoole 
to be reserved for the maior, upon payne for every one soe violating this wto to 

pay, &c. • • ixg A 

Li the years 1581 and 1582, the conduct of A^son Lawe of Hart, seems to havo 
afforded canse of complaint from several of the neighbouring parities, to the Chsii- 
oellor of Durham. At Stockton, Janet Bainbridge, and Janet AllAw^wn^ « resort- 
ed to Alison Lawe for hdp of ye nek," and in the Itdhming year ''tiiey did ask 



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HISTOBr OF' HAMIEPOOL. 1 13 

I^rom aplw of iiie iiiterior of thft dHudi pveMwed in tiie 
same^ieoordB dated May 1^ 1000* ther nmabor of ^'poea 01^ 
ataUa" axeihbt]Miuree^ indoditig ik» atalla (^ the ^ viearr and 
dark/' and the '' stall or pne for the maior and brethren/'--* 
The men and women were not attnutomed to ait prcnniflettonsly^ 
as at poresent^ Imt were placed in aeparate atalla. 

In the year 1604, a ]pEieKnt8tion appears in the ^ancdlor'a 
ofltoengaiinst the ehnreh<^wardens, that they want a eommtmion 
bodc^ and a ^'q^dahion for the pcdpit/'f 

In the year 1714, a petition 4om the mayor, chief bnrgesaes, 
fte.t to the justices lit the quarter aessions, praying that they 

ooomell at ivitdiet." At Norton she is deeHared to have "Imqh a fOMom; and is 
now snqpeeted of the sane." Having bom dted to vppeu in oonrt as "a notoriona 
loroenr and indianter/* she was sentenced to stand in tlie market-place at Boriiam. 
"witii a paper «n bir bead;" on the loDcpwing Snnday^ in the ehnrch at Hart, ttd on 
the Simdaj nioeeedbgr in the dmrch at Norton.— JV. Smief^t M8S, 

Angoft 5, 1588, Allyson Lawe was buried. — ffari Parith Be^itter, 

>» ABioiigBttheocdenagreednpoikafrtystlnie,betwBentfaeBiagroranddiief bor- 
aeisM, and the licar, are the fcUowing:^- 

Imprimis, ytt ia ordeyned and agreed iqpon, that the maior and twelve chiefb bnr- 
geaaea, shall be seated, in the poe, they now sytt in, dnringe there lyres natural], 
mleas they bee nmorednpon reasonaUe canse. And idiat bmgeaa aoevHv afaaU bee 
eaDyd to tiie place of a chiefe burgees, after the daie afbresayd, upon the removeaU of 
anie of the saydeehiefe burgesses, bee or they soe cal]^ shall be placed in the sayd poe, 
and shaH pay Cor hia or then stdl^geinthassmato thanseof thiadnrch.«.iy#. SQif. 

a. If ^ ytt yt «rd6yned, that every bnrgeaa of Ihia town caSed to the place of a 
ddei» bargees after tiia di^afbiesayd, ahaH have hie wifb aeated in one of tiia poei^ 
■owe made and p'vyded fteor theme, and tber aha&ooBtynewe dniage hav lyfb^ 
paying Ibr the staDaga of the sate, to the naa of tiiischniioh •.....«. ,.iiia. iiiidl 

On Jnl^ 24^ 1640^ a eesipiaMit waa made to the Biiyor» tist the bambig of kdp, 
(beaideaapeObigthabiiQ «is m noyaome at cavtaiae tymea, that the miniater can 
Ivdiy stay in tii»<dniiBh to aoe aatviee.'' 

On Oetober 1. lOftft^ appeaia an octe that chief baxgeaaeaaball attend the mayor 
to ckurah <Bfon Hm Lord'a day, and other pablie meatinga thcfire» and to the town 
eoniaad other paUiekplaees^iponfaiaei that every one aoe ae^eetingi AaU fbr 
evsSeanebdflfMtpa^totemaierte the tiSia being one ahflllng.'— OpyjwrwlMW 
Mfeorda, 

t Dr.Huter^aMBS. 

CoBieledte the^reputog of HeMtlipoQlfr (dnreh) <m April 22, 166e...l#. lOdL 

t To ye Bt. Worpl Her M^e'tiea Jnitloea of ye Peace for ye comity of DtcAam, 

it ye gsn. Quarts Seaaioni assembled OSa 7th day ol April, 1714. 
The hnmbb petition of' ye mayor, ofaiefobargeasea^ andinbahitaatiof ye^eorpaia- 
tion of Hartlepool,— 

8 



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114 HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 

would recomm^d her Majesty to grant her letters patent for 
the repairs of the churchy does not appear to have received 
immediate success^ as the grand jury^ in 1716^ represent to the 
mayor the roinoos condition of the church. 

A brief^ however^ was granted by Geo. I. on the 5th Feb. 
1719^ to collect the sum of i61732 and upwards^ for repairing 
and rebuilding the church. The preamble is nearly in the same 
words as the petition^ adding '' that the choir being at present 
almost entirely unroofed, and the steeple, pillars, and walls of 
the same so much decayed by length of time, that the whole 
fabrick will inevitably fall to the ground, unless speedily pre- 
vented by taking down and rebuilding some, and repairing the 
decayed parts thereof .'' 

The amount of subscriptions* does not appear, but the re- 
pairs were commenced immediately. By the minutes of a 
meeting of Sir John Eden with some of the commissioners for 
the brief, and other of the inhabitants, dated Sep. 22, 1721, 
it was agreed that the church and chancel should be continued 
its full length and breadth ; that the roof should be flattened 
to four or six feet pitch ; f ^t the north wall, if adviseable, 



Hunibly aheweth thai y« chinch at Hartlepool ia a yery antient and large atruc- 
tore, and indispenaahlj neceaaary lor jonr petition'ra (who are ytrj nomeroos) to 
aaaemUe themaelyea in for y^ worahip of God, and p'forming diyine aervice, and alaoe 
of great naeandbenefitttoallmarinenthatpaaaandrepaaaye ooaat for alandmarke; 
that the a*d church ia become ao nunona, that if notapeedily repaired will inevitablj 
M: and y'r petition'ra farther ahew that there are noe landa within /• a'd o(»poia- 
tion to be rated towarda /• repair thereof^ and that moat of jonr petition'ra and 
inhahitanta of y* corporation are poor fiahermen, who by y« decay and want of 
encouraging that moat important and beneficial employ, are become altogether 
nnaUe to repair y* aame, ye expenoe whereof wonld at a moderate oompntatimi for 
atone, wood, lead and otiier materialB, beaidea workmana'pp, amount to eighteen 
hundred and eighty-four pounda and upwarda aa wiU i^ear to y'r worapp'a upon ye 
oatheaof aeveral able and experienced workmen. T'r petition'ra humbly requeat 
your worah'pa to reoom'end it to her Mjgeatie that ahe will pleaae to grant them her 
lettera patent for oblleoting ye charitable benerolenoe, and contribution of aU her 
aubfjecta within thia kingdom, for ye repairing ye a'd church; and your petition'ra 
ahaU erer pray. 

* In 1721, the corporation of Newcastle gare £10 towarda the building of (hi 
church at Hartlepool — Brand's History of Ninoeaitie, vol. iV. p, 614. 

t The acute angle of the former roof is still yisible. 



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HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 115 

should be taken down and rebuilt^ ''but in fear y^ cash arising 
from y^ brief may not answer y* expectation^ y^ said wall shall 
be referred until y^ last — ^y^ y^ "d church shall be new flagged^ 
pued and whitened^ and in respect to y^ ghry of yf antiquity of 
id churchy what repairs ye windows may want^ they shall be 
wrought after y« same model as they now are; and as for y* 
ehancd yt is referred until y^ Earle of Scarborough's consent is 
got in writing ; * and y^ y^ steeple both in and outside be 
repaired/' 

On May 22, 1724^ Bishop Talbot granted his permission to 
take down the roof and cover the church with a flat rooff and 
the chancel (which at this period was 23 yards and a half in 
length) was ordered to be rebuilt five yards within the walls ; 
the pews were likewise ordered to be puUed down and rebuilt ; 
and most probably the gallery at the west end was erected at 
the same period. 



* Amongst Hr. Pocoek*B papers is an instmxneiit, without a date, whereby the 
mi^or and burgesses acknowledge that Lord Lnmley and his socoessors, are not 
chaigeaUe with the repairs of the chanoeL 

t The present rooi; however, has a consideraUe angle ol deration. 



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116 HISTOBY OF HABTLEPOOl. 



ARCHITEOTURB. 

Thb cliiirch.of Hartlepool has been described as "an irregular 
strofitore of different nges and styles of architectorey the tower 
and nave being the most ancient/' The south entrancei. which 
has been prieseryed from the ^' injuries of stormy weather/' by 
the, shelter of an unseemly porch, presents a Saxon,* or more 
properly a Norman arch of extreme beauty, whose relative pro- 
portions and cheimn mouldings have been so correctly given in 
the annexed engraving, fts to preclude the necessity of farther 
description. This style of ar(C^tectore wasr universally in use, 
until the .end of the r^gn of Henry Lf and this arch may 
possibly have forn^ed a part of.a church more ancient than the 
present structure. . . In support of this, conj^torci^ several pig- 
ments of the nail head and billetted mouldings are still observr 
able towards the west end of the church, which are not to be 
found disposed as ornaments to any part, of the more modem 
edifice., 

In the reign of Henry III. tiie areolar arch and massive 
pillar fell into disuse, and were succeeded by the pointed, or 
what is generally and improperly denominated the Gothic style, 
which was distinguished by the ^pointed arch and slender 
column/'l ''There is no record extant,'' (says a learned au- 
thor§) '' to inform us who first broke the architectural semicircle 
of former ages, into the aspiring arch of the pointed style; who 
devised to split the ponderous pillar of the established orders, 

* VHist if called the Saxon, leemfl merely the Boman degenerated, and enriched 
with grotesque and irregolar ornaments. — ^e J^stm's Cambridgeshire, p» 48. MU- 
ner^e TreaUee^p, 19, ^. 

t Bentham's Ely, 2d Edit. p. 84. 

% Sir Christopher Wren calls the dnstered colmnns of the pdnted style, " bundles 
of staves ;" and Mr. Srelyn denominates the modem Gothic, " congestions of heavy, 
darki mdannholy, monkish pQes, without jnst proportioD, nse^ or heanty." Sir William 
Chambers, with more justness and propr i ety , says, "there is a lightness in these works, 
a boldness of execution to whidi the ancients never arrived, and which the modenis 
eomprdiend and imitate with difficulty."— Fm^ Mihei^a Meee^a, ^. 

f Milner. 



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THIS PLATE IS PRESENTED BT THE 

Higjlt BimnmraUt ^ f arl of Sarlingtott, 

LOBD UEUTENAMT O? THE COUNTY 0? DURHAM, 

AND OKS OV THE 

AliDBRMEN OF HARTLEPOOL. 



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fflSTOBY OF HARTLEPOOL. II7 

iiito the ligM duster of our cafliednlcoliuimt.^ This tranntioii 
has engaged the; pens of many learned and ingenions men^ 
whose sesearehes have elicited much infcnrmation re^eetmg tins 
hnrncfa of eodesiaaticid histwy, without bringing ti>e sulgect of 
dispntet, however^ to any positive detezmination* It is weU 
known that the Nonnaiis Ix>th within and without their eodeai^ 
tical buildings^ oniamented with4nteneeting aemieirenlar arehes^ 
that spaee which would otherwise have been a plain surfaeew 
Afterwards, perhaps for the sake of couTenience, a window was 
opened through the wall, in one of those pointed spaces eansed 
by dieseintersectmgBemieirdeSb This seems to oflfer the most 
natural and easy sdutionior the origin of that style of building 
in which the Englidi ardbitects afterwards made so many im* 
proyements;^ and its universal adaptation in the struotuceef 
churches only required the all-powesful stimulus of fashion.t 
When the first pointed arches made, tiieir appearance mullkms 
were waknown^ the window* formed iby them were long and 
narrow, and £rom theb similarity to that instrumtet^ were 
called ^'lancet windows.^' These, thou^ by no meana' devoid 
d beaaty^ soon gave place to a broader and more graceful form. 
While glsss was but partially known, windows were necessaiily 

* Tvam Ififaier's Hiitoy of Wmchtfter, ▼. 2. 

t Sir Chzisto^ier Wren was of •pinion, that Gotliic ttdiitectQre wm derired torn 
tiieStaoABy and intiodioed hope aft the retom of tiieCbriitiaiit from t^ 
Some anthon htTe oonodred that it waa hron^t from the Moon of Spam. Biahop 
Wailrarton aaysy that it waa an imitation of groTes of treea, and that the mixing of the 
brvidiea from oppoale iteme, was theprotoftype of the tneoy in Tanlted eeflings. 
Oofcmor Bownal thought it ranltedfrom an «uaent manner of hidlding with timbcry 
"moreTeat(mico/' Sir James Hall dednoes it from a modd of wood, in which the 
frhric is snitained hy an assonblage of poles bent towards each other, and forming 
pointed top aiehesidMre they ineet and are connectfid together: the varioas intersect- 
ions of poles, and accidental sweOings of the bark and bnds, suppling Mnts for the 
deoonthre parts. A greater number trace Gothic architeetore from interlaced drcnlar 
azohas, mkitk indiyidnaDtf P^'^'V ^^^^ ^ ^^* ^eeeewU^ intenre&e between three 
edhmms, produce, by the intersections, a pointed ardi orer eadi single interodhmmi- 
ation : and lately the ornamented pjnnaftles, and other decorations, Ibond in some 
ItaUaa buildings, ol the ekifenth md twelfth ocotones, hanre bean iddneed «a earlj 
txanplesof the Oothie worin. 

Iliis short ibatnet ia takat froin obaerratiana on the origin ol Gethie a^^ 
by my friend George Sennders^ Esq.— J M ^ ^ fyi e, 9ok 17. 



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118 mSTOBY OF HARTLEPOOL. 

small and contracted, but when the manufiBMstore of that naefol 
article became more genenlly diffoaed^ both civil and ecdeaiaBti- 
cal stractnrea gained mnch in beauty, as well as in comfort. 

The more perfect, or equilateral arch aacceeded; the pro- 
portiona of which coold with the greatest ease be accurately 
preserved by simply making the breadth of the window the 
radius of the curve. These windows, according to their size, 
were more or less decorated with branching mullions, which 
served to support the glass, and added connderdl>ly to the 
general effect of the whole. The windows of the nave, as well 
as the upper compartments of the tower of Hartlepool church, 
exhibit both these styles blended ; the former, however, have 
lost the slender external column, although the ornamented 
capitals still remain.* 

The tower and nave have been apparently built nearly at the 
same period, vis. the conclusion of the thirteenth century; and 
although on a careful examination it will appear that many sub- 
sequent alterations have taken place in various parts of the tower 
at a much more recent date, yet the original character is st31 
preserved. The tower has swerved considerably from the per- 
pendicular line; a drcumstance that will readily account for the 
flying buttresses, which are too bulky for mere omamenti and 
have been evidently intended for support. The summit of the 
tower is ornamented with battlements, and terminated by 
croketted pinnades-t The principal entrance which is now 
closed up, has been under the western part of the tower, which 
accords with the general plan of the latter Saxcm and earliest 
Bcmian churche8.:t 

"The aisles are formed by five pillars on each ride, light and 
clustered, supporting pointed arches, beautiful and well propor- 
tioned i'' the exterior walls, however, and the shape of the win- 



* Tjyo&t c^italg ▼ery neariy ^protA the Corinthkn ityie, irhath. **«re iomeiimci 
to be foimd in oar Oothic cat]Mdriai.''--jP!r^4Msr to F%^^ 
t Height of the bittleDieiite 78 feet Hei^iofthepinnaclet^OliDet. 
t Bcothm'i Bjr, p. 82, 2d I 



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THIS PLATE IS PRESENTED BY THE 

%n, Mliam Wilsm, ^erptual dmak, 

AND ONE OF THE 
ALDERMEN OF HARTLEPOOL. 



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HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 119 

dows diflcover no signs of the ''glory of antiquity*'' in their 
formation. They bear no similarity with the rest of the buildings 
and singularly detract from its general qppearance. ''The 
chancel is divided from the nave by a lofty pointed arch^ spring- 
ing from a duster of columns/' The length of the nare is 
eighty-fiye feet^ and the width, including the nde aisles, forty- 
four feet. 

♦ ride p. 11«. 



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120 mSTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 



CHANTRIES. 

DuaiNO the preraleiioe of Papal aupersiitiQD, pioaaandw^Uiy 
penons were in the practice of building, small chapelsi oi side 
aialesi in their vespectiTe pariah drarcheay which they liberally 
endowed with rents or lands^ for the maintenance and siqpport 
of chantry priests^ whose duty it was to pray daily at the altars 
erected therein^ for the souls of the founders and their con- 
nections :* a practice which is still continued in Roman Catholic 
countries. These were adjectives (says Fuller) not able to stand 
of themsdyeSj and therefore united for their better support to 
some parochial^ coUegiatei or cathedral church. In the chapel 
of St. Hilda, at Hartlepool^ there were several of these chantries. 

CHANTRT OV ST. HELBN. 

Bishop Skirlaw^ in the 8th year of his episcopacy^ gave his 
permission to the mayor and commonalty of Hartlepool, to found 
anew a chantry for one chaplain, to the honour of St. Helen, at 
the altar of the blessed Helen, to pray for the good estate of the 
bishop, of Matilda,t wife of Roger de Clifford, and their heirs, 
and of the mayor and commonalty, and also to supplicate for 
the souls of the above mentioned, when they shall have departed 
this life, &c. according to statutes to be made and determined 
by the mayor and commonalty. 

The bishop also permitted the mayor, &e. to grant three mes- 
suages, which Geffrey de Eltham, and Isabella his wife, held for 

* Tide Brand's Hiitory of NewoaiOe, 1, 247. &e. 

t Matada de diflRord, wifb of Bogor de QiSbrd, (▼. p 48) wai the dan^tar of 
nomaa de Beaiiohamp, Eaxl of Warwick, who died of Uie peatilenoe at Calais, IStli 
Not. 48d Edward m. BjhiswiUhebeqfQeatliedtoliisdaii^tarCliflRard, '^ 
eaOed the eagle," which his son WOfiam had bestowed on him liar a new-years gift^ 
"with a eop set witli heads of gdi^, and a ring." The Countess Katharine, his ink, 
likewise bequeathed to Mand de Giiirord,hardan^ter, ** a cup enameled with dogga." 
Hie annexed engrsring is taken from Dogdale's Warwickshire, p. 8S0, copied from 
a pctnre in painted glais^ on the fouth window of the quire of St, Mtfy^s chuxeh, 
Warwick. 



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itWUba'TS^??^ 



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THE >vrF 

JSro>VX XAXRt oyHAKTINTOOELI. 1 5*9 3 



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HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 121 

the tenn of their lireSi to Robert Rossoiii cliaplaiii^ keeper of the 
chantry^ and to give seven messuages, forty acres and a half and 
ten roods of land, one acre of meadow, ten tofts and crofts, and 
fourteen shillings annual rent in Hartlepool and Ndeston, which 
were held of the said Matilda de Clifford, &c.* 

CHANTBT OF ST. MABT, 

A similar licence empowered the mayor. Sec. to found, to the 
honour of the blessed Virgin Mary, one chantry of two chaplains, 
to pray at the altar of the blessed Mary, in the chapel of St. 
Hilda, &c. as before, and that the mayor, &c. may grant to 
Thomas del Eyrke, and John de Thornton, chaplains, keqpers 
of the chantry, one messuage, which Isabel de Shildon, the 
wife of John Goldsmith, of Hartlepool, the elder, held for 
life, and one messuage which Thomas del Eyrke held for his 
hfe; and also thirty messuages, twenty-seven tofts and crofts, 
two roods and a half of land, and eighty-four shillings and 
fivepence roit, in Hartlepool, which were held of Matilda de 
Clifford, &c.t Permission was likewise given to the mayor and 

* Siie* Bich. AtweD, cap. 

Sire Bich. Gregg, cap. Inst. Oct. l, 1686, p. m. AtweQ. 

Bichard Bigge, incumbent of St. Hekn's ohantrj, had a penaioii of £4 per annum 
paid him in 1663.— Fi/Zm'^ Sistory qfAbbeyi. 

* Sir, — ike title by wMeh Bachelari ofJrti were formerly diitit^meked—baf 
.ekevalier, 

f Caiapkina— 1418, John Presbyter, p. m. Tho. del Kjrk^Seyr. Langely. 

1486, John Stranton, preieated by the mayor of HarUqpool— JZd^. Lanyely, 
p. 221. 

John Hdmes, the last incomheat at the diaeolntioni reoei?ed a pension of £6 in 
Uh^,^WilH^i mnary rf Jbbies. 

Yearly value of St Mary's Chantry, £7 188. itL—Bandairi MSS. 

Seqnenlaa sunt paroeiDsB Foeaeas, Oantar. B. Marie in Gapella S. Hilda, alienat 
8 Jac. #. d. 

1. Medietas nnins dansore terra com pert in Hertlepoole sapra le hewghe 4 

2. Alia daosora TOc le long dose • , , , 8 

8. Doe dans. Toc. Nonrydose , 4 

4. nia dans, in bntchaire Toc Crosse dose 8 4 

5. Parodla tecre in Fishergate 2 6 

0. Altera paroella tecre in Fishergate 1 

Hot. 1 3p, James, No. 42. 
Ind're Jul 6. Jac.^ Sir Heniy lindley, Knt. and John Starkey. Gi. his scarrant, 

T 



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122 HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 

commonalty^ to give seven messuages in Hartlepool^ held of 
Matilda de Cliflbrd, to Walter Bakster^ and ¥^lliam Howe^ 
keqpers of the fabrick of the church of St. Hilda, for the por- 
pose of supplying a light at the altar of the blessed Virgin 
Mary, and for sustaining the choir of the said church. 

CHANT&Y OF ST. NICHOLAS. 

A similar licence to the preceding was granted to refound^ 
&c. to the honour of St. Nicholas, one chantry, of one chap* 
lain,* to pray at the altar of St. Nicholas, in this chapel, &c. 
as before ; and that the mayor, &c. may grant eight messuages 
in Hartlepool, which were held of Matilda, &c. to John Abel, 
chaplain keeper of the chantry, and his successors for e?er»t 

In the 87th year of the reign of Henry Yiii. parliament placed 
all chantries at the disposal of the sovereign. No vestiget 
of their existence are at present to be discovered in the chapel 
of St Hilda. 

conrqr to Heniy Dethicke, Bachelor of lawe, a wasted nMSBoage in Harliepoole, 
late belonging to the chantry of St. Maiy, in Middegate, in Hartlepoole, and granted 
to Lindley and Staikey, hy the crown under 4d. rent, 6 April nit. 

Ind're 18th Marc. 11 Jac— Henry Tenant, of So(»rton, Ebor. gent and Wm. 
Speeding, of Gfeetham, yeom. confey to Bobert Porret, of Hartlepociley gent, half a 
dose at HerOepoole, two dooea at the Ootdiare, p'oeU of the diantry of the blessed 
Virgin Mary, granted by the King to Warde and Morgan, 5 Jac by than 20 Id». 
7 Jac. to Richardson and Walton, andby them to Tenant and Speeding, 16 Jan. 10 Jae. 

Ind're 16 Jan. Jac. 10. John Bichaidson, of y« dty of Daiham, gent, and George 
Walton, moroer, oonfey to Henry Tennant^ of Soorton, gent, and Wm. Speeding, of 
Greetham, yeoman* one half dose in Hartlepode, lying on y« Heo£^ TaL 8s. Two 
doses eaDed Nmiiy doses, TsL 4s. A close at Batdudre, caUed the Crosse, in ooe. of 
Raphe Ponder, tsL 8s. 4d. A pared in Fiaheigate, pared of the diantry of the 
blessed Maryi in the diapd of Hartlepoole, all w'ch George Waide, and Rob. Morgan, 
of London, gents, did inier oHa, oonfey to Biehardson and Wdton, 20 Fd). 7 Jae. 
under crown rents of the above recited Talnes. — 66 in dano, 1 Rot, Jtmei, 

* Chaplains.— John Grereson, 1601. Nich. Pert Bob. Joys. 

t These donations (says Hotohinson, t. 8, p. 87) give ns an enlarged idea of the 
magnitude and importance of the ancient town of HartlepooL 



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HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 



123 




INTERIOR OF THE CHURCH. 

The pewB are of oakj and die chuich presents an uniform 
appearance of neatness and regularity. 

In the chancel is the following monumental inscription upon 
a large black slab, inlaid with a brass plate : 

"Here ynder this stone l/eth byried the bodie of the 
vert?ov8 genteUwoman Jane BeQ who dq^ted this lyfe 
the vi daye of Janyarie 1598, beinge the dowghter of 
Layenmce ThonieU of Dariington gent and late wyfe 
to Fanavel BeQ now maire of this towen of Hartin- 
^ pooell marchant. 

Wkosffertn^ifthouwUibeJkoUe 
Pertue tki* Mel hamging bye 
WMeh %M the same to the tutfolde 
Bg her good Iffe leame thou to die. 

Above the gallery is suspended a funeral escutcheon of the 
arms of Blackett, with this inscription : 

**S]r William Blackett, baronet^ bnrges, aldennan, 
and sometimes maior of Newcastle upon l^e, dep'ted 
this life the 16 day of May, 1680. By his last win did 
beq[iieath to the poor of the parish of St. Oyles (Hilda) 
in Hartmpoole, forty shillings yeariy fbr ever.*'* 

* TMe emu it regularlg received bg the ofoeneert. 



Against the north wall are placed two effigies in stone^ (re- 
cently removed from the church-yard) which are so defaced, 
that little room is now left for conjecture concerning them. 
The more perfect figure is habited in ecclesiastical vestmentSi 
holding in one hand a glove,* and in the other a scroll, with 

* An ingenioos friend has suggested the probability that the principal figore is 
intended for one of the family of Bobert PorsgloTe, snffingan bishop of Hull, the 
last prior of Oisbom, who fbnnded the c(»poration of Jesos, at Gnisbnm, endowed it 
with lands and houses, at Hartlepool, in the year 1561. He died May 2, 1579, and 
was buried in the ohanoel of Tyddeswell chnrch, in Derbyshire, where is the " poor- 
traytnre of a bishop in brass in his habit," and at his leet this inseription; — 




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124 HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 

the illegible remains of an inscription : an angel appears sap- 
porting a pillow on which hia head rests^ and a dog is placed^ 
sleeping at his feet. The other is meant apparently to represent 
a female^ whose hands are joined together on the breast in the 
attitude of prayer. 



" Under Has Stone aa here doth ly, a Corps sometime of Fame, 
In Tiddeawall bred and bom truly, Bobert Porseloye bj Name, 
And there brought up by Parents Care at Schoole and Leaning trad, 
TUl afterwards by Unde dear to London he was had : 
Who William Bradshaw hi^ht by Name in Panl's which did him pkce. 
And there at Schoole did lum maintain full thrice 8 years whole space; 
And then into the Abberye was pkoed as I wis. 
In Sonthwark call'd, where it doth ly. Saint Mary Oreris; 
To Oxford then, who did him send into that GoUedge right. 
And there 14 Tears did him find, which Goroos Christi hi^t : 
From thence at Length away he went a Gierke of Learning gnat. 
To Oiusbum Abbey streight was sent, and plac'd in Prior's Seat ; 
Bishop of Hull he was a&o. Archdeacon of Nottingham, 
Provost of Rotheram CoUedge too, of York eak Suflhigan : 
Two Gramer Schools he did ordain with Land for to endure, 
One Hospitall for to maintain twelve impotent and poor. 
O Ouisbum thou, with Tiddeawall Town lement and mourn ye may. 
For this said Gierke of great Benown lyeth here comnact in Clay : 
Though cmd Death hath now down brought this Boay which here doth ly, 
Yet ^&ump of Fame stay can he nought to sound his praise on high. 

Qui legit hune Vertum crebro reliquum memor erii 

file Cadaver sum, iugue Cadaver erii, 

▲in> BOXTHD THE TBSOE OF THE BTONE : 

Christ is to me as life on Earth, and death to me is Gaine, 
Because I trust through him alone Salvation to obtaine ; 
So brittle is the State of Han, so soon it doth decay. 
So all the Glory of this World must pass and fiide away." 

Staiues of ike Hotpital, 4re. of Qttitbum, p. 18.^9. Atkenm 
Oxon. 1. p, 706, and FUkimgUm'e Devon, 1. p. 410. 
Robert Pursglove, alias Sylvester, sufBragan bishop of Hull, the last prior (of 
Gisbum) surrendered this convent, Dec. 82, 1540, and had a pension of £166 18s. 4d. 
which he enjoyed in 1558.— /W^yA^V Mon, 



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fflSTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 126 

The fontj made of Yorkshire entrochal or encrinal marblei of 
a chaste and el^ant shap^ was ''the gift of GeorgeBowes^ Esq. 
1728/'* The commimion plate consists of one large pewter 
flaggon^ a silver chalioej and a silver paten ; the latter was " the 
gift of Mr.Calib Beadshaw/ of Richmond^ January 18^ 1726.^' 
In the bdfrey are three bdls^f cast by Lester and Pack^ 1764^ 
aD crackedj whose tones are truly discordant and melancholy. 

. * Mayor of Hartlepool in 1782, and 1754, t. p. 92. 

t May 19, 1760. " It ia utiamnunisiy agreed hy the nufforiiy of the vestry gen- 
tlemen that one bell is not sufficient for divine service," and therelbre order that two 
old beUa ahall be sent to London, to procure another in their ^aoe. — CkwrchwarcUn^s 
dccounii. 



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126 HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 



CHURCH-YARD. 

^ There is a large table monument 
of blue maiUe, under the east win- 
dowj with the anns of Brusy but 
without inscription^ which was in the 
old chanceL''* The anns certainly 
resemble those borne by that branch 
of the fiumily which was established at 
Skelton Cai^ who held occasionally 
the custody of Hartlepool. 

At a short distance are the remains of two similar figures 
to those which are now in the church, wanting, however, the 
scroll and the dog. 

Enclosed within an iron railing, are the remains of Robert 
RoUandj Esq. of Arbroath^ in Scotland ; his body was found 
floating in the bay, July 2, 1811. He is supposed to have Men 
from a diff near Arbroath, on the 20th day of May preceding. 

The ehurch-yard abounds with the inspirations of the ''un- 
lettered muse/' of which the following arethe most striking: — 

Ye, wlio've lost a tender mothor, 
Euthful wives^ or firiendB most true, 
Gome I for how should tmy other 
Syn^othiie with us like yoa ! 
Ye who still possess such treasures. 
Prize them while thej are posseas'd: 
We, alas 1 have lost those deasores — 
Bat the name of God be Uessed! 

* HutchiDaon's History of Dmham, t. 8, p. 86. 

Hie upper dab which is 9 fiset 8 inches in length, by 5 feet 9 inches in breadth, 
seems to be of the Frostcriy marble (in Weardale ;) the marmor nigrum coraliis 
refertomof Da Costa. 

Seversl stone coflftns have been dug 19 in Yarious parts of the church-yard; in (me 
of which was discovered a human figure; on exposure to the air it crumbled to dust^ 
leaving a pair of boots, however, which seemed to bespeak a person of the monastic 
profession, who were generally interred in boots, and wrapped in a oowL — Vide 
MUner^i WmcAest€r, v. 2. p, 70. 



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HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 127 

OnaSmlar. 
Here I safe at aaichor ride» 
With many of our fleet ; 
Tet onoe again we must set sail 
Onr admiral Christ to meet. 
Jndker. 
He hath gain'd his port and is at ease. 
And scap'd the dangers of the seas ; 
His (^asa was nm, his time was gon^ 
Whidi to my thoo^t did no man wrong. 
On a ehiid aged 8 months. 
Blest, hi^py in&nt, thy dear life was short. 
But none ean bring of thee an ill report 
On a TomhiUme, ereeUd to the wumoty qfa yomng fooman who wu 
betrothed, but died brfore she was wutrried. 
Here is my tomb, pray look and aee. 
He that erected this ^ lore me, 
AH the world may plainly see. 
On a Stone searcefy legible, the deceased is described as being 
"Learned in all nsefbl scienoe, 
Wise, witty, and polite." 
Jnd on another, the following lamentaUon is expressed: — 
What pensive grief I fed, my son most dear. 
To think French prison does detain yon there: 
My ardent wish before I left this life 
Was yon to see and yonr beloved wife^ 
Tonr two twin boys, their names by me i^prov'd, 
1^ namea of those whom I so tn^y lov'd— 
Nicholas, Nathaniel, names still dear to me: 
Hqr heaven protect and grant yon liberty. 
ThefoUowing quaint Epitaph is still remembered, though it is no 
longer legible, 
" She was '■ bat room forbids to teB yon idiat, 

Hiink idiat a wife shoold be ^— and she was that." 

The view fiK>m the church-yard is peculiarly grand and in- 
teresting: it embraces a vast extent of the ocean^ together with 
the vale of Qerelandj the high lands of Yorkshire^ surmounted 
by Boseberry Toppings* the mouth of the Tees^ and die 

* "Boaeberry Topping, which is a marke to the seamen, and an ahnanaok to the 
vale, for they have thys onlde ryme common, 

"When Boseberrye Toppinge wears a ctiff^ 
"Let CSeveland then beware a clappe: 
<<thoe indeed yt addoine hath a doode on yt that acme yll weather ahortiy fidlowetti 
yt not.~lfiSL mi Bib. Cot, Jul* 465, quoted in Graves Cleveland. 
Boseberry is 1488 feet above the kvd of the 8ea.^araiv^« Cleveland, 



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128 HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 

villages of Bedcar^ CSoatliam^ and Seaton Carew. In summer the 
ships successively passing and repassing, with the numerous 
fishing boats returning from their labours, form an agreeable 
and animated scene; the ''busy hum of men'' is heard, and 
the imagination feds an instinctive sympathy with their hopes 
and fears, all directed towards the same object. 

The eye wanders with delight on a picture so diversified, and 
when sated with the pleasures of the various perspective, turns 
with melancholy retrospection to the '' frail memorials '' which 
daim ^' the passmg tribute of a sigh,'' and to the uncertainty 
and mutability of human existence, which 

Like to ibe bobble in tbe brook; 

Or in a glias moob like a look; 

Or like tbe sbuttle in tbe band ; 

Or like tbe writing in tbe nnd ; 

Or like a tbongbt, or like a dream ; 

Or like tbe gliding of tbe ftream: 

E'en snob is man, wbo liyes by bieatb. 

Is bere, now tbere, in life and deatb ; 

Tbe babble's bnrst, tbe look's foigot, 

Tbe abnttles flnng, tbe writing's Uot; 

Tbe tbongbt is past, tbe dream is gone, 

Tbe water ^dee, — — man's life is done. 

life is a shadow that departeth, a dream of error, the fruit- 
less labour of imagined existence.* 
* Btuiian I^Mcral Service, v, K. Porter, 



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HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL, 129 



YICARS OF HART/ (citm HARTLEPOOL.) 

Joh. de Wyrkesall. 

Job. de Cotomij 1358 p. res. Wyrkesall. 

tJoh. Hall, 00. 1417. 

Job. Easingwald, oc. 1418, 1444. 

Rob. Sombie, 1501. 

Will. Wilson, canonicus. 

{Ra. Todde, L. L. B. 1537, p. m. Wilson. 

Will. Hardyn, el. 1554, p. res. Todde. 

§Job. Robson, cL 1584, p. m. Hardyn, pres. Q. Elii« 

Gabriel Price, 1598. 

llJobn Leake, A. M. 1613. 

liUdward Young, el. 1626, pres. E. Gbarles T. 

Edward Smatbwaite, A. 6. 1661, pres. K. Cbarles II. 

* Hart ehiirch is dedicated to St. Mary Magdalen. The King patron. King's 
books £11 17b. Id. Tenths £1 Ss. 8R 

t Thomas Leys, &c. spiritnal Ticar, granted to John Hall, canon regolar, and per* 
petoal vicar of the parochial chnrch of Hart, in consequence of certain lawful reasons, 
and particolarly on account of a journey to the city of Rome, which he had promised 
to perform in person, to visit the threshold of the Apostles, leave of absence from his 
benefice for one year, provided nevertheless that the chnrch of Hart, with the chapels 
dependent, should on no account be neglected. South Aukl. Nov. 11, 1417. 

Be^. ZMffley, p 2Sfi. 

X Presented by Anthony BeDysis, Doctor of Laws, true pafaxm fbr this turn, by 
reason of the right of presentation made to him by the Prior and convent of Oisbunu 
Admitted by Bishop TunstalL—JS^m^^r^ MSS, 

' 4 Sir John Martyne, derk, is mentioned in Hart Bcfpster, as hiving served "m 
the three years next ensuing" from 1580, "untiU the zzii day of June, in which 
day John Robson, derk, waa inducted Vyocar here in Anno Domini, 1584.'* 

John Robson, "^^car of Hart, and Alice Oreen, were manied Feb. 28, l(i02. 

Oreatkam Fariih Uegitter, 

John Bobson was buried in the ohanod at Hart, Nov. 20, 1605.— JJoi^ Famh 
lUgiiter. 

I Buried September 25, 1626.— JGTai^ Fariih Reffiiier, 

f Buried April 20, 1658.— JGTor^ Farith Regitter. 

In the list of Vicars of Hart, published by Hutchinson (vd 8. p. 85.) from Ban- 
daU'a MSS. Bowey tfn UUruder, tjected fbr non-caitformify, is mentioned as tha 
mcoessorofBdwardToung. In"anexact catalogue of the names of several ministers 
ktdy ejected out of their Itvingi, because they oould not conform for consdenoe sake»'* 
printed MDGLXm. Bb. Bowey is mentioDed as baring been qeeted from EMekf, 

V 



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18a HISTORY OF HIRTLEPOOL. 

♦Stephen Woodifidd, oc. 1689. 

Richard Werge, A. M. oc. 1728. 

fJohn Morland^ d. A. M, 1785, p. res. Werge. 

Benjamin Pye, B. C. L. 1770, p. m. Morland. 

Richard Ridley, A. M. 1808, p. m. Pye. 

{Edward Moises, A. M. 1811, p. res. Ridley. 

CURATES OP HARTLEPOOL. 

§John Wilkinson, oc. 1609. 

II ^Boyd, oc. 1643. 

tPerceyal Donkinge, 1669. 

-^ Saunders, oc. 1685. 

♦♦Thomas Shewell, 1689. 
Philip Raper, oc. 1690. 
Stephen Woodifield, oc 1712. 
Walter Bom, oc. 1714. 
John Wilkinson, oc. 1719. 
Isaac Johnson, oc. 1781. 

* Of tlie ancient fiunily of Woodifield, aliai Weedifield, of the pariah of Biahqp 
Middlffham, where the name waa onoe exceedingly nnmeroos; many of them died in 
the great plague or Tiaitation in the year 1597. About a centniy and a half ago^ 
Nicholas Woodifield, then tenant of a amaUfimn at Kainaforth, ia said to have hecomo 
inddenly rich by the following strange circamstanoe. During the hay tuoreat, having 
gone accidentally to a naghbonring weD, to procure a draught of water, he let hia rake 
drop, which struck upon something metallic. He immediately aent hia serrant gid 
home, and taking off his brogues, he contriyed to make two purses of them, which 
after having descended into the weU, he filled with broad pieces of gold. "With this 
money, so unexpectedly acquired, he ia said to have purchased the manor of Trimdon, 
of the Bopers. This estate is now by maternal descent the property of "^ilHlliam 
Bedcwith, Esq. of Herrington. 

t Hb only daughter and heireas, Sarah, married Balph Bowser, of Auckland, 
alderman of Durham. 

X The respectable and learned master of the Royal Grammar School, Newoaatla. 
Extracts from the Parish Register. 

{ John Wilkinson, derk, enraU here, and Jane Hume, mar. 20th Sep. 1609. 

II Edward, the son of Mr. Boyd, ewaie, bi^. Mar. IS, 1648. 

% Memorandum — ^Yt Par. Donldnge, came to Hcrtinpool, to be minister theiie in 
ye yeare 1669, being March ye 9th. 

March 27, 1685, he waa buried in the ehurcL 

** May 20, 1689. Mem.— That I Thomas SheweDt dk. Anglo Hibemus bang 
driven from Ireland, waa been reod. atrai.^f, me 2%owuu Skevril, 



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mSTOBT OF HARTLEPOOL. 181 

Hugh Petrie^ oc 17464 

John Thomas^ oc 1764. 

William Aitj, oc. 1769. 

Qeargt SeoUough^ oe. 1761. 

Henry Crookboin, oc. 1767. 

William Hatriaon, 1770. 

Benjamin Lnmley^ M. A. 1797. 

I. H. Dickenson, M. A. 1806. 

N. 1. Hollingsworih, M. A. 1807, perp. cur. 

William Wikon, 1812, perp. cor* 

The bene£k» of HartlqK>ol does not exceed £200 per annum. 
Lord Crewe, Bishop of Durham, by will, dated Jone 24^ 1720, 
gave ''the yearly som of j£10 a piece (or the augmenta'con ot 
tweire pocff rectories, yicarridges, small livings, or curacies in 
the diocese of Durham/' and his executors extended to Hartle- 
pool the benefit of his testamentary disposition, March 4, L728w 
In the following year an accession was received from the Govern- 
ors of Queen Anne's bounty of £200; the Vicar of Hart and 
others giving a similar amount, which sums were expended in 
1727, in the purchase of land^ at Bishop Middleham.* ''This 
purchase was appropriated to the curacy of HartlqxM)l exdu- 
ehrely; the Vicar of Hart, flie mother church, being precluded 
from receiving directly or indirectly any profit of benefit from 
the purchaae.''t In 1812, a further augmentation of £800 
was received from the Parliamentary Grants, which was ordered 
to be vested in the purdiase of land: and in 1814, an additional 
augmentation of £1000 being the amount of a munificent 
donation of £200 from the Ksh^ <tf Durham; £200 from the 
trustees of the estates of the late Lord Crewe, Bishop of Dur- 
ham, and £600 from Queen Anne's bounty. 

These soccessive grants and jkmations, together with the 
surplice fees, belong of distinct right to the perpetual curacy : 

* Hie indtmbentt of Caitle Bden* PittmglUm, and Hirtlipool, have an equal skare 
ia thii eitate, wfaidi lets at about £126 per amram. 
t Letter from the Secretaiy of the Beim^ offioe, Aagait 80, 1806. 



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188 HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 

the vicarial tithes* of the townahip have^ however^ been re- 
ceived by the incumbent for many years past. The present 
Vicar of Hart, as well as several of his predecessors, have 
occasionally claimed the tithes: but in consideration of the 
poverty of the benefice, they have not persevered further than 
the assertion of their undisputed claim. The right of nomina- 
tion belongs to the Vicar of Hart. 

* The moiJa of Tinmoiitli enjoyed the tythet of Hertnee, which were oonfiimed 
to them by a charter of King Jdm. — BramtTs NewcattU, v. 2. p. 18. 

A contest between the monks of Tinmouth, and the prior and canons of 6iiisbiini» 
concerning the tithes, was decided by arbitratioiiy in 1212 — v. Burton's Man, Ebor. 
p, 845, ^ Hutchinson's Hist, Durham, v, 8. 19. The Impropriator of the pariah of 
Hart receives the tithe of fish. In 1651, Bd. Viscoont Lomky obtained a decree of 
the Court of Exchequer, at Bnriiam, to compel the payment of the twentieth part of 
the fishery at Hartlepool, until the Fishermen should toy the right at law. In 1719 
(Bfay 4, Durham) on the reftisal of Hunter and others to pay the tithe, the right was 
tried. TheBarlofSoaiborong^ as impn^riator of the Fferish of Hart» claimed 12d. 
in the pound for all fish caught at sea, and brought into the port of Hartlepoole, and 
there sold, and the twentieth pert of aU fish caught by the fishermen of the parish 
and sold elsewhere ; all reasonable charges being first deducted. The fishermen sub* 
mitted the lq;ality of the custom to the court. The evidence was read, by which the 
fishermen admitted, that there was a customary payment in lieu of all tithes ; but 
what those payments were, did not dearly appear. The court proposed 12d. in the 
pound, or a twentieUi part, and the same being i^ireed to on both aides, the ooort 
decreed the tithea accordingly.— Faa<r# TUhe Causes, 9, 2. p. 116. 

Hr. Focock receives at present 8s. annually from the poesessor of every coUe. 

1770. The manor and rectory impropriate of Hart, &c let at £2058 7s. per ann. 
subject to a &e£tfm rent of £28 12s. It contains 8416 acres 1 rood and 84 perches, 
free firom aU tithes except one-third part of the tithes of wool and lamb due to the 
ticar. The estate is bounded by the sea for three miles. — Hutchinson's History of 
Durham, v. 8, p, 22. The estate of George Focock, Esq. commonly called "Hart 
Lordship,'* has been considerably increased since 1770, and the whole extent is at 
preaent 4166 acres, 8 roods, and 89 perches ; this i n c l u des however the Dalton Percy 
estate of 145 acres, 7 perches, and 851 acres 1 rood of land between hig^ and low 
watermark. 

King Charles I. granted for life to Queen Henrietta Haria, 14th of March, 1626. 
" Totum ilium «i«nftlAin redditum sive feodum firmum nostrum viginti duarum libra- 
rum de reotoria & ecdesia de Hart & HarUepode in ep'u Dunelmensi nobis horedibus 
& suooessoribus nostris exeuntium & solubilium." — Bijfmei^s Rtd, vol. xviiL 
Extracts from the Parish Bcgister, &c. regarding the church. 

Sept. 11, 1680. John Lord Biahoppe of Durham (Howson) came to visit at 
Hartinpoole. 

October 15, 1749. A confirmation was hdd by the Big^t Bev. Martin Benson, 
Lord Bishop of Gloucester; confirmed 605 persons. 

1760. The Hon. James Lumley, gave £5 towards a dock. 

1766. In the pariah aocounta of this year spears a singular and charaeteristie 
charge, for the journey of a church* warden to the visitation : — ^For a po^e to Durham, 
58. 6d." 



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fflSTORY OF HABTLEPOOL. 183 



THE CHAPEL OF ST. HELEN.^ 

This chapel is stated to have been on the warren. According 
to local tradition^ a church once stood near the Freemen's or 
St. Helen's Well^ in the Far- well Fields where the ground at 
present is considerably elevated, and where many hewn stones 
are constantly discovered, which renders it highly probable that 
this was the site of the chapel in question. 

* WOliam de Bros, for the support of a light at the great altar at Giibum, ga?« 
Ins chapel of Si, JBeUit, that is on the wuren here. — Burton's Mbnatt Ebor» jp. 84S. 

Robert, son of Robert Palmer de Hertylpool, by the consent of Emma, his wiib^ 
gare all his land and booses on the west side of St. Elent chnreh here. 

Martin Fuller, de Hertylpole, gave his land on the north side ; and Alice his daugh- 
ter, released her dower in the same lands, which were confirmed by Robert de Bmi^ 
Lord of Anand.— Stfii(m'« Moiuu, Ebor.p, 169. 

Ralph de WhitweU, a bastard, ordered his ezecntorsby will, to sell a messuage with 
Its ^portenanoes, in Hartlepool to raise a stipend for the support of a chaplaiii t« 
pray for him, in the chapel of St. Helen, as long as the money would last. At his 
death. Bishop Beaumont seized the messuage and kept it as an escheat : but Bishop 
Bury (April 13, 1886) allowed the validity of the will, having found by an inquisitioB 
before Simon de Giymesby, his steward, that it had been demised ten months belbra 
the decease of the testator.— /SWi^'# SoUi, 



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184 HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 



THE FRIART. 

St. FrandBj who was bom A. D. 1182, was the founder of 
the Franciscan^ Gtej, or Minor Friars. Thqr derived the first 
of these names firom their founder, the second fiK>m their 
clothing, and the third they assumed out of pretended humility. 
They are generally supposed to have first arrived in England, in 
the year 1224. Their dress consisted of a loose garment, and 
cowle of grey doth, to which was added a cloak when they left 
the convent ; they tied a cord round the waist and went bare« 
footed; they were mendicants, and each l»other on his admis- 
sion was obliged to give the most convincing proofs of his 
sincerity, by selling his propertf^ and distributing die money 
among the poor.* 

The Friary of Hartlepool is noticed by Bishop Tanner,t as 
having been '^founded before A. D. 1275 ; '' and it is stated 
by Mr. Bitson,:^ in a quotation firom a manuscript in the British 
Mu8eum,§ that die ^'finerage of Hartlepool was founded by 
the same Robert de Bruse, (sc. founder of Oisbnm) being Orej 
Friars of the order Sainte Fraunces, as I am thereof informed; 
and for the value of the same house you shall know at my 
cuming upp.'^ This would appear to be part of a letter fiK>m 
some commissioner sent to examine the Friary previous to the 
dissolution of the religious houses ;|| and though it is very 

* Vide Brand's NewcasOe, &e. 

t Notitia Monafltica. 

X Joiepk Siiion, Big, wu bam at Stodctan, in Ueamnty of Durham: he wot am 
" induttriout and inUUigeni critic," and added to a considerable share qfaeuteneu, 
a mind qf " indrfatigable research:' He died Sept. 1806, in a deplorable state ^ 
mental derangement. — v. IHchoTs Literary Anecdotes, v, 8« p. 850. 

\ BibL Cotton, Jnllns %. ii. 

I Nothing oonld exceed the aereiity with whieh this inquisition was conducted. 
West has printed, in his History of the abbey of Fumess, copies of many original 
papers, relative to the visitation of the monasteries. It may be sufficient to mention, 
that Layton, and his loorthg coadjutor, Lee, were impowered to submit no fower than 
eighty-six queries to each trembling abbot. It was a matter of course, corrupted as 
religion then was, that to some of these questions a satis&ctoiy answer oould not be 



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I 



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HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 185 

natoTil to conclude that the Friarf was fbnnded by (me of the 
family of Bras^ yet it could not possibly have taken place 
daring the lifcvtime of the founder of Oisburn^ who died many 
years before the birth of St. Francis. 

The Friary must have been established previous to the year 
1258, as in that year a dmpter of the order was holden at 
Narbonne ; when, in the enumeration of their houses in Eng- 
land, Hartlepool is mentioned as being under the custody of 
Newcastle,* so that in all probability. Bobert de Brus, the sixth 
of that name, was the founder. 

There are no records extant with regard to the condition of 
the Friary, until its dissolution, and the fragments which occur 
scarcely continue the chain of its existence : a few notices of 
those who ''gifted the shrine for their soul's repose,^' however, 
remain to be adduced.t 

ginn, and bo Baiisfiuioxy answer was wanted. Th» rsfonie and not the nfbnaatioii 
of religions honses was tlie oltjeet in view. Richard layton was of tho familj of 
Laton, of West Laton, near Bichmond. To this drcnmstanoe he aUndes, when soK- 
dting CromweD, the Vicar-General, for the appointment of joint visitor with Dr. Lee : 
" Ther ys (says he) nether monasterie, sell, priorie, nor anj other religiouse howse in 
the north, bnt ether Doctor Lee, or I, have fiimiler acqnayntance within x or zii mjDs 
of hit; so that no knaverie can be hyde from ns in that centre, — onre frends and 
kynsfooks be disposyde in those p*ties in everye place redy to aasyste ns if any stobomo 
or sturdy carle might perchannce be fownde a rebeUior.*' This merUorumi person 
vras aftvwards rector of Sedgefield. 

•Brand's Newcastle, v. 1. p. 882. 

"The custody or wacdenship of Newcastle had nine monasteries," one of which 
vras " Hartlepoole monastery, in tiie bishoprick of Durham." — 8Uphen*i Moiuu. 
Jng, 9. 1 p. W.-^Battnu^s Neweagtle, p, 88. 

t Every ehnrch iHiether monastio or parodiial ouMQj entered a list of its bene- 
ftetoia in the calendar prefixed to its common nuasal. Li one which appears to have 
belonged originaUy to the ehnrdi of Hntton Bndby, in Cleveland, is the following 
foaint eaizy:^ 

Whoso owne me thai dothe loke 

I am the diowrdie of Rodbyys bowke 

Whoso doth say the contrary 

I reporte me to awU the paxysahyng by. 

A few extracts from the nmneions obits of this cnrioos calender, wiU not be devoid 
of interest. 

XXX Jam. Obitns TharoB Latcm de Sezhowe aimigeri qni obiit Ao dal 
MCXXXnOUm. litcKa-dominicaliB A. cigns a'ie p'pidetor dens amen. 

vii Ap. Obitos d'ni Cuthberti Conyers deoetov' doctoiis neo non anhidiaooBi 



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186 HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 

''In the year 1276. Walter de Merton/by will, left tea 
mariu to the Friars here. In 1372, John Oggill, by his wiU, 
commanded that his body shonld be buried in the cemetery of 
the church of the Friars Minors, and gave to the Friars fire 
marks.'!' In 1423, Robert Wyclyf,t master of Eepyer hospital, 
near Durham, and Bector of Uutton Rudby, in Cleveland, by 
his will, dated 8th September, gave twenty shillings to the 
mendicant Friers of Allerton, Richmond, and Hartlepool.'' 




In the year 1476, John Trollop,^ of 

Thomley, by his will dated at '' Hartil- 

J - pole/' October 30, (which is attested by 

^ BT^^ Richard Vavasour, mayor of Hartlepool) 

^^^'y^ J bequeathed his soul to the virgin, St* 

John the Baptist, St. Cuthbert, and all 

the blessed company of heaven, and 

Korlio' ae «oia' Bector* EeoUar* pochialiu' de Bndby et Wqrn (Tu oUit Anno Domini 
MCCCCCXVn litten dominicalii D. oiigiiB aie p'pdet' dens amen. 

iii JnL OlntoB d'ni Thome Lorell ntrinsq' jnrii dootoria et rector* ecelie de 
Rndbj qoi obiit Ao. Dn'i MD. yioesimo qnarto, &e. 
For iJl iheie donbtkat, aa the daj returned in the re? olving year, 
Haaawaaaong, and prayen were aaid. 
And aolemn requiem for the dead ; 
And beDa toDed out their mighty peal, 
For the departed aprit'a weal ; 
And efer in the office dioae 

The hyom of interoeaaion roae. Lojf qfike Uti MmHrel. 
The writer haa only in one instance departed from the regnlar plan, to eater acorn- 
moo occaranee. zii Sept Bdfai' q' yocator flodn' Ao. dni' MCCGCCXUL 

* In dei nomine, Amen. Ego Johannea de OggiU die Teneria poal featnm 9. 
ifitt hw ApostoU A. D. 1S78, condo teatamentun menm in hnnc modmn. 

Inqprimna. do k lego animam meam Deo A; B. Maris Yirgini ac omniboa aanctia A? 
corpna meom ad sepelien' in oimiterio eoolen» fratmm minor, de Hertflpole. 

Item, lego pro diatributione paiqperom k oonvooatione Tioinorom die aepattara 
meezzmarc 

Item, lego ordini fratmm minorom de Hertilpole ▼ marc — Dr. EmiUf^s JtfSSL 
t This aflfbrda a striking example of the diflbrence in religioas opinion which fre- 
quently prerails in the nme fiunily. The illnstriooa John Wickliffe, the reformer, 
probably the nnde, but certainly the yoj near relati?e of this Bobert, had directed 
the whole of hii learning and abilitiea towarda ezpoaing the vices and conrnpt habita 
of this particular order. " I shall not die, bnt Utc, and still further declare the 
evil deeds of the friars," said he, to a party of sycophants, who, when he was once 
severely indisposed, forced themselTes into his bed-room and «^«nap<^>J to hear his 
recantation. 
X Thb fimOj of Trollop is snppoaed to have oome from Ltnoohuhire, in whidi 



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HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 187 

desired that his body might be buried with the Friars Minors 
at Hartlepool; he likewise gare f'to tiie Freers of Hertilpoole 
xs. to synge a trentall* for his sonle/^ 

A letter from William^ the guardian of the Friary^ to Sir 

ooontytlMre is stfll a baronet of thfti name. John Trollop, fpreat-grandfaiher of John, 
who desired borial among the friars of Hartlepool, acquured Thomlej by a marriage 
with Margaret Lomley, in 1892, and his descendants continaed in possession of that 
property, nntQ the attainder of John Trollop, for his share in the northern rebdlioB 
in 1569. His life was spared, but the estate was granted away by the crown. The 
giantee, it is said, came down to take possession. Old Trollop and several of his 
kinsfolk, met the Londoner on the verge of the estate, disguised like conntrymen, and 
leoerred him with marks of great respect as their new landlord, oondneted him into 
the house, feasted him, and at length made him dnmk. When the contents of Old 
niomlaw and Great Harry pot* had taken fall effect, and the new landlord was re- 
dooed to a state of insensibility, his obseqoions tenants bonnd him hand and foot^ 
placed him on horseback, and earned him to Hartlepool, where other friends were in 
readiness to reoeive them, and he was immediately carried on board alight skiff. The 
next morning he had fall time to raminate upon the balefrd effieota of Thondey pot, 
nnder the pangs of a severe fit of sea sickness, on his voyage to Flanders, whither he 
was actoaUy transported, and from whence he did not retnm hdon Cttd Trollop had 
in some measare made his peace with the court, and had obtained a lease for life of 
the Thomley estatcf TroDop died in 1611, when his grsndson, Jolm Trollop sac- 
ceeded as heir of entail and established his right against the crown lessees by a trial 
at bar before a jury of Berkshire. This yoanger Trollop had two sons killed in the 
service of Charles I, and II. at Wigan and Oxford. His eUlest son John TroUopt was 
onUswed for killing William Selby, of Newcastle, in a dad at White-haU-dike-nook. 
In 1678, he sold Thomky to John Spearman, Esq. for £1600 ; and dying in 1682» 
at West Herrington, was broof^t to Kelloe, and boried in Tlionley porch, at the 
charge of the ssid John Spearman. Daring the rebellion in 1569, two of the femily 
of Trollop, both eodesiastics, endeavooring to escape from porsoit, were drowned in 
a pool at Sheriram, which st£Q retains the name of Priest-pod. There is a great 
cavern in the rock at Thomky, whidi oommnnicates with the aite of the ch^id, now 
oecvped^by the milk-honse, bom some similar drcamstsnoe called Knight's Hole. 

* 7%ete were two notable pots of great eapaeiiy which had been fte^m€iUfy be- 
foeathed by wiU, and had long descended as heir^looms in the house ^ Thomley. 
-^SttrUe^ Durham, vol \.p. 85, 86. 

t A somewhat similar eireumstance is recorded (Oent. MagazineJ of Sir Nicholas 
Crispe, who was carried off in broad-day light from his house at Quekes, on the 
Isle of Tkanet, and imprisoned /br several years in France, before his relations 
could procure his release. This happened in the time of Cromwell, 

* A service of thirty masses. 

Hie friars followed folke that were rich. 

And folke that were poor at little price they set; 

And no eors in the kirke yard ne kirke was boried. 

But qaick he beqoeath'd tiiem ought, or qoit part of his debt. 

Pier's riowman*s Vision. 



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188 HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 

Sobert Claxton, of HordeD, and his lady, dated July 6, 1479, 
afibr^ a cunoua docomeiit of the apiritual power which he 
possessed, and also gives a Tery lamentable view of the state of 
tdigion at that period.* 

The Friary of Hartilpole was dissolved in the 37th year of the 
reign of Henry YUI. when it was granted to John D'Oyly and 
John Scadainare,t At whidi period the establishment consisted of 



* To fht liberal kmAoBM of Bobeii SmUsn, Bsq. I am indebted for this letter of 
pardon and forgireneasy tnmalated from the origkal Latin, which ia given m the 
tot vol. of hit Hiftorj of the eoonty of Dorfaam, p. 27. 

**lh the venermble SirBoberi Cltueton, km^Ai, and to the Lady J$me, hit eonsoH. 
"Brother William, the guardian and servant of the friars minors, of Hartlepod; 
greeting, and wishing that after the meritorioos acts of this life, they may obtain a 
edestial kingdom. Forasmuch as the most holy &ther in Christ, Sixtos the foartl^ 
by Divine Providence Pope, hath generously gnnted in his apostdic benevolenoe to 
oar brother and sisters, having soffingan letters, that each of them may select for 
thansehes a sikaUe confessor, who may absolve them» and each of them, tern all 
and every crime, excess, and sin, in all cases reserved to the apoitoEcal see, once only 
in this year, to wit from the fbnrth day of the month of Apr£ ; but in other yeaas 
m ottea. as it shall be necessary ; and eqjoin salntary penanoe. And foramndi as h« 
ha& also indolgnily granted hy Ids apostolio letters^ that the same or any othor 
oonfeasor whom they have thon^t proper to choose, may be aUe to grant a plenary 
rennssion of all their sins when at the point of deatii. I, themfore^ considering the 
devotion, which throng reverence of Christ, ye have towards our order, sinotn^ 
and accepting yoor good intentions, receive yon as brother and sister, with the fall 
soffinges of my hrethren throogh the tenonr of these presents, in life as well as in 
death, that youmay frilly eigoy the above-mentioned apoiiolical privilogea andfavomni^ 
and the bene^ of all spiritnal blessings according to the form and effint of the same, 
to ^t salvation of yonr seals. Adding nevertheless, out of especial &voar, that 
after yonr death the eihibition of these present letters may be made in onr ehi^ter, 
thai the same recommendation may be suide for yon whidi is there niuUy made for 
onr deceased hrethren. Farewell in Christ Jeau. Given in onr chapter on the 6th 
day of the month of Jnly, in the year of onr Lord 1479." 
Om the sealis mtenh§d 

"8. OASDIAm nUTBXTM MIH0IU7X DS HXBT." 

On the back is written—" May onr Lord J. H. S. Christ who gave to his disciples 
the power of binding and loosing, himself absolve thee. And by the authority of the 
Apostles Peter and Paul, and by the virtue of this bull and papal indulgence, and 
by the whole power of tiie chnrdi, I absolve thee from all thy sins, confessed and 
nnoonfBSsed, and those which thon wouldest wish to oonfiess if they should occur to 
thy memory. And I grsnt thee a plenary absolution and remission as for as the 
Yffp of the church extend in this part» so that thou mayest be shsolved before the 
tribunal of our Lord Jesus Christ, and mayest have .eternal life, and mayest live 
for ever." 

t V. Ttamer's Not. Mon. 

Li Speed's catalogue of the religioui houses, colleges, &c suppressed by Henry 



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HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 189 

<me keeper and eighteen brethren^ whose earthly poBseanona 
anffieieotly prove tiieir adherence to the roles of the order of 
St. Francis. 

* Hertilpojfle i^raj ftwn^ Keeper. Ckn tiIbw U ye p m eii i oni 

Thenomber ofthep'soDB Bidmrd Thrdkeld. over and abore the anniial repriees. 
with their pensioiiB, iiii£ ▼«. vmd. 

xmi. confr. Hie dere money remayning of ye yerely 

u£ Tiii. possetnons iiiif . Tiiii^. 

Hie stok, ftora, domeatieal stuff with dettsreooT'ed ii£ iii. iiiu/. 

Bewardee with pentons paid unto the [q. ] zli. 

The remayner of the prices of goodet and catda liif.iiiiif. 

Leade and bells. Lead zii foth. BeUes ii. 
Wodde and ondcrwoddea iiJS. 
Plate and jewels xzviiif. wmd. 

There are no visible remains at present to denote either the 
precise site of the Friary^ of its dependent churchy or even of 
its cemetery. The present buildings which is now called the 
Friary or Friarage^ bears certainly no resemblance to a rdigious 
hons^ being most probably^ according to Hutchinson^ ''the 
shell of a mansion bdongmg to the lay proprietors^ built after 
the suppression.^' In the old walls^ however, which surround 
the Friary grounds, many fragments of ancient masonry are 
still visible; and the extensive foundations which protrude above 
the sur&oe between the present mansion and the Friary bam, 
may probably denote the site of the Friary. This place is also 
presumed to have been the previous situation of the monastery.f 

A part of the present desolate mansion is occupied as a pocHr- 
house, which, together with the land enclosed by the Friarage 
walls, are under the guardianship of the corporation, subject 



Vm. the friary at Hartlepool is described as a "Monastery/* fonndedby "HieQ,a 
reHgioiis woman," evidently oonfbonding the " Monastery " with the " Friary," altho' 
sereral centuries interrened between the periods of their respectire existence. 

* Fnnn a MS. in the Cotton, Library Brit. Mnaeun, communicated by Robert 
SorteeSyEsq. 

t Vide p. 10. 



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140 HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 

to a fee fann rent of d62 lOs. 9d.* There is a very ezceUent 
well belonging to the Friary, 48 feet deep and six feet square, 
formed of hewn stone, supposed to have been made there when 
the house was in a flourishing state. The garden, which was 
perhaps the cemetery, produces the best reputed ribston pippins 
in the county of Durham. 

* This rent, together with many others of a similar nature, was sold Dec. 8, 1688, 
by the trostees for the sale of his Migesty's fee farm rents, &c. to Thomas, Earl of 
I}anby, (afterwards Marq. of Ceermarthen and Duke of Leeds.) It is stated in the 
deeds to be payable oat fireeridg, alias freridge, house and lands in the bishopiick of 
Burham, then paid by William Beadshow, and which rentst &c. had been settled on 
her Migesty Q. Catharine Dowager for her life, as her jointure, so that the reversion 
and inheritance thereof was to Test in possession after her decease. This rent was 
recently purchased from the present Duke of Leeds, by Mr. George Meadley, the 
biographer of Algernon Sidney and Dr. Paley. 



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I 

//a//.J or, //e 7/1 



I I (4//,! t>)t t/n 



SME'^ 



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HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 141 



THE WALLS. 

Thb general history of Hartlepool having been traced at con- 
siderable lengthy it will not be necessary to enter into any 
further examination of the conjectures which have been hazarded 
with regard to the Boman origin of Hartlepool ; and although the 
monastery was in existence at a very early period^ yet there is no 
historical evidence to prove that any walls or fortifications were 
formed by the Saxons. The Normans were a warlike race^ who 
would readily perceive the advantageous position of Hartlepool; 
not only strong by nature, but easily improveable by the assist- 
ance of art. The peciQiar situation of the county likewise, 
placed under the immediate dominion of the bishops, whose 
authority was only surpassed by the regal prerogative, would 
naturally incline them to render secure and defensible the 
'' maritime key of the palatinate.'^ In consequence, however, 
of the frequent disputes between the bishops and the sovereigns 
of England, Hartlepool was occasionally severed from the juris- 
diction of the see, and placed under the authority of the crown, 
so that the tenure of the immediate lord of the manor of Hart 
(including Hartlepool) varied according to the existing circum- 
stances of the bishopric. The earliest account of the walls of 
Hartlepool is taken from a MS.* quoted by Mr. Ritson, (whose 
integrity in quotation has never been disputed) which states 
that '' Robert de Brus,''t (the lord of the manor of Hart, &c.) 
'' grandson of William, builded the haven and wall about the 
towne of Hertlepole^ with ten towers on eche syde of the haven, 
and a chayne to be drawne between them near the haven, which 
haven would hold a C sayle.'' If this record may be considered 
authentic, the period for the erection of the walls would be limited 
between the years 1245. and 1295 ; and as they bear a striking re- 
semblance to the walls of Newcastle upon Tyne, which are 

* Bib. Cotton. JqUob 2. ii. British Miueun. 
t Vide p. 27. 



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142 HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL- 

attributed to the reign (tf Edward 1.* this account assumes a 
considerable degree of probability. 

As the pier was not built before the year 1478^t the haven 
would offer the only security for shipping; and it is natural to 
conclude that this haveuj or inner harbour^ was in existence 
when Bishop Fudsey's auxiliaries arrived from Flanders, in 
11744 and was even at this period capable of defence, and 
affording safety; as many years previous to this, ships are 
mentioned belonging to Hartlepool.§ The walls and fortifica- 
tions of Hartlepool soon be<»me objects of national importance, 
and were frequently supported and repaired by grants of murage 
from the crown. || During the successive wars, which were 
carried on by the three ambitious Edwards, against the inde- 
pendence of Scotland, the situation of Hartlepool would 
naturally encrease its importance; and frequent records are 
extant stating the transport of provisions, &c from this porl^ 
to various garrison towns in Scotland which were in possession 
of the English. 

In the early part of the reign of Edward II. William le 
Betour^ was appointed to take the command of all ships in the 

* Hiftory of Durham, ▼. S. p. 20. 

t Vide ch^tcr on '"ae Pier." 

X Vide p. 22. 

f Wbitbyt Hartlepool, and some oUier towns on the east coast, possessed Tessels 
and other pn^crtj U which ihej were robbed by Estejn* king of Norway, abont the 
year 1168. — Snorro Hist, Magni Blindage. 20. — Macpherton'tJnnaltrf Commerce, 

\ Anno 9. Begis Edward U. Mnragiom pro villa de Hertilpole. 

18. Edward XL Morag. pro migore de Hartflpol. 

19. Edward XL Morag. pro villa de Hertilpol. 
4. Edward m. do. 

18. Edward m. do. 

88. Edward IIL Mar. pro hominibos de HertilpoL 

Calendarium Botulorum Fatentium. 
Amongst a variety of licenses in the Botoli Scotia, lately published by an order of 
Parliament, is a permission from Edward IIL in his ISth year, to Manser Marmyon, 
parson of the chnrch of Hoghton, to place in ships, in the ports of Hartilpol and 
Yarm, 40 quarters of any kind of grain, and to carry it to Uie town of St. John of 
Perth, &c. 

% De constitutione capitanei marinariomm et naviom Begis de Hertdpole et 
alioram portuum. 
B dilco sibi Willo le Betour, saltm. Quia p expedic'oe guerre n're Scoc' aoiilio tarn 



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HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 148 

king's aenrioe, which bdonged to the ports between Hartlq)ool 
and Aberdeen, at diat time employed in removing the garrison 
from the latter place. The king's diips at this early period, 
howe?er, consisted only of the pinnaces or barges employed for 
the nse of the king and his attendants, though all the sea-ports 
of the kingdom were obliged to supply their quota (tf shippings 
whenever tluy were demanded by the exigencies of the state; 
wbkk sometimes required every ship above a certain rate of 



Not to dweD too long on the sdbject, it may be necessary 
to state that the bishops of Durham, when they enjoyed the 
peaeeaUe possession of the palatinate, frequently granted char- 
ters of murage for the repairs of the walls, fee. As their pro- 
visions are very similar, the two following have been selected 
from a great number preserved in the dose rolls, deposited in 
the cursitor's office.* The first on record is from Bishop Bury,t 

mnrinBrior qm aBor, plarimQ' indigemiis, nos de dOigencia k fidditate T^ra spalite' 
ooDfideatea ; conBtitaim' vos capitEunen' n'rm marinarior' navin' de Hertelpol, de Novo 
Oattro sop' l^fnam, de Berewioo sup Twedam ao alior locor inf Hertelpol & Aberden, 
in siibo£u' obadionis castri nostri de Aberdene amovende, et ad alia que expedioo'em 
nr^am conf Sootoe immicos & rebdles n'ros in ptiba illia atingiif Tiriliter fiteiend', pat 
dil'diB & fidelis n'r (HIb's Fetdie &. . .Cam'rar n'r Scoc' vob ex p'te n'ra pleni' injnnget. 
Et ideo* Tob mandam', q'd ad boo, omibz aliia prelennissis, modis oibz intendatis : 
Mandavim' ante <nbz k aingolis mag'ris nariu & marinar' p'dcia, q'd ad p'flciBcend 
▼obiflca* una ca' nsvibz sois, boibz & annis oompetentibzi bene mnnitis, ad pr^miaea 
potenter k viiOiter fiidend p*nt k qnociena ip'oa marinar* pr'mnniend dnx*ritiB ex p'te 
n'ra vob p'eant & intendant. Li ec^ &c. T. R. apnd Wyndea' x. die Jul. — Sot, 
Scotia, 1. S. 8.— Jtf. H. m. 14. in Turr. Lond, 

The Tate of equipment in the ragn of Edward 11. waa for a ship of 840 tona, 60 
men; SOO tona, 50 men; 160 or 170 tona, 40 men; 140 tona, 85 men; 120 tons, 
88 men, and 60 tona, 81 men — each diip of 180 tona and npwarda to Have 1 maater 
and 8 eonataUea, and of 160 tona and onderi 1 master and 1 conatable to be indnded 
in the nomber stated above. — Jrckaioffia, v. 6. p. 196. If the same rate oontinned 
in the anoceeding reign, the five yesaela manned with 145 men, sent to the aeige of 
Calaia, from Hurtlepool wonld be between 170 and 200 tona burtiien. Perhapa the 
loweat rate of tonnage, on record, required for the king's aervice, waa 16 tona, — ^in 
the 14th Edward IV.— J^^f/^ JFferf. id,p, 889. 

* To the depotj coraitor, Henry Donkin, Esq. I beg to expreaa my grateM tiianka 
fbr hia peraonal kindnesa and aaaiatance, in promoting the objecta of mj research in 
hia department. 

t Biahop Bury in hia 12tb year placed all the ahipping of the palatinate, aa well 
in Hartlepool, aa other ports, in requisition for the passage of troopa into Scotland. 

»(rtee^ Durkam. 



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144 HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 

in the year 1339^ ''for enclosing the town of Hartlepool^ and 
for the greater security and fortification of the said town and 
parts adjacent/^ giving power to the bailiffs for the space of two 
years^ to levy certain customs from articles exposed for sale in 
their market ; thb grants however^ in consequence of the ex- 
pensive nature of the undertakings which credible witnesses had 
proved could not be completed within the time spedfied, was 
afterwards extended for three years longer.* Amongst a variety 
of other similar grants by the successors of Bishop Bury, which 
present little novelty in the detail, is one £rom Bishop Fordham^ 

• Mnrag. ooncess. villc de Hertalpole. 
Bic' &c. BaUi's ville de HertUpole sal. Sdat' qd licet dadn' Tob. in auxiHa' TiUe 
p*dicte daudend' ad m^ore* iecuritate' & mnnioo'em cgnadem viUe ae pon' a^jaoen' 
q'nta' in nob* est sab c'ta forma oonoeanm* p. nr'as Ir'as patentes q'd a vioesimo sc'do 
die mens' September anno dni mill'imo CGCXXXIX nsq' ad fine' duor* annor^ oon- 
tinne aubseqaendn' c^'et's de reb's ad eande* yilla' yenientib's conraetndines infri 
Bcriptas, Tid. de qlt snmagio bladi horse load of com, yen. 1 ob. de qlt eqno & eqna 
boTe & vacca yen 1 ob. de qlt corio eqni, eqne, bovis & vacoe frisco et salito ant 
tannato,/0r every hide of horse, mare, ox, and eowt fresh sailed or tanned, yen. 1 q. 
de qlt oarecta ferente carnes salitaa yel friscaa for every cart load of salted or fresh 
meat yen. 1 d. de V. bacon' /or 5 fai hogs yen. 1 ob. de qlt salmonefiriaco yd aalito 
for every salwum, fresh or salted yen. Id. de V luape*, for five lampreys, yen. Id. de 
X ydleribns/or ten fleeces yen. 1 ob. de centena oyin' pdlin' lanicar'ybr every kun» 
dred sheep skins yen. Id. de qlt centena peUin' agnor' & capriol' lepor' cnnidor' ynlpin' 
eator* & sqairdlor'/or every hundred skins of lambs, kids, hares, rabbets, foxes, 
eats and squirrels yen. 1 ob. de qlt panno integro/or every whole piece of cloth yen. 
1 ob. de qlt centena linee tde et canyas, pannor biber', galeward & wonted/or every 
kmubred (each containing 100 ells, and every hundred ells six score) of linen web, 

and canvas, Irish cloth and worsted yen. Id. de dnobs* milib's t'bar/or two 

thousand (pieces of) turf yen. 1 q. de qlt panno de aerico dye eadiief de Sandal 
affonaf for every silken cloth, or chef of eipress imported fa chef containing 10 
ettsj 1 q. de qlt doUo yini et dner' for every tun of wine or (pot) ashes 1 q. de qlt 
flnmag' c*iixa^ for every horse load of (^) ashes 1 ob. de qlt ddlio mdUs/or every ton 
qf honey yen. 2d. de qlt snmag. mdlis for every horse load of honey yen. Id. de qlt 
•aooo lane for every sack of wool, f26 sitone) yen. 2d. de qlt trnsaello pannor' yen' 
doct' p' carectam/or every truss of cloth brought in a cart. Id. de qlt somag. panni 
et aliar. diyenar. rer. minntar. yenient' ad eande' yiUun/or every horse load qf cloth, 
or other various minute articles brought for sale to the said town 1 ob. de qlt nayi 
cariante fen' et arnndine et tiarfor every ship laden with hay, reeds, and fodder yen. 

