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♦ •» 







VoUitiie XII— i8t><>. 


ANriKNT Pii'Bii KKoM Mkxico, Frontinpiec*' 

Tub Lk4*kniih of ihk MicMA«*i>. By Kev. S. T. Kaini, ;i 


Dou:;!^'**!. IlluHtratiMl, - - 14 

i'urF-DwBixBRM IN Morocco, .... 05 

Tub M«>mumbnt« <»f tub Stonb A<5B. By Stephen I). IVet. 

liiUHUBUMi, ...... .ju 

Ci»RKBi«PONDBNCB. — MouutiM in Califomift, by George W. 
Suswart; Cliff-Dwelleni' Relics, by W. H. S.; An 
Ancient Amphitheater in Central France, by Prof. 
J. D. Butler ; Prehintoric Indian Evidences in Louin- 
iana, by R. A.Wallace; The iluida-kwul-ra, or Native 
Tobacco of the Queen Charlotte llaidas, by JameH 
Deans ; Prehistoric Implements from the Hills near 
DunsUbUs by Worthington <«. Smith; The Last De- 
scendant of Uncas, by McDonald Furman, 42 

Kditorial — Historic and Prehistoric Relics, and How They 

are to be Distinguished ; DeaU^m in Bogus Relics, 52 

Tub Path of Souiji. A Poem. By Harriet Newell Swan- 
wick, 61 

LiTSRABT N0TB8. — Bubastis, Iron Age Relics, Skulls from 

Moonda, Pipes and Pottery, • »*>*i 

Book Rbvibws. — Old Heroes, the llittites of the Bible, by 
Rev. J. N. Fradenbnrg, D. D., Ph. D.; Three Dramas 
of Karipidea, by William Cranston Lawton; Wyndham 
Towers, by Thoman Bailey Aldrieh ; The History of 
Ancient CiviliKVtion, e<lited by Rev. J. Verschoyle, 
M. A., Indian Place Names in East Hampton, Their 
Probable Signification, by William Wallace Tt>oker; 
Boy Travelers in Mexico, by Thos. W. Knox, 64 

Books Rucxitbd, ...... ^0^ 



Suoui Loi^F Rock, Mi.ckini.w, - -67 

Thx Rxuoion of the Indians of Puost Sound. By Rev. 

M. EelU, ...... 60 

CLnrF-DwsLLSBs jlsd tosib Wobkh. By Stephen D. Peet. 

IlloBtrated, ...... 55 

C0BBB8PONDBNCB. — Mounds in Florida, by A. B. Douglass ; 

Finds in Nicaragua, by J. C. Crawford, • 105 

EDrroBiLL.— How Shall We tell What are Native Myths? • 113 
LiTKBABT N0TB8. — Discoveries in Athens ; Dolmens and 

Cromlechs, Who Built Them? Etruscans Turanians ; 

The Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley ; 

Ohio Archnolofical Quarterly ; Popular Science 

Monthly ; The American Anthopologist, - 114 


Pbactical and Rkmgious Uhbs of tub Effigies, • iii> 

LiifouisTic JLHD KTiiNOGBAniic NoTEH. — Ilistory of Amer- 
ica's Discovery ; The Discovery of the Ancient City 
of Norumbcga ; Blackfoot language ; Recent Arti- 
cleM by Dr. Franz Boas ; An Ancient Mexican Head- 
dress; The Country of the Old Iluaxtecs ; Chiapanec 
I^anguage ; Portuguese DiscoverieH in Columbus* 
Time; The Anti Language of Ka^ern Peru; Stone 
Implements ; The Ausland ; Roman Jargons, - 1 20 

Book Reviews. — The Cireular, S4]uare and Octagonal Earth 
WorkH of Ohio, by Cyrus Thomas. The IVoblem of 
the Ohio Mounds by Cyrus Thomait. Fort Ancient, 
the Great Prehistoric Earth Work of Warren County, 
Ohio, )»y Warren K. Moorehead. Mountaineering in 
Colorado, by Fre<ivrick II. Chapin. Annnal Report 
of the Canadian Institute, • ISO 



Tub S1.CBKD Knclosurbs of Ohio. By Stephen D. Peet. 

Ii;u8trsted, • - • -131 

Tub Coming of tiib Wbitb Mi.n RBVBALBD^Dream of the 
White Robe and Floating Island. By Rev. Silas T. 
Hand, ...... 155 

Thb BBAUTiPtTL Bbidb. By Rev. Silas T. Rand, -156 

Hntis OF THB IiTDiANs OF PuQBT SouHD. By Rev. H. 

Sells, ...... 160 

Pbbfobatbd Skulls from Hichiqi.n. Frederick Starr, 166 

CoxPABiBON OF Rbucs IK Nbw York akd Oktabio. By 

W. M. Beaachamp. Illustrated, • 167 

CoRBBsroiTDBHCB. — The Source of Jade, by Granville T. 
Pierce; Location of Mounds in Wisconsin, by A. A. 
Young; Who First Made Maple Sugar? by William 
Nye Smith; Negro Slavery Among the South Caro- 
lina Indians, by McDonald Furman; Ash Heaps and 
Stratified Mounds in Ohio, by S. II. Brinkley ; ^^Daven* 
port Ware,** by Mrs. Louise Palmer Smith, • - 174 

EDrroBiAL. — Did the Boomerang Precede the Bow and 

Arrow, ...... i79 

LrrBBABT NoTBs. — Mr. Cresson Again; Stone Mortarv, 184 

ABcaJK>LOOicaL Notbs. — Broken Relics; Pottery Find in 
Florida; A Walled Village; Distribution of the 
Effigy Mounds; Altar Mounds; Stone Idols; Serpent 
Effigies, 185 

Book Rbtibws — Essays of an Americanist, by Daniel 6. 

Brinton, A. M., M. D., 180 



View Down Cliff Casus, ■ UH 

ClJFF-r)wKi.LiN<is OF TiiK Manc'oh Cason. \\\ Frtnierick 

If. Chapiii. IlhiwtratiMi, ... \*m 

TiiK Grkat Sbkfknt am* Otiikk KpFHiiKN. By Stephen I). 

P«M»i. IlluMtrateil, • - -Ml 

Pabi.k Aiiorr Ckratinij thk Animai>. *i:f».» 

CoRKF^i*(».M>KNCK. — M«'fhanic Art in ihe Stone Age, by 
(teorge \V. Ilayex; Who Firi*t Made Maple Sugar? 
hy H. C; Uncommon li^Oio from Ohio, by S. H. 
Brinkley, ..... .j:iO 

KiUTOKiAf.. — The Snake Clan** Amon^ the Dak<»tAii. lllun- 

tr.ited, - - - - •.>:;: 

AiK'H.fcoiAxiirAi. NoiKr*. — The Serpent Kfti^jy in Illinoiii; 
<'ompanf«4»n oi Serpent Kffii^iei*; The BinI Mound; 
SaintK and Si*ieiiti«t«; I)eBry, • 24 ; 

Hook Hf.vikws. \a\v ljue<>tion««, by .l«»hn Altt^eM. (lem^ 
and Prei'HMi* Stoiie«> nf North Am«-ri«*a, hv ^teorge 
Fredenrk Kiinz, .»!< 





Rbugb. By Stephen D. Peet. Illustrated, • -251 

Stmbousm Among thb Dolmxnh and Standing Stonbs or 

Pbancb. By Prof. a. S. Paokmrd, - 27:{ 

Olooscap, Cubkw and Coolpurjot. By Rev. Silas T. 

Randy - a^.j 

Corbbiipondbncb. — Oarden-Beds and Stone Idols, by Will- 
iam T. Canfield; Lookouts Among the EfBf^y Houndv, 
by John O. Bryan; Jade in America, by ReT. H. 
Eells; Randolph's Indian Blood, by McDonald Far- 
man; Moond Bonals in Illinois; An Ancient City in 
New Mexico, ..... ^87 

EDrroRiAL. — Quivira, the Phantom City; Druidic Worship 

in Pr^Colambian America, 393 

AmcH^ieoLOGiCAL Notbs. — Novel Pipes, Bones in a Gravc*l 

Bed; A Pigmy Race, .... :\o% 

LiNOUiimc AND Etbnograpbic Notbh. — lx>Qghrid€s EmiU* 
Petitot, Capt. George M.Wheeler's Oeographical lie- 
port. Guslar Songs, Art Among the Dayaks, The 
Kimbundu Language. By Albert S.Gstschet, :iU4 

K Rbtibws. — The Antiquities of Tennessee and the Ad- 
jacent States, an<l the State of Aboriginal Society, 
and the State of Civilixatiou Represented by Them, 
by Gates P. Thruston. Physiogomy in Expression, 
by Paolo Mantgex&a. Quintessence of Socialiitm, by 
Prof. A. Schaffle. The Life and Timcn of Ephraim 
Catler, by his daughter, Julia Perkins Cutler, iOh 



Zodiacal Cbbonoloot. A Syllabus of % Work in Madu- 

Boript. By O. D. Miller, • -313 

Tbb Stoks Oravx Pbopul By Stephen D. Peet Illus- 
trated, ...... 329 

TiiK Ruins op Iximciib. By Qostav Bmhl, M. D.» LL.D., 345 

C0&&X8PONDSNCK. — Ancient Stone Forts in Indiana, by E. S. 

Edmunds, ...... 349 

EDrroRUL — Phallio Worship and Fire Worship; Mound- 
builders and Ancient Mexicans; Museums and Soci- 
ties; Collectors and Writers, .... 35i 

Abcujbological NoTBs—ElephantTrunks and Cobra Heads; 
Prehistoric Cave-dwel lings; Ancient Dwellings on 
the Rio Verde; Chatauqua; The Nampa Image, • :fO:> 

Book Rkvikwh.— The Cherokees in Pre-Columbian Times, 

by Prof. Cyrus Thomas, .... n«;T 



American ^ntxqxvdxxnn. 

Vol. XII. Jaxiary, 1S90. No. i. 

By Rkv. Silas T. Rand. D.D., LL.D. 

In prqxiring a paper on the legends of the Micmacs. I will 
begin with a lew historical reminiscences. In the year 1846 my 
acquaintance with the Indians began. At that time I was in- 
duced to attempt to learn their language. I soon, however, found 
that the difficulties were even greater than I had counted on. I 
was upon the point of giving the matter up in despair, as others 
had done before me. when I met, one day. in the market square 
in Charlottetown, where I resided at the time, a white man among 
the Indians, who had lived as the Indians lived, and had so done 
for about (orty years. He spoke good English, understood 
French, and could use the Micmac with equal readiness. He 
was a man of intelligence, and I found him able and willing to 
render me assistance. When I mentioned an ordinary English 
word, he understood it and could give me its equivalent in Mic- 
mac. The ensuing winter he came to my house and remained 
several weeks (for he had removed his family further from the 
town), and gave me instruction. From this man and his family 
I learned much about the character, customs and manners, habits 
and language of the Indians. I le could not recite their legends, 
but he told me about them, and thus excited my curiosity. He 
informed me that a woman named Susan, a relative of his wife — 
who was an Indian squaw — could relate any amount of them, 
and that she had learned them from her father, who rejoiced in 
the title of doctor, he being an expert in the healing art. 

I was afteruard introduced to this woman and made an ar- 
rangement with her to tell me some of these legends. She 
began by telling me one in Indian, which my friend the Frcnch- 

•AMptr rwdbtfort tiM Norm HcoUa Hlttorleml Roclety. tn the AMemblj Ball, 
iUtlC;V!C. A^ Apfll t. MM. 


man interpreted into Iuiy;lish. It was a wild, weird affair. It 
told ol [giants, of man-eatiTs, of love, jealousy, and murder, anil 
all the particulars that go to make a slory interesting' U* ycain^' 
people. I >ubse(|uently wrote out the story at Susan's dictation. 
I found that she had it all by heart, the words as well as the 
substance, and she could take up the broken thread at any point 
anil ''o on with the st<»rv. I had onlv to read over the lew last 
words I had succeeded in taking d«»wn. and she could j;ive me 
the next word, and wait till I had secured that, and then j;ive 
me the next. As I hail t<i take tiown the w<»r(U dflen by piece- 
meal, one syllable at a time, it was often no trilliUj^^ ta>k.and she 
Wnuhl often have t«) e.xercise no little patience, .is well as my- 
self, befiiie we could go on to the next wcird. It co-it me two 
who whole days «»f pretty h.ird labor before I >iicceeded in 
writing out the whole st<)ry. I wrote out subsequentiy a nuin- 
brr m()re from Susan's dict»ition. Then frienti lot- _ .ive ine the 
I'jiglish. which I carefully interlined. As I n<»w li.i! portion- 
of Indian com|>o».ition, I was prepared to write out a v-'C.ibu!ary 
and begin my Micmac dict!<»nary am! grammar 

The gre.iter portir»n I'f the<i- "legend.iry remains " were written 
iiut at tw'st. not m Indian, t)ut m I-]n':ii>h. In hearin*' tliem and 
cnm!nittwig them to writing I wa^ .ic» • mj);>h:ng ^i Acra! imjurt- 
ant obircts I was becoming bettrr acnainted with Micmai. 
.in<i WM> perf inning an a» t of simt.I,.- juNtic to tlu Indiins. a:vi 
t«i the wlute people a> well, in jne^tixing -"me of ti.i- native 
literature '»f this regii»M Ni»i man\' «•: lii- Induiri^ cm tell 
the'*e -^t'Tie^, .ind the^t ar«- ci»n::n'!v I'li'wn/ m»»r« ^carce. 
What 1^ d*»ri* in tin- luatti r mi:-t be lii-i'.e ..! »n«.c. •! tiK 
opp'irlunity w«Mi'.d In l<>-t. 

I never l'n:nd .m Indian. e:tin r m.i:i -i w-'tmii. who wn:i!i: 
undert.iki' i** ti !1 i»ne «'i tlu-M- '.:*'i.e-- ::i l;r.. !.-li I iie.ird tlu-n*. 
relat' d in a!! ca-^e*- :n M:i in it I u-i:a!!y l..ii! j";!i. ink an : 
p.ip- T at liaT^d. Il I ciu'.e t" .1 wi»:ci I dui !:■•! i:ni'. rNtaiid. I 
I ■ '.lit! st"p the spr.i' '"t »!-»'An ti*. wnpl \\\\\i its meanin.;. and 
in.ikr a f< w- iitln r br irt n'-:- s. .mi •;:• n v.!.*- ui ijie story :n 
I.n/l. h fii'tn meisiorw aidi-i ^\ tli'- bruf n tt s I h.n! i;: i<!e 
Hut th!> n-'t .i!I I .i!wa\ r .nl ■ vr: :: *■ «.:.•: v in lin ''>h t«j 
thi- unr ul'.ii [• i.iV '! II. .111"! :: i :- a'.'. i\ ' • ■ -.i:y t :: . V iiur:-. It 
li-H s n'»t n tjuiTf mu< ii l.n"W ! .:.;• ■ : ui h i::,ii:' r** !•■ be .ib!«- t- ■ 
iinti- vt.irjii li- w .in, w!..' 1ms .::•'. ti » ral*"*- an:-.:.iint.inci 
with I-.n.;':sli. r iiid ^r'-i'-r-tan-i a st- :y \\\\i wliuh l.i w.i^* 
tami I i! . wi.i :) ii id !■• \:'.r.\ m ! ini'u.i ' . even thou, h he 
I!i:l'1;! :i ! b'" <;■.;:!■■ (Ill: :•' t' i:: tM ft ; e. it i: III 1 m.I.n;i but i«u"..: 
jn h: t-w n " !:i--!!;rr t n. '■ 

I Im\'.- n\rr I" Ml! ni- r«- ! fr.e "r si\^ w !•.•> »j».;]d 
fi !.i!- t;.' s- i;'.i rr st ::<■,. in'! tli m-'st, ii n**! a!!, ••! ti:e-'' art 
n- w ■ ■:•' W!:-' th- :r ■ r: in i! .i:;!!iiirs wiye. t-r l;.»\v i-!<I tl.ev 


were, wr |-..iv n»» meariN c»| k'l'twin-' Soir.e •■! them , ire. '\ - 


dcntly, of modern date, because they refer to events that have 
taken place since the advent of the whites. Some of them are 
so similar to someof our (»ld Kuro|X'an ** fairy tales" and "wizard 
stories", as told in our Kn^li^h "stor>'-books". as to lead to the 
impression that they are really one and the same. I once pub- 
lished one of them in a Canadian magazine, which was noticed 
by a gentleman livin^j on Prince Ivhvard Island, who yavc what 
seemed to be a very fair duplicate of Muro|K*an orij^in. He sug- 
gCNted that the Indianis had learned it from some Kiiropean; and 
that my version was simply the Indian modification of the story 
alter passing through many hands. To me this did not seem 
wholly imj>ossible or improbable. I have heard a "tom-fool" Indian 
story which, in its outlines, though not in its details, is marvel- 
ouslv like the one with which wc used to be entertained in our 

The beautiful story of Cinderella and the (ila*<s Slipper is said 
to be of Kgyptian origin — and somewhere I have .seen what pur- 
ported to l>e the original; but I have one in my collection of 
Indian legends fully as interesting and as much like the original 
as is the one related in English story-books. 

Having no clue for fixing dat'*s I have no objection to the 
theor>', should it be entertained, that many of these stories are 
of modern date. Some of them, as already intimated, are mani- 
festly so. All I claim is that in every case I wrote them out in 
substance as I heard them related by Indians. I had no hand 
in their manufacture. 

I must mention a slight exception. — Mr. Charles Inland, a 
clever American writer, who published, recently, a volume of 
•'Algonkin Legends", extracted mainly from my collection — 
for which he gave ample credit — in relating the stor>' of a ma- 
gician, a mighty hunter, who had made the strap with which he 
fastened the to his shoulders out of a /*ii'ci of a rainbtKc, 
criticises severely the author of the stor>' for cutting up the beau- 
tiful strap. He should have wound the whole rainbow around 
the neck and shoulders of his hero. L'nfortuatcly I had no op- 
portunity of seeing his volume before its publication, or I could 
have easily corrected this, and shown that the author of the story, 
whoever he be. did not make the blunder ; that the reporter had 
•'tampered with the speech", and that the error was one of trans- 
mission and not in the original. 

I may here give a brief summary of what the legends contain. 
We have all sorts of wild impossible adventures. Animals that 
have all the powers and properties of men ; monstrous birds and 
serpents; a bird called AcuIIck). an exact congener in size of the 
(ablcd Roc. of Arabian mythology; an immense seri>ent called 
ClufiUh'<alm, exactly described in the "Encycloj>edia of Relig- 
ious Knowledge", by Rev. S. B. Edwards, as edited by Rev. 
J. Norton Brown, under the article Dragon, in describing the 


"dragons of the hills and mountains'* of India. The Indians 
seem to be very positive that there really exists such a monster 
in this countr>', although I have never met one who would posi* 
tively Jiffirm that he had seen it. jCThey believe in magic, in 
witches, wizards and fairies, and omens and signs. Their fairies 
are exactly like those of Kuropcan folklore. They are very 
small, and live in cavrs or burrow in the ground; they generally 
remain quiet by day. but come out in the night, to revel and 
dance and do mischief, and perform wonderful feats. If you 
should happen to offend them and they give chase, you make 
for the nearest brook, and if you can succeed in reaching the 
further bank, you are .sate. For like those 

"In Hriton*?« Nl«» in ArtlnirV <!ayH 
Wlien niiilniu'iit fiiiri(**i iLmi'tii the niazt*." 

And like the Scotch witches in the time of "Tam O'Shanter'*, 
"a running stream they dare not cross"; or as Sally Taul ex- 
pres>ctl it, in a style much less poetical, "they don't like to wet 
their feel." 

(.)nf of these fclhjws seems to have been a pretty near relation 
i»f our *'Pnik" i^v*"Kol>ifi <ti>oti-/tIi\n>.'*\ Rather a gooti frllow he 
is *»upposed to l)e. -^o far as I can learn, t«) have around, if you 
keep tile ri^Oit si<le of him. Hut he is smnewhat font! of fun, 
and tif enjoying a joke at th'* expen^-e «'f others. He is invisible 
and c«»nns nrvin;' .iround «»tien uhen \»ui are verv biisv — when 
vou are in .i ••icat hurrv and «'xciteil and ner\'OUS 
w.lha! — and snatchrs u;» ^i»nietiiing that \-ou are continually in 
ne« .1 of. and slips it aw.iy ; dirertly y<ni want the article, but it 
i> utiwliere to be found. Vou tuni[)!e ihingH around in your 
search, and /et vexed Ih-cmms.' v<»u cannot lav vour hami on it: 
AnA after Ur iia*' lujoyed \'t-nr eniSairassinent tor a little, he slips 
it ba. k.and lo * :•» \ ourastonivimu tit. tiiere it is right before you, 
in plain Mydit. He is callet! /\/i'y^'if\t;:;:/\ which indicates tliat he 
IS .1 v«ry little fellow, but lias a li-ng neik. I Ic eomcs around 
in the form <'f .i little bird. I translate the word /i//in l.i'rtj^9ttrl\ 

riieii st^rir^ aboi:nd in .s' '•"•'■'*. •*" ' the^e corresj)ond in evcr>" 
particular with the horrid mon'^i.-is i»f Ivjropean folklore Mven 
thi-name Ko'»k\\r^ «)r (jon^wrss, >.r « nisetym«'li»gicall\' connected 
with ::i^.is. the (ireek term tt>r a ^': rf:.\ from which tlie I^itin .<•-/- 
i;f/w/rv. useti '»nly in th<* plaral. an«l our Kii..;lish term are evi- 
dent Iv derivfd. (or at all events witli which thev are ct»nnectcdV 

Hoth m (ireck and in is a word of two syllables, each 
i>f wliii h bc'^ms and cniis with a i:ke consonant in each language. 
That th<*se and similar fabuiou*- iK-ings were n(»t imi)ortcd from 
Ivar<»pe. but an* '.imuine ".ibi-rigines". "natives of the soil", 
seems * Icar from tlie:r tutrnts These names are not foreign, but 
genuine Indian. They call the fairies uig-gOl-lAd-dOm-mooch- 
kik. ant! thi> one, whose pranks have tx-cn here |>articuUrly 
de-cribed, they call Ame-ske-bajee-j:t. 


Among their fabled beings is one called Micgiimoocsoo, very 
much resembling the fawns or dryads of classic lore. They re- 
side in the woods. They sin^ in a most enchanting manner, and 
play on the pi[)e — pepoogwokim (the Micmac word {ox fifi\ flute 
or any wind instrument). They are invisible, but show them- 
selves occasionally to deserving hunters, whom they wish to 
favor, and they always bring him good luck. They generally 
appear under the form of a beautiful woman (as our painters are 
wont to "draw*' the angels). She meets him, salutes him pleas- 
antly, and invites him to her lodge. She treats him hospitably, 
teaches him to sing and to play the flute, and aids him in his 
hunting ex|)edition. But he must show himself worthy of her 
regard; he muU keep his humble distance. She allows no lib- 
erties to be taken , if he in any way offends her. she banishes him 
at once. 

In one of their tales a j)Oor orphan boy, who had the misfor- 
tune to be vcr>' ilMooking and awkward, and was looked down 
upon and shunned, especially by the fair sex. and who found it 
ver>' difficult to support his aged grandmother, who had cared 
for him when a child, was so fortunate as to fall in with one of 
these "nymphs of the woods" in one of his hunting excursions. 
He remained in her company, on two occasions, for a year at a 
time, though to him it seemed only a few days. The result was 
that he returned to his village entirely changed. He was no 
longer either lazy, awkward, or ugly. He was handsome, a 
swcrt singer, a splendid player on the flute, and he h«id with the 
a.ssistance of his fair friend brought in such loads of venison as 
afforded a supply to the whole village for a long time. The 
MiggQmoocsoo had assisted in bringing his load only to the out- 
skirts of the village. \% hence, at his request, bands of young men 
went out and brought it in. The haughty young ladies, who had 
formerly looked down upon him, now changed their tune, and 
began to ''set their caps" for him. The chief. \%ho had several 
marriageable daughters, by whom he had been treated with con- 
tempt on a former occasion, now sent him a friendly message, 
inviting him to visit his family. But he did not feel dis{K)sed to 
return good for evil, nor to forget kindnesses that had been 
shown him. A poor widow, with several daughters as poor as 
herself, who lived on the outskirts of the village, h«id treated 
him kindly in former and darker days. To them he now directed 
his steps, and chose a companion from among them. 

An honest and intelligent old Indian woman of my acquaint- 
ance — Nancy Jeddre — assures me that she has heard these wood 
o>'mphs sing many a time. She says: "You go out into the 
woods when all is still, and walk around or work until you get 
pretty tired, and a little sleepy withal, then sit down on a log and 
rest, and listen, and soon you hear strains ot the most enchant- 
ing music." 


But their most important supernatural personage they call 
Clooscap. He constantly figures in their legends. Many of 
them seem still to believe that there was and is such a being. 
He was supposed to be of celestial origin. He was immortal, 
possessed of miraculous powers, and was the friend and teacher 
of the Indians, and ready to help in every time of time. 

Another remarkable personage of the Indian folklore they call 
Koolf'ijot, •* rolled over by means of a hand-spike." He is a 
great medicine man ; he has no bones, always lies out in the 
open air, and is rolled over from one side to the other twice a 
year, during spring and fall. An intelligent Indian once sug- 
gested to me that this was a ti^^urative representation of the 
revolution of the seasons. He can do wonders with his eves 
and l)reath. And this seems to confirm my Indian friends's ex- 

In some of these legends there is no small amount of poetic 
ima,;ination. The different kinds of animals, for instance, arc 
spoken of as different tribes. Thus they have the moose, the 
bears, f i.xes, raccoons, otters, martins, rats and mice, as well as 
birds, and even fishes, j)aitridges, crows, loons and whales, etc., 
and these tribes have the peculiarities of the animals whose 
names they l>ear. The otters are a very pi<»us and honest sit. 
They never trespass upon their neighbors nor steal. 1 hey are 
a hard-working class of fiNhernun, who pitch their tents on the 
banks of rivers, and are clad in lK\'!utilul soft black r* bes Not 
-SO the foxes ant! raccoons, the r.its and the mice. These are 
very dishone-t. .iiul do not hesitate to appropriate to their own 
»:se whatever tluv can lav hands on. And the rats and mice 
love to make their depredati«»ns in the ni;^ht. under c<»ver of the 
darkrU-^N, that tlnv mav escape iletection. for tliev area cowardiv 

In one of ihesr stf»ries, Mrs Tartridge. w ho has a large family 
of (.hj'.thcn to care for. instructs th<ni hr-w to keep out of the 
way of Mr I'*«\ when tb.« y st i* h«m r«>rning. Iheymuvt run 
i:|» st.rrs and hide. Now ihi-* j^ <juite a p<H tical delmeatpn of 
the fict that the >'<»ung j>artrhi^'« s cm lly .i!in<»Nt as soon a-* lluy 
are I"..itche<!. .in»i .ui' taught f)> m-^tiiut !•» lly up into the trees 
an-! . nceal tiienisil\es when tiny see m\ tmmy aj^proai li;rg. 

Il'-re is a de^cript:<»n <»f the manner in whirh some f»f the birds 
bu;M til* ir rt .ts : A nu'iil)' r <•! w-inif-n are ppres«nted as con- 
•^i.-t-'^; !' '.;• ti:«r .is to \\\r b'-st iuann« r • f building tluir wigwams. 
Mr-* I'l.i't.n r* c- iiuiieru's tii< in t*- b:.!t! hi,;h. but with op.en !at- 
tu work MiN N ^ht Hawk ^ee^ no necessity for fjuilding at 
w\\ Hrr li.ii len i.m d«» \rry wel! a slu.'ter tiuiing the 
warm rams t»f ^ :mm r, ,ind lj-f''»- the c-'d -! rmN of autumn 
come on. ^he ini.^ratri %\.tii tlurn to .i milder c.iniate. Mrs. 
P: eon aN«» -'ne^ it as a rr.i>.n whv sh«' netd w%\ make her 
h"'.>e verv ti/ht. tl*.at thev leave tin- coimtrv at an earlv !K*riod, 

THK lk<;ends of the micmacs. 9 

a$ soon as the berries are all gone. But Mrs, Partridj^e, who 
has much the largest family, says she never leaves the countr>', 
and she builds low, m some snug concealed place, so that her 
enemies will find it difficult to discover her residence. 

Here is the summar>' of a tale that would supply all the mate* 
rials for an epic poem. It describes the adventures of two re* 
markable heroes, named Aoolftmsiln, Rushing Wind, and Utkoo. 
Rolling \VaVi\ They are brothers; but Rushing Wind is the 
elder of the two. They can each perform astonishing feats in 
his own sphere; but they work best together, the one assisting 
the other. They arc fond of each other, and generally go in 
conijiany. They plan an excursion in which they expect to be 
j^one from home some years. Their parents are old .ind infirm, 
and they will not leave them destitute and dependent during their 
absence, so Rushing Wind betakes himself to the forest, where 
he easily succeeds in slaughtering a good number of animals by 
throwing down trees upon them; while Rolling Wave goes a 
fishing and brings in a bountiful supply from the abundance of 
the seas, and of the treasures hid in the sand. They now bid 
good-bye to the **old folks at home", and start off on a seven 
years* trip. In a few days they arrive at a village where a chief 
resides, and engage to work as his servants for a short time. 
Being questioned as to what they can do. they honestly confess 
that they know little about the employment of ordinary mortals, 
but they can bring in the vast resources of the air and the sea. 
They stipulate that they shall not be separated, but be allowed 
to work in company. Their services are secured, and in a few 
days they have brought in fowl and fish sufficient to supply the 
village lor a long time. So they are paid off and dismissed, their 
employer being well satisfied with his bargain. 

But the winds and waves can do evil as well as good, and this 
important fact must be illustrated in our stor>'. And so our ad- 
venturers, just for the fun of the thing, must give, before they 
leave the place, an exhibition of their power to do mischief. To 
this end Rushing Wind bursts out into a regular cyclone, send- 
ing the tents flying in all directions; and Rolling W'ave rushes 
up in a tidal wave, over the flying debris, and they destroy in 
one short hour more than all the good they could have done in 
years. Pleased with the feat they have performed, they go re- 
joicing and laughing on their way. They are away srirn uttrs. 

The number seven has a mysterious and magical significance; 

^ a medicine, for instance, compounded of seven /farJts or roo/s is 

sup(>o5cd. as I have been assured, to be very potent, and then 

the most j)otent of all medicines is one comp<.)unded o{ snrn such 


But we return to our narrative: In the course of their pcri- 
grinalions, our heroes come on to a village, where they see a 
number of young womrn. who take their attention, and they are 


reminded of the main design of the expedition, which is to secure 
each a good wife. They are particularly attracted by two sisters, 
whose mother is a p>oor widow, and apply to her. not to the girls, 
who have no say in the matter. But the mother objects. Her 
two girls are her main dependence, and she cannot sj>are them. 
Finally, she consents to let one of them go, "but," she tells them, 
••you must go to one of the other families for the second". But 
they argue: "We are two brothers, closely united [like the Siam- 
ese Twins of our day] and we can not be separated." And this 
is exactly the case with your two girls, one of which was named 
Wibbiin, Calm on the Sea, and the other. Kogum, Sea Foam, 
the froth that gathers on the water during a dead calm, but 
which is instantly dissipited by the slightest agitation of the sur- 
face. "These two sisters, so closely joined by natnre, must not 
be separated", and as they engage to provide for the old lady, as 
well as for their own parents, she thinks better of it and con- 
cludes to accept the offer, and gives her consent. Rushing 
Wind chooses Calm on the Sea; and Rolling Wave takes to his 
bosom Sea F'oam. 

Then follows, as is the custom in all ages, nations and condi- 
tions, the wedding festival, after which they take their wives with 
them, and return home. They find the old lolks still living, 
hale and hearty, and they are welcomed back with every express- 
sion of joy. 

But the course of true love docs not alwciys flow smo4ith!y in 
fable or in reality. The moral of the marriage remams la be 
shown. Rushing Wind and his better half. Calm on the Water, 
do not always agree in their views and plans, neither do Rolling 
Waves .md his beloved Sea Foam, on all occasions, "pull together". 
This calls forth a seasonable and sensible admonition from the 
mother-in-law. to the effect that there can never be a real quar- 
rel without the consent of two parties. Calm on the Water, for 
instance, has considerable |)o\\er to keep (juiet in the vis inerti.e. 
She nerd n<it g»t ruffled at ever>' little bree/e that blow>. By a 
little exertion at x-lfrestraint she can keep still and smot»th till 
the little gust is over. And *••> of ."^e.i l'\»am. She n 'cd not 
become agit.i!r<!, jumj) up an<i run .iw.iy. at e\cry little ajMtation 
f»f th<* unstable Bill<»\\ Caj» !t^s<»nN ti.t'-e. .uu! vapital illus- 
trati«*ns. ti» whith ue all wouM li • wi!! :i» t.ike heed. 

The tuuralive and poetual ^^i^^-n. finance I't the whole aIIegor>" 
are so jil.iin that they nerd nt.l b-.- partK ularly p^'intcd ont In 
addition t<t thf curious fables of the kinils nlerred to. they have 
handed down l»y trai!iti»»n ac^.i.unts nf their <;u.irrels with neigh- 
boring tribes and tluir uhit*.- invaders, their wars and battles, with 
the cxploitsof null V. till. li*. And the***- are. i'ener.illv. freelv inter- 
larded with fe.its i.f m.i^;ic And tl:e Micmac^ haw the infirmity 
€»f all othir nations. es|M-cia:Iy the Kn'^li^'h. the American**, the 
S».««l« h and the French, in ileemin-^' themselves I>ettf r. brighter 


and braver than all others put together. In all their conflicts 
they, of course, usually ^ot the upper hand of their enemies. 

)C I will conclude by relatini; one of their stories. I am at a loss 
in the selection, many of them are so bcwitchingly interesting. 
Hut I will take the Indian version of "Cinderella and the Glass 
Slipper." The glass slipper, however, that " let the cat out of 
the l>ag," undergoes the slight transformation of becoming a 
rainbow, with a few other changes as trifling as this may well be 
deemed in the regions of fairy land and of human fancy and 
fiction, but sufficient so to diversify the stor>' as to escape the 
charge of piracy or of their having received it from the white 

Now, then, we must paint the scene. " Booske ahtookwCt 
pegcsink,** " Here comes an old stor>'-teller." CiU all hands 
mto the wigwam, children, and let them be seated round in a 
circle, and let them keep quiet. When all is ready, the speaker 
begins. *• Wec-gijik hescgoogOh,** a phrase v.ith which every 
story begins. Literally, it means. "The old people are en- 
camped," but the meaning here is about equivalent to the head- 
ing of a Scandinavian tale, viz , A tale of ancif^nt times. Then 
comes a response from the old jxrople present, "KaiskwQh." the 
particular meaning of which, if it has any, I have never been 
able to discover; but here it means, "All right, go on with your 
yarn.** This re^ijxjnsc is ever and anon repeated as the story 
proceetls. The word is sometimes used on more ordinary occa- 
MonN, as a gentle hint to a fellow who is getting ofT a tough 
stor>' that staggers belief, that he is making it up out of "whole 
cloth/* as we say. 

"There is a large Indian village." "Mes keek oodon." The 
village is on the border of a lake. In a wigwam which stands 
by itself some distance from the rest, dwells a remark.ible youth. 
His totem, I suppose, is a moose, and from this comes his 
name. They call him Tc-am — The Moose. He is a mighty 
hunter and a brave warrior — a prince of his tribe — but he is in- 
visible except when he chooses to show himself. All the young 
women in the village consider him a most desirable match. He 
gives out word that any girl that can see him shall be his wife. 
I'his e.xcites curiosity, and many of them, arrayed in their best, 
visit hi< wigwam to tr>' their luck. But they are disapjwinted. 
He comes and jroes. and of this they have proof, but they fail 
to sec him. He has an only sister, who ** keeps house" for him. 
She always treats her visitors kindly, and when the hour arrives 
for him to come in from his hunting, she takes them with her 
down to the lake. As soon as she sees him coming she notifies 
the girls, and asks them if they see him. "Alt toloocjik Aye, 
alt tOlrMy^jik mogway " Some say "Yes;" <ahers say " Xo." 
Then comes the que.stion that decides tht: matter in her mind: 
"Of what is the strap made that binds on his load?" They will 


reply, mentioning one or other of the many things they have 
ever seen or heard of as used for that purpose ; but the real 
strap they do not see, and thus she knows they do not see him. 
•* Very well," she answers, "let us return to the lodge." She 
tells them to be seated, but not to go near her brother's mat. 
They can see his moccasins when he has pulled them off, and 
the cloths he has wrapped around his feet — his "socks" — which 
his sister wrings out for him and hangs up to dry. She then 
prepares his dinner, and the girls keep up their hopes, thinking 
they will see him when he comes to eat. But no, they are dis- 
appointed. Sometimes they remain all night, but can not see 
"the prince." 

Now it chanced that in that village an old man resided who 
had three daughters, whose mother was dead. The care of the 
household devolved upon the eldest. The youngest was a f>oor 
little puny thing, and her sisters, especially the eldest, treated 
her unkindly. They let her go almost naked, whipped her 
severely and often, and moreover burned her on her hands, arms 
and face and other parts of her poor little body, so that she was 
completely covered with the marks of this cruel treatment. The 
father would often enquire of the older girls what the matter 
was with their sister, and would be told that she had been pK»y- 
ing with the fire and burned herself The |>oor thing was afraid 
to tell the truth, lest it should go harder with her. 

Kr«.>in the effects of these burns she received the name of 
Cochige.i'skw, which, from its etymolo^^y — the effects of fire — 
is sufficiently near to the import of Ciiulerella. that, with a s!inll 
degree of license of free translation, we may adopt it. and call 
her Cmdenlla But. lujiiskzca, we will go with our slor\'. ( )ne 
day the father bfjiught a lot of beautiful little shells, >uch as they 
used to make their wamjiom Ixrlts and necklaces of. for which in 
later times they substitutetl, with the same name — xctiof*il\\\ — 
*• glass bead>"'. On the morrow the two older girls set themselves 
to w»>rk at stringing them up. Cinderella l>e;;s for a few, and is 
dt n!e»f by the olJer sister in a very h.irsh manner; but the i»ther 
h.i** a k:n'!«*r h'.irt. and m.ikis intirer>sn.n r»r the {>o<»r little 
liiin;{ and succ« e<is in obtamin;^ f«»r her a h w of every kii^ti. 

C :n<ier«I!.i then ^*t)e-> <>ut an*! obtains s«ime sheets t^f birch 
bark, iujI <»f whu h -^he construct-- a dress, .i pettic^'at and !«»osic 
gf»wn. with t .tp to match, .she then s )aks .m old pair c»f her 
father s muci a^ins and dr.iws them ihem int* her litt'e fret and 
limits Ihey I'-nu- i:j) !o her knrrs Her small pr«kp"rtions are 
.•»trikm;'Iv sM-'/cstive of ilie til!-la!e d.rtv <»f the parr«'t in our 
l!ng!ish >!• ry . 

' !*.irf \i.*ir h»"«-l«». :ir)'l j-ir«« \«iur t"^*-, 
It'j? ';f: !• f tl.f \\\\* 'lif ^Ij-l-^r »:••«-." 

She n»w ^oes ivit. t<.i!:ng s.Nt* is -he is i:oing to find the 
invis.ble \oun^ man. They ridicule her, storm at her. and order 


her not to go. They had both tried their luck in that line, but 
had failed. She pays no heed to them, but marches on. But 
she has to run the gauntlet of a regular tornado of ridicule from 
a!l the inhabitants of the village, young and old, as she proceeds 
in her singular costume: 

But i>)u*. untlAuntiNl, calmly t>huti« hvr (*nn< 
To all th«*ir vnwl iiiiH'kiiip', tfi)M*»i aii<l j<H*n«, 
Aii<l in h«*r rt*f«<ihition hrawly |»i*nH*vi•^*^. 

(Her bravery and pluck deser\'e to bo set up in verse.) In due 
time !»he arrives at the ** prince's lodge". She is kindly treated 
by the sister, ilespite her harlequin dress. At the proper time 
they ;^o down t<» the shore, and as soon as the young man is in 
sight his sister puts the usual question: ** Nemeet nchigOnQm?** 
— " l>t> you sec my brother?" She replies instantly: ** Yes, I 
see him." Then comes the critical enquir>' : " Kogooa wisko- 
booksich?" — "Of what is his shoulder strap composed?" She 
auNWers instantly: **A rainbow" — Munkw(^n. 

" Ah." .says the young woman, ''you do indeed see my brother. 
Now let us hasten h«)me." Arrived at the lodge, she is disrobed 
of her birchen dress and undergoes a thorough ablition, which 
removes all the scales and unevcness of her skin caused by the 
burns and bruises. When the comb is about to be applied to 
her hair, she wonders what that can do, as her hair has all been 
singed off. But no sooner does the magic comb touch her head 
than out sprouts a beautiful head of hair, which is duly arranged 
antl braidcil. Then a splendid bridal dress is brought out, in 
which >he is arrayed. She is now told to cross over to the op- 
posite side of the lodge and take her seat in the wife's place, on 
her brother's mat, but below him, ne.xt to the door. Soon the 
young man comes in, laughing. He knows all that has trans- 
pired. •• I la, ha," he exclaims, '^so we have been discovered at 
last." Ak loke weledahsit. *' He is mightily pleased." 

That evening, when hi* came in from his hunting, the father 
missed his voungest daughter, and enquired what had become 
of her. Tiiev lold him that she went out and went ofl*, they 
know not whiiher. Hut next day he goes round the village to 
look lor her. I le finally enters the lodge where she has become 
domirilfd, but she is so transformed ihat he can not recognize 
her. She knows him, however, and makes herself known to 
him. She recounts her adventures, and the old man is delighted 
at her goo<l fortune. He goes home and reports the matter to 
her sisters and friends. He tells them what a splendid husband 
Cinderella has obtained and how beautiful she herself had be- 

Mv edition of the tale fails to state in what manner the news 
was received by her sisters and the other young ladies of the 
▼iliaise. But we can readily imagine what would be their ds- 
appointment and chagrin. There is a supplement to the story 


as I received it, which ends very tragically, but it has been su^;* 
ges^ed that it is a tale by itself that has been misplaced by 
beini; attached to this. At all events, as here is a good place 
to leave otl, we m:iy wind up with the usuil word, equivalent 
to our word finis, with whirh the Indian stories usually end — 
**K-!Sp*j.Kl')Oksii," — **IIore endeih the story." 






By a. K. Doc<iLAss. 

In July, 1878, Mr. J. .M. Pcarcc found on an island in the 
Kissinmic River, near Fort Kassinger, Brevard .County, Florida, 
the gold ornament represented in the accompanying figure. 
Subsequently it came into the possession of Mr D. Grcenlcaf. of 
Jacksonville. Florida, from whom it was purchased by the writer. 
This object, which I call a gorget, is two and a quarter inches 
long and one and a quarter inches broad. The thickness is pre- 
cisely that of a half-dollar. Its weight is 37.5062 grains, and 
specific gravity 10.87. An approximative test showed the fol- 
lowing constituents: (iold, si.xty j>cr cent; copj)er. thirty \^cr 
cent; Mlvcr. ten |x.'r cent. Fn»m the varied bands of color which 
cros** it. the admixture of these metals was evidently imperfect. 
A (lc{>resscd c h.mnel, an eighth of an inch broad, crosNCS the 
face .ibout the crnlre. pierced with two M^uare {M'tforationN. The 
mari^iii at the ends of thiN channel i^ also sli^litly cut away. The 
upper margin of thr! object has .i semicircular projection, pierced 
ff»r suspension. The face presents the figure t»f a crt)ss. witli the 
Orbi'* .Mundi .it the interstction '»f tlu- arms, the ba*»e reeling 
upon a rude <>r conventional representation of the cubes ur 
gradirus, whi» h characterize the mountin;.^*! the cross tlirough- 
t)ut .spiniNh .Xm-ricm natit»iiN. Ju^t below the centre. <»n either 
siili- o! the cro'^^.. .i;i{>ear two |K'.lr'^)la{K'd fi«^ures, posNilijy rep- 
resents;; he.irt-*, wliit h we t.ilce t«> the two thieves. All 
these m.irkin. % .in* 111 tlreplv incisctl lineN evident! v bv a well 
pract.Mil l).m»i Tlie reverse oi the plate is i)eil"cctly fiat, and 
presents rude trac!n;.;s illustrative. prob.d>'y, i-f huhan ni\ thol- 
ogy or superstition. A straight line n.ns through the centre 
long.tu^iinally. The upper ri,;ht hand quarter and that on the 


lower left hand present each three equidistant pcrfiendicular 
incised hncs, parallel to ihc centre line, from the niart^ln lo the 
line of the square perforations. On the remaining quarters arc 
traced two crescents, or new moons, the horns of which rest 
u[>on the centre perpendicular lines. The workmanship is of 
the rudest kind. 

llavin^r described the object before us. it becomes a matter of 
great interest to know something of its histor>*. So far as its 
present form and ctchinns arc concerned, it may be assumed to be 
of post-Culunibian manufacture, but as respects its n!aterial it 
IS worth a few moments' consideration to trace its origin, its 
ccmrsc to Florida, ami its conversion into its present sha[>e, 
Florida was generally known to produce no precious metals. 
that the natives were quite 
their value, for he 
says: "We have , - 
found some barbar- 
ians which know ' ,' 
neither gold nor ■ r 
silver, as it is report- 
ed of those of Flor- 
ida, which took the 

Ida, wnicn iook me ^ ^i^ 
ba^s and sacks I 

wherein the silver L^ f * 

was. the which they 
cast upon the 
k^-V I 1 'v \ ground, and left as 
p"- , — *-«» — r — \ a thing iinprofita- 

NuL (TH t ^ ^*'" ^■'■' '"'°* 

^ ■" fctii l t-'*^ that I'once de 1-eon, 

'"'■ in 1512. obtained i"-w, 

smalt cjuantities of gold from the natives, though evidently not in 
sufficient a-^ount to stimulate the cupidity of the Spaniards. In 
i;t; Diego Miruelo, a Spanish pilot, obtamed from the Indians 
on the Florida coast pieces of gold-t Subsequently the expedi- 
tion of I'anfilo de Narvaet landing on (he southwest coast of 
the peninsular, on the i;th of April, 1528. found "atinklct of 
gold among some fish-nets." (p. 21.1 A few days after they 
found "traces of gold." (p. 24) and upon asking the Indians 
whence they procured it, they replied. " That very far from there 
was a province called Apalachen, where was much gold."! 

Cabeca makes no further mention of gold during the disaster- 
ous march of that expedition. Wc next hear of the precious 
metal in the testimony of two Indian captives who, in May. 1 ■; 39, 

TticNat. und M»miHI>lflri>of IbrlnillM. Tntni-byKII. l^ndon: imi :..-jtr 
tHliUirlniM'iiliwtkin t^ioUIMUBndriortdB. Nrw Vork, UTTk ■■.aUi<"<>-. 
:Hrtail»n or Ckm dr VMft. H.HDiUb. Mfw York. DTI. 


were brought to DcSoto in Havana, and reporting " that there 
was much gold in Florida, the governor and all the company 
were greatly rejoiced, and longed for the hour of departure." 
Before that month closed DeSoto and his company sailed, but 
in the copious annals of that ill fated expedition, we look in vain 
for any record of acquisition of gold, or that it was even seen in 
native possession cither in Florida or Georgia. On the con- 
trary, Juan Ortis, a Spaniard, whom on his arrival DeSoto rescued 
from a thirteen years' captivity in that country, assured him 
that ** there was no gold in the country."* As DeSoto's route 
through Florida followed the western base of the hilly ridge 
which divides the State longitudinally, t and traversed a thickly 
settled country, the presence of gold, if at all current, would 
have been known and recorded by the adventurers. We cannot 
avoid the conclusion that native gold in use did not exist, not- 
withstanding the Indian testimony to its abundance above given, 
which, as in numberless other instances, probably colored 
to gratify the known greed of the Spaniards, or willfully misin- 
terpreted fmm considerations of policy. 

Following in historical sequence the records of the early 
chronicles, wc begin to understand how gold ///</ happen to be 
found in I'lorida and from what source it was derived. Of this the 
most minute particulars are given in the ** Memoire sur la 
Floride." by Flcrn.mdo -rKscalante Fontanedo, translated from 
the imditrd nriginal by Tcrnaux Compans in Vol. XX of his 
Mcmoires ( )rigmaux de TAmerique. Paris, 1841. The narrator 
was shipwrecked upon the Florida keys in I 55 I, and as a result 
of his LXperirnce of seventeen years' captivity among the Calos 
Indians. i)ublishcd his *' memoires ' in 1580. He states that the 
Indians about him possessed neither gold nor silver (1. c. p. lo». 
doubtless referring to ftatiit j^i'/t/, for he further states, m re- 
counting liis shipwreck (pp. 2(>-2y): **The countr>' of Ais 
(Indian River inlet) and Jeaga is very |>oor. It contains neither 
gold nnr silver mines, and verily it is the sea which enriches it. 
lor many ^'htps freighted with gold and siUcr are shipwn eked 
there, such as tiie 'l-'arfar* and the br.,.: ouneil by the mulatto. 
the Hiscayan vessel upon which Ant« ri (iranailo was passenger. 
• • I was shipwrecked in is^i. \^ e had also on lM)ard two 
sons <»f Alon/M dc Mesa .ind their un^ le A'.l were rich. I was 
the jK)orest. and yet I had twenty tl\e tln>u^anil |)e>os of fme 
gold. • • They wire senduv^ us t'> Spam to Ik* educated, 
but we were shipwrecke<l upon the Florida coast, as many other 
ships Were, and als»» the tlect tn-m New Spam. ci>mmanded by 
the son of I'etiro Me'.ende/." 

lie subse«;uentlv interviewed one of the sailors of this last 

1 4 

•Itlrtliii.t • llrlAt'iin Ttiiuui < *• •fri|«n«. Vii'. XX, : . '# 
flir^it'i III K}«iria.». Wc»to»U. pAlatkii. l*v 

1 nr.-. l%ll. 


mentioned fleet, who stated (I. c. p. 28) that the Indians went 
around to the coast of Ais. and "lie had seen them return with 
great riches, in in^jots of Rold. sacks of Spanish coin, and quan- 
tities of merchandize.'* Fontanedo afterward (p. 32) explains 
how this wealth was distributed. ** I will sixrak of the riches 
which the Indians have found, in this case amountin^i; to more 
than a miUion in in^jots of gold and Mexican jewelry, belonginjj 
to the passengers. The cacique divided them among those of 
Ais. c»f Jeai;a, of Guacata, of Mayayuaca and of Mayaca, retain- 
injj the most valuable j>art for himself." This country of 
Mayayuaca he afterwards (p. 35) locates as just north of Ais 
and borderin^j the region where "our pilots say Pedro Melendez 
made peace with the Indians." This locality of a well-known 
council held by the governor of St. Augustine has been fixed 
by recent writers as the vicinity of Cajx: Canaveral.* 

All the above mentioned tribes lined the Atlantic coast of the 
peninsula, and were subject to King Catos of the Calos or 
Caloosa Indians, whose village of Tegcsta was upon the present 
Biscayan bay, at the outlet of the Maytiimi River. This covered 
the entire extent of the dangerous strait where the numerous 
wrecks took place, called the canal or channel of Kahania. This 
contracted passage, from forty to seventy-five miles in width, 
and about two hundred miles in length, lined with invisible reefs 
— full of j>erplexing currents, liable to hurricanes and northers — 
swallowed up annually from one-third to half of the vessels 
freighted with the plunder of Peru and New Spain which sailed 
upon its waters. 

It will be noted that this author is (]uite aware of the prevail- 
ing Indian tradition of a countr>* to the far north which produces 
gold. Indeed, he identified it by a reference to its climate, which 
was not before named in the Spanish versions of the tradition. 
He says (p. 23), speaking generally of Calos and the subject 
tribes I have mentioned, **I .say that it is a powerful nation, rich 
in pearls, but no gold is found there, because it is remote from 
the mines of Onagatano, situated in the snowy mountains of 
that name." And, in referring to tribes on the Atlantic coast 
north of those just described, he again repeats that they have 
no gold there. Summmg up the testimony of our author, it 
appears that, while having knowledge of the prevailing tradition 
of a gold producing country or region tar to the northward, he 
distinctly denies that any gold from that region is to be found 
among the southern tribes. In this respect his assertion is 
confirmed, so far as the entire west coast of the i>eninsula is con- 
•cerned, by the S|>anish explorers previous to his day. 

I have now given the testimony of the early explorers as to 
the absence of native gold in the i)eninsula of Florida up to the 

•Ulftl. l-'l«»rtt]A. FatrUtiik*. p. 1 S*. 


year 1560, and shall proceed with the record left by the French 
Huguenot colonists under Ribault and Laudonniere, who 
reached the Atlantic coast of Florida in 1562, and were exter- 
minated under circunistanccs of the greatest atrocity by the 
Spaniards in 1565. On this subject we shall find the relation 
more copious than that which Spanish historians have supplied 
us. The artist of this ex[)ecIition was LeMoyne dc Morgues 
(whose account is j^ivcn by De Bry in the ** Brevis Narrtaio/* etc.. 
etc.. Frankfort. 1590. p. 7). Speakings of the Indians whom 
they first encountered on the banks of the river of May 
(St John's), he says: ** And in many instances flat discs, as well 
of K^ld as of silver and brass, were sus|K*nded from their legs, 
so that in moving they gave a sound as ut bells." This in 
1564. by which time, it may readily be conceived, the accummu- 
lations of wrecked treasure during forty years of Spanish 
occupation of New Spain and South America had been well 
distributed throughout the |)eninsula. He still repeals the tra- 
dition of gold from the mountains of Apalache, as told by 
Satourioua (p. 9). in a conference with Laudonnierre, but oa a 
subsei|ucnt occasion this chieftain informs I^iudonnierrc that 
these metals were obtained by warfare with the Timu(}uas, and 
as this nation included the coast to the vicinity of Canaveral, 
ami lined both banks of St. John's for many leagues to the south 
of l*'ort C'.irolina, until they bordered upon the domain of Calos. 
and as the I'Vent h emissaries who |Knttrated that territory' 
brought back reports of large stores in gold and silver among 
tho«^e tribes, it may safely be conchuied that the ornaments 
named above were derived from the source which Fontanedo 
assures us sup|)Iied all the treasure m South Moria. 

It niay be observed, in this connection, that an able article by 
Mr (itorge K. Kunz in Thk Amtkr an Antioiarian for July, 
1SS7. figures as a I'^lorida find several gold and silver discs 
whu h iKMr a singular resemblance to those described by Lc 

Sul>'M (jirntlv. arcordmg to the s.uue narration, an emissar>* 
nanjetl I^i RmcIk- Fernere, s^nt by Laudonnure. pri>cured from 
tht liblians gold and silver. v\!iich {\uy assured him could only 
have com<- from the m<»untains .»f .\palav he. for ** it was the 
proiluce ol wars with the trib'S wln» !j\cd there .'* <p. \2.) The 
gohi probably came from the samr soi:r».e .is the silver, and 
ass;:rr<llv the- latter m< tal c«'i:ld not have come Irom Northern 
Geori^ia 1-rMlly. wt* are tt»I«i that the- same emissary, ingratiat- 
ing hiui'-t If with the al)ove "tribes who livtd there." procured 
fr(»n» the ni many objects of the same metals, which he sent to 
I^udonniere "Among these were gold and silver disc- as 
large as moderatc-s:itd plates, with uhuh it was cu«itomar\' to 
pr«»tect tlurnselves. also much g'»ld alloyed with c«»pfKT and im- 
pure silver. He also sent tjuivers covered with fine skins, the 


arrows in which had golden heads." (p. 14.) The naming of 
this alloy at once discredits the emissary's account of the origin 
of these ornaments ; or, if another ground for doubt were needed, 
it would be in the impossibility of a single Kuropcan reaching 
the vicinity of the mines in the short jwriocl of his absence, a 
distance of some three hundred mjics, through a rrgion filled 
with hostile tribes. It is to be inferred from the account tjiven 
us of these exjKrditions that the emissaries followed the cour>e 
of the St. John's River for a considerable distance, tfit.iinly as 
far as I^ike George, a course which only led ihcin -» n:uch 
farther away from the mountains of Apalache. However, it 
brought them nearer the great accummulations of treasure, the 
plunder of wrecked vessels, and the plunder could well be nias- 
sive, when we consider the masses of gold ingots and sack^ t>f 
Spanish silver, of which Fontanedo reports the plunder consisted. 

In this conm-ction we may recall the testimony of two Spanish 
captives, who were rescued from the Indians by an expedition 
sent by I^iudonniere an hundred miles or moreupthe St. John's 
ri\er. They reported that they had been cast way on the 
"Martyrs" on the Flcrida coast, about fifteen years before, and 
had lived miserably among the Indians ever since, and that the 
King of Calos recovered the greatest part of the treasure which 
was in their ships. I^iudonniere continues: "They told me, 
moreover, that he had great store of gold and silver, so far forth 
that in a certain village he had a pitful thereof, which was at the 
least as high as a man and as large as a ton, * * beside that 
which I might get of the common |K-ople of the country, which 
had also great store thereof. They further also advertised me 
that the women going to dance did wear about their girdles 
plates of gold as broad as a saucer, in such number that the 
weight did hinder them to dance at their ease; and that the men 
wear the like also. The greatest part of these riches was had. 
as they said, out of the Spanish ships which commonly were 
cast awav in this strait, and the rest bv the traffic which this 
king of Gilos had with the other kings of the countr>\"* (No 
doubt procured in the same way.» 

Though jK>ssibly an exaggeration of the facts, common to the 
European mind in that age, this statement is not altogether un- 
likely, when we consider Fontanedo's testimony before cited, as 
to " ingots of gold" among the wrecked treasure, and again sug- 
gests the origin of the ** plates of gold as large as saucers", 
which were brought by I^i Roche Ferriere to I^iudonniere,asjust 
stated. Indeed, it would appear that subsequently I^udonniere 
ceased to give credence to the tale of gold from Apalache. Sir 
John Hawkins, the Fnglish adventurer, on his return from the 
West Indies to Kngland in that same year, 1565. visited that 

•ilUt. Coll. UmttUiiM and Klorldu. N>w York. !•«». p. 9il. 


colony, and most generously relieved their pressing want of pro- 
visions, and unquestionobly heard nothing of such a report, for 
the historian of that expedition (John Sparke) says: " And how 
they came by this gold and silver the French know not as yet 
but by guess, who having traveled to the southwest of the cape, 
having found the same dangerous by means of sundry banks, as 
we also have found the same, and there finding masts which were 
wrecks of Spaniards coming from Mexico, judged that they had 
gotten treasure by them. For it is most true that divers wrecks 
have been made of Spaniards having much treasure."* He says 
further (idem p. 47): **It seemcth they had estimation of their 
gold and silver, for it is wrought flat and graven, which they 
wear about their necks, and others make round like a pancake, 
with a hole in their middle, to bolster up their breasts withal.** 

I have not thought it necessary to quote other references to 
gold and silver ornaments observed among the Indians by the 
chroniclers of the French expedition, but would remark that the 
Spanish treasure wrecked in transit to S|)ain no doubt comprised 
the fine and the impure. Much of that in Mexico was more or 
less adulterated. The Spanish smelters in Mexico were restricted 
by law to one eighth of alloy, and this law was so far evaded 
and exceeded that "complaints were now made of the excess o( 
•illoy which was mixed with the ^old, and at length two gold 
workers were detected in stamping the gold mark on pure cop- 
per.'t A large proportion of the treasure sent home from the 
Spanish Main generally was alloyed with cop|xrr, which itself 
contained a considerable j)ro|>ortion of silver. In fact, among 
the Indian tribes around the Oronoco copjK-r wa> used to facili- 
tate the melting of the gold gathered from thr sands of the 
rivers Sir Walter Raleigh, in the description of his voya^^e up 
that river, in his unsuccessful (juest for the Kldorado. m KQ?, 
thus describes the process: "I after asked the manner how the 
tlpureinei wrought those plates of gold, and how they could 
melt it out of the stone. He told mc that the most of the g*>ld 
which they made in plates and images was not severed from the 
stone, hut that on the l^ike of ^Ianoa. and m a multitude of 
other rivers, they gathered it m grams (»f jverfect gold, and in 
pieces as big as small stones, and they put it to a partof copjKrr, 
otherwise they could not work it. and they useti a great earthen 
|>ot with holes round about it. and when they had mingleil the 
gold and cop{>er to^^cther. they fastened canes to the holes, and 
so with the breath of man they increased the fire till the metal 
ran. ami then they cast it into moulds of stone and clay, and so 
make those plates and images. *'J 

• Vo>a4«H>iir thr F.llui^trthan Hramcn. i>(>ntlta. l«<r>. p. 17. 

t|l«-riiAi I»Ua. ri>u<(U«<vt ftf Ml xlo*. Tnui*. bf l^M'kluirt. l>i>iiil<in. IMI. \ol. II. 
pp. lJt> 121. 
:V(«]racr«of Clltat>«-ttaio MrMneo. l^uoiloo. IMO. p. S3. 


Bcrnal Diaz also, in his " Conquest of Mexico," before quoted. 
Vul. I, p. 36, and Vol. II, pp. 126. 344, asserts the impurity of 
the Indian gold ornaments; in several instances he says, "con- 
siderably mixed with copper and silver," a characteristic found 
in the gold procured by Laudonniere from the Indians in Florida. 
It is. however, not unreasonable to su|)posc a considerable 
pri)[>ortion of treasure was of j^reat purity, particularly that 
which was reduced by Spaniards from grains or ore and sent 
home in ingots. 

I have now presented all the evidence we seem to possess, 
from the early explorers and colonists in the peninsula of 
Florida, as to the presence of gold there, and its origin, up to 
the year I5^>5, and it seems to me impossible to escape the con- 
viction that, notwithstanding the [)revailing tradition of its ex- 
istence in the distant region of Apalache. absolutely none of the 
product of that fabulous store had ever found its way in the 
shajie of ornament ur implement or money into the I^'lorida we 
are now considering. So far as tradition is concerned, we know 
that the same report of the goUl of California was current among 
the Spaniards two hundred and fifty years before its discover)*, 
and the very hist<»rian who records that report in 175S, recounts 
the progressive settlement of the countr>' by Spanish mission- 
aries up to his day without the slightest trace of the metal among 
the trilxrs.* If gold trinkets and ornaments had gradually ap- 
peared as the Spanish vessels made their way along the Cali- 
fornian coa^t to the bay of .'^.in Francisco, ind assuredly if the 
abumlancc had increased as they had approached the mining 
region of the interior, there could have bern no doubt of the 
locality of its origin but no such indications appeared, and this 
argument applies with equal ftirce t*> the que>tion of the source 
of the find> of gold objects in the mounds or fields of Florida, 

The earliest Spanish expeditions to the Florida west coast, of 
which we have anv detailed accounts, are those of Tanfilo de 
Narvae/. in 152S, and Hernando de Soto, in I53'^40; and on 
the Atlantic coast that i-f Wisque/ de Ayll«)n, 1524, win > ravaged 
the shores of Cieorgia in the search for Indians to work th« 
Cuban mines. None of these expeditions found gold : the first 
two because as yet the plunder of wrecked vessels had not been 
abundant enough to have tlltered through the maze of tribal 
communities to the west coast, and the last because they had no 
.source of supply whatever, not even from the mines of North 
Georgia. Now it is incredible that if the Indians worked the 
Georgia mines, the apf)carance of gold on DeSotos memorable 
journey should not gradually have become more marked as he 
approached the point of production. If the ground had been 
mined, the metal smelted, and ornaments fabricated, as some 

•VrnedM. IlUt. of ('allftirnla. Veil. I. p. iTb. Ix»niloo. IT 


recent writers have sufjgested, the product of this labor must 
have been found amon^ the thickly settled tribes in the imme- 
diate vicinity, in greater or lesser quantities. DeSoto spent five 
months in the State, crossing it from its southern boundary to 
the Savannah River, then to the headwaters of that river; then, 
passing the watershed to the westward, he followed the rivers 
down to the Bay of Mobile; again northward to the boundary 
of the present State of Tennessee, only one hundred and fifty 
miles to the westward of the gold bearing region; but on this 
entire route he never saw gold in the possession of the Indians, 
and the historian only refers to the metal upon two occasions. 
The first was shortly after he had entered the State from the 
confines of Florida, and is thus recounted by the Knight of 
Elvas: "Of the Indians taken in NajK'tuca, the treasurer. Juan 
Gaytan. brought a youth with him who stated that he did not 
belong to that countr>'. but to one afar in the direction of the 
sun's rising; * * that it's name was Yupaha, and was gov- 
erned by a woman; the town she lived in being of astonishing 
size, and many neighboring lords her tributaries, some of whom 
gave her clothing, others gold in quantity. He showed how the 
metal was taken f n m the earth, melted and refined, exactly as 
though he had seen it all done, or else the devil had taught him 
how it was." etc.* This youth led the expedition through many 
barren solitudes, where they suffered great privations, and finally 
it transpired that he did not know the counlr}-. that he had never 
seen Yupaha. and merely enlarged upon tales that he professed 
to have heard. I'hey ultimately rcacheil C'utifachicjui, on the 
banks of tlie Savannah River, about thirty miles below Augusta, 
and fuun<l the ihieftainess, who hail eontrt-I of a large territory, 
but her we.ilth was in j>earl>--the goK! <lid not exist, and the 
youth'-' tale ua^ proved t** be a pure fabrication. By toilsome 
marcheN De.Soto traversed the nt»ilh< rn |»art <»f the State, fre- 
<juently resting in the Indian town-*, till reaching C hiaha (now 
Rome) he informed by a cacicpie <>f Acnste. ''that towards 
the North there was a province ( hisci. ami that a forge was 
there for cop[)er or other metal «»f that C(»li»r. though brighter, 
having a much finer hue. and to aj)pearance much bitter, 
but was nt»t so nuuh used for being st)fter. * 

I foll(»w B. .Smiths translation of the Kni-^ht of Klvas' narra- 
tion as probablv the most accurate, from the known abilitv of 
the transl.itor. l>ut it is j)ro|>cr to s.iy that Hakluyt's rendering, 
being oKler. has l><*en largely used, and his phrase is " copjKT 
<!//</ another met.d " Two Sjianiards. with Indian guides. \*ere 
sent in that direction, but returned in a few davs without ;;old. 
reporting that they had only seen a fine variety of copper, such 

•?f »rr»tivrM uf HrriiAntlo «!«• H«>to. II. Hiitith* traii*Iai;on. Ilrmafurtl Huh. N. V.. 
IMS. |i. V) 
*ld«-ii}. !►. 72. 

A <i<»u> <»i:namknt kkom floriha. -.»:; 

as thcv ha<i before mot with ; that the coiintrv was routjh and 
inountainoiis, and quite impracticable for tlie army. We may 
fairly concliule that if there had been the slighte>t encourage- 
ment of a discovery of gold on the strength of native reports, 
the known craviuj^ of the Spaniard for that metal would Ikivc 
halted that expedition at that point, and caused them to prose- 
cute the search in the mountains, where in after years its pres- 
ence was so well established: but DcSoto ^aw no gold in the 
State of (leorgia and left it for a ho|>eless ijuest, and a grave 
beneath the waters of the Mississippi. 

Now. if we look at the testim<»ny of the mounds, we find no 
evitlence of gold in the great tumuli of Georgia. On a recent 
visit to AuL^usta I was shown by Col. C. C. Jones, Jr.. a small 
elongated gold nugget, in its natural water- worn state, not quite 
an inch in length, liaving a perforation at one end for suspension, 
which he assurrd me was the only object of this metal ever 
found in a Georgia mound. When the mounds in the ver>' State 
where this d<|>osit occurs are shown to be destitute of any relics 
of this Sort, it certainly seems in the highest degree unreason- 
able to attribute to a native origin any objects exhumed from the 
mounds of Florida, supplied as the peninsula was, with abund- 
ant r tif gold of every variety of fineness. frt>m the wrecks of 
Sjunish treasures upon its Atlantic margin, for the greater part 
of the sixteenth century. The goM object found in a Florida 
mound described by Dr. Rau. in the Smithsonian Reports of 
iS-S. page 2i/), was stated by him to be the ex.ict fineness of 
the Spanish "ounce" of 1772 and its origin is sufficiently ac- 
counted for. lie decidi's that it is post-Columbian. This object 
now before us is untjuestionably from some portion of the Span- 
ish Main, originally in the shafx: of a plate or an image, having 
lK*en acquired by an Indian from the wreck of a treasure ship, Ik'cu beaten out and perforated for susjKrnsion, in a manner 
described by Sir John Hawkins, has been "graved" by a Sj>an- 
ish priest with the cross. an<l subsequently by ruder, perhaps 
Indian, hands with devices of a heathen character. 

Tliese engravings up(»n the gorget are deserving of some 
consideration. We may lake it lor granted that, having been 
beaten out and shaped by the ludian, it was destitute of any 
tracings, but was valued for its color and briliiancv, or for the 
facility of attaching, by reason of its perforations, certain 
app-ndages of leathers or metals. How, then, does it present 
two <le?*igns of a character so opposite? Perhaps even this may 
be explained by a brief consideration ol the religious historv of 
Florida during the first two centuries after its di>coveiy. Dr. 
I>. G Brinton, in his most able and comprehensive summary of 
the hiiitorv of ancient Florida, "Notes on the F'loridian Penin- 
sula," I Phila., 1859, pp. 152 ;;,» states that as early as 1567 Pedro 
Menendez, governor of St. Augustine, "sent the two learned 


zealous missionaries, Rogel and Viliareal, to the Caloosas, among 
whom a settlement had already been formed under Francesco 
de Reinoso. The following year several others were sent, the 
majority of whom, we are told, "worked with small proHt in 
ihe southern provinces;" and in 1569 the Padre Rogel gave up 
in despair "the intractable Coloosas," and notwithstanding 
everv eHort made bv trcsh installments of missionaries, we 
learn that in 1698, "these Indians are described as idolaters 
and given to all abominable vices, and not a few ot the mission- 
aries suflered marly nlom in their etlbrtsto reclaim ihem;*' (p. 159) 
and at^am it is recordrd that, while the tribes of Northern 
Florida readily accepted the faith, "to the south, the savages 
were more perverse and clung tenaciously to heathendom." 
(p. lOi.) The etching ot the cross may be, therefore, attributed 
to some one of the Spanish priest;), probably upon the conver- 
sion of the savage owner of the gorget, and after his relapse 
into idolatry, in contempt or derision, the latter inscribed upon 
the reverse surface the new moon as the object of his devotion, 
and added the three upright lines which appear on the second 
and third quarters, with that regard tor the number three which 
i.H so characteristic of alx>riginal superstition. The worship of 
the moon, bo:h full and new, is described by Jonathan Dicker- 
son in 1696 as witnessed by him on the South Athmtic coast of 
Florida ("God's Protecting Providence," etc., yih Edit., Lond., 
'790» PP- 3N 7*t 72); and Laudonniere's narrative ot Ribaues* 
first vo\age in 1562 descril>es religious tea.sts among the tril>es 
at the mouth of the St. John's River, in which the number three 
is invested with a peculiar mystic signification.* 

All the g(<ld objects found in Flf)ri(ia have been found in what 
may be considered the southern half of the peninsula. A ^^oM 
bead in i><77 by Lieutenant Harrison of the Coast Survey, near 
Mos<]uito Inlet; the ornament described by Dr. Rau, from a 
mound in .Manatee County, south of Tampa Bay; a ^oKl 
arrowhead, report i-d to me as found in the nei*;hborhtH»o<i of 
Charlotlr Harl>or;+ the Aair :>^nament^ <k-scribcd bv Mr. Kunz: 
No. I, f«»unti in Oran^^e County, associated with l>cads of Kuro- 
|KMn manufaiture, No, 2, found in sanu* l.*«>uiity; in com|)any 
with an ornanunt <»f silver; No ^, found in same County; No. 
4, fount 1 in the vu inity of I^ikc A|>o|>ka. in Sumter County, in a 
mound which aN«» produced a silver ornament; anti finally, the 
obifi t before u-*. the s*»uthcrlv relic i>f a!! — found in Krevard 
Countv, n<»t Iroin I^ike ( )keech"lx*e. 

I a:ii n<»t .r.v.iie of anv l»^'Cv:t^ or •irnainent-* inthis metal hav- 
inj.; been (ii^L"Vt rii! t • the ni.>r!hwaril of these K)calitieN, within 

•1, lli«!i»rir .N'li'aM* a*' t* r:«'r i!f I •!# !:r|-n;it . fur*. Is." j- -i. 

f^re ••rijiih*«»ir.ftn l>i->r» f.r l«»»J. i *vl.wl rr*- ■!.■- irfw fi'Mif aihI a c«iM niiiila* 
lun* ASi- «'r <'«*lt. I»'lti "Unr* ly ti;^>9'<l wiOi rmifli i^tt*ir iiir(.tl«. nil- <l«-M-rllM^l A* 
fuutiil iifAr th'- l.i** tti^i'liii^ V*'\*. Mii>l < •r»i.«'« • ••imttr*. ;»»••» i at rtl «itli «>^;r•-t• %*( 
■ll^rr anil iritti 


the confines of the State, nor in the vast space of some four or 
five hundred miles, which intervenes between them and the gold 
bearing district of Northern Georgia. When therefore we con- 
sider that ail these ornaments have been exhumed at points the 
most remote from the reputed source of native gold, with no in- 
termediate finds to warrant a connected stream of such material 
from that source; when these objects occur in a region pcculi- 
arily abundant in accumulations of wrecked treasure, and, in 
most instances, associated with other metals and ornaments which 
could have reached the peninsula in no other way, it appears to 
me impossible to escape the conclusion, that all the gold objects 
so far found in Florida are post-Columbian in date, and are fab- 
ricated from metal wrecked upon the Atlantic coast while in 
transit to Spain. 

New York, Aug. 14th, 1889. 


It was not until last year that the Moors would permit any 
examination of the cliff dwellings which have long been known 
to exist, some days* journey southwest of the city of Morocco. 
This strange city of the cave dwellers is almost like some of 
those in New Mexico and other territories which archaeologists 
have explored. The dwellings were dug out of the solid rock, 
and many of them are over 200 feet above the bottom of the 
valley. The face of the cliff is in places perpendicular, and it is 
believed that the troglodytes could have reached their dwellings 
only with the aid of rope-ladders. Some of the dwellings con- 
tain three rooms, the largest of which is about 17 by 7 feet, and 
the walls of the larger rooms are generally pierced by windows. 
Nothing is known as to who these cave dwellers were. — New 
York Sun. 



By Stephen D. Peet. 

The monuments of the stone age, which are found in Europe 
and America, are to engage our attention in this paper. These 
monuments are interestinfr, as they show how the stone age 
was first recognized and how it came to be established, and at 
the same time show how the two continents are marked by the 
tokens of the prehistoric races. It is remarkable that the stone 
age was known so much earlier in Europe than in America, and 
yet the resemblances between the two continents have only 
confirmed the conclusions before reached, and thrown new 
light on discoveries before made. The monuments of Europe 
may be said to have furnished the elements of the science, but 
those of America have filled up with the details. The date 
of the disappearance of the age was here much later than 
there, and yet the tokens of the two continents have constituted 
a series which is most interesting in its nature. We propose to 
take up the history of the stone age as it appeared, and from 
this history show how important are the monuments of America. 

I. Let us first examine that historv with a view of ascer- 
taining more about the distinction of the three ages. It is a 
remarkable fact that this arose from the study of the monu* 
ments, though it was soon confirmed by the study of the relics, 
and latterlv the relics have proved to l)e the most important 
factors. Various attempts to overthrow the dist motion into 
ages have l>een macie, but so far have been unsuccessful. The 
history of archicologv i« interesting on this account. Nearly 
every leading principle which has once l>een recognized has 
remained and become fH-rmanent. The tuundaiiuns ol ihe 
science are not varying and uncertain, but are well established. 

It was as early an 1756 that a rem.irk.ible work appeared in 
Paris, written bv (Jo^uet, w\ llie origin ol law. In the preface 
the author savs: "When I met with an almost total absence of 
(acts in historical monuments, for the first ages, I consulted what 
authors tell us ot the customs of savage nations. I thought 
that the habits of those people wou^d furnish sure and correct 
information concerning the state ot the first tribes.'' He then 
goes on to speak of the weajHms, instruments and ornaments 
of coppor met in certain old graves, chiefly m the north, and 
comes to the conclusion that copper had In^en used instead of 


• I 

iron. Later M. l)e Caumont perceived thai Mone implementh 
had been in the earhest ii^e, but tliat copper and bronze had 
been introduced before iron. He introduced the expresyion 
**chronoloj{ical horizonM'' to indicate the periods in the history 
of art remarkable for their revolutions, or tor notable chanf^es 
in the forms and character of the monuments. He pointed out 
the following order of succession in the mode of burial: *'In the 
most ancient graves the body of the deceased was doubled up 
so as to bring the knees in contact with the chin. Later, during 
the bronze age, the dead were usually burned; during the iron 
age the bo<ly was often laid in the grave stretched at lull length." 

These thoughts came from the study of Roman remains, and 
were given in lectures on monumental antiquities, it was re- 
served to the Scandinavians to open the proper track. Denmark 
and Sweden teem with antiquities. The ground is strewed with 
ancient barrows, which are rai.sed like hillocks above the sur- 
rounding level. Roman civilization had not penetrated so lar. 
It was an event of note when Mr. Thompson, a simple merchant 
who was engaged in collecting china, in 1S32 published a paj>er 
on the antiquities of stone, showing that objects had been 
tools and weapons of a people very like the modern savages. 
He shows that certain sepulchral chaml>ers formed o! huge 
boulders, in which the dead were deposited without being 
burned, contained stone implements without any traces ol metal. 
This lurnished him with his first period, which he calls the 
stone age. He then goes on to show that implements and 
weapons of bronze are tound in certain graves which diller 
from those of the preceding |>eriod, lv)th by their structure and 
by th«-ir dead having In-en burned. Hence he deduces a second 
period, which he calls a bronze aye. Next comes the iron age, 
distingni^hed by a new system ot Iniri.'d, by the tirst appearance 
of silver, by the traces ol alphabetic inscriptions, ami by a pecu- 
liar slvle of ornament. 

Proless<»r W. F. Nilssrin, of the University <»! Lund, was then 
engage<i in studying the launa of Scandinavia, but he introduced 
the study ol and his origin. He applies the method, com- 
pares the llinl inplrments ol the north with those of savages, 
points out the striking analog v between the most ancient graves 
in Sweden and the modern huts of the Greenlanders, with a 
view to prove that the abodes of the dead were imitated from 
the dwrllinu'!* of the living. This introduced the topic, *'The 
Successive i*i*riods ot Development," during the prehistoric 
ages. He, iiowever, reaches the conclusion that each of the 
periods was marked by the invasion of a new race, by a fresh 
wave of population, inasmuch as there was an essential change 
in the mode of burial and a profound change in the religious 
svstem. The development was not aliogt-iher natural and 
unaided, but was the result ol migrations. Thus the primary 
divisions ol the prehistoric perio<i became established. 


The order of progress and the law of social development were 
recognized by tne comparison of the structures and relics which 
were left by prehistoric races with thoseof the ruder uncivilized 
races known to history, a comparison which might be drawn in 
America much more easily than in Scandinavia or in any por* 
tion of Europe. 

Thus it was from the study of the monuments that the divi- 
sion of the prehistoric period into three ages occurred. This 
division was first made by the Scandinavians, but was confirmed 
by English archaeologists and has been adopted by all. It is a 
division which is recognized in all countries, even in America 
Here the iron age is, to be sure, very distinct from the two 
preceding ages, as it was introduced by the white settlers after 
the time of the discovery. But there is an advantage in this, 
for the presence of iron is always a sure indication that the 
tokens belong to the historic rather than the prehistoric period. 
The real division in America is into the bronze age, the polished 
stone age and the rude stone age, leaving out all consideration 
of iron. The monuments, however* belong mainly to the stone 
age as such — that is, the polished stone age. 

There may have been an age when there were no monuments 
in America, when the grade of civilization was so low that no 
structures were erected, or if there were any they were of such 
a character that they soon perished and passed away. There 
may have been habitations, nut they were more like the huts of 
the Esiquimoes or like the lodges which have left their rings m 
the kitchen middens of the seacoast. They were mere ice 
huts, or structures made of whalebones and the bones (^f the 
walrus, placed in layers on a foundation of stones and covered 
with dirt. This was during the paleolithic period, a period 
when man may have been without the use of fire, and so ex- 
ceedingly rude as to be unable to erect any structure which 
would Ih! worthy the name of monument. We are safe in 
saymg that there were no structures in that age which became 
monuments. It is, then, to the neolithic age that the majoritv 
of the monuments in America belong. These may, indeed, 
have been left by an uncivilized race, ana probably were 
erected subsequent to the glacial {>eriod, but they are scattered 
over the continent in every part of it. Geographically consid- 
sidered, we may assign them to the tem|>erate zone, placing 
them between the monuments of the bronze age in the torrid 
zone and those which resemble the works of the paleolithic age 
in the arctic zone, and yet the geographical is not the division 
which is so distinctive as is the chronological and the geolog- 
ical, the paleolithic age having belongecl to a horizon lower 
down and farther back than the neolithic. The bronze age 
has, however, furni»hed many important monuments. This 
age appeared among the civilized races of the Southwest, 
in Central America and Peru, but it was by no means spread 


over the continent, as it was over Europt*. The bronze ajje 
appeared in America very much as it appeared in Chaldea and 
the regions ot tlie Kast. It was in connection with an archi- 
tecture ot a somewhat advanced type that it ap|K*ared, an 
architecture in which the corlK-Ped arcli, the staged tower (the 
zikkuratiy the pyramid with its terraces, the pahice with its 
seraj^iio ^that is, the salon tor ctlicial reception.**', the khan or 
the dependencies o! the pahice, the kitchens and slave lodj^inj^s, 
were the chiet elements; a style ot architecture which was tar 
in advance ot anything which was found in Kurupe durin;^ the 
prehistoric times. It might have naturally been expected thai 
bronze would have appeared among the Slound-builders or the 
Pueblos, tor these occupy about the same |>osition in the scale 
ot' progress* that the lake-d welters in Europe do. But th.ere 
was lackmg here the aid ot' a civilization which was near and 
which ci>uid by migration, or by transmitted intluence, elVect 
the .irt and architectuje ot the people. Copper was used by 
the Mound-builders, but bronze was unknown. 

The IS )la:ion of the continent prevented the bronze age from 
being introduced among the Mound-builders. It was evidently 
introiluced among the lake-dwellers of Europe by migration. 
The migrations in America worked an opposite etTect. Instead 
ol bringing a wave ol civilization and progress, it brought in a 
wave ot savagerv and produced a decline. The earliest monu- 
ments were the most elaborate and show the highest stage of 
civilization. This is the case in all parts of the continent. The 
mound-builders of the early jHrri«Kl were more advanced than 
the Indian trilx's who followed them. The Pueblos and clill- 
dwellers were a semi-civilized people, but the trilxrs which drove 
them away were savagt-s, hunters who had come in from the 
regions of the North. The civilized races made progress, but 
those who followed them, of the natives, are now surprisingly 

The absence of the bronze t'rom the clifT-dwellings was owing 
to their distance Irom civilized and historic countrifs, for bronze 
even in Europe was a proiluct of civilization and really belongs 
to the historic period, though it was introduced, like domestic 
animals, among the uncivilized races, and prevailed in great 
quantities in prehistoric times. 

This subject of migration is an interesting one. Worsaae 
savs oi the stone age in the North: *'Whal people it was thai 
showed the road to the more highly develoj^ed races is just as 
unknown a< the time of their arrival.*' Of the later stone age 
hcsavs: *'The period was long, tl'.e new culture alien, and its 
cissemination gradual. That the stone age culture was able to 
reach such a pitch in the North can not l>e explained solely by 
its longer duration, or by the richness and excellence of material 
tor tlint work. In reference t<i the rise and spread of the bronze 
age, the facts point more and more toward the ancient cultur 


lands in Asia, and to India in particular, with it * rich veins of 
copper and tin, as the most probable starting place tor the 
bronze culture." Prof. Worsaoe recognized a North Asiatic 
age of bronze, but thinks that this can not be regarded as the 
starting point tor the bronze culture which appeared in Scan- 
dinavia and tht rest of Europe. The bronze age in the south- 
east of Europe was originally introduced by immigration, but 
it flowed into Europe bv two main routes. 'I he southern 
followed the coast lands, Greece and Italy, Africa, Spain, France 
and the British Isles; the other followed the basin of the Dan- 
ube into the heart of Europe, taking Hungary, Switzerland 
and Germany in its course, and from Germany to Scandinavia. 
The age of stone preceded the bronze, as whole skeletons with 
stone age objects are buried at the basement of the graves, 
while in the sides and summit are burnt bodies with objects ot 

As to the migration of the American races we have no real 
information. That it came mainly by way of Behring Strait is 
only an inference, it has not been proved. In fact, in later years, 
the drii't of opinion has been in favor of another route, or, per- 
haps, several routes, Behring Straits being one, Labrador, 
Greenland and Iceland another, the roast of Florida and West 
Indies another, Mexico and the Polynesian Islands still another. 
There are some who take the ground that there was no immi- 
gration ; the races were all autochthonous. Hellwald says: **Thc 
procession of migratory races was in the long axis of the con- 
tinent, from north to south. The migrating trills alwa\s 
tended towards southerly regions. That America was already 
inhabited betore this great migration, and in many parts was 
possessed of an ancient civilization, admits ot no doubt. It we 
compare it with that of the present Indians of America, the 
original culture was much more advanced " The question n)ight 
arise whether tribes in a state of civilization were the first im- 
migrants, or were the existing races in a It)wer grade lK*cause 
they had declined from a former civilized condition. The theory 
of a civilizing migration seems to l>e opposed by most writers; 
at least it is denied that civilization was intrcxiuced simultane- 
ously with migration, though it is acknowledged by many that 
the germs of civiliz.ition m.iv have hern carried with the migra- 
tory trilx'S. The populations ot the copjU'r age of America, 
which had already dawned in the region ot the lakes, may have 
followed the valleys of the Oluo and Minsissippi, and directed 
their steps to the present States ot Loiii>iana and Texas. Still 
this wide region of the Misstissippi \'aUey, the pro|H*r home of 
the Mound-builders, preserved no trace ol immigration or 
emigration. The shifting of place among the tribes is manifest, 
but no long line of migration. The Asiatic hordes moved 
slowly during the early perioils of history. It may br that the 
stream, set in motion, m^y have ultimately reached this conti- 


nenl, and poured iiself from ihc norlh over the region whicii 
had l>een previously occupied by another race. This would 
account tor the decline, and for the su(H*r-position of the »kele- 
ton.i and the strata ot relics l)einjj in the reverse order. 