Id. de qlt leni ferri iron yen. Id. de qlt centena redn' for every hundred nets 

yen. Id. de qlt nayi' cariante gran yen. 2d. de ayerio de pondere de 

centn yen. Id. de qlt peyaa sepi ft nnoti for every weigh Cl4t stones) of fat and 

tallow yen. ob. de qlt qoart, wadd for every quarter qf dyei^s weed yen. 2d. de qlt 
centena de alnm, cop'oee, argoyl ft y* tegreoe every hundred (108 lbs) qf alum, cop- 
peras, argol, and verdigris ten. 1 ob. de ii milUar' c^ar for every two thousand 



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HISTORY OP HARTLEPOOL. 146 

A. Jy. 1888^ (given in the notes) to the bnrgeMes and honest 
men of Hartlepool, in aid of enclosing the town with walls, and 
making and repairing the pavement within the same^ also for 
the greater security and defence of the inhabitants and goods of 
the same town and parts adjacent, whereby he permits them to 
take certain customs as well from articles remaining ftt sak^ 
as from articles brought for sale, for the period o£ fiye years.* 

cmoMi Ten 1 q. de octo ihavis aUei ei^hi sheaves cfgarUc Ten. 1 q. de qlt milliar 
aOec for every thousand (each hundred eontatmu^ six score) of herrings Ten. 1 q. 
de qlt oentena hmdm for every hundred boards, yen. 1 ob. de qlt mdUfor every 
(hand) mill yen. 1 q. de qlt milliar' fiigator' for every thousand fagyois yen. Id. da 
qlt quart' salis/br every quarter of salt, (eighteen bushels) yen. Id. de qlt peji casei 
& Initir for every weigh of cheese and biUter, yen. 1. ob de qlt nayi oariante biuca» 
m'emia', blad, pefaram, c^' ytl carbon' for every ship laden with brush wood, 
building timber, com, stone, lime or coal yen. Id. de qlt oentena c'nis yen. dnot ad 
p'tea trs'mar' for every hundred of flesh carried to parts beyond the seas yen. Id. 
de qlt carecf ferente Uad' yel mer^o' mnm for every cart load of wheat, or merehan" 

dise, Id. de qlt toldo and hairo q de qlt fraieDo ficim' & raoem' for 

every fraiU offige and muMwyen. Id. de qlt carcaa hoifi* for every ox carcase yen. 1 
ob. de X carooa oyin' ft poro(»r' for 10 carcases of sheep or hogs yen. 1 ob. de qlt. 
dolio olei/or every tun of oil yen. 8d. de qlt milliar dkVQX^for every thousand naili 
▼en. 1 ob. de qlt oentena ferri ad eqnoi & dntor' ad carecf for every hundred of 
iron, (five score) for (shoeing) horses, and for cart strokes yen. 1 q. de qlt quart 

fnni yen. 1 q. de qlt oentena ftanni, ens, ei^' and for every hundred of tin, 

brass, and copper, yen. Id. de qlt oentena gadd' tatm perhaps gaddys asteriatis, rO" 
well goads for oxen, (still used in Italy) yen. 1 ob. de de qlt oentena de Aberdeenybr 
every hundred (H score) qfhaberdine dried salt cod, yen. 1 ob. de qlt oentena milncdl 
ft dogdraye (some kinds of dried fish from the North seas) yen. 1. ob. de qlt oentena 
etok'fish yen. 1 ob. de decern petr* canalin'/or ten stone of candles yen. 1 q. de doob* 
barell pio' ft tar, for two barrels of pitch and tar, yen. 1 q. Nos tamen attendent* 
op' tam grande tunq' sn'ptnoeam de d'ds' confoetodinibna ft p'oeptia non potniMO 
confommari neo adbno coninmmata' exiftit, pot' ex fide dignor' teetiom nob existit 
intimatn' ip'ina op'it conram'a'ooeni in'mo ope' aAsctantea ao yokntea yob' nbioran 
gra' &'ce in bac p'te oonoedima' yob qn'tnm in nob eat qd a p'eenti die tranalaooia 
S'd Cothb'ti y. iiii die mena Angntti Anno Bni IGU'mo (XX) ft qoadng* prime niq' 
ad finem trin' annor' oontinne tabseqaent' c^iaf de xebtit yenalib't ad eandem yillam 
yenientib't oomnetndines anbaoriptas lalyo nobia jnre n'ro ft prior' Dnnofan. in cigoa 
fte. dat in Castro n'ro Dnnehn die ft anno d'ni px* ft pdicto' ft oona' nre' ootayo. 

* For eyevy horse load of com and malt of eyeiysortk id. For eyerj ton of wine^ 
8d. For eyery horse and maze, ox and cow. Id. Foreferjhideof hone,maie^ ox, 
and cow, fireah salted or tanned, H For eyevy last of ox and cow hides, 12d. For 
erery lat hog, id. For ten sheep and goata, Id. For fire hogs, Id. Foreferyhna- 
dred goat skins, 4dl For efcry hnndied hare skins^ fte. and sqiurrel skins^ Id. For 
erery hundred [ells] of hair work, periu^ made from the hair of the giis, giaj, or 
badger. Id. For efcry quarter of salt, id. For eyery horse load of doth. Id. For 
eyerywholepieoeof doUioftheyalneof 40s. id. For eyerj truss of doth brought 



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146 HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 

In addition to the constant attention which the biahopa paid 
to the preaenration of the walla^ the corporation records in more 
modem times, abound with charges towards their repairs, which 
it would be alike tedious and uninteresting to enumerate. It 
only remains therefore to examine the state of the walls at 
present, and to contrast the account published by Hutchinson, 
in the year 1785, with their actual condition. 

There are few places, (says Hutchinson, vol 3. p. 25) in this 
kingdom give the traveller so perfect an idea of the fortifications of 
former times as Hartlepool : a long extended wall strengthened by 
demi-bastions at intervals, some rounded, others square ; various 
gates and sallyports, secured by machicolations* and the portcullis ; 
some of the gates defended by angular, others square turrets ; all the 
variety appearing, which had grown into use in that age. 

For a considerable space from the sea the wall is much broken, and 
at the distance of about twenty paces are the remains of a square 
bastion ; from thence about forty paces is a round bastion, projecting 
from the wall about two-thirds of a circle, in girt nearly thirty feet : 

%y a cart, Sd. For erery hnndred [eUs, each hnndred oontaimiig 8 leore] of wonted 
doth, 2d. Por every piece of doth called a coverled [convre-lit. French] id. Eoc 
erery hundred dh, [each hnndred containing 8 score] of linen weh and canvas, 2d. 
For every horse load of salmon, 2d. For every thousand herrings, Id. For every 
horse load of ashes [q. pot-ash] Id. For every horse load of wadd [dyer's weed] 2d. 
For two thousand [heads of] garlick or onions, id. For every dosen [skins] of oor- 
dovan leather, and dressed leather, a penny. For every pair of miH stones or wheels, 
id. For every horse load of lead and iron, or tin. Id. For every cart load of 
[building] timber. Id. For every oart load of hmsh-wood or heath, id For every 
cartload of doth,... id. For ever horse load of laths and boards, id. For every 
stone of &t, tallow, butter, and dieese, i. For eveiy hundred (lOSlha.) of wax, 2d. 
For every hundred of pepper, 2d. For every hundred of almonds. Id. For evoy 
hundred of eummin seed, id. Fdr every hundred todde and madder, [perhaps woad 
and madder] id. For erery thousand ettrdemm, teades (dipBrncm taHimt) id. For 
fvery hone load of batety, [q. wMM$f] For every cart load of hatery [q.] spices and 
wares, 4d. For every oari load of fine linen, 2d. Torewetj hone load of fruits, id. 
For every horse load of whatsoever Idad of wares, exoeeding the value of ten shiQiogs^ 
Id. For evcsy truss of any sort of wares, ooning to the said town, and not eioeed* 
ing the vdue of ten shillings, id. For evwy merdiandise not eq^eoially named, of 
the value of S shilliBgs and mere, hrought into the said town, id. 9fc &o.-<^. Ap- 
pendis, p ii. mtd Hutckimsm's SUiary cfDmrJkam, «. S. ji. 2S. 

* MaohieoktioBS over gstes were smaU projeetions supported by bradiets, having 
open bterrals at tht botknn, threugh which mdtod lead and stonss wen thrown 
4owB en tiie heads of the assaOanta; and lOwwise krge weights fiMteied to ropes or 
diains, by whidi, after they had tahen effsci, th^ were retracted hf the hesdged.* 
6r^i JMifm$i09,p, 11. prefa€0. 



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HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 147 

in the front of this bastion, at the distance of abont five yards, is a 
high ridge of earth, probably cast up by assailants : from the round 
bastion, at about forty paces, is a square bastion about ten feet in 
front, and projecting about seven from the line of the wall. From 
thence at about 46 paces, is a round bastion, somewhat larger than 
that before described, making a projection of about ten feet, not so 
prominent as the other ; in all the part described the wall forms a 
straight line, and the ground gradually inclines and falls from the edge 
of the clifs where the wall begins. At the distance of about thirty 
paces the wall forms an obtuse angle, guarded with a turret or bastion ; 
from whence is a kind of horn-work projecting into the field for a con- 
siderable distance, of an angular figure, having two terraces one 
above another, with the remains of the glacis ; the mason work ap- 
pears through the broken turf. From thence is a very extensive 
prospect of the sea and coast towards Sunderland, commanding Haw- 
thorn Hive, or the beacon point, Easington, Elwick beacon, and a 
long tract of country. At about thirteen paces from the angle, there 
is the appearance of a sallyport, but the wall has been repaired and 
altered in modem times, so that it is not possible to ascertain more 
concerning it. At the distance of about sixty paces is a round bastion ; 
at about sixty paces further the great land gate, being the chief en- 
trance to the town from Durham, opening upon a road forced over a 
level marsh, easily broken up or flooded in a siege. 

So little now remains of this part of the wall^ that it is im- 
possible to add any elucidation to the preceding account; yet 
the situation of the fourth bastion^ with its advanced works^ 
strongly tend to confirm the supposition that the grand entrance 
to Hartlepool was between two bastions near this point ; indeed^ 
the road seems formed from the town to this precise situation^ 
and the most trancient glance at the map will shew the proba- 
bility of this conjecture. It is possible^ also^ from the appear- 
ance of the ground, that this entrance was defended by a 
barbican,* from whence the outer guard could command a perfect 

* Before the great gate in fortified towns was an out-work called a barbican or an- 
te-mnral, wbieh was a strong and high wall, with turrets upon it, designed for the de« 
fenee of the gate and drawbridge. — MUner^s ArekUeci, — Qrot^t 3fil. Jniiquiii^t, ^e. 

By the statute of Winchester, 18th Ed. I. it is ordered, that all walled towns, from 
the Feast of Ascension nnto Michadmas, as in times past, shall keep their gates shut 
from smi-setting to son-ziBing ; and at every gate they must set watchmen ; if a city, 
by six men at erery gate; in every borough, by twelve men ; in every town, by 6 or 
4, according to the number of the Inhabitants. 



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148 HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 

Tiew of the approach to HartlepooL The dbtance from the N. E. 
cliff to the first round bastion is 198 feet; from this bastion to 
the fourth^ (as the other two have entirely disappeared) it is 668 
feet, and from this latter bastion to the North (rate, 166 feet. 
The fosse and breast works which have been formed along the 
line of this wall, have been apparently for temporary defence, 
and were most probably the ''new works'' which were ordered 
to be ''disregarded'' in 1647,* as well as a mound of earth near 
St. Helen's Well, which seems admirably adapted for the 
situation of a battery, possessing a complete command of the 
land entrance. 

This gate seems to have been strengthened with a wet ditch, and 
probably a drawbridge. The whole wall, towers, and gate-ways, are 
of excellent masonry, built of limestone which is won in the sea- 
banks, of 80 soft a nature in the bed, or quarry, that it may be 
squared with an adze ; but when exposed to the air, becomes remark- 
ably hard and durable. The arch of this gate-way is ribbed, and 
besides double gates, had its portcullis ; the width of the passage is 
10 feet, (11 feet 3 inches) and of the whole gate-way tower, about 
thirty feet (34 feet.) The projection is not above a foot (16 inches) 
from the face of the wall : it appears to have had a strong tower for its 
superstructure, entered at each side from the parapet of the wall. 



Vide p. 60. 



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^ 



>?^ o 

« B 
Q 






>w 



5^ 



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HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 149 

To illastrate this account of the North 6ate^ a view is added 
representing it after having removed the earth which had 
accnmulated by the successive repairs of the roads^ and which had 
at last rendered it too low for carriages : so that within these 
late years it became necessary to form a road on the west side of 
the gate, by breaking down a part of the old wall. The whole 
height from the level of the termination of the grooves of the 
parteullis^ to the highest point of the arch^ is 13 feet 8 inches. 

The approach to the town from this gate, was by the side of the 
haven, which must have made a fine appearance, as the bason, if we 
may judge from the present slake or morass, consisted of several acres, 
where a hundred sail might lie moored. From this gate-way, the wall 
which secured the haven begins, and runs in a direct line, the water at 
high-tide coming up to the gate. It is somewhat more than eight feet 
thick, faced on each side with dressed stones, with a parapet guarded 
by a breast wall and embrasure, now greatly decayed. There is a 
water gate in this waU, formed by a low pointed arch, about twenty- 
four feet in span, (29 feet 3 inches) and ten feet high, for small craft 
to pass in and out of the haven without removing the boom chains, 
afterwards noted. This gateway projects from the face of the wall 
about eighteen inches, (2 feet) has had flood gates, and also a watch 
tower, as we apprehend, from the remains of the superstructure. 



From thence at the distance of about 17 paces, is a square bastion, 
about eight feet in front (7 feet 4 inches, projecting 5 feet 3 inches) ; * 



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150 HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 

and nearly one hundred paces distant (324 feet) is another square bas- 
tion, (12 feet 3 inches in front, projecting 7 feet 7 inches) and from 
thence about seventy paces (193 feet 6 inches) is a lofty round tower, 
remaining very perfect, save the parapet and embrasures ; opposite to 
it, at the distance of thirty-six feet, stood another tower, exactly simi- 
lar in dimensions, as the facia and foundations plainly shew. This 
was the grand entrance into the haven, and by the space between the 
towers, one may judge of the size of those vessels which were moored 
therein. This entrance was guarded by large boom chains stretched 
from tower to tower, the remains of the loops belonging to such chains 
being still visible in the walls of the tower. 

The inner harbour contains a surface of nearly 12 acres. 
This was the harbour where the royal navy of England lay 
moored in safety^ and where the bishops of Durham stationed 
their fleets, ready on the slightest emergency to assist the kingj 
or to defend their territory from foreign invasion. From the 
labour and skill which have been bestowed on the formation of 
this harbour, an idea may be entertained of its importance. The 
grand entrance was between two towers, the most perfect of 
which was a few years since 82 feet high. A chain was thrown 
across the entrance to prevent the intrusion of hostile fleets, and 
for the greater conveniency of the vessels which lay moored in 
the harbour, a water gate was formed for the entrance or de- 
parture of small craft, when it might be inconvenient or unsafe 
to remove the chains. At various parts of the margin of the 
harbour the remains of quays have been traced, and stones have 
been found with iron rings, evidently for the purpose of moor- 
ing vessels; so that in all probability the quays were extended 
entirely round the land side of the harbour. In a field adjoin- 
ing the harbour,* slips or docks have been discovered fturmed of 
hewn stone; intended without doubt for the purpose of build- 
ing or repairing ships. 

This harbour, therefore, must have been complete in its 
formation, and perfectly adapted for the purposes of its con- 
struction. The depth of water, within the last ten years, 
varied from six to ten feet at high water, a sufficient depth 

* Marked A on the plan. 



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HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 151 

even for the largest of the king's ships for many centnries after 
the conqoeet. 

A grant of this harbour was unfortunately made to an indi- 
Tidoal in the year 1808, who immediately enclosed it for the 
purposes of agriculture. The beautiful tower at the entrance 
of the harbour, '' which long had stood the crush of thunder 
and the warring winds/' was destroyed: the entrance to the 
harbour was blocked up,* and every vestige of antiquity, which 
could be converted to profit, was seized with merciless and 
unrelenting gripe. 

The Bishop of Durham, with that considerate attention to the 
once famed emporium of the See, and that love of justice which 
has so eminently distinguished his episcopacy, endeavoured to 
save the scanty remains of the ''wreck of ages'' from the grasp 
of modem and interested innovation. The work of destruction, 
however, was too rapid, and the worthy prelate could only la- 
ment that his well-intentioned e£forts were unavailing. 

The corporation was, at this time, in a state of neglect and 
bankruptcy, and it was to be feared, that the ancient harbour of 
Hartlepool would be for ever lost to the public. 

The injury to the fishermen would have been most seriously 
felt, as it was the only place where they could lay vp their cobles 
in the winter. From the opinion of two celebrated engineers, 
it would likewise have been extremely injurious to the harbour, 
as the noeep of the bach water it contained, was of the highest 
importance in icauring the port. 

An aldermanf of the corporation, however, (who had already 
saved the North Ghte from destruction) indicted the inclosure of 
the harbour as a nuisance : the cause was tried at the assises at 
Durham, in 1813, when the verdict of the jury immediately re- 

* Th0 tipfttnnob of the inner bai^oor, under ooltiure, fordbl j recalled the Knet 
of ])iajt<A:*- 

••Hioa •aw'st gnat bvrden'd ships 

""Where now tlie sharp-edged slthe shears 1^ the springing grui^ 

" And where the seal and porpoise ns'd to play, 

^ The grasshopper and ant now lord it all the day/* 
t "Wmiaiii VoDqid, Esq. 



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162 HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 

stored the harbonr to its original destination. A few of the ribs 
of the Water-gate still remain, but the square buttresses and 
the towers have nearly disq)peared for ever ; with the exception 
of a portion of the 'Mofty round tower/' which has been rebuilt 
on its ancient foundation, above high water mark, and may be a 
means of preserving the entrance of the harbour. 

Having dwelt so long on this painful subject, it becomes neces- 
sary 



At ten paces distance are the foundations of a round bastion, near 
which is a modem gate, where it is presumed formerly was a smsll 
door way, for the convenience of persons landing from boats. At 
twenty-four paces distance the waU forms an angle, and turns towards 
the sea : this angle is defended by a half moon. The entrance into 
the haven had the peculiar security, that vessels coming from the sea 



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d 
25 



ta 






S w»p „ 




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HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 153 

must necessarily double the cape or point ol the isthmus, and then 
proceed along the whole range and stretch of the south wall, within 
reach of the engines and instruments of war, and pass the half moon 
which guarded the angle of the wall. 

Of this portion of the walls little change has taken place^ 
except that the modern gate has disappeared^ and in its place 
the wall has been broken^ to form a landing for the ferry boats^ 
17 feet wide. 



At the distance of sixty paces from the angle, (166 feet) is a square 
bastion, (8 feet 7 inches in front, and projecting at one end 9 feet 6 
inches, and at the other 4 feet 4 inches) ; from the square bastion, 
about 120 paces, (309 feet) is a large square projection in the wall, 
most probably modern, about 20 yards long, (49 feet in front project- 
ing six feet six inches, and eight feet three inches) with a sallyport ; 
and from thence one hundred and twenty paces (355 feet) is a round 
bastion (13 feet in diameter), and next stands the gate-way, now called 



X 



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164 HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 

the Water Gate (distant 2S7 feet) which only communicates with the 
land at low water, and leads to the High (or South Grate) Street. The 
arch of this gate-way is pointed, ahout eight feet in width, and defended 
on each hand hy angular turrets, with the points projecting ; a figure 
not very commonly met with in old fortifications. From this gate the 
wall advances to and huts upon the rock (147 feet from the gate- 
way). The whole of this south part appears much more modem than 
the north and west sides. 

The south wallj which has been described with sufficient ac- 
curacy, varies from six to nine feet in thickness, and is about 
eighteen feet in height. It forms the only defence for this part 
of the town against the inroads of the sea. 

Having now traced the outline of the remains of the walls, it 
may be necessary t» say a few words on the defensible position 
of Hartlepool, which, however, can only be applied to its condi- 
tion before the invention of cannon ; as in the improved state of 
modem warfare, Hartlepool could be commanded from the Sand 
Hills near the entrance of the isthmus. It is defended by nature 
towards the sea by the cliffs, which rise from thirty-three to forty 
feet in height, and are nearly perpendicular; the broken rocks 
which extend from the upright cliffs into the sea, forbidding the 
near approach of hostile fleets. Towards the harbour on the S. 
extends a strong waU, already described, and on the north or 
land side, the narrow isthmus is defended by a continuation of 
the wall, which in its perfect state must have been amply sufficient 
to 'Maugh a seige to scorn.'' It appears, however, that Hartle- 
pool was surprised and pillaged by the Scots, in the 14th 
century,* and that it fell into the possession of the Rebels in 
1659. During the civil wars, it was placed in a defensible state^ 
the remains of which are still visible on the moor, and in the 
Far-well Field; but which consisted apparently of little more 
than ditches, and entrenchments, supported perhaps with can- 
non at various points, particularly at the mound near St. Helen's 

* Vide p. 88 and 84. Id 1816, the Scots invaded England, ihey poietraied 

to the coast and fired Hartlepool, where the inhabitants saved their Uvea by embark- 
ing on board the shipping lying in the barbonr. — Surteet^ Jhtrham. 



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HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 156 

WeU, and at the eastern extremity of the breast works on the 
moor. 

A modem work* states that the ''walls^ fortifications^ &c. 
have undei^ne a complete repair^ and the harbour placed in a 
secure^ or defensible condition.'^ It is likewise added, that 
'' a wide short canal falls into Hartlepool harbour/^ The fact 
is, that the ezpence of supporting the walls is borne by the cor- 
poration, and in the present state of their finances, they are 
well satisfied to repair the breaches, and keep the walls from 
falling to the ground. It is almost unnecessary to add, that 
the '' canal '^ is entirely unknown. The fortifications on the 
land side of Hartlepool are at present entirely neglected ; the 
approach to the harbour is defended by the south battery mount- 
ing two guns (24-pounders) and a battery is placed at the 
eastern angle of the moor, mounting seven guns ot the same 
caUbre. 

^ B««' Cjdopedia. 



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156 HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 



THE PIER. 

The earliest record relative to the pier of Hartlepool, bears the 
date of 1473 ; in which year, Bishop Booth, by his letters ad- 
dressed to all abbots, priorSj archdeacons, and their officials, 
deans, commissaries, rectors, vicars, parish priests, and other 
ecclesiastics ; to all sheriffs, mayors, bailiffs, constables, minis- 
ters, and other faithful subjects of the king and the see, informs 
them that the mayor, burgesses, and commonalty of Hartlepool, 
by the assistance of Qod, and their charitable gifts, for the 
benefit and relief of all mariners in distress upon the sea, pur- 
pose and intend to make, construct, and erect a certain pier 
near the walls on the south part of the town, for the safeguard 
of all ships and vessels arriving at the port, and which pier, 
when it shall be constructed and erected, will make a deep and 
convenient port to receive all ships of every port town within 
the realm of England ; and that all ships, vesseU, and mariners 
sailing upon the seas, when strong tempests shall arise, may be 
protected in the port, and fix their anchors and then moor, and 
remain ; in which port many ships and vessels have been broken 
to pieces, and brought to great danger by the tempests, and 
mariners with their goods have been aforetime lost. He there- 
fore entreats th6m to contribute to a work of such importance 
by their charitable donations. Sec.* 

* Vide Appendix. This charter has been attribnted by Hntehinson, vol. 8, p. 82. 
to Bbhop Neville. Similar letters were occasionally granted by some of the succeed- 
ing bishops. 

1588. 17 Feb. la. vice lecta est bills, an act for the pier of Hartlepoole qnsB 
conmiissa est. 20 Feb. Hodie la. et 2a. vice lecta est billa, an act for the pier of 
Hartellpoole, qnas commissa est ad ingrossandnm. 22 Feb. Hodie 8a. vice lecta est 
billa, an act for repairing of the pier of Hartlepoole, qnse commnni omninm prooeram 
assensu condnsa est. — JoumaU of the House of Lordt. 

1590. John Lawson, of Thorpe Bnlmer, Esq. left 408. to the repaire of Hartle- 
poole peere, to be paid to Mr. Parceval Bell, for that nse.— Ze^. Test. No. 75. p. 186. 

In 1610. Sir William Dcthicke (Garter King at Arms) gave to gravell the peare 
withall 6s.— J/fyo/-'* Accounlt. 



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HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 167 

In the jear 1688j an act was read a third time in the Honse 
of Peers^ for repairing the pier of Hartlepool, bnt theprovinons 
of this act are unknownj and the benefits derived from it most 
have been transitory ; for in the year 1699, eleven years after- 
wards, a statute of the corporation expresses ''that whatsoever 
inhabytante of this town fyndethe nott a sufiycyent able man in 
his or theire watche, or to ^epeare, when and as often as they 
shall be commanded thereunto by the constables, or peare mas- 
ters, shall pay for every time soe doeinge xiid. ;** and no allosion 
whatever is to be found in the records with regard to the pre- 
ceding act of parliament. 

Whenever the pier wanted repairs, the mayor issued his orders 
to the inhabitants, who brought what loose stones they could 
find; but as no regular system was preserved, these temporary 
reparations were obviously perishable and unavailing. 

In the year 1666;* an attempt was made to procure parlia- 
mentary aid, but without success. In 1719, a small duty was 
imposed on grain exported, towards repairing the pier* In 1728 
and 1724, it is represented as being ''very much in decay, and 
out of repair, and several sums, particularly fifty guineas given 
by Lord Dungannon, (Yiscount Vane) were ordered to be ex- 
pended thereon/' 

The benefactions of Lord Viscount Vane, and of several of the 
mayor8,t about this period, contributed to support the pier : 
when these ceased to operate, it again fell into decay. 

* On Feb. 9, 17 Car. II. a petition of the major, chief bnrgesses, and the rest of 
the inhabitants of Hartlepool, was read and debated (in the House of Commons) and 
leave was given for bringing in a bill for repairing and maintaining of Hartlepool 
pier» and that Sir Oilbert Genrard have leave to bring in the bill to-morrow morning 
to be then read. 

Feb. 15, a bill for repairing Hartlepool pier was read a second time. The question 

being put that the bill be committed, the yeas went ont. 

-m^^nn f 26 Yeas. 
Division... I 23 ^^ 

The bill was consequently loeL^WoHmals of the Hou$e of Cowmont. 

t " Lord Vane, by his generous subscription first began to repair this pier, in the 
year 1721, (v. p. 94.J John Hedworth, Esq. mayor of this corporation, repaired 
twenty-eij^t yards of this pier, (v. p. 89 ,J Anno nst9, Henry Lambton, Esq. 



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158 HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 

In the year 1804^ the roinoos condition of the pier threatened 
the town with destruction^ and the corporation endeavonred to 
obtain parliamentary relief^ bat without success. 

In 1810^ a petition of the inhabitants to the mayor and 
aldermen states^ that the late storms had carried away about 
thirty feet from the extremity of the pier.* 

A petition from the shipowners of Sunderland and Newcastle 
upon Tyne^ was presented to the House of Commons for relief^ 
without effect ; yet as it contains the opinions of men well con- 
versant with the advantages of this port to the coasting trade^ 
a few extracts from it will prevent the necessity of further 
amplification. 

It is therein stated^ ''that the harbour of Hartlepool^ in the 
county palatine of Durham^ is of great antiquity^ and has been 
long known as a convenient shdter and place of safety for ships 
navigating coastwise, which have been endangered by storms 
arising in the course of their voyage, or prevented from pursu- 
ing it by contrary winds : this harbour being the only safe one 
(after a gale has blown for the space of twenty-four hours) 
between the ports of Sunderland and Bridlington, a line of 
coast of ninety miles in length. It is in every wind easy of 
access to light vessels, and to all laden ones of the burden of 
one hundred tons and under, the latter description including 
about one-half of the whole of the ships employed in the north- 
mayor of this town, repaired twenty-fire yards of this pier, (v, p. 91.J John Hylton, 
Esq. mayor of this place, repaired eighteen yards of this pier, (v. p. 91. J George 
Bowes, Esq. mayor of this town, (v, p, 94.^ Hie remainder is not legible. 

Some of these inscriptions are stiU visible 

SuUkituoH's Durham, v, 8, p. 82. 

* That on the destruction of the pier, the part of the town wall exposed to the sea, 
win be in considerable danger of being canned away, by which a very large part <tf 
the town of Hartlepool would be overflowed with the sea. That in the event of the 
destruction of the pier and harbour, not merely ships employed in the coal trade, 
with other merchant vessels, will be dq^ved of a safe retreat in adverse winds and 
stormy weather, but, also, the several fishermen, who, with their fetmilies firom the 
principal part of the inhabitants of Hartlepool, will be prevented carrying forward 
their trade with safety and success, to the great injury of themselves and families, 
to the burthening of the town with poor, and the consequent increase of the poor 
rates, &c. &c. 



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HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 159 

era coasting trade. When in this harbour^ they are sheltered 
from the storms which are the most frequent^ and the most 
destractiYe^ on the eastera coast; and in moderate weather 
they can sail out of it with all winds/' 

The petition concludes by stating '^ that the maintenance of 
the harbour is of general interest to this kingdom^ and that if 
the pier be not speedily repaired^ the harbour will be lost to the 
country^ the petitioners^ therefore^ pray the honourable House 
to take the above stated circumstances into consideration^ and 
afford such aid towards the restoration of the pier^ or adopt 
such other measures as may seem meet for the attainment of an 
object of so much public benefit.^' 

His Majesty's ministers^ however^ although they did not 
accede to the prayer of the petition^ yet offered their assistance 
to procure an act of parliament^ whereby a tonnage duty should 
be imposed on vessels belonging to the neighbouring ports; this 
proposal was attended with such difficulties^ that no benefit 
could be derived from it. 

The pier at this period presented a mass of ruins^ the town 
was threatened with immediate destruction^ and the fishermen 
were left without shelter ; under the impression of these con- 
siderations^ a meeting of the corporation and inhabitants of the 
town and neighbourhood^ was holden on the 17th of October^ 
1810^ when it was determined to try the effect of a subscription 
towards rebuilding the pier; the chairman, George Pocock, Esq. 
by a munificent contribution of J6500 set an example which was 
followed by the liberal donations of the Bishop of Durham, the 
Lord Lieutenant of the county, &c. which promised the happiest 
results.* A committee was appointed for the management of 
the concern, and an engineer consulted, who stated in his report 
that £3500 would be sufficient to render the pier and port 
complete and efficient. The committee,t therefore, commenced 



* T. Appendix. — Lbt of Subscriptions. 

t The ftmctions of the committee naturally ceased after the first meeting of the 
oommissionen, A general meeting of the subscribers conferred upcm eadi of the 



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160 HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 

their labours, and according to statements which have been at 
various times submitted to the public, the expenditure up to the 
81st July, 1818, was as follows:— In 1811, £695 4s. lO^d.; 
1812, £905 18s. l^d.; 1818, £256 Is. ll^d. 

The committee perceiving with regret that the subscrip- 
tions, would not permit them to complete the plans of the 
engineer, Mr. Shout,* were therefore obliged to secure the most 
important objects with the remainder of the money, in the hope 
that at some future period his plans might receive complete 
execution. They now turned their thoughts toward obtaining 
an act of Parliament, in the expectation that a sufficient yearly 
revenue might be procured to keep the pier in repair. The 
opposition which the coasting trade had always expressed against 
a tonnage duty, was obviated by judicious modifications. With 
the aid of individual contributions, and the active exertions of a 
member of the committee,t who forwarded the progress of the bill 
through both Houses of Parliament, an act was at length obtained, 
'* for improving the pier and port of Hartlepool,'* which received 
the royal assent, April 15, 1818. By the provisions of this act, 
every ship or vessel entering into, or using the port, shall pay 
a sum not exceeding the rate or duty of two-pence per ton;{ 
every boat or coble used within the port, and belonging to any 
fisherman, pilot, or other person or persons residing in Hartle- 
pool, or within the distance of one mile thereof, the yearly sum 



joint secretaries (William VoUam, Esq. and Lieut. Qaelch) a silver cup, on which 
was inscribed a Tote of thanks, " for their constant and uniform attention to the 
interests of the pier." 

* Of Sunderland, engineer to the ]^ there, a gentleman of great practical ex- 
perience, and acknowledged judgment. 

t Hartlepool, August 2, 1818. At a court holden this day, it is unanimously 
agreed, that in consequence of the sendees rendered by Cuthbert Sharp, Esq. to the 
town of Hartlepool, in procuring an act of parliament intituled " an act fbr im- 
proving the pier and port of Hartlepool, in the county of Durham/' the freedom of 
the corporation should be presented to him. — Corporation Beeordt, 

X A bye law of the commiisioners has limited this duty fbr the pnsent, to one 
penny per ton. 



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HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 161 

of five shilliDgs ^'i' and every dweUing-houfle^ &e. charged to 
the poor's rate^ of the animal value of £5, a sum not exceeding 
one-fortieth part of the rental. 

The management of the pier is vested in a certain number 
of commissioners, with power to form bye-laws for the regula- 
tion of the port, and to carry into effect any improvements they 
may deem necessary, l^e limits of the port extend '' from the 

* The reason why all houses Mow the anxLaal rental of £6 were not charged, was, 
that the houses inhabited by the fishermen in general might be exempt from the 
operation of the act. Hie proposed doty on coUes, was received by the fishermen 
wHh general ^»probation, and according to their own calculation, apemiya week wis 
not considered two mnch, tat the safety of their Utcs and pn^orty. Hie members 
of the committee explained to each individoal, the intention and object of the pro- 
posed law in all its possible bearings, and each man's conduct was entirely at his own 
<^on. Forty-nine fishermen, possessing cobles, signed the following petition to the 
Hottse of CknnmoiM, which was presented by Sir H. Y. Tempest, Bart. 

"EariUpool, Januaiy, 1818. 

"We, whose names sre nnto subscribed, possessing cobles, taking into consideration 
the great importance of the pier and harbour, which afford as a safe retreat in stormy 
weather, and without which we should be left at the mercy of the waves, do agree to 
be chargedf annually, the sum of five shillings for each coble, to keep the same in re- 
pair ; as in case of an accident happening to the pier, there are no ftmds for repairing 
it, and we would be prevented from carrying on our trade, to the great injury of our- 
selves and families, who would be deprived of their only support; and, in the bill 
pending in Parliament, we desire the same may be passed into a law." 

It is lamentable to add, that some of the persons who signed this petition, reftised 
to pay the collector, and the consequence has been, that the entire produce of this 
du^ has been hitherto lost to the public, by the expence incurred in collecting it. 
A. want of principle so glaring deserves notice, that honest and honorable men may 
not suffer ly the dirdiction ot^few. This explanation has beoome necessary to the 
public, who have so liberally assisted the undertaking. 

Hie last minute which has been submitted to the public, dated April 27» 1815, 
states that "the commissioners have expended the full amount of the subscriptions 
received (£2269 19s. 9d. including the expenditure of the committee ) the estimate 
of the engineer is £8600, and they are ftiDy persuaded that this sum, with careM 
and prudent management^ will complete the works, so as to render this port a sure 
I^ace of reftige in distress, and permanently beneficial to the coasting trade. 

An Act of Parliament has been procured, and when the pier is complete, the pro- 
duce of the act will be amply sufficient for the occanonal repairs whidi may be 
req[nired : till then, however, tlie engineer reports, that the works already erected may 
be seriously endangered, if they remain in their present im flmaliiJ oonditicML 

Under these circumstances the commissioners respec tfu lly solicit the good-will and 
ooMidmtiqn of the poUic; and assure the subscribers, that their donations will be 

Y 



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162 HISTORY OF HABTLEPOOL. 

black shore in the river Tees^ on the south part of the town, as 
&r as Blackhalls, along the sea^ahore on the north side of the 
said town/'* The labours of the commissioners are entirely 
gratuitous, as a dauae in the act orders that they shall at all 
meetmgs pay their own expences. 

expended MtufiMtarOj to themBelTes, with adyantage to the tnde, and with increaaed 
safety to that moat yalnable daia of hia M^'eat/s aubjecta — ^Britiah aeamen. 

CUTHBBRT SHAEP, 
Chairman to the Commlaaionera, 

* The northern limit of the port of Stockton, ia likewiae deacrihed aa extendmg to 
the rocka, at BlackhaHa, " aaving" however, the oaoal and known privilegea "by law 
bekmging to the port of Hartinpoole.*'— ^r^iM^f SiO€kUm,p. 66. 



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HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 168 



IMPROVEMENTS. 

It is stated by Mr. Hutchinson^ in his History of Durham^ 
vol. 8, p. 82, that,— 

"in order to improTe the liayen^and town, it is possible at a small 
ezpence to carry a mole across the slake, firom the south-west angle of 
the town wall on the main-land, which' would stop the tide from flood- 
ing many yaluable acres of ground, and occasion a sweep of water to 
cleanse an extensive bason, where ships would lie in great safety under 
the shelter of the land, and ply close to the walls, which at a small cost 
might be converted to a quay for merchandise. Another great advan- 
tage the town would derive from such a mole is, that the land 
communication would be effectually secured, whereas now at high water, 
carriages must come seven miles round." 

A report^ addressed to the corporation^ in 1795, by B. Dodd, 
engineer, proposes to transform the slake (which contains about 
200 acres entirely flooded at high water) into an immense wet 
dock, which should contam, if liecessary^ the whole navy of 
Great Britam. The ideas of the projector will perhaps be best 
understood by a few extracts, in his own words. He says — 

"There is not, I firmly believe, a more eligible situation in the 
whole island, (for a naval depot or harbour for ships of war) as any 
necessary depth of water may here be obtained, and ships be enabled 
to pass into the open sea in a few minutes. Here, too, is every con- 
venience for slips for ship-building, docks for repairing, lying up in 
ordinary, &c. &c. and those ships that may be thought necessary for 
the protection of our northern trade, will here find a ready and secure 
harbour. The now mouldering turrets and fortifications around the 
inner harbour of Hartlepool, bespeak it to have been once a place of 
grandeur and importance, for within those walls lay secure from the 
insulting foe the fleets of the then Prince Bishop of Durham ; and I 
am fuUy convinced, that the great outer harbour termed the Slake, 
provided that it was cleansed to a sufficient depth, might, even at the 
present day, be made to contain the whole navy of Great Britain." 

" Hartlepool has been used as a place of safety from storms for 
vessels of every description, particularly coasters and colliers. It was 
at those early periods infinitely better calculated for that purpose, than, 
without the proper improvements, there is a possibility of its being in 
the present day. The reason is obvious ; the vessels then in the mer- 



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164 HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 

chants* service were built on a smaller scale, and of coarse drew less 
water : whereas in the present day, several of our merchant ships ex- 
ceed the tonnage and draught of water of the then men of war— a 
sufficient reason for its enlargement and improvement.** 

''The many years neglect of this important place, has been the 
principal cause of the greater part of both the inner and outer harbour 
being nearly filled with slake ; but this may be easily removed, to the 
great advantage of the surrounding lands, which, with so rich a manure, 
will be highly benefited ; the situation of this harbour is such, that 
ships may enter it at almost all periods. In winter they may put in 
here when surprised with a head wind, a long dark ni^t, or the ap- 
pearance of turbulent weather : here they may ride in perfect safety 
without letting go an anchor, and return to sea again next morning, 
with the advantage of rank-keeled or sharp-bottomed ships, lying 
without coming near the ground ; from which vessels of all descrip- 
tions are best preserved, unless when laid thereon for repairs. The 
entrance from the bay to the harbour is extremely bold, deep, and good 
anchoring ground : here they may ride in 4 or 14 fathom water. 
Vessels wishing to make the harbour in a westerly wind may make 
long reaches, having plenty of sea-room, and little to obstruct them,*- 
a peculiar advantage to this port, superior to the Tees, the Wear, or 
the Tyne. To point out the necessary improvements for that desirable 
end, I recommend the immediate erection of a well-built pier from the 
north-west angle of the town, near the entrance of the old harbour, to 
the main land on the opposite west shore ; which, by allowing a suffi- 
cient central width for the erection of fiood-gates for vessels to enter 
the harbour, the length of the pier would be 443 yards.** 




The proposed pier is expressed by perpendicular lines. 
"The depth would vary at sundry places, in clearing away the 
obstructions to obtain a good foundation, which is an excellent blue 



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fflSTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 



165 



clay. Adjoining tlie point of land on the west shore, the depth of the 
pier would he very inconsiderahle. The whole I find at a medium of 
20 hy 25 feet, and would contain 24,078 cuhic yards of stone work/* 
and the expences estimated, (including a light house,) at £21,537 
48. 8d. which would render the harhour capahle of containing 230 
sail of vessels, such as usually frequent the merchant service : if 
Hartlepool was to he " converted to the purposes of a naval harhour, 
the whole scale of workmanship must he of more considerahle dimen- 
sions." By this proposed plan, twenty-four feet water in spring tides 
may he carried into the great outer harhour; and from sixteen to 
eighteen at neap tides : hut ever turned to the purposes of a naval 
harhour, a third more water may he ohtained, hy the many thousand 
tons discharged at spring ehhs, from the immense reservoir of the 
harhour, to scour and deepen the channel towards its entrance — an 
advantage which must ever secure deep water to this place. 

" The most equitahle way " of raising the necessary sum to com- 
plete this ohject. Mr. Dodd thinks, '* would he to lay a small duty on 
shipping passing coast-ways, as its improvement is for their use ; or if 
drawn from the coal, similar to what is received at Whithy, Scar- 
borough, and Burlington. The sum for execution is inconsiderahle ; 
and, when once completed, the impost might he taken o£P, as the 
harhour dues would he sufficient to keep the whole in repair." 

Howerer desirable the execution of this plan might be to the 
interests of Hartlepool, the report had no farther consequence 
at the period of its publication : its practicability has even been 
questioned by men of science, and it is not likely that it will 
ever meet with the serious consideration, either of the coasting 
torade, or of the government. 




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166 HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 

It has been suggested that a pier^ built fifty yards to the 
east of the present one, would be of infinite advantage^ and 
would afibrd sufficient dqith of water for the largest vessels 
employed in the coasting trade. 

The plan proposed by the engineer employed by the subscri- 
bers^ consisted in the completion of the pier in its present 
situation^ with the addition of another pier nearly at a right 
angle with the former^ with dolphins at convenient distances 
for the greater security and mooring of ships^ somewhat similar 
to the present sketch. — See p. 166. 

The subscriptions^ however^ not having amounted to the sum 
required^ the commissioners have considered thdr first object to 
be^ the support, and, if possible, the completion of the present 
pier : and in the next place to dear out and perfect the ancient 
mooring ground, where three tier of vessels may now lie in 
perfect safety. It would be highly desirable to cleanse and 
deepen the inner harbour; but until the preceding objects are 
executed, this must form a minor consideration. The pier, 
which is 154 yards in length, in a direction nearly E. and W. 
is built in a straight line ; * a considerable part of the outer 
extremity has been completed from the foundation ; stiU, how- 

* An old plan of Hartlepool, preaeiTed in the PepTsian Libraiy, at Magdalen 
CktDege, Cambridge, (for a copy d idiich I am indebted to the friendly assistanoe of 
the fiev. William Cornforth) repreaenta the pier fonning an obtuse angle towards 
the sea; the precise date of this plan is uncertain, though it does not appear more 
ancient than 1600. The beacon staff appears in this plan, which stood on a ledge of 
rocks south of the pier, which still pieserre the name of "beacon stones." 




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HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 167 

erer^ it wants a firm oonnection with the old pier to render it 
secure on the sea-fEtcing. 

A capstan has been placed near the end of the pier^ which 
has frequently proved of the most essential service. 

There axe tweaty-four pQots at HarOepool ; twelye whose branches extend to the 
Tees, and tweke exdoMyely for the port of HartlepooL The rate of pilotage for 
every Bxitiah ship, from the Ist of April to the Itt of October, fat every foot of 
water tiie ahip draws, is Is. 3d. ; foreign ah^ Is. 9d. For every British ship frtm 
Ist of Oetober to 1st April, Is. 9d.; foreign ship 2s. per foot. The establishment 
of pilots bore, aided by the salutary vigilanee of the Trinity House, has certainly 
been the means of checking, and will eventnally abolish that systematic imposition 
which heretofore formed a legitimate subject of complaint from the neighbouring 
ports. 



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168 HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 



MODERN HISTORY. 

From what has already been stated^ the reader will be able to 
trace the once proud ''emporium ^* of the see^ firom its pristine 
grandeur, to its present condition* It is at present a watering- 
place of considerable celebrity, and a fishing town, still retain- 
ing interesting vestiges of its former splendor. 

On the authority of local tradition, it is reported that in 
farmer days the fishermen lived without the walls, in the '' Far- 
well Field,'' and that the town, properly so called, was inhabited 
by the garrison, and the upper classes of society. This tradition 
gains probability from the architectural design displayed in 
many of the oldest houses, which seem unfitted for the humble 
habitations of fishermen. 

"HartlBpoole emporiim celebre, & statio fida, sita pooommodo." — Qmden. 

Haitl^ool, commodioaaly seated on the sea shoar (which enoompaaaes it except 
towaida the west) and surrounded with rocks and hills. It is an andent town cor- 
porate» governed by a rn^or and su6-qficer, and was of greater account than it now 
is, being at present (though iuditiferent) large, yet poor, and its market disused, and 
were it not for its harbour which is good, it would be leas frequented. — Blowups 
Britannia, 

HarUqpool is seated on a small neck of land, extending itself into the sea. The 
town, which appears on an eminence, is surrounded by the sea on erery side exc^t 
the west, is very ancient, and was incorporated by King John, who was rwnarkahly 
kind to aU maritime places. It had formerly a great resort to its market, but tX 
present is diiefly distinguished for its port, covered by a pier on the west side, within 
which sh^ may ride vei7 securely, and to the south of the phioe there isa good road, 
in which they may saldly anchor from six to ten Cithoms water, vdiich makes it a com- 
modious retreat fSor deep laden colliers, and has often defended great fleets from ship- 
wreck. It is the next town in the bishop of Durham, to the dty of the same 
denomination, is governed by a mayor, and is styled a boroo^ but sends no bur- 
gesses to parliament. If we consider it in a commercial liglit, it is reputed a member 
of tiie opulent port of Newcastle, but without having any creek belonging to it.— 
Qm^elfs PoUUeal Survey, 1774, p, 1. p. 808. 

It forma a fine object from the sea and the Torkahire coast, owing to the bold figure 
of its church, and its prominent po8itioii.^<SS(m^# Miven in Oreat BriUtin, p, 88. 



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HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 169 

The town of Hartlepool, which consists of a principal street, 
(Southgate-Street*) a back street parallel to it, and several 
cross streetB,t stands on the southern side of the peninsola, 
gradually rising from the north and west to the beautiful plot 
of ground called the Moor, or Common Pasture, the perpen- 
dicular rocks at the extremity of which overlook the sea at a 
considerable elevation, forming a bold and distinguished feature 
in the coast scenery of the North of England. 

The market cross:^ stood in South-gate street, opposite the 
Town House, and consisted of a square flight of steps, termin- 
ated by a rude cross of stone, which being found inconvenient, 
was removed, and the present piazzas, abutting on the Town 
House, erected, where the market is now holden. 

In summer Hartlepool is much frequented by invalids, and 
by families from the interior, who resort thither for the benefit 
of sea air and bathing. There are many good lodgmg houses 
for their accommodation, but the want of an inn, upon an ex- 
tended establishment, is most sensibly lamented ; a warm bath 
recently erected, a floating bath, &;c. offer the usual advantages 
to be met with at watering places. 



* The names of South-gate, Mickle-gate streets, &c. would natonlly tend to the 
belief that the fortifications of Hartlepool were much more perfect and extensive than 
their present remains denote, and that these streets received their names fh>m gates 
of similar appellation. In tend there are few parts of Hartlepool where extensive 
foundations are not found underneath the present surftuse, yet thej have never been 
traced with sufficient accuracy to lead to any satisfiictory ooncluaion. 

t In one of the cross streets called St. Mary's, or Cross-gate Street, the corpora^- 
tion of the hospital of Guisbum possess considerable property, which probably 
bebnged to the monastery of Guisbum. — v. p. 111. 

X The general intention of crosses erected in market places, says MUner, (History 
of Winehesier, 2. 194^ was to pay a public homage to the religion of Christ crucified, 
and to inspire men with a sense of morality and piety, amidst the ordinary transac- 
tions of IHSb. 

The market day, originally on Wednesday, (p. 24) and afterwards on Tuesday, is 
now holden on Saturday. The market is plentifully supplied with provisions of all 
kinds, especially in summer. 

The fidr days are May 14, August 21, OctobCT 9, and November 27, which were 
formerly well attended by clothiers, whose booths extended from the church gates to 
the cross -, at present they are scarcely remembered. 

Z 



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170 HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 

The Town Moor, the fayourite resort of strangers, affords a 
most agreeable and interesting promenade. The remains of the 
breast-works, formerly mentioned, are stiQ very apparent, and 
from their summit the view is most extensive and diversified, 
embracing at one eotq) d'ceil the immense extent of the ocean;* 
to the south, the high lands of Yorkshire, nearly as far as 
Whitby ; and, to the north, the shelving coast towards Suter 
Point. The prospect on the land side gives a rich succession of 
com fields, gradually rising to a considerable distance; the 
want of wood, however, will be generally remarked as a defici- 
ency which sensibly detracts from the picturesque appearance 
of the landscape. A small rock detached from the moor, a few 
yards to the north of what is called the East Battery, cannot 
fail, from its singular situation, to attract the notice of the 
stranger. The yawning space which separates this rock from the 
main land, is known by the name of Maiden Bower, and many 
a tale of " plighted faith and broken vows,'^ is associated with 
it ; for, almost within the memory of man, Mary Farding is 
recorded to have been thrown over this precipice, by a mer- 
chant of Northallerton. A ballad composed upon this occasion, 
called the " Hartlepool Tragedy," is still remembered, and sung 
by the old inhabitants.t 

• Tom to the watery world ! — ^but who to thee 
(A wonder yet nnview'd) shall paint the sea? 
Various and vast, sublime in all its forms. 
When loll'd by zephyrs, or when rous'd by storms. 
Its colours changing, when from clouds and sun 
Shades after shades upon the surface run ; 
Embrown'd and horrid now, and now serene, 
In limpid blue and evanescent green. Crdbbe, 

Cette superbe mer sur laquelle Fhomme jamais ne pent imprimer sa trace. Si les 
Taissauz siUonnent un moment les ondes, la vague vieut effacer cette legere marque de 
servitude, et la mer reparoit telle qu'eUe fut au premier jour de sa creation. — Coritme, 
t The name " Maiden Bower," was not derived from this drcumstanoe, as it 
occurs frequently in the Parish Register, previous to this period. 

The entry with regard to the above atrocious and premeditated murder, relates 
that " Mary Farding, a stranger, who by the coroner's mquest was found to be mur- 
dered by William Stephenson, merchant, in Northallerton, to whom she was 
pregnant, was buried June 7, 1727." 

The following are among ihe heH statuaa of the ballad:'^ 
With sighs and with groans, with tears and with moans. 
She utter'd such plaints as would soften flint stones. 

Oh 1 where shall I hide my shame, then she cried. 

Kind Sir, take some pity, and for me provide. 



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HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 171 

CSontinoing the perambulation northwards, by the edge of 
the cliiOr, the breast works terminate in the remains of a battery^ 
scarcely visible at present, underneath which is the entrance of 
the Gun Cove, or Gun Cave, communicating, according to local 
tradition, by a subterraneous passage with the church. Some 
of the older inhabitants declare they have penetrated a consider- 
able distance into its gloomy recesses, but as they never ven- 
tured to the end, their accounts tended to strengthen the belief 
of its extent.'!^ At present, however, the most determined 
investigator could not explore beyond the distance of fifty yards. 
The name of Gun Cave seems to have been derived from the 
battery erected over its entrance. 

The rockst at Hartlepool, which have been characterised by 

I promified her £ur, that I would take care 
Of her and her infuit, and all things prepare 
At Hartlepool town, where she wovdd lie down : 
Poor sonl, she bcUev'd me as ever she'd done. 

UOBAL. 

Let all men beware, when married they are. 
Bad women are snrely a dangerous snare : 
Then love your own wives, ^em men only thrives 
That always live pious and chaste in their lives. 

A char^ still exists in the churchwardens* accounts, dated June 7, 1727* of Is. lOd. 
" for makmg Mary Parthing's grave." The perpetrator of this crime was afterwards 
executed at Durham. 

Lieutenant Bum, R. N. of the signal station, at Hartlepool, having unfortunately 
missed his way at night, fiell over the cliff, a few yards to the north of Maiden 
Bower, and althoudi he was severely bruised, and some of his bones broken, yet he 
recovered, and lived several years anewards. 

* This belief in vast subterraneous passages is not confined solely to Hartlepool. 
Our ancestors are believed to have been equally laborious in excavating a passage firom 
Durham to Finchale abb^ ; from Baby castle, to the church of Staindrop, and from 
Bichmond castle, to Easby, by way of St. Martin's, crossing twice beneath the bed 
of the river Swale. "When what was called the egress at Easby was explored, how- 
ever, the hole, as might have been expected, was discovered to be nothing more than 
the common sewer of the abbey. 

t Mr. Tate, who to. the occupation of parish derk of Stranton unites the ac- 
quisitions of poetry and music, has described the rocks with his characteristio 
quaintnesB in his EUstory of Hartlepool, &c. as foUows : — 

'* If you around the cliff should hie. 
When tide admits, you there descry 
Bold lofty rocks, fine excavations, 
With grotesque arches, grand curvations. 
And many a cavern and alcove. 

For meditation, or for -love 1 

Piazzas ! porticoes sublime, 

The handy work of &ther Time.*' 



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172 HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 

various writers as "frightful'' and ''pleasing/' are rendered 
cavernous by the continued action of the waves. They do not 
in any part exceed forty feet in height. Several detached mas- 
ses have been formed by the causes above stated^ into columns 
and arches of the rudest and most fantastic appearance. 

A view of a detached group near the east battery^ (which is 
likewise represented by Hutchinson^ vol. 8. p. 22) may convey 
a faint resemblance of their general appearance. 



The bays formed by the violence of the sea on the softer parts 
of the rock^ are distinguished by the name of Soft-laes. 

The " Fairy Coves/' or cells, which are near the north- 
eastern termination of the wall towards the sea, are circular 
excavations of about five feet in diameter, and about twelve feet 
above the shore, having communications witKeach other suffici- 
ently large to admit a human figure. They have been evidently 
formed by human means, as the marks of the chisel are still 
distinctly visible, and were perhaps intended for places of con- 
cealment and security in times of invasion or predatory warfare. 



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HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 178 



THE FISHERMEN. 

The inhabitants of Hartlepool consist principally of fishermen^ 
a hardy race, many of whom have not received even the first 
rudiments of education : their manners are courteous and civil, 
especially towards strangers; their mode of life and thinking is 
characterised by stem and unbending independence ; few of them 
have travelled beyond the neighbouring sea-ports, and their 
knowledge of the world is consequently extremely confined^ yet 
their observations frequently betray considerable thought and 
comprehension. They are nearly all a-kin,'*^ prone to super- 
stition, and yet supine and indifferent about religion. Their 
livelihood depends entirely on the temper of the most '' unruly 
element,^^ and though some are careful, yet in general they live, 
to use a vulgar proverb, ''from hand to mouth/^ so that when 
the weather continues un&vourable for any considerable length 
of time, they are frequently reduced to pressing necessity. They 
are in general sober, and their luxuries seldom extend beyond 
the indulgence of fine white cakes. They marry early,t have in 
general large families, and their wives are imiversally the purse 
bearers. The women perform the most laborious part of the 
occupation on shore. They are to be seen on the beach wait- 
ing the return of the cobles and carry the lines home ; the 
task of haUing is performed by them, which occupies several 
hours ; they have likewise to procure the mussels from the scalps, 
and, during the time when the sand-eels are on the coast, may 
be seen in groups on different parts of the shore, going even as 
far as the mouth of the Tees to procure them. 

* There are at present liying in Hartlepool, 06 persons of the name of Pounder ; 
50 Conlsons ; 85 Davisons ; 83 Harrisons ; 81 Hnnters ; and 27 Horsleys. The 
entire population of Hartlepool does not much exceed 1000 persons, 
t Senza moglie al lato 
L'huomo noo e'beato. 



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174 HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 

In the summer months the fishermen remain at sea nearly 
the whole of the nighty being provided with a compass, and 
possessing a perfect knowledge of all the land marks. They 
are extremely expert in the management of their cobles. The 
rapidity of the tempest, however, sometimes baffles all their skill, 
when they are obliged to leave their lines, and use their utmost 
endeavours to reach the shore. 

They gain by twilight's hour their lonely isle. 
To them the Tery rocks appear to imile ; 
The hftTcn hnms with many a cheering sound. 

The boats are darting o'er the curly bay ; 

Even the hoarse sea-bird's shrill discordant shriek. 

Greets like the welcome of his toneless beak ; 

Beneath each lamp that through its lattice gleams. 

Their £uicy paints the firiends that trim the beams. 

Oh I what can sanctify the joys of home. 

Like hope's gay glance from ocean's troubled foam. 

Lord Syron, 

Although accidents are of rare occurrence, yet within the 
last three years several lives have been unfortimately lost. 



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HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 175 



MANNERS AND CUSTOMS. 

Thb detacbed situation of Hartlepool^ and its very limited con- 
nection with the adjacent country^ will sufficiently account for 
many lingering traces of ancient and better times^ which are 
still scrupulously observed within its walls. Peoplci like the 
fishermen of Hartlepool^ who follow the self-same occupation 
with their imcestors^ and who by confining their marriages to 
the peninsula^ keep themselves totally distinct and unconnected 
with the neighbouring villages^ and in fact^ rarely go to a greater 
distance from home than a few miles^ must^ as a matter of 
course, afford the best vehicle of descent for ancient habits and 
traditions. The manners and customs observed at Hartlepool, 
doubtless, at one period prevailed more or less over the whole of 
the adjacent country, and the above reasons will sufficiently ac- 
count for their preservation here, at a time when general (would 
it could be said advantageous) innovation is every where making 
such rapid progress. 

The first time a child visits a neighbour or relation, it is regu- 
larly presented with three things, salt, bread, and an egg ; this 
practice, however, (not noticed by Bourne or Brand) is widely 
extended over the north of England. Valentine Day is duly 
observed : the swains vent not their passions on sheets speckled 
with tinsel, and interlarded with Cupids, yet their epistles 
abound with the usual inflated hyperbole which would not dis- 
grace modem gallantry, and their Dulcineas are seldom deficient 
in comprehension.'!^ The solemnities practiced every where on 
Carling, Palm, and Easter Sundays, of which a fuU account is 
given in Brand's Popular Antiquities, are here most scrupu- 
lously observed. 

* Those who cannot write, who are by fieur the most nmnerooBy like Fyramus and 
Thisbe of old, " nntu signisque loqunntur." — Ovid, 



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176 HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 

A custom prevails on the Monday immediately following the 
latter festival^ for the men to take off the women's shoes^ or 
buckles^ and on the Tuesday for the women to retaliate in like 
manner : these petty thefts are only to be redeemed by presents. 
The trifling sums obtained by this mutual and frequently pro- 
voked warfare^ are generally expended in a '^ merry making '' 
towards the end of the week. '^ Mell suppers '' are customary 
in the neighbourhood^ at "harvest home;" and *'Guisers,*' 
though their numbers are considerably diminished of late years^ 
are still to be seen. On the approach of Christmas^ carols are 
sung by the children ; yide clogs blaze on the eve of the nativi- 
ty^ and yule cakes form an essential part of the evening's 
entertainment. The Christmas box^ and New-year's gifts are 
not forgotten^ and dettfchmenta of sword dancers perambulate 
the neighbourhood^ exhibiting their feats of harmless warfare. 
The first monday after twelfth day^ the stot plough^ a small 
anchor drawn by young men and boys^ is paraded through the 
town. They stop at every door and beg a small donation : if 
successful they salute the donor with three cheers; but if their 
request is refused^^ they plough up the front of the house to 
the great annoyance of its inhabitants. 

" Waffs'* are still commcm^ and few people die before their 
neighbours have seen their waffs ''glide softly by.'' Indeed 
some persons have seen their own " waffs/' and under the con- 
viction that their own death was thereby predicted^ have seldom 
recovered from the impression of the apparition. 

" I hear a Toioe jou cannot hear, 

Which sayB, I must not staj ; 
I see a hand you cannot see. 

Which beckons me away." 

TieJteL 

A belief in ''bad prayers" is still prevalent, and various arts 
practised to render these prayers abortive. 

The take-wakSj or watching with a corpse^ is not entirely 
laid aside, though somewhat fallen into disuse. Funerals are 



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HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 177 

attended not only by the intimate friends and relations of the 
deceased, but by all those who wish to pay a melancholy tribute 
of respect to the memory of the deceased. The funeral procession 
is opened by singers chaunting appropriate psalms, followed by 
two young girls dressed in white, whose business it is to attend 
to the wants and wishes of the mournful attendants, and are 
caUed "servers." 

Until of late years, when a young unmarried female was 
buried, a garland was carried before the corpse, and afterwards 
suspended in the church ; at present only one remains there, 
formed of white paper cut in various shapes, apparently to re- 
semble flowers ; and in the centre is represented the figure of 
a human hand on which is written the name and. age of the 
deceased* 

A gariand freah and fiur. 

Of liUiea there was made, 
In sign of her yirginitie, 
And on her coffin laid. 

J)r» Tertffi Old Son^s, v. iii p. 150. 




AA 



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178 HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 



THE FISHERIES.* 

The bcttts or coblesf used by the fiflhermen of Hartlepool, are 
about twenty-five feet loi^, and fire feet in breadth, with a flat 
bottom and a sharp stem, and about two tons burthen. Each 
coble carries three fishermen : he who sits nearest the stem, rows 

* The antieat manner <tf &hing on the ooast of Oevcknd (wliidi woidd natanDy 
be the nme as at Hartlqxxd) is so well described in a MS. in. tbe Cotton. Libraiy, 
Julias F. C. foL 455, frequently quoted by GreaTes in his History of Cle?eland, that 
no apology seems neeessaiy for its introduction here. 

Truly yt msiy.be.aaydB of these poor loea, that th^ are Umsh of theyr Jives, who 
will hazud 20 or 40 myles into the seas in a small trov^he, soe thinne that the 
glimse of the sunne may be scene throng ytt ; yet at 10 or 11 of the docke in the 
morninge, when they come from sea, they sell theire whole boaty's ladinge for 48. or 
if they doe gett a crowne, th^ fuppose to have chaffered foyre. Three commonly 
come in one boote, each of them havinge twoe oares, which they goveme by drawinge 
the one hande orer the other. The boate ytself is built of wainscott, for shiqpe ex- 
ceedinge all modeels for shippinge ; twoe men wiD easily canye ytt on knde betweeoe 
them, yett are they so secure in them at sea, that some in a storme have ly?ed 
aboarde three dayes. Their greateste danger is nearest home, where the waves breake 
dangerouslye ; but they, acquainted with these seas, e^eyne a broken wave ready to 
overtake them, suddenly oppose the prowe or shaipe ends of theyre boat unto y t, and 
mountinge to the tope, desoende downe as yt were unto a vaDey, hoveringe untill they 
espye a tHude wave come rowlinge, which they observe commonly to be an odde one ; 
whereupon mountinge with their cobble, as yt were upon a greate ftirious horse, they 
rowe with might and mayne, and together with that wave drive themselves on Unde. 

STATUTES BESFECTIN6 THE FISHERMEN, 1599. 
Hvm the Corporation Becords, 

76. Ytt ys ordeyned, for the avoydinge of all oontiaversyes which hereafter may 
growe betwixte the freemen of this town and the forryners, for the buyinge of i^rshe 
and aakinge parte thereof that eviye freeman of this town buyinge a cobble of fyshe 
shall enjoy the same, without p'iinge w'th anie forryner. But if the fonyner bo the 
fyrst buyer of anie suehe oobUe of fyshe^ and a fireman being presente att the buyinge 
thereof and aakinge p'te of the same, the sayd freman or fremen soe addnge p'te, 
ahaU eigoy if the freman bee not the ^frst yt aakethe p'te of such fyahe, butt the 
seconde or the thirde. Then ytt ys ordeyned yt the freman shall have butt p'te with 
the others that before hyme asked p'te thereof. 

84. Ttt ys ordeyned, yt the maister, or some other of eviye cobble of this town, 
shall make twoo pennye worth of fyshe to any of theire nei^ibois, askeinge the same 
for there own p'vysyon, yf they have nott made foure pennye worthe foorth before, 
upon payne to paye for eviye tyme nott soe doeing , vi^f. 

f Luople. Navicula.— X^fff'^ Saxon Did, Coble seems to be genersDy used to 
denote a flat bottomed boat for 9ea fishing. 



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ts^ 



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HISTOEY OF HARTLEPOOL. 179 

with a pair of oara, the other two ha^e one oar each. The daty 
of the fisherman who is nearest the stern, is to steer the odble. 
In general eadi person takes three lines coiled on an oval flat 
piece of wicker work, caUed ''arip/^ and baited with much 
care and regnhrity. Each line is about two hundred and forty 
fathoms long, having about four hundred snoods* of horse hair, 
thirty-six inches in length, placed at equal distances ; at the end 
of each snood is a well secored hook, baited generally with 
muss^, though the baitst vary according to the season of the 
year, l^iese lines are aQ fastened togedier and siink at equal 
distances, by perforated stones whone the bottom is rocky, and 
on sandy ground by grapnels, or '^creqpers.''| These lines 
are '' shot acaroes the tide,'^ and generally remain in this situa- 
tion about two hours in summer, and one in winter : during 
this period of inaction, one of the fishermen '^ keeps a look«out,'' 
while the other two generally wrap th^nsehes up in the sail 
and go to sleep, 

** In cradle of the rode imperious surge." 

When the lines are ^'hauled,'' the fishermen immediately 
return as the lines require fresh baiting before they can be used 
again. This is the universal method of fishing practised at 
Hartlepool, for cods, lings, haddocks, whitings, &c. 



* Snood — SeotcK X short hsir line to which a fishing hook is He^-^^amieton't 
Etymological IHctumary. 

t The haits generally nsed are as follows : — 
Jammary, ') Missels, henrings. 
Fehruary, \ "TentaOs/' (sepia loligo) limpets, whellu. 
Mmch, ) "Pnts/' (Inmhrieos tenestris.) 
Jprii, ) 

Miqf, > Mnssels, ten tails, prats, sand eels, (ammodites tobianns) sand worms. 

Jwtg, J ■ 

July, ^ The fishing at this period is generally nnprodacti?e, firom the number of 
Auguti, > dog fish on the coast 
Septewiber, j Mussels. 
October, "l 

November, > Mussels and herrings. 
December, j 

X Creepers, Scotch, — Grapnels of iron for dragging things out of the water, from 
the verb creep. — JawUeeon** Etymotopcal Dictionary. They are used in general as 
anchors for the cobles at Hartlepool. 



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180 mSTOBY OF HARTLEPOOL 

The general fiahii^-diftanoe bom land, is from ten to twenty 
miles in aommer, and bom eig^t to fifteen in winter. 

AjDOther mode of fiahing, " abooting the haaTxea^^^ (whiek 
are very strong linea of about throe hundred fiillioma in length) 
is only praetiaed in sommer. The hooks attaehed to strong 
snoodsy are fixed at three fiithonis distanoe from each other, and 
eadi snood is four feet and a half in length. Three or fiHir of 
these linea are the nsoal number used at the same time. 

These Imes are always "shot'' in about thirty fiitbomadqith, 
where they fireqaently remain foar several weeks together, yisited 
daily, if the weather permits, when they are freah baited and 
mended aa occasicm may require. linga, eods, skates, holibuti^ 
haddocks, &c are generally canght by the haavrea. 

8(des are canght either by "plaiee lines,'' or by "troll" nets. 
Plaiee lines are about two hundred and forty frthoms in length, 
on which are fiistened four hundred snoods, about throe feet in 
length, with appropriate hooks attached to them. These lines 
are " shot" in the evening and are not "hauled" until day- 
light the next morning. The bait for this species of fishing, is 
the sand worm (lumbricus marinus) and the depth for soles 
and plaice varies firom six to fourteen fathoms. 

The trolling net or " trawl," about sixteen feet in breadth at 
the mouth, which is fixed to a "troD bar," is sunk by the 
weight of the "troll irons," or "troll heads," fiutened at eadi 
end of it. lliis net is appended to the stem of the coble, or 
drawn rapidly in its motion along a sandy bottom, and the fish 
entering it, remain cau^t at the extremity of the net. 

Mackarel, not sufficiently numerous on the coast to induce 
the fishermen to use nets, (though they are sometimes found 
entangled in the herring nets), are caught only by "dor lines," 
which are generally about fifteen fathoms in length, with a 
leaden weight at the end, called a "pounder." Two or three 



* lalandic, Smo-GoUiic, k^, mare, ooeaniu— to go to kaafGt haavet signifies in 
Orkney, to go to the main sea. In Shetland, ftwrf fishing denotes the fishing of 
ling, cod, and tnsk. 



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mSTOBY OF HABTLEPOOL. 181 

snoods are fastened near the end of the line^ of about two 
fathoms in lengthy and six feet apart : the hooksare baited with 
the silrery part of the body of a maekarel, or other fish, the 
former being considered the best* Three of these lines are 
generally hnng over the sides of the coUe. This method of 
fishing requires a ''mackarel gale/' which is a strong breese, 
so that the door lines may be drawn rapdly through the water.* 
The appearance of the mackard on the coast, and their stay, 
are alike uncertain; in general, however, they first appear in 
the autumn. 

Herrings are caught in nets firom August to March : their 
arrival and departure are alike uncertain. These nets hang in 
the water, supported by corks at the top, remain upright by 
their own wdght, and are driven along by the force of the cur- 
rent. The herrings, which swim in shoals, once entangled in 
the meshes, die almost instantaneously. 

A mode of catching turbots has been practised during the 
last year, which promises to furnish the means of lasting benefit 
to Hartlepool. Previous to the introduction of this method, a 
turbot was sometimes caught on the ^haavres,'' but it was 
never considered possible even by the oJdesi fisherman to catch 
them with nets, which shews that the art of fishing is yet far 
firom perfection. The new plan was not aj^roved readily, for 
customs are relinquished sbwly, and improvements adopted with 
reluctanccf 

These nets are extremely slight, of about one hundred and 
ten yards in length, by about seven feet in height : the meshes 
are six inches from ''knot to knot.'' They are buoyed by pieces 
of cork attached to the top, and, being sunk by means of small 



* Tbe grey gnniard is caught in Hud nine way, and iUes more eageriy than the 
madoureL Thia fish ia eaUed the "anorer" from the peeoHar noise it utters, which 
is consideRd by the fishormen to reaemUe *mmmg» 

t This ariies not only from a strong prepossession in fa?oar of opinions thoy have 
been tanght all their lives to considor ineontrovortiblie, but because improvements tend 
to shew that the rising generation is wiser than their Ibre&thers and seniofB, a posi- 
tion old men will never willingly allow.— (7r(?/^« MUtUuy Jniiptititi, 



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182 HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 

stones fastened at short distances at the bottom^ remain under 
water as a perpendicular wall. 

The number of turbotis caught in this manner is yery consid- 
erable, and as the fishing ground has neyer been disturbed by 
this species of fishing, it is natural to expect that the produce 
will continue abundant.* 

The price stipulated by the London traders is 8s. 6d* each 
for live turbots^ which are instantly put into the wdls of their 
vessels in attendance upon the coast, and transported alive to 
the London market. 

Crabs and lobsters are generally caught by the elder fisher- 
men. For this purpose they use a bag net, fixed to an iron 
hoop twenty inches in diameter, subtended like a scale. The 
bait (generally consisting of the entrails of fish) is fastened at 
the t(^ of the net. When these nets are supposed to have re- 
mained a sufficient time under water (generally near the rocks), 
they are ''hauled in'^ as rapidly as possible, that the lobsters 
may not spring out. Li the summer months crabs are found in 
two or three iathoms, and in winter in fourteen or fifteen fiath- 
oms depth of water. Lobsters are generally found in deeper 
water than crabs. The latter are likewise caught in summ^ 
with an iron hook, by which they are drawn from their abodes 
under stones and fissures in the rodcs, at low water. Both 
crabe and lobsters are kept alive in large boxes moored in the 
harbour, called '' kutties" This method of fishing is called 
''trunking,'^ and the nets ''trunks/^ 

The fish market is holden on the beach : the fish is ofiiered 
for sale at a sum beyond its value, and gradually falls until a 
purchaser cries ''het,''t or 'TU please you,'^ which imme- 
diately closes the bargain. 

* In one week, 1060 lite torbots have been aent to London, where at the moaerate 
price of ten ahiUings each, they would prodnoe £525. In another instance, the 
torbots (independent of other fish) caught bj the erew of two cobles in the space of 
eight days, sold for £100. 

t "Set;' perhaps a cantraction of "VH have it.'* 

A cnrions compLaint is preserved in the Corporation Records, Nov. 10, 1682, 
"that y« pannier men and fishermen, in their way ofbyingc and sellinge offish (to y« 



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HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 



188 



The fishery stands only in need of 'ptopet encouragement to 
be found capabk of infinite eartension; and the situation of 
Hartlepod is perhaps better adapted for the estabUshment of an 
extenshre fishing colony than any other port in the Idngdonu 

To the numerous adrantages of the port, which have been 
already detailed, may be added, that excdloit bait (ainssels) 
may be jnrocnred gratis fisom the mouth of the Tees, and pre- 
serred in the slake for ocmstant use.* 

The open boats or cobles used at present^f from the nature of 
their construction and diminutive size, afford at best scanty 
produce, as the continuance of uncertain or boisterous weather 
necessarily prevents their going to sea : whereas the establish- 



great pccgndiee of the freemoi of thia town and others) haye by the tenne of tayinge 
" He please you " taken np to themselves one of ye best fish, and promised more 
and payd leaae, whoeby whoaoerer called for a part (as of right aocostomed) were 
cheated." 

* The arrangement of the mussel beds requires the interposition of the corpora- 
tion, on whose property they are principally placed. There is ample space for as 
many mussel beds as the most extended fishoy might require, if they were under 
proper regulations; and the subjoined sketch might form a plan» which would em- 
brace erery advantage, and give to every fisherman a proportion of ground of which, 
once determined, the corporation woiUd preserve the limits. By this means the 
constant strife and contention, which subsists at present in the detennioalion of 
arbitraiy boundaries, supported by the argwmetUum ad homnem, would be effect- 
ually prevented. 



Oumnel 



t Aooording to a vefy moderato calculation, the produce of the fisheries may be 
estimated aa follows :— 

In summer, 45 cobles, one hundred times at sea, at £1 10s. each time, £6750. 
In winter, 86 cobles^ seventy times at sea» at £2 eadi time, £4900 making a total of 
£11,650, which sold in the country at four timea its original price, or £45,600* vrill 
give a tolerable idea of the importance of the fishery even iu its prtamt ooofised state. 



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184 HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 

ment of five men boats^* from their supmor aise and fonnation^ 
would be able (with few intervals) to procure a eonatant and 
rugular supply. The fishermen are folly sensible of their su- 
perior advantages^ but the want of capital and stimulus^ to 
which may be added the difficulty of dianging famg established 
habits, are not readily overcome. 

The demand for fish is constant and increasing, and every 
town within one hundred and fifty miles of Hartlepool might be 
supplied with this excdlent food with comparative cheapness and 
regularity. 

The surplus fish might be salted or pickled^ and either used 
for home consumption^ or sent to the Mediterranean^ or even 
to the West Indies^f 

In many of the inland towns, fresh fish is considered as an ar- 
ticle of luxury : the increased quantity that would be distributed 

* £6000 would establiah a small fleet of tenfive-moi boots, each boat with its 
nets supposed to cost £600, and the whole might be divided into siztj shares of £100 
each. 'Iht fubsn (tf similar establishments on this part of the coast was principally 
owing to tiie command (tf each boat not having been given to a fisherman possessing, 
at least, one diare. If possthky one or two of tiie crew shoold possess half a share 
each, whidi would infUHUy insme good management and attention. 

It would appear that the fisheiy here was not always confined to oobks, for when 
the Sail of Scaiborongh daimed the tythe of fish in the year 1719, (▼. p. 18S) it is 
stated that "the inhabitants, besides the small fishing vesteb caBed eoiles, have naed 
to employ ships, boats, and other vessels, in taking sea fish for sale npon the i^MA^m 
«M# of Great Britain, and also npon the Tarniouth sea» daring the tinie of the herring 
fishing there." The tythe of the fishery previoas to this period, seems to have been 
a subject of considerable importance, as appears by the following extract firom the 
Seqnestrator's books, in the Dean and G9iq^ter'8 lilunry, at Durham .*«- 

"Letters to Bichard Malam, of Hart, yeoman, all the tythe eome, gtaine, and 
other tythes whatsoever bdonginge to the impropriacon of Hart, which formerly have 
been demised and granted, and also the tyth of the Jlskciy of Hartlepoole 2O0li rent 
— ^payable by equal porc'ons monthly— the first payment to begin firom the first of 
Octo. next, and all sesses to be iSyowtBL—Jfrnd Oretk^m zxo Aup, 1644." 

t The coring of fish might hiq^y be made either a principal or subordinate part 
of the plan. It is weU known, cored fish, for the sopply of many parts of the woild, 
and particolarly the Roman GathoUccoontries bordering on the Meditenranean, dnring 
Lent^ is a considerable article of commerce: thepresentsiqiply of the Soman Catholic 
coontries consists of pilchards firom Cornwall, stock fish firom Norwqr, and ood fimn 
Newfoiandlaiid. From the length of the voyage firom Newfoinidlsnd, the supply of 
ood fish arrives late: & oared fish firom the North of England might srrive nearly 
a month before the Newfoondland fish, and thus obtain a good BNiket for any qua- 
atf.^Ditrkm Ooway Mfcrdier, OoMfr %7, 1815. 



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HISTOBY OF HARTLEPOOL. 185 

by an establishment of the nature above recommended, would 
naturally tend to lessen the demand for, and diminish the price 
of animal food, which is frequently beyond the reach of the 
labouring classes of society. 

The art of fishing is easily acquired, and the extension of the 
fisheries might give employment to an immense number of our 
sailors in times of peace, whose services would be highly bene- 
ficial to the country; they would thus find a congenial and 
profitable occupation, and an influx of wealth would be ramified 
into a thousand channels, difiusing in its course the blessings 
of comfort and abundance to an invaluable and interesting por- 
tion of society. 

For the political advantages which would inevitably result 
from an extension of the fisheries, the projectors would not only 
be entitled to the public gratitude, but they would be amply 
repaid by the profits, which, according to the most reasonable 
calculations, would arise from so patriotic a speculation.* 

It has been well observed that he who puts a seed into the 
earth, is recompensed by receiving forty for it, but, that he 
who draws a fish out of the water, draws up a piece of sQver.t 



* No species of natnnl mdastiy is more lucrative than fishing, because it converts 
the ocean into a mine» and ftomiahes immense profits, without anj other expence than 
what ofmsists in labour. — CampbelTt FoliUcai Shtrvey, n,p, 788. 

t Br.EnnUin. 

The Mowing apposite observations are firom Colquhoun's Treatise on the Wealth 
of the British Empire ;— 

"Fisheries upon a large scale round the CkMst, would be no sooner organised, than 
hordes of small dealers, called hucksters, would resort to the sea coasts, and circulate 
corned fish through every part of the intenor of the country, not excepting the viHsges. 
In Great Britain, where there are no leas than 1188 towns, containing 5,272,713 
inhabitants, besides perhaps six times the number of villages, where fish could be 
dealt out to 6,688,591, forming the rural population, at very moderate prices ; it is 
scarcely poeaiUe to conceive by what other means a greater Uessmg could be conftned 
en. the nation. Such a state of things vrould give a new and improved character to 
the labouring people: — an independence of mind which they cannot feel at present, — 
a aeeurity against want, — a luxury which has been heretofore inacoesoble, — a dhn- 
inution in a oonsidenble degree of the parish rates, and a gradual decrease of that 
debiicinent of character^ which parochial relief engenders, When new and imj^oved 

BB 



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186 HISTOBY OF HARTLEPOOL. 

habits dtofold through thii medium be taXLj fixed, the greater divernty ef food, which 
would be accessible at moderate prices to erery labourer, would speedily produce a 
moral eflbct highly interesting, and incalculably beneficial to the nation, 1^ rendering 
the suorplus kbour of the oommmuty more produetiTe, through which nMdium only 
empires, kingdoms, and states^ become opulent and powerftd. 



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mSTOBY OF HARTLEPOOL. 187 



POPULATION. 

Of tlie popidation of Hartlepool^ no record exists of a date 
anterior to the Parish Begisters ; an attempt therefore to coin- 
pate the number of the inhabitants at any period previous to 
their commencement, would be eqnaUy ecmjectnral and nnsatis- 
£EU^ry. 

The register preserved in the corporation records, commences 
in the year 1566, is continued to 1597, and contains only the 
deaths daring that period. The regokr Parish Blister begins 
on July 14, 1666 ; and though it bears evident marks of fre* 
quent mutilation, yet the following statement will convey some 
idea oi the relative state of the population at periods which 
seem most perfect. 

From 1660, to 1671 inclusive, 187 births, 190 deaths. 

From 1760, to 1771 826 .... 269 

The returns ordered by government, however, wiU furnish 
the most satis£ietory infiunoiation of the actual population : to 
whidi is added a census taken with great care in 1815.'!' 

Inhabited Houses Families Males, Females, Total 

In the year 1800 226 256 437 556 993 

1610 242 246 462 585 1047 

1815 244 251 458 579 1037 

* Tbe author is glad to acknowledge the assistaiice deriyed from the local know- 
ledge of Thomas Ponnder, then o?eneer, in the oensos of 1815. 

Fuller, in his Worthies of England, says that Dr. R. Cosins "was bom at JTor^y 
Toole," a wtdl-known haarbonr lor safe^; send some observe a prondenoe, that ha 
who afterwards was to prove the pwtd ckampUm at Ijnseopacy, should (smongst all 
the ooontiee of ^landj be horn in this bishopric His &ther was a person of 
4ulity,aci^ptamof aoM^aay^inifsMiJAt^^ whence his fakmr letnmed 

with Tictorj and wealth, ^irhak croiang theriver Tweed, (O! the miocrtainty of all 
cvthl^ hajqiiiHas I) WM drowned therein, to the great losse of hissonBichard; and 
giMte, beeane he wm aat aencible theieo^ as lift an infimt in the cradle. He was 
sdmtMi]ik>lVimtjColkga,GBmbridgai Hewva^AMiWschohr, geometrici«B, 
mnsidan, physician, divine, bat chiefly dvil and canon lawjor. By Arbhbishop 
"Whitgift^ he was prefBrred to be first chanceUor of Woroettor, (in that age a place 



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188 HISTOBY OF HARTLEPOOL. 

The total number of hoiues is 267, the number of fiuniliefl 
occupied in agriculture, handicraft, &c. 86, and nearly the 
whole of the remaining fBoniliea are employed in fiahing. 

The following statement of the ages of some of the parish- 
ioners who died between the years 1808 and 1813 indusivey will 
furnish a striking proof of the longevity of the inhabitants : — 

13 were buried between 70 and 80 years old. 

11 80 and 85 

5 85 and 90 

2 90 and 95 

2 95 and 100 

The introduction of parochial roisters in England was in 
consequence of the injunctions of Thomas Lord Cromwell, 
which, according to Hollinshed, were set forth in September, 
1588, (30th Henry YIU.) but not much attended to, till the 
reign of Queen Elisabeth, who issued injunctions concerning 
them, in the 1st, 7th, and 89th years of her reign.* 

The first Begister of Hartlepool is entitled 

" The Register booke for ye Chapplerie of Hartinpoole, at ye pnb- 
lique charge of ye said p'sh provided. And at yefeast of Michaell the 
Archangel], in An'o d'ni. 1598, bought at London, bye Will'm 
Wrighte, of Hartinpole, merchante, and then churchwarden there 
allso— price vi*. viiirf." 

The following memorandum is subjoined :— 

All ye christenyngs, weddings, and buryalls, conteyned in the fonner 
paper register booke of ye said chappie, are trulie dience transcripted 
and engrossed into this present register booke, as by mutuall co*ference 
thereof, may and dothe more fully appeare. 

The following are the most interesting entries, to which are added 
occasional extracts from the regbters of some of the neighbouring 
parishes : — 

noa tun gratiofOB, qiiam negotiofos) and afterwudi Bean ot iht Aidiet, wborein he 
curied himfidf witlioiii giring, (thoQ^ mtny took) ofBenee ti him." 

He was buried at Lambeth, Dec. 1, 1697. He nefcr pohliahed any thing, ezo^ 
a defence of the Hi§^ CommiUBon Comrt There is a life of him 1^^ Biahc^ Bariow, 
who had become his pnpfl, and who was edneated at his expcoce.— ijffOiM'f Ettmron's 
efZomUm, l.j>. 801. 

* Letters firom the Bod. library, toI. 1. p. 181. 



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HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 189 

1587, tlie plague raged with great violence in tlie neighbourhood : it 
is not mentioned in the Hartlepool register, though the deaths amounted 
to 26, nearly double the usual number. In the Stranton register it is 
stated. May 21, " heere began the sicknes," and at Hart, ** 89 corses " 
were buried, one of which was *' a young woman unknown, who dyed 
in the street." 

1598. Sit memoratu qd Alicia Widdison cum miHte Lockerby 
Anglo Britanno in secundo die Novembris tota pervigilabat nocte p'r 
me T. P. 

Feb* 13, 1599. Sit memoratum qd tertio die Februarij in Navem 
Londinensis introibat ubi cum magistri socio, &c. 

Feb. 20. Sit memoratu qd M . D. familiariter navis magistri socio 
vocato Alexandre Pomperay utebatur. 

Nov. 18, 1602. Mergarett ye wife of Edwarde Hall died in the 
nighte tyme, and was buried ye same nighte. 

Nov. 20, 1611. Walter Powell, ye reader here, was buried. 

June 19, 1612. John Constable, John Moyser^ two gentlemen w'ch 
came from ye warrs in Denmark, was buried. 

March 7, 1637. Mr. Joseph Parkinson, preacher of Gods, at 
Hartinpoole, buryed. 

September 20, 1643. Annas, ye daughter of Mr. Johnson, preacher ^ 
buried. 

October 5, 1673. Thomas Smailes was buryed, and crowned by a 
jury of 12 men, and John Harrison supposed to murder him. 

John Harrison, of Seaton, was executed at Durha', for murthering 
Thomas Smails. 

September 12, 1674. William Parke, buryed, who was alaine in 
the frijeridge baume. 

1697. Mem. that collectors for the royall aid sess in the year 

...97 chea^d most abominably the town of Hartinpoole, gathering the 
value of yt where it was not due. 

May 7, 1699. Isabell, daughter of black Dick Hunter, christened. 

March 23, 1704. John Stevenson, buried, insolvent vagrant. 

June 13, 1719. Richard Ward, at 105 or more, buried. 

December 30, 1731. Anne Eden, converted from Quaherism^ 
and baptized. 

1734. The daughter of Francis BlenshaU, was christened, who 
was a Scotchman, '' then teaching psalmody in this town." 

Dec. 10, 1749. Ruth Nicholson, above 103 years old, buried. 

Jan. 2, 1750. Cssar, a slave of Mr. Macdonald, baptized. 

Feb. 9, 1775. Isabel, wife of Thomas Rowntree, ktng Tom, 
buried. 



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190 HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 

Feb. 21, 1776. Thomas Bates, alias Tom aga^ tide, buried. 

May 10, 1778. Susannah Comer, widow, agtd 106, buried. 

June 5, 1794. Dorothy Ransom, agtd 105, buried. 

Hart register contains the following entries : 

December 17, 1596. Ellen Thompson, fomicatrix (and dien ez« 
communicated) was buried of ye people in ye chaer at ye entrance 
unto the yeate or stile of ye church yard, on the east thereof. 

Feb. 12, 1641. Old Mother Midnight^ of Elwick, buried. 

1652. John Pasmore, departed this life one Sunday, and was 
buried on black Monday, 29th of Mardu There was a star appeared 
in the south-east : ye sun eclipsed. 

The melancholy list of those fishermen, who, since the com- 
oommencement of the Parish Kegisters, have perished on the 
element from which they derive their sabsistenee, would present 
no interest to the general reader; the accidents of this nature, 
however, are not numerous, but the names of many of the 
sufferers, notwithstanding the regularity of loeal pedigrees, have 
become extinct. 



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M f en^ ^mttl). 



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HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 191 



THE POOR. 

In the year 1568^ Jan. 26^ Thomas Sparke^ master of Oreat- 
ham Hospital^ bemg "erased and seke in bodie^ yet God be 
prased of good and porfytt rememlnranee/^ by his last ynH 
bequeathed^ mier aUa '' to the po(»e of Hartlepo]le vi». vmdJ'* 

In the year 1588,t a bill was introduced into the House of 
Commons^ relating to the poor of HartlqK>ol^ yet it does not 
seem probable^ that it e?er beeame an aet of parliament. 

The next benefoctor on record is Mr. Henry Smithy j: an alder- 

* CoUectumt relating to the HotpUdl at Oreatham, printed at the private press 
of the late Oeorge Allan, JBsq, of Orange, near DarUngton, p. 85. 

t lUbraiiy 28, 1588. "Pour bfllB had Moh of tliem one reading: of it^axh^ the 
lait being a hill for the Budntenaace of the poor of Hartlepool, waa upon the second 
rea£ng oommitted onto Sir Edward Hohhj, Mr. Geo. Gary, Mr. Stahhs, Mr. Bealy 
the limgcMaa of Newcastle, lime, and Tarmoath, and others; who were ^spointed to 
meet to-monow in the afternoon. March 1. 13ie hill concerning the poor of 
Hartlepool is deferred, to he considered of the committees on Monday next, in the 
afternoon." No fbrther notice appears of this hiU. — ffeytpood Townshenffs Mi9- 
iorioal CoUeetums, 1880, j^. 22. 

X "Mr. Smith is Tolgarly called Dog Smith, from an idle story of his having 
turned heggar, and being followed by a dog ; which probably originates from the 
lambeth pedlar, whose pictore, Mowed by a dog, is in the window of that ohnrch. 
He iras an aldennan of London, probably a silTer-smith. It has been so thought, 
as he Hved in Silver-Street, London, among the working silver-smiths ; bat an in- 
aeriptien in Great Bookeham church, Sozrey, calls him citisen and Salter, of London. 
Hus, however, by no means proves he waa a Salter by trade. He was once married, 
bat his wifSs died many years before him without issae. He died Jsnoazy 80, 1627-8, 
■t his hoose in Silver-Street, Wood-Street, which now belongs to the trost ; and his 
Amend was worahipf ally solemnized at Wandsworth, it being his desire there to be 
interred, becanse it was the place of his nativity." 

Mr. Smith was boried in the chancel at Wandsworth, where his effigy is repre- 
sented in an aldennan's gown, kneelmg at a desk in the attitode of devotion, and 
nnd«fni?ath is a taUet with a hmg inscription, stating the extent of his charities, 
OMOgst which are £1000 to redeem poor captives taken by the Tor^ pirates; 
£10,000 to boy impropriations for godly preachers, with several legacies to parishes 
lA the eoanty of Sozrey, &c. and "not hen stinting his charity and boonty, did also 
give and beq[oeath the most part of his estate, being to a great valne, lor the por- 
cihaatng lands of inheritance fbr ever, for the relief of the poor^ and setting them 
»TWoriceu A pattecne worthy the imitation of those whom God hath blessed with the 
ahondance of the goods of this li& to fidlow him therein."— 'Xi^diwy Jn$cdoks^ v* 
ii. 882.*nSy^# London wntimed ^ 8kype,^JM^$ Sarwichf ^* 



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192 HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 

man of London^ who in the year 1620^ made over hia esUte, 
real and personal, to trustees for charitable purposes, reserving 
£500 per annum for his own maintenance. 

The Trustees were to purchase ''real property of the clear 
value of 100 marks, for each sum of £1000 which they should 
lay out/' in the several towns in England, /'for the relief of aged 
poQr, or infirm people, married persons having more children 
bom in wedlock than their labours can maintain, poor orphans, 
such poor people as keep themselves and families to labour, and 
put forth their children apprentices at the age of fifteen,'' and 
"not for the relief of any persons who are given to excessive 
drinking, whoremongers, common swearers, pilferers, or other- 
wise notoriously scandalous, or to any persons that have been 
incorrigible, or disobedient to those whose servants they have 
been, or to any vagrant persons, or such as have no constant 
dwelling, receive any inmate or inmates to dwell in house with 
them, or have not inhabited in that parish by the space of five 
years next before such distribution to be made, or being able, 
refuse to work, labour, and take pains." 

On January 10, 1634, the trustees purchased of Robert 
Porrett, William Porrett, &c. divers parcels of ground and waste 
lands, in Hartlepool, in pursuance of the directions of Mr. Smith, 
for £500* which are described in a deed, dated December 20, 
1641, signed by Robert Earl of Essex, Viscount Lumley, and 
six others, the surviving feoffees of Mr. Smith's estate, as con- 
sisting of " one capital messuage,"t and " divers other messuages, 

* Hr. Fooock'ft papers. 

t In aU probabilitj the Frienige. 

Prmn Inq. p. m. Bad Gonyen de Layton Ann. 21. Mart. 8. Jac. Item imi€r alU 
" SeituB doiiiiis fratnun de HarUepool qu. tea. de Bege in socag. pr 58. at de man. 
de Est Grenavidi in Com. Kane." B^h Gonyers fiL Joli'is Conyers frstr. Badi 
heres 8st. 25. 

It i^pears also, that Oothbert Gonyers, of Layton, Esq. fiither of Balph, was 
seised of the same premises and by will 28th Sep.1558, entailed them on his sons in 
sncoession. Balph, the ddest, engaged in the rebellion of the Earls of Westmoreland 
md Northnmberland, (▼. p. 51) with old Trollop of Thornley, &c was attainted, and 
during his life, his eetstes, fnch id in g the Frierage, were Tested in the crown, but xe- 
Tcrted to Ba^h after Sir Ba^ OonyaB, as hdr ol entail. 



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HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 198 

landsj and tenements^ with their appurtenances lying and being 

in Hartlepool/' lately purchased from ^Porrett^ gent The 

churchwardens and overseers of the poor are empowered to levy, 
recover^ and receive out of the said capital messuage^ &o. the 
sum of thirty pounds yearly for ever^ to be applied to the char* 
itable uses abeady mentioned. According to a report published 
by Mr. Eeen^of Stafford, m 1808, (to whose kindness the author 
is indebted for many of the preceding particulars) it appears 
that in general, in those parishes which were benefited by Mr. 
Smith's charitable donations, the " full improved rents, are ap- 
plied to charitable uses.'' As the trustees* were empowered to 
purchase land to be allotted to the poor in various parishes, ac« 
cording to their discretion, and aa it does not appear that any 
local feeling existed on the part of Mr. Smith towards Hartle- 
pool, it is probable that the poor were indebted for this prefer- 
ence to Bichard Viscount Lumley, lord of the manor of Hart, 
and one of the trustees of Mr. Smith. 
On Feb. 26, 1640, Henry Hilton,t of Hylton Castle, be- 

* Tie trust is regii]arly renewed : — in 1808, the trustees were the Duke of Nor- 
folk, the Ettds of Aahbumham, Onslow, Chicheeter, and Boniney; Viscoants Mid- 
dietoo. Cranky, and Sidney, and twenty others of the highest respectahility. 

t Tb» origin of the fimodly of Hilton is lost in the donds of remote antiqtdty. It 
has been alr^y stated, that in the reign of King Athelstan, one of the family pre- 
sented a cmctfix to the monastery of HartlepooL A legendary tale resting solely on 
oral tradition, states that a raven flew from the north, and peithing on the turrets of 
a tower seated on the Wear, received the embraces of a Saxon lady, whom her fiithery 
a powerful Abthane, had there confined to protect her from the approaches of a Danish 
nobleman, by which may possibly be adumbrated the origin of the ftmily springing 
from a mixture of Baidsh and Saxon blood. The anthor, who wishes to adhere to 
facts, instead of presenting to the reader a fSuicifiil pedigree, is ^ad to glean the 
isolated fragments which have survived the wreck of ages, and though the above tales 
are given, yet it is unnecessary to add any caution respecting their anthenticity, al- 
though ihej may envelope some allusion which is now hid in the obscurity of fiihulous 
legend. It is at least certain that the house of Hilton existed in great splendour at 
the time of the conquest, and, long before its members had been summoned to parlia- 
ment, under Edward II., agoyed the rank and reputation of barom by tenure, a title 
which after the dedenrion dT the &mily, was constantly attributed to the chief of the 
name by popular courtesy* 'Without entering into a long genealogical detail to prove 
the station they hdd, it will only be necessary to mention that Bomanus de Helton,* 

* l%e <nigi$uU name as here written is Helton ]^ell hadee — a tow depreeeed 
place, wkick corretpondt with the eUuation of Hilton Cattk, jpotiWy from the 
taxon )^lan« tegertr-^, Ijf^e Saxon Dieiionary, 

CG 



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194 mSTOBY OF HABTLEPOOL. 

qoeathed to the poor of about forty different parishes ^' twentie 
firare pounds a peece, to be distribated yearly duremg the same 
termei (99 years) amongst twelve poore people of ye said 
parishes/' Hartlepool was one of the parishes fietvoured by this 
singular will* Soon after the death of Henry Hilton^ the re- 
mainder of the estates which had devolved to his only surviving 
brother^ John Hilton^ was confiscated by the Common-wealth, 
in consequence of his attachment and loyalty to his unfortunate 
sovereign. It appears firom an order, made March 28, 1653, 
by the commissioners for removing obstructions in the sale of 
lands, forfeited to the Common-wealth for treason, ''that Philip 
Thomas made a daim in behalf of the parishes aforesaid,'^ and 
it was ordered ''that the l^ades and bequests therein, being 
to and for charitable uses, or in relacion thereunto, be allowed 
of according to ye said will, for y® remainder of the said term 



in 1166, held three knights fees, ''ultra Teisam in Dominio beati Cathberti de Yeteri 
feoflluttento/'* a territorial possession which was exceeded only by that of the Bnl- 
mers, the Perdes, the Annnndevilles, and the traitor Hugh Pen9on. 

After a long series of warlike barons, who wore ready npon all occasions to shed 
their Uood in the service of their oonntry,f the estate devolyed npon Heniy HOton, 
Esq. a man of strange and melancholy di^osition, who, deserting the seat of his an- 
oestors^ fled to bnry himself in the privacy of McheQ Grove, in Sussex, where he 
lived and died in total sednsion, accompanied only by one fiuthfbl kinsman, Nathaniel 
Hilton, of BiBing^nrst, Esq. He dissipated almost the whole of his immense patri- 
mony in charitable legacies to the dty Chamber of London, to the corporations of 
Durham and Newcastle, and to abont 40 several parishes in Durham, Sussex, Surrey, 
and Middlesex. Perhaps the last will of this extraordinary man may afford the best 
idea of his diaracter. He desired burial in St. Panl's, London, and after entailing 
the remainder of the estate upon his brothers Robert and John, he "declares to his 
griefe, yt if anie p'son shall p'tend to be a child of my body begotten, w'ch I hope 
noe body will be soe impudent and shameless : I hereby caOing God and man to wit- 
ness yt I have no duUd Hveing of my body begotten, md if any such shall p'tend so 
to be, I hereby dedaire he or she so ddng to be a very imposture, and I hope noe 
body will undertake to doe such a shameless, dishonesty and impudent act» and he or 
she soe dedaring to be my child, I doe hereby utterly renounce and disdame ym." 
Owing to the unbounded extravagance of this will, and to the loyalty of the next heir 
during the dvil wars, the fiunily lost much of its andent splendour, and not long 
after the death of the last respected Baron Hilton, the estate was sold for the payment 
of the debts of Sir Richard Hilton, Bart. 

* lAb, Niger Scacearii. 
t EnUMmon. xi. 610. 



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HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 195 

of nyntie njne yean, and that this jadgment and determina- 
con be transmitted to the trustees for sale of y® said lands^ to 
be by them entred and observed, according to y^ tenor and 
purport thereof fcc/** 

On Jannary 14, 1663j it was agreed between the mayor and 
corporation of Hartlepool, and John Hilton, ''that the said 
maior and his successors for y« time being, and to come, shall 
receive the sum of sixteene pounds per annnm,t (in lieu of the 
l^acy of twaity-four pounds) to continue during the remainder 
of the ninety and nine years yet to come according to the will 
of Henry Hilton, Esq. deceased.^' 

The bequest of Henry Hilton accordingly ceased in the year 
1789. 

On March 9, 1680, Sir William Blackett, Baronet, by his 
last will, bequeathed the sum of £2 to the poor of the parish 
of Hartlepool for eyer4 

The lands§ bdonging to the poor, consist of about nineteen 



* March 14, 1660, a bill is mentioned for settling the charitable uses in the last 
wiU and testament of H. Hilton, Esq. as being read a second time and committed. — 
Eennefs CkromcUi,p. 898. 

t Probably in conseqnenoe of the redaction in the rate of interest. 

X ▼. p. 128. This sum is applied by the oyerseers in aid of the poor's rates ; it 
is ordered to be paid on the 1st day of Beoembcr yearly, "in the house at the bridge 
end in Newcastle.'' 

f These lands, together with the fiiarage nsed at present as the poor-honse, are 
sapposed (as has been already stated) to have been purchased with the money of 
Mr. Henry Smith. 

On Jane 10, 1668, it is stated, "whereas there hath been divers differences between 
Oeovge Mennell, of West Dahon, Esquire* and the Corporation of Hartiepool, concern- 
ing the bounders of certaine lands belonging to the poore people of Hartlepool," an 
examination of witnesses was taken by John Maire and Henry Barnes, by which it 
appeared "that about fortie yeaies since, thre small garths of meadow, abutting on 
the north of Lambert's Close, and devided from it by walls and bounders, were added 
thereunto by Robert Porrett,^we recom'end to the judgm*t and defceormination of 
Mr. WaisteQ and Mr. John Turner. wheUier a deed made by the said Robert Porrett, 
some fower yeares after concerning Lambert's Close, onely to Messrs. Richardson and 
Taylor, win carry theae smale indoeures so lately added unto it ; upon which deter- 
mination aQ suits are to surcease, and each p'tie to beare the charges they have bene 
at; and Fryday the sixteenth of September next, is l^)pointed for setting bounders to 
Lambert's Close, and Board CSismy^CorporaHon Papers, 



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196 HISTORY OF HABTLEPOOt. 

acres^ which in the year 1729 were let for the sum of £38 lOs.; 
and in the year 1816 for £141 2s. 

In the year 1694, the charge for maintaining the poor, with 
other incidental expencea, amounted to £17 16b. ; and in the 
year 1816, to £810 U. B^d. Frequent gifts were made to the 
poor, in the better days of the corporation, when the tolls were 
in general nearly treble their present amount, and the mayor 
appears to have supported the poor without a poor's rate^ the 
rent of the lands being sufficient for that purpose. 

The number of poor who receive parochial relief is very con- 
siderable, and the rates are proportionably high : the fudlity of 
obtaining it frequently presents an obstable to honest exertion. 

That high spirit of independence which characterises the 
fishermen in prosperity, seems to desert them on the approach 
of adversity; and parochial aid, which was fmrmerly received 
with gratitude and afforded in those cases alone were distress 
arose from bodily infirmity, is now demanded as a matter of 
course, and received in many instances without thankfalness. 

There are undoubtedly many cases wherein the dole of charity 
is indispensable for daily subsistance, to which these remarks do 
not apply, yet there are others in which industrious exertion 
might render the burthen of support less onerous to the com- 
munity. 



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HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 197 



COMMERCE. 

It has already been stated^ that Hartlepool possessed ships at a 
very early period after the Norman conquest^ and subsequent 
accounts have stated that the vessels belonging to this port were 
frequently pressed into the service of the crown. In the Botuli 
Scotise^ appear several orders on the collectors of the customs at 
Hartlepool^ from which may be inferred the existence of a certain 
portion of commerce. The bishops of Durham likewise, when 
they enjoyed the peaceable possession of the palatinate, and had 
naval armaments^ appointed their ofScer% who received the '' f ees^ 
dues^ and dutiesi which in other ports were paid to the king/'* 
In the fourteenth century, the vessels of Hartlepool partook 
largely in the herringf fisheries, and in 1331, a declaration of 
Edward III4 states that vessels exporting herrings, and other 
fish, are to be exempt from the authority of the officers of ex- 
change, established at Dover, and other porta in the channel, to 
which all florins, &c. were ordered to be carried : which order 
was communicated to the merchants of Hartlepool, Newcastle, 
&c. The charters of murage granted^ the bishops of Durham, 
on articles exposed for sal^ shew that the importation of fordgn 
merchandize was very considerable at those periods. 

The port of Hartlepool possessed distinct privil^es: for by a 
statute in the 5th Elisabeth, prohibiting the shipment of sheep- 
skinsi, wools, &c. beyond seas, it is expressly provided ''that 
it shall and may be lawful to the merchant of the staple, the 
merchant of Newcastle upon Tme, HariUpooIe, and Berwicke, 
their servants, fiustors, and attumeys, and of everie of them, to 

* Hntehhiwni'a BkUxrj of Darim^v. S. p. 521. 

f Tie monks of MookwMnnoQth were soppiied with heniiigi from HarOflpooL 
"Item pfo 4000 aDee sals, Herterpok" otcun frequently Iq their oompotiis. 
t Rym. Feed. v. ir. p. 500. 



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198 HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 

Carrie^ and transport all snch lawM wares as heretofore they 
have been accustomed, and lawfully might, anything in this act 
to the contrary notwithstanding/* 

The later records of the corporation abound with orders re- 
specting the shipment of com, which appears to have been the 
principal article of eoDuneroe; indeed the situation of Hartle- 
pool is ''in a great com country, and is most commodiously 
situated for shipping com and lime/' 

In the year 1718, in the enumeration of the ships ''import- 
ed at London from divers ports,'* are two from Sunderland, 
seventy-five from Stockton, and nineteen from Hartlepool.^ 

In 1795, according to the Custom-House books, the exports 
were as follow : — 

12,107 quarters of oats and wheat 3 caska of pork 

85 qrs pease, beans, and barley 32^ tons of dried fish 

35 qrs of malt 306 lings 

159 pigs of lead 239 hams 

112 firkins of butter 3 barrels of mustard seed 

68 ankers of ale and 3 boxes of books. 

The imports for the same year, were eight tons of salt, and 
one hundred and seventy-nine chaldrons of ooalB.t 

In the above-mentioned year, thirty-seven veaseb deared firom 
the port, thirty-six of which were bound for London. 

From this period the commerce of Hartlepool has gradual^ 
dedined, and at present, excepting in the article of fish, it is 
confined to the occasional exportation of flour to the neighbour- 
ing sea-ports. 

The grand staple of Hartlepool conaiBta of fish, of which many 
tons are salted yearly for exportation. The demand for fresh 
fish, which has been gradually increasing for many years, and 
the high price which it produces, will naturally diminish the 

* MaiUand's BhAory of Londoii, p. 1268. 
t V. Custom Hooae Books, 1735. 

The present establishment of the Custom Honsey consists of a principal coast 
officer, a coast waiter, and three tide waiters. 



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HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 199 

quantity of fish salted for eicportation^ unless the fisheries are 
placed on a more extensive and productive scale. 

Attempts have been made to procure coals* in the neighbour- 
hoodj which^ if they had been successful^ would have raised 
Hartlepool rapidly to commercial independence. Unfortunately^ 
howeverj the result of these experimentst leaves little hope of 
eventual prosperity from this source. 

* In Bmb'8 Cjdopedia it is stated that ''near the town are some collieries/* irhich 
is widely difoent from the fact. 

f In the year 1785, when the manor of Hart was in the possession of the second 
Eail of Scarbofoogh, an attempt to procnre coals was made near the village of Hart ; 
the depth of the boring through a bed of hard lime-stone was 55 ftthoms, 1 yard, 
1 foot, and 4 inches, after which, a sncoesaion of open lime-stone, with soft marly 
partings and water pot a stop to aQfturther proceedings. In 1808, s second trial was 
made, about 200 yards from the fonner, near the road leading from Hart to Hartle« 
pod; at the depth of 29 fathoms, beneath aa nnintempted bed of hard lime-ston^ 
there was a considerable q[iiantity of water, after which a continuation of similar 
lime-atoDB to the depth of 50 frtiioms exactly— at this depth a rwminff sand, through 
which the bare rodt penetrated four yards without any signs of its termination, 
caused this attempt to be abandoned. 

T%ete partieulari were commumeaied by William Thomas, £tq, (icko so abfy 
JUM ike pfice qfTreamaref to the Fier OmmUteeJ with his characteristic amenity. 



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fmO HISTOEY OF HARTLEPOOL. 



FREE SCHOOL. 

The Free School owes its origin to the generous bounty of lir. 
John Crooks^ of Hartlepool, who by his will, dated September 1, 
1742, bequeathed the sum of £15 per annum, for the purpose 
of teaching twenty-four boys in reading, writing, &c. ; and £6 
per annum, to purchase shoes, shirtsi, Sec for the said boys, the 
whole chargeable on his estate at Stranton. He died in the 
same month.* Several years afterwards, Mr. John Leighton, 
(who was perhaps the son of Bobert Leighton, who married 
Marjory Crooks, one of the sisters and co-heiresses of John 
Crooks,) taking advantage of the statute of mortmain, seised 
his share of the estate, but Ann Crooks, the other sister, and 
co-heiress of John Crooks, generously gave her share by deed 
of gift, dated Not. 21, 1765,t to the charitable purpose in- 
tended by the founder. This share consisted of an undivided 
moiety of six several doses, in the township of Stranton, con- 
taining thirty-seven acres or thereabouts, let at the yearly rent 
of £22. She directs that the trustees appwited by the deed 
above-mentioned, shall apply three-fourths of the dear rents to 
instruct sudi a number of poor boys, reudent in Hartlqpool, in 
reading, writing, arithmetic, the church catechism, and the 
prindples of the Christian religion, as the same proportion of 
the rents will afford ; the boys to be instructed by a person 
nominated first by Ann Crooks, during her life, then Bobert 
Ldgfaton, and after their decease, the heir-at-law of Bobert 
Leighton ; and the nomination aftervrards to vest in trustees, or 
the major part of them. The remaining fourth part is ordered 
to be applied to the purchase of quilk, paper, ink, &c.; and 
afterwards such shirts, shoes, stockings, as the trustees (after 
the death of Ann Crooks, Bobert Leighton, and his heirs) may 

* S^. 24, 1742, Mr. Jolm Crooks, biiried,heapietatl hea prim Sdet ! FMrisk 
t Hus deed ww c&ioQed in the High Court of Omaoaj, Jannaiy 1, 1756. 



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HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 201 

direct It is fiurther declared^ that^ whenever the number of 
trostees shall by deaths or otherwise^ be reduced to three^ 
Ann Crooks^ Robert Leighton^ and his heirs, and, after them, 
the snrviying trustees shall appoint trustees residing in or near 
Hartlepool, to complete the number of seven, according to the 
intentions of the said Ann Crooks.* 

The estate at present in the possession of the trustees,t is 
described as consisting of a bam, a garth, two closes, contain- 
ing seventeen acres, and two closes called West and South Low 
Field, containing five acres, (except one acre in the South Low 
Field) and the present rent is £28 per annum. The School 
House, which was built from savings of the rental, is held under a 
lease from the corporation, for forty years, dated September 29, 
1790, at an annual ground rent of two shillings. 

The number of children who receive the benefit of this founda^ 
tion at present is thirty, but there is no longer any distribution 
of shirts, shoes, stockings, &c. 

♦ January 21, 1776, Mrs. Ann Crooks, was buried. — Parish S^ffUter. 

t The firat trustees named bj Ann Crooks, Nov. 25, 1755, were William Dmm« 
of Easington, derk ; John Morland, of Hart, derk ; Bobert Allison, John Grieveson, 
Joshua Rafton, and Thomas Wilson, Jon. 

On December 80, 1786, Bobert Allison, and Thomas Wilson, appointed Bobert 
WUmd, Beed Surtees, the Bev. William Longstaff, John Marly, and John Kinderly, 
trustees, to complete the original number of seven. 

On March 22, 1795, Bobert Wilson, the Bev. William Longstaff, and John 
Marly, appointed the Bev. Thomas Place, Timothy Johnson, George Hunter, and 
William Sedgewick, trustees, to complete the original number. 

Four of the above are now living, viz. the Bev. Thomas Place, Timothy Johnson, 
George Hunter, and William Sedgewick, (to whom I am indebted for mudi informa- 
tion relative to the trust) the Bev. Thomas Place resigned his trust ten years ago. 

Timothy Johnson, at present a pauper in the work-house, likewise resigned, so that 
there are only two trustees at present. 

Dr. Whitaker says, on the subject of eleemosynary foundations. " It would be 
weD, if the funds allotted to their support were alway administered aright. But such 
is human nature, that the appointmoit of active and honest trustees, seems to be at- 
tended with difficulties almost insuperable. It implies no ordinary measure of virtue 
to unite unrewarded attention to the concems of others, more especially of the ignor- 
ant and unprotected, with fidelity and honor. Amidst so many difficulties, the most 
eligible persons for the discharge of these trusts are gentlemen resident in the neigh- 
bourhood ; men who, to some sense of honor, unite habits of business : who wiU 
neither take profitable leases to themselvea, nor by their negligence permit others to 
do so. These hints" Qt is added, and the application is not oonfined to Craveii 
" will be vocal to the uUelUgeiUr^WkUaket^t Cr«ven, p. 471. 

DD 



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J09 HISTOBY OF HABTLEPOOL, 



SUNDAY SCHOOL.* 

This nsefal establishment commenced under the active ezerticms 
of the Ber. B« Lumley^ curate of Hartlepool. It is supported 
principally by the subscriptions of occasional visitors, and by 
an annual sermon. 

The number of children who receive the b^iefit of the Sunday 
School, is about one hundred. 

The management is placed under the direction of a commit- 
tee, and the immediate superintendance is confided to the Bev. 
William Wilson, whose zeal and assiduity have been sensibly 
felt and acknowledged, in the advancement of the rising 
generation. 

* The Bei7« N. Hollmgswortli, whose anxiety for the spiritual welfiire of his parish- 
ioners was truly exemplary, in an address to the fishermen of Hartlepool, in 1810, in 
which he laments the nni?ersal neglect of the sabbath, seems to entertain a hope that 
the children educated at the Sunday schools, may escape the general contagion ; ha 
says, " I fear, my brethren, there are some amongst you, who pass the sabbath usually 
in sleep ; who never so much as think of the worship of God, on that holy day, bi^ 
employ it merely as a season of recovering firom the fiitigue of your past labours, and 
of preparing yourselves for those which are approaching; while your fiimilies are 
busily employed in having all things in readinesn for your next little voyage ; and thoa 
the day of holy rest from woddly toil and care, appointed by God himself with a 
view to the benefit of your souls, instead of hemg employed in his own more imme- 
diate worship and service, is equally neglected, and profiled by whole households,— 
by husbands, and wives, by parents and childzen» unless, indeed, the Sunday-school 
(established and supported in you town by the liberality of the public,) should hap- 
pily have rescued some of your childnii from bemg tnined up in such ahnoat hsuf 
thenish proiSui«tio& of the Si^bath*'* 



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HISTORY OF HABTLEPOOI. tiOB 



FRIENDLY SOCIETY. 

Wastis not to day wbat to-morrow may want ; neither leave ^t 
to hazard^ which Foresight may provide for^ or care prevent. 

(Ecarumy ofAmUtn life. 

The poor man lias lus dob, lie comes and spends 
His hoarded pittance with his chosen friends ; 
Nor this alone,^-a monthly dole he pays 
To be assisted when his health decays ; 
Some part his prodenoe, from the day's supply. 
For cares and troobles in his age» lays by. 

CrM^s Borough, 

This society was established March 2, 1805^ and the funds 
having been managed with prudence and oeconomy, amounted in 
1815^ to about £250 ; the number of ordinary members at this 
period were forty-two^ and of honorary members six. To those 
who by misfortune were deprived of their nets or lines^ the fund 
offered the means of supply^ and in all cases of distress, occa- 
sioned by accident, sickness, or age, the members of the dub 
received immediate relief. 

The funds of the Society were lodged in the Stockton and 
Cleveland bank, whose recent failure xmfortunately threatens the 
total annihilation of a dub fraught with such important benefit 
to the community. 

niere are 9762 Priendly Societies in England and Wales, and with other AModf^ 
lions of a similar nature, their ci^ital may amoont to £8,000,000. The ftmds of 
the societies in the United kingdom, may i^iproach nearly to £8,600,000.— CM^- 
houn, 1816. 



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204 HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 



THE LIFE-BOAT. 

Ths principle of its constniction is now so well known^ and its 
utility so nniyersally admitted, that a description of it seems 
unnecessary; the only variation from the original plan^ is the 
addition of air boxes, to increase its buoyancy. 

In Captain Manb/s report of the coast, 1813, it is stated 
" Hartlepool is surrounded by rocks, dose to its frightful shore, 
which extend some distance to the northward: there is like- 
wise a reef that stretches itself far into the sea, called Long 
Scar.* To the north and south, there are very favourable 
bays of sand -on each side of this place, to insure the safety of 
lives by the aid of a five and half inch mortar,t when vessels are 
driven on them. As I make a point at every place where a life- 
boat is kept, of inspecting it, to suggest whatever I conceive 
may conduce to its utility, I was much gratified at the admirable 
appointment and arrangement made for it here. A committee 
of experienced persons judge of the merits of any extraordi- 
nary case, and the exertion of the people appointed to man it, 
and reward accordingly. A fund| for this purpose is princi- 
pally supported by a sermon annually preached at the parish 
church : on this occasion every one attends, and contributes as 
far as he has ability, to carry into e£fect this benevolent design." 

The life-boat has been frequently used with the happiest re- 
sults, and many valuable lives have been preserved to their 
families and their country ; it is under the patronage of the 
Bishop of Durham, whose active benevolence has been so fre- 
quently extended to Hartlepool. 

* The outer end of the Long Scar lies nearly one mile firom Hartlepool, and a 
Uack buoj has been placed there, which bears sonUi by the compass firom Hartlepod 
ehnrcL It is a rock of nearly one mile in length, dry at last qoarter ebb. — v, the 
uirful Nautical Directum* and Map, published recently by FaUiter Thompeon, a 
pUot 

t A minrtar of this description with barbed shot, &c. is now attached to the estab* 
fiahment of the life-boat. 

X This ftmd was placed in the Darlington bank, which unfortunately fidled in 1815, 



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HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 205 

A local committee superintend the management of the fnnds^ 
&c. and the immediate command is confided to the pilot master. 
According to the regulations of the Trinity House^ Newcastle^ 
the pilots are ordered to hold themselves in readiness, to man 
the life-boat, whenever it may be necessary. 



THE CHALYBEATE SPA. 

This copious spring, which is near the Water-Gate, and is 
covered at high tide, has lost much of its former importance, 
and there are no wonderful cures of modem date, ascribable to 
its efficacy. Many persons, however, have drunk of its waters 
with considerable advantage, and it only requires the aid of 
fashion to regain the public estimation. The water is extreme- 
ly clear, possessing a faint sulphureous smell, with an agree- 
able and slightly chalybeate taste.* 

There is another spring on the shore below the south battery, 
which has not yet attracted the public notice. In its external 
qualities, and its sulphuretted hydrogenous effluvia, it approxi- 
mates very nearly to the Harrogate waters. 

* According to Hntchinson, (vol. 8. p. 88) it discovers a little sulphur, which soon 
flies off; it leaves a white sediment with salt of tartar, becomes whitish with spirits 
of hartshorn, turns a pink colour with galls, but green with syrup of violeta. A 
gallon yields 120 grains of sediment, whereof two parts are nitre, and the rest lime- 
stone. Dr. Munro, vol. 1. p. 881, says it is lighter than common water on riding 
from the fountain ; according to Dr. Short, v. 11. p. 59. it loses both its sulphur and 
chalybeate taste, though it deposits no ochre on evaporation. Dr. S. obtained from 
a gallon, 100 grains of sediment after the well was enclosed, of which 50 grains were 
light calcareous earth, 50 grains of saline matter, containing two parts of calcareous 
Glaubers' salt, and one part of sea salt. Berkenhout says, it contains iron with a 
good deal of Epsom salt, and calcareous earth, also some sea salt, and possibly a h'ttle 
sulphur. Dr. £lliot says, in his Treatise of Mineral Waters, p. 186. it is diuretic 
and laxative, and is recommended as excellent in scorbutic complaints in bilious and 
nervous cholics, in pains of the stomach and indigestion, in the gravel, in feminine 
oomplaintsy in tiie hypochondrical disease, in cachexy, in hectical heats, and recent 
nloers. 



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206 HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL, 



THE CONCLUSION. 

Thb author having confined himself almost exdushrdy to the 
consideration of Hartlepoolj must leave to others the description 
of its environs, the great extent of its sandy shores both to the 
north and south, and the interesting and diversified prospects 
from the various points of view in which the peculiar situation 
of Hartlepool forms a prominent feature. 

The cavernous and fantastic rocks at Blackhalls, merit a mi- 
nute description ; and it would be a difficult task to convey to the 
mind of the reader an adequate impression of the beauties of 
Castle Eden Dean,— of the picturesque and sublime efiiscts pro- 
duced by the abrupt transitions of light and shade on the wild 
and varied foliage whidi overhangs its rod^y banks, in all the 
rich luxuriance of nature. 

Although the communication northwards and westwards is 
always open, yet from the peninsular situation of Hartlepool, it 
is partially interrupted southwards by the influx of the tide in 
that quarter. 

For the convenience of foot passengers, ferry-boats are es- 
tablished, which render the conmiunication with the opposite 
shore sufficiently commodious. 

The fords at Blackstones,^ and near the pier, are perfectly 
safe for carriages at the times specified in the Appendix :t and 

* Perhaps the same place as the andeat Broadstones mentioned (temp. Hatfieldi) 
as having been the scene where John Clerkson, a dergyman, slew William Steeng, 
after having robbed him of 21 pence. 

Comiaaio, &o. ad redpiend pnrgao' Joh'is Qerkson de WiHon d'id snp eo q*d ip'e 
en* aliia fdonice dep'davit WUl'm Steeng ap'd Hertl^de in domo Joh'is Bnllok de 
viginti et mto denar* urgenli die mart* p'x ante f m invenco'is s'oe ends anno pont' 
nr*! dec'io septi'o Et postq'm ip'm dep'dasset scquebat'r ip*m Will'm nsq* le Brode- 
atanes jnxta Hertlepole et en'dm Will'm ibid'm fdonice int'fedt Et s'r eo q'd fdonioe 
fregit domn' Matilde de Fissebn'e a'pd Northhert et ip'am Matildam febnice dep'davit 
de qoaf r solid' et quo finnado p't xvid. Et sap* eo q'd ip'e on' aliis fdonioe fregit 
Oada' Sadb'g ap'd sadb'g die feaoria, &o. 

t V. Appendix. 



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if. 



ont at mzxt 



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HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 207 

it will be necessary for the stranger approaching Hartlepool 
from the south to consult that table, in order to save the neces- 
sity of going a distance of nearly three miles round the borders 
of the slake. 

The village of Hart, having been frequently mentioned, and 
being closely connected with this history, claims distinct notice. 

It is at present considerable, and its church (heretofore the 
mother church) is placed on an eminence, which commands a 
most interesting view of Hartlepool, boldly prominent on its 
rock of limestone, and appearing scarcely to retain any con- 
nection with the shore. 

The church (some parts of which appear to have been attached 
to a building no longer in existence) is not otherwise distin- 
guished at present than by the possession of an octagonal stone 
font, of eztrone beauty.* 

Four of the opposite and corresponding sides of the octagon 
consist of compartments, in which are represented, in relievo, 
the figures emblematical of the four evangelists ; three others 
contain each two full-length figures, representing six of the 
saints of the New Testament, with the instruments of their 
martyrdom; and the remaining compartment, a half-l^igth 
of our Saviour placed behind a sarcophagus, probably denoting 
the resaiTeetion, and around him are the cup, spear, scourge^ 
and other instruments of the crucifixion. 

The eight %ure8 placed in niches on the shaft, are evidently 
from the Bomish calendar; but it would lead the author into 
too extensive a digression, were he to advance any conjectures 
with regard to their identity. He leaves the subject with less 
reluctance as it will soon come under the consideration of a 
gentleman of more extensive research, and infinitely better 
qualified to communicate satisfactory information. 

He contents himself at present with having pointed out a 
curious relic, peculiarly deserving the attention of Antiquaries, 
which has been heretofore but partially noticed. 

* ApputnUj fonaod of Hartitfpodl liinefllone. 



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APPENDIX. 



Carta horn, de Haripol, 

JOHANNES di gn, fto. Sdatis nos conoeansse & hac present! carta nostra oon- 
firmaase hominibns de Hertepol, q'd sint liberi bnrgenses, et quod habeant easdem 
libertates et leges in villa sna de Herteypol qnas borgenses nostri de Novo CasteDo 
snper Tynain habent in villa sua de Novo Castello. Qoare volumus & firmiter pre- 
eipimns qnod predicti bnrgenses habeant et teneant predictas libertates et leges bene 
et in pace libere et qniete & integre sicat predictom est. H^'s testibns Willielmo de 
Stotevill, Hogona Bard, Petro de Patell, Willielmo Briwer, Hogcme de Neville, 
Boberto de Bos, Eustacbio de Vesey, Petro de Bnris, &c 

Data per manum S. Wellensis archidiaconi apod Dnndm, viij die Febroarg regni 
BOffad anno aecondo. 

Boi, Cart. 2 John. No, 19. Ibwer. 



Concessio UbertaU Bwrgensibus de Hertilpole. 

OIBS, Christi fidelibns ad qnoe p'sena scriptd p'vrit Bic'us del gra. Bonelm' Epua 
Sal' in Dno. NoVrit nniv'sitas vestra nos de assensn Badi* prions & capitii n'ri 
Donelm' dedisse conoesiisse & bee p'senti carta n'ra oonfirmasse hoibns de viUa de 
Hcrtilpdle q'd sint liberi Bnrgenses et q'd o'ia tenementa sua in Borgo de Hertilpole 
sint lib'a per jostos et rectos Bedditns sues per ann. solutos pro oibs servitiia anxiliis 
consnetndinibns et exactionibus. Volnms' et concedim's q'd in dicta villa de Hertil- 
pole rint singnlis annis ad fiestu s'cti Laorendi libera faria qom doret per qnindedm 
dies et in qoalibet hebdo' libera xnercata sdlt die m'tis. Volmn's, etiam et concedim's 
q'd dicti Bnrgenses beant bonas et rectas lib'tates et libeas consuetudines sicat liberi 
Bnrgenses, et q'd b'eant lib'm introita et exitom ad firmam pacem n'ram et socoes- 
tor'm nror* eondi et redenndi cnm oib's rebns snis tarn per terr'm q'm per aqoam ia 
E'patn nro per totam terram nostram. Yolum's etiam et concedim's qd dicti Bnr- 
genses h'eant lib'tat' de migore Vendo et Gilda m'catoria sicat aly Bnrgenses b'ent 
mdins et bonorabilias in Bnrgis D'ni regis in Anglia. Salvis nobis et sncoessorib't 
n'ris rectu consaetndinibs nobis debitis & oonsnetis in oibns. Et Salvis nobis & snc- 
oessoribs nris p'sis de vinis sicnt Dn's Bex capit in terra sua in Anglia. Et salvia 
nobis et suocessoribus nr'is rato'nabilibus empc'oibas nris omn re'r venali'm. sicat 
Anteoessores nri temporibus snis h'uemnt vd sicut dns Bex Vet in Bnrgis BaronCL 
suor* in Anglia. Et salvis nobis et suocessoribus n'ris q'd hoies n'ri tarn liberi qnam 
alii de feodo n'ro & holes Prioris et Ck>nventus Dunelm' tarn liberi q'm alii sint liberi 

* Balph Kemech, Prior from 1214 to 1288. 



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de flwolaaittiii ffimatt de p'dcto Bnrgo de Hertflyile. Not vero el saoeeMons n'ri 
in OBf '«!&' fUflw *onni. rer. 'vtmidi'B. oamilnB ilnt pnleramir. Qoaie rol't i; 
fimflter yw rip in w a q*d f'dd bozgOMi k'ouii «t tenant bene A in pace ^pnele A 
iMnorifte* o'«s ff'doM l^iHeto & eansnetnclineB toad p'de'm est. Ut hne doi»tlo nm 
&«onoeMM 1^ «tfte pVts con&maiio p'pnim «btined; fimiititffm p^ ao^Ao S. 
nrW lypou fedos. D«t per ma. Vitatae. i^iid Alvcrtan fMio ioL Oetdb. 
IVwitlf nii WBBi% teitio. 



RoU Fordham ScK 4. No. 5« Commissio jmto Bwr^ensSbus ville de - 
HartUpol nd consuetudines levand, 

J OH. 4. gnu ^. Dm. IrargenaboB & ^'bis hoiVt t, de Herdlpole S. Scaatis q'd ^ 
gra n'ra sp'iali conoeasimas & Ho. dedimus yob. in amiliinn t. ydee ctodeDde <i 
p a^ im e ii t um ia. «ad. vep'aad & fiuaeML nee noa «d mi^orem aeenritatem & tmtioiem 
bo'i'nm & lennt cja'd. t. & p'thun a4jaoentinm q'd m die &c ad fiaem qoinq annor. 
8k, eapiatis in ead. ▼. tarn de reboa yeaaL in dVft v. ad datam preAttoa eiistea' q*m 
de reb'a ven. ad d'ca v. venien. oonauetndines snbacriptaa viz. de qnolt aom'agio bkdi 
ao brasij venaL cnjnscunq gea'is sit, aotoi q'adranteBi. de qoolt. dolio yini ven. dnoa 
d. de qnolt. eqno & eqna bove & yacca yen. jd.de quoit, corio eqni & eqoe boyia & 
yacoe fristo aalito aut tannato yen. j q'dr. de qnalt lasta corior boy. & yaccar. yenalinm 
dnodecim d. de qnolt. baoone ven. j q'adrant. de X oyibns & capria yen. jd.de qninq 
porcis yen. jd.de qnalt centena pellinin CKpni. 4 d. de qnalt centena pellinm lepor 
&c (at a'a) & sqniirellor yen. jd. de qnalt' cent, grisi-operis yen. jd.de qnolt. qnait* 
salia yen. j ob. de qnolt sa' paimi yen. j. d. de qnolt panno integro yalor. 408. yen. j. 
ob de qnolt trussello panni yen. dnct. p' carectam gd. de qnalt centena pannor. de 
worsted yen. ijd. de qnolt panno qni yocat' coy^yt j q'dr. de qnalt centena linee tde Ss 
caneyas ^'d. de qndt. sumagio salmonis yen. ijd. de qnolt. milliar. alec yen. jd. de 
qnolt. snmagio de wadd yen. ijd. de dnob. milliariVs alij aut cepar. yen. j ob de qoalt 
duodena de cordewayn & rasam yen. jd. de qnolt pari molar aut. rotar. yen. j ob. de 
qnolt sumagio pkunbi et feiri aut stanni yen. jd. d qualt carrecta maeremg yen. jd. 

de qualt carr. bosd aut bruere yen. j d dr. de qualt carracta pan yen. j ob. de 

qnolt sumagio de lattes et bord j quad, de qnalt petra nncti sepi butiri & casd yen. j 
q'dr. de qnalt centena cere yen. ^'d. de qnalt cent jrfp'is yen. ijjd. de qualt centena 
amigdoL yen. jd. de qualt centena cumini j ob de qaalt centena todde & madie yen. j 
q'dr. de quoh' milliar. cardonnm yen. j. q'dr. de qnolt sumagio de batiy yen. ijjd. do 
qualt carr. de batery speder & mere.. .yen. ii\jd...de qualt carr. sindonum yen. ^d. de 
qnolt sumagio fructumn yen. j ob. de quoit sumagio cojuacunque m'cimong yen* 
yenien. ad eand. yillam & exceden' valorem decern soL jd. de quoit troiseUo cojasennq 
m'dmonij yen. yenien. ad eand. y. & non exoeden' yidor. decem sol j ob. de qualt 
merchandiaa yen. hie non no'i'ata yalor' qninq solidor. & amplins exceden. yiL yen. 
ad eand. yiL j. q'dr. Et ideo yob' &c. Beb's & bonis nativor' n'ror & ten. n'ror in 
bondagio nee non reb's & bonis natiyor pr. Dan. ao lanis & pellibaa laniatis ad istas 
consaetudiaea prestaadaa semp' exceptis &c. &c. 



Commissio pro Majore et Burgensibus de Hertilpole pro Pera in 
portu ejusd. Ville facienda, 

LA.UR. d. g. Ep's Dandm. XJniy. & sing. Abbatibaa P. Archid. k eor* offic. Dec. 
Conmiisaariia Rect. Tic Fkeab. Par. ac aliis personis cedes, qaibasc caiam aai- 
mammhabentibaaxeyeraitiMdAbitM: aecaoa^.Maj.Ba]l.G<mBtab,lGA'm&a]ii8 

BB 



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lU 

ikielibiii ft tobditu IVm R^ ft nostri tarn infra Ub't^ 

pViint saL Sdatis q'd emu Migor BnrgenMi ft oonmramtai l^Uede Herti^raleiiqper 
mare infra nr'amregiainUlitat. Dondm. deo a4JnTante ft r'ntdoniicantatiTiaprooom- 
modo ft ickvamine om'imn mannarionun taper man laborantimii proponaitea et 
intendentea sint ad fadmd, constniend. et engend. quand' Peram jnxU moioa cjoad* 
▼iDe ex anstrali parte Tille pro 8al?aciistodia mum nanmnetBateOormn infra portom 
ibidem appHcantinm, qom qnidflm Pera com fca oonstrocta ft erecta fiurit ibidem 
iadet portun proftmdun ft babikm ad redpiend. omnes nayia, eignalibet yiDm com 
^orta infra Begnnm Anglic et nt naria, navicnlL et bateDi ft marienarii st^ia mare 
navigantes com valida tempeatas in man foerit, ibidem in cod. portn toeii et ancona 
anas figere & ibidem applicare & residere poasint, in qao q^dem porta plorea na?ea 
narienli & batelli dirnpti et per mans tempeatatem periditatiy ac w»M4nmri^ oom bonia 
Boi8 preantea de mersi ftierant. 

I^Hie remainder of tbe grant oontaina directiona to aid and asiiat tbe Miyor and 
Borgeaees, or wb<Hn thejr abaU emploj, in collecting charitable donatioiii, ftc] 

Bataa Donelm per man. Henrioi OiBowe Ckr. Cane, nri 84 die Mstii Ao. poni 
nri deeimo aeptimo. 

PER OONSnJUlt BOMINL 



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TransUuhn of the Charter granted to the Corporation of 
Hartlepool, 

A'o JR, BegtM J&ig. 85 ti^oq, J/ni, 1598. 

LIZABETH hj the gnm 
I of God of England, France, 
and Ireland, queen, defend- 
er of the fidth, &c. To all 
to whxm. these presents 
shall oomegreeting. Where- 
as the burgesses and inhabi- 
^ tants of our burrough or 
L town of Hartlepool, in the 
^ bishopric of Durham, have 
i peaceably and quietly be- 
yond the memory of man, 
. had, held, and enjoyed Tery 
' many leases, jurisdictione, 
liberties, franchises, and di- 
vers other customs, immu- 
nities, and exemptions, as 
well by prescription, as also 
% by virtue of divers charters, 
^ grants, and confirmations, 
^ made of old by our prede- 
cessors, kings of Enghmd, 
unto the said burgesses and 
inhabttanta of the said bunough, and to their successors. And whereas our said 
bur ges s es of our said burrough of Hartl^oo], have now most humbly petitioned us, 
graciously and liberally to exhibit and extend to them our royal bounty and grace, 
and that we would vouchsafe for the better rule, government, and improvement of 
the said burrou^, to make and create the said burgesses and inhabitants a corpon- 
tion and body pditic. We therefore, considering that our said burrough of Hartle- 
poole is an ancient buzrougjh, and willing that hereafter there be continually kept 
some certain and undoubted method or rule in the said town, and for the preservatien 
of our peace, and for the government of our people there, and that our said bur- 
rough be and continue for ever hereafter a burrough of peace and quiet, to the dread 
and terror of evil persons, and for an encouragement to the good, and also that our 
peaoe and other acts of justice may without any further delay be kept and eigqytd 
there, hoping, that if tiie bu rge ss e s , inhabitants^ and other residents of our said 
burrough, and their successors, shall c^joy by our grant more ample honours, liber- 
ties, and privileges, that then they will acknowledge themselves to be more particu- 
larly and strictly obliged to yield what service they can to us and our successors. — 
And also at the humble suit, request, and petition of our well betoved Sir John 
lionlej. Lord Lnmley, and of our special grace and favour, and from our certain 
biowkdge^ and mere motion, have willed, ordered, ordained, constituted, granted. 



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and dedared, and do Ivy theae jfttteais, for us, our hcura, and aQcoeawra, wiD, or- 
dam, oonstitote, grant, and declare, that oor aforesaid Irarrongh of Hartkpook be^ 
and contmne for ever after, a free bmroQ^ of itself And that the burgesses of the 
said lionoii^ shall for everhsveafter be and remain a* body wrporaU mtd poKtie 
in deed and name of wuiyor and bmrftmef qf the hummgh of Sartlepooie, m the 
hiihoprie qf Durham. And we for ns, our heirs, and soooessors, do advance^ make, 
and eneate them reaDy and pknarij one body eoxponte and pdUtic, and that thcj 
vajoj a perpetnal socoession by the name of the msjor and burgesses of the bnr- 
wnfjtt of gartlepoole, in the bishopric of Pmham afc ws ai d. And that they, by the 
name of tiie bnrmm^ and boigesses of the boROQ^ of Hartl^oole, in oor bishopric 
of Dnzham af(»esaid, shall for evoc hereafter be fit persons, and enable in law, to 
havB, ana fat, receive, and possess lands, tenement^ liberties^ privikgei^ jorisdio- 
iifloi^ and hereditaments, of what kind or natnre soever tiiey b^ to themsdves, <nr 
thcur sQooessoTB, in fee simple, for tenn of life or lives, or for term of yean^ or any 
r or way. And also to give^ gran^ let^ and assign the said lands, 
, and hereditaments, and to do and SKecnte aU and every other thing or 
tii]B0s by the said name. And that by the name of mafot and burgesses of the 
boRoogli of Hartlepoole, fhvy m$^ and can ^ead, and be im^eaded, answer, and 
be anffwered, deftnd, and be dcftaided, in aU ooorta and places^ and also before 
nhaisoewf judgea and jnstioe^ or other persons^ or offioers bdonging to n«, our 
hflua^ and soooessors, in all sb^ everyr snits^ oompUontB^ cansos^ matters, and de- 
naiids whatsoever) and of what kind or- nature soever, in the same manner and form 
ihaife oor other liege subjects of this our kingdom of England, fit peraons^ snd capa- 
ble in the law, can and have^ power: to plead, and be impleaded, answer andbe 
answered, defend, and bo defended; And the said mayor and bnigesses of lliebur- 
lou^ of Hartlepo<^, and thei^ ^looeasoc^ have a cowumm teal to ss^e them and 
their sQooessora in all causes andbusinessof what sort aoeyer to bo acted o» trans- 
aoted* And that it shall be lawfiil for the said magror and buigepsei^ and their sue- 
eeasora, fiwn timeto time, at their pleasura, to.break,^ Km dbange that seal, and to 
make n new one, as it shall seem to them- moetL o^edient^ And forther, we will, 
nd by these presents for us, and our successors, grant, that there be, andahaU 
nmsin in the bonough aforeaaid, onewiajfOft to be diosen and appointed, oni^ of the 
bmgesaes of the said burrou^ aoeor^ng to the fonn herealter qpeoified in tbmtoiDr 
lotters patent. Andfor the better execution of our said will and grants in. thi^psr- 
tioolai^ we have assigned^ named, ooostitated, and made, and by these prsaeotft for 
ns, our heirs, and snoGessors, do assign^ oonstatnte, and make our beloved Srfawiarf 
Bdl, burgess and inhabitant of the bnrraugh aforesaidi to be the jiw/ snd.ne(w 
mayor of the burrough aforesaid, willing that the said Idmmid BeQ to be amtoca* 
tiffioeinthe.offloeofmayor of the said town, from the date of theaa preaent^ until 
Ibe feast of St Midiael the Areh Angel next eaauing, and after that feaat^.untfl 
notheD <^ the aaid burgesses be dioaen, nmninatfd, and appointed tch tha^ offioQ, 
»Pfqr#<^ to the order and proiasiotta. in these presents hereafter ^eeified and^e^rm- 
ted^ if the said Edmund Bell shall so long live^ And we will, snd by tfaeaa pmsavts 
oidain, of ov more abimdant and ipeoial graoa, and for ua, our heirs, and sncj c j ssac tta, 
giant unto the said mafoiy and burgesses of Hartkipoole, and to their neonmn^ 
that for evor. hereafter tiiere be and shall remain in the town aforesaidi tmhi^vom 
ofthe bast improved, and disereai boigesses of the said burrough, who^ shaU.bs^ and 
shall be called and named cspUtd burgeitu mud common eot$meil qf the mktlmr' 
nmgK ^ ^ thiogs, matters, canses, business, touching and eonoeimng the-afoo- 
said towBk and the gpod rul^ states and government thereof. Anlthajt-thaytrsfaaD, 



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VI 

Aron tkM te tiw^ be •idingaacfcaiMatag tothe a torii t kl Bia y i r tag tha tJma bdgy, 
inaUoiniMtiidmitftflntoadiiiigtkeMidtowBu And wa ham ■ppainM, eenatita- 
1«dk ■wniniltfti^, and mad^ and do for niw ou haiii, and mrmamrs^ oonititoU'and 
VMka anc bckved Jb^ Broum, JPerewal Bell, Jokm, BmhotK WtUiam Fmrot, 
Boberi WMUhead, William Si^perd, Willum B^otim, Baiph BofrH^ WUUmi 
MiUiAiWf Tkot, Hart, ■en.y Thomtu Sort, jmLy emdJmnei EhMre, borgeaaaa to be 
itmjrstt and neir chief burgedtei and eonmcm eoimeii of the mid town, t* be con- 
tinned lA the aaid office whDe they behafe themiehrea weU tharan. And we wfll, 
and hf theaofsannta ordain, and of onr abundant grace do grant, finr na> onr hein, 
and sooceaaor^ to the afifinwaid mayor and buigeiaes of the bnnongh of HTtlepaale, 
and to thor Booeeaaora fbr erer, that it shall, and may be kidbl for the mayor and 
bi ir ge aa e a of Hartlepoob aforeaaid, and their lucceaaora fbr aver to have, and appoint 
» certain oomunl^house cit ffmid-^haU ynXtask. theaaid town. And the aforesaid miqror 
and boigeaaes of the said town, or the nugor part of them fbr tiie time being, may, 
andwhall hare power and aotiion^, so often as they diall see it expedient and naoea- 
saryt to call and hold in the said house, a court or aasembly of tfae sai«l mayor and 
bmgesaes, the common council of the said town or the greater part of them fbr tiie 
time bcingr fbr erer hereafter. And that theynuqF, and shell hare power in the 
asma court to handle, relate, eonsolt, advise, and detennintf of the statutes, laws, 
articles^ and orders touching and concer ni ng the aibreaaid town^ and the good raie, 
atote, and goremment thereof, acoording to the aound discretion of them, or the 
greatest part of thorn at the time assemblbd^ And fbrtfaer, of our special grace we 
will and oodain, and do by these presents for us, our heirs, and successors, grant to 
the mayor and buigessea of the town of Hardepoole, and to their successors afore- 
said, that the mayor and bur g ess es, the common council of the said town, for- the 
time beings or the greater part of them, in court assembled and' met together, shall 
and may have power and authority to oonstitato and ordain, and firam time to time 
establish such ]aws» institutions, orders, and decrees as they, or the greatest part of 
them shall judge wholesome and profltiAile, honest and neceasary, according to their 
Bound' judgment, for the good role and government of the said mayor, aapital bnr- 
geases, and all other and singular the buiigesaea and inhabitants of the said town, 
and of all ministers, officers, tradesmen, inhabitants, and sojourners whatsoever 
of the said town, fbr the time bemg. And for the app ointin g after what method or 
order the said mayor and burgesses» and all other the ofl9oers> and ministers, trades- 
men« inhabitanta, and other residenta of the said town, and their footers, servants, 
and apprentices, sludl behave and demean themselves in their offices^ services, trades, 
ftmotiona and concerns within the aforesaid town, and the libertiea- thereof, for the 
time bcinj^ or otherwise for the fbrther public and common* profit and good govern- 
ment of the said' town, and fbr victualling the said town, and also fbr the better 
paneaerving, ordering, and dispoaing, letting, and selling of the said tenements, poa- 
aassiottSk and revenues, or hereditamenta, granted and assigned to the aforeseid 
mayor and burgesses of the said town of Hartkpoole, and to their succesaoia) and 
all other things and causes^ touching, or in any way concerning the said town, or 
the stato laws^ or intexcst thereof. And that the mayor and capital burgesaes, the 
common council of the said town for the time being, or the greater part of them, as 
often aa they shaU make, ordain, and establish such laws, institutions* orders, rights, 
asid oonsthntions in tiic aforesaid manner, shall make, order, limit, and provide 
aoeh punishments^ penalties, and imprisonments of body, or by fhies and amcrek- 
raanta^ or by both of them, to be inftioted upon the breakers of laws, orders^ and 
c oMiituU ons^ or any of them^ or of what kind shall seem requisito and ntiuaaaarj 



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Vii 

into the ifbicitid mi^or and boigeiiet of the Mid t<mii, end to their ■neeeeeoti, far 
the better obtenring of the nid laws, orders, and oonititations, so that thej may 
and shall have power to eigoy the said fines and amereiainents, withoat hinderanoe 
horn 08^ our heirs and soocessors, all and tftrj of which laws, acta, oonstitations, 
and deerses so as albresaid to be made, we will that thej be obsenred under the penal- 
ties contained in them, prorided that sodi laws be not repognant and contrary to 
the laws and statutes of the kingdom of England. And we fbrther win, and by 
these prssents for us, our heirs, and suoeeasors, grant to the said major and burgess- 
es of the aforesaid town, and to thor successors, that Ihey the afbiesaid mayor and 
capital burgesses, the common counoQ of the town aforesaid, fat the time being, or 
the greater part of them, may, and shall haTc power and authority from time to 
time hereafter lor erer yeaily, and erery year, the neH Monday tfier the femti qf 
St. MieMael the Jreh Jtufel, to ehoote tmd nominate one of thewuehet, who shall 
he wittjfor of the tforeemd town for one whole year nest following. And after he 
is so chosen and nominated to be the mayor of the afbiesaid town, and before he be 
admitted to execute the said oflke, he shall take a corporal oath before the last mayor 
his predecessor, in the presence of the recorder of the aforesaid town, or his dqNE^ 
for the time being, to execute the said office well and faithfiilly ; and he so chosen, 
well and foithfiilly to execute the office of mayor of the said town, shall have and 
execute the said office for one whole year next ensuing. Moreover we do for us, our 
heirs and successors, grant by these presents, to the mi^or and burgesses of Hartle- 
poole aforesaid, and to their successors, that if it shall happen that the mayor of the 
said town should die, or be remored outof his office within the year after he heap- 
pointed and sworn to the office of mayor, that then, and so often it shall and may be 
lawftil fxx the aboresaid twelve capital burgesses, common ooundlof the said townfiir 
the time being, or the greater part of than, to choose and appoint one of themselTes to 
be mayor of said town, so that he so chosen and ^pointed, shall have and execute that 
office during the remainder of the year, having first taken his corporal oath in 
form aforesaid, and so often as occasion shall happen. And fhrther we will, and 
for u% our heirs, and successors, by these presents grant to the afbresaid maymr and 
burg e sses of the burrough of Hartlqpook aforesaid, and to their heirs and successors, 
that if any who shall hereafter be diosen and nominated to the office of mi^or, or 
other inferior offices of the ssid town, or any of them, and he or they having notiee 
or knowledge of the said deotion and nomination, shall deny and lefose that ofSoe to 
whidi he or they are diosen and nominated, that then, and so often it shall and way 
be lawful for the mayor and capital burgesses, the cnmnMm eoundl of the ssid town 
for the time being, or the greater part of them, to commit to the gaol him or them so 
refusing to execute that office or offices, and to impose sueh fines and amerdaments 
i^on him or them so refusing, as shall seem reasonable to the msyw and chief bur- 
gesses, the common council of the ssid town, for the time being, or the greater part 
of them, and him or them so refusing to commit to the gaol of the ssid town, snd 
there to detain him or them, until he or they pay, or cause to be paid the said fines 
snd amerdaments to the use of the said town. And moreover we will, and for us, 
our hdrs, and successors, by these presents grant to the afbresaid mayor and capital 
b urg esses of the aforesaid town of Hartl^Kwle, and to their successors, thst whenso- 
ever it shall happen, that any one, or more of the said capital bu rge ss e s , <x eawman 
ooundU of the said town for the time being shall die^ or be removed from his plase 
of capital burgess, thst then, andso often it may, and shall be lawfbl for the migrer 
md diief burgesses, at that time surviving or remaining, or the grsater part of them, 
to nominate and ^point one of the burgesses of tho sdd town or buiough into the 



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viii 

pbceorpkeet of oipttil borgeit or oipttil InirgeMet lo happemiig to die, or be n- 
mofcd. And that he or thej lo dioiea and approved, hafing lint taken bia ooiponl 
oath bflfere the m^or of the aforeaaid town, ahall be of the number of the twelfa 
coital bnrgeaiea and common ooandl of the aaid town ; and this aa often aa oecasion 
ahaUoiEBr. And moreorer we wiU and ordain, and bjtheaepreaentalbrnayoarheira, 
and ioeoeaaorB, grant to the aftneaaid mayor and capital bnigeaaea of ^ town of 
Harilepoole afioreaaid, and to their soooeaaora, that for ever hereafter there may, and 
ahall be two <ifficen in the aforeaaid town, which ahall be called ieryetmU to the msee, 
tat eneoting prooeaa writa^ and other bnsineaa of the aforeaaid town from time to 
time. And that thef, the two aeijeanta to the mace, to be appointed for the albreaaid 
town, shall earrj gQt and aQvcr macea, engraved and adorned with the aims of the 
kingdom of ''^'g^*"** eveiy where within the said town, and the libertiea and the pre- 
cincta thereof, before the m^or of the said town, and his soooeasors, aa haa been 
iMnal heretofbre. And moreover we wiD, and grant lor ns, our heirs and snocesaora^ 
to the aforeaaid major and bnrgeasea of the aforeaaid town of Hartlepoole, and their 
a a c c eaa o ra for ever, that thef , and their successors have, hold, and keep in the said 
town yearij, and eveiy week in the year for ever one wuarM, to wit, upon Tuudojf; 
and alio onefmr yearity, and eveiy year for ever, beginning on the VigU of Si. LaU' 
nueo, and from thence to continne fifteen days together, with a court of pye-powdsr 
there to be holden in the time of the ftir, and aa long aa the market ia kept, with all 
libertiea, fireedams» and customs, to the same court bdonging, together with tallage, 
ataOage, picage^ fines, amerciaments, and all other profits, commodities, and benefita 
whataoever, arising, hiq^pening, and accruing from such like marketa, foirs, and pye- 
powder courta belonging or appertaining. Provided nevertheleas, that theae foirs, be 
not prejudicial to the foira next adjoining, and that in the time of the marketa and 
fura aforeaaid, and every one of them the aforeaaid mayor, have, receive, and gather 
bj himself or his depute, custom or toD, of all manner of m e rch an d ise , warea, and 
diattdi of iHiat aort aoever they be, boof^t and sold, aa weU within the libertiea of 
the said town, aa without, and that without the kt or bindiarance, of us, our hairs 
and sueeeasora. And we do give and grant boence to all our subjects, and to eveiy 
one of them, and of our heirs and sneeessors, that they m^ have power to give^ 
giMit, alien, enfooi; and aasign to the mayor and burgesses of the town of Hartls- 
pooiK and to their s u c ceaaors for ever, manors, meaauagea,landa, tenemen t s, rectories, 
titiies, rents, reversions, and aervices, or other possessions, revenues, or hereditsmenta 
whataoever, whidi are not holden of us, our heirs, or successors in ofite^ or by 
kni§^ service, nor by us, nor by any other or others, by knigiht service, without K- 
eeneeof us, our heirs, or successors, and without the licence of our lord or lords, for 
vHiom the said landa, tencmenta, hereditamenta are^holden, so that the landa, teoa- 
ments, manora, meaauagea, landa, rectoriea, tithes, rents, reversions, and aervices^ 
or other possessions, revenues, and hereditamenta aforesaid exceed not the value of 
aizfy pounds per amnmL And that the said mayor and burgesses of H a r ttopoole for , 
the time being, may and shall hafve power for themadves!, their heirsy and snccssaora 
for ever, to have^ receive, sue for, and ogoy the manors, meaauagea, knda, tene- 
ments^ rectoriea, rente, tithea, revenoea, and hered it am ent a aforesaid, which are not 
holden of us, our heirs, or successors, in a^ste^ nor by kni^ service, nor of a^y 
other by knie^t aervice, nor without special licence of ua, our heirs, or saccesson^ 
or without the licence of the lord or lords from whom the aforeaaid landa and heredita- 
BMnta are held, so that the said manors, messuages, lands, tenements, reotoiies^ tithes^ 
rents, ravennaa^ aervioea, or other poaaeaaiona and hereditamenta do not exceed tiM 
fubieof rizty ponnda per aunmiy flrom t^Mtever subgeet or salgaets^ andof u»o« 



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hMS or mooouan, at tnm astf other perm «r femm ^<mmeir9. Ukffmm w 
hMB gh«a, aiid Iw If, 0V hdn, and flseeeMori, gnat ipMul k^ 
aaj faief <de td fMd ^amntn) or mj otiier krie^ cmMmwd, or wwsBiiiibBai «i^ 
onr ham, m wsMfmmn, to be tlMonrfon asywiM Mids, dflnnd, or f nwrwiwl , ffai 
stointeol IwdiaiidieDemflBtB, (tdmaiinmiiiartiiimiuttpoBaid.) or jay other if^ 
tvte, set, oBduMon, pcofisioa, or UBkictitti f onMrly Jud, made^ pabluM, i 
or froyided to the ecmtxacy, or anj otiier thing, ealu^ err mattor to the i 
njtMuidiiig. lad nomoTer, wo have 1^ iAu&t pnMBti, granted jbr «a, oar hAm^ 
aad anooeMon, to tlie afinesaid major and burgeiMa, and to their aaonfiw oi n * to ham 
aad to hold, aae, and eiqof to thenuulfiei, aod their aaceeaaon, lot cm willuB fibe nid 
town of Haiikpoek, aad the port of the aaid town, wUkin^ and Jrom ike Nmek 
ih^M M ih$ rmer Tltese on ike mnOh pari of ike afarea&id iow, at far m Black- 
ktii$aUmgike9ea^-dioremikeuorikndeqftkemuiiow»,ynihmi^^ 
and the liko priffleges, Ubertiea, graata, fraii^iaea, jnriedidioiM^ imiiinitifiy fiaa- 
doeai> ezemptionB, andpre-eBuneDeea wfaateoerer, a&d of what aaiue or aort aeevor 
thef he, as ike atayor and bwyesses cfike toum cfNewcaaUe wpom Tifne, vwKfoi 
iUktm, er aaf of their predeoeeaoTs, hf whit luune or aaznea aoofor ihcf woa caBed, 
ineorporatod, or thtll he iaeorporated. Pronded titat thej hanv or haretaAnie han 
had, held, vaed, or enjoyed, or might hare had, held, oied, or cqjofed, ia or withia 
tha towa of Neweaatle aforenid, aad tfao adbazbs and libertiea of Ihe aaaw^ or aaf 
of thera, by virtne of any duster, kttera pateat, donation, pmeriptioa, aia, or any 
o&cr lawfcl tida whatMerer, aay nndne altecation, aaocrtnaty, ooa trar irfy , 
r^agnanee, negHgeaoe, oaaeaioa, or not tne redtdaony or any other thing; caaae, 
nantter, or aay atatote, act, order, permissioa, or reetzaiat, made, p^Mrflw^^ aad 
provided aay way notwithstanding. And further, we will, and of onr moia aaipla 
graoe and fiiToar, and of onr eertain knowledge, and mere motion, do by theaa pra- 
seati grant to the aforesaid mayor and burgeases of the town <^ Hartlepoole fA^mmaiA^ 
and to thsir aaeoessors, that they the said mqror aad bmgeases, aad their sooceaaoKa, 
may haaa, bold, and enjoy, and shall ha^e power to bare, hdd, aad aigoy to them^ 
selres, and their snee es so r s for erer hereafter, within the port aad town at Hartla> 
potde aforesaid, aa many, as great, and the Hke cnatoms, msxfcets, £00^ Ubetiies^ 
grants, frandnsea, prifilegea, jnnsfietions, immanitifift, freedons, esempiiaaa, andi 
pre^minenees whatsoever, and of what kind aoevorthey be, aa the mayor aad bar* 
gsssea of Haitlepode, or any of their prod ee e saors, by what namo or name aoew 
thay were eaJlad or ineorporatad, hara heretofore had, held^ nsed, aad eajoyad, or 
OQ|^t to have had, held, need, or enjoyed in and within the town of Hartkpoofa^ 
aad tha port of the said towa, or either of them, by virtue of any grants p ttac iip tio B , 
castom, or any otfasr harlnl title whatever, albeit they, or their predeaesaors^ or 
any of them have oaed, or abused any of ^ privili^ aforesaid tineog^ aooM 
emergent aoeideat, yet tiia ssid mayor and burgesses, and their soeoessors, bargeaset 
of the said town or bairoagh of Hartlapoole, may hereafter have ase and eajoy tiks 
saaM piivilegea, and every of them, without any hiaderaaoe from na, our heha, aad 
saeaassors, or aay of them, or of our jastioea^ bailiffli, eadieatora, or any other 
mkdstcrs^ or offioea whomsoever. Provided notwithstanding that oar weU beloved 
John Lord Lomley, his hefaa, aad snoeessors shall from time to time, aad at aU 
times hereafter have, and enjoy within the town of Hartlepoole,and the Hmxts thereoC 
all bk rights, titles, hereditaments, liberties, aad firanchises whatsoever, in aa an^ 
a manner and form as if these onr letters patent had not bean made and granted, dsa. 
In testimoay whereof we have caoaed theee onr letters be made patent Wihuaa 
Ottaelf at WeatminBtsr, the third day of Nnraaiy in the five and thirtiefli year of 
our reign. C. 6£fi&iBJ)E« 



Digitized byCjOOQlC 



Habtlbpole, 

1^ proclamation to be prodamed here att HarUepole upon 
the fityre daye beeinge St. Lawrences daye, viz. Whereas oure most gratious sonuigne 
Ladye Elizabethe, by the grace of Ood Qoene of Englande, France, and Irdand, 
dfifrindfflf of the &yth, &c. and her hig^es most noble progenitors of her and there 
highnes meare motion and good Cayre, they have hadd for the good govemmente oi 
this her majestys town of hartlepole ; and the ancyente boronghe and Corporation 
of the same. And the advancemente of the wdthe of the inhabytantes therein hatAe 
giren and granted onto the maior and burgesses of the sayde town to haye one firee 
ftyie yerdy, to bee holden on this presente daie comonly callyd Set lawrence daie^ 
And the same to continue the space of fyfteyne dayes Theis therefor aire straytly 
chazgeinge and comandinge in her nugestyes name and in the name of the maior and 
burgesses of the sayde town of Hartlepole, that evrye person and persons dnringe 
the sayde &yer kepe her maiesties peace, and that noe maner of person or persons 
doe weare, beare, or carye anie unlawful wei^xms within the prydnctes or lyberties 
of the same fityre, or the boroughe and lyberties of the same towne under the payne 
that may ensue thereupon. Jttd allsoe that all and eyrie person and persons, 
comeing to the sayme &yer with anie merchandise to sdl, do paye her w^wffftifti 
onstomes and the townes towdl accustomed to bee payed upon payne to paye, for 
eyrye penye wrongfully concealed twenty shillings. Jnd allsoe tiiat eyrye person 
and persons oominge to the sayme fkyre and remayneinge oyer, or all night doe 
kepe there hostes house, frome and after nyne of the docke att ni^t^ untyll i^ye of 
the docke, in the nexte daye, in the momeynge, upon peine that may ensue 
thereupon. 