11. The distinction between the paleolithic and neolithic af*c 
arose from the study of the monuments. Let us then take up 
these monuments as the especial object o! our study. The 
paleolithic age tound man at the outset a mere homeless, hou^e- 
less savaj^e, scarcely above the condition ol the beast. I le dwell 
in caves, protected himselt with a rude booth or lound shelter 
near a rui k or tree, and possibly dug a hole in the ground, and 
burrowed there. But nothing that was worth v the name of 
structure or monument was erected bv him. ife did not even 
lift up a stone winch would serve as a monument, nor did he 
plate a mound upon the surlace, so that there are no monuments 
of him. L.iter in the paleolithic age he resorted to caves, and 
there left the traces ol his presence in relics ot various kinds. 
He seems ti) have iH:en acquainted with fire, and had some skill 
in drawing pictures upon bone and rock. The latest stage was 
that in which he erected a hut bv the sea coast, and threw out 
the bones and shells which accumulated around the hut, leaving 
rings in the heap to show the place ot his habitation; this is the 
nearest approach to architecture which the paleolithic man 
reached. The neolithic age intrcnluced a new epoch. There 
was a great change, both in the condition ot man and in his sur- 
rouniiings. It would seem almost as it the change was one of 
climate and of natural environments. Certainlv, so tar as the 

* .MAS. 

animals are concerned, there was a great contrast. The bones 
ot the extinct animals, such as the mastodon, the cave bear, the 
rhinoceros and the elephant, are never found associated with the 
neolithic relics. On the other hand, the neolithic structures, 
such as dolmens, menhirs, stone graves, hut rin^s, lodge circles, 
must have been built by a race verv ditTercnt Irom the paleo- 
lithic man. He was undoubtly a wild hunter, who was clad in 
skins, with the hair side out, and who was shaggy in his ap- 
pearance; he mav have contended with the mastodon and the 
f ave bear, and he had only the rude spearhead, which belongs 
to the paleolithic tvpe, tor his weapon. When, however, these 
animals disappeared, he either disappeared himself, or else 
changed his habits in almost every particular. It «%'ould seem 
as if a new race had been constructed, tor the whole horizon has 
changed. There are now habitations which are placed upon 
the surface ot the earth, and within those habitations are tools, 
utensils and weapons, which are as dilTerent as the surround- 
ings. This change was probably brought on by a variety ot 
causes. Everything is correlated fn the prehistoric world. Man 
may have been either a hunter or fisherman ; he may have 
dwelt upon the sea coast or in the interior; he may have inhab- 
ited either ol the continents; yet he, when he moved from the 


cave to the constructed house, came into a new social condition. 
The date is not known, but the change is easily recojrnized. 
There is a new change of social life, and everything partook of 
it. The skill of man was exercised not only upon his architec- 
ture, but in the department ot art, the habitation and the tools 
changing about the same time. We cannot say which was 
first, though judging from the ease with which savages take up 
the use of new weapons and tools which have been introduced 
by the more civilized race, we should say that the change from 
the paleolithic to the neolithic relics must have been anterior to 
that of the change from the cave to the constructed hut. The 
gradual progress might have produced an improvement in axes 
and adzes before they were used in cutting down trees or goug- 
ing out canoes. But we imagine that necessity was in this case 
the mother of invention. Domestic utensils probably came into 
use about the same time that cooking over the tire was prac- 
ticed, and so we infer that pottery was introduced about the 
same time the hut began to be built. The garments also 
changed when the change in habitations and tools had occurred. 
The discoverv of bone needles and awls and stone drills and 


knives, as well as the presence of perforated tablets and other 
ornaments of dress, would indicate this. The change from 
the cave to the hut involved a new method of defense. We 
accordingly find weapons ot a ditlerent kind, spearheads, ar- 
rows, dirks, knives, showing that the warrior was well eouipped. 
We do not know as there was any fortification erected at this 
time, tor there are savages in America who tound their 
safety in flight, and who rarely undertook to build a tortitica- 
tion. Still we regard it as characteristic ot the neolithic age 
that man was then able to provide means of defense for himself; 
there was also a change in the religious condition of the 
people. It is said that during the paleolithic age there was 
much skill in depicting the animals, as in imitating their shapes^ 
but the symlxilic figures which would make animal totems are 
very rare. In the neolithic age there is a great abundance ot 
totems. Nearly all of the animal tigures which are found de- 
picted, inscribed upon bone or carved or moulded, are totemic 
m their character and may be regarded as svmbols of the prim- 
itive faith. The»e are the characteristics ot the neolithic age. 
They are characteristics which are given by the relics, orna- 
ments, garments, art products, as well as the structures of the 
age. We are, however, only to describe the structures. We 
therefore proceed with the description of these 

III. This brings us to the sutxlivision of the stone ^age in 

The division of the antiquities of America has been made 
on the basis ot the material ot the relics h c?n >'r, V' v. t vrr, 
made on another basis, namelv, on ihr m.itfriiil r^ tin* numu- 
ments. We have already elscwh^ic >i.o\% n thai ihc monuments 


of America are to In* classiticd riccordin^ to the ^eo^raphicai 
location, those o( the north being maidly of |K'ri»habIe material, 
wcmhI, ice, brme, bark. As a re9ult we find very lew prehistoric 
structures here. Those of the Mississippi valley were constructed 
mamly ol earth, thou;rh occasionally a few rude stone walls and 
mounds were found among them. Those of the interior, in the 
great plateau of the west, were ot stone, unwrought, laid up in 
walls, and ol adol)e, but with no wrought stone and no hnic 
mortar among them. Those ol the south were mainly of 
wrought stone, laid in cement, with many carved ornaments and 
sculptured pillars. Thus it appears that the material ol the 
structures, as well as the location, turnishes an index to us of 
the grade ot culture which prevailed, so that we do not need to 
relv upon the material ol the relics. These might be regarded 
as the subdivisions ol the stone age, though they would lengthen 
out the stone age, and make it overlap the bronze in one direc- 
tion anil the paleolithic or rude stone in the other. This is the 
main point which we make. 

I. We take up first the structures which are presented by 
the kitchen middens and shell heaps. These are supposed to 
have been the earliest and most primitive, the rudest ol all. It 
has been, to be sure, a matter of discus.Mon whether the shell 
heaps antedated the burial mounds and sepulchral constructions, 
but on this point most of the arch;eologists are now agreed. 
Prof. \Vorsa;e and l*rot. Steenstrup were appointed to examine 
the shell heaps on the coast of Denmark. They made their 
report. One of them claimed that the shell heaps marked a 
period which preceded that ol the dolmens, cromlechs and other 
stone monuments. The other maintained that they Were con- 
temporaneous. The same discussion might be carried on at 
the present lime in reterence to the shell heaps on the coasts of 
North America. It would not be a question whether they be- 
longed to the stone age, but whether they do not mark an early 
part ol this age. In reference to some ol them there would be 
no dispute, but in reference to others there would Ik* a variety 
ol opinion. Sir John Lubbock examined the shell heaps on the 
coast ot Denmark, ile speaks with the highest praise of both 
gentlemen, but reaches the conclusion that shell heaps or kitchen 
middens represent a definite period in the histor}* ol the country 
and are probably referable to the early part of the neolithic 
stone age. lie says none of the large polished axes have been 
found in the kitchen middens. The absence of metal indicates 
that they had not yet anv weapons except those made of wood, 
stone, horn and bone. Prof. Steenstrup admits that the stone 
implements from shell mounds are ruaer than those from the 
tumuli, but the frequent remains of the seal and wild ox, and 
the cuts which are so common in the lx)nes, indicate the use of 
l><i!i>)ir(i irnplf-[iu-nt>, and so he regards the shell heaps as mark- 
ing the camping pl.uetor ti«iht-rmcn, but belonging to the same 


age as the tumuli. The kitchen middens were not mere summer 
quarters. The ancient fishermen resided on these spots at least 
two thirds of the year. The same is true of the shell heaps in 
this country. There are shell heaps in Florida which cover 
immense tracts, and which reach great heights. They are sit- 
uated along the coast, showing that they were not merely the 
result of the accummulation of debris, but were often built in 
ranges, so as to give protection to the inhabitants from high 
tides and at the same time furnish an airy and sightly place lor 

The examination of the shell heaps of Florida was first made 
b^' Prof. Wyman, of the Peabody Museum. They have been 
frequently visited since that time. Dr. D. G. Brinton has de- 
scribed those at New Smyrna. He says the turtle mound is 
thirty feel high, and is composed altogether of separate oyster 
shells. A remarkable mound on Crystal River is in the sha|>e 
of a truncated cone, for'.y feet in height, the summit thirty feet 
in diameter, the sides nearly perpendicular. The great size of 
some of these accumulations may furnish some conception ot the 
length ot time required lor their gradual accretion. The one 
at the mouth of the Altamaha River covers ten acres ol ground, 
and contains about 80,000 cubic yards. Mr. S. T. Walker has 
described those on Tampa Hay; he says they extend along the 
shore tor several hundred feet, and are from fifteen to twenty 
feet in height. Here the archaeologist may read the history of 
the iHfople, as the geologist reads the history of the earth in the 
sections presented. The neculiarily of sliell heaps is that 
human Iwnes are found in them, while very tew bones are found 
in the kitchen middens of Denmark. 

Canals have been found in these shell heaps, giving an indi- 
cation that the people who built them navigated the sea coast, 
and then croi^sed the narrow neck of land which separated the 
coa^l from the river. It is supposed, also, that there were land- 
ing places tor canoes, and that the shell heaps were raised above 
the surface, both for the sake of safety and comfort. We give 
cuts of some of these shell mountls. One of them has a road- 
wav running from the level to the summit. See Fig. I. The 
dimensions of this mound are as follows: It was about five feet 
high; entire length one hundred and flliy feet; breadth seven- 
ty-five feet; the roadwav is twenty feel wide; there is a ditch 
or excavation at one end which enters the mound. A roadway 
was traced from the mound into a hummock several hundred 
vards. Another mound, twelve hundred feet long and twenlv 
feet high, hns a beautiful inclined road up its west side. The 
turtle-sha{K-d mound is the most remarkable. It is about five 
feet high, and is surrounded by ditches; lengtfiwise of the 
ditches are walls left at the natural level ot the land, \^liich 
corres[x>nd to the flippers of the turtle. The head and tan are 
projections from the mound itself. The entire length ot the 



J-'i' .1. 







J'lit- z. 


- itf - 


XfU 7k* SAndmi pi»fttmu imtJimte 

' "'^t**t" 



J-' 1*1 




T\Q. I. 

PLAN or 

Sniiboro Co, 


body is one hundred and ei|;ht feet^ the width sixty-six feet. It 
is remarkable that carved relics resembling this mound in shape 
have been found in the shell heaps of Florida.* 

These observations confirm what we have said about the 
characteristics of the neolithic af^e. They show that totemism 
or symbolism prevailed extensivel}* The shell heaps of the 
California coast differ from these. These contain extensive 
graves. It is supposed that they were temporary residences, at 
layers of sand recur at short intervals, as it they were visited at 
stated seasons. Still, there are traces of aborifjinal settlements, 
since the graves are numerous and many skeletons have been 
exhumed. Many relics, also. Have been taken out — beautiful 
serpentine pipes, spear-heads of obsidian, a bronze cup filled 
with red paint, mortars of various kinds, shell ornaments, mica 
pots, ear ornaments, beads, lance-heads, etc. The shell heaps 
of the northwest coast w*ere much ruder than these. These, 
however, contained sonr.e remarkable relics, showing that they 
were ol modem origin. Prof. E. L. Morse says: •'That these de- 
posits are not all of the same age is certain. It can be safely 
assumed that they were made long before the advent of the 
European, for the natives were then living in the shell age, and 
were forming depositories of shell in the same way. These 
depositories have been described as occurring in England, 
Scotland, Ireland, France, east and west coast of the United 
States, Australia, Tasmania and the Malay archipelrgo, show- 
ing that the stone age prevailed extensively over the globe. The 
hut rings which are found in the mounds of Florida, and the 
artificial shapes of the mounds themselves, bring them under 
the department of architecture; but the rude relics and animal 
remains found in the shell heaps of Scandinavia, Japan, as well 
as of the northwest coast, show that some of them are to be 
treated under the most primitive department of archaeology.** 

Kitchen middens are sometimes classed with the paleolithic 
and sometimes with the neolithic age. This illustrates a 
point.. There was a time when the fishermtn were so ex- 
tremely rude and low in their social condition that they were 
incapable of erecting a structure which reouired anv mechani- 
cal .«ikill. They either dwelt in caves ana resorted to the sea 
coast during the summer months, or they made for themselves 
shelters ot the rudest kind. We can harcfly regard them <is equal 

•««h<'ll h<*«|w with iMinc* Implrai^nU and radt pmti^j Antrommon In Fktrfda. - 
Wynian, IV«bit<ly report. Vol. II. Hhcll h«ip» with •t«Attt« mortArB hmve bg#p dto- 
rti\#rr«1 in rallfumta. On« In cuntrm iViala ('ounly wmm ni«fre than a mile kmc. 
IUinrri*rt. Vol. IV. 11.709 |V«bodj report, UTS, Hh«llbc«pa In (HT«iin. A t^tMittte sUifi* 
<iu*rrj with 'jDnOBtone ttnplemrnui Aod hamtneni wm« ftmnd In IVnnnylTAnlA. The 
Htratit«» t>'>if> in thf* •liell hfl«ap«f>r C^llftunl* and Omc»n^»)r hAT« bM»n IaIimi ttnm 
ittf iiimrry In H«nta ratal ln» Ulanda, ■•« fmbody report for IfCK. HbHt beaiw with 
wiMilrn liAHiMirrv have l»r«n found In Vancouver'* f»land. ilanrron Vol. IV p. 717. 
tin tlir rnaat nf llnif tl mrr sbell hrapa whtrti preaeot evidence of cannlballnB.— Na- 
4laillar. p. fki. Kn«h water vbell brakpaare lommon In the valley of the llUaUaliipl. 
llr|Mtrt (if A. A. A."H. IWTX Theae are^> be dUtlnruUbedifmm the ash ntia flMina by 
l*rff. l*utnam tn Ohio, and yet they mn tain the debris of rampa,afl do tnetballbaaps 


to the houM-builden in their condition, Tor ihe house-builders 
belonged to the neolithic age* To have had neolithic weapons 
and tools, and build houses would imply an advanced atiEe of 
art and architecture. The Eskimos build ice huts which are 
arched, resembling the conical stone huia which are found in 
Ireland, and which belong to the stone age. They also make 
long passages to their huts, which remind us of the passage- 
ways to the dolmens of France, which are also neolithic struc- 
tures. In winter the Eskimos build huta 
'. Irom whale bones and walrus bones, laid 
I tiers, the same as the ice, and placed 
upon a foundation ol stone. This shows 
' that the Eskimos had very considerable skill 
'■ in the an of constructing houses, a skill 
; which probably represents that which was 
exercised by the early neolithic fwople of 
Europe and of America. Our conL-lusiun 
^ is that the structures which were erected in 
ng.i- the midst of the shell heaps were similar to 

these, and that they belonf>ed to the neolithic age, but were 
perhaps the earliest structures o( that age. 

3. We now turn to the barrows and mounds which arc found 
on this continent, with the;n of instituting a comparison 
between tht-m and the so-called barrows of Kuro|)e. We place 
them together, for they constitute a second class of monumental 
.structures, and illustrate a second division of the new htune age. 
It is rciDarkabte that in the barrows there are so many stone 
chambers which were evidently designed for funereal purposes 
These chambers are rude s]H-ciinens of funereal architecture, but 
they show how sacred and jm[>ortant this kind of architecture 
was in the --tone age. The mounds of 
America do not often contain chambers 
like these, but. on the other hand, arc 
solid throughout, either stratified, with 
layers of sand, eartli and sione. or built 
as simple heaps of earth, uitlioiit strat- 
ification, and somctiincs without relics 
or rcmaini. The harrows of Huro|>c 
arc supposed to contain the oldest or '^ '• 

earliest of all funereal structures, and are on this account worthy 
of especial study. The architecture of the prehistoric seems in this 
res|)ect t'> h.ivc resembled that of the historic age. The most an- 
cient in each are tombs. This i\ an interesting (act. Tombs are 
found in the pyramids of Kgypt. the earliest of historic monu- 
ments. They arc also conlamed in the barrows of Europe, the 

lliihfkln. >r<r«i nirlhlf*! •Wmo(rn.; wh" wrrr tlw lint t>- build bnnaaa. IMm 
•mna^n K>n rlmBtvd lo atan, but Ihr thrll lifapa •» 1*11 m iUb* tt thatr tomn' 
Vol.lll,p ITT. 


earliest of the prehistoric monuments. There may indeed have 
been structures which were occupied by the living at a time pre- 
ceding these, but as these were built of perishable material they 
soon disappeared. The significance of the mcgaltthic tombs is, 
howe^-er, the greater on this account. They are supposed to 
have been built after the pattern of the houses which have per- 
ished, and so .show what kind of houses 
were built during that age. 

Lubbock says: "No one can compare 
? the plan of a Scandinavian passage grave 
-_ to any drawing of an Eskimo snow house 
■ without being struck with the great simi- 
larity existing between them." IVof. Nils- 
i son snys that the winter dwellings of the 
I Kamskatkans are very .<iimi]ar: that these 
arc a copy of the dwelling house. The an- 
"' ' cient inhabitants of Scandinavia, unable to 

imagine a future separate from the present, buried the house 
with its owner, and the grave was literally the dwelling of the 
dead. When a great man died he was placed in his favorite 
scat, food and drink were arranged before him, his weapons 
were placed by his side, his house was closed and the door cov- 
ered up, sometimes, however, to be opened again when his wife 
or children joined him in the land of spirits. The entrances or 
doors to dolmens are usually made by omitting one of the up- 
right supports, but i<;closcd by inserting a moveable stone. There 
are dolmens with a different entrance. A hole i.s cut through 
the door, or closing stone, sometimes round and sometimes 
oval. Sometimes the hole for 
entrance is cut out of the bot- 
tom of the closing stone, Fig^, 
4 and 5. Some dolmens have L 
an entrance cut one half out of 3 
each stone, makingan appear- 1 
ance tike the guillotine, and ; 
so giving the name of guillo- "-; ; 
line to the tomb. Sec Fig. 
6, There are a few dolmens 
which have doors with side '''" 

posts or piers and lintels, and with the superincumbent stone 
sloping like the roof of a modern house. Sec Fig. 7. 

Thomas Wilson says it is usual, if not universal, to liad a 
vestibule corridor or covered way leading from the entrance of 
the principal chamber to the circumference of the tumulus. 
Some of these corridors are forty to fifty feet in length. He 
says many of the dolmens are covered with earth. All may 
have been once so covered. The following cuts will illustrate 
the manner in which these dolmens are built. Figs. 8 and 9. 


These dolmens were found in France. The village in sight is 
that of Locbmariaquer ; beyond is the gulf of Mordihan. Tbc 
road from hence to Carnac is lined with monuments ol prehi»- 
toric times resembling these. There are no such dolmens in 
America. The nearest approach to them is found in the cham- 
bered mounds of Missouri, but these lack the passage-ways or 

A distinction was formerly drawn between the long barrows 
and short barrows, as If they indicated different races and 
periods of time, but this has been done away. The passage 
graves and stone chambers within the mounds may, however, be 
distinguished from the stratified mounds and burials without 
stone cist-t. a distinction which will apply to the mounds of 
America as well as of Kuropc. The reason assigned for the 

Mimmlaiul Mirtk t\rrtf ParumouUi. <M«d. 

construction of passage graves ii^ that there might be a succes- 
sion of burials without a destruction of the tomb The opening 
to the mouth of the passage would be so near the outside of the 
mound that the *tone could Ik- removed ami new bo<Iies placed 
within the tumh 

There is i>ne point which comes up in connection with the 
mounds of America and the barrows of (ireat Britain. Some 
ofthebc were associated with earth circles (Kigs. loand rt), show- 
ing that the ]>eoplc who erected the barrows were a military 
or war-liki- gieople. and that they erected these as a means of 
defense. In this respect they are sup|><)sed to have been one 
ilcgrcc in advance of the |*ci>p!e who duclt among the kitchen 
middens, whu were probably fishermen The same thought is 
conveyed by the mounds found in the United States. Many of 
these mounds were evidently used as "lynal stations, showing 
that the people uere both hunters ar.d uarriorv as the same 
m"und would ser^■e for oliser>'.-itorics to watch the approach of 

';. , ■:..^At}.f 



game, and to notice the presence of the enemy. The earth 
circles in EnclAnd are attended with standing stones. In this 
country there are no standing stones. The ditch, however, is 
inside the circle as in Europe. It is supposed that the circles 
in both countries were designed for fortifications, though some 
had evidently a religious use. The religious significance of these 
structures is perhaps more important than the military use. It 
is possible that there was a symbolism concealed in the very 
space of a circle, the circle t>eing the symbol of the sun. It is 
possible, also, that the standing stones found in Europe symbol - 
lie serpent worship exactly as certain earth walls and mounds 
symbolize it in this country. Altar mounds arc numerous 
m the United States. These show that the religious sentiment 
was a powerful factor in the erection of mounds. There are no 
altar mounds in Europe, but there are many who suppose that 
the dolmens were both altars and burial places, the table-stone 
above the chamber serving for an altar and the chamber serving 
as the burial place for the dead. 

/V- ll.-M'Mmti and JOarth CinU M iinnt Briiain, 

There is another thought which arises here. We have noticed 
that the kitchen middens of Europe are much ruder than the 
chambered barrows, and have spoken of the caves as partially 
filling the gap. In America, however, the gap is not so wide 
and is partially filled by the stratified mounds, these mounds be- 
ing of a lower grade of architecture than the chambered barrows 
but of a higher grade than the shell heaps. It was during the 
mound-building period that the so-called copper age appeared. 
This age has not been assigned any definite position, and in fact 
some even deny that there was any such age in America. It 
remains then for those who are studymg the science in America 
to say what that age was. The comparison between the Euro- 
pean and the American mounds helps us to do this. The 
Mound-builders represent the copper age. The Mound-builders 
were both hunters and agriculturists. They erected mounds for 
burial, but they also built earth walls for defense. They evidently 
lived in villages, while they cultivated the land surrounding 
them. They were also house-builders, and at times built coun- 
cil-houses and temples in the midst of their villages. They were 
Sttn-worshippcrs. and at times built altars and presented offerings 


to the sun divinity. The use of copper may indeed have been 
only incidental to their life, the abundance of copper bein(^ a 
reason why they used it rather than stone, and it also better 
served their purposes. Still we use the term as significant of a 
cult, and place the copper age in the midst of the stone age, 
making the Mound-builders to represent its rank in the column. 

We give a series of cuts to show the resemblance between the 
mounds of America and the barrows of Europe. It will be no- 
ticed that some of the mounds are surrounded by earth circles 
with a ditch inside of the circle. Some have thought these to 
have been symbolic structures — symbols of the sun; others con- 
sider them mere burial places. There are many such mounds in 
the United States. Some of them contain altars, and all have a 
sacred or religious character. We call atttention to the resem- 
blance between these circular enclosures. Was it because sun- 
worship existed that these rings or circles were built, or was 
there some actual contact between the two in the two continents. 
The standing stones of Great Britain are wanting in America; 
but so far as the form of the earth circles and the passage-ways 
to the circles can be said to resemble one another in one 
country, they may also be said to resemble one another in both 
countries. The altar mounds are, to be sure, wanting in Eu- 
rope, and yet if we take the stone tables to have been altars, we 
find the same use for the barrows as for the mounds. They cov- 
ered up and preserved the altars as well as the burying places. 
We here call attention to the circles, at Averbury. in England, 
and the earth circle in Portsmouth. Ohio. We do not say that 
these works were symbolic, and yet the religious use is acknowl- 
edged by all and the resemblances are also striking. 

\. This brings us to the stone structures in Europe and Amer- 
ica. Wc must treat these briefly. The rude stone monuments 
have lK:en licscriKed as if they constituted a very important 
(actor in the prehistoric architecture of Europe. The rude stone 
structures are, however, very numerous in America. These are 
more properly ruins than monuments, and yet they belong to 
the s.ime age and represent a similar stage of progress with the 
so-called monuments We mention the ciifTdwellrngsand pueb- 
los of the west, as uc do the standing stones of F^rance and the 
cromlechs of England, placing them side by side, since they all 
repre>ent the List subdivision of the so-called stone age. De- 
scription> of these ur»rks are found in works on archxology. and 
yet the re^^rmblancc** are worthy of our study. The standing 
stones at Cirnat, called ali^mmcnts. have, to be sure, no repre- 
sentative in America, and the I'ueblos have none m Europe. 
Yet it may be noticed that the same* »kill which wrought one 
class was also exhibited in the other, so that a department may 
be erected for both. The uses t»f the purblos. with their many 
storied rooinn. and with their *>acred estufas <ir sweat houses and 


their plazas or courts arc indeed better known than are the 
uses of the standing; stones. The uses of the clifT dwellings 
with their retreats in the sides of the rocks, and their lookout 
towers on the tops of the same, are also perhaps better known 
than are the uses of the stone circles of Avebury or Stone Henge. 

Yet with all the mystery which hangs about the European 
monuments, we do not hesitate to class them together. The 
mode of life of the two people was, to be sure, in great contrast, 
since the means of subsistence in one case was gained by irri- 
gation, and in the other by agriculture of the ordinary kind, de- 
fense being secured in very diflferent ways in the two countries, 
yet so far as skill in architecture or general culture and the 
prevalence of a certain religious cult are concerned we should 
place them all on the same level. It is possible, too, that original 
'Jesign of the European monuments may yet be learned from 
the study of these American structures, and so we call attention 
to the two as worthy of close attention. We call attention to 
the cuts as illustrating this point. 

We call attention to the cuts, Figs. 12 and 13. These repre- 
sent the circular structures of the two continents; the one, the 
standing stones of Great Britain, the other the ruined towers of 
Colorado and New Mexico. The standing stones were never 
buildings, and yet they may have been places of worship or of 
religious assembly. The towers, however, were once buildings, 
but buildings of a singular kind. They may have been lookout 
towers, but more likely were sweat houses or sacred places of 
assembly where sacred rites were observed. These towers are 
sometimes found on the mesas above the so-called clifT-dwellings 
and sometimes on the bottom land beneath the clifT-dwellings, 
and .sometimes isolated and separate from all other structures. 
The significance of the circle in both cases is that sun-worship 
prevailed in both continents. 

Some of the towers have three concentric walls, as in the 
cut ; others, however, have only two, but with partitions between 
the walls, dividing the tower into one large central apartment, 
with several cells surrounding this. The standing stones at 
Stone Henge were also surrounded by a circle of earth, with a 
ditch inside of it. Tney .seem to have had a sacred assembly 
place in the center, in the midst of |which was the so-called 
altar. This was the penetralia of the place. The analogies of 
the two are. then, very striking, especially when we consider the 
distance which separated them and the difference in the surround- 
ings of the two. The subject is certainly worthy of serious 
study, as they may be expressive of a wide spread cult. 



Editor Ameruan Antiquarian: 

I have read with much interest the many articles on mounds 
and mound-builders that have appeared in your publication, 
which is doing valuable work in collecting information concern- 
ing these works of the aborigines of this continent. On the 
Pacific Slope mounds are not so numerous as in the Mississippi 
Valley, yet there are numbers of them to be found in some lo- 
calities. Some of these have already been mentioned in Thk 
Antiquarian, but I wish to call attention to those in a region 
that has been neglectec by archaeologists, viz., the Tulare Valley 
of California. 

The Tulare Valley is the southern end of the greater San 
Joaquin Valley. Before the iarmer had begun to furrow the 
surface of the great plain evidences of Indian occupation were 
frequently met with. Stone implements of various kinds were 
scattered upon the ground in the vicinity of water-courses, and 
in the same localities were noticeable small saucer-like depres- 
sions, six to ten feet in diameter. The latter, in or about which 
ashes were always visible, were the sites of former tepees or wig- 
wams ; and occasionally a larger and deeper depression marked 
the location of what was once a sweat-house. In such places a 
number of mounds have been discovered, althongh few of the 
early settlers believed them to be of Indian origin. Many of the 
smaller mounds have been destroyed by the farmer's plow ; and 
in the northern portion of the valley nearly all were small. The 
largest seen here by the writer are about fifty feet in diameter 
and about four feet high. A few have been opened and all 
found to contain skeletons and stone implements. In the ex- 
treme southern end of the valley the mounds are much larger 
and more numerous. Nearly all are circular or elliptical in form, 
and the larger ones are more than two hundred feet in diameter 
and six to eight feet high in the center. They were probably 
higher and narrower when made. 

I saw these first about twelve years ago. and then thought them 
to be of Indian origin, but it was not until a few months ago. 
when the writer directed Mr. C. \\ Wilcomb where to find them. 


that any were opened. He opened one mound partly and found 
a skeleton in a sitting posture, bent forward, the head touching 
the knees, and /acing the north. It was surrounded by flint 
chippings, stone inriplemcnts and shell ornaments. An investi- 
gation of other mounds discovered fragments of shells, human 
bones and stone spear and arrow-heads on the surface that had 
been brought out by the digging of badgers and coyotes. 

The location where these burial mounds are most numerous 
and of greatest size is near Kern and Buena Vista I^kes, and 
along Buena Vista Slough, which connects, or formerly con- 
nected, them with Tulare Lake. None have been examined 
closely to ascertain if they be effigy-mounds. As I remember 
them they were as already descrilxrd ; but they will be observed 
more closely hereafter. Georgk W. Stkwart. 

Visalia, Cat. 


Editor Anuruan An/i^uarutn: 

I have lately added to my collection of relics some from the 
isimous clifTdwcller ruins of the Mancos canyon. Southwestern 
Colorado. These relics were brought me by my nephew, who 
was one of a party of ladies and gentlemen who explored the 
ruins last month. A portion of the ruins explored by this party 
were never before visited by ladies. The trip is made with no 
little danger and great inconvenience. The mesas are covered 
with a thick — ^almost impassable — growth of scrub pinOn timber, 
and broken by deep, rugged, impassable canons. Water is very 
scarce and strongly alkaline. One of the party was an amateur 
photographer, and secured a set of views. I have three views, two 
being of the Cliff Palace, the largest ruin in the Mancos canon, 
and the one from which most of my relics came. This ruin, 
like the others, is built of blocks of well-dressed sand-stone, two 
to four inches thick, by six to ten inches long, laid up in natural 
mortar of a light cream color, and extends along the face of a 
natural recess in the overhanging cliff of the canon a distance 
of about fifteen hundred feet; is two hundred feet in depth, and 
forty to fifty feet high. The front walls are mostly down ; those 
back farther in the recess are in all conditions from nearly per- 
fect to a mass of mortar and stones. 'T*here is one large circular 
tower, the stones of which are dressed to a perfect circle, nicely 
fitted, 'and covered inside with mortar, which was apparently 
applied with bare hands. There are two other rooms having 
their comers rounded off inside, making them nearly round. In 
one room the walls are frescoed in odd decorative designs. 
There are many rooms of different sizes and conditions, some 


showing their use as kitchens, store-rooms, etc. The walls are 
pierced with numerous windows, some having stone and others 
wooden lintels. In the small, low rooms farthest back, next 
to the rock, they buried their dead, placing pottery and utensils 
at the head, and covering all with ashes and earth. Some of the 
clifT-houses are perched so high up the steep cliffs that they have 
never been reached by explorers, ladders not being long enough 
and being inaccessible with relics from above. 

The relics consist of: A broken basket, woven water-tight, of 
yucca fiber; is round, about nine inches in diameter and six 
inches high. On one side has a handle of braided coarse, black 
hair. The other handle, with portion of basket, is gone. A 
piece of diagonally woven matting, six by sixteen inches, being 
an outer segment of a circular mat, probably three or four feet 
in diameter. A portion of a well-worn sandal, woven diagon- 
ally, of yucca fiber. A piece, being a corner, of feather cloth, 
the feathers being nearly destroyed. It is made of tightly 
twisted two-strand cords, of about three-sixteenths of an inch 
in thickness, for the woof, and being woven or held together by 
double warp about an inch apart. The woof appears to have 
been wound with narrow strips of skin of some fine fur-bearing 
animal. There are the remains of a few feathers in some of the 
thicker, closer woven parts, but how they were fastened or their 
extent, it is impossible to tell from this specimen. A round 
ring, about one and a quarter inches thick and seven inches in 
diameter, used to hold their large round-bottomed jars in an 
upright position ; made of yucca fiber, wound with string. A 
small piece of well-tanned leather, probably deer-skin. A frag- 
ment of roofing of split cedar. Their houses were roofed (when 
they were not built up to the overhanging rock) by placing two 
strong poles across from wall to wall, upon which the split cedar 
strips, (juarter to half an inch thick, were placed. These were 
covered with small brush, the whole being thickly covered with 
mud. A piece of bedding {?), being small willow sticks about 
four feet long, pierced ever\' five or six inches, and closely strung 
on cords, making a rude mat. A few corn cobs and pieces of 
squash vines. The cobs are small, showing eight and ten rows 
There are wagcn-loads of these cobs found in the ruins. Two 
well-shaped bone awls. A round stick, five eighths of an inch 
in diameter and thirteen inches long : use unknown; drumstick? 
A bone turkey-call. Three arrow-heads of good workmanship. 
One stone axe, of a very hard, fine-grained, chocolate-colored 
stone, four and a half inches long by two and a half inches wide, 
unpolished head, deep groove, well polished, sharp bit. A stone 
corn pulverizer. 6x4x1 mches; f!at on upper and oval on lower 
sides; used to grind corn, which was placed in a long groove cut 
in the rock. A handle of a pot, which, if of a true circle, must 
have been fourteen inches in diameter A rude urn shaped jar. 


three inches high. A corrugated jar, four inches high, sh'ghtly 
flattened, bottom two inches across, bulge three and a half inches 
in diameter, neck half an inch less. A round-bottomed bowl, 
holding about two quarts, glazed inside, and decorated with 
black stripes and odd figures. A spoon, the bowl nearly round, 
two inches across by one inch deep, with a tapering handle two 
inches long. 

These, with the two whole pieces of pottery and numerous 
fragments that I received last fall from the same locality, make 
a unique collection of relics of these most interesting people. 

VV. H. S. 


Editor American Antiquarian : 

It is well-nigh four centuries since the PVench began the 
search for antiques within their borders. One would suppose 
that a dozen generations of research would have brought to light 
all monuments of ancient architecture, especially all those of 
massivcncss and magnitude. The truth seems to be that grand 
discoveries have recently been made, and such as to encourage 
future exploration. Among recent finds one of this class was 
described, last August, in a letter to the Parisian Intermediaite — 
a French periodical corresponding to the London Notes and 
Queries — which has now for forty years been invaluable as a 
medium of inter-communication for literary men, general read- 
ers, etc., the world over. 

An amphitheater has long been known to exist at Bourges, the 
chief town of the department Cher, and one street of that city 
\% still called the street of the Arena. Of late years a theater, 
or amphitheater, is reported as detected in the canton of Vierxoo, 
about twenty miles north of Bourges, and a little over a hundred 
south of Paris. Excavations have not yet gone far enough t o 
show the true nature of the structure. 

But a 'greater treasure-trove has turned up at Drevant, in the 
canton Saint Amand, a little south of Bruges. Here a vast 
amphitheater has been developed. Its diameter is eighty meters, 
and a metor is one twelfth more than a yard. Three fourths of 
its encircling ring remains unbroken. The platforms rising 
above each other, as bases for seats, are of brick and stone, and 
supported on arches raised on piers, which form four stories of 
porticos round the monument. The internal passages are five 
feet wide. Among the relics which have been here picked up 
are pins, clasps, a bronze collar, a mask of terra-cotta, bottles, a 
glass cup. fragments of red pottery and of inscriptions. 


This wind-fall is chronicled in a region of dense population — 
more than a hundred on every square mile. But the stupendous 
Roman remain lay hid till just now. In view of this Oact, what 
may not be buried in our older states, to say nothing of the new 
ones, eluding observation hitherto, but sure to greet future ex- 
plorers with glad surprises, paying and over-paying for their 

Prof. J. D. Buti-er. 

Madison, Wis. 


Editor Ameruan Antiquarian: 

In obedience to your kind invitation of some time ago, re- 
questing! mc to send a letter on the prehistoric Indian evidences 
in this locality, for publication in The American ANTiguARiAN. 
I respectfully submit the following account of those extinct 
American ancestors, the Mound-builders. That the reader may 
more accurately comprehend the subject, and situation as well. 
I will first say that the evidences I propose to write about are 
found on each side of BevuflT River, in Morehouse and West 
Carroll Parishes. I^uisiana, and it can be seen by referring to 
the map that these Parishes lie adjoining the State of Arkansas, 
directly south of Ashley and Chicot Counties, respectively. 
RevufT River is the dividing line between the two Parishes 
referred to above, on either side of which, for six or eight miles 
east and west, is one of the most beautiful forest swamps that 
has ever been designed by the Infinite Creator, though it is at 
the present unavailable for practical purposes, by reason of the 
periodical inundations. Amid this bold contrast of forest woods 
that hangs heavily in spring-time with a beauteous diversity of 
verdant foliage, dotted here and there, are to be found numer- 
ous ridges and mounds, on which arc found many relics of pre- 
historic origin. 

■ These ridges, which were doubtless the reiidences of the 
aborigines, for the most part lie in chains from three to five 
miles long ; but sometimes they ars found, too. by the side of 
each other, indicating that in their construction a union of cfToit 
must have been adopted throughout their kingdom. These 
chains have a course of direction parallel to that of the river, 
lying a little east of north, with a corrcs|>onding vibration west 
of south, giving them the peculiar course of a northeasterly- 
southwesterly direction. Another striking feature noticeable in 
some of these chains is that as the traveler wends his way to 
the southward, starting from the northern extremity of one of 


these chains, he will perceive as he more particularly considers 
them, that each succecdinf; ridge is little smaller than its prede- 
cessor, till they finally terminate with one perhaps not more than 
three or four feet above the surrounding country, and one or two 
hundred yards long and one third as wide; but some of the 
more stupendous of these colossal ridge-structures are one haif 
mile in length, two and three hundred yards over in the broad- 
est places, overlook and command a vertical height of fiAeen to 
twenty-five feet above the adjacent landlevel. Rut of the dream- 
pictured scenes of the most enthusiastic botantist, I do not think 
anything in the vegetable kingdom could be brought to bear 
that would present a more charming aspect of Nature's work 
than do the ridgrs in the spring and early summer, when the 
lands all around them are submerged with back water. They 
naturally have a fertile, friable loam that will produce a luxuri- 
ant crop of anything |>eculiar to a tropical latitude. To row 
a boat out of the massive forest up to one when it is wreathed 
m flourishing waves of a diversified crop, bowing in humble 
submission to each successive breeze, is pleasing in the fullest 
signification of the word. 

I contend that these ridges were built by the Mound-builders^ 
for their own |)ersonal protection in high-water times, and adduce 
a few words below to more clearly verify this conjectural argu- 
ment : Upon the same principle that the Mississippi river over- 
flowed the lowlands contiguous to its channel to-day, it is 
reasonable to suppose that it has overflowed from the earliest 
dawn of creation. I think perhaps that when the water first 
began to disturb their quietude, that the idea of building these 
ridges to enable them to maintain their possesscssions was 
suggested to their minds, and accordingly adopted all over the 
overlHowcd district. This is the most primitive idea. Being 
l>owcrful in physical stature, as the pieces of bones here found 
indicate, the building of a small ridge, which could have gradu- 
allv been increased with the increase of the water, would not 
have been a very gre«it undertaking, when we consider that all 
their fortune was at stake, and the propriety of such a policy 
lan lie better anticipated by one who, like myself, has lived on 
one of these ridges all his life, and been an eye-witness to the 
ravages of overflow. tt> advantages and disadvantages. It is 
probable that the diflerent si/cd ridges are the result of their 
tribal form of government, indicating that each tribe or family 
had to build their own ridge, and built it to suit the convenience 

*TYir tU!ll«ir InwrU thtt letirr for tlir Mikf of tlir d««rrl|ttlc»n nf the naturml t^twrj 

and U* thow h(*w nukjr It U for |«r«oo«. who arr i»l her v I mc excellent prartlrmi obacrt 
rr«. f > mUtJikF naturml reatiirr* t*%r Arliflriai wurkit. rhe Inrormatinn whl«*h mmj 
cnfne to ii« fnim thu author In refereoce to the moiindu found on these rldce» U nar 
warrant ftfr prrtmrtng It hy a dearrtptlon of the scenery 'ffoenerv whteh In anni** raa> 

perui. ref i n blr that of the great rynreM iiwain|M situated Iknher north, where ai* 
important Unda havr be«*u made. We welcome Infofnatlon tmni ail larta of the 
country . hut take the lilirriy to paM our own eommentii on It. - Ki>. 


and size of the family. The chains indicate a union of eflTorts 
for defensive purposes, while the mounds were probably sentinel 
posts or monuments reared in commemoration of remarkable 
events. R. A. Wallace. 

Tipton, La. 

thp: huida-kwul-ra, or nativk tobacco of 
the queen charlotte haidas. 

Editor American Antiquarian: 

A great deal has been written of late concerning ancient to- 
bacco pipes. Pictures of pipes of all sorts of shapes and sises 
have been placed before the public. In this letter I shall make 
a departure, and lay before them something new, the huida- 
kwul-ra. or ancient tobacco of the Haidas. While writing this 
article, I have been obliged to Prof. Dawson, ot the Canadian 
Geological Survey, for a few thoughts on the subject, in his re- 
port of 1878-9. Likewise to my friend, Mr. Hall, the Hudson 
Ray Co.'s chief officer at Fort Simpson, who has also made in- 
quiries amongst the Haidas on the subject, as well as to my own 
research, extending over a number of years. The subject, if it 
does not interest your readers, will at least shed a ray of light 
on the ancient history of this coast. 

Down from the distant ages of the past, long before they ever 
heard of tobacco, the Haidas used a narcotic plant, which was 
cultivated by them, not only for their own use but to serve as 
an article of trade with neighboring tribes. Speaking of it. 
Prof. Dawson says : *'To prepare the plant for \i%c, it was dried 
over the fire on a little frame-work, finely bruised in a stone 
mortar, and then pressed into cocks. It does not appear that they 
smoked it, but being mixed up with a little lime prepared by 
burning clam snclls. was either chewed or held in the cheek." 
This plant, once extensively cultivated hy all the Haidah tril)es. 
has been, so far as 1 am aware, ab;mdoncd for many years. The 
last person to grow it seems to have been an old woman at 
Gumshed's village, on an inlet of that name, towards the south- 
em end of the^r islands. She grew it up to about 1878. when 
it seems to have given place to the imported article. 

Descriptions given me ot this plant by various persons, place 
its identity as a s|>ecies of poppy beyond a doubt. It is described 
as a plant with tall stems. On the extremit>' of each were a 
number of balls full of seeds. In ancient times, when the climate 
was warmer (I quote tradition), it used to grow ver>' large; so 
large that in order to get a supply of seeds, it was necessar>' to 
shoot them off with bow and arrow. Owing to changed condi- 


tions, for many ages it has only grown a low annual plant. While 
lull of juice it was cut and prepared in the manner before given. 
That this plant was in reality a poppy, I shall try to prove. The 
description, in the first place, makes it resemble poppies. When 
used, its effects resembled those of opium also. Old people 
amongst the ilaidas, when shown a picture of the poppy bush, 
readily recognize it as the plant from which they used to make 

I shall next consider where they got this plant, or an idea of 
its narcotic qualities. This plant, according to tradition, was at 
first caused to grow in the interior of the Stickcen countr>'. 
Alaska, by the Deity Ne-kilst-luss (Choocoth of the !Iaidas,Yale 
or Ycthcl of the Stickccns) who. after giving them the plant, 
next taught them how to use it. The Ilaidas, or least part of 
them, came originally from the Stickecn countr)'. where they 
used the plant. lk*ing desirous to emigrate, and wishing to 
have their wonted supply of kwul-ra, a party was sent before 
leaving to get a quantity of seed to plant on their island home. 
Taking his bow, with a few trusty arrows, he went out and shot 
of) a few heads, which were taken to Queen Charlotte's islands 
and there sown, and by the descendants of these emigrants cul- 
tivated through many generations, until the imported article, 
which could be had with less trouble, finally took its place. Such 
IS the tradition of the origin of huida-kwul-ra, llaida tobacco. 

The tradition quoted above says that originally the llaidah 
tribes came from Stickeen. southern Alaska. That there was at 
one time an emigration from Alaska to these islands I have lit- 
tle doubt, yet they were not the first to settle. Krom my first 
acquaintance with the Ilaidas, in 1S53, up to 1S70. I noticed, as 
a people, theyjwere a blending of two races, one short in stature, 
with black hair and eyes, and rather dark complexion; the other 
fairer and generally taller, while some had even fair hair. Most 
of the chiefs and well-to do |>eople belonged to the latter class , 
also those of the latter class not only claimed that their fore- 
fathers came from Alaska, but that they themselves were connected 
with the chiefs of southern Alaska. These old distinctions have 
been gradually disappearing for a number of years. From the 
present system of marriages, there will before long be evolved 
the handsomest race of Indians on this coast. Hut I go 
back to my starting point, the emigration stor)*. which is as fol- 

I^ng ago. they say, their fathers came from Tongas and 
Stickeen. Crossing over, they landed on a long, flat, sandy 
point called Noi-Coon (long-nose), where they built a village. 
I fere they lived many years safely in their stronghold, from which 
at last they were driven by the driving sands. Moving a few- 
miles farther they built a village at the mouth of Hi-ellin River. 
Here they remained many years, until the sea, encroaching. 


washed them out. After leaving this place they seem to have 
mixed with the other, because afterwards their individuality was 
nearly lost. In all their migrations they took the seeds of the 
poppy along with them. I have never heard of them being at 
any other place before Alaska, where they as a people lived 
through unknown ages. Although they say the Raven God 
gave their fathers the huida-kwul-ra, at a very remote period, 
they might have got it from Asia, where the poppy has long 
been cultivated. With these few remarks, I leave this article for 
the consideration of your readers. Meanwhile I shall try and 
get all the information to be had concerning it while amongst 
these people. James Deans. 




Editor American Antiquarian : 

During the past twelve months I have found a small number 
of paleolithic implements at great elevations in North Hertford- 
shire and Si)Uth Bedfordshire, unconnected with existing river 
valleys. Four of the implements — 1386. 1387, 1393 and 139S 
in my collection — are from Caddington ; height above ordnance 
datum. 595 feet, 9 inches. The dry valley close by, to the west, 
is 470 feet, and the ground gradually falls southwards to 409 
feet at the source of the Ver, near Markyate Street, at a distance 
of a mile and three <juarters. The sections of Caddington ex- 
hibit red " clay with flints," brick earth (or clay), and tenacious 
brown clay or loam, surmounted by blackish earth, containing 
broken white-coated flints, a few ochreous flints, and numerous 
blackish tertiary jKrbbles. The whole deposit rests on chalk, and 
varies in depth from two feet to fifty feci. Aware of the import- 
ance of finJm;; the worked flints in the undisturbed material. I 
have, after lon^j searching, f«)un(l a single implement and one or 
t^o flakes insitH at the stony 1m atom of the upjK-r defxibil of' 
tenacious brown clay at a depth of three and f«»ur feet from the 
surface A sm^jle small jwleolilhic implc»nent I have found on 
the surface . Iiei;;lit alx>ve nrdanee datum. 7;9 feel H inches. The 
bottom «»t" ihe vallty, a mile and a «jiiarler to the west, at the 
source itf the nuzel. is 414 feet Half an ovate paleolithic im- 
plement. ob\.».us!y derived from the hill-tcps, I have found in a 
field at lh<- bolttim of a chalky valley near Houghton Regis. 
The Caddin^jton implements jlX%: pointed (or tongue- shaped), 
slightly abraded, small in si/c. and cinnamon-brown in col<»r. The 
interest attached to these finds rests not only km\ the great hei^^hts 
mcntionetl and the positions auay from existing river valleys. 


but in the nature, age and mode of deposit of the upper tenacious 
brown clay in which the implemonts arc imbedded. The im- 
plements themselves agree in make and appearance with the 
well-known brown or ochrcous implements often found in non- 
(KhrcouH sand, etc., in existing river valleys. I have at present 
seen no traces of fossil bones or fresh-water shells in the depos- 
its mentioned. Worth iNciToN G. Smith. 


THE LAST uf:scp:ni)ant of uncas. 

Uncas, sachem of the Mohegans, was one of the most cele- 
brated Indiin rulers that ever lived in New England. While he 
was undoubtedly a man of ability, he also appears to have pos- 
M!ssed a tyranical and cruel disposition. His death occurred 
something over two centuries ago. Samuel Brushel, who is said 
to have been the last descendant of Uncas, died in Connecticut 
durmg the year 1882. At the time of his death the following 
interesting item appeared in the New York World: 

•* Norwich. Conn.. November 29. — Leading citizens of Nor- 
wich turned out in the snow-storm to-day to attend the burial in 
Yantic cemetcr>' of the last descendant of Uncas, the great Mo- 
hegan sachem. The coffin-plate bore the inscription, 'Samuel 
Brushel. aged 37.' Brushel was a poor, shiftless man. and was 
fatally injured some weeks ago by a fall from a tree. He was 
proud of his Indian blood, and claimed that the remnant of the 
Mohegan tribe here were half-breeds. Not one of his tribe at- 
tended the funeral. Uncas. for political reasons, befriended the 
early settlers here, and much interest has always been taken in 
his descendants." McDonald Furman. 

Ramsey. S. C 




now TIIKY AKK To ItK 1)1>1 INiiUlSllKD. 

One of the most interesting^ objects nf study for the arch.vol- 
ogists of America is the one indicated in the title. The line 
which separates the historic and the prehistoric a^^es is. to be 
sure, illy defined, and there are difficulties in ascertaining exactly 
where it should Ik: drawn. Much confusion has therefore com.* 
to the minds of many in reference to certain relics. This con- 
tusion arises from three different cause>. i. It is maintained bv 
some that ever>'thin^ which has an historic semblance, even 
though it should be in a prehistoric horizon, must necessarily l>c 
ascribed to historic or |K>st'Columbian sources, while by others 
it is clamied that there are certain symbols and art forms which 
are purely prehiNtoric, and yet have j^reat resemblance to the 
art forms of the historii- Asiatic countries, and that the disco\ - 
ery of these only proves a pre-Columbian contact. 2. Confusion 
arises from the f.ict that many of the prehistoric tokens have 
been transmitted intc» historic times, and have Ix-en used since 
the advent of the white man without any modification, v T^^^' 
most perplexing thing is that there is a border line l)etween the 
historic and prehistoric times, in which the relic^ ha\e become 
very much iiiixed. historic relics Ix-in;^ found in mounds an*! 
prehi^toiu relu *• Ik'iii^ found upon the surLice. the p<»Nt-CoIum- 
bian Ir.tli.mN liavin;; C4*ntiiii:eil to hiiiM ir.i iiiiii>. and the pre-Col- 
umbian Indian^ iiavini; lift many ot tliew rrlics upon the 
surface, wiiere thrv art* n«i\^ f<iiinil I'in^ last tx-cuharitv obtain^ 
more fiillv m the i*UU r Slates, suv li as Ni u \*ork .Slate, where 
the I^Ol|UlU^ dwelt, and tlii* north jKirt of the >jiilf States, when- 
the C'hemkees iJwelt. and the .Xtlantu .States It aNo is nu t m 
Mexuo AUil < • ntial Aiiu*rua. wh' n* tliere is a wonderful mm- 
gling ol Spam-h labncati'tps with the native sjxciinens of art 

These three SMiif CIS *)| contusiitn have, however. l)ecn mcrcased 
by the varioi:-. .wirhaologisii who have hail theories to carry t»ut 
an<l who have u^d the relics as proofs of theories, some of them 
n'lt being over carriul in c-xaininin^ the p<»Mtion of these rciics. 
and i^erhaps uncnnsi-ii»us]y wresting the testimony atTorded by 
them so as to make them t'avttr their own conclusions 


The idea i^ advanced that the Indians and the Mound-buildcrs 
were the name fKople, and that the relics and works can not be 
diNtin;;uisheii. It is also advocated that the ClifT-dwcllcrs and 
Pueblos were comparatively modern, and that there is no per- 
ceptible dilTerence between works built after the time of the 
Spanish conquest and those before. It is niaintained that the 
works and relics of the civilized races are also comparatively 
modern, and that everything which has a resemblance to historic 
customs or conventional art forms must necessarily belong to 
the historic period introduced by the Spanish. These conclu- 
sions, of course, cut off all debate, as if the ultimatum had been 
reached. We, therefore, take the liberty to say that none of 
these points arc at present accepted by archaeologists as estab- 
lished principles; that while the drift of popular opinion is at 
present setting in that direction, there is much to be said upon 
the opposite side. There is a satisfaction in believing that many 
arch;cologi!kts arc studying the relics and the prehistoric works 
of the continent without any theory to establish, and that they 
do not allow preconceived opinions to bias them. Yet when the 
drift of thought is so strong and it is becoming a fashion to 
hold certain tenets, it seems the more important to be cautious, 
lest we make our generalization too soon and adopt conclusions 
which have been based on uncertain promises. There is no 
consensus of arch.eologists on any of these points, for the very 
reason that the relics which have been cited as witnesses are so 
contradictory in their testimony. It seems wise in the majority 
to hold their opinion in sus|x-nse until tests car. be applied and 
the prehistoric relics are distinguished from those which are his- 
toric, and the doubtful ones eliminated and put into limbo to 
await classification afterward. The data has been increased, and in 
reference to some the archxologists seem to be agreed; but there 
are so many new specimens constantly coming to light and so 
many new |x>ints brought before us, that it still remains a ques- 
tion as to whether the whole field does not need to be gone over 
again. Certainly if defining and analyzing are of any use to sci- 
ence, they are of great im[>ortance to archaeology, and yet it 
would seem as if there was in some a great lack of discrimination 
— a lack which is not likely to be remedied except by the most 
|>atient and cautious process on the part «>f the leaders them- 

The test by which we can determine the place of relics or of 
remains are not easy to give, and yet we would be glad to pre- 
vrnt some hints on the subject. Three classes of relics arc Ixfore 
UH for study. 

I. Ijet us take those tokens which are of undoubted hi.storic 
or post-Columbian origin, i. It has long been acknowledged that 
iron relics, especially if they are cast or wrought, are to be 
classed with post- Columbian. They belong to the so-called iron 


aj;c. There may, indeed, be many relics which are formed of 
magnetic iron or of brown hematite or of boc^ iron and some- 
times of iron nuggets, which resemble wrought or cast iron, but 
the smelting of iron was not an accomplishment of the prehistoric 
races, as every one knows.* 

2. The presence of tin foil or brass wire, of regular gold and 
silver plating, in the midst of prehistoric relics has generally 
been a sufficient test to assign all of such finds to f)ost-Colum- 
bian times. 

3. The discovery of glass beads of any kind is supposed to 
indicate a recent date. There may, indeed, be certain beads, such 
as the aggry beads of the ancients, which would be regarded as 
doubtful. But glass is historic and should be recognized as such. 

4« The discovery of alphabetic characters on a tablet ought 
to be sufficient for any one to know that the relic is modern. We 
are aware that some have been deceived in this, but it is sufficient 
to condemn any relic to find alphabethic letters upon it. 

My. /. Mt^lrrn iHJtrrtpiuyns. 

5. The discovery of pijnrs and carved relics with modern fig- 
ures on them, such as horses' lieads, the faces of men with 
beards and Kuropean features, or with paneled square sides, is 
generally regarded as iK'longin^ io recent times See Fig. 2. 

6. Rock inscriptions with muskets, wagon wheels, horses' 
heads and bodies, or with crosses and Catholic prie>ts in long 
robes, do not need to be looked at a second time, though there 
may be in ihr siinr vicinity the fitjures of serjK'nts and of the 
in;, thical cre.iliires wliich deserve close attenti(>n before they are 

11 IVehistot j«. leiics lountl in .\meric.i which ha\c a resem- 
blanie t<» those tound m l*'.ur"|x-, -\sia .intl «)rienlal countries. 

*r>-«* i*hi«*f rtn«l %k htf'li r^^lly |irti\r« tf» Im* itri <»riciu««l iMiri*! id a ir^nuin<* nioutul. la 
mr lrvr.tM<<l ID tli«» .\iiBNii-4'« A !« f WT 4 Ri 4 «( f »r 1<*«. imgr JTkV in tliU « <-hli*r cir 

riM*<iirtor tumn «tt<» ffMjnil In m Bittins l*>«tur< , with mn tn>u Kit, brm** wlrt*. iln <»m»- 
rtif nt*. rlittli •hiri*. and fith«-r rrlli*« i*ri»%r to thr twinr*. An ln»n a&r frnm m moiinil 
it) « >M«» U •1<**«-rH»-*ol in th4* Wkhii A^ \^TiMt' ^Mi %^ f«ir IW. |iac^ KI. bill do <>ih«>r 
n'\.rm %n'\ iio iMin'MtArv rftrnt;>iti«o«l. It v»« iiiAintAinMl hy At«»u*r tluit lr«»n ami mII- 
\ir olil«N'lii wrr*' TMind In th«* rn«»«tn4l at Clrrl^vlllr. I*n»r. fiitnam In Iffcl rrluU^ 
Thi*. •htiwlnff ilmt th«* Mini-niir*! ■Wfird ftrmbNutl wa« a natl%^ rrll«* with hamcnerKt 
•hr« i« of nati%r •M\tr. Thr Into tnun lb<» altar <hi th«* iJttIr Mlauii. waa nothing but 
tu*>U'*r\r Inin liamm«>r»d mtf* plalr*. h«>« |«nHnnHtlnc« <>f Amrrtran Anituuartaa 
•^.irirtr. Vol«. II. |iaffr ilt. iH. ( yru* Thtima* <*lalmB that ln»n. braaa and oUu^r hta- 
t •r\t xbjrv-Uar** fotind In miMindm. K\«ry iwtr mt fkr. howrvrr. wh<*n ftlft««d pniTcato 
!• ••itb^r a rm»m of •urfarv dlgvinc m^r hUtnrlc spikta or t*t iDtrud^l burial to aa oM 
• •• .n>i. e. f . ihr hawk b^lU al I'rain^ du 4*hirn. ln»o »«or«l In ib« T. K. N«»Ik»o tri 
m .» r {•urrtnc f ni«>n«l. and in lb# aonialled **lntl(nlttrant roiKind" la 4\kldwell IVwa- 
i> . S I Ha^ rtrth \Dnual lirport of KUia«>|*iclral Burf«u. ptkf^ <Q 


Id the opinion of lome, all such relics should be ascribed to 
post-Columbian times, for with them the idea of contact with 
either Asiatic or European countries is excluded. Some of these 
relics, especially those which contain certain symbols, such as 
those of the cross, are accepted as genuinely prehistoric, because 
they mi^ht have originated on this continent independently ; but 
4II others, especially if they point to Buddhistic, Chinese or 
other Asiatic sources, are at once laid down as belonging to post- 
Columbian times. The same is true of everything which looks 
like Scandinavian, Anglo-Saxon, Spanish or Italian fabrication, 
not excepting such things as possibly may have been left h)- 
Norsemen, or c\-cn such as may imply the visit of Phunician, 
Carthai;inian or African navigators. It is taken for granted that 
everything which has a modem look, and even everything that 

can be traced to historic countries, must be ascribed t" ;H'St- 
Columbian times. Th- very point which some are studying, and 
would regard as an open question, is denied; and the privilege 
of discovering historic tokens is refused. The habit of cut- 
ting ofT debate, when there arc so m.iny mooted points, is not 
conducive to progress, nor in harmony with the scientific spirit. 
A better way would be to keep our minds open to further infor- 
mation on all of these points, and follow the evidence wherever 
it may lead, whether back to Asiatic countries or forward to 
post -Columbian times, but at the same time sift the vvidencc to 
Ke if there is not a difference between the prehiMoric and his- 
toric relics in those very things. We take the objects which Are 
pronounced as pre-Columbian. 

I. The Symbol of the Cross. — This by some woutd l»e pr.'- 
■ounced historic, but by the majority it is acknowledged tu be 
prehistoric. It is a common symbol throughout the United 
States and in Central America; so common as to preclud-j the 
idea of its modem origin. The cross varies in lihajK- It i?t 



sometimes a mere cross-bar, sometimes a cross-bar with the ends 
turned back or bent, making it resemble the Hindoo Suastika, 
or fire generator; sometimes the arms are curved, making four 
crescents. These so-called crosses are found on the shell 
gorgets, on the carved stone pillars of Mexico, and on the stucco 
tablets in Central America. They are weather-vanes or signs of 
the seasons, or symbols of nature powers. 

2. The [Kirtrait pipes, or portrait statues or idols, some of 
which are found in the mounds, some in pottery vases in New 
Mexico and Central America, some near the palaces in Yucatan. 
Resemblances to K^yptians, to Negroes, to Anglo-Saxons, have 
been traced in these. The large majority of tht m. however, are 

purely alK>riginal and arc pre-Cc^lumbian in their character. In 
a few instances faces have been discovered which were evidently 
I>ost-Columbtan, and an imitation of some Spanish priest or gen- 
eral or civillian. It is easy to see this in Fii; 3. There arc, 
however, other faces on the sides of the pyramids which have a 
very striking resemblance to white men. as they have the Cau- 
casian features and the Anglo-Saxon eye. We place these among 
the doubtful sfKcimens. On the other hand, the faces in the 
sculptured stone column^, and on the staircase at ralemiue, arc 
evidently aboriginal and prehisoric Thvre are also pi|>cs which 
are prehistoric. (lood tlluNtrations of one was given iiy oui 
U>t numl)er in the article furnished by Mr. .\. K. I)ou;;lass. 
This pipe was found in an old mine in San Salvador, one of the 
MX mines noted as developed by the Indians prior to the Span- 
;?» \ advent. We give here, by way <»f contrast, the cut of two 
« I -T i»^pes <see frontispiece). The \y.\^ (r**u\ /.i|Mitecas. Mexico. 


is probably prehistoric. The other two pipes arc doubtful. One 
of them was unearthed in Palenque, but it has a very modem 
look. We certainly should not take it in evidence in any doubt- 
ful case. 

3. Bronze Axes, Knives and other Relics. — Wc place these 
among the prehistoric, although wc notice that Ma). his 
article on "Prehistoric Times," in TAf Forum for January, 1890, 
takes the ground that there was no such thing as a bronze age 
in America. We. however, take the myths of the Mexicans and 
in their light study the shape of the bronze relics, especially the 
bronze knives, and quote these upon the other side. Pictures of 
bronze knives, resembling saddlers' knives, are numerou.s in the 

old codices. Such knives were used as coins in ancient times 
We would ask the proofs from Major Powell before we accept' 
this position. 

4. Specimens ol Jade, with (aces, figures and symbols re- 
sembling those found among the Buddhists. Such a specimen 
was exhibited by Mr. G. F. Kunz, to the members of the asso* 
ciation in New York, in 1887. It showed contact with the 
.'\siatic countries and it probably pre-Columbian. This point, 
however, we leave for the present. 

III. Wc come to the doubtful specimens. These are so num- 
erous and of such varied character it it difficult to describe 
them. We only present a li^t and leave it for others to discuss. 

I Pipes — We presLiit the cut of a pij>e which was found in 
New York State. Fig. 5. It may have been pre-Columbian; 
thrr: are aboriginal marks upon it, but the decorations with the 
Rag and the wooden stem hhdw that it was historic. We have 
learned of many other pipes made from j»ottcr>' which were 
found in New York State, which were evidently modem. 



2. Wampum. — Much of this is evideatly modern. Thcrt.- .irr 
specimens or wampum whichare ancient. It sometimes rcqunes 
close discrimination to tell the difference. Beads and bugles 
made of red pipcstone arc numerous. The most of Ihesi: arc 
modern. The beads made of bone and of sea-shells and bean.' 
teeth arc probably aboriginal, and yet one can hardly tell whether 
ancient or modern. 

3. Much ol the pottery found among the ruins of the pueblos 
is modern, though some of it is ancient, and it requires a trained 
eye to determine which. 

4. Petroglyphs, or Rock Inscriptions. — There are no tokcivt 
which have been discussed more than these. The Dighton r<.<ck 

is an illustratiuti V\ 
have given in the cut (Fi^. 
6), specimens of i>etro- 
glyphs found by Mr. J. G 
Bruffnot lar from Mount 
Shasta, near the Green 
River, Cal. The singular 
thing about these is that 
they are all purely abor- 
iginal, and yet there arc 
wheels and sphinxes, or 
figures that look like 
sphinxes, as well as the 
various nature symbols, 
such as the tun and the 
lightning. Near this samr 
^pot an inscription was 
found, in which muskets 
ami a horse arc conspicu- 
ous These were evident- 
ly modern, and yet the 
other figures, those given 
in the cut, wtTc evidently ancient. It may Ix- said, however, <>f 
all i>ctro^Iy{>hs that ancient and modern (lt;ures arc m> mingled 
together that it is almost impossible to se|>.irate them, .mil it 
requires great care and skill to detect the tlilTerenee. 

5. The shells which have modern ornamentation. es|i{.-.ialiy 
those which have the figure of hands i»i- I-i^ 41, .iml all 
such modern conventionalities, of cour-e. mil )«- niiiieisTotid. 
and yet tlifn- ire many s|>eiinu-ns of jmiti'l iii.iny inscribed 
shells x^hich slill pu//lc Ihe arch;rtil<>t;i>t .mi! iiial.e him doubt- 
ful as to h!s own ability to draw the tme between their hi-tonc 
or their prrhislnric origin Shells have been fmind in mound< 
which c<'n:.iin human fii;ure^ with win^* resembling artels" 
Wings coming out of their shoulders Some "I rhes,-. how. vcr. 
have Mexuaii costumes •Tevites ;iboutthem. 

lIl-^TnllH- ASh rUKIIlsTOKIf HKt.IO 

/.::iii^ tli.ii one is rc.illy in .1'.* lU- wanU tu 
;n thcni tu the list of frjuils, am] yet he wants to kim-.. 
it-r tlic winged crcatiirciuf tliv Mitund-biiildiT" did not vin 

brace human bodies, and then he wants to knnw, if recent d' 
po'its, how they canie to havo "jincers »in;;s", 

f: Wf should aKo jilatc witli the dmibttul cl;i-* lho>e ^ixti- 
mcn'i of .(ft wliich li.ivc liccti found amon-; ihr .luni'i riui- irravcl- 


of California. These consist of steatite pots, mortars and ollas, 
some of which are quite finely wrought. They have been quoted 
by many as furnishing evidence of the extreme antiquity of 
man Their position in the gravel is sometimes as much as fifty 
feet below the surface; a fact which is supposed to prove them to 
be very ancient. Major Powell, however, in his article in 7*/ 
Forum, takes the ground that they arc of doubtful antiquity; 
they resemble the utensils which are used among the California 
Indians for the purpose of grinding acorns. " None of them 
were found by scientific men as trained geologists or trained 
archaeologists, but by miners unskilled in these tescarches." 
"The relics themselves belong to the highest culture known in 
the United States." 

The most remarkable specimen of all is the celebrated image 
or idol which was recently found in the boring of an artesian 
well in Idaho Territor)', some three hundred feet below the 
surface. This image has been described by Prof. G. F. VVrij;ht. 
both in TAf New York Independent and in Scribners Miigaizinr 
(February, 1890). All we can say is that it is out of place. It 
is too good a specimen of art to be called a paleolithic relic, and 
yet it was found in the place or at a depth where only paleolithic 
relics belong. Its position is said to have been in the old soil 
underneath lava beds, quicksands, clay, and clay balls mixed 
with sand, just above the sandstone. The bearing of this discov- 
ery, as Prof. Wright says is of the highest importance. The 
strata in which it is rc{>orte(i to have been found are oldor by far 
than any others in which human remains have been found, unless 
we except the Calaveras skull, concerning which there has been so 
much discussion. The idol, though a ver\' diminutive one — only 
one and a half inches long — seems destined to produce a great rev- 
olution in the theories and opinions of scientists generally. It 
proves one of two things, either the lava beds and auriferous 
gravels have been placed by geologists loi» far back in the scale 
o{ tune, or the order of progress and the succession of ages 
which the arcli.eologi.sts have bi'en adopting must \yt entirely 
revised. Our opinion in reference to this relic is that at present 
it must be placed among the doubtful class, and we must await 
further ile\«rlopments Inrfore ue can adopt any conclusion as to 
its age or ti> its j>osition in the line. 


i>i:.\i.i:ks in hogis rklks 

We ha\e in the last few numbers of Tiu Am i'.aAKi.\N been 
lunting to our readers that various dealers in relic>, some of 
whom have advertised in this magazine, have l>een susjx'cted of 
d'Mling in bo^us relic-i We now Irarn that some of these jxir- are ct>ntinumg their traffic Wc re|>e.»! the caution winch was 


published in the last number Do not trust any dealers in relics, 
you are sure from your own unless knowledge that the relics 
are genuine and are authenticated as coming from the places of 
which they bear the label. Some of the tricks which we have 
learned are as follows: A dealer in I II mois, a saloon-keeper, sends 
to a dealer in California a lot of stone axes, knowing that those 
axes will be sold as California relics ; a dealer in New York offers 
to exchange good relics for The Antiquarian; he sends a lot 
of worthless stone«, the poorest lot imaginable, and calls them 
valuable; a dealer in Ohio, whose correspondence is always 
pugnacious, a few years a^o had a controversy with a dealer in 
Massachusetts ; both of these dealers go shy of'^TiiE Antiquarian 
for some reason; a dealer in Michigan has a lot of sawed relics 
for sale ; he insists that he is innocent, yet persists in selling. We 
have already sounded our warning. We do not know when 
our confidence is misplaced, but would put our readers on their 
guard J 



llAiiKurr Nr^ki.i. Sw%\«if*K. 

Whrn iloAth tn tli«* fwtriot «HiniHh. 

IliM Hpirit mmn* to the Min; 
Vimrhoca. the irrv'at iill-fatlier. 

Will welmnie him witli "moll done*"' 

In •pilUng their M<)«>il for their country. 

They imin a lioiur in the pky; 
Hut while thev iiiav InMimie immortal. 

.\11 fttherK. like hmtt***, muf*t die. 

If « mother in child-birth fteriiih. 

Her place *iiionir the ftar« i* made; 
A |»afV-|)ort to life ix awanh*«l. 

To all who thif* price have |iaid. 

Kven thii« doth the child of nature 

Reach otit towani th«* frreat unp^-en ; 

For a |»art in the dim Hereafter 
lli« hunger ii« di«ep and keen. 

I^are we i^mile at the half-true i*t«irv. 

Or l>oaKt of our culture hroad^ 
Nay ; Iftf m*U that ^rouid tirup^r fi|nnirr/. 

ThrmtQh fnrriHrf er>mr« to fi*iti. 

KiHiiKliH] ti|».tn A rnvth li«*!4 by rertaln Irlbc* of MritcaD ladlan*. 



BrBAicTis.— MiffH Amelia R. hAlwanlM han pre|»art^l a vury vlalMirate article 
on the dificoverieff of BuliaMtiH, whirh 19 ptihUphcHl in Tht i nuury for Janu- 
ary. 8ht* iiaye : *' The finding of the K>^at temple of Rultoht ik ih oik* nf the 
romances of archii*o1ogy." Thin temple was known to liihtor>, a.** it 19 
described by IIer(»dottis ItA site had been dugover, Imt ni»t thon>UKh)>. 
M . Naville begun anew in March, 1887. A wonderftil find wan the recntt- 
oolamna, Ktatoec, inncriptionii, paintings, the niinH of the hyiio^tyle hall«^ 
leipiand throne of a certain Ilyluoff King, head of lUmeMw II, statne of 
Amenhotep, door-jambu with cartouches, h«ul of another llykiHw Kinc. 
ftragmenta of lotus bud capitab*, colossal group of Ramesnes II, threi*hold 
stone and bronie pivot, colossal IIath(»r head, now in Boston, broken <^>loii- 
of Rameses VI, has rt*lief from festival hall, {>ortrait statues, etc,, etc . 
exhume«l to the surprise of the explorer and to the great delight of 
archttologists. All of thest* objecti* are |M>rtraye<l by the engraven*, and the 
article descnbcai them at length, tht* mriter aihiinga ninning comment on 
the historical |>eriods mhich they n*pni*ent. The hintory liegin^ with 
Cheops, s(>elle<l by Miss I'M wards, Kb ulu. It c(>ntinn«*s through the time 
of the early dynasties — the dynasties that built the pyramitb; it includes 
the time of the llyks«)s kings, many memorials of which are f<mnd ; it taki«s 
in the time of Mos(*s and the i-kmIu** , the |»«>rtrait> of tlu* king, calletl in 
the Bible rharuuh, lH*ing fi»und in the statuf«. It c<intinuii* on to the time 
of the l*tolmi«'»', \\. V '.Hm. The niinn art* full of uivmoriaK which cttwr h 
perifMl of |ierhs|M* 3,0(M) ye*an*, h mar\floufi length of tinir r«»r tht* re«<«tnl« 
which were found in one s|M>t.a^|Mit which was but a ff>» hundriHl ft*e« 
wide and s fi*w ff«*t in dfpth, if we takt* dfpth t»elow tin* surfa«^' as the 
rule. The niins tht*mM*lves, t4» l*e *ure, weremurh d«»|H*r, ftintvtmr of the 
treni^M*^ %»as |.V> ft^i't aUim* tht* lower one. ubich wmi« but a ffW ft-et fn»ni 
the HirfsTf. and Mill iinother tremh aUive thi*>. nhicb diM*li»M*«| tin* by|K»- 
style ball. «ai« laid o|H*n. Thi» niaki*** tlo* depth of the M»-4'mlle«! ni<»und 
alMHit lUm fixt't, though He d«* not understand tliHt there mere la\er«* in the 
mound by mlii«*li the agt* of any building or rehc ittuM lie de*4*rmined. 
thes<* |M*intf* U>ing de4-i'le«| by the ehani<-ter of the art iti><df. rather than 
by the |iniaition of the fragiiH*nt. It i- ittt«*ref<tink' to notiiv that in K^>pt 
the Mvle <if art varii*t| mi irreatly that "killed ar« liji'olot'ipto rati alwayn tell 
the %'iv and dyna-ty to xibteh an oI.jmT U'!itti^'«, a fm t mhieh i** iri ^tfong 
rontntot to nio^t of th»- prehi-torir n-lh-^.e-i^NMally thi»*e foun<l in .\r:i»Tii'a. 
Ilist'iry, and e^|Hi lally l»ible hi«tor\. ha* riM-i\i*«l k'niit <-«intirniati<in from 
theM' n^t-i'Ut fihil* The di''«'«i>ery nf the tiiu:nniie<t «if the I'haraoh* pn»- 
t!ure«l a great M-n^^atmn a U-^ year* opi. The di*e«>\ery of the M4U*»f» «»f 
Pharaoh^ and of otlier K/vptian kiOkf^. i-«|Mvia!ly uf the IlykMM* king^ l^ a 
ptill gri-4it«*r -'ii|triiM- Th*- tN.ntr.i-t 1*flwr*-ii thf II\W*4*«i kii'vr*ai'd tlioM* «>f 
the reu'^iUr !in« . > bn>iu'tit •ut |i\ tht- »!.i*ur*' liul>a»t*« Ha^a Hykno* 
s<*ttleinent. mu^ an ntit-ri) tit t\|« et«-i( n \v)ut.«-n 1 he 1 1 sra* ti r;-T:«> are 


aiH|U««ti<mably Turaiiuin — higli rhf«k lM>nf«, prominent jaw, ryeH Inclln- 
inff •lightly apwonl, o|x*n n(ii*tril«, full lipp, hard lini« abmit the mooih, 
angular foiohi^l, Saturnine, melancholy, Mongolian type, totally distinct 
fn>m native t^^'iitian ty|»e. Such it* the fiortrait of the llyknoa king, aa ei- 
htbtte^l by Ihf statue. A quention which we would like to aiik, ii: Wai* 
the«:r(»wn of the llykHM kingy anything like the crownn of Kameiiefi, or 
other Kgyptian kingt«? Mim V^lward^ ii« lecturing to rrowdevl hoiUMW in 
thii« ciKintry. Her viitit in likely to incn*aM» interest in the Kg}'pt eiplora- 
tion fund which i*he repreeenti*, U'ing pn»»ident of the Mx^iety. It ia well 
that Bible ntudenti* and the |Hiblic gi*nerally ha%'e an opportunity to hear 
thin n*fnarkably giA^sl woman, and it i« ittill b(*tter that Thr fVfihiryCom- 
liany ban given to the public mich a tine i(|H*(nmon of her Mtyle and exhibi- 
tion of her tK-hoIarvhip. 

UoN Auk Hri.u)* ~ Amtmg the Anti«|uitief* recently aniuired by the 
rhriNtianiana MiifK*um arc i«onie from the middle iron age. fount I in two 
liarmwH at l^rvik. They «*oni*iitt of fragmentit of a lanct*. u f^hield with iron 
hantlle, a imir of Hhcury or H*ii*iion«, ami a buckle of t*ilver, iMiiidiv a number 
•>f veM*flf(, amr>ng«t which the mo:«t remarkable i^a gla*4i l>eaker, ornamented 
with thr«»aiilf« of gla}«<( fn*HNl on to the exti*rior. a wocxlcn bucket caulked 
mith tar. and ninny urnft. Am«»ng the latter ii* a large hundi*onie one with a 
long neck. The graved In the tkarrowH wen* maile «>f Htoni*M t>n a (arm in 
the imrinh of Tjolling; aiM> on the wext coaft of thi* ChriMiana fjord, a 
tiam>w, nhidi hail l>een fornt« riy tliHturlMNl. ha*« bi*cn exi*avate<l. Around 
It in a r'xna of ruitKNl Mom'^. It dat^'n from the early iron age. On the 
caAt4*rn an«i wt^tcru side a DatUaMrtt, or memorial ftone. in niif«ed. The 
fiin«*nU rhiindHT ii* Imilt of Ptom*. Only thn*e buckle« of bronu*. with nil- 
ver onianieht>. a plain ring ma«le fn»m an allov of (rold and silver, and the 
tawdione i)f a man with teeth remainin;;, were found. The iNMly had 
not U*en burncil. A yanl further to the «^ai«t a gravi* witii •*al(*inc*<l human 
rf*iiiain« wa> mI»*<» foun*!.— W. tJ. S. 

Ski M^ »'i:oM Morsoh —The t^Iitor of thii< journal «iaf» engugt^l for neveral 
year* in exploring cttigy monndn in Wincon^in. Ihiring that time a large 
numlter uf hkulln were br\>ught to hiH notice- Since then photographii of 
similar »<kulbi iiavc U^en reciMvinl. During the |iaf<t two ycan« exploration* 
have Uvn (^>nduct<'<il in (Vntral Illinois, along the Mifviwippi River. A 
largi* nutiiU'f of iike1«*tonh and Hkulla ha\e lie«'n exhume<l. Theee rkullii 
differ i*4«M' lit iallv fn»m th«»M* in the WiM*onnin rooun* In, taken an a clana. 
The m«»ile« of burial alno differ. The (]Uention of tril>en comen up in thin 
i^mni-iion. The Winneliagon -a branch of the IHikotan— and the Illinoin, 
including the Sacn and Koxei*. wen' the original inhabitantn ot Winconnin. 
The Shawnetw wen* n*nident« of Illinoin. The nkulln exhumeil In thin 
*^tate indicate different tnben. but all diflTen'nt from thone in Wihconnin. It 
ha^ U*i*n the effort of the cilitor ton«^irean appropriation from Mtniei*ourre 
«> that thr«e •^kuiln iN»uld Ih* gathere«l into a common mtineum. 

IMi'Cji* \M» PiriTRKV.—A mound in 1 1 eorgia, excavatetl by Mr. Reynoldn, 
•if the B'lnmu of tUhnolog^', ban y ieldeil nome very interenting relic*. Among 
them in a |>otter>' liottle or vane calle«l the Triune vane. It lian three human 
heail* forming iln bane, but itn neck uniten them int«> one. Another vane 
ha* twfi •ymUtlical rattle-«naken, with horna Minuounting the head, and 


teeth or Un^ pUunly carved. In one place a fiice looks out from the folds 
of the snakes. Some teitile fiibrics and yariona copper relics were found in 
the same mound, also eleven pipes carved into various shapes. The relics 
were placed in circles on two different levels, with a flrebed above each 
layer, showing that religious rites were celebrated. 

Tub Kiirii.— Whilt* itpeaking of doubtful finds we must not lone 
sight of the fact that new di^*overieii are being made which seem to fiivor 
the ancient abode of man in Amerira, thi* very latent being that of an ob- 
sidian relic in the shape of an implement from pleifitoci»ne deposits in Ari- 
■ona. Mr. W. J. M<<<tce has, to be Hure, doubted the normal character of 
the find, an it may have been a mere ailvcntitious introduction of a neo- 
lithic relic in a paleolithic location. For the present we are forced to put 
all such flniis into the lint of doubtftil age,Sand leave the Hubject for further 
development!*. — Popii/ar Scimre Monihly, Sormibn, 1888. 



(Hd Uerue, T he UutiUs of the liihU. \\y Itev. J.N. FnAdenbiirgh. I» D . ThP. 
New Yurk Hunt ifc tjiton. 

The llittit<*i* have vngagi-d th«* attention (»f an*h:t-<ili»giHtr» and Bible stu- 
dents for cewral yean*. They now a*«i*ume a \ery iin|M»rtant pUuv in the 
history of Bilile lan<lN .\bniliMni i>* known to hHve Uiught a bur>-int; plate 
from the noil" of lletli Sayri» «iiy« that the llittiti*it foriniil |iart uf the 
liykww fonvf* nho t4M»k Kgyp' dtiriiii; the tifm* of .liHteph. ^tilisc«iuently 
Ifamalh bti-aiue th** ^rrat <aipital, the niin<« of whirh were liiM^ivrre*) by 
<reorge ^«tllith. The "white Syriahi*" wiTe proluMy the llitttt««. It \* 
supi)0(«(*il by fMHiie that the llerai'lidie were u1.<4o llittit**-. It in "aid that 
Kphefiii". Smyrna an* I several other riti«f» of A**u Minor «t*re furnitii by 
them. Kaiiei<h wof^ an old t^pital. Mere ILini«-<«if*. in i:Uil W. 1*., fi>tit;ht a 
great battle with liini, amt aniTnant** r(*«^ir«le«t hi-* vi«*tiirv **x\ the 
wall" of till* Kiiiii«-*>>*M*iiin at TlieU't* aii<l «)f the t<*iti|»Ie i»f Karnac. .)ii*l^ifi|r 
from th«*H«* iM-H-riptioiiH. we ini^ht ii»nrlii>le tliat the llittite* were hi/hly 
eivilixeil, |Mif*M'^iiii» iiiatftiitit*ent f-llan<<t^, artiM>r r«-«|'i«'iHlent «ith j«'»el». 
ra|Nil>le i»f bniitliiik' briflgi*9( and ft>rtiti«-«l ploi r*', haMn/ iloiiti>ti« aniiiiaU 
and nii«*int; >»lieai. Imrley, aiitl (litrermt friitt- |Mr— e-^iint; vk\M\ an alphal*et. 
and i«>ta)>li<«liint! Iibrariep and pnblir reeoiiN. Thi^. to U* »ure, i;i^«> > \i**ii 
of the land« i»f the north wbii'h we an* liaplU prijiariil to reivive. an^i >et 
the ih-MTiptii-u" of Homer imply that tlirr^* nert* roaiN and britla:«*i» and 
highws)" III hi** day. The ra«v a(hnit> uf the llittite;* i« nnknonti '*»'iiiif* 
ha%'«* itaid Ihf\ w<*r«* neither .*^*tiielic iir Arvaii vet i*rrtaiii i'(iiiifiiriii 
inm'riptifn- ;ire a<*kno»|«*ilge<l to U* llittite. 

1^. Frailenbnrtfh h«ii« given in hi" -et^ind <'hapter a hiMory itf the ^at* of 

thflve |**^*p^**> *'>d in the thinl give* a demription of their «let-line and tinat 

tlestnirtion. It \* strange that thi^ |ie4»pli' ei»ultl rii>e tin'iianmiv and then 

dii«pprar :ind Mt little note of it lie taken by hi«tfiry. Uit :t i« intereikting 

bat the nionumentfi i*< infirm the Scripture rvivnl*. and pmve that the fHd 


Twtainfnt is rcAlly mon* accunUe an hiiiloo' than many of the critical 
•keptim have bt<«*n inolinetl to lielieTe. This little bookp iii one of thoae 
aide lightfi which brini; out the unnoticed cvinfinnation of Soriptnre, and in 
therefore worthy of Muily. 

Three IhamoM of EuripuU*. By William (^numton I^awton. Bo<4»n and 
New York: II«Hi;;hton; Mitllin i5c Co. 18H<». 

Thih volume in ititendinl aM a nmtribution to liu-ratuiv. and t4> rlaw>ii*al 
philolo|r>'. The rlawical n*viewfr Hhould n*ad it with thiit point in viem. 
It in not a tmmilation. but rather a n*view, frainiienti* of the dramai trans- 
lated, with n(it4*ii on the trannlationH inten*|<en>ed. The liook lN*}eins with a 
brief hiiftory of tha rira of the (mvk tlrania. and a d4*MTiption of itji f«mn- 
dations. The notii^ brinK *»ut the various |K)int9 of intoretit, refi-rnnit at 
timee to till* un*liii*(»l«»K>*'i^l. *< tinie« to the treoKraphiral ncenery, and at 
timefi to tb«* |H>«*ti(iil ima^^'r}'. They are Uith m-holarly and critical. The 
imblinhcn* have put tbr volume into the lN*f*t pha|N.* |Mi»ieible. 

ll'yiuiAam 7'iru-rTji. Ity Tbomai* IWiley AKlricli. llo-ton ami NfM York: * 
llouffhton. Mitllin \ 0>. IMK). 

Thiniii a lM*autiful ImmiU, uttnu'tive in bindini;, neat in its letler-pHKi*, and 
tasty thriMitfliout The |MM*m itM*lf liai* retviviNl many com uu*ndat ions from 
the critii*f>. and ^-et^m^ to havi* pnMlm*e<| ijuite a Hen^alion in the world of 
belle lettrer*. The ^t\ le may !»«• com|«are«l to that of Urowin^. anil yrt it xt 
original and {Hs-uliar. The* ^tory i** unif|ue. 

T}*e iliMnry uj Ahnriii /Sri7i:«i/ion. A nand-lMM»k l*aM-4l u|Kin M. <.fU«<ta\e 
Ihiomdrav*'* ** llihtohe Stmmuin* fit* la i^iviliHation." 1*141 iti*«l bv Rev J- 
Wrm'hiiyb'. M. A. New York : l>. Applet«in «V (*o lss«». 

Thi* lMM>k lM*^in.*' «ith thi* pndiihtoric tiiiiefi and «*nd** nitli the Itoman 
i-mpin* at thi* time of St' vc run. The author f|ieak- of the monuments of 
l'40'pt, of. llabyloiiia and A.>4*yrta. of the rt'li^ion of tin* Jfw*>. tluMtimmen-e 
of the l*ho'ni«'ianf*,t}it* litrratun* an<l art of thi* tiri*«*k«, the i*«)ciety and 
tf«>vfrnmrnt of ihe IC<iman*«, takirjfin sll a f*]nut* of 'I\l^'t |iaip*t(. The lioiA 
may U* r«*inirt|«Ni ana compt'udium of the luteft infi»rinatiou on all theiK* 
«ubj«*«-t*>. Thin may bi* sai«l U> the cn**iit of thf author, ai* he i:* neither 
<mrrii*<l arnuy by mtiuv novrl the«>ry, which mi>!ht be n*|nir<l«*«l oh a (arhion. 
ni>r If* h<* biafi.'H.'d by an unfair or bitter pn'judiiv aKain*<>t commonly acrepte<l 
\ii*w«. but i!« fair mindetl ami jut«t. and at th«* i^nie tim** ftcholarly and cor- 
rect in habits ami tastes. There i?* no daj>h and brilliant w^int illations such 
as the iron<K*laf*t of modem days deli^ht^ in. but then* i?* nevertheless much 
reliablt* infi>rmation in the biMik. 

luduin I*tn»f .V«iiiir« in Etut liumfdnn, thrir i*r«Jntftli SiipitHrfttinti. \\\ William 
Wallaiv TiMiker. 