God saye the Quene. 

r. Ibwt Records, 



FF 



Digitized byCjOOQlC 



XI 



A Catalogue of the more rare Plants found at, or near 
HarUepooU 



Mbtumdria wumo^ynia, 
Salieornia herbaoea 

Diandria wtOHO^yma. 
Lygoatnim vulgare 
Sahia Yerbenaca 

THoMdria wtOHO^yma. 
Soupns midticaiilis 

pandflonu 

fluitans 

maritimiia 
Eriophomm yagmatam 
polystachion 
Ihtmdria di^yma. 
Phalarb arenaria 
Alopecanu bulbosas (Seaton) 
Agrostifi stolooiiera 
Aira fleiuosa (Eden dean) 

otBroIea 
Sealeria cserolea 
Poadistans 
maritima 
procumbens 
decumbenfl 
BromuB airensU 
Anindo q)igqo8 (Eden dean) 
RotboUia incoryata (Seaton) 
Elymos arenarina (Seaton Snook) 
Hordenm mnrinmn 

maritimnm 
TriticiDnjnnoeom 
loliacfflim 
Tetrandria numoffynia, 
Galium trioorne (Seaton) 
Plantago maritima 
coTonopns 
Sangidaorba offidnaliB 

Tetrandria Tetragynia, 
Fotomogeton pectinatnm 
Rnppia maritima 

Pentandria monoggma. 
Olanx maritima 

Pentandria diggnia. 
Chenopodiom nrbicmn 
robrnm 
mnrale 
^ancum 
maritimnm 
SalBola kali 
Eryngium maritamnm 
Cancalifl nodosa 
iElnantbe pimpineUoides 



Pinminella wm gi^ ^ 
Apinm grayeolens 

Pentandria pentaggnia, 
Statioe limonium 



Hexandria wumoggnia. 
Jonoos bnlbosQs 
pilosos 
sylvaticos 

Hexandria triggnia. 
Triglochin maritimnm 

Deeandria monoggnia, 
PyrolarotnndiMa") n,,_ , . 
minor j ^^^ ^«^> 
Decandria trigynia, 
Chiysoflpleninm alteniifolimn "> (Eden 
oppodti^mn j dean) 
Areoariai ' 



Decandria pentaggnia, 
Cerastinm semidecandrnm (Seaton Snook) 
Spergnla nodosa 

Pofyamdria monoygnia, 
dandnm luteom (Seaton) 
Papayer aonmifemm (Seaton) 

Pofyandria pofyyynia, 
Thalictram minna 
migas 
Didynamia angioepermia, 
Melampymm pratenae 

Tetradgnamia siliculaa. 
Lepidinm latifolinm (Seaton) 
Cocblearia anglica 
Coronopna rnmlii 
Baniaa caldle -^ 

Monadetpkia pentandHa, 
Erodinm dcutarium 

Diadelpkia decandria. 
Genista tinctoria 
Vicia sylyatica (Eden dean) 
Astragalns bypoglottia 

Polgadelphia polgandria. 
Hypericum montannm 

Syngeneiia aguaUt. 
Picris ecbioides 
Cardans acanthoidea 
marianns 

Syngeneia pofyandria enperf. 
Artemisia maritima 

Aster tripolinm 



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Oynandria diatulna. 
Orchis conopsea 

Cypripediam csJoeoluB (Eden Dean) 
SennaB latifolia 

paloitrii 

nandiflora (Castle Eden) 

Mimacia monaitdria, 
Zannichellia palastris 

Monaaeia diandria. 
ticmna triflolca 



Monandria triandria, 
Carexarenaria 
(Ederi 
extensa 

Folfgamia monacia, 
Atnplex portolaooides 
uttoralis 
pednncqlata (E. Robson) 



A List of Marine Algoe found near Harikfool. 
e. common. r, rare. 



Fucns linaosas 
sanguineoB 
hypoglossum 



ligolatoB 

esculentnB 

alatUB 

laceratUB 

laciniatus 

pafanatofi 

ednlis 

rnbena 

crispuB 

canaUcolatiis 

lOfCQB 

pygmaeuB 
aeoleatiiB 



rotmidoB 
hunbricalis 
pHcatna 
oonfcrroidM 
flagdH-ibirmis 
sabAudis 
pmrpnnscens 
ekrelloficiB 
kaHfonma 
Tiiidifl 
articulatas 
▼eaiciilosiu 
saochaiiniia 
Conferra rnbesoenB 
capfllaris 
hjaeoidea 
cdiata 
ooccmea 
oonfemoola 
cnrta 
dongata 
eq[iii8efci fbUa 
iSexiioea 
iMda 



Hartlepeol rod^ c. 

Ditto. 

Ditto. 

On the shore, near Eden Dean. (E. lUdbeon.) 

Long-scar rock. 

On the Wack at Sealon. (B. Robson.) 

Hartlepool rocks, c. 

Ditto. 

Ditto. 

Ditto, c. 

Dittio. 

In pools, c. 

Hartlepool roeks. e. 

Dittio. 

On the beach, south side of Hartlepool. 

Inside of the carems, abont high water mark. 

Hartlepool rooks, c 

Ditto, c. 

Fools of water, c. 

Dttto. 

Ditto, c. 

Among the rocks, c. 

Ditto. 

Ditt». 

Ditto. 

Ditto, c. 

Seaton beach. 

Hartlepool rocks. 

In pools ditto. 

Ditto. 

Rocks, c. 

Ditto, c. 

Bdow the terry , in the stream at low water. 

In the salt water ditches behind the town. 

On the beach, near Hartlepool. 

Among the Rocks, ditto. 

Ditto. 

Ditto. 

liong-soar rock, on Fad. 

Ditto. 

Hartlepod rockg. 

In pools left by the tide, near the wind-milL 

At low water, growing upon the stones bdow the ferry. 



Digitized byCjOOQlC 



Conferva fiudoola 



littonliB 
Isteyirens 
Mertensii 
nigresoens 



Yepens 

rosea 

ra^ertria 

stncta 

tetngona 

Tomeri 

uxoeolata 

varticLData 

letaoea 
ftiooides 
spongioea 
Booparia 
toinentota 
ladicani 
rubra 

polymoipha 
Bivularia yenniciuaris 
Ulfa prnporaBoeiifl 



plnmo 
Imza 
umbilicalii 
oomproMa 



Common on the stcmi of laige VuxL 

On Fad, in poola among the rocks. 

c. 

Li pools among the rooks. 

Growing among the rocks opposite Seaton. 

Hartlepool rocks. 

Poob of water in the cayems. 

Stems of Fad. 

Hsrtlepool rocks. 

c. 

Hartlepool rodtt. 

Ditto. 

Ditto. 

Seaton beach. 

Hartl^od rocks. 

Ditto. 

In pools left by the tide in the cayens. 

Hartlepool rocks. 

Ditto. 

Ditto. 

Ditto. 

In pools in the cayems. 

c. 

Ditto. 

Seaton lUx^. 
Seaton beach. 
Long-scar rook. 
Haitlepool rodEs. 
Ditto. 
Ditto. 



A Catalogue of Shells, found on the Coast near Hartlepool. 

The best figares are reftned to in the arrangement, and those authors quoted 
whose writings are most generally known< 

The names of the works mentioned are MontagaV "Testacea Britauiica;" 
Donayan's "Natural History of British Shells;" Pennant's " British Zodogy/' 
Yd. 4th; Da CosU & E. Mendei* "British Conchology;" and the " Transaetiona 

of the Linnean Sodety." 

MULTIVALVES. 



Chiton marginatus 

Iseyis 

fasdcularis 
Balanus yulgaris 

rugosus 

dayatus 
Lepas anserifera 
&sdculaiis 



Pholas crispata 
Candida 



Myatruncata 
arenaria 
inssquiydyis 
distorta 



Mont. 498. 1. Don. tab. 9. 

Mont. p. 2. Pen. 86. 8. 

Don. 164. 

Pen. 87. 6. 

Don. 160. 

Pen. 87. 6. A. 

Mont. 16. 2. 

Don. 164. r. 

Mont. 17. 8. r. 

Don. 62. 

Pen. 89. 11. Don. 182. 

BIVALVES. 
Pen. 41. 14. Mont. 82. 8. 
Pen. 42. 16. Mont. 80. 2. 
Mont. 88. 7. 
Mont. 48. 1. 1. 1. 



C Near Seaton Snook, burrow- 
\ ed in day. 



^ Immense numbers perished by the severity of the firost in 1814. 



Digitized byCjOOQlC 



xiT 



Sokn gfliqna 


Bon. 45. Fen. 45. 20. c. 


ensis 


Pen. 46. 22. Don. 60. 


pellucidaB 


Pen. 46. 28. 


legumen 


Mont. 60. 6. Pen. 46. 24. 


TellinA ferroensb 


Don.60.Mont. 65. 1. c. 


sqnalida 


Mont. 66. 


tennis 


Don. 19. (three lower figures) 


fia>iila 


Don. 97. 


sdidDla 


Pen. 49. 82. c 


Carditim (cockle) 




acoleatnin 


Mont. 77. 2. Don. 6. 




Mont 78. Don. 107. 


Icevigatimi 


Don. 64. Moni 80. 6. 


edole 


Pen. 60. 41. 


medium 


Don. 82. Mont. 88. 9. 


MactnsoUda 


Mont. 92. Don. 61. 


snbtrimcata 


Pen. 62. 42. 




Mont. 94. 8. 




Mont. 98. 8. 7. 


Intraria 


Pen. 62. 44. Don. 58. 


himyi^ 


Mont. 101. 9. Don. 140. 


Donax tnmcnliu 


Don. 29. 


VeniiB yerracora 


Da Costa. 186. t. 12. 1. 


iwlimii^fpft 


Don. 77. Mont. 114.4. 


chione 


Don. 17. r. 


m^i^y-tft 


Pen. 65. 1. 


deciuaata 


Don 67. 


perforanB 
damnoiiift 


Mont. 127. 17. r. 


Mont. sapp. 29. 4. rariss. 


▼irginea 


Da Costa, p. 204. 881. r. 


aiirea 


Lin. Trans, viii. t. 2. f. 9. r. 


prahia 


Da Costa. 188. t. 18. 8. r. 


stnatnla 


Don. 68. 


Area fnnflata 


Don. 78. rariss. 


nudeos 


Don. 62. 


Peeten (scallop) 




mAThmug 


Don. 49. Mont 148. 




Don. 12. Mont 145. 


pnaio 


Don. 84. 


variiis 


Don. 1. Mont 186. 


Ostnaednlis 


Mont 161. 


striata 


Don. 45. 


Anomia ephipptmn 


Don. 26. Mont 165. 


sqaamnla 


lin. Trans, viii 102. 


aeuleata 


Mont 167. 8. 


Mytflns (mnssell) 




edulis 


Mont 159. 


pennddiis 
tarbatus 


Mont 160. 8. 


The yomig of Modiolus 
Don. 257Mont 168. 


modiohis 


disoon 


Don. 25. Mont 167. 


rogoans 


Don. 141. Pen. 68. 72. 




UNIVALVES. 


CyproamdiciQiis 
Bcilla eylmdncea 


Mont 201. Don. 48. c. 
Don. 120. 2. r. 


aperta 


Don. 120.1. r. 


Voluta tomatilis 


Don. 57. Mont 281. r. 


ambigoa 


(AlbaofMont) 286.5. 



Digitized byCjOOQlC 



XV 



Buccinam (whelk) 
nndatoin 

Baccmom lapillns* 

reticalBtam 

linettmn 
Sirombiu pes peJecani 

costatos 
Murex des^ectus 
antiqnns 
corneoi 
ermaoeoB 
TrochoB (top-ahell) 

tomidns 
magns 
imiDilicatiu 
Tnrbo (wreath aheU) 

terebra 

littoreiis 

zionc 

rndis 

dathroB 
Nerita glancma 
flaTiatatfliB 
pallidnla 
uttonlifl 
Helix lievigata 
hort^uiB 
anricalaria 
Patella Yulgato 
paira 
fiasura 
t peDodda 
BentaKmn entalis 
Seirpula apiiorbia 
mizuita 
yenmonlaria. 
X SabeDa 8ob<jliiidnoea 



Pen. 78. 90. 

Don. 11. Mont. 239. 

Don. 76. Mont. 240. 

Pen. 79. 

Don. 15. Mont. 245. 

Dob. 4. Pea. 75. 94. 

Don. 94. r. 

Don. 81. Mont. 256. 

Don. 119. 

Don. 88. Mont 256. 8. 

Don. 86. Pw. 76. 95. 

Don. 52. Mont. 274. 
Mont. 280. t. 10. t 4. 
Don. 8. 1. 
Pen. 80. 106. 

Don. 22. 2. 

Pen. 81. 109. 

Lin. Trans. 160. (vol 8.) i. 4. f. 14. 

Don. 88. 8. Mont. 804. 12. 

Pen. 86. 120. 

Pen. 81. 111. 

Don. 20. Mont. 469. 

(In the slake) Don. 16. 22. 

Don. 16. Mont. 468. 

Pen. 87. 148. 

Don. 105. 

(On the old walls.) Don. 181. 

(On the slake.) Don. 51. 1. 

Common Bmpet. 

Don. 21. 2. 

Don. 8. 2. r. 

Pen 90. 150. 

Don. 48. Mont. 494. 

Don. 9. 

Mont. 505. 9. 

lin. Trans, viii. 243. 

Mont. 552. 9. 

Pen. 92. 168. 



* This is one of the shells from which the IVrian pnrple dye was extracted. 
When the animal is removed from the sheU, a amaU white vein is visible near the 
head, which contains the liqnor, assessing the property of tinging linen, &c. with 
an imperishable and most be»itifiil pnrple. — Vide Fen. vol. 4. 102. and Phil. 
Draiuaeiion*, 1695, vol, xv. 

t In the Yonng shells the vertex is near the margin, and in the older shells it is at 
a considerable diirtance, forming an opake, and frequently a distinct head, which Col. 
Montagu considers as forming a distinct roedes. — Test, Brit. 9upf, p, 158. 

X 1%e Sabella is placed in the list of 8mUs» in compliance with established cus- 
tom, though the covering of the animal consists of piartides of aand findy agglu- 
tinated together. 



A List of Birds observed at Hartlepool. 



Anas Cygnus 
anser 



wad swan 
Greylag goose 



Seen in severe winter weather, 
do. r. 



Digitized byCjOOQlC 



*Aniu erythropus 


Bemade 


do. r. 


Ixamida 


Brentgoose 
liderduck 


r. 


innTliaginift 


Extremely rare : one shot in 1789. 


nigra 


Scoter 


r. 


boBchas 


Mallard 


c. 


t mania 


Scanpdock 


c. 


tadarna] 


Shiddrake] 


Breed in rabbit holes in the 
sand-hills, near Hartlepool. 


pendope 


Wigeon 


c 


acuta 


Pintail dock 


Seen only in severe weather, r. 


gladaUs 


Swallow-tailed do. 


do. r. 


flangn^a 


Golden eye 


r. 


ftiligalA 


Tufted dndL 


r. 


creoca 


Teal 


0. 


Pdicaniu carbo 


Comorant 


c. 


ipracnliis 
NMsamiB 


Shag 
Oannet 


Galled "mackerdgant." c. 


Aleatorda 


Basor-bill 


Very conmion. 




PofSn 


Bare, caUed "tommy noddy," 


alle 


Little auk 


Extremdy rare. 


Colymbos trofle 


Guillemot 


Very common. 


giylle 


Black guillemot 


Very rare. 


stellataa 
onstetus 


Speckled diver 
&eat crested grebe 


r. 
r. 


mmatus 


Little grebe 


c. 


Sterna Inmndo 


Cknnmon toru. 


c 


minuta 


Lesser tern 


Near Seaton Snook, c. 




Sandwich tern 


c 


LaroB mannas 


Bladc.badced gull 




fiuCQB 


Herring-gull % 




ncevins 


Wagel 




caniis 
ridibimdiu 


Common gull 
Bkck-headed guU 




hTbeamiiB 


Winter gull 




xiMa 


Kittiwake 




tridaetjhfl 


Ttfrock 




cropidatos 
parasiticiu 


Blade-toed gull; 
Arctic gull 


Called "teasers." 


ProoeDaria pdagica 


Stormy petrd 


( Frequently caught by the child- 
l ren in winter. 


pnfBniu 


Shearwater 


r. 


Mergna merganser 


Goosander 


r. 


castor 


Dundiyer 


r. 


^ Ardeadnerea 


Common heron 


On ike borders of the dakes. 



* This and perhaps the next were supposed to spring finom the Icpas anatifera, and 
though Gerard has generally bera quoted as the auHior of this marvdlous stoiy, 
(whidi he has rdated with infantine smiplidty,) yet I find a similar account in the 
" Mirrour of the World," printed by Caxton, in 1489, above a century before the 
Herbd was published : — "Ther is toward Irlonde on the one syde a maner of byrdea 
that flee, and they growe on trees, and on olde shippe sydes by the bylles ; and whan 
thejr be nygh rype, they that Me in the water lyve, and the otkor not : they ben 
called bemades.^' 

t In the winter of 1788-9, they were found in sudi quantities that above 1000 
wero canght in a wedc, and add for Is. per dozen. 

t Thore is a Herring-gull now living at Hartkpod, twenty-one years old. 

$ Li the "fonne of Cury" compiled about 1390, by the master cooks of 
Bai^ard II. printed by G. Brander, Esq. for his private friends, the Heron is men- 
taoaed in the following receipt — " Oanes and H^ns shul be armed with lard of 
swyne, and eten wi£ ^ns (ginger)." In 1470, at the feast given by George 
Neville, Archbishop of York, at ms installment " heruffles " are mentioned, and 
the price at that period waa 12d. — They are still eaten at HartlepooL 



Digitized byCjOOQlC 



Ardea steDaris 
Soolopax aiqnata 
phoeopus 
rastioola 



gaUinn 
ngooq^liak 

calidris 
Tringa hypokneoB 
macalata 



cmdns 
pnaiUa 
morineDa 



xvii 

Bittern 

Cnriew 

Wbimbrd 

Woodcock* 

Common mipe 

Jndcock 

Oodwit 

Green shank 

Bcdshank 

Common san^^iper 

Spotted sandpiper 

DqbIiii 

Porre 

Little stint 

Turnstone 

Grey phalarqpe 

Ruff 

Lapwing wrprit 

Gfcj sttBdpiper 

Sanderling 

JMbenl 

Bing dotterel 

Golden ploTcr 

Oyster catcher 



Extremely rare. 



Very rare* 



Called '"mnsMlendurs." 



pagnax 
t TaneDos 
sqnatarola 
Charadrios calidris 

morinellns 
hiaticnla 
plnvialis 
Hsematopos ostndegns 

* Many were Ibond drowned on the north sands about twel?e years since in the 
spring, sn^posed to have met with a oontrsiy wind. 

t ui the "MiiToor of the World" before quoted, it is said "the hnppe or lap- 
wynche is a byrde crested whiche is moche in maroeys and fylthes — and abydeth lever 
therein than oat therof— whomsoerer ennoynteth hymself wyth the Uode of the 
huppe, and hi^pe that after leyde hvm donn to alepe hym shold seme anon in his slepe 
drming that alle the devyllys of belle shold oome to hym and wold strangle hinu" 



Corms mooednla 


Jackdaw 


' A colony boild their nests in the 
Gnn-cave. 


comix 


Boyston crow 


In winter on]^. 


frogUe^ 
Stnmns TiUj^ans 


Book 
Starling 


Conunon in winter. 


Smberixa miliaria 


Banting 


Breeds here. 


FringiDa domestics 


Hoose sparrow 


Ditto, c 


Alsnda anrensis 


Sky.lark 


Ditto, c 


pratensLs 


•nt-lark 


Ditto. 


minor 


Field-lark 


Ditto. 


MotadDa alba 


FiedwagtaQ 


Ditto. 


robecola 


Bedbreast 


In the winter. 


r^gulns 


Golden-crested wren 


In the winter, caUed "toto'er seas." 


mniH^t^^ft 


Wheat ear 




rabioola 


Stonechat 


Ditto. 




Chimney swallow 


Ditto. 


nibica 


Martin 


Ditto. 


ripaiia 


Sand martin 


Ditto. 


^os 


Swift 


Ditto in the dmrdi. 


Ampdis garrolns 


Chatterer 


5 One found dead on the Sand- 
I hills, in 1814. 


I am foBy aware of the extreme difficulty, oi 


r rather the impoisibiHty of fisming a 


correct list of all the birds which visit HartlepooL At the iq^proach of winter, when 


the smaller birds congregate, th^ are foond in great variety ; and daring the winters 
of long eontinosnce, birds, whi^ are in general confined to mem mNrthem dinates, 


are occasionally seen. 







Digitized byCjOOQlC 



Fishes caught an the Hartlepool Coast, 



Oadofl moriLua 

molva 

pollachiiu 

earbonarhiB 

seglefiniu 

merlangiu 
Fleoionectea solea 

hippogloMiiB 



platesn 



manmiu 
Scomber scomber 
Qapea harengiis 

pilchfffdiu 
Rqabatis 
dftyata 



Codfifih 

Ling 

Polaok 

CoalfiBh 

Haddock 

Whiting 

Sole 

Holibut 

Flomider 

Plaice 

Dab 

Tuibot* 

Mackerel 

Herring 

Pilchard 

Skatet 

Thomback 



Besides the above, used in commerce, and which are distributed over 
a wide extent of the kingdom, the following mag be added : 

MmtBDa conger 
Awnyyliia Inpas 
Ammodites tobianns 
Blennina phyds 

gonnellafl 
gattomgine 
CottoB citaphraetas 
LabroB tinea 
Trigla gnmardns 

cocobns 
Esoxbdone 
Gastrobranchns oGecoB 
SqnaloB acanthias 
Cydoptems lompna 
Lophina piacator 
Syngnathos acoB 
Traduniia draco 
Gasterosteos acoleatns 
pnngitins 
Salmo salar 

eperlaDOs 



Conger eel 
SeaWolf 
Sandlamioe 
Hake. r. 
Spotted Uenny 

Pogge 

Wrasae, '•old hen." 

c. 

c. 

Garflah 

Hag (glatinoiiB)^ 

PiSed dog fiahi 

LmnpsDcker 

Angler 

Pipe fish. r. 

Common weerer 

Three-spined stickeback 

Ten-spined ditto 

Salmon, r. 

Smelt, r. 



* A Tery nnoommon quantity of Torbots was caoght near Hartlepool, about 
Christmas, 1789— very minsnal at that season.— if. TuiutalTi MJSS, 

t A Slote^ weigjiing IGst. 41b. was caught by Bichard Hnnter, fisherman, 1813. 

X Which enters the fish on the hook, deronring the whole, with the exception of 
the bones and the skin. 

i These fishes are sometimei so numerous, as to prerent the fishermen from par- 
ioing their occupations. 



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CETACEOUS ANIMALS. 

Belphmns phocsenft Porpesae* 
area Gnmpas 

FENNATED QUADBUPEDS. 

Fhoca Titdina Common seal f 

* In " the Forme of Cniy/' foimerij quoted, compiled about 1890, the " por- 
pays " is mentioned, with diractions how to dress it. 

t At the great fetist at the inthronization of Archbishop Nevill, (6th Ed. lY.) in 
the goodly provision made for the same are "porposes and seales XII." — Lei, 
Collect, vol. 6. p. 2. At the inthronization of Ajn^b. Wariiam, 1504, in the prices 
of provisions are "de seales et porposs, pec. in proas, XXVIs. Vlld." (Lei. Col. 
voL 6.J and in " a propordon for the Kmg's M^estie, the Qwyne's Orace, and the 
Housholde, for oonmeale being a fyshe mesde according to thejr ordenance," (Teti^. 
PhilUpi et Maria RJ "seeales andporpos" are included. — Collect. Curiota. vol. 1. 
p. 1. The prices of 1 seal and 1 porpose are stated at 13s. 4d. each, (17th Hen. 
Vm.) at the marriage of Roger RocUey with Elizabeth, Daughter of Sir John 
NevilL — V. Bolk of Froviiiotu published with the Forme of Oury. 

CBUSTACEOUS ANIMALS. 



Cancer pisum 
minutns 
longioomis 
depuzator 



pagarns 

hoTiidus 

azanens 

gammams 

strigosos 

serratus 

crangon 

benuirdns 



Pea crab 

Minute crab 

Long-homed crab 

Cleimfler crab 

Conmion crab (dog crab) 

Black-dawed crab 

Horrid crab 

Spider crab 

Lobster 

Plated do. Found only at extreme low water 

Prawn r. 

Shrimp 

Hermit* 



c. 
c. 



Craba associate together in considerable numbers, and if carried off and droptinto 
the sea, at the distance of several miles, they find their way back to their old haunts. 
If their Ic^ are wounded, they have 1^ property of throwing off tiie whole by the 
joint, a q[ttanti^ of mudlagenous matter issues from the extronity, which stops the 
blee^Ung, and is gradually hardened into a new limb. If the mucous matter be 
removed, the animal bleeds to death. Collimon. Phil. Trtme. vol, 44. 

* This species is parasitic, and inhabits the empty cavities of turbinated shells, 
changing its habitation aoo(»rding to its increase of growth, from the small nerite to 
the large whelk. — Peimani. 



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XX 



This curious Table may be relied upon, for its 
accuracy. 



O 

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r^^^^\ 


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/*^ 


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•^11 




IS 


OrH 

SS3 


•H09 
rH rH 
00 00 


C«00 

fH iH 
00 00 


1 1 


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-5 




Is 


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:i 





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r 



r' 



^%i^- 



I 



^S f^ 



rikOoiDi-^o<Dao«>9a»OTrikGetoi-^o 



to to to to to M M to to M )^ l-i H^ )^ )^ ^ 

«o 00 -^ 9 o( i^ 00 to H^ o <D 00 «3 e» ot <g 



s 



«o)->H'«o)->o<Doo«9e»e»OTrikOooop'^ 

OvSoOOOOOOOTOOkOOtoSo? 



i^o«o«Dooe»toi-^)-^o<D<DOo«>9tor 

^ OT rik ^ teovH'^ov M *^ 

ooooooi«9SaoS^o«iik.Eaorik.B q 

r' *" 

FLOOD.ktest EBB, tooiiMt p. 
timeofpMBage time dt piwige. 



l-i l-i l-t 1^1^)^ 1^ B- 

l-iOO«D«D«9tOOO<D«DOO*a«9«or hj 
OtOOtCOOIOTOOOOOOtf^OOOOOOOoP ^ 



a» a» oi tfk 00 to OT lik 09 to »-« H' to to «9 p 



o(f 00 00 0(0 oiS^ooooo ri^OTr q. 



EBB, Boonett 
timecrfpMBi^ 



FLOOD, latest 
timeofpenege. 



o»OTiikOote»-<e»OTiikOote>-'»-<»-«o»K txj 



o.SSS8oSSStSi?S»S? 



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Iiteft. 



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Digitized by VjOOQIC 



xzu 



SUBSCRIBERS 

T0WAXD8 THE 

RESTORATION OF THE PIER. 



£ 8. D. 

George Pocock, Esq., M. P. 600 

Sunderland Ship Owners ... 878 6 6 

Trinitj Hoose, London ... 210 

Earl of Darlington 100 

Bishop of Dnrham 100 

Lord Vis. Barnard 100 

SirH.V. Tempest, Bart.... 100 

Sir Balph MUbanke, Bart. 100 

J. 6. Lambton, Esq., M. P. 100 
The Hon. W. Powlett, Esq., 

M. P 100 

Insurance Association, Dar- 
lington 100 

Ladies' Subscription 66 14 

Liberal Gub, Newcastle ... 52 10 

Underwriters, Stockton ... 60 

Shipping Company, Stockton 60 

Wm. Vollmn, Esq 60 

Geo. Allan, Esq., M. P. ... 26 

Thos. Mgmell, Esq 26 

Ber.N.HoUingsworth 21 14 

Samnel Barrett, Esq 21 

Bobert Wilson, Esq 21 

William Hoar, Esq 20 

G. L. Hollingswoiih, Esq. 20 



B 8. D. 

Sir Cnthberl Sharp 10 10 

W. Sedgewick, Esq 10 10 

Dean of York 10 10 

H. J. Dickens, Esq 10 10 

Thos. Backhouse, Esq 10 10 

Ditto, 2nd Subscription 10 10 

William Walton, Esq 10 10 

Messrs. Hutchinson & Place 10 10 
Execs, of Sir H. Williamson, 

Bart. 10 10 

Geo. Sutton, Esq. 10 10 

Thos. Nicholson, Esq. 10 10 

Messrs. Pryor & DoUin 10 10 

Sir Samuel Romilly 10 10 

Bev. Dr. Prosser 10 10 

George Baker, Esq 10 10 

MissBaker 10 10 

W. Mellanby, Esq. 10 10 

Mr. W. Yeal 10 10 

John Goodchild,jun., Esq.... 10 

Sundry Subscriptions 67 7 



£2677 11 6 



SUBSCRIPTIONS 

TOWABDS PROCURING AN ACT OP PARLIAMENT. 



£ 8. D. 

George Pooock, Esq., M. P. 80 

Earl of Darlingt(m 26 

Kahop of Durham 20 

George Allan, Esq., M. P.... 20 

G. L.Hollingswortii,£sq.... 20 

Lord Tis. Barnard 10 10 

Sir M. St^ylton, Bart 10 10 

Sir Cuthbert Sharp 10 10 



£ 8. 

Thomas Backhouse, Esq. ... 10 10 

William Vollum, Esq 10 10 

W. Sedffewick, Esq. 10 

Alexan<kr Logan, Esq 10 

John Ward, jun.. Esq 10 

R€7. N, Hollingsworth 10 

£207 10 



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xxin 



LIFE OF ST. CUTHBERT, 

(From an ancient MS.* in the possession of 6. AHan, Esq. M. P.) 

'eynt Cnthbert was ybore her in Engelonde 

God dude vor him vair miracle as ich undirstonde 
Ye wile he was a yoDge child in his oztetethe yer 
Mid chOdrin he pleide atte bal yt is felawes wer 
Ter tom gon a little child it thos thre yer old 
A swete creator & vair it was milde and bolde 
To ye yonge Cnthbert he zeode leve brothir he sede 
Ne thenche nozt in such ydel game vor it nis thi dede 
Seint Cnthbert toke no gome to thilke child is red 
Ac pleide vorth with is felawes as hii him bede. 
To this yonge childe yseyz yt he is red vor sok 
A donn he vel to ye gronnde & gret deol vor him tok 
He gan to wepe swythe sore & gan is honde wringe 
Te childrin hadde alle gret del of him & bileved pleyinge 
Awaylawey qnath 8. Cnthbert wy wepist thou so sore 
Zef we habbith ozt misdo we ne sschullith na more. 
Tan spak yis yonge child sori hii wer boye 
Cnthbert it ne vallich nozt to ye with yonge childrin pleie 
None soch ydel gamis ne bycomith ye to wirche 
Uor Ood hath ypnrveide an heind of holi churche. 
Mid yis word me miste wodir yis zonge childe wende 
An angel it was of hevene yt our lonird thndir sende. 
To bygan Seint Cnthbert to wepe & siche sore 
& bilevid alle is gamis, nolde he play namore. 
He made is fadir & his frendis sette him to lore. 
& in his zonthe nizt & day of servid godis ore 

* The xnioiTiBcript from which thia cnrioiu specimen of early English poetiy is 
extracted, gives no positive information with re^rd to the period when it was writ- 
ten. There can, however, be little donbt, from its style and exeontion, that it has 
been the pions task of some laborions monk, in the beginning of the thirteenth 
century. It contains a similar life of every saint at that time honoured with admi- 
ration in the Bomish calendar, together with Aort poetical accounts of those fasts 
and festivals which still receive r^gious attention. 



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XXIV 



Yo he was of grettore elde as ye bok oas hath ysed 

It by yil that Seint Aidan ye bisschop was ded. 

Cnthbert afeld was mid is sschep angeles he ysey 

Ye bisschops is soule S. Aidan to hevene ber an hei 

Alas sede Seint Cuthbert fol icham to longe 

Inelle yis sschep no lengore wite wo zem erer anonge 

He wende to ye abbey of girenaus & grei monke bycom. 

Oret joye made ye monkis alle yo he ye abit nom. 

Swythe wel he is ordre held he was of gret penance 

YehoUest monke he was yholde in Engelonde oth' in Franc 

It byville ther afterward yt yer com a goute 

In his kne of gret anguise war of he was in doute. 

He ne migte streche yorth is leg joynnid to his thei 

As a crepil lame he was he werth swythe sori. 

Solas to habbe in a day he let him ber aboute 

A vair knigt he meite in ye felde mid lorenis prate 

Ye knigt him bad astonde abide yt Seint Cuthbert ber 

He bygan te hanli than soreleg as he leghe wer 

Nim he sede miUce of a kou yt is of on colour. 

Ye juse of smalhache do yerto & clene wete flour. 

To gadre you it sethe wel & ley it al hot yer to. 

As a ylaistir al hot & brod & it wole the god do. 

Yo he hadde yis ysed is wey vorth he wende 

An angd it was of hevene yt our louird thidir sende, 

Ar S. Cuthbert yis gode ylastr longe to him bounde 

Is leg and eke is smwyn bycome hoi & sounde. 

It was nogt longe yer afterwards as ye bok ous deth telle. 

Yat ye abbot him sende out to one of horecelle. 

Dstder he was ymad gistis yor to anouge 

God yor him miracle dude ar he wer ther ther longe. 

Angelis yer com ofte to him & with him hii hete 

As they it other gistis wer ye gistninge was swete. 

Wel gladliche gistis mete he gaf ; he nolde noman weme 

Yen mete yat bad p charite he was nothinge steme 

It byyel yat an hendi gist & wel yair yer com 



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XXV 



& bad yen mete p eharite S. Cuthbert in him nom 

& zaf him watir to is bonde & to ye heie deis he sette 

Mete & drink largeliche mid gode herte he vette. 

To ye bakhons he zeode as ye bakar hadde ybake 

To yetche is gistbred al hot ye gladdir him to make 

To he eom agen mid is bred yis gist ne fomide he noit 

Ter of hadde yis holjrman gret wondir in is thozt. 

As he sozte thus is giste he goede about wide 

He smilde a swote smil in a chambre yer by side. 

He com in to ye chambre^ he vonde abord ysprad 

& yer uppe thre hot loyis wel yt he was glad 

Tis was he sede godia angd yt yis hath hidir ibrogt 

He eom hidir to yedin ous & vor to be yved nogt. 

Eche nigte wan yis monkis te bedde wer ygon 

Seint Cuthbert wd stilliche wende vorth anon 

In te ye colde se he zeode anon te ye chinne 

Uorte it was ney mydeihiizt so he stod yere inne 

Tanne wende he up yer of & wan he com to londe 

Nor feblesse he vel a doun he ne migte nozt stonde 

Tan com yar up of ye se twey oteris wel grete 

And lickede him in eche stide as hii him wolde lete. 

He wende hom to matyns & zem songe & radde 

Te monkis wende everichon yt he com of is bedde. 

As our louirdis wille was yer after hit gan valle 

Tt ye bisschop of Durham deide as we schullith alle 

Me wende & nome Seint Cuthbert & mad him bisschop yer 

Is bisschopriche he wuste wel & wd yt Tolke gan lere 

To was it to sothe ybrogt yat ye angd him seide 

Tet he sscholde he hdud of holy church yo he atte bal pldde. 

To he hadde longe yservid god aftir him he sende 

So yt in ye monthe of lude of yis wordle he wende 

To ye joye of hevene, god let us also 

And thorz ye bone of Seint Cuthbert bringe us alle yerto. 



ABC. 



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THE GREAT FLEET OF KINO EDWARD III. 

At page 40, an account is given of the number of ships and 
men furnished by Hartlepool towards the King's fleet at the 
siege of Calais. A further extract from this interesting record, 
will shew the relative importance of the towns which contributed 
to form this ''huge fleet.'' The south fleet consisted of 493 
ships, and 9630 mariners, in which number are included the 
King's ships, which were 25, and 419 mariners. The ''North 
Fleete" will, however, present more local interest, and is there- 
fore given at length. 



Towu. 


Ships. 


Mariners. 


Ibwns. Ships. 


Mariners. 


Bambiirgh 
Newcastk 


1 


9 


Yermonth 48 




17 


814 


Donwich 6 


102 


Walcrich 


1 


12 


Orford 8 


62 


Hertflpode 


5 


145 


Ooford 18 


808 


Hun 


16 


466 


Herwich 14 


288 


Toike 
Kanenger 


1 
1 


9 
27 


Ipswich 12 
Harsey 1 


289 
6 


WoodhouM 


1 


22 


Brightlingsev 5 


61 


StroUuthe 


1 


10 


Colchester 5 


90 


Barton 


8 


80 


Whitbanes 1 


17 


Swinefleete 


1 


11 


Maiden 2 


82 


Saltfleet 


2 


49 


Dcrwen 1 


16 


Grimesby 


11 


171 


Boston 17 


861 


Wayncflect 


2 


49 


Swinhnmber 1 


82 


Wrangle 


1 


8 


Barton 5 


91 


Linne 


16 


882 


The summe of the North 




Blackney 


2 


88 


Fleete 217 


4521 


Scarborough 


1 


16 







Estrangers their ships and mariners, 
88 ships 805 mariners. 

''The summe of expences as well of wages, and prests, as for 
the expences of the King's houses, and for other gifts and re- 
wards, shippes and other things necessary to the parties of 
France and Normandie, and before Calice, during the siege 
there, as it appeareth in the accompts of William Norwel, keeper 
of the King's wardrobe, from the 21st day of April, in the 18th 
yeere of the reigne of the said King, unto the 24th day of 
November, in the one and twentieth yeere of his reigne, is iii 
hundred zxxvii thousand U ixs. mid" 

HaekluyUf Voyagea, v. 1. p. 118. — Archaelogia, v. 6, p. 213. 

THE END. 



HH 



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SUPPLEMENT 

TO THB 

HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 



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ALA|9 J^,l c^ ^.'<I 



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MODERN IMPROVEMENTS IN THE PORT OF 
HARTLEPOOL. 



The succesafiil establishment of a port^ in tibe short space of ten 
or twelre years^ with a traffic of upwards of one million of tons 
annually, has given rise to expressions of surprise that it should 
not hare been accomplished at an earlier period. It has been 
shewn by Sir Cuthbert Sharp, that as far back as 1795, Mr. 
Dodd came before the public with a formal and well-considered 
plan for the restoration of the port of Hartlepool ; and the sub- 
sequent proposals for improving the port, during the ensuing 
twelve or fifteen years, particularly that of Captain Haling for 
hegging the hulls of old frigates of the admiralty, and sinking 
them to form a break-water between the Heugh and the Long Scar, 
evince a conviction of the capabilities of the place equal to that 
of its successful undertakers. But in all the early attempts at 
improvement, a substantial foundation for so large an expendi- 
ture as must necessarily be incurred, was wanting, in the ab- 
sence of any staple commodity upon which a revenue could be 
raised. Passing tolls, the expedients of those days, or private 
subscriptions, always uncertain and limited, seem to have been 
the chief means relied upon. It was soon found that an at- 
tempt to impose the former, converted the shipowners of Sunder- 
land and Newcastle from active friends into equally active 
enemies; and on trying the effect of the latter, even for the 
limited object of repairing the Pier, it was not long in being 



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4 MODEBN HISTOBT OF HARTLEPOOL. 

disoovered that prirate liberality, even amongst the wealthy, 
travels in a very contracted sphere. 

Hutchinson properly indicates the caose of the decline of 
Hartlepool in the follovring passage, which is equally cogent for 
its long continuance in decay. ^^ Though Hartlepool has in 
modem times lost much of its importance and trade, the cause 
doth not seem to be derived from the natural disadvantages of 
the situation; but from the great staples of the county rising 
in distant parts, and lying upon the l^i^e. Wear, and Tees ; 
coals and lead being shipped there.'' There was not, in truth, 
the least chance of seeing the mouldering rains of Hartlepool 
cleared away, and its ancient port restored, until the project 
became associated with commercial undertakings, of sufficient 
extent to afford a prospect of making the enterprise self- 
suj^orting and remunerative. 

This first occurred in the year 1828, when, from a di- 
vision among the partners of the Hetton Coal Company, one 
section, represented by the late Mr. Arthur Mowbray, turned 
their attention to Hartlepool as a place for the shipment of 
coals. The estates of Elemore, Haswell, and some adjoining 
properties, were intended to supply the coal; and the first- 
named property was conditionally taken with the intention of 
making a beginning there. Amid much that was good and 
practicable, in the plan then propounded, there was, as was 
invariably the case, in all plans emanating from the same party, 
a great deal that was wild and nonsensical. It was intended, 
for ezampleiy to make the Railway by private subscriptions, 
upon the permissive, or way-leave plan ; but the compensation 
to the landowner was not to be by way-leave rents, but by 
sinking pits in his estate, and working his coal. The sdiem^ 
therefore, involved the necessity of providing a capital to sink 
a series of collieries over a space of country about fourteen 
miles in extent, wholly untried, as a mineral district, and, as 
it has turned out over a considerable portion of it, not con- 
takiing available coal seams. 

Among the ext(Mrtionate demands which have been made, and 



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MODERN HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 5 

the heavy mmiB which ore still paid in the shape of way-leave 
rents in this county, it forms a singalar chapter in the history of 
these undertakings^ to record that there were in 1823, with one 
or two trifling exceptions, landowners sufficiently reasonable and 
enlightened to be satisfied with the indirect and collateral ad- 
vantages to be derived from a railway through their property. 

With a view to the commencement of the above undertaldng, 
agreements were entered into with Sir Oeorge Focock, the 
owner of the Hart estate, and others ; a line of railway was 
sought out through the country ; — and one or two meetings took 
place at Hartlepool to fix upon the site for the shipping berths. 
In the midst of these preparations an event occurred, which, 
ultimatdy leading to the death of one of the partners in the 
company above referred to, changed entirely the policy and 
course of proeeedings of the others. The Elemore coal, in- 
tended for the first colliery, and out of the profits of which the 
second was to be sunk, became attached to the Hetton collieryi 
and was, two years later, opened out by that company, and sent 
to Sunderland for shipment; and the magnificent project, which 
was to raise one million of chaldrons yearly, was laid aside and 
forgotten. 

This plan, as Seut as the port was concerned, did not contem- 
plate the construction of docks, nor, indeed, any very extensive 
improvements of the then existing depth of water at the entrance. 
It was intended to construct drops between the bastion, or pre^ 
sent stair to the ferry, and the old pier, in front of the town 
walls; and to approach these dropsby a viaduct of timber across 
the slake, so as not to interfere with the ebb and flow of the 
tide. It would have been found, on coming to carry such plans 
into executiim, that they were wholly insufficient for the re* 
quirements of a coal port. The depth of vrater would not have 
exceeded twelve feet at spring, and six to eight feet at neap 
tides^ — the larger of which would have been inadequate for 
vessds engaged in the London trade, — and the smaller was 
scarcely enough to float a billy-boy. 

From this time, 1828, to 1829-90^ no further attempt teems 



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6 MODERN HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 

to have been made to conyert Hartlepool into a Bhipping port. 
About the latter period prirate negotiations took place with the 
late Duke of Cleveland, by another party; and in 1831, the 
sympathies of Mr. Christopher Tennant were enlisted in favonr 
of the scheme, which in the end was called ''The Hartlepool 
Dock and Railway Company.^' The application to parliament 
for their act was made in the session of 1832, and pushed 
▼igourously forward. It was opposed by one party only, who 
was at last bought off, and the act received the royal assent 
on the first day of June that year. Had that session been 
lost, it is very doubtful if an act would have been obtained, at 
all events, for several years after. The coal trade, then a com- 
pact and united interest, began to be on the alert ; — and owners 
of way-leave rents began to fed alarm for the endurance of their 
privileges : the combined action of these two powerful interests 
would have been sufficient to defeat a not very powerful body 
of promoters of the scheme, as was done in a much better 
supported plan, the ''South Durham '^ Railway, in 1836. 
It is, perhaps, to the justifiable haste with which the project was 
pushed forward, that the line of country chosen for the railway 
was, in many parts, not the best that could have been obtained. 
Subsequent experience, in almost every case of railway making, 
shews much that might have been improved, or saved; and in 
the case of the Hartlepool line, at its southern end, the improve- 
ment was not unknown to its promoters before the bill was 
passed. But most decisions of this kind are matters of expedi- 
ency rather than of abstract right ; and where conflicting opinions 
exist, are often the tangent of two forces, and not infrequently 
the line which embraces all the evils of both. The heavy works 
encountered between Hedeton and Crimdon House, induding 
about one million and a half yards of excavation, and much 
masonry, might have been very much lessened, by keeping on 
the east side of Crimdon House; whilst the sand-hills near the 
shore, would have rendered it unnecessary to procure so mudi 
materid for one of the largest embankments in the country. 
Time, however, was everything, not only to the promoters^ 



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MODERN HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 7 

bat to the very exist^ioe of the scheme itself. If the session 
of 1832 had been lost, it is more than probable that in 1883 
the project wonld have heeo. defeated by the combined action ol 
the coal trade, and the lessors of way-leaves, with the church 
grandees at the head of them; or if not defeated, it wonld have 
been fettered, like the Durham and Sunderland line, (whose 
act was obtained in 1833) with heavy annual rents for way- 
leaves; and thus, instead of the healthy and profitable under- 
taking it has turned out, it would have been as unfortunate as 
the latter has been. There were other reasons, in the fact 
that upon one, or at most two, coal fields its traffic seemed to 
depend. Competing claims for this traffic were set up both by 
Sunderland and Seaham, and there is little doubt that had the 
Hartlepool project been delayed another year, much of the 
trade that established it, jand stifl continues to be its main sup- 
port, would have be«i turned into other channels. 

The Durham and SundMrluid line, obtained, as before-named 
in 1833, changed also the prospects of the Hartlepool line, at 
its northern end. The Haswell coal found by it a shorter route 
by three or four miles to a port, and it cut off every hope that 
had be«i entertained of obtaining coal to the northward of that 
colliery, or by the littletown branch; a serious drawback from 
the prospects of the undertaking twelve months before. It 
may also be said, at a later period, to have rendered the making 
of the Durham brandi unnecessaiy; for the coal at Sherbttme 
House, and Whitwell, which that branch was intended to ac- 
commodate, were diverted to the Wear by it ; and Hartlepool 
may by this means have lost about 500,000 tons of coals yearly, 
which seemed fairly to be calculated upon when it was first 
started. A similar evil has attended other healthy and well- 
planned schemes in this county, by that excess of competition, 
which, taking its rise in envy at apparent success, has multiplied 
railways and ports, till the traffic becomes inadequate to pay any 
interest on the capital invested. 



1 1 



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8 MODERN HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 

At this time^ the summer of 1882, Hartlepool presented tibe 
most dreary and desolate prospeet that can well be imagined. 
Mary Howitt's sonnets on ''Tyre/'* convey a scarcely exag- 
gerated picture of its port and harbour. The pier had been thrown 
down in an autumn gale several years before, and with the ex- 
ception of a small piece at the west end, was a mere heap of 

* These Sonnets are so beantifdl that the Editor deems no apology necessary for 
reproducing them. 

I. 
In thought I saw the pahice domes of Tyre, 

The gorgeous treasures of her merchandise. 
All her proud people in their hrave attire. 

Thronging her streets for sports or sacrifice. 

I saw her precious stones and spioeries ; 
The singing girl with flower-wreathed instrument ; 

And slaves whose beauty asked a monarch's price. 
Forth firom all lands all nations to her went. 
And kings to her on embassy were sent. 

I saw with gilded prow and silken sail, 
Her ships that of the sea had government : 

Oh gallant ships 1 'gainst you what might prevail I 
She stood upon her rock, and in her pride 
Of strength and beauty waste and woe defied. 

n. 
I looked again — I saw a lonely shore, 

A rock amid the waters, and a wast« 
Of trackless sand : — I heurd the black seas roar. 

And winds that rose and fell with gusty haste. 

There was one scathed tree, by storm de&ced. 
Round which the sea-birds wheeled with screaming cry. 

Ere long, came on a traveller slowly paced ; 
Now east then west he turned with curious eye, 
like one perplexed with an uncertainty. 

Awhile he looked upon the sea, and then 
Upon a book, as if it might supply 

The thing he lacked : — ^he read and gazed again; 
Yet, as if unbelief so on him wrought, 
He might not deem this shore the shore he sought, 
ni. 

Again, I saw him come : — 'twas eventide ; — 

The sun shone on the rock amid the sea ; 
The vrinds were hushed ; the ouiet billows sighed 

With a low swell: — ^the biros winged silently 

Their evening flight around the sotthed tree : 
The fisher safelv put into the bay. 

And pushed ids boat ashore ; — ^then gathered he 
His nets, and hasting up the rooky way. 
Spread them to catch the warm sun's evening ray. 

I saw that stranger's eye gue on the scene ; 
"And this was Tyre I" said he; "how has Decay 

Within her palaces a despot been. 
Ruin and silence in her oomts are met. 
And on her dty rock the fisher spreads his net." 



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MODERN HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 9 

loose stones. The old harbour, once converted into a field, and 
a crop of com taken firom it, had been opened out again to the 
tide, and at the springs, had from three to four feet water 
in it; but it was still in ridge and farrow, save where the accu- 
mulated rubbish of centuries had piled up hills beyond the reach 
of the water. It had, in fact, been the place where any rubbish, 
which became inconvenient to the town^s people, had been shot 
for ages. The walls of the harbour themselves, had long been 
a mass of ruin; — and the same air of desolation and decay per- 
vaded the whole place. 

A small number of country families, long accustomed to the 
town, made it the place of a few weeks^ sojourn in the summer 
season, when it assumedasort of spasmodic gaiety, especially about 
two o'clock in the day, when the '^ table d'hote'' at the king's 
head, invited all the lodgers in the town to dinner, who chose that 
least troublesome mode of providing their mid-day repast. Great 
was the flutter in the streets for the space of ten minutes before 
the important hour, as it seemed to be the occasion selected by 
the "dowagers and spinsters," to shew off all their array of 
smart head-gear — in the shape of turbans, caps, '' brave with 
ribbons," and the like articles of female mystery. Not infre- 
quently might be seen the amiable curate of that day, in charge 
of one of these well-appointed dames, sailing down the high 
street to the dinner, to which, most probably, he had obtained 
an invitation; a thing of not rare occurrence, for his social 
qualities, in the setting of razors and playing a rubber at whist, 
rendered him an acquisition to both the sexes. 

The lower classes of females at Hartlepool at the time in 
question, were remarked by all strangers to be a very fine class 
of women. Their practice, when shrimping or seeking bait, of 
converting their scanty petticoats into short inexpressibles, that 
came about half-way down the thigh, whilst all below was "in 
puris naturalibus," with the red kerchief on the head, instead of a 
cap, rendered them very picturesque objects alongside the boats 
and cobles, and nets and creels, with which the harbour was gen- 



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10 MODERN HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 

erally strewed. It was remarked, that as soon as the " navries ^* 
came, the costume ^'a la Bloomer '' disappeared— the red ker- 
chief gare place to the smart cap,— with an occasional wreath 
of artificial flowers in it ; shoes and stockings, white on Sun- 
days, became the correct thing^-^md in fact, the whole aspect 
of the inhabitants as well as the hee of the landscape became 
changed; and as far as the inhabitants are concerned, so much 
for the worse, in the opinion of erery ^tme loY&t of the unso- 
phisticated natiTC. 

The condition of the funds of pier and port trust were, at this 
time, as ddapidated as their works. For sereral years no rq^olar 
meetings had been held. No supervision of the port, properly 
speaking, had at any time been ezerdsed. The fishermen had 
been allowed to throw their ballast at any place they chose, and 
these stones had been collected together, and a causeway rudely 
formed with them to shorten the distance from the Strantcm shore 
to Hartlepool at low water. The revenues of the trust for the year 
immediately preceding; had been from dues on yessds £89 
lis. 2d.; on houses, cobles, &c., £82 2s. Id.; or, £71 lis. 8d. 
altogether.* This sum, inadequate for any purposes of improye- 

* The following statement ahewB, in detail, the leodpts on account of thia tnut 
for seven yean prerioiisly. 

Betorn of Dues from 1826 to 1882. 











Herring Boats 






Ships. 


Honse Duty. 


Cobks. 


andPleasoze 
Yachts. 


Tbtal. 


Not. 18 £ 8. D. 


£ 8. D. 


£ 8. D. 


£ 8. D. 


£ 8. D. 


1826 





9 11 11 


17 5 


4 10 


81 6 11 


1827 


42 2 8 


9 4 


19 7 6 


6 15 


77 6 1 


1828 


89 11 9 


9 4 8 


19 2 6 


6 10 


78 8 11 


1829 


81 14 7 


9 16 


19 16 


6 12 6 


67 8 6 


1880 


47 1 2 


8 14 8 


18 2 6 


5 16 


79 18 4 


1831 


89 11 2 


7 12 7 


18 7 6 


6 


71 11 8 


1882 


84 7 9 











84 7 9 




£284 8 8 


£58 5 7 


£112 


£86 2 6 j 


6434 16 9 



It win be observed, that no does were collected in 1832, upon honses, cobles, or 
herring boats ; the »xnmAt>A tct having repealed these tolls, which {nrodioed about 
one-hiJf of the whole reroiiie of the trust. -Between 1882, when the w<Hrk8 were 
began, and 1835, when tiie docks were opened, scarcely any rerenne was collected ; 
as there was, in &ct, no traffic upon whidi the toUs under the amended act were 



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MODERN HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 11 

ment of the port, was finttered away in jobs at the town walls; 
and all hope of accomplishing any work of utility, either for the 
protection of the fishermen, or the restoration of the pier, seemed 
to be abandoned. 

exigible. The revenue, from tlie opening of tlie docks, on the ninth Jxlj, 1886, to 
thirty-first Deoemher, 1850, is giyen below ; distingoishing the number of ships 
which took refbge, firom those thst loaded in the place. This list does not, however, 
give the entire nmnber of vesaek which sought reftige there; as all vessels which 
came in for refbge, and loaded, as was freqpiently the case, are not included in the 
reftige column. 

Tonnage and Revenue firom 1886 to 1860. 

COMMISSIONERS OF THE PIER AND PORT. 

A return of Number of Ships to load and for Reftige. Register Tons and Revenue. 

OLD DOCK. 

No. of No. of Register Register Tons y. 

Ships to Ships for Tons to for t>J2^ 

load. RSge. load. Refuge. «eceivecL 

£ S. D. 

1836 Ul 26 81,761 2367 71 1 6 

1886 1078 206 120,616 86,956 806 8 

1887 1387 848 119,586 29,766 660 6 8 
1838 1806 680 188,827 64,768 900 16 11 
1889 1466 618 212,292 66,197 999 10 10 

1840 2346 699 810,465 49,060 1396 16 8 

1841 8208 615 422,870 41,078 1847 10 6 

1842 8631 605 460,160 42,158 1968 9 1 

1843 8627 471 470,616 28,924 2021 8 1 

1844 2969 715 407,892 69,466 1828 8 8 
1846 4802 686 619,838 46,688 2679 11 8 

1846 4187 762 548,769 59,494 2889 18 

1847 4497 618 676,877 41,715 2606 2 10 

1848 5088 648 681,888 68,179 2960 2 8 

1849 4607 687 616,764 69,888 2689 6 8 
1860 6088 538 668,976 45,890 2841 6 8 



£27,968 6 10 



WEST DOCK. 

1847 876 20 38,861 2,294 164 12 6 

1848 1184 64 127,411 4,967 641 4 6 

1849 2518 67 276,878 5,590 1198 11 9 

1850 8542 143 426,656 8,336 1796 1 10 



£8,699 10 7 



27,963 6 10 
8,699 10 7 

Total £81,662 17 5 



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12 MODERN HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 

In this helpless condition, the promoters of the dock and rail- 
way were obliged to advance fhnds to obtain for the oommis- 
sioners an amended Act. As soon as this was obtained, a further 
large sum was disbursed by them for repairing the pier, a work 
which they began before any commencement was made of their 
own works. 

The first meeting of the dock and railway company after the 
passing of their act, was held at Durham, on the eighteenth day 
of June, 1832. At this meeting, their committee, as the di- 
rectors were called, was appointed, as well as some of their 
officers. The committee immediately proceeded to the election 
of engineers ; and the gentleman appointed as the engineer of 
the docks, was Mr. James Milne, of Edinburgh, By the middle 
of August that gentleman was brought to the place, and his at- 
tention called to the plans which had passed through parliament; 
for a growing conviction had obtained that the fwm of the docks, 
proposed originally by Mr. Milton, of Sunderland, was not the 
most eligible for the purposes required. By the company's act of 
incorporation they were authorised to take ''the whole of the 
inner harbour and lands adjoining thereto, and so much of the 
slake covered at high water, contiguous to the inner harbour 
on the west side thereof, and also, so much of the lands adjoin- 
ing the slake on the north side thereof, as shall not exceed in 
the whole sixty acres.'' 

The problem, therefore, first submitted to Mr. Milne for solu- 
tion was, to give the most commodious dock accommodation 
within the external boundaries of the sixty acres granted to the 
company by parliament. Mr. Milne's arrangement of the 
docks was pretty much in the form in which they have been 
executed, except that he proposed two small docks of eight or 
nine acres each, instead of the Victoria Dock as it now exists. 

Before any steps could, however, be taken for the commence- 
ment of the works, the sea had to be excluded ; and the Cofier 
Dam was begun (a portion of which still remains) between the 
bastion, at the entrance of the inner harbour, and the Middleton 



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MODERN HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 13 

estate. This work occupied the chief portion of the autumn 
and winter of 1832^ and it was not till late in the spring of 
1833 that the sea was effectually excluded. 

Simultaneously with the completion of the Coffer Dam^ the ex- 
cavations for the quay wall^ within the inner harbour^ and now 
forming a portion of the Victoria Dock, were commenced. It 
was here found that the bottom of the old harbour, only about 
twelve feet below the high water line of ordinary spring tides, 
rested on a bed of soft peat, with trees, nuts, and other remains 
of vegetation, such as are frequently met with among alluvial 
deposits; and shewing that the forests from which Hartlepool 
derived its name had extended far into the present harbour and 
bay. 

The foundations which this deposit presented for the dock 
walls, were any thing but satisfactory, and attempts at piling 
were resorted to. But, independent of the increased cost of this 
mode of securing them, it was soon found that the mere act of 
working among such material rendered it less secure after piUng 
than before ; and the timber was immediately abandoned, and 
large stones substituted for it ; which, notwithstanding a thou- 
sand prophecies to the contrary, are stiU found sufficient for the 
support of the walls. On the east side of the dock a difficulty 
of a different nature was met with. Here, the limestone which 
dips rapidly from the town moor towards the west, was met 
with before the excavations reached the proper depth for the 
foundations of the walls. This rock was in places so open, and 
as it is technically called ''gulletty,'' that the sea came in so 
fast as to beat out the workmen. Instead of contending with 
so powerftil an opponent, the directors resolved to change the 
position of these walls, which, by removing them westward, 
avoided the limestone. The report of the committee on the 
18th June, 1833, explains these various difficulties, and the 
change of plan consequent upon them. 

"With regard to the docks, the committee regret to say, that 
they cannot report the same progress as with the railway. The 



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14 MODERN HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 

completion of the C<^er Dam was delayed beyond the time 
originally calculated npon ; and the works, which could only be 
began after its completion, were necessarily delayed also. 

" It has now been finished nearly six weeks, and answers the 
end required; but the delay which has taken place induced the 
committee to adopt an alteration of the mode they had fixed 
upon for conducting the works. They had fcmnerly decided to 
complete the docks, as well as the outer or tide harbour, before 
any shipment of coals could be attempted. They have, however, 
deemed it adviseable to confine the chief operations for the pre- 
sent to the tide harbour : and they have to state, that the works 
of that harbour have been let to Messrs. HaMrthoms and 
Bobsons, of Newcastle-on-Tyne, to be completed by the Slst 
October, 1834, so that coals may be shipped there by that time, 
at a cost, as nearly as can at present be asc^ained from the 
rates of the contract, of £40flOO. 

'' In exploring the foundations of the walls on the north side 
of the west dock, a rock was found at a sli^t depth from the 
surface, which, on being wrought into, admitted the sea-water 
throng so freely, that the committee considered it expedient not 
to conta:id with such a difficulty ; and they directed a deviation 
to be made in the course of the walls of the docks, which will 
avoid the rock. By this deviation, a considerable saving of ex- 
pense will be made; and, although it will, in a sli^ d^pree^ 
tend to decrease the capacity of the do^, an equivalent will be 
gained by an increase in the size of the tide harbour.'' 

About the period at which we have now arrived, the snmmer 
of 1888, differ^ces of opinion arose between the committee aad 
Mr. MUne, their engineer, as to the manner in which the dock 
walls should be built, which led to the resignation of that gen- 
tleman, of hifi situsyfcion of en^eer. It is no part of our place 
to enter into these matters, but we may state, shortly, that Mr. 
Mike insisted upon building the quay walls of entire asUar 
work, at a cost of about thirty shillings per cubic yard; the 
committee, on the other hand, decided to build them partly of 



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HODERN HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 15 

ashlar and partly of rubble walUng, at a cost of ten shillings 
or eleven shillings a cubic yard. The difference in cost formed 
such an important item in the expense of the docks, as perhaps 
to justify the committee, in deciding this question according to 
their own views. At all events, they appear to have been justi- 
fied by the events as the walls of the dock appear to be of 
sn£Scient stability for all the purposes required. On the re- 
signation of Mr. Milne, Mr. James Brown, who had been the 
resident engineer of the works at Holyhead, was appointed, on 
the recommendation of Sir John Bennie, to succeed him; and, 
from that time, the works at the tide harbour were carried for- 
ward with great expedition. 

When the plans were made out for the application to parlia- 
ment, owing to the delay in completing the subscription list, 
to meet the requirement of the standing orders of the House 
of C!ommons, the estimates were cut down to the lowest possible 
point, in order to meet this financial difficulty. Thus, for ex- 
ample, a portion of the line, which was originally laid out for a 
double line of rails, and which has been actually executed as 
such, was reduced by Mr. (George Stephenson, to a single way 
in his estimates. At the harbour, in the same way, the space 
to be excavated for a dock, was confined to about twelve or 
thirteen acres; reducing the estimates, for that part of the 
works, to £70,000, and making the total estimate upwards of 
iE50,000 less than at first proposed. On the passing of the 
act, however, many circumstances concurred to induce the com- 
mittee to alter their views on these points. The first, and most 
material of these was, that the whole of their subscription list 
was filled up, and shares soon rose to twenty per cent, premium. 
The second, and an equally powerful one was, that as the works 
could be so much more advantageously executed whilst the 
Coffer Dam was up, and the sea excluded, it was better to ex- 
cavate the tide basin then, than to defer it to a subsequent 
period. This determination involved the necessity of a very 
much lai^r expenditure at the port, than their parliamentary 



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16 MODERN HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 

estimates contemplated. Perhaps due weight was not, in the 
first flush of suecess, given to the difficulties this decision 
gave rise tOj in the way of providing funds ; and it was not till 
calls became inconveniently frequent,* and shares got to twenty 
discount, instead of twenty premium, that its full significance 
was manifested. 

The concern had, as has already been stated, been viewed with 
no friendly eye, not only by the coal trade of the north, but 
also by the parties interested in other railways and ports. The 
long pursued policy of one or two large coal owners, of drawing 
a cordon round the available shipping ports, had, indeed, been 
somewhat recently set aside, by the construction of both private 
and public railways, for the conveyance of coal ; but some of 
those individuals thought themselves injured, and entitled to 
complain, that this concern was wholly uncalled for, and only 
intended to open the ''back settlements'' of the coal district. 
This latent hostility, kept under for a while, by the passing of 
of the act, and the eclat of the first success, burst out whenever 
any opportunity offered of damaging the concern. 

In the spring of 1838, for e3amiple, when the miscarriage of 
some of the operations of the Ck>ffer Dam, before referred to, 
became known, it was generally reported and believed throughout 
the district, that the whole had been washed away, and a large 
portion was said to have been seen '' off the mouth of the Tees/' 
And again, when the peat deposit was found in excavating for the 
* The calls on the Original Shares were made as under : — 

£ 8. B. 

1 84th March, 1882, deposit 8 10 

8 8rd Jnly „ caU 7 10 

8 15th June 1888, „ 10 

4 4thJQne „ „ 10 

5 SOthAngnst „ „ 10 

6 29th October „ „ 10 

7 Istl^bmaiy 1884, „ 10 

8 16th April „ „ 10 

9 2nd June „ „ 10 

10 4th August „ „ 10 

11 Ist October „ „ 10 

£100 



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MODERN HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 17 

foundations, it was most industriously magnified to '^ nothing 
but a quick-sand^ upon which no walls could be built/^ 

We may extend the maxim of the learned and sententious 
Frenchman, ''That there is something in the misfortunes of our 
best friends, not altogether disagreeable to us/^ by appending 
another to it, ''that we always are disposed to exaggerate the 
misfortunes of our enemies/^ It may, perhaps, appear a trivial 
and puerile enmity, which merely misrepresents facts, easily set 
right; but its e£fects, bearing on an infant concern struggling 
with difficulties to raise funds, must not be estimated by the 
contemptible motives firom which it arose. The effect of such 
depreciation and misrepresentation extended much further than 
the mere reduction in the value of the shares. It attached dis- 
credit in a commercial point of view to the concern, and created 
almost insuperable difficulties in the raising of money on loan to 
complete it. 

It is to be borne in mind, that at the period now referred to, 
our present gigantic railway system was in its tenderest infancy. 
Our leviathan capitalists had not yet turned their attention to 
such investments, or if they had, as in the case of Liverpool and 
Manchester, it was only to repent of their speculation. While 
our railways were few and far between, and "as yet, share- 
brokers were not;'' no fixed and general views seemed to be 
entertained, as to the future of railway property; and conse- 
quentiy all rumours, that were boldly and industriously circula- 
ted, obtained, upon the maxim we have ventured to propound, 
a ready and cheerful credence. 

It was, no doubt, mainly to causes of this nature, that the 
Hartiepool Dock Company found such extreme difficulty in bor- 
rowing the comparatively small sum which they required, to 
enable them to open their docks. 

Defeated in all their attempts to obtain in firom private sources, 
they were driven at the latter end of the year 1834, to ask a 
loan of the exchequer bill loan commissioners. Public boards 
like this, are generally slow in their movements, and difficult to 



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18 MODERN HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 

deal with. They are^ for the most part, composed of men who 
never give themselves much trouble beyond the receiving of their 
salaries; and knowing nothing of the merits of the majority of 
cases brought before them^ they hedge themselves in with forms 
which^ in private business matters, would be fatal to success. 

The exchequer bill loan commissioaers had, at the time of 
this application, other grounds for hesitation. They had made 
advances to concerns of a similar nature, in the immediate 
district, and, at that time, there was some apprehensions of loss, 
which induced excessive caution in further advances to docks 
and railways. Whatever might be their motives, they certainly 
did contrive to raise difficulties which seemed to tax the legal 
ingenuity which gave rise to them to the utmost. Although the 
scheme was reported favourably of by their engineer, the obsta- 
cles they threw in the way of an advance, were only at last 
removed by private security, of undoubted value, being given, 
not only for the sum they advanced, but also for any further 
sum that might be necessary, to complete the works, if their 
loan of £30,000 should prove insufficient. Notwithstanding, 
the unreasonableness of these terms, parties were found who had 
sufficient nerve to accede to them, and the loan was obtained in 
the early part of 1835. This, however, proved insufficient for 
the purpose, and, a month before the dock was opened, the 
company was literally penniless, and in very bad credit. It was 
this condition of their finances that induced them to open the 
dock, long before the railway was ready, and when but a very 
imperfect channel had been made by the commissioners through 
the pier harbour. 

The opening took place on the ninth July, 1835, when coals 
were shipped from Thomley colliery, in the " Britannia,^' be- 
longmg to Mr. Cuthbert Sharp, of Hartlepool. Mr. Sharp, an 
old Sunderland shipowner, had been seriously advised by some 
of his friends there, not to risk his ship in the tide basin, as 
there was every prospect that she would have to remain there, 
until a channel could be made to let her out. The vessel, how- 



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MODERN HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 19 

ever, went to sea the same day, and snch was the rapid deepen- 
ing of the outer channel, produced by the sluicing, that vesseis 
carrying 860 tons, got to sea readily, within a very few weeks 
of the opening. The state of the railway was, however, most 
incomplete; there was not one mile of permanent way laid 
down, and the temporary ways were in so miserable a condition, 
that, on an average, every train that came down, got off the way 
four or five times. 

The embankment, too, between Crimdon and Hartlepool, was, 
for nearly a mile unclosed, and the coals were brought by a 
temporary Ime on the east-side of it, over Hart Warren. Not- 
withstanding these difficulties, the opening seemed to have 
decided the question of success or failure; the natural advan- 
tages of the harbour, aided by dredging and very effective 
sluicing, having soon placed that question beyond all cavil or 
dispute. 