Kast Hampton wa^ once the home of the Montaukh- u name taken front 
the <lwi*llinir-pla«v, Meunta4nit-lli);hland — a conf(*<li'rai-> i:ovt*rnc<l by four 
bnithen*. «*hieff» of four tribes, Manhansetts. Mantoukettj*. Shinerooks and 
(Vin'hauK«. Amateanset ^i^nitles Ashing pla<v. Wv ha%(* nt»t s|iare to ;:i%i* 
th«* Indian names an«l their localities. Tbr tuntii of thi-m, ho«eVi*r, seem tn 
lie taken from natural srt*n(*r>'* swamp where Ihe ^l^he« ^rrow. lodjce cov- 
erinr place, fishing place. The author has n«*t )?i\cn thr etymology of tht* 


worrlii, but only mentioiiii the traditionary or conjectural lignificanee. A 
knowle^lKi* of the Indian language iM nccesiary to follow up thoae plare 
nanici. Still, identifying the nanu« with the natural features ia important, 
and the wholam in lingiiiritica will l>e better able to underetand the name 
aAer a irtudy of thiH little pamphlet. Mr. Tooker hai« long lieen a nub- 
Bcriber to Tiik A ntmi'aui an. We are glad to receive anything fh>ui hia pen. 

Boy TrartUn in Mfsicu. lly ThoiniiH W. Knoi. lUuHtrated. Now York: 
Harper dc linw.. 18«). 

There ii* a gnrnt dt*al of information (^ontaintnl in thin luMtk, and for bojra 
who are fond of reading traveli* it ixa yplendid work. The ilhictrations are 
all of them very attnu*tive, an<i there are a gixxl iiuuiy of them. The hia- 
ioric and pndiii^toric are nomewnat mixed, but the lHX)k w mow interesting 
on that account. There are dcftcriptionn of the Mexican war. and of the 
Mexican ama^ementi*, a view of Popocataptel, a description <»f the .^fianiah 
t?onqueHtM, ikXfo templet* of Yucatan, account of ancient Indian lottery— 
which in nf*t so ancient w^ Home HUp|ioi*e,~-aceount <»f the nilver mine**, and 
many other interesting things. It is faifM^rbly l)ound, and in attrm'tive in 
ever\- wav. 



AimM ami Trait* of a World hmywigr. By Daniel <i. Brinttm. IMivered 
liefore the \l\th Century Club of New York. 

indian liarr \amf» in East I lampion, uith Ihrir I^robahU Si^JiraiUm. By 
Willism Wallace TiMiker. .Smc Harlior: J. H. Hunt. 1888.' 

LiM of ** Patait/apantu Jatakn" the Five Hundrt*«l and Kilty Births. Storie;* 
of Uuatama Buddha. Complie«l by N. D. M. de Zilva WirkreiiuiKinrhe. 

Onfin'ititja VtU*. By W. M. IWaucliamp. 



^mcvican ^ntiqixarian 

Vi»i- XII. Makiii, I'Sqo. No. 2. 


Bv Rev. M. Eelln. 

The practical part of their reli{;ion is a compound of shaman- 
ism and spiritism, called in the Chinook jargon, ta-mah-no*us, 
an<! the word expresses the idea so completely that it has been 
somewhat aili»ptcd into Knglish. for it expresses a combination 
of ideas for which we have no exact Knjjlish equivalent. It is 
derived from a word in the ori^^inal Chinook langua^^e. it-a-mah- 
na-was. and has a wide signification, and in general means any- 
thing supernatural — except the .Supreme Being and Satan-^-either 
among gcMu] or bad spirits- anything between man and the 
Supreme lk*ing on the one hand, and man and the devil on the 
other, and hence both a good and a bad tamahnous are spoken 
f>f The word is used as a noun, an adjective and a verb. As a 
noun a tamahnous is the spirit or supernatural being in the other 
world, and also the act of invoking the aid of the good ones, and 
of driving away the bat! ones, so that a great tamahnous is 
*;jH»krn of. meaning a great gathering of |K*ople who are |x:rform- 
ing their mcanlations As an atljectivc. it (jualifies and defines 
certain |>ersons and things, se that a tamahnous man is a |)crson 
who. by his incantations, can influence the spirits — a medicine 
man . a i.imahn<>us stick, stone, or painting is one in which the 
spirit dwrllN. or i>» »< onetimes used in performing the incantations. 
As a verb, it si;.;nifies to conjure or influence the spirits 


ThL-^L- \ '-nNist of the .Supreme l^ing, angelic spirits. Satan and 
demons, tamahnous sticks, idols and the sun. 

/■//«• Suf^nmc lu'ifit^. — It has puzzled me a little to perfectly 
sati<^fy myself that these Indians had an idea (»f a Great Spirit 
previou.i to the coming of the whites: ftome such Iking as the 
Indian^ on the Atlantic coast are generally believed to have had 
an idea of, yet I am tolerably well satisfied that they had an idea 


of some such being, though it was a dim one and not very prac- 
tical to them. In the next section will be given an account o( 
what mi^ht properly be called an Incarnation, a great being 
called DokibatI, who came to the earth a lon^ time after the 
original creation of the world. Some say that the world was 
created by a Supreme I^ing other than Dokibatl, while others 
think that it was that personage himself before he became incar> 
nate. If the ideas of the first class were held before the comin<; 
of the whites, then they had a dim idea of a Great Spirit. I am 
also told that they have an idea of a Cireat Ik*ing who created 
the sun. long before they knew of DokibatI, but that they never 
speak his name. Judge Swan, in his '* Indians of Cape Flattery." 
says that the Makah Indians have an idea of such a being, but 
likewise never speak his name. 

DokihatL — Whether or not the Indians received their ideas of 
a Great Spirit from the whites may be a little uncertain; but one 
thing is certain, and that is that they did not get their ideas of 
this personage from that source. They are as full of their tra- 
ditions about him as they are of the practice of their tamahnous 
— two things which stand out plainly in their religion. lie is 
called I)o-ki-hatl, or Do ki-badi, by the Skokomish Indians. 
Do-kwi-butI by the Nisquallies and Skagits. and Nu-ki-matl by 
the Clallams; the diflerencc by the latter trilK- being acc(»unted 
for by the fact that their language is much more nasal than that 
of the other trilxrs; the same iliflTerence l>eing seen \vi othrr 
words common to the several trilK-s. The Clallams say it was 
a woman, and not a man. as some others say. 

The origin of the fKTSonagr seems somewhat confused. One 
of the Clallams. a trilK- which worshipped the sun and believetl 
it to Ixr the Supreme Ruler of the univerne. savN that this lieing 
was the Sun incarnate: while the Skokomish Indians say that 
he was the original creator of the sun, moon. man. woman, birds, 
beasts and all things. I have never Inren .ible to learn that the 
latter tril)e worshipjK-d the sun. He srtnis to ha\e heltl the 
same rank with the l-ka-nam of the ("hinonks. A-mo-tc-ken of 
the Flatheads. and Ti-me-hu of the .^jx^kan^ 

According to onr Indian, hi- matk- the moon and sun. tin- 
moon first and in the night, intendinj; it tn Ik- the sun In the 
morning it ro^e, but it shone too hot. and c.iused the water to 
boil and so killed the fish. It .lUo killed nianv animals on the 
land, ami did much damage generally Hence he made the 
sun. as it is nov%. to rule the d.iy. a\\^ condemned the moon to 
shine at ni;;ht. 

One Indian told me that after he had created all the animals, 
that then he made a man out of the 'ground, and a woman out 
of his rib. and gave them a goo<l land, telling them they might 
eat of all the fruit, except one kind of berries. Kut the woman, 
tempted by Skwai-il. the king of evil, ate of those berries. When 

INIUANS OK VX'iiKl sor.Mr 71 

Dokibatl canic» he said, "Have you been catin;; of tho^e bcrrics>'* 
She said. " No." He replied. *• Yes, I know you have/' On 
account of this they think that her children became Indians, 
ignorant, foolish and dark-skinned. i)ut the man did not eat 
of the berries, and to his children were given letters, the knowl- 
edge of books, and a white skin. A part of this stor>' is so> 
nearly like that of the Kible as to make me ciuestion whether it 
is purely native, or whether it is not at least partially derived 
from the teachings of the whites. My informant, a Twana. said, 
however, that he knew the Kible history, and that theirs was 
somewhat similar, and he told it to me in connection with a 
number of purely native stories. However, he is not the most 
truthful Indian on this reservation. The Clallams also have a 
tradition that the first man was made from the earth. 

But, while their ideas of his first work are somewhat confused, 
their txrlicf of his second comin;; is quite clear, and nearly all 
of these tribes agree as to what he did. He changed things 
very decidedly; hence his name, which means "Changer". At 
that time some of the Indians hardly knew where he came from, 
but they think he came from the south or southwest, where the 
sky comes down to meet the world, and he was last heard of to 
the north, in Kritish Columbia. 

A long time after the creation, say the Indians, the world lie- 
came bad and the people became bad and foolish, whereupon 
Dokibatl determined to come here and rectify aflfairs — to punish 
the world and to change the foolish into something else. Ac- 
cording to some he first made the animals as men. but they were 
foolish. If a |>erson stubbed his toe and fell down, he died; if 
he was vcr)' hungr>-. he died ; the humming-bird tried to fight 
the rain : none had any houses. At one time they all had a |>ot- 
latch. The skate was an old man. and stood in the door, where- 
upon the rest knocked him down and trod upon him, until his 
fat spread out all around, when they, foolish beings, ate it. and 
greased themselves with it. until nothing remained. On account 
of this and similar acts, Dokibatl changed a large number of 
these |K*rsons into animals, as ducks, fish, sharks, skate-fish and 
other animals. Five persons were changed into the north wind 
He also taught those who were left a number of useful arts, as 
the making of houses, the catching of fish, and the like. 

According to the Skokomish Indians, one man, knowing that 
ho was coming, sat down with his bone knife Und began to whet 
It, saying, *' I will kill him when he shall come. " Soon he came, 
but was so much like common men that the man did not know 
him. Dokibatl said. '* What are you doing >" " Nothing special,** 
was the reply. Again the same question was asked, with the 
same reply. Then Dokibatl said : " I know what you have said; 
you want to kill me. I^ me take your knife.'* It was given 
to him. and he thrust it into the man's ankle, behind, which 

t •» 


made the man jump, and he continued to jump, was changed 
into another form, jumpinjj on all fours, and this is the ori^^in of 
the deer. As he plunjjcd the knife in the ankle to the handle 
he left it there, where it still remains, havinjj become the fetlock. 
Another man was acting similarly with his knife when DokibatI 
took it and thrust it into him, and he became a beaver, the knife 
becoming its tail. Another man was pounding against a cedar 
tree with his head, trying to break it down, so foolish was he. 
DokibatI asked him what he was doing ; he told him, whereupon 
the Changer told him that he had better go away. I le did so. 
and as he ran, wings, a strong head and long bill came to him, 
so that he could bore holes in trees, and this is the origm of the 
woodpecker. He found another man out in the rain, not know> 
ing enough to get under shelter, and trying to keep off the rain 
by swinging his arms and hands around. He was changed into the 
humming bird, and the arms arc still swinging. Another man 
was {Krforming his incantations or tamahnous. with his hair tied 
up in a knot on his head. He was changed into a bhiejay. the 
knot still remaining. A boy knew that DokibatI was coming, 
and was afraid that he might be changed, though he <lid not 
wish to be ; so he ran away, carrying with him a watei bo.x or 
Indian pail with water in it. As he was rnnnin;;. some wings 
came to him to help him get away fast ; he began t<> tly and be- 
came a turtle-dove. The shaking of the water made a noise 
somethmg like that when pu-pu-pu is said ver\* fast, and this 
became the noise of the bird as it begins to fly. When it first 
found Itself i hanging it began to cry *' hum-o, hum-o. ' a noise 
which was chan;.;ed into its present mourning sound. This word 
is the name of the bird in the Skokomish language ( HIrt men 
had painted themselves in various ways, and when they were 
changed, their colors partially remained, and this was the origin 
of the colors of the birds. 

Near the mouth of the Skokomish River he found some men 
fighting, and he chan^'ed them into stones, which now lie there 
on the l)each, a very large one having hern an «»fticer m the 
battle As he walke<I across th«- land the mi>uth of' the 
Skokomish River Iv .slipped, whereupon he cursed it, and it l>c- 
camc ihr marsh now there A^ he wilKed down H»»od's Canal, 
on the west side, he found twt» canoes I urn* <! over, their owners 
being away fi-^hinf . These he changed into two long stones. 
now lying there. In crossing a siuali stream lie again slij)pcd, 
and hence curbed it. on account of which no fish g«» up that 
stream. A short distance south of the mouth of the Lillcwaup 
River are tw«i places in the rock, about twoteet long, which look 
somewhat like lar^e foot tracks deeply made in the stone. These 
the Indians l>elicve to be the foot-tracks of DokibatI Thev are 
between high and low tide, and were cvrflently washed out by 
the water. Two rocks |r on the lieach south of Lillcwaup 

iNPi \Ns {}\ rr<;KT sorM». ::: 

whtc!i were llic c;in.»«> %>( sonic persons uho wen* out hshing. 
When i)i'>kilu!l rainc .iloni^, for some reason, l:c chan^cil thcni 
into the t\\»» stones. ( )n tlie opposite, or east, side of the (*anal. 
two oi three miles north of Dewttec, are two rocks whicli an- 
ahi>ni a hundred yards apart. These were a man and wife who 
had hcen i)uarrehn(; and had separated, and were that far apart 
when Dokibatl came, whereupon he changed them into these 
stones. On the opposite side of the Canal, about three miles 
Ik'Iow tlie nioutii of the Dewttec, is a lar^e stone of very Hani 
con;^li>rnrr.4li\ about thirteen feet hij»h and five or six in diam 
eter. tolerably regular in its rounded .shape. This was a woman 
previous It) the coming of the Changer. Its Indian name is 
A-tak-tciiii. and it is a part of a landslide from the adjoin in<^ 
bank. At S<|ua\on he found one min crying. I te was changed 
into a siijiic; the tears on his face being lines, which arc said to 
be still Msiblc on it. 

He !ou;ul ^omc hulians in the water trying to catch flsh in a 
very rude way. He asked them what they wished. They replied 
that ihi y W]>h( d to catch fi>h. Then he taught them hc^w to 
make a fi^h-trap or wiir across the river, such as they now use. 
lie asked theni kind offish they wanteil, and. when .i 
silver salmon came, asked if that was the kind. An afllirmativr 
answer having t)een given, he said. "I)n not kill it. but watt 
until It has deposited its eggs, so that there may be a large 
number of them." They did so. Then a salmon tmut came, 
and a similar conversation took place about it. 

Abi»:il live miles Ix'K.w Skokomish. on the east side of the 
Canal, is a bank »>! red earth, which the Indians U5ed ior red 
j>aint before the coming' of the whites. This was formerly the 
Klikitat Indians, while the bank on the «'pposite side r»f the 
< 'ana! was the Skokomish Indian*^. They engaged in a great 
game oi gambling, in which the Klikitats won I)*k:ba!l 
changed thi m mto land, and alter that the present race of Skc»- 
kiimish Indians obtained their paint there for painting them>elvts 
reil when ihey gamble, so that they also may win. between 
Seabeck and Pott (iamble arc three spits. These were lormer!y 
three brothers nanieil I'say-o-witl, but Dokibatl changed llu-n! 
into th<;ir present Condition. lie found the Indians gambiini^ 
with their disks, ami lo'.d them it was n-'t good. He toi k their 
dis'ss (»f wof>d and threw them into ihe water, but thev came 
bai k to tlie In.iMH- . he next threw them into thr fire, but they 
tamt' out. he threw ih<-m awav as far as he could, but a-'a:ntl:ev 
came back. TIius lie tlirew them awav five time<. and cvrrv 
time they returne<i ; and s»"> at la>t he allow eil the m to keep tl'icst 
for sport, as they had conquered him — the only thing which did. 
Some i»f these, however, were changed into a shell-fish. whi*.h 
IS circular, is a little larger than the <iisks. and has a star on :!- 


Protection Island, below Port Townscnd. was. some time pre- 
vious to his comin^i^, a part of the mainland. It was a woman 
and the wife of the rest of the mainland, which was a man. For 
some reason he became vexed at her and kicked her away, and 
when UokibatI came he chanj^cd them both into land. The 
mountain back of Freshwater bay, nine miles west of Port 
An^elos, was a woman, the larjje rock at the west end of the 
bay was fxcT daujjhter, and Mount Baker washer husband. The 
wtiman was bad and abused her husband shamefully. lie bore 
it fi>r a lon^ time, but at last took all of his things into a canoe 
and went across to British Columbia. When DokibatI came he 
changed them into what they now are. The Nootka Indians 
have a traditicm of a similar being who came from Puget .Sound. 

Thus he went to all lands, gave to each tribe their language, 
and to some tribes special kinds of food — to some fish, to some 
crows, and to one tribe beyond the Klikitats. snakes. So say 
the .Skokomish Indians, and that distant tribe is so far away that 
it can not be disproven. Whether this is a dim tradition of the 
1 oming of Christ or not I have never been able to sati.'jfy myself. 
I only record it as I have learned it from the Indians. Hut it is 
certam that when they first learned of the coming of our Savior 
they connected the two together. For a long time I never heard 
his true name, but was told that it was the .Son of God. and ever 
smcf I have learned it lh<*y often call him Jesus. One Skoko- 
mish Indian savs of DokibatI that he came first to create, second 
to ihange or make the world new, and that, uhen it shall become 
old, he will come a third time to make it over again. It is very 
plain that the tradition alK>ut his .second coming as a Changer 
was not received from the whites; but about his third coming, 
and f>erhaps about his first. I have n(»t been so {><>sitive. Still 
my informant said about that, "We know your teaching, but 
this which I tell vt)u i> different ; we received it from our an- 

The following is a tradition in regard to the same lieing, here 
called the (ireat .Spirit: 

A great many years ago — so many that man can not enumer- 
ate them — the tribes b<*came so numerous that they ate up all 
the game and fi^h, and then they turned iannibals ; after a lime 
they became worse than wihi animals, so inui li so the Cireat 
Spirit sent a great rain which iloo<lcd tlie u h 'le country, .m<i 
all living things were tirowned. cxceptii.g c^ne s«;uaw and a liog, 
who Ixith hapM-nt d tt» be «»n the he.itK\ .iters of tiie Nis<|ually 
River, and ihrv. sn ing the v\ater> lining r.ipidly, tied to Mount 
Tacoma and rema:nv*d u{>on its summit until the waters subsided. 
From the sipiaw du*\ the ^log sprang the present Nisqually 
Iniltans. With the «!estruction ot all things on the earth was 
lost the tise of all ami'*, t* »(»!•» and firr The- pr«»-^eny of the 


s(|UAw and dog walked upon all fours, and dug camas, fern and 
other roots with their hands. They lived in holes in the earth. 
They knew nothing; about clothing and they suflered much from 
exposure in their naked condition. They nearly all became dis- 
eased or deformed, and, to make matters worse, a large l)ear of 
enormous proportions came up from the south, and when he cast 
his eye upon an Indian, that Indian lost all fiowcr of locomotion 
and became an ca'^y prey l<» the ravenous appetite of the beast. 
An the Indians had no arms and knew nothing al>oiit tamahnous 
they were entirely ilclenseless. and the bear was about to de|>op- 
iilate the country. The (treat Spirit, seeing their deplorable 
condition and taking pity upon them, sent over the mountains 
from the c*ast a ^'reat tamahnous man, or savior, whose counte- 
nance was as the sun and his voice as the thunder, and he was 
armed with bow, arrows and a s|KMr. llis first act was to assem- 
ble the iK'ople together and ask them why they annoyed their 
(jreat I*\ither with so much weeping, and they answered that it 
was nn account of the beast from which none could escipe. He 
then taught them of the existence of two great spirits— one of 
good and one of evil. lie taught them to make white and 
black tamahnous. and likewise how to walk erect. lie then re- 
turned to the mountains for one moon, to talk to the Great 
Father. On his return he :i«^ain called the |>eople together and 
held a big potlatch. giving the Indians what ap))eared to them at 
that time great curiosities. To the young men he gave bows 
and arrows, likewise s|K*ars. and taught them how to make and 
use them. To the oltl men he gave canoes, with the proper in- 
structions for their manufacture, likewise how to make fish-hooks 
and how to use them To the old women he gave camas sticks, 
baskets made of cedar bark and seaweed, and showed them how 
to make them, am! explained their use and purpose ; likewise 
how to make fire and its use. taught them how to cook, and 
how to carry burdens by the use c»f a strap across the head ; in 
fact, taught them all kinds of work that were calculated to make 
\%oman useful to her lord and master — man. The young women 
he taught to smg and to adorn their |>ersons with paint and to 
wear a ginlle. mack- of the mner bark of cedar, reaching from 
the waist to the knee. He taught them that woman should have 
but one man. and that it was her duty and interest to encourage 
h«*r man to purchaNC all the wives his circumstances would per- 

The tamahnous min. ha\ing instructed the people in every- 
thing that was useful and tending to their comfort, became full 
of strong tamahnous. ilis next task was the destruction of the 
great beast. He took seven arrows from his quiver, and being 
assisted by the men of the tribe, made for one whole sun tamah- 
nous over the sacred arrows and they became fully charged. He 
took one of the arrows and pushed it into the ground in the 


center of the Nisqually plains. He then walked half a day 
toward the haunts of the bear, where he again placed another 
arrow. So he proceeded to do for e.ich half day's travel nearer 
the beast, until he had placed, erect and in a straight line, six 
arrows. Then, with his seventh arrow in his hand, the tamahnous 
man approached the bear, who cast upon him the evil eye, but 
his tamahnous was so strong that it had no effect. He then 
shot the remaining arrow into the beast, and turning swiltly ran 
for the arrow last placed in the ground. The beast followed. 
When the tamahnous man came to the arrow, he seized it and 
shot it into the animal. So he did with each of the other arrows, 
until he arrived at the last arrow, which he, with his greatest 
strength, shot through the heart of the beast, and thus killed it. 
The tamahnous man, by his cunning, had thus kd the beast to 
the center of the Nisqually plains to dn:. Its death caused great 
rejoicing, and then there was a gathering ot the whole tribr. 
After the skin was taken off the beast's carcass, it was divided 
equally between the different branches of the tribe. And so 
large was the that the skin of one ear, which had b<.en given 
to the Tumwater branch of the tribe, was taken to .Mound 
prairie to dry, and it covcre<J the whole plain. 

The next thiiii^ done by the great tamahnous man wa< to i ntl 
a large and vtrong building, with but one opening or dof>r n the 
same. He thrn leathered all the disease, def« )rmity and crime, 
and placed it in the house anil secured the door. Then he ap- 
|)ointed a certain family in Like charge of the house, and s.nd 
family ami its desCviulants were ever U* remain in charge v( it. 
He gave strict orders that the doors were never tJ be 4)|Kned 
under anv eircumstanees what* ver. What ih*- hou^e lontaint*} 
was nnlv revr.r.«<i tn tin: head ot th;: I.inislw aim\ lhu> it bci .mu 
to the r« iiiaiiult r of the tribe a great in\'>ter\-. In time thi*ij>ar- 
ticular fimjly became rethued in number-, leavin*^' but one old 
man with his wife and dau "htc r < )ne dav the old man. U rLJet- 
tin;' his dutv an<l <li.;mtv, went fn-m the In -use: to asNi>i his wifi 
to perl'Tin ^<>me labor, thus le.ivinr t:»'* d.iU'.lit<'r al««nc. Ht i 
curioMtv had Ion/ been arou^e<l a> t-* tin- <. • nttnt- of the il' m .i 
room, and thiN wm^ an t»pportumty not to be ne;.:Ieetetl to -ali^-fy 
that ciirh»sity ."^hr undid t!ie Ja-lenin^> to tlie tloor and | u^!:td 
it baiK but a Nii..rt Hut tliit was ^i.trKKnt. Ihr in- 
mate^ ;;oi tin* advantage ami all ru^h• d out, autl -•» the wo:!ti 
was U\\i d witii tliNi a^e. di for:n;t\*. Lr:'V.e .iIhI w m 'I hu»» is n:.nle 
manifest what w.>»n.m"s curn^Mtv Ims broip/lit i:p«»n mankind >o 
offcn<led bee,iTn«- tlie ( lather at the tnnie «)f this woman 
that he cii. it'll llie "^c.iVo or M<»iinta:r. Indian, who sleeps b\ 
day, .intl whu-e lioin-s arc m the holes in the P»cks m the disT.-»nt 
mountains. Tiiey ha\e winj^s. and m the n:;^ht are c-nstantly 
tlvip.' .i!)out so as to sci/e or se(.iire anv woman wh«» m.«v be 
f«»!in*; i»:jt ot hrr home at ni;:ht or aw.w fnm her h* m* w;th 


htran^^c men. And uhcn the Scatco discovers a couple of this 
kind, he cits th<* man and carries the \v(»man to the mountain'*, 
and makes her either a wife or slave. 

ftUiin/uiPt Spirits, — These they believe to In: constantly around. 
Kvery man, and nearly cver>' woman, was thou^^ht to have one. 
wiiich was called his or her tamahnous. Such a spirit wa^ 
«>upposed to ^uard the man or woman, who often communed 
with it in the dark, or when alone in the woods, and by various 
incantations invoked its aid in time of need. These spirits were 
the most useful deities which they had, and the practice cT in- 
\okin'^ their aid was the most practical part of their rcligion. 

< >nf- Indian, to whom I was once speakin;^' on the sinfulness of 
worshipping more than one Deity, as they did with tlieir multi- 
tude ot' spirits, replied that they diii not worship their tamahnou^ 
spirits instead of Goi), but only asked them to intercede before 
the I)i ity for the people. This idea may be original with them, 
but it IS not improbable that it was derived from the Roman 
Catholic faith in i^uardian angels, tau^^ht themby the priests wh-i 
visited I hem many years ago. 

77// /:':'// Spin/ tnni Di'fuons. — They firmly !>elie\e in the pres- 
ence and power of malii^nant spirits, am! n:uch I'f their tamah- 
nous is to conjure them, and son:ctimcs to gain their favor an<! 
aid. 'I'h<-ir main idea of sicknes^ is founded on this belief, that 
it is caused by the.«e evil spirits, iind so the practice of their 
mctlicine men is to counteract them. The chief i»f these demons, 
according to the Twanas, is Sk\vai-il, who resides somewhere 
beinw. !)ut in an(»ther place from where the disembodied ^-pirits 
dwell < )t"ten a parent tells his child, " V(iU must not steal «»riio 
wrong, if you do Skwai-il will see you, and take you to h;> 
dwelling place." 

Thf Sun, — An old Clallam man has informed me tiiat beloie 
tlie coming of the whites tluy knew nothing about God, but 
w«irshipped the sun as their Deity, an<l that tliey prayed to it 
liaily. saying, **Sun. take care of me," and offrred it foc«d at noon. 
Another Clallam said that formerly they knew nothing of God, 
but believed the sky and sun to be supreme, and that it was a 
common >aying of the old ones to say to their children. '* You 
must not do wrong, or the *kv will see vou." Such ideas come 
to the surface very little in their intercourse with the whitis, yet 
I think that my informants spoke the truth, as according to 
Swan's Makah Indi<ms of Cape Flattery, who join the Claliam« 
<»n the west, they talked every morning to the Great Chief, or 
his representative, the sun, whose name is Kle-se-a-kark-tl; while 
Dr. Gibbs adds that while among the Selish or Flathead tribes 
of the .sound he has not been a!>le to detect any direct worship 
c»f the sun, yet that he forms onr of their mythological charac- 
ters, and is represented as one of the vourger brothers of the 


m-jon. Accordinf^ to Father Mengarini he is the principal object of 
worship amon^ the Flatheads of the Rocky Mountains, or Sclish 
proper, as well as by the Blackfcct. Among both tribes he was 
sup|>oscd to be the creation of a Superior licinjj.* 

Other Inanimate Objects, — The Indians aNo believe that these 
spirits, both ^^ood and bad. m<iy dwell at times in certain sticks, 
stones, pictures and the like ; hence these articles become objects 
of reverence or fear. ( Generally preat rej^ard is had for these 
articles at all times, for although the spirit is supposed to dwell 
in them only a small portion of the time, yet after it has been 
dedicated to the spirit, and once occupied by it. that spirit is 
supposed always to watch over it. and to be an^ry with any one 
wlio treats it disrespectfully. Some of them arc posts which 
support the sidi*s of the houses in which people dwell, though 
usually, whiMi such is the case, these houses have !)een used as 
potlatch houses, (ienerally these are of cedar, from four to six 
mch'.'s thick, from one and a half to two and a hall teet wide, 
.mtl frnm er^lit to ten feet l<»n^ Others are used to support the 
center of the house, reaching from the <;r(»und tolhe ridj»e-jK)le. 
I once N.iw two of the>e in thr ruins of an old potlatch house at 
port -\n^eli)s. They were from twenty one to twenty- four inches 
wiile and .iliout eighteen feet lon^. The si«le posts which then 
nni.iii'.i il were similar in size to those at Secpiim, but were not 
ji.iinted; \\\r\ were *>imp!y carved, without much artistic effect. 
Anoth'-T sj.le oosi said to have had the h;;ure i)f a man 
I .irvrd on it the full len;;th ol the post. hut it had been cut lioun. 
.md when I there «»nly a p;irt of the ft*el remained ( >thers 
are s«iin<times pl.iced on t!u- i ross Ix.ini^. and reach from it to 
tin- fid^i- |)»!i-. which they s:i|ip>rt T!ie la-^t ji«*tlatch house on 
th*- *skokoinish p'servaln»n had a numlK-r kA thc^c-. each belonj;- 
mt^ ti) <itttcr<-!it indivitlii.iN. ^onu- •<! which had nopa'.nt on them, 
'orn'- W' :c j>a:nt' d a lit!! . !)iil v* ry p!.i.::Iy. and Ntum were 
panr*'! .jiiit*; artiNluallv with fi;'iiri ^ ol a bear, a man, and a 
man ^ t.i. r and In-art. Thr unvi r.jii'.^ of ».nr tif ihc^e was at- 
tvnl'-l *A ith tjuite .1 ceremon>". attei th- ;» ^latcii ha«! Ik e:i «n 
sc-^Hiiifi t«»r --rvt r a! <la\ s. Hi;t 'inlt'Tlunatt '\ I Aa^ r.nt prcNcnt t** 

see it dm:- 'I!v rr^t Weff* not Vi. ;!: d 

W'hi!'- ih'* |)-opIi; wrre «|'iite •» :•••■[-•.::. li - .i''»i» i! allowing any 
oili* t'» ilt'N* « :atf tlie-^r. vi t \\\' \ 'a<T' \\\ • ca[tl«*^s a*nn;t pro- 
tecMn:^ th«ni S v r il yar^ af.i r tl:- y wnr niadr an»l placciiin 
pos.liin. .1 jj. ivy sn w iru^htd thf h-iii-i-. m^^\ these p»>st^ were 
inin'If! ;•: *\\\ sti-.j^Iv \\\ iIk ruiiiN. lM:t wln'.e '•onie of their 
own'T-* rrniT. -I th'ir'* to their t!we!!in;.;N, ntlurs dui not take 
care nt th* ;r<, l> it a!!i>\\fd th* in tt* \\v knoiked around until 
<om»" of tlu-rii w r- l.n«*V.ed in!" th* waterN of the s<iun<l and 
t?'iatrii aw iv. 1 h- V a* \ -I -ri rii n Iv •»!! \\v prmi :*,'K- while 


it wa4 wrong for a person to abuse them, yet the spirits must 
take care of them or they would not be cared for. After some 
years, however, the Indians lost their superstitious fear of them, 
and I was allowed to get a few of the poorer ones which remained, 
though by that time the paint had all been washed ofT. 

The cross-beams on which they rest are also supposed to be 
sacred, and if any one knocks one of them down, so that it falls 
u|K>n the ground, it is said to make the spirit which dwells therein 
^o angr>' that he may send sickness upon the whole tribe. 

I once ohtainei a side post in the following manner: Wishing 
t«) secure something of the kind, after I had been here a short 
time. I asked one Indian, who was quite intelligent and nearly 
free from su(>erstition. if I would be likely to fmd anything of 
interest at the old (>otlatch house, which is a short distance from 
:he Skokomish reservation. He s;iiu that perhaps I might. 
Hence. 1 went there and found that all the boards had been re- 
moved, as well as some of the posts and cross-beams, and there- 
fore I supposed that all that was valuable had been removed, and 
that the Indians did not care for what was left. Some of the 
jK^'^ts were slightly painted, but in no interesting way. There 
u.!*;. however, one |>ost which had the figure of a large heart 
car\-cd on it, and this post I cut down and brought home. Stop- 
ping on the way to see a young Indian, I told him what I had 
done, for I began to fear that perhaps the post might belong to 
<ome one who valued it; but he did not seem to think that I done anything amiss. Hut soon after, on rowing up to a 
'^iltling camp, an old man. seeing the |x>st in my boat, first ad- 
<lre'^sed me with the word*i. ** The devil has got you now." He 
to'.d nie the name of the owner, who was then some thirty miles 
a.\ay. (I had heard that this man owned a tamahnous post in 
that house, but was incorrectly informed that he had removed 
It I I explained all the circumstances under which I had ob- 
tained the post, and assured him that I did not intend to do 
anythmg wrong, of which he seemed to be satisfied. I offered 
to leave it with this man until the return of the owner, to whom 
he was related, but he would n(»t receive it. as he was afraid to 
have it about his house, for fear that the tamahnous of the stick 
wouifJ be angry with him f<»r harboring the stolen pro|>erty. I 
was t(»ld before I reached home that when the large cross-beam 
which rested on it fell to the ground, that the tamahnous was 
angr\' I brought it home, where I have kept it f »r the past ten 

When th<- owner came home I talked with him about the post, 
and offered to return it. but he said "no;" I offered to pay him for 
It or for the damage done, but in good nature he refused to take 
anything, saying that if I had gone to him before getting it, and 
he had sold it to me, the Indians would have thought him very 
bad, but as it was now cut off above the ground it could not be 


put to^ctiior a^ain. and as the deed was done, it could not bv 
remedied. I, however, gave him a fifty pound sack of flour and 
some sugar, and he has been very friendly to me ever since. 
About two years afterwards, there was considerable sickness 
among the Indians, and some deaths among the children, and 
i)ne Indian hinted to me that I had caused the sickness, by mak- 
ing that spirit angry. I still keep it. Occasionally the Indians 
s|)eak about it, but their ideas on this subject have changed 
greatly within the last four years, anil they have, apparently, 
long since ceased to have any anxiety about it. A year or two 
ago, as I was moving it, an Indian came along ixmi ortercd t<> 
help me. I asked him if he was not afraid of it. 1 le said no and 
picked up one end and carried it to where I wi>hed to place it. 

A rather curious tamahnous representation I saw at a potlatch 
at S<{uaks4)n in iSSo. It was uMde from a boa nl. carved into 
the shape of a heart, about twenty -four inches wide by fifty-six 
long; a p'lrtof it was painted blue, a part red and the rest whit* . 
It hail a han4ne of gla-^s — from some pitcher — fastened to it. It 
was naile<! to one of the side posts of the house, and was the 
onlv t.imaluious t'l 'ure of anv kind at the potlatch. It was said 
by the Indians to really be what i.;.ive all the money ;ind other 

Occa'^ioniilly these tamahnous ^'presentations arc on the door 
of th«- own r's ho'.is^- ; sometimes at the he.ul of his bed. and 
sonutiiiu> on lii>» powder charge t^r otiicr articles. The idea 
•^''CUH to be till- t.itn.ilini'ijs will guard his house, jirotecl 
him while .islcrp. and help hin) while imnting. 

/I'l/Av — I**ormerlv it was !)clieve(l tli-* C"!allam^ of I*'ik'A.i 


pM^sc^^'. i! .1 niv^terii 'US powef • 'ViT all ••thei Intii.ins; ihat it tluv 
N^isln d to I all a |>»rsoM wlm \\.i> a i<»n^ liistaiiee away — t\\ent\ , 
!!iirl\- or fifv miles tlu V siniplv. tallcmi: low, e.d'.ed lum anil he 
I amc . it they ta.ked thus about .i person his heart was m 
a t >>in:'!< tt uhii! ; and if tin \- ttilkid i!!. .lUd \\:sl:edt<> do 
evil ti ally «.n« tliui jIi^! int. h:s • ye-? wrre riiade to whiil. and 
the evil ea:ii'- to pa-^s 1 lie cauir .i^-i:;n«<l tnr llus wjn that tii 
.p in th- ni'iinilam^. .it the h« .i<l n! tin- lilkvva Uivtr. arr ba-:ns 
m tht- T"i k>. f>ne ot tiu-^r i^ fi:'I oi .1 biai k water, ant) that 
It i> .i!wav> t'ill. WiRiiief llif -v-.a on lie W' t ur div . anil ti' ll'.e 
liikwa lii''* wriil np it tun'-- an I \vi h.- ! their han«U .mil 
arms in th- w iter . wiiit. h i> lhi>'.:;:it t > be t iina:in< »u v .iui ;t :' i\ < 
them !Ji:'» p"Wt r. 

/./ .'^ Til'- ^tL'.';. p- -^t-and th- !ik . ;-.r*-t d^-.i ribed arc- niai!«. by 
tiif In i iM^. .III'! •on >r. r.ntrd Im !lii:r !a»ii.thn«»\;*. Iji hcr « « -nM n 
the jir !ii:p.'- ••! :il.i!.ilr\ ; bi:t ^!l!I tlir st.LKS \\i ri i-I ^ui h .t n1;.ijic 
that lin-y c-'iiM n-it pi- pniy b- ci!I l i-lol- I l».id b-.-i n 
f«iur vear> b l-.r- I i.iw wha! t n.jld b.- i .i'.l»-il bv thi^ n.iin*'. and 
havr iii-vfT N' (U but this <»ne .■\> I vi-:t«-'i ilimj .ii «ine « f then 
riligu)ii^ '^ath' r.n.:-* in i^^fS. I '•aw it It w.i** ab«'Ul li-ur f«* t 


long, rouf^hly caned, with the face and body of a man, but with 
no legs or feet, the lower part being set into the ground, and 
around this they performed their incantations. The eyes were 
Miver (]uarter dollars nailed to it, and at the time it had no clothes 
on, except a neck-tie of red cloth, white cloth and beaten cedar 
bark. It is said to have been made by the father of a very old 
man. and is kept secreted in the woods when not wanted. I saw 
It several times after they were done with their performance, and 
the Indians willingly allowed me to make a drawing of it. It 
has since been earned ofl to the woods again. 

The Indians say that, although it was made by the father of 
this old man, yet, that it is hundreds of years old: such imper- 
fect ideas have they of chronology: and that the reason it does 
not decay is that the tamahnous preser\'es (it is of cedar and con- 
.sequently would not decay). They report that at one time it 
was left near a tree, but that when they went to it again it wxs 
removed a little distance away, and they profess to believe that 
1* had walked there, because of the power which its tamahnous 
gave it. Its forehead at its base is in relief three- fourths of an 
inch, its nose, five-eighths, and its chin, three-fourths.* 

The Indians aNo say that long ago they had another image 
similar to the above, which the owner kept hid in the woods, but 
that a great freshet came and flooded the ground where it was. 
The owner's tamahnous, they say, told him about this, and also 
told him that the idol had climbed a tree to get away from the 
water. He accordmgly .sent a man to get it, and told him not to 
lt>ok on the ground uhere the idol had been left, but to look up 
m a certain tree for it. When he reached the place, sure enough. 
It was hangmg in the tree, and singing with a great buzzing 
noise, and by means of this noise the person hunting for it found 
exactly where it was. 

I have been told that the Twanas and the Clallams ot Port 
Discovery have large idols, ten or twelve feet long, hid in the 
woods, which were worshipped long ago. but are now nearly de- 
cayed. A 'schoolboy drew for me pictures of two other such 
images, which had the face and body of a man, one having arms 
and the other without them, but neither of them having feet or 
legs. The boy added: "All kinds of images are made when 
they are tamahnoubing. The man is not to .serve the tamahnous, 
but the tamalinous the man, as I am told." Mr. M. Iluntoon, 
formerly of Klkwa. has informed me th<it on his farm he once found 
a ^mall U4»oden idol, but that not valuing it, he lost it. It may 
h.ive l)een an idol, and yet it may have been a carved work of 
.irt I have .seen such among the Clallams, which were imported 
trom the Makahs as playthings. Mr. J. Y. Collins, of Whatcom, 
n'\ir the Lummi reservation, writes me that he has a stone image 

•Fi*r • d«arrintlan of the rvremony In connertlon with It. «ee CliAptrr on Tnmnh- 


about five and a half inches Ion<(» which has a human face, a 
bird's body, and a small mortar in its back that will hold about 
two thirds as much as an egg. 

The Indians have the following tradition: A long time ago a 
man made an image of a man, into which his guardian spirit en- 
tered, and over which it had considerable power ; even to make 
it dance. Two young men, however, did not believe this, and 
made sport of it. At one time, when many people were assem- 
bled in the house where it was, these young men were told that 
if they did not believe it could dance they might take hold of it 
and hold it still. Hut when they did so it began to dance, and 
soon, instead of their holding it still, it made them dance with it. 
one holding to an arm on each side of it. Nor could they stop 
it, or even let go. but after dancing a time in the house, it took 
them outside and started towards tlie salt water. The |X!ople, 
afraid that something would h.ip{>en. followed, trying to stop it, 
but could not do so. It danced to tl:e water and into It, and 
made a plunge head foremost, when all three were changed into 
the tish calleii the Skate, which still livrs in the water. 

IMI'I.l-.MK.NT'* «»r UOK^IIir. 

The^e con-.i^t ol" hand-sticks, hcul-hand^. tlrnms. rattles and 

Hiiud atuh. — In tlie tamaluiuus .irtmnd thf idol, which has 
just been described, hand -sticks wrrc used. They were alx>ut 
four feet long, and from t\v<} thirds nt an incli to an inch and a 
half in diameter, the wider oiii >. howevc-r. being M»me^*hat flat- 
tened. Some ol them were paintetl leil; one had. in aildition. a 
little blue {Mint. an<l some were not painteil A band of cedar 
bark \\i>und around e.ici) one iMt fir from ,i foot from the 
upper end. in a place cut for il I'hey wrre ^h.lrI»ened at the 
lower end. and when not in actual use. were stuck in the ground 
around th* i:n.ige One t>f them wa<* carved in sucli a way that 
it ^reiD'cl .i> i! tlir first part, a fool long, enteretl. wed^e-like. 
into tli<- iT'.t. .iml tins was said to iLprescnt .i <hark"s ton-^ue. 
These, uiilik tile idol, had been ri lently tnade. on juirpt»se for 
the IK cation, .md eai h one owned by .i different indi\idual. 
thoui»li I tli'>M;»ht that thr s.ime iMif used M>mctimes bv 
• »thrrs tli.m tin- nwner When in i:^**. ♦hry were held in the 
hand, beiM^ ;^|K-t| about tin- m.diil. . when no! in u>e. their 
head -baiiti^ '.\rrr hung <*n tiutu I 'irue s.iu .1 smular i^ne. 
broken, on the v;r.i\e of a J !.illain i.h:ef at l.lkwa. I»i;t lliey are 
not often se«-ii, .is I think I did n>it ^''e one until I had iK-en here 
at least loui years, nor hasf I '••en any lor the past few years 
They keep tliem ri>ncialfd. I lK*lii\e in llie uoods When I 
asked an o!tl Indian, who was k\\\\: aw .idept at making various 
articles, and had '/ladlv madr iiianv for me. tt» make one of 
these hi- ileclin'tl. ti»r. he said. \i he ^iiould the Indians would 

INDIANS OF VViiKT M»l*M>. s;i 

be angry with him. They were not intended for profane hands, 
though they readily granted me thcprivilet^e of making drawings 
of them. A carved stick of wood wa.s found on the Skokomish 
reservation, which has been the subject of much discus- 
sion among the Indians. It is 8ij inches long, and from i'^ 
to two inches in diameter. It seems to have the carvmg of the 
head and tail of a fish. It is sup[>osed by some to have been 
held in the hand while tamahnousing, while others think it was 
a |)art of the handle of a hand adze, the remainder having been 
split off. It is of yew wood, and was found while making a 
logging road,about eight feet from the (ace and the same distance 
from the top of the bank. 

lli-adbiindi. — Dnring the same ceremony, and also sometimes 
m other modes of tamahnous, a head-band of beaten cedar-bark, 
not far from an inch in dianieter. with one or more feathers in 
It, is placed on the head. Kagle feathers are preferred fi>r this 
puqK>se. I)ut those of the hawk and of some other large birds 
are sometimes used. A somewhat similar band was made for 
me. which had the head and bill of a red-headed woodpecker in 
front, the wing-feathers of the same bird on the sides, and the 
tail behind. In various kinds of tamahnous these ban.'s are 
used. In the black tamahnous they are colored black, and the 
ends of the feathers are tippei! with black, but in other kinds of 
tamahnous they remain the natural color of the bark. 

Drums— These, with the Twanas, have a square or rectangu- 
lar head, the .sides of which are from a foot to two feet or more 
m length. They are made of deer-skin, stretched over a wooden 
frame. Mach drum has only one head, and on the reverse side 
two leather thongs or straps are crossed at right angles for a 
handle. \\y this they are held with one hand, while the drum- 
stick IS held in the other. They are only from three to six 
inches deep, and var>' in tone, according to their size, as much 
.iS our snare and base drums. The Clallams use the same kind 
of drum, and also have another form, which is similar in all re- 
spects except that the head is round instead of rectangular. The 
heads, however, are ver>- seldom painted. 

RiWUs, — These arc of several diflerent kinds. (Jne variety is 
made of deer hoofs, strung and tied, often in quite large bunches. 
These are held in the hand, and also fastened to the waist, while 
dancing I do not know that they are ever used in the tamah- 
nous for the sick or in the black tamahnous. I have also seen 
the copper shells of rifle cartridge.^ mixed with the hoof.s. The 
Indians believe that a spirit or tamahnous is connected with 
these. One woman, v«ho became a Christian, said she did not 
know what to do with hers. She wanted to get rid of them, but 
did not know how to do so w'ithout making the tamahnous angry, 
for while she gave up the old religion, she still believed that the 
tamahnous had power, only that they were all evil spirits, with 


whom t})c less she had to do the better. She said that she had 
kept them in hor trunk, but the tamahnous often kept her head 
in a whirl and gave her bad dr':ams. If she should give them 
to her friends, who still believed in them, she was afraid that it 
would be an injury to them; if she should throw them away, 
she was afraid the tamahnous would be angry and injure her; 
and so she was in a quand.iry. She wanted me to take them» 
thinking I could manage them, and I did so. 

The Clallams also use rattles madeof the scallop shells, which 
are found in their waters, but I have never seen them used by 
the Indians of the up{)er sound, although they could easily ob- 
tain them of the Clallams. A hole is made near the hinge of 
rach shell, and a number of them are strung on a stick about 
the size of a lead pencil, which is bent in a circular form, and 
serves as a handle. These are shaken edgewise, so that the 
edge cuts through the air; if they should be shaken sidewise 
they are liable to be broken, as they would strike with more 
force against each other. And if they are broken, the person 
holding them will die .soon thereafter, according to their belief 

The black tamahnous rattle is hollow, somewhat in the shape 
of a bird, from nine inches to a foot or more l(»ng; is i)ainteil 
black, and is u^ed in the l>lack tamahnous ceremonies. In making 
one. two pieces of wood are carved or hollowed out nearly the 
shajK: o! tlu- l)ird's body : ahead .md neck are carved on i>ne 
f)iece. A handle ts madr in the place of the tail; shot or small 
stones ari- placed msidr, and they are fastened t<»gethfr with 
strings, whii h^ through holes in the sides, and with bark 
wrap|>ed aronnd the handle. They are shaken m the hand with 
a circular movi-ment 1 havi ni)t seen one which was owned bv 


a Twana. though formerly they a few, but never had as many 
as th«' Clallam-.. »icc««piiiig t«» their statemrnt Others of the 
samr shajK- w«*re also ma<le. but painted with a different color 
I have on«* with tw«i h»ads. paint('<l ijreen. .md one which is not 
painted Thcsr- wire not used in lh<- blaik tamahnous ami are 
not i:oii'iil<rf (1 .i-* sairetl as the IjI.ilk friis i Jtliers c«uistruct'*d 
on till* -«ini'- pnnciplf — in. ii«»;!o\\ ami with stones iiisule. 
but of very •lilT.-renl ship.- — .in «K'o.i'»;.inalIy imported from the .md < lyo'jiiit Indians of Hriti^i] i ••iiinibia. who are ex- 
jK:rl cirv^r ^ I lie^r arr painti d in \.iri»>UN colore, and though 
not black .ir* u-.- 1 in the hla«k tani.ilmons ceremonies. One 
such wimh Ihav.* sr«-n w,in inairil)- ili«* sha|v: of a bird, but 
had oil it. l>.n:!. tli-\;n.; ••? .i !>c.ii eat in i; aman'-^ himl An- 
.ither w.iN -OH". \ hat quairii.iteral in Nha|>e. with a tail, and a 
hantlle <>ri tiic N.d - opposite the tail It was p.itnted on l>oth 
side** «iu :e « Ia!>*iratilv. with the « ves and \acv c^l a thunder bird, 
and otiier ti mip . It an ••ritice with teeth m it. which opens 
and slait-. no lii.i: tli'* tail m.i\ be t.iken out .it will The Clallam 
name i^ il «i-.a:. which means tail. 



Bv Stephen D. Teet. 

In a former number of this journal we have spoken of the 
Mound-builders and their works, and have called them the monu- 
ments of the Mississippi Valley. We are now to describe the CliflT- 
dwellers and their works, and shall call them the monuments of 
the Great Plateau. They are not monuments so much as they 
are structures, and yet the one may be included in the other, and 
so wc call thcin monuments. Before we begin the description 
let us notice the contrast between the two classes of monuments. 
It seems very singular that races or peoples should have lived 
on the same continent, and within a few hundred miles of one 
another, who were so diflTcrent in all resjKCts, yet there were the 
Mound-builders and the Cliff-dwellers, with their works in the 
greatest contra*it. Both in'oplc. to Ik- sure, had the same wants, 
as they all needed subsistence, shelter and protection, and yet 
their manner of providing for these seem to h.ive been very 
different, the differences being, |>erhaps. o^ing to the differences 
of situation. Here were the Mound-builders' works, in which 
the material is almost exclusively of earth, very few stones being 
found in their earth structures; while with the Cliff-dwellers 
stone is the material used exclusively ; very few earth mounds 
are found in the whole region. Among the mounds we find very 
few structures as such, the structures, such as they were, having 
been built of wood, which has perished and left only the earth- 
works and walls, the foundations which formerly supported the 
structures. In the cliffs the m<'numents are all structures, and 
structures without any artificial foundations, their only founda- 
tions being the hard rock which was on the summit of the 
mesas, or the flat rock which was furnished by the ledges. Among 
the mounds the objects of greatest interest are always buried 
beneath the surface, the relics and bones having always been 
covered with earth, and even the religious offerings were placed 
upon altars or fire-beds and a heap of earth raised above them. 
Among the cliff-dwellings, the relics and objects of art are gen- 
erally found in the houses, and wry rarely in the earth. There 
were chambers which were used for storage. In these are occa- 
sionally the remains of food and other useful articles, but the 


burial places arc few and destitute of especial interest. Chambers 
arc sometimes found among the mounds. They are chambers 
in which the dead were deposited. Among the CliflT-dwellers 
and Pueblos there arc also underground chambers, but they were 
chambers which were occupied by the living, the people having 
dwelt in them or h.iving used them for purposes of religious 
assembly. The situation of the two classes of structures is in 
contrast. There are. to be sure, a few of the earth-works which 
were situated or the summits of the hills, protected by steep 
precipices, but the majority are in the valleys or on the hills 
which overlook the valleys, where they can be easily approached 
and always seen. The clifT-dwcllings arc, however, built into 
the steep and inaccessible cliffs, some of them hidden away with 
all the secrecy that was possible. Many of the pueblos were 
also placed upon the summits of the mesas, where they could be 
reached only with the greatest difTiculty. Convenience seems to 
have been subordinate to protection. The houses are places of 
refuse and defense and were used as places of resort by people 
who were subject to ^rcat danger. Among the Mound-builders 
villages are common, but they are villages which furnished access 
in land and water, agriculture having apixirently been pursued 
t)y thcin and navigation also practiced. Among the 
ClifT-ciwcilers ami Put^blos there arc numerous villages, but they 
are vil!a;.^'f.s which were built for printed ion, forts never being 
found S'j>aratc troni the viU.i^is. There arc. to be sure, a few- 
isolated I'Uildm^s (ir t(>wi rs which mi^ht be called torts, but 
they are so small that they partake more of the nature of castles 
than of fnrls. 

The contract i< t« n in thr surnuin<lm^>: as well as in the 
moniin)en:> Thrr .Mi»'ind UniidrTs had tlicir habitat in the valley 
of th-: Mi>^:^^ippi and i\> trt!iir.ariL->. a re^ii)n which is distin- 
•^\i:slie<! Inr it-* fertility. It is a rr^mn which ha^ a great variety 
<if j>rndi:ce .md nf scent-ry. and was lapaMc of sup|>orting a 
cieii'-j- I" I'lii.i*:"!!. 1 he ('!ilf-dwrl!ers liad the ir habitat on the 
great ;)!.i!'-.ii. wh:ili i^ calli <1 t!u m .i\ re;^ion i<f the continent, as 
it !s I \.?i' 'isf !\- l»arrtii and <ie-o!a'f The ^» i nerv i«» tirand. but 
IS s iMi'-w !i it linlavrK.ihl'; fur sul)>;Ntence. til.- n)«>untams l>eing 
aim -s! !■ »r'»i'!d ni^ -w tiifir ;.;rani!'iir. an!\ <»! the deep valleys 
or cm II ^ *•■■•"■/, r.rirl) a-* dc-n!.i!i- .is tiic ir'untains. .Such arc 
the r<»ntr » r^ |., t-.w • i: :! • !-.\-« cli-vi^ I ^i i;. ihtn turn to the 
Cli'V d.v .'. ; » III : t . ;: w -: •; - 

I I '!•»::! • :■. .Itr t:u :i h.d'ila! We I .ive ^aid it is in the 
TTi-.i!^! "I .1 T-.: ! ;: .: ; lh.» : !.tt a;i t.n-t.tiites a continent 
by ;t>?-.!. .'Ill .1 r v*.;!- ■' « 'ri-.' di-r'ntii»!i « i a CMV.tinent is thai 
It C'n!.i:ni tA • :a:v •' '■'• .r.:.i.:'.ai w:!li .i ;;rva: \.illey l>etwecn. 
Tins V •nt.ri-r.: Jii-. ::. ■ K ■ k\ M *.:nr.i:ns i.p n . ru- ^ide. Sierra -.;;! n :!.; ^.r-: .,:i : !:i.- \n:A »»i tji'- j^'rcit iake. which 
hasi"n;j sirv.r *r-.n ' \: IK*, i ! «: I.ak* lih ntan.hetweenthem; 


but it is a continent which has a limitless sea of air surrounding 
it, and is a great distance from any large body of water. It is 
called the arid region because the climate is yrery dry and the 
soil very barren, the rarity of the air producing more evapora* 
tion than the streams can counteract. In these respects the 
plateau differs greatly from the Mississippi Valley, or in fact 
from any other part of the continent. 

It is worthy of notice, however, that each grand division of 
the globe has an air continent similar to this. But in none of 
them has there been a development of human life such as ap- 
peared here. It is said that Thibet was the original home of the 
human race, yet very few prehistoric works have been discovered 
in Thibet. Central Africa contains peculiar peoples, but the 
works which are found in that region are comparatively modem. 
The great plain of Iran is supposed to have been the original home 
of the civilized races — from this isolated center the Aryan or 
Indo-European race migrated. Some have supposed that this 
plateau of the great west was the original home of the civilized 
races of America, though of this there is much uncertainty. 
The architecture of the region is certainly unique. There is 
nothing like it on the face of the earth. The structures which 
are found here are not only numerous, but there seems to have 
been a great similarity between them, and so we ascribe a unity 
te the people who built them. 

It certainly seems singular that a region like this should have 
been so thickly populated and be now filled with so interesting a 
clxss of ruins, though once so desolate. All authorities say that 
the ruins are situated in places where there must have been ex- 
tensive springs and perhaps perennial streams of water; but the 
springs are now entirely dry, and the valleys present no streams 
except as mountain floods occasionally pass through the deep 
canons. The most interesting part of this region, archxolog- 
ically considered, is that which lies to the west of the great 
mountain divide, a region in which the streams all flow toward 
the Pacific Ocean. These streams have become well known from 
the presence of many ruins upon their banks, as well as from 
the strange scenery which is represented. 

There is a great contrast between the eastern and western part 
of the mountains. On the eastern slope are found those many 
peaks which have become celebrated for their grandeur of scener>' 
— Pike's Peak, Mountain of the Holy Cross, Elk Mountains, 
Cathedral Rocks, etc. On the western side we come to the 
wonderful regions of the so-called parks, basins, mesas, table 
lands, deep canons, and great lake beds — a region which was 
both volcanic and sedementary in its geological system, its drain- 
age having passed through several changes before it reached the 
present condition. The deep canons are supposed to be the beds 
of streams which are as old as the hills, the first drainage having 


antedated the carboniferous period, but a second drainage pass- 
ing on to the tertiary period. Here is found the valley of the 
Colorado River, a river which flows from the very summit of 
the Rocky Mountains, but which traverses three great States in 
its course toward the southwest, and finally flows into the Gulf 
of California. Here also is the Great Salt Lake, a lake which re- 
ceives the drainage of three other States, but which has no out- 
let and is dependent upon evaporation for its present level. Here 
also is the series of great lakes — Pyramid Lake, Lake Tahoe-^ 
which have their outlet in the Humboldt River, and which form 
an interesting feature in the scenery of Nevada. The same 
region is drained to the north and west by the Snake River, a 
branch of the Columbia, and by the Yellowstone, one branch of 
which rises in the famous Yellowstone Park. The region of the 
Pueblos and Clifldwcllcrs is altogether south of Yellowstone 
Park, but it extends from the mountains of Colorado on over 
New Mexico, Arizona, part of Utah, and ends on the borders of 
Mexico and California. This is a remarkable fact. The Col- 
orado River has a branch which enters it near its mouth — the 
Gila. On this river there arc ruins which resemble the famous 
pueblos of the Animas and the San Juan in Northern Mexico. 
Not very far from this same river a race of ClifT-dwellers has 
recently been discovered which resembles the famous ClifT-dwcll- 
crs of the same rivers. Throuj^'hout Arizona thf re are ancient 
canals and ancient ruins which remind us of the irrigating con* 
triv.mces and ancient vill.i;;cs found on the Pecos and in other 
fwrts of New Mexico. Taken together, we .shoulil say that the 
discoveries, e.irly an^l late, had fixed the habitat of this niyste- 
riuus |>eople in a very sin^^ular and mysterious rej;ion. 

Whether this f.ict will lead us to connect the history of the 
|k:o|)1c with the am irnt race which left their relics in the aurif- 
erous ^jravels of T.ihle Mountain, or with the more modern and 
more eivili/ed M"x:ran race, remains to he seen. Still the 
proximity of the to l)t)th hHaiities may prove that here 
IS a connecting; link The very an< u nt pe<»ple of California were 
crrtainly m<»rc .idv.ince<l than the mcKlcrn ^a\aJ^e Arapahoes, 
Navajoes, etc.. whu h roam over the same rejourn Vet is un- 
known what the descent of the ancient pe« j»Ie was 

.•\s to the ext-'nt of th<: f>opu!ation the nn.tii! testimony proves 
that It was very •^:reat Maj rowell. wh.> has lon|; been familiar 
with it and has often traversed the rej^ion. expresses his surprise 
at seeing; n<»thin^; f.»r whole days but cllM^ everywhere ridillcd 
with human ha!>'tations. which resen.hled the cells of a honey- 
C4)mb more than anythiiijj else .Mr. W. H. Molmes, in 9|)caking 
nt the Hovenweep uleserted valley i. says . *' There is not a living 
stream throu^h<iut tlrs wh<»le rejjion. I)urin^ the summer 
months the water occurs in but lew places ; the rainy season is 
n winter, the water Ixrinj; then found in the many basins %cSLt- 


tercd over the mesas. There is scarcely a square mile in the 
six thousand examined that does not furnish evidence of being 
the previous habitation of a race totally distinct from the no- 
madic savages who hold it now, and in many ways superior to 
them. It seems strange that a country so dry and apparently 
barren could have supported even a moderate population. It is 
consequently argued that the climate has become less moist since 
the ancient |K>pulation." He says, however, that "there are grass 
covered meadows and broad belts of alluvial bottom along the 
water courses, affording a considerable area of rich tillable land. 
The rainfall varies in diflferent parts. In Colorado it is said to 
be less than a foot and a half. It has been conjectured that the 
destruction of the forests by the Cliff-dwellers themselves may 
account for the diminution of the rainfall and for the aridity of 
the region." The scenery here is grand, but nevertheless ver>' 
desolate. Its resources are deeply hidden, the distances are 
great and the region difficult to traverse. Here, separate from 
all others, and lonely in the isolation, there grew up a peculiar 
population which reached a high grade of civilization. It is 
the home of the semi-civilized race, while the Mississippi Valley 
was the home of the uncivilized. 

The great plateau presents an interesting class of prehistoric 
structures, as interesting as any found on the face of the globe. 
The age of these structures is unknown The probability is 
that they were not all of the same age. That some cf them are 
modern no one will deny, but that some of them were ancient 
we think is shown by the facts. One argument for their great 
antiquity is drawn from the change which has come over the 
climate. Otherwise there is a mystery about the sustenance of 
so numerous a population. Mr. Holmes says one may travel for 
miles in the parched bed ot a stream and not find a drop of 
water anywhere. In the greater part of the region there is so 
little moisture that the vegetation is very sparse, yet there is 
bountiful evidence that at one time it supported a numerous pop- 
ulation. Labyrinthine canons ramify the plateaux in every 
direction with an interminable series ol deep and desolate gorges 
and wide barren vallevs. 

II. We turn to the description of the diflferent classes of 
structures which were found in the great plateau. Here we draw 
from an article which has recently been published in 77tr Forum 
from the pen of Maj. j. W. Powell: "The greatest table land 
ol the arid region is the Colorado plateau, lying to the south of 
the most stupendous gorge known on the face of the globe, the 
Grand canon. The summit of this plateau is crowned with many 
extinct volcanoes, and black and angry looking cinder cones are 
scattered in groups or stand in lines throughout the region. The 
general surface is from seven thousand to eight thousand feet 
above the level of the sea, and is covered with pine forests, but 


nestling in the sombre woods sunny valleys are found, and above 
the valleys rise the black cones of lava." 

1. Here we find one class of ruins. Sometimes the amphithea- 
tre of a dead volcano is the site of an ancient pueblo. In the 
ragged cliflfs ugly irregular caves are found, and these have been 
walled with fragments of cinder, so that above the cliffs arc clus- 
tered curious chambers made by fires long extinct. In these 
ruins no strange arts are found, nor do they bear evidence of 
great antiquity. We know that a tribe now livin^.^ in Cataract 
canon claims to have formerly occupied one of the crater vil- 
lages. There ii a cone, but an hour's ride from the foot of San 
Francisco mountain, which is comooscd of fine volcanic dust, 
scoria and large blocks of ejected matter. On this the ruins of 
a curious little pueblo were discovered. On the top there is a 
small plaza walled with cinder; about this plaza chambers have 
been built. Shafts were sunk from eight to ten feet in depth, 
two and a half feet to three and a half feet to cross section. The 
chambers are below the surface. The ground is undermined, 
and an irregular room from eight to ten feet in diameter, and five 
or six feet m heighth is found. Around this central room two 
or three smaller rooms arc dug out of the ashy rock. About 
one hundred such under ground dwellings have been discovered, 
in various conditions of ruin. They have all been carefully ex- 
amined, and the stone knives, hammers. mt»rtars, tools of bone 
and horn, frai^ments of baskets, pieces of coarse cloth, all prove 
tliat these people had arts tjuite like those of the Puebloes and 
Clifl" dwellers. Their pottery was the same; lliey raisetl corn, 
ensnared rabbits, liunted antelopes, deer anti elks in the forests 
and plains, and all show they had th'.* wel-lknnwn culture of 
the general region. 

2. \\'<st of Santa Fe, in New Me.xi* o, and l>i yond the Rio 
Graniie there is an irregular ^iroup of mountain > anilhi:.;h plateaux 
known as lh<* Tew an M«»nnt.iins. Ih re in ^ome ancient times a 
succcssM-n ••!" volcan»»es hurst out. S'>inft:fnrN tlie\" pou ret! forth 
mollrn I.iva. but ofiencr threw hij^h intt) the a:r < iiornious ipian- 
tities ot csnder and aslu s The<c fell an«l l)UiJ««! the si eets of 
lava, an-i wm: th-nisiheN covt re*! with m«ilten rock. The 
river^ tint hi .id o:i these inountauis ami run t! >wn into the Kio 
(irande. ci* down throi;^;h the .ilt- rn.itin^ l.iyers ot I iv.i and 
tuta ininy d- -p an! windin; puturrstjur can-^ns, aiul here we 
have .inotiur i ..i-s «.! d\wll:ri.^s. IIm- l:::'a :n M.ft'uuntly hard to 
stand in xiit:*..'.! il.tN.arMl \' i -*» so!t tli.;! it i.m be wojke<i wjth 

great ca^e l»\' tin- u'*' <•! st-n* t"«»!s I lierr are m.iny miles of 
these tula ciirfv an- 1 into th'in th"Us..nii- *•! ■ haml>ers have been 
hollowed S': h i t!:b' r :s i r.!i n i i.y a narrt>w tloor-way 
three itr fo'.;r ! •• t in/h. \\ th n i . !; i:i.!m r .> :'i»u:id t« n or twelve 
!*et stju.ire. tour to six feet in he.^lit. aiul !ii'.re less irre.:ular in 
lor Ml Ab'Mit llus tW'i or in'-n- stimII'T r!;arnl»ers are ttuind. C S 


whole rormin^; a suite of apartments. A few feet further along 
on the (ace of the cliffs another such suite may be found, some- 
times two or more suites connected by interior passages. The 
chambers are often irregularly situated, one above another, and 
the face of a cliff presents many such openings. Here and there 
are rude stairways hewn in the soft rock, by which the dwellings 
are reached with more or less difficulty. These are the "cavate** 
dwellings of the Tewan mountains. Though at first supposed to 
be very ancient, research proves that many of them are quite 
modern, having been occupied since the Spanish settlement by 
a |>eople owing .sheep, goats, asses and horses. The more an- 
cient give evidence of having been occupied by people having 
arts identical with other pueblo tribes. 

3. On the long narrow plateaux that stand between the deep 
canons running down into the Rio Grande there are many pueb- 
loes in ruins, which wore made of blocks of the same tufa, which 
IS easily worked with stone tools. The blocks vary from ten 
to twelve inches in length, are usually eight inches in breadth, 
and from four to six inches in thickness. They were laid in clay 
mortar. Mach communal dwelling or pueblo was a cluster of 
small irregular rooms covered with poles, brush and earth. Va- 
rious tribes claim these as their original homes. 

4. In the southwest portions of the United States, conditions 
of aridity prevailed, '^hc forests arc few an<i found only on 
great altitudes, on mountains and plateaux where deep snow ap- 
l>oars, and frosts often blasts the vegetation in summer. Such 
torest-clad lands were not attractive homes, and the tribes lived 
in the plains and valleys below, while the highlands were the 
hunting grounds. The arid lands below were often naked of 
vegetation, but in the ledges and cliffs that stand athwart the 
lands and in the canon walls that enclose the streams were 
everywhere quarries of loose rock, lying in blocks ready for the 
builder's hand. Hence, these people learned to build their 
dwellings of stone. They had large communal houses, even 
larger than the structures of wood made by the Mound-builders. 
Many ot stone puebloes are still occupied. 

5. There are ruins scattered over a region embracing a little 
of California and Nevada, and far southward. These ruins are 
thousands and tens of thousands in number. Many of these 
were built thousands of years ago. but they were built by the 
ancestor^ of existing tribes, or their congeners. A careful study 
of these ruins for the last twenty years demonstrates that the 
pueblo culture t>egan with rude structure of stone and brush, 
until at the time of dye exploration of the country by the Span- 
iards, in 1540, it had reached its highest phase. The Zuni has 
been built since and it is the largest and best village ever estab- 
lished within the territory of the United States without the aid 
of ideas derived from civilized men. Not all the vallej's of the 


arid region are supplied with the loose stone, and so a few tribes 
of the region learned to construct their homes of other material. 
They built them of grout adobe in this manner: For the con- 
struction of a wall they drove stakes into the ground in two par- 
allel lines, two or three feet apart. They then wove willows, or 
twigs, or boughs through the stakes of each line, so as to nuke 
a wicker work box, and between the sides of this box, or be- 
tween the walls, they place a stiff mixture of clay and gravel. In 
this way they built many houses, sometimes great assembly 
houses, similar in purpose to those used by the Mound-builders. 
The Casa Grande of Arizona is one of these. The people were 
agriculturists. They cultivated the soil by the aid of irrigation, 
and constructed some interesting hydraulic works. The most 
important of these are found in the valley of the Gila. These 
remarks by Major Powell are veiy interesting. They are con- 
firmed by other explorers. We here give cuts which are taken 
from articles furnished by Mr. F. W. Gushing and others. 

III. We now turn to a description of the cliflT-dwellings, some- 
times called cave-dwellings and sometimes cliff-dwellings. 

I. Let us consider the caves as such. It is noticeable 
that while there are habitations resembling the cave- dwellings 
scattered all over the continent, yet the cliflf-dwellings them- 
selves are confined to one particular or, at most, to two definite 
localities, the majority of them being found in the valley of one 
particular stream or river, namely, the Colorado and its tribu- 
taries — the Rio Doloroso, the San juan, the Rio Mancos, and 
the LaPlata. This is a region which is celebrated for its deep 
canons and its precipitous cliffs and its desolate scenery. It is 
just such a region as we could expect to find abounding with 
caves — the model home of the Cave-dwellers. There arc cave- 
dwellings in America as there are in Kurope, but these generally 
belong to the later part of the paleolithic age, cr to the earlier 
part of the neolithic age. There is, however, a great difference 
between them and the cliff-dwellings about which we are speak- 
ing. In fact, all the difference that would exist between the 
earlier part of the stone age and the later part. There is a whole 
age between the two. In Europe we have the caves which con- 
tain the bones of extinct animals — the mastodon, the cave bear 
and the rhinocerous. After them came the reindeer period. 
This was followed by the kitchen middens; after the kitchen 
middens came the barrows, after the barrows came the Lake- 
dwellers, and after the I^e-dwellerscame the rude stone monu- 

Originally the cave-dwellings belonged to a period which 
antedated the kitchen middens, and so would be classed with 
the paleolithic age; but there are so many caves in this country 
which were manifestly neolithic that we must place them in 
that age, but assign them to different periods in that Mgt* 


There are cave-dwellings in many parts of America, some 
being found as far north as Alaska, where they are associated 
with shell heaps; others in the Mississippi valley, where they 
are closely connected with the mounds; others in the midsl of 
the canons of Colorado and Arizona, where they are associated 
with structures resembling the pueblos; others in the central 
regions on the coasts of Lake Managua, in Nicaragua, and still 
others in the valley of the Amazon in South America. These 
last have, however, t>een classed with the paleolithic age, as it 
is claimed that animal bones and other remains of the quater- 
nary period are found in them. The caves are also scattered 
over various parts of Europe, some of them being classed with 
the paleolithic and some with the neolithic age. In a general 
way we should say that caves were the abodes of man during 
the latter part of the paleolithic and the early part of the neo> 
lithic age, though it is evident that some of them were occupied 
through the whole prehistoric period and even far down into 
the historic period. 

Caves are not to be classed with monuments, yet as they have 
been associated with various kinds of monuments and have 
produced all kinds of relics, we have to give to them a broad 
space in the horizon, classing some of them with the old stone 
age, others with the new stone age, and even placing some in 
the bronze and the iron age. It is worthy of notice that the 
division of the paleolithic age is based altogether on the con- 
tents of the caves and that the names are derived from the 
caves, the Chelleen, the Mousterien, the Solutrien, and the 
Madalenien caves all having yielded relics which have been 
divided in this way and which have given rise to the subdi - 
visions of tiie paleolithic age. As to the place which we are 
to assign the cave-dwellers of America in the order of succes- 
sion, ihis for the present is uncertain, as each author is influenced 
bv his own discoveries, and no general s^'strm has been adopted. 
We give here the names of a lew of the archaeologists who 
have treated of the cave-dwellers: First, we would mention 
Mr. William H. DalL* He has described the caves of Alaska; 
he says that there were here three periods, first, that of the 
so-called littoral people, a people whKh is to be classed with 
the paleolithic age; second, that of the cave-dwellers, a people 
who were in the neolithic state, and, third, that of the hut- 
makers, a people who might have left monuments. Next to 
him is Prof. F. W. Putnam, who has described the caves in 
Tennessee. These contained the tokens of a neolithic charac- 
ter, though it is uncertain whether they preceded the mounds 
•r were contemporaneous with them. 

•Wm. H. DaII. •*IUinAln« of iMfr Prvbinortc Man ttnm HmCiuvm oTttMCMlMrtnA 
ArrhtMlncn. Al«*lia Tmllorir.'* HmlUi. ron.. ISTl. Prot M . (X Kmd on Rorfe mt^Hm 
IB Ohio, AiMr. AnUqiiftrlMi, Marcto. lib If aid auiB, Rnrk ftoirrmi mmr Clilcfel«% 
riraa. WhitUMify on lUxeli Stellar ai Eljrla, Ublow Pataam oa Halt Oa«<a aatf 


Dr. Earl Flint is another author who has written upon 
the caves. He claims that there are caves in Nicaragua which 
were very ancient, how ancient he hardly undertakes to tell. 
Dr. Flint's discoveries have not been confirmed. It does not 
seem likely that inscriptions of the kind described by him 
could have been wrought by a people preceding the neolithic 
age, and therefore we should be inclined to place this cave in 
that age. This leaves then only one single locality for the 
paleolithic cave-dweller, namely, that spoken of by Prof. Lund 
as found in Drazil, a locality which M. Nadaillac has described at 
some length. 

We i^ive cuts which will illustrate the point. In one figure 
we have a cave of the paleolithic age. It was discovered by Dr. 
Goldfussc in Isio. It proved that man occupied caves when 
bears, hyenas and other extinct animals were common in Kurope. 
The next cut shows a civc of the neolithic type. It is the 
cave in Alaska described by Mr. William II. Dall. 

2. Next to these are the clitT-dwellings of Arizona and Col- 
orado. The most of these are known to Ih! so much more 
advanced than ordinary caves as to be clasMfd with the monu- 
ments of a higher grade. Mr. W. II. Holmes speaks of caves 
in Colorado which, he thinks, were very ancient, so ancient, m 
fact, that the rmk which formed their openings has worn en- 
tirely away, leaving them now as mere shelters or nooks in the 
difV. The flirt-dwellers, of course, are to be placed with the 
neolithic a^e, and at an advanced part of that age, prohaMv the 
same part which was occupied by the Pueblos of the same 

Tlu'se have been described bv Mr. Holmes. The watch towers 
above show that they were occupieil by a people of an advanced 
clas.s. See Plate III. He thinks M^ne ot these caves were 
very aiuient, as the mouths or openings have worn aw.iy since 
thev were occupie<l, leaving the former habitations without 
wails to protect them. 

Thisi is an iin[>ortant point. an<l yt t the presence of 'the e^tufas 
<»r towers above thr cliffs ^^ive tiie inipieSMtui that they were not 
so very ancient. It is posMb'e the pec»j»le dwelt in these 
encli>sure*i on the Niinimit. u^m;; tin- to\\«r bnih for an outlook 
and an estut.i. l)iit tiiat in tiiiK s of i!aii;.:er they tied from their 
hou«ifs and wriit ilown the «.hfT> ii:!o the caves, enduring e\|>os- 
urc liir the tune tor the sake (%f pr< 'teeth 'ii. This is an interest- 
ini? It IS situated on tlie S.m luan River. Th«- cliffs 
here are «»nlv thirtv live t'» tortv feet in hei;:l:t. 'I he ruins are 
three iii n;nnb« r, »iiie rectan^jiilar and tvm circular. Kaeh onu<of 
them IS placed over a d.t'ferrnt ;^r"i:p (»f iave-(!weilin^s. close to 
the ed;'c ««f the nle^a. Alu'iit one hiindrt il an<l tiftv \ards to the 
southwest of this ri:in are thr remains (>t .mother similar struc- 
urc. It IS biMlt. hi-wever. nn a much grander scale; the walls 


are twent>'-six inches thick, and indicate a diameter of about one 
hundred and forty feet. The first impression was that it was 
dcsi^'ncd for a corral, and used for the protection of herds of 
domestic animals. This would prove that it was a modern work 
and not an ancient one. Mr. Holmes 
says that they both bclonir to the com- 
munity ofCavc-dwcUcrs and served as 
their fortresses, council chambers and 
places of worship. These would seem 
to be reasonable and natural inferences. 
Being on the border of a low mesa 
country rises toward the north, 
strong outside walls were found nec- 
^essary to prevent incursions from that 
quarter, while the little community, by 
means of ladders, would pass from 
dwelling to temple and fortress with- 
out danger of molestation. Sec I'latc 
IV. Mr Motmes describes another 
/'•IT'.'. cave-dwelling situated on the Rio 

Mancos canon. An outstanding promontory' was honeycombed 
by this earth-burrowing; race. Window-pierced crags were visi- 
ble, which contained towers upon the very summits. Oiher 
openin(;s were walled, leaving windows or doors into the side of 
the precipice, the api.-rturcs being scarcely large enough to allow 
a [lerson of large stature to pass. He 
says that one is led lo susjKct that 
these nesis were not the dwellings 
proper of these people, but occasional 
resorts for women and children. The 
somewhat extensive ruins in the valley 
below were their ordinary dwelling 
places. He speaks of the round tow- 
ers, and says they are very numerous 
in the valley of the Mancos. He vis- 
ited and measured seven in fifteen 
miles along the course of this stream. 
In dimensions, they range from ten to 
sixteen feet in diameter and two feet 
in thickness. They are, in almost 
every case, connected with other 
structures, mostly rect-ingular in form. 
In this respect they resemble the 
square and circle uhich are found 
in the Mound-builders' works in the 'Vt. 

Ohio valley. The Rio Mancos canon is 30 miles in length, and 
ranges from i,ooO to 2,000 feet in depth. It seems to have been 
a favorite resort of the cliff-building people. 


industry may be found everywhere along the bottoms, on the 
clifls and on the high dry table lands above. He reliers to wall- 
ing up the cave front, and gives several illustrations. A sketch 
of one on the Rio Mancos is given in the cut. Fig. 3. The 
group occurred in the cliff, about thirty feet from the base. The 
, three doorways opened into 
as many small apartments, 
but these were connected 
with each other by very 
small passage-ways. He 
speaks also of a coty little 
dwelling which was hidden 
away in a weather-worn 
cavity in a massive crag. 
See Fig. j. This was sit- 
uated not far from a great 
tower which he discovered 
on an isolated spot in the 
midst of the valley and near 
the- trail. A rude little fire 
pl.nt: observed in con- 
nection with the clifl* house 
on the opposite side of the 
canon. See Fig. 6. '.t is 
the only example discov- 
ered. There seem to be no 
ng.t.-ni/r //«.•••. traces whalovi-r of fire- 

place^, ovens, furnaces, or chimneys about any of the ruins 
except this. The walU-d-up caves on the Rio Mancos canon may 
be comparc'l to the cave-dwellings and lowers on the Rio San 
Juan. In this case the towers arc below the cliff — in the valley 
invtead of on the Niimmit. \Vc give two other specimen* of 
these cliff-houses. These were also found on the Rio Mancos. 
They have betn <lr%cnlKd by Mr. W. 
li. J.ickson. .See Fig.s. 4 and 7. 

The rouml towers are wortliy of no- ' 
ticc. Some of these are isolated, but ' 
some >'( them are connected with rect- 
an);u]ar buildings. We give two cuts 
to illustrate these. Fig. tj ^ives a pl.m 
of the double tower near the mouth of the Mancos; Fig. 10 
occurs about vi|;ht miles above the font of the canon ; it is nine 
feet in diameter on the inside and about sixteen feet high. There 
arc three ap.irtments attached. This cut illustrates 
one method of defense and shows the ut<.'s which were made of 
some of the towers. There were no windows or tipenings within 
reach of the ground, but being huili in C'>nnection with dwellings 
thcp Luuld Ik: reached from within these, an*! be secure from 



without. A large circular tower is described by Mr. Holmes. 
It wu aituated in the canon of the Mancos on a narrow strip of 
alluvial bottom. The diameter of the outer wall is forty-three 
fcet. that of the inner twenty-five feet The outside courses have 
been dressed to the curve, and the imple- 
ments used must have been of stone. The 
apace between the walls was divided into 
cells. The main walls are twenty-one 
inches in thickness, but the partition walla 
areaomcwhat lighter. The walls were twelve 
feet high when discovered. The circle 
seems to have been divided into ten cells. 
There were no indications or windows or 

i doors in the out- 

< er walls, Hn- 

; trance was made 

I by means of lad- 
der s Ihrough 

. high windows or 
by way of (he 

I roof. Then; wcrc 
opcnin(;s be- 
tween the cen- 
tral enclosuR- 
"»■' and the cells, but ""■ 

these were hi;;li up. The one that remains entire is six feet from 
the ground, and me.isurcs two loct in width by three in height. 
The lintel )> .1 single* slab of s.indstone. That ihi'^ ruin is quite 
ancient is attested by the advanced !>tage of deciy. There were 
no buildin^^-i in connection with the ruin, but on the point of a 

low rock or promontory that extends down from the mesa to 
within a few rods of the circular rnin.are snmu masses of decay- 
ing wall and a large circular depression. This tower was prob- 
ably the estufa for the houses which were oituatcd in the sides 
of the clifl* to be described. 

The position of this ruin is one of almost unparalleled secur- 


ity. The almost vertical clifT descends abruptly from the froot 
wall, and the immense arched roor of solid stone projects forward 
fifteen or twenty feet beyond 
the house. Running water 
was found within a few yards 
of the groups of houses just 
described. There were evi- 
dences of fire, the walls and 
S ceilings of one of the rooms 
l| txtng blackened with smoke. 
I The small rooms were used 
for storage, and a qnanlity of 
beans was taken from one and 
grains of corn from another. 

Another group of cUtT- 
dwellings was situated about 
a mile farther up the canon. 
It was exceedingly difficult of 
access, being situated in the clilTs about seven hundred feet 
above the river. Fi<;. 14. It is a two-^tory building. The one 

/V-".— TVvAwrv tftf* /J 

rtff. H.^Omind /tan. 

remarkable feature of the house is the consummate tlcill with 

which the foundations arc laid and cemented to the sloping and 

overhanging faces of the ledge Mr. 

Holmes says that although the building ' 

seems complete, and had windi>u's anil ' 

doors ciiiivenicnily and carefully a 

ranged, the plastering of the interior 

almost untimchid, and there is scarrely - 

any trace t>f the presence of man The " 

plaster ni.iy have been applied only ■ 

shortly before the final desertion. Mr. 

Jackson s.iys: Among all dwellers in 

mud-plastert-d houses it n the practice to 

freshen up their habitations by repeated 

application^ of clay, moistened to the proper consistency, and 

spread with the hands. Kver^* such application makes a building 


appear perfectly new, and many of 
the best sheltered cave-houses have 
this appearance, as though they 
were but just vacated. Fig. 1 3 gives 
the ground plan, and shows the po- 
sition of the house in relation to the 
floor of the niche. There are four 
small rooms only; the front one (A) 
being lo feet long by 6 wide. Of 
the biack rooms, one 139x10 feet, 
the other six feet by six, while the 
apartment with the curved wall is 
much smaller. The walls areabout 
twelve liMt high and reach within 
two or three feet of the overhang- 
ing roof. They are built in the 
Old i nary manner, of stone and 
adobe mortar, and, what is rather 
remarkable, arc plastered both in- 
side and out. The plaster does not 
difler greatly from cummon mortar. 
It is lightly spread over the walls. 
probably with the hands, and in 
color imitatL-s very closely the 
hues of the surrounding clifls, a 
pleasing variety of red and yel- 
low grays. Whether this was in ■ 
tended to add to the beauty of 
the dwelling or to its security by 
increasing its resemblance to the 
surrounding clifls, I shall not at- 
attempt to determine." A sketch 
of one of the doorways is given in 
Fig. 13. The shape is rather unus- 
ual, as the doorways arc, as a rule, 
narrower at the top, the same as 
they are in Peru, though with not 
so marked an incline. There are 
two or three exterior doorways, 
one entering into each story of 
the front room. A sketch of the 
interior of this room is given. Fig. 
II. It was a small rectangular win- 
dow. 22x30 inches, in the front 
wall, laom which a fine view could 
be had of the deep valley below. 
The extradordinary situation of 
these houses is shown in Fig. 14. ne.n- 


Viewed fromtlie heights above the effect is almost startling; one 
can not but feel that no ordinary cumstances could have driven 
people to such places of resort. 

Another group of rock shelters is described by Mr. Jackson* 
They were situated on a ledge about two hundred feet long and 
six feet deep, but resemble cubby holes. At first they seemed 
as if they might be caches, but the evidence of fire showed that 
they had been quite constantly occupied. There was a row of 
these rock shelters, doors through the dividing walls aflbrding a 
passage the whole length of the ledge. Another group of three 
small houses, each about five feet wide and ten feet long, with 
doors through the end wa|Is, was seen situated about sivty fent 
above the trail. Still another group was found on the Rio San 
Juan, consisting of an open plaza, with three rows of apartments 
surrounding it. This should not be called a clifT-dwelling; as 
properly considered, it would be a pueblo. 

Mr. J.ickson has also described what he calls the great Echo 
Cave. It is situated twelve miles below the Montezuma. The 
bluff here is about two hundred feet in heij^ht ; the depth of the 
c.ive was one hundred feet. The houses occupy the eastern half 
of the cave. The fir^t buildini^ was a smnll structure, si.xtcen 
feet lon^, three to four f et wule. Next came an open space 
elevL'H f • :l l>n;^ and nine feet dee|>. probably a work-shop. Four 
li^leN WML* d.'-illed into the smooth r«>ck floor, si. \ feet apart, 
pruliibly i!js:i^n.-d to ho!<i th* po>ts for a loom, showing that 
the pjojile were with tlu- ait of weaving. There were 
also j;rt>ovts woin into the rock where the pet p.e had p<)li>hcd 
tli-'ir St >a • iinjiIi*:neiUs. Tiie main huildin^' Ci);n.'S ne.xt, fi>rty- 
ei^^ht f.-et 1 >.*j^. twelve feet hi^li.ten feet witie. tlivi !ed into three 
ro >ms. witii lower and upper story, each story hein^ five feet 
hi;^h Thire were p >!es for the beams in the w.iIU, and window 
like apfftiire** between tlie ronn)^, iifforlin^ communication to 
raeh room «)f the *iicond si(»rv. Tfirre was <Mie window, twelve 
m* hes si|r:are, h wkin^ nut»I lli«- «»|>en country. Hules in 
the uj»j»- f I xMiis. \\hi».li m.iy hive !•: t-n us^^ii f»r ptep-hi»!es and 
sh i'ltiii:: .!rri»W' t':.inii;.'h li.-vonl irM'-^r- ' mns the wall c»»n- 
imur-d o'li" ii in«ii'«I .in'l thirty t rt !.ii:ht: Mere the space was 
divi«I'i! in*..» r< "HI- <>f un. jjMa! i« n.;!h. as ti»!ltiws: l-*,».9'.'. 8, 
z.'j.M I '. •^. r. 7. •^, 31. 'l^'inliiiu: \\\ w:.!:;; Irom <;» j tt> 4 feet. 
A r»ri p!a- '• u.i- ! turui in the icntral room, w!i;th was undoubtedly 
ih': kill Iirn <if th'- h"use ( )n the mner walls of some of the 
r«K>ms w; n- fnj»r':«>-ion> "f himis, with the delicate lines on the 
thumbs s\\\ 1 fin.'Ts Msi^lr 1 h*-v were nrobablv the hands of 
Women an* I dn •!:' ii. .is the\ were ipiite small The cave was 
called the I'.lIio » iv.-. a-* thv ;^''a! <l(»me of soli* I ri>ek overhead 
echoed and ri-et hoc<i ivtrv wi^rd iitterci. with marvelous dis- 
tmcinrss The appearance i>f the place, Mr. Jackson says, indi- 
cates that the family were in j^o.^i ctrLumstAnce*^ I«<>oking out 

PLATE v.— Two-aiorr Cltff Boum Id Mbdco* CanoD. 


from one of their houses, with a steep descent of one hundred 
(eet below them, the broad, fertile valley of the Rio San Juan, 
covered with wavin{i[ fields of maize and scattered groves of 
majestic cottonwoodv. These people must have felt a sense of 
security, which even the incursions of their barbarian foes could 
hardly have disturbed. 