In the midst of the rejoicings which this almost unlooked 
for success naturally occasioned, the best arm of the dock com- 
pany for improving the entrance was paralysed. The (qorons, or 
paving on the harbour side of the sluices, down which the water 
rushed, from the sluice to the bottom of the tide basin, were 
torn up, and the sluices rendered useless. This work had been 
almost the last part of the masonry which had been done, and 
was, therefore, at the opening of the harbour, quite green : the 
masonry itself, was any thing but sufficient; and the eager 
desire of the dock company to deepen the channel in the com- 
missioners harbour, upon which their docks entirely depended, 
induced an excessive working of the sluices before the ma- 
sonry had time to set. This accident, besides entailing from 
£7000 to £8000 additional expenses on the dock company, to 
restore the work, laid off the sluices, the chief source of improve- 
ment in the outer harbour, for nearly twelve months ; it also 
brought into the harbour many thousands of tons of sand, which, 
gradually washing out with the tide, threatened to choke up the 
entrance near the old pier entirely. This wasthe more to be feared. 



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20 MODERN HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 

as the the deposit took place at a point in the channel, where the 
dredger could not be used, when there was any swell in the bay. 
The dredger was, in consequence, brought into the tide basin, 
to take the sand up there; and, by excluding the water from 
the slake, the outward motion of the sand-bank at ebb tide, was 
in a great measure prevented, and the access to the tide basin 
kept open. 

Before this accident occurred, and whilst the progress of 
improvement in the entrance was unchecked, a scheme wai^ 
made public to extend the Byers Green branch of the Clarence 
railway westward to Wolsingham, to open out the coal, since 
called the West Durham Coal Field. The Act for the Byers 
Green Branch had been obtained five or six years previously, 
but nothing had been done towards the making of it. The 
new scheme embraced this part of the Clarence line, with an 
extension eastwards, from the point of intersection of the Sher- 
bum branch of the Clarence railway, till it joined the Hartle- 
pool line at Wingate ; and westwards, nearly in the line of the 
present West Durham railway, through the coal district to 
Wolsingham. The whole line was called " The South Durham 
Railway.'' The project was warmly supported by both the 
Clarence company, and the Hartlepool dock company, as well as 
the landowners and others interested in the minerals, lying 
west of the Biver Wear ; but it was, on the other hand, op- 
posed with equal warmth by the Bishop, and the Dean and 
Chapter of Durham, assisted by the united puiBes of the coal 
trade, and the owner of Seaham Harbour. In the Session of 
1886, the plan came before parliament, and passed the House 
of Commons, after a severe opposition, by a large majority, and 
chiefly upon the acknowledged success and prospects of the 
Harbour of Hartlepool. The project had, however, some active 
opponents in the House of Lords, who, afraid to let its merits 
be discussed before a committee, made up a party to defeat it 
on the second reading. The strenuous support given to the 
project by the members of the city of London, when in the 



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MODERN HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 21 

Commons^ had been of great assistance to it ; and the defeat of 
it on the second reading cansedagood deal of annoyance^ and not 
a little scandal."*^ By way of set off to this defeat^ one of the pub- 
lic officers of the Corporation of London had inflaence enough to 
get a committee of the Commons appointed to investigate the 
proceedings of the coal trade committee ; but the only public 
effect that resulted from it^ was the repeal of an obsolete Act of 
Parliamenti which prevented more than six persons forming a 
co-partenary for working coals. 

On the defeat of the South Durham scheme, a sad blow^ both 
to the owners of the mines, and to the two public companies, 
which expected to share its traffic, the Hartlepool Junction Rail- 
way, or, as its parliamentary title is, ''The Great North of 
England, Clarence, and Hartlepool Junction Railway,^' was 
started, by parties interested in the Hartlepool dock. The 
Clarence company began the construction of their Byers Green 
branch, the time for making which, was fast lapsing; and 
another company, called the '' West Durham Railway Company,^' 
and composed chiefly of parties connected with the Clarence 
company, undertook the westward extension across the River 
Wear. The South Durham railway thus became divided into 
three distinct and independent companies. To ensure their suc- 
cess in parliament, where the owners of way-leaves had, for the 
time, obtained a triumph over compulsory lines for leading 
coals, the Hartlepool Junction, and the West Durham lines, 
were made upon the permissive or way-leave plan. 

At the time the South Durham line was projected, there were 
but two collieries — ^the Thomley and the South Hetton, using 
the Hartlepool railway and docks for shipping their coals. 
Haswell had formed an alliance with the Durham and Sunder- 

* It was said that a noUe lady, whose possessions embraoed a laige miniiig 
property, herself a raj fashionahle personage, made a partj for the occasion, and 
at the proper honr, mnstered her peers, and marched them off to Tote against it; 
and that, on some rdoctanoe being exhibited bj one of her friends, a threat of shnt- 
ting her doors against him had to be resorted to before he became soffidentlj 
pliant. 



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22 



MODERN HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 



land line, and Wingate, Eelloe, and Oannondsway, the next 
in the order of time, were not yet b^un.* 

The act of incorporation of the Hartlepool Junction company, 
was passed in 1887, and in the following year, the Union railway 
was projected, from Billingham to the slake at Hartlepool, where 
a dock was intended to be made. This scheme^ ultimately called 
the '^ Stockton and Hartlepool Railway,'' was got up by parties 
connected with the Clarence company, as a counterpoise to the 
Hartlepool Junction line. It naturally created opposition on the 
part of the Hartlepool dock company, who wished to have the 
traffic down their own line; but an agreement was ultimately 
come to, between that company and the promoters of the Union 
railway, which, by giving up their dock, and agreeing to ship 
their coals in the Hartlepool docks, removed the objections of 
that company. 

The construction of the Byers Gteea branch by the Clarence 
Bailway company, which resulted from the defeat of the Sooth 
Durham Bill, forms a singular episode in railway history. That 
company, as has been stated before, had only a few months within 
which their parliamentary powers enabled them to make this 
branch. It chiefly intersected the lands of the church of Dur- 
ham, the holders of which, with that keen eye to their tempo- 
ral interests which has won for them an unenviable notoriety, 
were most anxious to frustrate a project which set at nought 
their favourite scheme of way-leaves ; and as it was weU known 
that the time was wholly insufficient to make a railway with 
heavy works, much of which was stone cutting, they watched 



* The first shipment of coals from the various collieries, which haye used the 
Hartlepod railway, is given below : — 



Thomley July, 1885. 

South Hetton Nov., „ 

Kelloe and Garmondsway, March, 1889. 

Wingate Grange...... Oct., „ 

Crow Trees Dec., „ 

West Hetton Jan., 1840. 

Casaop June, „ 

Bowbum Sept., 1841. 

HeughHall Dec., „ 



Castle Eden April, 

Shotton Dec., 

Trimdon Feb., 

South Wingate July, 

Trimdon Grange ....June, 

Willington Nov., 

West Comforth Aug., 

West Belmont Sept., 

Whitwell July, 



1842. 

1843. 

1846. 

1847. 
1848. 
1850. 



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MODERN HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 28 

very dosely the progress of the work. They had^ however^ 
found their equals in the company they had to deal with. No- 
thing daunted by haying to construct a railway in as many 
months as it took them years to finish it^ the Olarenoe company 
set vigouroosly to work^ cutting a sod here, and depositing a 
barrowful of earth there^ and then laying down a temporary 
line of rails, and leading two or three loads of coals over them, 
before their powers lapsed. In this way they obtained the cer* 
tifioate of having opened the line, within the parliamentary 
time; and, in the next four or five years, they actually 
made it. 

Whilst endeavouring shortly to trace the sources from which 
the traffic to Hartlepool has flowed, we have been led somewhat 
in advance of events, which, as regards the town and port, it 
may be necessary to speak of more in detail. 

When the act for the docks was obtained, in 1882, the popu- 
lation of Hartlepool would scarcely exceed that ot the preceding 
year,* when the enumeration for the census was made. In 
house accommodation the town was ill provided for the large 
influx of workmen shortly to be brought to it, amounting^ in 
1883 and 1884, to upwards of two thousand people. The ex- 
tension of the town, therefore, as a matter of necessity, proceeded 
pari passu with the construction of the docks. The first, or 
among the first, places, in which buildings were run up, was 
"Wells's Field,'' south eastward of the church yard; and pos- 
sessing one of the finest sites for a beautiful marine town in the 
district. The view across the bay, with the back ground of the 
Cleveland hills, ever varying in their tints and shades, being ad- 
mitted to be among the finest pieces of coast scenery in the 
island. It is, perhaps, too much to expect that any great 
amount of private sacrifice should be made for public objects; 

* The populatioD, aooording to cenini returns was, 

In 1881, Males. Females. Total 1880. 

1841, 2648 do. 2688 do. ,, 5286. 

1861, 4686 do. 4692 do. „ 9277. 
LL 



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24 MODERN HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 

but^ in the planning of a new town^ there are certain regula- 
tions^ which no private individual ought to be permitted to 
diaregard. Drainage, ventilation, and room for the separa- 
tion of filth from public thoroughfiEures, are points that never 
^uld be left to the whim or caprice of an individual. In these 
points, the extension of Hardepool cannot, without a great 
stretch of candour, be called improvements. In its best dajrs it 
seems never to have been distinguished for cleanliness, or at- 
tention to sanitary regulations : and its modem additions are, 
with few exceptions, in the most unwholesome and objectionable 
forms, alike disgraceful to the law which permits, and the cu- 
pidity that inflicts such evils. 

In an age when, for purposes of defence and protection, the 
clustering together of dwellings was a principle, an excuse 
might be found in the state of society and the exigencies of the 
times. But Hartlepool, springing up in the middle of the nine- 
teenth century, and with the warning of a terrible pest which, 
in 1882, and again in 1849, made fearful havoc among its 
population,* presents an example of the worst nuisances of the 
worst towns of the kingdom. 

It is with pain we are compelled to add, that some of the 
worst examples are to be found upon the Corporation property ; 
it bong scarcely possible, we think, to shew more thorough dis- 
r^ard to every principle of decency and convenience, than is 

* The attack of the Cholera at Hartlepool, in 1882, was one d the most severe, 
in reference to the population, in the kingdom; out of a population of 1400, 
there were fifty-seven deaths. It was supposed, by the medical men, to haye been 
mnch aggratated by the absord praotioe of keeping the dead for seTeral days after 
death, which had prerailed in the town for a long period. The abominations of 
rotten fish and general filth, together with a dietary among the lower orders, strongly 
predisposing them to such complaints, no donbt, oontribnted lai^y to the sevedtj 
of the attack. In 1849, with a population bordering on 9000, there were 161 
deaths, of which 127 were of the malignant type. It is worthy of remark, in 
illustration of the animadTersions in the text, that, ia/our streets, blocked up with 
htUdimge ai one end, sixty-one deaths occurred : viz.. Chapman Street, twenty-one ; 
Tweddle Street, sixteen; Wells' Street, fifteen; and North Wells' Street, nine. 
These cases, all in the sererest form of Cholera, are nearly one half of the 
whole mortidity ; and they aeerage tix times as many as the rest of the streets of 
the town. 



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MODERN HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 26 

exhibited in the latest additions to Northgate. Private individ- 
uals, in the absence of any law, may find arguments in extenu- 
ation of their conduct : but a public body, with the command 
of considerable fimds, and which has done little or nothing for 
the improvement of the town, is without excuse or palliation for 
its offences against health and morality. 

The excavation for the foundations of the houses in ''Wells's 
Field,'' broke in upon an ancient burying ground, of which the 
remotest history contains no tradition. Much difierenoe of opin- 
ion prevailed at the time, as to the nation which found on a foreign 
shore, a last resting place. The bodies appeared to have been in- 
terred, with some regard to the forms and ceremonies which every 
reasoning creature pays to its dead. The skeletons were laid 
in order, side by side, the head apparently to the north; and 
under each head was placed a small stone, worked with some 
degree of care, to an uniform shape, about seven or eight inches 
square, some bearing characters which were evidently northern, 
or Bunic, as many supposed. It is not improbable that a 
place so formed by nature to attract the attention of sea-faring 
rovers as Hartlepool, when the north was forcing her hordes 
of fierce adventurers over this island, may have been the 
scene of a contest; or it is equally probable that they may have 
formed a small colony, before the records of history notice them, 
and that this may have been their selected burying place. 

The skeletons were both male and female, the former appar- 
ently of a tall race, and with a peculiar thickness of the fore 
part of the skull, which in an age of hard knocks and keen 
fighting, must have been an enviable perfection. 

The circumstance that females were buried there as well as 
males seems to prove that it was the cemetery of a peaceful 
community ; and the fact that the cross was one of the sculptured 
ornaments of the head stones, leads to the inference that they 
were Christians.* On the other hand it has been contended 

* This ifl by no meanB condosiTe, the cross being the emblem adopted hj manv 
nations which ncTcr heard the name of Chzist. See Fteicotf s Mexico, toI. 8 
p. 813-814. 



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26 



MODERN HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 



that, aa akolls were found in some cases without the bones of 
thetninkf the possessors had suffered a violent death. The 
best information on the subject is, perhaps, to be found in the 
following extract, from the Durham Advertiser, of the 2nd of 
August, 1888, supposed to be from the pen oS the able historian 
of St. Cuthbert. 



STONES FOUND 
AT THE ANCIENT CEMETERY AT HARTLEPOOL, 

IN JULY, 1838. 

1 2 




They are ''compact limestone,'^ No. 1 measures 9 inches by 6; 
and No. 2, 11^ inches by 11^ ; and are both about 8 inches thick. 
We are not yet enabled to give any correct decipherment of the 
meaning of the characters, and merely beg to offer a few obser- 
vations, which we hope, when followed up by some more skilful 
antiquary, may tend to elucidate that part of the history of 
Hartlepool which has been hitherto enveloped in obscurity. 
The first notice we find relating to Hartlepool, occurs in Bede's 
life of St. Hilda, in which he mentions that Hieu, the first 
female who took the veil in Northumberland, founded the 
monastery of Hereteu (about the year 640), in the government 
of which she was succeeded by Hilda, who afterwards removed 
to Whitby, where she died in 674. Hilda's successor at Hereteu 
is not named, and nothing farther is certainly known of Hart- 
lepool till the year 1171, except that the monastery was com* 



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MODERN HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL, 27 

pletdy destroyed by the Danes^ in one of their earliest invasions 
of the coast, which is fixed by Leland in A. D. 800. We hear 
of no other monastery being founded until after the Norman 
conquest. — fVid. Swrtee^ History, vol. 1. p. 99.J The charac- 
ters on the stones being decidedly Bunic, and on No. 1 in 
particular, of a very ancient form, which is manifested by all 
the characters being clearly formed from the letter I, seemed, at 
first sight, to bring us to the time of the Danes, and led to the 
supposition of their being monumental inscriptions to the me- 
mory of some of that nation. The Danish custom of sepulture, 
however, was contrary to the mode in which it would appear 
the bodies had been buried, whose skeletons were found accom- 
panying the stones in question : their funeral ceremonies having 
distinguished two distinct seras in the ancient northern history, 
the first of which was called Srenne-Alderen, or Buma-olld, the 
Age of Fire, and the second Hoff^Alderen, or Haugs^olld, the 
Age of Hillocks or Barrows — (Vid. Mallefs North. Aniiq,, 
Vol. /., p. 288, and Henry's Hist, of England, Vol. IV., p. 
854) — of which last we have numerous instances in this island, 
but of which no traces exist on the spot of ground where the 
discovery of these inscriptions took place. We mentioned in 
our last, that all the skeletons which had been discovered were 
disposed north and south, and, if our recollection serves us 
right, that the mode of placing the body east and west did not 
prevail till a much later period of the Christian Church, it 
would seem most probable that this has been the burial-place 
of the ancient monastery, which, be it said, en passant, was a 
DOUBLE MONASTERY, Or ouc to which both scxes were admitted. 
Nor does the circumstance of this inscription being in Bunic 
characters at all militate against the supposition, for it would 
seem that this character was originally used by the Saxons, as 
well as by their Scandinavian brethren, and this fact is support- 
ed by several inscriptions which are given by the learned Dr. 
Hickes in his Thesaurus Ling. Sept., and very strongly by a 
coin of King Offa, which is still extant, and bears an inscription 



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28 MODERN HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 

in the Runic diaracter.* Offii began to reign in the year 755, 
which was upwards of 80 yeara before the first appearance of the 
Danes. The well defined cross which is cut upon each stone, 

* JkiAe GenilewuM't Magaxmefor Septemher^ 1888, page 219, it the foUawimg 
letter on the above subject, with two foe tiwUiies of the Stones, 

''Mb. Ubban, 

Ab your Magazine ia the natoral and legitimate depoaitoiy for all the 'decayed 
intelligence ' of the United Kingdom, I send yon herewith a correct aceoont and 
aocnrate drawings of the stones lately found at Hartlepool, and whidi hare been 
already figured and extendyely circulated by the 'Durham Advertiser.' 

In the month of July last, in digging the foundations of a house belonging to 
Mr. John Bulmer, in a field called ' Cross dose,' at a distance of about 185 yards 
from the present church-yard, in a south-easterly direction, at the d^th of three 
feet and a half, and inmiediately upon the limestone, the worionen diseoyered serearal 
skeletons lying in a position nearly north and south. The bones were carefully re- 
mored under the superintendaooe of Mr. Bulmer and Mr. Eeles, and deposited in 
the church-yard. 

A large number of the skuUs were resting on small flat plain stones, varying from 
four to five inches square, and under a few were disoofered stones bearing inscrip- 
tions, and marked with the cross. 

Drawings of the two most perfect are sent herewith. 

The chiwelling of the first is as crisp and as sharp as if it had been out yesterday, 
and the letters are smooth and weU finished. This stone (of oon^aet Ihmestone) is 
eleven and a half inches square, and the surfwe is smooth and poUshed. 

The second stone looks more ancient, and is not so perfect ; its dimensions are nine 
inches by six. Several other stones bearing crosses and inscriptions in old English 
character were found, but they are mneh obliterated. On one of them may be dis- 
tinctly traced REQYIEZCTr ; and in a fiiture communication (if the inscriptions 
may be correctly traced) they will be transmitted to you, for the consideration of 
your antiquarian readers. 

The inscriptions sent herewith are ancient^ and evidently Bimie ; — that they are 
monumental records, does not admit of a doubt^ and thej are submitted without 
fiirther comment to the attention of the learned. 

It may, however, be necessary to state, that Hartlepool is a peninsula in the 
county of Durham, and that a convent flourished here at a very early period. Hieu 
or Bcga was the foundress about the year 640. She was succeeded by Hilda, a lady 
of noble birth and saintly virtues, who removed to Whitby in the year 658. After 
this period no further record exists of the convent at HartLepool, which is si^posed 
to have been destroyed by the Danes in a predatory excursion in 800 A. D.* 

From these meagre fragments little can be gleaned to assist the 'painftd' anti- 
quary, and even the site of the monastery has not been preserved by local tradition. 

By the discovery of so many skeletons lying in nearily the same position, it may 
furiy be presumed tiiat the burial place of the monastery has been disturbed, and it 

* See Surteea's History of Durham, and History of Hartlepool, — Annas Sanctus 
Habspurgo, p. 789, &c. 



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MODERN HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 29 

adds considerable weight to this theory, and sufficiently fixes 
their date as being at a time at least when Christianity prevailed. 
We merely give this as a supposed explanation of the nature 

is very possible tiiat the above inscription msy throw additional light on this con- 
jecture. 

The skeletons are not 'large boned.' The sknlls and thigh-bones are generally 
in good preservation, and some of the sknlls are adorned with goodly rows of teeth ; 
but none of the skeletons are so perfect as to permit an anatomist to prononnoe de- 
cidedly to what sex they belong, — ^for my part, I am strongly inclined to consider 
them principally of the feminine gender. 

As a street is building in the ' Cross dose/ other vestiges of former days will 
undoubtedly come to light, and you will be ftumished with every circumstance worthy 
of communication. 

Some persons ' learned in ancient lore,' consider them to be the bones of ' mighty 
warriors ;' and skulls having been found detached fipom any corresponding bones, 
would lead to the coigecture that the owners had come to an ' untimely end.' 

From its exposed position, Hartlepool would be frequently submitted to the visita- 
tions of Danish rovers; and even after the conquest, Malcolm III. committed 
great excesses, and ravaged the 'fidr oountree.' 

In 1168, a Danish 'forage' is celebrated in song, wherein Hartlepool i^pears 
to have suffered severely. 

Adra orrosto &tti hann Secundum ad locum, qui Hiarta- 
Sndr vid Hiartapoll vid poll (Hartlepol) vocatur, cum co- 
Biddara — lid, oc kom piis equestribus praslinm conse- 
>eim i fl^tta, oc hraud ruit : qnibus in fugam actis, ali- 
|«r skip nockor. Sva quot etiam naves, ccDsis et extur- 
segir Einar Einarr : batis vectorbus, occupavit. Hsec 

Beit biidlungs hidrr memorat Einams : Begius acntum 

Blod fell i ddrr momordit ensis, ubi sanguine tela 

Bhd fyigdis hoU mandebant, ibantque in hostem 

Vid Hiartapoll. una satellites fideles apud Hiarte- 

Hugiun gladdi heit pdum. £sca corvmn calens ex- 

Hruduz Engla beit hilarabat ; adaucta lupo est vini 

Ox vitnis v(n oopia; rheni supra fUconem den- 

Um val kasta vin. suit anglicomm strages cadaventm. 

Jniiq. Celto-Semdica^'-J, Jokmtone, p. 168. 
On the 'reading' of the inscriptions, howevert much will depend, and I there- 
fore spare you all Airther speenlations for the present." X. T. 



Jpaim, in February, 1880, pa^e 146, Mr, Botworth, the Author qf the Jnghh 
Sasom JHetumary, wuUtee the foUomn^ eommumcaium from hie friend, the J2rr. 
/. H, Ealdertema, ofDaventer, HoUand. 

RUNIC BPrrAPHS FOUND AT HARTLEPOOL. 

" Bhabanus Maurus has left a Bunic al^iabet of the Maroomanni, called by others 
Nordmamn, and (see Xleber Deuteche Sunen von W, C. Orimm, Oottingen 1821 on 
the whole, andp, 149 in particular J NorthMinpi-^tmlUd, on the northeni banks 



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30 MODERN HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 

of the cemetery^ and trust that^ whether our idea prove well 
founded or not, the decipherment of the inscriptions by some 
learned antiquary, will throw light on the early history of a 

of the Elve, of coone one and the same spot where the Saxons, the allies of the 
Angles, were residing. When we compare the form of these letters with the Rnnic 
alphabet of the Anglo-Saxons [Hicke^s Gramm, Goth, et Anglo-Saxaniea, in the 
Tkes, Z. L, Sept. torn, /. p. 185, 136], we shall perceive, upon the whole, a striking 
resemblance, which is to me a convincing proof that the Anglo-Saxons brought 
along with them from their native country the Runic alphabet into Britain. That 
these letters were once in oonunon use among them, has been lately proved by the 
discovery of two sepulchral stones at Hartlepool, bearing Runic inscriptions. Hartle- 
pool is a peninsula in the county of Durham, where a convent was founded by Bega 
about the year 640. She was succeeded by Hilda, a lady of noble birth, who re- 
moved to Whitby in the year 668, and was there abbess of a convent, in which the 
celebrated Csedmon was a monk. An accurate delineation of these sepulchral stones 
is given in your Magazine for Sept. 1833, p. 219. 

The cross on these stones proves that they covered Christian corpses. The two 
letters in the two upper quarters of the greater stone, mean perhaps Christ, the 
Alpha and the Omega, The smaller stone, which is also the oldest, does not present 
these letters. The Runic letters on the larger and more modem stone give these 
words: ^Idi Thuhth; and on the older stone, HUmmi Eath, The first word is 
evidently a proper name, signifying however hilaU or hilde, properly, affectionate ; 
and Silmmi or Eilmme, or Helmme galeatus [Icelandic, Hilmir, protector, rex]. 
Let it be observed that e is not denoted by a particular character in the old Runic 
alphabet, but indicated by the i, which vowel being later denoted by a point, was 
called itungen Ju, and served to indicate the e. Now the f twice at least appearing 
on these stones, where « is to be expected, this seems to be something of a proof, 
that these stones were engraved before the introduction of siungen Jia amongst the 
Scandinavian Runes, of M eh amongst the Anglo-Saxon Runes, and of M ech 
amongst the Northalbingian Runes. 

As all proper names indicate a quality of mind or body, reputed excellent by our 
forefathers, we are doubtftil whether the second word denotes a proper name, or an 
epithet containing the encomium of the deceased. I deem the latter the most pro- 
bable, notwithstanding the two epithets are changed by the Frisians into proper 
names ; for tkucht they say by assimilation of the ch to the t, Dotte, and for ^ttJk 
Eade. Thucht seems to be an adjective signifying sound, powerful, and virtuous, 
from \>^, vigeo, >yh15, viet, Hm, vigere, whence Dutch duchtig, sound; Scotch 
doughty, powerful, able. 

Eaih, ea1$ lenis, traetatu facilis, whence easg, points out virtue, reputed as 
such by Christians, not by the warlike Anglo-Saxons. Perhaps it was a nun, re- 
nowned for her meekness of mind, whom this stone covered. The reporter says 
about the bones found under the stones, that he is strongly inclined to consider than 
the remains of a female. The difference between the proper names of men and 
women will not hdp us, as the same names are often common to both, even at this 
day, at Hindelopen, in Friesland, and other places. 

The greater stone bears the inscription Hildx the vibtuous ; and the smaller 
and older stone, Hilmms the heek. EUme and Hille, by asaimilation for Wde^ 
are still prevalent proper names in i^^isia. 



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MODERN HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 31 

place onee fiunoos in our episcopal annals as the haven of the 
Bishop's fleet, and which, we may hope from the daily pro- 

What I intended to observe, was the perfect likeness of the letters on these stones 
with the Ronic al^iabet of the Anglo-Saxons, and of the NorthaUnngians, where 
this alphabet diffen from the old Scandinavian. Por instance, the h oceoning in 

both the stones with the figore N> in the Scandinavian alphabet is drawn /|\ ; tha 

d, engraved in the greater stone !^', just as in the Rone bsBS by Hickes, and the 
Rone ^ in the Codex of St, Gall, No, 270, the </ and M in the old Scandinavian 
alphabet being indicated by the same token )> ; the m in the Scandinavian alphabet 

i ndica t ed hy the figore I , is on the oldest stone drawn |/\] , just as with Bhabanni 
Manrtis, and nearly as with Hickes ; the a is the only exception, having on the older 
stone in the word eath, perfectly the same figure as tiie a with Ulphilas. I have not 

found the figure ' ' ■ elsewhere but on the Cdtiberian coins, whose letters bear a 
striking likeness with the old Runes. The Cdtiberian alphabet is the passing over 
from the Oriental letters to the Runes. Sestini gives (p. 202) to this figure the 
sound of /; but founded on what grounds I do not know. I take the figure on the 

stone for the undermost part of the Scandinavian Rune /l\ Aoffl, of the Anglo-Saxon 

Rune ^ eale, of the Northalbingian Rune A\ eMlei, with Rhabanus Manros, 
and of course standing for cA. About the remaining Runes on the sepulchral stones, 
there can be no qfuestion, being obvious in all the Runic alphabets." 



MM 



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82 



MODERN fflSTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 



gress of its impioyementy will one dmy equal, if not exceed, iU 
former greatness. 

Sepulekral Skme found ai Eartlepool, Oetoherlhth, 1888. 



Similar and near to thoae 
fonnd at the Sonth Terrace 
in 1883, supposed to be re- 
lics of the cemetery which 
was attached to the Saxon 
monastery, fotmded at Hart- 
lepool by St. HUda. 

" l^e size of the preaent 
stone is lOf inches by 9 ; 
its thickness 2i indies. 
It is as smooth and perfect 
as if just cut, on the in* 
scribed surface ; but ron^ 
on the reverse. The inscrip- 
tion resembles most doauy 
one of the former stones on 
which Bunio characters are 
used: and which is orna- 
mented with a nearly simi- 
lar cross, similar letters of 
Alpha and Omega, and be- 
low a name (in Runes) 
which is supposed to be 
Hildithryth. In the pre- 
sent case wehafe, no doubts 



another proper name, apparently Gerchtsyc. 

During the prerions wedi, the workmen had found seyeral human bones; and 
under each skull was a flat stone, as during the former excaTation. The buiial- 
plaoe in which these stones hare been eThumed, appears, as fitr as can be ascertained, 
to have been not more than fifteen or twenty yards long, and the bodies placed in 
two rows only, north and south: the stcnes about a foot and a half firom the 
surfisoe. — Gentleman's Magaiine, Nov., 1888, p. 588. " 

It will be observed, in all the previous extracts, it is assumed 
tbat this was the burying place of the monastery founded by 
Hieu or St. Bega. This was partly owing to the opinion which 
then prevailed, that the site of that monastery was identical, or 
nearly so, with the '' Friary.'' Sir Cuthbert Sharp evidently in- 
clines to this opinion, (see page 10) chiefly upon the fact, as it ap- 
pears, that one of the fields near to it, was called the '' Nunnery 
close.'' The discovery of the ruins of St. Helen's chapel, in 
the Far-well field, much further to the north, in the month of 
October, 1845, wiU, perhaps, modify tlus opinion; and it may 




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MODERN HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 88 

also lead to a different condasioii, as to the burying ground 
of theae redusea. There aeema reaaonable ground for believing 
that the original chapel of St. Helen, waa among the earliest 
establishments ot Christianity at Hereteu ; and in the absence of 
any positive testimony to the contrary, it is fair to suppose that 
St. Bega's monastery occupied a site at no great distance £rom it. 
It is not improbable, that at no distant period, when the in- 
creasing wants of the town shall require more ground for its 
houses, these questions may be set at rest. In the meantime, it 
is obvious that the ruins of the chapel discovered in 1845, were 
not of an earUer date than the twelfth century. Whether the 
original structure was destroyed by the Danes about the year 
800, and remained in ruin till the piety of " the Bras'' restored 
it, or whether a prior restoration had been made, seem to be 
mere matters of conjecture. The ruins, as they now exist, 
afford, unfortunately, but scanty materials for a history of the 
edifice. They are the mere foundations of a small building, in 
the craciform shape, in no case exceeding three feet in height; 
the length of the whole, from west to east, being about sixty 
feet, and the breadth of the nave about twenty feet. The 
letter "|" gives the best idea of their form ; the transept, or 
arms of the cross, being at the west end, measuring thirty-five 
feet from north to south, all external measurements. The 
inside measurement of the nave is only fourteen feet, affording 
abundant proof of the limited number of worshippers at the 
period of its highest prosperity. 

These rums or rather foundations, were discovered by accident, 
by an officer of the Corporation, whilst seeking for building 
materials among the foundations of old walls. They are near 
to the north-west corner of the Farwell field ; and to the west 
of them, at a distance of a few yards, is a mound of consider* 
aUe aise ; but whether it has been thrown up there for defence, 
as some imagine, or whether it is not itself a portion of the 
ruins of a more extensive building, remains for future explo- 
rers to discover. 



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84 MODERN HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 

Of the architecture of the chapel very little opinion can be 
formed, from the imperfect state of the fragments which remain. 
The base of one colomn, with a few stones, apparently portions 
of a clustered shaft, are all that the architect can find to re- 
construct his ideal edifice upon. In the hands of the ingoiiouB 
author of the History of Manchester,* a goodly falme might 
be raised out of these imperfect ruins; but we have no skill 
in conjectural history, and all that can be said of them, with 
truth, is, that they resemble, as far as resemblance can be 
traced, other ruins of the eleventh and twelfth centuries. 

The discovery, however, of a stone coffin, containing a skele- 
ton of a full grown person, five feet ten inches high, seems to 
lead to the inference, that, whatever may have been the date of 
the present chapel, it had a history of much greater antiquity 
than that of the Brus of King John's timcf This coffin is 
hewn out of a solid block of the limestone, such as is found 
upon the sea shore, with little skill or labour, and covered with 
a stone lid, also of one piece. It is to be regretted that this 
relic, the only one worth preserving, should have been left to 
the tender mercies of idle and disorderly sailor lads, who make 
this field their play ground. The coffin and lid, quite perfect 
when discovered, are now very much broken, and in a few 
years will be entirely destroyed. 

Whilst on the subject of the antiquities of Hartlepool, it may 
be proper to notice the removal of the old North Gate, which 
took place in 1836. This Gate-way, wholly unsuited for modem 
traffic, being low and narrow, had long been abandoned as a 
thoroughfare; the road having been taken through thefiank 
wall to the west. Although possessing very few pretensions to 
beauty, it had some hold upon the affections of one at least 

• Dr. Whitakop. 

t A sQljT hoax was played off by a few yoong men at the time of the discoTery 
of the rninB in 1845. A stone "basin " as it was called, with an inscription on 
it, of 640, (the time of the establishment of the monastery by Hieu), was placed 
among the loose stones and " discovered " by the sharp-sighted and learned anti- 
qoaries of the place. Uafortonately for the saocess of the joke, they had pnt the 
date in Arabic numerals! 



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MODERN HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 35 

of the oldest and most respected of the inhabitants of the 
town^ (the late Mr. Yollum) ; and an attempt seems to have 
been made by his son to save it from the hands of the Vandal, 
Roger Watson, in whose turn of office, as Surveyor of High- 
ways, the sacrilege was perpetrated. The copy of the hand bill 
giv^i below will perhaps be thought a sufficient record of the 
event. The appeal to the fishermen, long a recognised estate in 
the realm of Hartlepool, is an amusing instance of the force of 
public opinion, and at the same time, of the usual motives by 
which such bodies are assumed to be influenced. 

To the Inhabitants of Hartlepool^ hut more particularly to the 
Fishermen belonging to the Port, 

'^ Whereas, a hand bill having been printed (the following of which is 
a copy) and circulated by John Procter, who, on enquiry, declared that 
he had received such instructions from W. J. Yollum, Esq., viz. ; — 
' Notice is hereby given, that the Magistrates have given directions 
to the Surveyors of Highways of Hartlepool, not to sell, or take down 
the old Gate-way, at Northgate. All persons are therefore cautioned 
against purchasing, or taking down the said Grate-way, as by so doing, 
they will be liable to legal proceedings after this notice. Hartlepool, 
October 20th, 1836.' 

The Surveyors of the Highways do hereby unequivocally deny the 
assertion set forth in the above handbill, viz. — ^that they have received 
any directions from the Magistrates not to sell, or take down the old 
Gate-way, at Northgate ; but, on the contrary, they positively declare 
(in an interview they had with the Bev. Mr. Park, who said he had 
been waited upon by two gentlemen, who requested his interposition 
with the Surveyors, to prevent the said Gate-way being taken down) 
that the Rev. Gentleman, after some discussion on the subject, though 
he recommended a reconciliation between the parties, admitted, in the 
presence of the Bev. Mr. Webster, that the matter was of such a 
nature, that the Magistrates had no power to interfere. 

The Surveyors do, therefore, charge the author of the above-men- 
tioned hand bill, with publishing and propagating a gross and deliberate 
falsehood ; and, as it would appear, for the sole purpose of inflaming 
the minds of the public against them, and preventing them from exe- 
cuting the duties imposed upon them, by virtue of the office they hold 
as Surveyors of the Highways ; and, at the same time, they (the Sur- 
veyors) do hereby give notice to all such persons as are inclined to 



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36 MODERN HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 

purchase, and remove the said Gate-way, (which they consider a public 
nuisance, and highly detrimental to the interest of the township) that 
they are ready to receive tenders for the same ; and that, if any person 
or persons do attempt to hinder, or are in any way accessary in pre- 
venting the removal of the said Gate-way, they will be proceeded 
against as the law directs. 

N. B. It is the intention of the Surveyors, to put into repair, 
with the proceeds of the sale of the said Gate-way, those roads that 
have been so long neglected about the premises of Mr. Richard Hunter, 
innkeeper, and Mr. John Cambridge, boat builder, which are so much 
frequented by the Fishermen. Hartlepool, October 22nd, 1836." 



The Pier and Port Trusty up to the commencement of the 
DodcSj in 1832, as we have already stated, was equally destitute 
of fonds and influence. By their first Act,* obtained in 1813, 
they were authorised to borrow the sum of dS3000 for the im- 
provement of the Pier and Harbour. Their revenue being very 
small and uncertain, it was not to be expected that any one 
would be found to advance money upon such security as they 
could give. In the amended Act of 1832, the dues collected 
upon houses, boats, and cobles, were repealed, and the tonnage 
dues on vessels entering the port, reduced from two-pence to one 
half-penny per ton register. Tlie repeal of the former dues did 
not much affect the prospects of the trust, as the amount re- 
ceived from them scarcely averaged £40 a year; but the large 
reduction of three-fourths of the tonnage dues, placing every 
thing upon the success of the undertaking, could only have 
been justified by the desire to have as few obstacles in the way 
of that success as possible, by reducing the port charges to the 
lowest amount. 

In this Act further borrowing powers to the extent of dSSOOO 
were obtained; making the whole capital of the Commission, if 
such an expression be allowable, only £8000. But now, as 
before, having only a revenue in a very dubious future, no one 

* The dates of the several Acts of the Pier and Port Commission are as foIlowB : 
58, Gee. HI. c. 86, 1818. 2, Wm. IV. c. S8. 1882. 1, Vict. c. 78, 1887. 
8 and 9, Vict. c. 189, 1845. 14 and 15, Vict. c. 117, 1851. 



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MODERN HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 37 

could be found to advance them money. The conBequence was, 
that their whole reliance was upon the dock company, (already 
straightened in their own affairs,) to furnish funds for all the 
expenditure to be incurred in improving the outer harbour. 
The sums thus advanced by the dock company, chiefly for the 
repairs at the old pier, and for the building of a dredger, 
amounted to upwards of j£8000, in the autumn of 1834, at the 
time when that company made application to the exchequer bill 
loan commissioners for a loan. The difficulties, of obtaining 
this money have already been referred to. Among the points 
raised by the exchequer commissioners, was the advance made 
to the pier and port trust. They stated, correctly enough, 
that the dock company had no power to lend money ; and, in 
answer to the fair and reasonable reply, that, without the com- 
missioners' works, the docks were of no use, they rejoined that 
they had nothing to do with anything beyond the strict con- 
struction of the Act ; and that a precedent condition of any 
advance from them, must be the re-payment by the pier and 
port commissioners of the £8000 advanced by the dock com- 
pany. The probability of obtaining any such loan in the then 
condition of the trust, appeared a most remote one ; as, however, 
every thing at that time, seemed to hinge upon the dock com- 
pany obtaining the advance from the exchequer, the two coal 
companies which first shipped their coals at Hartlepool, stepped 
forward, and raised the money for the pier and port trust, upon 
their own security. 

This money, the whole sum they were authorised to raise, 
had all been expended in the building of a dredger, and repair- 
ing of the old pier. A channel had still to be made to the 
entrance of the tide basin, and, for the means of doing this, the 
commissioners had again to resort to the dock company. Even 
after the docks were opened, and a small revenue began to flow 
in, the necessity of further works, for the improvement of the 
place, became every day more apparent. The ebb tide, before 
the Coffer Dam was erected, had alvrays set to the western or 



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38 MODERN HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 

Stranton shore; and, notwithstanding the check given to it by 
the portion of the dam still left, the natural tendency seemed to 
be in that direction, immediately the water passed seaward of 
the dam. To counteract this tendency, and to keep the water 
in the channel, the erection of a pier or jetty, on the Stranton 
side, became necessary. But an unexpected difficulty presented 
itself. The engineer of the dock company, Mr. Brown, had 
always acted for the commissioners without charge; but, when 
it was proposed to him to construct this jetty, he begged to de- 
cline undertaking so heavy a sea-work on his own responsibility ; 
and requested that Sir John Brcnnie might be specially called in, 
to advise and report upon it; observing that he, (Mr. B.,) would 
not like to say, to a few thousands of pounds, what the cost 
might be. It must be kept in view, that, at this time, August, 
1835, the commissioners were again becoming largely indebted 
to the dock company ; and to undertake a work of the magnitude 
depicted by Mr. Brown, seemed the height of folly. Some of the 
commissioners, however, ventured to differ from Mr. Brown, — and 
one of them volunteered to make a sufficient jetty for one thou- 
sand pounds, upon his own responsibility, if the rest of the 
commissioners would authorise him.* The chairman of the 
commissioners, the late Bowland Burdon, Esq., who had seen a 
good deal of the absurdities of engineers, in his great woik, the 
Sunderland bridge, immediately gave his sanction to it. The 
work was begun by sinking old keels, and filling them with ma- 
terial from the dredger : these were covered with loose rubble 
stones, in the form of an embankment ; the accumulation of sand 
and shingle, which invariably follows any extension of works from 
the shore seaward, assisted very materially the operation; and in 
this way, in the teeth of all sorts of doleful prophecies and prog- 
nostics of fjEtilure, the work progressed, and was completed to 
within twenty-five or thirty yards of its present length, for a sum 
little beyond the amount first roughly estimated. The disappoint- 
ment of the Prophets of evil, found some little relief by turning 

* " Fools step in where an^eU fear to tread 1 " 



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MODERN HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 89 

their ystkinatioiis to its darability. It would never stand a 
gde — the first north-easter would wash it all into the channel^ 
and so on. It is^ however^ a singular fact that^ with one or two 
exceptions^ it has stood every gale for sixte^ years^ some very 
unusual ones, and die damages it has sustained^ have been 
covered with less than an expenditure of £300. In the fol- 
lowing year, 1836, the commissioners erected the light upon 
their pier, at an expense of about £200. 

Notwithstanding the economy with which they proceeded, it 
soon became apparent to them, that their dues, as well as their 
borrowing powers, weremuchtoo restricted. The total sum re- 
ceived by them, being in 1835, only £71 Is. 6d. and £305 3s. Od. 
in 1836;* they therefore determined to apply to parliament in 
1887, for another Act, in which they increased their dues from 
a halfpenny to one penny per Urn, on all vessek loading or dis- 
charging cargoes, and half dues on refuge vessels : their powers, 
to raise money being augmented in the same ratio, from £8000 
to £16,000. The boundaries between the dock company's 
works, and those of the commissioners, were first defined by the 
tenth seeticm of this Act, to be the south edge of the existing 
portion of the Cofier Dam. By section third, the Admiralty 
reserves the right of appointing five commissioners, to act upon 
the trust; and, by section fifteen^ the consent of their lordships 
k necessary before any works are constructed below high water 
mark. 

At the time we have reached, 1888, the works of the dock 
remained much in the same state as they were at the opening of 
the tide basin, in 1886. Partial excavations, and a portion of 
the quay wall had been done, but the locks into the dock and 
slake had only been so ht completed, as to get in timber dams 
to keep out the water from the tide harbour. The agreement^ 
with the Stockton and Hartlepool company, requiring the dock 
company to construct all the works from the south margin of 
the Middleton House estate, necessitated the completion of the 

* See ute, page 11. 

NN 



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40 MODERN HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 

works between the tide basin and the slake^ consisting of the lock^ 
with its gates^ two bridges^ one a draw-bridge to carry over the 
railway, the other a turning-bridge for the public road. These 
works, with the railway connected with them, cost about 
£18,000 or Jei4,000. The large traffic of 400,000 tons of 
coals annually, calculated upon confidently by this company, not 
only seemed to warrant so large an expenditure, but coupled 
with the circumstance that three or four collieries were in pro- 
gress of being sunk upon their own line, rendered the com- 
pletion of the dock a matter of necessity, to accommodate the 
great accession of business so shortly to be expected. These 
works were therefore resumed in 1888 ; and in 1889 and 1840, 
were completed. The dock was opened for traffic, on the 
seventh December, 1840; and the year 1841 gives an increase of 
184,987 tons over the preceding year 1840, and more than 
doubles that of 1889. 

Considerable disappointment was, however, experienced at the 
result of the opening of the Stockton and Hartlepool railway. 
That company had, at that period, no controul over the traffic 
on the Clarence line; the distance to Hartlepool was five or 
six miles longer than to Port Clarence, and the dues at the docks 
were higher than the Clarence company charged at the River 
Tees. All these concurring causes tended to prevent the traffic 
coming by the new line to Hartlepool, and the result was, that 
in the first three years' working of that railway, only 115,000 
tons of coals came to the docks by it; being scarcely one-tenth 
of the quantity they had calculated upon. This was, no doubt, 
a great disappointment, and a heavy loss to both companies ; to 
the dock company, who had made such expensive works for the 
accommodation of their traffic, and to the railway company for 
their large outlay ; by much the heaviest of any line in the 
district, taking into consideration the very favourable character 
of the country traversed, which is nearly level.* 

* It appears, from the statement of the Stockton and Hartlepool railway company, 
laid before a general meeting of the proprietors, on the twenty-ninth day of Septem- 



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MODERN HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 41 

Thfite mutoal disappointmentSj as might have been anticipa- 
ted^ led to serious differences between the two companies. 
Negotiations for a renewed agreement seemed only to widen the 
breach ; the old dock company asserting^ that the terms offered 
to them were intended to insore rejection ; whilst the railway 
company, on the other hand, maintained that they were in good 
faith, and that it was their wish to use the old docks. As the 
west dock company now state, that it was their intention from 
the first, to have docks of their own, it is somewhat difficult to 
reconcile the two statements. It is sufficient for our purpose, 
to record, that after several attempts to obtain parliamentary 
powers to construct docks in the slake, the whole of which were 
either abandoned or defeated, they ultimately obtained the Act 
for constructing the west harbour and dock, on the Stranton 
shore, in the session of 1844.* 

Their plans comprised an outer harbour of about eleven acres, 
enclosed from the shore, with piers extending seaward to the 
low water mark of neap tides ; and an inner dock of seven acres ; 
the estimated cost of the whole being £62,400.t 

These works were opened for traffic, on the first of June, 
1847; and the company having become the Lessees of the 
Clarence railway, the whole of the traffic of that line has been 
brought to Hartlepool since the west dock was opened, notwith- 
standing the increased distance of about five miles. Their traffic 

ber, 1861, tliat their total expenditure was £845,982, which, for somewhat less than 
eight milea of railway, gives nearly £44,000 per mile ; and, as their hmd is not pur 
chased, but leased, a farther som would have to be added to pat them on a footing 
with other railways. Comparing it with other lines, we find the London and North 
Western has cost £41,612 per mile ; the Great Western, £43,885 ; Eastern Counties, 
£46,855 ; Brighton, £56,981 ; Midland Counties, £35,402 ; induding knd in every 
instance, the average cost of which, was £14,000 a mile. 

♦ Their several Acts are, 7, Vict., c. 28, 1844; 10, Vict., c. 16, 1847; 13 
and 14, Vict., c. Ill, 1850. 

t In this case, as in that of the old docks, the estimates fall very much short of 
the expenditure. From the annual report published by the company, it appears, that 
up to thirtieth June, 1851, their total expenditure on the docks was £345,932 98. lid., 
which, with the heavy works in progress, will apparently raise the expenses to up- 
wards of half a million sterling. 



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42 MODEBN HISTOBY OF HARTLEPOOL. 

has, in conaeqiiaicey Yery largely ineceaned; beiBg, aeemr^g 
to their last sti^emeiit, 678^876 tons for the year endiag 
thirtieth June, 1861. 

AlthoQ^ the works of the west dock were opened for traffic 
in June, 1847^ it can acnreely he said that they were eompleted, 
or even suspended at the time. Alterations in the form of thdi 
piers have been ocmtinually made; and, at the same time, ex- 
tensions of them into the bay have been eontmnally gmng for- 
ward, until thqr haye now reached a distance of about 480 feet, 
beycmd the original piers of their parliamentary {dan. A second 
dock, of thirteen acres, was also begun in 1848, and is expected 
to be completed in the spring of 1852. When these works are 
finished, (including a further inelosure of the beach, within their 
outer harbour,) according to their own rqiort, ''the west dock 
company wUl be in possession of an outer and inner receiying 
harbour — together, forty-four acres — ^with about twenty-one 
acres ot docks, in which ships will always lie afloat, and there 
wUl be means, altogether, of sheltering and acemnmodating 
about five hundred sail of diips at one time.'' 

In a period oi time, of less than twenty years, the litde neg- 
lected fishing town ot Hartlepool wiU have acquired the follow- 
ing accommodation for ships, the whole of which is protected 
by piers : — 

The Commissioners Harbour at the entrance of 

the East Dock Basin 25 Acres 

Tide Bashi of the East or Old Dock Company... 21 ,» 

Victoria Dock of the do 21 „ 

On the Esst side 67 Acres 

West Dock Outer Harbour 44 

Do. two Docks 21 

On the West side 65 

Together 132 

which will be capable of affording shelter to upwards of 1000 
sail of Merchant vessels at once. 



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MODERN HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 48 

The expense of this eztensiye dockaceommodation, indnding 
the railway^ made to bring traffic to it by the dock oompanies^ 
may be tak^ as bdow^ in nnrnd numbers. 

Hartlepool Dock and Railway Company, in- 
cluding 16 miles of Railway £520,000 

Hartlepool Junction Railway 8 do. ... 95,000 

East or Old Dock, and 24 miles of Railway... £615,000 
Stockton and Hartlepool Railway, 

Smiles • £350,000 

West Harbour and Dock (when 

completed, say) 500,000 

West Harbour and Docks, and 8 miles Railway 850,000 
Making together a Sum of £1,465,000 



or nearly one million and a half sterling; enough to have pur- 
chased the palatinate in the time of the first '' De Brus I " 

The provision for the despatch of the traffic at the docks, is 
on a par with the dock aocommodatkm. In the old dock com- 
pany's tide basin and Victoria dock, there are three steam 
ballast cranes^ capable of discharging 160 tons per hour^ or for 
ten working hours in the twenty-four^ a daily-total of 1500 
tons; and at the rate of 300 working days yearly, an annual 
quantity of 450,000 tons. They have also sixteen coal drops, 
capable of shipping forty chaldrons of coal each, (of fifty-three 
cwt.,) hourly — which, multiplied by ten hours daiily, and 800 
days in the year, gives an annual total of 1,900,000 chaldrons, 
or 5,086,000 tons of coals. 

The acomunodations at the west dock being still incomplete, 
fall short of the above, but there can be no doubt if their trade 
should warrant it, they will provide them on an equally liberal 
scale. 

In the year 1845, three of the directors of the west dock 
company, who had been named by Captain Beaufort, Com- 
missioners for the Admiralty, under the third section of the 



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44 MODERN HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 

Act of 1837^ applied to parliament for an amended Act for 
the Ciommissioners of the Pier and Port. The chief reason 
allied for incorring this expense, was^ the preponderating 
influence of the old dock company in the trust. It was con- 
tended that independent members ought to be appointed^ wholly 
out of the neighbourhood of the trusty and by way of rendering 
the Board as little as possible interested in the wdfeure of 
the place^ a number of country gentlemen were constituted 
commissioners, and a further number, interested in the ports of 
Sunderland, Shields, and the Tees, were added to it. The 
constitution of the commission after this Act was passed, was 
as follows :— 

'' Rowland Burdon, Thomas Wood, William YoUum, Robert 
Henry Allan ; (members of the old dock company,) Bobinson 
Watson, Robert Rayson, Cnthbert Wigham, John Fenwick; 
(members of the west dock company,) Thomas Eden, Duncomb 
Shafto, Edward Shipperdson, Sir William Eden, Baronet, Mar- 
shall Fowler, John Scott, of Sunderland, John Harrison Aylmer, 
John Gregson. The person in command ot the district coast 
guard for the time being, if any, ex-Offido : in whose district 
the Bay of Hartlepool, shall be situate : the collector of the 
customs at Hartlepool for the time being, if any, ez-Officio : 
the mayor of Hartlepool for the time being; if any, ez-Officio : 
James Wardle Rozby, the Reverend James Allan Park, and 
William Nicholson/' 

In the latter part of this year, the commissioners first re- 
ceived an intimation from the secretary of the Trinity House, 
that their Board had been memorialised by persons repre- 
senting themselves to be the public of Hartlepool, to erect a 
light upon the Heugh, or Headland of Hartlepool, and agree- 
ing, as such assumed public, that the Board of the Trinity 
House should charge for the maintenance of such light, the 
sum of one halfpenny per ton register. A very large portion 
of the parties making this liberal offer, were mere masters of 
vessels not belonging to the port, many of the rest were totaUy 



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MODERN HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 45 

destitute of either property or interest in the place^ and it is 
charitable to suppose were ignorant of the eflFect of their own 
recommendations. The opportunity was^ however^ apparently 
too inviting to be neglected by a corporation which levies in the 
name of the public^ three hundred per cent, more toll than is 
necessary for the maintenance of their lights^ and which^ notwith- 
standing this enormous exaction^ is still in financial difficulties ; 
and they accordingly closed with the proposal^ and intimated 
their intention to erect the light and exact the toll^ which would 
amount to about j£2250 a year. 

The commissioners, however, demurred to this heavy imposi- 
tion upon the place. The erection of a light there, had always 
been a favourite project of Mr. C. Tennant, whose earnest 
prayer was, that he might be buried beneath it, and the com- 
missioners had always intended to comply with the wishes of 
Mr. Tennant and the public; but the time had scarcely arrived, 
when their funds would admit of it. They ofiered to erect it as 
soon as they had funds, and maintain it free of charge. The 
Board, however, required an immediate decision by the com- 
missioners to begin it, or to let them do it. To avoid the toll 
proposed, they therefore, undertook to build the Light House, 
although they had to borrow part of the funds from the two 
dock companies. 

The design for the tower was furnished by Mr. Stephen 
Bobinson, under whose direction the whole was completed. 
Previously, however, to commencing the work. Sir John Macnid 
was employed to advise the commissioners upon the proper 
situation for the light. EUs report on the subject contains the 
following passage : — 

'' Having been requested by the commissioners of the port 
and harbour of HarUepool, to report on the general state of the 
harbour, as to the best means of improving it, and also on the 
best place for the erection of a Light House. I proceeded there 
as soon as my other engagements would permit, and made such 
preliminary observations, and enqmries, as I considered neoes- 



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46 MODERN HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 

sarj, previous to sending down assistants to make detailed and 
aocorate sonreysy daring my stay at HartlepooL Three sitoa* 
tions were pointed oat for a Light House ; firsts on the top or 
Headland; the second, on the Boeks below it; and the third, 
on the extremity of a Pier, proposed to be thrown out sei^ 
ward, from the extremity of the present pier, and at ri^t 
angles to it. 

This light, would, it was supposed, serve the double purpose 
at a harbour and coast light, and make that now kept at the 
end of the pier unnecessary. 

This last plan, of course, involves tiie building of a pier; but 
even if this should be determined on, the propriety of erecting 
such a lii^^t House on its extrranity, might still be question- 
able. 

The objections to it are, first, the great height which would 
be required, in order to be seen at sea, over the Heugh, and 
consequent cost of erection. 

Second, the vessels seeing it from the N. and N. E., over the 
Heugh, might approach too near the rocks in that direction, or 
near the point of the Heugh. 

The rocks, at the foot of the Heu^, would be a much better 
situation for it as r^ards the coast; but its erection there would 
cost a great deal, and the harbour light at the pier head must 
still be continued. 

There is also the objection, that it adds another light to the 
great number already existing along the coast, and might, under 
certain circumstances be mistiiken for Seaham. 

These latter objections, apply also to the erection of a light 
House on the Heugh, where it is also thought that there is a 
danger of the place on which it would be builty being carried 
away, as the sea has lately made rapid inroads in the cliff. 

I do not myself attribute much weight to this objection, as 
I have no doubt that the Light House might be placed fisr 
enou^ back, (and means adopted to prevent the fSeJling of the 
diff,) and the cost of erection would be very much less. 



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MODERN HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 47 

On the whole, if the object be a coast light, I should recom- 
mend the top of the Hengh as the proper place for it. 

If the object be to enable vessels to make the harbour, the 
present situation, with an improved light, might be amply 
sufficient. 

The present light is red, but is not sufficiently powerful to 
be seen at any great distance, particularly in misty weather. 
If it were brighter it might be seen far enough in any state of 
the weather, for vessels wishing to make the harbour. It 
should be remembered, that almost all vessels which frequent 
Hartlepool, come from a southerly or easterly direction.'' 



It is to be regretted that Sir John selected the site on the 
Heugh, instead of the rocks in front of it, as had been re- 
commended by Mr. Bobinson, as it has entailed upon the trust 
an expense, to protect the foundation of the tower, which would 
have been avoided, had the rocks been selected for the site. 

CO 



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48 MODERN HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 

An additional advantage of the rocka would hare been, ttial the 
Light House might have been placed nearer, by 500 or 600 
£Bet, to deep water, than it is at present ; aToiding, by this 
means, the danger of ressels coming too near it and ronning 
on the rocks, when coming from the north, as was the case 
in the wreck of the X. L., of Lcmdon, on the twenty-third of 
February, 1848. 

But the commissioners deferred to the opinion of Sir John 
Macniel, and placed the light upon the Heugh. It had, however, 
scarcely beau completed, before the necessity of protecting the 
Heugh itself, from that continual wasting action which is in 
progress all round the town, became apparent; and the whole 
face of the diff has now been secured by masonry set in cement, 
of the most substantial character. 

The foundation stone of the tower, was laid on the twelfth 

August, 1846, and the light first exhibited, on the first October, 

1847. The tower is an elegant shaft, of white sandstone, 

tapering from a base of twenty^four feet diameter, to a diameter 

of sixteen feet under the projecting balcony, which is supported 

by corbels, forming a bold architrave to the top of the shaft. 

The height of the tower from the ground to the 

top of the Gallery 48 feet 

More to the centre of the Light 10 „ 

58 „ 
The ground at the base of the tower being above 

high water mark 26 », 

Making the Light ahove high water 84 „ 

The lantern is 14^ feet diameter, and 10 feet high in the 
glazed part; has six-twentieths, or 108^ obscured, and fourteen- 
twentieths, or 2612^ exposed. 

The cost of tower, lantern, and lighting apparatus, * 
including a tide licht on the same principle, at 
an elevation of 6If feet above high water, was £3200 

The cost of protecting the cMs in front 2100 

Lightkeepers' cottages, and other erections 450 

Making the total expenditure £5750 



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MODERN fflSTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 40 

The Annual expense for maintenance is : — 

£ s. D. 

Lightkeepers' wages, exclusive of houses ... 104 
Gas, about 130,000 feet at 4s. 6d. per 

thousand 29 5 

Ground rent of the land 5 

Incidentals, repairs, stores, frc., say 10 

Total £148 5 

If we add interest on the Capital £5750, 

at 5 per cent, per annum 287 10 

It will run up the Annual cost to £435 15 

to meet which, the Board of the Trinity House, and the sdf- 
oonstituted public of Hartlepool who proposed it, wished to tax 
the port to the extent of £2250 a year, that being the amount 
of one hal^nny a ton upon its present traffic. 

The higher and larger light is a stationary white light of 
the first order, the lower, or tidal one, being a stationary red 
light of the fifth order. The large light is exhibited during the 
whole night, from sunset to sunrise ; but the red light is only 
shown at night between half-flood and half-ebb tide, as a signal 
when ships may enter the harbour^ and a large red ball is 
hoisted to the bead of a mast attached to the lantern, as a day 
signal for the same purpose. 

Both lights are produced from coal gas, and so directed by 
optical apparatus, as to send forth the light in a plane nearly 
parallel to the horizon. 

The apparatus used for the large light, is partly on the 
dioptric and partly on the catoptric principle ; the middle, or 
dioptric portion, consisting of eighteen annular tiers of refractors 
or prismodic zones of glass, by which the light is refracted into 
an horizontal direction in passing through them ; and the catop- 
tric part is composed of eleven tiers of silvered glass mirrors, 
seven above, and four below the dioptric portion of the appara- 
tus : by these mirrors, the light cast upon them is reflected into 
a plane parallel to the horizon. 



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50 MODERN HISTORY OF VABILEPOOL. 

The apparatoB used for the tide lights is entirely <m the 
dioptric principle^ the middle part bung oompoaed of fire zonea 
jointed together^ similar to the dioptric portion of the large instm^ 
mentj but instead of mirrors above and below it^ there are four 
detached zones or prisms above^ and two below, by which, the 
entire light sent through this instrument, is rejraetei into an 
horizontal direction. The red colour given out by the tide light, 
is obtained by placing a stained red glass chimney over the gas 
burner, situated in the focus of the instrument. 

There is only one gas burner in the centre of each instrument; 
the burner in the large light being covered by a white glass 
chimney, consequentiy gives out a white light. 

The gas used in those lights, is procured from the Public Oas 
Works in the town, but, in consequence of the irregularity in 
the pressure, whilst in connexion with the town, as well aa 
the uncertainty of a constant supply, it has been found neoes* 
sary to construct a Gbs Holder at the Light House, capable of 
containing gas for half a week to a week's consumption, accord- 
ing to the length of the nights, as a security against such 
irregularity or disappointment in the supply of gas. To prevent 
disappointment which might arise £rom injury to the burner, 
or gas apparatus, an oil light is always kept in readiness, and 
could be substituted at a few minutes notice. 

We believe that the Hartlepool light was the first in which 
gas was used. Considerable doubts were at first entertained of 
its success, and great difficulty was found in adapting a burner 
of sufficient power to the exact position required by the appar- 
atus of prisms and mirrors used for concentrating the rays of 
light. These difficulties have been entirely overcome, and the 
superior effect, as well as economy, of gas over oil, will no 
doubt lead to its adoption in all cases where it can be obtained. 

About the period we are now speaking of, the Hartlepool 
docks and railway passed by agreement for a lease, into the 
hands of the York, Newcastle, and Berwick Company. The 
first application to parliament, in 1847, for an Act to carry out 



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MODEBN HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 61 

this agreement was unsacoeaafnl; and, alihoo^ that company 
took posaeaaion of the works, in October, 1846, and haye con- 
tinned to hold them ever since, the Leasing Act was not obtained 
until the year 1848.* By this lease, many increased faculties 
have been given to the public of Hartlepool, in travelling both 
north and south ; Jkmt being four passenger trains each way, 
daily, to Ferry Hill, all communicating with both north and 
south trains on their trunk line, in addition to three trains eadi 
way, daily, to Sunderland; and four trains daily, £rom West 
Hartlepool to Stockton. 

Notwithstanding the severe depression which has overspread 
the staple trade of the county, the coal trade, for the last five 
or six years, and the ruin and desolation it has spread over 
many districts, Hartlepool has maintained an advancing traffic 
up to the present time. Whilst the northern coal ports for the 
last seven years have been nearly stationary, and the Tees has, 
by the bringing of the Clarence traffic to the West Dock, lost 
nearly one-half its trade, Hartlepool shews an increase, between 
1844 and 1850, of upwards of 250,000 tons of shipping, to 
load in the old docks, whilst the 450,000 to 500,000 t<ms, 
diipped in the west dock, is entirely additumal. 

* The terms of this igreement were :~That the aliares already 

created, lii, Origmal £100 Shares ^ £209,000 

Quarters, two fcries, of £25 each 104,500 

£818,500 
Together with the capitalisation of debt, equal to another 
quarter share, or 52,250 

Making together the sum of £865,750 

Shoold be paid at the rate of £8 per cent. 

Thai a fiirther amount of 75,000 

Ifaking £440,750 

Should be capitatised on or before the lai of Januarj, 1858, 
when the rate of 8 per cent, should be paid upon the whole ; 
the lessees also paying the interest on the remaining debt 

of the Company, amcontingto £78,190 

The lease was for thirty-one years, from the 1st of July, 1848, at the ezpintioa 
of which, the Bocks and Bailway are to be amalgamated on equal terms with the 
York, Newcastle, and Berwick Company. 



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52 MODERN HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 

To meet this large aocession of tnde, and to render the port 
more aoceisible in gales^ from N. E., the commissionerB of the 
pier and port again applied to parliament^ in the aession of the 
present year, 1861, for enlarged powers, and extensiye alterations 
in the constitution of the trust. The old complaint of the west 
dock company, of undue influence in the trust, by the old dock 
company, was again brought up, but unlike the complaint of 
1845, that the safety of the trust depended upon having com- 
missioners, who were wholly uninterested in the trade of the 
place, it now took the opposite form; that its safety depended up- 
on having omimissioners connected entirdy with local interests. 
The objects of the commissioners being to hav^ if possible, an 
independent Board, unbiassed on 4ihe one hand, by private int^- 
eats, and uninfluenced, if possible, by the cajolery and trickery in- 
variably resorted to, when an object is to be attained, they 
agreed to the following constitution of the trust, which is its 
present form : — 

" That from and after the passing of this Act the Commis- 
sioners for carrying this Act into execation shall, subject as 
hereinafter provided, be sixteen in number, and shall consist of 
the six Commissioners, the East Dock Commissioners, the West 
Dock Commissioners, the Shipowners' Commissioners, the Col- 
lector of the Customs at Hartlepool for the time being, ex- 
officio; and the Mayor of Hartlepool for the time being, ex- 
officio; and such Commissioners shaU be called 'The Hartlepool 
Pier and Port Commissioners,' and may and shall exercise the 
several powers by this Act conferred on the Commissioners, and 
subject to the provisions of this Act, the Commissioners shall 
have power to purchase and hold lands and to improve the Port, 
and shall be Conservators of the Port. 

''That John Punshon Denton, George Moon, William Scur- 
field Grey, Christopher Davison, William Gray, and Thomas 
Richardson, as the six Commissicmers ; Rowland Burdon, 
Thomas Robinson Grey, and Thomas Wood, as the East Dock 
Commissioners ; Ralph Ward Jackson, Robinson Watson, and 



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MODERN HISTOEY OF HARTLEPOOL. 53 

Thomas Wilde Powell, as the West Dock Commissioners ; the 
Collector of Customs at Hartlepool, the Mayor of Hartlepool, 
and the two persons who shall be the first Shipowners' Commis- 
sioners, shall be the first Commissioners for carrying this Act 
into execution. 

''That in order to determine the rotation by which the six 
Commissioners shall go out of office, Be it enacted, That the 
said John Punshon Denton and Christopher Davison diall go 
out of office on the fourth Wednesday in the month of January, 
One thousand eight hundred and fifty-three, the said George 
Moon and William Gray, on the fourth Wednesday, in the 
month of January, One thousand eight hundred and fifty-five, 
and the said William Scurfield Grey and Thomas Richardson, 
on the fourth Wednesday, in the month of January, One thou- 
sand eight hundred and fifty-seven : and on the fourth Wednes- 
day in the month of January in every subsequent second year, 
the two of the six Commissioners who shall have been longest 
in office, shall go out of office, and in each instance the places 
of the retiring Commissioners shall be supplied by the election, 
by the remaining body of the Commissioners, at the thai next 
meeting of the Commissioners, of two persons to be Commis- 
sioners in the places of the two Conmussioners who shall so go 
out of office. 

''That the said Rowland Burdon, Thomas Robinson Grey, 
Thomas Wood, Ralph Ward Jackscm, Robinson Watson, and 
Thmnas Wilde Powell, shall go out of office <m the third Wed- 
nesday in the month of January, in the year 1868, and the two 
persons who shall be the first Shipowners' Commissioners, shall 
go out of (^ce on the third Wednesday in the month of Janu- 
ary in the year 1852 ; and the persons who shall be elected in 
their respective stead, or in the stead of their respective succes- 
sors, as hereinafter provided, shall go out of c&ee on the third 
Wednesday in the month of January in every succeeding year 
respectively. 

"That in the stead of the three persons hereinbefore named 



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54 MODERN HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 

as East Dock Commissioners^ and of their successors^ the Hartle- 
pool Dock and Railway CSompany^ or the Company for the time 
being in the actual possession of the undertaking of that Com- 
pany^ shallj and they are hereby empowered to elect and nom« 
inate annually three persons^ and no more^ to be East Dock 
Commissioners^ and such three persons shall be Directors of^ 
or shareholders in^ the same Companies^ or one of them : Pro- 
vided always^ that the Company for the time being in the actual 
possession of the undertaking of the Hartlepool Dock and Bail- 
way^ shallj during the continuance of such possession^ have and 
ezerdse solely such last-mentioned right and power of election 
and nomination^ and all other rights and powers by this Act 
conferred upon the said last-named Company. 

''That in the stead of the three persons hereinbefore named 
as West Dock Commissioners^ and of their successors^ the Hart- 
lepool West Harbour and Dock Company^ shall^ and they are 
hereby empowered tOj elect and nominate annually three persons^ 
and no more^ to be West Dock Commissioners^ and such three 
persons shall be Directors of^ or shareholders in^ the same 
Company/' 

By the 46 clause of this Act the commissioners are empower- 
ed to make a Breakwater or Pier from the Headland or Heugh^ 
in a southward direction^ so as to enclose a considerable part of 
the north side of the bay. This work^ originally projected by 
Captain Maling^ and revived by various other persons during 
the last thirty years^ has always appeared from its magnitude 
and expense^ beyond the compass of the funds of the trust ; 
the estimates for it bemg about £100^000. The first portion 
of it^ extending nearly 500 yards into the bay^ the commis- 
sioners have decided to begin with ; and if its success equal the 
expectations formed of it^ it is to be hoped they may obtain 
funds to proceed with the remainder; which will be by much 
the most expensive part of the work^ being in about four 
fathoms water. 

By clause 54, and several subsequent ones^ power is given to 



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MODERN HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 55 

the tnwt to erect a Perry, with all proper provisions for main- 
taining and working the same; plans for which have already 
been approved by the A.dmiralty. This important undertaking 
for improving the present very dangerous and inconvenient com- 
mnnication, between the town and the west side of the harbour, 
is expected to be in operation during the siunmer of 1852. 

By clause 84, the profits to be derived from this Ferry, after 
paying the expenses of working and upholding it, are to be im- 
plied ''in protecting the Heugh and Headland of Hartlepool, 
from the inroads of the sea.^^ A similar provision has been 
made in the corporation Act, as regards the toll of Is. 4d. for 
each vessel, leviable by the corporation. From these two sources, 
it may reasonably be expected, that a fond will, in a few years, 
be accumulated to construct such works as, in the neighbouring 
port of Sunderland, have reclaimed from the inroads of the sea, 
not only the site of the extensive docks lately made there, but 
also, a very large space for commercial purposes. There can be 
little doubt, if works of this nature are only commenced sufSciently 
&r to the north, that a space equal to all the present moor, may 
be gradually added to it. 

Our attenti(m has hitherto been chiefly directed to the estab- 
lishment of the docks, and those communications through which 
the trade of Hartlepool has been derived; it is but due to the 
enterprise of other parties who have also contributed to the trade 
of the place, that, a short record of their exertions should be 
made. 

The state of Hartlepool twenty years ago has already been 
fully dwelt upon. It had no commerce — ^no trade — no man- 
ufacture — every thing beyond a country blacksmith's, or a boat 
builder's shop, had to be provided. 

One of the earliest wants that forced itself i^Km the public 
after the opening of the docks, was the want of ships. At this 
time the shipping trade was a profitable one, and the speediest 
way of supplying the deficiency, appeared to be to bring in the 

pp 



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66 MODERN HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 

contritMitions of the public, by the establishment of joint stock 
companies. 

The first of the shipping companies established at Hartlepod, 
was called the Original Company^ under the management of 
Mr. Boger Watson^ a person of considerable experience. Mr. 
Watson^ in the outset^ paid his shareholders some startling 
diridends; about 28 per cent.^ we belieye, the first year. The 
subject was of course a new one — ^the mine had not been work- 
ed — and such dividends were quite sufficient to bring in a large 
amount of capitali as will be seen by the following statement : — 

The Original Shipping Co 1835 £50,054 1843 

The General „ „ 1835 16,074 1844 

The Union „ „ 1838 46,770 1845 

The Commercial „ „ 1838 50,171 1851 

The Phoenix „ „ 1843 16,075 1846 



Total Capital of the five Companies... £179,144 



It may be stated generally^ that all these companies turned 
out more or less disastrously in the end; as must ever be the 
case^ when joint stock undertakings have to compete with indi- 
vidual sagacity and management. There ought, however, to be 
taken into consideration, the change in the times, which has 
borne with scarcely less pressure on the private shipowner ; and 
it cannot be questi(med, that much of the onward movement in 
the prosperity of Hartlepodl, was due to the capital thus con- 
centrated upon it. 

Ship building was also b^un at a very early period of the 
commercial history of Hartlepool. The late Mr. Thomas Bich- 
ardson, of Castle Eden, and Mr. Joseph Fsrldn, took the lead in 
1887, by building the ^ Castle Eden,'' on one of the vacant 
garths upon the walls, now covered with buildings. This was 
followed by the establishment of the slip-way on the Middleton 



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MODEBN HISTOBY OF HABTLEPOOL. 



67 



shore. The total number bnilt^ up to the present year^ 1861^ 

appears to be forty-four^ viz.^ by 

Messrs. Denton and Co 82 

Bichardson and Parkin 5 

Bichardson and Son 2 

Blumer and Son 2 

J(An Winspeare 8 

44* 

* The foUowixig names of the Ships built, with the date of lannfihing maj 
perhaps be interesting to the nautical reader : — 

Name. Bate. Tons. Boilder. 

Castle Eden 

Bichmond Iass 

Victoria 

Thomas Wood 

Independence 

EndMiTonr 

JohnMowlem 

Petrel 

Wingate Orange 

James f^reeman. . _ 

Magnet 

Thompsons 

Harriett 

Energy 

Medora 

Will Watch 

Isabella Heron 

Talisman 

Alicia 

Arrow 

Gnlnare 

Corsair 

Idalia 

Middleton 

Eliza "Rrnmii ,..,.. 

United 

Tweedside 

Tiber 

Acacia 



noe 

Bemembranoe 

Isabel 

Stately 

Monltan 

Stranton 

Armais 

Drrdens 

Oriental 

One building. . . 

Gladiator 

Ariel 

Elizabeth 

Saracen 

One building. . . 



Date. 


Tons. 


1887 


258 


1837 


281 


1887 


182 


1888 


282 


1838 


148 


1846 


245 


1846 


196 


1839 


90 


1889 


148 


1840 


247 


1840 


196 


1840 


844 


1841 


895 


1841 


212 


1841 


81 


1842 


70 


1842 


156 


1842 


76 


1848 


898 


1848 


176 


1848 


138 


1844 


227 


1845 


444 


1845 


817 


1845 


178 


1840 


880 


1846 


240 


1847 


229 


1847 


829 


1848 


548 


1848 


246 


1848 


201 


1849 


898 


1849 


429 


1850 


216 


1850 


510 


1851 


411 


1861 


254 




400 


1849 


278 


1850 


187 


1841 


74 


1851 


88 




260 



Joseph FuUn and Riehardioii 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 
Thomas Richardson and Son 

do. 
J. P. Denton and Co. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 
Messrs. BInmer and Son 

do. 
John Winmare 

do! 



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58 



MODERN HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 



From the facilities offered by the slake, for the building of 
vessels^ we may expect in a few years, that Hartlepool will be- 
come what is emphatically called, ''a building port/' although 
the want of a few manufactures — such as those of ropes and 
chains, wiU, no doubt, retard its development. 

In the way of engine building, foundering, and forge work, 
the large iron works at Middleton, begun in 1888, with several 
smaller ones in the town, and on the warren^ seem to be suffi- 
cient for the wants of the place. There is still much to be done 
before Hartlepool can be looked upon as complete in itself. It 
has no rope or canvass manufactory — ^no glass house — ^no pot- 
tery — no chemical manufactory — in short, nothing of those nu- 
merous articles of constant export, for which the ports of thel^e 
and Wear are celebrated, and which contribute so largely to their 
prosperity. It has, however, made a noble struggle against ad- 
verse circumstances. It has established itself as a port of the 
first order in point of security and accommodation, and of the 
sixth order in the customs^ is acquiring gradually a large amount 
of shipping,'!' in private hands, and it is not too much to expect 

* Port of Hartlepool. A list of the Names of tlie Begistered Ship Owners of the 
Port, shewing the Amount of Tonnage in Shipping, possessed hj each of them, on 
the 81st of December* 1860. 



Name. 



Allison, Jacob 

Anderson, Margaret .... 

Anderson, Mary 

Anson, John 

Atkinson, Balph 

Bidder, George 

Blnmer, Loke , 

Blnmer and Son 

BoMsfield, Margaret 

Brewis, James , 

Brewis, "William 

Brewis, Robert 

Brown, Robert 

Bolmer, John Simpson., 

Bnnter,John 

Bums, John 

Carter, Thomas 

Cato, Estill 

Clark, Ann Try 



Amount 

of 
Tonnage. 

121 
34 
28 
14 

106 
78 

276 

466 
94 
40 
40 

840 
47 
62 

209 
47 
62 
18 
61 



Name. 
Clark, George 




Amount 

of 
Tonnage. 