In the Canon de Chellcy there are several (;rcat circular caves 
in which arc the ruins of clifThouses, though much dilapidated. 
One of these contains a cave town. See the Plate. It occurs in 
a (;reat bend of a circling line of blufls. and is perched upon a 
rcccs.scd bench about seventy-five feet above the valley. The 
cave sweeps back about eighty feet under the bluff. The total 
length of the to^n is five hundred and forty-five feet, and the 
wiflth only about forty feet. It has about seventy-five rooms on 
the ground plan Midway in the town is a circular room of 
solidly built masonry, that was probably mtendcd as an estufa 
tir council hall. Starting from this room is a narrow passage 
which runs parallel to the edge of the cliff, but back of the 
houses, to the two-Mory group at the end. Further access is 
prevented by the roofs of the first story, which ser\'c as a plat- 
form to the rooms back of it. All the rooms arc one story 
( xcept this grouf). which was probably the residence of the 
thirf. The rooms just back of it are More rooms, where the 
family or community kept their .^quashes and corn, and which 
may have been distributed by the chief. At the place marked 
B arc the remains of a small cistern or spring. The whole front 
of this town is without an aperture, save a few small windows, 
and is perfectly inaccessible. Admittance was probably gained 
from near the circular building in the center by ladders. Rut 
this estufa seems to guard the entrance. Going to the right 
from this estufa we reach a ledge on which other buildings are 
placed, the general arrangement being similar to those of the 
pueblos, clusters about central courts that .«erved, in all proba- 
bility, as corrals for the domestic animals, as a solidly placed 
t>ed of old manure was found. Some of the rooms are quite 
large, from fifteen to twenty feet in length. All the doorways 
and windows o|)ened within to the courts vr corrals. They are 
all of one story. The very small roon»s were used for storage. 
though some of them may have been fire-places for baking 
pottcr>' The bluff here was ca^y to ascend, the corrals having 
been situated in this place, but the village in a more secure posi- 
tion to the left of the estufa 

Two miles from this cave town, floun the e«mon.\i as the house 
shown in the Plate. It is reached from the valley by a series of 
<tcps cut into the rock. The house, twenty feet in height, con- 
^ist<« iif two stories built against the slopmg back of the bluff! 
The lower story is ten by eighteen feet, divided into two rooms; 
the upper floor seem« to have l>een all in one room At the 


foot of the blufT there is a deep natural reservoir of water that 
seems to retain a perpetual supply. The largest and nio.**t im- 
portant clififciwellini; is one above the Canon Konito. It occupied 
a lar^e circular cave, divided into twelve or fifteen rooms, with 
a Iar{;e corral or court, and an elevated bench on one side, with 
a low wall running around one side. This had been occupied by 
the Navajoes for corralling their sheep. 

Fifteen miles up Kpsom Creek there were dwellings of the 
cave kind, mere cubby holes. In one instance a bluff several 
hundred feet in height c<MUains half a dozen small houses, sand- 
wiched in its various strata, the highest one hundred and fifty 
feet above the valley. K.ich consisted of but one room. One 
of them is a perfect specimen of adobe plastered masonry. These 
cubby holes are so smoke blackened as to convince us they were 
long occupied, but not during any recent period. 

Upon the opj)Ositc side of Kpsom Creek we found some 
cave houses \r. a most singular, out-of-the-way place — in the 
very last place in the world where we would ex|KXt to find them. 
Scaling the bluff, at the very imminent risks of our necks, wc 
came suddenly upon a broad open cave near the top>, containing 
the usual siyW* of stone built and niud plastered houses, divided 
into four or five apartments of just the size and number that 
wouNl be r«*<iuired for an ordinary family of eight or ten jwrsons 
On top of the bluff we f »und the remains of a very old circular 
tower, forty feet in iliameter, the stones all crum!)led and moss 
covered. A few miles further u[) tlx' Mpst)m valley we came 
upon an important group that was eNidently the center of the* 
surroun<ling country, a place of worship or general shire town. 
It consisted of a main ma^s, sixty by one hur.dred 
feet sfjiare. built on an elc*vati«»n. Ju**t below it was a round 
tower, twenty-live feet m diamttt r. On. the ojiposite bank were 
two small rounti towers, each of them fifteen Ud in diameter. 
and two obl<»ng stru<"tures, twelvi- by fifteen feet in iliameter 

Mr W. H. JacKson has describe d an(>tlier. See Tlate V. He 
says. ''Just as the sun was sink:ng behind th.e western ualls of 
the lantwi one of the party <!e-cri« cl far uj) on the cliff what 
appeared to be a house with a s<iuarr wail, but so far up that 
only tlie .sharjvest eyes could define anything satisfactorily. The 
discoverv *>( this onr so far above anvthing lu retofore seen in 
spired us immediately with thiambiti* n to scale the height and 
explore. The first five hundred fee t of ascent were t»ver a lonjj 
steep sloj)e overgrown with cedar Then i ame alternate |>cr|cn- 
diculars and slopes. Immediately before the house was a nearly 
perfK-ndicular ascent of (»ne hundred feet, uhich wc Here only 
able to surmount by finding cracks and crevices into which 
fingers and toes could be inserted. Another short steep slope, 
and we were un<ier the ledge upon uhich was c»ur house. The 
house itself, perched up in a little crevice like a swallow's Dest, 

TIIK n.lhV-DWKl.l.l-.KS AXIt TIII.IC WmHKs mi 

consisted of two stories, witli a total height of about twelve 
feci, and leaving; a Miace of three fftt bitwcen llic top ot thf 
house nnJ the ovcrliangiiif; rock. The hi'Usc blood ujion a nar- 
row ledge, the deptli of the ledge being about ten fiel ; llic 
vertical space between the ledge and ovcih.insiiag rock, fifteen 
feet. There was a sort of ospl.innile on ti)e ledge near the house 
—three aliiitmeiits built out flu>h wi'.h ihe wjilis of the house 
upon the -itecp incline of the .ilnpe, oti vthich probably a platform 
ami baliistr-ide had f..rnierly be.n built. 1 h<- outside walls had 
to be buill on an iniline o( about I'urly-five cUgrtes, This was 
situated in llie Rit> Maiicus iir M^imos C.uion. The ;.:n<und plan 
showed three ronnis. the front room six feet by nine, those back 
of it five feet by seven In the lowir fmnl romn a i\oi>t opened 
out upitn the e-iplanadi-. twenty by thirty inches in size In the 

ry a wind< 
canon Near this win 
or cistirn. the walls of 
come nearly I" the to]> 


1 ope 

ing I 

I view down the 
:i large reservoir 


I the 


about a 

foot ai>. 
pants t< 

■miing down t' 

f the ri'servoir, peg. 

I, eiiablin;' the occu- 

easily reach the b..t- 

-.■ entire construction 
of this himian eyrie displays 
wonderful per>evtrance, inge- 
nuity and some taste. The per- 
pcndieutars were well regarded 
and the angles carefully s<|uai 
windows there was an overlapping of ili 
held firmly together. ThemoKaris. 
white, resembling lime. Most peeul 

About ihe corners and the 

joints. -11 that jt always 

>,ict and hard,agravish 

the dressing 

of the walls of the front T..oms, both being pla> 
layer of adobe cement, colored a deep maroon red with a dingy 
white band, eight inches in breadth, running around floor, sides 
and celling. The floor had been evened up with a cement resem- 
bling that in the walls, Kuins <if half a doien lesser hou>cs 
were found near by, but all ijuile dilapidated. One title house, 
about fifty rods below the one described above, at the extremity 
of the ledge, was especially unique in Ihe daring of its site — 
filling the mind with ama/en-ent at the temerity of the builders 
and the extremity to which they must have been pushed. 

Two or three miles further and the canon changes its features 
The mesa comes forward and towers over the valley with a 
thousand feet of altitude. The fcotlt m lan<!s w iden out to a hall 
or three quartern of a mile in breadth. While jogging along under 
IhiibluflT, fully i,ooofect high, admiring its bold outlines and vivid 


colorifi);;, one of our party, sharper-eyed than the rest, 'descried 
away up near the top perfect little houses, sandwiched in among 
the crevices of the horizonal strata of the rock. Approach 
to this house was accomplished only by crawling along the 
ledge, twenty inches in width, not tall enough for more than a 
creeping position, where the least mistake would precipitate one 
down the whole of the dizzy height. The ledge ended with the 
house, which was built out flush with its outer edge. The struc- 
ture resembles in general features the clifT houses already spoken 
of. The masonry is firm and solid, width about five feet, side 
wall in a semi-circular sweep fifteen feet long, seven high. To 
the casual observer it would not be noticed once in fifty times, 
so similar to the rocks between which it is plastered". The 
position of this house, as well as of that in Fig. 12, can be seen 
in the plate in the dark heavy lines near the summit, just above 
the most precipitous portion of the bluff, at a height of 600 to 
800 feet above the level of the canon. We have sc^n from Mr. 
Jackson's descriptions that most of the cliflT-houses are built after 
a general plan, the same as the pueblos The houses are not 
always two-storied, nor are they terraced as the pueblos are. and 
yet there is an approximation to this in many places 

This impression has been increased by the discover> which 
was made within the last year by Mr. F. M. Chapin. in Cliff 
canon, a tributary of the Mancos. Here is a magnificent ruin, 
425 feet long. The structure is placed under an arched 
cliff, the platform runnmg back under the cliff to a ilepth of 80 
feet. The ruin is inaccessible from above, except by hand holes 
which are cut in the face n{ the cliff. Viewed from the opposite 
side of the canon, this fortress is a most imposing sight. The 
builders could not have selected a wilder or more .secluded spot. 
Fear of attack from fierce enemies must have been the cause of 
their constructing a building at such a place. The interest is 
heightened when the explorer examines it from near at hand. 
At first sic^ht It strikes one as the ruins of a great i>alace erected 
by some p«)werfiil chieftan. and it is only when closely examined 
that onr arrives at the conclusion that it was the home of a 
communistic pei»ple The different apartments consist of room* 
varyin;^ from 8xic to 12x13. generally disci»nnrcted. In many 
cases the inhabitants entered their close qu.irters by a narrow 
hole in the roof, and the mam i*nt ranees \kvtv hv doors onlv five 
feet hit^h The distance from the base i-f the structure to the 
lop of the walls is fifty feet .At one plarr \ilirre the masonry 
luts against the stone rool i>f the cave, the height is eighty feet 
from ba^e to summit The masonry is of a higher grade than 
that shown m the ruiri^ of towers and dwellings in the valley. 
The"coarses' breal. joints and the whole structure nppears as 
if built to last for a^es. All the stcmrs %heie laid *n mortar. and 
much of tne interior plastered 

Mol'NIW IN M.<*IMI>^ 116 


EJiior Amrriiitn Antit^uarian : 

Yours of the 7th is at hand, and I take plea^ure in respond- 
ing to your inquiry as to effigies and efii^y mounds in Florida 
so lar as I can. I know the ^Hurtle mound** well, and it resem- 
bles a turtle about as much as Shark River resembles a shark 
or AUi}{ator Creek an alligator. The name, I fancy, was given 
it because the bones of turtle were found among the debris as 
part of the aboriginatl food, as I found them there, and in most 
other coast shell mounds. I have seen all the coast shell mounds 
of any note from the mouth of the St. John*s on this coa»t to 
Tampa Bay on the west coast, but never have .*«een one that 
was indicative of the builder\H desire to represent any particular 
shape, except such as the nature ol the locality and the neces- 
sity of the savage seemed to require. The only purpose Ixrvond 
this which I have noticed in these shell mounds, extraneous to 
the above mentioned, is their subsequent adoption as ^'lookouts** 
or mounds of observation. Turtle mound peculiarly illustrates 
this use, for while almost universally shell mounds are onlv so 
high as to save the necessity of climbing up a height by enlarg- 
ing its length and breadth, in this instance the shells have been 
artificially heaped up into two adjacent pinnacles of thirty feet 
and convenient access made up the side of one to the interven- 
ing depression, about eight feet below their summits. It can be 
called a double-headed or twin mr)und, but there is no rea»em- 
blance to a turtle or any other animal. 

While upon this branch of the ^ul'jcct, I would tay that this 
same adaptation to a different purpose? from the mere disposal 
of the remains of their shell feasts is shown in Horr's Island, on 
the southwest coast of Florida; some eight miles north of Cape 
Roman (sometimes called in the old maps Punta Larga). Here 
the layer of shells is scattered over a sand ridge some thirty 
leet in height and half a mile in length. It is an ancient sea 
beach — like many others in South Florida — formed bv the cur- 
rents while that part of the peninsula was submerged. About 
the center of this ridge the shells are heaped up in a steep cone 
about twelve feet in height, evidently as a lookout and no doubt 


for warning fires when an enemy approached. The view is a 
vast one over a perfect archipelago ot i^land^and watercourses. 
Some thirty miles north of this, and about eight miles south ol 
Punta Roi^a, is what is called Mound Key, in Estero Bay (called 
Oyster Bay on modtrn maps). This key is one shell mound ol 
undulating surface; pcihaps a third of a mile in diameter. It 
is remarkable for the tact that a water channel has been left 
directly through the center. Ol course this is now choked with 
mud, but the mound is brought up to it on either side as steeply 
as the nature ol the shells will permit. On one ot these banks 
the shells have been heaped into a pinnacle about fifteen feet 
higher than the usual level, a total height ol about lorty-five 
feet, for observation or warning purposes, and the coast survey 
have a beacon upon it. There probably are other instances of 
the same kind along that coast, and we can well understand 
how, when Hernando de Soto^in 1540, approached it he saw 
the smoke and fires on eminences along the coast, and found 
the natives had gone mland. 

As to the earth mounds, I have dug over fifty on the 
same range of coast and inspected some twenty others, but so 
tar as my experience goes I have never yet seen one which 
could be called an cfiTigy mound. Perhaps some may to an imag- 
inative explorer have conveyed such an idea, but every one I 
have seen had some special reasou for its construction, which 
could hit otherwise explained on common sense principles. Ot 
course i can not give any testimony as to mounds in the interior 
of the |>eninsula or north of the range 1 have named, only a few 
of which, of simple conical form, have come under my notice. 

Of relics, representing peculiar forms or effigies, i have seen 
none. I was told by a resident ot Indian River of a remarkable 
find of representations of animals ^birds and beasts) in stone 
which had lH*en found cached in a well-known mound at the 
mouth of Turkey Creek (about six miles south of .Merritl's 
Island;, but I was subsequently shown at Knterprise hall a 
dozen of these objects in private hands, which had been l>ought 
from the finder ol the hoard, and I presume to have Ixren the 
objects mentioned, and they were plummets or ^inkers of fan- 
tastic and peculiar forms, but certainly not designed to represent 
animals of any kind, though extremely interesting to a collector. 
One learns to doubt the tales of this kind, whith magnify by 
transmission throu^ti mmy credulous thannels. I have seen 
the collections from the West Indies which ycu mention, and it 
has struck me as strange that forms and figures of that sort 
should not hav** passed the l>oundarv of those islands and 
crossed the very narrow strip ol sea which intervenes between 
Florida and the Bahamas or Cuba. Why this should have been 
so impassable a barrirr is verv curious; but you may recoPect 
mv article on "The Karth an(i Shell .MoundHot Kl'irida,*' which 
appeared in Thr .\NTiQrARiA.v for .March. 1K85. In this I 


ventured to assert that all the cdts I have found in Florida 
mounds came from adjacent countries to the north and not from 
the Caribs, tor the simple reason that the most abundant of my 
finds were in the county ol St. Johns (this county), and that they 
entirely ceased sevcniy-tive miles south of this city, and were 
never found in the numerons mounds I explored from that point 
to Cape Florida. Had any come trom the West Indies, where 
ally^rmsare identical as well as the material^ \\\^ mounds of 
South Florida, so conii^^uou.s to the Indies, would have con- 
tained them. The coincidence in the form of the cell is too 
universal over the whole world to be of any force as an argu- 
ment lor their possibly being of Carib manufacture. Nor have 
I ever found m Floricla the fossil shell celts or scrapers so pecu- 
liar to the Indies. I have celts or scrapers of shell from the 
coast of Florida, but they are of oyster shell, of remarkable 
weight and thickness, but quite distinct in form, as well as the 
kind of shell, trom those of the Indies. I cannot resist the no- 
tion that the natives of the Indies had no intercourse whatever 
with this peninsula. If they possessed any knowledge of it the 
information wotjjd have promptly stimulated Spanish adventure, 
but it was more than a decade of years after the occupation of 
Cuba before Florida was discovered. It is true, however, that 
the report of the Fountain of Youth, meaning possibly someof 
the copious springs of this country, came to the ears of Ponce 
de Leon from Indian sources, and there is a taint tradition that 
an earlier period Indians went from Cuba to seek that spring, 
but it must have been a very fitful intercourse, accidental in its 
way and not a matter of established custom; besides so taint 
was the character of Ponce's information that he believed when 
he struck the BImini Islands, on the western boundary, that he 
had found the hoped-for waters. 

So far as my personal knowledge goes, I think I have answered 
your questions as regards Florida. You ask if **we have in 
Florida the track of the efligy-builders of the West Indies.'* 
I hardly think myself competent to answer this question; 
yet so tar as I have an opinion I should say that, like the 
universality of the forms of the celt, it is quite as likely to 
be accidental. I have no books to refer to in this place and can 
not refresh my memory, but would ask whether these effigies 
are not restricted to one or two of the island^i.^ Do they pre- 
vail throughout the entire region ot the Carril>ean Sea and the 
Spaninh main? If they do, the land of nearest contact would 
most likely be the source, and that must l>e the coast of South 
America. Certainly there is yet no evidence that the entrace 
to the present United States was through the (Hrninsula ot Florida. 

A. E. Doi'c;i.Ass. 
St. Augustine, February lo, iS<>c). 


•fom r.c of their hn-jses. ».th a $t*i-p itt-sccnt o: ^»r.c hundred 
•ccT ikIow thcHi. the br^ad. fcrt.ic \ alley < :' the R:i S^n Juaa. 1*.::; >Aav;r.^ r..-'. :> of rr.ri 2c ar.d -cattcred j;ro*.cs cf 
ina-est:c c t!:n*Ao:fir I :.t-e r«ci;.e r*--t rwc f\\\ a <«er^ o? 
*ccur}tv. ifthi'.h th? r.:'jr> r* . •' :hv;r S;i-t* f:/* ccu!d 

In ihf C:*r. r. c,-: Lhc .-.> ::•.:•. ar*. '-..tri. ^.r-.-a: caves 
m which ir? !"-. : r. r.- :" :' :T r. _s-:* !r. ■ _: ••. t. -rh <:!ed 
«">ne o?' ihc^- -. ^ r** : c t. ? : -k".. >•.-. f.- r !-!•_• It ''.<c'jr5in 

^ 1 • ^B* ^ f • »»- •**.' ' "■ "•■ •• ••. "j»" w*^*. '"."•■• ^'. ■* 'j 

•#,-...t^i"K-—- -"■ ■ .■■-^'■.••.- • ■• -•--. •"•. • • ' m\- T^^ 

^ - •_ f c ^v* #»• i^-"«' ■.*-■■•. •'••,. •..• . -,. •••..■' •'• 'i'^ • •! 

n^ii*'. k. ..*.. * •■ ^ .. . . • - ..% L .'.* . ^r. '^ .tiC 

«^- i'»' i.^'v ."•.' " ■ •" •'■■• '" --. ■•- •:, • ^ * ' . * • f w ^ ^- r ^ 

r* ■ 

■ - i . m 

*^.t.\ij...r:t"" » ■«. A--. ". a ",;.'-■- .-*;.' .^.^ 

■ ■ ■ - 

L ^ •« !• ^ • * ■ .^ • «.J..».^ * • «.:.. "r'^*'^K 

m". ch f-ns r^'i ■ • '•.• • .:•■ '" ' • *"' : " ^ • » :" !:.c 
r..u*e* :o :;..*.'-*•'•..•'..:, l: : •: \ ^''\ ' •: ■ ''s ■ 

• •- -^p*. f« ••-•-. • ■■£ ••'•, *^.»,» .■ ., V -". t f • , -. ■'!• 

■ • ■ ■ ■ ■ ft i ^m m m .aa^. ■«•■ 

' xc'.y! •:. s ^■: -: 

4 . » . • « 

■ ■ • ■ • 

:i;av i.a.c rx.-' :-:-:.-:• j •, :h'. .:. " .*.• :: : . • r..i.:\'.^, 

m mm 

I^rr* •^^^ »^-^« ■•- i^^s ^ ;.••*•• • -••'-np (•• \*' ^•»-»* 

'*f th . ^ f » n . - ■».!:.-: . r i : < r: - r* :s . • .. • - ^ r r- u . r 'J -. •» * 

■ r«' r^, nea ' • : c c r : - . - • ' ' ." ' ' "' * .-••••. '. • r* I . * 

.1. . 

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p.aced. •:.•- ;:tr'j-'s. .--•"i." .■•'■'• • \<. : j r • • '; .•. " "; ? 
."ir.t. t'rr n*. f'!*. -r. • •*•.-• a -• - •• • •-' . •'-r* vi 


« * 

• /■>• •••«'*'•>••• • i' 

a h ■ . « 

' Tf ;>s c -! '• '. r • r • '. • .' : ' • ' ■ - * - ■ ' • 
*;*!•« f •*» r^' • *. r • ■ . • ■ . ..... 

« I 



Thi\se wert* found in <i cave formed in a mountain of gnicM 
by the expanding of ihe Schisto>e line?, and about 3ioleet per- 
pendicular below the top of Mount L<'i{;umta, ^40 feet above 
Its base, in a narrow, U->haped valley on its northeastern side. 
This valley is about five miles Ion;; and only about i200to 1500 
yards wide from the top of one 10 that of the other ol thetc 
two parallel extensions of the mountain. The valley and moun- 
tain form a part of this hi^h totumbla on the Pacific edge of 
the dividing ridge between the I'acific Ocean and Carribean 
Sea; but the waters How from this valley northward into the 
Rio Viejo, thence eastward through the long, large Lake 
Managua and larger Lake Nicaragua and Rio San Tuan, into 
the Cdrribean Sea. There is only one way of access to the 
cave — and this is steep, difTicult and dangerous — from the top 
ol the mountain down a fissure in the gniess, at some places 
vertical, at others inclined at angles varying from ten to thirty 
degrees. Ropes, vines and small bushes were necessary assi^t- 
anis in descending and ascending to and from a narrow path, 
twenty-two to thirty inches wide, and extending along the side 
of the mountain about 100 vards. On one side of this narrow 
path the wall of gniess rock rises 310 feet vertical, or in o^her 
places inclined over the pathway. On the other side the rocks 
are 6\o feet, nearlv perpendicular, down to small boulder- tilled 
creeks in the narrow valley. The mouth of the cave is on a 
plane with the path, and extends westward to a distance not 
known into the cave. Near the mouth, and at least seventv-five 
feet inside, the cave has a width of al>out fourteen feet and a 
height of four feet. The floor of rock is covered for a few 
inches with a fine dry sand The entrance is obscured and 
almost hid from view by the continuation outward, in a semi- 
circular form, of the rocks forming one side of the cave. 

Why men sou^^ht so inacce^^ihle a place and remained there 
until death, and when they lived and died there, are as inex- 
plicable and mysterious as are many at the nnihological rrla- 
tions made about them by Indians of the present day, none of 
whom knew until reci'nlly of the txi^tence of the cave. Strange 
and niystrrious tales are u Id by c>ld Indians rmong th^ 
small remnants of both the Tokwas and L\Mikas tribes, living 
many leagues apart, about an apparition or etherealized body, 
definrd in grand outlines, like seme Indian ihiet and his cc m- 
panions, who, they declare, lived an inexpressable or very 
difficult to ttil long time ago, that are ot*en seen mcving in 
majestic sljh* \hv granite top of the U-*ha|>ed vallev now 
called Lagunita. Kach nlatcr has some ^pecialtv on which he 
elaborates more fully than other relators, and he keeps close to 
his text each time he can Ik* induced to talk about the^e appari- 
tions, and all of them a;;rt-e in their general description of thcte 


mytholof*ical bodirsi, i*5p(*ti;illv as to the cthcrcalizcd form of a 
grand Indian \%liO, they dirclarc*, 'i» alwnys M-en among the 
othrrsi, and whoonit* lived incarnate and was a mi^^hty, wonder- 
working chiel at a lime — long ago — when ail men were great 
and strong, intelleitually and phyhicallv. They all declare that 
this mighty one was a king, prophet and warrior, and that he 
frequently comes up Irom honie hidden recessi in Mount Legun- 
ita and first looks westward, viewing in the horizon the Pacific 
Ocean; then moving with majestic steps to the eastern extension 
ol the mountain, he carefully ^cans the Atlantic Ocean,* and by 
varying motions ot his head, arms, legs and body, which only 
some of the old Indians can interpret, tells of wonderful deeds 
peribrmed for ages, on land and lake and ocean, by himself and 
nil numerous warriors and statesmen companions; and that in 
those days all the mountains and valleys during all the year were 
luxuriant with ever-green, evcr-flowering and ever-fruiting 

Slants and trees; that in those days the waters issuing from 
undreds of mountain springsf made music as delighttulas ihe 
songs of the birds4 as it danced down over rapids and cascades 
and flowed through or near the Indian towns; that in those 
days all the Indian women| were swift, graceful and beautiful, 
and all the Indian men were active, strong and brave; and much 
more is told about the Indian chief and his wonder-performing, 
intelligent companions. 

The facts, from personal examinations of the mountain cave 
and bones, are: The skull if an Indian type, differing from anv 
of the present tribes in Central America or Mexico or South 
America, and diflers in form, and possibly is of greater antiquity 
than Aztecs or Toltecs. It is the skull of a man ot much intel- 
Itgence and has a long parietal axis. The other bones indicate 
a man five feet eight inches high, strong and .iriive. The 
cranium§ and other bones were found in the cave in the mountain 
Legunita, as hereinbefore described, in the district of Metopa, 
department of Matagalpa, Nicaragua. Seven Indian nren re- 
siding in that neighborhood accompanied me by orders they 
did not dare to disobev, vet none of tliem knew of the existence 
of the cave and bones, nor of the fis^ure in the rock, down which 
we descended to the narrow pathway and on to the entrance to 
the cave. When the cave and bi)nes were discovered, the 
Indians present declared that they In'lieved the most perfectly 
preserved cranium and bones were those of the mysterious an- 

•On A rl<«r dmy th# l*M*tflcran be i«en. bj the awUtanreor * r*)^ lens rn»m tb# 
ffrmnlU prakaor thl« mf»unt»lD: but 1 doubt-Alt h«MiKh I am told by lnt«lit|cmt »Dd 
r«*p*rtabtc |ierM>ua that it U afArt— th« powlblllty or areing th« (^aribraa h«a ftom 
thu ifiTA'ity. 

tM«MintAlB sprlnf* »re Abond*nt In this df>|«rtinrDt of M Atair»lr ». 

II hAve iu«t ■eeti A publlcAtlon •tAtlnr that ihr itnind prrnilum waa AWArdrd IbiA 

SNU lu NtrArAffUA ft*r hrr exhibit of bird* At the etptwUkm In l*Arlft. The blrda ta 
kmnicuA Are nprtAinly very lieAutlf^l Anil meny nf tbrm ere wmcmtrra. 
|?Co« the IndlAH w<imen And men In NtrArAgiiA Are venrmlly the rr\erAeor tbiA. 
fTbey wUl, I suppiiAe, herrAner be found in the HmlthMtnlAii In^titiitr. W'AAhla^ 
loo Oty. 


cient chieftain, of whom the old Indian men relate so many 
stories, and they retiuted to assist in the removal ol bones, but 
after a tew minutes they were induced to assist by the declara- 
tion that the Government of Nicaragua had, in its loving regard 
tor the Indians and science, determined to remove these revered 
relics to a suitable place, where they could rest in a beautiful 
mausoleum, surrounded by the grandees of many eras. In the 
fine dry sand on the floor of the cave, we found, with the bones, 
a tew pieces containing the beak-like process of the dorsal 
valve of the brachapods — terebrutula, possibly. These were 
used as ornaments. 

The foregoing are onl)' a few of the many stories and super- 
stitions among the Indians in the republic of Nicaragua. 

J. Crawforp. 
Managua, Nicaragua, December i8, 1889. 




The native mythology of North America is exceedingly in- 
teresting. It is wild and strange, as would be cx|)cctcd from a 
population such as existed here. There is, however, a vast 
amount of poetry about it. and )>encath the poetry much that is 
instructive. Wc may learn from it the native superstitions and 
religious customs, and may possibly be able to trace through it 
the history of the aboriginal races. The main question in ref- 
erence to these myths is whether we can separate that uhich is 
purely native from that which is of nuidcrn invention ; and when 
we have so separated them, wh'*thcr wc can trace the myth 
back t(i srimc other continent or make them purely autochtho- 
nous. We think this can be ilone. if there is care exercised in 
studyin;^ the myths, and ascertaining the peculiarities of the 
native tnimi It is |>osMble ti> in.ik-.* tiie mythology of this 
country as cla^^lc as the mylhi>!(>;^y <»f (ircece, Rome, Scandi- 
navia and other countries, but we must be sure that it is native 
and that it c.iine from prcliiNtonc source^, and that there are no 
historic or fictitious inventions mingled with it. The traveler 
in foreign countries is taken to the various places and is told 
that here and there the myths with which he is familiar have 
been located, and in many cases the location will be found cor 
rect. In this country, however, a man may go from place to 
place and if he mqnires al>out the myths, the chance? are that 


he will learn nothing;, or if lie learns anything at all he will find 
that the myths which really belong to other parts of the country 
have been transported and re-hashed and made to fit the new 
locality, and so he will find a strange mixture, much of it being 
the fictitious invention of the person who is telling the story or 
of some person who has made himself familiar with native 
mythology, but has not taken the pains to distinguish one myth 
from another. There are certain tests which we can apply to 
these stories, by which wc can ascertain whether they are native 
myths or fictitious inventions. 

There are many places, however, where tradition has iHrrfXTtu- 
ated a native myth, and it has continued to linger about the spot 
«khere it fir^t arose. To illustrate: There is in the island of 
Mackinaw a conical rock (see Frontispiece), which is called the 
Sugar Loaf. This is a modern name, a name which cuuld never 
have been invented by an aboriginal mind. There is a story or 
myth connected with this Sugar Loaf, a story which has come 
down to us apparently without mixture of modern inventions. 
The slor>' is that the island was the abode of a great turtle 
divinity. Hon. Lewis II. C'ass gives us an account of it. He 
vays that the Indian voya^er.s always made oflerin^s to the divin- 
ity as they passed a certain point. Others say that the island 
has.i resemblance to an immense turtle. The rock in the center 
of the island, any one can sec. has the sha{>e of a tent or wigwam. 
The myth is that it was the tent where the great turtle divinity 
dwelt. The thought is a happy one. for it is poetical and at the 
same time perpetuates the poetry of the aboriginal races. There 
IS no reason to doubt that the myth was aboriginal and that 
tradition has handed it down correctly. 

This, however, is not the only rock about which native myths 
still Imger. There are rocks in Maine which n semble the 
moosi*. and the story is that the gigantic moose divinity dwelt 
there. There are. to be sure, other rock** which resemble ele- 
phants and human faces The writer has had such rcxks pointed 
out to him in the notch of the While Mountains. One of them 
IS said to resemble the face and features of r)aniel Webster; an- 
other the head and trunk of an elephant. To the imagination 
there may have been a resemblance, just as a white rock in a 
distant field resembles a white horse No one. however. w(»uld 
in his right m:nti say that these resemblances were ever recog- 
nised by the natives. They are purely inventions of later tin!es 
Our corres{K>ndcnt. Mr. A. K. Douglass, who s|>ends a part of 
the winter in Florida, has at our recjue^t l>een studying the sub- 
ject in that state The names, turtle mound, bull frcg mound, 
are said to have t>een given to certain shell heaps Ixrcause of their 
resemblance. The story still lingers about the locality, and per- 
sons who are visiting the region imagine that they see the 
resemblance in the shape of the mounds Mr Douglass thinks 


iherc is no such rcscmbUincc. The myth or conception, which- 
ever it may be called, if it is to become classic, must have ma- 
terial for its foundation, and the resemblance must be close 
enough to be recognized. We could tell the story, but must be 
sure that the tradition is correct before we ascribe it to native 
mythology. In this way the .story iK^comes suggestive. The 
resemblances will be icco^Miized in the natural object and 
the myth will be jxTptrluatcd by the object and cannot be re- 
moved from it. If an effir;y is there or the rock inscription 
remains, we may safely locate the conception there, and may 
possibly find some myth which may properly be repeated. If 
there is no effigy and no in^icriplioh, then the resemblance must 
be traced in the natural object and the myth fit the resemblance 



IMhdvkkiiw at ATiiKsn — ."Naiit* tiifit* atfii it win* nnnutincvt) that the 
AmrriruM Si'ho<il at A rrlm-'il <•;;>' w*i*< iiiikin;; foiiii* iiitft*nfttink' <)i(ici)vrn«M 
at AthiMm, -amiin;; th<Mn thi* mtniint of ii ^it)^•^• Htatiir. thi* milti of an im- 
mi'ii-i* •"tTjH'iit. a hcttilN'H'* ami fMntU-.-?* ^tattl«■ttl', aiul frairitu'iiti* cf a huffe 
bull; thi' htMfl of H tfritrtti, n xiiiall h«M«l mith «*iiurmonH titariit^ ryoii. and 
•iriini* iri-'riplii)!!.-* iti thr !t.«U'«trn|iht*«li»ii kim!. Ki-^i'iitlv, howrvrr. Mr. 
WaM-tnii rt'iMirtH hiuiir ^tiIl iii«in» iiit«'ri'.'*tin'j iiiiiti, thi* vhxvf one of which 
i« thi» hiMil of I hi* pi'l'lff" Iii-*. ^'f Ihf t:r«»»i|' wliirh l.m* \n*%*n prifM^rv^-^l inthp 
Kljrin iimrMf-: iiHiiM'ly. ihf k'»^'»»M' "f *bvii»it:r- on thr (riviv in«iilt* the 
tcini li* i*f t!if P.irth4*ii'tti. Thi- hi*H<l frotn" i<t hjvo a "tiitnilar liiMorr. It 
waf* uppan>ntly )>iiilt into an i>M wall. v(liii-!i ua<« t'n*«*tf'<l «liirini?the Rycan- 
tino imtI'mI. an«l wu^* thtH prtfrrvtii. Thi« h«*a<1 now inakew tho in^tiip 
ron»pI»'tf Thf frit-rt- !•• in th»* Hriti-h Mti^iuin 

I)oiiiKN*> ASH (*i:oMt lEi II** . Willi r.iiiT TiiKV** -Thr jxtirnal of thr An 
thro)Hi)fi/irAl ln«titiitf iif «irfat I» for AM^'n'^t, l*^"*'*. han a d(*«>4*ription 
of th«* <l<»!iii<'ii« of Japan. T(o"»" an- >»r tN%>i k:ti<l'«, lir«t, a f*iniplt* (tmii^l 
nioiirnl \% Itii h rnfitain* a rndi' •iiihip'ii . tlo' »••'•■• •ri*l. :i -ort i>f ilouhlr mound 
ronta'nin/ an niiiH*rial totnh Thf ii>nil>* !•!' lln* tir^t elai*!! are *ma)1, the 
hri^ht nf thi* iiHtunil U'lnkC aU»nt filtmi ftft ; lh<i^i' i*f the necond claiw are 
larp-r, h«-in/ fxtir hiintln*«|. five hun<lrt^l an*! «i;^'ht hunilred fi-rt in diame- 
ter, aii'l fri*tn twfiity tivr to fifty f*** t in ht-tk'ht The 'litlnien* are rectang- 
ular i*hari)UT<« with a f*in)rh- "ti^nr (or tht* n>«.f :ii:il i:«*nrrany wilh entranrea 
t4>war<l thf -Kuth Thi-y ull hd\f f«*ntral ^!Ii rif«, with rhanilierv at the 
niden. till* K'*^!lfri«-^ \ary fr«iin (in«««*n tn thirty ftvt, and the rhanihc>r« 
vary from niiif to t>ii*iity*t>iit fi*rt in Ifn^th Tlie iMntenta are boBM. 
pottrry. iron pwonlp. bi^^at and arrow hra<U, ht«rM* liitn. ((laiw. »tone, meCAl 
be*<i^. rti* They an* found on the li>w hill** adj«»ntni; the riverv. 

If<ip^ltthir remain* in thr form of "ki«tvarn»" have lieen found wcvt of 
Pammal India The top rlahi* are wry \mr$n* . onr of them welfha five 


toiif. Till* Hquan* Iniilt lmi>rmi*tit of i\u^v kiMvActiH ifi a |»oruIimny in itji 
way. Cronil(H*hH Ami clolinrni* rcmtnintn;; Iarf:f jurp b«-l<iiipinR to an un- 
kno«'n mre, ]»rovioiiH to th«* Aryuiih liuvi* I nth ritiiiid ; ali*n a niinittor nf 
iitrnNilH. f>rnaiii«'ntH ami ariiiH. The Ixuhot in th<^«* anricnt Imliaii jan> 
i*(ial() only have brt^n placcfl in a hittintr }>«f<ttin*. CmnilfrhH, ftonr rirrlrp, 
ami niivulitliio reniainn art' f<inn«I in ilitrrrt nt ]>urtf« «'f tlir HorM. iirtrninfr 
a wamlorin;; prini<*val triU*. in <*arly I'lTimN nf nni-iint horitty. or tliffiTont 
rart^fi having o»nniM>ti<tn with nirli nthtT Thi* tlifnry huf U*4'n advanciNl 
that thr (lohiii'nH urn* hiiilt hy thi' hrui«it<. On thin mt* cxpriH-H nn opin- 
ion, ihnntfh it ni:iy hn worth whih* to ronij^arr thr religion <»f thi* I>niicli> 
with that of thr Ktrti>i-an«>; an*! thru rompitn* th<> work of tht* Ktru*<ranH 
witti th«*M' pn-hihtorir .-triirtiirr-, ami mt if thir«* ih any rlu«' in thfui. 
Ilt're wi' hJiVf thi' tiftirijoiiv of i'.'i'-ar. Hi* hnvn: •'<)m*t' a vcir thcv a^- 
■rni)>h* at u «Mn'*itTnt«il phin* in th«' trrritnrii- of tli«* (^irniitr, wliOfi' 
ooniitry i»< »>ii]>|h !*-«•• 1 t • hr in thr inidilU- of 4::iu! " K*'r«-nt i x]>liiratii>n hah 
fthown that hiT<* ill thr ih^partnu-nt of Kur «-t l^ur, in VniniT. then* art* 
tuanv liohnvn^ un<t rromh*! h- >in«I i'irrh'*< of ^!oril■. thoiii:h nianv hav«* Xn^'ti 
•li*fttrovi<l. A h^-t ttf tiOv ^M•;llitil•^ mav In* fouiu! in thr n i ort rtfrrml It* 
a)io\«v In ti'n •ii'i:ittiiii-nt*< of I'runn* M71 ilolnirni* hu\i Ih <n foniid. Thi- 
nnniN'r in thi" ih'partiiM-nt i«* uhf»v4' tht* umtiii*!*. Tln-y aro foum! in thi- 
iH'^'atiM dliiiiiihiniv tin tliv wi»*t ola^l of lirituin,— thi* hrtiiiiir o-ntrr of op- 
rniti«»nH. Thr •I>i«»Vfry of liithni'rt*' in Japan w«niM, howrvcr, rontri»\i-rt 
thi^ thi^»r> uh lilt thi* hninN havinu )»*4*n thi* huil'hT**. or «-i-<* it wonht ci 
trmi thi* «li>niain over whit-li thi* I^ruiil- wanitiri*tl in tin* <:ir1v tin.l'^. 


Kriji-tANh Ti lc\MA^^ \Vi* ntitiri* that our iiia»!jutor, l>r. I> <i. itrinton. 
ii> »<til) r>nttniiinL' th<* *-tu<lv of thi' Ktrii^iMn** anil thrir litrratun*.* Hi** 
|i't'-iti>«n i" thai iIh* Ktm-ran^ wi-rt* Kxhian;*. Wr wonhl »>av in rcfi r« nc«' to 
thi^ that th«> ^'t-n« lal I'piniMn i" that th«*y wt'n* Tnranian** aiiil lH*jonii,'i-«l to 
that rlii-?* of |M-..p1i- \i)iirh ix •.iip|Hi-f«I to ha\i* inhahiti**! l-'isropf iH'fori* tlir 
tM-einnin^ of hi-l^ry, an<I in fart, U'f'>rr the ailvt'tit of thi* Aryans or In«io- 
KuroiiMii'*. On till- ptiint wi* havi* no xpri'ilii- kni>wl«-iljjt* Thi-y may 
ha\t* )M>«'n Tiiraniaii or Aryan >•• far a** wr know, an*i l»r. I'rintonV ur>!n- 
ni(*nt from i»hil«ih»k'v mav \tr rorrii't or not; wi* mn imt till. Thi* Ktriii* 
cani won- artiit** <»f a pn' rla•'^ ami thry niu**t havi* h'ft rtnn-tnrr** of a 
fi|nvilir kin>l. Now ht n*» oonipart*.— taki*. fir in*tam*o. tin* •!oInM-n<* anil 
rron«!t*4'ht« an«l ••thrr nir^uUthic htrm'lnn> ; thrt**- an- mi} )-t>M t| to ha\i* Ik*- 
lniiin*«l to till* r.irlv Ar^an** Ihd th«* KtruM'an^ h*av«* anv il«>lmtnh? that 
IP the tlr>>t t|iii*<-tion. Polmi'iii* In'.oiil; to a maritimi* |>«'i*plf. Thi-y arr 
fonml in r.nrojK* not far fn»in th<* nra oia^^t, )*ut n^'t in thi* r«*ntral | arti». 
Thry an* oomm«t i in Syria, tho i^lan<Ii* in thr Mtttitrrram-an, th«* north- 
wcfit4<rn »*l»ortt« of Afrii-a. in Spain. I'ortiiu'al, Kramv llritain anil St-andi* 
navia. Thor** i**. howi'Ti-r, one lim* in whi«h wi* wonM a>k l»r. Hrinton to 
inMitutf a rom|iariM>n now that lit* ha^ pit ntartitl on th«-ti«* Milijrcti*. Wr 
may U* Iradini; him into an«>thrr fifld. when we n*fer to the reo-nl diiM'ov- 
mefi in Kfry|»t. It itt now paid that the hhephenl kinp* were Turanians, if 
any one knowo what that mean*. They an*, in other wordn. f>aid to have 
bmi MonffTilian, and no Monfrdi^n and Tnranian are Mipi^oft'd to mean the 

•On RlniMaB and IJbyan Namm: A (*oniparmiU*p Htudf. Ily Dwnlel O. Bfln- 
tflO. lUprlBletf fton the pror. American l*hllosophiral Hoclfty. Fi broary Ittb. IMO 


■ame IhinK- Now if the ehepberd kinipi were MoogolUn, whmi were the 
LjbUins? Were they Hamitei»7 The generml divinion of the Hftinitea hat 
been, at we undemtand it, into Aocadian8,PelaHKian8,EtniBcan8,Hiin7aritee 
Miiriamiten; under Miiriamitcf*, Kgyptiane, Berbers, Nnbiane. Here we find 
the Lydiami clasMKi with the Efryptiane, hot to claived by being related to 
the Accadianfi. The early Accadians were, however, Turanian,and the Etnia- 
cAns wereTuranitn aliio. The shepherd kings msy have come tnm Aa- 
pyria,or thfv may have been on the Pvr»iiftU Golf. Thty are. however, 
fenerally regarded ss Hitiites, the very race mhich were in the land when 
Abrahsm rnigratH to the nyion went of tht* Jonian. Now it is easier to 
trace ilu* i-onniH'tion l»etwf<*n t)ie llittitesand the KtrQt«*aiis, it seenis to 
iw, than it in to trace it to thi* LybianM. The language of the dttrvrent races 
does not s(*f*in to remain with th«*iii, but the <'i>arac't4*riHti(v do. Take, for 
instsnctv the reUgions of the Acvadiaiih, cf the KtruM.*anit, of the Lybians and 
IlittiteH, and find the ri<sem bianco. Th«*y all worshifietl the nature powen. 
The prnrtin* whirli pn*%'Hilt'«l Hriionv the Turanians, tracing desct nt frook 
the uiotht-r, wa^ a wiile-hpn'ad niMoni hh far eai«t as C*hina. The Aryans 
and Heuiitio did not have Mirh a cuMi'in. The Tumnians |Minred forth as 
KcythianH, Hun:*, Ugtir.*', Khiatai, or llittiteb and Mongols. Ii*aa«* Tsylor 
says the Ktni«<can lfln;niap' i»* Tumniun, and mas reUte^l to the l.ydian. 
The great nK*k MMiliftureM of Pleria in C*iip|iad4K*ia, the seaiUni cyllnden 
which ho%e lK»<»n roc >vero<l in hydia, fho hoin>glyphic rmblents like those 
of the llittittv'. Thii* Mr. Coniler hsn ^hown more fully in the n*|iorta of 
the l*alostine Kxplt>ration Fund. We puggei^t that Dr. lirinion eiaroine 
th<*se reikorti*. hh well m* the JoiirnMli* of the Siiciety of Hibliral Arrhwology. 
The conhOUHU'* of authority ih in the diriH'tion of the Asiatic Hittttes, 
AcaflianH. Mnii^liAn*«,nnd it would l»e hani for him to break the (ximmonly 
atT«*(>tiHl opinion union's he bringi* nuire proof 

"Ths Amcikmt MoNt'^KMTMor TiiK Mnwissiri't VAirKY.*'^Tlhis book has 
lieen criticiMsl until we hail almost come to consider ourm<lvos somewhat at 
fault fitr U»lievintf in it <»r defrndrnv it* Hut here c«tmes a little treatise 
from the Bureau of Kthnology/ which, while it rorrectii by giving the meaa- 
urcmentj* an**w. uui*«>nMMoii»ly praimti the very NM»k which has tieen critJ- 
rii*e<l H) much Monniver. the monumentit tliem«elveii, which various 
wouI'IIm* Mirveyon* hsve iimlertjiken t4» Hhow wen* •*> faulty, are now 
«hi>t»n tn Im* mii«*h more |i«*rfect in th«'ir pro|Mtrtion« than any Itndy had 
•iUp|H»«e<l Tlir Mi|iiflri*ff, At lea^t. wre lietttT *>(|tiiirf^ nnd thecii\*lt« are more 
(N*rfi*(*t «-iri-l«'> \Vr pum up the n*-fnr\ry ami Cind that while the Ijberty 
worki* U'^iMiif mon*flhjiii4iil. tlif Nf^nrk fnrl In«-i>iji(> ulietter circle, while 
the an-a ff th«- <n (a**«'ii at Nemurk i- ]«•>- l-y tt n ai'r«>. thi* Hn|)etcin Sf|uars 
in ss ' nearly rornrt ftf* can U' Mati^l." thr lli^rh Bank %i4trk(« grow to be 
twenty ain***, instead af eiKhteen. But thir liring^ the ftiretothat of Hope- 
ton by a Hingle a«*r«*. The ^riiall rin U*Mt Newark if^aniarvel. It varit* only 
four feet from a i^erffct circle The ra«lui«i i* aUit an fxswX multiple of the 
snrveyor'f chain "There are unei|M^'te«l re^iiltii " We are iela«l that the 
minimixing t4*nilrncy hai* come to a imUM*. The survey of the earth-works 
of Ohio waf« conducted unilerdifhcultit-^ totally unknown to the gri\ernment 
boreau. It pr«Mlu(*e«l a sensation and convey e«l impreaiiions as to the char- 

nook Hi»vlev«. The CIrrtilar. H^^uarr Aod (irtacoQal Barth-Wofha of Ohio. 


mrUfr of tliuMi* wurkH iiuch m can not tvily l»e Mot aidfle. Among th< 
impreMioni*, the Btrongent wv thin: that the Moand-builden of Ohio y 
irreaily 8up(*rior to any tribo of Imliann which had ever been known to 
inhabit that |iarticular refoon. Thiit in an iinpremion which Dr. Cynu 
Thonuu* haM undertaken to remove, but lian hitherto undertaken to remove 
without touching u]K)n the (lartieQlar point wliich was at iMnie. (>f ooarae, 
umler tlie <'ircuniHtanceti, there would )>e ixmniderable inirioeity to nee what 
he wotilii May. Thr result, however, w an we have Niid, that the book in 
vindicat<Hl and the tirnt impreMiion in re-entabliihed. \V<* do not ny that 
l>r. Thoiiiii** intendn thifi, but we think that the majority of hiit reader* 
will U* t^nvini*<Nl of it. While the chief <»f the survey litatee a theory, the 
«urve>«»r un<!«T liiin ntatci* fiu*tii, and the ftu'tH m*em to <Mmtnidict Uie 
thiHirv. Tli«* tlie«>rv \^ that the Mound-buildent acre Indiunti, but the beta 
•'I'efii t*t hIiow tliHt the workn wereennied with ankill unknown to Indiana, 
und nr. Thotiia>iHobli|r<Hltohay (wliirh he d<H*H candidly): The fimt question 
mhich pn-M'ntii itni'lf, in vivw of thi*>^' faiiN i-. How are we to reconcile 
I hem with tin* theory that the workn urn* huilt hv Indiun^. Thii* i» 
ct-rtjiinly li«>n«*>t. and Hcare to atlmire hr. ThouiaM fur it and thank him 
fur ^a> in); liH nitirh us 1m* d«»e?« for the other nitle. It would U* eafy for a 
-iur%f>Mr til ^> livrr the work of any man and pick flaws*, hut hr. Thomaii 
•av** <-andi<ll\ tlii> rritiriHin* n*late nlmnttt wholly to thi* h ant of care in 
«-«litinkr llirir nu'inotr*). vft their work i.»» of )fr«'Ut yulii*-. The (iteiin-«*of tho^e 
work** lh«'v |»iT«onall> «'Xurnin«*«l un* ^•nerally ttirrtt't 

TKf ifhf .\rt'}i:tttl,nj\ml t^uartrrhj. -The ltt^t iuuiiUt Hliiili \ir ha\e re- 
frivinl iif till- ({uart<Tl\ i- ttmt for March. 's*.(. Thi^ nnndH*r c«>ntainH a 
«^krti'}i of \\\v IliHtfiriaii. Ilfurx llou«-. Mith |Nirtruit>. AIm* the Manufact- 
iirr anil I T «•! AlHiri^riiial >ti*n«> liiipli'iii«'nt*>. I>y < ifmrd Ft>wk«'. anil a di** 
tail«*<il u'l'iituiT iif M*iiiiiil < *|i«-niiit;. 1<> W. K. MiMtrrhca*!: a lH'*'4*riptioii uf th<* 
l>lir*«> ill ill* oliJM ( '< ttti' 1>\ A. <ira}iaiii. 

UIVIK I«W1,I.1.!N<.> 

li. ti.i \t..r I>*i7 w I j-iil'Ii-linl .1 Ifltrr fi<»iii Mr II. T i*rfj*>i»n mi the 

-iitt)f« t <•]' T\\*'i it VI fill II. '« rhi* l«*ttfr W.11 printinl .i- it w.i> written, wtthont 

.ifiy tiiHii/''* \*li.r*'\i-r At tin- tiiiM- Hf -iip|"i»«Hl th.if Mr ('n»«*iMin liailart- 

ii.illx ii.i i«- titf •l.*i->i\«T\ Mhii'h In* • i.iinitNi In- hu'l. thuiitrh we rs;iid notliiuf 

.JmiiiI It I >!. till. t!i) . tliiitkitiu' if ii w.u^ .. ct'tmiiif « ;*-• it ri\tT ilwcllinfEU 

■ •Miif -j"-' ii.fii* wniiM »-"iiif ti» lijrht. Till IrtttT w .*- I \ti'ii*iv«"l\ read. and 

*'r"iu'hi jrt'.ii iii.iii\ iti<|iiirif*. i*"|HMMal!\ Iti'in I'MTuMMtj .irih.i olof^rta. 

i'\\*- .1 M«r w I- .I"!- • Miitfi 1'> Mr. lli'iir\ W ll.ivitt-. w.,- iii**tii<-il UKlilv 

jriti- !iii " N tri iTivi* .iti>! t'l itti :<I II>1i>r\ .i vh.ipti r li whnli Mr. Ilavni*'* 

I..I.I ti.i ii«»ii<'r !.. w nti Afti r tin- ii t'.i r U.I- III t\ |H>. Mr rrf-«.i.ii amU'to 

Mr lli\fii- Ti-.|Mi-tmir t!. .t till- I*iii r U- t L.tiiijiHt. Itiit it \i:t« ti*o late, and 

•*. .'. wii.t ill .1- ii w.i- wriiti-n Ni»u ..iti-r t\i.i }• ar- l...\»' rl.ip*««l, Mr 

t >,..... ,i, •.,,»,. til >h::i tSi- fix^ixtiioiliiiitx ••;! irniii Imti^fll "it ti' tht* (*«litor 

• ! Till \ N '\*iK \\.\ \N. fiiaiiil.iifiitiL' til it 111- iif\f*r ma<lf mm* ot tli*- ifriti *'rivf-r 

• im-inli,:' .iti«l tlitilii.itilu' tli;it )•!■ fntii. tin* oiitM-t i-MfioHli-rfvl tltclii ti* !•#• 
ti«li wcif-. .iiid lit' lal!" ii|**iii till- i**lil*>r t«i j>n>\f t)i it lii'f\i-r wr<it«' tin* 
Ift'iT i.r ii-«-«l tKf •i-rni*' "mx^m ■l«i'!lin;j* "T **pi!r ilwi'lliiiu** * Tli;* ppnif 


wo arc* titiw prepared to give. It in in the Hhape of a letter from Mr. Crunoit 
hiumelf. written after liiii tlrvt letter wan publi^ihei!, but beforeheconcludeil 
to eall the pile ilwelHnp4 "finh weirn/' 

Tin- letter liepns with n note: "IMeaHe, if ]iOHHibli% innert thiM letter in 
your n«*xt i?4r*ue nf TirK AsTiiiiAKiAN. The Irtter will explain itiielf, iin<! 
Tou will re:i<lily appni'iiitr uhy I uni lUixiiMH to nee it in print. ;i'* many <it 
our fri(Mi«lT< on the othrr nidf :ire int«Te:-t«Nl in tu'urinK from NaiimanV Cnvk." 
The following is th<* letter, pulilihhni verbatini. It willnhow the eipiivoeal 
play with the ori;:inal wi>r<is "pile •twrllin^'r'/' the miMlilhMl term "pili* 
i<tnirturi*.s** unil thr la>t term, whii'h hr fSiM'Uis anxitnis to cKtaMifih, **ti>«h 
*iein*". l*oM*iblv tloMftler mav retri'^h Mr. OehHonV iiieniMrv,»>o thai In 
will )h* willing' to :ii'kn<iwleilt;«* that ht* ii-^imI tin* first term. irht> i« not, mi- 
have nothing mort- to i^iiy. 

KtUttiT .liiif'rii'rin AntMiunrinn 

I ilpt'iii It bf*it t^'iiii^vkfr thntiiu'h y<iiir •-•ihiiint^ H'Hiu'of tlif iiiiiiii ntu- ij<if<' i>iit« 
I hut liiixt* Ih-«*ii unkf'l 111 Tt'K'iril In llif pll*> Ntru*'lNn>H at tlit* iiiinilli itf Niiniiutir* 
('r«'<'k. iK-lHwurt'. Thf wttik 'if fXuinliiliiK thcH*' ititrrt*«itliiic iil»<triKi>>itl rrfnainn tin* 
Imtii furrii'«| uii fur !li<- |iRi>t !%«•> > t afn b> th*' IVhImmIv Mu^-iiiii, with iti:4ii> intrn-^l- 
liif rr>«iittii. itii iii'i'iiiiiit itf whif'li will !••■ jMiliM^hfil »( m fiitiirt' ilay, whfii the iiiii«» **t 
iiiiAlt-rlitl r:iii ri ii'lvf pn*|N-r oiinlv. Tli*- ttiiniiH r <if Kjif-t'liiii-iiH nlitaliioil, .ifif-r an I't- 
liaiii«tl\<.* •■xiiiiiiiiatMii ••[ Mm- liN'iililx , iMiiiilii r>i lriiR.1, thf iiiiijitrlt> nf Mhl<'hnrr imw 
lii th** l*f:ihi-ly Miiifiiiii. Thrc*- «ljiti>iii« h:i\*' «•• lur tN«tMi |im-uI«*<), uihI h luiiiiil** ^x- 
aiiiliiut lull 'if th< *ihii(i- lift' hii** iitil ri'\tii)<-il :kit> nthi r« 'l')i*« w<irk ••? •■\>-ikMtll«i:i 
liMil !«• l>*- iliiii* I'l <lr« ilk'iii^' 111 w.i'^iiio I't jiiw lAut'-r. Ihi' Work l>« if..- mIku . <)lltii'ii!i 

uml t \|M I|«:\iv f '>irt Mil* tltkfll liot !•• |i\i-ulllii <•:'<■ itf lip iltKi-nXi .'}. '••I |) th«- 

i-iitir*' til 1^- ••? In. I'i-n. il •-•iiii 1 !•«■ iiliT:i!iiril ^i-it-iilitr i>t'i'!\. I'ln llii« r*.i-iiii Ih*' 
v%'irk hiiil :•■ (■• i'.irri«>l iin •! I'ln;: th*- i'u:'.\ it.»;. Ii^'hi iif ih>- »ii'iiriiiT nioiiiim Th*' 
rt-hi )■! •!« Ml r< hr«! .|i«. nvi rcil in !"'•'. .itpl li.k\<' l»>-i m \%>rki'il iii>|ii>trlt>i.*>t\ :•' •iili-r 
\itU ««iif-i Mi.»li.iii> I li< 1 :iri ii>iA • \ h.i-i-liMl, lh> Li^t - :iiiiiit r'« M->i k iN'«*> h.i^tl.^ 
\ I'l'h •! hii* \* \\ •>[•• •-iiii> !i« I Li ri'iiiii iiiit^ - I,. jf-!<>iii« lii.t*. 1h«- pi.* ^tr*:- !iiri - «• r«* 
"iNh MfiT- 1^ iMi'«'i..ti> • . ii Ml iii.i\ I'i'I,;' li\ III-' iji i'l ••n».i.ii«mJ (mrn \i.'* iw • 
iihli ot iiiiil :ili>>:iii ; *?.< lii'>! |i ■ • ii' '•■!;> Im tl» '|'ri< rit w-j .ijm '^ h i\' |"i'>V«lf--1 nt 
liiM'^ ui t .' !• - i.jHii. • ',1 ^.it I I r. ,1. M Ii • >. M.I M r ri •- hiiM • \ i>li ]i' Iv -liitM II li»rs* ■ * 
lljii'll Ki .'• r ■ I i«' 1 iTAt :.: :i,'-» f. I t Ii' r . !■ .1- % .."i. /. '.■!.. T ,../«■. ', It .Ml f.'i 
f''u!'\. :i- M.i -I :i .1 < -i ii ii > M .i\ ; • «i li.l- • III' i> ',«! I . n> '■• «!• ••■ t '.• l.iiri>|M .in '.«ik> • 
N-i ■ill! ,i-. -ii- { I -. I !•- • ii •■ !•:■■;!■ f' 1 !'i fi ■ ir I ■•i ■ hf I'l »•" i|. •ii»,-*jhii1 ri-::i \*» i\% 
M.rrii-.iii 1. 1 1,' ' '■' !i. I . • \i' >• ii* ■ r.i'i iir •■ \T \T* li In, •/ i .kl .IT i'l I 'hif<l"ji- u1 kin»M 
• "lir- f. irl- I- '. M..." t .'x ii. ..' .i' ■: ■ ■.111! ■■::. i: !.■■ •n* . .»!, '.■• .1* u 1. . ' 4. i mti. 
. !!• '1 * • ■ • ' -fi :t -ii N 1 • I r* ». '. » ■•!i t \ ',ii- ■ .I'll i". : hi I' #«■.% M»:»« .iiii 

I ' ■ I ■ ■ . • ' ■ ' ■■ ■ I, I r- ■ t. V ■ -1 ir, -ii- :■.■■'•••• f I. ■'. I . ili-r 1 n*. i-ii* !■ i«:itoli> 

.♦f' hi ' • ; ■ ■ : I* - . ■ \ . I - -. • I I • ■ » ' I ; ■ ! * ■ / 1 1 ■ ; ■ •■ 1 ti!- 1 il .1 1 ! ; ■ i\ »■• 

' Ji» .1 i"' ■' : . ; • .in .1* •.'■■• h- ri :.- • ■ ■- . . • ^' •. • . ,* ' 'i:! '• j .•*. .*; i»i. 
•.iM.« • i '.••■! .1 •'"••! !'•■. ! ■ ■ .. "i" ■. . ■ ■ ■.■ I ■!• » r:i' > ' th*' 

.■ ■■ ■ I I* I ■■•'.■■■»*»» Ii- ■ :ii.i\ • I. •■■•*• 

it n -liN r I If »-^». >N. 

• I- •■■.■.! : ■ ■ .- !!,. 1 • ' 
: ■ ■ ■ . 1 '.. ■ • ■ 

\V. .j 1 •. ■ . ■./ ;.i.-' ■: I'l' I \^ 1" " .' ...- .• r. .1 I- ;.. f,. r.!-.rt.'f 
Tf. I'. »■■ !■. \\ ■. ri. 'Ki \' ■ . ;-.■■■.. ; ;. i : :-v Mr I r. --..i. ili- 
».i-- • U ;.■ r. A. f-.i :. i!': -.-'• r.--' r.l . ..t :.-r. -.n \ .i* i \i!.ir;.-j 

.'J a I. •*.'.:'■.' ' . • ■.■.••■! T J ■ ' • ii i.-iTi ■". .L. -•: .. r-,:i - ..; i)ii' 
I :'■,■-. I •.■.•■■ \ ■ '.r. • ■: NI r t ■.•:-'. I ■ •-•.».'. .ij-pm i.i^fil 

M'-rt . M.I I. Ml : I I '.,. u -r : ■ vi: t ■ ^-i • .- m. : ...1 ■ j .!i .m« liiitb;'-" in 
I 111 .\ *.;:.•- 1.: \-. '-l «■-■•.-..• • ' ■■•■■•» i* ! !n \ .iff n-'t "li-h 

M • .T- " .Ii .v-i. f, . '.. .-.I . . . • .■ • I .1 . r ..•'•' I- !•■ -triit iMffB, " An<l 

\'...C. \- ii- -'rii. ! .••• .:.- •..• -.v ■ ■ -• . ■ ■• .1' ■■ f -J. i\i-.p." thr 

"an • .1- . ,* ii.!- N\ ■ . ' : • \' 

I >K< or rin; i:rFi«.ii>. \v» 

i An Kxtr»* t f^nin the book oti " Knitilftimtu* MotimU." 

The diujjmms hen* jfiv<*n n'pri'wnt a mtuii of rlfi^'iof ainint^iil in tlifir 
|tru|H*r 4»nler, tfii* Kanu* (mUT lui oxhibitt**! oii tin* ^Touiiit. It ii^ an iiitiTft't* 
iiijf Kerit»*, an*! llit're an* m*vi'rttl IfHwrnn t«» U* tcarnol from it. Il mill U- 
notice*!, titvt, tliat ttuTc art* Hcvrral ^>u|i« in th«* M*n(i<. hut that oai-h izrt*M\* 
tiTve^ a (li?4tini*l ]>(ir]M)*H*,one U'inu called mlxfu-on, another a ffitinril hnuM*. 
:i thinl a hnrial |>la<v, t^tr.; Nixinil, there wa.« a pnuiiral and a Mi|>fr>«titi<iu«i 
w^v f«)r earli iznmp, the '|>nu*tioal boin^ manifest in the round nioiin<i ni.d 
till* oujM'nititioux in the elli^y iiioundi* HurnnindinK it; thinl. H)iil«* tht- 
^roupH lien*an* in cht^v proximity, yet diirrrrnt ut^'^ mert* mudi* of th( Hi ;*i:d 
diflferent HU|KT><titiunH cmlMMlitMl in thiMii; fourth, the (V)mhination of thi- 
ditren*nt ^»u]»s into one *«<.Ties briuvr^ U^fore uh the ditferent Mi|N*r>tition^ 
iind I'UHtom** whieh ern'h rian is HUp|K>!4'^d t4' ha%*e emlxNlied in the efht;i«>. 

The prat'tieal rhararter of the efli^iet* can Ix* learni*<t fn»m thi* f^tudy 

of the map. So* Plate XIII. Here on one fide of the lak«> we lia\e ei^lit 

t^roufirt ; iif th(*!H\ numlK*r one in mi r<ituat4^t an to *<how it t«* 1h* a l<M*kout. 

NundNT two in on the low Und and e<in}*i^tt« of eorn-hilU. Th«* thinl im h 
^roup of eth);i«f« rt^^emhlitik^t^mrdi* itimilar to tho>e dtx'rilHHl h\ l>r. luiphaui 
at .May%'ill«\ The fourth if a tH«i*on and altar lik«* tho*^* nn Ktlury Kitlin*. 
Matlii^in. i»hh* tik!ure 17'> i The Hftli ami rtixth un* elh^Mi> of turthti antl 
hiriir>, ••urnmndin^' duek or ti«h iMind-. The S4'venth ri'pre9K*ntf* platforut 
inouiidi* Hurround«*«l hy ftlit;i4*t(. which we i*:!!! a t-«»uut'i1 IniU-e The ei^rhth 
I* a croup of burial mnun'tH j^uanli**! by ftli^rieh. r»*'tw«t»n thel>urial mound** 
and the iT»unril hou*-e th**re it* an o|i«*n ^paAV \^)u're |H>•>^ibiy the \iH:*f^' 
may havi* U*en r<itiuttol. The map \^ill nhow the n'lativf liM^ation : and the 
fiiai^ntm** thrrhanK'tf'r of the ♦•Ihirhi* in eafh L'nMjp. Tin* rtlijriou- «'lemei't 
• itUHt* in in H*veral wu\>. The U'acon ami altar arr «pntardetl b\ etli^Mei*, and 
tht- omnril hou*<«> and Inirial mounds an> aUo iniartliit by vifit^ieh. 

Then* an* ^roupf< in «»ih«*r l«K*aIitir!* which n'MUiblf tht-rr. *M »l»?ierva- 
tori«V*Hre'«jM»kenof by I>r. I^pham, and "ritadfU" by Mr S Taylor. Th«i»t* 
n'M'mbb* th«* >rroup number lour. A «*oum*il hou-f at ILtralxKi i?< htioken 
of liy Mr. \V. H.(\intl«'ld. Another omnril hoUM* m;t\ !•♦• fiMind alMt at 
I'ort lIoiH'. nnt far fnmi Portai.'^*. The»*c r<'>end*It' the ^ruup numlHi 
M'Ven. Ihrd-* with burial moumU betwtt'U thiir min^'-. and other binU 
mith burtal niMund** at the ruiif i^f their win;^' are fnuiid i>i M-vt-ral plai^-?*. 
Thf^f n-?M'mbl«* the burial m<»tiud*' n'prt»M*nt«Nl in jrrouii eiu'bt The writer 
ha^i ili'jeoVfretl I'tliji*'" similar t«» th»»^» at I*<»rt Andn»w*«. in Kichland 
(-«Hinty. IIiTe tlie *<waIlow !•« the mo^t ri»mmi»n etli^n*, hhoHim; that it wai* 
the clan «Mnbli*m nf the n%;ion. (hie i;roup Ci»ntainin)C a fwalh>w with 
burial and l«>nt; mound-* makei^ \ihat mi^ht Ih* <*alK*«l a "nu'R**! enc*lot*un* " 
The»»wai!«iw •surmount" a knoll or i^nlated nnell of jrnnind mhii*h ha^ Ihf 
•ha|*«' of a **m allow in ilfclf. ^)ach win^ (»f thenwallom terminatfi^ in a o^n- 
ical ni'iund which m >ke** a ^irt of knnb for the tip. lU^twcen each winir and 
the txMiy i« annther burial mound. The whule trroup wnuld make a port of 
^a^r«^i i^m l>i-uri* ri*^*mblin^ thr citA4i<>l in h^urli* Tofin*>liip. It in found at 
th»» 9*w\ of u louif line **( -wallnw ef!iu'ie««, whieh extend for a mile aUfl one 
•ptarter towani tlic e.i^t Thi'« line of ctli^ciiv i** f^ituatiil <>n the bank of th** 
river, iMwivn the hi,;)i blutf antl the river, and i^ fiverliMik«>d by the niail 
from IVKt'olnd tn Tiirt An^lrew-. The entin> line of eth^rii-c, with the ^Toup 
at th«* t«nd. r«Mniu<U ime of th«* riM*k inrkTipti«infi in .\ri/<ina '-ee f)»niri- VJM 
Thr wnt4>r wa** impri**(M««l m*ith it« n*liirtou« •'ivrniticamv. Then* an* buna> 
m'kun 1« piirib**! hy etli;;i(*^ on tht* wi*f<t r>ide of l^ke K(»*«hkononir; but on 
the i*4."t nftle ttlen* M<-em<« to have In-en a rUn villa;ri* or a pla«v of ai>M'nibly 
for M>\eral clanii. It in umvrtatu what elan «KX*upictl thii* |i|iot . tnit turtle 
eth/i«*>» |irr«lominate, there l»einif t«»n of them, while then* arv «»nlv fi\e or 
■tx ragle«. (Sw pp. KW, 226. 241 . 24H, 2.V». 272. - 



Jh AlHKKI S. 4JATM-iliCT, \VAMIIIN'(iTt>N, D. C. 

Hi'^him or AmbuicaV I>uh-i»vbi<) —In a <ieniian wecklv of New Vurk 
rity, lifUHriMi»rht9 Jmir$uU^ JiiUuh II. SUcktMiiann is nciw publii«hinK a lonjc 
Hcrinl on tliv aUive eubjivt, whirh, in view of tlie appnuiching centennial 
it*lel»nitiun, ist at prtwent i-ultivat4*(l nion* than ever. Many of the publica- 
tions an* ni4*n*ly oM n*|K>rt«< |iarite<i toKeth«'r mi oi* tf> appearaft n«*w, but 
oth(*ni an* foiimh-*! ufMin original reN.*ait*hi*t<. Fronitlio i«|(«i*iincn before uf, 
iimtaincHi in thi* ninnlier f»f m'oi*nilier 5. 18811, it would appear that Stacke- 
iiiAiin i> lN*tt4'r ooiuaintoil with the Ijitin and Scamlinavian originalit 
ii>nUiin«Hl in Itafn'n ** Antiquitat4*t( AniericanH-" than tnany uien who have 
plunicitl into tiie name studieii. The ch run idea n>late tliat I^eirn aettlemeot, 
i-allo*! I^'ifbiiilir. waH in Vinland. when* on th<> ahortcvt day of the year the 
Min r<»>e ut T'U) \. m unil m*t at 4..'tu i*. m. Knmi thin Stackeniann ciineludeff 
thut V'inlanil niuhi only have be«>ii in tlic latitude of Narra|{nni«ett Bay, and 
that l>*ifbudir probably lay ni*ar N<*W|Kirt. K. I. i*on«*t*rnin^ llelluland. 
\i/.. "nN-k\ <-i>untry." our author lH*li«*vet>. Hitb nthen*. that it ii* identical 
N%ith \emfoiindliiitil. and Markljtnd, nr " HiMMhil oMintry." %iitli u fx'rtinn 
tit N«»\ii >N"i»tia. 

Tii>. hi'MiaMiN •>» iiiK An«i»:m ('ir\ ••» Niii:iMiiM.\ fi«rni*> tlir >ut)j«*«'t 
i>f a "( 'uiiiintinii'atiofi t«> thf ri*-?<i«li'nt Hn4| i'liimril of tbr Aiiieri«'mii (ieo- 
;;rapbi<*al >«N*iHy. nt thfir f•e^f«iM|| in \V:it(*r(4iwn, Ni»vt<mlker *i\, 1HK9/' jiint 
publi'^lifl b> l*n»r KU'ii Niiftnit n«»r«ford . Ii'»^t'iii, 1 VHi, -Itii: pp. 42. Tht* 
author !ia>l |>r>'v iMU«l\ |Mibli^hi-.l ■>«>MTal arti^^•^ in pamphlet and Umk 
form, an (Ion IK in;: hi- ili"ro\tr> of tin- xiti* of th«- ifli'bratiHl Norumlie^ 
horl oil (hi- b.itik- tif < luirli- ICi\rr. « hirh |>u.-m> inttithf \tluik(ii' lU-t north 
«>f Ii>H*t«iii < 'it\ Till r«- 1.1* trail**! t-arlli Hork-. iil«-iit<tit'«l l-\ Iiitn a> work^ of 
iht Ni-rThii.! M .iimI I ffi f* <l a to««r •n tl.t -[ n* t». « ••nm •ii.i-r.ii* tin- t\int. 
Tin* pa|" r N-ior*- ii- i nii-i-t* i-f tlifii- par'.-. "I » Ith !s tin- f i-! i- '!f\iit«-«i to 
till" aiiri'-'.ti' »■"•' ii' "f Ih.i! •!.-« •■\t r\ . tlo -•ioi:ii !•- .'nilk't* l'al\'» '*"pl> hi* 
the ij» '•! Mii An.iT.' an « ••■../rail. .■ .il *»'H .1 l\ "1 1.i tti-r<! i« fntithtl 
'"■^lorN '■' f .' h."' '\* T\ .' \-iriiniU„M Arii- nj *\\* lar'.i— t m rttt'r^ nhti 
ni««ki- iiK-i ' M. •: fxwii jiri* ii.t'iit:i i .i. I'lj*' .tinl A lltfi'nHi* in 
1 W'\. an<! I • .tr' .|.i« - *.\i*- i..i'iit .- -I- III •! N"!a:iitH ^-l.t . w htili tin* IndiJini* 
<•! Ma It! ;r> ••?•• '•• ti.:- 'ta. .i I'lfil'i.,: !'• \'ttr<tt,>, i Tin iViiokwNiiil 
Indian- •>! •» .' ■•* • .i" . . •.' j.* Tt .i* !ia\ i^mI- f -• • ic-n •■f .ln^ ri\«T ir hn h 
1 1«*» !»••(«•■«-:. :a '.»;.■»• -t M .»t« rf.i'.k- (In -ii-.n-i pail ••! lJ»f •••ni|iolind — 
*i'j* a'** .iv •■ rt-^ rni'.' *■' wa'^r a;.! J»«int: .i!. .iM-r* \ :ali"i. ■■! ^y*\7^ YiA- 
i'*%\\\'i tt.i (ii*l>>r\ of th«* 't.otr.i t w !«.• \. > •irailH^i !•> th*- t 'lotrif^ Kixt-r. the 
aiitli"r f.J.a". nj-n ••!'.:- 1- ;■ II'* il" .n- rij-* ■•r ;t. • .• : f.i.T.ij'li- vihirh 
riiiw A'l 'rn- !li*- I'lVkfr |>r*-i i->i..«i v tn«-nt ."i.i ■! 

\n"".'r .j-'-'at.'. .irjir. ■• 1 i-tr.i?f. : ■.'•... .r •■i. •: :l.« ^i^I»l•• iiMb- 


fktiicsAble author i^ "Th«* IVuliU-in of tho Ndrthiiion A Ifttrr to Jiidifi* 
Duly, th«* imtihtenl, on tho o|tinion of .Itwtin Win^vir that. tlif>ii;:h Scamlin- 
AvianN may liavr reurtic*) th<* fihtin*K of lAhraiUir, tli«* mmI of tli«* l;niti'«l 
Stjit4w hiir* not on<* \<'«ti};t*of thfir |>n*m*n<v " ( *a ii 1 1 >ri •!»:•*. Wilkin IH89, 4to: 
|ip. lU. with A pnifiihioii of oM an<l rf<*ent iiia|i« ilhi-ttratin^thc |NMiition^ of 
the NorthnuMi. an*! two hrliotyiNfi a^ frfintih|»i<i-f. of thi** an «Mlition wuf 
nit** •itrii««k oir for |»rivat<» rinnilatinn. 

Iii.\*Ki«MiT Lwiii Aoi: --Th<* llv\. .h»hii William Tim**, of thi* (*hun'h 
Mi;«^ioiiary So<-i(*ty. ii* i«tationi*<l in the* ili«M^TH' of (*altnir%'. i*u the* ( ana«linn 
l*a«*itli* iLiilriiA'l. amon^ thf llhirkftMit ln<1ian^. *^*uth of thi* raiirrmil Ma* 
tion thi-^i< Iit«liun** an* i»lHt'i*il on a n*«<'rvatiiMi. not far from thv I'niti'il 
Stati> iMMtmhiry. Lite (*h(*y(*nnc an>l .\ra|>ahi>. their lantr up* lN*lon;^ Up 
thi* Vli;<tnkin xtoi'k. anii ha** )M*«*n -tihlii**! Mion*«lilik'«'ntly liy M-h(»lan^ than 
tho^i'of th<* tri)H'^ ju>t m<'Mtion«*4i. IU*v. Tim** ha** i'«ini|MiM><I a "tirammar 
an<l Ihrtionary" tif thi«* Ian>niitf'* '••'•hi* ti«*«*of nii**ionari«*». ^'h^Mtl-trafh^-r- 
aml tithi'o. \«hii h h;u* Uvn |Mih!i-hi*«I (l.sVh in l<on>loii in I'M pa^^-H. ll*iiio , 
ami -ti'»\v*« a more M'irntillr arran;:t'ment than thf ^nimmar^ ••( mo^t 
iiii.o-itiii iricN iiii«1 (-hun'hini'ii. lit' tiioilotly ralli* hiniM-lf thr "«'oni|>il<T"ol' 
lh«* woik« an«t iliN*" not a^-pin* t^* tht» lofti'-r fpithH of an '"author**. Thf 
:i«*itMil«'l -yllaliltMif a w^r 1 i- in.irki-il hy th«* :i4'iiti* : th«* laninia;.i' i« urittin 
hy m«*iii« of liHitMi Icttrr*. an*l lat'k- t!ii' •«<»nant^ h. *i. vT. v. thi* trill** 1 :ifi<l 
r. an>I thf a««w f. th. •Iht f\i*i-pt kli. Mliifh ap]H*ap( to Ik* thif < it rniMii 
Mini «-h Hy thf formation of thf plural Ihf animati* ni*un i^ •liMi:;;nh^h«<l 
froui llif inatiiiiiatf, ami tiif inrhvtioM of it is fllVi'tf<l in the '•uhjt't'tiM'. 
ith|ii-ti\'' aii'i p'i'i*i--i\f i-a-f- l»y tin* a-Mition -tf »>ynta«tir ••Ifiiifnt-. whili* 
thfiitiiiii it»>ilf rfMain*> unrhan;;«il. In thf tir»t )h r*>4iii nf tlif plurul. tin* 
prouM'tn- .in<l thf Vfrltx |i.»..^*^., an ifii'lu-nf aUi! an f\flii»i\f ti*rrii. I*y 
pn'ti\atioii an*t -nlli\ali«in a t*on«i>l«*rah|f iiuuiInt of tfnM*^ .in«l iii<-!t- :ir« 
ftiniifl in thf \frl> Mat-, -tai-. miu-. pl:ii*c*«l .iftfr thf xuhjfvt-iiroiiiHiri |ir«i- 
•Irni- .1 nfjT.itivf int1i*«'tio;i itf thf vfrh. flu- f«>ii|iij.itiiin i» th h in f"ini-, 
the iniran*>ilivf \frlt U'inu* intlfft«*«| t-nnifMhat <)itlfrfntl\ than thf tnin«i> 
ti\(*, aii>l pniliah!y tlir |t:ira'l:^in« of Tiiii'* 'lo n>it i \!iaii»t all tin- imx-iltilitif* 
of thf lankru:ii*f in that •linitioiK Tho •li>'ti«inar\ rtiiitain- oiiI\ thf Knirli^h- 
lUai'kfiHit. imt tht* l>Ia«*kl'iH»t Kneli^h part. ;iri<l lo.iv fUihraif alMiut 'Ji> 
tf'rrif* of thf lankTua'jf, ^\i\' h ap|H*arv to 1m< \«Hiili<- lut'l not nf a \*t\ *\\ih' 
I'ull pr<«nunt-iatp>n V-i jwr: i.f ^Tiptun* l.:i> a* >ft Utn prin1i*«l in it. 

K»« i:\T AiMiitK- \:\ hi: K»:\n/ P.ii\- - Thf Itriii^h \-*or:.itiin fi-r Tl.f 
\<l\an'*f iiif nt oi >ririii'f |.:i» Dthlfrttiki n iii\ f-ti :.»:•! h-ii^ ^n tli« ]>li\ *!• :i! < hui - 
a<'ti*r«. Ian.«niHk:i*ii. ihf in<lii*<tr;a) an<l «*iN'ial • ••ii.l,t)>'ii •>!' :hf iiitrThwi^tfrn 
trilN'* of tfo* I>>»tiiiniitii of <*.iiia>l.i. aii<l will p'iMi«!i o |»irt*> on ihf -aii.«-. 
Till* riiriiiiiiltfi* h.f* -•■»-Mrfil tin* MTvifi— of ||or:ttii> ILilf. }\*\ W i]***i\ tif 
>4iilt Saintf Marif. i'f l^r. l-'ran/ I*micl«. anl ••tlnr^ The rt-)i>*rl on :].*' Sti»M.^ 
nr Sirr^r^ fwiuin*. hy ItfV K K. \Vil**ui, i«« i*i>ut.iwi<-<i ;n ihf foiirM. Mi-»rt of 
thi* oi>:oiiiitt«*«*. aU'l i*i»nt.i.n- thf ir fthno^raphy an<l a \o«*;ihii:.i' ■ >.; Ml->itf 
lV)t«*riii<i oil tw<>lv<' fM;r«"* riit-^* In>liaii« Ulon^ t>i iln- Tmti*- r.i!iii'v of 
Northfrii Initiant Tin* -anp' rf |N»rt i*«*ntain<« * *!iort al»"trait ••! il.f tra\f!4 
anil in%'i>tiK»atiiin« math* hv I»r Iloa* in .luufanil .hsly. l"*****. an.-'ii/ tJ..- 
In^lian^ of llip n'»rthwf-t «• M-t an^l iIi'mm* nfan— t io tIo* Uiplir "f thf 
ITnitr«i Statf^. Thr rf^ult- »>( **u* ttf hi* pn'\ joiit. tri|i- .iff i-mU ■>!>•■•! m 
hi" arti' !••, " Thf In*lian- ■•f Uriii-h '"'iluMihia. prints**! in Tran*.ii-t.-.n* "f 


th«' Koyal Sh ii«ly of CunaHu, St^^'tion II, yy*. 47-.S7, of the volume of 1H8K. 
Thi<< n*[»<»ri in itiiiiily (lealiiii; with iiiyth<il(Mry. hut rontiiiniiabm comparmtive 
Uhles4 on liii,< iiHtic<«. Further t'oiitrihiilioiH hy Dr. Ikwt* to the knowledge of 
tht*^* Wf^ttTii ah iriicineM, whirh un* Hcill in a cDmpaniiixtly primitive c«>Ddi- 
tioii. iin^'ullitil hy thi> (*onta4'l of whiti*u<tv<*nttirerH, anMhc following: **The 
Iloiii*«i< of the Kwakiiitl IndiiinH, British Cohtmhia/' in "I*ro<*t*edinpi of 
Tnited State.4 National MiiHiMiui." 1S88. pp. PJ7-21H, H°, and profuitely illuM- 
tr.itcl with Wi)od-<Mit8 of hoa^'C'i, totem-|K>st^, f^hloH. hoti*io-fiaintin}r* and 
?«imilar tMiihleiiis of «*thnoii;raphir value; a 1 ho, ** Not en on the Snanaimuq/* 
in AmfrvHin ArUhrop'tl'Mjist for OctolMT, 18S!», pp. .'^21 aJM, deK'rihinf; their 
loiMtiotiotian i nf^r I*u:^*t Siunil, their iii')rtuarynHtorfiM,|*«'iitc^,|M»tlat4*hef«, 
weildini;^, main deitic*t«, and nOatin^ twu(*f their ni>thh. 

Another artiele, *'f^kimo TnU^ and Son^/' puhli>he<l )>y him in the 
Jo'trn-tf ftf Amrriran >'>/l:-/y/r^. (.'amhridirt». Ma-** , pp. I'Jil 1<I (year ISS1»), m 
repruiuciUp; Hume teitn ohtaini**! bj ilie authi>r unions; the liatiin I«and 
lriti.»<i. The interlinear tran^tlation of the t4*it i^ due t<» ll«>ndrit'k Kink, to 
whiMuthey were M.*nt for the puqaaM*. but the dialeetie note^ and ethno- 
t^niphic elut'idation^ are written hj Dr. Hoan. \ t^nm, "The ICeiurninK 
Iliinten*," euneludeH the inHtrurtive (Ka|)er. 

Tlie liAh reiM»rt of the oommittee of the .A«iKo<*iation eontains .i " Fir^-t 
<M*neral l^'^nirt on the Imlianii of BritiHli Cohimhia/* )>y Dr Fran/ lUmt*. 
r»triitl«i« ethnology, nmiatoloffj an* mytholniry, it o^ntainn uh^tra«-l^ of the 
^ranirnar of Tlin^it, llaida, THim>*ian and Kuti>na4ia or Kutem*. No itram- 
nuir had rvii Ufii publir^hed of the^e lan^ai^ei*. 

\n .Kniiknt Mkxii \^ IlR%t> DuNHi.- -.\ «t.itely pluin«Ml ornauK fit. pn*- 
HTVetl m ihr Ainhras iMllt'i'tiiMi at Vienna, .\n-iria. k»nve to Mr* /««lia 
Nutt.ill ari op|Mirtiinity f«ir virtoriounly dnprovin^ the >tatfnit>iit itiaili' by 
the lat>* l'r<>fi-«i*<or v>n Ilix'h-tetter (IS-Sh. that tlie itrnanieiit in ipH-tioti 
}***rvf 1 a^* .1 ••tnii'tapl Inirne in war-eampai;;n^ by ihf kinir' «d aiu'it'nl Me\- 
jnt l!«T nM-inin;;. .1- l:ihl di>wn in her artirh*. ">fan^lard or neail-t!ri*T*»». 
I'te ," in .in ftlra «if thf PfalHwIy MuMMini. < '.unbri'ltfr. Ma-^ai*hn-ett«i. 
m*t«ilH'r. I"^'*'*. .llu^trali* I with f»irtr-«'i3C «'o|or»-il .{f-ii^n-, -ri-niii X»i Ira*! mn- 
• hi*ivrly t I the rt-nll thiif th«» '*j»e<Mal orn.iMifiit wa- iM.riie. n"t a* von 
M'H li-t«':«T :!i<t>ijht. !»<*iiin<l thi* 4houldt*r. b'lt at r.»— < tS<- heait K«*pIyinK 
r.ttip- l.i-lv - .ii...|:i't I ••?:it«-nit«nt, !>r F^lwar-l Si'1»t, in nn article eiitithHl 
" Aitm**\i- aiji-i lo-r 1<i hniurk uiid Mtxnait. K.iii/.il»/iii-hen iiii AII- 
;;fini'inen" .iti>I pr.iiti-d in ' \'«*rhAndliin<«'n dt r .Vntlirop i<>^'. <ie(><*ll?H*h. von 
jH-rliii. JanUitrv r.<. l^'^ « ". inchiif* \tt the ••pinh>n that Thf ••rnanifnt wan 
a'^•u^t^• I ! I tl..- JhmJv in filher wuv Iii finn« rtii>ii ^ith thi*. Dr. S«»ler 
):i\f^ All •• %ii.iii"f i\i* ^iirvfv iif th** nniltitii'b' «if \artr-j-.iti*«l armors, ^hieMn 

and hiM 1 ir ■> \i->rri **\ thr ^Il'li'-a:) • li r- and !>ra\« •*, Uith in 

war an 1 .r r>li."<..|. I't-tvaU lie imm tift n*fr»-h trufii tfi^ioi! hi* fair op- 
|Niiuiit :!i' -•■;:! 1 . 1 !..••' t^ ab-tain rr*»ni iiitr>id';> inj into tb« w«b<»fher 
i!ili*rpri*t;«ti'-ii- 'lit- -fiikv ■•lfin« nt I'f '■ili'tiTiuiiiittivr •ikrn** In "piteofthr 
e\ten*i%*' *>'.ii l.**- wli.ili f-.k< b ••: tb«' mntf^tantp* evidrntly made u|ic>n the 
p'lKjiNl. ri«-itb«r ••••li'l b:ivf U-f'ii aaart* **f tin* eiintt'inf I'f iiiuny »4ti!pturrd 
bii«t^ and ••taliii*^ found in ('••pat) un^l Mf*tii'*>. w bh b. in fart, eihibit the 
ViM'iiia piinna.'** ortiaiiJ*'iit jii»l ^iHiki-n "f in ail it** -j-^fial featured. There 
it I- ri"i fA-ti'iit*.! Itibiiid tb" •h«>iiMfn«. bnt rt;:bt <i\r-r and jrni«« tlie hea<l. 
Ml-' .i» a*-«-r?«d t-\ Mr* Nnttall. rhei-\«iti*:«iiM»f tbrif i^ilun**! platei> in her 

MN^irisTIC AXI» l*miN(KiKAniK' M>TF>. IW 

artirlf if* »i|iUi|iili«l ; aihI S«*l«*r'i« |Mipi*r conUinii Hiity*nine illui«tniti(inii in 
bUu'k. wliirh (*oiir4»r an Acriiratc idfu of the ohjm-ti* <lti>nimHHl. f Sote by 
f'nift»rM)r I'h. J.J. Vnlcntini.) 

Tin: (*fit NTin M|- TiiK i)i.i> lltAiTMK lifti* lift* n. in ISM^ rxpIoriHl for iu 
aotitiiiititii liy Or. K^iwanl Si-1«t. In CortcsV time that iliptrirt wiv morr 
rvtcncivoly (*iiUivAt(><J thnn it in m»w, anil a largi* niiniWr of niinrd U>wnf« 
ami «Mti<-H art* lyini; un<ii*r the M»il. Many M>H*a]U*«l curs ami curciiio§ project 
atM>%-p it; hut tilt* thi*ory of the natives, that they ctrntain ^raveii, iii not isrner- 
ally V(*ririiMl. The wlntle valleyii of Narmnjon, of (ff«Uinai<, and |iartK of that 
of !(>•» V«Ttle art* full of icuch niinv. The decay of that ouintry, now po 
«U*ii«il;iti\ |in>l>aMy l)egan with the ei|iC(iition which Oirtcx le<l a|{ainiit 
them. A larp* nunil»er (»f M*ulptun« are m»w (liiH*<»veriM|, n^pre^entinK men 
and woiiM'u with btnirular drewM*** and emhlenifi. Seler (nmNiden* the llu- 
•jixt**r riviii/atiitn a^t couHiderihlv atlTancHNl, but entirelv ditfcn^nt from that 
of the Nahua and the Mayan (of Yucatan) and n*pni*tfntinK a Nunewhat 
(•iw(*r di^rrer of culture than the two latter unei*. 

L. AnAMM t'liiAi'ANiu' !.AM.i'A«tB— The rhiajiami- wai« formerly i*|Miken 
in tM-viT.!! ili.ilei'ts and ha^ its name from the Mexican State of Oiia]ia*>, 
whrr«* it !•« "urvtvitik; in a limite<l diMrict up to thi<« day. At the time of 
the t-iiniph-ft and xincc then it never ppn^ail over a lar^e territury, which 
Oivniiii;- lor th«* fact that the lllifi^ionariefl have Iffl hut little material for 
It" "tn>ty. I.ikr thi> majority of the American natiouh. a ]iart of thit^ people 
mit;r.i!fti •niuanl aHcr M*vMu«*ntation fmm the main tnlie. in ih** dirit-iion 
of till* IX,- iif tin* I' intihiMitand ••ctth'^l a:* (^hi>rot4V'in'< or Man'^Ul•^' in ^hat 
»•* Mi»w i .illi*«l Niranic'ia, wi-hteni part. There the late l>r. lU*r««ndt fnund 
a" tin* I r i.i-t ri'iiinant* xome idd |K'np]«*, i»in(*e deciaM-«l. mho nintnd^rid 
«-niMi^'ii itf llifir lanKTUUL'e to «<hom the cUn>«* <*(»nne<'l ion mith th<' (*hia|4in4*«' 
• f riiiapa'^. Pr. iU*reMtltV li*<t ma** pullli^h«tl hy I)r. I>. Ilrint«*n. < Anu>ri(*an 
rhil<>*^>phii'al ><Micty nf riiiladelphia .an<l iK|Mirtly re^priMhict'il hy !«. Adam. 
IttTriidt - idta that thi- Manpie ii* the "mothrr tongue" of thf i*hia|ianec i»( 
rhiap.t*- i-i»p|Ni>.«-i|iiy L. Adain.whorefenit<»aii:u'Hfl;:t'iif the historian Ki me- 
«u!, and ii.rntiitnH a di\i^il•n nf the Man}»ue»> into thni* *<i>cti<tnf*. whh-h may 
ha\«- ppNiiirt^l chanL'e^ of dialect. The earlier pulili«'atinn*' uihiu the Chi- 
.-iimni't' U'li);: f-Mind toointain many unintelli^ihlcptatt-itivntH, Adam A\ailc*l 
hiiiiM'lf nf iMii •li'Viitiiinal nmnu^Tipti* of Father J min Nunc/., pn■^crv«'4l in 
thf "U.!>!i'it]M- pic Natii»nalc ilc Fram-e". date<l I'kCl. and threw f^itme unex* 
fM^-tfd hi;ht n|M»n |Niint«( that had remaim*d cd«>4*un*. The ^e^ult4« of hii* 
^tudii** wtTc print4'«l hy Haider, at Vienna, 1Hm7. antl hear the tithv "\m 
Linjii* (*hi.i*i;in«-pie. nh<M*rvationi« ifraniinaticahf*, v*M-ahulairt* metho- 
«hipi«-. Text*-!* inedit^ <of Nunexi, Text«fi retablifi |nir Lucien Adam" (p|»- 
117 . Th«*^Tia;:** in ipiite vm-alic, but hai* a tendency t«) na^ulixe certain 
«-on»N>nantM Hhich Uvin iiyllablen. Several |H'«*uliaritiefi make the laniniag^ 
a very intert^tinj! Mudy to lintnii^tii- Thup all nounik have a nt>n-|»oMierHve 
anil tt»«i |Mj»M^«ii\e fornif* ; one of the latter almayii liefcinninj; with m- <ir 
D-, U-ini; appltf^d to the noun when (^>nnect<<ii mith one of the three permnn 
«if the |HiaM'»«ive pmncMin ^inRular, and another n*ferrinir to the three per- 
*tiUKof the plural only. That the ploral of the noun i» not dii^tinct from the 
*iniriilar in m«»tin»tance9.orthat there ii^ an exclusive and an tnclnaive plaral 
ill the (ir^t |(enK>n irr . are factii tiAen olwerved eWwhere aUo. But that 
ffherv' are three iren'hfii in the noun i« rather Ptranire and uncx»ntni4»B. f >ne 


arier of thuiH* wurku such m can not f vily lie Het snide. Among thoM» 
im p rwionp, the strongest wv thw: that the Moand*builden( of Ohio ware 
greatly superior to any tribe of Imitans which had ever been known to 
inhabit that particular region. This is an impression which Dr. Cyms 
Thomas has undertaken to remove, but has hitherto undertaken to remove 
without touching upon the }iarticalar point which was at issue. <>f oooiae» 
under the r i mi mstances, there would lie consideraMe curiosity to see what 
he would say. The result, however, is as we have said, that the book is 
vindicat4*d ami the first impression is ren-stablished. \V«* do not say that 
I>r. Tlioiiia*« intends this, but we think that the majority of his readers 
will U* <*onvin<*e<l of it. While the chief of the survey states a theory, the 
^urveviir under him states facts, and the fmrti^ seem to contnulict the 
th«Hjr\ . The tkie<»ry it* that the Mound -buildem mere Indians, but the UeU 
M*eiii i»t show that the works wereerecteti with a skill unknown to Indians, 
and hr.Ttioinai* it* ohliire<i toFuy (whirh he does landidly): The first question 
whirh prtiM»nts itself, in view of tht*se larti*, i**. How are we to reconcile 
them with th«* tlicorv that the workn wen* built liv Indians. This is 
trrtainly li<»ni-^t. and we are to admire I)r. Thomas f<»r it and thank him 
for iiaytnp A.*< much vks he does for the other side. It would lie easy for a 
rcur%e\t*r to ^i nver the work of any man and pick tiawh. but l>r. Tliomas 
•ays tundidlv the rritiriiims n'late almost whoMv t<» the want of care in 

• • • 

«*<litin>; their uifmoirs. yet their work i^ of gn*at valu«'. The rigur«*«< of those 
«ork> thi>v |H*nM>nally ezarnimHi areKt^nerally iiirni't 

TKr 'tftif .irch.t(iiit*jirfil </imrf<T/i/.— The laft nnmU'r ahirli wr ha\e re- 
MMV«*«I nf thi!> (juarterlx i^* that for Marrh. 'S!*. Thi- numlier c*ontainit a 
•>keti*li 4 if thf Historian, lli'nry ll«i\i«\ Mtth IM•rt^ait^. AImi the Manufart- 
ure and I'm* of AUirifrinal .^tone Impl«Mii«>nth. 1»y <ii'rard Fowk«'. and a de- 
iail<*il ait^iiiint «if Mound 0|nfiinjr, h\ W K. M(Htri* a iH-^cription nf the 
llflifo ill tli«- ( »hio ( '«nl*'nnial. \>\ A . < iialiani. 

I *• 

klVKi: P\VKI.I.IN«.> 

III tl.i \»,ir Is*i7 w* j.iiMi«h**d .i U-ltrr fr-an Mr II. T. i>«'»Mn on the 
»uhn«« t oi ri>»T dwi'lliii'."* Thf letter w:t- printeil .i« it wa-* written, without 
.ifiy «*iiaiu'«"* \i li.i!r\rr. At tin- iiim* wt* t<up|mip«n1 th;it Mr ("reason hati act- 
u.kil\ iii.f if tli«' •ti*«-i*v«*r\ vihi«-h he 4-l.iiniiNl hi* h:i'I. thoti|rh wergild nothing 
.lUtiit it I «l:t«Mi.ttl\ . thinkinir if it u;i> .1 kr«*n(iini' t-:iM' 4*f ri\**rdwellin(ES 
oThrr ^]*t-i ;t]]«>ii<- Mfiiihl •-•iiiif t<< h^ht Th)' Iritrr \i .t* cxtrit^ivi'Iv read. and 
t'r"U;:hi .1 ..timI tii.iii\ fii<{uiri«». f«)4-ri:ill\ fr«>iii l-!iir<i|NMn .irrh:«-ologists. 
I'll*- IttiiT \* i- .i!-.«i .iiii»t»*«l l«> Mr. Hi'nr\ W. Il.iym-. w.i- iii'tfrlfd bodily 
mt4. tlo- " N irr.i*i\«» ,»ti»! t'litu :il lli-tnr\ . ' .« ('haiitcr «■! %* hirh Mr. Ilavnc^ 
li.itj lli«- !.. %*ritf .\ft«rt!i«' Uttti w.i- in t\ |h'. Mr ('ri—«Miii mrotr to 
Mr li.i. Ill*- r«*«{iif«>liiii* thf Ictt* r In* i;;^**!. htit ii \i:i» ti»<i late, and 
•«. ir nni.t ill .1- ii w.i- wrifti'ii N«'U .ti\»-r tw-* \far* K.iXf ♦■I.ipMil. Mr 
4'r«'*->ii -I-. K- tM««lijft tin r«'*»|»«in-iliiti!\ "ll lr«»n» him-flf i-n tf thr i*diti>r 
11 Till \Mi<ji «i:t \N. maint.iinini; tint hf nt'vrr ma<l(*u*i«' tvt t)it't<*rn) "rivrr 
«iwf-liiii^'-. ' .ifii{ intiin.ititi;: Ihut h«- frinii tlif oiitiM*t t oiit.if|«.ri«il thi-m !•• In* 
ti«h w<-ir-. .iinl hr «iilN nixin tlo- i-litor to |>ro\f' to* (*\*-r wri>t«' tht* 
Ittt.T Mr ii-«^l tl.f tiTOi* "ii\i'f •im-lliii;.'*" "f "piU- •l»fl]iiii,»i» '* Tlii* pnN»f 


we are now prepared to give. It w in the shape of a letter from Mr. Crenoit 
himielf, written after his fimt letter wai« published, but before he con rlude<l 
to call the pile <lwellingH "fiiih weire." 

Th<* letter lieinnii with a note: "IMeaHo, if iKNwiblc, inneri thir iHter in 
your next iivue of Tiik AMTigrAHiAS. The l«*tter will expliiin it(>olf, and 
Tou will reaiiily approtnuto why I am anxiou** to nee it in print, nn many i>( 
our friendn on the(>th«*r Hid«* are int4*re»«t4Hl in hearing from NaamanV Creek." 
The following Ih the letter, puhliithiHl verlmtim. It millnhow thr e<{uivoi'al 
play with the original wonln "pile <lwellingH/* the mtMlifieil term "piU* 
ptructuret*/' and tht> hint tenn, mhirh he i>eem8 anxioui* to extahliFh, **ft«h 
weirn". Powihly the IrMer may refrenh Mr. Crei*Pon'i» mrmory.Mi that h«- 
will 1m* willing to a4*knowle«lg«* that he U'^etl tlit* CirM term. If hi* i« not, wf 
have nnthing mor«> to nay. 

PUiitor Am^TtntH Antt^unrtan 

1 d«cni It bi'«t tumiwer tlin>iiirh your t-viluiiiii* «iiine«if the iitiiiii-r«MM «|u«*«'Iimi« 
ttiAl have br«D aaki-d tn nicunl l<i thr \A\e iitruf^iimi at the tniiutli uf Ni4Aiii«n'« 
i*rc>ek, 1 vim ware. Thi> work of esaiiilnliiK theaf liitemtltiK atNirlffliiul remain* ha* 
been carrt«*«l <in fur thr |Nut two yi^arn by the IValMKly Muaeuiii. with many lnten->t- 
log re»ultii, an n(*«*«Hint of whtrh will !>«• ptiblHlMHl at a future day, when the maM >*t 
material t*an receive pni|M>r ntudy. Tlie numtMT of ii|ieclnien« ohtalnetl. uHiT an rt- 
tmuatUerxanilnatlon of thf l«»ralll>, numliffA WM), the miO«*rlty of wlilrh are now 
at tlie reM)*<Nly Mu«ei>tii. Thrt*f htAtion* have no far been liM'ated. and a minute rx- 
iinilnallon of th*- ^hore Ilnt> ha« not rexealed any othft*. The work of ••!•«% niinri 
had t4i !»«• dont- hv dn-dKlnir at M'ii5«on% of low water, the %it»rk N'tn^'Blow. ilifllfiili 
and et|H'ni»l\i'. run* mai* taken li«*t tn i<'\cal th<- »ite «if the dlB>i>Vfr>. m> tl.ul th*- 
enttre ni:to4 of miiteriiil (imiM tn* nhtained fitt M*ti*ntill< iitu«ly. l-'«ir thu n-uMui the 
work had t*i Ih' rarrifd nn •lurlnit th** i*ai ly da> Itjcht nf fli«* «utiiiii«*r initnth« Thr 
relic )m-41« wiTi- (Irat dl»«*o\tTi*d In tOt. nnd tiave b«N*n w<irkrd lndiiBtrlou«!y n! inter- 
vals bIik*** that lino-. l'hi'> iirr wtvt e\huu«(ed. th'- la^t liiimmt'r'* ai^rk l*(>v« h^vlnc 
y|eld«Hl hut f»>w ■(M>4-|tii* ii<«. 'Mm* iiiitiieniU* oiiKKr^tiiMiB tht4t the |itli- *irui tnrt-« wi rr 
"(iBh welr«" \* untenali!f. l{ ifif mu> Jmliei- h\ Ih** material otitjAlUfd fmni tlie tw>* 
(#ldiiit and aiiitthrr Ihi iiio^t r«'«'i-Ml r**lli' lM-d«. Th«' nrw<i|«»|ii-r« h iVf |iiiNM«hi*il nt 
tlmei««rtti |t'« ti|ion !Im- «utiiiTt. in whu-h th>- wrtd r« ha^r fvldfiitl> drawn larK*-'i> 
u|ton K«-lli r'« l.itk* |iwi-Uiii|;« fur llM-ir I'lcao .\ iiH*'tj, K •t>ri«-r, n funh'-r fr-*n% th^ 
rrufA, a«tli< rfiiiiiiti* 111 n>i wu> ffM^nihli thi l.i<*iiHtnii«- !•• d« ••( tru Kur«i|i> an lak* » 
No ii»n< liMt<>n« li t\)* tf<-«-ii ••> <trTi*r«*«l In r«*t;nrd i«Mhr |ii!f ■iriii-tiifetMiKl n*lii Im-iI* 
•urnMiti-link' ih«-tii. I Im* |iri-»riit aijtti nf n'lr ikr«-h.*<<>l<it;ii-ikl «nd •-'hnMl>ii;t<'Rl kni>« : 
filiff fiirhld* •( 1 hill l!.^> art- iif MiMirfelnal ••rtc'n !>'• on* lun •htulit « hi ha« riam- 
ine<l till* ■-•iU«-i-iitiii fr<iiii N i.tniaii «('r**i-k n'>w iiii< \hilij'.:iiii .ii ih«' lS*«l»'id> MuM'uni 
Tn* ^«r'.t«'ri>7 rh;* :• ;it •- ii t- ri-< •*l\i-it nutticron* i«'Mfr« frmn diMrrfiil riithii«lajitl«' 
ar« h i-ol'k* ••' 'J'-^if.n,: |"t*lli\i* .i"»'iri»iii •■ M».»' % \-. *■ !»• * iij; |m*i|i •• unit- d Melt nvt-r 
the WHk't f - .if Mi<' l'«-la»»rr, l»<il lit'r«* h»" »•« ^« !• » . • ».• •• »r#* tii t! Jf thi- rr|«-irt lU th» 
•.ilitf ■•« |'-i)t.i^ltM.l a' .1 filiifi d.ilf*. Ii" «li il' ■•i!i1ii> .'i !ii»!f !•• i« d< •«'( (('tliitt Kf th«* 
f:ii-|*i iiii't I 'lir .ti|; till- ■)(• il^.tti: ••|-«-rut .• iii-i .•.%'. : ^ ' ■ ••r .• * ',!• i {,.•«■■ w ||ti niuy rluMtM' 
to iii.4k< 'F,.tii Hmhonm I' 4 'i:K7>«<k>N. 

\Vt «jitiit«- \\,> \ iM/u.itM •♦f I'ri*! 1 . U T'lMi.iti . .1- i* rtMiI- m ih*- rvj*»rli'f 
tilt- l'i*.tl»-»1v Mii-«-iiMi till" \i-f\ r« j-'r*. .i!',nl»«l li^ li\ Mr t"rt*«M»ii Hr 
nk\t \Vh»ij wi- rt*«a!I il.i- >- Of Uf*. ifi'l:< uti<>fi in NorMi Alio rica 

of anWl.Mik; • \i ii r« «!.■■!« !y r»-t ti.1 Iii:,r tl.«- • t.ii.iii'i:« -M^<' '■li':< t'itt->> ••! tin* 
K ir>i{M-a!i J» •.•-. t!.' .:n|' •rl.iii**- if Mt (*r»-- -I.'- !a' 'r* w .11 U'4pprt't*ijiteil "' 
lliTr. thi'fi. wt- ii.ivi- Tilt- \i<irit "t fiii.i.iv- " .»• *»•• 1 a-l "lil*- .l»rHin|r»" in 
Till. .%Mii<' %ki\N. Mr t r* -^.•l^ -ax - ir: I - \» *U t th«*\ .in» md *"f5«h 
Hi'jr* " in Srun'-f. !iiiw»'\tr. I.t -ay» tl •■» art . r }h%Tf "pi!t- »tnirtiiri-a." and 
that ' piif -tru* tun- h • .ih- tl.t- *a:i •■ .i- r.-J. wi.r- .m-! "ij-li vn'ir»*' llir 
•■am*" a- 'l-v' <'iid- ^^ \ .i» nt\' ' 

r>K> n\ Tin: i:rM«.n>. ii» 

[An Kztra' t from the book on " Knihlriimtic Moumlo." 

The 4liu;;niiD.^ hen* trivrn r«*|»rt^'iit u <*«*nt-H of <*tii ;;)(«*« u mm c«'«l in tlH*ir 
propter onlvr, iUv Kaiiic nnlcr as cxhihittNl on the kcouikI. It ii- an illt«■r('^t- 
iii;r neriefi, and tln're an* H«*vcrul leHHoiiH to Ik* l('arnc«l froni it. It ni!I \h' 
n<itice<l, tii>t. that th«*r«* are Kev<'ral frn>U|M in th<* MTitf*, Imt that carh i:n»ii|i 
**(«rve« a di^^tinot |»tir)M)!H\oni* lii*ini;cani*4lalM*a4'iin,anotht*ra rounril hnu*f'. 
:i thinl a burial plaiv, t*t<'.; M'^imd, there ma?* a |»rm4*tiral and a »*uiH*r>»titintiM 
ii-c f«>r earli irroup, tlie 'practical b4'iu); nianifivt in tlie ronmi niouih! iii.d 
tlif HiiiH^rstitiou** in the ellio' luoiinili* Hurnmndin); it: thinl, uhil»* tlif 
;;ruii|tii herearv in rIf>He proxiniity, yet ilitTcrmt \im> were matli* of th< ii: bi:<t 
different MuiK'rHtitionH rmlxHlie^l in tlieni; fotirtli, the rrmihination of th<- 
dilTen*n*. ^n»iiiH into one Horics brin^r* U^forf ur* tin* dilffrent ^u|H•r^titioll^ 
and <*U9<tom<* which eat'h clan xt* ttupiNWMl to have iMulHidicd in the efh^itp. 

The practical chanu^cr of the cHi^iei) can U* Ifarnc<l fn>ni tht- -tiidx 

of the map. Se«* I*late XIII. Here on one fide of the lake we ha\e eiplii 

^nmiH* ; of tlif*!4«>. nuiidK*r one i^ mi hittiatcHl im to **h<iH it to Ik? a liMikout. 

NuniU'r two in on the low land and (^»n»<i-<tH of corn-hill*. The thiril i> a 
i;roiip iifelti^iec ri*f4enibl in k^t^kiirdr* similar to tho««> deM-rilied b> l>r. I^pham 
at Mayville. The fourth in a In'acon and altar like th<>M*nn Kltiu'v Kidtfe. 
Ma4lii*4in, ■•M'e tiiriire 17'» > The fifth anii *>ixth are elti;:ie> uf tiirtlen and 
bird;', furnmndin^' duck or li>h iNind^. The >4'\enth repre«4'nt.- platf(»rni 
nioundrt Kurn)und«il by etli;:ii*?«. whicli we call a (-nunfii Ii«»u«e Tlie ei^rhth 
i') a trroup of burial niiMinili< ^nianleii by elIii;ie^. l^'twei'n thelMirial mound- 
and th«* iv>uncil hou^e there in an o|K*n hpa4*«' uher«* iit»i»ibly the vilbf^e 
may have Uvn nitiuitol. The ma|» milt nhow the relative l<N<ation : and the 
fliatrram** the charaeter nf the etliirie?! in each Lrrou]i TIh* h Ii;!iou** eleni«*it 
« ometi in in several wav^. Tlie In-atitnantl altar aie ijunrdeil b\ etl'i^ie^, and 
tlie iMuncil hi»u*>e an«i f>urial moui^U are aUo vni:ird<-«l by tilt^ie>. 

Then' an* ^roup*' in oth^r l«K*alitie> which n-en.l»le ibifr *'<»liM'r\a- 
lMrie»-"ar«"<jMiki'nof liy l>r. I^ii»ham. and "cilatb'l"" by Mr. **. Ta\lor. The*<- 
n^-mble the krroup number four. A c«»unfil hiiu-e at llaralMxi i?. hi^iken 
of l»y Mr. W. II. Cantielil. .Another muncil Immim' in;i\ !.»• fnunil al^i u*. 
lN»rt IIo|i#'. not far fri»m I'ortau'^'. Tlnt*e re>enib]f tin- ijroup numN i 
M'Ven. Hiril** with burial moundi* betwii'ii tln-ir u:nj*. aii«l tither biri!" 
«ith burial m«»unil« at the end** of their Hin;.'^ are t'lHiini ii •>< vtral ptai't-**. 
The-*e n*>eiitble the burial m »und- n*pre»i«nt«»«l in ^rouii ei^rbt The writer 
ha** ili-n'ovi-reil ethi^i""* -imilar to tlo*^- at iN^rt ,\iidri*w-. in Uirhland 
Tountv. Ib^re the ?*>i.i1liiw i- them<»-t conimi>n ethk'v, ^h'l^%ini; that it wai* 
the rian emblem ol the n*k'i«»n. One ^roup cnntainint; a **i«alIow with 
burial and l'>n^ niouiiil- make*: vihat mi^'Ilt Ik* calleil a "NUTeil endottun* *' 
The f-wailow MirnnMint- a knoll or i-iolateil ^vkvU of ^rround %ihi«'h )ia(* tht* 
•ha|M' fif u ^wall«tw m it!M*lf. F^ch win^ of the«vialli>vi terminati-r in a o^n- 
a*al mound which m •W<*«ia ^>rt of knMb for the tip. rK'twtfn each uini: and 
the iMMly i«i an«>ther burial mound. The whole ^roup v«<>iild make a M>rt f>f 
••ArriNl t*nrl<*fure ri-*<-mbliiik; the i-itjKh'l in Kjik'lv Ti»wn*>hip. It i» fonn<l at 
the i*nd «»f a liMiL' line <if !«wallow ethi;if<«. ithirh extenil f<ir a iui\r and one 
•|uarti*r to^^anl the e.i*<t Thi<* lint* ^f i'tli>;ieh i> Mtuattil **n the bank of th** 
river, U-twin-n th«' !ii^!i blutr an^l the river, and i- tiverl»M»ked by the nia>l 
fri»m IliH**.dMd t«» Port Andrew*. The entire line of elliirie>, with the ^n^iup 
at the fud. rciuiiid" oue of till* rtN'k in'^*riptiiin«> in .\ri/<>na -tv fi^ire Ii*^ 
The writer wa- i!npr»*»-e*! with it« n*liiriou«( -ii;nilit'an«'i< Then- are buriaf 
motin t** ^niirib**! by etVuie^ on tlie Wf<«t ^ide ttf I^ike K<»>hkontin{r: but on 
the fs-i ••ide ifien* -eem** to have Uvn a cUn villa;;e or a pla*v of aii»i'nibly 
forM'\eral clanM. It in nn^vrtain what elan <HVupi«il thii< i^\fA. but turtle 
••tli,n«"i« imiloininate. then* (K*intr ten of tliem, mhite there an* onlv tivt* or 
•♦1 ea|?le-. iSt* jip. 1<»S. rJ6. LMl. 24**, 1».V». IT J 



lU Al.nKKT S. <iATM'llin-, WAMlllMiTuN, I>. C 

Hi?«nm^ OK Amkbu'aV i >l*kii> vbu\ —In a <tenuAn weekly of New York 
rity, HHlHruiiMrhra JuurwU, JtiliuM |[. SUckeiiiann in now publbhing a lonf 
hfrial on the above subjeirt, which, in view of the approaching centennial 
i*elel>nition, \» at prem^nt iniltivated more than ever. Many of the publica- 
tton» are merely old n>|K)rtif |>aMted toipether m> oh to ap|iear aF new, but 
others are foiindtil ufton original rewarchei*. From the Hpecimcn Iwfore u»t 
<-«>ntAined in the numlier of Derember 5, 1880, it would appear that Starke- 
niann it* better aci|uainted with the I^tin and Scandinavian originalv 
omtained in lUifnV "Antiquitaten Americarni*" than many men who have 
plunged into the Mme etudien. The chronicles relate that Leif '« lettlemaot, 
railed l44*ifbudir, war* in Vinland, where on the thortent dav of the vear the 
hun rt>fe iit 7.!H) a. h and ffet at 4 'M) i*. n. Knim thif Stackemann ameluden 
that Vinland (*ould only have Xtavii in the latitude of Narraganaett Bay, and 
that I>etfbudir |in»)»ably lay near Nrm|M»rt. It. I. t*<in<-ernini; llelluland. 
\i/.. **rv>ck} rijiintry." <iur author Wlievep. with otherv, that it in identical 
vkiiU Nefkfnundlniid. and Mitrklnnd, i»r " w<NMhil mtintry," uith u |>«*rtion 
«»f N«»\a Siititt. 

TiiK I*i.<M<i\Ku> <•! 1IIK A\<ii:m ( *i r% •»» Nmim MitM.x furiiif till* hubjm't 
t>f a 'M'omuiiiniratioii til th«' rrif(iil«*nt and Couiuil of the Ainericmii <•<*<»- 
tn^phiral S«>cirty. at their newion in Wdtrrt<iwn. NoveinU'r 21. 1H89,** jiial 
puMi*«h«-t b> l*ri»f. KUmi Norton III »n<fonl. |{4r-ton, iy*(». -Ito. pp. 4'i. Thr 
uuthiir hud pri>viiMi<*l\ publihhi'd -«*\cral arti<-U•^ in |ntniphlrt am) tMiok 
form. unnMniK in',; hi^ ili*H'(»\«'ry of tht* xit** of thi- c^'lflimteil Noruudtega 
Korttiii tin- Uirik*' of < harlt-o ICi\er.iK Iiirli |*iftriM> into thf \tUiiti«* |U^t north 
of |i«ii»tiin (*it\ Tht-rt* )i«*iru« ***1 fiirtti -HiirL-. iiit-ntitiol !•) Iiiiri a> work;- «>f 

thf NortltiiK M .md < r«M t*ti :t to«i*r i<ri th* -)Hit t nin.«'riii>«- tin- «'\i'nt. 

Th«» IMlp«T N'lorr u- » i»ii-i-t- tif lhn«- part-. «»! vk hh li thi- r:i-! i» ilrvottNl in 
the atin<'UiM f;iii tit **f diM-ii\«-r\ . tIm* xtinnil !•• .Iuili:t* I>ui>*» r«'pl\ mm 
the )*ri*-i>l«-iit ••! Tilt Aiii«*ri«uii ( ifi^mpK.* a! >«'4-i«tv 'lln- ttiiril i« entith<«l 
">»tor> ''f !}•• l»i-« .\if\ «'! NoniinU';:-.! ■ Arni-ii;.' Mh- tar!:r*t writi'r> nlm 
iiiakt*" nii-i!;:i>ii ••! t.ivkn hti* r.iriii**nti«-r in l'>jv and All<-f«>nf>ri* in 
IVt.'l. anil .1. • .ir!* d.i\- tin* rutin- 1- •►|*«-!I«-.| S'lIatiilKv'^o-. wliirh the Indian^ 
• •f Muui'- |'r«-i'r\i '«• till- *\.%\ . u •••T'liii); !•• \'tir«iiiit;i Thi lVnol«in*l 
ln«liaii- "f •»•!■■« ii ■. I* ■ -.i'l'i';! fh.i* iia\ i«*al>.t' •• 'tioiff .iii\ fi\i-ruhi«')i 
lii^ lH*t«**«'i. tM • rii|ii'i* ••! vA.iti rf.i!i-. tht- Mt..|iil |art ff thf • «tiii|i<»uud— 
'•lyi .i!w.iy- r»'f. rnii,* ••• wati-r. .ii.<i Iw-ing ati ahbri-x tatiitn "I -i/ij/i Kol- 
I'lHiniT tti«' lti»t«ir\ of thf tli-trMt vkiiii )i 1^ 'IraiiKii 1>> tlif t 'harU** Ki\cr. the 
autlmr tiiial'v n-pr*"!!:* «•* p 3*' \).*' .ii- ript;>»n i.n • \« i<.ir.i;:r.ip)i» ahirh 
no« a«i'>rti'- th«* ttiwrr pri'»it*tij*(\ iitfnti<>iti->l 

\n"-fj»r .:ii|-«rt.iiit and ii»t'.*. . !'i»«-«{ {■i;''-!.. .»'.i»i: .if Mo %«(nt* indt*- 


fiUi|liU)le ttiuhor if'. "The PruMnn of tlie Northiiit'ii. A li*ttor to Judtri* 
Daly, the* preHiilent, on tht* opinion of Jtmtin \Vin««or tliiit. tlioiij^h Scanilin- 
AvianM may have rrarhcMl the* ithun^ of lAhniih)r, tho mul of th<* UnitcHl 
Htatm hiM* not on** vc*j«tij:o of thrir pn*>«t*n<v " Canihridp*, \Vil«K»n IHW, 4to: 
pp. :U, with a profiii«ion of old un<l rct^nt nm|vs ilhifitratin^tlii* iMiHitionn of 
the Northmen, and two h(*lioty]>c>9i an frontii«pic4V. of thi^ nn nlition waii 
a)M> 4tnif4c off for private rin illation. 

Ih\4Kr(M>T h\N».i .\<ii: — Thf Rev. John Williani Tlni!«, <»f tin* t*hurrli 
Mij4*>ionary So4*it*ty, \n Htatione<l in tlie (liiN*i*m* of (^ulKarv. on the Canadiiin 
Pac'itit* Itjkilnmtl. ain<»n^ tilt* KhirkfiNit Indiann. S^mth of the railroad Ma- 
tion tht'M* Iiidian*^ an* ]»la(*f*d on a n**:«*rvation, not far from thv I'nitiil 
StAt4i« Ummhiry. Mke (^lieyenm* and Arapaho, their lanfria^t* tielon;^ to 
the AlK^'tnkin ^t'M'k, and ha*« )>een xtuilicd more* dili;ri'ntly hy M'liolam than 
thrme of till* trilH*^ jiiM mrntionnl. Itev. Timf« lia*< t^imiMixnl a "<iranimar 
and Jhrtionary" of thin lan)ipitip* for the u^H'of nii*Mionaner<, {■eh<M>l-t«*a<*h«*r^ 
and otlicix. uhirli hiu* Uvn pul»IUlh*<l (isS'.); in I/milon in ItU pajji'h, ll'mo . 
an<l >>liow«« a inon* si'ientilit* arran;;4*ment than thf ^nimman* «d mo?>t 
iniHpioii iri(*ri ami rhnrehmrn. lie modotly calU hiniM'If tht* "(Niinpih-r**of 
the w<»rk. and iliM^M not a**pin' to the loftif-r »*pithrl of an ** author". Tho 
a(*i*enti*-l -yllahh'of a wnnl i» niarkni !»y the:u*iit(*: tin* lanjrtiak*** i* wrilt<-!i 
t»y mi*aii* of iirtt*<*n letlrr*. and l.irks ilu» !«onantM h, 'I, >r, v, the trilU 1 and 
r. and thr a-pirate?* i f. th. lili) fNn'|it kh, whirh apiH>an« t4» lie the^M-rman 
Mird i-h Hy th«* formati«in of tin* plural the animati* noun i?> diMi:.;nn^hi'd 
from tlif inaniniat4*. and thf inti<*i*tion of it in rtte('t«*«l in the «>uhJ4i'tn<'. 
ohj»«<'tivi' anil pii-i»«»«i«iv#* ra-i*> l»y tin* ailditii»n of xynturtir ••liMin-iit-. whi!«* 
thenoiin itM'lf n'iiiain> niicliani^iNl. In tli«* tin*t |H-rMin of tin* plural, tin* 
prou'iun** and tin* v<*rl»f* po— mv«*«* an im*lu*ivi» and an f\clu»'i\f torro. I'y 
pn*ti\ation and -ullixatiMU a mn*>i«i«*rahl«* miml><.>r **( tfn*'t'^ :ind miMlf« urt- 
fomii*<l in tin* \«*rl» Mat-, •<tai-, ?^in-. plaiv^l aftrr tin* ^uhjiH-t.pron«»iWi pr-»- 
dmi' .1 ui';;.itive intl«*4*tion of tin* v«*rh. rin- «'oniu«Mlion i- rirh in f«>iiu-, 
the intran^itlv<* vrrh lH>ini: inflccti'd *'4>ni«'u hat dilhTt-ntlv than tin* 
ti\e. anil proUiMy tlu* ik:ir.iilii:iii*<of Tifur* do ni»t i x!iau>t all tlu* iM>»<.il»ilitii*- 
of thf lani^iA::** in that dint'tion. The «lii-tionar\ ruritain** only tin* Knirli^h- 
HbickfiHit. not tin* r»la4*kf<M»t Knirli"!! part, and may cmhrao* alMint L*iu o 
t4*rm<i «»f the lamruavrf. ^lii«-h ap|H*ar*i to 1h< nih-uIii' anil mit of a \**r\ dilli- 
nilt pn>nnni-iation. N'» jwirt of STiptun* li:u- a- \<t Un-n printeil in it. 

iCjji i!\T .\i[tiii»> 11^ Ih: Ki:\N/ Ih»\* — Thf linii-li N-WH-i.itjnn for :ln» 
Advunn-ini'iit of Sfittii-i* lla^ umlfrtakm '.ii\ <'*>ti;:;it H'r.** '^n tin pli\ -ii ;il i Imi - 
af'terv. lan;:iiai!«^, the industrial ariil -m-ial •-••ti<l.(i*>ii <•!' thf iiortli«if»tfrn 
tniM*- «if tilt* I>oininioii nf Cmada. and w.Il puMi*!i n i«»rt- on tin- -aii.i-. 
Till* ri»inmitt«i' h;m •Htunil tin* -H-rvin*'. of IIor:iti<i Half. K«v. Wil««.n nf 
Satill Saint** Marii*. of l»r. Kran/ Iloa-^.an 1 otln n.. rinTi'|"irt on ilif Suhm.-- 
nr Strfrr /n'/i/irM. hy fti'V K K. NVjl^^m, i" <'ontaim-ii m tin* fonrth Ti«|i*irt of 
the ronimitt4*«*, and contatTi** thi'ir «'thno^rapliy and a voi*uiMi!.i;' ••!' aNiut 
IV) t«*rfu'4 on twflvi* pa^t"'. Thi'*^* Indian^ Iwloii;; i«« ilo- Titup- family of 
Ni>rthi»rn Indian^ Tlo* ••aim* ri'|wirt i'ontain*< a -hori al»*trait oi iln* tra\*-!<4 
and invf?*ti^tion» maih* hy Mr. Inia- in Junr an<l .Inly. lx*»*». anion w' tit- 
Indian^ of the north wt'-'t na-t and tho**** nrun—l to tin* Uinh-r of tin- 
IJnitetl Stat***. The n**ult^ of itft«- i^f hi* pn'\ioii*i irifi- art- fml**<lif«l m 
hip artiilf. " Thi* Indian^- of P.riti-h riilnnd»ia. printed in Tran^a.-?: .n* of 


the Koyul Sh iHy nf (^unmfu, Siiiion II, \*\k 47-*ST. of the Vf»h)nie tif IHW. 
Thi<< ri*it'irti<« 111 iiiilvilealiiitf with iJiythol«>tiy, hut rontainciUjH) coni^rative 
tahle* im hii*^ li^tic^. Kiirthi*r coiitrihiili4»n<« hy Dr. IkMH to tlie knowletlge of 
the**** w«»itiTii ahjriicinoM, whirh nrt* HCill in a romparriiiiy/v priinttive conili- 
tion, iiiHullu'*! hy tht* (*ontat*t of whitva<lv«»iitiin*n*,Ar«*thc following: **The 
lloiHi**) of thf Kwakititl Intliiinii, Britii«h (Ntlunihia/* in *'l*ro<M*<^lin|sii f»f 
rnitixl States National Miu4ouiii.'' IKHM, pp. 11)7-213. H^ ami pnifuaely illuH- 
trato 1 with worxliMiUt of hoiiHc^, totem-iK)sti4, fcahloi*. h<m*H^-i)aintinfc>* and 
i«iinilar i*riihlt*iiH uf ethno^^raphir valu«*: almi, *' Not^^ on the SnanainiUf|,'* 
in .lM/r»«-a/i Anlhrvp'd')gist fur <Moh4'r, IHS'J. pp. ,'i21 !>2H, (leK*rihinR their 
loiMtion i>n an 1 near l*a;fet S >ii n« 1, their in '>rt nary rii**toni!<.)>«*nte«t.|»ot1atohe«, 
WitMini^, main deitiei*, and rc'latinx twot»f their inytht*. 

An<ilher article, ''f^kimo Tah^ and Son^:**." piih!i»-he(| hy him in th«» 
Journ'il nf Ameriron f'^/l'-Zy^rf. (.'ambridift*. Mil-"-, pp. \'2'.\ \M lyear iss^*), ta 
reprulii«:iu,( Home teitri ohtaint*«l by the author anioUkT thr Riliin Land 
trih.»<. The interlinear translation uf the teii iff due to ll«*ndrh*k Kink, to 
whom they w«'re M*nt for the |*uriioKe, but the dialet-tie noto and ethno- 
(fniphio elui'idationfl are written hy l>r. lioa^. A Hon^. "The Id turning 
Ilunten*," rundutlefl the inHtniotiTe |iA|»er. 

The tiAh refMirt of the romniitt(*e of the A^»<otMatioii omtaiuM ;i " Fir^t 
<ieneral I^*|»i)rt on the IndiauH of Hritinh (Nihunhia/* hy l*r Kran/. lUnu*. 
rKf*id<-M ethnology, Hmiatol<»(r7 ^m mytholofry, it i*«intainft uli^trat-t^ of the 
^riiniiiiar of Tlin^cif, Ilaida, TiiiniHian ani) Kutonai|a or Kutm*-. No yrani- 
mar had «-\i-i Imi-u publi-'^hed of theM* lan>^H){«v. 

\n Anmknt Mk\i< \m nR%ii-I>K»iii. -A ^t.kt»*Iy phiiii«*«) ornaiiti-iit, pn*- 
r»«Tve»l III t!u* AiiihraM c«*lli'«'tion at Vifnna, An-tri:i. tn\p ti» Mr* Z«*ha 
Nuttall iiii op}H»rtunity fur victorioutily t||Mpn»vinK' th** -tati'iiifiii iiiudi* hy 
thi? iati' I'f'iffM-or v.m llix*h!<tett«*r (lyiSI), that tho orn.uiiint in «|Mf«(ion 
f*frvi*d a-* a "tanilard Ixirne in war-«*ampai^'ni* hy tht* kinir> of jii«-i»>iit Me\- 
it'ti. lli*r ri'a-tnin/. a* laid ilown in ht*r urtirlr, ".'^tandanl or IleaiiHlrt*?*^. 
I'tr ," 111 all I'ltra of ih»» l'i*mlNMly Muhmhii. rajnliridif*-, M.i-'-a<*huM'ttr. 
iN'toiMT, I*<^"^. illu^trati*'! Willi forly-^ix rolort-*! d»'»i;^n-, •im-iiii* t«» h*ail eon- 
• l'.i«*ivel y lo !hi* r«'-«ilt that fh«» -iMvial ornament w.i- iNirrn*. ii-t a.-* von 
II'N-Ififttcr t!f«i/ht, hi'liiii'l tlii* •4hoiiMer, h'lt .i* p»*» th^* lira.l Kf(ilyinic 
tnlhi- lad> ' .iji i.ln-tii ••tati'ineiit. I»r hl'lward N-N-r, in an arti« !#■ «'ntitle<l 
".\Itni**&i> aiii-« lor 1 ••di-r-«-hiiiii(-)& und Mcxnaii. Kaii/al»/t i«-h«-n ini All 
tf«*m»'inf!i" and J riiili-d iii '" Vt»rhanilhiiii5«*ii ihr Aii!hri*p )•»/. (ftf44'HM*li. von 
lU'rliti. .Iauiiiir> Iv. In^j", inrliticfi («» th** •ipiiii<>ti that rhi* ornaiiifnt wa« 
ad'U!*tt->l t I th.' IhmIv in »Mih«*r wav In omncrtt'in *iilh tin*. I>r. Srh-r 
•fivi't an •■ vli.i'i-ti\*' -nrvf) uf thi* riiiiitit>idf <»f xarif^Mtf-*! armors, ^hiehin 
and h«M I Irt'H-.- Hirn ^v tin* Mfxi'*an •iwuman.hT- and hra\t «*. ImiIIi in 
war an 1 .i' r>'li.'ii><i« ft— IivhU lie tiiii ii«it r«*rra<n ln>fii ^i\iitk' lii«fairop- 

|H»nrnt ill* •■'■::! 1 .i I t<i ah-tain friiiii ititr«*diii iii^ into tin- wi-h of her 

int**rpri*tati<«ii'- tlit* -hnkv ftfmi-nt i*r"d«-tfriiiinuuvi> >ikrfi^ ' In »pileiifthe 
fkten-i\** -til ill*- wli.ilt tat'h 'if the i'>>iit*-«taiit^ e\flrhtly iiu&ile u|on the 
«i|l>je<*t, ni'itliiT iiiiild havt' U-«'n awiin* of tht* «*iiftt«*nti* «>f tnany M'ulptureit 
iHi>t»anil ••taiiK** f«iund in (*«i(iiin anii Mi*xi«'«», whirh. in fa«*t, exhiltit the 
VieiiiiA pliiina;:** oriiaiiifiit ju<»t ojNikfn <d in ail it« ^i<^rial fiaturt-#. There 
It i* ii-<i fA-trnfl Udiiii'l th" ••houldt'r^. hiit rt«:ht i>\i-r and ai'nta* the he«il, 
jii«? a* a^M-rti-it h\ Mr». Nuttall. rhfi'itttrtMriof tlin-t* iiiKin**! plate* in her 

i.iN<iri>ru* ANi» i:TiiN<Mii:u*nir nmtix \2\ 

iirtirli* i- -iili'inliil . rikI Sfler'n |ia|KT i*i»nUitiiit iiixty-niii«* illiMrattoiiw in 
hlot-k. wliirh rt»nt«*r an Atviirato itlca fif llii* ohjoi't** iliiM-ii«N«*4|. iNnteliy 
IVifr- "M^r I'll. J. .1. VHl«*iitiiii.l 

Tii»: (*< 11X11:% •» riiK tM.ii HlAl-tM^ Iiah U'l'ii. in iSMii. rxplori^ fur itn 
i•^ti•|uitll•^ li> I>r. K<liraril S«-Irr. In (Ntrtvi'" tinif thut <li#tnrt wm mnrr 
«•\t(•n^l\('1y I'ultixnU'iI tlian it i** now, «ml a larp* niinilM*r ttf ruinfHl tiiwn*> 
iftn«l i-itit- iin* l\ inj iimifr th«* Miil. Many Mi-ralltit nitt and c^unUits |»ri>je<*i 
alM»v<' it; Imii tli<* tlii<<>ry of thi* nativcH, that thry i*<intnin ;!ruv«H>, ii* nnt^enor- 
ally \t*ritic<l. The wlnilo ^alleyf^ of Naranjitf*, of (inliinaf*. anil |iartr* of tliat 
of Km ViTtli* an* full of Muh riiinv. The <l«'f*uv f>f that rountrv. now h» 
•li*>t'', {•rohuMy lM*^an with thr fi|HMlition whirh <'iirtr/. i«Ml aicaim-t 
iImmii. a larL'i' numU^r of H-uliiturift art* now ilivroviTt**!, rrprtfcntinK mm 
.aiiil witiiifii with Nink'uhir firimM-M an«l rniMi'in«i. S-U*r cimfiflrnt thi* Hii- 
.a\*.'.- « 1^ iii/..irtMri a** nin!*ith*r.ihly atlvanriii. hut cntiMy ihlfi'rt'nt frt»tii tliat 
of tht* Nalitia un<l tin* Muyah (of Yiiratan) and rf|ir«-h4«ntinK a ^onlt*what 
(•iWi-r •ii-;;rfi- nf riilturr than th«* two latt«*r omv. 

I.. Ar»AM t t'liiM'ANKi I.\M.i-A«.a — Thff* ('hia|ian«t' wa^ fi>rn»«'rl> !*|if>k«ii 
in •ii.i!i*i't*« aiil ha-^ it** nuino fn»m thr Mfxii-an Stati* of Chiapa-, 
iklort'iT I- ^iirvi\ inc in a llitiiti'«l i|i**trirt n\> X*> thi- 'lay. At tht* ttnii* iif 
thf • ••n>iui -t ati'I -iiit-f tlifii it nt-vir riprra*! (»\t*r a iur^'t* t<*rritt>ry. whii'h 
.uiMiin*- t«>r till' fart thut th«* llli•<^if•naril-f« )iavf \vt\ hut Iittii* ntati-nal f«ir 
tt-«tii:>. l.:Li- till- iiiajiirity of till* Anii'rirun natiiin-. a part ofthi*> p«*«>pli* 
iiiiijra'f'i ••iiuaril aHiT Mvnii-iitation fnini Iht* main triU*, in iht* «lirt (-:ioi) 

• if I'l-- I \ ;- •! Till- .■ »*iiiii>*ut au'l •"•tih-l a* Ch'iroii-j m- nr M.injMr- m u hat 
»- n •■*• I .il'.i.l Ni«arat:'ia. UfftiTn part. Th«'rf tin* Intc I»r rtitfiiilt fnund 
;i» tt.> r i.i-t ri-iiinant" -<insr oM |i«-i>pli*. ^im't' (lvr« ar>rii, who tt im mt'Cn d 
*iii-i:.'lt ••!' ti.i ir lan;;iLi.*t* to -hovi tl.i* i'lo»>«' fonnii'tlun with thf ('lii.ipan«*4- 

• ■! ri.:.ip:i*<. I>r. rifri*it«h'<- li-t wa- ]»uI•li^hf1l hy Vr. \K r>riitti'n. i AniiT:ran 
I'hii -••pt.ii :ii "^'N ii*t\ kT I'hilaili Iphia . an«I i«< part!\ rr-pnMlurfil l-\ I. Adam 
l(< 'I h l! - ;■!< .i !La! *Jir Man^'Mi* i^ thr "niotlii-r tonL'Uf" i^f thi t*liuipan«-<- of 
t 'h:a} .1* i-««p!*>>*>i •! 1>> I. Adam, w ho rt*ffr>toaii:i*^aL'i- "f *hf hi*t<'r:an Id mo- 
-.i!. and ii.t (lt:••n^ a •li\ i'-ii'U ^f thi* Mait^ut-* into thnf »•-• ti«>n«<. m Ii:i h may 
ha\i pr'"iiiiiil I lianL*!'- of dial«-<-t. Thf rnrliiT puhlii-alson- upi>n tl.r Ch;- 
i!>,4i.«'i- ^x-.ii^' f tiiMil tii riititain many unint<dli;:ihlf r-tat* mfiit^. Adiiin a>i aiU d 
fiiii.-f ii' of l^«■• maml'<«'ript^ of Katht-r .loan Ntiiit/. pn-MTM-iS in 
thi" ■ ll.Mi"!ii'* pi" Nationah* ih* Krami'". »Iat«''l Vll',, and thr»*w ••omi- uni'i' 
tifrit d h^rht M|Min |Hiint?* that ha^t rcmaiiifd ol>M-urr Thf ll-^uIt.<« ni hi« 
otnd:*- Mi-n* pnntr>l hy iloldrr. at Vu>nna, 1s*«7. and U»ar thr title "1^ 
I. in/ I*' < 'h:a;i.iMr piiv nh-MTvationx tframmatii-alr^. \<H*ahuIalr«- niftho- 
di«|ijf. Tfxif- inrilit*« nf Nun«'F', Tfiti-* H'taMit* par I.nrirn Atlani'Mpp- 
M7 . Mh-;.nia;.'f i^^ i|Uit«* \<Nalir. hut hiu» a ti iplfni y tn na^ali/l* i*«'rtain 

• «in*t>» Mhii'h U'^'in fvliahUit. S'ViTal |H'i-uliaritiffi niakr the Ian;;natr^ 
a \cry intrrt-'tin^; ^tufly t*> lin(^li^tl■. Thiip all noun^ hH\«* a ni<n ]*«M»««'^»i\i* 
ai.d tM'i |«•^»t-^r•i\«• form^ . om* I'f th«* lattiT alwavfi l>rf;init]|i^ with m- r>r 
n , U ini! at'phfil t*' th«* noun whrn i-onnii'tctl with onr of thi* thri-«* |MTMtni« 
«>f thi* I ••«»««-»>« I \ I* prnnoun ^incuhir, nnil another r«'fi*rrintr to thi* thri*«* p«-r- 
^•fn«of thr phiral only. Tliat Iht* plural of thi* noun i>* ni>t ftiMimi from thi* 
•inifiilar in UiO^tinhtamt^^.orthut ihcrHipan rl^lll^ivl•an•l an tnrluniw plural 
m thi- tir*t f^TKin uf. arc farti* oft<-n olM'r\t*«i t*|pi-whorp al«n. |tnt that 
fh**ri- aff thrti^ t:«*ndi-r» in thf noun ip rathi*r Mrnnp* and uni*on.mi>n. '>n« 


gender compreliendu all Uvio); beinfit ; and another, calletl ticao, all inani- 
mate«, with the exception of Home objecta which belong to a third cla« or 
gemler. ThiM thinl gt^ndor comprehondfi Honie of the parts of the animal 
bo<ly, thingK of a n>iin<l shaix*, tlu* terriiH for river, mountain, tree. ranf»e. 
rky, moon, Mar, day, night, houne. 

roRTi'oi'EM: PLHitivKKin* IN C<»i.i Mill >' TiML.— ln antici|Hitinn of Ihi* 
<?oming fourth iviit<*ninul. niemoin* und other art i<*hw referring tothedir- 
i*overie8 of the grt^t ( iemK's«e are abundantly forthcoming. Many of thei«e 
are oonceive<l in a Fci(*nttfic spirit an<l ai* a P|iecimen of t<ur)i may be pro- 
claimed the nirm(»ir of Prof. Philip .1. .1. VaU*ntini, wliioh wan printt^l in 
the "Bulletin of the Now York (ffMitrraphical ScK-iety". It ba?* tin* title 
Thf PofiugxLt^r in the Triwk nj CtUumbu$^ 141)3, and waM ihHUifl in four ctaiMi- 
utive quarterly numlMTK running from INhvihImt, 1HH8, to S<*ptenjb«*r, 1890. 
pp. 83, H^ with ma IK*. The argument in the following: lMiiiH><liately afti-r 
the return t»f (\>luinbuH from bin tlrnt voyage, Joam II, Kin;: of Tortugal. 
secretly i«ent a »*4|uadn>iiof four vev^Helh t4i tbeif*landi4Heen by the diMMven*r. 
The (*4»mmanderH were ordere<l to punb on in the dirirtion <»f (''olu^d>u^' 
lK>aFte«i ''waterway to India". Tbun the raptainn reached the (*oaM of Yu- 
catan and an a recult of their exploration?* dn*w up u rburt emUNlying their 
diiH*overieH u|Mm tlie tbre«* niden of that iH*ninHula. The Portu^iivH* rniwii 
kept them* di*Hi>veri«'f* f<e«'ret, and hIh'U Spuiiianlit lAn«leil in Ymatan. 
in 15IH, tbt'V lM*lieV(*«l that lan«l had n«'\er 1n*«*ii n^'en by wbitt* inniple )m" 
fore. All tbt^e fal't^ b(*«'auh* known tbr(»u;:h later dir»iii\«Ti«'N in the libra- 
rif*i* and tin* publi<*:itu»nH rt»nHe<|tient u|ion tlie*«*. A m»p **i \^*\ viii^ 
found at M<Mt«>iia. whiib rontuin^ the ri'Milt?* of the rortugUi>«* .<«tir\ry ••! 
the Yuiatan »iMht. and b;p* in llie ^ixl^M•nth ••••ntniy U-en the protntyjK' of 
f»tber \\\A\vn iiiaile publit* in l'i<is and l'iL*>i. I>r. Valeiitini ilcvott*«i a oiM-riat 
|iaragrapli to th«* d«^eription and «'\planation •>! the tii(i)t\-twii hH-a) 
nainei* found on that map, tHoamonir them |>«*r|>etnat«' tin* nanii*- of tw«» 
I*ortUt;u«f»e ii«ilil4*«>, aihl two other?*, tliat ot (\tiiirllo and Kini|K*« h. repre- 
i»ent thi- <*o/iiiiM*ll<i and ('amiH-^he of to-tl.iy. tin* i*art«i|eru|diir repn* 
f*enti*il the thri'f »iitff ^f Yii«-ataii a- a •'••iitiiiuoiip* lint* i* pr«iUibl> tn U* 
rxplain«*«l thnHijjh th** tart that hi> .-h('«-t of {mii* r Ha- l***i«boi( iti that 
^iNiial ilir*'«-ti*in. \'aN>iitifir« artirh* li.i« Ut'ii pM!»h->h«*<l tiMt many 
interruption'-. an>l a rt|iriiit of th«* h hulf in p.-iinphift U^rm m<>>i! I U* i:r«*atly 
apprt*4'iat«*d hy -ihi-Lir*. 

TiiK Ami L%\ t \i.k ••> K%<«r» i;n I't i:i . Lii«*«in t<> n- up t>» thi« •i.i\ oniv 
by tl»r«-«* "hi^rt v^Mabiiiarii*-. ha- jii-l Jnih |>;iM'.<-l.i d m I'ari* in a fi«rni 
*>ulli( lent t<i u'i^«' <>" ^n ai*« urat** i^lfa ••!' tin- i<ii<>ii.. ('harU'f l^tt'li-n*. tb<* 
late Indian hiMi<*^raphi'r, rmnd in !'••!• -hi. ^p.i.n. a :iianti-4-iipt •x»m|H«fM-«l 
early in tht* ti«'h:f«-nth •'■•ntiir>i . u lii< h ■ <>ntaiii" a ^'raMMoar. a dutionary an<l 
iN»meilcv<iti'inaltt \t-of tilt* laiijua^-t*. Itii* .\nti ^r ('aii>|«a triln* bad l»eeii 
chriittiantZi'd «it an •arly f|xH h !•> Spani-h prif^^t*. !<<tt ha\<' ni>« almi>*t 
entirely ri'Iair-*-! .iit<« |<ap;ani«ni. \nti i« rfi.iN-'t t<» ihi* Ma iptirt* •t<M-k nf 
langiiag*^. I'hi* lai't i- t-h*:irt\ olfiMti b\ thf ruinparal i\ i* tabUf* .ri^i'n b> 
lAirien Adam, ihr «-iil«tr nf the iitaini** f ipt. » Im (rt. ni xari^n- i»lhrr M»uriv« 
hai* gatb«*n*«l alni'it 'V'» i trrin- of thi- !ank'ua.*f. Mh:> h a|'}>«un* !<• U- bighU 
|HiIy^\ ntbctir in it^ tiitb'v'tKin." and df-rMatP'ti^ 'I h** titb- i'f the Nitik i* 
'*Art»* di* la lrn*,nu d*- h^* Indn»^ An!;- ■• t'.iio|-,t-. v.iii.i- pr«-krinta*,a<lver- 
l<*»i ..i< 1 •! ••'*.rina • ri«tian.i . . . •■•••» tj v^m*' ilan* i im ;ntr<xlii<*eiitii 

LlN<insrU' ANI> KTIIN(i(iUAl*IIir Ni»rKX 12". 

roin|«riitivm |N»r [jirion Ailuiii." PuriH. Mai**<>iiiif*ii\<*, ismr st«>, \*\*. lis. 
The lNN)k foriiiH No. \III uf tli<» Miiinimnriivi'V **Aiiii*rii':in l.iiiinii'<tu' l.i- 
hrmry/' ami !!■ fur tli«* lavvt'r |uirt Hrittfii in Simni^li. 

Sn>N'K Imi-i KMKNrn.— Ill lKs.'ian«l l^Hti lir» lit riiiiiini ti-ii Kuir iiiulvrttHik 
aju(irnt*y i>f fxplnration to Siirinuin m- hiitth <iiii;iiui. ninlir tin* auf>|»i«if> 
fif I'rintf Ktilaiiil lloiia|iarti' antl other-. Wi- )):i\«' iiMMitiniifil ihi- i*x|iO«ii- 
tion in Tiik Amkicican Asriu' m:ian for .liil>\ l*«vi, uiiil an' htill r\|H*clin(; a 
t'irctiniMantial n*|Mtrt of all liin iIii<(*o\«'rii-««. The "tiuii* iniplf*iii«*nt« fthtch 
h«* nill<M*t«*<l ilicn* are niiH in iIk* inimMiin-of l.«'virn ainl lU-rlin. top'thcr 
with oth«*r artirlHM ikf tUt* *-ainr kinti .in<l riiniitry I'lttm other folhviiona. 
I'r. tiMi Kale ha- fiirnifhfil a iiet.iTi|iiii»n tin^tfr thi* tiiN': "On \V«t<i hulian 
Stone Iniplenient^ an^l (Mher hulian ll«'lir-«." in ihf "lhjilrai*en to ili* Taal-, 
lAtiil- ell VolkenktiMile \uii NeilerlaniNt'h-Iiitlie," "ith Vult^* ]V, pp. S. A 
lanri* niiinlM*r of the inipleiitenth are li^rnred fnmi th«* frfintn an<i fifliv in 
the* ei^ht phit«*H at'i'oiiipanyin'.; thi* artii-Ie. t'nii-i-tin;; t«f liateliet-i, i'hii*el**. 
H««jiher«* an«l ei»lt- 

TiiK Ai -I \M>. an ••tlmii^rapliir anti ;;e<«;fraphir Hfekly |H*riiMlit'al piih* 
Ii>h4*«l hy .1. <i. Cotla A <*it. in Stuttirarl. an«i at pn*M'ht iMlit«fl )iy \V. Keil 
in Munii-li, lia^ •tarti-tl (i|Nin it*< xixty-thint y^ar. Africa ulvtay^ •Htiipiet* a 
prominent plaee in t)ii- •.%> in titlii'rk'<'"k:r.ipliii' niai:a/inf- un m-if lunt **( tli«* 
«Ii>MNi\fri<-« ina«li* lh«r«' I'Vcry iiM>ntli. lint Anirrira i.« h<it ne>;1eeteil, aiiil 
till* lii'ltans of N'.irth. (N-nttal .in«i S^nitli Anifrii-aar«> fn^im-ntl) inentione^l 
fur tlieir hi-tiiry, i-ii-toni^. iiiiHlc nf htranit iitli«T |i4*i'nliaritie-. In the lat«*!-t 
nnmU-ni are t-nntaine'l An artirlfun tlif < irfi'n)an«l nativi-^, hy a iiii*ip>if)n- 
ary : «»n ttn* l*i»Iar n"ji*>n** ; t)ir>i:i.'li tin* *i>:ithi'rn part^ of Me\ii*o anil 
thmu^h t'enlral AniiTii-a. rilp«*p«'itivf' jl.iin'i— "n Anifri«an ;iirair«: 
>i*hwatka on Northern Me\:ei» 

KoM«Mi .1 \i:i.iiN-.- Mtnllfy'n.i^'i*-. h.i\inu' for th*'ir Mili^tratuin ^r 
prinripal inirn-iht'iit t»ne of tlif loiniaiiie lank'natn'-, ha\e he«'n priHlu('**ii in 
rfin*>iih>rahii* niiinlH-i* l>y tlie n«'^ri» race in -ewral part- «'f thf witr!*! J*r<i- 
ff-*tiir lIiiL'o ScliUi-harilt, %ili<< lias U*en inve^-titfatiii;; thi"* rcc<in<Iiti' |i<irtii*n 
«>f lin^ni-tic -i'ii*ni «• fur ii\cr ten y far* pa^ot. i- -erpliii;: anew ■ ••ntiihution 
taken lr«>iii wiiiicf*> i^tiicli uitiiM In* iitherui-«- inacci*-fihle. In '/n-iT- 
-<-hrif\ ftiiT Koniani-i Itc IMiilnli'tfic". \i»hinie \III. he h;t- e-jiay* on "•('riHilr 
ll(»inanic •hah-«'l-" cinliraciiii: the fullni^in^ iteii.- lall writt«*n in < 
"(%intri)>nttiin tn the Ni-jm riirtiikTHi'-e of Illia >\n I'rin* i|n'" an i-laii«! of tl.** 
<Julf of <iiiinfa, -ettli"! ah"iit I'hhi \ l»t, pp. Pi:iP«'» . -"< ient-nil n'»ti— • fi 
the In-l'i r. irtn*Mif-i'." pji. I7»i"»l«i; The •hiili-ct* iniXfl uitii 
I*orliiinJc««e ari' •• .1 ]»\ iht- aiithi»r intu fi««ir ili-jMrtimnt-. a- t''II'i^\- 
<iauri»- PiirtUL'^ii-i', !»riivi.i.i- l%irtu;ni<**-«'. Malji\i'-I'"'t'»*^*»"'*' •»"'I ^'I.iii"- 
l*ort»itfUi-e. "The In'!i»l*i»rtuirii-t' ^tf M.i}ifan>l (\inn.iii«ii<-, " tw-i ■liiili-it- 
»|Miken in ttie ar^a of the I>r.i\iilian family in tip- ia-t«rii ]»ait- ••I'thi- !^-k- 
han. .Ml thi- i- I'Xrmplitl*"*! hy fa4-t<«. -•■ntfni e- an>l •••►pi-m- \iN-.i*.iiI.iri»-. 

Ftir th»'"M.ijvar Nvrlvn r" "f I****'.*. S«*liiir!iar-U ha** i'»-t unit* n .m int»r- 
e-tinff articN* *>{ thirty-fi^^ht pak'4*^ UfNiii thi- ^tll•ly i*i the noinaiii' !an;;:i:i&^ ". 
with the title "A Ma^^ar n>ilv Koman eliiiieihe/." 

I>k K. Vki Ki.N-a"i.i'T'- folk-l««re niakM/inf, whii-li !i.i- Ni-n -li-in--*-! a! 
i< n|{th in our NM\cmlifr i-mh-. !■* pur-nini; jIm may nn the hich road of lit- 
••rar\ •■|.-if*«. On iIh* litli* p.i;;i'»ht* I'-htur mfntinii'* fnrty-rivi- ■■••l!iilNiral<«r- 


who arc HCii<linfr on material (torn all pmriB of Europe. The female sex Ifl 
rcproiieDt4Ml by one lady only, while inourcoontry the women are almost as 
buiiy an the men iu tranemittinK folk-lore to iMiaterity. The editor haa 
betrun the MH^nii volume with anerial of hieown, "Aryan ronnogonie»**, 
which promuNii to l»e long and iniitructivc. A RuMian contributor, Mr. 
von Davainiii, al;*o han a Herial in which he diicu}Wi«4 '^Lithuanian Mannem 
and CuHtomi**', uiid ttnr»thcr writer from the name muntry ban i*ompoiied an 
article : '*Li(huanittn Culture- I^*K<*ndit'*. The c'a>*t4*rn {Mirtw of <iemiany and 
A ui«tria- Hungry, which an* <Mther Slavic or lar|^*ly iiiix4*«i with Slavic elo- 
mentit, an* largely n>preM*nte«l in the '*ZcitHclirift fiicr Volkiikunde;** there i« 
an article (in children^ ^mccand incantationn fr(»m TrannyUMnia, talon and 
l<*l^ndH from the ArmeniauH M*ttI(N{ in the name pruvimv. Ifi^tMidi* from 
WeHtpre^^«^4'n. Czechian U^^ndn, and ho furth. The recent fulk-Ion* litera* 
tnn» if* rarefully reviewiNl in H|H*<*iul artir!«*H. 


imoK i:kvikw>. 

Tfii f tr.'uUir, S*/iiirf and f'hUujfhf.l ImtiL- Wurli^ of Ofiitt, Hy Cyru* Th«*uiai*. 
Kill noil i;*!!-:!! riurran. ^Vll^intlk't••ll. l.s**«». 

Till" iittif liiillftin, i»Mif<l !•> tin* I'nirraii **( Ktliii(«irijjy. i*<iiitain<« the 
«lf*iTiptiiiii iif a rrMirv«'y nf llu- i-artli- Aurk-^ in <»liio wh-.-h ii «*\i*i>«'i{ini;ly 
\:iIm il>ti-, iiiid :il] the iiii>ri> •mi iMN-ait^t* ii i- i-«iif.i iiv hr ('\ rii^ Tlioniaf*. 
lit* liitii^fir "IM'uk** (if iim-NiNtti"! r»-uli-. '*«hir !•« Iu«f in tli«' Indmn uri^rin 
tif thi*-i* H'»rk«* !•• I II- lo lakf tlii< a"«-rtii»fi rmn ./nini. •.i/ij (tilt* .!.-*•• rti<*n 
aixiiit prrfi^t rirrli-. i-tr . \Vf u«Ti', t iifri-fi>r>'. Mirpri-i'<t !•• li!i>l. :ift«'r a 
cafi-I i! f'lrM") . llir « l«i*»' aii|»ro\i!ii:i!n»n tua f riUM iri m*.' Wfiiii-/! i 'j»» iiitn 
pariirnlar« tn «li<t>% Imu tin* -|H-('iiti' Wdrk" Ilixi* Tiirin-I (>u! Tm )'•• -•• tiiiirh 
iiKiri* iH'rfi i t m (!i«-:i |*rn)tirtinii!- *haii x».i** ai^Tii i-.iT* 't t'U! Mill i-rilv -.i\ 
tliMt tlif niiiliipU* of tli«- <»tir\t vi<r'» • ti.iiti M.i» f«iiiitd m ilti* n* • f Iwi* 
fin li'> at Ni-^urk aiid that .11 II i/li It.iiik: thi'> n -f^ im! \:ir\ ii .: fri<in 
jH'f f'lt rir« 'f^ Imt a \«'r\ fi w f«ft in urn- i a-f ••ii.v ;iv«- !• «■' .in«I mi .iiii»tht-r 
«»iti . 1*1 ij?y — i\ !•■« t iHil ««f ilin •• tlii-M-niid Vi i -• :iii' .i»'-'i i* li.i .• ••-nit* 
In ri fi-n-iti «• til \}.'' - j'lari--. tli»* i»- "iirxt'v .il — • }«ri«\i- t r».iT tli«-v ui n- in-arly*'" "f .ippruMMi.iiiriu' **]nar«-», aii«i U-i}i ti.i- "i ;'< ^ ant iln* i :ri !t-*-. tri 
many I a-«-* a^^ri-i' « li»-rl\ w ith tin- r«* *iir\t \ . TIm -•■ i«*iii?- mi -m ii ap !•» 
iiii ri-ti^f .iiir <-iinfi<li-ni I* in tlirtiM -urxry. Tlii* .intlii-r^. of ri-nr*'**. made 
many m.-i.kkf-. and -■»nn' i-i;rr',ri"'5- I'lS'-". l-nt tin* • M • \|fIoraln»ii i» -** (at 
• ••ntirmi<i l>v tli*> tii'Vi >iirv«'« that it will titi«itiiil>triiiv tiintiiiitf* t-i l>e tlie 


ofatidaril a I'.Iii'rit;. kh thf i*\,i'i tiniMndft. 'Mii< < litM-riiini'nC I'lnrf-an lia« 
ilnn«' a 'J "i *• r\ :• •■ t<i •• ifnii- in thn* ^*<*ink! ovi-r an nM tirld and randidly 
hut tari-fii'.iy n- oarx*-) :n;» it. 

Tf*€ I^Mf*n ' I ?/./ ohi'. MttififU i\\ Cyrn* Tht'UiU^. \Vafhinf;tcn. \^\^. 

Thf thi-<irv timt thr Ohio Mnund^ were tuilt l>v the ('hrmkc-vi* i^ ail 
vancr«| by I>r. Thoinap. Thi« pamphlet ip in ailvoeacy <*f tliat thr<»r> ; XUf* 
pnHifii are mi^ fidhiwii . Kimt. thf hiMnrn-al evidenet*. that ir. the testimony 
«if the i-arly eiploren*. Seiimd, the rvidenri* liy the rrlit-F.-thti^ of the 
Indian* anil Mc>unddiuildepi lirinff ff the i«nir irTa«le. Third, the itone 

lUHiK KhVIKWS. 11*7 

snive« %vTv tliv work of the iVIaHare mml Slmi»iie«>. Kuurtli, thr Chnro- 
krt9 iMiilt icuun<lf*. M»iiit* of mhicli rvM'inble llitnir ^f i^hu), ct*|)rcia]ly in 
having tieiirthii or tirt'^i<l(w in theiu. Fifth, the idftitity of the Cherokeen 
with the AlleKhewi of tnulition. Surh in the lheor>'. i)|»|»o*ite to thiv, 
however, we wouM |ilai*e neveml luctji: Kirvt, the iM|uare anil rirrle have 
never )»C4 n found in the Cherokee country. Seixind, the |»i|iei* «>f the Cher- 
<tkt^ 4*«>(iiitry, while reM*niblinit thofe of Ohio, are, nevertheleiv, different ; 
dui'k piiM-M U*init found in that (country and not in Ohio, and monitor iHp<i« 
in Ohio an<! n<it in the Cherokee fountry. Third, the lihell Ki>rKeti« are 
rarely found inOhio. Imtareeouiinon inthe (*hen>kit*rt>untry. Thife hhow 
the vytti-iii of Fyuilxdifni to W ditfen'nt. Kounh. the \illuirii* of the Cher* 
ftkew an* ditlfrent from I lie Ohio villatrt.*H. Fifth, the ftAine i;raveii an* 
found in Ohio, but the burials ot ttie t*hor(»k<*«t« are not tn Ik* n*(>r>gnixe<t 
ther«*. Sixth, the fkull** nf th«' two me^i* are ditlen^nt. etr. There rmiark!* 
are maile, nut in a rritiriHin); Hpirit, but to ^h4»w that the Mound-builder 
l>rMbl<*iu ii« not Hfttli**!. MV an* triad t4i hn* tin* diiK'Ui<4<it»n i;o on. and ho 
wrlii>me tfiir* «*!'^ay. It it* one of the tiiui*t vaUuibh* whicli hai* )n*«*ii tfii«ue«l 
«'n that ^idl^ 

Fifti AurinJ: The firtat f*rrftiMorir FjiTih- Work t*J M'«irr/7j f'nunh^, fOn'*. I'oui- 
pilf*<l from a Careful Survey, itith an A(*i*ouiit <*f it?* Mound:- and (iravet*. 
Hv \Varri»n K. Mo»in'bead. Cincinnati IddK^rt Claik A Co.>. 

Ktirt Ancient i^ one of the lar)>t*?(t and Illo^t intcn'-tiu); of the «*arth- 
Work* of Ohio. It ii* f*itu-it4*«l in the viilh*y of the I.ittli* Miami, in the 
mid*>t of thf «ilde>t Kcer.erv, unit vet not ri'mote fri'in •:omc of t)ie mfl^t 
f«Tti](* aiiti fiumt ]irodurliv«* fHrmiiii/ oiUiilry of .^ontlo rn o|«iii. It i« aUiiit 
fiirt\ mile- northeast from (Mnrinmiti. *-t>na* twenty iiilii-* t=oiitti of Mmmi^- 
\illf, .in«I aiNtut thirty mill*!* Miuthfa>t fnim .Miumi-bnrj:. mncii* ihr ^'rt-Mt 
nioiiipl rullfi] liv tliiit naiiH* \-* ^ituut<'<|. It h;L*< Ik*cii op.fn vi-itt-ti !•> Mir* 
«i-yitr>aiid .ir('h:i*<il(»>:ihtri. i^'rhapr' th«* tir«t one to iiiakf a «>iir\«'\ b«>in;f Mr- 
John I^H'kc, thr tir*-! full dcM-ri|ition of it tiy S«|uifr4iiiil Pu\i-. 

Warri'ii K. M«Hin-bead ha.*i, %iith a numln'r of youiii; men. '>i>4iif -t'\iTut 
«i«fk**in fiploring thin Hork aiirw. anii haj' publifliiit ilo* r«*<'iilT» «.f hi<« 
t-«|iloratioiiH ill a iNNik ot i:Sii i»a;;i*»i. witli a to|Mi^r:ii>!ii>*al map an«l l!ii(t\- 
ti\r fu11-|ia;:e |>liotot;ra| If^. Tht* map yMt^ drawn )iy C. Coufii.and tb*- ^iir- 
\i*\iiii; doiH* bv (tirard b'owke anil Clinton Covirn. T!h* pn>:ai f -uv» ibut 
"Th<* ' bji'i't \f to M-t iM'fon* th«' publtr in :i?* briff atiil fxau't a inannfr an 
|MiHMble the pnuniiu'iit f«'atur«*f* aiiil the wonden« in(bi!< aiirifiit iiioiiunietit 
t<i human hkilll. and to iuhii^t ii|Kin iti< pun*h:uH* and pri**-«*r\.itii>n l>y •^imi* 
liiPitoriral or p<*ifntifir itrpinitation." Wr are happ> ti» rail the attention 
c-f uur n-uiier^ to the Inxik, iMtth U'('au^«• (»f the entbii-ia>m of ilu* younc 
author and bei^aii'M* i>f the d«*^irability of the "obje«-t M-t U^fon* tbr publir." 
thai ii(, the pun ha(*e and pniK*rvation of the fort. 

Mr Mf>on*head d<>ee not rlaiui to have uia<le many neti diMii\«'ii«'f(. T)i«» 
i>t4>De |iaveoient near the ea^t gate waff diiK*overe«l Itefori* lie fntere«i ufMin 
thevurvey. Stone grav<^ ha\e l»een fouml. howe\er. in thi* honow.«MinM* 
ti\«* hundnil yanln fnnn the two nioundn. Thetemu'^i' wrn^r\ainim*il and 
on them Hint riakea and ]»ottery frairmenta diM*ti\ere«l. Th«- author Miy* 
thi-y an* artificial. A villaice pi*e wan dii»covered on the tiank of the Miami 
WIuw the fort, whieh, the author iiayf*. ina villas of the |ie«iple nho liuilt 
fh«* •trmiun*. Thi|iiii doubtftil. Four feet of f*arlh ha\ean*umnlate<l *'m*e 

ij,H riii; \Mi:icirAN antiw»'aiman. 

thf villa;;*' wii- thrri'. PottiTV i>r u iN'ttUtifiil tcxlnri*, iiii|i!> ii.i i *- ••t' ji In'I* 

t4*r i:i':i<l«' than t)ii»>2r ritiiiitl lit tlictwo-fiMit li'M'l wcrfcxIiiiniiHl. TlH'<*nrfarf 

t\n*U v(ri<> friirii Mr. iCidtsi'V farm. Thi* iiiithi>r incntiniiM tin- i*«»!I«ftiiiii« at 

\Vaynr*'\illr ami l^'l»aii«ai. wliirh mntuin ulijiTtx i;,ith«'ml at thn furl. 

Ainonvr ihfiu un* a iiiiiiitN*r t>f i'ii|»|i<t :kx«*s, ?ifiiiii* tiiir rtliiry |ii]M'-, m>iii«' rai*- 

ilivfNiiilal htoii4*fi. 'rh<* <-i>llf*«'tiiiii at I^*l>an(>ii i-oiitain* tivi tlinn^iiml >](«•• .- 

men;*. T)it>ii*iaii<N ••f ol'jtt't^ ar«' in tht* ImiiiU of uthiT pri^ati* ('i»llt*i'tiir-. 

ami a Vji?>t nuiiiUT liu\«' )M>«*n rarrifM a»ay liy tra\<*llrr<. Nti niu* kii«»»« 

what tr«':iS(irrH t1ii*i arit-iiMit wurk lia- priHliiftNl. hihI im nn** kmiw- f\t'ii 

iKiw wliat iillii*r trfiL*uri'" mnv 1>i' -till hiiliicii t)ic:i-. l-*.v«'i'\ i:i*h ftiilurt i 
(iikIh ••iiiiifthiii>; tu rruar<l lii- I'llui!-. Tht-n* an* r<li>iM* ^rav« * oii Ih** It-r- 
rui-fH (in the i^Oft siili* of ttii* ti»rt, ^tnil li ••!' tlit* ihthiniiw. < >iii> tlnim* nc think 
hiiH h«*«'ii cftahlifohcil hy laic «*\pl<irati«>iiN. Th**rc wa.*< iiii>re than fHif \r',\f 
whirh •MiMi|»i«Nl tti** Tf^ioii. 'riit> »>kn!! (nun a -tunr /ravi* in tti«- \ ilia»!«' ^ttt 
•tiffff"' i's**f'ntially t'piin tl'V ^klllU t.tki-n Irimi tin* -tnnf hi-aii-. The -titnn 
jjniv«»f liavi* txi-n ii.'«.*iKni*«l to thf ^llawn^•«•^, hut Iht-ir i- nn rfa^^in t«i -tij* 
]MiM' that th«* Shawni*!*^ hinlt ihf i**i\ IhiTf i- an anrii*nt ron.<'t«r\ in tli^- 
fort, uinl 1h4M'viih*iir«')« an< niiinrriMif that Mlhiu'*'- Ht liithTrnt tnni-^ Wt-rf 

hnilt anil •K*i-n|ii(it within thc-i* wall*'. Th** auttmr nf tlii- I k (aKi<- 

ifrtHinil a;r*ti(ii't the th(-<ir\ vihith hit- Ih imi a<l\annt|. that thi* «iM f«>f-i - 
[Hiilt hy a ('la«N of Hir|M'nt Miir-hiiit'i», an>l that thi'fitik;\ !•!' Mir «• rifnt 

All *1 II .1 a '§' \ I I 

einlH»ilii*<l in tin* uall near thr ;.'ati'WH\. 'Dm* f\iiifnt'«* i«. Imwi v<-r, tl .i! 
t»n** rla-* nf nn»iin»!-hiiilil»T* in « »!»ii» n»Ti' -fr|H<nt wt.r-hipt'r- I'l.t »:?•.»• 
^••r|H-iit in A«lani*' C'nnnty -hii\«« llii-. In itiir ••|i;ni<in 'Im-mM r>irt m i- hiu.i 
hv thi." i-la*-o. an>) it ••(imu- vciv liki-Iv that a i •■niii-« tn-ii )N'l\i<-tii itn- r<>ri 
anil lilt- ««rtMiit illi;;y u ill vi't U- trai-oi. riii- i- a piii^lfin u hi< h t ii- .t'lth'r 
•itH-r' Milt ilioi'M-x, a* III** witr k iii iiK ri l\ a <i* -• ri!<ihin "i hi- <>wn -r.: \, \ 

t/.n/f|/.ri ,.■!•■ ii ; I I t '.tli.r-i'f.- i'f , /'•ir''- -if-in! /."•*.• i'n i- \\\ 1 'i •■!•?■ k II 
('hapiii, rf*>i<iii, 1 -*»'•. 

J"hi- I- a iM-.iiitifiil Ii-N-k ait'l f'lil "t '•« :in1i!ul •■:!/». «\ -.u^^ I? !- ■■■■' .i ',••■• 
\ii!iiiiti-. hit a ;;riu thii'* Milt in'iil ?■• lu- i.w^'i- \|i 4'h.ii"ii ". •• li-rij*- r-i ! i.i- 
Nppalai hum \I<iMiitai!i < 'hili aifl ha> -{•• lit -ix«i.ti -i.M.n.i i - u .'h i .- w '• 
in thr nii'l«t «»f I -ti— I'aik. Ilr -immiu'-I tu li im- !.f«-i, .i ^'mmi . !.iiiJ-« i .ci 1 

pmvr- .ll-it tu '»!• .1 '.t ly ;.»'iifl Mritrl. rill !•• .«!••. Tm !•«• -'Mr. !.•• : li.if""- »'h»--. 

ati'l \*\ M )m n hi- -(H .ik* (if i'Hikiflu* "tl ••i>*' l>>>i>-irt-<i liiii*— .ii.i t! I-*! ti .!« 
what fii- >!■••• Mt* i-aii ffiili/i* »ii|iii I hiiiL; "t > tit- jr;iii-h nr ••! !I«-\:i-m I I:i- |i'r 
41*1 lh« Mi<iOtit:iiii I- III I hi* |>ii tiiTf vi r \ iiiii< h I.k« 'ii*. \4-r'. * liic xf .*.-i fli .i • 

\\ II jraf '* tl.i .ri!hci '•!! Il.ii ! L I in r^- .- .i !i*.ji .i*i 1* hi .(ti<-ii 

.il!!hi l'</:iii,iiij. 

!■. .' /;.;i. • '■•' * ..■• i./.ij' /■•;'. *». ■■ ■■-•.HI , /■ • I. 

rill \ r- I. • •!.. ./:■ a: It- j-'l! l-\ P.i\ .1 r. '. 'i - . ; •■ .li.} !• "• i !••••.- i 

III- J.':- :i ■•: !'.•■ iiiti !■»,.• ■■:" tl.f Am •r- .i:. A-- ■■ mv -r .i:.! fl.r \ - j. • - ■>]'in. 

i.'M ■■ Ni \' ■ .-:■ !•- I ii -I r :j.» I .?. . • . .ir i-.r- ■. !..!.• -.••■- w ■■ 1. . ■ ii** ; i! :"i - 

Till- 1. :■ .*.w - it -I ; I' ■!.<•■ J tKt :i. -I :■ : ■ '.i;.' . • * :.. r« .:. -. ^« * ! «... 1 

« -It- f- ■ I-*- i' •••*.■ ■:. \'!. ■ V - ■■ I .»•..-,."•• ■ ' 'i.' -;■'.:.•!■ fi lh«- 
i:i'l-f : .. il. I r..- fi-j" •* I. -I .•;■!•- w ,' . .i " ..■ . _l.i! i \ ■ f :■-? ! ' ■ - k- Tfi 
ihf '.I'T.ii ■■ !":.• .1. . ■ Ml! I-! t f •• •» ;■ - w I •» ?. -• 1 f.f »• .1 ii-f • 1 t • \ .ir- 

rt-I:. - I. -•■ :••■ ;■■.'■.•■, '■■ n. n • i { •■' ■ ■. ■ ' : " • i:. ,'. •• r ■ '• i « 
.!• ?• r I • •■ I ; • .;! 1 ' • i .iM, . • *' .iri -.1 ■ ' ■ ■ ■. • f \ '.'. • 1 I • ■■ ' -i' 

! |i ill -f ".«■■•/.» n ' V \|r 1 •■ ■. .•■ -.■..•••.•' .i: ■:.••.•:; ■ ' »! < an tt i. 
w ll.'- Ti - .!•• '.T. ■ : til :•-• : J ':• •■ « •:. ■.". *• X ?i,-«;rf - '■ . u-tfatr 
' hi !:» Iht'f^ aT» !■■ ■? •• iT. \ i * ■ -If /. •■ -- _• ■ I "i ■• r ; I I.. I. 1 !.r *.t rt: 

Mji'fji** a* *.'• *K* I .i' .1 ■ :' i: . . I I :. .in .■,.■.% I -r I vii.- - I'arkn.'an. 
|'r..f.--.r l*.'(ia-ii. 1 T V .V. |,i ■. N|r 1;. .r. :..,-. ;. |-» •. -- r M-'*r. Mr 
\ 1 I' ;.'..»--. ;»r! I i'»i.r- \\ . .in .•" i ■ '•.i' ' •» .r- ! -j -■: 1. j'»«-l 
•A .r fc . •. ' 'll- \ » . ■■• ..". • ■' - ■. ' •: '.tr ■ • 



!• •-. 