168 


niftrk, TbOFnfl^l 


40 


Coltman, George 


186 


CooksoD, Thomas , 


262 


Colthard, Charles Kiplin 
Commercial Shipping 
Comnany, Trustees:— 

AbraJiam Scotson 

Williftm T.i«l« 


g 


223 
3626 


Thomas Rowell 




Cnmrnin^j 'Willitm .... 




18 


Davison, Christopher 


67 


Thivison, Tsabflla ............... 


96 


Denton, George 


182 


Denton, John Punshon 


80 


Denton, J. P. and Company... 

Drysdale, Thomas Twidle 

T^ncan, John .................. 


133 
78 
26 


Eden, Joseph Nixon 


245 



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MODERN HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL, 
that in dtie time all the rest will follow. 



59 



Name. 



Bdglej, William 

Edmand, Sarali 

Ellwood, Daniel 

Ellstob, William Hodgton 

Foster, Slierinton 

France, Robert 

Oarbatt, Jonathan 

Garrett, William 

Garrick, William *) 

BepreaentatiTes } 

Geipel, George . 



Gibson, Joseph 

Gowland, Rooert Robinson 

Gray, James 

Grajv Matthew 

Graj, William 

Grimishaw, William 

Hall, Robert 

Harris, Elixabeth Ruth ... 

Harrey, William 

Harwood, Ann 

Henderson, James 

Henderson, James 

Hick, Thomas 

Hill, Joseph 

Hobson, Samnd 

Hogg, George 

Hnnter, Robert 

Hnntley, Benjamin Henderson 

Hutton, Robert Elstob 

Jackson, Robert Heniy 

Jackson, Ralph Ward 

Jackson, William Geoige .., 

JeweD, Rob. Jdbn 

Jobson, Christopher 

Jobson, Thomas, Junior .., 

Joss, John 

Keardey, Mary 

KilTington, William , 

Lamb, Henry , 

Lamb, Jane 

Lattimoore, Peter 

Liddle, Robert 

Lindsay, WilliamShaw 

Lisle, William 

Loreday, James 

Mann, James 

Markham, Charles 



Amount 

of 
Tonnage. 

114 
72 
68 
92 
62 
805 
104 
46 

229 

116 

10 

67 

848 

28 

68 

25 

162 

78 

84 

49 

98 

15 

29 

106 

88 

60 

100 

850 

246 

178 

7 

682 

51 

280 

286 

120 

69 

176 

60 

60 

69 

65 

82 

1104 

887 

49 

48 



Name. 

Markham, George Frederick. 
Marshall* William Christie . 

Menyweather, Moses 

Merryweather, William 

Mesnard, Jane 

Moon, George 

Murray, James 

Newton, Mathias 

Ord, Errington Bell 

Ord, Robert 

Ord, Thomas Bell 

Ord, William 

Parkin, Joseph 

Pattison, John 

Plumber, IVands 

Porteous, George 

Procter, Joseph 

Ran8on,John 

Richardson, William 

Robertson, Alexander 

Robson, James 

Rochester, Robert 

Sanderson, Thomas 

Sharer, Thomas 

Shaw, Edmund, and \ 

John Whitbread ) 

Sheraton, John 

Sheraton, Maiy 

Shielas, John Jas 

Smith, George 

Stephenson, James 

Storey, Frederick 

Storm, Thomas 

Swan, Joseph 

Tate, GustaTus Adolphus ") 
RepresentatiTes ) '" 

Tate, Ninian Sheraton 

Taylor, Henry 

Walker, EUen 

Wallace, John 

Watson, John 

Watson, Robinson 

Watson, William 

Watson, William, Junior 

West, Thomas 

West, William 

Wk^uun, Cuthbert 

Wukinson, George 



Amount 
of 



48 

218 

104 

104 

882 

94 

85 

25 

40 

44 

44 

44 

514 

62 

74 

88 

86 

25 

248 

247 

890 

86 

886 

196 

96 

59 

61 

69 

76 

118 

228 

226 

40 

61 

95 

28 

87 

51 

47 

7 

148 

769 

51 

61 

7 

58 



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60 



MODERN HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 



Name. 

WQkixiBoxi, Matthew.. 
WUkmson, Thomas ., 

Watt, Anthony 

Watt, John 

Watt, Peter 

Williamson, WiDism.. 



Amonnt 

of 
Tonnage. 

68 
999 
87 
62 
6S 
66 



Name. 



Wilson, Robert 

Wilson, Robert 

Wood, Thomas 

Wool^ George John . 
Yoong, Thomas 



Amonnt 

of 
Tomiage. 

94 

40 

104 

177 

78 



Making in aU with the additional finetions 2%908D 



Dock, Engmeer^s, Tkamley, East and South Hetton, 
and Trmdon Offices. 



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MODERN fflSTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 61 



THE CUSTOM-HOUSE. 

Fbom the preceding History by Sir 
Cuthbert Sharp^ it will be learned that^ 
80 far back as the reign of Edward the 
11^ Hartlepool was probably one of 
the principal trading sea-ports in Eng- 
land; and ''orders on the Collectors 
of the Customs/^ with other allusions 
to such functionaries^ in the records quoted by Sir Cuthbert, 
prove, not only the existence anciently of some commerce, but 
of a fiscal establishment in connection with it at Hartlepool.* 

As were Sunderland and Stockton at one time, Hartlepool 
originally was a member of the port of Newcastle-upon-Tyne ; t 
of which the inscription on an old official seal of silver, still 
preserved in the Custom House, and of which the above is an 
impression, serves as a token.j: 

On the sixteenth of October, 1680, the place being on the de- 
cline, the superior officers of the Customs were removed from it 
to Stockton, where the commerce had advancedǤ The sub- 
ordinate staff remaining at Hartlepool, in 1816 — ^when the trade, 
we are told, except in the article of fish, had gradually dimin- 
ished to occasional shipments of flour to the neighbouring sea- 
ports—consisted of a principal Coast-officer, a Coast-waiter, 

* Sharp, pages 86 and 197. 

t B J virtae of andent Charters, the Corporation of the Trinity Honse, New- 
castle, still levy primage on all Foceign goods in^orted at Hartlepool, as well as 
exercise a jurisdiction over the Pilots. 

tS:HARTLEP00IJB:MEM:DB:P:N:CASTBI:S:TYNE,thati8,%a?«« 
BdrtlepooU Membrum Le Fortu Novi Cattri Super T^ne—^iht Seal of Hartlepool, a 
member of the port of Newcastie-upon-T^e. 

i Brewster's Hist, of Stockton, new Edition, page 185. The name of the then 
ooQeetor was William Bowthwaite. Do., page 191. 



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62 MODERN HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 

and three Tide-waiters.* Subsequently it was reduced to only 
one person^ with the rank of principal Coast»officer^ the busi- 
ness having now reached a very low point. 

But the commercial resuscitation consequent on the opening of 
the works of the dock and railway company^ in 1835j in due 
time led to an increase both of the Custom-House force, and of 
Custom-House priyileges. The liberty to clear ships foreign on 
the spot^ instead of at the head-port, was^ in the first place;, 
conceded. In 1839, timber was allowed to be bonded at the 
creek ;t and in the year following, an officer was transferred to 
it from Stockton, to be employed as locker. Owing to the im- 
position of an export duty on coal, a sub-collector and sub- 
comptroller were, in 1842, proyisionally appointed.^ These 
were made permanent in 1844,§ along with the boon to the mer- 
chant of bonding goods for ships' stores, and extended fiudlities 
for the transaction of their business. 

Though the place was thus considerably rdiered from the 
disadvantages of a tributary position, the requirements of a 
progressing trade soon necessitated its independence. For, in 
reference to an application which had been made to the Com- 
missioners of Customs, by the Mayor and others, for further 
accommodation, we find the Secretary to that Board, on the 
twenty-fifth of May, 1844, writing to the officers at Stockton 
on the subject, as follows : — ''I have it in command to acquaint 
you, that adverting to the increased trade at Hartlqpool during 
the past year, the Board are of opinion that the creek has be- 
come entitled to the rank of a separate port, whereby the 
merchants would obtain the several privil^;es applied for; and, 
that the Board will accordingly recommend to the Treasury, that 
Hartlepool may be constituted a separate port of the sixth class, 
of which you are to apprise the parties oonoemed.^' The Treasury, 
by warrant dated the fourth of September, 1844;, confirmed this 

* Sharp, page 198, 

t Under Treasmj order of 18th Noremher. 

X Order of Board of OutomB to Stockton of 26th October. 

i Bj T^eanuy warrant of 17th Ef^urnary. 



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MODERN HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 63 

reoommendatioB; and the new arrangement took e£fect on the 
sixth of January following^* when a public dinner was held in 
the King's Head Hotel to commemorate the events the Mayor 
in the chair. 

By the return to a commission for the purpose^ dated the 
first of January^ 1845, and enrolled in the court of exchequer 
hilary term following, the limits of the port were fixed as 
under. '* That is to say, commencing on the south side of the 
town of Seaton^ and proceeding roimd Hartlepool heugh^ along 
the sea coast northward^ to the north side of Castle-Eden Dene, 
and the coast from south to north extending three miles sea- 
ward.^' The recently constructed west harbour and docks being 
within these limits, all vessels trading thereto must be entered 
and cleared at the Custom-House, Hartlepool. The only legal 
quays as yet at the port, are those assigned in the deed above 
quoted, ''that is to say, the whole line of quay surrounding 
and enclosing the Victoria dock, and also the line of quay on 
the east side of the inner harbour, from its southern limits op- 
posite the Coffer Dam on the west shore, to its termination at 
the north-east comer of the said harbour.'^ Until the extensions 
in progress at the west harbour are more matured, and legal 
quays can be definitely set out, the trade there is carried on 
under a temporary order of the Board of Customs. 

The bonding privil^es of the port have been from time to 
time enlarged, and now include, for home use as well as exporta- 
tion, all such goods as may be legally imported thereat, together 
with East India goods removed coastwise. The warehousing of 
tobacco is also allowed, if removed coastwise for ships^ stores.t 

* Order of Board of CostoBU toStodEton, dated 14tli September, 184^ 

t The following are the premises approved for bonding goods, up to this time, 
(Deeember, 1851,) under Tarioos orders of the Board of CiurtomA: — 

Two Taolts for winea and spirita, in the Stripes, Northgate^ belonging to Mr. 
Robert Stephenson. 

A warehouse for dry goods, in St. Hden's Place, belonging to Mr. Thoraaa 
Sanderson. 

A yard for timber, and other wood, near the Bailwaj Station, '\^otoria Bock, be- 
longing to the York and Newcastle Bailwaj Company, as Lessees of the Hartlepool 
Dodc Company. 

The aboTe are all for the general accommodation of the trade. 

QQ 



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64 MODERN HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 

MeaQwhile, the local commerce^ as may be inferred, is chiefly 
<Mie of exportation, the staple being coal; and Hartlq>ool, in the 
Gnstoms' scale, still ranks only as a port of the sixth class. 
On the opening to it of the Leeds Northern Railway, the exten* 
sion of which, to the west harbour, is now nearly completed, a 
large import trade, in connexion with the manu&cturing districts 
oi Yorkdnre and Lancashire is, however, expected. Should 
this be realised, and we see 

" Brought into the pnhlic iraDc, 
The hutj merchant ; thehig warehooBehnilt; 
Rais'd the strong crane ; chok'd np the crowded street 
With foreign plenty." 

the port, then advancing to greater commercial prosperity than 
ever, may also hope to ascend higher in the official classification, 
than the position which it now occupies. 

The present establishment at the Custom-House consists of 
a collector, comptroller, derk, extra ditto, searcher, two tide- 
surveyors, and eight tide-waters. To the senior-officer of the 
dass last-named is entrusted the duty of locker at the ware- 
houses. The collector is, ex-officio, one of the commissioners of 
the port — also, shipping master under the Mercantile Marine 
Act. The present collector is Mr. John Mackenzie, who has 
been principal officer at the place since 1842.* The Custom 
House is situated at the west end of Southgate street, in humble 
and confined premises, which the transactions of the port have 
out-grown, but to which the crown is bound by a lease not 
terminable till 1858. 

In 1834, the year prior to the opening of the works of the 
dock company, only thirty vessels were cleared by the officers at 
Hartlepool. The following are the particulars of the shipping 
and trade, for the year ending the fifth of January, 1851, as 
appear from the Custom House books : — 

* Thib other offioeiB are Mr. Thomas Aldcroft, ConmtiQUer; Mr. Thomas Jaekaon, 
dark; Mr. William Joarnh Hodgaoa» £ztn ditto; llr. John l^^niama. Searchers 
Mr. James Canue, and Mx. Alexander Trench, Tide-sunrejors ; John Fawcett, John 
M«^M niMi, V^lliam Pazldnson, Francia Starer, Bobert Harhron, Francia WestaO, 
WQfiam Leeming, and Jamea iTneh, Tide-waiten.— Hie private deik to tiie Ool- 
leetor ia Mr. George Graham. 



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MODERN HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 
ARRIVALS COASTWISE. 



66 



In Ballast (including 
Steamers with passengers) 

With Cargoes 

For Refuge 

Total 



Old Harbour. 


West Harbour. 


Total. 


4541 

848 
262 


3294 
214 
116 


7835 

1062 

378 


5651 


3624 


9275 



AEBIVALS FOREIGN. 





Old Harbour. 


West Harbour. 


Total. 


In Ballast 


292 
30 
81 


283 ^ 

1 
7 


575 
81 
38 


With Cargoes 


For Refiure 




Total 


353 


291 


644 




Total Coastwise and from 
Foreign. 


6004 


3915 


9919* 



VESSELS CLEARED OUTWARD WITH CARGOES, 
(Both Harbours inclusive.) 



Coastwise 
Oversea . 



Total. 



No. 


Tonikage. 


6576 
1612t 


835,657 
238,526 


8188 


1,074,182 



COALS SHIPPED IN THE ABOVE. 



I 



Coastwise 

Foreign 

Total 



Tons. 



1,232,560 
331,176 



1,563,736 



* This includes the Tessek that went firom each harbonr to Uie other, in the 
period specified, namelj : — 

From the Old Hailx>nr to West Harbour 449 

From the West Harbour to Old Harbonr 98 

t Of the 1612 vessels cleared oversea, as above, 988 were vessels belongmg to 
Foreign oonntries ; of whidi, 688 came from other plaees on the coast, idiere thej 
had discharged their cargoes. The certainty of obtaining an ontward lading ^ 
Hartlq^ool, will thus form one of the indooements for coming direot to the port, 
onee an Import trade has been established. 



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66 MODERN HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 

The amount of Customs revenue received at the port in the 
same period was £5993 ; about the half of which was from 
importations of timber^ and other wood. The rest was levied 
on spirits^ tea, coffecj and other articles of local consumption^ 
but chiefly on the first-mentioned. 

The number of vessels belonging to the port, on the thirty- 
first of December^ 1850^ was 116^ with a tonnage of 23,119 
tons^ and navigated by 922 men. 

Up to December this year^ 1851^ about 4800 r^;ister tickets 
have been issued to seamen at the Custom-House, under the 
provisions of the Act, 7 and 8 Vict., chap. 112^ aince it came 
into operation on the first of January^ 1845. 

The number of vessels that bave^ up to the same period, 
shipped and discharged crews, wholly or in part, at the Shipping- 
office there, under the Mercantile Marine Act, which took 
e£fect on the first January preceding — is, 

Engaged 865 

Discharged 16 

The number of seamen so engaged and discharged — ^is 

Engaged 1817 

Discharged 60 

The amount of Light- duties collected at the Custom-Houae 
in 1850, was ^£3446 4s. 9d. 

£ B. d. 

The amount of Ramagafte Harboor Dues, 406 10 8 

DoTcr „ „ 204 8 7 

Bridlington Pier „ 480 19 

„ Merchant Seamen's „ 286 8 3 

„ Primage „ 88 2 4 

Volantary contribntions for support of Life-boats 78 8 6 

According to the Custom-House statistics, the greatest amount 
of shipping, on one occasion, during 1850, in the harbour and 
dock at Hartlepool, was 801 Teasels. 

The least ditto 28 

Average daily nnmbcr 142 „ 

Average crew to each vessel 6 pcnona. 

Making an average daily floating popidition of 852 ,, 



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MODERN HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 67 

The distinfttion of those vessels frequenting the port is shewn^ 
by the official record^ to embrace, besides its coasting-trade, all 
quarters of the globe. Attracted by the security, despatch, and 
facility of operation, afforded by its docks, it has long been resort- 
ed to by ships of the first-class, bound for the East Indies^ and 
other distant countries.* The size of these has varied from 400 
to upwards of 700 tons. They have been Foreign as well as 
British; and several large Dutch East-India-Men have been 
seen at one time together receiving their cargoes in the Victoria 
dock. 



In connection with the Customs may be mentioned the Coast 
Guard — of whom Hartlepool has been a Station since 1837. 
It was then removed from Black-Halls, situated on the coast a 
few miles to the north. A Lieutenant, two Chief-boatmen, four 
Commissioned and six non-Commissioned-boatmen constitute 
the force. There are detachments of it at Seaton, Black- Halls, 
and Ghreatham-Creek. The present Chief-officer is Lieut. Strover, 
B. N. The Watch-house is in Croft-street, near to the old pier, 
Hartlepool, Since the establishment of this preventive, there 
has been, within its bounds, little or no smuggling, for which 
Hartlepool and its neighbourhood are said to have been at one 
time notorious resorts. The last run of any magnitude that 
took place in the locality was in 1822; when one hundred and 
twenty-three half ankers of Geneva, six casks of tobacco, and 
five casks of snuff, became a prize to the officers of the revenue. 

* For in aoooimt, with illnstratioiiB, of the variouB Machinery, used for the 
woridng of the Traffic at the Dock. — vide Appendix. 



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68 MODERN HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 

THE CORPORATION. 

In continuing the his- 
tory of the corporation, 
there is little of impor- 
^ tance to record ontil 

I the year 1834j when 
the number of aldermen 
being reduced too low to 
perform any l^al Act, 
the election of the 
mayor, William Hasle- 
wood, Esq., M. D., 
which had taken place 
at the preceding Michaebnas, was questioned by a writ of quo- 
warranto, in the Court of Queen's Bench, in Hilary term in that 
year; and he being unable to substantiate his title thereto, dis- 
claimed the office, whereon judgment of ouster was given by the 
court. Thus fell into abeyance one of the most ancient corporations 
in the kingdom,— one which had in its time, done good service to 
the community in which it was more inmiediately placed; — at 
all events it has afforded materials for one of the most inter- 
esting chapters in the history of HartlepooL To complete this 
part of corporate history, it appears expedient to give the list 
of mayors from the year 1816 to 1834 inclusive : — 



1817 Rev. William Wilson 

1818 Earl of Darlmgton 

1819 George Pocock 

1820 William VoUmn 

1821 Hon. William John Freder- 
ick Powlett 

1822 John Cooke 

1823 William Vollum 

1824 Sir Cuthbert Sharp 

1825 Rev. William Wilson 

And now commenced a period of disorganisation and mis-rule, 
unequalled in any town in theldngdcmi of similar pretensions — ^no 



1826 William Sedgwick 

1827 Daniel Seddon 

1828 The Marquis of Londonderry 

1829 William Skumer 

1830 Thomas Vincent 

1831 The Marquis of Cleveland 
,««q7 Thomas Vincent 

^^^^ J William Vollum 

1833 William Vollum 

1834 William Hazlewood 



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MODERN HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 69 

resident magistrate— no control — no police — ^the township con- 
stables^ incompetent and inefficient^ and literally objects <^ ricd- 
cole. The whole town lay at the mercy of the lawless labourers 
employed in excavating the docks. The corporate prcqperty un- 
owned and tmcared for — the freemen's pastures appropriated by 
persons from the adjoining townships, for the use of their cattle — 
and the very soil in a many instances, taken and inclosed by 
the owners of the adjoining property. This state of affiors 
could not last — ^meetings of the inhabitants were held to devise 
the best means of securing the public property for the public 
good, and to introduce something like order into the place* At 
length, on the sixteenth of January, 1839, a public meeting of 
the inhabitants and fre^nen was held, who appointed a com- 
mittee to carry out the resolutions passed thereat, and to adopt 
such proceedings as they might be advised by the most eminent 
counseL 

That committee was most lealous in its labours — they con- 
sulted Sir William Follett, who advised as follows : '' I do not 
think that the corporation is now actually extinct and destroyed, 
but that it is still competent for the crown by a new charter to 
keep the corporation alive, and to continue it in possession of 
its property : and I think the best course to be adopted in this 
case, considering the nature and value of the corporate property, 
wi]l be for a majority of the existing freemen of the old coi^o- 
ration to petition the crown for a new charter. This petition 
maybe supported if it should be considered necessary by the 
inhabitants of the town, not members of the old corporation ; 
and it is not, I think, essential that the new charter should be 
a copy of, or that it should contain the same rules and r^uk- 
tions as the charter of Elizabeth ; it may be framed, if thought 
desirable upon the more liberal principle of the present day, and 
if accq>ted by a majority of the existing freemen of the dd 
corporation, the new corporate body so constituted under it, 
would, I think, continue to be entitled to liie ecnrporate property. 
This is, I think, a better eourse than an apidication far the 



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70 BfODERN HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 

creation of an entirdy new corporation under the 141 aectkm of 
stat. 5 and 6^ Wm. 4, c. 76^ for it ia <^>en to eonaiderable doobt 
whether a new charter confirming the powers and privileges of 
that statute conld^ under the circumstances be l^ally granted/' 
The committee were most anxious to have had the principle ol 
the Municipal Act engrafted on the new charter^ and with that 
view, had the draft-charter so framed^ but were contrdled in 
their wishes and expectations by the opinion of Sir William 
FoUett. And now, on the 22nd June, 1841, the draft of a char- 
ter, after being previously submitted to the then Attorney and 
Solicitor-General, Sir John Campbell, and Sir Thomas Wild^ 
was approved by them, but who, whilst approving, directed 
that there should be an opportunity afforded to the inhabitants 
of Hartlepool, to object to any of its provisions. Such pub- 
lic meeting was accordingly held, and Sir l^omas Wilde, (the 
present Lord ChanceUor) <m the 13th of August, 1841, cer- 
tified as foUows : — ** Upon the documents produced to me, 
consisting <^ a declaration under the statute made by Mr. John 
Sharp, and the minute bode containing an entry of the proceed- 
ings at the meeting of the inhabitants of Hartlepool, called 
by public adv^tisem^it, to hear the draft of the proposed charter 
read, I am satisfied that the opportunity to the inhabitants, to 
object to any of the provisions inserted in the proposed charter 
has been afforded, and that the inhabitants so meeting approved 
of such provisions, &c." Much disappointment was felt, when 
the new charter, dated Septemb^ 24, 1841, appeared, that it 
did not contain the provisions of the Municipal Act as to popular 
election, &c., and various observations were made as to the com- 
mittee having, for purposes of thor own, obtained a simple 
i^dewal of the old charter of Elisabeth. The above statemooit 
however, will it is hoped, at once and for ever, set these imputatums 
at rest. It is true that the most active men of the committee were 
appmnted Aldermen under the new charter, but this was to be ex- 
pected, as some reward for their sorvioes ; in (act, howev^, they got 
more than they bargained for, and certainly more than they expect- 



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MODERN HISTOBY OF HARTLEPOOL. 71 

ei, for the gentlemen (not previoosly freemen), whose names wec^ 
inserted in the ditrter, found themselves not only aldermen, bat 
literally and substantially freemen of the borough. The discovery 
of this fa^ gave umbrage to the original freemen, and to the inhab* 
itants generally of the borough. It appears uimecessary to give a 
eopy of this charter, as it is almost set out at full length in the char- . 
ter of 1850. The aldermen came into office, hampered with a debt 
of iE1200, — ^without a shilling of revenue — ^with the corporate 
property, in a state of unequivocal confusion : and in numerous 
instances, the occupants thereof, hurled defiance at the corpor- 
ation, disputing their rights and despising their authority. The 
only redeeming point in the charter it was alleged, was the fact, 
that the mayor for the time being, was a Justice of the Peace for 
the borough, during his mayoralty, and the following year ; this 
truly was a boon to the inhabitants, for now almost every petty 
grievance could be settled at home, without the parties con- 
cerned giving their attendance at Stockton. Crime of deeper 
dye frequently went unpunished from the difficulty of obtain- 
ing redress. Order once more reigned in the borough. The 
feeling of the inhabitants, however, could not be mistaken ; and 
theb want of active sympathy, or perhaps more correctly their 
indifference, frequently involved the corporation, and through it, 
the inhabitants themselves, in vexatious and expensive law-suits, 
the effects of which are felt to this day. However, in despite of 
these obstacles the corporation persevered in its course. 

The principal action was that of '' The mayor and burgesses of 
Hartlepool, against Burnett," tried before Mr. Justice CressweD 
and a Specid Jury, at the Summer Assises at Durham, in the 
year 1845. Burnett as one of the surveyors of the highways, had 
taken possession of a piece of waste land adjoining the ancient 
harbour of Hartlepool, for the purpose of storing and breaking 
stones ; justifymg tihe act and alleging, that from time imme- 
morial, it had been used as a highway or approadi to tlie harbour. 
The corpor a t i on havihg endDsedtiie piece of ground in dispute 

BR 



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72 MODERN HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 

for the parpoae of letting it out sabsequentlyj in building sites f(v 
the benefit of the borough^ Burnett broke down the railing, where- 
upon the corporation brought an action against him. At the 
trial, the plainti£fs shewed that the ground was the margin of the 
ancient harbour, the soil of which latter belonged to them, haying 
received anchorage and groundage does from vessels which had 
entered — that they had received rents for oyster pits — that thqr 
had from time immemorial leased out portions of the margin — 
that this very piece of ground had^ in 1812, been let by the corpor- 
ation for a potato garden, and that the surveyor himself had asked 
permission of the corporation to put stones thereon. The de- 
fendant contended that this piece of ground was a public highway, 
but in doing so he proved too much. As the Judge remarked — 
" What use has been made of it ? Boats have been brought 
there — manure has been put there — ^boats and baths have been 
put there, and rubbish from houses. It was a place where every- 
body did just what he chose, to use the description of a witness ; 
a strange description of a highway. As this surveyor is so active, 
where have the surveyors been for years and years, in not re- 
moving these obstructions I Tou are told because the corporation 
have put that railing up, that they have obstructed the highway/^ 
/lifter two days trial, the jury fotmd for the plaintiffs. The in- 
quiry was a most interesting one, and important, under all the 
circumstances, for the corporation. This victory, though it cost 
the corporation nearly iESOO, was not barren in its results. It at 
once established their rights, and allayed the annoyance, irrita- 
tion and defiance, to which the corporation had been subject. AD, 
however, would not do, for the principle of self-election, and the 
mode in which that principle was frequently exercised, rendered 
the corporation unpopular, and incapable of good. Bearing in 
mind the effort to have this charter put on the principle of the 
municipal act, and the disappointment in not finding thai to be 
the case, (with a little pressure from without,) a committee of 
the corporation was formed in the year 1846, who presented this 
report in the following year : — 



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MODERN HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 78 

'* To the Mayor and Burgesses of the borough of Hartlepool, in the 
Bishopric of Durham. 

We, the undersigned, a committee appointed on the twenty-first day 
of May, 1846, to carry out the following resolution of your worship- 
ful body, namely : — 

That it is advisable to apply to Parliament for an Act to have this 
corporation put on the principle of the Municipal Act. That a com- 
mittee be fonned, to consider what should be the details of the measure, 
particularly with reference to the freemen's pasture; and that they 
report generally to the court, and at what time they consider the appli- 
cation be made," 

Have fully considered the said resolution, and have agreed on our 
report. 

The first matter claiming consideration is. How many freemen are 
there ? How are they made ? What are their rights and privileges ? 
How are their rights to be protected, and compensation provided in 
lieu of any privilege given up to the town ? 

The names of the freemen, widows of freemen, and of others having 
inchoate rights, are given in the appendix A. 

The freedom of the borough is obtained by birth, servitude, and 
election. 

A spurious mode of obtaining the freedom by composition, was 
practised some years ago, but has been abandoned. 

The rights and privileges of the freemen, and widows of freemen, 
next claim attention. 

Every freeman, and widow of a freeman, is entitled to depasture a 
horse and a cow on the moor, and far-well field, (the fee of which is 
in the corporation,) subject to regulations ; and to import and export 
goods and merchandize toll free. 

This privilege of pasturage has been much curtailed— the pasturage 
of large tracts of land called chares, (being narrow stripes of land 
leading to the moor, and far-well field,) and formerly containing the 
richest and most luxuriant herbage, has been destroyed by persons 
owning the adjoining property, throwing down the fence walls, and 
opening out and fronting their houses thereon ; thus improving their 
own property at the expense of the corporation, the freemen, and in- 
directly of the inhabitants at large. The parties thus offending, are a 
very numerous body, and excuse their encroachments by saying that 
they were made during the abeyance of the corporation, between the 
years 1833 and 1841. 

Your committee cannot close this part of their report without re- 
marking on the unjust outcry raised against the corporation, in their 



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74 MODERN HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 

dbrta to ^esenre to the fnemmi, and to thdrtheir indow8» rigiits 
against the encroachments of selfish and interested individuals. 

Your committee, on a dispassionate review of the whole subject, bc^ 
to recommend, for the adoption of the conrt, the following plan :-— 

That the moor and the far-well field, with all their appurtenances 
should, for ever hereafter be put under the control of the municipal 
body, by whatever name it is to be designated for the use of the town ; 
and held in common with all other corporate property, to be appro- 
priated in the best manner for realising a revenue for the town, with a 
due regard to the health, comfort, and convenience of the inhabitants* 

That every freeman, and widow of a freeman, whilst resident in the 
borough of Hartlepool, shall receive, from the revenues of the corpora- 
ation, an annuity of £12 10s., secured by bond under the corporate 
seal, in consideration of foregoing every claim and privilege. 

Provided, however, that freemen, and widows of freemen, shall only 
enjoy this annuity whilst permanently resident in the borough : (absence 
from ill health, and necessary business only ezceptedi for which, due 
certificates shall be provided.) 

That all persons having inchoate rights of freedom, as apprentices, 
and the eldest sons of freemen, shall be entitled to the same annuity 
as freemen, and widows of freemen, above-mentioned, on their attain- 
ing the age of twenty-one years ; and to be enjoyed so long as they 
remain permanently resident in the borough, except as aforesaid, in 
the cases of freemen, and widows of freemen, necessarily absent. 

That after the death of the said freemen, and widows of freemen, 
and of those having inchoate rights as aforesaid, all annuities shall 
cease. 

Your committee further recommend that application to Parliament 
be forthwith made, and the necessary notices for the purpose given : 
they also suggest to the court, that a public meeting of the inhabitants 
be previously convened, to ascertain iheli opinion, and to see how far 
they are disposed to assist in obtaining an Act of Parliament for die 
purpose*" 

W. J. VOLLUM 
THOMAS ROWELL 
GEO. SHERATON 
C. DAVISON 
H. J. SPEARMAN. 



Dated July 28th, 1847. 



THOS. BELK, Town Cleek." 



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MODERN HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL, 76 

This report was adopted by the eorporatbn on Ae 4di<if Atig«^ 
1847. The chief difficulty in aeting on that report ky witili thD 
freemen^ who were jealous and^trostfol of the governing body^ 
and who di£fered amongst themselTes as to the value of their pri- 
vil^es^ and the compensation to be paid for their abandon- 
ment. Nothing effectual was done by the onrporation in carrying 
out the preceding report, until the year 1850^ when an application 
was made to parliament in relation to the freemen's lands, and the 
harbour dues, the result of which application (afterwards pro- 
moted by the council,) appears, by the act, printed at full length 
in the appendix.* This was the last corporate act under the 
charter of 1841 ; and it is due to those gentlemen, who, as 
mayors, assisted in carrying out the provisions of this short- 
lived, but unpopular charter, to record their names :— * 

1841 William VoUum 

1842 William John VoUmn 

1843 Thomas Rowell 

1844 Christopher Davison 

1845 William HamieTs 

1846 Thomas Rowell 



1847 William John VoUum 

1848 George Green 
1 fti.Q f William John VoUranf 
^^^^ ^Edward Tumbun 

1850 John Pnnshon Denton 

1851 Christopher Davison. 



Recorder^ 

HENRY STAPYLTON. 

Town Clerk and Deputy Recorder^ 

THOMAS BELK. 

Simultaneously with the proceedings on the part of the cor- 
poration, as to the freemen's lands and the harbour dues, an 
energetic and intelligent committee was appointed by the in- 
habitants to obtain a charter under the provisions of the municipal 
act. Commensurate with their exertions, was their success. The 
time had arrived, when it was only necessary to make a combined 

* It mqr be mentioned that tbe corporation had made previoos efforts to have 
danaes applicable to Hartlepool, introdnced into the goTemment biU, in 1849, finr 
the regulation of freemen's lands throoghoat the kingdom, bnt the withdrawal of 
that bill hj the £ail of Garliale, who had the ehai^ of it» nwlered their eftvto 
abortiTe. 

t On the 11th of January, 1849, this gentleman was aocidentaUy drowned in the 
Victoria Boek^ HartlepooL 



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76 MODERN HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 

effort to accomplish the long wished for object. Opposition, 
if any were intended, was hopeless, and indeed none was offered ; 
nay, the aldermen themselves, participating in the universal 
feeling for municipal reform, were foremost in the van. A peti- 
tion was presented to Her Majesty, in the early part of the year 
1850, praying for a new charter; and in the December of 
the same year, (the usual enquiries and preliminaries, having 
been previously made and gone through). Her Majesty gratified 
her loyal subjects in Hartlepool, by granting that charter, a copy 
of which, is inserted at full length in the appendix. And now, 
the inhabitants, or more correctly the burgesses, are in the 
possession of all those rights and privileges common to other 
boroughs in the kingdom. They have the opportunity of elect- 
ing the most intelligent, and discreet men in the borough to 
represent them in the council — ^to control the public purse — and 
to regulate and manage the municipal affairs of the borough. 
The first mayor under the charter was Stephen Bobinson, Esq., 
Civil Engineer, and who was in November, 1851, with the 
hearty concurrence of all classes of the community, re-elected 
mayor.* To the ordinary duties of the cotmcil, are now super- 
added those created by the Public Health Act, 1848, the 
council being the Local Board of Health. Great things are 
expected from the powers vested in it, to improve the appear- 
ance and sanitary condition of the borough. There is certainly 
a wide field for exertion ; and it is hoped that when a new 
edition of this history shall appear, that the editor may be able to 
record that the expectations so formed, have not been disap- 
pointed. 

The Council and Local Board of Health, in December, 1851, 
consisted of the following members : — 

The Mayor, 

STEPHEN ROBINSON. 

Aldermen. 

William Gordon I Stephen Bobinson (Mayor) 

John Punshon Denton | John Winstanley 

* The council met for the first time on the 27th of January, 1851. 



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MODERN HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 



n 



Robert Winstanley 
John Mowbray 
Edward Tumbull 
William Hall 
William Merryweather 
Luke Blumer 



C(mnc%lUiTs, 

Cuthbert Emerson 
George John Brown 
Robert Hunter 
Thomas Robson 
John Todd 
Thomas Scrowther 



Totm Cleric, 
THOMAS BELK. 



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78 MODERN HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL, 



SMITHES CHARITY. 

Thb rents and profits of this estate, already aSoded to by Sir 
Cuihbert Sharp, (vide the prefixed re-print of his work, page 191) 
had been received by the tshnrchwardens and overseers of the 
poor from time immemorial, and distributed by them with the 
poors' rate, to the paupers of the borough. This modeof distri- 
bution was a manifest departure from the intention of Henry 
Smith, the donor, as appears by indenture dated the 12th of 
June, 1625, which describes the objects of the Charity to be 
" for and towards the relief of poor prisoners, hurt and maimed 
sddiers, poor maids marriages, setting up of poor apprentices;, 
amending the highways, and losses sustained by fire or shipwreck ; 
and also for the puiehasing and restoring impropriations to 
<he church, for the maintenance of godly preachers, and to 
and for such charitable uses as the said Henry Smith, should by 
deed or by will appoint/' Another indenture, of the 26th Jan., 
1626, makes a similar appointment as to the uses of the charity ; 
and also provides that the Governors of Christ's Hospital, were 
to take the trust estate in mortmain;* the churchwardens and 
overseers ''to hold and enjoy the several yearly payments 
out of tiie said manors, messuages, lands, and hereditaments, to 
the use of the poor/' but under the " conditions and provisions" 
{nreseribed. 

^ And hj in indestors dated the twvntj-fizth diy of Jmnry, 16SS, i^idi mm 
MffoQed in iUs eomi, tlie nid Heury Smitii, for the better perfbnAenoe of the 
eheriteUe tuee hj him intended, deekrad that hit trmteee ihoold employ the lenti 
of hii menon^ lands, and tmtm&aiB, ttd hk panoBil eetate for the pnidianng of 
manors, lands, tenements, and hereditaments, with a proviso that tiuj ahonld ohtni 
nHoittie to be granted to the gofemiv of CJhrist's hospital, to take the ssma in 
moitmaitt ; and tint they should convey and assore as well the said manors, laads^ 
and tenements, so to be purchased as those which had been heretofore o uuvi yt d tr 
fhembythesaldHenySBdlhtothe gofemort of the said hospital, to be by them 
iupb^ed secofding lo te trne intent and meaning of the said decree and of the said 
Me ntm e . n epe H of «r QtMto ITOsqa, Maatec In Chaneay, Sih Pee., IS4S. 



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MODERN HISTOAT OF HABTLEPOOL. 79 

The Goyemoni of Cbmt's Hospital seem never to have inter- 
fered with the estate in any way ; and the charity had lapsed 
into misappropriation, as above. 

In 1832| the corporation of Hartlepool, haying applied to the 
Court of Chancery, obtained a scheme appointing " The Mayor, 
Becorder and Aldermen of the borough'^ tmstees; and which 
provided as follows : — 

" Thai the said charitj ettate of Hartlepool, induding that part thereof wl^di ia 
now occupied as a workhonae, with the gardea attached thereto, shall be let hy the 
mayor, recorder, and alderman of the borough of Hartlepool, from time to time, to 
the best adrantage at rack rents, without any fines being taken lor leases thereof! 

That the said estate shall be managed by, and be under the superintendenoe of the 
said corporation and their officers. But that the said estate nor any part thereof shaU 
not either directly or indirectly be occupied or enjoyed at any time by any member 
of the said corporation. 

That a regular account shall be kept of the receipts and expenditure in respect of 
the charity, and that such account shall be audited at a meeting of the corporation 
to be hdlden the first Monday after the twenty-ninth day of September in every year, 
and when so audited shall be signed by the members of the corporation pnaent at 
such meeting. 

That such aoeoont so audited, shall be open at all seasonble times fsr the inspec- 
tion of the resident minister and the churchwardens of Hartlepool, or any ona of 
them who shall be at liberty if they or he shall think fit to take copies o( or extracta 
firom any such accounts. 

That a description of the diarity estate with the scheme shall be entered in a book 
to be kept in the parish chest, in the church at Hartlepool. 

That a memorial or short account of the said charity, and the estate applioable to 
its support, diall be painted on a board and fixed in some suitaUe and con^iciuitti 
place in the church of HartlepooL 

That the said corporation shall be at liberty to retain out of the rents of the 
diaiity estate the amount of the payments they make for the insurance ttom. ftc% 
and repairs of the buildings on such estate, and for the necessary and rNMonahla 
charges attending the superintendence and management of the same. 

l^t in distributing the funds of the said charity under this scheme, the said cor- 
poration shall in all cases giro a preference to the most desernng and indnslrioiit 
persons, and such as have never received parochial relief, or have been the longest 
without having received such relief; and tbst in no case shall any part of the said 
charity ftmds be given to any who at the time shall be in the receipt of parochial 
n&d, or who diall have been soeh receipts, and ahall fSor the pvpoae of *»*«^»^i«*g them 
to receive the benefit of the said charity odonrahly, or lor a short time onfy have 
eeased to receive aneh parochial reliel. 

That the rents and profits shall, a ftw dia c iiM gins the waonabk and Bacaaaiy ex- 
pense of the trust as alisresaid, be yearly paid and applied by the said oorpontiaa in 
manner hereinafter mentioned, viz.. 

In payment of premiums on i^prentidng poor children of inhahitaata of tha 
township of Hartlepool, or in prodding dothet for snali ehildrvip on th«r being 
appieaticid to some trade or oaUing, or partly inp^jvMBt of pmunina and ftkOf 

88 



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80 MODERN HISTOBT OF HARTLEPOOL. 

In prOTidingcloUies, bo that the nomber of such poor ddUnn to be i^prentioei or 
dothed, in any one year, shall not exeeed three, and so as tbe preminm to be paid 
witii, or clothes provided for, any child shall not exceed the snm of ten ponods ; and 
the residue of such rents and profits in purchasing good warm woollen coats and 
doaks and otiier artides of wearing apparel, or bedding or fad, to be distiibated to 
such of the most desendng aged or infirm inhabitants of the said township, at sock 
times and in snch manner as to the said corporation shall seem proper. Bat, nerer- 
tibdess, the oorporation shall be at liberty, in cases of emergency and where it ahaO 
a^ear that small pecomary assistance would be uselblly bestowed, to make doaatioms 
in money at their discretion, such donations not at any time to eieeed twenty 
shillings to any one funily." 

This arrangement^ however, never took efiect, in consequence 
of the proceedings^ already adverted to, under the head of ''The 
Onporation/' whereby^ in 1834^ the then corporate body became 
extinct. 

In 1835, James McDowell, and William Manners, two of the 
inhabitants of the borough, petitioned the Lord Chancellor for 
an amended scheme, which was approved, and is that under which 
the charity is still managed. It provides that a general meeting 
of the rate-payers of the town shall be held the first Monday 
after the 29th day of November in every year, at which twelve 
substantial householders of the town, together with the minister, 
churchwardens, and overseers of the poor of the pansh, for the 
time being, are tobe elected andappointed tru8tees,for the ensuing 
year, of the charity estates, with full power to let and manage 
the same, and to receive the revenues thereof, applying them aa 
directed by the scheme before quoted. 

The rapid increase of the population, and the limited quantity 
of ground available, in Hartlepool, for building purposes, in- 
duced the inhabitants and trustees to look to the charity-landa 
as a means of supplying the deficiency, and at the same time 
benefitting both said estate and the borough. 

With this view, in the year 1846, an extension of powers wis 
obtained, on the application of David Burnett, and Thomas 
Wakon, two of the inhabitants'!^ — a measure, however, which 

(Sttntetfrom Sir GrUSm Wtboi^s Report, dated 6M i%, 1846, und eoi^Srmed 
hjf the Fice-OktmciOcr KmgM Bruce, <m the 29tk foUowitif.J 
* ItwiUbegraattyfortheadnaitigeorthesaidehaDtythatthesaidaitateAoiild 
U lat 190B hnilding leaiea npon the eqszatioa of the said pit^ 



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MODERN HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 81 

proved to be defective^ inasmuch as the local or manftging tmstees 
had no control over the l^al title to the estate ; and for a period 
of four years no one ventured to invest capital on what, in 
this case, they would be holding under a doubtful tenure. In the 
course of 1850, the Baptist congregation took a piece of the land^ 
on which they have erected a chapel, their title being simply an 
agreement with the trustees. The Primitive Methodists followed 
their example, and presently numerous other parties came forward 

David Bamett and Thomas Walton, the petitioners, state that taking into consider- 
ation the present and expectant wants of the inhabitants of Hartlepool, and the nature 
of the premises adjoining the said charitj estate, and the nature and extent of the 
groond composing the same, and all thecircamstanoes connected therewith, it will be 
most for the benefit of the said charity estates and houses that other boildings of the 
following description shoold be erected and bniH on the various closes as herein- 
after mentioned : — ^First, that the chare head field, hereinbefore mentioned as contain- 
ing three acres, and five perches should be let ont on lease for building thereon, a 
street or terrace containing fonrteen houses ; thai the sites thereof should be twenty, 
one het by seventy-two feet or thereabonts, indnding front garden and back yard ; and 
that snch houses riiould be three stories high with brick front, stone oomice and bases, 
with heads and sills, &c., of stone, and the roof covered with blue slates, and that the 
annual ground rent payable to the trustees of the said charity in respect of each of 
such fourteen houses, should be two guineas or thereabouts ; and that on the a£dresaid 
field there can also be obtained thirty-eight building sites for houses containing two 
rooms on a floor, with sufilcient ground for back yards ; besideB these, there is room 
for thirty-four other building sites for small houses containing one or two rooms 
on a floor, with back yard ground, &c. ; that there should be a centre street 
forty fiset wide, leading from the aforesaid terrace to the street at the north end, and 
that centre street to have au open area about the middle, towards the west side, witii 
a cross street thirty fiset broad from the same to the west street in a line of Bedford- 
street. That on the thirty-eight building sites as before-named, to be built houses 
of two stories high, and buflt with brick fronts, stone cornice, stone base, stone door 
cases, and stone heads and sills, and covered with blue slates ; and that the annual 
ground rent for each of these thirty -eight houses should be £2 per site, payable to the 
said charity ; and ftirther, that the ranaimng thirty-four smalkr buflding sites abov»> 
named, to be built with brick fironts, stone heads and sills, and stones bases, and door- 
jambs of stone, and to be finished with a blue slated roof; and that the annual ground 
rent payable to the trustees of the said charity, in respect of each of these thirty-four 
houses, should be on an average one guinea. Secondly, that Johnny's dose, herein- 
beforo-mentioned as containing two roods and twenty-eight perches, should be let out 
on lease as hereinbefore mentioned for building thereon twenty-four bouses, forming 
a centre street thirty fiset broad, the sites for nmeteen of such houses to be twenty- 
one feet wide in front thereof, by about forty feet deep, and the houses to be two 
stories hi^ and built with brick fronts, stone base, cornice, door cases, &e., and the 
roofr slated with blue slates ; and that the annual ground rent of each of such houses 
payable to the said trustees of the ssid charity, should be £1 10s. or thsnabouts; the 
remaining five building sites to be each about twenty-four and a half feet wide, by 



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8t MODSBK HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 

and took sites, which have since been built upon, the trostees for 
the time, encouraging these transactions, as a means of adding to 
iheir revenue, by leasing the ground at prices below those aceui- 
tomed to be obtained for other lands in the borough. With 
respect to some of the agreements, certain irregularities have 
taken place, which now threaten to be the subject of enquiry 
at the instance of the Attorney-General. This, it is hoped, mi^ 
lead, not only to « correction of what may be amiss in the agree- 

alKmt fortj-fi?e foeft de^, and the homes to he hnilt three ttoriet hi^ with thope 
mderneeth, four of them frontixig into middlegate-street ; theee hooaes to have hnck 
fipoBts, with stone hase, heads, and sills, and stone door cases and cornioe, and the roof 
dated with hlne slates ; the annual ground rent payable to the charitj fron eadi of 
tiie aforesaid fire hooaes, to STerage £2 2s. Iliirdly, that the field gate dose heras- 
helbre mentioned as eontaining two aeres one rood and nine perdies, dionldbe let oflfc 
on lease as herdnbefere mentioned for hnilding thereon nineteen houses at the east 
and west end ihenoi, the breadth of the front of eadi of sndi houses to be twenty-two 
fret, with sofficient room for yards behind the same, and that sodi hoosei shoidd be 
two-stoiy houses^ and similar to the thirty-eight two-story honaes herdnbefore se- 
condly mentioned in diare head fidd ; and that the annual ground rent of eadi of 
•ttdi houses, payable to the said charity trustees, should be £2 or thereabouts ; that 
independently of the said nineteen houses at the east and west end of the fidd gats 
dose, housea of a similar description, of the aTerage breadth of twenty-one fieeC or 
theieabonts, hy fifty-four fret or thereabouts in depth, forming a main street fifty fret 
hfoad, running from east to west, with a square in the centre, so as to keep that por- 
tiott of the town aiiy and hedthy, should be built on the said dose, and that there is 
room for sites for twenty-nine houses or ihereabouta thereon ; and that the ground 
test thereof, payable to the said charity trustees, should average £2 or thereabontB 
fifltr each of such forty-dght houses ; and that there is alio ground for six badL aiten, 
iBttaMe for stables, ooaeh-houses, fte. ; and that the annnd ground rent of eaek 
of sudi houses should be £1 per rite. Fourthly, that the friarage doae, hereinbefors 
mentioned as eontaining six acres and sixteen perches, should be let out on lease fi» 
hfAdmg thereon houses compodag six streets ; an east street, a west street, with m 
■oith and south street, beddes these, a cross street, and one main fifty fret eentva 
St r e et ; and that a part of such houses should be two stories high, and that th« 
tverage sise ^ some of such houses should be twenty-one fret in front, others thirty* 
dg^t feet or thereabouts, andfiiying in deptii fronthirty to sixty fret; andthatt 
ffte lessees of sudi houses should psy to the said trustees of the said charity for eaek 
of sn^ houses, the sum of 12 2s. per annum for ground rent ; and that others of 
the ssid hoaees, on the cast and north sides frdng towards the moor and freeman's 
pasture, and eowmanding an extendve Tiew of the coast and shipping, diould be oC 
s Isrger tau and three stories high, and that in the centre of the sud dose thao 
should be a eb«ns or douUe ereseont, ksring an open ^aoe between the buildings of 
■iaety-ibe yatds hy seventy yardi, with s dnuhbery in the centre, fifty-six yarda fay 
ttkty-thive yardi, suifuuoiad hj a forty feet street and joining the nsain centio 
street before inetttfoAe< to he eompostd also of Isger houses and havi^f a I 



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MODEBN HI8T0BY OF HABTLEPOOL. t8 

sientSy but to an improTement generally in the management o^ 
the charity, so as to render it of most advantage to its otgeets. 

The present rental of the estate, increased as above, now 
amounts to about £300 a year ; but when the boilding-scheme is 
fully carried out, the annual rental, it is calculated, will reach 
between iE800 and JE900 — a prospect of local benefit which 
we trust will be realized. 

qnantitj of land for each site as to leave a good yard and also a front garden, and to 
be three stories high ; the annual gronnd rent for such last mentioned houses to Ytrj 
from £2 to £2 10s. ; and that there should also be some villa sites upon the said 
dose, and that ninetj-six honses and ten villas might with benefit to the said eharity 
estate be built on the said close, together with ten sites firar stables, &o., on back 
ground, producing in all an annual ground rent of £280, payable to the trustees of 
the diarity. Fiflhlj, that New dose, hereinbefore mentioned as containing four acres 
and one rood, should be let out on lease as hereinbefore mentioned for building hoosei 
thereon, composing two streets forty feet wide, running east and west, and two otheca 
in the centre, running north and south ; and that such houses should be two stories 
in hdght, and should be about twenty*one feet wide, and from forty to titj* 
fintr feet deep, or thereabouts ; and that the said last mentioned dose should oon* 
tain one hundred and two of such houses, and that the average ground rent 
thereof should vary from £1 10s. to £2 for eadi of such houses. Sixthly, thai 
inasmuch as the broad close, hereinbefore mentioned to contain two acres and 
two roods, is contiguous to the dodcs, where houses of a smaller sixe are in mon 
demand, the said dose should be let out on such building leases as are herein 
before mentioned, for building thereon houses or tenements containing small houses 
of two stories high, and that the sites for such houses or tenements should be 
about twenty feet wide, and from twenty-seven to thirty-three feet deep, or then* 
abonta ; and that the said last mentioned dose, would contain eighty-five of such houses 
or tenements, and that the annual gronnd rent of each site thereof should be £1 la., 
or thereabouts, except the seventeen houses fronting east with the gardens ; the wik* 
nual ground rent thereof should be £2 per site. And the said Thomas Oliver, who 
resides at Newcastle-upon-Tyne, and is an architect, in the affidavit sworn by him 
before referred to, deposes that he has had great experienoe in the planning and build* 
ing of houses, and in all matters connected with architecture and surveying of land 
for that purpose, and that he is wdl acquainted with the land, ground, and premisef 
forming the said charity estates at Hartlepool aforesaid ; and that he has viewed and 
inflected the same with great care and attention and with a view to makmg his pi^ 
sent affidavit, and that he has considered the said charity estates with reference t9 
the building leases to be grmted of the same, and the nature of the houses to be 
built thereon; and after setting forth a plan for tiie lettbg and disposition thereof as 
herdnbefore stated, deposes that a great number of the sites as mentioned in aneh 
plan could easily be let, and he is of opinion that it will be more for the benefit of 
the said diarity estates that the leases so to be granted, should be granted in eon- 
nderation ai payment by the lessee thereof of an annual ground rent, without any 
premium or sum paid by the said lessee at the time of gtaatiag the said lease. Aad 
the said deponent states in his said affidavit, that the said phm for the letting aa4 



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84 MODERN HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 

The trostees for 185L2 are m follows: — George BluBtf, 
A. W. Dobing, Rev. James Douglas, William Hall, Robert 
Winstanley, John Mowbray, sen., John Mowbray, Jan., Junes 
Swales, T. Watt, Matthew Horsley, William Ingkdew, ind 
John Drory, (as the twelve hooseholders) Bct. Robert Taylor, 
(as the incombent) William Gordon and John Todd, (u drazch- 
wardens) James Teal and Joseph Parian, (as overseers of the 
poor.) 

The Secretary is James Yeal; Solicitor to the Trostees— Peter 
Barker ; Surveyor of Buildings — ^William Watt. 

dispodtioii of the nid gnmnd at Hartlepool aloreeaid, iB in his judgment ud ojfmn 
ikt most beaefioial mode of disposing theveof : and npon f»nsidefiition ot neh fn- 
posid, I Improve the seme, and am of (pinion that the hest mode of letting the u^ 
fields, lands, and premises at Hartlepool aforesaid, composing the said charitj M»t 
woild he on hnilding leases without line or pareminm, to he granted for the (am«' 
twenty-one years, and renewable with a line of half a year's rental of the teiUiBg 
erected on tiie land or ground so let ; and that the same should he on the terms a 
the lessees thereof bnildiDg on the land or gronnd so let within a limited time finA 
the date of the said lessees, houses, or boildings, according to a oertsin plsn tobi 
qiecified in the said leases ; the lessees paying an annual ground rent for the tiin^ 
and with the usual covenants contained in building leases; and that it will be mo^ 
fer the benefit of the said charity estates, that the seyenl fields or pieces or psreali 
of land, of which the said charity estates are composed, should be let for bai^ 
thereon respectively the species of houses or buildings hereinbefore partieiilsziy bm** 
tioned, as suitable for the serval fields or parcab of land reepeetiTely : sU which I 
humbly certify and submit to this hononnble oovt. 



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MODERN HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 85 



CROOK^S FREE SCHOOL. 

On the sabject of this charity^ little has to be added to the 
history already given of it by Sir Cnthbert Sharp.* That which 
is chiefly to be notedj is the renewed appointment of trustees ; 
whichf in terms of the Donor's will, had, since the former 
record^ twice to be executed^ so as to complete the number 
of seveuj when these had become reduced^ by death, to three 
trustees, on whom devolved the re-appointment. 

By deed, dated the twenty-ninth of May, 1829, William 
Sedgwick, Rev. John Brewster, William Yollum, Thomas Yin- 
cent, Abraham Scotson, John Coverdale, and Ralph Sotheran, 
were, imder the circumstance stated, made trustees. 

The step again became necessary, in 1846, when, by deed 
dated the second June of that year, the following were 
appointed, namely, the Rev. John Brewster, Rev. R. Taylor, 
Abraham Scotson, W. J. YoUum, P. M. Edger, John Procter, 
and John Grey — ^the survivors of whom are the present trustees, 
their number being now reduced to six, by the death of W. J. 
YoUum. 

The pres^it income from the lands of the trust is about J644 
per annum. The number of children educated is twenty ; and 
the schoolmaster is Mr. THlliam Hodgson. The lease for the 
School-House was renewed by the corporation on the twenty- 
fourth of October, 1829, for forty years, at the former annual 
ground-rent of two shillings. 

* Vide, Re-print of Sharp's HUtorj, page 200. 



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86 MODERN HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 



ST. HILDA'S CHURCH. 

Referring the readers to the very interesting accoont of the 
above chnrch given by the local historian so often alluded tOj 
we proceed to give snch occurrences as^ since the period of that 
account^ faU to be recorded in regard both to it and the Hartle- 
pool Curacy. 

In October 1838^ an organ was placed in the church ; and in 
thatj or the year following, the foot-paths were stopped in the 
south side, and north-east, north-west, and south-west comers 
of the church-yard. 

The flying buttresses, (alluded to by Sir Cuthbert Sharp u 
supporting the tower,) one of which had fallen down, were re- 
stored in 1838. In the same year, the chancel arch and some of 
the columns in the nave were also revealed to us in their natund 
beauty, by the removal of the whitewash which had so barba- 
rously been applied to them, and allowed to accumulate and 
incrustate thereon, as on the rest of the architecture. In 
the present year, 1851, the same thing was done to others of 
the arches and colunms, and to part of the walls, in the body of 
the church, which now recalls most of its pristine effect. 

The last curate mentioned by Sir Cuthbert Sharp, is the Bev. 
William Wilson, who died twenty-third November, 1838. His 
successor was the present incumbent, the Rev. Robert Taykr, 
appointed in 1834. 

The following have been Assistant or Sub-curates : — 

The Hon. Robert Liddell, from Aug. 1833 to Jan. 1835 

" James Boucher, " Oct. 1835 to April 1836 

" Lewis Paige, " Sep. 1840 to Feb. 1843 

" Robert Hamilton " July 1844 to July 1847 

« W.S.Morton, " Sep. 1847 to July 1850 

•' Edward Good, '* July 1850 (now the sub-cnrste.) 



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%^ 






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MODERN HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 87 

Sir Cathbert alludes to the purchase of lands with certain 
grants of money at Bishop-Middleham, in which the Curacy of 
Hartlepool has a benefit.* 

The whole extent of these, called the Island Farm, is 166 
acres, 1 rood, 20 perches; but each Incumbent interested knows 
his own portion, viz. : — 

A. B. p. 

Castle Eden 69 1 3 

Hartlepool 44 2 8 

Pittington 41 2 9 

The present rent is £136, which, equally divided, gives to each 
£46 per annum. For seven years (1841 to 1848,) a colliery was 
worked upon the Castle-Eden part. The managers rented the 
whole farm for their own convenience ; and for the Hartlepool por- 
tion they paid a rent of £90 per annum. An outrent is payable 
to the Bishop of Durham ; and, the colliery being discontinued, 
the net revenue now does not exceed £40 per annum. 

In December, 1848, the sum of £36. 9s. 9d. was awarded to 
the Hartlepool benefice, for damages caused by a railway across 
the farm for the use of the colliery. This money was included 
in expences to a much larger amount, for new buildings for feed- 
ing cattle and other conveniences, where a cart-shed iiad fallen 
down. A dwelling-house was also erected on the Hartlepool 
portion by the partners in the colliery. This house is now occu- 
pied by the tenant of the whole farm. The former residence was 
a cottage inconveniently situated in the village. This cottage 
belongs to the Castle-Eden portion. The Hartlepool portion of 
the homestead is severed from the rest by a line running from 
north to south, through the middle of the stack-yard, bam, and 
fold-yard. The buildings west of this line belong to Hartlepool, 
vis., dwelling-house, feeding-houses, cart-shed, &c.— -stable, half 
the bam, half the stack-yard, half the fold-yard and pump. 

* Vide, page 181 of Reprint. 
TT 



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88 MODERN HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 

These are all now in good condition. Those on the east or 
Pittington side, are in a very dilapidated state. 

Sir Cnthbert Sharp also refers to parliamentary and other 
grantSj from which a farther investment in land was ordered to 
be madcj for the benefit of the Curacy.* With this money, 
(d£2000) in the year 1818^ a farm was purchased at Long 
Newton^ containing 92 acres, 3 roods, 16 perches. It was then 
let for £100 a year. In 1834 the annual rent was £60 ; the 
nominal annual rent is now £40; but the net yearly income ia 
not more than £35. There is a very old, mis-shapen, and inc(m« 
venient dwelling-house on the farm — upheld at great ezpence. 
All the other buildings, except such as have been renewed by the 
present Incumbent, are very old. When the purchase was made, 
the money was bringing in a clear interest of £56 per annum, 
viz., £800 at four per cent, and £1200 at two per cent. Among 
the late Incumbent's papers is the following note in his own hand 
writing : — ^"The Rev. William Wilson, succeeded to the Per- 
petual Curacy of Hartlepool, in the year 1812, which was then 
worth £70 per annum. It cost him £10 in getting nomina- 
tion and institution. In 1824 it had cost him in repairs and 
buildings, and he had lost by bad and fraudulent tenants, and 
by other expences immediately incurred by looking after it, aa 
near as can be calculated, £400." It may be added that Mr. 
Wilson— ^ying insolvent — ^left all the buildings, both on this farm 
and that of Bishop-Middleham, in bad condition. 

THE PARSONAGE HOUSE. 

The Parsonage is situated in Middlegate Street. It is small, 
inconvenient, very old, and unfit for occupation as a residence 
for the Curate. The premises contain about three hundred and 
thirty square yards of ground. They are at present let out; 
the Incumbent residing in a house dose to the churchy belonging 
to the Duke of Cleveland. 

* Vide, ptge iSl m befort. 



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MODERN HISTOBT OF HARtLEPOOL. 



The Beyenues of the laying may be stated 


as fdlowB :— 




£. s. d. 


Bishop-MidcQebam Fann 


... 40 


Long Newton »» 


... 85 


Surplice Fees 


... 70 


Lord Crewe's Trust 


... 10 


Tithes Commutation 


... 15 


Easter Offerings 


... 10 



Total 



£180 0* 



We are indebted to the present Incumbent for the whole of the 
aforegoing particulars as to the benefice. 

* The Clergy*! list itates the Tihie of the Benefice at £230 per annvm ; bnt tliie 
wai reekoned at the time when the Biahop-Middlehim Farm dcrired, at wa ha?a 
noted, £90 per amramfrom the CoUioy, once diioontmiied. 



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90 MODERN HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 



HOLY TRINITY CHURCH. 

It bemg considered, from tlie increase of the popnlatioiiy that 
another place of worship was needed at Hartlepool, in oonnectioo 
with the Established Church, a committee was formed in ISiS, 
to carry out measures for supplying the want. Subscriptioiis 
for the purpose were applied for ; and it did not take long before 
the collection of such a sum of money rewarded the promoters' leal, 
as justified them in proceeding with the edifice. The foundation 
stone (being that under the south-east buttress of the aisle) of the 
new fabric, was, after an appropriate prayer from the Rev. W. 
6. Harrison, laid by J. P. Denton, Esq., Mayor of Hartlepool, on 
the twenty-second of August, 1850, in the presence of the com- 
mittee,* and a numerous assemblage of the inhabitants, with the 
clergymen of the town and neighbourhood. The site is on a piece 
of ground, beyond the north-east boundary of the borough, 
kindly given for the object — ^as well as an adjoining plot for the 
Parsonage House — by the Trustees of the late Duke of Cleve- 
land. The church is dedicated to the Holy Truiity, and is of the 

* Now conflUtiiig of Messrs. J. P. BeQtoI^ James Wood, EdwariTonbolU 
Horner, CoL Swinbame, Thomas Rovrell, George Qnick, the Bcy. S. W. MoctoB, iht 
Her. 6. T. Fox, the Her. W. G. Harrison, and John Proctor, with Mr. W. H. MardwQ, 
as honorary secretary. 



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MODERN HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 91 

decorated style of architectare. It consists of a Chancel thirty- 
six feet by twenty-two feet, with vestry and organ chamber on 
the north side; Nave, eighty-four feet, by twenty-four feet six 
inches ; north and south aisles, each eighty-four feet by thirteen 
feet, with north and south porches, having deeply moulded door- 
ways and seats. A Tower one hundred and ten feet high at the 
west end was proposed, to complete the design; but for the 
want of funds, this has been postponed. 

The windows are of a highly decorative character, the arched 
heads being filled with rich and varied tracery, adding very much 
to the general effect of the building. 

The roofs are all open ones, of bold and simple design, pro- 
ducing a most beautiftd effect. The Nave and Aisles are furnished 
with open seats, no distinction being made between the free and 
appropriated sittings. The Pulpit is a carved one of Caen stone. 
The Chancel is surrounded with oak stalls having deeply panelled 
fronts, and standards with poppy heads. The space within the 
altar rails is paved with Minton's encaustic tiles. The organ 
chamber is separated from the chancel and north aisle by traceri- 
ed oak parcloses. The Font^ is placed near the south entrance. 
The church will seat nearly eight hundred persons. Five hun- 
dred of the sittings have been declared free and unappropriated 
for ever. 

The architect is John Middleton, Esq., of Darlington ; and 
the builder is Mr. Edward Toung, of Hartlepool. 

The original contract for the Building was JE2350 ; to which 
has to be added, exclusive of the architect's commission. 

For hot Water and Cras Pipes ^695 

Iron Railing for Inclosure ... ... ... ... 150 

Gas Fittings 40 

The church is expected to be opened for divine service in March, 
1852. The Rev. Lewis Paige, formerly assistant curate at Hartle- 
pool, and now lecturer of Saint Andrew's, &c., Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne, has been recently appointed to it. 

The erection of this neat ecclesiastical structure, will, no doubt, 
prove a great accommodation to the inhabitants at the north end 
of the town ; and, it is hoped, also add to the spiritual benefit of 
the locality in general. 

* The gift of Archdeacon Thorp. 



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92 MODERN HISTORY OF HARTMPOOL. 



WESLEYAN METHODIST CHAPEL. 

To give the seyeral protestant dissenting denominations in the 
order in which they have sprang up in the town, we find Meth- 
odism to have the precedence : and the first notice of it in 
Hartlepool, is an entry in Mr. Wesley's journal, where, under 
the date of July fifth, 1757, he writes, ''We took horse at two — 
the clouds and wind in our face kept us cool till we came to 
Hartlepool. I preached in the main street, to near all the town; 
and they behaved with seriousness. '' Again, July the secondly 
1759, he says, '' I suppose we had all the town with us in the 
evening, either in the street or the adjoining houses, and God 
was pleased to touch the hearts of many.'' On Monday, the 
fifteenth of June, 1761, he arrived at Hartlepool again, nearly 
exhausted with excessive labour, and preached in the evening. 
The following day, he preached at Cherington in the afternoon, 
and at Hartlepool at night. July the seventh, 1766, he writesy 



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MODERN HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 93 

" I rode to Durham^ and preached about noon^ on onr Lord's 
lamentation over Jerusalem. In the evening, the rain hinder- 
ing me from preaching in the street at Hartlepool^ I had a 
large congregation in the Assembly-room. Many of them were 
present again in the mornings and seemed almost persuaded 
to be christians.'' There is a notice of another visits June the 
seventh, 1784, when he says, he '^ preached in the evening 
in the Town-Hall at Hartlepool, where I had not been for 
sixteen years /' and in 1786, he preached again in the Town- 
Hall, when many appeared to be deeply affected, — '' Surely," 
he says, ''the seed will spring up at last, even here, where we 
seemed so long to be ploughing on the sand." His last visit 
appears to have been on June the fourteenth, 1790, when he 
preached in the evening to as many as the Town-Hall would 
contain; and on the following day to a large congregation in the 
open air. 

It does not appear that Mr. Wesley saw much direct fruit 
resulting from his labours in Hartlepool. There were serious 
impressions and awakenings, but few were connected with the 
society. A small flock, however, did exist, towards the close of 
Mr. Wesley's visits ; and they appear to have been gathered 
together through the instrumentality of a Mr. Middleton, who, 
about the year 1766, settled on the other side of the ferry, 
where the property he acquired is still called by his name.* 

Their first place of worship at Hartlepool was a room in 
the yard of Balph Taylor, Sunniside, which was fitted up with 
a gallery at one end. The second was the house which stands 
right across the main street, leading to the dock, and is now in 
the occupation of George Soutter, Cooper; this also had a 
gallery across the end. The third was a diapel on the Town Wall, 

* In addition to Mr. Middleton, there are seyeral honourable names connected 
with the history of Methodism in Hartl^ool, that wiU be remembered with IselingB 
«f christian affection and esteem, hj many of the old inhahttants. The namea of 
John Marlej, John Richardson, (who was upwards of forty years master of the 
Aree School,) — and John Hnnter, will be handed down as men, who were fiithers in 
the dmroh, and who^ for a series of yeafs adoned the profession which they hsU, 
and wws made the instnunents of spiritual good to many. 



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94 MODERN HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 

built about fifty-eight years ago^ and on the former site of 
whieh now stands the Castle-Eden eoal fitting offices, and the 
offices of Messrs. John Hudson and Co, Ship Brokers. 

The present chapel is a neat and commodious building, in 
Northgate, erected in the year, 1889. The ground on which it 
stands, and the adjoining yard, which extends as fSur bads is 
Hart Street, was part of a field belongmg to the Duke of 
Cleveland, and which he liberally sold to the society at a 
greatly reduced price. His Qmce also gave the stones used 
for the base, comers, and windows of the building. The cbi^ 
will seat about seven hundred persons, including about one 
hundred and fifty free sittings for the poor. 

There is a flourishing Sunday-school connected with the 
chapel; also a Library for the use of the children. 

Hartlepool is a part of the Stockton Circuit, and up to the 
year 1841, all the regular ministers lived at Stockton ; but since 
that period there has been a resident minister in the town, who, 
at present, is the Rev. T. M. Fitzgerald. 



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MODERN HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 95 



THE NEW PRIMITIVE METHODIST CHAPEL. 

Primitiye Methodism first exhibited itself in Hartlepool in 
1822^ but did not succeed in establishing a permanent interest 
till two or three years after^ when a large granary was taken and 
fitted up for its devotional services. It became well attended ; and 
in the year 1830 an effort was made to build a chapel in the Croft^ 
which was effected. Found in a few years to be too small^ this 
place was enlarged and improved by the erection of side-galleries ; 
but the congregation still increasingi so that many people could 
obtain neither sittings nor entrance^ steps for further accommo- 
dation had to be taken in 1850. Funds were raised^ and a large 
plot of ground (opposite to the new Roman Catholic Church) 
was contracted for from the Trustees for Smith's Charity. The 
foundation stone of a new chapel was laid in the following spring 
by the Rev. H. Ilebbron of Sunderland; and, on the site men- 
tioned, a very commodious edifice has just been finished and opened 
for public worship, with a school-room and minister's house at- 
tached. It presents a very commanding appearsncCj and in 
point of situation, size,, and architecture, is certainly superior 
to any other chapel in the town. The soeiety, inclusive of 
stated hearers, counts upwards of one hundred and fifty 
sons. Its sabbath school is attended by from one to two hunj 
children. The present minister is the Rev. John Wilson. 

uu 



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96 MODERN HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 



THE UNITED PRESBYTERIAN CHAPEL. 

The origin of the '' United Presbyterians'' in Hartlepool^ was 
a few members of tbe chnrch,* who^ soon after 1838, came to re- 
side in the town, as it was rising in importance. Meeting for 
some time in a large room situated in a very confined and 
unsuitable part of the town, they obtained an occasional sup- 
ply of sermon till about the year 1887-8 ; when a congr^ation 
was formed, and steps taken for the erection of a suitable 
place of worship, under the auspices of the Presbytery of New- 
castle. They fixed on a very eligible site, and purchased a 
plot of ground from the late Duke of Cleveland, who granted it 
on moderate terms. On it was erected, A.D., 1839, the neat 
and commodious chapel now facing Darlington Street, and which 
was first opened for divine service on the first of January, 1840, 

* Then the " United Secession" Chnrch — the new designation being the resolt oC 
the union with the " Relief' Chnrch in 1847 ; whose doctrine, government^ and form 
of worship, respectively, had been previoosl/ nearly the same. It need scsrodj be 
slated that the chief seat of the "United Pnabyterian Chnrch" is in Scothmd. 



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MODERN HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 97 

by [the late Rev. Geo. Toang. D.D., author ot the History of 
Whitby^ &c. It is capable of seating five hundred persons. 

After passing through some vicissitudes at its commencement^ 
the congregation has continued gradually to increase up to this 
time^ exemplifying the motto ' Concordid parva creseunt.* The 
audience now reaches from three to four hundred hearers; 
and the number of members is not inferior to that of any other 
denomination in the place. Last year the congr^ation con- 
tributed £200 towards the support of ordinances^ and other 
benevolent and religious purposes. 

The present pastor is the Bev^ James Douglas, who was ordain- 
ed to his charge on the first of February, 1848. There is a 
Sabbath-school in connection with the chapel, the number attend- 
ing which varies from seventy to one hundred young persons. 

There is also a Library connected with it, lately formed, which, 
contains upwards of two hundred volumes of books, — ^for the most 
part composed of historical, biographical, and religious liter- 
ature. 



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98 MODERN HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 



THE INDEPENDENT CHAPEL. 

Thb Independents^ or Congregationalisto, as they are more gene- 
rally termed in the North of England — ^both designations being 
descriptive of their ecclesiastical polity — ^have also obtained a 
permanent footing in Hartlepool. This denomination was first 
introduced through the Durham and Northumberland Asso- 
ciation — preaching having been commenced in a room rented 
for the purpose^ in the year 1840. This was continued to be 
supplied by their Ministers in the county^ and the Collepatc 
Students, till the year 1841, when a call was given to the present 
Minister of the sect here, the Rev. S. Lewin. The room in 
question being speedily found to be too small, it was resolved, 
as soon as a suitable site could be procured, to build a chapd; 
which was accomplished in the year 1843-4, when the present 
edifice in Darlington Place was erected at a cost of £1000, ex- 
clusive of the price paid for the ground, and other expenoes. It 
was opened for divine worship in April, 1844, by the Rev. W. H. 



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MODERN HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 99 

Stowell, D J).^ (Professor of Theology in the Independent College^ 
Rotheram^) and the Rev. J. Parsons of York. 

The chapel will accommodate upwards of five hundred persons^ 
inclusive of fifty free seats ; and the auditory has been often equal 
to its dimensions. The number of church-members is also in pro- 
portio igregation 

was fi] acy of the 

voluni J not only 

suppo: connected 

with t now con- 

tribut 

Th< -the aver- 

age at lere is also 

a Ubn containing 

two h 



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100 MODERN HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 



THE BAPTIST CHAPEL. 

In 1846, the Church of Particular or Calvanistic Baptiats, in 
Hartlepool, consisted only of seren members. The rapid in- 
crease of the population brought several more firom other localities, 
and their aflFieiirs seem now to be in a promising state. Being, 
however, only a new interest, and unable to support itself, it re- 
ceives a yearly grant of money firom the Fund of the Baptist 
Home Missionary Society. The congregation have just ereeted 
a neat and commodious chapel of stone in the north-east comer 
of Chare-Head Field, being part of the " Smith's charity^' estate. 
The comer stone was laid on the nineteenth of May this yesr 
(1851) by the Rev. B. B. Lancaster, pastor of the Baptist Church, 
South Shields. A gallery is laid across the east end containing 
one hundred and thirty sittings, and the chapel will accommodate 
altogether about five hundred persons. It will cost about i6600, 
and is expected to be opened in February, 1853. The present 
minister of the congregation is the Bev. J. Kneebon. They have 
a sabbath-school, attended by about sixty children. 



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HODEBN HISTOBT OF HARTLEPOOL. 101 



WESLEYAN REFORMERS. 



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102 MODERN HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 



ST. MARY'S-ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH. 

With the influx of workmen consequent upon the formation of 
the Railway and Dock, came a considerable number of Catholics. 
Their religious wants were for a time supplied by the Rev. T. A. 
Slater, of Hutton- House. In 1834, the small chapel — lately 
sold, and now converted into a shop— in Henry Street was 
erected, and on a slab over the doorway of which we read the 
following inscription : — 

THIS 

BUILDING WAS ERECTED BY 

JOHN WELLS, 

AND PRESENTED BT HIM TO THE 

ROMAN CATHOLICS, 

FOR THE USE OF THEIR 

RELIGIOUS EXERCISES, AT THE 

REQUEST OF MARY, HIS WIFE, 

A.D., 1834. 



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MODERN HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 108 

The Bev. Wm. Knight — who still officiates in the place-— 
having been appointed to the mission^ then commenced his 
labours, and was the first resident Catholic Priest in Hartlepool 
since the altar was demolished, the chancel pulled down, and the 
Catholic services ceased, in the venerable, and still beautiful 
old church of St. Hilda. 

The small edifice referred to — rude in construction, and 
plain and inconvenient in the extreme in its interior arrange- 
ments — was the cradle in which Catholicism was nursed, and 
grew up to such maturity in Hartlepool, as to call for a larger 
building. For this purpose a piece of ground, called Pout's 
Field, at the north-east end of the town, and now forming 
Alfired-Street and Everard-street, was purchased. But the more 
eligible site on which St. Mary's now stands being offered for 
sale, it was bought, and paid for» in a great measure, by the 
profits from the sale of Pout's Field. 