^mcxxcnn ^ntxqxxnxxttn. 

Vtn.. XII. May. 1S90. No. 3. 


HV Sn-I'HKN I). rKF.T, 

In treat in:; of the Mrmntl-buiUlcrs' \vt>rks heretofore we have 
ilividfil thcni int(> several cla*»sc^, anvl have stated that the diffLr- 
ent classes w«Te found in thfTerent districts, the effigy mounds in 
one, the l)iirial iniuintis in anotlier. the stockades in another, 
the ^o- railed "•iatrrd enclo-^ures" in another, and the pyramid 
mounds in still another, the whoK- habitat beinjj fillet! with 
work^ which were diNtinitive and piculiar, but which were al- 
wavs correlated to their surrounding^. 

The cIasNirnatii>n holds j^ood in nearly all cases, and we shall 
then tore continue it an«l proceed to consider the works which 
arj N.iid to belong; to the fourth class, to which we have (jiveii 
the name <»f Mound-buililers' enclosures. The region where 
the<e enclosures are mi>st numerous is that which is stuatetl on 
the < >hio River and mi>re specifically in the southern part of the 
St.ite of Ohio. We shall therefore confine tturselves to thisdis- 
trict. but wnuld at the same time have it understood that it is 
beiau-e the \\«»rks are here so typical that we treat them so ex- 

\Vc propose in this pa|>er to consider the works of this district 
with the especial view uf emjuinn^ about their character am! 
their u-rs. 

I. L -t us nr^l enquire about the symbolism which is repre- 
sent- d :n them. The works of S« ait hern ( >hio have been re^^'anJcd 
b\ !v..iny a^ symbolic, and the symbolism in them is said by 
soriK t» be that expressive of sun worship. What is more, the 
<un '.w-r^hip which appeared here seems to have embodied itself 
in th«»se works which were most common and which were also 
\ery u^ietul. the enclosures which are so numerous here having 
bet n •symbolic. 

I . This. then, is our fir^t enquiry, Is there anything in the shape 


of the enclosures which should lead us to think that they were 
symbolic? There are many kinds of earth-works in Southern 
(3hio. many of which are of the same character as those found 
elsewhere, but the most of them are works which mif^ht be 
called enclosures. These enclosures have a great variety of 
shapes, and were undoubtedly used for different i)ur[)oses, though 
the purj>o>es arc now somewhat diflkull to determine. The 
typical shape is perhaps that of the square and circle, but there 
are many circles without scpiares and sipiares without circles, the 
variation pa^sin^ from one figure to the other. Many of the 
enclosures are irregular, with n»> definite shape, ollur*. however, 
have shapes which are .so difinite and regular as to give tlie iciea 
that they were symbolic — the crescent, the circle, the horse-shoe, 
tile ellipse, the cr«)ss. and many other symbols being embodied 
in them. Some <jf the enclosures are very large, the walN about 
them being several miles in leni^tli. giving tiie ide.i thai ihey 
Were usrd for defen-'ive purposes; others are veiy small, the dis- 
tance across lliem henv' onlv a few ktt. ''ivin.' the idia that ttiev 
were lodgf iircles S<>me c»f the <.ncl»)^urts aic full »f burial 
ni'iund-'. others contain n»i mound.-- wliattvrr. !)iitarr mire open 
areas, whith may lia\r be»-ri i:> t«)r viilagi- irsidence^ 
S'»m'' of the encl-j^iirc*- are in.idi- up bv siit.'N wall*, walls (»n 
whh h poNsililf stitikadf- may li.ive brrn eifclrd. i»tIu-iN h.i\i- 
double w.lIN. .1 t'.itih being iietwern thrm. Somi o! lluni .irc 
jsolitrd cir» le-*. till lo'-un-s! ti-'Ui al! others ; olhtispre- 
si-ni Kit* i*s Ml i!ii-li I**. tin. I liisti r-* .irran.;i»l iiu ir^ le^, so making 
.m ( ntio>;:i<.- w'lthiii .in i.ri-. Ihmui- It :^ retiMik.ibie That theic 
sh«»u!il hav<- b'-en ^'^ n:an\' tiilV- u nt --li.ipe ■ U* tlu- v .irth works in 
this rei^ion. llusw sh.ip,'^ v.irv ti-*::! th- i!!i!<- !•> t!i' eliip^e, 
!rt»::i tile ell:pi«* t'» th" •.''i!"n.;. innii tlif i»':»! ii:* t«it)n' >';uare. 
tri»:n tin- -'i'laif to \]\.;- . iiie.;ii!.ii i\ \ - ;i .\ kmji i>! thr 
I. ; III I Ml'. Ii'n:- a . hart wir-. ii .. Miitiin-' i-l !ir ■'• UK-tric !":;/i:ris. 
ari'l .1 't''»:i:'»li' 'i niir w !i n li- thisik- l]\.i\ the -j .ir.- kai'U Wfuk-i 
• 'ntairKn,; .ir .i . .li! i-l wliiih '.\ ■ r 0:1. ; ... i i : :»ri tua! pur- 
pij ' >, .irid f. :nb"<I. .1 til*' iilr oi tii :» :•! 

I ;:'• u i-s I • w ::-i !: tii'-^i- tn !■ ' ■■;: \v :•• .i-'-.'t ar^ '.inV. n-'-.x n. 
.l!i 1 V t !t : • .p;"i, ti tii.iT - »:ii ■ ! til :. a ; ; ! r iL*:-. Um-s .«>'.;;» r ^ 
I .1 \ .['. \ '. -•;:.•■ o' :!i ru w r-.' i;:i !>:■!'■ i'y '.:-■•'. !■ -r b.:iial 
pl.t. e . li'.li- I • I tr -.u r:Ii' i.i! ; :r;i •i" -::: i-l ti:ci:: wiic tii<- 
s:!: ■ ot li ■■.: '. •. iw tK lo.I;*' »:i.! . -tl.irs v\i.-ri c!!c!« •-'.irt n in 
wl'.ich l- ::.jN'- • .'. ' r» iiii.i.«;b!- ti!y « rented, s-ir.r- .•! tin m weie 
u •'■ 1 a ■ p! It ■:i • ■: aiv.u-.. Tiie!^:. d.ii;. • i.::v:!v^ .in\! ra.e coi:rse'» . 
others V. ■ T*.- j-r ibibly :^t (!a^ pi.t.i-- o! rt'!K;!ou-» as^.■mb!y. estulas 
t>r -^.icrid lj-»:. .».■•■ orn- i.f tiieiii t-ntain •ft'^, tin- etTi;:ics 
giving t» ih'-ru a r«-!;.M- 1:1 M.iiKticap.CL . -thtri wcrt* mere de- 
t'.-ri-'s. willioul efVi ':e>. I he •*vmbt»l:c Lh.irai.ter ot tiie liVi^/ics. 
hfiwc\cr. has impre^iard many writers, and for this rra^on they 
ha\ ■ been called sacred enclosures I he term has been criticised 

TIIK SACRKl* 1-:N( LusfUK-; i»f uHti). Ul 

and rcji'Cted by soim-, but it seems to us .ippropriate, and wc 
shall use it as bcin^ ex|(rcssive of the real character of the work"* 
of thi- rej;ion. WV takr iiji tlie cnclostircs of this district with 
the idea that many of them were used for sacred pur|>oses, and 
that a pecuhar siip-.-rstition wa'> embodied in the most of them. 
What that -ii|n.-r-titi<>ii wa-. we are ni>i quite prepnnd to say. but 
the ioniet;ture is that sun ivorsluji here obtained in great force. 
It •vometmies seem* as if the sun worship was joined with ser- 
|>cnt worship, and th.H tiie phallic symbnl was (jLven by some of 
thce.irth woiks. Whether these worki. were all used by one 
IK.'1'ple, a pi'oplt- who were aci|viamted with all of the symbols 
iTcctcd by successive r.ices. one usin(; one 


.And the other 


is a 1 


1. lU.- that ai 

It may, 

lit" cont 

■\\nk- thai the 


is full . 

.1 ■■.irth-«ork' 

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.n.ple i.l.ittnii, 
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till.- w..ik-. .it 


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iMder till 




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r to til . 


a. \\\ 

r l;.ive said that there 

ml- ot inilo-iiJi-iii this t.:.^i..n.l)utthe entlo; 
:i. :i IS tilt 111..,; striking; i- the one r-nnposeil of two figure- — 
■ iirL-:. .ind thi s.|iare .m.l combination. This is not only 
mmon in thi- <Iistrnt. luit is jicciiliar to it, ;is it i- very scldoin 
;.n elsewhtie The rtasoii- 1 .r this p.irlicuiar tyjn- of earth- 
•tk Ifjin^ found in S -uthcrn < >hio .ire unknown It would 


Mil: \mi:ki(vn antk^i aiman 

th«' villai^'t* wii* iIhti-. I'ottcr) uf u U^autifiii t«-Ktiiii\ iiii|i'i ti.i i *- i-t' a In'I- 

Ut k;r:iili- than tlm^r finiiitl iit tlii'two-fiHit li-\f*l wiTft-xhiiiiirtl. Tlii'^iirfact* 

fiml'* virif friiiii Mr. Kttim'V fariii. Thi' nntlmr nii'iitiniiy tin- rnllifiiiniH ut 

Wmvnr^x illi' ami I^'IihiimIi. nliirli contain if}>j(*ft*< LTiitlnTi'il at th** f«*rl. 

Ainiiiit: 1 hi'iii an' a niiiiilN*r (if fiipiMT a\rr<, •'•iiiii* tin** rtliiry |>i]H—. mhih* tai*' 

iJifM'oidal xti'iirH. Tht* ••'lli'^'tioii at I^'ltaimn i-uiituiii- fix* thun-aiid «]•«••-. 

iiH'iir*. T)ioii**aiiil^ ••f ••lijifth air in th** liiiinli ••fulliiT prixati' i'ifili*i't«*r«, 

MHil a \a*>l miiiilMT )ia\«* tMfii 4'arri«*<l away i*y travi-lli-r-. Nm mu' kiinw^ 

what tii':Lxurf!t this aiiiitMit Murk )ih« imMliirixi. ainl im nnt- kimw* ••xni 

iinm H fiat otlirr trra-iin-!' niAv !••■ -till hi*l>tcii llii*ri'. livt-ix r.i'U fXii!>*rii 
IiihIn •iiiiiii'tliiii;* In r«'V%ari| hi- i-tLnt." Tl»fn» an* j»lnin' j-ravi " ••ii tin* tiT- 
rui'i'H (111 the fx-t •^iili* uf lh«* Inrt, mhiI h "i' 1 Im* i*>l liiiiii*>. < >ii<- 1 Iiiiil; ««* tlnttk 
liiAi« In*«'1i c-taMi-lii'tl !•> lal«- (•\|ii«irali<>it'<. 'I'lirrr «a> iiifri* tl.aii (im- trilN- 
which iNrii|iut| the ri'u'i«>ii 'rtit* -kiiil Imm a •ti-iif /raii* iii tin- xiliak'v ^:ti 
■ liir«'f t'MNciitially trmii tl i- -knlU t.ikt-ii (r*»iu \hv -tmif h<-ap- Thi- -ti>iif 
Kravi*?- hax'i* iNt-n ;i:*.*it!iu'*i !<• titi' >)iuMnc«*r>. hiii ihni* i*> no ri-a-tin in •iip 
fKim* tliat th(* Shawnc«*> Iniilt iIm* iml I'licrf i- iin ain ii'iit 4*riiiifi-rx in t!.t- 
fiirt. aihlthi' rv iilfiiri** an* miiMi'MiiiH tliiit xill:i;:i-<- at ilillrn'nt ttiiic- wir>* 
liiiilt an>l •M*i-ii(iii*il within rlii*i-i* w.itN. Tl.i' aiithnr nf tin* I k tuKi - 

ffn»iiiii| a^aiiiht the thi-nrx uhirh III* Imimi a<l\aii(ii|. that fhi* **\i[ T-rf m.i. 
mill hy a rla'*^ 'if ;*i-riH*nl \%iir«hi|H'i->*. aii'l llial tin- •■ih^y nt * In- »• no-nl w <- 
iMiilNiihi'-l Ml lh«> wail Hear (hf ;:ai*'wav. Thi* i-x fifiirc i-. Imwi \i r. i! .•! 
mil' • la-- >tf iii'iiiiiil.hiiilih'r" ill < >tii>i wi n- ofriM'iit wi-r-lni-tr-. !'!.• l'*».»* 
*>«*r|N'iif in A'iairi- i'liiiiity ^how*- f !•:-. In •■ii: oitiiU'in !hi-i>i<l furt w.i» hiii.t 
hv till* I'Li"'*. ainl :t •>i'rin*> vi'i V iiki-lv thai a « ••htit • I i>-ii In-I Ut-«-h I i' t>r( 
an*! thi -• rpi lit • llijv w ill \ rl hi trai • •! rlu- •.•< a |i!ii*>i«-i>i w hhli f .':• .i':i h r 
iIjm-* n'll <li-iii-'«. a" hi* wni k iw iim t> \\ a •!• -• ri'-i i->n "f" hi- '■wu -'i; \ v 

rhiiinn. r...-f.>ji. I-***'*. 

rill- I- .1 i"M'Jt!l-ii li. M-k all' I f l". 1 "I '- .1 i! if'i' •■!./?.• \ :r.,— I* .- "■ .' .i ' " ■• 
x«i!uiit« . h if a jt til '[■■•'- It'll hi-»'l 111 !••■ I.i;j» \\r < 'h-n ii " •• !■ -ii j- !• ■ ' :■• 
Vppaiai hiiii. ^^• iiiiaiM < liih ha- -l-i'iit - .:i.:i.> ; - \i 'I, i..-w :• 
111 thi- !m-I-l -'t I-ti— l*aik M»' -•'•Tiii't [•■ h.i\»" '■•■•■» i j'l-.i' . . :!,*.• j .u i 

priivi"* al-- • 1- ' '••' I '• • I V J Iwr.tii rinrt ai»', t.i li- -iji- i... ' :,.i|>---!:> -. 

alii| \ rl w I'' Ii hi- -j't ak« •il" I'»«i* iiuT "il "I;*' JiMi.-lri'l ri i.» - ai I TluMi •• .i- 
w hat hi -If- u** ii-.ili/i- -tiiiii ihiii J "I 1 !■•■ .•raii-i*->ir ••( !(• \!i-m I |-.i- :• •■ 
ii'i lh> iii"iiri!.i.ii I* ■ ri ' hi' {•:• Intt- \ • r \ ri.M< h ■• •-. \ • i -. * m ■ ir ^:i fli i> • 

\\ I' i ■ iTl Jf .1? i.lf •■ 'III 

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further to the west, we come to the Great Miami. The works on 
this river arc mainly fortifications and large lookout mounds; 
the fortifications at Hamilton. Colerain and Piqua, and the look- 
out at Miamisburg, being most prominent. There arc. however, 
at Alexandria and several other places village enclosures of 
exactly the same tyj)c as those found at Chillicothe. This takes 
us across the State of Ohio. The White River is a branch of 
the Great Miami. It rises in the central part of the State of 
Indiana and flows southeast. The White River seems to have 
marked the boundary of this particular class of works. There 
arc no village enclosures of the type found in Ohio west of the 
White River. If there are, wc are not aware of their existence. 
There are. to be sure, many large forts or defensive enclosures 
scattered along the Ohio River on both sides, but they are not 
works which we would call village enclosures. These forts have 
been described by various writers, the mo.»»t prominent of them 

being the one m Clark 
County, near CharlcN- 
town, Ind.. which has 
been descril>ed bv iVof 
M T. Cmx • As to the 
n«irtliern boumiarv <»f 


the district, we find it 
« «n th« watersheti. w iicre 
tlif rivers ni»w b«»tli 
w.iv^. t'l the n'»rth anil 
t<» til' N"Ulh. I (ere a 

W'liitr Rr. er,.il (. .iin!>r:i! eariil N«'.v(i.ii !r ii. 1:1 \\ ,i\i:e 1 "ur.!',".- 
.il! t'l t!u-:n ir :n iumi llie h- .i«l •■! ca\ :■ i\ i'. ..• ;'."n. 

\\ f h.4'. e t!n:s . !\t'ii ;;u' iiMM . t ti.f !.-:r; t. It : » .1 rr...;» 'A h ch 

■ • • I 

llui- :n- !ii<ies .lii til'- « .irtii w- .:k - ::i:!i'i;\-. \ ■'• :. v;'!.i. r '-n- ! •-- 
urts. elti.^ '. l«)i»k.»-:!i .irvi .ili. \\- ■!• !]■=! .1- :.!» ti) ni .1 ! t.> 
om: ;>' r:.» ! n -r t • *»i\' l»wv u ■ '■- \< ■ ■! •;: ::: i^ I»»;:: i ::i :!ie 
d;^trl• : III ty[i:t. i! w- -ri. :^ 'il r^ r tii v:!! i • erv "..►^ .!ts 

bcin , ::i'.r'- imnn-: -i^ ti:.i:i t!; ■: '."'.. :\- \\\- !i.iv« !li -j-'ht 
be-t : » I.! :! '.•/ tli ■ n.vv. • •-? tii-; I -.:: - t ■•! th-: \. ;.i -.• ( n. !fs- 
lire-, tiioi .1 t :i- : Mu -i f'-i n !■ -:k - . .I'-r'-: • / W ' -ee 
in th:^ Ml i]) til '. • i .'.v ■■'.'. \ 'i \v »-; .'- •■ .; '•>: .:\ a • -r -i;.; ■<. t-* 

• * • • 

It i> .1! . » I if .1. !'.■ ::i •. .. .; ^er:-rnt w t \. .i- • caft It* !)e 

• • • « 

jircv i!" nt 

M i 



4. Let us consider the uniformity in the shapes and sizes of the 
enclosures. We have said that the shape was that of the square 
and circle. This shape is everywhere present within the district, 
though with variations. It is remarkable that there should be 
such a uniformity. It does not seem likely ttiat the uniformity 
will rise from accident, but it is more likely that there was a sig- 
nificance to it. The uniformity has impressed many authors. 
The early cx|)Iorers all mention it as a very striking: element in 
the earth-works of the region. There has been a degree of 
skepticism in reference to this point, but the recent survey by 
the Kthnolo^ical Bureau confirms the old impression. The 
statements of the early explorers are confirmed by the last sur- 
vey. We ^jive here a few 
fragmentary (]uotations to 
show that this is the case. 
The old authors claimed that 
the stjuarcs were perfect 
sijuares, the circles perfect 
circles. The new exploration 
seems to confirm this rather 
than to refute it. We take 
the enclosures in the Scioto 
Valley to illustrate. There 
arc perhaps nu>rc typical 
Works in this vallev than anv- 
where else in the State. The 
fi)llt)winjj IS the ti'9»tiniony of 
I>r. Thomas in reference to 
these. "Th.- circle at Hiiih- 
bank'is a perfect i»nc. " ** The 
old survey agrees closely with 
the new survey." ** Tlie circles 
at Taint Creek have geomet- 


re;j'.il.iritv. ' "* The fpj- 


( I 

»•/ >■! Hlt^ ' ir. 

• li .V. 

ures i.f the works whicll 
were j).-r^.)nally •■xamincl by Squicr anil l)avj>. are ^ener illy 
Correct "' •■ Ihe I :rcle at niL;hbank is similar in Mze and re- 
spects t<» tl'.e i»bMr\att ry circle at Newark, ani!, like tliat. is 
connectcil with an o^ai^on. * "We see in this ^roup the ten«!ency 
to coir.hme circles, uct.i^ons and parallels as at Newark, n'lakinj* 
it prohabli- that the works at both jnunts arc «!ue to one iKoplc. 
Alc« T'lsn.; to Me»i-rs. .^tjuicr anil Davis the circ'.e is a j»ericct 
one. I he «i anu ter. which, a^ will be scenbv wlial f«»;!i>ws. .i/:ccs 
veiv < !o-eI/ ••. til the re>'.:lts <i! the re survev." "The sonn what 
un; \:):'Ctt;l results in ths aniltii: obs^rvatorv c.rv le are. first, 
th.i? tile ri ; :re i- so nearly a true circle, anil, second, that the 
rati:*..*' :sa!i al:no-t exact rr.ultipic of the sur\'cyor's chain."' These 
rer::arkab'r .n!n:>-'ii n^ are niaile bv one who denies their lujro- 


pcan origin and who makes them the work of Indians similar to 
the modern tribes, and who says there is nothing in the form or 
arrangement that is inconsistent with the Indian usages and 
ideas, and nothing in their form or construction consistent with 
the idea that their conception is due to European influence. With 
these admissions we are warranted in going back to the first 
descriptions which were given by the early explorers, and to 
speak of these works as perfect squares and perfect circles, and 
to draw our conclusions that they were symbolic as well as 
practical or useful structures. Mr. Atwater speaks of the circle 
in the village enclosures at Paint Creek, and says "the area of 
the squares was just twenty-seven acres." Squier and Davis also 
speak of this area of twenty-seven acres bemg a common one. 
The comparison is drawn by Squier and Davis between the 
works at Newark and those at liopeton and Paint Creek. Ex- 
traordinary coincidences are exhibited between the details, 
though the works are seventy miles apart. He says the square 
has the same area with the rectangle belonging to the Hopeton 
works and with the octagon belonging to Ilighbank. The octa- 
gon has the same area with the large irregular square at Marietta, 
a place which is still further away from Newark. The conviction 
is forced upon us, notwithstanding all the skepticism that has 
existed, that there was a common measurement, and that the 
square and circle were symbolic, though we do not say whether 
they were erected by Indians or by some other |>eople. 

5. Another argument is found in the fact that walls in the 
shape of crescents are very common. These crescent -sha|)ed 
wali!i arc generally found inside of the smaller circle and consti- 
tute .1 double wall around a portion of the circle. There are 
also many works where there are concentric circles, containing 
a mound in the center, whose shape would indicate that it was 
devoted to sun wor^^hip and who^e contents would prove that 
they wrre used f(»r religious purposes. A notable sjKrcimen of 
this IS found at Portsmouth, where there are four concrntnc cir- 
cles and .1 mound in the center, the sitiMtiun and height of the 
mound ^;ivin;^ the impressum to tli*.- early txpl.ircrs that it was 
used f(ir relij^ious purposes and w.i-» .1 s.;in symbol. Concentric 
circks .ind circles C'»ntaininj;j cresLrnts an».l mounds are alT»o 
sp>>kf:n of by Mr. C.ilcb Atw.itor a^ ij.ivin:^ been found at Paint 
Creek and at Circieville. 'llie l.iri'e irre!.'.;lar enc!4»sure at •>ne 
of th'*se U'-rk-* C'ntamed scvci'.ty- seven airc^, and had eight 
galew.iVN. an-'ther ha<i ei^lily-f'»i:r acre-* ar^l sjx j.j.iteway^ . but 
<»;;ts:ii-.- «•! i*nr <>1 ihc^c enclosures was a i:i:ii! circle mMv rods 
in iliameter. m the * er.ti r ff which wa^ a sinular circle ab' ut six 
r«»ds 111 ti;ameter. or alnjut <»nc Ifiith *'i' the larger circle. Here 
\V" have the lar-'e en^io^ur-. ^ wl'i:oh wer- ;;n<!oi.bteiKv usotl tor 
\i!!a ••• m!''s, butat trv -.itiie t::v.-W'.' have siiia!! circle^ were 
p: li. .!>!)• i;>cd f »r reii^inUN purp<'<e'» 


Mr. Atwater thinks that the large circles were used for re- 
ligious as well as for practical purposes. He speaks of the 
circle at Ctrcleville. This was sixty-nine rods in diameter, 
the walls were twenty feet high, measuring from the t>ottom 
of the ditch, there being two walls, one inside of the other, 
with a ditch between. Within the circle there was a round 
mound, ten feet high, thirty feet in diameter at the top, and around 
the mound a crescent-shaped pavement made of pebbles, about 
sixty feet in diameter. This mound contamed two bodies and a 
number of relics A large burial mound ninety feet high stood 
outside of the circle. The contrast between the circle and the 
square atrracted the attention of Mr. Atwater. The circle had 
two high walls, the square only one. The circle had a ditch be- 
tween the walls, the square had no ditch. The circle had only 
one gateway, the square had eight gateways. The circle was 
picketed, "half way up the inner walls was a place where a row 
of pickets stood, pickets which were used for the defense of the 
circle." These facts are significant. They seem to indicate that 
the villages were surrounded by walls which secured them from 
attack; but that there was a symbolism in the shape of the walls 
as well as in the shape of the mounds and pavements and con- 
tents of the mounds. In these respects the villages would be 
called sacred enclosures. 

6. Still another argument is derived from the variation in 
the typical form. At Marietta we have two squares and no 
circle except as a circle surrounds the conical mound or lookout 
station. At Highbank and Hopeton we have the circle and the 
square, and several other small circles adjoining. At Liberty 
Township we have the square, three circles and a crescent. At 
Ccdarbank we have a square with a platform inside of it, but no 
circle. At Newark we have the octagon instead of the square. 
At Clark's Works we have the square, a large irregular inclosure 
and the circle inside. At Seal Township we have the square 
and circle and several elliptical works. At Dunlap's Works we 
have the rhomboidal fi^^ure and a small circle adjoinini^. Still, 
the typical shape is the same throughout the entire region. 

1 1 . We now turn to a new point. The inquir>* is whether the 
enLlosures whieh we have seen to be so symbolic were not the 
viKa/e sites of a class of sun worshipers. This inquiry will be 
con J acted in an entirely different way from the former. We are 
now i.> liiok not so much for the symbolic sha{>es as for the 
i)ra«.t:cal uses. We maintain that wliether they were symbolic 
or r..>t the majority of the enclosures were used f»r villages We 
shall rir*.t consider the characteristics of village enclosures gen- 
erally, show wliat a village was supposed to contain, and then 
compare these m Ohio with others to show that they were aNo 
vi!!a;je cnc|t.'>ures. 

I. We turn to th'» Ohio villages, and are to ask what their 


characteristics are. These were composed of the following 
elements: First, the circumvallation, including the gateways; 
second, the contents, including the platform mounds, burial 
mounds, excavations and other works; third, the small circles 
adjoining the village enclosures, some of them constituting a 
third part of the village, scarcely separated from the larger 
enclosures, some of them being quite remote from the village; 
fourth, the parallel walls or covered ways. These were a verv 
important element in connection with the village life. Fifth, the 
so-called embankments, which Atwater says were enclosures 
for diversion or for games, many of which were found at an 
early day in the valley of the Scioto, but which had disap)H!ared 
before the survey of the works took place; sixth, the circles 
which are gathered \n clusters at certain points, remote from 
the villages, which we call the dance circles; seventh, the look- 
out mounds and observatories. These works were all associated 
and all served ditVerent parts in connection with village life. We 
see in them, ist, provisions tor defense, the circumvallation 
giving defense to the villages, the covered ways also protecting 
llie i>eople as they went to and from the villages to the water's 
edge; the lookouts on the summits of the hills furnishing de- 
fense for not only one village, but tor many. We see, 2d, pro- 
visions tor religion. The charactrr of the earlh-woiks is 
suggestive of religious practices. Thev are, many of them, 
enclosures, symbolical in shape, elliptical, circular, pvram- 
idal. Some of them were proh.ibly temples, llie truncated pyr- 
amids being tlie ion plattorms. The •Jame otfu'e was 
tilled bv sonif ol ilic s.. ;iller circles, lor these were undoubteiilv 
usfil tor, sweat houses, or .issemblv plici-s, and many 
ol iheni wt-re convenient of .icce»is to the vilI.l^e enclosure. 
y], Thf provi'iions made for amusement, feasts, dances can bt* 
reco:^n:/ed in \hr oblong t-nibankmrnts and the groups ot small 
circli"*. ^th. Tl'.tr provision matie tor \\a!tT is toiind in numer- 
ous wrll.s sptikin of bv the earlv ex:»I<>ri-r««, and in thf walls 
wlii».ii 'iiirroiiriil ?fifrn, .mil in crrtain p*»n<U \tn- encK>siires. 
mh. I*r-»visiiiii inaili: tur site t iil'iv itjun ti! firlvis in covered 
w.i\s whuh pa-^i'^i ti\i\ irnm thr i-m los-iri* ♦•» :h«- Mpm coimtrv, 
anti in th«* watv [» towers which wrre rl.iifd at the itkIs of thr*'f. 
There wrr** niaru* n;KTUi);^s m :ljr ^cvcrfil wav, which gave 
egress fr<»m il;»* vii.a;^rs lo thf lu-liis m fvrrv liim ti'.n. ^th. l*ro- 
viHiMM u.i- !:ia«ii' I ^r nav:ga!:n:i .nul !)ie '^.ilitvol the k Mu es bv 
running t!.«- v-v rrtl wa\s (iuwn to 'l.t* wi't-r's re* :,'!•, and there 
mikin:4 a .[i.n.*\ \\:.]v\\ sfiouiii hr I;'m' a I'vcr, '^r tl.e i.uuiing 
ol ihi* V aii'iis. Ail :ii:''«i* pfi iKMi :*:t's :»i;:vatf p!a:r".v ' vil- 
lai/e i;le was '.hi: lail-T wl.uh ruled. l!vcrv:h:p^ was subscr- 
virn* to tills. 

It we t.ike thf nuni^iT anii sj/c* ol t:;i* t-nclo urrs, and then 
look .i! *]'.*:: ^iVii.r.; 'H .ii'.ii a.\ :\u-:t s-.:rr< ii:ii::n;^s, .mii consider 
ihe IcrL:*\ Mt '.hf pi.iiri'' :fi which thry wrrc .♦•vattd, we will 

THK SA('HKI> KN(Lo>I*KI>i (»K oHlo. MI 

have a remarkable picture of village lite. It .seems almost like 
an Arcacjia. The people seem to have been prosperous, and to 
have dwelt in peace and security. The [xipulation was dense. 
The organization was complete. Religion had its stroni{ hold 
upon the people; the people lived and died and were buried 
with the sacred relijjiouH nifs i)b>ervfd on all occasions. They 
filled their altars with otl'crin^s to the ^reat sun divinity. The 
most costlv sacrifices wtrremade; pipes and bi-ads, c«irved stone, 
pearls, many precious works ot art were thus lon.secrated with 
^reat ceremonials. Hut the scene changed. The invasion ot 
an enemy drove them from their seats. Their vill.i^es became 
the seats of bloo<ly warfare. They were obliged to leave their 
abodes: other tribes came in and occupied their villages. 

2. We now turn to the specific locations and j;ive descrip- 
tions of the works. We first commencr with the works at 
Marietta and quote the lan^ua^e of the Rev. Dr. Harris, who 
with Rev. Dr. Cutler, examined them and furnished a full de- 
scriptidn of it. The following is their account: The situation 
r>f these works is on an elevated plain on the east side of the 
Muskingum, about half a mile from its junction with the Ohio. 
The iar;;est square fori, by some called the town, contains forty 
acres, encompassed by a wall of earth from six to ten feet hi^h, 
and from twenty- five to thirty-six feet in breaiith. In each side 
are three openings, resemblin;; twelve gateways. A covered 
wav formed ol two parallel w.ills of ear;ii 2\i feel di>lant from 
each other, measuring center to center. The walls at the 
must elevated part ir.siiie aie iwenty-cne feet in l.eiyht: the 
outsiiir oniv avera;^e live leet in hei;;ht. This formed a passajje 
about <'So feet in len^^th, le.idini; bv ;;rai!ual descent to the low 
;jround, where, at tlie time ol its construction, it probably 
rea».heil the river. The l>»)tti»m is crowned in lheceTUer,in the 
manner of a well- fount ieil turnpike rop.d. With in tlie w.ills of 
the lort at the northwest corner is an elevateil Mjuare i^*^ feet 
***^U» ^ .\' broad, •> hi;;h, level an the summit. .\l the center of 
eai h n| \hv sides .ire ;/r.ii:ual accents sixlvleel inler:»'.h. Near 
liie south Willi IS anotlitr elevateil sou.ire, l^o bv ijofeet, S 
feet liJ^h: but in»» (A an accent to i^ty up im the siile next tiic 
wall, Thcri* is .1 h«'l:ow wav, fen !eel \\ iiie, le.uiini' twentv feet 
towanl the veiiter. with a "gradual slope tu the lop. .\i the 
other en»l is .1 t!i;rii eievatnl square, Ii-^x5j lei-i, with ascents 
■it the end. At the <'•u•.hwt•^t corner i-* a sein:-f parapet 
tinwniii with .1 !ni»U!ui, whicli L!tiar(is the opfnin^j in the wail. 
Tia- ^rn.t!!ir !'»rt, Ci):i:.iiri'i twentv .ure^, with .1 ;;atew;iv in tl.e 
ifn!rr «'l »Mi li inrrier. Tne«»e :;arew.iN*i .ire deleriiieti !'v cirru- 
!.ir in >i;::i!^. ( ):] llic f'Ut>i«!e «.l lie >ri..i'.Ier t<»rt is a m^iuml in 
\\.r r-irtn mi a ^ui^ar ioaf,t»l a ma;^n:tui!e .md height wr.ich ^:r:ke 
t;.e 'M-ii-'liirr witii aN'«»n:Nhnienl. It base is a re-'ular circle, II^ 
!eet :ri i.i iinetir : ils altitiuie i^ :n leet. It is >urri)wnde(i bv a 
i::\':: J ?!•«■: i;f«j> .in*i i; wuif. .i:ui (it-ti-iii'eii b\ a parapet .\ leet 


high, through which is a gateway towards the fort 20 feet in 

The description of this one village will indicate the elements 
which were common in all the villages, the square enclosures, 
the graded ways, lookout mounds, protecting walls, wells, etc., 
being found in nearly every village. 

It shows also the religious ideas which were embodied in 
many of the village enclosures, the platform mounds and the 
circle about the lookout mounds having probably been used as 
symbols as well as defenses. This same combination of symbols 
with defenses is seen more fully in the elaborate system of works 
found at Portsmouth. These works seem to have been erected 
for purely religious purposes, and we recognize many symbols 
in them, the square at one end, the concentric circle at the other 
end, and the horse-shoe, the crescent and .several other symbols 
in the central group, the whole connected by a wall seven or 
eight miles long. 

III. We now turn to the forts of Ohio, but are to consider 
them chiefly in their symbolic capacity. There are three pecu- 
liarities to earth-works of this region, namely: the large major- 
ity of them are enclosures; second, many of the enclosures are 
symbolic in shape, the circle and square being the most prevalent 
symbol ; third, the majority of the symbolic works are very 
strongly fortified, nearly every place which the sun worshipers 
occupied having been furnished with a strong and hea\y earth 
wall, which served as a protection to them. The classification 
of the works of the sun worshipers reveals to us a great variety 
of uses, the most of them, however, bein^ such uses as would 
be connected with village life. lUit with the uses we discover 
that defense was as much sought ft)r as was convenience. It is 
remarkable that there were so manv walled enclosures in this 
region, but the fact that there was danger always threatening the 
people from a lurkm;^ Ufv will account ft»r these. They needed 
to licfend themselves on all occasions, ant! so they never resorted 
to a place of worship or amu^ienient, they never went to a sac- 
rificial place, they never even went to the ficl^U or to the water's 
cd^c, but that they must have a wall to protect them. We b.ave 
dwelt upon the *'ymb«»!i*'m uhich was t tnhotlied in their works, 
but we fni|»ht tlwell even lon^'er iipMH the \ leu i»f the detente 
provided l*v tliem. It wj!1 sutVice. h«)wever. to sav that svmbol- 
ism an»l <!' tVnsf u.*re ''tt'-n unite*!, th.e "^ajK-rstition about the 
svmbo: eivin • tli-ni .1 -^t-n-e ot securii\ a-^ much ii> the ea:th- 
Work"* LMve tii in actual safetv. We have on!v to !<K>k at the 
ilifT'-rent work-; found in an\- < ne locality to see the wontierful 

I Let u^ a>k Uiiat wi.rks ti.ere are an-I uses v.e mavdis- 

•••• • II »■ ' • • 1 ■ r ■ !■ I 

THE SACRED ENCUtSlKES *.»K ^.>mo. U.\ 

cover in them. \Vc have first the village enclosure. "This we 
see was always protected by a circum\-alUtion. This circumval- 
latioo was generally in the shape of a square and a circle, but 
the circle was always protected by a high wall and sometimes by 
two such walls, and the openings in the wall of the square were 
always protected by a watch tower or additional platform guard 
on the inside. Second, there were near the villages many forti- 
fied hill-tops, places to which the villagers could resort in times 
of attack. These fortihed hills were generally located in the 
midst of several villages, so that they could be easily reached by 
all. Third, the sacrificial places and the places of religious 
assembly were always provided with circumvallations or long 
covered ways. Nothing of a religious nature was ever under- 
taken unless the people could be protected by a wall. Fourth, 
we find that the sweat-houses, so-called, were always close by 
the village enclosure, but if, by any means, it was remote, there 
was always a covered way provided, so that it could be reached 
in safety from the village enclosure. Fifth, the same is true of 
the dance circles and places of amusement. These were some- 
times remote from the village, but in all such ca>cs there was a 
covered way between the villaj;e and the dance ground. Sixth, 
the fields were cultivated, but the fields were reached by |>assing 
through the parallels or covered ways, and lookout mounds or 
obser\'atories were always provided ti» protect those at work and 
to sound the alarm to them Seventh, there were landing places 
for canoes and places at which the villagers could reach the 
waters edge. These, however, were always protected by covered 
ways. Kvery village had its landin^^ place, but nearly every 
landing place was furnished with a graded and a protected or 
Covered way. the canoes being kept from the water and from the 
enemy by the same contrivance. Fighlh, we find a few isolateil 
enclosures. The^e are the parallels, supposed to have been used 
for races and other games. They, too. present the peculiarity o\ 
having a wall to protect them. Tlie >acrificial or burial places 
were also isolated, but even the burial grounds were furnished 
with heavy earth-walls or circumvallatic ns. The lookouts were 
also at times isolated from the villa^'es. but even the loi.k<.;:t 
mounds were surrounded with circles to protect them, and sorr.e 
of them were connected with the village sites by covered wa\ >. 
It would seem as if the i>eople were not willing even to tri:<l 
their sentinels or watchmen to the open fields or to risk the 
chance of his reaching an enclosure by rapid llight, but even he 
must be protected by a wall or covered way. 

This presents a new view of the earth-works of the region. It 
-hows that the people realized their danger; that \\hile they were 
peaceable themselves and were given to agriculture and to .i 
peculiar religious cult, ytt they were in the midst of a savac^* 
foe which was always lurking near. They remmd us m :.. > 


respect of the jxroplc who dwelt in the terraced villages of the 
West. They lived in villages and were peaceful aad industrious, 
btit needed always to guard their villages from sudden attack. 
The mound-builders olOhio. then, and the Indians oflater times 
were plainly very different from one another. 

TliL- t'tt. ■::,■. r .Liiiuli,; ti.fll.-iAf, in ii:.inv risln'its Tlu.r.o 
winch w..., M..;:nd |.u.!.!ci — that is. the 
M-'Um! lJ^lJ:t!l■^^ wh" ii^uiitil tin \.:;.it;c enclosures — arc much 
mure elalK.f.Hf ih.m tliCM- hu-.'A l>y thi i.iltr trilK--.. Tlit writer 
has discovirt.! thn.' .:.i—s ol 't. rt- in this rej^on. The first 
cUs^l.^.■;ynK■*t^•VllK■»J;en:.H;nd-blll:.!l.■ri, the- sc.-.'ml t.. thv mnund- 
buiidcf'. whu uerc SLT[Knl-wi r'lii|K;rs, the third lu the race of 


stockade builder*:. Ivich class h«id its own |K'Culiar way ol 
crci tin«^ fortifications. The fortifications arc more distinctive in 
reality than villaiji- enclosures. The enclosures may have been 
occiipicil by two or three successive populations, the one ercct- 
in); the walls and giving to the enclosures the {tcculiar synib<»]ic 
form of the .square and circle, the other occupying the circles 
l)iit placing: within them, as si^;ns of their presence, some partic- 
ular cffiv:y The jjreat serpent probably l>clon^;b to this race, the 
third race, uho erected tlic stockade forts, but put no symbol- 
ism into their w<^rk«. The distinction iK-tween the first 
t\\'» i^ that one was a race «>f sun worshi|>ers .ind the other of 
serprnt worshij)er>. the sun symlwl beint; fretpiently eni(>odied 
in I lie e.irth works which are c«>nnected with the village enclos- 
ims. bill thr serjienl symb«'ls bein^ embodied in the walls which 
--urroundrd the fortifications built bv the other race We liave 
the l\\t» cla-seb rt j»ri '^enlnl in a *«iiij^le tort.tliatat I'orl Annent 
T!k upper fort, which is called tin" new foit.but which in reality 
in ly liavc breii the oldci of the two, has all the t liaracteristic^ 
«it thv:I!.i;jc cn»l(»Ni:rtN ft walls .irt- hi^h and .m^uiar, well 
d and tiimi-^hed with massi\c i^ateway^'.all showing a hi^^h 
ill T' . ut arc!;;tec!ural skill, the crescent bi in;: the onlv *«\ mbol 
c.Mtisnr.i w:!h:n :!. Thi' l"Wer t»r *'i'Uthern I»nt. winch \^ called 
\\\\' ■ '. : liHi. diiilr* Irom till'* in au rfsj>eLts The walls are 
I :.'!«• tlu- .Mlcwavs -mailer, tlu- ^Ltr.L wililt r. anii the ^-xinbtilism 

■ • • • 

-::.inL:< r .irui in ■[ • rnysteriiius. I his part, th' writer maintains. 
;.';v.':i »<{.!..! lli'j s\-mbol nt tlu ^er|K:nt in it*« w.ili-*, the superstition 

• I :!:- pi • |i!e i)e:ni: lliat the form o! the serpent in some way 
L\i\'. p!»itLctK»n t«' the piople. We ascribe to thr t'lrs*. class, that 
;-. t« the \:i!.i..;f p 'tipie. th«- f»»rts .it Iv»uriievil!' . at I lainilton. at 
M i-'^e\ N (reek, and t»n the inirth l«»!k «•? l'a:nt C'ret k. called 
( !.ir*. - W r'.s. t-t tlic S'luiid cias^, we ascrilu tin (.••itrain 
\\ :k- ind tlie I»it north of llaiuilton, iea\ iiuj tlu I"»)rt Hill.iii 
1 lt.;i:"': * •«anty.; ttj the thin! cla--* — the st-ickaile 
b I.'.: :s -wt .iscnrjc the !ort ruar (iranvilK-. those at I'liur-mile 
y ;i f k .md Se\f n-mile i r« ek and \\\^ Kiin. and >cviral i»f the 
V. .):k^ n-.Mi II a:ii :!!■•:'., :n liutler County The {v.'culiarity of the 
I ':*. ■: tiir v.!a.;e p'M»|'ie is that there were very elaborate i;atc- 
••'. a\ -. !)!'• wa!'.- be;n.; vcr>" >harpl> d« fined, aiul ha\in^; re -entering 
.c.\.\\' . .■■:!■ o! t'neni bcm^ provideil with d.«'.;b!e and triple earth 
u.iK- .i-i juar.!^ I'^r the entrances Twt) of the entrances are 
I .rn diet! With what is » alleil the Tiascalan ^^ateway. and the 
..•.;:'i ! i'-n.siinl with a mi'-^t elaborate svslem r.f embankments. 

:\ d.i!- rer'.t semi-*, ircular walls lieinjj arran^id arouml a sin;;!e 

• i'r:.n/. l*.* protect it from the entrance of an enemv The 
j.;a*«*w.i\s lif the race of seqKrnt-worshipers were provided with 
ua!l) in the shape of ser|>ents. and seqHrnts' heads, but with no 

• til. : contrivances except thii symbol to ^uard them. 

I h:s brief review of the forts as related to the symbolism 


will give to us an idea as to the great variety of earth works 
found in Southern Ohio. They are all of them enclosures, some 
of them having been used for defenses, others for villages, others 
for burial places, others as council houses, and as dance circles, 
and a few perhaps merely as symbols. The peculiarity of all is 
that they have earth walls which enclose areas, though there are 
conical mounds or solid structures either in the areas or on high 
land overlooking the areas. These enclosures bring before us a 
picture of the native society as it once existed. It is evident 
that the population at one time was vcr>' dense, probably much 
denser in the time of the early mound-builders than at any time 
since. The jieople were then in a peaceful and sedentar>' condi- 
tion. They were a^jriculturists. They placed their villages in 
the midst of the rich agricultural country and surrounded them 
with walls, and in scmie cases built walls whi(:h would, in a meas- 
ure, surrounii their tk'ld>. or at least protect the |)ei»plc m «^;r^mg 
to and from them. The fort*i were placed in the midst < f iheir 
villages on high ground, ^here there would be a natural defense, 
the clitTs being precipitous. In case of a sudden incursion the 
people might leave their villai^rs and resort to the fort<. Their 
vill.i^es were situated upon the rivers and were connected 
with the river's bank l»y covered ways. They navi^.iteil the 
rivers by vMnoes antl l.mtlin;^ pl.icfs for them near their Mi- 
lages. Their v;lla^'es were stimetimes closr together, givin/ the 
idea that the clans mluibitin^' them were friemily to one .mother. 
.At f»ther timrs th*: vill.i;.;i s are isol.ited ancl wide .ipart. givir;^ 
the iJe.i that the people s..iii;ht room l«»r hunt in; j .i-* well as trr- 
tile spots {^^T ii^ru ':!tt:re. The vill.ii;es, howt \t i, wi reall w.illed 
and tin- iii«»st it" them had walleil approaehe-. i;:\'.ng the itie.i 
tha* thev were li.iMe to be .ittaekid l>v a lufKin-' f<»e, mm\ tliat 
th( y «.'»nlir]u- d their pursuits with this co:i>tanl .>e::se *'f i;.4n;.;ir 
in tluir inintls, llverytliirg inipre-^es il> wrtli the thc»u^;l:t th..t 
th«- In.lMns were :* )e'» to llie ::io;ind l»i:iMer^,. mil that the in« -und- 
buii<!« r . \v*'rr \\'\\ a> ■•uaMited with Il^!IaIl w.i\s, tli^' two el.i^ses 
— In::ar: an*! ini'iinil-hi:il«lir^ — l)e::H' v- rv *-iiii:! »r in their •.\av% 
an«l iti'm!'-- ni ! l -. tlmu.-li she:r s\r.. !)■>'., ru w.i. iliivrent 

Til- y may l'.a\e bi« n Indian-*, i r a! !r i t I.ivt ieii n^n! t • a 
;-ri at .\:!UT:vin <"<< wlijch W'- *.i\ \r.*\..\r.^ . I '.;ttlKV wtre « m- 
dtntiy -ja.te «: linnt I'unii anv • I :!.--^i' ti.": ■ ^ uluch have Keen 
known t • :i:h i-:! tl:e r'''\*'\\ -.m L.-t'-rv *• .'an. T!:-.v mav. :<> 
be »'.;r' . liavi- h.i 1 ll^- same vyi\* r-u •■r.;an:.Mtion. briP;^ dsvuird 
mto «.!.ir.s, :iie *.' .n^ h.iNif.^ th- ir re >;-:'.•;: v. luar !•» i-ne an»ther, 
and the e! in- ":•'■ •■;^ to tr:fts In •■nirc ca-ts it wi uld *nvm 
.i> \t the •.r.i)ei .ver'* InCiittd upun tlie river**, a^^! that the dtlVcr- 
ent r:\« r-» were • L<.'aj-i'-l l»y d.::VrLnt tr.Se'*. tiie trdKS ;n tlie 
distriLt liavini:. lurx* ver, \'Jr^l v:!n:Ian!ie<. Whc'J'.cr the tr.!>es 
Were ^r••u. ht t'»;jtthir mtn .i c»»r.f'f »iera» v ■ r n«'t t» unci rt.rn.and 
yet ;t is probaMe th.-^.t the viila^^c-* ail be lunged to one jKople. 

IV. We now turn to a com|iarison of the villa^^c enclosures. 
Thi5 comparison mi^^ht lead us to consider the vilUges of all 
thr modern Indians. We shall, however, confine ourselves 
mainiv to ihe enclosures of ( )hio, for tht-sc seem to be the most 
cnmplc-tc sjK'cmiens of village enclosures to be found anywhere 
amnnpj tlu* uncivilized races We finti in them the elements 
whit h go to make up villa^^e architecture everywhere. It may 
be that there were hi^^her grades amon^; the scn)i -civilized tribes 
«»f the west, l)ul for the uncivilized we shall <Ji stover nothing; 
more Cftiiiplete. We take up the elements here presented, and 
learn from them about the factors which are obsciirelv contained 
in other districts The followin^^ are the elements ^iven by the 
Ohio earth-works: I. the circumvallation ; 2. the lodge circle, 
including theestufas; 3, the tem|>Ie platform . 4, the observatory 
or w.itch tower. 5. the covered way*i. including the protected 
lamiin;:. or ^:raded way: '». the sacrificial place or sacred burial 
enclosure; 7, the fortifications: S. the lookout nKuinds. 

I. It *«houId be noticed, that the villages of the thtTerent dis- 
truts .ill had c 1 re um vail at ions which were very marked. The 
villa^^es of the emblematic mound-but IderN had eftigies near 
them, those of the tomi) builders had circles of burial mounds 
about them. thi»se of the pyramid-builders had pyramids around 
them, .ind tho^c of the lodge-builders had walls on the outside 
.m<i 1<k!;;»- circles inside, to characti/e them. In like manner the 
liefenscs *A the scr|K-nt wnrNhij>ers had the >erj>ent effigy to char- 
acterize them, ami the villages nf the sun worbhi{)ers had the 
I jrcle. crescent, horsr-shoe, and i>ther symbols to characterize 
thrin. c.i h ihstrut containing ;i different religious system and a 
<!:!?» rtnt class of works which embodied it. 

There is :his dill'etence, Ivtween the villages of Ohio and 
those lound elsev\ here. The viiLigcs here were always char- 
acterized by a double or a triple enclosure, one of them being 
a 'ijuare and the other a circle or a cluster ol circles. That at 
Newark contains five enclosures and three sets of parallel walls, 
with an etfl^^v in one of the enclosures and many small circles 
sea*. '.e red around among the covered ways. 

The mijsl remarkable of all the village si'c* are perhaps those 
At ll.>pe*Mn, Newark, Cirdeville, Ilighbank, and Twinsburg. 
That .1! llofMrton is the most beautiful, where there is a square 
.mil iirv \\ and t\%o or three smaller circles joining the squares 
<.!! \\\\' i«ii!Nide. There arc tound on the third l>o*.tom. Thev 
I' nsi^t (,i .1 rectan;;le with an attached circle. The rectangle 
mt'.i^ures .;;o bv <^^) feet. The circle is 1050 leet in diameter. 
The ;;a:e\vays are twelve in numlx-r, and have an average width 
r>i a!>"U! .\s teet. On the east side are two circles, measuring 
:io ami :5() leet, the gateways or opening to the circles cor- 
Te^'pomiing to the gateways in the square. The walls ol thr 
larger work are 12 feet high, 50 leet wide at the base. **Thev 


resemble the heavy grading of a railway, and are broad enough 
on the top to admit the passage of a coach." It is probable 
that on the summit of these walls there was a timber palisade 
resembling those at Circleville, or possibly like those described 
by Dr. William Dawson as liochelega. There are no ditches 
outside the wall, but a ditch inside that of the smaller circles. 
This characteristic of the Ohio villages has never been ex- 
plained. It was probably owing to a peculiar social organiza- 
tion, but that organization is now unknown, and we are left only 
to conjecture as to what it was. The square may have been 
used for the governing class, very much as the truncated pyra- 
mids at the south were. The large circular enclosure may have 
contained the lodges of the common people, the village proper. 
The small circles may have been the sweat houses or assembly 
places for the villagers. lu the cases where there are three 
enclosures, the third, which was a circle, may have been used 
by the priestly class, if we may suppose that there was such a 

2. \Vc have said that the enclosures were used as clan residences. 
These residences were in villages. Wherever there wasa clan there 
was a village, and what is more the villa(>[cs were not built by 
individuals or by families, but were built by the clan. We are 
uncertain what kind of houses they were. They may have been 
frail temporary structures built of poles, covered with skins, 
bark or (iirt, similar to those of the Slandans. They may have 
been circular lodges, such lodges as have left their rings in many 
places in the south and west. 1 hey may have been long houses, 
however, built afler the model of the Iroquoi:» long house. There 
may have been a diflercnce between them, some of them being 
mere circular lodges or tents, others square or rectangular build- 
ings, resembling those built by the southern trilx*s — Choctaws. 
Chickasaws and Creeks. The sweat houses or estufas, or assem- 
bly places, may have been circular buildmgs. resembling the 
rotundas of the Cherokces, while the house of the rhiefs may 
have Ix-en .stjuare, or rectangular, similar to lh<»se which were 
erccletl on the summit of the plair«»rms or pyramids of the (iulf 
States. There are lodge circles t>r rinj^s with fire-beds in 
Ohio, such as have been found in Tennessee and Missouri, and 
in some cases in I^wa. These lodge rings, however, are sugges- 
tive, for they show what might have been the arrangement of the 
houses amting the Ohio mouml-builders. These rings were 
generally |>Iaced in lines ar<»und the outside of a central square, 
or plaza, as the SpanianK call it. Somewhere in the enclosure 
there would be a high mound which was u>cd as a lookout. This 
would be near the edge of the village. 

3. In the center of most of these villages there is a platform or 
truncated pyramid, which is supposed to have been the place 
where the chiefs had their houses. This is the uniform arrange- 


ment of the villages, as they are found in the mountain district 
of Tennessee and in the cypress swamps of Arkansas and Mis- 
souri. The arrangement of the Ohio villages may have been 
the same, at least there are platforms, elliptical or circular in 
shape, which are situated in the center, showing that a public 
building of some kind was in the midst of the enclosure. 

4. The parallel walls form another peculiar feature of the 
villages of Ohio. These generally extend from the enclosures 
to the river^s bank, but sometimes extend from one enclosure to 
another. They were probably intended to protect the people 
as they went to and from the villages. The works at Newark 
illustrate this point. (See the Plate.) These works are inter- 
esting. They are situated in the midst of a fertile plain, which is 
surrounded by high hills on all sides, one hill bemg especially 
prominent, the hiU on which the alligator mound is situated. 
The works are very extensive. They cover in extent about 
two miles square, and consist o< three grand divisions, which 
are connected by parallel walls. The most prominent is the 
circular structure, which is called the old fort. The area of 
this structure is something over thirty acres. In the center of 
it is the mound ot singular shape, which is called the bird; the 
head of the bird |>uinteil directly toward the entrance of the 
enclosure. This so-called bird originally contained an altar. 
It seemed to (>oint out a religious design to the whole structure, 
and yet it mav have been only a central object in the midst of a 
vilLige, an object which would show that the villagers were 
)>ecuharly su|H:rsti(ious The gateway of this fort, so-called, is 
very imposing. The walls are not less than 16 feet in height, 
and a ditch within is 13 feet deep, giving an entire height of 
about 30 feet. **In entering the ancient avenue for the first time 
the visitor does not fail to experience a sensation of awe, such 
as he might feel in passing the portals of an Egyptian temple.** 
Such is the testimony ot the author of **Ancient Monuments,** 
but the writer can bear witness that the same impression was 
made upon himseif when entering it tor the first time. The 
iircle is nearly a true circle, its diameter being 1189 by 1 163 
feet. The circle is united with a square by parallel walls, which 
hirm a wide covered way. There is between the square and 
the creek or ri%'er another large enclosure, which is partially 
surrounded by walls, and which has a complicated system of 
covered ways connected with it. This seems to have been the 
central spot lor the two villages which were located here. It 
may have In^en a place of assembly, a dance ground or a feast 
place. There is a single circle within it, a number of conical 
mounds, and a graded way which leads from it to the edge of 
the terrace, situated south of it. This graded way is a peculiar 
work, but is similar to those found at Piketon and Marietta. The 
chief peculiarity of the work is that there are parallel walls; 
two 01 these, which are upwards of a mile in length, extend 


from the works just described to the octagon situated west or 
northwest of the old fort or great circle. These parallel lines 
were probably covered ways, one of which connected the vil- 
lage enctosures with one another^ the other connecting the west 
enclosure or octagon with the bottom land and river*s edge, 
though the two covered ways are nearly parallel. There is a 
third line, which extends from the octagon southward for nearly 
two miles This covered way loses itself in the plain. It may 
have been designed to protect the villagers as they went to an^ 
from the fields* 

In the center of the works, nearly surrounded by the covered 
ways, is a large pond, which may have served as a reservoir of 
water fot both villages, as access could be gained to it through 
the openings in the walls from either side. There are small 
circles scattered around among the works. These may have 
been the estufas or sweat houses, as they all have the same 
general appearance and dimensions The chief feature of the 
work is the octagon and small circle.* The octagon has eight 
gateways, each gateway being guarded by an elliptical mound 
or truncated pyramid, 5 feet high, 80 by 100 feet at base. The 
circle connected with the octagon is a true circle 2080 feet 
— upwards of half a mile — in circumference. It has on the 
southwest side what was probably once a gateway, but it seems 
to have been abandoned and an observatory built in its stead. 
See Fig. 7. 

5. The watch towers and observatory mounds are also to 
be noticed. The observatory at Newark is very imposing. It 
is 170 feet long, is 8 feet higher than the general embankment, 
overlooks the entire work, and may have been used as a look- 
out station to protect the fielcU adjoining. A number of small 
circles, which are called watch towers bv At water, are found 
connected with the work^, and are chivtly embraced in the area 
between the parallel walls. 

In retrrence to the works at Newark in its difTerent parts, 
Messrs. Squier and Davis say: •'Savcral extraordinary coinci- 
dences are e.xhibited l)etween them and the works situated cUe- 
where. The smaller circle is identical in size with that In-longing 
to the IIo|>eton works and that at I li^hbank, whiih are situated 
seventy niiles distant. The square the same areas as the 
square at Ilopeton and the octagon at IIi^hbank. The octa- 
gon has the same area as the square at Marietta. There are 
mounds inside of' the ^atewjy the same as tound in other places. 
The observatorv here corresjKMuis to the larije observatory at 
Marietta, thou;4h that is somewhat higher. The small circles, 
which we call estufas, are ot the same gener.'»l character and 

*KA/-h hf%« n <li:knif!f r tif nt» i-it J** (**• t. r.a* m iliti'h nirr'.nr t<k \he valU. and t\^ 
TAtrfl • rMr.«iilirnrnt« in thf »ti>«t>«- <rf •■rr«<Yrit« Uttr>|i>r t<> Uir ditrh. Tht» U lh« 
rofiiiii'ii) r-'riii wtih aH of \\ir •riinli i .rrli** wliirh mrr m» uumcruu* tD cottaMttoO 
with th«* vUlA«r»ltrt. 


dimenii<mi aa those lound it Ilopeton, at Highbank. at the 
junciioa group, and at Chiliicoihc. The rewmblances beiweeo 
the village ai Newark and thoK found elsewhere in ihia diitrict 
are, we think, quite significant. We find in many of (he 
iithcr worki, cBpecially those on Paint Creek and in the Scioio 
Valley, that there are three endoaurcs, two ol (hem being a 
circle and square, and a third being irregular in lorm, but gen- 
erally larger than either the circle or square. This larger en- 
clnaure sometimes intervenes between the circle aud the square 
and sometimes it is situated at (he side ol each, making a th* 

angle with them. It is probable that the same uae was made 
ot this large enclosures in the other localities that was made of 
the large enclosure at Newark, the only difiermce being that 
connected with the circle and square, it constituted one village, 
hut in this case it served Tor the two villages, the connecuoo 
between them being secured by the parallel wall.* 

6. We turn to the description ol (he graded ways. These are 
very interesting works but confirm what we have said about 
village sites. There is a graded way at Newark, another at 
Piketon, another at Mariclla, and another is said to be situated 
at I'lqua. They all have the same general characteristics. They 

Tb* rtaiT will v* Ihia plBlnl* by ■■•nlnlBC th* nlkUs In Iha AnrlMtt MaM«- 
mriiu. rtn- lli>tii«nk works I'Ikl' XVl.mfkB nm lAMnj TovnMilp. HIaM ZY. 
x.rk.nn l>Blnli-n*k.nkir XXI,IMid1,BBd«nniD«U»-Apl»ln Mkrl^UIMMlM. 
BB4uDib*B<.rttilurk>if l>Blall>T«k,Blii)d IHIIItnrtk*, I'IkM XXI. Noi. Kt. Um 
«urkaMt('>pM.iu, XVII.kl»v<rfkilKilirHMaloVkJI>r,|-U»II.Bl«jMlllaekwsMr 
■ri>ap.XXII.I*n.l I'Mika'a WorkanaaulBalfesaqkAnMid Iteplrtl*. tattk* air. 
■ I* I* ^mid* lit Um Un* tiirtiaur*, (rblrh U Tarj nurb l^rgrr tbwi »• atHaarf 
•1 u>n-, brlM sn »r llN IWL, Mkd eaalMu u arM of HI term, luuaS of Ml 


run from the terrace on which the village encloaure was situ- 
ated down to the bottom lands. The bottom lands are now 
dry, but it is probable that at the time the works were built 
they constituted the river bed. The object of the graded way 
was undoubted to secure a landinf^ places lor canoes. The 
rivers ot Southern Ohio are still subject to ttoods. They were 
probably severer in prehistoric times. The walU on either side 
of the graded way would serve a double purpose; they would 
protect the villagers as they went to the water s edge, and would 
also keep the canoes from being carried away by the sudden 
rise of the water. The graded way at Newark has a tonguo 
of land which extends bevond the walls. This may have served 

as a sort of Um!in;j place or quasi wharf. Owl Creek, a smill 
stream, rlows soiiili ul thin work. Tin- ulvvalcd grade wjs ex- 
tended mn to the w:iii-r in lhi« crerk. In Xhv lase i>i' the gr.tded 
wav at I'ikcton and at Newark tht- initint: Ivgitis at the iKJttum 
land .-it)d ri-^en by a gradual asi'i-iH In tlit- iiummil ol the terrace. 
The breadth iiciKt-en the walls at Pikilun i* lit, leet at one 
end and Jo_; .it On; other, but the w.iv i- loSiti-rt long; the rise 
is 17 Iccl. See Kit;- **■ The height ol tin- wall, measured from 
the lower extremity ol the grade, i* no leii.'i than 22 Icei, hut 
measured Irom the common nuriacc varies from 11 leet at the 
brink to 5 leet at the uppi-r terrace The ascent is very grad- 
ual. At the upper extremity of the grade there i.i a wall which 
runs sjSofeet toward a group of mounds, which at present are 
enclu^ed in a cemetery. There is also another mound 30 feet 
high about 40 r<)ds away. The object of this graded way is 
unknown, but judging Irom Iih similarity to other graded ways 
in the same stale, we conclude that there was a village site oa 


the upper terrace, though there are no walla perceptible there. 
The graded wav at Marietta is also very interestini;. This has 
already been oescribed. A distance o( several hundred feet 
intervenes between the end of the graded way and the hank of 
the river, which is here 35 or 40 feet in height. It has been 
conjectured that the river flowed immediately at the foot of' the 
way at the time of its construction. If so, it would prove the 
antiquity of the works to be very great. Graded ways similar 
to these in Ohio are found in (jeorgia in connection with the 
high conical mounds, but they generally lead to ponds, and may 
have been used for a difTerent purpose. 

7. In reference to the association of the fortifications with the 
villages ;ind the sacred enclosures, a few words will be appropri- 
ate. It IS explained by the |)eculiarittcs of clan life. It appears 
that among all uncivilized races the clan was the unit. The family 
was nothing when compared with the clan. In fact, the clan 
seemed to Ik* more important than the tribe. It was much more 
important than the nation, if the nation existed. It is probable 
that the communistic system prevailed in most of the clans. 
Subsistence was secured by members of the clan. The burials 
may have been in clans, or by a number of clans uniting together. 
The so-called altar mounds were probably the places where 
>everal clans were brought together and presented their offerings 
anil mado their l)u rials. 'I he fortifications were also places 
where the clans came togeler for common defense. 

Many of these hill f«>r:s are situated in the midst of village en- 
closurrs ( )n<- of them, that .it Hourneville, has Inren frequently 
described II ss vir\' l*"*rgc. containing 140 acres, being situated 
in the midst of the villages on Paint Creek. The Ancient Fort 
and that at Hamilton, on the (ireat Miami, were also large. These 
were s.tuatet! not far fri>ni «»ther village enclosure*!. The fortified 
hill vailed " l*'orl Hill," in Highland County, is ni>t very far from 
vilIaLie-.. bfin^ but thirty miles from Chillicothc. The fortified 
hill n<Mr (iranvilie is near the works at Newark, but it was prob- 
ably built by a later race, as it dilTers ver>' materially from the 
works at Ne\v.irk The ancient works on Massey's Creek, in 
(ireene County, may have lK*en erected by the typical mound- 
builiii Ts of the district, but of the works at the mouth of the 
Miain!. on the ( .Miami, in Hutler Countv and Hamilton 
C'ounty. th< re is s..nic uncertainty. Some of them may have 
l>el«»!igetl to the typical mound builders, but others may have 
been built by an earlier c»r a later race. 


This IS also the use which was made of Fort Ancient. A part 
of this had been built by a race of effigy-builders, the same race 
who bui'.t the great ser|>cnt and made it the great center of ser- 
j>cnt worship. A part of it. however, was prol>ably built by the 
same |>eoplc who erected the village enclosures, who were sun 
worshi|K'rs. There are some reasons for believing that the scr- 


pent worshipers migrated from this part of Ohio and afterwards 
became the effigy-builders of Wisconsin, as there are many ser- 
pent effigies scattered along the bluffs of the Mississippi River, 
the route which they are supposed to have taken in their migra- 
tion. The sun worshipers may possibly have been the same 
people, and yet the probability is that they migrated southward 
and became the pyramid-builders of the Southern States, em- 
bodying that worship in the pyramid as they had here in the 
circles and crescents. 

8. The connection of the village enclosures with the lookout 
mounds is our last point. These lookout mounds may have 
been used by all of the different tribes or races which oc- 
cupied the district, but it is plain that they were also used by the 
people of the village enclosures. Squier and Davis speak of 
the lookout on the top of the hill above Chillicothe, the lookout 
which commands a view of the whole district in which the vil- 
lages were situated. The writer has visited the great mound at 
Miamisburg, and found that it commanded a view of the valley 
in which were the works at Alexandersville, and at the same time 
was connected with others which reached as far as Fort Ancient. 
One peculiarity about this mound was noticed. At a certain 
height on the side of the mound the view extended over the 
valley where were the various earthworks, but it was limited by 
surrounding hills or headlands. The summit, however, gave a 
view of other hills beyond these, and the writer was convinced 
that it was raised to this height in order that signals might be 
exchanged between those who were living in the Miami valley 
and those who were living in the valley west of it. thus showing 
that the White River and the Miami River were included in one 
district. Rev. T. J. Mclxan has also studied out the signal 
stations and made a complete net-work of them throughout 
Kutler and Hamilton Counties, Whether this system of signal 
stations extended beyond the district which we are now describ- 
ing wc are unable to say, but we have no doubt that the signal 
stations were used by the village people who erected the typical 
earth works of Southern Ohio. Grave Creek mound may have 
been one of the signai stations, an outwork which was farthest 
to the east. The high conical mound at Marietta was another. 
The high conical mound at Circleville reached the height of 
ninety feet; this is another of the signal stations which were used 
b ' the village Indians. 




Rv Rev. Silas Rasp. 

When there were no [Kople in this country but Indians, and 
l>efore they knew of any others, a young woman had a singular 
dream. She dreamed that a small island came floating in to- 
wards the land, with tall trees on it and living beings, and amongst 
others a young man dressed in rabbit-skin garments. Next day 
she interpreted her dream and sought for an interpretation. It 
was the custom in those days, when any one had a remarkable 
dream, to consult the wise men and especially the magicians and 
soothsayers.! These pondered over the girl's dream, but the>' 
cuuld make nothing of it; but next day an event occurred that 
explained it all. Getting up in the morning, what should they 
see but a singular little island, as they took it to be, which had 
drifted near to land, and had become stationer>' there. There 
were trees on it. and branches to the trees, on which a number 
of bears, as they took them to be. were crawling about.J They 
all seized their bows and arrows and spears and rushed down to 
the shore, intending to shoot the bears. What was their surprise 
to find that these supposed iK^ars were men, and that some of 
them were lowering down into the water a very singular con- 
structed canoe, into which several of them jumped and paddled 
ashore. Among them was a man dressed in white — a priest with 
his white stole on, uho came towards them making signs of 
friendliness, raising his hand towards heaven and addressing 
them in an earnest manner, but in a language which they could 
not understand. The girl was now questioned respecting her 
dream. *' Was it such an island as this that she had seen ? was 
this the man?" She affirmed that they were indeed the same. 
Some of them, esi^ecially the necromancers, were displeased. 
They did not like it that the coming of these foreigners should 
have bjen mtimated to this yovmg girl and not to them. Had 
an enemy of the Indian tribes, with whom they were at war, been 
about to make a descent upon them they could have foreseen 
and foretold it by the power of their magic. But of the coming 
of this teacher of a new religion they could know nothing. The 

"Till* wm» rpt«t#<1 til tiir r>v J^mIaIi Jrrtmy, Kepi. SI, Mi. 
•I.ikr ilt«> ^:«>|itiiina. t'liAMtmna. rlr. 

:li wa*. II la D«r<tleM iu ■•> . A \wmml with m— U and ymrda. and a^lora upon th< w . 
in •% liif atMiut. 
Ttirwi twu nijrth* iliusirmt* tb« ningUnc ol prahMoiic nnd hUtorlo Idcns In xbm 
m*.i\9 mytholiisjr oflliU dlalrlrl. 


new teacher was gradually received into favor, though the 
magicians opposed him. The people received his instructions 
and submitted to the rite of baptism. The priest learned their 
tongue, and gave them the prayer-book written in what they 
call Ab<'>otolovecg«\sik — ornamental mark-writing, a mark stand- 
ing for a word, and rendering it so difficult to learn that it may 
be said to be impossible. And this was manifestly done for the 
purpose of keepin;:^ the Indians in ignorance. Had their lan- 
guige been reduced to writmg in the ordinary way, the Indians 
would have learned the use of writing and reading, and would 
have so advanced in knowledge as to have been able to cope 
with their more enlightened invaders, and it would have been a 
more difficult matter for the latter to have cheated them out of 
their lands, etc. 

Such was Josiah's story. Whatever were the motives of the 
priests who gave them their pictorial writing, it is one of the 
grossest literary blunders that was ever perpetrated. It is bad 
enough for the Chinese, whose language is said to be monosyl- 
labic and unchanged by grammatical inflection. But Micmac is 
partly syllabic, ** endless," in its compounds ind grammatical 
changes, and utterly incapable of being represented by signs. 





An aged couple resided alone in the lorest with their only 
son. The young man provided (or his parents by hunting. One 
day he brought down a crow with his arrow, and the snow 
was stained and reddened with the blood of the bird. As the 
young man gazed upon the three brilliant colors thus brought 
together in contrast before him, he was struck with the singu- 
lar l>eautv of the combination. Would, thought he, that I 
could tind a girl whose tresses wese jefv and glossy as the 
raven*s wing, whose skin was white as the driven snow, and 
whose cheeks were crimson as the bloml that stains it. I would 
marrv such a girl, could I find her. When he came home, he 
told his mother what had passed through hit mind. His mother 
informs him that such a girl there is. but her home is far away, 
too far lor a winter's travel, but when summer comes he may 
go and fetch her. I le resolves to do so, and it <KCupies his 

•K^^IaI^-iI !o me by lu-n Hnw^k*. wh»« hr«nl i\ toitf »«»•. Hf cmn not ir'i th«- or!<tB, 
l>ui it '(tittr Aurv* It WAA matiufA* turnl b> JiiiliAns ttf \hr oldm ttliir. 


mind much. Meanwhile he pursues his vocation as a hunter; 
he becomes absorbed with other matters and for^jelH his beau- 
ideal of beauty. Sprinf; comes and summer, and one day while 
he is exploring the lorrst in quest ol game, he encounters a 
well-dressed, );ood-looking man, who salutes him in a friendly 
way and enquires what he is about out there. He tells him he 
is in quest of venison for the une of the household. **Well/* 
rejoin:^ the stranger, *'of what were you thinking about so much 
last winter?** It took the young man some time to recollect 
himntrlf. Finally he recalled to mind the circumstance ot the 
dead crow, and the wish that had passed through his mind re- 
specting the beauty of the girl he would like to marrv, and 
what his mother had told him. lie related the whole affair to 
the stranger, who assures him that he knows of such a girl, 
and can guide him to the place where she lives and assist nim 
in the important business of winning her for his bride. 

This stranger is a A/igunsoaursoo^^fMi the young man accepts 
his proposal, and goes home to inform his parents and make 
preparations for the journey. Having made all his arrange- 
ments, he starts ofl and soon is joined by his friend of super- 
natural prowess. On they go in company until, after several 
days' travfl, they come out to the borders of a large, long lake. 
About midway from one extremity to the other on the shore ot 
this beautiful sheet of water is a large wigwam, inhabited by 
an old man. He receives them kindiv, inouires whither they 
are gomg, and what their object is. The Sligumoowesoo an- 
^wcT.s tor his young friend, and Glooscap ^fur itis no other than 
he I, d(H-s not disapprove ot the adventure, but gives a word of 
encouragement. But they must cross the lake, however, and 
they see no means of transit. But the old veteran offers to lend 
them a canoe, and accompanies them to the shore, where they 
are directed to step upon a small island, which is covered with 
trees and rocks, and are told that this is his canoe. As soon as 
thev embark and unmoor, the island cralt moves oti by magic 
and glides over the glassy surface of the lake, without sail, 
ruiidcr or oar, and conveys them straight to the opposite and 
distant shore. There they land and moor their ship, and start 
up^jn their distant journey through the forest. They had passed 
one danger, ot which they had received timely warning from 
(flooscap. This was a huge skunk (a necromancer under the 
form <»( this animal), who had taken up his position on the ex- 
tremity of a point of land which ran far out into the lake, and 
which it would be necessary for them to go around. There he 
st(»oii, as they approached, all ready to deluge, stifle and drown 
them as they passed. But the Migumoowesoo was too many 
guns for him. Making ready a suitable cord with a slip-knot, 
with a movement sudden and adroit, he rendered powerless 
this mngician*s means ot otlense and defense, by cording the 
orifice ot his unsavory reservoir, and they passed the enchanted 


Elace unscathed.* Not far had they proceeded oo terra firma 
efore they encountered a man with a 8troaf{ly*built, muscular 
frame who was chopping logs. Seeing no means o( conveyinfl^ 
these logs to the shore, they ask him how this is accomplished. 
*'I take them on my back/* is his answer. He then enquires 
whither they are gomg and what their business is. They tell 
him, and he proposes to accompany them. To this proposal 
they agree, and the three go on together. 

They soon come up to another man, who is hopping along 
on one foot, the other being tied close up to his body. They 
enquire why he ties up his leg. *'Too keep from running too 
swikly," he answers. "Were I to untie my lejf,** says he, •*! 
would go round the world in four minutes.*' **Let us see you 
run,** they reply. Whereupon he unties his leg, and, presto! he 
is out of sight, and in a few moments he returns from the oppo- 
site direction, having run, in the meantime, around the whole 
world. On learning the object and destination of the party he 
oflers to go with them, and his company is cheerfully accepted. 

They next came up with a man of portly size and mien, whose 
nostrils are carefully closed and guarded. ^What is the mean- 
ing of all this?** he "was asked. *4 thus hold back the storm 
and restrain the whirlwind,*' he replied. "Let us see a display 
of your power,** says the superhuman guide of the psrty. Im- 
mediately he releases the pent-up winds, and they rush forth to 
the work of destruction, tearing up the earth, overturning the 
rocks, and smashing the forest. This man also joins the p^rty. 

In due time they reach a wide and beautiful river, meander- 
ing through an extensive meadow, which runs parallel to a 
chain of high mountains, al whose base is a perpendicular bluff, 
and midway between which and the meadow is a large Indian 
town. The inhabitants are well-clad, of goodly stature, and 
commanding mien. The travelers make their way to the chief's 
lodge, share his hospitality, answer his enquiries, and make 
known their errand. They have been informed that in that 
town dwells a beautiful girl, whose skin is as white as snow, 
whose cheeks are red as blood, and whose hair black and glossy 
as the raven*s plumes, and this young man has come to woo and 
win her and make her his bride. They are informed that the 
story of the girl is correct, but the task of gaining her hand 
and heart will be a difficult and dangerous one. He must enter 
the lists with the other suitors, and contend with them in certain 
athletic games, and the winner will be awarded the prize. The 
terms are accepted, and alter several days of feasting and prep- 
aration the contest begins. First they dance, and the Migumoo- 
wesoo beats the rest Then they run ; another party produces 

^Tb* oMBinc f»r tiM amek. wbirli nootAliui tli* ipild fluid, whlrh U tiM iam« In both 
nuUr Mtil frtiiAl* of thu diMcrvTAbU anlm*!, u pngtctcd lb %bm taruiatm lub* wbMi 
Um bulnuU U bboul to dUeliAJV bU biW. 


a runner who has to confine one le;; on all ordinary occasions. 
They are let loose and start for a run around the globe, but our 
friend's comrade comes in four minutes ahead of the other com- 
petitors and wins the day. Next they enfjaj^e in feats of 
strength — lifting, pitching rocks, wrestling, and pulling at each 
other at square angles, grabbing with their hands a piece of 
wood. Our tog-lugging friend carries off the palm in all these 
exercises. One more trial completes the contest. They must 
coast down the side of that mountain, and leap the bounding 
precipice with their sleds, and the one who reaches the ground 
unscathed carries ofT the beautiful girl. Two parties volunteer 
for the dangerous experiment — the Migumoowesoo and his 
young friend and two other men of mighty magic. The whole 
village turns out to witness the exciting scene. Down from the 
beetling battlements dart the sleds, and as the Migumoowesoo 
and his charge reach the verge of the cliff, he utters a shout 
and down they dart to the ground all right and ride on their 
headlong way through the village, and far out upon the grassy 
mead that lines and adorns the banks of the oroad flowing 
river. The other partv dash headlong over the cliff and are 

The contest is now ended, the young stranger receives the 
prize and celebrates the wedding feast. The party then leave 
for home, bearing away the beautiful bride. Not far, however, 
have they proceeded when a terrific roar and crashing is heard 
thundering in their rear. They look around and are horror- 
stricken at the sight. A terrific whirlwind, conjured up by the 
magicians of the village, is bearing down upon them, plowing 
up the earth, rending the rocks, overturning the trees and snap- 
ping them like pipe-stems, as it comes on. Now comes in play 
the prowess of the comrade with the mighty breath. The 

Clugs are withdrawn from his nasal organs, anil the storm is let 
)05e, and whirlwind meets whirlwind in mid-forest, and min- 
gles heaven and earth in their rage. But the retreating party 
are again triumphant. Tempesc turns on tempest, and storm 
chases back the storm, sweeping away everything in its course, 
^en<ling the village to atoms and destroying all the inhabitants, 
'^fhe party now pr^nreed at their leisure. E(ich comrade drops 
off as he reaches his home. The Migumoowesoo, his young 
trirnd and his bride re.ich the lake, and embark on board the 
ma;;i' al canoe and are swiftly conveyed tolhe other side. There 
<fl<Mi.«.«. up meets and greets them. They relate their adventures 
and arc kindly entertained. Afterwards they go on. The 
superhuman guide slides off to his home and the young couple 
arrive sate, to cheer and delight the aged, anxious pair. And 
the >torv ends. 



By Rev. M. Eblus. 

Herewith I give some of their own ideas of the origin of cer- 
tain objects: 

Thunder and Lightning. — The general belief has been that 
these are caused by a great bird, which flaps its wings and 
thus causes the noise; and some point to trees which liave been 
struck by lightning, and say that the bird touched these trees 
with its wings, and that thus they were torn to pieces. The 
head ot this thunder-bird is often pictured on various articles, 
especially those which were used in war, to inspire the warrior 
with courage. It is also sometimes figured on dishes and other 

There is also at Eneti, on the Skokomish reservation, an ir- 
regular basaltic rock, about three feet by three feet and four 
inches, and a toot and a hall high. On one side there has been 
hammered a face, said to be the representation of the tace of 
the thunder-bird, which could also cause storms. The two eyes 
are about six inches in diameter and four inches apart, and the 
nose about nine inches long. It is said to have been made by 
some man a long time ago, who felt very badly, and went and 
sat on the rock, and with another stone hammered out the eyes 
and nose. For a long time thev believed that if the rock was 
shaken it would cause rain, probably because the thunder-bird 
was angry. They have now about lost faith in it, so much so 
that a tew years ago they formed a boom of logs around it, 
many of which struck it. That season was a very stormy one, 
and many of the older Indians said, **No wonder, as the rock is 
shaken all the time.** It is on the beach, facing the water, 
where it is flooded before the tide is full, though not at low tide, 
and the impressions are gradually being worn away by the 

A fable of the Twanas says that long ago the Daswailopth 
mountain had two wives, Mt. Ranier being one and a mountain 
near I Iooil*si Cnnal ht*ing the other. These latter two mountains 

auarrellcd, and Mt. Ranier moved away, and now they always 
ght by meant o( thunder and lightning. 
The Sun. — The Twanas have the following two legends in 
regard to the origin of this luminary, both, however, 1 believe 
being to them more a matter of legendary than real belief. 
First. A woman had a son who ran away from home. After 


a little she went after hicn« but could oot find him. Her people 
went alter her, found her, and brought her back. They did not 
know what became of her son until a short time afterward they 
beheld him, having been changed into the real sun, coming up 
from the east. This is the origin of the sun. 

Second. A woman having no husband had a son, who, being 
left in charge of its grandmother, who was blind, was stolen 
away by two women who carried him very far away, where 
they brought him up, and he grew very fast and became their 
husband. His children were the trees, the cedar-tree being the 
favorite one. His mother in the mean-time sent messengers, 
the cougar, panther, and some birds« who went everywhere on 
the land searching for him except to this place, where they 
could not go on account of a very diflicult place in the road, 
which was liable to come together and crush whatever passed 
through. At last, the blue-jay made the attempt, and was 
almost killed, being caught by the head, nearly crushing it, and 
thus causing the top-knot on it. It, however, found the son, a 
man grown, and inJuced him to leave his present home and re- 
turn to his mother. When they came to this difficult place in 
the road, he fixed it, and did good wherever he went. When 
his mother found that he was lost at first, she was very soay, 
and gathered his clothes together, pressed from them some 
water, wished it to become another bov, and, being very good, 
her wish was granted. He was a little boy when his older 
brother returned. They were both somewhat like God, in that 
they could do what they wished. The older brother said to the 
younger one, **I will make you into the moon to rule the night, 
and I will be the sun to rule the day.*^ The next day he arose 
in the heavens, but was so hot that he killed the fish in the sea, 
causing the water to boil, and also the men on the land. Find- 
ing that this would not do, he retired, and his brother tried to 
be the sun and succeeded, as the sun is at present, while the 
oldt r brother became the moon, to rule the night. 

The Clallams have the following legend about the sun. A 
long time ago there was only one woman in the world, but no 
man. She made the image ol a man of gum, set it up, and 
wished it to become alive and be her husband. She went to 
sleep, and life came to it. Having been formed of gum, how- 
ever, he was very sensitive to tne heat of the sun, this heat 
having been much greater then than now. He worked when 
it was cool and rested in the shade when it was hot. One day 
he went a-fishing, and told his wile to look out for him if it 
should become hot; but she went to sleep and did not do so. 
The heat l)ecame intense, and he died. I lis sons were angry 
at the sun for this. One of them made a bow and very many 
arrows. I le shot them up towards the sun, and they lormeo a 
chain or rope, on which the boys ascended, and there they found 
a prairie land. They first asked of the geese, who could then 


talk/' Where 18 the man who killed our father?^* The geese 
pointed in one direction and said, ^Yonder.** The boys went 
m the direction indicated, and arrived at a house where two 
blind women lived, into which they entered and sat down. As 
one of the women gaye some food to her eompanioni one of the 
boys took it. **Have you received your fooa?" said the first 
woman to the other. The latter said **No/* whereupon both of 
them wondered what had become of it. Soon one of the boys 
said he had taken it, and then he asked, **Where is the man who 
killed our father?'' The women replied, ^Farther on,'* and gave 
them a very small basket, in which were six salmon berries. 
The boys went on, and soon found some swailows who could 
talk; and again thev asked, *' Where is the man who killed our 
father?" The swallows said, "In yonder house." The boys 
went to the house, and there they found an old man pihng pitch 
wood on a very hot fire, so hot that it nearly roasted the boys, 
and this was what made it hot on the earth. They gave the 
old man the six salmon berries, which became very many and 
swelled within him, and thus killed him. The fire then went 
down somewhat, and it has not been so hot on the earth since 
that time. 

They supposed that the sun really rose and set, and had no 
idea that the world really turned over, as they have been lately 

IVimd they supposed was caused by the breath of a great be- 
ing, who blew with his mouth. In this they reasoned from 
analogy, as a man can with his breath cause a small wind. 

Cold they supposed to be caused by our getting farther away 
from the sun in the winter, tor they suppose that the sun is 
much farther off when it is low than when it is high, and that 
the cold regions are away from the sun, hence, that we are near 
these cold rtrgions in the winter. 

KcUpse, — An eclipse of the sun almost annular occured about 
1875, which gave mc an opportunity tc* learn some ol their 
ideas about it. They lormerly, as near as I can learn, supposed 
that a whale was eating up the sun. At the time of the eclipse, 
several ot the women and old persons told me that they stopped 
work, went to their houses antl praveii in their minds to God. 
Many wished to know what I thought was the cause ot it. 


Do not lau^'h at an old man: It you do and he talks hack to 
you, you will die. 

Do not steal a woman in the dav-time, or the sky will see you 
and you will die; but you may steal her at night' if she is not 
another man's wife. 



When any one plays with you, you must never say naughty 
words to him. 

Do not sit on a rock; if you do you will not grow fast. (Not 

Do not point at the rainbow; it you do, the finger which yoa 
use for this purpose will become sore. ^Not true.) 

I lonor your father and your mother. 

Never see any old people going to carry water without get- 
ting the bucket and going in their stead. 

Never laugh at the aged; if you do, they will curse you; but 
it you do not, they will bless you. 

When you hear a man telling his son to be good, go and listen, 
and do as he says. **As an example of this teaching,** wrote a 
!i<:hool-l>oy to me, **! will relate the following: There were two 
bovs who were playmates. One said that his parents always 
talked bad to him, and he never felt happy; but the other said 
that his parents talked good to him and he always felt happy. 
Afterwards the latter went near the house of the former when his 
>arents were talking to him. He listened to all that was said, 
ept the advice and did as was said; he was a good boy, while 
the other was a had one, and what the bad boy callea a bad 
talk wax in re ility a good one.** The same informant put the 
words '•not irue*^ in parenthesis at the close of two of the prov- 



7/t€ Pheasant and i/ie Raven. — The raven had a trap and 
caught very many tish, but would not give any to the pheasant. 
At last the pheasant went to hunt deer. While on his way a 
deer met him, driven by a man. The pheasant killed it, and 
when he was skinning it, the man stood watching him and said, 
'*Well, phci-^sant, you can shoot straight.** But the pheasant 
thought it was not so. When the man saw that the pheasant 
was not proud, he said that the latter would be able to carry 
the deer nearly home, but added that when he should nearly 
reach his house it would become very heavy. Thus it proved 
to be, tor when he was almost home, it became so heavy that 
he could not carry it. He laid it down, and his wife came and 
helped him. When the raven heard that the pheasant had 
killed a deer, he sent his sons to carry some rish to the pheas- 
ant, so that he might receive some meat in return; but when 
they were going into the pheasant's house, the pheasant drove 
them out. Then the raven told his chiklren to fight with the 
children of the pheasaot ; and they had a battle. The ravcQ*s 
children threw nshes at the pheasant's chiMreo^ who in retuni 
threw the grease of the deer at the raven's children. The ra 


sat between the two armies, and when the little pheasants threw 
any grease the raven caught it and ate it. 

After a time the raven went to hunt deer. While he was 
hunting he met a deer, driven by the same man whom the 
pheasant had met. TKe raven shot the deer and killed it. While 
he was skinning it, the man, acting as if he were surprised, 
said, "The raven can shoot straight." The raven was proud, 
and said, *^I can shoot straight because I am a raven.** When 
he was about to carry the deer home, the man .«>aid that when 
he should almost reach his house, it would turn into something 
else. And when the raven had got nearly home, he dropped 
his game and went .ind told his wife where to find it. She 
went to the place where the deer had been left, but when she 
arrived she found that it had all turned to rotten wood. 

The school-boy who furnished me with the foregoing fable, 
and also with the next one, had read some of yEsop*s fables, with 
the morals added, and ventured to make the following applica- 
tion: "I think this fable teaches us not to be stingy or proud. 
The raven was so and lost his deer, but the pheasant was not 
and secured his.'* 

About a IVoMdH. — At one lime there was a woman living at 
her father's hou^e, aud after a while a man came by night, and 
took her for his wife, but soon afterwards deserted her. After 
a time, she took some of her father's slaves and went to the 
other side of the water to hunt for him, but was unable to find 
him. Next she started to return home. After having gone 
some distance, she looked down on the bottom of the canoe, and 
saw a man smiling at htr. She knew it was her husband. lie 
pulled her down and the slaves saw her no more. Sometime 
afterwards she made a visit to her parents. At a second visit 
a child was l>orn to her. On a third visit her face was covered 
with some kind of moss. During her second visit her parents 
wished to dcifivr the man: hence thev took a slave, with a 
face exactly like of the married woman, and started to 
carry her to the man. Hut a sea gull crii'd out and said, that 
it was not the right woman ; so they to<ik the true wife and 
restored her to her husband. This man killed a great many 
fishes and sent them to his father-in-law. Alter a time the 
woman liie.l ; and alter that a voice was heard crying, which 
was the woman's voice. When this wom.urs tribe go ofl* to 
sea, they always capsize.* 


A Kolsul Ifuiitn and a Wo/ f.— One day a woman espied a 
wolf swimming acro>s KoUid Hay. She told her husband, who, 
wishing to have the skin, went to kill the wolf, but his wife 

•Men's. ^Itome of Um lodUMii belleT« ihin to b« true. 


bcf^gcd him not to do »o. The man rowed out to the wolf and 
patted him on the liead with hin puddle. The woh looked at 
him, and threw his ears back an it he would be^ tor his life. 
At last thev l>oth reached the hhore, whereu|H)n the wolf did 
not run away from the man, but stood looking at him with his 
ears back. The man, wisihin^ to deceive the wolf, said : '*I did 
not \%i2»h to kill you, but was afraid you mi^ht drown, so I came 
to help you acro*s. Now, for a reward 1 a^k this :- -you must 
drive as manv deer to me as \ou can**. So the wolf went o(\ 
into the wood?, and drove home deer until the man's house was 
filled \%ith meat. Every time the wolf came home, he drove 
home a deer. 

There was once a ^reat hunter t who, the narrator said, was 
his fathei*s brother). At one time, wlien out hunting, he found 
two youn^ wolves, which he thou;«ht he mi|;ht tame, so that 
they mi^ht assist him in hunting deer. lie brought them home, 
but until they were grown he killed ro deer. \\ hen they were 
partly grown he took them out with him. While they were 
going along, they found the mother wolf, and as the man 
wi^hcd the cubs to grow fast, he took her home, too. After 
that this hunter never failed to kill deer. *'This," said the nar- 
rator, '*only showy how animals can understand, and act well to 
those who are kind to them.** 

Although there is something fabulous, at least in the first of 
these MtorieH, it not in both, yet they may show how the Indian 
dogs %vere first obtained by domesticating wolves. 


By Frederick Starr. 

In his well-known article en Platvcnemifm,* Mr. GtUmtn 
de<tcribes a considerable number of skulls, from mounds on the 
Sahle and Rouge Rivers, which were perforated by a single 
drillrd circular hole. He then says : *'I have since heard ot a 
skull having been found near Saginaw, Michigan, which pre- 
sented this peculiarity, but in this case there were three perfora* 
tions, arranged triangularlv, cocoa-nut fashion.*' 

Within the past year Mr. Isaac M. Bates, of Detroit, hat 
made an interesting discovery, and has, at my request, supplied 
me with the tacts, which are presented below. 

Within the city limits ot Detroit, is an old Indian burial place. 
At one time or another, remains of some forty individuals have 

•TiM M«iand'b«iild«ri and Plai)rcD*mUm ta MlehlgaB. Umut UUlouui. Smllli« 


been discovered in various excavttions made for buildin); pur- 
poses!, sewer?, etc A variety of relics have also been found: 
hard copper knives, beads, awls, axes, copper kettles, bone fish 
hooks, needles, stone axes, celts, flint arrow and spear heads, 
pipes, etc. One article of silver, as lar^e as a silver dollar, very 
thin, |>erlectly round, with straif^ht marks from the center to the 
rim, was also found. 

Mr. Bates and two friends made an excavation in a vacant 
lot located within the area ot this o!d cemetery. They came 
upon a curious and interesting burial spot. At a depth of two 
feet, five skulls were found, lying in a circle, facing the center. 
Within this circle were ashes and charcoal,— evidence of a fire; 
but the bones were not at all burned. The skulls were all laid 
on their left side and under each was a little heap of bones. 
Mr. Bates says : **a bundle of bones**, because the position of 
the bones was such as to suggest that they had been tied to- 
gether in a bundle by some binding, now lost by decay. The 
bones were probablv those of the skeleton belonging with the 
heads above them, ahhough there was not in any case a complete 
skeleton preserved. It is probable that the bones were gath- 
ered after exposure of the boiiies on scatlolds or otherwise, and 
then arranged and buried as here found. 

Of these five skulls three were perforated, and perforated, 
not witii a single hole like those found by Mr. Gillman,but with 
three like the one from Saginaw to which he refers in the pas- 
sage quoted. The three holes are drilled directly on top ot the 
skull, are arranged in the form of a triangle and are half an inch 
or so apart. In diameter they range from one-third to one-half 
inch. The two un|)erforated skulls are smaller and more deli- 
cate than these three and were evidently skulls of young per- 
sons or females. Of the perforated skulls two had "double 
teeth** in f'^ont. Mr. Bates says the third may have had also. 
(It is no longer in Detroit and some uncertainty exists in the 
matter.) The dentition of the other two skulls is normal. The 
perforated skulls were fuU of earth and gravel quite closely 
packed. It is probable that this filling is the resuh of natural 
causes, though Mr. Bates feels that it was done intentionally at 
the time of the burial. 

The drilling of the holes was certainly i^si moriem. Their 
object is hardly satisfactorily explained. We have called atten- 
tioo to this find, hoping that other information regarding the oc- 
currence of such skulls and suggestions respecting the purpose 
of the perforations may be drawn out by this reference. 




Bv \V. M. Hkaiviiamp. 

TiiK Amkru'an Antiquarian reivnilv sfwlce in high terms 
o| thr >%()Tk and collection!! of the Canadian Institute, of Toron- 
to, C\inadii, \vho«e excrllrnt reports are becoming familiar to 
m4ny in the United 8t«lle^. I have had occasion to study all 
thcM* il(>!«i'lv, because of the \i'e]l-cho>cn relations of much of 
th.ii province to the Iroquois district ot New York, and may 
take rioticf ot some points ot interest Although this collection, 
thr growth of four year?, i;* not yet large, it has that feature so 
valu ihle to every working arch;eol«>gi«i, of representing the 
](H .il iorms of a district, with just suflicii-nt outside material for 

iuoptT comparison. The field is the region K-tween Lake 
lumn and the west end of the St. Lawrence River, but the 
iwrtjnn of the highest interest and that most thoroughly ex- 
plored, hrs mainlv north and west of Toronto, K'ing the historic 
domains of tite Huron, IVtun, and neutral nations, .dl of which 
wi-re c«>nijuereii by the Iroquois in the middle of the seventeenth 
ceniurx, and a large portion trans|>orted to New York. Per- 
haps more than most others I studied this collection, because I 
had long been familiar with similar sites and articles, and was 
thus pre{)arcd to notice the many difl'erences and resemblances, 
a tew ot which will be here mentioned. 

.Most recent articles differ little from those south of Lake 
Ontario. Bead.<, bracelets, brooches, rings, copper and iron 
implements and utensils are much the same. There is even a 
lead pipe, but none ot iron or brass, as in New York, nor are 
there many articles of later date than 1650. If any such are 
found ihev are from recent camps, or have been lost by travel- 
ers, though some mav be expected at some late Iroquois villages. 
The homes of the llurons, of course, produce none of these. 
One feature of the copper kettles found in the ossuarie<(, or 
bone-pits, is hardlv creditable to the Canadian Indians, at least 
the llurons. When placed in graves they were almost univer- 
sally perforated in the bottom, to render them useless, and so 
prevent robbery of the tomb. Apparently they were jusl as 
good in the spirit world. I have known no such instances in 
New York, where the dead seemed to need as good articles as 
could be had, when any were interred with them. Hut this 
practice was variable, and neither in New York nor Canada 
were articles always placed in the tomb. In the countrv ot the 


Mohiwks I tiavo seen ooe recent implement whicli I have not 
observed elsewhere. They used pieces ot rolled copper a9 fioc 
.S1W5, mikin;; .nm^ll leeili nlon^ the ed^e Trianj»ular copper 
arrow.s helun^j to recent Iroqu'iis sile.s in New York, but were 
not ot early introduction into Canada. Iron arrow-heads were 
furnished to tue Western liuiians late in the seventeenth century 
by the French, but thev are rarely found. The Cayu^jas also 
used iron fish -hook*', which I have observed nn no other sites, 
but iron axes were almost everywhere coeval with the coming 
of Europeans. 

Unfinished articles are not showy, but arc always inlerestinfj, 
and of these the Canadian Institute has a {jood lot; the most 
notable bein^ unfmished stone beads. Huron and Iroquois sites 
seldom abound in flint arrows, and these are usually slender and 
triangular in New York The truth seems to l>e that the Hu- 
ron and Iroquois were not fond of working in stone, much pre- 
ferring horn, bone and clay. When the Five Nations began 
to use rolled copper tor arrows, they invariably made these of 
the long, form. Tlie cabinet has a fair as9'>rtmcnt of 
flint arrows, but a large proportion of these are from the United 
States. Spear heads, loo, come from the older camps and 
gravct;; and many large flint implements are from islands in 
the St. Lawrence. 

While l)one aiul horn articles are rare on the earlier sites of 
Canada and New York, they abound on those of the Huron 
and Iroquois, which come later. This m iv f.ivor the theory 
that this family was partly derived from the K>kiinojor the dis- 
tmction is verv marked. Tiie flint pertorat*>r or drill disappears 
and is replaced by the bone or horn awl. (fou;»es, chisel adzes 
are maiie oi the same materials, and ornaments are carved in 
these. A walrus tooth been found in the Ci»untry of' the 
Hurons and another in a fort near the St. L.jwreir'e river. A 
bone rn i^k troni rhe cnuntry of the IVtuiis co^re^ponds with 
New N'«)rK spiv irnrns o: a iiiile later d.iv, hu: whiih arc 
wrnu;^ht in '*!on<-. Ofj K»!h >ii!es of L:tki* Onraiio, ground and 
|>erfiir.iUMi pieces of human snuHn pro^.iMv a !:'tle earlier. 

n.irlHMJ hi»ne fl-ih-hooks in.iy In- mosilv etrl:»-r than the sev- 
enteen'h leii'urv. Out of fj)ur known to me, anil all Ix'longing 
to the I li]r«irj-IrtJi|Uois family, hul one can cerMinly bo pla«'ed as 
late as A. I), i^kh). A fi'v o'v b-jnn-':r^ to the Institute has 
no determinrti age, fiot having liJinr from .i village. I: is the 
largest I h ive seen, anil hi* \hr unimI knob at the head of the 
shaft, and th** in'.nie\ a^ in most niiHiern forms. Recent 
bone ornament- .ire fewer than in New York, for the reasons 
alreadv given. From the same cau'-e the .small \%ampum is 
rare, tiie InHpioi^ ilienisflvcs, nearer the sea shore, having none 
of this until the early part c»f the s'-venteenth century. Shell 
l)eads ot any kind were little known in (Ontario, and the interior 
of New York, before the coming of tlie whites, as a thorouf^h 


exitmiriatii)ii linn shown. A larf;e prnporlion of \hv Cnnadiin 
«hrll btfAdn an- at i)u- AitM. vjiriirtY, ihuugli the »roiill bch wam- 
pum wii!< usrd i<> Koiiit; extent in ihe laier days nl the Huron 
Ct»itvdiT.iLy. Thi- Jesuits often rulk-d this "iwrrelain", hut did 
not i'online the term to this. Apparenily, the recent cn(;r«vcd 
>hi-11 ^()rf*et!t h;id not 
rcu-hed the Hurons 
iH-tore their ovi-r- 
throw, nor did the 
lrrH]u<iis ulitiun iheni 
iiniil nonie lime later. 
Ornamenlii ol shell 
ihcv Hixm had Irom 
tlie whiten ; but the 
i;iirj;cla may not have 
lieeii known to thcni 
helDre the Cherokee 
w»r, or Miih the 
Cu.iwba.s. I^oni; 
K-."d', made trotn the 
t i>iiimeiia<it iar^jesea 
'iK-lk. are k-i^s tre- 
iiiienl in New 

A" on the >Ou:h 
-uif. noiij;eft iHTiur 
in iir>lv on l.:ik.- On- 
l..ri..." Ihe St. L.IW- 
renie. or the larjjcr 
w.i:er vour>cs, hut 
iUmf I'iju-s are mnte 
irt-i)tii-iil ill the otiin- 
irv 111 the I'etun;*. 
Some vear!> a(;o I 
in.itie a drawing; ol a 
line hird (i;[iel'roni (he 
Oneida Kiver, New 
Yii'k, tlie m.iteiial 
be!n;;hIo:ie, ihetres:- 
e<: bird re-enihling a 
wiHtipeikei. A lijj- 
ure nt tliis .ipiH-ared 
inTiiK Antiquarian "''■ 

;ii:erw;ird. |-'i^. i. | ll is ;;ivena;;aintoilhiMrate this article Eo.] 
I wan ;:r.uilied in find its counterpart in Toronto, although in a 
hjtiered condition. There could lie no doubt ol' their being 
made by the same hand ; but like many other ."lone pi pes, this 
waM done alter the introduction ol iron tnol^, — the f*eneral type 
ivin" well known. 


The country of the IMunsJust west of the Hurons, produced 
many clav pipes. In this one cabinet there were ninety-one 
from the Town of Nallawasaj^a, a^^ainst eleven from all other 
parts of Simcoe County. Thus, the Petuns, who raised tobacco 
for sale, may have furnished pipes for the smokers as well. The 
clay pipes seem to embrace all the types commonly iound in 
Now York, and many have the quadrani^ular rimmed bowls, 
sometimes indented at the corners A few weeks later, in ex- 
amining one of the two earliest Mohawk sites, occupied about 
A. D. 1600, I dujj up one of this kind, which might have 
passed for a Huron or Neutral pipe. As this was in use soon 
after the Mohawks left the St. Lawrence, and was of a differ- 
ent clay from the pottery found with it, it may have been ob- 
tained in Canada just l>e((>re the Huron war. Those of this 
form are somewhat rare in New York, though a quadrangular 
bowl sometimes is of another type. I have a pipe bowl from 
an early site, in which the outside of the bowl is square at the 
top, with accurate angles and sloping sides. Halfway down it 
becomes circular, with regular mouldings. It is tastefully orna- 
mented and has some res^emblance to another form ol Huron 
pipe. The more prevalent New York form, where the charac- 
ter is simple, is a circular, trum|>et-like Ik)w1. Two curious 
••white stone" pipes at once arrest attention. They are very 
slender for stone-- a head projecting from the rearof Ihc bowl— 
and are much like some ol the larger clay pipes in form, difler- 
ing only in material. One is five and one half inches, and the 
other, seven and one quarter inches from tip to tip. The former 
was found at Hamilton, and the other, at Lake Medad. 

In general the earthenware north of Lakes Erie and Ontario 
presents no remarkable features, the style of ornament being 
common elsewhere. The curious forms found in the Mohawk 
and Onondaga villages of the early part of the I7ih century are 
entirely lacking, and this makes it certain that this style was 
not derived by them from Huron captives. The nearest a|>- 
proach to it, in ornamenting ve^*«els with human faces or fig- 
ures, has been found near the St. Lawrence River. I was 
much interested in two sjMfcimens ol pottery found between 
Niagara and Detroit, which had distinct handles from the rim, 
much like a very short jug handle. Among local specimens 
these had a decidedly foreign air, but corre<i[M*nded closely with 
fragments from Missouri. I may say here that the earliest ap- 

!>roach to the human face on earthen vessels is seen on pottery 
rom Jefl'ers4)n County, N. Y., and Montreal. Three elliptical 
or circular indentations are arranged so as to represent the 
eyes and mouth, sometimes with enclosing lines. A little later 
the Mohawks and Onondagas seem to have evolved from this 
human faces and forms on their vesseU. 1 know of no others 
who did this, but have received a fragment from a burial mound 
oear Springfield, Ohio, which has the three indentations pre- 


ciwly like the New York specimen*, which i( reBcmblcii in 
other wa%-B. See Fie. I. |A sptrcimen ia ^iven from Pennsyl- 
vania lo tllustrste Nlr. Beauchamp's point. — Kditok.) 

Worki^d ntealilesfcmii iittii- known in ihtr I'rovinre ol On- 
tario, not at all in vrsM-Is; proviii); what I have alwayn rnip- 
po»c(l. that the Irequrnt fra(;mrnl9 found in Central New York 
came into the ntale from I'ennnvlvania before the Iroquoin oc- 
runatinn. I have never known it on Iroquois siteR, nur does it 
belonjr lo the Huron. 

As in New York there are many evidences ol" travel or com- 
merce. An elliptical tube of striped ►late Irom Midilh-sex 
County, Ontario, in like those ol the Ohio valley, Inrint! the ex- 
ceptional and short form with a groove on one side. From the 
care with which it has been worked, or from the abundance of 
the remains Middlesex County is very remarkable in its show 

of i;or);etM, ceremonial objects or banner stones, and bird and 
bar an-ulets. Of the perforated and completed jjorgeta in the 
Canadian Institute catalogue about sixty, or more than half, are 
from tliis county Out of forty bird and bar amulets nearly ihe 
same proportion are from Middlesex. More than this are cata- 
logued under these heads, but a few of those here entitled bar 
amulrts have not the diagonal perforation at each end. This is 
an unusual number for one county, perhaps equal i« the high- 
est elsewhrre. The series, too, is an excellent one in its great 
variety of lorms, comprising the simple " bars," the depressed 
and wide bird form, the high and more slender, those with pe- 
duncled eves or ears, and those without. Some pecuianties of 
occasional specimens, however, will he missed here, but many 
ol the^e have anomalous features. The longest dm-s not equal 
some New York specimen!), nor are there any ot mottled stone. 
Altfiough sometimes reported as coming from Huron-Iroquois 
sites I have never been able to determine that they were m 
found and regard them as an earlier article, though perhaps 


occasionally coming into the hands of a later people, an I once 
.saw one huspeniied Irom the neck of an Ononda^^a Indian f^irl. 
They arc so seldom found on village sites and so often on small 
camps, or where they mi{;ht have been lost bv hunters or trav- 
elers, that I thmk they had the character of the later medicine. 
The nature of the perloraiions tend to prove that they were 
not l>ound to anything, but that it '\> quite probable that ^miller 
objects were attached to them, as in the case ol the Zuni 

In all the country of the Huron -Iroquois family there is a 
noticeable absence of stone axes with well worked grooves, 
showing that those Indian nations who used these had no lodge- 
ment in the territory. It is a curious circumstance that this 
should so exactly correspond, supposing such grooved axes are 
of any great antiquity. The Huron- Iroquois succeeded to a 
people whose small villages or camps were often removed, or 
who used these only for hunting and fibbing, having their homes 
elsewhere, just as the Iroquois, at a later day, lived in New 
New York and hunted in Canada and Illinois. There is a wide 
diflerence between these earlier camps and the later towns. 
But why both these earlier hunters and these later town build- 
ers did without thf grooved axe in exactly the same territory 
is not so clear. Were there anv evidence of descent from the 
one to the other we might understand it Inrtier. There is noth- 
ing to show this, and to iK'lievc it at all we must the 
later inliabitants to hnv<' lost many arts in gaining some others. 

As in New York, so in Ontario, the j«tudy of the remains has 
been a mean^ of rstablishmg movt-ments and dates In his 
exprdiiion o( 1615 Champlain passed many deserted clearings 
along the River Trent in Canada, abandoned l)ecause of the 
Hur<in war. Fifid work has .^hown how the iocs withdrew 
from their frontiers or old homes on either hide, so that they 
miy'nt br less accessible to their enemies. Mevond all rr;i?«on- 
abU* tjuestion the .Mohawks left the St. Lawrence tor thrir later 
homes not mmv years l>efore Champl.iin sailed up that river. 
/\bout lh«* s.Hue lime the Onoiulagiis wiihdrew from Jellerson 
County, N. Y., and settled in the li:;jhlands tar tlier south. A 
similar movement sunultanec»usly ociurn-d north of Lake On- 
tario, the Hurons a'o.indoniiig lluir exposed vill.i;jes near ihe 
lake and consoliil.iiinix their stien^jtli between Lake SimccK-and 
the (feor;; H.iv. S.igard,one ol their ea!iie>i vi**iti»rs, recoid^ 
this as tht ir polii v in v\ar. The |rfj<'r ol the Iroijuois move- 
ment need fi'»t be ;;;iven now, but it is i lear and un.inswrr.ible. 
In thr Provifui- m Ontariu .NIr. A. F. Hunter has shown how 
and when t!ie l.i'ter took place bv a caretul comparisim of 
known Huron sue-. Out ol toriv-sevrn Hurcn viila;:es towards 
Lake Ontario, in York antl Ontario Counries, l>ut two had any 
P!uropean articles, but ;unong twohundred and ei^hteen:n Sim- 
coe Count\, ninetv-six 'Aere recent. In the same lountv, out 


of one hundred tnd twenty-two ossuaries, fifiy showed contact 
with the white man, 

This comparison, ol course, is not conclusive on every point, 
but afYecls the question ot antiquity as well as removal ; — the 
liurons occupying their historic territory for a period ol forty 
years alter discovery by the French. Some allowance may ht 
made (or earlier trade, when a lew European articles may have 
reached their country. More than one third of their towns 
north of Lake Ontario were occupied during the first half of the 
««evrnieenth century ; but in the earlier period it is natural to 
suppo>e that they were much fewer in number, and the time ot 
occupation may be lengthened in a corres|>ondinf; degree. 

A.H among ilie later New York Iroquois, earth-works were 
«*xceptional among the later Hurons ; but farther west in On- 
tario, circular banks appear, as in New York. I think this due 
to increased mechanical skill, for the Iroquois stinkade was an 
ingenious improvement on the defensive earth- works, although 
no one seems to have observed this. In some respects it saved 
labor, for the triple stockade required but one row of shallow 
iioles for tlu- central posts, the cross timbers lH*ing pet on the 
ground ; and there is re.ison to suppose that quadruple palis;ides 
required no holes at all. This need not be discussed now ; my 
intention being to speak, in a comparative way, only of those 
articlis easily accessible, like those in the interestmg cabinet of 
thr Canadian Institute 



Editor American Anliquarian : 

The source of the jade, ami closely allied iiiineraLs, found in 
America, usually in the form of implements or fragments ot 
them, is a very interesting question to many. In the "Canadian 
Record of Science/* Vol. II, No, 6, April, 1887, may be found 
an extremely valuable note upon the '•Occurrence «>i Jade m 
British Columbia, and its Kmployment by the Natives/' by Mr. 
George M. Dawson, of the (ieolo^ical Survey of Canada, m 
which he states that not only implements, but *'two partially 
worked small boulders" were found on the lower part of the 
Frazer, illustrating the manner of sawing off pieces .suitable (or 
making edges, etc. Doubtless many of the readers of Thk 
Antiquarian are familiar with this interesting pa ikt, which is 
well worthy of study by those interested In this connection. I 
wish to refer to five fragments, these certainly l)eing parts of im- 
plemenss, which were found at l*matilla. Ore. and forwarded to 
me for examination, all of which d^xc pronounced jaiic by all 
mineralogists who have examined them Tw^i of these frag- 
ments appear to be pieces of a water-worn pebble or l>oulder 
One of the w(»rked pieces is evidently a fxirt of an adze, having 
a portion of the edge in good condition now. This specimen is 
uniformily about three eighths of an inch thick, except at the 
edge. The other two worked s|H'cimens are three quarters of an 
inch thick, showing no part of the edge, nor is there enough tt» 
clearly indicate the form and si/e I'robably both arc parts of 
axes or large cells The five pieces vary in color, from the dark 
mottled green to medium light, and the threi worked s|K*cimens 
are wtll wrought and polished. I intend to have other fragments 
from the same locality thorouglily analyzed 

I do not assume to decide as t > the source of thes<- specimens 
or do anything; more than state the tacts as \i\ where they were 
found and the character of the mineral, according to the Inrst 
information olitainable. While the analysis made by Prof O 
\V. Huntington of sfKrcimen^ from Nicaragua and Crista Kica. 
reported in Amtruan Saturahst^ January*. 18S7, and 1 believe thr 
general opinion of those who have investigated the subject, 
points to an Asiatic or (hmese origin of many s|)ecimens of jade 
found in various parts of this continent, this tict is not 
ent with the existence of the same mineral in situ. What can 

I>H*ATIC»NS OK M(UINI)8 IN' W1|4CI)N8IN. 17ft 

be more natural than that ancient tribes, familiar with its use m 
their Asiatic home, shouiil, if they emigrated, diligently search 
for a material so valuable to them in daily life.> In the "History 
of the Pacific Coast." II. II. Bancroft, Vol. I, it is stated that the 
"shamans/' or medicinemen, of one or more tribes on the coast 
made journeys twice each year into the mountains after jade, 
for the manufacture of implements, carefully concealing the lo- 
cality \% hence it \%as taken. 

Without cx|)ecting others to share in iIk opinion, or now 
attemptmg to give all the reasons for it. I am confident that jade 
cxi^tN in the mountainous regions of North America in sUy, and 
that future rxplorations will lead to its discovery. 

<ik.\NVIM.F T. I'lKR< h. 

S«>fiu'r\ille, MaNS. 


Vour card of in<|uir>' as to locations of Indians mounds in this 
vic:n:tv IS received and awaits answer. In these notes, the 
ranges are all east of the princi{)al meridian, passingone township 
Wfst. of Juneau County. 

On Daniel (iee's farm, town of Lisbon, animal mounds and 
oth< T^i. Township |6, R. 3 Mast, Section 17, S. K. (quarter. The 
m(»iinds near Scotl & Buckley's former mill site, of which I g.ive 
you !it»tcs. ari' located in T. 17, R. ^ !•'., Sec. 19, N. K. <{uarter. 
I am .iIm) m formed of a large circular mound beyond this, lo- 
catcii about 'I 17. R. J K. Sec. 1 3, in N. K. quarter of S. E. <iuarter. 
Three long ranges wr visited near Little Yellow River are located, 
aN near a-* I could make out on the map, T. 17, R. 3, Section 
J V N K <iuarltr of S. K. (]uarter. The one we visited before 
that with Mr Mason, which was much obliterated, was located 
m *I ! 7, R. ;.Scc. 29. S. K. quarter. I was toldto*day of a fine 
man mound that had been plowed over years ago. Indian boys 
called it the Kig Indian. It was about 80 feet long, in the form 
of a cross. 1. e.. arms extended on each side, and with the head 
clearly marked. It was located T. 17, R. j, Sec. 14, S.W. quar- 
ter. Iktwecn this and the lower mounds, on the same side of 
the Little Yellow River, are some scattered circular mounds. I 
have word also of a fine circular mound located in T. 16. R. 3, 
Sec. JO. .S. K, querter. Mr. Joseph Cartis. one of our oldest 
ileer-hunters. has reported to me very enthusiastically a site of 
mounds on the east side of Cranberry River, on high land. He 
pronounces thdm very fine indeed. He does not know whether 
any are animal. They are reached from Neccdah. Their loca- 
tion is T. 19. R. 3, Sec. 23. N. W. quarter. 

1 be above are all near to streaou. Mr. Mason r eport e d to ne 


this morning one that he came across while hunting, which is 
located near no river, but near a marsh. He did not have time 
to examine it carefully. He thinks it is a bird mound. It is 
located T. 17, R. 3, Sec. 5, S. E. quarter. 

These mounds all lie in a breadth of only six miles from east 
to west, and eighteen miles north to south; yet this is probably 
only a partial list. The parties reporting them have identified 
the several locations on the sectional map of Juneau County, and 
I think you will find them correct to the t{uarter section. 

A. A. Y()UN<.. 
New Lisbon, Wis. 



Editor American Antiquarian: 

Some years ago I saw the statement that " maple sugar was 
first made in New England in 1737." It set me thinking, for I 
had imagined we had the art from the Indians. In Appleton's 
American Cyclo|xrdia it is stated that it ** was first made in New 
England in 1732, and from thence soon spread 10 the other 
provinces." I wrote to the Massachusetts Historical Society. 
Boston, and the Librarian replied that '*it was derived from the 
Indians; see Sparks' Am. Hiog.. Life of Sebastian Rale." I got 
Father Rale's Life, and the reference was that " Rale would have 
no condiment to his rough and plain food but a little maple 
sugar." Any on*.- mi'^hl have '* guessed" as much, and I take it 
as a mere guess; and Sparks was nothing of an antiquarian. 
Then I wrote to Park man. His "Jesuits in America" .<ays noth> 
ing of it. except that he hints that marauding Mohawk {Kirties 
coming to Canada would have maple sugar among their stores 
of food c.irned. Trobably a mere "guos* again. He wrote me 
that he thought Appleton was wrong, but wanted more tmie to 
look It up I h.ive not heard from hini since. 

Next I wrote to Hancr(»ft. He told much about the Indians of 

the Pacific coast — their rude manufactures, etc , but gave no infor- 
mation about either Indians or whitCN making maple sugar on the 
Atlantic c(>ast! He replied to me that his knowledge of maple 
sugar "did not go further back than his chiKlish recollections in 
New I'-ngland." There the matter at present rests with me. 

I tht>rouL!hIv believe it was first made onlv as recently as last 
century. Hec.iusc \ 1 », nothing is ever heard of it for the first 
century of the settlement of New England ; (2) the "Jesuit 
Memorials" say nothing of it; (j: those who speak of 1737 and 
1752 mu^t have some knowledge on the subject; with me, the 
authoritie:> were inde|K*ndent and years a|>art; i4) Squando 
taught the Pilgrims to plant corn, but they had to eat their 


johnny-cakes without the syrup. Me would have given them 
that if he could. I want light. Wim.iam Wvf. Smith. 

Neromasket, Ontario. 

Tht* iMlit4ir thiiikM that iiiAplr Mipir wan iiui«l«* in prrhiMoru* tiiiim. Ilo 
hftii iliprovtTiMl i'inlili*in«iir im nixlf* in thr iiii«Ut tif fiii^iir fiiii|iU'#. whit'h 
roii\fy«-«l thr it!«-u that \hv\ H«>r«» Imilt by tin* Mouiiil-hiiil<l<*ni while they 
wiTf fiiakiiijx piiiTMr. Ttioy ointi«iiii*«l the ttitnn* nf (liiri*n>iit tril>m amk»iii- 
hl«^l tt>t;i*thi*r. M<»"t of thi*^* ttfi* at th«' h«*iMliratrrt* of ivrtain ptrratn*. aii« 
for inotamv. at Iht* hi*ail«atmi of th«* Milmaiiki<«* Uivrr. ii«*ar lirrat IU*nd ; 
a)fM> at thi* hfaiiwutcp* of thr K«H'k Itivcr, at Mayvtilr; an«l of tt><*t*raw- 
ftrh, iXMr Il4*a\rr l>atii. in t)i«« township of Oak (trovr; al^i at ^Hi|pir River, 
anit in varniii** )N»int> aloni; the Wi.Mtmpin Kiver. 




It 1^ natural to suppose that in colonial times Indians could 
Ikt found in Soutli Carolina who were the owners of negro 
slaves. I have, however, never seen but one instance of the kind 
mentioned In th«- "History of the Old Cheraws." by the Right 
Rev. Alexander (Irrgg. I) D . there appears a notice which was 
publishc^l in /'/tr ^i'ti/Jt dtroiina (V*/^*//*' during the year 174^. 
The noluc in aboui a **ncgr«i fellow" taken up by an overseer on 
an I'cliee I>land. The negro's account of himself was "lif !)i.lon.:i<l Tirmerly to Mr. Fuller, and was by him sold 
to H;iiy, kin.: of the IVdce Indians; that the Catawba Indians 
t«>ok lurn troin King Hilly, and carried him to their nation, and 
that in en'ii-avortng to make his escape Catawbas he was lost in 
the wo«>»ls, .ind had been so a consiberable time before he was 
taken." The notice gives a nescription of the negro. 


Ramsev, Sumter Countv, S. C. 


'I'hr prominent objectionable feature as to the animal origin of 
the ash heaps is the immense qnantity. True, the bulk is largely 
made up of foreign matter, which may be explained by the 
heterogeneous character of the materials gathered with the 
ashcN. .still, in view of the marvellous reduction of the human 
body under excessive heat, we find the quantity of pure ashes 
too great to sustam a hypothesis based upon an animal origin* 
I present another theory. Assuming that fire-worship was ob- 
served here, can these heaps be the accumulations of ashes re- 


suiting from long continued sacred fires? If the fire was held 
sacred, the ashes very naturally would claim a certain share ot 
attention. Moreover, on this hypothesis we can acconnt for the 
presence of votive offerings and the religious solicitude exhibited 
in their preservation. 

I notice that Prof Putnam reports horizontal strata as the pre- 
vailing form of mounds in his explorations on the Little Miami. 
In my experience, the form of the mound governs in this matter. 
Thus, in the platform and terrace mound, the strata are horizon* 
tal, but in the hemispherical or cone form, the strata arc uniformly 
curved; S. H. Binki.fv. 

Editor Amerint9i Antufuarian : 

In your researches after material of antiquarian interest, you 
have undoubtedly met with authorities on ceramics, and will 
perhaps kindly respond to an enquiry as follows, or mention 
some book where 1 can ect the information. We have in our 
family a set of china wtiich, we are informed, is "DavenpoA 
ware." It appears to have been made in the infancy of the art 
of decoration, and is about as w^y and archaic as dishes can be. 
Now, wliat is Davenport ware? where and when made? There 
is a report that it is now regarded as amon^ the most unique 
and valuable of china 

I ap)>end a description of this ware to enable the ceramic critic 
t(» jud*;e ot its character: The chma is white. A saucer will have 
three dark blue trian^jles of solid color. These occupy nearly 
half the dibh, leaving' three white s(iaccs, m which is painted a 
crude llower with its leaves. The colors here are red, yellow 
and i^reen. There are flourishes of gilding on the blue and else- 
where. There is no manufacturers' mark beyond a few figures, 
and on some specimens nothing. 

With apolo;ries for troubling you if the enquiry chances to be 
without interest. I am, very sincerely. 

.Mrs. L(>ri>A Palmkk Smifii. 

Glenburn. Pennsylvania. 

Will some of our readers answer Mr>. Smith?— Kn. 





The Htuli/ of the primitive relics brings u.h at times into the 
presence of strange objects — objects which arc strange in mate- 
rial, in shape and in use. but whose pre\'aience is acknowledged 
by all. Such is the case with the boomerang, and to a certain 
rxtcnt the war club. The boomerang is a singular implement. 
It IS but a crooked stick, which is generally used for throwing, 
anti IS with some trills vcr>' cfTective as a hunting weapon. It 
was once supposed to have been used only by Australians, but 
IS now acknowledged to be quite widely distributed. To be 
sure, the ]>ecu!iar kind of boomerang which is so noticeable in 
that country m.iy not be very common, but weapons which are 
similar to thcic* have been found in many countries, and so we 
may class them among the common primitive weapons. The 
Australian has a faculty of shaping his wca{>on so that it will 
turn in its course, fly at diflerent angles and return almost to 
the s{H>t where the thrower stands. Very few have been able 
ti) icnitatc it. A writer, however, in one of the late numbers of 
Scrti^ner'i Ma/^azinr,^ speaks of manufacturing one of these im- 
plements and surprising the natives by his dexterous use of it. 
The interesting thing about the boomerang is that it is found 
anions; people who are in a very primitive condition, so low, ill 
formed and ignorant that their name has become a synonym for 
"iml)ecility.*'t Here, however, the throwing-stick has attained 
Its hii;hest development. 

The enquiry is whether the boomerang did not precede tlie 
bow and arrow in the development of primitive art, and whether 
this IS nut a reason for its superior excellence in the hands of the 
Australians. In reference to this point we have a few words to 

I In the first place, the boomerang is only one of a series, 
all of them throwing-sticks, but this the best. WV here call 

•f^^hn^-» fnr Marrb. MM. p. m. Th* aaibor. Mr. HoCMe llak«r, mj«: ""W* ted 
ihfin rUbMiflMl at hofitlnf . fljfhtlDff aad unaavaMOt boooMtmaAtt. Th« IIUl* bteelu 
pr»rti<v •imlnc at • dlik oT wuod. wblrb li roll«d atoof In tronl of Umoi, to iMltaio 
tit* runninc and irappHtf of aatmala.** 

♦Mmiibaoniaa lUimrt. im, p. 07. 



attention to the article entitled/' A Study of the Savage Weapons 
at the Centennial Hxposition," prepared by Dr. tidward H. 
Knight, LL.D.* The writer says: "A variety of sticks and 
clubs were brought fn)ni the diflcrent Australian provinces, 
among the peculiar hurling weaF>ons, the boomerang and the 
kangaroo rat." He says also: '*In the districts where the boom- 
erang is used, there arc all grades of throwing-sticks, three of 
which were in the New South Wales exhibit, and are shown in 
the figure." With these weapons the natives give three motions 
— a direct blow, a whirling blow, and a ricochet or upward re- 
bounding blow. Boomerangs vary much in sha[K\ but d(» not 
depart from the characteristics mentioned. They differ in their 
curves, lengths, widths, taper and weight. A good s|K*cimcn 
may be thirty-three inches long, two inches wide, and weigh 
twelve ounces. The peculiarity of the boomerang is its erratic 
flight, thrown so as to strike the ground forty yards in advan<.c 

of the thrower, it rebound?, describes a high circular 
course and falls behind the thrower. The peculiarity nf thi^ 
nu lion, we sujipose, is <iwing to the spring and ela>ticity of the 
stick ami l«» its i rooked shape, the rebound Iwing equivalent t«» 
it?* being thrown back by another hand. There i.s anotlur 
motion It is thrown in the air, mpunts to a great hcp^ht. cir 
cles h.ickuar<! until its force is expen<!e<l. anti then dri»ps .Ir.n! 
at .1 point l)fh:n(I the thrower Tins nv'tum is p.uiiaMv i»-.\:rv 
tc» tlir jieciiiiar kik witli whtrh t/i«- thr- Wfr Nrnds it It is .ilsti 
thi"\\n "-ii .IS li» fii.ikf lis irlxaind in .i lii»r:.-.'nt,il (!ir(it:on .trd 
ciirvf it-^ fliglit .ir«iun'l .in o| »;,,', t. v,, .in ! ■•^tnl'.t behinil it. "Ihe 
booni';' i^ r-n.jhiv ni.i-li-. b';t ili'- wmik nt" adiustinL* the 
curv* -N Is nio-t ^1 iu|»iil«.ii-;\ .iijtl :.iith'ii!!\ j»rr?ornu-ti b\' tlu- 
natnes " 

- In r ! !■ Mi c t» tin- '!«v' i^'i'Tii-rit "f lliv thiowin^ -!;ck. Mr. 
Kni;;ht s.iys ■ |r,i:ii the -tf.i:;^-lir. r.u.ri.l. kn« h^ed. tl.i!. curved, 
rurveil ed.^r, r w r..\ sh.tof i st:i k. tiirnii;;}! cverv di-Tcr nf 
ciirv.itiirc up !■» :li. ;k rfr'M U ■ :;;. r.m^. the sines «.f 
hurling; weapt»ns u.-. upuN :!:. ulj-It- ';n'unii ' He .lUo savs 

•t«ini'> '•••iiinn lu-i-ifi. KV. I -I," .'.' 


that a common hurling; club is found at the Cape of Good Hope, 
which by a modification, giving the handle a alight bend, assumes 
the ricochet motion, rebounds from the ground and strikes up- 

Further facts arc given on this point. Among the clubs 
of the Fijians there is one especially for throwing, with a knob 
at the end, like that s|>oken of above as found at the Cape of 
Good Ho|K' and which the Kaffir calls his •'kecrie." The throw- 
ing-stick of Unganda, is |)eculiar. It is thrt-e feet long, has a 
spear*sha|)cd head, and is hurled with a hurling motion. The 
curved throwing-stick m Abyssinia, s[>oken of by Sir Samuel 
liaki-r. resembles the boomerang somewhat, or perhaps has more 
resemblance to what is called the kangaroo rat. This has a head 
of conical shape, something like a spearhead, but its tail or 
handle is very Hcxible, about a yard long. The native takes it 
by the tail, and lets it fly with an underhand jerk. It glides 
hiNsing through the air, strikes and rebounds, and skims the 
surface, resembling a kangaroo in its motion. There are not 
many wea|x>ns like this. 

i^ff. f. 

Mr. Knight says there is no law or custom which would pre- 
vent the hurling of almost any kind of primitive weapon. The 
war club nii^ht be hurled, and undoubtedly was at times. The 
s,iine w.iN thr c.ise with the stone mauls and hammers. The toma- 
hawk ot'tcn thrown, and ^n at Nkill wa?« exerciNed m making 
the iilge strikr in the right place. The si mg- stone is another 
N{K-cimcii. but the {)articular adaptation of the crooked stick for 
the |»iir|>»»M-s *•!" hutlin^' seems to have been known to a great 
many tnhe^ an«i race^. Thi^ will e.xplain its prevalence in 
Anu-rica Thr Moqui Imlians used a curved thro wing-stick for 
killm;^ rabbit^. Th.c>e iLsemble in tins re.s^K'Ct the Australian 
weapons The crt'okcii ^tick was the weapi>n for the hunter 
ratht r than tor the uarnor. This would indicate that it may 
have hi ( n Used l)efore the l)Ow and arrow were invented. It 
beconirs a war uea|)on in certain ca^es. The barngect of the 
Varra l^ a war weapon, though it is not a come-back, nor is it 
as ( ur\r (1 a> the boonicran;^ of the Australians. 

3. I hr prevalence of the boomerang in Anierica. This has 
been supposed by ?»ome to prove a contact with other countries^ 
but the fact that it is so primitive and at the same time so prev- 
alent among all primitive races would to others prove that it 



originated in this country. This is doubtful, however. |The 
most primitive specimens of the crooked stick, similar to the 
boomerang, arc to be sure found among the Californians, who 
arc acknowledged to be a very primitive race. It is called by 
them tne "makana.** A cut of this is given in Fig. i. It meas- 
ures two feet in length, is about ono and one fourth inches across 
at the handle; average thickness, three fourths of an inch. The 
end opposite to the handle is fmished so as to imitate the head 
of a snake. It will be ob.served that the stick is curved both 
ways, and is very crooked. *'The weapon was thrown near the 
ground, so as not to pass over a rabbit while it was running."* 
It is not known that these Indians ever used it as a boomerang, 
or that they were able to give it the return motion. The com- 


> <-■ 

5 ^ -S .^:.ft:-.3g^ 

- >>- ' J^' '-£:?*. -^'—1 ' 

paristin of this stick ^ith others us<.i! by tlic Mo.|uis and the 
Z'.mjN IS 5UggeNtivi . See I'lg j. Among these the crooked 
.stick is calleii the war club, and it \%il! bi- notucd that the \\ar 
club is generally iroi>ked ^ 

\Ve .\T^ to wei^h the probabilities tlu r. I'aleuhthic man may 
have had throwing- sticks which were similar to thi>NC found in 
California The war club ma\ have i otnc from the pa!e«)Itthic 
a^;e < )f loursc the clubs have disapjKrared. as they were «»f per- 
ishable mat'-ria! We hnve no specimen .md mu^t de}H.'n(I u|>on 
conjecture. Tins is one side On the other hand, we have the 
throwin^-stii k as a conmion weapon amon<^ the C^llill»rnian^, and 
wc full! the same kind of a weapon among the western tribes. In 
California the earlier tribes were more advanced than the later, 
as the olla.^ i>r mortar^ and man\' t>ther relics from the gravel 
beds show Tiic later tribes were much ruder. We can not 
trace the weapon^ back to any more primitive time in this local- 

^>«ri ln«Otut4>. Viil \VM. %•• 1. M*rili. |v^'*. lliic-i it<^S • Arr^nint of 
liMiansi>r l>M AftfvlM. (^1. N •!•-« !•> W. J llnrtiuan. M l». 

*H««(x*n4 Aunua: TU>pi>rt of ttt- l!^in'it'hr<''«l Bunn. |*|i. TTZ auJ T?^ fic*. MCftDd 
W*lpl W^juden Ifu|>leinenU. 


ity. It seems more pr<»b;ib!c ihat ihey were introduced uhen 
the wild Stiva^cH intruded tliemsclves upon the more civili/ed 
{Kopic which formerly occupied the country. 

4. The r]uestion arises whether the war club did not grow 
out of the throwinij-'.lick. Perhaps we might say that thrrc 
were two lines of deveK»pment to the throwing-stiek, one of them 
coming into the shape of the war club by the way of the boom- 
erang and resuitini^ in the crooked shafK* which was so common 
amon^ the hunter races, the <»ther commj^ to the war club by 
another method, the throwini^-stick. retaining its straight lines, 
but ^iai!!y aN^uming a heavier head, the head sometimes be- 
conung a m( re knob, and at other times vwelling out like a ball 
club Ihe cut^ givm will illustrate this point. Sec Fig. 3. 
Thev *»how the war clubs which were useil bv the Californiaii 
tribe »•. 

Ci:rvrii '•ticks were common ;n Kgypt, and arc found among 
the earliest inscriptions. They were used among heavy and light 
armed .i^ war clubs." We find also among the inscrip- 
ti<»ns hunters throwin;^ the crooked stick at bin!**, showing that 
it vias used as a huntin;^ weapon as well as a weapon of war. 

; ^Another tjueslion .iri<es. whether the l>ow and arrow w<-re 
Used Ml paleolithsc times and whether they can be ascribed to th** 
palc'Mitliir Tn.:n. We call attention to the article by Mr. Haynes,; 
in which he states that the paleolithic man was no more capable 
of making a stone arrow- head than he was of building a pyra- 
mid I)r A. .A Julian takes issue with Iiim and says that there 
were seveial arrow heads found bv Boucher DelVrthes, that the 
paleolithic inhal>itant was more than a savage hunter, and that 
he ft>und in the Hint a material easily chip|>ed into many useful 
forms. Hilt in answer. Mr. Haynes claims that while some "f 
the ih'ppiii relics resemble ai row- heads they were not provuieil 
with shafts, but wt re thrown by the hand — were pr<»jecti!es in 
act. Mr. I H. Morgant also states that the bow and arrow was 
an invention of man when he had reached the upper status o( 
sava:.;ery. aboi:t the same time that he became actpiaintcd wjth 
the art ot pottery. The bow and arrow were unknown to the 
Polynesians. Here comes up the question again whether some 
of the American rac* s were not originally Polynesians. The 
bo*imeranL^ or hurlingstick is found only on the western side of 
the K^ntintnt ^ This suggests that possibly it came from Poly- 

W:.k.n«-'Ti * .\fHtrnt FVrPtiAn«. Vol. I, p. Sl^^ 

tAitM-r^ \iitliitiiirlAii. Vol. \ I. p. 1 .7: mIw» Ihr prmt'ratnK* of tht ll<MUm Hticir*y 
of N.titiritt ll.*tfry. VmI. XXIII. ''«'I, Uir Imjw aiitl Arm w uiik Down to i alc^tluhir mnri. 

; \ii. .rill ?*iN'l#-|y, |i. 10. 

ft f4 -.1,1 i'r«(iiri thiiikft that tlie Iniw .'IkI arniw wrrr In aae ftmtmff th** riil> nr«lAn«. 
hut «« ui i>ut iif u*« till Arrviunt uf thrrr Iwliii nu Uryr anlnial*. TliU !■ <li>iibtf^l. 



Mk. Ckb«son AoAi!«.--ThiH iccfitleman in fo^t pmvinir himiielf to be the 
moat peniHtent f»Untlon>r wli<» lian arbifii in Hciontifir cirrU*fi fur many a 
day, and lib repn*iientationii liave no other rnd aii|»arvntly tlian to prove 
himself an infallible invtvtItrAtor and inra|ialiU*(»f making a wrong inter* 
pretation of hi^ own findn. It apfK^arK that H»nie twenty yi^rii a^o, in 1A70, 
Mr. Cn*»«on i^aw m»uii* |KiU*i> stickinj; «^iit of tlu* mator in NaamanV Creek. 
Some year* after war«i lu* went to Kuro|»e, ami then it (Nx-tirnid to hioi that 
thcet* |N>lee (»r lo|p« n.ii;ht In* pile-dwellinKH. Hi* wmte a letter tn that firect 
and the letter ma> piihli.^he^l aii it maii written in Tirr. Amkiik an A^tkiiaH' 
IAS fur NoveiiiU*r,lsH7. Thii* lftt<*r amakemil much inten«i*t. Thi* matter 
ruiifi on fiirtthree yean*. In the meantime. Mr. l*rei4Min ir* enip1i>ytNl liv the 
PealMxly Mibieum, and he carrieH on hi** invMitigationH in the *'«*arly 
iiiorninfc hotirH." At* a rrMiIt. a ri-|Mirt i* piihh!«he<l. an^l rmftviMir 
I*uttiam tia%f* nf the timl: "Thi** i- thf tin*t iiidii-atinn nf anvthintr «'V«>n 
remot(*ly r«*'H*mliiiii^ the (Taiiii(»u'*'-hk«* >trtit-tur«-^ of Kiiro|ie." T|i«' Nnrra- 
tive and Cridral Ilthtory aliMi up|H-urH, und that i*i>nt4Aiii4 th«* Uttvr tii>t 
piihli<th«*«i in TiiK Antk^i ai;i \\. of iiiiir*>i*. thort* witultt In* «*niiuir\ . hut 
how iIiK*>« Mr. rn*HH>ii nH-«*t if Iii*t('a<lt>f ufkimwhil^ints hiui«elf imrror. 
howe\<*r, hr throw* tli** r«■^p1l|l••ll•lht> nn tin* «-diti>r of Tin: Astiwi akias, 
ami i-landrntii^lv }>ti\»> tliut In- k'lirMnl hi;* h-ttcruipl mailt' it rrad ilith'r«'iitlv 
Ihuii it H;|4 wnttt'ii. Th«* t'li:ir;^' ykx- di*ni«il by the t'lliTur, aiiil aihithiT 
IftdT frniii Mr. 4*r«-><«iin hh« priHltii*«'il. written a >rar aHi-r (hi* tir^t Mr. 
C'ri— tiiij ip»w i«»!u«- out with a nt*» char^i*. >f«' .<-imre, April «■'». 

Thf i-liartffc « hirh Mr. Cn-Miii iitaki'* i*> that thi* li'tli-r ha« 1h-i>ii tHrn- 
|n'rril with. Thi- wiird "uiiii-iiaMe," hi* ••ay-. w:u» «irittfii "ti*nabli-. th«'iiL*h 
thr rrn*'!' "hnH* (h«* {-■•iitrar\ . N<iw \kv taki* thi« im-i a-:i>ii (•• ^a\ th^it thi*> 
* har-,:r i- iitN-rly f.ii**-. .un! wr an* thnri»«ii:hl\ i ■•tniiif'i-«| that Mr l*rf^?*.»ii 
kn>»\\- It til li»' f.i!-i*. Ths- I«ttt*r !•« ;n i'lir hiiti-!- If it wm* iiMi-*-ar\ %if 
lan f'lirni-h auy i\nui)tr *>f \t>Mr|ii r*> *•• ) r<>\i tli;it tt.i- nonl wa* vinlti n uiM 
f \a« tl\ a.« it i- piiMi-hi>l. atpl that iioitiaiij*- ha> \**t» inadf in thi* '-r aii\ 
o!hi-r ii'ttfr f(irrii")ifl by him aii'l pMb!i-hii iii t).> j>iuriul. \V«' bavi* ti> 
^a> UiT\\.*'i tlidt »r liiij-i'liT lh»- ii'iir*t- wh:*lj Mr fn-iM'ti ha« piir»uiil in 
thi*> iiiattt r I* b«'iitMt!i tlii- t liarmftiT ••( ait )i*>fi'<r.ihl«- anil -traitrhtfi'rwanl 
man. lit* ;?■•«•?• hmt In* b-ttrr^ ati>l ftmlo- «<i:t thi' Wfril* whuh hi* I'an 
twi!>t int«i a:. *.\.*t f'irin aiiil ^tiil ii.ak«' f«-ii*4*. aihl thru niakf !hf*>«' tin' t>a^» 
of hii* a.^^aiil'.. \u\ ♦•iM*ian •'•i* thi* !• th:- »ii«*iii»'"' Wt* ii«**piM* trw k«-r\ 
in .ill} mall, aii'l : .'i> h iniir** iii a maii who ii* pt-i-kiii*; t«i •-» t.tbli-l» a rrputa- 
ti>»n in -^-ii-iiiitii i-iT' !•■«. ik^*. n^t Mr. ('rr^^in kn>t« that hi^tnrkp will rn*! 
in a rrai (!••» ^n hiui»* if 'I h«*\ f*^tabli*>li nothing iri ri-frrrniv i** thi* ptb*- 
dvii-i*.inirii. aii'l nri'«*iilv • .i!ii!a!fil t«i tt«->tr>>> t •■ntbb-nif- in <<thf'r •li'K'overir* 
<*la-.m»-i hv Ii.t:i Tbt*v a**- i. •! -tiili" ;*-fit t.» i— !a!''.i-h hini »i» ^tronjlv that 
III* • an wantonly bri-ak il<>%kn lii*> iian bandwritiiij:. Ili»attai k publi«hrti in 
.Vt^rtc^ Krbruary 'J7. wan a ftiirj'ri"!'. W'v ma*lr n<i attack ti|-.iii him. He 

AKCA.iajIjCMilC NOTI>>. 185 

now cofim iMit with a rhaive i>till more atroriou^. lluth of tlieni aru untrue. 
What ipmmI iloM it do U> \h* ho |»oniiHt4*nt in Iiim iniM*hi«*f? I0 he not depao- 
dcnt hitiiwlf on the contMemN* nf othen'.' Huh In* thi* proob of the truth* 
fulnpfwof hiitstat4*iiu*ntiia)»oiit hifi vnriouM tlmU? If one man mu^t fumiiih 
vouchent U^ provt* the }^*nuinencxi* of a letter iMiblinliecl, another ought to 
)>e niailo to farninli voucheni in referenin* to thv.itenuineniivi of hi* diacoY- 

SniNK MoKTAKH.— M^jor J. W. To moil, in hin artich* in Thf Fitrtim, main- 
tainH that the Htone niortan* found in tlit* aiiriferotifi ^rra vein of California 
are (>X4rtly the f»;ime on tlione found in nioilern timeo. Thin |MiMition in 
denieil. hi»wever, hy Mr. W. H. I lay mi*. Thequetttion i«, Whicli in rt)rrertT 
Are thev the Kiuie or not'* We ai-k our readers in California to aniiwer thi« 



IlKttKRN i<Ki ic**. It hx- l>iU|; t)een an opinri that the broken relic» found 
in j;r;ivt*;< und iii'Miiid- wvn* hmken lH*4'uu^e **( a HU|M*rt>tition, thi* ideatN*tnff 
that the npirit «tf thi* r«-lii i-ituld thu!* ese-aiH* and }>e with the »i|iirit of the 
dcH'eiixeil, tli«* Hli:i>l«-!i iilwavM MipiMioi*!! to ne«**i the »aiiii' weu|NinH which the 
iwrmiii'* ii«iil in lift*. Thi'^otiinion i^ deni«*d hy Mr. Janieti M(M>ney. Thin 
iCent]«*iii:in riaitii'* tti^it tin* nwncryhip nf weryttiinK left hy the detvai^e^l is 
alwayt \«>><ti'il in thfcluii «ir k'<*nH.and tlit* iHTH»nal lielimKini^aredivtroyed, 
^<» .If* to pro\«'nt di^^piitf*- .iimtii^ t)i«* rclativf*^ uf the «hxvaM*«i. Thif< in cer- 
tainly A novel cxplanatiiiii. WV would a>k if tliehkuUh of theilead, whieh 
art* |HTfiir.it4Ml an<) aft«-rwar«I<« Itiiridl. Hero |*erforatc<l for f«*ar of ilirputtv. 
It p<tMn« to u*4 tliat the snpfr>titioii iu relerfiirt* ti» the douhh* in t«K) wide 
••pread to he rr«'klf"».-Iy tlfniril in thii* way. Thi* Chinem* liorn iia|K*r, the 
Ktryptianr* «*iiilialiu their lU-ail an*! then plat'e a rhaniU*r n«*ar the niunimy. 
in whii'h tlw .-pirit may roiuc ami f«*a.xt and live over a«rain tin* M-enea of 
life, drpirtin^* tlitw*. -.vnt*^ ••n ihi* walU of the rhaml»er. The pr<'hi«torir 
rare*4 of Kiirii|H< Ifft upciiiiu'- in tin* dolim*n«>, h> tlnit the nhatle nii^lit so in 
and t»iit of th«* t'liiih. and tlie Niirtli Anirrirun hrok** a hiile in liii* ramn*. ho 
that th«* "pi fit nit»;ht na vibrate tho walt*r!< after di*ath. ai« lie hroko hi<* W4*ai»- 
on* that he mi^'li! Iia\i' thi*ni to u«f in the spirit land. (>wnt*n»hip hy the 
« lun did n<it di» away with the Mi|H*rTititi<in of the elan, and mi it iMvame a 
reli^iuu** •iiit_\ to \t\iT\ hri»ki-n relii-^. The fai't i-*. hn»i'\er, that many elans 
ali<>tain«*<l frum relii' liiiryini;; the htirial 4if the h nly Inmuk ntn^nled 
ratlirii-nt viith tlif:ii. Mf all tlie miiun<l*< whii*h hunter rui^*** ereetiNl. it in 
prtiven n'»\ft that the lark'«' pri<|N»rtiiin are without reliit. Only with the 
agrirultiiral triU-< wa* the cii-t>tm at all in^nenil t<> liury with the i|ei>*aM*<i 
the relii-j* whiili l«f]..nji-.l t.» hiiu. Wa-* thi* lH*eau**e the warlike rai-e« hatj 
a way uf M-ttiiUk; 'Ii-puti- over prujuTty. nr i- it ni»t lieeaiLH* the hUfK*r>ti- 
tiun a)*i*ut the •I'luhie fuand till- Hay nf l'Xpr«■^t<in^ itM'lf. 

l'orTi:K\ I'lMi IS Kioi:ii>\ >-A lar^re pie«*e of ancient iHtti€*ry wan n'centljr 
found at Tampa. Kla. It i.- aUuit nine inrliefi in length, and round«il im> as 
to numreffit the idea that it i- a fratrment of a large van*. It ii dark hrown 
in color, an* 1 i* i-oni|H>'«><l of a vitreous material, having ipiite a hrilliant 
glajce. L'|Hin iti< t>uu*r *<urfki'e art* tiguren of animals in high relief, executed 

IhC Tin: AMKKICAN VNTU^lAKIAN 1"^'^' \' M 

wilh miiiirkaMi* -kiil auA fititlifnlti^^H td natnrf. In fart. tin* wttrlc in Th«*?>i* 
rf«|M*clj' wituM r«'t!i-i t Iniii'ir ii|Hiri tlir iimrt hkillhil :irti*-t^ nf th«' prf*>«nt 
•lay. Thi>< iiitiTc^'tit:;.' ri-lii- wiiv N 11 nil utmiit forty fret ln-Ii-w tin* Mirfari- nf 
thf Izir^i* »<lii*11 iiniiiiiii lii-ar (111- iiniiitli of Hull Kn>i: 4'rf«-k, 4ifi lln' «-H*-t«'rii 
Hhori' of IIi!I-lNirii:::h I'liy, hMi U i« tin- r.i«ti>rii .irin ^f Taiiip.! Wny riii-i**i 

of tlilH n-Iir )iu\v ttrt'll -fill to tlif >riiithxiilii:ill Il;-titlltf. 

I\ l^Mi Mr. I- M. IIa!l -aw A ]»!»:■■ auA In auliriil iKn-r tt «t liicli. ^nt 
ufioriiaiiioiitcii. uhii'h ha<i U>«'n ti^ihril mii in tifty fiit of wat* 1.>aii li**I 

A \V,\i I n» Vii I A«.». ••K Tiiw s. \Vi- li.i\i' -iitik* II i<f tliioi-rpi lit i-ilicy .ii- 
roiiiputiyiiu' a MTH'p *•( I«M>kiiiit iiiuiiihI* aii«l Ittirial riiiiMii<i« Htiuli l*•■n^t:- 
t!iti-'I a wall witli )ia*>tiiiii-. Tin- |Mi-uh.iriiy ot ttiM \iall 1- lliat it ntnuU 
alitii;; the vaiii.y ciI;:!- «if tin* Mnif. parallfi \^ilh ilii-ri\fr \.i!!>-y ari'l nvrr. 
ItHikiii^ tliat \:illi'y. It ua- i>\ i<li-iitly .1 wail \% Lii !i lia>l i>i-t 11 tl.ifw 11 up iu> 
a pr«it«'rtiMii t«i oMiiir \i!taj<- In tin* ri";-* 1 t it ti»i fiiliif<I tl.i- wall ul.irh 
wa- ili-fovrrj-il la-t -uriiTinf in tin- -arn.- iiiiMit\. A'i.trn- (*•«:], t\, Ili.nin-. 
<M>1 >>i-ttlrf* "av tliat llii-ir WA- forimrix a xiilaj' ill *li.i! !"i aj.Y'. . ainl 
ttir n-iiiaiii- III fill- -i'i> kii'l'-- Hi-ri' !•■ f -i- plartiy •! 1 u .it 1 aj ly t.iiii'^ It «ka^ 
aiM-ut fi-rtx r«.«l- ,n Tf-- !!.:- \ 1 1 la jr. aii«l tin n wa- a •liprfr'-iin. » lui h ikh 
htitnti-M a piiii'l. Ill thi- i-i-ii'M' rill- wriTi r '-an ia-:iy l>i !:•■.(■ th.iT t)..- via- .1 

Mll.i.;i* an-l tin- f.«iii-l \*a-.i ■ii-ira''.-- If.iPj'' ^'ii !.i -imti ;'\ iJ wat* 1 

I* fflt r\i-n I'V tin* If I'll li'- a! I !i ■- Ma^ . ,1- I In r i- .iri- m r\ {"»■» -j-rilifc*-. .il. 1 :! 
I- iiii|N.^o,!-!i t.i ji I jtii..| ^^A\t r !•> 'iik,"/:! j «• il- Tl •■ iiii 'iiiii- .it tl.;- pLui- 
wiTi- i \|-i"ri -t !:i-i -'iT;i'ii' '. .ml if.t- . ■ .:.Ti'-j' . wrt- ! !.i.r< -ijl.'.) txuii .r.f<i> 
Tilt- u.i.ii -I :<•» ri w li:i :i l..i- .'i-t I'l-n -ii-i i-vi »• 1 >• -:!«;.t!i'l -•".in t: .r- 

•*outl- -■! 1 1 rj«' i-\ I'I'-ii '1 !- I -:Mi.".i-r :],.- ..:.i » > .1 j .i' !!.i- n. -ir*, "f K- ■« k 

«>« 'k. r.jlit i.i.:. - u..i:!. .-I .ii.- t itv •■! t^ I.I..--. 1 '.. ..'1 . r at '1 ■ 11 .-.I'Jj < ♦ 
Itrar t 'rt'i-k. ti»;*iin X-! r-i- * '■■';n! v Ili«ri .-•■ :.■■ :rat'i - ■-!" ..i.\ -'iika-ltr 
at I .Mil r ; ..!.i;/i'. i'l.T ;l 1- pr. •:■.!'■. •■ rJi.i' '■ ■• 'i «• rt* fi tT ::[i ! I : i- jr- ':fi«l 
• li.p.- { a. K 'I ■ I ".. .'!.-. -■!' •!.•- '-i-;;' .1:.!. i-...-.. -!.-:: :I.i la'k-:.!« !> 
till- I r* ■ PI a:i i .! - *! . I'.ii .• -. I !.» ri ■■* 1- • \. I .•• • ;r 1 • ?.- ii.'li ^ r a \ ' '.j' 
I" l.a". •■ !" ■ !i I-« a'» ■! '.1 ri- I' \» -li; 1. :. s. - . r • . .1 - " i^-i- 1 '-,? . t -.jl.t !«■ 
.■Ill- -A !. • ^^ I- !i.i . .Vil ii." t ■ • r . w r {■ r- '.!-■.. * • '.• Nf.i;. I i'. \' .. ..J.* 
» '... '. .ir- ; .. • .:i -1 ;. I iT .:. - I li I..1I:- IJ. i- ' ' ■ I .'- .n. ; T. i.'- .»•■ -• m 
t«Tt I a !.•■■.•■' ■,-• ■'?:.. '.■!..'.-.';•! ■ . •. .1- - ■:.'.■'.'.■ 4 w . . ! ' :?},.■ 

\ :...i.'i- t .. :..-. ' 1 i:' ■: ' .-•■.» i •;■•.■!.•-• ■ : .-. • ! M*' '■. " I ?. 


-'r K -ij :• i' ;'. ' ■ •. - \ . '. ■'■..'.'. ■ k". ■ : •■;.:::.• w I. ■ . ■ rft -■ 

|ii|;l■i - ■ i ■• . . • • • .- ;■ •■*.!.■ ■ .'- ' - .•- . • ■ • ' \'\ .*— f Ir.i-^i- 
-p:ir .r> - :"••■ i i : _■ .i^ :.-■?..» ■ «' , . ■ • i*\ :..r.« :.;!.lri«l 

anil • A. ;■.;■.:-••:■ r .- ai. •:.■ • 1 * a ' • '••''••- "I ■ :i » I .• li 
I h • » a ". .•!'■. : . .• a ' ■■ I • ) k ' a ' : / .•.!:■ \% ...'.- ■ ; . - ■ f . \ » ' x 

Lmi. !ri -i !■ • ■ '..• i '.•■ 1: ; • I !. ' * -. ■■.•.•'. i. •!'.-:■ \\a- I \ 

tin- w.i;, ■! .1 - '■ i 1/ • :■ .' . I - ■ • " J . ■ ■■•••■ -1 .» I..I* • w I a* fj ■ r i"t ■ 
\a!» i jr.. if ! w .ly •. I'l .:. .r t . r ■ •.- I : .1' '. -a .■ '. a ."a !■:.»!.:.!:.■. a ; i« ii 
IliA-l* !;.■.»; : ai :i - ■•■''..•--.•.-■ :■ i*. ".• •• w ■ t»- -1 '. i-r.!! ' .\t ^•' ! ■ ^ 

«■';! :;. ■-;:. !- < ' w • ■ :i ' ■ • " J. .l:. : ': ■ ^*...:. ^» r '. i -• •■.•.-i :!,•• ;"r- i.l >■' 
?!.. '. ".».■•• I : .■ \ . .a.-- • - ■ ; i'- 1 :: !' •■ '.i" . ' • i / 1/ '.. I'a. : i ! ■ r j, 
I ; ". ■. ^ 1. \' ..kT'. f ^- ■ : • ■- I ! . 11 • I 1 ; . r. ij. 1. r:-. ■ r .t :- i.i; tI.«* 
:..r::. ■ f \I r I. *> M. •'. •• 'A K* -.iT^.r ^•'.- :. • T J, II '• Tl.t rr arr 
!■■■ K- .*. II Ml !- I. •- M. -:•!»- ■ : Tj.. 'k;.'..ijf •.!.« I f !l.i :.. .- -,t .rf't-l all ul 

\K(*II.K(ilJMiIi' NOTF-S IK7 

half Aiiiil** iMiiith nn a Ui);\i (lait of th«' Mull'. It tivcrliMikfi Uii* villAp* »iti*. 
ami tlic*rririiin of tlie intrrmr. th«Mitli«*r i<*on llM-nnrth fiiilr r f llfirk (^recli, 
(»ii an iMiIatovl i*<)ni«-al hill. Tliinmiuinaiitl* a vi«'Vk of thr iMittitiii laiiilii, an 
Wi*ll ai* thr vall«*v of th«* rrr«'k. A thinl liMikoiit iiiiiuml ii* ■itiiatnl on the 


lilutr. iim* half mill* htill further north. .\ll of thi**«* IfMikiHii niciun<l« ron- 
tain lMHlii<ii, an<l w«*n* !itM*<l,«*\ii|rtitly, for htirial |>ur|Mi«ii an mi 11 an f(<r !(N>k* 
imtri Throiily «<ili^'y i^»nnivt«-ii with tin* \ illairi* ^a^ th«* oni> « hi«*h rtm* 
ftilntr*! thi* aitpntarli to it. Thi* f>ha|N*of th«* wall, with iti* Mi-ralli<*l ti>wor>* 
anti lia«*tionf. ih, h4i«i*\«'r. |«t*«niliur. Kjirh l»a^iioii ha** a flat ti*rrar«« ^ur* 
roiintliniT it, making* a ]>l;itfi>rtn whiih }iri>j«Ttf* 4iiit a littli* iH^yonit \hv lin«* 
of th«* wall. Th«* (irrtilar *>lia|i«* t»f Ihv **|>tir nf i}i«* lilntf rnaki*^a naliiral 
haftiitn. an>l tb«' iiiounil aUtxc it ni:ik«'» an drtitirial tla^llon or tow«T. It i* 
■•intnilar that tlii*ri* ^hiuiM Im' -nrh a I'linfMrnnty of thr artitii'ial ti> tin* nnt- 
iirnl. In thii« ram*, it i*iti*nil!« to thr ft«*r|N M cM't,;) , whi< h fi*nftitiitrf> lh«* 
|iathway an«l tin' fnint wall of th«* vtllap> It it> n<>t thoonly ra^v whcro 
^urli a i-oiiforniity ha«* lH'<*n m rn, hut it in iu*»tv markiMl In-rt* than iIm- 
whrrv. Till* ■lI•^1^v^•rv i»f tin* -••rin*nt i*ll»k'v tumi^tiif* ••no nion* link to inn- 
n«*t*t thff*iti^y nifumlp nf ohtu with thoM* of Wi^itim^in. Th«* villa^**' ahi-ri* 
thi** illi^'v wan f<Minil na^, uii|an*ntly, M|«|f*r than (hi* \i1Ih^'** oituaTnl nurth 
of It It may h:iv«< U-cn a Makota VillaK**'. an*! th«* othi r a \illaifc ff th«* 
Illintiih triU*?*. It t" kn«twn ti» havt* U-«*n mi-u]iir«l hy thr .'^n«-** anil Kov4«^, 
U!<* in hi-tiifv, aii'l iu:inv of tin* ^krh'toii** cxhtiiiK'*! frmu tin* aail wi-rt* 
l«rnlt«ihl\ thoht* iif tliat trilnv Tin* t* V|ili initio ii of th«' ni(>un«l!* of thi- \ iTaci* 
Hill Ih* ronihi«*tf.l •luring; t)ii*> o>iiiinc ^4'a>on. 

lM«ri:iiii iit>\ ••!- iiii: K.m'I«*y Moi\i»«.— In » ^in-riil wny. w«* -hfiilil 
mark tin* limitf within whirh tht* rl!ii;y iimuniU ar«* in« Iu<h li. hy a 
]im' ilr.iwn ulHiut thi* Siatr i*f \Vl.-Oln^in. hut t&!«>nilinK' ^^luth **f tht* .^la^e 
hm* .1" far a^ (hi* •Mnithfrii «*\ti*n*ii>n '*( |jik«' Mirhiiran an^l wi-^t of tin* linr 
•Ml a^ !•• in« hiih* tin* hlii:N whifh iMtrh'r on thi* Mi^i.M>i|i|ii Ki\i*r. •■n lln* 
wt«»>t f*iil«*. wiMilil i->>n^tiiuti* thi- hahitat of tlie i-tli^'y hiiil<l«-rM. Th«* illicit'''. 
hi'Wi-vrr. ilit i:«it «*xt*nil iiuitf a- fur north a.** the Stat«* i|o«-»*. Th»* liniitH of 
thi* filicii** ttintar'N tin* n>>rth.*o far .i** a-rfrtaini^l. an- in th** n< i)»hlK>r* 
hiHxl i*f Trrm{xh-aii, \Vi»«<iit*>in. «ir at (h** ittituth "f tin* t'hicpiiv-WA Kiv«*r. 
mth a inn* f\Tini|iiii; fpirn th:- {niint nvrr to thf \ illap* nf Warsaw . (iii the 
\V)«. niixai Uivi-r, aii<I iIh'Ii U'lpiiiiK hatk au'ain -i* a** to n*at-h the north 
phiiri- «<f I.iki' Winiifl m:** auA tin* n.otith (^f the r<>\ l^iver. Thi^ aaji form- 
erly thi* aU^U. 4 if ih*- \Vjnnfl»ap» TriU*. Theri- an-, hoat'Vi»r. a ffW nlij^itii 
• lUt^i-li* iif i!m'*«i- limit-. Mr. T. II. !>•» is ha.** ju.*l «liiM«*vi'nil an i-tlijry (»*«» 
Sirn-f. May, Ivnij .^it thi* Sinux River. Thi- wa- pitnatril •iizleen mih* 
N>uthi-.i^( 'if .'^ioui Fall;*. Mr. Ix•ai^ Ha>r> that lh«*r<' in a cr«'U|i of mounili 
ami a f<irt at thi* Thi* mtiumN.onr huinlnil in numtier. ha\i*alre«iiy 
Utn ih-i rsU'il III Till: Amkuh \.s .Vmp^i Akiw. Vol. ?», No. iJ . rnifn»«<ir 
Kr<*-hr:i'k >Uirr ;- tin* writi-r. The I'thkry .lipkMvenil hy Mr. I^*wi?* ii in thi* 
^haiH> «if .i U-ar. with tin* fr>>nt |aw i-sti-nile*!. The Irnfrth i« finy-the anii 
onr Italf fo-i. ihf hi-:^ht. at presK^nt, i<« a)K»ut two an«l nn<' half f«-«'t. The 
situation fif thi* fort anil the nmuniU ii> on a filateau ahiih rin-p twt*ii- 
tv-n\«* to liflv f(<«*t .i^Hive the river, .1 nil near a hranrh whirh hai» the ex- 
r•^■^-:vl• nantc rtf IUiunIv Kun. The fort ia an enrh^iinre of imvular. elliptical 
•ha|ie. an<l rontain** an urea of al»nut fifteen arre#. The wallf an\ at prerent 
tao f4-«-t in heiifht. anil have an arerage whlth of fiAeeti feet. Mr. I^wu 


huvD that thv wall cxti'ml** nv«'r nm* of th«' mournlH, which in thr<-«* and noe 
half ftft ill iM'ik'ht, uml ju<tk!(> fnnii this rirrunist:iiu'<* that the village waa 
hiiilt lator than tht* iinnintl. .luiI^Mti^ frfun Mr I^-wi''' ilrHrription, we 
Hhoiilil Hay tliat it in thi**iaiii<* kiml nf :i fi>rt :ih ttntft* whi«'h wt* liave iliii- 
ruVfri*4l mi tin* Mt^-i>^i|i|li Ui\i*r.aiiil I hi- iiliiry wa> liuilt hy a hrant'h uf the 
Hatiir thin* rir rucf. Tin* i-llikTV i» thi' urilv mu'vihit-h ha*I Ut-n f(Min<l in 
thf liiiiitii (if \\iv Mi«M»iiri ^•a^itl. It i- a rrinarkuhlf tin*! itii thi?* luvonnt, an 
the ili!«lani-(* U'twi'i II the MiHHiuii Kivrr at ihi** ]Hiiiit, unil tin* .MiHHiHHippi 
Kiv«*r. wliiTf thffitihry niiMiihl." ui*rc «liM'MVcri'il, i^, at Ii*a>t, two hiinilre«l 
ami M'ViMity iiii|i>. Tin- .Maii>Iaii- ini-jrati-il up lln- Mi-MHiri Uiwr. I»i«l 
the Maiiiluiii* i>iiilil thi.- i-iliiry" 

All Ml Mi'iNh**- Thi* ili»tril>i:t:i>ii i>f Altar MnuinU i** :in inti-ri^lin^' ni- 

• |iiiry. It is- jni— tlmt \*y firllnw iii^' "lil llii- lim* *>( y-lnily J^v may a-^vr- 
taiii MiiiiftliiiikT al'ont tin- iii:;!raiinii<. The \nA\f uIhtc ihi' Altar MmiiihU 
art' tlif iiin-t iiuiii«'ri»ii<-,aii«l vilti-ri* llicv an' •'••■ni<l in llti- ^rtMTf-l pi-rf»i (ion, 
i" hiiiithi-ni iihJM. >'|Mi*'r :iii<l Pavi- liaM* -j-nkfii uf iii.iiiy uf lht-«-. I'mf. 
K. \V. I'litiiuiii hH.> lii-i ■>\fii-il •■thi r^. ainl ^a.\- that thiT«- wa- .i ;:ri:it jrntiii 
«tf Allar Mmiiiij- arniiihl \^li:ih \\a- a wall i>f *'t>iiii' fi-iir fvt-t lii;:h. htiiit Im»- 
hi\l thi* MirriiiiliiiiliL; li'M-i 'if iIh- tici'l. Tin-M- iii><Mliil- < ■•litalln*! ffMin «tiii* 
fii M-M-i) :i!!ar- fi*? iiii-<l i-f rl.iy.i'ii whiih tii*iii- riri-- ha*! )>i'i-ii iiiaih*. In 
tMi> <<r !l.i- li.i-iri- of thi- allar- .u (he in>>iifi<i" :iri iitiiiii*n'>i- intiiil'iT i^f i>riia- 
nii'ht- aii'l r» li. - wrtv 'li^i «'\i:iil i..t»ini |<farl-. ii..tiiy iii|-ji«T •■rii.iiin'iil^. 
an>l li:tii li/Mn- i-f tiir.i ii-ti;i 'I l.i--*' il.-..!- |.:iil I'li'h Jhr'»'.\n iii*'i ihi* 
liMv ! \'«'n-i\u • • nriiiii.H- .1 ifn- .|ii-i.. -? :iii|"iit \>< tin- |ifii|.l.« iia«li\;- 
ili-nl'.) ii.-n i-r.nt. r-!. a- >! •. i- wiJli !i-.Ii-'i :ii lln'in. t" ;•» tin* -iii! 

• ■Mf . \\t r»- .irr.m »■•■•! .vt nm 1 ! \\ ■■ -ki k'"ij- lu.-l tin- w li-iji- Imrifl >:L*iiitii'aiitl\ . 
Ai'ar ^I■'■.iIl■i- l,.i\i- I. ill.'!;. I'liii ;--'i!. ! .:■• :".ir r.i-r'h a- I»'-v:i- I-iki-. m 
Pak-'J.! I ii.-i- Li.vii-\t-r i,..t\ ii.i? f:.i\i- i-ii r. ';-«l !it Thi -asm ) iii p-'i" a* 
ill .ti«»lii" \i\' \ « ♦rt- ill n- '^! r.i' .:.i «i ii;. ■■.:.»- \* :'!. :i ■ .i\ l-.i-.ii ;i'. *.\iv 

"^I'-M I {."I - 1 i.i -.III • :i 'ji.if J. !i. .■:.? ■ I ; .1-: .i"' ■••.■ ■!.-!! i' ■.!;■.»:« if 
-' ii.i .-I - N| r I II I • -A .- '..I- '.• -« r : i . .11 • ■.••■■ .i :•<;-•'■!.• \* li'.ilj 
.- .:. I. .1 .'■. .» r .!■ ■.■.'..!. .' ' . . : ;.. ■ . .•• '. w . I ■- ;i '.a •■ -■ ^ll|.■ 

t ■, ■. ' : i- i. .' I ;. ■ I : • ■.■■■:■. ■.•■.-.;■•".•■ i -•••!.• i|i-- 

I ■.•'•:.' ^l .!■■ - '.» I • - I ■ . ■ 1 . ■ ! v«'« I: w .1^ : III:-! 

• ■• ^l r *«! • I '.■■•■. r. I. . ' '1 -■ I . -I I. •• - .iff ;;.'»r<' 
r, .:i ■ r I « r :.• « i: ; ' ■ ' • " **■ :'■ . : .« . ■, • ;..- I ;. .- ■l.- 
^ ■ -v .; ■. ■ i - • . ; ' : . *■*■'■ ■.! • :.•■.-■:.■ ]'• r: i; ir 

r» .t ■■ : . . • .■■■..' : ■ • . - i ■ • .' ,• 1. • : . I-".- > 

-iijj. .' . . 

** I : I • • ; ! • ;,...'/ ' ■ . .■."•■- u I ar»* 

l-ri .fc-:.' •■■ t . • : : . :' ; ■ ■-.■■.!.•.■■,■■- I : i j-'..ii'»' 

\\ } , • f I • r • - 1 • ■ ■ -■.;.•■•'.•'■■' . : \ . . . ■ ' ' ■ ; i . • \ . • » I . »• i 
Ai'- ?:; ' '. ••■.••.■ .' ■• ■ ■ : : .1 ..'■ I •: "■:.•■ '••..■•<»■;,■ 
V : ■- . \V. : .i\. .1 '. ...!.■■.■.•.-■ \'k - :. •. n» r. !hi» 
-.iri.' ■.'. 1 •.»'••■ ' - .ir- ■ ■ •■:..- ■ ' ■ !" •■-■.. :. j :ti I'-rtii 
.1 -.»■■:. •...,..■..■.:, ■; ...•.■•.■■,. ..■,... r ■; vv. »a^ 
'. .:. I t.. i- ^!...■. . • -ii. ■■'■ -.i- 1. . :. ' ■ : ■ *■ *''..i: --r. T«i» 
-■ : J • :.*. t •! /.i - -A • r- ■' .-■ \* r* ■ .-* - r ■ .■•.■.! » • - ; ?. r>i«i Cfil 


the* summit of a lonir, narruw iireripitoiiP rider which cunptitntrd the blufl 
line* rif tli«« MiMiiiwipl«i river. Many of th«ve bluA mrv in thiJi pha|ir: venr 
narr«>w riil^wi, thi* lonirt^t aiin lieing |«ralli*l with the rtvi>r: the enciii mad 
PuliNi havint; apparently U*<*n worn, in |p*o|nfrir tinit**, ni w to h-ave thvm 
nearly i^^ilaieit ; a rriMiked line of the Muff nmninir out to ronnecl 
with tli«-#e nvky ridfrtrfl. The M>r|ient etrifricff p|>okrn of (*viniitttutt*the«piiia 
nf the*e liniefit«ine ritltfe^; I he h«*ad tM^ing plareil on the summit of an iacn 
Litril I'titte or mliinin of liuieatone which ahuttM out. At thin end of \hm 
ettitTx wa^ H n»ni<*al nionnd which foruie*! the hea«l. liurtal nioiindu weiw 
a!i-ti p«'atierp«l ahmt! the whole Unirth of thin MTf^ent elhiry. T!ir iK*cond 
*t'r)i«'iit U*|{an at alMitit the c«*nter of the ridire, the widest |iart, and extended 
ill a ta|N*rinir line to tlie «ither or southern end of the ridjre. Thi* rrpre- 
••I'liti-*! a fhlfen'nt kind of a i^nake. The head wan the larxeet |«rt of it, and 
ma* «>wit1U*n all the way from the noee to one-thinl the entire len|{tli of tha 
iHMjy After that tlie Ito^ly wap narmw. and i>omewhat tortuoud The Aral 
»iiake w-a« iimre like a garter make, «ir hlat'k Miake— hati the wanie nite tha 
whole lenteth. The heati of tlie lari:e»nake wan near the tail of the plim 
hnake. hut ii\er1npi>«H| it. They arv Uuh n*niarkahle fiirureii. The writer 
liaii al^> diM'«>\ere<l many tortuour* fi^irt*^ niM'nihlintr fnakei* at the end* of 
the Mutff in Allal^^(^lunty. Illinoin. S4*\ eral puch have come under ot>perva* 
iH>n iiarniK the lai*! few w«-ekf«. Thop«* etti^iep are not very distinct, ap they 
are iiimh water worn. They are gi-nerally found at the end of a ridfie; 
thf ri«liri* runptitutintf the lilutflino lien\ iMimewhat an the lim«*etone ridgea 

• 111 111 WiM-iiUftn. The ndi^*p are not pM^ipitoup. I>ut are Kiniewhat ahmpi, 
tl.«- tii<l always having' a tai^'rin^; |>oint. which i*to|iefi gradually toward 
ill* I M. til till laii'l The«e end;* are naturally tortuoufi. an the gravel, of 
Hhith tlie MutU are (-omiMiMHl. aPMimiHl that ^ha|M• in the pnM*i*t«i of the 

• trainagv* iltirin;: t;i^tli*gi<'iAl tim«-i-. The^e tortuouH endn of the hlutTii re- 

■•efiilile •er{K<iit*. hilt 111 «Miiiie ra«<-« they M*«*ni to have heen nhHlifietl by 

urtiti'Lil iiiran>- !*i»a- to make thvm reM-mMe tortuoun M«r|M*ntit. lnM*verml 

i .iMi* tlie writer h;i.« di*>t-ii\er<Nl a larp*. conical liHtkout mound on the \er)' 

-'immit of the Milt!, but f^i plac^tNl ai* to conntitute the heail of the pnake. 

4 *n tiiie riilt^' a fiiake etiigy wui* founil i»n the north end. with an outlook 

t>iward the north At the »>outh eml there wim alM»a eoni«*al mound with a 
i«M.k<>iit I'tward the Mitith. hut with no elligv' W'nvptihle. In another cane 
the M-rpfOt etli;:y with H IiHikout mouud wa^ fouml at the north end ; and 
A.'*Ui: the oli;«- i>f the Miitf a herief* of nioundH which e«in*titut«-«l a wall 
uith ahutinetitx an«l tnWerh. if thi" term could )h* applie<l tt> ruile earth- 
work**. ( tf tlii*«e we ^hall ■•|H*ak later. The |K*ciiliari y of thii* wall, with 
.> uhiitiiteiitf Hifl tiiwerfi. i-> that it tiiHowi* along the verv eilge of the lilutf, 
:tiiil that the (-••nical iiiotiniN which constitute the pr«itruY*«'ranc«i* in it werv 
{'*i4ce«t at t xactl) thi' |Niint- where there wai* a proje«*tion in the hlufT". 