The foundation stone of St. Mary's was laid with great pomp 
and ceremony by the Bight Rev. Dr. Hogarth, on July the 
second, 1850. The progress of the building was not marked 
by any thing worthy of notice, except the rapidity with which 
it was raised — very litUe more than a twelve-month having in- 
tervened between the laying of the first stone, and its final 
completion. 

Externally it is a plain structure. The style is of the same 
period as that which the Church of St. Hilda has handed 
down to us — ^partaking of what is designated the transition 
Norman, or first pointed period. It was determined on, by re- 
gard for the fine old edifice we have mentioned — standing dose 
by — a relic of ancient Catholic piety and art. 

St. Mary's has no side buttresses, and, as we have already 
hinted, possesses very little external ornament. Yet the eye 
may be pleased with its appearance. It stands east and west — 
with the tower and spire at the east end. The altar is placed 
at the west — ^this departure from ordinary rule being considered 
justified by motives of convenience. The church is entered 

V V 



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104 MODERN HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL- 

at the east end through a door-way richly carved; and at 
the soath side through plain folding doors. On enteringy the 
visitor is at once impressed with the religious character of the 
place, and the pious catholic finds every outward help that art 
can furnish to his devotion.* 

* ** lie btnlding is one hnndred and twenty-one feet in length, and forty-tiiree in 
width; has two aides and a nave with dere-itoiy. It is lighted by thirtj-aix windowi, 
ezclnsive of those in the staircase, the tower and crypt. The windows in the clere> 
story and tower are of plain rolled glass — the rest are of stained glass, and were execated 
by Mr. Francis Bamett, of York. The five in the apse represent the foHowing ggA- 
jects: vis., the Immacnlate conception, the Presentation, the Incarnation, the Nativity, 
and the Assumption ; and are the gifts, respectively, of Mrs. Hopper, Mrs. W. 
Witham, the Bight Rev. William Hogarth, the Rev. T. A. Slater, and Joseph A. 
Hansom, Esq., the architect. The window at the west end of the north aisle is a 
mortoary window, and is given by Lord and Lady Stonrton. It is placed above an 
altar of the Blessed Virgin, and shews figures of the B. Virgin and St. Joseph. In the 
qnaterfoil above, besides fonr coronets, indicative of the rank of the donors, are seen 
three lilies, and three roses. The first recall the memory of three sons who died ia 
their innocent years — ^the latter speak of three still living. The window at the east 
end of the north aisle represents St. Thomas Aqninas, and St. Henry ; in the tfu^ 
tarfoil above is a Pellican feeding its.young. This window is the joint gift of tho 
Rev. Thos. Witham, of Lartington Hall ; and Henry Silvertop, Esq., of Minsteracrea. 
Proceeding to the window at the east end of the south aisles, we find St. Ann, and 
he B. Virgin ; St. Elizabeth, and St John ; with a beautifully execated crodfixiaa 
n the quaterfoil above. This window is the offering of Mr. F. Bamett. The win- 
low at the west end of the south aisle is given by the members of the Guild, a 
Catholic Sick Club est^lished many years in Hartlepool. In the two qnaterfnla, 
are represented the good Samaritan relieving the wounded man, and Tobias burying 
the dead. The trefoil above shews an axe and a saw, the emblems of the handi- 
oraft of St. Joseph, under whose patronage the guild is placed. The side windowa 
are the gifts of various individuals. The subject of each was fixed by the donor, and 
represents either his own patron Saint, or one appropriate in some way to the pUee. 
Thus St. Peter was chosen as the patron of fishermen, St. Aloysius as the patron of 
Youth, St. Hilda and St. Bega as the patron Saints of Hartlepool, both having been 
residents therein. Commencing near the altar of the B. Virgin, the subjects are 
consecutively these, — St. Peter, St. Thomas of Canterbury, St. Charles Borremeo, 
St. Aloysius, St. Nicholas, and St. Patrick. On the opposite side,— St. Hilda^ St. 
Bega, St. Mary Magdalene, St. Frances Widow, St. Jane Frances de ChantaL Tlia 
donors are Charles Wright, Esq., the Rev. Thos. Witham, Mr. J. D. Storey, the 
children attending the Catholic School, Charles Bodenham, Esq., Mr. Fswcus, Rev. 
Wm. Knight, Mrs. Wm. Witham, Miss Knight, Mrs. Jackson, and Mrs. Arthur. 

" Whilst viewing the windows, the eye of the visitor will often be arrested by the 
stations of the passion. These are basso relievo, in plaster of Paris ; and are fixed 
in the Mrall in quaterfoil frames of the same material, which gives them a very bold 
and rich appearance. They are fourteen in number, commencing over the dootrwiy 
leading to the singing gallery, and terminate on the opposite side. 

** The chancel is apsidal, a form not common in England ; but frequently fband on 



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MODERN HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. ' 106 

The hhnc was designed by J. A. Hansom, Esq., of Preston, 
Architect, and the inventor of the cab called by his name. The 
builder was Mr. John Galley, of Hartlepool. We mnst not 
omit to add that the edifice is provided with eight bells, from 
the foundry of Messrs. C. and 0. Mears, Whitechapel, London.* 

The church was opened for divine worship, on the twenty- 
eight day of August, this year (1851). Cardinal Wiseman was 

the contment, and particiilarly in Oermanj. It is a form very well adapted to pariah 
churches, — and in cathedral dmrchea, where choirs are necessary, it is also found 
to afford great advantage. The altar is of stone, with an open firont, standing opon 
five pillars, and is richly carved and decorated. The five windows have already been 
described. The roof of the dianoel is ridily decorated in the Byzantine style. It is 
divided into fifteen compartments ; in the highest five, are seen the five letters of the 
word Maria ; in the next, the heads of fonr greater prophets, with that of Moses in 
the centre ; and in the lowest, the heads, wiUi the emblems of the fonr Evangelists, 
and the head of our Savionr in the centre. The decoration of the apse, as well as 
of the side altar, was the work of Mr. Snow, of Newcastle-npon-Tyne ; whose talent 
in this peculiar style of art, was of the first order. Unfortunately he did not survive 
this work more than a few days. 

" We must not leave the apse without looking for a moment at the doorway, leading 
from the sanctuary to the vestries. It is partly copied firom a doorway, now sadly 
mutilated, in the parish church at Lanchester. It represents the B. Virgin crowned ; 
an angel on each side is holding a scroll, on whidi are the words " Ave Regina 
C(£lorum ; " under these, two serpents are coiled, amongst some branches of fruit 
trees. This, and all the ornamental carving about the churdi, is the work of Mr. 
John laing, of the Commercial Inn, Hartlepool. 

" A beaotifrd stone pulpit stands between the altar rails and the vestry door. The 
mention of this, the font at the east end of the north aisle, and the powerful and 
sweet-toned organ, will complete the description of the interior of this interesting 
church. We must point attention, however, before we leave, to a great peenliarity. 
lie fiooT is an incline plane — there being a descent of two fret six inch^ from the 
main doorway to the altar rails — ^yet to many it is imperceptible, until their attention 
is directed to it. By this, great facility is given, both of hearing what is said, and 
of seeing what is done. After passing the two commodious vestries, which connect 
the church, with the residence of the priest, the visitor descends a flight of stone 
steps into a crypt, or small mortuary chapel under the chancel. It is fa'^ted by 
thne richly stained glass windows, representing St. Joseph, St Catharine, and 8(. 
Winefred ; with their respective emblems. It has a stone altar, and the flooring is 
of encaustic tiles. This neat little chapel was fitted up at the expense of the Dowa- 
ger Lady Stourton ; who, in other ways, also, has been a very generous benefactor to 
the building." We are indebted to the Rev. Wm. Knight for the description here 
given. 

* lliese bells were partly the result of a public subscription, but, this scarcely 
amounting to one-tenth of the total cost, they may be said to be the munificent pre- 
sent of Mr. John Lawrenson of this town, who, in other respects, has been one of 
the most liberal contributors to the building. 



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106 MODERN HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 

present on the occasion, and preached the morning ( 
high mass was song by the Bight Ber* Dr. Hogarth. Beaidea 
these dignitaries of the Catholic Cbarch, there were present 
also Dr. Briggs, Dr. Brown, Dr. Mcnrris, and upwards of fif^ 
priests. The evening senrice was performed by the Bight Ber* 
Dr. Briggs, the sermon preached by the Big^tBev. Dr.Monia. 



[We have hitherto touched on those matters, whidi, in 
that important era of its history, ushered in by the formation of 
a railway and dock, depict Hartlepool chiefly in its commercial 
and ecclesiastical aspects. We have seen that, independent ot 
the sister-harbour, in the transit of its staple mineral, it annu- 
ally gives employment to upwards of 650,000 tons of shipping.* 
We have also seen that six or seven different religious commu- 
nities have sprung up therein, with as many new places of 
worship. Let us now advert to what, in the same period, may 
have been done towards endowing it with those institutuma 
which prepare man for his pursuits, and without which no plaoe^ 
however otherwise developed, can, in a social view, ever become 
elevated.] 

THE MECHANICS' INSTITUTE. 

Thb first attempt to form an establishment like the above, in 
Hartlepool, was in 1883, and originated at a public meeting of 
the inhabitants, held in the Guild-hall, on the fourth day of 
April in that year. A committee of those present was appointed 
for the purpose; who, a few days thereafter, chose a Secretary 
and Treasurer; which was followed, at meetings of the subscri- 
bers, by the election of a President and Vice-Presidents, the 
adoption of rules, and the ordering of some books. The name 
then assumed by the society was that of the '' Hartlepool Literary, 

* Vide UKMint of tonnage paid loading-dues in 1860, to the cominissionen of tkm 
pier and port, page 11. 



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MODERN HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 107 

Scientific, and Mechanical Institation.^ Tke amoont of sab* 
acriptions for the first year, we find had been £14 lOs. 

The effort^ however, seems not to have had the elements 
oi permanent success, being chiefly sustained by casual resi*- 
dents. These were parties in connexion with the dock and 
other improvements then in progress at the place. We perceive 
that at a meeting on the fourteenth day of June, 1836, the 
following minute was recorded. — ''Nearly all the Mechanics 
having left the town, in consequence of the stoppage of the 
public worlcsy the few members that remain in the Institution 
deem its continuance useless under such circumstances. It is, 
therefore, determined that the books shall be left in the care of 
Mr. Wm. Watt, and the society suspended till such time as 
' there shall appear a reasonable prospect of its flourishing/' — 

! which resolution took effect accordingly. The receipts for the 

I past year has been only £1 2s. Od ! — and a balance was due to 

I the Treasurer of £8 8s. 8d. 

I In June, 1840, after four years suspension, we find the 

E library re-opened, and the Society in other respects revived. 

^ A small accession of members occasionally, appears to have been 

I the result, — ^but the effort proved fitful as formerly. The men- 

tal soil in Hartlepool seemed not yet prepared to give to such an 
association any lasting root. After a feeble trial of three years 
on this occasion, it was, according to the minute-book, a second 
time ''resolved to dose the Institution till such time as a pro- 
bability existed of its being again opened to advantage.^' 

This prospect seems soon to have arrived, for in August fol- 
lowing, the society was a third time in operation. 

At a general meeting held in February 1844, the name was 
changed to that of the " Hartlepool Mechanics' Institute '' — 
the designation by which it is still more popularly known, 
though, as wiU be seen, the old one has been reverted to. 

In November, 1845, the town was canvassed for subscriptions, 
lu March 1847, the establishment was re-organized, and 
its rules revised. Its original title of " Literary, Scientific, 



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108 MODERN HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL 

and Mechanical Institution'' was also then re-assomecL 

Proceeding with oar narrative, it is with relief we have now 
to record that in the Committees' Report for the year last- 
mentioned^ "they congratulate their fdlow members on the 
increasing prosperity of the Institution, and the promising 
prospect of its future stability." — One hundred and fifty-two 
Tolumes had been added to the Library — ^there had been a greater 
eirculation of books — and a considerable balance was in the hands 
of the Treasurer. Donations from the Duke of Cleveland, and 
several other parties were also reported ; and Lectures on As- 
tronomy had been delivered during the year that had elapsed. 

At a special meeting, held on the eighteenth day of July, 
1848, it was resolved that a News-room be connected with the 
Institute — a measure which has been liberally carried out — 
the Society acquiring additional influence and support from 
this introduction of the ' folio of four pages.' 

The members hitherto held their meetings in a room hired 
for the purpose. In 1849, it was determined to rent a house 
for their use ; and the premises now occupied by the Institute 
in the Stripes were then taken for it accordingly. It is 
hoped that, following the example of other localities, an tSort 
will be made, so that by the erection of a suitable edifice, 
it may soon become possessed of a Mocal habitation' of its 
own. 

In the year just referred to, improved rules were adopted both 
for the management of the News-room and Library; and we 
would conclude our account of the progress of the association, 
with the following particulars from the Report for 1850, as to 
its position at the end of that period — ^a position which it still 
holds, if it has not advanced. 

On this occasion, the Committee announce a " steady acces- 
sion of members," the subscribers amounting altogether to 
162 — that the Library contained upwards of 600 volumes, ex- 
clusive of the various periodicals — that the issue of books to 
readers had considerably increased — that the number of psfiers 



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MODERN HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 109 

supplied to the News-room was five Daily^ and fourteen Weekly 
pq)ers — and that the balance in the hands of the Treasurer 
was £6 18s. Od.^ exclusive of certain arrears of subscriptions.* 
Much, however, still has to be done before the Institution has 
realized its objects. No regular system of lecturing, or of 
classes, has been adopted, which calls for remedy, as an 
essential requirement. Further, though designed as an Insti- 
tute for ' Mechanics,' it has proved so only in the name, very 
few of our artizans having given it their support. Let us trust 
that, even out of its present class of patrons, the town will be 
found yet to yield a larger proportion than that by which the 
Society has hitherto been upheld. 

The following are the Executive for the present year, 1851 :— 

President, 
THOMAS BELE. 

Vice-Presidents, 
Rev. JAMES DOUGLAS ; JOHN MACKENZIE. 

Committee, 
William Hodgson 



William Ridley 
J. G. Brown 
George Wilson 
George Bell 
Thomas Marshall 
William Hall 



George Quick 
J. N. Eden 
John Williams 
George Blumer 
George Porteoos 

Treasurer, 
WILLIAM GRAY. 

Secretary, 
WILLUM TODD. 

Librarian, 
JOHN MARSHALL. 

* The Sobtcriptioiii at present are— for Extraordinary memben, who hare the 
uae of both Library and News-room, IBs. — Ordinary members, hafing the use of 
either of these only, 8b. — ^Minors and Apprentioes, ditto, 4m, — aaniially. 



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110 MODERN HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 



THE PRISSTCK-SCHOOLS. 

For the above, Hartlepool is indebted to the late Elisabetli 
Prissick^ who died the thirtieth day of December^ 1826. She 
was the widow of Henry Prissick^ who died the sixteenth day 
of Febroary, 1812. She left her property in the first plaee to the 
late John Wells^ for his sole benefit during his life-time ; a pro- 
mise being given by him at her request^ and in the presence of 
the late Leonard Raisbeck, Esq., that he wooldmake some pro- 
vision for the education of the poor children in the town. 

Accordingly, and daring his life-time^ out of the means so 
conveyed to him, Mr. Wells erected two commodioos Schod- 
rooms, and endowed them; appointing at the same time Tmstees 
for the management of the charity. A deed to the above effect 
was enroUed in the High Court of Chancery, on the seventh day 
of October, 1885. 

The endowment is £200 per annum, arising from g^ond- 
rents on certain leasehold houses in that part of the town called 
South-Terrace. The present Trustees are the Rev. J. Brewster, 
the Rev. J. A. Park, the Rev. J. U. Dyke, the Rev. R. Tajlfxr, 
(Incumbent of Hartlepool,) Mr. John Cartwright^ and Mr. Wm« 
Manners. The latter is the Treasurer of the ground rents, and 
the Rev. R. Taylor aforesaid, is by iq>ecial appointment of the 
Trustees, Superintend^it of the Schools. 

The schools are now three in number. The two built by Mr. 
Wells are situated on that part of the Prissick property which is 
near the South-Terrace. The oi^ for boys, at present, contama 
about one hundred and fifty scholars; and that for girls, about 
one hundred. The third is for infimts, and is carried on in pre- 
mises in Cleveland-Place, nenr the churdi, rented of the Duke 
of Cleveland — ^who, however, gives the rent for educational pur- 
poses ; and at present it is applied to the support of a Ragged- 
school, situated at the north end of the town. — ^The number of 



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MODERN HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. Ill 

chfldren — ^boys and girls — ^now attending the Infant-school is 
one hundred and twenty. They are admissible at the age of 
four years. 

The instruction in these schools is strictly conformed to the 
tenets of the church of England. The national system of edu- 
cation is adopted^ and restricted to the most useful parts of a 
good English education. The two schools first-mentioned are, 
in the meantime, entirely free; but with each child going to 
the Infant-school the fee of one penny per week is required. 

The benefit from the schools is confined to those residing 
within the township of Hartlepool ; and the scholars must attend 
the Sunday-school and church. A set of rules in accordance 
with the Trust Deed has been adopted by the Trustees, to be 
observed by the parents and children. 

RAOOED SCHOOL. 

This benevolent undertaking was commenced in February 1848. 
The number of poor children to whom it a£fords instruction hat 
since then considerably increased. The number on the books 
for the year ending the thirtieth day of March, 1851, was about 
one hundred, the average attendance being about seventy. 
Of these, thirty-five pay a few pence to the master — ^the re- 
mainder are admitted free, and receive clothing twice-a-year. 
When enabled to do so — through the liberality of the public — 
the managers intend engaging the services of a mistress, to 
teach the girls needle-work, &;c The amount of subscriptions, 
including previous balance, during last year was iE29 15s. 2d. 
Patron, the Bev. the Incumbent of Hartlepool. — Vice-Patrons, 
J.P.Denton; T. BowdL— Treasurer, Edw. Tumbull.— Secre- 
tary,Wm. Todd. — Committee, the Superintendent and Teachers 
of the Sunday-School. — School-master, John Walker. 



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112 MODERN HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 

PRIVATE SEMINARIES. 

Of these the principal is that kept by Mr. (Jeorge Bell, A. M. 
iu Darlington-street, and which was first opened in 1834. In 
it are taught the usual branches of an English, Classical, and 
Nautical education. 

There is also a school, in which similar instruction is conyeyed 
conducted by Mr. J. J. GricFe in the premises of the Indepen- 
dent chapel, Darlington-Place. 

In addition to these there are in the town various other minor 
establishments of an educational character — not to forget two 
or three respectable Seminaries for young ladies. 

It ought, however, to be stated that for the want of a 
school of the higher and more select grade, parents in many 
cases — especially as regards boys — are obliged to have recourse 
to those public establishments at a distance best suited to their 
views. 



[Having thus given all that can be said of Hartlepool as to 
the provision which has been made therein for the growth of 
knowledge and education among its people — in which respect it 
is hoped that its institutions may become multiplied — ^we shall 
proceed to what is proper should be further recorded in this 
" Supplement '' to its History.] 

THE BIBLE SOCIETY. 

A Society in connexion with the '^ British and Foreign Bible 
Society^' was first commenced in Hartlepool in 1823. It was 
in 1843 revived and re-organized. The town not being con- 
sidered sufficiently populous to support a separate association <tf 
its own, it was, when originally formed, made a branch in con- 
nexion with that at Stockton. In this position it continued till 
the present year 1851, — when it was resolved to re-constitute it 
as a distinct and independent establishment under the designa- 
tion of the '' Auxiliary Bible Society of Hartlepool/' 



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MODERN HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 118 

Last year it drcalated one hundred and thirty copies of the 
Bible and Testament, besides remitting i£l5 as a free contribu- 
tion to the Parent Society. 

Secretary, Charles Scotson. — ^Treasurer, John Hunter. — Com- 
mittee, Bev. James Douglas ; Bev. Samuel Lewin ; and Ber. 
J. Kneebon. 

SOCIETY FOB THE PBOPAGATION OF THE 
GOSPEL AMONG THE JEWS. 

An Auxiliary Association in connexion with the *' British So- 
ciety for the propagation of the gospel among the Jews '^ was 
first instituted here in 1827. — ^Being unseetarian in its charac- 
ter it is countenanced and supported by christians of all de- 
nominations. 

It is managed by a committee of Ladies, whose duty it is 
to assist in raising funds for its Support, and to endeavour to 
carry out its designs. 

They remitted last ytsar to the Parent Society the sum of 
£11 Is. Od. 

Secretary, Mrs. Quick — Treasurer, Mrs. Dobing. 

INDIGENT-SICK-SOCIETT. 

This Institution was established in November, 1847. During 
the year ending thirty-first day of December, 1850, eighty-six sick 
persons were visited and relieved. The number remaining on 
the list was eighteen. It is supported by subscriptions. The 
amount of receipts for the year, including previous balance, in- 
terest, ftc., was £63 18s. 

Patroness, Mrs. J. P. Denton. — ^Treasurer, Bev. B. Taylor. — 
Secretary, Mrs. Tumbull. — Committee, Mrs. Taylor; *Mr8. 
Bowell; *Mrs. Barker; *Mrs. Dobing; *Mrs. Bichardson; 
Mrs. Moon; ^Mrs. Johnson; *Miss Johnson; Mrs. Quick; 
♦Miss A. Ord; *Mis8 E. Taylor; ♦Miss Strover ; ♦MissThomp. 
son ; ♦Miss Coverdale ; Miss Bedhead ; Bev. E. Good. 

The luunet mariud thva * are tht Tiiiton. 



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114 MODERN HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 



TOWN MISSION. 

Thi above was eatabliahed in 1848. It embraces in its oper»- 
tion Hartlepool^ Middletoo, and Stranton. From the Bqport 
for the year ending March, 1851, we give the following extract, 
as containing some view of the Agenf s labours. 

*'He has paid during the year 20,527 visits to about 950 families. 
Of these visits, 942 have been to sick, aged, and dying persons, of 
whom 40 have died. In connesion with these visits, religious tracts 
have been lent and kept in regular circulation, and in addition to the 
number lent, 2,609 have been given away. During the year, 230 
meetings have been held for scripture-reading and preaching — ^70 of 
which have been in the open air. Tour Missionary has also a weekly 
service in the Poor-house, and visits the inmates when sick, or at any 
other time when they request it. Some attention has been likewise 
given to sailors — tracts have been distributed amongst them, and other 
means employed in their behalf.*' 

The amount of subscriptions received during the same period, 
for the support of the Mission, was £74 10s. 3d. 

Treasurer, Wm. Hodgson. — Secretary, Henry Taylor. — ^Agent, 
Rev. David Adam. — Sub-lfanaging Committee, Rev. Samuel 
Lewin; Rev. James Douglas; Rev. J. Wilscm; Rev. J. Knee- 
bon; and Rev. T. M. Fitsgerald. 

BENEFIT SOCIETIES. 

THE ST. HILDA LODGE OF ODD-FELLOWS.— This 
Society commenced at Hartlepool on the twenty-eighth day of 
October, 1839. Its objects are the mutual 8i^>port of the mem- 
bers, by providing — ^with an allowance for subsistence — medical 
attendance during sickness, and the payment of a certain sum 
of money on the death of a member or his wife. The pre- 
sent number of members is 145, and the contributions re- 
quired from each is two shillings per mcmth. — From April 1840 



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MODERN HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 116 

to April 1850— which embraces the period of the Cholera yist- 
tation — ^there waa paid for the above purposes, i6219 18s. 4d. 
The similar expenditure during the following year, ending April 
1851, was £119 188. Od. 



THE ANCIENT ORDER OF FORESTERS.— The Court 
of St. Hilda, No. 829^ of this Order, was established here on 
the sixteenth of November, 1839. Its objects are the same^as 
the preceding Institution. The contributions for each member 
is Is. 6d. per month. The number of members connected 
with it is 206. There was defrayed for its necessary pur- 
poses during the year ending fifth of April, 1850, dSlSO 
lis. Od. The outlay for the same period, ending'^ the year 
1851, was £119 6s. lid. — ^when the fund had accumulated 
to £677 lOs. lid. 



ANCIENT ORDER OF MODERN DRUIDS.— The Loyal 
Sincerity Lodge, No. 856, of the Grand Order of Modem 
Druids — formed on the same principles as those of the Societies 
we have mentioned — was first instituted at Hartlepool in 
November, 1848, and commenced its necessary payments in 
May following. Its members now amount to 140 — ^who con- 
tribute a monthly fee of Is. 6d. each. It suffered severely firom 
the Cholera — ^when its funds were entirely consumed. Insol- 
vancy and dissolution seemed inevitable in the first year of its 
existence. This, however, was averted by the admirable conduct 
of its supporters, who, by extra contributions, met all demands 
upon them. Having for the present overcome their difficulties, 
the sum of £181 10s. 9d. was last year defrayed for the 

' stated objects of the association, whilst there is an accumula- 

> ted fund of nearly £100 on hand.'i' 

I 

* Than the itaiement bore giren nothing can mora ftiUy ilhistrate the adnntagt 

cf ioeh Societiet. In those leaaons which affected them what priTation they miial 

I haTe prarented — ^what suffering they most hate soothed — ^how many worthy men, 

I oreroome by sickness and distress, hafe they supported by thb selt-made pfonnoo, 

iBitead of hafing to be dependent on the paupers' pittance, accompanied by its 

I gndging and its stigma! 



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116 MODERN HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 

THE ST. HELEN'S MASONIC LODGE, (No. 774,) of 
Hartlepool, was first constituted in the town on Friday the 
eleventh day of September, 1846. Besides being one of mystic 
rite and ceremony, it need scarcely be said that it is an Institu- 
tion which, while it upholds the practice of general benerolence, 
has special benefits for the members of its own Order. It is the 
only similar society in the place, and holds its meetings periodi- 
cally at the King's Head Hotel. 

The Officers for 1851, are— Otto Trechmann, W. M.— T. B. 
Burdon, S. W.— W. J. Hodgson, J. W.— P. Wilson, P. M.— 
G. Homer, P. M. — J. Loveday, Treasurer — ^T. W. HearoD, 
Secretary — ^E. Covalewsky, S. D. — B. H. Bobinson; J. D.— 
W. Mowbray, J. G.— J. Lundy, Tiler. 

BUILDING SOCIETIES. 

Of these Associations there are at present in the town. — First, 
the '' Hartlepool Building Society,'' established in 1836.— Se- 
cond, the " Hartlepool Equitable,'' commenced in 184S. — ^Third, 
the ''Hartlepool Independent," begun in January, 1851. — Be- 
sides these, the " Leeds Permanent Building Society " hsTe 
a branch in operation — first extended to this locality in August, 
1860. 



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MODERN HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 117 



THE PUBLIC BATHS. 

As has been already mentioned in this " Supplement/' previous 
to the commencement of the public works in 1832^ Hartle- 
pool was a place resorted to by country families — who, for 
recreation and sea-bathing, made it their residence during a few 
months in the summer. — The bustle inseparable from it since 
has, in a great measure, deprived it of that character — to which 
a certain degree of quiet and privacy is indispensable. 

With the view of recovering some of that former benefit to the 
town which may have resulted from such visitors, the above es- 
tablishment was erected, and was first opened to the public in the 
summer of 1850. It contains vapour, warm, shower, and plunge 
baths, with every thing that is requisite for comfort and conveni- 
ence. Besides a large waiting room for those using the baths, 
there is spacious accommodation for lodgers in the building, which 
was designed by a native architect, Mr. Wm. Watt. Situated at 
the south end of the town's moor, it commands an extensive land 
and sea view, with every facility for recreation and exercise. Its 
aspect is beautiful and picturesque, and with the adjacent Light-* 



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118 MODERN HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 

house on the Heugh, together with Cliff-Terrace, imparts to 
that comer of the town in which it is placed an air of res- 
pectability and finish. — ^Without reference to strangersi the 
Baths in question are an acquisition which deserves to be en- 
couraged. 

THE SAYINGS'-BANK. 

This Institution was first established in Hartlepool in November 
1844. It was commenced and organized by a few benevolent 
gentlemen of the town and its vicinity, prompted by the ne- 
cessity for it in a place rapidly rising in population and import- 
ance; the object of such institutions being to encourage haUts 
of prudence and economy in the industrious and working clas- 
ses — ^to whom they afford a convenient, safe, and profitable 
investment for their savings. 

Of these advantages it is to be regretted the people of Hartle- 
pool have not hitherto availed themselves, to the extent they 
might have done, as will be seen from the following particu- 
lars: — 

The population of the town at the Census of the present 
year (1851) amounted to between 9 and 10,000. The amount 
deposited in the Savings'-Bank at the end of 1850 was £2357. 
For the whole united kingdom the average of deposits has 
been at the rate of £1 per man. So that in this propor- 
tion the whole sum for Hartlepool ought to have been at least 
four times that mentioned. 

It may be alleged, as one reason why the sum is not larger, 
that from the comparitively short period the Bank has been in 
existence, the capital has not had sufficient time to accumulate ; 
and as another, that the wealth of the town has not kept pace 
with the increase of its inhabitants. 

However this may be, we think that, adverting to the extent 
of the community, and the ratio of the working classes that it 
contains, the result which we have shevm ought to have been 
more satisfactory. 



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MODERN HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 119 

Stilly there can be no doubt that^ during the seven years the 
establishment has been open, it has in many individual cases 
been productive of benefit. Many have saved by its instru- 
mentality considerable sums^ thereby elevating their condition, 
and placing themselves in a state of greater comfort and inde- 
pendence. It is hoped their example will become more generally 
followed. 

President, Bev. Bobt. Taylor. — Vice-Presidents, Bev. Jas. 
Douglas; Messrs. P. M. Edger ; Geo. Moon; and Edw. Tom* 
buU. — ^Trustees, Bev. S. Lewin ; Bev. Wm. Knight ; Messrs. 
Bobt. E. Hutton ; Thos. Bobson ; Henry Tsykxt ; John Law- 
renson; Jas. Bichardson; Jas. Stephenson; Bobt. Brewis; Jas. 
Teal ; T. B. Burdon ; Bobt. Stephenson, (Hart); 6. Bichardson; 
J. Hodgson; J. Allison; and S. Allison. — ^Treasurer, George 
Quick. — Secretary, C. K. Coulthard. 

Capital with Commissioners £2Z67 9 7 

Interest paid to Depositors last year (1850) 62 16 d 

Deposits above £50 One 

„ 100 One 

„ 50 Eight 

„ 20 Thirty-three 

„ Small Sums Seventy-one 

Bate of Interest allowed jS2 18 4 

Deposits taken firom one shilling per week, to thirty pounds 
in one year. No entrance fee. 

OTHER BANKS IN THE TOWN. 

Thb first Bank established in Hartlepool was a branch of Sir 
Wm. Chayter's in 1833, but which was a few years afterwards 
merged in a branch of the Union Joint Stock Bank, com- 
menced there in 1836, and discontinued in the month of 
December, 1846. 

The present establishments of this kind in the town are the 
following, vis : — 

A branch of that belonging to Messrs. Backhouse and Co. — 
first opened in 1838, and of which the manager in the mean-^ 

XX 



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120 MODERN HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 

time is Mr. Wm. Hodgson. A branch also, of the ''National 
Provincial Bank of England^' — ^first commenced in 1889, and 
of which the present manager is Mr. George Quick. 
The offices of both are situated in the High-street. 

GAS AND WATER WORKS. 

Pbbvious to 1846, Hartlepool was supplied with Qsa from pri- 
vate works, the property of Mr. J. A. West, and which were first 
established in 1836. Till more recently it was very badly sup- 
plied with Water, which was chiefly obtained in carts from 
Stranton, the springs in the town being all brackish, and unfit 
for the most of domestic purposes. 

In the year first-mentioned a Company was formed and ob- 
tained an Act for supplying the town with both these articles. 
The Old Qba Works were purchased under its powers, and the 
undertaking as regarded Gas was immediately carried out; 
but with respect to the Water it was found that the source firom 
which it was to be had was inadequate to the requirements — 
hence this part of the project was not proceeded with. 

To remedy said failure an amended Act was procured in 1849, 
enabling the company to bring the Water from a spring issuing 
from Magnesian Limestone in a quarry near Mill-house at 
Stranton, and where the element is pumped by steam-power into 
reservoirs of sufficient altitude to be forced into any place in the 
entire district.* 

The daily issue of Water there, when the works are in full 
operation, may be said to be about 275,000 gallons, but the 
yield is capable of reaching to upwards of 700,000 gallons daily. 

Of Gas, the consumption is about 6,000,000 cubic feet annu- 
ally. The works at which it is produced having been improved 
and enlarged since purchased, their capacity amounts to the 
manufacture of about 80,000 cubic feet per day.f 

* Bj tliis Act the Company are also privileged to sapply Middkton, Stranton, 
Hartk and Seaton-Garew, with Water. 

t Mr. Orangec^B Beport to the General Board of Health, dated twenty-first daj 
of June, 1S50. 



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MODERN HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOt. 121 



CORN MARKET. 

Thb fonner history of Hartlepool shews that Com there was an 
article of extensive exportation. It is still abundantly grown in 
the neighbourhood, and of a very superior quality ; but, owing 
to an exorbitant toll chargeable on the admission of it into the 
borough, there was no local mart for it. 

Mr. John Orey, an inhabitant, for some years drew attention 
in the town to the advantages that would accrue from a Com 
Market therein. In the year 1841, he made an application to 
the old corporation on the subject, and they agreed to reduce 
their demand from the rate of five pecks per last to half a peck 
per last ; but even this small charge proved an effectual bar to 
the project. 

In the present year, (1851,) Mr. Gh*ey and others having 
revived the question, the new municipal council resolved to abolish 
the impost altogether. A Com Market was consequently es- 
tablished in the place, to be held every Saturday, commencing 
on the twentieth day of September,* and its success has hitherto 
been such as to leave no doubt of its permanency. 

* Since thtt period the sales have been as Mows : — September, twentieth, 296i 
bushels.— Twen^-sefenth, 278.-~Ootober fourth, 297i.--Blc7enth, 821.— Eigh- 
teenth, 456.— Twenty-fifth, 898J.— November first, 491^.— Eighth, 470.— Fif- 
teenth, 560i.— Twenty-second, 41 If .—Twenty-ninth, 521.— December sixth, 478. 
—Thirteenth, 871i.— Twentieth, 810 boshels of wheat, besides 1200 bnshels of 
oats within the same time. 



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122 MODERN HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL 



THE FISHSRIfS. 

Habtlbfoox haa erer been a place noted for ita fishing, whicb 
for many years of its history, prior to its present Shipping epoch, 
constituted an interesting, if not the only branch of its industry. 

The p]:e8ent routine of the fishing there, is to commence with 
the catching of God and Haddock about the beginning of October, 
and continue this till Oood-?riday — in which all the fishermen are 
concerned. From Good-Friday, till about the middle of July, 
part are engaged in Crab, Lobster, or Sole-fishing; whilst the 
others go on prosecuting that before-mentioned, and which they 
call ''Offing,^' using larger boats and going farther out to 
sea. About the latter period the Herring-fishing begins, and 
continues till about the twentieth of September. 

Cured or salt* fish, up to the era alluded to at the commence- 
ment of this subject, formed no inconsiderable portion of the 
piscine staple ; but — as Sir Cuthbert Sharp anticipated — ^this de- 
clined before the growing demand and high prices for fresh 
fish. It continued, however, to some extent till 1833 — ^when, 
with other causes, the influx of labourers for the works then going 
on, conduced to its decrease, as they interfered with the several 
days' exposure in the open ak necessary for the fish daring the 
process of curing. At this time, the trade was very prosperous. 
From fi^rty to fifty cobles were in constant employmenl) — ^dieir 
fruits being sent off to Manchester, and other inland places less 
remote. 

The annual value of the catch now could not be under JS7,500. 
This is exclusive of the Herring-fishing, which at the period in 
question was but trifling, there being no local demand for its 
product. The fishermen therefore sought a market for it at 
north Sunderland, and were seldom at home during the season. 

Notwithstanding of the present great consumption and high 
price of fish, the number of men employed in its catch at 
Hartlepool is found to diminish, many of the youths not 



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MODERN HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 12S 

following the caUing of their fathers. A drain has also been 
occasioned from the original body by the appointment of those 
qualified for the duty to be pilots of the port. 

At present the number of cobles regularly going to sea on 
White-fishing is only twenty-one; and the annual value of the 
take is probably under £3500. The facilities opened out by 
local and other railwap for the transit of fish to the distant 
towns might have been expected to have had the efiiect of in- 
creasing the supply from this port. But this has hitherto been 
the case as regards Herrings only — in which respect it is antici- 
pated the stimulus will continue. The trade iu Turbot has 
however been entirely destroyed by it. For the purchase of 
that fish and Soles^ Smacks adapted for the transport of live- 
fish to the liondon and other markets used regularly to fr^uent 
the bay ; but the " rail '' superseding this mode of conveyance 
thence, the finny favourites we have mentioned are now supplied 
from some other source. A few only are now caught for home 
consumption. 

The Herring-fishingy as has been stated, has enlarged; and 
during the season^ which may be said to last for nine weeksj. there 
are on an average one hundred and fifty men, and fifty cobles or 
other description of vessels, engaged therein. We have no cor- 
rect statistics whereby to estimate the quantity which may be 
actually taken in ooe year ; but, on a moderate calculation, the 
number caught by Hartlepool fishermen alone, will amount to 
3,375,000 — ^to whieb may be added those brought to the place 
from other parts— *say one-fburth of the above — ^making a total 
of 4,218,777 Herrings. 

If the average price may be taken at twenty shillings per 
thousand, the above will give fbr the native fishermen, £8375 ; 
and this added to the former computation as regards White- 
fish will give them £6875, as the gross proceeds of their indus- 
try. The receipt to those parties coming from other places may 
be stated at about £1000. — ^The market is sustained partly l^ 
dealers resident in the town, and partly by speculators from a 
' distance. 



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124 MODERN HI9T0RY OF HARTLEPOOL. 



THE PILOTS. 

FoBMBBLT the number of these at Hartlepool was twenty-four — 
of whom one half had the privilege of piloting veBselB into the 
Tees — but since the increase of local shipping they have grown 
into a numerous and important body — ^having good employment,* 
and who of the community are a well-conducted as well as 
well-conditioned class. 

The present number of pilots of all grades at Hartlepool are 
nxty-seven^t of whom twelve are licensed to conduct vessels 
into the Tees — the rest being confined to the old harbour at 
homC/ and include fifteen assistant pilots, having only what ia 
called acting, or probationary, orders for two years. 

They have been, since 1846, locally governed by Sub-Com- 
missioners, consisting of Messrs. John P. Denton ; 0. Moon ; 
B. £. Hutton; J. Garbutt; Thos. Wilkinson; J. Parkin; 
Thomas Sharer; Thomas Sanderson; and Lieut. Strover, B. 
N. — the superior Board being that of the Trinity-Houae 
Newcastle. 

The present Pilot Master is Mr. Bobert Hunter. 

THE LIFE BOATS. 

Of these there are two at present established at Hartlepool, 
viz. : — One at the old pier, suspended from Crane-davits for imme- 
diate readiness on emergencies at the port — and another stationed 
two miles north of the place, close to the sands, for casualitiea 
in that direction, and where a house for her protection has just 
been provided. 

* Tho preaent ntM diirged for plotage into HarOepool an, of the Twad't 
d^th in the water, one dulling and thieepenoe per loot in summer, and one ahiOiiig 
and aiipeDee per foot in winter. 

t In addition to theae there are living at Seaton five, and at Redcar sevea, — 
making in all, seventy-nine pilots, privileged for the Old Harboor of HaitiepooL , 



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MODERN HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 125 

The boats are supported by volontary eontributions^ payable 
by vessels on clearing at the Custom-House ;* and have been 
managed by a local committee since 1847, instead of being, as 
previously, included in the management of the ''Tees Bay Life 
Boat Society/' 

In connexion with the Life Boats is also Carte's Rocket- 
apparatus for saving life — ^in which it has been in several cases 
instrumental — particularly in that of the crew of the ''Agenoria,'' 
of South Shields, at the north part of the town, in December, 
1846 — and in that of the crew of the " Crocus,'' of Sunderland, 
on the north sands, in December, 1847. 

The Life Boats have also been of great efficacy in late years 
for the same purpose. The principal instances of distinction 
are the cases of the crews of the schooner '' John Innes," of 
Aberdeen, and the steamer '' Ardincq>le," of Leith, in October, 
1846, and of the schooner " Cato," of Aberdeen, in 1849, 

The principal captain, or superintendent of the Boats, is Mr. 
Robert Hunter. They are always in efficient order, and continue, 
as formerly, to be manned by the pilots when required. 

The Rockets and Apparatus are in charge of Lieut. Strover, 
R. N., and of Mr. Mossman, Haven Master to the Commis- 
sioners of the Pier and Fort. 

THE POST OFFICE. 

At one time the Post Office at Hartlepool was a branch of that 
at Stockton; but about five years ago it was constituted a separ- 
ate establishment. It is situate in St. Mary's-Street, and is 
in the charge of Mrs. Wilkinson. — There are two arrivals and 
three despatches of Letters in the day. 



* Hie nmpU nnoe 1S47, have been ai followt:— 1848, £100 18s. Sd.,— 1849, 
£88 Oi. Od.,— 1850, £78 ISs. lid.,— to thirtietii September, 1851, £66 5t. Od.— 
Hie expenditure during the whole of these years has been £186 lOs., exdmifB of 
the present claims against the fimd, amounting to abovt £80, for new boat-home, 
and other pirpoaes. 



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126 MODERN HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 



INLAND REVENUE 

The Office for thu at present, is in the King's Head Hotel. The present Officer 
stationed at Hartlepool, is Mr. James Learj. 

STAMP OFFICE. 

An Office for the sale of Stamps has been established in the town Ibr many jeHi ; 
it is subordinate to the Office at Durham ; the present Sab-Distributor is tiie 
pobliaher hereof. 

COLLIERIES SHIPPING AT HARTLEPOOL. 

CASSOP COAL COMPANY.— Goals.— Cassop Hartlepool Wallsend, St Cntfaberfs 

Wallsend.— Fitter, William Laidler, Town Wall. 
CASTLE EDEN COAL COMPANY.— Coals.— Castle Eden Wallsend, HeMtden 

Wsllsend, Holam Wallsend, Hartlepool West Hartley Steam.— Fitter, Jamea 

T. Richardson, Town Wall 
EAST HBTTON COAL COMPANY.— Coals.— Kdloe Wsllsend, East Hettcm 

Wallsend.— Fitter, William Henij Marshall, Dock Offices. 
HASWELL COAL COMPANY.— Coals.— Haswell Wallsend, Shotton WaHssBd, 

Shotton Main, Plnmmer's Wsllsend, Easington Wallsend.— Fitter, Chailea 

Scotson, Town Wall 
RODIUDGE COAL COMPANY.— Coals.— Rodridge Wallsend, Harrqr Wykm 

Wallsend, and Abbey Wallsend.— Fitter, Thomas Matthewson, Town Wafl. 
SOUTH HETTON COAL COMPANY.— Coals.— Braddyll's Hetton Walbend, 

Kichmnnd Wallsend.— Fitter, William Henry Marshall, Dock Offices. 
THORNLEY COAL COMPANY.— Coals.— Hartlepool Wallsend, Lodworfli Walls. 

end, Thomley Wallsend, Harvey Wallsend, Ludworth Steam. — Fitter, JonaUMa 

Garbtttt, Dock Offices. 
TRIMDON ORANGE COAL COMPANY.— Coals.^Soath Hartlepool WalU. 

end.— Fitter, William Heniy Marshall. 
WEST BELMONT COAL COMPANY.— Coals.— West Bdmont Wsllsend.— 

Fitter, W. B. Johnson, Town WslL 
WEST CORNFORTH COAL COMPANY.— Coals.— West Comforth WaDsaad. 

Fox's Wallsend, ThrisUington Hartley Steam.— Fitters, C. H. Mason and Co. 
WINGATE GRANGE COAL COMPANY.— Coals.— Caradoc WaUaoid, Howdoi 

Wallsend.— Fitter, John Gcddes, Town Wall 

MERCHANTS, BROKERS, ETC. 

BddEow and Vanghan; Boldemann, Borries and Co.; Christiansen Sdder aoad 
Co. ; Shnbranch, J. A. ; Hall and Co. ; Groves, and Co. ; Hudson Brotkna ; 
Hudson, John, and Co. ; Haggle, Brothers; Haggle, Robert Hood, and Co. ; Haoia, 
Anthony, and Co. ; Hansen, P., and Son; Johnson, W. B. ; Jobson, £. S., and Cck; 
Linberg and Homnng; Lee and Graham; Moon, George; Mason, C. H., and Co.; 
Matthewson, Thomas ; Procter, T. H. ; Richardson, James T. ; Romyn and Co. ; 
Stephenson, James ; Trechmann, Otto ; M'Dougal, Custom-Hoose Brolrar. 



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MODERN HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 127 



PORT CHARGES. 

HARTLEPOOL DOCK AND RAttWAY COMPANY'S DUES.— Veasdi load^ 
ing or discharging a cargo, lid. per register ton. Ditto not loading or diadiaig- 
ing, Id. 

BALLAST discharging, 9d. per ton. 

DUES OP THE COMMISSIONERS OF THE PIER AND PORT.— Vessels 
loading or discharging a cargo, Id. per regbter ton. Ditto not loading or dis- 
charging, id. 
' CORPORATION DUES.— Vessels loading or disdiarging a Cargo. Is. id. each 

Vessel Ditto not loading or discharging, Sd. 

USE OF STEAM-BOATS,— Is. per keel 
' PHiOTAOE.- Vide note to page 124. 

VICE-CONSULS. 

' France Jonathan Garbntt 

' Netherlands, Hanover, Meddenberg, and Hanse Towns Romyn and Co. 

Pmssia Christiansen, Schier, and Co. 

' Russia, Sweden, and Norway John Hudson and Co. 

Spain, BraxUs, and Sicily E. S. Jobsonand Co. 

I Denmark John Oeddes. 

Portugal R.E. Hutton. 

INSURANCE OFFICES. 

Mutual Bfarine Insurance Association R. E. Hutton, Secretary. 

North Star do. J.N.Eden, do. 

Mutual Marine Freight do. John Fowls, do. 

MANUFACTORIES. 

IRON WORKS.— These Works were built in 1889 by the "Hartlepool Iron 
Company." The present occupants are Messrs. Richardson — ^who first entered 
upon them in 1847. Since then, two hundred Locomotive, Stationary, Pumping, 
Marine, and other Engines, have been built on the premises, in connection 
with the works at Castle-Eden, belonging to the same Co-partnery. — The annual 
consumption of pig-iron has been about 8000 tons. The number of hands em- 
ployed is three hundred, men and boys. 

A ROMAN CEMENT, Lamp Black, and Whitening ManufMtoty, is carried on at 
the Warren by Mr. Ralph Richardson ; where likewise 

A CHAIN MANUFACTORY, with Forge, isoondueted by Nicholas Hunter & Co. 

NOTARIES. 

Peter Barkor | A. W. Dobing 

Thomas Bdk | E. M. Tumbull 

Extnordiiiai^CommisBioBerofthe Hi^ Court of Chancery in Ireland ...Thos. Belk. 

YT 



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128 MOOBBN HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 

OFFICERS, AGENTS, ETC. 

Hifvn Master W. O. 

Harbour and Pilot Master Robert Hants. 

BeooTerofBockDaea IHDiam Bmns. 

Lloyd's Agent and Beceiver of Dnntsof Admiraltj J. N. Sdem. 

Snrrejor for the Mutual Insurance Policy William Garrett 

Iiloyd's Sureyor BaJ^ HodfOB. 

Agent to the Shipwrecked Fishermen and Mariner's Boyal 

Benefolent Society TlieRer. S. Lewis. 

CENSUS OF 1851. 

BOROUGH OF HARTLEPOOL. 

HOUSES. 

Inhabited U53 

Uninhabited 28 

Boiling 26 

PEBSONS. 

Kale 4585 

Fevafe 46W 

Tetal 9377 



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I 
1 

■E 

u 



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MODEBN HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 129 

WEST HARTLEPOOL 

AND 

THE WEST HARBOUR AND DOCKS. 

[Allied as the aboye are with the ancient borough and port, 
we should ccmsider our work incomplete without an account of 
them.] 

The prominent position into which tiie port of Hartlepool was 
brought by the success attending the tidal harbour and dock, 
constructed by the Hartlepool dock and railway company, in- 
duced a project in 1838 for the extension of the Clarence rail- 
way — ^the second oldest railway in the kingdom — for the purpose 
of enabling the coal and minerals produced in the southern and 
south-western districts of the county of Durham to be also 
shipped at HartlepooL 

Hence a short line of eight miles from the Clarence railway, 
in the parish of Billingham was concluded upon, and called 
''The Stockton and Hartlepool Bailway/' It was opened in 
1841 ; and arrangements were made for the coal and minerals 
borne tiiereon, from the districts alluded to, being shipped, for 
three years, in the harbour and dock previously mentioned. 

On the expiration of that period, another harbour and dock 
were projected for the shipment of the coal and minerals from 
the Stockton and Hartlepool railway. The site selected for 
these was at the parliamentary terminus of said line, on the 
west of the bay of Hartlepool, about half a mile to the south 
of the Commissioners' Old Harbour, and at the southern ex- 
tremity of " The Slake.'' 

An Act of parliament was obtained by a company in 1844 
for this harbour and dock ; and the undertaking is called " The 
Hartlepool West Harbour and Docks." The works, at first, 
consisted of a harbour of thirteen acres, enclosed by two bold 
stone piers from the west shore of the bay, and a dock of eight 



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180 



MODERN HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 



acm in the meadows behind, or west of the harbour. Tbej 
were conuneneed in the year 1845, and were opened to Urn 
pnblic in June, 1847. 

The following have been the entries of ships and ahipmenlB 
of ooal and eoke from the opening of the West Harboor, sod 
its first dock, in June 1847, to the thirtieth of Jnn^ 1851. 



?or the tint TMreoding 80th June, 1848 

Moond „ „ 1849 

third „ „ 1860 

fourth „ „ 1851 
Totals in the first four years 



Ships to load 
and for 
Befage. 


Coal and Coke 
Shaped in the 
same pemd. 


1020 


Tons. 
182,641 


1676 


228,0S8 


8600 


525,597 


8787 


678,876 



10,088 



1,466,147 



The shipping and coal shipments have increased so mnch al- 
ready there as to require additional Harbour and Dock aooom- 
modation. Consequently the original Harbour has been enlarged 
to the extent of forty-four acres altogether ; and a second Bode of 
thirteen acres is on the point of completion, with a large 
separate entrance lock, sixty feet wide, from the Harbour, and 
designed for receiving steam-ships of a large class. It is calca- 
lated that five hundred sail can be received and accommodated in 
the West Harbour and its two Docks at onetime; and pro- 
vision is made for proceeding, at any time, with two more do(^ 
as the trade may require them. 

Yessek lie afloat, and are loaded with great ease and despatdi 
at the present Dock; and large ships drawing eighteen feet of 
water, have been sent safely to sea from it with coal cargoes 
to the East and West Indies, the Mediterranean, Baltic, Han- 
seatic, French, and other foreign ports. 

The course into the West Harbour, is N. W. J N. ; and k, 
therefore, particularly £svourable in all easterly and north-eaatesly 
gales. 

The West Harbour and Dock have already been the means of 



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MODERN HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 181 

affording refnge to many ships in storms. Two of the many 
storms which have occurred may be mentioned : — One, a severe 
gale at north-east, on the thirtieth day of September, 1849, when 
several vessels entered the Harbour, under canvass, with perfect 
ease, and were saved ; while seventeen ships, which did not at- 
tempt it, were driven on shore. The other, a very severe gale at 
south-east, on the thirtieth day of March, 1850, when ninety- 
three vessels safely entered the Harbour in two tides, in one of 
which — during the heaviest of the gale^ — fifty-five ships took 
the Harbour in forty-five minutes. 

A line of railway from Leeds, is in the coturse of construction, 
and intended to be completed early in the year 1852. It will 
join the Stockton and Hartlepool railway — and thus the town 
of Leeds, and the West Biding of Yorkshire, with Manchester 
and Lancashire generally, will be connected with the West 
Harbour and Docks. An extensive passenger, merchandise, and 
cattle traffic is calculated to accrue from this communication ; 
and consequently, that still further dock accommodation will be 
required, provision has been made, as already mentioned, for 
two more docks, communicating from the second dock. 

The esLtensive and prosperous works of the Harbour and Docks 
in question have given rise to a considerable town called ''West 
HartlepooV which is rapidly springing up. The streets and 
roads are open and spacious — the houses and shops are generally 
neat and commodious — ^and every consideration is given to 
cleanliness, and the health of the inhabitants, by the adoption 
of one uniform and effective system of sewerage and drainage 
throughout the whole of the new town. 

West Hartlepool, in fact, is evidently progressing, and des- 
tined to be a town and port of considerable extent and im- 
portance. 

WESLEYAN CHAPEL 
This erection was opened on the eighth day of June, 1861, by 
that section of the Wesleyan body called the Reformers. It i| 
situated in Church-street, and will accommodate about five 
hundred people. 



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132 



MODERN HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 



WEST HARTLEPOOL MECHANICS' mSTITUTE. 

This uaefiil Society was first set a-going in October, 1849. Its 
members at present, amomit to seventy-six; and the library 
contains about four hundred and fifty volumes. It probably 
will be merged in the Athensum now building, and of which 
we follow with an account : — 

Patrons to the Institate, 

REV. R. WEBSTER, A. M., Kelloe ; R. W. JACKSON, 

Greathah Hall. 

President, 
SAMUEL BASTOW, West Hartlepool. 

Vice-Presidents, 

HENRT B. ROBSON; JACOB ALHSON. 

Treasurer, 

INGRAM ESDALE GROVES. 

librarian, 
JOHN ALDERSON. 

Secretary, 
HARRISON BURNHAM. 
Conunittee, 

Paul Bastow George Newbiggin 

Thomas Chapelow Riton Oldam 

John Fawcus Thomas Rae 

Joseph Gibson William Ramsey 

John Joss Samuel Russell 

Robert LongstaiT John G. Slater 

Robinson Murray John Williamson 



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MODERN HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 133 



ATHENJIUM. 

This building was commenced in October, 1851, and is expected 
to be finished in the summer of 1852. 

It stands on a prominent part of the new town, having a 
frontage of serenty-four feet in Lynn-street, and of fifty-one feet 
in Charles-street. The style is Italian. 

It comprises a School-room, Kitchen, Laboratory, and Store- 
room on the basement floor,-*« News-room, Library, two Class- 
rooms, and two Rooms for house-keeper on the ground floor, — 
and on the uf^^er floor a Lecture-room, seventy feet by thirty- 
five feet, with coned ceiling, space for Gkllery, and ventilating 
arrangements. On the latter floor there is also a Retiring-room, 
with Offices connected. 

The entire cost of the building, when finished, will be about 
iBllOO, exclusive of the site and stone materials, which were 
eontributed by the dock company, through Ralph Ward Jackson, 
Esq., — who also gave £100 as hi^ private subscription. En- 
couraged by this munificence, the ether subscriptions for the 



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184 MODERN HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 

hbric were set on foot by a few fpirited individaals in the rinBg 
town, whose appeal has in this respect been Uberally responded 
to--^e farmers in the neighbonrhood, farther, rendering use- 
ful service in the gift of cartage and labour to the 1lnde^ 
taking. 

The edifice was designed by Mr. H. B. Eobson, Land-sgent to 
the dock company, — ^by whom also the work is oondnctedi 
assisted by his fellow-servants. 

SEMIlfARIE:S. 

Fob young ladies — ^the following parties have establishments st 
West Hartlepool: — Miss Brunton, the Misses Curry, Hiss 
Fennel, Mrs. Mansell, and Mrs. McLean. 

For boys — ^Mr. John Alderson, Mr. P. Kirkup, Mr. ]SL Bur- 
nett, and Mr. A. Oraham. 

POST OFFICE. 

This is situated at West Hartlepool in the Dock Hotd, snd is 
in charge of Mr. Simpson. There is one arrival, and one de- 
spatch, daily. 

IRON-FOUNDRY. 

At West Hartlepool there is an establishment of this deseripti(m 
carried on by Messrs. Bastow, Brothers, and doing considersUe 
business. 

PILOTS. 

The number of these at the West Harbour and Docks is thirty- 
two. They have been chiefly taken firom the HartlqKxl 
fishermen. Like the Pibts at Hartlepool they are under the 
jurisdiction of the Trinity-House Newcastle. The Pilot-Master 
is Mr. John Muers. 

LIFE BOAT. 
The&b has been a Life Boat stationed at the West Harbour 
and Dock since 1847. She is maintained by the dock compsny 
as required by their Act; and has in several instances been 



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IS2 MODERN HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 186 

[^ serrioeable in saving life in the bay — the last being in September 

^jE of the present year, when she rescued from the wreck of that 

-.2.' vessel the crew of the " Rosseau/* of Dundee, who would other- 

^; wise have been drowned. 

PORT CHARGES. 

}^i WEST HARTLEPOOL DOCK DUBS.—VesseU loading or discharging a cargo, 

lid. per regiater ton. Ditto not loading or diacharging, Id. 
rH! BALLAST discharging, 6d. per ton. 

DUES OF THE COMMISSIONERS OF THE PIER AITO PORT.— Veaaala 
loading or discharging a cargo, Id. per register ton. Ditto not loading or dis- 
charging, id. 

STEAM BOATS, Is. per keel 
PILOTAGE, Is. 8d. per foot in snmmer ; Is. 6d. in winter. 

^* NOTARY. 

^ * Edward Tornbull, Brewer's Terrace. 

OFFICERS, AGENTS, ETC. 

i:?' Harbonr Matter J. Moirt. 

Pilot Master do. 

COALS, COAL FITTERS, ETC. 

GEORGE LOCKWOOD.— West Hartlepool Wallsend, Heni^Hall WaDsend, Ten- 

nanf s Wallsend, West Hetton Wallsend, South Kelloe Wallsend, W«t KeDoe 

\i Wallsend, Denison's Wallsend, Benson's Wallsend, Bentley's Wallsend, ETelyn's 

Wallsend, Qoarrington Main, West Hartlepool Hartley Steam, Chilton Hartley 

1,' Steam. 

M. PEARSE k Co .~Whitworth Wallsend, Coondon Wallsend. 

GEORGE NEWBIGGIN.— Honwick Wallsend, Bjers Green Wallsend, Newfield 

Wallsend. 
STRAKERS AND LOVE.— Branoepeth and Willington Coals. 
: I. E. GROVES.— Bowdon Qosc Coal Company.— Bowdon Oose Wallsend. 

^* VOLLIAM TURNBULL.— Leasingthome, Baokhoose Wallsend. 

^ SHIP BROKERS. 

Armstrong and Co.; Buddicomaad Co.; Pawcns, Robert; Hudson, Brothers; 
Mellanby, Joseph ; Matthewson, Thomas ; Pearse, M., and Co. 

ROPTJLATION. 
The number of inhmbitants now eontained in what may properly 
be called West Hartlepool cannot precisely be ascertained^ bat 
as to Stranton— -of which West Hartlepool forms a considerable 
part — ^the particolars from the last Census are as foUoWy vis. :— 

Males 2006 

Females 1703 

Total 8709 

22 



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136 MOliERN HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 



HART CHURCH. 

Bbpore concludisg our labours we feel called upon to add a few 
particulars respecting the above fabric^ situated as it is in a place 
so closely connected with Hartlepool — that of Hart being its 
Mother-church-— on which account also^ Sir Cuthbert Sharp 
deemed that the village was entitled to a distinct notice at his 
hands. 

As stated by Sir Cuthbert^ the Church is dedicated to St 
Mary Magdalene. It has a chancel — ^which is divided from the 
nave by a large circular arch^ and has a spacious window to the 
east, with a smaller one on each side. — ^The nave has two ntk- 
aislei*— that to the north is formed by one short odunin, sup- 
porting circular arehes^ and is lighted by two side^windowi, 
and one to the east. The south aisle has three small octagoasl 
pillars supporting obtusely pointed arches^ with two side-windowii 
and one to the east under pointed arches* 

The tower is low. On the inner wall of the entrance-porch, 



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MODERN HISTOBY OF HARTLEPOOL. 137 

are seen a number of grotesque heads. At the south end 
is placed a curious antique font. In the interior, on the south 
wall of the chancel, is a highly ornamented marble tablet, 
erected to perpetuate the memory of such of the Ellerker family 
as died at Hart. Beneath, and in front of the altar-table, are 
sereral inscriptions to other members of the same family. In 
the south aisle is a mural monument, erected by John Sourfield, of 
Stockton-upon-Tees, in gratitude to the memory of three worthy 
ancestors, and a beloved wife, whose remains are here deposited, 
▼is.: — John Scurfield, his grandfather — George and Johanna 
Scurfidd, his father and mother — and Jane, his wife^-the latter 
of whom died on the third day of November, 1766, aged forty- 
two years. The said John Scurfield died on the twelfth day of 
October, 1780, aged seventy years. 

This church is said to be one of the oldest in the county of 
Durham, and has been much improved within the last few years. 
It has been re-pewed, and the arches have been renovated, like 
those of the Hartlepool church, by an abrasion of the white- 
wash. The Church-yard has been drained, and partly planted 
with shrubs — also walled round. 

The parish of Hart is bounded on the north and north-west 
by Monk Hesleden pariah, on the south-west by Elwick Hall, 
on the south by Stranton, and on the east by the sea. It con- 
tains six townships, and one parochial chapelry, vif. :*— First, 
Hart, with Hartlepool chapelry; second, Nesbitt; third, Thorp- 
Bulmer; fourth, Throston; fifth Elwick; and, sixth, Dalton 
Percy. 

Adjoining to the Church-yard, on the south-west, is the 
Manor-House, (formerly the residence of the Ellerker family,) 
now occupied by Mr. Robert Stephenson ; and a little further to 
the west, are the renudns of an ancient building, apparently 
monastic, in which, according to local tradition, the celebrated 
Robert Bruce was born. It is now partly occupied as farm 
offices. The Vicarage, which is a sh(Hrt distance west of the 



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188 MODERN HISTORY OF HARTLEPOOL. 

latter place, is a neat and oommodioos residence; and baa bees 
enlarged and much improved of late years. 

The Olebe consists of about seventy-two acres; and tbe View 
is entitled to the tithes of certain farms, commonly called ^llie 
three Thorps/' The present vicar, as well as several of bis 
predecessors, have occasionally claimed the tithes of Hardepool; 
but, in consideration of the poverty of that benefice, they have 
not persevered further than tike assertion of their undi^mted 
daim.* 

Frederick Acdom Milbank, (grandson to the late Duke 
of Cleveland,) is now Lord of the Manor of Hart. — ^ Hart 
Lordship " contains 4166 acres. 

Vicars of Hart continued from Sir Cuthbert b^harp's History, 
page 181, vijB. : — 

£dward Moises, A. M., 1811. 

William Gorst Harrison, 1846 

Besident Curates bet?reen the above periodsi via. : — 

George Metcalfe. 

Bobert Tktylor, (now Perpetual Curate of St. Hilda's Chudi, 
HartlepooL) 

W. G. Harrison, (the present Vicar.) 

* For terenl of these paiticiilan respecting Hart Gbnrcli and Vicarage* we ace 
indditedto a work pnUiahed Ij Madoeniie and Boot, Newcastle-i^Mi^iyiae^ is 
18S4. Eor the Illnstration, aa well as for many others in this woik, we ase wader 
obligation to Mr. H. T. Bobson, of HartlepooL 



THE END. 



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INDEX TO MODERN HISTORY. 



Act for the Docks racdTed Royal ABaent, Ist Jime, 1882 

Agents, Officers, &c 

Aneient Buying Ground in Wdl's Field, Sepnldiral Stones foind 

Banks ... 

Baths 

Baptist Chapel ... 

Benefit Societies 

Bethel ... 

Bible Society 

Board of Health 

Bridges between Tide-Haihonr and Slake. — ^Appendix 

Brokers, Merchants, frc. 

Bnflding Societies 

Byers Green branch opened foor or fire years before oompletion 

Census of 1861 

Charter. — ^Appendix 

Coal Drops. — ^Appendix 

Collieries ShippiI^s at Hartlepool 

Coal at Hartlepool 

Coast Goard 

Com Market (established 1851) 

Corporaticm Property 

lit of Mayors 1817 to 1884 

in Abeyance 

Public Meeting to restore opimon of Sir Wm. EoQett 

Restored — Disappointment of Pnblic 

— — — — ^— Legal proceedings to Establish Rights ... 

Deiire to be placed under Mmridpal Act 

List of Mayors, 1841 to 1861 

Council Elected under ProTisions of Municipal Act 

Harbour Dues chargable by ... 

Crook's P^ School 

Ciistom-House 

— — Superior Officers remored to Stockton 

PnTilege increased in 1886 ... 

Sub>Collector and Sub-Comptroller appointed in 1844 

■ Prospects from Leeds Northern Railway 
^— ^— Statement of Vessels arriTed and cleared 
^-^^— Statement as to Rerenue and Commerce 
Dock Company Act obtained... 

Pirst Meeting 

— — — ^— ^— Officers 

— — ^-^— Extent of lands for Docks ... 

Calls on Original Shares 

Difficulties in raising loans ... 

Opened their Docks, 1886 

Dues chargeable by 



128 

2S-S1 

119 

117 

100 

114 

101 

112 

78 

xxix 

128 

118 

22-28 

128 



128 

21-22 

67 

121 

24-26 
68 

68-60 
69 
70 

71-72 

72-74 
75 
76 
127 
85 
61 
ib. 
62 
ib. 
64 
65 

66-66 
6 
12 
ib. 
ib. 
16 

17-18 

18 

127 



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PAGL 

DodE, onnpletioii of ... ... ... ... ... 40 

Dockg, extent and cost of ... ... ... ... ... 42-43 

— workmg capabiHtiet of ... ... ... ... 4S 

Ekmore Coal Shij^ at Sunderland initetd of Hartlepool ... ... S 

Yfocrj power to oonstmct, and application of Sniplos by Commiasionera 65 

Fiahenea, inoreaaed demand of freah fiah, and conaeqnent decline of trade in 

aaltfiah... ... ... ... ... ... 12S 

^Decline of Wliite-fiahing, and inoeaae of Hetring-fiahing ... 12S 

Annual produce of ... ... ... ... ... ih. 

Pdrestera, Ancient Order of ... ... ... ... ... US 

Free Maaon'a Lodge ... ... ... ... ... 110 

Freemen's Lands and Haiboor Doea Aotk 1861.— Appendix ... ... xir. 

Gas and Water Works ... ... ... ... 120 

Hailxmr Old, its state in 1882 ... ... ... ... ... 9 

HartChnrch ... ... ... ... ... ... lM-«7 

^caraof ... ... ... ... ... 188 

Hartlepool, state of, in 1882 ... ... ... ... 8-tt 

Since 1882, extended* not improred ... ... ... 8j^24 

Made a separate port ... ... ... ... t% 

Hetton Coal Company, their project ... ... ... ... 4 

Holy Trinity Church ... ... ... ... ... 90-91 

Hutchinson, the Historian's reference to the decline of Hartlepool ... 4 

Independent Chapel ... ... ... ... ... 98 

Indigent-Sick-Society ... ... ... ... ... ... 118 

Inland Revenue ... ... ... ... ... ... 126 

Insurance Offlcea ... ... ... ... ... ... 127 

life Boats ... ... ... ... ... ... 124 

Light-House on the Heugh ... ... ... ... ... 44-60 

Machine for Discharging Ballast. — ^Appendix ... ... ... xxx 

Mating, Captain, his project for a Breakwater ... ... ... 8 

Masonic Lodge (The St. Helen's, No. 774) ... ... ... II5 

Manufactoriea ... ... ... ... ... ... 127 

MayoI^ 1817 to 1884 68 

1841 to 1861 ... 76 

Mechanics' Institute ... ... ... ... ... 106 

Merchants, Brokers, &0. ... ... ... ... ... 126 

Blilne, James— Dock Engineer ... ... ... ... 12 

Modem Druids, Ancient Order of ... ... ... ... 116 

Mowbray Arthur — ^his Scheme for Shipping Coal at Hartlepool ... 4 

MunidpslAct — ^Application of ... ... ... ... ... 76 

North Gate, remom of, by Boad Surveyors ... ... ... ft4-3S 

Notaries ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 127 

Oddl^ows— St. Hilda's Lodge of ... ... ... ... 114 

Officers, Agents, &c. ... ... ... ... ... ... 12S 

Pier and Port— State of ... ... ... ... ... 10-12 

Traffic and Revenue ... ... ... ... lO-ll 

Pier and Port Commissioners Act obtained 1818, amended 1882 ... 36 

Powers to borrow money ... ... ib. 

— Money lent to, on Security of two Coal 

Companies ... ... ... 87 

Construction of Jetty .. ... 38-89 

— ^-^— ^-— — ^^-^— Act obtained, with augmented powers to 

borrow ... ... 89 

Act for New Constitution iu 1846 . . . 43-44 

Dues chargeable by ... ... 127 

124 

6 



paots 

Pocock, Sir George 



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PAOI. 

Port Charges ... ... ... ... ... ... 127 

Post Office ... ... ... ... ... ... 126 

Presbyterian Chiuiel ... ... ... ... ... ... 96 

Primitive Methomst Chapel ... ... ... ... 95 

Priaaick Schools ... ... ... ... ... .. 110 

Private Seminaries ... ... ... ... ... 112 

RaggedSchool ... ... ... .., ... ... Ill 

Saving' Bank ... ... ... ... ... ... 118 

Shi|^nng Companies ... ... ... ... ... 56 

ShipBnilding ... .. ... ... ... ... 56-67 

Owners, registered ... ... ... ... ... 68-60 

Slnice Aprons fialed. Sluicing suspended, Channel choked ... ... 19 

Smith's Charity, misapplication ... ... ... ... 78 

New Scheme, Corporation Trustees ... ... ... 79 

Amended Scheme for Electing Trustees ... ... 80 

Building Scheme ... ... ... ... 80-84 

Present and prospective Rental ... ... ... 88 

Trustees and Officers for 1851-2 ... ... 84 

South Durham Railway, defeated in Lords second reading by interested parties 20-21 

Society for propagation of the Gospel amongst the Jews ... ... 118 

Stamp Office ... ... ... .... ... ... 126 

Stockton and Hartlepool Railway Company, agreement with ... ... 89-40 

— ^^— ^— — ^ Disappointment of traffic thereby ... ... 40 

Docks in connexion therewith. Act obtained, 1844 41 

St. Helen's Chanel, rains of diaoovered ... ... ... 82-84 

St Hada Churdi ... ... ... ... ... ... 86-88 

P arsonage House and Bevame .. . ... ... 88-89 

St. Mary's, Catholic Church 102 

Tide Table, PerpetuaL — ^Appendix ... ... ... ... xxxL 

Town Mission ... ... ... ... ... ... 114 

United Presbyterian Chapel ... ... ... ... 96 

Vice-Consuls ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 126 

Wealeyan Methodist Chapel ... ... ... ... 92 

Reformers ... ... ... ... ... ... 101 

^Association ... ... ... ... ib. 

West Hartlepool Docks and Traffic ... ... ... ... 180 

NewTown ... ... ... ... 181 

^-^— ^— ^ Wealeyan Chapel ... ... ... ... ib. 

— ^— — — Mechanics' Institute ... ... ... 182 

— — Athemeum ... ... ... ... ... 188 

— ■^— ^— Seminaries ... ... ... ... 184 

Post Office ... ... ... ... ... ib. 

-^-^— ^— IronEonndry ... ... ... ... ib. 

PUots ... ... ... ... ... ib. 

LifeBoat ... ... ... ... ... ib. 

PortOiaigea ... ... ... ... ... 185 

— ^-^— Notary ... ... ... „, ... ib. 

— — Officers, Agents, etc. ... ... ... ... ib. 

Coals, Coal Ktters, etc. ... ... ... ib. 

^— Ship Brokers ... ... ... ... ... ib. 

— — Population ... ... ... ... ib. 



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ERRATA. 

Owing to the hurry occasioned by a desire that the work should ap- 
pear at the intended time, several errors have occnrred, espedally in 
the "Supplement;" for which, the Publisher craves the indnlgenee 
of the reader. Those which have immediately presented themselves 
are here pointed out >— 

P&ge 8, line 11, ddete oomma after Malirng, 

— 7, ^ 8, from bottom, for were diverted read wtu Averted, 

— 9, — 8, from ditto, (or claeeet read orders. 

— 10, — 7, from top, delete to before mmch, 

— 10, — 10 from ditto, for trust were read trust was. 

— 14, — 5, from bottom, tia place wsAplan, 

— 17, — 4, from ditto, for obtain iu from private sources read ohimn UJivm 

private sources. 

— 18, — 9, from top, for apprehensioiu read apprehension. 

— 25, — 20, for mtA/ read Mora. 

— 48, — 2, for raSwoff read raUways. 

— 61, — 4, tor /acuities nsA facilities. 

— 56, — 4, from bottom, 9Sber public read notice. 

— 60, — 10, fifom top, for 22,908^ read 28,119. 

— 64, — 12, attaforei^ plenty sabstitate semicoloii for period. 

— 67, — in note to this page read Victoria before dock. 

— 79, — 8, for Of above read as we have mentioned. 

— 86, — 18, for 1888 read 1848. 

— 86, — 27, read James Boucher and the following namei imme&lely vBdv 

The Eon. 

— 90, — 15, for norih-east read northern. 

— 91, — 7« after but ^ace a oonmia. 

— 96, — 4, from bottom, for iiMlMtrtf read difoCMNv. 

— 96, — 11, iultaidotwiih a school-room tmAto which there wilHamsakmoi' 

room. 
— 120, — 1, in note aeoond read Banker initead of Qramger. 

APPENDIX. 
Page zxz, bottom line, after discharged place a comma. 



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APPENDIX. 



CHARTER OF 1850 

Victoria by tlie grace of God of the United Kingdom of Great 
Britain and Ireland, Queen defender of the Faith, to all to whom these 
presents shall come greeting, whereas, by our letters patent, nnder onr 
great seal of England, bearing date at Westminster, the twenty-fonrth 
day of December, in the fifth year of onr reign, after reciting that our 
borough of Hartlepool, in our County Palatine of Durham, on the sea 
coast thereof, and within the Bishopric of Durham, was an ancient 
borough, and that the burgesses and inhabitants thereof, had been, and 
were a body corporate and politic, by the corporate name of " The 
mayor and burgesses of the borough of Hartlepool in the Bishopric 
of Durham.*' And that for the better security and protection, and 
good governing and improvement of the said borough, and for other 
good purposes and considerations, dirers of our predecessors, Kings and 
Queens of England, had theretofore, by their charters and letters patent, 
given and granted unto the said mayor and burgesses of the borough 
aforesaid, and to their successors, divers liberties, franchises, jurisdic- 
tions, immunities and privil^es, and that the said mayor and burgesses 
and Iheir successors had used and enjoyed, as well the aforesaid liberties^ 
franchises, jurisdictions, immunities and privileges, so as aforesaid 
granted to Uiem as divers other liberties, franchises, immunities and 
privil^es, by reason of divers prescriptions and customs used in the 
same borough, and within the liberties and precincts thereof^ and had 
also been entitled to, and possessed of divers lands, tenements and 
hereditaments ; and reciting that by the last of such charters granted 
by OUT late royal predecessor. Queen Elisabeth, in the thirty-fifrh year 
of her reign, it was granted and ordained that there should be for ever 
thereafter in the said borough, one mayor, and also twelve of the best 
approved and discreet burgesses of the said borough, who should be 
called and named capital burgesses and common council of the said 
borough, and who should be aiding and assisting to the said mayor in 
all matters and causes touching the said borough, and reciting that by 
reason and in consequence of divers deaths, resignations and irregu- 
larities in the election of the said mayor and capital burgesses, from 
time to time the number of capital burgesses of the said borough was 
then and had been for some time past greatly reduced, and that there 
was not, nor for some time past had there been, any mayor of the said 
borough, and that the said capital burgesses being reduced below the 
number of seven, by reason thereof^ and for other causes, the said 



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corporation had ibUen into great decay, and was incapable of oonftinaing 
itaelf or of exercising and enjoying the liberties and ^anchisea bekmgii| 
thereto, and that there was great danger of the same being dissdfed ; 
for those reasons, and it also appearing nnto ns that the rights, pri- 
^eges, jurisdictions, franchises and immunities, property and posses- 
sions of the said borough, and the burg^ses and freemen of the sanii 
could not be properly asserted and enforced, protected, or defmded, 
nor the peace and good order of the said borough properly maintained 
and preserved, upon the petition of the majority of the freemen and in- 
habitants of the said borough, presented to us in that behalf, we, for 
remedy of the grievances aforesaid, and the restoration and improvement 
of the said borough and providing for the good rule and government 
thereof, and for Uie encouragement and increase of the prosperity of 
the same, and for other good causes and oonsiderations us th^ennto 
especially moving of our especial grace and of our certain knowledge, 
and mere motion, and by virtue of all powers, prerogatives, and aatk- 
rities» of what nature or kind soever in us vested, and every of them 
did for us, our heirs and successors, will, ordain, constitute, dedut 
and grant, approve, ratify and confirm, that our aforesaid borough of 
Hartlepool shjould be and continue for ever thereafter a free borough of 
itself ; and that the burgesses of the said borough for ever ther^ifia 
should be and continue one body corporate and politic, in deed, &^ and 
name, and that the said body corporate should be and continue at 
theretofore, to be called by the name of *^ The Mayor and Burgesses of 
the borough of Hartlepool in the Bishopric of Durham," and them by 
the name aforesaid into one body corporate and politic, in deed, fact 
and name, we did for us, our heirs and successors, erect, constitute, 
declare and confirm, and we did grant and declare that they should 
enjoy a perpetual succession by the name aforesaid, of '' The Mayoar 
and Burgesses of the Borough of Hartlepool in the Bishopric of Dor- 
ham ;" and that they, by the name aforesaid, of ^* The Mayor and 
BuTgesaes of the boroi:^ of Hartlepool, in the Bishopric of Durham,'* 
should for ever thereafter, be fit persons and capable in law to have ont 
for reqeive and possess lands, tenements, liberties, privileges, jurisdio- 
tiona and hereditaments of what kind or nature soever, they be to 
themselves or their successors in fee simple for term of life or lives, 
or for term of yeara, or in any other manner or way, and also to give 
and grant, let m^ asaigii, the said lands, tenements and hereditaments, 
and to do and execute all and every other thii^ or things by the said 
name, i^id that by the name aforesaid they might and cmild plead and 
be in^^ded, answer and be answaed, d^ond and be de&nded« in sS 
oourts and places, apd also before whatsoever judges or juatioea, ok 
other persons or officers belonging to us, our heirs aiid soccesscffs, 
in all and ev^ suits aiid oomplidots, caases, matters and demands 
whatsoever, aai of what kind ot nature soever, in the same manner and 
form that our other leige sabjects, fit persons and capable in the law 
could and had power to ^eadandbe impleaded, answer andbeanssezed, 
defend and by defended, and that the said mayor and burgesses of the 
borough of Hartlepool, and their sucoessors should have a common sea) 



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Ill 

to lenre them and their sncceston in all causes and business of what 
•cort soever, to be acted or transacted, and that it should be lawAil for 
the said mayor and burgesses, and their successors, from time to time, 
at-ibeir pleasure, to break or change that seal, and to make a new one, 
as it should seem to diem most expedient. And further we, for us 
and our successors, did grant that there should be and continue, and 
should remain in the borough aforesud, one mayor, to be chosen and 
appointed out of the burgesses of the said borough, according to the 
form thereafter specified ; and for the better execution of our said will 
and grant in that particular, we assigned, named, constituted, and made 
our trusty and weU-beloyed William YoUum, Esq., one of the remaining 
capital burgesses of the borough aforesaid, to be the first and new 
mayor of the sud borough, willing diat the said William Vollum should 
be and continue in the office of mayor in the said borough, from the 
date of our said letters patent, until the Feast of Saint Michael the 
Archangel, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and 
fbrty one ; and after that feast, until another of the said burgessses 
should be chosen, nominated and^ippointed to that office, according to 
the order and provisions thereinafter specified and expressed, if the said 
William Vollum should so long live. And we ^d by our said letters 
patent, ordain of our more abundant and special grace, and for us, our 
heirs and successors, did grant unto the said mayor and burgesses of 
Hardepool, and to their successors, that for ever thereafter there should 
be and remain in the borough aforesaid, twelve men of the best ap- 

S roved and discreet burgesses ci the said borough, who should be, and 
e called and named capital burgesses and common council of die said 
borough, for all things, matters, causes and business touching and 
concerning the aforesaid borough, and tiie good rule, state and govern- 
ment thereof ; and that they should from time to time be aid^g and 
assisting to the aforesaid mayor for the time being in all causes and 
matters touching the said boroug^. And we did ordain, and for us 
our heirs and successors grant and declare. And we did nominate, 
constitute, make and appoint, that Henry John Spearman, Esq., and 
William John Vollum, Esq., (capital burgesses of the said borough), 
and Johnson Worthy, of Hutlepool aforesaid. Builder ; John Win- 
stanley, of Hartlepool aforesaid, Grocer ; Cuthbert Sharp, of Harde- 
pool aforesaid, Ship Owner ; Thomas Rowell, of Hardepool aforesaid. 
Bank Agent ; George Sheraton, of Hardepool aforesaid. Grocer ; 
William Manners, of Hartlepool aforesaid, Ironmonger ; Stephen 
Homer, of Hardepool aforesaid} Chemist; Christopher Davison, of 
Hardepool aforesaid. Coal Fitter; Joseph Mellanby, of Hardepool 
aforesaid, Bank Agent ; and Thomes Belk, of Hardepool Attorney at 
Law (inhabitants of the same borough), should be, and be cidled capital 
burgesses and common council of the said borough, to be continued 
in the said offices while they behaved themselves herein ; and we did 
ordain and of our abundant grace, did grant for us, our heirs and sue- 
oesBors to die aforesaid mayor and burgesses of the borough of 
Hardepool, and to theb successors for ever, diat it should and might 
be lanHbl for the mayor and burgesses of Hardepool aforesaid, and 



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nr 

tiieir mcoassort for ever to haTe, contmue and appoint a cartuB Cooidi 
House or Gnildhall within the said borongh ; and that the afoietiid 
mayor and bnrgessess of the said borough, or the major part of tbn 
for the time being, should have power and aadiority as often as thej 
should see it expedient and necessary to call and hold in the said Home, 
a Court of Assembly of the said mayor and burgesses, the coamM 
council of the said borough or the greater psrt d[ them for die time 
being for ever thereafter ; and that they should have power in the same 
court to handle, relate, consult, advise and determine of the statotei, 
laws, articles and orders touching and concerning the aforesaid borsogk, 
and the good rule, state and government thereof^ according to the mnad 
discretion of them or the greatest psrt of them at the time assembM. 
And ftirther of our special grace we did wiU and ordain, and for ut, oir 
heirs and successors, grant to the mayor and burgesses of the boroogk 
of Hartlepool, and to their successors aforesaid, that the mayor and W' 
gesses, the conmion council of the said borough for the time being, or tbe 
greater part of them in court assembled and met together, shodd baie 
power and authority to constituto and ordain, and from time to time eitab*' 
lish such laws, institutions, orders and decrees, as they, or the greater 
part of them should judge wholesome and profitable, honest and neoei- 
sary according to their several judgment, for die good rule tod 
govermnent of the said mayor and capital burgesses ; and all and sin- 
gular other, the burgesses of the said borough, and for the public ud 
common profit and good government of the said borough, and also £or 
the bettor preserving, or doing and disposing, letting and selling of the 
said tenements, possessions and revenues or hereditamrats, granted 
and assigned to the aforesaid mayor and burgesses of the borough d 
Hartlepod, and to their successor ; and all other things and causes 
touching or in any way concerning the said borough, or the state lam 
or interest thereof; and that the mayor and capitol burgesses, die 
Common Council of the said borough for the time being, or the greater 
part of them, as often as they should make, ordain and establish sndi 
laws, institutions, orders, rights and constitutions in the aforesaid 
manner, should make, order, limit and provide such penalties and 
amerciaments to be inflicted upon the breakers of laws, orders aad 
constitutions, or any of them as should seem requisite and necessary 
unto the aforesaid mayor and burgesses of the said borough, and to 
&eir successors, for the better observing of the said laws, orders and 
constitutions, all and every of which laws, acts and constitations and 
decrees, so as aforesaid to be made, we did will that they be observed 
under the penalties contained in them provided, that audi laws should 
not be repugnant and contrary to the laws and statutes of our reahn. 
And we did further will, and for us, our heirs snd successors, grsnt to 
the said mayor and burgesses of the aforesaid borough, and to their 
successors, that they the aforesaid mayor and capital burgesses, the 
common council of the borough aforesaid for the time being, or the 
greater part of them, should have power and authority from time to 
time thereafter, for every yeariy, and every year, on the next Mendsjr 
after the Feast of Saint Michael the Archangel, to choose and nominate 



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one of themselves wko should be mayor of the aforesaid bozoo^ lor 
one whole year next following^ and until his successor should be duly 
elected and admitted, and aft^ he should be so chosen and nominated 
to be the mayor of the aforesaid borough, and before he shotdd be 
admitted to execute the said office, he should take a corporal oath be- 
fore the Isst mayor, his predecessor, in the presence of the recorder of 
the aforesaid borough or his deputy for the time being, to execute the 
said office well and fedthfully, and should have and execute the said 
office for one whole year next ensuing, and until his successor should 
be duly elected and admitted. And moreover we did, by our said letters 
patent, for us, our heirs and successors, grant to the mayor and bur- 
gesses of the borough of Hartlepool aforesaid, and to their successors, 
that if it should happen that the said mayor of the said borough should 
die or be removed out of his office within the year, after he sliould be 
i^pointed and sworn to the office of mayor, or if the said William 
YoUum should die before the Feast of Saint Michael the Archangel, in 
the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and forty-one, that 
then and so often as it should so happen, it should be lawful for the afore- 
said capital burgesses, common council of the said borough for the time 
being, or the greater part of them, to choose and appoint one of 
themselves to be mayor of the said mayoralty, so that he so chosen or 
appointed should have and execute that office during the remainder of 
the year, and until his successor should be duly elected and admitted, 
having first taken his corporal oath in form aforesaid, before one other 
of the capital burgesses of the said borough, and so often as occasion 
should happen. And further, we did will, and for us and our heirs and 
successors, grant to the aforesaid mayor and burgesses of the borough 
of Hartlepool aforesaid, and to their heirs and successors, that if any 
who should thereafter be chosen ai^ nominated to the office of mayor 
or other inferior officers of the said borough or any of them, and he or 
they having notice or knowledge of the said election and nomination, 
should deny and refuse that office to which he or they should be chosen 
and nominated, that then and so often it should be lawful for the mayor 
and capital burgesses, the common council of the said borough lor the 
time being, or ^e greater part of them, to impose such fines and amer- 
ciaments upon him or them so refiising, as should seem reasonable to the 
mayor and chief burgesses, the common council of the said borough for 
the time being, or the greater paat of them to the use of the said borough. 
And moreover we did will, and for us, our heirs and successors grant, 
to the aforesaid mayor and capital biugesses of die aforesaid borough 
of Hartlepool, and to their successors, ^t whenever it should happen 
that any one or more of the said capital burgesses or common council 
of the said borough for the time being, should die or be removed firom 
his place of capital burgess, that then and so often as it should happen, 
it should be lawful for the mayor and capital burgesses at that time 
surviving or remaining, or the greater part of them, to nominate and 
appoint one of the burgesses c^ the said borough into the place or 
places of the capital burgess or capital burgesses so happening to die 
or be removed, and that he or they so chosen and approved, having 



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Tl 

flnt taken his ooxpond oath b«fi>ce the in«y<Mr of the afore wM bofoa|^ 
«h<mld be of the number of twelTe ci^ital borgessee and conmon oawii 
of the said borongfa, and this as occasion should offisr. Asd moresfic; 
we did wiU and ordain, and for us, o«r heirs and snccesMrs, gnait tt 
the aforesaid mayor and capital burgesses of the borough of HsTtiepsel 
sforesaid, and to their successors, that for erer diereo^, there shooU 
continue to be two officers in the afbreeaid borough, idiich should bi 
called seijeants to the mace for executing process writs, and other boi- 
ness in the aforesaid borough from time to time, and that they, ikt twt 
Serjeants to the mace, to be appointed for the aforesaid borough, sbonU 
carry gilt and silyer maces, engraved and adorned with the arms of oo 
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Treland, cTerywhere within ^ 
said borough and the liberties and precincts thereof^ before the mayoc 
of the said borough and his 8Uccess<Mr as had been usual the r etn f ow * 
And moreover, we did will and grant, for us, our heirs snd suocesson 
to the aforesaid mayor and burgesses of the aforesaid borou|^ tf 
fiartlepod, and their successors for ever, that they and their sucoesson 
should have, hold and keep in the said borough weekly, and evay we^ 
in the year for ever, one market, (to wit), on Saturday ; and abo fw 
foir yearly and every year for ever, beginning on tfa^ Vigil of Saiit 
Lawrence, and from thence to continue fifteen days together widi t 
Court ofpiepondrt there to be holden, in the time of the foir, snd m 
long as the market is kept with all liberties, freedoms and customs tt 
the said court belonging togedier, with ToUage, Stallage, Picage, Fines, 
Amerciaments, and all other profits, commodities and benefits whatso- 
ever, arising, happening and accruing from such like markets, foirs tai 
pie pondrea courts, or thereunto belonging or iqipertaining, ProviM 
nevertheless, that those foirs were not prejudicial to die fdra next ad- 
joining ; and that in the time of the markets and foirs afioresaid, and 
every one of them, the aforesaid mayor ahouM, and might have, reorive 
and gather by himself or his deputies, custom or toll of all manner d 
merdiandise, wares and chattds of what sort soever, they mi^ be 
bought and sold, as well within the liberties of the said borongh, ai 
without, and that without the let or hindrance of us, our heirs or sae- 
cessors, as had been theretofore usual and customary in tint behalf; 
and we did give and grant licence to all our subjects, and to every one 
of them, and of our heirs and successors, that they might hove power 
to give, grant, alien enfeoff and assign, to the mayor and burgesses ef 
the borough of Hartlepool, and to their successors for every msnoc, 
messuages, lands, tenements, rectories, tithes, rents, reversions and 
services, or other possessions, revcKues and heieditaments whatsoenr, 
without further licence of us, our heirs or successors, so that the kadfr 
tenements, manors, messuages, lands, rectories, tithes, rents, reversioBi 
and services, or other possessions, revenues and hereditaments aforesaid 
exceeded not the value of one thousand pounds per annum ; and fiat 
the said mayor and burgesses of the borough of Hartlepool for the tiae 
being, might and should have power for themselves, their heirs and 
successors for ever, to have, receive, sue for and ei^oy, the mansn* 
messusgesi lands, tenements, rectories, rents, tidies, revenues and heie- 



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ditament8 aforesaid^ witliout special licence of m, our lieits or succe^sonr, 
so that the said manors, messuages, lands, tenements, rectories, tithes, 
rents, revenues, serrices or other possessions and hereditaments did 
not exceed the value of one thousand pounds per annum, from what- 
ever suhject or suhjects, and of us, our heirs or successors, or from 
any other person or persons whomsoever. And we did likewise give, 
and for us, our heirs and successors grant, special leave, and that 
without any writ of ad quod damnum^ or any other writ, command or 
w«n»Bt firom us, our heirs or successors, to be therefore in anywise 
made, desired or prosecuted, the statute of lands and tenements held 
in mofimain or any other Statute Act, ordinance, provision, or restric-* 
tion, formerly had, made, published, ordered or provided to the contrary, 
or any other thing, cause or matt^, to the contrary notwithstanding. 
And moreover, we did by our said letters patent, grant for us, our heirs 
and successors, to the aforesaid mayor and burgesses, and to their suc- 
cessors, to have and to hold, use and enjoy to themselves and their 
successors for ever within the said borough of Hartlepool, and the port 
of the said borough within, and from the black shore in the river Tees, 
<m the south part of the aforesaid borough, as far as Black Halls along 
the sea shore on the north side of the said borough, with so many as 
great and the like privileges, liberties, grants, fhmchises, jurisdictions, 
immunities, freedoms, exemptions and pre-eminences whatsoever of what 
nature or kind soever they be, as the mayor and burgesses of the town 
of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, or any of them or any of their predecessors, 
by the name a&resaid or any other name, had held, used, or enjoyed 
before, and at the time of the passing of an Act of Parliament, made 
and passed in the Session of Parliament, held in the fifth and sixth 
years of the reign of our late Royal uncle. King William the Fourth, 
intituled ^'An Act to provide for the regulation of Municipal Cor- 
porations in England and Wales" provided that they had, or theretofore 
before the passing of the said last-mentioned Act of Parliament had 
held, used or enjoyed or might have had, held, used or enjoyed the 
same in or within the town of Newcastle aforesaid, and the suburbs and 
liberties of the same or any of them, by virtue of any charter, letters 
patent, donation, prescription, use or any other lawful title whatsoever, 
any undue alteration, imcertainty, contrariety, repugnance, negligence, 
omission, or not true recitation or any other thing, cause, matter, or 
any Statute, Act, order, penmssion or restraint, made, publiahed and 
provided in any way notwithstanding. And further, we did will, and 
of our ample grace and ftvoor, and of our certain knowledge and mere 
motion, did by our said lettns patent, grant to the aforesaid mayor mA 
burgesaes of the bormigh of Hartlepool i^oreaaid, and to their snccessors, 
^at they, the said mayor and bnrgesses and their successors might 
have, hold and enjoy, and should and mi^ continue and have power to 
have, hold and enjoy to tliemsdves, and their successors for ev^ there- 
after, within the port and borough of Hardepool aforesaid, all such uid 
so many as great and the like customs, markets, fairs, courts, lolls, 
does, libertaes, grants, franchises, privileges, jurisdictions, immnnttles, 
teedoma, ezenptiona and pxe-eminencea, lands, temementa and hm- 



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VIU 

ditaments, goods and chattels, property and possessions wiiatsoera, 
and of wkat kind soever they be, as the mayor and bnrgesses of die 
borough of Hartlepool, or any of their predecessors, by what name or 
names soever they were called or incorporated, had therefore, had beUI, 
used or enjoyed, or ought to have had held, used or enjoyed, by virtue 
of any grant, prescription, custom or any other lawful title whatsoem ; 
and albeit, they or their predecessors, or any of them, had used or 
abused any of the privileges aforesaid, through some emergent accident, 
yet the said mayor and burgesses, and their successors, burgesses df 
the said borough of Hartlepool, might thereafter, have use and enjoj 
the same privileges and every of them, without any hindrance from ns 
and our successors, or any of them, or of our justices, bailiffs, eschestors, 
or any other ministers or officers whomsoever, and that the mayor for 
the time being of the said borough, should be a Justice of the Peace of 
and for such borough, and should continue to be such Justice of tiie 
Peace during the next succeeding year after he should cease to be 
mayor, unless otherwise disqualified ; and such mayor should, during 
the time of his mayoralty, have precedence in all places within the said 
borough, provided always that our said letters patent should not m any 
way int^ere with or affect any of the powers, rights, privileges and 
immunities to which ** The HarUepool Dock and Railway Company'* 
were then lawfuUy entitled, or which were granted and reserved by an 
Act of Parliament made and passed in the first year of our reign, in- 
tituled ** An Act for amending an Act of the second year of the reign 
of His late Majesty, King William the Fourth, and for granting further 
rates and powers for improving the port of Hartlepool, in the County 
of Durham, or the several other Acts of Parliament therein firstly and 
secondly recited, ** And provided also that nothing therein contained 
should extend or be construed to extend, to deprive the then present 
freemen and widows of freemen of the said borough of Hartlepool, the 
fishermen or inhabitants of the said borough, of any rights of common 
pasturage, or other rights, privileges or immunities, to which they were 
or might be then respectively entitled, in, over, or upon any part of the 
lands and possessions of the said body corporate, or to affect any lawful 
right, title, liberty or franchise of the Lord of the Manor of Hart, in 
the said County of Durham. And further, we did wiU, and by our said 
letters patent, for us, our heirs and successors, did grant to the said 
body corporate of the borough of Hartlepool and their successors, that 
our said letters patent, and all and singular the things therein contained, 
should be from time to time good, student, valid and effectual in ihe 
law, according to the true intent of the same letters patent, and in and 
by all things should be liberally and beneficially expounded and coa- 
strued for the greater benefit, profit and advantage of the said body 
corporate, notwithstanding the not naming, or not rightly or certarnly 
naming the premises aforesaid, or any part or parcel thereof, in their 
proper natures, kinds, sorts, quantities or qualities. And notwitii- 
standing the not finding, or not rightly, or certainly finding of tiie 
office or offices of the premises aforesaid, or of any part thereof ; and 
notwithstanding the not reciting of any letters patent of the premises 



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or anything therein contained, or any Act, Statute or ordinance, pro- 
vision or restriction, or any defect or uncertainty, or other imperfection 
in our said letters patent, or any other matter, cause or thing whatsoever 
to the contrary thereof notwithstanding. 

And whereas, hy an Act passed in the first year of our reign, 
intituled *' An Act to amend an Act for the regidation of Municipal 
Corporations in England and Wales.** It was enacted that if the 
inhabitant householders of any town or borough in England or Wales, 
should petition us to grant to them a charter of incorporation, it should 
be lawful for us by any such charter, if we should think fit, by the 
advice of our Privy Council to grant the same to extend to the inhabi- 
tants of any such town or borough within the district to be set forth in 
such charter, all the powers and provisions of the said Act, passed in the 
Session of Parliament, held in the fifth and sixth years of the reign of 
our late Boyal Unde, "King William the Fourth, intituled " An Act 
to provide for the regulation of Municipal Corporations in England and 
Wales," whether such town or borough, should or should not be a cor- 
porate town or borough, or should or should not be named in either of 
the schedules in the said Act, for the regulation of Municipal Corporations 
in England and Wales, provided nevertheless, that notice of every such 
petition, and of the time when it should please ns to order that the same 
be taken into consideration by our privy councO, should be published 
in the London Gazette, one month at least before such petition should 
be so considered, bnt such publication should not need to be by Royal 
Proclamation. And whereas, after the passing of the said Act of Par- 
liament, passed in the first year of our reign, the inhabitant house- 
holders of our said borough of Hartlepool, in our County of Durham, 
did petition us to grant to them a Charter of Incorporation, and to extend 
to the inhabitants of the said borough, all the powers and provisions 
of the aforesaid Act, for the regulation of Municipal Corporations in 
England and Wales. And whereas, notice of such petition, and, of the 
time when the same was ordered by us, to be taken into consideration 
by our privy council, was accordingly duly published in the London 
Gazette, one month at least before such petition was so considered. 
And whereas, after the expiration of the said month, (to wit), on the 
twenty-second day of July, in the year of our Lord, one thousand eight 
hundred and fifty, and on other days and times, after the expiration of 
the said month our privy coimcil did proceed to consider, and did con- 
sider the said petition, and having fully considered it, our privy council 
have advised us to grant a Charter of Incorporation to the inhabitants 
of the district, comprised within the boundary of our said borough of 
Hartlepool, in our said Countv of Durham ; and to extend to them all 
the powers and provisions of the said Act, for regulating Municipal 
Corporations in England and Wales. We therefore, as well by virtue 
of the powers and authorities vested in us, as by virtue of the powers 
and authorities given to us by the said recited Act, or any other 
Act now in force, and with the advice of our privy council, do 
hereby grant and declare that the inhabitants of the said borough of 
Hartlepool, comprised within the district hereinbefore mentioned and 

b 



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itnrnbf^ as our bomgli of Hartlepo<d, in ma County Pidstme 9i Bnr- 
luiai, end their snccesaors, thall be for erer liereafter, one body pofitk 
and corp<Nrate, in deed, fact and name ; and that the said body coipocaii 
shall be called ** The Mayor, Aldermen and Bmgesses of the Botov^ 
of Hartkpool," and them by the name of " The Mayor, Aldermen and 
Borgtsses of the Boroi^ of Hartlepool'* into one body corporate and 
politic, in deed, hct and name, do for us, our heirs and successoa, 
constitute by these presents. And we do grant to the said body cor- 
porate, that by the same name they shall have perpetual snocesoon, 
and be ever hereafter, persons able and capable in law, to hare sad 
exercise, and do and suffer, and that they shall have and exercise, and 
do and suffer, all the sets, powers, authorities, immunities and pii- 
Tikges, which are now held and enjoyed, done and suffered by the 
several borouglis named in the schedides to the said Act, for r^fulatiig 
Municipal Corporations in England and Wales, in the like manner, and 
subject to the same provisions, as folly and as amply to all intents and 
purposes whatsoever, as if the said borough of Hartlepool had bees 
named in the second section of schedule B to that Act annexed. And 
we do hereby extend to the said inhabitants <^ the said borough sf 
Hartlepool, comprised within the district hereinbefore mentioned and 
described, all the powers and provisions of the said Act for regnkting 
Munieipal Corporations in England and Wales, and of all and every 
other Acta or Aet of Parliament, made and passed for altering^ amend- 
ing or enlarging the aame Act, and the powers and pioviaions thereof 
or in anywise relating thereto. And we do hereby further wiU^ giaot 
and declare, and it is the true intent and meaning of these present^ 
thai the said body corporate and politic, heretofore called, aad knewa 
by the name of ** The Mayor and Burgesses of the Borough of Hartle- 
pool in the Bishopric of Durham*' shall for ever hereafter, be continned 
under, snd be called and known by the said name of ** The Mayoc^ 
Aldermen and Burgesses of the Borough of Hartlepool,'^ but sul^ 
always, nevertheless, to the alterations effected, or intended to be ef- 
focted, in the constitution of the said body corporate and politic, by 
virtue of these presents, or of the Acts of Parliainent herein referred ta 
And we forther will, grant and declare, that the said mayor, aldermei 
and burgesses of the said borough of Hartlepool, and their succeason, 
shall and may for ever hereafter, have a common seal to serve them it 
transacting their business foom time to time arising within the said 
borough. And we ftorther wHl, grant and declare, that the said msfsi^ 
aldamien and burgesses, shsU be able and capable in law, to purchase^ 
take and acquire lands, tenem en ts, hereditaments, and all other pos- 
sessions whirtsoever, to any value, situate, lying and being within the 
said borou^ And also to purchase, take and acquire, lands, tene- 
ments and hereditamenta, and all other possessions elseiHiere out of the 
said borough, not exceeding the snm of ten thousand poonds by 
the year. To have and to hM the said lands, tenements and hcce- 
dfitsments, to the said mayor, aldeimen and burgesses, and their 
■occes so rs for ever. And we forther will, and grant and dsdare, ^al 
the council of the said borough shall consist of a mayor, f 



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XI 

a«d twelve conaoQlora, to be respectiTely dected at such tunes and 
places, and in such and the like manneri as the mayor» aldennen and 
covncUlors, for the borooghs named in ^ scheduleB to the said Act 
for the regulation of Municipal C<Hrporations in England and Wales, 
except diat the first mayor, aldermen and councillors, and the first 
auditors and assessors for the said borough, shall be respectively elected 
at such times and in such manner as herdnafter mentioned ; and that 
the said may<v, aldermen and councillors, and auditors and assessors 
so to be elected for the said borough of Hartl^ool, shall respectively 
have exercise, and enjoy all the powars and immunities and privileges, 
and be subject to the same duties, penalties, liabilities and disqusM* 
cations, as the mayor, aldermen and councillors, and auditors and 
assesscMTS of the several boroughs enumerated in the said Act, for the 
regulation of Municipal Gorporati<m8 in England and Wales, so far as 
the same are applioaUe to the said borough of Hartlepool. And we 
ftffthor will, grant and declare, that the title and qualification of tbm 
buigesses of the said borough of Hartlepool, shall be the same with 
regard to the said borough, as the title and qualification of the bur* 
gesses of the boroughs named in the said Act, for regulating Municipal 
Corporations in Ikigland and Wales, are, with regard to such boroughs, 
exactly as if the said borough of Hartlepool had been included in the se- 
cond section of the sud schedule B to that Act annexed. And that aU 
persons possessing such title or qualification, with respect to the said 
borough of Hartlqpool, shall be entitled to be placed upon the burgess 
list hereinafter mentiimed. And we further will, grant and declare, 
timt our trusty and well-beloved Edward Tumbull, of the said borough 
of Hardepool, gentleman ; and in case of his death, inability, incapacity, 
refusal or default ; then our trusty and well-beloved Peter Barker, ci 
tiie said borou^, gentleman ; do on the second day of December, m 
the present year, make out an alphabetical list (to be called thebuigess 
list), of all persons who shall possess the title and qualification re- 
quired by the said Act of burgesses, of the said borough of Hartlepool, 
as aforesaid, and shall cause a copy of such burgess list to be fixed on 
or near the door of the Town Hall, or in some public and conspicuous 
situation widiin the said borough, during eight days, next before the 
twelfth day of December, in the present year ; and that every person so 
possessed of such title and qualification as aforesaid, whose name shall 
have been omitted in such burgess list, and who shall claim to have his 
name inserted therein, shall, on or before the said twelfth day of 
December in the present year, give notice thereof to the said Edward 
Tumbull, or the said Peter Barker, whichever of them shall be ac^ig 
in the premises, in writing, and shall in such notice, describe the houss, 
warehouse, counting-house or shop then occupied by him, the said 
claimant in the said borough of Hartlepool, in respect of which, he, the 
said claimant, has been rated ; and the time during whi<^ he has bem 
rated within the said borough, necessary for his qualification, and also 
the place of abode of him, the said claimant ; and that every person 
whose name shall have been inserted in such burgess list may object to 
any other person, as not being entitled to have his name reta^Md in the 



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xii 

said burgess list ; and every person so objecting, sball, on or belore 
the day, and year last aforesaid, give to the said Edward Tnmbnll, or 
the said Peter Barker, whichever of them shall be acting in the pie- 
mises ; and also give to the person so objected to, or leave on die 
premises for which he shall appear to be rated in such burgess list, 
notice thereof in writing, which said notice shall specify the nsme of 
such person so objected to, and describe him as he is described in the 
said burgess list ; and shall also specify the name of such objector, and 
state his place of abode, and the property for which he is said to be 
rated in ^e said burgess list ; and the said Edward Tnmbull, or the 
said Peter Barker, whichever of them shall be acting in the premises, 
shall include the names of all persons so claiming, to be inserted in the 
said burgess list, in a list ; and shall also include the names of aO 
persons so objected to, as not entitled to be retained on the said bor- 
gess list, in a list ; and shall cause copies of such several lists to be 
fixed on or near the door of the Town Hall, or in some public and con- 
spicuous situation within the said borough, during ike eight days next, 
before the twenty-sixth day of December, in this present year. And 
we do hereby appoint our trusty and well-beloved James Brotherton, of 
the Middle Temple, Esq., Barrister-at-Law, and in case of his death, 
inability, incapacity, refusal or default. Then our trusty and weD- 
beloved Henry Manisty, of Gray's Inn, Esq., Barrister-at-Law, to 
revise the same burgess list, as well as the said list of claimants, and of 
persons objected to, on the said twenty-sixth day of December, in the 
manner directed by the said Act for the regulation of Municipal Cor- 
porations in England and Wales, or in any Act or Acts passed to alter, 
amend or enlarge the same ; and on such other days and at such times 
as the said James Brotherton, or die said Henry Manisty, whichever of 
them shall be acting in the premises, shall, from time to time appomt, 
so that no day after the twenty-eighdi day of December, in the present 
year shall be appointed, on which to revise, or continue to revise sndi 
burgess list. And we do hereby direct the said Edward Tumbull, or 
the said Peter Barker, whichever of them shall be acting in the pre- 
mises, to make out a burgess list in alphabetical order, of the burgesses 
within the said borough, and to cause such burgess roll to be completed 
on or before the thirty-first day of December, in the present year. And 
that such burgess roU shall be the burgess roll of the burgesses of snch 
borough, entitled to vote in the choice of councillors, assessors and 
auditors of the said borough, at any election or elections which msy 
take place in such borough, before the first day of November, one 
thousand eight hundred and fifty-one. And we fturther wiU, grant and 
declare, that tiie first election of the mayor, aldermen, councillors, audit- 
ors and assessors for the said borough, shall be respectively holden is 
follows, (that is to say), that the first election of councillors for the said 
borough, shall be holden on the sixth day of January, one thoussod 
eight hundred and fifty-one ; and that the aldermen of the said borough 
shall be elected from the councillors, or from the persons qualified to 
be councillors of the said borough, on the fourteenth day of January, 
one thousand eight hundred and fifty-one. And that the mayor of the 



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xm 

said borough, shall be elected out of the aldennen or councillors of the 
said borough, on the said fourteenth day of January, one thousand eight 
hundred and fifty-one ; and that the first election of auditors and asses- 
sors for the said borough, shall take place on the first day of March, 
one thousand eight hundred and fifty one. And we do hereby appoint, 
our trusty and well-beloved Christopher Davison, of the borough of 
Hartlepool, Esq., and in case of his death, inability, incapacity, refusal 
or defudt, then our trusty and well-beloyed John Punshon Denton, of 
the said borough of Hartlepool, Esq., to act as returning officer at such 
first election of mayor, aldermen and councillors, auditors and assessors 
of the said borough ; and at any subsequent election which may take 
place, or which it may be necessary to hold, before a valid election could 
be hc^ under, and according to the provisions of the said Act, for the 
regulation of Municipal Corporations in England and Wales, with the 
same powers, as by die said Act, are given to the mayor and assessprs, 
at elections of councillors for the boroughs named in the schedules to 
that Act annexed. In witness whereof; we have caused these, our let- 
ters, to be made patent. Witness ourself, at our Palace at Westminster, 
this fifth day of December, in the fourteenth year of our reign. 

By writ of Privy Seal, 

EDMUNDS. 



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XIT 



FBSEMEN'S LANDS AlTD HAKBOVR DUS8 
ACT, 185L 

Wheueas tlMre axe in tito townddp and bonn^ of H wUep w i in l^ 
comtj of Du^aM certain p aa t utes knawn by the name eC the laimJ 
fi^, the town moor, and the <^aiea and atxipea : and w h e ieaa Ikt 
mayor, aldermen, and bnrgetaea or body corporate of te ba wg h of 
of Hard^od daim to be ^ ownera in fee almple of the aotl of ascii 
pastnres: and whereaa the firecmen and widowa of freemen ef ascii 
borough claim to be entided, when reaideBt widiin andi borafogh, tn 
die pasturage <^ such paatores : and whe ieaa the said pastnee an of 
very Ue^ted extent, and there are very few of the freemen <« freemea'a 
widows of die boroogh who depasture cattle diereon, or who can derive 
any benefit or advantage therefrom in the way the same are now nsed, 
occn|ned, and enjoyed : and whereas die trade of the said borough is 
rapidly increasing, and the said town of Hartlepool is rapidly extend- 
ing, and by reason thereof die said pastures are becommg leas valnaUe 
as pasture land : and whoreas die aaid pastnre called the frrwell fi^ 
and part of die said pastnre called the town moor are very eligible lor 
building purposes, and it would be very benefidal to die freemen and 
other iidiabitants of die said borough if the same oonld be applied for 
such purposes, and if the remainder of the town moor were ^propri* 
ated for public walks or gardens or otherwise for die recreation and 
health of the inhabltanta of the said borough : and whereaa the stz^ 
of land called die chares or stripes are now useless as pastnre laoad, 
but the same could be advantageously used for sites of roads and vrays, 
and for building purposes, and for frontages to adjoining lands ni 
houses : and whereas it would be very bCTeficial to the freemen aai 
freemen's widows and inhabitants of die said borough if the aaid fi ra e - 
men and freemen's widows and the body corporate of die said bintMig^ 
were respectively enabled to sell and purchase the existing rigkta of 
pasturage and other rights over the sidd pastures, or to make odwr 
arrangemoita for die extinguishment of such ri^ts, and for the eoaiiet > 
sion of the said pastures to general purposes for the general benefit of 
the said borough, and for die appr op riation and distribution of tke 
compensation to be paid for such rights of pasturage, and if the said 
pastures were vested in dto body c or p o r ate of the siUd borougk dis- 
charged from all righta of pastarage therein, and subject to pi pp ei 
provisicms for the appropriation and management of such pastnxes: 
and whereas the mayor, aldermen, and burgeaaes or body corporate of 
the borough are or daim to be endded to certain tolls or harbour dmes 
on all ships or vessels entering die port of Hartlepool ; and it is gl- 
pediMit that further powers should be vested in the said body co rpof ie 



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of the said borough for tlie receipt, collection, recovery, and spplica- 
tion of the said tolls and dnes, and for vesting the same in the said 
body corporate, and that they should be enabled to alter and vary the 
same : and whereas the several beneficial objects and purposes aforesaid 
cannot be effected without the authority of Parliament : may it there- 
fore please your Majesty that it may be enacted ; and be it enacted by 
the Queen's most excellent Majesty, by and with this advice and consent 
of the Lords spiritual and temporal, and commons, in this present 
Parliament assembled, and by the authority of the same. 

I. That in the construction of this Act the following words and 
expressions shall have the meanings hereby assigned to them, unless 
there be sometiiing in the subject or context repugnant to such con^ 
struction ; that is to say, 

The word ''Borough*' shall mean the township and borough of 

HarUepool in the county of Durham : 
The word " Corporation " shall mean the mayor, aldermen, and bur- 
gesses of the said borough : 
The word ** Freemen " shall mean the freemen and freemen's widows 

of the borough for the time being resident within the borough : 
The word ** Pastures " shall mean the farwell field, the chares and 

stripes, and such part of the town moor as is by tiiis Act aathor- 

ized to be used for building purposes : 
The expression ** Town Moor " shall mean the whole of the town 

moor not authorised by this Act to be used for building purposes : 
The expression <' Town Clerk " shall mean the Town Clerk ior the 

time being of the borough : 
The word " Treasurer " shall mean the treasurer for the time beiqg 

of the borough. 

II. That the freemen and freemen's widows kit the time being om 
the <* Freemen's Roll" and ''Freemen's Widows' Roll" respectively 
kept by the town clerk, and for the time being resident within the 
borough, shall for the purposes of this Act be and be deemed to be 
the freemen and freemen's widows of the borottgh : provided always^ 
that nothing herein contained shall render valid the title of any free- 
nan or freeman's widow to the franchise which is otherwise illegal or 
invalid. 

III. That the freemen shall hdd a meeting on the first Monday 
in the month of October next sifter the passing of this Act, and shall 
hold an annual meeting on the first Monday in the month of Jnae one 
tiiousand ei^^t hundred and fifty-two, and on tiie corresponding day of 
die same month in every succeeding year. 

IV. That the freemen may from time to time hold special meeting! 
linr the transaction of any extraordinary business ; and the town clerk, 
Vy the direction of the corporation, mxy call any such special moetnig 
at any time they may think proper ; and any five mcmbeia of ti» 
paatmres committee herein-after provided fur may at any time, by 
writing under their hands, re^[uiie the town derk tocall a special meet- 
ing, and such requisition shall ftdly express the ol]ject of the meeting 
required to be called, and shall be ddvered to or kft at the asusal 



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residence of the town derk, and forthwith upon die receipt of asdi 
requisition the town clerk shall call a special meeting accwdiiigly ; aid 
if for three days after such receipt the town clerk shall £ul to call ladi 
meeting, any five members of the pasture committee may call such 
meeting, by giving notice as herein-idter provided. 

y. That not less than three nor more than seven clear days notice 
shall be given of every meeting of the freemen, and every such notice 
shaU be signed by the town clerk, or the persons calling the meeting, 
and may be sent by the post ; and every notice of a special meeting, and 
every notice of an annual meeting if any other business than the busi- 
ness hereby i^ipointed for annual meetings is to be done thereat, shaD 
specify the business to be done thereat. 

YI. That every meeting of the fireemen shall be elected at noon in 
the town hall or in such o^er convenient place as shall be appointed 
by the town clerk or other the persons calling the meeting, or by any 
previous meeting, and be expressed in the notice for such meeting. 

Vn. That in order to constitute a meeting of the freemen, whetlier 
annual or special, not less than ten freemen shall be personally piesent, 
and if within one hour from the time appointed for holding the meet- 
ing such number of freemen be not present such meeting shall be heM 
to be ac^oined sime die, 

VULl. That every meeting of the freemen may be adjourned frtm 
time to time and from place to place ; and, except as regards any meet- 
ing adjourned to a later hour of the same day, or to the next day, all 
adjourned meetings shall be called by notice as hereinbe£are provided 
for, and shaU be deemed original special meetings. 

IX. That aU meetings of the freemen (me of the paatorea cqb- 
mittee, and if all the monbers of such committee be absent, then aeoie 
freemen, to be respectively elected by the meeting, shall preside as 
chairman. 

X. That the authorities by this Act given, either expressly or hj 
implication, to the freemen, may be exercised by the beem&i preaeaft 
at any annual or special meeting, or any adjournment there<^ respect- 
ively, and not declining to act thereat; provided always, that maj 
annual meeting shaU not enter on any special business but such as is 
set forth in the notice for such meeting ; and any special meeting sliall 
not enter upon any business but such as is set forth in the notioe 
for such meeting ; and any adjourned meeting shall not enter on soy 
business but such as was left unfinished at the meeting from wldcii 
the adjournment took place, and might have been tranMcted at rocfc 
meeting. 

XI. That at every meeting of the freemen such of them as are men 
shaU alone be allowed to vote or take part personally in the proceed- 
ings ; and every widow of a freeman may vote by proxy, such pioxy 
being a freeman authorized by writing under her hand ; and every free- 
man present, either personally or by proxy, shaU be entided to one 
vote ; and every question shall be determined by the minority of tte 
votes of the freemen present, and voting either in their own right or mm 



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xvu 

proxies for freemen's widows ; provided always, that in all cases of 
eqmality (d votes at any meeting the chairman shall have a second or 
casting vote. 

XII* That ibd freemen at the first meeting after the passing of 
this Act, or some adjournment thereof shaU, asrthe first hnsiness of 
the meeting after the taking of the chahr thereat, appoint seven of the 
freemen to he a committee for the purposes of this Act, and such com- 
mittee shall he called " The Pastures Committee," and shall, as the 
next hnsiness of the meeting, appoint three others of the freemen to 
be auditors for the purposes of this Act ; and the freemen at the annual 
meeting in the year one thousand eight hundred and fifty-two, and at 
every subsequent annual meeting, or some adjournment thereof respec- 
tively, shall in like manner appoint another like committee and other 
like auditors ; provided always, that every retiring committee-man and 
auditor respectively shall be eligible for immediate re-appointment; 
provided also, that in case the freemen fail at any such meeting, or at 
an adjournment thereof, to make any such appointment, the freemen 
may make the same at any subsequent special meeting, or at any ad- 
journment thereof : provided also, that such committee and aoditors 
respectively shall remdn in office until the appointment of their respec- 
tive successors. 

Xni. That every vacancy in the office of pasture committee-man 
and auditor respectively may be filled up by the freemen, by the appoint- 
ment at any special meeting, or an adjournment thereof, of any freeman 
to supply ihe same. 

XTT. That ^ pastures committee may meet from time to tune, 
and adjourn from place to place, as they think proper, for the puxposee 
of their appointment ; and at any time any two members of such com- 
mittee may call or dureot the town clerk to call a meeting of such com- 
mittee, but any business shall not be transacted except at a meeting of 
such committee of which five members are present ; ml at all meetingi 
one of the members present shall be appointed chairman; and dl 
questions shall be determined by the majority of the votes of the mem- 
bers present, and in all cases of equality of votes the chairman shall 
have a second or casting vote. 

XY. That, subject to such regulations and restrictions as the free- 
men shall from time to time determine, the pastures committee shall 
have the general superintendence and management of the affairs of the 
freemen, and the regulation and the occupation and stocking of the 
pastures, and shall from time to time make and enforce such orders 
and regulations as to the number and description of cattle and animals 
which the freemen respectively shall be authorised to depasture in the 
pastures and town moor, and as to the good management and occupation 
of the pastures and town moor, as such committee shall think right for 
the benefit of the freemen and inhabitants of the said borough, and 
shall see that all the resolutions of the freemen are duly carried into 
effect, and shall from tune to time report to the council of the borough 
all breaches and violations of such orders, regulations, and resolutions, 
and of the byelaws made for the purposes of this Act, and shall exer- 



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cue, in accordance with tke provisions of this Act, all such anthoritiee 
as shall from time to time he by the freemen delegated to them, and 
shall, except in the cases by this Act othenvise provided for, carry the 
several provisions of this Act into execution ; and the said pastures 
committee shall haveiull power to treat and agree with the corporation 
for the extinguishment or alteration of the rights of the freemen in 
and over. the pastures and town moor, and for determining and r^u- 
lating the compensation to be paid or given for their rights of pasturage, 
and other rights in the said lands or any of them, and the applicatioa 
of such compensation, and as to the appropriation of the town moor for 
the purposes of public recreation, or as promenades or inclosures for 
the general use of the inhabitants of the borough, and as to the future 
^propriation or management thereof or of any part thereof^ and of the 
rents thereof. 

XVI. That the pastures committee in every year at some of their 
meetings shall appoint such officers, other than the town clerk and the 
treasurer, as they may think necessary for carrying this Act into exe- 
cution, and may from time to time discontinue the appointment of suck 
(^cers, and appoint others in their place ; and the town clerk and the 
treasurer and such officers respectively shall be paid such reasonable 
salaries or allowances as the pastures committee shall appoint. 

XYII. That, subject to such regulations and restrictions as the 
freemen may from time to time determine, the pastures committee may 
at any of their meetings enter into all such contracts and agreements 
as they may think advantageous for the purposes of this Act, and may 
alter, rescind, and abandon, on such terms as the committee may think 
fit, any contracts and agreements entered into by or with them for the 
purposes of this Act : provided always, that every such contract and 
agreement, and every alteration, revision, and abandonment of any such 
contract and agreement respectively, shaU be in writing, signed by five 
or more members of the pastures committee, and countersigned by the 
town clerk. 

XVni. That in every year the pastures committee shall make to 
the annual meeting of the freemen a full report of their proceedings 
during the preceding year, with all such particulars as shall be proper 
for explaining the treasurer's accounts and balance sheets, and for 
showing the state and prospects of the pastures, and the rents, profits, 
and proceeds thereof, and shall make to the annual meeting all anch 
explanations as may be required by any of the freemen present thereat. 

XIX. That all proceedings of the pastures committee shall be valid 
notwithstanding any mere informality, and notwithstanding it may be 
afterwards discoveied that there was some defect in the appointment 
of any person to be a member thereof, and notwithstanding any vacancy 
in the number of the committee, so as the number thereof be not leaa 
than five. 

XX. That any person being or having been a member of the pas- 
tures committee shall not by reason of his lawfully exercising any of 
the powers given to such committee be subject to be sued, either aloae 
or with any other person being or having been a member of such com- 



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xix 

tnittee, by any person whomsoever ; and all persons being or having 
been members of such committee, their heirs, executors, and adminis- 
trators, shall be indemnified, by and out of the monies and property in 
or to which the freemen are under this Act entitled or interested, for 
all payments made and liabilities incurred in respect of any Acts done 
or sufPered by the pastures committee in the execution of this Act, and 
against all losses, costs, and damages which such committee may incur 
in or by reason of the execution of this Act ; and such committee may 
from time to time order the application of such monies and property 
for the purposes of such indemnity. 

XXI. That the town clerk shall act as the secretary or clerk to the 
freemen and also to the pastures committee, and shall attend aU meet^ 
ings of the freemen and of the pastures committee respectively : provided 
always, that whenever the town clerk shaU from illness or other suf- 
ficient cause be unable to attend in person he may attend by a deputy, 
to be appointed by him for that purpose. 

XXII. That minutes of all die proceedings of the meetings of the 
freemen and of the pastures committee respectively shall from time to 
time be entered by the town clerk in books to be provided for the pur- 
pose, which shall be kept at the town clerk's office ; and every such 
entry shall, as soon as conveniently may be after the holing of 
the meeting at which the proceedings took place, be signed by the 
chairman thereof ; and every such entry, so signed, shall be received 
as evidence in all courts, and before sH judges, justices, and others, 
without proof of such meeting having been diSy called or held, or of 
the persons attending such meeting having been freemen or members 
of the pastures committee, or of the signature of the chairman, or of the 
fact of his having been chairman, all which matters shall be presumed 
until the contrary be proved ; and such books shaU at all reasonable 
times be open to the inspection of every freeman. 

XXIII. That the treasurer of the borough shall be the treasurer 
for the purposes of this Act ; and the corporation shaU take such se- 
curity for llie due execution by him of his office under this Act as the 
pastures committee shall from time to time think proper. 

XXIV. That any annual sum or sums which shall be ascertained 
to be the value of the freemen's interest in the pastures and town moor, 
and which shall be agreed to be paid to them by the corporation for the 
purchase and extinguishment of their rights of pasturage and other 
rights in such lands, shall be paid by the corporation to the treasurer, 
for the benefit and on account of the freemen ; and such annual sum 
or sums shall be a charge upon the said lands in the hands of the cor- 
poration, and shall be payable out of the rents and annual proceeds 
thereof, or out of any monies to be produced by any sale or other dis- 
position thereof or of any part thereof, in preference to any other 
payments whatsoever. 

XXV. That all other monies to be paid or received for the benefit 
of the freemen under or by virtue of this Act shall be paid to the 
treasurer, and his receipts shall be absolute discharges for the same, 
and for the said annual sum or sums to be paid to him by the corpora- 



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sane from all liability, daau, and HwiaDdfi in reapect thereof; ad 
the treaaorer ahall keep diadact acccwBta, to be called ''The Paa- 
torea AcGOuilay*' ef all hia reoe^la aad paymeata ibr or on acoonat of 
thefireemen, aad of all anch oedita aad liabililieaj with referenoe to 
the carrying into ezecotion of thia Act, aa the paatnrea oanmittee ahaH 
firoBA time to time direct* 

XXVI. That the treaaorer ehaD not pay any money without die 
order of " The Paatnrea Committee" in writing aigned by three mem- 
bera thereof and connteralgned by the town clerk, or aa to any esqien- 
aea which die corporation may, under the prorisiona of thia Act, 
re^nire to be paid, without the order of their coondl, aigned by the 
mayor, and coontmigned by the town derk ; and anch ordara respec- 
tively ahall be anffident warrant to die treaaorer to make die paymenta 
thereby directed, 

XXYIL That the treaaorer ahaU, in the year one thooaand ei^ 
hundred and fifty-two, and in every succeeding year, make up ** The 
Paatorea Accounta," and alao the acoounta of tl^ freemen's fund, to die 
first day of March and the first day of September in such year, and 
shall deliver to the auditora copies of such accounta, and a balance aheet 
thereof reapectively, within fourteen daya after each of such daya, and 
ahaU, when required by the auditora, v^ify such accounta, by producing 
the p roper vouchers for the same. 

XXVni. That it shall be the duty of the auditors to receive from 
the treasurer hia accounts and balance sheets, and to examme the same ; 
and the auditors shall eidier make a special report on such accoonta, or 
simply confirm die same ; and every soch report or confirmation ahaU 
be read at die annual meeting with the annual report from the pastures 
committee. 

XXIX. That when and so soon aa the pastures committee and the 
coipwaticm shall have agreed upon and determined the annual sum to 
be paid by the corporation for the purchase and extinguishment of the 
rights of pasturage and odier rights of die freemen in the pasturea and 
in the town moor, the terms of such pmrdbaae, and the amount of anck 
annual sum, and die persons to be entitled, and the sharea and propor- 
tions in and time during which such persons shall be so mtitled, and 
the times and mode of payment of such annual sum, and of die freemen's 
sharea thereof^ and the amount, if any, of the expenses incurred by the 
pastures committee to be deducted thereout or charged thereon, and any 
other terma or adpulations which have been or shall be agreed upim bcK 
tween the corporadon and the freemen, or between the corporadon and 
the pastures committee, under die provisions of diis Act, shall be embodi- 
ed in a deed or declaration under the common seal of die corporation and 
under the hands and seals of five of the members of die pasturea com- 
mittee, and signed by them at some meeting to be called for the pur- 
pose ; and upon the execudon of such deed or dedaradon, and upon 
nodce thereof in the London Gazette and in some newspaper publidied 
in Hardqpool, if any, and if not then in some newspaper publiahed in 
the County of Durham, die pasturea and the town moor, or such parts 



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X3a 

thereof respectiydy as shall from time to time be the subject of the ar- 
rangement effected by or referred to in anch deed or dedarationi shall 
be discharged from the rights of pastnrage and other rights of the free- 
men in such lands, but subject neverdieless to the charges thereon 
created by or to arise under this Act, and subject also to the powers and 
provisions of this Act ; and, subject as aforesaid, such lands shall be 
and be deemed part of the general property of the corporation, and be 
held by them for the benefit of the borough. 

XXX. That in the meantime and until the pastures shall become 
Tested in the corporation under the proyiaions of this Act, it shall be 
lawful for the pastures committee to let from year to year such parts of 
the pastures, and either together or in such lots, and at and under such 
rents, as the pastures committee shall think expedient ; proyided al- 
ways, that such lettings be made to take effisct in possession only, and 
without fine or anything in the nature thereof, and be made for the best 
yearly rents, to be payable half-yearly or oftener, that can be reasonably 
obtained for the same. 

XXXI. That when the pastures or any part thereof shall have be- 
come vested in the corporation under the provisions of this Act, it shall 
be lawfril for the corporation from time to time to appropriate the same 
or any part thereof for building purposes, and in order thereto to lay 
out any part thereof as squares or other open spaces, roads, ways, sewers, 
drains, and watercourses, and other parts thereof as lots for buflding, 
or in such other manner in all respects as the corporation shall deem 
most advantageous for the purposes of this Act, and to repair, alter, and 
improve any open spaces, roads, ways, drains, and watercourses in or 
upon the pastures or any part thereof so vested in the corporation. 

XXXII. That when the pastures or any part thereof shall have be- 
come vested in the corporation under the provisions of this Act, it shall 
be lawfrd for the corporation from time to time to sell, lease, or ether- 
wise dispose of the same or any part thereof to any persons whomsoever, 
for building purposes, in such manner, and on such terms and condi- 
tions, and with and subject to such covenants and agreements, as well 
by or on behalf of the corporation as by or on behalf of such persons 
respectively, aa the corporation shall for the time being deem most 
advantageous for the purposes of this Act ; and for such purposes the 
corporation shall and may from time to time enter into such contracts 
and arrangements as they shall from time to time think proper ; and 
any such sale may be either absolute, and in consideration of a gross 
sum, or in consideration of any ground rent or other rent or reservation 
which the corporation may think fit, or in consideration partly of a 
gross sum and partly of any such rent or reservation ; and any such 
lease may be for any term or number d years, either absolute or con- 
ditional, and either with or without fine ; provided always, that any 
such sale, lease, or other disposition shall take effect in possession only ; 
and in every deed or lease by which any rent shall be granted or re- 
served there shall be granted or reserved and made payable the best 
yearly rent which can, at the time of making or gramting such deed or 
lease, or the contract or arrangement for the making or granting of the 



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zzii 

aune, eoMideriog the amoimt of the grott warn at fine, if any, u k 
paid in respect thereof^ and the nature and cimunstanoea of tbs csm, 
be reasonably obtained for the tame ; and the rent granted or icauwd 
by any each deed or lease shall be made payable quarterly or ofteoff; 
and the respective purchasers and lessees shaU execute countopaits d 
the respectire deeds and leases by which any rents are granted ^or t»> 
aenred ; provided also, that the first payment of the rent to be granted 
or reserved by any deed or lease may be made to commence and becsm 
payable on any day not exceeding two years and a half from the tae 
of the making the contract or arrangement for such deed or lease, sad 
may be made to increase periodically, beginning with snch propoKtioe 
of the full rent to be ultimately payable as shall be thought advisaUe, 
and increasing up to the full rent, as shall be found convenient or be 
thought proper, and as shall be expressed in such deed or lease, r^gari 
being had to the circumstances of the case. 

XXXIU. That, except as by this Act otherwise provided, the cor- 
poration shall and may from time to time make any sales, leases, 
dispositions, contracts, and agreements under the authority of ibk 
Act, upon such terms and conditions, and subject to such core naati 
and agreements, as well by or on behalf of the corporation as by or oa 
the behalf of the persons to or with whom the same shall be respec- 
tively made, and otherwise as the corporation may from time to tinw 
deem most advantageous for the purposes of this Act : provided al- 
ways, that such leases and contracts for leases respectively be nst 
made with any provision for the renewal thereof. 

XXXIV. That nothing in this Act contained shall enable tlie cor^ 
poration to sell or demise for the purposes of this Act, vrithout the 
approbation of the commissioners of Her Majesty's treasury of the 
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, any lands, tenementi^ 
or hereditaments which they could not have sold or demised without 
such approbation before the passing of this Act, anything in this Act 
to the contrary notwidistanding. 

XXXV . That every letting of the pasture, or any part thereof whid 
shall be made under the authority of this Act, before the said pastnres 
shall have become vested in the corporation under powers of this Act, 
ahall be made by public auction, of which auction seven days' notice 
shall be given by writing fixed on or near the town hall or in some 
other public and conspicuous situation within the borough ; and su^ 
auctions shall be holden subject to such conditions, wheth^ ordinary 
or special, and such reserved biddings, as the pastures committee shall 
think most advantageous for the purposes of this Act. 

XXXVI. That whenever any lot offered to be let shall be bought 
in at any such auction by reason of the reserved bidding for the same 
not having been reached, the pastures committee may let the same by 
private contract upon such terms, subject to the provisions of this Act, 
as the pastures committee shall think reasonable, after seven days* noUca 
of such intention to make such letting shall have been sent by post as' in 
the case of an auction, and such notice shall state that the hi gh e st 
offer made to the committee before a day to be named in such notioa 
will be accepted. 



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XXUl 

XXXYU. That whenever any contract or agreement for selling^ 
leasing, letting, or otherwise disposing €i any land shall not he carried 
into effect, and whenever the possession of any land comprised or con* 
tracted or agreed to he comprised in any deed or lease to be executed 
or granted in pursuance of this Act shall he resumed or recovered hy 
the corporation, the same may from time to time thereafter be dealt 
with and disposed of, in pursuance of any of the provisions of this 
Act, as the corporation, or, in the case of any agreement for letting 
made by the pastures committee, as the said committee, shall think fit. 

XXXVIII. That in the meantime and until the said pastures shall 
become vested in the corporation under the provisions of this Act, the 
rents and profits thereof, or of such parts thereof as are for the time 
being let, shall be applied in the first place in paying and discharging 
such of the ordinary expenses incurred by the pastures committee in 
carrying into execution Uie powers vested in them and in the freemen 
by this act as the said committee shall direct ; and after paying such 
expenses the surplus of such rents and profits shall be paid to the 
treasurer, to be applied for the benefit of the freemen in the manner 
directed by this Act. 

XXXIX. That after the said pastures shall have become vested in 
the corporation all such monies as shall from time to time be received 
as the purchase money for any part of the pastures, or as by way of fine 
for any lease or disposition thereof or any part thereof, or by way of 
rent or otherwise, shall be paid to the treasurer for the time being 
of the borough, to the credit of the corporation or of the borough fund 
of the borough, and shall be disposed of accordingly, subject neverthe- 
less to the charges thereon created by this Act. 

XL. That in every year commencing on the fourteenth day of 
February the annual sum, if any, then payable by the corporation for 
the benefit of the freemen, and the monies received in respect of the 
yearly rents and profits of the pastures for the time being not vested in 
the corporation, which shall during such year be received for the benefit 
of the freemen, and all other monies which during the same year 
shall have been paid to the treasu^ j^r the benefit of the freemen, 
under the provisions of this Act, shalf'lie applied in the first instance 
in pajrment of the salaries and allowa^es under this Act during 
such year of the town clerk, the treasurer, and the officers ap- 
pointed by the pastures committee, and such other expenses, if any, 
during such year, of carrying this Act into execution, as are not thereby 
otherwise provided for ; and the surplus thereof shall form a fund, to 
be called ** The Freemen's Fund,'* and shall be carried by the treasurer 
to a distinct account accordingly. 

XLI. That the amount of the freemen's frmd for every year com- 
mencing on the first day of April shall be divisible into equal sharei 
between the persons who during such year are the freemen, and shall 
be paid to them, or their respective executors, administrators, or aa- 
aigns, by half-yearly payments, on such days as the pastures committee 
shall from time to time appoint ; and in default of such appointment 
th^ first half-yearly payment thereof shall be made on die fifth day of 



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XXIV 



April in inch jeaXf and the second half-yearly payment thereof ahall he 
nuide on the fifth day of Octoher in the same year ; and if any freeman 
ahall die on any other than one of the said half-yearly days of payment, 
his executors, administrators, or assigns shall he entitled to a propiM*- 
tionate part of the current half-yearly payment from the last half-yearly 
day of payment up to and including the day of such death. 

XLu. That when die pastures or any part thereof, or of the Umu 
moor, shaU have hecome vested in the corporation under the provisioBS 
of this Act, it shall he lawfiil lor the corporation, if they shall think it 
expedient so to do, to get, win, and work limestone on any part of the 
said town moor, and to hum such limestone into lime at any kilns now 
existing or to he made hy the corporation on the pastures, and to sdl 
and dispose of such limestone and lime to any person whomsoever, and 
to pay the monies to he produced therehy, afrer defraying the expenses 
of getting, winning, working, and disposing of such limestone or lime, 
to Uie treasurer of the horough, to the credit of the corporation or of 
the horough fund of the horough. 

XLin. That all excavations which shall he made in any part of 
the town moor for the puipose of getting, winning, and working lime- 
stone shall he filled up wiUi haUast or other proper materials as soon aa 
practicahle, and the surfiEU^ made good ; and if such portion of the 
moor is not intended to he used for huilding purposes, or garden ground 
or plantation, the same AaU he forthwith Idd down in grass, and re- 
stored to the free use and ei^joyment of the puhlic 

XLIV, That, subject to the provisions of this Act, the corporation 
may provide and set out, for the purpose of pleasure grounds or places 
of public resort or recreation, so much and such part or parts ^ the 
said lands called the pastures snd town moor as they may ihmk proper, 
and to be used for such purposes and in such manner as they may di-> 
rect, and may from time to time level, drain, fence, plant, and other- 
wise lay out and improve any such public lands or grounds, or any 
part or parts thereofi for the more convenient use and enjoyment 
thereof. 

XLY. That the powers of the corporation for making and enforcing 
bye-laws under the Act, fifrk and sixUi Victoria, chapter seventy-six, fo 
provide for the r^fulation of municipal corporations in England and 
Wales, shall extend to enable them to make and enforce all such bye- 
laws as may from time to time be necessary for all or any of the fol- 
lowing purposes ; that is to say, 

For carrying into e£fect such regulations and restrictions as the ssid 
pastures committee and corporation shall from time to time de- 
termine for the good rule and government of the pastures snd 
town moor, and for the regulaticm and the occupation and stocking 
of the pastures and town moor, and for determining the number 
and description (d cattle and animals which the freemen respec- 
tively shall depasture in the said pastures, and for the good man- 
agement and occupation of the pastures : 
For preventing encroachments upon the pastures and town moor, or 
any part thereof respectively : 



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XXV 

For regulating the width of the chares used as ways or footpaths : 

For regulating the use of the footpaths across or over the town inoor^ 
and for preventing persons trespassing on the adjoining portions of 
the moor : 

For regulating the use of the public promenades or intlosnres for 

the recreation and general use of the inhabitant^ of the borough 

which may be formed by the corporation upon the pastures or town 

moor : 

And the corporation may, from time to time as they shall think fit, at 

the request of the said pastures committee, reped or alter any such 

bye-laws. 

XLVI. That the portion of the town moor to be used for building 
purposes shall not exceed in the whole three acres, and shall be such 
portions only of the said moor near the boundaries thereof as may be 
conveniently taken off for the purpose of straightening or improving 
such boundaries, and of improving the form of the inclosures or grounda 
to be formed on the said moor : provided always, that it shall not be 
lawful for the corporation at any time to build on any part of the town 
moor without in each case the consent of a majority of the burgesses 
voting at a meeting speciaUy convened for the purposes having been 
previously obtained. 

XLVII. That it shall be lawful for the corporation to apply any 
sum of money which may be paid to the credit of the corporation, or 
of the borough fund of die borough, under the provisions of this Act, 
in executing any works which the corporation may have power to exe- 
cute, for the purpose of preserving the pastures and town moor, or any 
part thereof respectively, from the inroads of the sea, or in contri- 
buting towards the expense of executing any works for the same pur- 
poses which may be undertaken by any other persons or body having 
power to execute or to contribute towards the expense of executing 
the same. 

XLVIII. And whereas the corporation of Hartlepool claim to be 
' entitled to, and, before the year one thousand eight hundred and thirty- 
three, when it fell into abeyance as hereafter mentioned, received a toll 
of one shilling and fourpence from all decked vessels anchoring in or 
otherwise using the harbour of Hartlepool, and with which said toll 
the town or sea walls of Hartlepool aforesaid were repaired and upheld : 
and whereas in such year the said corporation fell into abeyance, and 
ceased to receive the said tolls, and the said town or sea wall feU into 
great decay : and whereas the commissioners of the pier and port of 
Hartlepool, by the Act 1 Vic. c. 78, relating to the said pier and port, 
were authorized, amongst other toUs, to demand and take for every 
decked ship or vessel which should enter the port of Hartlepool, in 
addition to the tolls thereby granted, die further sum of one shilling 
and fourpence per ship or vessel, and from any ship or vessel as afore- 
said entering the said port and harbour other than for the purpose of 
loading or imloading, or driven within the same through danger of the 
seas, stress of weather, or pressure of the enemy, any sum not ex- 
ceed^ one half of the before-mentioned tolls, and the said commis- 



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xxn 



lioAen ty die Mid Ad were andiorised to apply the nid tx^ i 

other purpotet, in keeping Uie town wiUs in xepair : and idierees Her 
Majesty, in the year one tiioosand eight hundred and forty-one, granted 
te the honmgh of Hartlepool a charter of incorporation, omfimiing to 
the said corporation all the rights and jaivileges which they had finu 
merly possessed : and whereas the said commissroners, after the renewal 
of the said charter, ceased to collect the said tolls and to repas tiw 
town walls, and the same tolls have since heen receiyed by the said 
corporation, who hare applied the same in upholding the walls, and 
protecting the town from the encroachments of the sea, and for their 
other purposes, and it is desirable to confirm the said corporation in the 
enjoyment and reception of the said tolls, and to confer upon Aem 
other powers in respect thereof: be it therefore enacted, that after the 
passing of this Act it shall be lawful for the corporation, and sudi per- 
son or persons as they shall appoint in that behalf, to ^^^^^and and 
take, or cause to be demanded and taken, the several tolls followii^ ; 
(that is to say,) 

For or in respect of every decked ship or vessel which shaD enter 
between the existing piers of the harbour of Hartlepool, die «w»^ 
of one shilling and fourpence per ship or vessel ; 
And for every ship or vessel as aforesaid entering the said harbour 
otherwise than for the purpose of loading or unloading, or driveii 
within the same through danger of the seasj stress of weadier, or 
pressure of the enemy, any sum not exceeding one half of the 
before-mentioned tolls : 
Which tolls shall be payable by the master or person in command of 
every such ship or vessel. 

XLIX. That from and after the passing of this Act so much of the 
said recited Act, 1 Vict. cap. 78, as authorises the commissioners of 
the pier and port of Hartlepool to demand and receive the said before- 
mentioned tolls of one shilling and fourpence and eightpence, and aa 
subjects the said commissioners to the maintenance of Uie town walls 
of Hartlepool, shall be and the same is hereby repealed. 

L. That from and after the passing of this Act the corporation shall 
be liable to and shall uphold, repair, and maintain the town walk of 
Hartlepool, and the other works connected therewith necessary to be 
maintained for the protection of the town from the encroachments of tke 
sea, and the tolls by this Act vested in the corporation shall be applied 
for sudi purposes emd incident thereto, and any surplus of such toDs 
which shaU remain after answering the purposes shall be applied to the 
maintenance and protecticm of the hengh and headland ii Hartlepool 
from the inroads of die sea. 

LI. That it shall not be lawful for the corporation to construct any 
works for the maintenance and protection of the heugh and headland eC 
Hartlepool from the inroads of the sea which shall extend below higk 
water mark at ordinary spring tides without the previous C4)nsent ef die 
Lord High Admiral of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ii»- 
land, or the commissioners for exeeoting the office of Lord High Ad- 
miral af (oesaid, for the time being, to be signified in writing under die 



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XXTtt 

hand of d&e secretary of the Admiralty* and then on]y according to bvlA 
plan and nnder snch restrictiona and regnlations aa the said Lord High 
Admiral or the said commissioners for executing the office of Lord 
High Admiral may approve of, such approval heing signified as laat 
aforesaid ; and where any such work shall have heen constructed it 
shall not he lawful for the corporation at any time to alter or extend 
the same, without ohtaining previously to making any such alteration 
or extension the like consent or approval ; and if any such work shaU 
he commenced or completed contrary to the provisions of this Act it 
shall he lawful for the said Lord High Admiral or the said commis- 
sioners for executing the office of Lord High Admiral to ahate and 
remove the same, and to restore the site thereof to its former conditioui 
at the cost and charge of the corporation^ and the amount thereof shall 
he a deht due to the crown, and he recoverable accordingly, with the 
costs of suit. 

LIL That if after working drawings of the said works shall have 
heen submitted to the Lord High Admiral of the United Kingdom, or 
to the Commissioners for executing the office of Lord High Admiral, it 
shall be deemed expedient by him or them to order a local survey and 
examination of such works or of the intended site thereof, the corpora- 
tion shall defray the costs of such local survey and examination, and 
the amount thereof shall be a debt due to Her Majesty from the cor- 
poration, and, if not paid upon demand, may be recovered as a debt due 
to the crown, with the costs of suit, or may be recovered, with costs, as 
a penalty is or may be recoverable from the corporation. 

LIII. That all the clauses and provisions of ** The H arbours, Docks, 
and Piers Clauses Act, 1847,*' with respect to the following matters, 
that is to say. 

With respect to the construction of this Act and any Act incorporated 
therewith. 

With respect to the rates to be taken by the undertakers, except 
sections 25, 26, 27, 31, 32, and 33 ; and 

With respect to the collection and recovery of rates, except sections 
34, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, and 45, 
ShaU, so far as the same are not varied or altered by the provisions of 
this Act, be incorporated with this Act ; and such clauses and provi- 
sions shall extend to the tolls by this Act vested in and authorized to 
be received by the corporation. 

LIY. And with respect to the recovery of damages not specially 
provided for, and of penalties, and to the determination of any other 
matter referred to justices, be it enacted, that the clauses of '* The 
Railways Clauses Consolidation Act, 1845," with respect to the re- 
covery of damages not specially provided for, and penalties, and to the 
determination of any other matter referred to justices, (except the 
clauses directing the application of penalties,) shall be incorporated 
with this Act, and such clauses shall apply to the purposes of this Act, 
and shall be construed as if the word *' Corporation" as defined by this 
Act had been inserted therein instead of the word ** Company." 



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ZXVIU 

LV. And with respect to the application of any penalties or for- 
feitures recovered by yirtne of this Act before any justice acting for or 
exercising the jurisdiction of Justices of the Peace within the borough, 
the application of which is not herein otherwise expressly prorided for, 
be it enacted, that the justices acting for or exercising the jurisdiction 
of Justices of the Peace within the borough by whom any such penal^ 
or forfeiture shall be imposed shall order the same to be paid to the 
treasurer of the borough, to the credit of the corporation or of the 
borough fund, anything in the provisions of the Bailways Claiises 
Consolidation Act incorporated herewith to the contrary thereof not* 
withstanding. 

LYI. That an the costs, charges, and expenses of and attoiding 
the applying for and passing of this Act and incidental thereto shaD be 
paid by the corporation out of any of the funds or property of or under 
the control of the corporation ; and that one-third of the said costs, 
charges, and expenses shall be reimbursed and repaid to the treasurer 
of the said borough, to the credit of the borough fund, and be appli- 
aable to all the purposes thereof by the treasurer of the freemen's fimd, 
out of the monies which shall be received by him under the provisions 
of this Act.^This Act received the Royal Assent on the 30th May, 
1851. 



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I 



XXIX 



BRIDGES ACROSS THE LOCK BETWEEN THE TIDE 
HARBOUR AND THE SLAKE. 

Before the constractioB of the Docks there was a road called Black- 
stones across the Slake, from the east side of the water nearly in a 
direction towards Middleton House ; this road was passable only from 
half-ebb to half-flood. When the Dock and Bailway Company con- 
structed the embankment between their Tide Harbout and the Slake, 
they made it sufficiently broad to carry a public road, thereby giving 
the public access to the town at every state of the tide. 

In this embankment a navigable lock was required to admit ships 
to pass between the Tide Harbour and the Slake, and which rendered 
it necessary to provide a swivel or other moveable bridge, so con- 
structed as to be opened to admit of the free passage of ships. 

To ship the traffic from the Stockton and Hartlepool Line, it was 
necessary to erect a bridge across the lock of greater strength than a 
mere road bridge ; sufficient, in fact, for loaded engines, or heavy trains 
of coal waggons to pass over, and also capable of being opened and 
closed as circumstances might require ; and for this purpose a draw- 
bridge was constructed. 

THE SWIVEL-BRIDGE 

Is an iron arch (described by the annexed cut,) made in two halves, 
or moveable parts, capable of being opened and closed by each haljf 
being turned horizontally round about a quarter of a circle, upon a 
pivot or centre fixed upon each of the sides of the lock, which form the 
abutments of the bridge ; and for the purpose of obtaining power 
to move it, each part has a cogged circular arc attached, in connec- 
tion with which, cogged wheels and pinions (or what are generally 
termed spur and bevel gear,) are made to work ; each half of the bridge 
being properly balanced, and guided by rollers, is capable of being 
opened and closed with ease, by two men turning the handles of the 
machinery above described. 

THE DRAW^BRIDGE 

Is also made of iron, which, for the purpose of the Railway, is neces- 
sarily a level platform ; and not being at all on the principle of an 
arch, is required to be supported by braces, when in its horizon- 
tal position. This bridge is (for the purpose of being opened and 
closed,) also divided into two moveable parts ; and when opened, each 
part, as may be seen by the annexed plate, is raised from a horizontal, 
to nearly a vertical position : each platform being properly balanced 
may be opened and closed easily by the power of four men, modified 
by the means of wheel-work, as in Uie case of the other bridge. 



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MACHINES FOR DISCHABGINa BALLAST FROM THE 
SHIPS. 

These machines are materially different from those previously rued, 
for that purpose, at other coal ports. Common cranes, worked hy horses 
or steam power, were the means generally used in discharging ships' 
ballast 

On referring to the accompanying plate, it will be seen that the tubs 
used in discharging the ballast are projected over the ship by means of 
a moveable frame, upon the upper end of which a sheave is placed, and 
upon the top of a stationary frame another sheave is also fixed ; these 
sheaves carry the chain which connects the tubs with the moving 
power, which is a small steam engine. The moveable frame above- 
mentioned, is placed upon an axle at its lower end, and made to de- 
scend from an erect to a horizontal position, projecting the tub over the 
centre of the ship, during the time of lowering it into the hold. When 
the tub is filled and in progress of being raised, a ball which is placed 
upon the chain is brought in contact with the upper end of the move- 
able frame, and raises it again from a horizontal to a vertical position ; 
and thus brings the loaded tub directly above a hopper into which the 
ballast is discharged. The tubs are, by this means, brought above 
the waggon during their ascent, and above the ship in their descent, by 
the same operation, and without the application of any other power ihan 
the small engine above-mentioned. 

In the taking out of ballast as above described, it is only necessary 
that the engine shall work during the time of the tub's ascent from the 
ship ; the descent being by its own weight, by disengaging the drum 
(upon which the chain is wound,) from the engine by means of a lever 
and regulating its speed by a friction break. 

COAL DROPS. 

Coal ** Drops" are used for lowering laden waggons from a higher to 
a lower level, and again raising the empty waggons to their first posi- 
tion. The difference between high and low water in the Hartlepool 
harbour, especially in the tidal basin, renders such an operation indis- 
pensable. The means by which this object is attained, as may be seen 
by the annexed design, is by placing a loaded waggon upon a frame or 
cradle attached to the end of the moveable double lever ; to the other, 
the upper end of which, is fixed a heavy weight to counterbalance 
the waggon. At the same end of the lever are attached two circular 
cogged arcs, which work in connection with two cogged pinions, placed 
upon the axle of two friction wheels, upon which breaks are applied by 
the person in charge of the drop, and by whom the action of the machine 
is regulated. The motion is given by the weight of the coals and waggon 
preponderating over the counterweight, during their descent from the 
railway to the ship ; and the preponderance of that weight over the 
same waggon when the coals are discharged in its return. 



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