/■>».iv» •/'•]». -1' .rrtriT'jirf. Kthn'»li.|:ic nnd Ar*»h«"*iliigjc, Mytholngy and 
fttlkl-irf. (rrapliK- <v»temM an^l I.iteraturt^, Lintfuidtic. Kv Paniel <f. 
Knnti'ii. A M . M I». Thilailelphia. Porter A Coatei* \^'*l 

Th»' !it!»' !•: thi- iNNik i!« jitvuliar. In the tir»l place the term "American- 
]-t'* :« 'ine wliii h wa** Uirrowisi from the French, antl impli«*i> that Americao 
arch. I A'*;:\ ha- a«.*-uineil the popiiion of a M*ien->«* amonir all the other eth* 
I'.ii-ai -ii'iic.'* Ill the »»ecnnd place, the term * l-^eay" i« u*e<l in the 


of an en<lfavor or an attempt, ami implioff that many of the theoricfi a«i- 
vance<l are tentative. Thin Kivei* a rliie to the whole volume. There are in 
it many theorieit which are tentative, ami they are theoriei* lYinoerninK pre- 
hifltorio Ameri(*a. The the«>riei* an* an followi*: Kir*ti. the tli«»ory of %n 
auto<rhommi( oritrin of the Anifrioan ra(*«*H. Thid theory in r«up|K>rteil by 
various ar>(nm«»nt«, derive'l from tra>litioii, iiiontimentH, imltistne!*. lan- 
guaf(eff, phy(*ii*iil |K*(*uituri(*i«,^eii|o^Mnil <lAta,(lir>ruveri«-t«. The author makeit 
tolerably clear, hut after all thene ii* op niuoh to Ik* Hai«l up«in the other "itle, 
ami we are (*onflil«'nt that if Dr. Brint<in luni ron(inu«*4l to hohl to thf 
opinion whirli he formerly ailv(K*ati*<l that he wouM tln<l a«< many <*vi«lenl<e^ 
of an extralimital eharaeter uh h<* i1<n*t4 now of the aiit<H-hthoiiouH. 

Another theory ii* that <»f iMilcolithic man. I>r. Urinton «{(iot('vi a (ii.-ot>v- 
ery l>y Mr. l'n*«Htm, ami Hiy>» tliejM* <liHri>vorii»M JTirry thi» utfi* <»f ilu* ap|H»ar- 
amv of man in the IVlawure vulltv bark t" a <Iat«» ^liitti i.- iH»»*iti\(*lv over 
a hun'ln**! lh«»u*«iiml yi*ar»« aj;o. TIh' «»vii!«'ii«'*» muy be -uii-fa«'tnry to I»r. 
Urinton. but it oTtainly wouM not U* t4i U'^ : we >houM liNik f«tr nmre i<^ti- 
nionv than hay tlnw far brwi furni<-h«*ti. Another thtiiry i« that th«* Toi- 
tcoH were u fa bill oUH fKNtpb*. Thi;* i" mm-ly a theory. T!i«» Ti»lt«»«-^ ha\i' 
lon>c ti',;iirt*il in hi**tory ; they H<*r«' the inhabitant}* of Tulan. There wt*re 
three* trilH'H who eovrml Me\it'o with civ ili/^it ion, Hliirh ;:(m <« r.nilrr tht* 
name «»f Ti»lt4*<\ ju»t tv* tln-n* lia\i* b**»«n latrr thr»'i» triU*?* »Iju*h ;:ii\i* ibi* 
nanii* 4if A/.t«>«- to later civiii/^ition. \Vf tbink it i- (i:if')rt:inat<* that Th** 
name nhoiiM Im* ilintun out fnr tin* •'aki' i>f n mcrt* th<*«>ry. AniitbiT ti-i.ta- 
live \*H^iiy i- tint u|Nia tb«* .'^arrnl ^^vuiIhiI In AiiuTi«a. Thi' • n-^-, 'hf 
unaftika. tbr Ta symbol. nn<l tb«- tri-kab-<* ar** f>nni| in .\Mii-rti a. h.>* .n .lil 
|»art!« i»f .V'ija TIh'V -!hiv* roniact Aitli A-iatu' •••luntrii—. an-l if l'il!"*t»! 
up rnitrht furnish a rlne to ibr «»rii:Mi "if th»« Aitit'ri<-Hn r:«i«- Tl *• jui«i'"r*- 
une aUiiit tb«- AutiH btlmnon* tliri*r\ i- ttiut :t < ii!- i tl 'I'-batf ui.'I hin-bT* 
om* frMiti rillumn;^ up i-iTtaifi Iirii- %«bii'li lui/iit iia<l t*t tin* tnttb Wi* 
ilepn*«'at«* an> ••urh n—ull. 

Tb«Tf ar»' i»lb<T tlnniru** in tin- b-Hik w bi« h art* -miliar !■■ 'b*-*!' \V»« laki- 

the lilnTty to «jiir>tion t!i«- th(*i'!:i- . iM-rau-i-. it i- ::r:iiit«>l l.i i»- ly tin r* t\ 

fir>t «<ir<l in thi- tH»..k. \*r. Itrfritun hti-iii'ii to «'\|>i«t rtut U\^ |Mi-:i.i<rt 

WoiiM U' iTltiri/t 'l. Wv tak*' it tli.i'k ibr rr.i'b r w hi* j't • tl.f lU*!. w :! b ! I.«' 

f.«Ti«"« iif «•— .ly-, n».iT:y nf i*bi«li an* -nj^*— tiv*- aii'i :iitt n-^tii;,*. w ill li.»I.| 

hiiii-f'if b.n K fr«iiii ari\ fixi'-l • iifn I'l-^-n iti rff» nni i *•• tbr !i»p:«** !•:• «:»;lit 

• lUl, fir tbfy .in- imt»b-bf'l at I'ft -• ii!. Tbt-x in *! ,!i nj-ii 'ititfti'-fj- ai.l 

inu^t )h> i|i')»ati-t| biT*rt' final <*iini!'i-:"ii« .iri- rf.ii).t-l. It \k\\. )»•• u -*.••■{ 

that t lit- b-Hik :- !ii.il4' up **( artiili-* ^»ii..l. J. . ivi- .ipjt .»:•■•! in\.ir;<ii- ,■•"'.'■ 

nal", -":u«- ff tilt III '.11 TiiK Ammiiss Vn':^' v:\\ ^ 'im* • i' tbt-n* :i?J.»* 

prfM*i'«*.linj* *•[ till' Nijn.J-ina!i»' **•■• i« » \ , i.f rji;I.i.!i "i bi.i. aii-l tbt* An.« t.- .in 

l'hil«»-«iip|.; .il >'H illy, ftinl till* Ariiiriia:i \-- n'..i*: -n fir tbv AM\nr..»r' • i.t 

f»f .S'ii-n* »• rinv .*ri* i-*-av- w f.5. h .in* ha-*-! ni-'ii •tU'ln'*. 'h-* •tiin « s t{ 

fratfiiM»n*.ary -t!i !.••*. I'b** *•]*** ,.»I \.il if "f tb»-»- i* !l..»t tbi-y ri j-ri'-t i.' t! •• 

riirn-nt Iifi"- >*( *\ i:!^^!!, ani «'!n'»»!y l.»*.-*. kri •*?» fa-t- .m I ii«-«i\tr •- 
i»*>lii'» "l" '.% !i;.-'i. •■•jM'- . ti; V ill*' 'li-i.- ■•.♦•rif-. b.ivi' ri-i** Jnt-n tb-'P'ti^b!) tt-*t.! 
(hi lAn til pr'i\«' ll».4l ffii-y .ir-» j»*ti'1uii' \V«« an* tfla 1 !■• !ta\«» tbf ■•!1 tl. ««■.'.■•- 
ti-j-tf*! bv ni-w «— avi* . I ■:: vit- .t-k tbi- 'MK^'ion, m L« ib«-r tl:i' im « n..i\ fit 
1n» li»-t«*l a!- I. Pi»4't»vrr.'-«« ar'* i:"i:»j "ii .tU tb*- t;mr. -"tin* >t •.h«*itj ar»- 
lft*nuiri«'. an I •■■tij»« O'lt •'■ »•< u ufn* Fiif ■I:*- i\t r;i- art* !<• *■«• ;i'-t**il N-fi-rt* 
anv lb" 'TV *• i*»»l lip »M ihfMi 1.111 U* I'-t.ib'i-bi" 1 W** ii**t !};«• ■l!-i'«'Vi'r:»** 
antl thru a>'i'i'pl tMi> tbi^^rif*«, until o'b« r ili^ittv* ru* •ball M\«rTbri'H tl.* u. 


American ^ntiquavian* 

V«»i XII. J''^. \\t*\ No 4. 



licyond the southern Rockies, where Utah, Arizona and New 
Mexico border upon Colorado's frontier lines, is a strange land, 
inhabited by strange people, and containing monuments and 
relics of yet stranger tribes of an unknown antiquity. From the 
melting snows of the lofty Sierras, rivers, far larger than those 
of the present day, have run to the south and west, cutting out 
a network of canons in the sandstone plateau that give to the 
landsca|>e an appearance resembling the face of the moon. Among 
some of the deep cuts and weird valleys dwell remnants of wild 
tribc*> which once hunted among the mountains to the north 
and cast. All alon^ the banks of the San Juan River and some 
of its tributaries arc gathered bands of the Ute Indians, who in 
the more remote districts, tar from the agencies of the reser\*a- 
tion. live a primitive life. Over the Colorado line in Arizona is 
the roser\'ation of the Navajo Indians, and to the south and west 
of them are the pueblos of the Zunis and Moquis. These latter 
live in communistic towns, built of stone and adobe, and are sup- 
posed to Ik- the descendants of the prehistoric race, — a once 
numerous ])eople. the ruins of whose edifices are found here upon 
cliff and in valley throughout a broad zone. They were known 
in early times to the Spaniards, through rumors brought to the 
ears of Nuno de Guzman in 153c, when he was at the head of 
affairs in Mexico.t 

A few years later they were seen by Cabc^a de Vaca; and in- 
fluenced by his re}K>rts. Coronado made his famous march from 
Comi>ostello to the plains east of the Rockies. The existence 

•Thu arttrlf Ap|trAr«Hl In the May number of Appmlmrhia, the Joornal of th» 
ApfiaUu-hlan 4'luti; we ar« ln4eblea t<> IhU rlub fur th« OMofthr lUuMrmUona vblch 
»<vii*nip«i»x the trst. 

«N*rmuirr nd (*ritiml Hl«u»r7 of Ainert(m,«dlt«4 bftlaitla Wlnaor. Aftlrle*'Karlj 
Ki plural ^ uf New Mexlcu." by Hcerj W\llariMiK Vol. II. pp. 174 #«m«. 


Tlir: AMKKUWN ANTIgl'AKIAN. »2 ('^^ \^^0 

with miuirkiiMc -kill :iri«l fuiihriiliiP^'H to nature. In fart, the work in the^e 
r«*^p«>ct^ woiilil n'tli*«'t hcmiir ii|N)n tho nioi>t hkillfiil artiHH of thi* prei^eiit 
iiav. Thifi tntrn'^lin;; ri'lic wu9 ft'iiml alxiut f(»rtv (vvX \h'\ow the Hurfkrv of 
the lunre hlu'll iiHMiiiil iirar till' inoiitli of Hull Kr i »i; ('ri*«*k, on the eastern 
nhore of IIi!UlN»n>ii::h I*:iy. which i** tlirra^U'rn *iriii of Tampa l»ay. I*ie«*pii 
of thin ri'lii* liu\i* h«*i-n f^ux tn tlir Sinithsnnian In*>titiite. 

I\ ISSf'i Mr. K. M. I III! I s:iw a lar^'i* aiitl Uaiitit'iil jar. three firt hiuh. hut 
lUHirnanionteil, It hii'h had U^'n tinhi**! up in tifty frrt of water. niarSan:M 

A Wam ki> Vim a<iK hU T<i\\n. We havi* »>)Hikrii of the MTpeiit rlhity sfte 
eoiii|ianyiii]; a *>i*ni> of IfHikont ihoiiiiiIm ami hiirial iiioiinil" which ei>DFti* 
tutiNl a wall with li;iritioiih. Th«* peculiarity of tliit wall \y lliat it estentli* 
ahin^ tlie valU'V v*\i:v of tin* Mull', paruMel x\ith the river valley an<l over. 
IfNikini; that xalli-y. It wa- «*\ iih-iitly a wall wliicli iiail U't-n thrown up ai> 
a pr«>t«M'tion In r-oua* villa.'r In thi- r«"^|>4ct it rc»>criih!iHl ttic vtall wliieh 
wa?- iliM-oviTifl hi^t ^uulIM«■r in tin- -aiiM- c«iunty, Aiiani!* Couiity, Illinois. 
o]i| M-ttliTH .-av thai lh«'rf wa- fornicrI\ a \i!I:il"' in that Inculitv. an^l that 
thi* reniain<« of tiif -liw-ka'h-- uitc Im In- pl.i:iilv mi n at i-arlv tinii*i*. It waft 
aU«ut ft»rt> roiN ai ro-f ih;- \il!a:;c. an<i tin n- wa- a «li'pri'>riiiii. which \***u- 
htituti-** a |Min'l, in tin* ccittri*. The writer can ea^-ily hi-Iic^e that thi' «a.<« .i 
vilhiife an^l that ihr ihhhI wa- a •h-iral'l*- I«mIw»-. -inci- tlie -r.iri ify of wat* r 
i*i felii*\eii liy tin* n -i«liiit- at tin- ilay.a** tlori' are M-ry few ^-priiitf-. an«1 it 

i« ini|Hi-M!.ii- til fc'i t ,j 1 w.ili r h> •hj:«jiii'j wi il- Tin- nl«•lInll^ at thI^ pliur 

Werr e\ jl'.n-.i l:i-t -Mliilin r. .iii I ! I.i- ■■ ilitfU*. - W rr»' I I.nriiUjhly'.f"!' 

Thi* w.iili'l tiiv\ n whiiii li.i* jii-l l-fi-n i|i-ii.\i ri-.| -.^ .o.tiutti-il »i-ven" 

wtutli "I' M Ml" r\ j'p-ri'tl |j-t -■jTn::n'! . i);.- ••in I i-.i. j at l!;e n.iiuth of Ko«-k 

I'riik. I ;jhl I. nil - ii'-i:li lit ii.i" t'\\\ ••! *^»'i;r.'". I'ii- i.'l.i r at tl.i' n t.tith ot 
hear t 'n-tk. [••ilhiii X-I.i::!- I '■■'iiil \ . 1 lnri- .in r.>- :r.ii-i- cf »i.y -toi ka<U!> 
at ei!li» r \ :il.i/i". I'l.i ii ,- |.ii.ImMi- o.i'l, \«i rn fi rt i::f). T.'.i' j:ri'Unil 
-liipi - l'.i» k tr- :, I f !.•■ t .!.•!■ ■-!"! Ill- r-!::'! ;»:.!:■ ■!:;.. m -1 "-n tl.i hat k^li'.e 1 > 
tie- ire* k aJj I .T - ii ■-■ -. I ;.• ?•■ a .i- :•••. • ; ^'?-.'; t iji-ii.'h f. r a \ :'la>r»- 
1-1 j,.i\ •■ I..-I ij ;...■. I 'i. I I.I ft- I f %%•■;.. I. !•■ -A •'•'.• • a '. : !.ic<* i'lil t.f ••■.^■hl in 
itn»- \S II • w I- ti.i . :/.it ti/ ! Im- ' .\> : I' r» :. :. I- .■■;.■.?• 'i- Niaii hili V;ll.i^i«i 
w f. ' I, .ir. ; :■ • .r- ■! .!. t '.i' !.:i- lfi-j..iii- H- r.- '.).> 1 ..?- ;i[.>l !• r'- at* *c«t- 
li-n ■! .1 ■■r .• • .'• ' ■:_■■ ■! tl.. ^ ' /'. ..:: ! 'I ' ■ -..i-'- ■ - ;. • .:fi*. - .i \^.i.\ ''• r thf 

\!.:.i.'«" t".. ;-;..'i -' I -IT? ■■:•!.•■-!■ i». I .•■:■■.: J ■■:: I •■■ i. I ih*- 'I'::! The 

-•i k.'.j :■ i' :'. r "..- A 4 . - •?. /. ' .■ : .i:.- ; • ■. -ii- ;:i .!. »h.i !. >:?*•'' 

|-»iil -.. I . . I .V t ■ •'-■■ J.'- . ■ M.' ■ •.'- -r ■■ :?- '. •• . 'I-Jl! :•-••]( Tln-^- 
•■piir- .4ri - '•••'•■! .1 : J .i! .:.:• r . .i ■. « !. . ..: . " : . -. \'\ !ii - 'm- h!:i.>ln«l 

anil ! \* I r.* \ :■ i : ::■ -I, ■■:.•■ ar. ■ ;.• • I •• v\ •. .. ■ • ■ : r J •■ *■!•:'! •■n n hii h 
lh»- w.ill ;:.l ■'.• :. J .1' ■■ .* : k ■ .1 :....■ !■ : .* . .! ' '; •• w.i.i i:-i'.l" i- on", y "ii 

huu'lri t f • ■ ' . T .v I ■ -• i;; : i :.'■:!. - ■. . i.- ■■?.:.'.■ u-rtl. -:.Ii- wa- I y 
the w.iv -r .1 ■• • ; • ;.! •::..•■. 1 ■ • • '' / . ■ i -' ' :'i ■! a ii.irr » |uth i-r r't • 
vatel i^T.i if! »,iy :. i-j :. .:.. ■ r- m i r .i'*; w .■ '. .i ^-ra I'.sai ii'.i li!;r. \* J.ii h 
ixia'ii- t.'.f .I".-: r -.1. Ji ■ .: .■•■' ■• • ■■ • •■ t :*. »'.!'• wtri* -i'\er;il larjt* I -■k• 
olll :ii" ir. i- I- r w 't ii v.- . ■' J . .1!. i r:.i -A...!.*": '. . . i.-T.rr.Ti*! ilie fri'iii ••: 
On \i l.i^"- liif \"! .* -.' . i!' I -ri iVf '.»'•■. 1 ' « • i:/*.iij ••' Pa\>l I-"r,r, 
I;. L". ^ 1. • J i.LfS r •"•■:.•:..-■. r \.U • i I :.. r.I^-e ii -rth '-f it i^ on the 
•am. .fMr I. *• M:::-r. ^ W k^:atUt *^.- !.- !i >■ T J. II *.' » Thirr are 
•■•■•k'tit M.x'iri 1- xn l"-*.h '<-:ili - ••( '.!.• \i.!.u-e k-x.v of tl.i :i. .p r.tujtr*! aN ut 

AK(*ll>X>UMilC MiTtX IK7 

half A null* f^mth on « litgh fiart nf xUv l>liiir. It in-t*rliK»kr> thi* villaci* ^ito, 
anil tht*rp|rion of tht* iiitrrinr. thnitluT i!*on tin* north i*i<|pf f litvck (><H*k, 
iiD an iiMtlatoil ovmical hill. Thui mmmanilii a vu*h of tht* hott^mi laniU, an 
WfH an thi* vallt*v of tlit> rre«'k. A thini ItMiktmt niotin«l in nituatcNl on the 


hlutr. ono half iiiilf tittU fuiihiT north. All of thi*fM* liMtkniit niouniln i*on- 
tain iMNlitv. anti wrn* uM«*l,«*vicl4>ntly. for Imrial ]>ur]MNii>^ im will an for liMik- 
oiitM. The* tinly I'lli^'v connivti**! with th«* xillatrt* wai> tht* ont> mhirh ron- 
ftitiiteil thi* appntarh to it. Th«* i*lia|K*f)f thi* wall, with it^ *o-«:Mll4*«i towon> 
afi«l hai*ti«»nN, If*, ho«i'\i'r. ]Nt'tiliar. VmvU Imrttion ha.« a flat trrratv pur* 
rttiinilin^ it, iitakiiit* a platfunn whirh i«r4>j<Ttii i>tit a littli* iN'Vttnil tlu* lin«> 
of till* wall. Tlio t irrular »hB|i«* «»f thr ^piir nf the Miitf niak«*iia natuml 
liivtion. an>l tlio tuiMinil alf »\o it niakt** :in anifirial 1la^tion «»r tnwrr. It ii* 
-nikpiUr that th«*ri* »h<tiil<l In* Miirli a (*i>iif<irniity of th«* artifirial to th<* iint- 
iinil. In thi.** raM*. it I'ltontln to tht* »or|i« nt rirvy, whit h (■«*n*>titiit«*ii the 
|iatli«ay antl tin* fmnl wall of th«* viliapv It in n«*t the (uily ra^t* *ahi*re 
•■urh a r<iiif«»rniitv htu^ lN<«*n m-t*n. hut it ii* ni«»rr niarki*«l hrn* than i-Im • 
nhrn*. Th«* •li'Mitwry i»f thr •H'rfH'nt I'lhiry furnifht-K on«» nion* link to n.r.- 
n«^*t thf <*llit;y iiioiin*!^ of ohif> with thoH* of WiM'tuinin. The vilUtft* whrrr 
till- « ilitry war* foitn<i waf*. a]t]an*ntly. o|(h*r than the \illa;:** ^itllat«Ml north 
of It. It may ha\«' tN*i*n a Dakota Villakr«*. antl the other a xillu^^' tif the 
n!inoi> triUi*. It i* known to have Ut'n (Hi*U|iie«i hy the Sm-^ an<l Koxe», 
Ute in hi»t«»rv. an-l manv of i he itkeleton?* exhume* t frtim th«* wall were 
l*roUihl\ tho>*e iif that triU' The eT|iloration i*f the nioumli* of thi** \il!a^'e 
w :11 !*«• oonthii'tf'il iliiriii); thi*< (*<»iiiinc M-a>on. 

I>i*«TKnii riiiN oK TiiK Kii'io\ Moi Mr*.— In a ^^-nefttl way. we -houM 
mark the limitr* wiihin whii'h the eth^^y m«>iintl*' art* inrlthltil. hy a 
line •Iniwn alxMit the State of Wi>M*onpin, hut extemlink' ^outh of the >ta!e 
lini* .1" far a^ the iMnithiTu e\t«*n-i«>n of l^ki* Mi(-hi;;an ami weftt of the linv 
«o a-** ti> in«-lu>1i* the hliitr<« whirh l)orh>r 4»n the Mi^iM>i|>|*i HiviT, on the 
we^t fihle. w<*iiM ron-titute thr hahitat of the i-llitry huiltiiT'*. The et!igie*i, 
hewever. «lo lini rxtentl •(uite a.- (At ni*nh x<* thf State iIih*^. The limitrt of 
the e!hkMt*f* ltiwar«l«« the north.-'* f:ir .i«* a*M*«*rtaine<l. are in the nft)*hl>or- 
hiMMl iif Trem|H-liun. ^Vl•«*t•^^in. t»r at tin* mouth itf thr <*hie|i|4*wa Kiver, 
witli a liiK' fxtftniiui* fnTii thi- |H»int o\ir to the \illap* of Wan^aw, (>n the 
Wiri4-ortx;n Ui\er. un«l then ln'niiinK liaik ajrain -o a.** to n*ai'h the north 
^h<>ri- of I.:ike Winnel ap* anil the mouth of the Fox Iliver. Thi^ wa^ form- 
erly I hi* alHNli* of the \Vinnel«ap» Tril>t». Then* are, hi »w ever, a few ril'iKit* 
oiitri-h* of then** limits. Mr. T. II. I>*wi» ha^ ju^t iliN^tveretl an etli);y (mh* 
Siemi*. M.iy, lv^'»jori the Sionx River. Tlii* wa« Mtuatr*! fixtet'n null** 
Ftiutlo-a-t of .sinui KalN. Mr. I^ewip Ka\H that there ii* a t;roU]i of nioumN 
ami a f«*rt at th^ {iMnt. The moumK one hun<lreit in numher. have alreaily 
U-^-n ih-inriU'tl III Tin: Avkhh \?« .\MH41 AfciiN, Vol. ^», No. iJ; I*n»fef«<»r 
Kre«h'ru*k surr i* the writer. The clhjry .Ii*^»\ereil hy Mr. Ix»wi.«* i* in the 
»ha{«* of a U-ar, with the fp^nt |«w extemleil. The leni:th if* tifty-tlvo ami 
one tia!f feet, tlie h«*i^ht. at pn*#ont, i^ aliuut two ami one half fe«*t. The 
»itu.ition of thi« fort ami th« moumU in on a platraii which ri»r# twen- 
tv-fi\eto liflv fi*et al»ovc» the river, anil near a branch whirh ha« the es- 
itHT^ive name of IUtx>i|y Run. The fort ia anem'Innire of irreinilar, elli|>tical 
tha|io. ami contains an an« of about fifteen acre*. The walU are, at prevent 
twti fe4*t in height, ami have an arerage width of fifteen feet. Mr. Lew 14 


Muyn that thf* wall cxtondn over one uf the inoiinrlfi, which in three and oiM 
half fe«*t ill liei^ht, iiml juili^-n fn»ni thin cinMiuiHtum^ that the villa|{e wm 
built later than the iiiouml. .lud^cinf; fnMii Mr lit^wiH* dencription, we 
flhoulii Hay that it in the nuine kind r»f a furt uh thofe whirh we have dia- 
covered on the MiK^irtHippi River, nnd the I'lli^y wiu< Imilt l>y u branch of the 
Kanie trilie or rai*<*. Tlie rlli^v i^ t!ie onlv om* whirh hud lieen found in 
the liniitii ttfthe Mia»Hoiiri IUu<in. It in a rciiiarkubli' lintl on thiH account, aa 
the iliptance lK*tw«^'n the MiHNinri River nt thin |Miint,an<l the MiwHiwippi 
River, wliere theetti^y Mioiindi- \kvrv diHiN>vere<l. i^. lit li^ant, two liundred 
and N*venty niiKf*. Tin* ManilnnH iniLTuteil up the MiH^ouri River. Did 
the Mamlanf) build tbi?* rtli^y" 

Ai.TAii Mi>rM>>.~Tbi* iliftribiilinn «'f Altar MnuntU in an intere»<tinfc en- 
«|uiry. It ih )His!-iM«* that by fnliouiii^' nut tlii*- liiu* of study we may aMrer- 
tain Hi>nu'tbintr aUtut tbe nii^ralion-. The plait- Hbcn* tb«' Altar Mimndi* 
an* tli4* ludfi imiiicrniis.aiiil vdtfrc they an* rmiid in thr^riMti'^t p«*rfi*«*tinn, 
if! Hoiitbern nhii>. S«|uif'r anil havis bavf spuki'M nf many of tlii*!«i*: l*n)f. 
K. W. Putnam ba^ dihcnMTcd titb« r^. an«l ha\> that tbcrr v(a*> a prrat ;;ri»up 
of Altar MunnilManiiiiid ^»birb wa*" a \\:i\\ fif f-^tunt* fmir fi'vt bivrb. built Ik.^ 
biw tbc hurmundin^ Irvi-l nf (In* ticM. Tbt*si' ni«»nnd.*i cimtainiil fmm one 
to H>\fn altars fnrmcil nf i-lax.nii wbiib tlfn-f tirrr- bud Um-u madr. In 
tMn of till- lia.-iit** uf till* altar- m ibc mmMi'l- an iinmmM' miinbiT i>f orna- 
m<*nt?> an<l niii'- \\»'rv lii-ornxrii'ii «..(NNt |M>arU. many «-«ip(>«*r MrnamrntH, 
and littU- lijiin- "if tirr;t rntla 'I ln-i* li^;•l■t.- liad Ui*u tliroiiii into tbi* 
Utv. r\N'n-i\u ii-mnniii*-*- of iIm* •ii-i-jM--! itii]Mtrt !■• tin- jM-npIr bad «-vi- 
di*ntl> )>i>'ii prai til (•■!. a- -l.isll- willi b>'li"* •irilU>l in tb*-m. t" Irt ibfMiul 
out. \»» ri- .irr.iiu'id an'iiti-i !«•» wi^,.]^t.,i,- ;n,,J ||,,. w huN- Imiiixl -:L'itilii-antly. 
Altar M-'iind- ba\«- iii»ii!l\ l-ii-n 1 'M:.'! .i- f.ii i.i'rtli .l- l»f\ir'' Uikv. in 
I>aK>>t.i I lic^r, lfW«vcr. iiia\ U"i I'ti-n m««i 1 t'l-r tin- -anir piir|ii*i' *• 
tbii-f 111 ( 'bill . llii\ \\rn' iiii rr "ti.t!:!.! d m« -liiii - M it li a • i.ix b.!-^.!! at tbi* 
kmtti-lii II" |i 111 " ilf-i'li t lii-fti. 


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.V'l •■;-■. # Wi lia\» ■:.-. w r. i - . i -• r;-* :.' •l!.»*.i-.i. \\ .-. :,- i. ll^ri tbe •■• ! sr ;-!:•■* .ir. . \l •• . .i-::i«» I- .'I- r- -.!!.'•: rij in f'-rn* 

.» -• r: • ut iiTi- -Mrn ■.':t.ti-l ' ■. w -■■'• • r/ • :'..j- • M.» - . :. ; :*! ■•? r: !»:• . «a* 
t'i'iii i i.» .ir Mrt-.ti.!*. iiii'i!:,ir l:.;-i.. .n. '".■.• f.- \'. ^I.i-i.- n Tifto 
•tTpriil •■!!./;•— wiri- ■!!•• ■■\i-n •; !.i-* -■ifi.f.t f !i«-;»r 1' '■•*. Il.t-i* irowni'd 


thi* pummic of a long, narrow |»reri|iitauii rid^ which conntitaird the blufl 
line of thf* MtMiif«tp|«i rtvrr. Many of th<wr bluA arr in thui phafie: venr 
narnm- ri'ltrni, tht* lanien^t asU lieing |iaralU») with the rivrr; the eniU and 
mill** having apparently U*«*n worn, in grolngtc timcv, mi a« to U«ve them 
nearly i«>lateii ; a rriMiked lint» iif the hiutf ninning out to rooBed 
« ith t)i«**e r«N*ky riflgea. The nert^ent efligieff p|ioken of i*«iniititiite thefpiiM 
fif th«<»e Iimeiitoni* riiigcv; the head lieing plaretl on the summit of an iao* 
Utnl Ixitte iir iiiliinin of liuientone whirh abutUnl out. At thii* end of the 
«*ttlk'^ wu** u iiiniral inmind whirh fiirnie<l the head. Burial nioiiniU weiw 
a!»«i ftuttert'il alont; the whole Ungth of thin MT|>ent etlig>*. Tlie M*rond 
M-rftiit Uiran at aU^ut the <*«*iiter <if the ridge, the widest )iart, and extended 
in a t.i|MTink' line to the tit her or southern end of the ridge. Thin repre- 
M'tit«*<1 a ititlrn'ht kiml of a ^nake. The head wan the Urgent fiart of it, and 
«ji% MUMllfn nil thf way from the now to one-thinl the i-nttre length of the 
l»*iy Aft«'r that the IkxIv wan namiw. and mmewhat tortnoufl The flmt 
-iiAkf ^A* iDiire tike a garter i*nake, or liUu'k iinake— had the Mnie niie the 
uh'U* h'ligth. The heail of the large una ke wan near the tail of the fliim 
t^iMke. hut «i\erlnpiH*il it. They are both n*niarkat>le figuren. The writer 
ha" a1<mi diM**ivere«l many tortucmr flgiires rtvemtding nnakeii at the enda of 
tlie lihitf- in Adanip(\*nntv, Illin«>ifi. N*veral»uch have come under obwrra- 
t iKti during the la^t few weekn. Theee etttgien are not very dif*tinct,aii they 
art- iniit h water worn. They are generally found at the eml of a ridge; 
ih*' mlt^- iNinMituting the blutfline hen*, aoniewhat aa the linieetone ridgea 

• !fi ill Wit'O'inftin. The ridgee are not pieripitoun. hut are aoniewhat alimpt, 
U.i'tnd ;ilna>^ having a ta|N*ring |M>int, whirh iilo|kee gradually toward 
ih* lM»ttoiii laii'l. Th«*#4' end** are naturally tortuoui** an the gravel, of 
^Oi.ih thr hhitf" are oiiii|MtiNNl. annunie*! that i^hape in the proceM* of the 

• trairKiK**' •ltinn»; i;i>olivi*'al timei*. Thet^ tortuoua eniln of the liluffn re- 
•.••TiJ.;i« M*r{i«*iit-. Imt ill wmie itmm** they iM>eni to have lieen U4Mli(ied by 
ar*.;i:-*i.i! inrAii* ^«mi<* to make them reM-mhle tortiionn (ter|it*ntn. Inneveral 

• .iMi> the wntiT ha." difn'oven-^i a large, conical l4*oki»ut mound t*n the ver}* 

o'ltniiiit of the hhitf, hut mi plat*^*!! an to omntitute the head of the nnake. 

< Ml ••III* ri^U»e A fiiuke eltigy van found on the north end. with an outlook 

txuard th«* utirth At the M»uth eml there wan alfM> a ifinii^l mound with a 
! N ki'iit t<i<anrd thi* ponth. hut with no f tligy i»«'rxvptihle. In ani»ther cane 
ttii- -rrpfiit fthk'v Hith H li»okout mouml wan found at the mirth end ; and 
.i.'^iV thf tdtci- of the hliilT a fH*rief* of moundn whirh mnftitutiil a wall 
uith ahuinietit«> anil lnwer*. if thif> tenn cfiuhl Ite applieil t<» rude earth- 
u«>rk*. of thi*«e uf ^ha^ >|*eak later. The |»erullari y i»f thin «aII, with 
:*.'• uhiitiiH'iitf Hiid toHrm. i- that it tollown along the verv «-tlge of the tiluff, 
:inil that \\iv {■•iiifal nioundi* mhirh conntitute the protru^t^Tancfn in it wen* 
)''i4(-f*t Ai I \at-t«> the {MiiriN when* there in an a itrojirtitin in the hlulTf*. 



/»•!•.• > * -i*. A n^^mutfi. Kthnologir and ArfihA-^diigic, Mythfh»gy and 
iiilkiin*. liruphh Sv«ti*m« an^l Lit«*ratun*. Linguintic. Kv I»anii*l (t. 
ftr^iii.i). A. M . M P. rhiladilphia: Porter <fc (oaten lh*nt. 

Ti-i- ?»r'.. ..I :hi- IxMik in {K'^-uhar. In the iir»t place the term "Amerif'an- 
>*. ' :- ini- w).i> h ^A" U»rr<»«t-<1 from the French, and implienthat American 
aft h.t .'..^'v ha*- a«!*umeil the |KHiition of a ncieiuc among all the other eth* 
i.i< &« - ii- ;.<••«. In the necnnd plare, the tem '»nay'* ia u^e<l in the tenae 


of an cmleavor or an attempt, ami implies that many of tlip theories ad- 
▼ancc<l are tentative. Thin icivet* a clue to the whole volume. There are in 
it many theories which are ti^ntative.and they are theoriei* concernio(( pre- 
hiiitoric America. The theoriej" are ai* foUowt*: Kirnl, the theory of an 
auto(*honoui* orii;in of the Amerii*an ra(H*t«. Thid thtviry in Mup|»orte<l by 
varioiM ar^nimentx, derive^l fmni traditinn, iiuintimrnt**, imtnstriefl. lan- 
guaKe<** phyHii^al iKHMiIiiiriep.^etilft^fii'ui <luta,diM*ovi*ri«-*4. The author maken 
tolerably clear, hut after all thc*t^c if afl much to Ite naiil uiwin the other i*ii]e, 
ami wt* are n>nfiilent that if Dr. Hrinton had (Nmlinueii to hold to the 
opinion which he formerly a>lv(K*atc«l that he wouM find a** many cvidemw 
of an extralimital character uh he d<H*H now of the ant<M*hthoiioiiH. 

Another theory Ih that <if {taUtdithic man. Dr. Itrinton ijuotcT* a di.^cov- 
ery by Mr l*re«*on, and Miy»» thi'm* diHcoveri»i« ^Tirry the nift* <if ilu* ap|»ear- 
amv of man in the Delaware vallcv Uick to u ilate \^liich i"* iHM*iti\t*lv over 
a hundn**! thou-ami vear* a>ro. The evidence iiiav Im* •■uti-f.u'torv U* Dr. 
Urinttm. hut it certainly wouM not U* to u?>; we ?-hoii!ii lo4»k for more Ufti- 
monv than ha« ihu** far lN*en furni-hed. .\ni>tlier tln-^'rv i« that the T«»l- 
t«c« were a fahiilour* iH^ple. This* i- men*ly a llie«»ry. The Toliec»« ha\e 
lontc fi;jtin»«l in hi-tory ; they wi-re I he inhahitantn of Tulan. There were 
three trilH*» whi» coven-«l Mexico with rivili/uition. ^»hich ;^m > r.nder the 
name of Toltec, ju^t iv» there h:i\i- been later thn*e triU'p which uni\e th«* 
name of A/ttN- to later civiiiAition. We think it i^ uiif<irtitn;tte that the 
naUH* f*honId N* thrown out for the -^akr i>f a m«Te the«iry. Ati<>th«T tfi.tA- 
live i*f«-av i-* that uimhi the .Sicred S\niU»l in .\ineriiM. The •fi'?-*'. "hi* 
finaf*tik:i. the Ta f-ymlH)!. and the tri*<kale« are f<<tind in .\tneiii-a. a** in jill 
|kartM of .\"*ia They pIihw contact -Ailh .\»<:attc eiiuntrie». and if f<il!«iwi'«! 
up nii^ht furnish a rlne to ttie ori;;in *»( the AiiiiTieHii rai-e<«. Tie iiii*fi*rl- 
une alNiiit tin- Autixhthonoii** ihii>r\ i- that it tii!- i tl' d*diateui,il )iin<l**r« 
one fmni fullMWin^ up rrrtairi Iiri«*« whicii inpjht :«m<1 to 1 lie trntli. Wi> 
deprecati* an> ^ueh result. 

Th»T«' an* iitluT the<»rie- in ih«' h'xik w hit h art* ^niiilar t*- ilii-i* \V«- tuki* 
the lilMTty to iinr-tioti liie thenrie-: iMcail-i*. it j- urai;ti->l t«i tl- I y ti.f ri-ry 
t\v*\ wiird in the iMHik. Dr. lirMit«>Ti ••eiiini to i'\pi<t that hi*> |m»iiii>ii 

would In* t-ritit'i/iil. We take it the fea'lt r w!:ii .'m- tl:r« i:jh W'.th tl.i- 

wrii'- i'f •— .ly", many nf whiih ari* -u^j«-li\i* and :i.I» Ti'-tinir. wil! huM 

hint-i'if h.n'k friiMi any ti\i-l i ••in Iii-i<>n in rcf* n n< t '.«• the tMpti> hr- iikrht 

out. I-.r t!ify ari- n<it e>tahli<ih«'d at pr«»iiit. Th»"> in ^t.Il o|.rn •i'ie»'ti"Ti- ai.l 

mn-t U- •|idiat«-d hrt'»rf liiial Ci>ii«-!M»i<>ti« ari* ri.i»hi-.l It w lil U« i; ■*.• • I 

that the h"»k i- ma-le up nf arluli-* whiil. \..i\r .ip|t .irrd in \.irii'U- ^..c.r- 

naU, •■•iMi- I'f t!j»m :n I'm; Amm.Jiw Xn::/ \ii\^. •■•lue tf thin, ii the 

priMtM-dinj^ fit t!jf Nnnji-fnatji- *•«■* •.! tv. i.f Pli:!.iih 'ph..!. ar.d thr An.«i.<.in 

PhiliMitphi. .u >-Niity. aiiii tin- .\rn»Titi*n V — H\a*j-n f'»r lh»' Ad>;ir^« t; •i.i 

4if S4-i»'ni*i*. Tfi«-v art' •••*a\'« whit h art- )ta-*-d un-n ■•tijd.*-.— di-i • iiiii-« »• d 

frairnientary -I'l !;i-. Tlie -i--. i.i! \.i*.'i«' "f •,h»-f ;•» that tljcy r»jiri-« i.! tl e 

current hn*"* tif •*! .'ijht. an I ••Tn*»^«!y l.i!»'-t kii iwm fa.t- .ml .ii-.ii\«r •- 
pMine^ ••! w!»;'-'i. i"jH' i.iil\ thf di«i'"'.»*r.«--. h.i>»' n>»! 'H'i'ii lli'»r«»ii^'h!y t»— 'td 
*> a* to j»r'f\»' tliat tti^v .ir-» j«*n'iin»* Wt* nr*' ijlad t » hA\e thi- «•! I th<-"r;''» 
te^t••*^ t»v n«'W «— av* . l-ii wi« a-k thi* •>u<*«Miin. « Li th« r Mn- i«« w ii.u\ Mt 
Ik' t«*^te I a!- ». Di*<'ov«-r.<-- art* ^^ 'in,; "n :i\\ thi- tine*, •••iik* '*t th«-ni ari- 
Kvnuin*', an I •••ne* n«»t •"• j:* i\ iiu*- fh** -l;-' »\t ri«'» are t" N- ti'-tt'd Iwfi'ff 
anv ih"- trv ^i*t«l«ipiM th«*Tn>-in ^h* .■•!.%'»'. -lie i. Wt' t»--i !};•• l.«»i-*«VfrM** 
and then a.'i-fpt t!ic tht*<ine«, until i*:ht r di-ix*v« rii •> ^hall o\f rthr«<w ;hf iti 


up on a terrace on the west side and above the trees, so that we 
obtained a clear view of the opposite walls and steep slopes. 
Suddenly we saw a drove of horses upon the hillside, and follow* 
ing them rode an Indian with a little Ute sitting behind him 
astride the steed. The red-man caught sight of our " outfit," 
and for a long time regarded us with a stem curiosity. He 
evidently considered us as intruders in his domain. He was a 
picturesque sight; without covering for his head, his black hair 
flowing down his neck, and with a blanket over his shoulders. 
He did not take his eyes from us till we had passed down into 
the brush in the river-bottom. 

While we were under the sheltering cliffs which protected the 
ruins, a heavy shower passed over. We thought that we had 
escaped a wetting, but the bushes and trees were so damp that 
we got pretty well soaked, and before reaching •ur proposed 
camping-place we were treated to a deluge from the skies. We 
pitched camp at quarter of seven in a clump of box-elders, at a 
point a little above the entrance to Cliff Canon, a tributary of 
the Mancos from the west. The branches were so wet from a 
passing shower that we could not cut any boughs for a bed; so 
stretching a wagon canvass (which had covered one of the packs) 
bctviein two trees to keep off the rain, wc spread blankets on the 
ground and then dried ourselves off by the camp fire. The river 
ran very near our camp. The liquid was disagreeable to the 
taste and very muikly. John hailed some from a pool that con- 
tained water that had overflowed from the stream, and thus had 
had time to settle. The disa^'reeablc flavor is not noticeable in 
coffee, but Ijoiling the water alone dt>cs not seem to improve it. 
The ni^ht was pitch dark, and we could .see nothing when far 
from the fire. Rain cnntinued throu^li the early part of the 

We Wire up at half-past six; (liNp.itihcii breakfast of bacon 
and coffee in short notice; and le.i\ iri;.^ John to arrange camp and 
>a(liil(' our h(M^t<^. Mr. Howard. Richard, and mvself scrambled 
up the tastirn ^i<^e ol tlu- canon to .i height of about two hun- 
drrd f< oht.iin .1 ghmpsc i»J .1 clift-lu'use iKTched high up on 
till- wcsti-rn N.d«*. rill'' littir run i^ diflicult of dctectii»n with- 
oi.i .1 ^il.i^**. hut when once s« «:i i^ in^lanlly recognized. It 
setniN tjuitc inatccsMble. hut i'* rcithrd with«»ut much difficulty. 
The c.ini»n wa'.U are verv bf»I(! and -^trikm^ A ^rand tower 
stan<lN .It the entrance t«» H* x i atuMi.* in which there are a num- 
ber <»f small htKi^es whu h iiave n(\er l»i i-n entered or explored 
in any a.iv Our camp, in tlj*- tr»t s hclow. w:th tlie ascending 
smoke, very picturi -que. {'\u*n tim • pposite cliff COal 
sh'-Ae*! in scaius 


Ir-iii l-hoMctai'li. l.^ KiTilrrl'-k II. Ch*|>iii., 


Returning; fo our temporar>' home, we all started at nine 
o'clock with three horses and the mule, to ascend to the top of 
the steep mesa on the east, journeying by a rough Indian trail. 
We were bound for some ruins in Acowitz Canon.* Near the 
trail a sharp ridge or dyke of igneous rock has been thrust up 
through the sandstone. In twenty minutes we were forced to 
dismount and lead our horses the rest of the way; and as much 
more time spent in hard walking brought us to the plateau, per- 
haps eighteen hundred feet above the river. From this point is 
obtained a good view of houses in Cliff and Mancos Canons, also 
an outlook toward the western mountains, the Sierra HI I^te. 
An hour's ride across country, over a comparatively level tract, 
through pinon*pme and junipers, brought us to a fork of Aco* 
wit/. Canon, in which are antiquities well worth investigation by 
the arch.rologist. We tied our horses to trees at some distance 
from the great ravine. Here, as on the edges of many of the 
other chasms, there is no soil, grass, or trees within several hun- 
dred feet of the brink. The surface is smooth sandstone, with 
here and there great hollows filled with rain-water. These places 
arc called "tanks'* by the ranchmen, and are the only water-sup- 
ply for deer or cattle on the mesa. 

The group of ruins which we proposed to photograph, to be 
exact. IS situated on the western cliff of the third left-hand fork 
of .\ CO wit/. C.inon. The structures are invisible from above on 
the same side, neither is there any way of descending to them; 
so we worked our way around to the eastern side, and there 
found a wall which must have been used as a fortification. Or* 
iginally the breastwork was built with great care, for the stones 
are regular in shape and have been cut and faced. But few of 
them remain as placed by the builders; yet this little ram|)art 
l^ivci a clew to the explorer who is hunting for a way down into 
the canr>n. Stepping over the tumbleddown walls and looking 
d«iwn the precipice, wc found hewn steps on the face of the cliff, 
an<l descending by them, as membiTs of the tribes must have 
done, — as perhaps their ferocious adversaries may have done,— 
wc s*>on reached the bottom of the gorge, and hurriedly scram- 
bled up to the interesting ruins. 

.\ strange, wild, lonely canon! No sounds were heard to dis- 
tuil) the scene but tile croaking of ravens as they flew over our 
heads. The great arched cliff hangs high above the ruins, but 
a little way from it the canon ends in solid sheer walls, which 
sweep aroun<i in a curve. Looking all about we see but one 
exit above, and that by the steps which we had descended. 
Perched m a little cleft over our heads was a second group of 
ma-^i •nry, apparently inaccessible and in good repair. I suggested 

"lli.« naA fornirrljr i'«llrd Johnsiin • ('Anun, for ihr simple r^AMiti thai a mao bf 
lh»t narur oni-r wliitiTrd Hini<* I'aillr dtiwn In the tH>tli»fn of thr (itncf*. .\i •nme of 
lilt fiiit^r (-atiiin* ha%«* liidUii naiiir«, tt wniild m^'Iii t|(iiir a|>|ini|if latr ti> (tKe thit 

• 'Ur A ■imtlnr ili-tliCtMUiilt. 


that we try to scale the cliff. Richard thought it impossible, 
and pointed to the trunk of a tree that leaned against the ledge, 
which he had placed there, and which failed by some six leet of 
reaching the rounding sandstone terrace above. While our com- 
panions were rummaging around the lower rooms, John and I 
tried our luck in squirming up the tree. It was of no use: we 
could not reach far enough, and there was not the slightest hold 
or crevice for the fingers. We got an old beam from the ruined 
floors, which was a triflc'longer than the tree, and fastening a to\>c 
to one end, placed the timber up against the clifl*by the side of the 
other stick. With the aid of the ro[K we could gain the top of 
the timber with less expenditure of force. Wc made several 
attempl.N in vain to gain the ledge, each time being obliged to 
come down to rest; but at last my companion, whose arms and 
legs were of long reach, after removing much tlust and debris, 
was able to get a hand-hold, and clambered up. 1 followed 
him; ;md. calling to our friends, they sent up the spade and 
camera, then mounted afler us, and we entered the mysterious 

Mow long since human for>t had trodden this sandstone floor? 
Surely iwt since the forgotten prehistoric race had deserted the 
caves. Certainly no white man had ever entered these walls be- 
fore, an 1 th" siii>:.»rstitious lJ:e would not dire to venture under 
the shadow of the clitT After (»ur diflfLTult tussle in scaling the 
w.ill, wc thought we might bj rewarded by finding some rare 
specimen of the skill m ceramic art known t<i the dwellers 
aniiing the eaves. — perhaps a graceful pitcher, or a water jar. 
standing on a shelf w.iiting to be calle<i fur . but on the ci^ntrary 
there an air of desolation arotmd the vacateii ipiarters. It 
was (.leaner th.m the ruin below, and slioweil no Mgns (»t being 
a burial-place, or ground m whu h it would be profitable to dig. 
l.'ndoubledly the best places for sulIi examination are in the 
lower rums. 

hut we tound the little alH):ie of .i bygone people* unie|Ue and 
iniere-.tin;.; Wc n«»w made sonn photo'^raph^ n\ the -strange 
.stru. tires TIsf outer walls iiren Imil: upon tli*- c«lge tff the 
leiige, and t" iiive-ti;^.ite \\\r lisftiT'-nt rooms wc- were i»bliged to 
bend or • raw! b.i^ k <>( them. !v>r tiw cl.lT was very low in the 
rear In one 'if the io. ims we du^ a little, but found nothinLj 
rile dour to tins ri*iim is ot prculiir sh.Lpe. bein^ widei at the 
bott«>m than nt the top. we C'uld -• i- iu> reasi.n tor it The 
rti>or o! till" led^'- wa-* eovemi uiili ui\r du^t. when disturbed 
bv th<- sM.nle :t i.used .i chokm/ • i-'-.j-l, that fo;ct<i the wou!d-bc 
fxcavat«)r ii. \y-.i\ a retreat. ' *;i the south Li>rn«r i- a verv funnv 
littli- buildm.;. t" w:i:i h thert- is i-ne entrance Sec Plate III. 
This .l;.^lln. one wo'.:!«! lal-.e for a wii:(:i-w, but that when the 
wholf \*all ua** *-t.indir:«^. n«» lu'ht could |Uss through it The 
rait of ( I:fi-d\\i licrs were n t liberal "t s|>ace when they built 


their doors, for wc did not find one high enough to pass through 
without bending. 

It was a fascinatingly queer place; but we must away, for 
time-consuming caution must be used in the retreat from our 
citadel. The rope made our dcficent comparatively easy. My 
friend and Richard went down first; then we lowered the plates 
and camera, threw the s|>;ide after them, and I followed. John, 
as the last man, looped the rope around a pile of masonry* and 
let himself down. He reached out and got hold of the tree in 
safety ; but by a little sliding of the cord a big rock was dis- 
lodged, which in falling crashed upon the package of dr\' plates, 
and I have two less pictures to show than would otherwise have 
been the case. 

We now set to work to explore and photograph the lower 
structure. Many i>arts were in a good state of prescr\ation ; 
sticks and supports were still intact. Floors were made with sills 
of cedar; willow slicks were then laid over, and the whole was 
covereii with p)a.ster. In most cxses the floors have fallen in. 
We noticed st»me |>eculiar arrangements: one such uxs a sort of 
low cubby-hole, outside of the main structure, which was eight 
feet front and five feet deep, with two little doors. This may 
have been used as a store-room. We found much broken pot- 
tery; among the rest fragments of large bowls, which it would 
be |K>ssible to partially restore. One very remarkable thing, 
which showed the eccentricity of the builders, was a room that 
ap|K*ared to have no entrance. In fact I walked around it once 
without iiiscovering that I had passed a room. A little investi- 
gation revealed an entrance from the top. The enclosure was 
ei^ht feet S(|uare; the entrance a hole with an a{>erture of seven- 
teen and a half inches. The ceiling of wood was plastered over, 
and was very firm. Any photographers who may be looking for 
a dark room in which to change plates at mid-day when in this 
locality will find this room as good a place as could be desired. 
From its top I took a photograph of one end of the edifice, as it 
was a good view-point. Mr. Howard took advantage of this 
l>osition to photograph some interesting grooves on a ledge of 
smooth sandstone, which is at the l)ase of the walls. This he 
acc(»mplishcd by placing the camera flat on the roof of the en- 
closed room, and letting the lens hang over. These holes in the 
rock were made by the natives in sharfiening their toi>N; they 
were large and probably used for grinding a.xe-edges. On an- 
other ledge we observed smaller grooves, where au Is, knives and 
needles were whetted. One of the central rooms is well plas- 
tered, smooth as a modern wall. A round room had piers l>cl(»w 
the i; round floor. These piers are plastered also. In the sides uf 
the walls were little recesses which may have been used as shelves. 
There is a door similar to the one that we saw and photographed 
in Mancos Canon. Above this door the walls are hollow. 


\Vc had not the time at our disposal to excavate among the 
rubbish, but \vc poked around enough to show that it would be 
easy work to unearth many relics. A little scraping away of 
the debris revealed human bones, cloths, matting, etc. In 
walking among these ruins, one passes over tumbIed*down walls, 
and crosses remnants of shaky floors of charred cedar. My 
companion noticed fossil shell impressions on a stone which had 
been used in the building.* 

We left this interesting spot at 2:15 P. M., Mr. Floward and 
John returning to camp, while Richard and I started off* on 
a tour of investigation. \Vc discovered some houses in the 
fourth left-hand fork of Acowit/ Canon, a place that has never 
been visited before. Here stands a good circular room, with 
two windows. On the sandstone plateau, near the brink of the 
gorge, is the most remarkable crack that I ever saw. I called 
Richard's attention to it, and I hope he will show it to people 
who may travel with him in the future. In a land where erosion 
has played such a part in modelling the face of the country, a 
crack is phenomenal. Unfortunately. I made no measurements 
and can not give a reliable description ; but it was more than a 
hundred feet long and about a foot in width. It was inclined at 
a considerable angle, and the bottom could not be seen. 

From tliis fork wc went far up on the main Acowitz Canon, 
leaving our horses belli nd. I'Vom one of its pockets we had re- 
markable views down its whnlc length to the Mancos, and then 
through that depression to the ri.i'^nificent mesa which stands 
above the river's place of exit. It was truly a sublime sight. 
The nearer scene is .i wild one, ({uaking aspens ^row in the up- 
jier p.irt of the gor^'e. and in the bottom are tall, stately pines, 
whic!i chtnl) in *\u: height of the top walU, antl were even with 
our eyes .is we locked acn»NN the canon. 

I Id it. from .1 stiipicl d iul>Ie-cx;) »siire. sc'veral very interesting 
nt /..itives lit' a weiril ruin, almost inaccesMble. which occupies a 
set ImiIciI cavi tm m tin-* cmoii. < >mc single picture, however. 
IS !e!t to in-, which show-, tiie p tnarkahlo structure of the cliffs. 
.iiii! the Irautiful i ui\e which tlii-y makf as they sweep around 
t«» tile east Wliat a dirk anil ■;l->»my plai e. t^u, did these 
penp!'; sflcLt f«»r th« ir hi»nie i-r NutreijN, wlui l)rver name we may 
g:V' t<»;t' .\ str.M^li .1 I swreiy it was. im;»re;.;naMe to a foe 
arriiel iiily w:tli arr<»ws and»^. I'hi- ^;reat cliff" s|)anning 
ov r il >\\\i-\tUi\ the :nh.t!;itaMts Umu all .ittai k from the table- 
land I'V r tlv !ii. autl the vrtical chfTs 1k1>'a could n^it be scaled 
wh< n ro- k>« w'-f: hr in.; !n:r!*il Ir-iiii h.ittleinent and tower above. 
A- the ^un wis iinkin^j :ti the wc-l we c««uld not examine closer 

*)l.*\ !fi. ■ »:.j..". :-7i». W 11 H- :fji.- Kii:fi« «• \ru- •'pr'.iiiC*." "The sUtO* 
ij«- 1 ^ ' ! i> r* V ■ -r 11,1 f..*. . f. r>' ■• Mii«-«!--st ', riif ...ii. ri>('« M.'iiii; '.(i** iHt»r iif ilie Mima 

^•*:>.:iiii •■ 'ir iiait> . •!• 1 <■'« 'r.t!i«i»ir* :>>'i ' • *.!.> )i..»i> li.m Uiubllr%a tMvrn 

• ^.'•-n; w ^r^ ? 't a ,•-••! !i «•'■>'..•:'> vi \'ti>> .! f«- !: '..v^. 


this remote structure, but hurried back to our steeds, and 
reached our quarters long after dark. 

The next morning we broke camp at nine o'clock and were 
en route for the mesa between CliflT and Navajo Canons, to ex- 
plore this time a western tributar>' of the Mancos. We were 
minus the services of a valuable animal. The mule, though hob- 
bled, had managed to escape, and was probably gathered into 
the Indians' drove. ** Kaiser'* must pack a double burden. After 
an hour's riding to the .south, we came U|)on old Indian wicky- 
ups; in a few minutes more, we rode by some which were com- 
paratively new ; and at eleven o'clock the yelping of many curs 
announced our arrival at an encampment, — the temporary home 
of Tabayo, the Ute we had seen tending his horses the day 
before. After some vain negotiations for the privilege of photo- 
graphing the family of this surly child of the wildnerness, we 
rode on down the valley, and soon came to more mound ruins. 
Within a short distance of each other, two towers are standing, 
possibly the watch-towers of the early explorers. What remains 
of the higher one is twelve feet in diameter. There are ruins 
near the latter, which are thirty-six feet in diameter; the build* 
ing does not show great skill, as the stones of the walls do not 
break joints. 

After photographing the towers, we turned up a rocky path 
to climb the mesa. Far down the canon — which here was of 
wide expanse, and ver>' level — we spied the smoke of a larger 
Indian encampmeut. Suddenly a mounted red-skin emerged 
from the group of wickyups, and galloped wildly over the plain. 
As we mounted higher he put spurs to his horse and soon over- 
took us. With only a glance at those of us who were behind 
he rode up to Richard and took his proffered hand ; yet there 
wa> mischief in his look as he demanded our intentions. Our 
guide pointed out the direction of our journey over the mesa and 
home by a westward route, and added to his sign language the 
words "one sleep." The Ute observed our spade; beseemed 
dissatisfied. Then he expostulated in Ute, Spanish, and En- 
glish, so mixed up in vocabularly that it was difficult to com- 
prehend; but out of the jargon I caught the following ideas: 
"White man rich; Indian poor. White man dig up Moquis, 
make Ute sick. Little Ute, big Ute, all heap sick.* lie made 
a motion indicative of the process of excavation, and with a 
threatening, superstitious look seemed bound to prevent any 
such sacrilege of the graves of the departed tribes. Richard in- 
sisted that we did not intend to disturb the bones of the Moquis, 
but were to photograph them. This latter operation he explained 
by pointing to our apparatus, and going through the motions 
of looking through glass. Wap (for such was his name) now 

•This rrfrrracp of Wap to the Mmiaoli «how« that the I'tM hAve a trAdltloo tli«t 
f he Mof|ul« Ai • th« dMcradaaU of tiM CIllMwellera. 


made a demand for toll, for the privilcp^e of going over the mesa: 
but Richard. pointing to the high-climbing sun, answered, "Ken 

tQuicn] sabe." As wc turned away. Wap exclaimed, "no money, 
Richard no come back in Canon." The Ute stood motionless, 
regarding us till wc were high among the upper clifls of canon, 
when he turned wrathfully away and gallo|x:d to the north to- 
ward Tabayo's wickyups. I must confess that I watched these 
tents till they were well out of sight, for I feared to see Wap and 
Tabayo mount their ponies and gallop down toward the lower 
encampment, where generally a dozen or more braves are to be 
found. Such a force, if gathered, could have compelled us to 
return to Mancos. thus frustrating the im|)ortant plan of our ex- 
pedition. We were not even armed to show bluster if threatened, 
a rickety revolver in Richard's belt being the only weapon in 
the outfit. 

After a lone ride we reached a camping-ground at the head 
of a branch of the left-hand fork of Cliff Canon. Hurriedlv un- 
packing, we hobbled the horses that were most likely to 
stray far, and taking along our photographic kit, wended our 
way on foot toward that remarkable froup of ruins of which I 
have already sfM>ken, and which Riihard has called "the Cliff- 
Palace.*'* At ab*)ut three o'clnck we reachc<l the brink of the 
canon opposite thr wonderful structure. Surely iti discoverer 
had not overstated the beauty and inat^nitude of this strange ruin 
There it was. occupying a ^reat oval space under a grand cliff 
wonderful to t>eliold, appearing like an immense rumed cattle 
with diNni.irUled towers. The stone> m front were broken away, 
but behind them r«»sc the walls of a second story: and in the 
rear t»f ihesi-. m under the dark cavern, stood the- third tier of 
inasonrv Still farther b.ick in the -'lotimv recess little houses 
rested on upper ledges A short distance d«»wn the canon are 
co'-y buildings perched in utterly inaccessible nitoks. The 
nei/hhorin'' sccnerv is marvellous, the v!cw down the canon ti> 
the Mariios is .ilone worth the journey to m-c. Sei* frontispiece. 
We stopped to take .i tew views, and then t ommenced the 
descent into tin- gulf below. What wmild nthrrwisc have been 
a ha/ard«ms pri-cmling. was renilered e.i^x by using the steps 
whuh h.iil been * ut in the w.ili by the buil'icrs **( the fortress. 
There .ire fitti en ol llieso sct)iij>etI-out iinllows .n the rock.uhich 
covered peih.ip^ half of the distant* d-wn the precipice. At 
that p«iint the ci:ff probably fallen .iw.iy. but luckily for our 
puriHisf.. a tree leaned .igainst llic wall, and descending 
into it^ lir.iiKli**^ we rea*. he<l thr* lia^e ••? the para|K*l In thel>ed 
of the canon i- .i secondary gulih. which rcijuired care in de- 
scen«img. We hun^; a ro\ic or laNNH over si-inc '^teep. smooth 
ledges, and let ourselves liown by it We left it hanging there 
and '/scd It to ascend bv on "ur return 

*luv> «t ^'A'^iit «!.••«» tii4l i; ««• A >«iinfiiinl«Mi ilwi .! II.-. 

ci.iFF-r)WKUJX<;s of tiik mantos canons. 207 

Nearer approach increased our interest in the marvel. From 
the south end of the ruin, which we first attamed, trees hide the 
northern walls, yet the view is beautiful. Wc remained long, 
and ransacked the structure from one end to the other. Accord- 
mg to Richard's measurements, the space covered by the building 
IS 42; feet long. So feet high in front, and 80 feet deep in the 
centre. One hundred and twentv-four rooms have been traced 
on the ground floor, and a thousand people may have lived 
within its confines .Se IMate IV. 

.So many walls have fallen that it is difficult to rec«)nstruct the 
building in miagmatton ; but the photographs show that there 
must have t>een many stories. There are towers and circular 
rooms, square and rectangular enclosures; yet all with a seeming 
symmetry, though in some places the walls look as if they were 
put up as additions in later |K-riods. One of the towers is bar- 
rtl-sha|>ed; other circles arc true. The diameter of one circular 
ri»om, or est u fa. is sixteen feet and six inches. There are six 
piers, which .ire well plastered. There are five recess -holes, 
which ap{K*ar as if constructed for shelves. In several rooms we 
oh<ierved gooil fireplaces.* In another room, where the outer 
walls have fallen away, we found that an attempt had been made 
at ornamentation ; a brOiid band had been {tinted across the 
wall, and abo\e it is a peculiar decoration which shows in one of 
our photographs. The lines were similar to embellishment on 
pottery which we found.* We <»bserved in one place corn-cobs 
imbediied in tlie plaster in the walls, showing that the cob is as 
old as that portion of the dwelling. The cobs, as well as kernels 
oi'cornt which we found, are of small size, similar to what the 
Tte Si)uaws r.itse now without irrigation. We found a large 
stone mortar, which may have been used to grind the corn. 
Broken j>ottery was everywhere; like specimens in the other 
cliff- houses, it was similar in design to that which we picked up 
in the valley ruins near WetherilTs ranch, convincing us of the 
identity of the builders of the two classes of ruins. We also 
foun ! parts of skulls and bones, fragments of weapons, and 
pieces of cloth One nearly complete skeleton lies on a wall 
waiting for some future antiquarian. The burial-place of the 
clan was down under the rear of the cave. 

While ami»ng these ruins one is led to speculate upon their 
age. It IS a (Question liifficult to decide, or to give an opinion 
upon Located in a dry climate, protected from all aerial forces, 
there is no reason why. if unmolested, the walls should not stand 

*K!r«*plar«-* li«\r »»ern rmrrlj tibarnred amoiur Ib^ rlll1-dwrMlnK«. Mr. Holme* 
«rttt-«'i|i>nf in Mauc^w CteDoii; Id "llaydrn'a Rrprirl," inn. Hrr lUuBlrnllon. pi. 
Iltill. flctt. 

vTlir |Httl«>r}- !• eiiiifr IndriitrU «>r <irn«mrnl«*d villi IIdm «»r acrulK Flfurtis (if 
ftuitii»l9(ir ti»«n tm\r urwr b#«D fmind. 

:H«-«i«tfl>« nirn It u known tliAl thv fmr« of 4'llff'dwpllri* imlaMl br*iM and AiiusAh : 
w» (t*«|tirnil> pit*li«l up •trm« of I he Utter. For doniesti* anlniAla thejr ovnrd 


a thousand years essentially as we now see them ; and there is no 
reason to doubt that they may have stood a thousand years in 
the past. The valley ruins have gone a long way farther toward 
complete destruction than the cliflT-dwellings. This has led one 
authority to suggest that the cliflT-houscs "owe their construction 
to events that immediately preceded the expulsion of the pueblo 
tribes from this district." The same authority also states that 
"the final abandonment of the cliflTand cave dwellings has oc- 
curred at a comparatively recent date, certainly subsequent to 
the Spanish conquest."* But allowing that the cliflf-houses were 
deserted only three hundred years ago, this would not help us 
to assign a date for the building of some of the larger structures, 
which, from what we know of the tools employed, must have 
teen the work of time. Not a scrap of metal has been found in 
me debris which rest upon and among the tumbled-down walls. 
Most of the stones that were employed in the rearing of the 
ff|eat edifice must have been laboriously shaped by an almost 
mapeless stone axe. Such work, carried on under so great 
difficulties, did not allow of villages being constructed in a day. 

One fact which has been investigated by that eminent arch- 
arologist, Mr. A. F. Bandclicr, would seem to throw some li^ht 
upon the subject. According to this authority, **it does not ap- 
pear that the sedentary Indians of New Mexico ever made, 
within traditional and documentary times, any other than the 
painted |K>ltcr>' in greater or less degree ot perfection "t Thi* 
would prove that the specimens of indented ware which we have 
found cannot be less than four hundred years old; how old the 
painted pottery is, we know not. 

The builders — who were they, and 'where did they come from ? 
Surely I would not venture to theorize from the small collection 
of facts which we have obtained, but I will state a few probable 
facts of histor>*. From the seventh to the twelfth centur)* the 
Toltecs invaded Mexico from the north ; following them, came 
the Aztees. It is ]H)ssible that C'olorado and New Mexico may 
have bet-n the former dwelling-place of these migratory nations : 
or if they came from the northwest, strag^lini; bands may have 
strolled into the lands we are describing. Vet all connection 
between the people of the north and those of Mexico had prob- 
ably been lost long before the year 1 530 It is not even probable 
that either knew of the existence of the other, though a belief 
has been current that those people wor»hip{>ed Montezuma! 
As for the state of the civilization of the ancient people, it could 
not have been ver>' advanced. A community who could huddle 
together in such small, close, unventilated quarters, who buried 

•IUydet>*a fUuort, W. II. llolniM, r. KH 

r'lUpoffton th«lluln«or tb*" Purbln of |Vci«, ' |>ubtUlM<S Id tbc -'l^afM^r* o( th« 
Arrbwoliigrlcml lontltutc of AnM^n<m," D. ICft. 
:A brllefttiAl bft* bMD #iplud«d by Mr. BMid«ll«r. 


their dead under their floors and under the rear of cliffs back of 
their mightiest houses, could not have reached a ver>' hi(;h ideal 
of refinement. Yet, perhaps, we arc too hasty. Perchance these 
remote fortresses were subjected to a long state of sie(;e by 
crafty Ute or fiery Apache, wherein the heroic defenders stood 
out to the last ; and as man after man fell at his post, his body 
was hastily imbedded in debris at the rear. 

Naturally this hu^e ruin interested us more than anything 
else that we met with in our trip. It deser\xs study by compe- 
tent arch«eolot;ists. Thorough and careful excavation would 
perhaps reveal relics which would throw light on the early his- 
tory of the primitive inhabitants. It is to be hoped, however, 
that any work which may Ik* done here in the future will be 
carried on under competent supervision, and that the walls will 
not be damaged in any way. With a suitable appropriation, 
this Ntructure could be converted into a museum* and filled with 
relics of the lost |>eoplc, and become one of the attractions of 
southern Colorado. 

We returned to camp at dark, and after the usual hard riding 
after horses, ^ot everything to rights and whiled away the even- 
iiTg hours by a huge hre. Such a blaze as the juni|)erand pinions 
maki* — a fire easy to build, and of lasting brilliancy ! 

The ne.Nt ni«^rning dawned warm and bright, with a pleasant 
light bree/e. We were up at sunrise, and off" at eight o'clock. 
Wc hatl intemled going to some clifl'-houses in Navajo Canon.t 
but our time woulii not allow it. Our route lay to the 
north, alon^ the mesa and between Cliff and Navajo Canons, 
which here run nearly (Kirallel with the main one. We passed 
near tin- ends of many tributaries of these gorges, which showed 
that while it a comj>aratively matter to get out of this 
country to the north, to come to any given point from that direc- 
tion woulii be im{x>ssible to any one not familiar with all the 
arms of the ditTerent canons. 

Wc observed no traces of ancient roads on the mesa, nor of 
irrigating liitches; but at half-past nine we passed the ruins of 
wliat apprars to have lK*en a great reser\'oir. At about ten 
o'clock we were at the heads of Navajo and Cliff Canons, and 
koon we were so near the west end of the mesa that we caught a 
glimpse- of the broad Montezuma valley. All the morning we 
r>!!owcii trails leading through extensive forests of juniper and 
pinion trres. but composed of treesi of small size. The pinons 
were lo.uicd with nuts, which are good eating. The Indians 
in.ik<- tli»ur from them, on which they subsist during certain 
^-f.isons. Flying about were many pinion birds. The trails 

« . — - ■ 

•r>i4t«iMy tTmn*Ur •triirturr« may th h^ dlanorvrrd: Pnr Ihr IimIImi* t*Uof lari* 
4 ::(T ii«iuM<v in » «-iUii III will tu of Navi^ui'tenon, uo tb* woftt BlctooC \h* Hmncum Rlv«r« 
li.i* tf'iriEi' lia* nrvrr iM^n explored. 

•\VrTi.*-rill ■tatct Uiat \hv^' *uucxurr%mrr vrU buUt. though not vrrjr larv«. 


were made by Indians, deer, or cattle. We caught sif^ht of 
three deer in the morning; and our dog brouj^ht a wild steer to 
btiy, which threatened at one time to run us down. 

At 11:15 ^^ reached the summit of the mesa, at a point al>out 
an hour south «jf the promotory which marks the entrance to 
Mancos Canon. A most remarkable view was unfolded. Over 
the pastoral scenes of the valley of Mancos, beyond the deep 
canons <»f the l)«»h>res River, far away in the north, loomed the 
snowy crests of San Juan Mountains, Lone ('one. and the San 
Miguel Mountains on the left, then the Ouray ^roup. with the 
grand peak which we had climbed, flanked on the southeast by 
the mountains of Silverton and the needles of the Kio de las 
Animas. Kar away in the east rose range upon ranj^e, which 
we could not name with certainly. In the ue^^t were the Hlue 
Mountains of L'lah. .Sierra Abajo and Sierra le .Sal. Key4)nii. to 
the sfiuth ami southwest, stretched the i^reat system of laby- 
rinthine canons to the Rio San Juan, and far beyond were the 
Carisso M fountains of New Mexico. 

Re**ting c>n this summit during the mid-ilay hours, it was inter- 
esting to recall many incidents ai our trip, and to return to a 
discussion <if the former population. Something we haii just 
tibservetl. helped us to a theory. I.o«»king i»\er the witle stretch 
of country, we recalled the fict tliat t*i the early expK»rer^ this 
land sremed a tksert. < >ver the wide, ariil plains sireti h miics 
of wa^tr acres, mverei! with s.ige bru^h .aul grease-wniu! Vet 
all aliiUv,' the t«'p^ «if ihc L; nies.i, i-ver which we had been 
riilmg. p»»ttery i- strewn, and si;.;nsof ,1 prunitive race .ire foumi. 
Their nuiiiliers mu«*t li.ive been large, or thr period »»f their slay 
pr«»lon ;;•••! I'erhaps it may be necess.iry to Nupp«".e s«>me 
chan.;' of cimi.ite. lo n^nceive how such a p •pu!.itit»n cou'd liave 
supported themselves by empl") nit-nt What the 
fariiurs of M.inci«s .uui Mi-nle/um.i v.ilhxs .tre ilmn '. show s 
what tiic low i.tU'!^ .irr ( .tp.ibie ••! jirnduciii-.^ \i ith irn^atifn ; but 
We fun! 11" ve^ll:;«•N of ditches I'n tiie mis.i. .in- 1 there is n«it much 
Wat"'! to tiirn int" ««ui h ih.inuels i! tluy •::■: cmnI. Nil.beside 
such f'lr^ts lit »■• aui! j'liiou a- thr:\'- lu-re. grass '.^r-'WS 
en"-:j.:ii to support much v^auu .in>i ni.inx c.ittli . ami the time 
m.iv c 'rnc* when the land, /r.i^p' .i bv tlit- Miic-min.' mi;jhlier 
ra(.>,wi!l be ovrilurru-d aiu'i Itllcd. and a!! a!"ng tin- bii>ad l.ible-! \\r s\\.\\\ si-i- the la^^eil« d m.i:.''- b* n«i. .i:ul U' his of wiieat 
m'»\i- t" ih'- bit ez'v I hen we >hail u -l b-j Nnrji:;-.! il when we that :h'' C"unlry once suppirtei! .1 popiilali'ii. i^f a 
pe-jile uel! .ii!;.incc«l in many arts, .in! wh- • c-ni ei\ rd of ctrtain 
form . of li.iuly. even lh":iL^h ihcy h.ui n-it the aluiity to give 
liuir ideas expressjim. Me.urAluIr, may we nut im.i^'ine them a 
r.i« wh«» Iivtii |»eace ralln r tlian b.Jt. h.ird-pres^eil by 
siv.i.-'- f e. f'lU^'ht stiibbornly and !■ n^. .i!*.il (ind r. it her than 
d."*' rl th: :r r«»m intu f -rtrcs-e** arii-mg tin- can- n i !iff- ? 



Hv Stei'iien U. Pert. 

One of the most intcrcstinf^ questions in connection with the 
cflTii'v mounds is the one uhich concerns their ori|;in. There 
arc tw«i theories in reference to this. First, that ihcy were the 
emb«>diment of the totem system of some wild tribe of hunters, 
and that they were altogether of native origin, purely aboriginal. 
The second is. that there is embodied in them a sy&tem of serpent 
worship which was intnniuced from some other continent, but 
which became mingled with the native totem system, and was 
here pl.iced in |)ermanent earth form, the two systems — the 
native and the forei^^n — being closely associated. The latter is 
the opinion which has been reached by the writer, after cl(»se in- 
vi-Nti^ation and lung hesitation. The present pa|)er is designed 
to show the reasons for adopting this conclusion. I^t us. how- 
ever, be understood. We have held all along that the Winnc- 
ha^^oes. a branch of the I >akotas, may havebeen the effigy builders. 
We still hoUi this opinion, but the Winnebagoes, or Dakotas, as 
a whole, seem to have possessed traditions and symbols which 
Would indicate that a system which was foreign to this country' 
generally was held by them and carried with them in all their 
mi;;rations. This system was ver)' common in Europe at an 
early day. and has left the impress of itself upon ver)* many of 
the monuments there. To some it would seem to be a svstcm 
vihich was {>eculiar to the Indo-Euro{K*an race, and was identical 
with what is called the Druidic faith, belonging to the Celts, 
wh«i were a purely historic race. To others, however, it seems 
to be a system which was older than the Celts, and is regarded 
as a i^ift of the prehistoric times to the historic, the chief em- 
bodiment bcin«; in those works which have been ascribed to the 
I>ruids. but the origin of which is still very uncertain. We put 
thr two systems together. The effigy mounds in Ohio and Wis- 
consin are prehistoric. They have no evidence of contact with 
uhat arc called historic races, certainly not with any races which 
wt re familiar with the Christian system, for there are no sym- 
bols of Christianity in them. If the symbolism which is 
embodied in them was in any sense historic, it was introduced 
before the time of Christianity. It is the same system which 
would l>c called native, whether found in Wisconsin. Ohio. Great 
Kritian, France, [Scandinavia. Hindostan, or any other part of 


the globe. This is an important conclusion, for it cirrics back 
the age of some of the Mound-builders much farther than some 
are prepared to admit, and at the same time it accounts for many 
things which have been regarded as mysterious, and as difficult 
of explanation. The discussion of the subject will follow the 
line of a comparison between the works of Ohio, Wisconsin, 
Dakota and other states, brin;:ing in, however, frequent refer- 
ence to the symbolism of Great Hritain, es{>ccially that symbol- 
ism which connects itself with ser|x?nt worship. 

I. First we shall refer to the traditions. It is well known that 
Catlin, the celebrated painter, maintained that the Mandans, who 
were a branch of the Dakotas, originally were IcKated in Ohio, 
the very region in which the great serpent is found, but that 
they migrated from that region, passing down the Ohio River 
and up the Missouri, and that they became nearly e.xtinct by the 
time they reached the head waters of the Missouri, lie has 
given the map, with the route of the migration laid down on it, 
and the various stopping places designated, lie states that he 
also visited certain deserted village sites, and that he was able 
thus to trace back their route toward St. Louis by the village 
sites, and especially by the depressions in the soil which had 
been made by their lodges, the Sfandans always having a custom 
of exCiivating the soil to the depth of about two feet before 
they erected their earth huts. These lodge circles, or excava- 
tions, have also been recognized .imon^' the eftigy mounds. The 
ancient city of Aztlan was found by l)r. I^ipham to have con- 
tained many of them. He calls them cellars. Trof A. \V\ Will- 
iamson asserts that there was a tradition among the Dakotas 
that their original home was upon the < )hio River, and he be- 
lieves the ancestors of the Dakotas were the original 
Mound-builders of ( )hio. Rev. A. I.. Kiggs concurred in this 
opinion. The date of this migration is not kni>wn. but it is sup- 
{X)seil to have been before the advent of the white man. Rev. 
Mr. William Non and Mr. Kigg** both state that there was a tra- 
dition ain<»n^ the people that they c.inu* from the far ea*«t. and 
were familiar uith thi* sea; and Citltn cl.itins that the Mandans 
not only came from the east, but tlu-y were originally from 
Ix'yonil the sea, they wer«- the de^'C* ndi nls of the former cele- 
brated hand of white men whii h lame to this Ci)untry under the 
lead of rrincc .Madoc, the reiei ted Wi I%h piince. and refers to 
the white skin, peculiar form, anti remarkable co^lumes ol this 
people as pronf. ''"his theory does i^-t seem to have gained 
cnrtlence. and yet th«re is interest in it because of its leading 
one to Consider the l''.ur(>pean origin of the Dakotas. 

If there are resemblances m the langu.iges there are also re- 
semblances in the earth-works anil efVigies We have already 
referred to the ^reat system of wor^s at Portsmouth. Ohio, and 
liave shown that tiiese resemble in their genera! sha{)e the stand- 


iii'^ stones at Avcbury and Stone Ilcnf^c. The resemblance may 
be reco^rni/.cd in the bone paths c>f l)akota, the ser|K'ntinc line 
in the bone patli bcinj; seen here and the eminences in the centre 
and at either end beinjj aNo plainly intended. Sec Plate. Of 
course there is an infinontv in the later formed avenue, but 

this IS what mi(;ht l>e ex{)ccted. It is the conception which 
we wonder at more than the execution. In this case the 
sun circle is lacking. There is no horse sh«>e to be rcc- 
ojjnizrd. and yet the serj>ent symbol seems to have continued. 
A feature of this eftij^y was that the hill and the serpent had the 
.same ^hape, the peculiar cult of serjient worship bcin^ embodied 
in the hill. This same peculiarity is to be recoj^nized in several 
pfaces in this country, i. In the i^reat ser{>ent mound in Adams 
County. Ohio. 2. In the ser{>ent of standing; stones which has 
been ilescrilnrd by several jHrrsons as existing; in Dakota. 3. The 
various ser|)enl effi;^ies surmounting; seqK*ntine hills, namely, at 
Mayvillc, at Green I^ke, at Madison, at I*i»tosi. Wis. 4. A ser- 
{>ent etTi^y has been discovered in Adams County, Illinois, which 
shows this {HTcuIiarity. The bluff is tortuous and the effigy is 

about I5lk> feet lon^. and is conformed to the sha|)e of theblufl. 


One of the most remarkable prehistoric mimuments in Amer- 
ica IS the ^reat serpent mound in Ohio. This mound was sur- 
veved and descril>ed bv the authors of "Ancient Monuments" 
as early as 1S45. It has been frequently visited and described 
since then. The last survey was that made bv Prof Putnam in 
the year 18S9. Mis description was published in The Century 
ma<;a/inc for that year. Prof. Putnam, it would seem, has taken 
the same position as did Squier and Davis, and advocates the 
theory of an Muropean or Asiatic origin. The lollowing is his de- 
scription: "Approaching the serjMrnt cliffby fording Brush Creek, 
our attention was suddenly arrested by the rugged overhanging 
rocks above our heads, and we knew that we were near the 
object of our search. I^*aving the wagon we scrambled up the 
steep hill, and pushing on through brush and briar, were soon 
following the folds of the great ser()ent along the hilltop. The 
most singular sensation of awe and admiration overwhelmed 
me. for here t>ef«ire me was the mysterious work of an unknown 
people, whose seemingly most sacred place we had invaded. 
Was this a symbol of the old serftent faith here on the western 
continent, which fn^m the earliest time in the religions of the 
Hast, held so many j>eople enthralled? Following the ridge of 
the hill northerly one is forced again to pause and admire the 
scene — the beautiful hill-girt valley, the silvery line of the river, 
the vistas ojK*nin;^' here and there, where are the broader and 
deeper pi»rtions o( the river, etc. Turning from this view, and 
ascenciing the knoll, one sees before him, eighty feet from the 
edgr of the cliff, the western end of the oval figure in front of 
the serjKrnt's jaws. 


The oval is one hundred and twenty feet long and sixty feet 
in breadth. Near the center is a small mound of stone, which 
was formerly much larj^cr. Many of the stones show signs of 
fire. Pri>f. Putnam says: "A careful cxammation of sections 
through the oval shows both parts of the earth work were 
outlined upon a smooth surface, clay mixed with ashes being 
used in some places, but a pavement of stone to prevent wash- 
ing used in other places. The whole structure was carefully 
planned and thoroughly built." I'rof. Putnam speaks also of 
the crescent shaped bank between the jaws uf the serpent, the 
extremities being seventy-hvc feet apart, but the bank being 
seventeen feet wide. This crescent is worthy of notice. The 
head of the scrj^ent is thirty feet wide and five feel high. The 
ser|K-nt itself is l.2<;4 feet in length, measured from the tip of 
the jaw to the end of the tail. The average width is twenty 
feet, and the height from four to five feet. The tail decreases 
where it begins to coil, and is at the end about a fof»t high and 
two feet wide. "The graceful curves throughout the whole 
length of this singular efligy give it a stran;,'e lifelike appear- 
ance, as if a huge serpent slowly unc'iilmg itself and creeping 
sflently and stealthily along the cre^t of tlie hill, was about to 
seize the f»val within its extended j.iws. In the oval embank- 
ment, with Its central pile nf burnt atones in rombination with 
the serpfiit. we h.ive the three syniboN «-verywhi-re re^jardei! in 
the old Wcirld as emblems of primitive ruth. Here we find the in V*>Mi of India, or the r«'cipr» principle of nature 
guarded !)y the serpent, or life, power, kn-'whdge and eternity. 
More«)ver it'* position — last and west — indicatt> the nourishing 
sourie n( fertility, the i^ sun ^od wh«)^e fir^l lays tall Ujwn of stiiiies in the centre i)f the" 

Trol Tutn.iin also r«-fers t«> ihi- r^ inark.ibli serpent effigy 
which w.iN discovi-ied bv l)r. I \V. I'll* ne in Ail* vie*. hire. SiOt- 
land. .in<i rpiotes a d<-Ncriptf<n i>f thi^. written l>\ M.>*>* tioriion- 
Cumniiniis. The f-»II«»vijng is tlu q^ji-t.ilMn: 

" I liL- t.iii -if the M rpent rc^t^ ncir tlie ^^hort- nf I.oth Nell, 
and the ^rinind gr.idually r-.Ni"* -rventr-, n to twenty k«.l in 
height, and is continufd f'»r thnt' h.ii^irti! T • I. I'TniinL; a d'»ublc 
cur\e. iii-.r a hu;^'e letter S. a:^l w 'ntirrfur.y jM-rfi ct in outline, 
1 iic- lu'.id t"rin«-ii a « iiciilar lairn. on wiiuh there still remains 
*««»nu- tr.iL'r of .in altar. 1)t. I'liene f\iM\.i!'-il tln' circular cairn, 
or r:rLlf ■ I --ttines, .md fminil thr'-r !.ir^- stom-^. fnrming a 
megalitii;^ clianilier From tin- r:* :*.;«; «if tin srrj>ent"s back, it 
was !i»unil t! the whnl*: K n^th <>! the- sj»:nf ii>nvtructrd 
with NtuHt V w, ii!.ir!v .in<i NVNtt'iiMt:* .il!\' :•!.»• n! at "-uih an angle 
a** to ihiiiw •'•! rill- r.un 'Y]\c ^'.'.u*- >. :n t.iit. .i i«»n«j narrow 
cau-iu.iy. . ••;«" '»l»)nt>. sr • i:ke t:v X'rtibr.i- «»f srmie 
h'j.V .in:ni.ii. ti^. ri'i^'.- •*! -ii ii;^ "fi" .»: » .i- ii s:«ie I** lontinucd 
du\%n\\.iri! with an .irr.i!i^;« n.^nt *"»! ^niaiitr ^tonr^, ^u^^tstive of 


ribn. The mound has been formed in such a |>osition that the 
worshipers, standing at the altar, would natutaily lo4>k e«istward, 
directly alony^ the whole len(;th of the prcat reptile, and across 
the dark lane, to the tripple peaks of lien Cruachan." Prof. 
Putnam says: "Is there not something more than a mere coinci- 
dence in the resemblances between the Loch Nell and the Ohio 
serpent. Kach has the head |>ointing west, each terminates with 
a circular enclosure containing; an altar, from each, looking along 
the most prominent |>orti4>n of the serpent, the rising sun may be 
seen. If the serpent of Scotland is a symbol of an ancient faith, 
surely thtit of Ohio is the same." Here then wc have the full 
Committal of the professor of archaeology in Harvard College 
to this thcor>' of the foreign origin of the great serpent. 

II. The position which we take is, that the system of sym- 
bolism which was contained in the great serpent was also ex- 
ten<!c(l over the entire region which was occupied by the effigies, 
and thus proves that the people who built the effigies were 
serpent worshipers. We have discovered the serpent cffiigy in 
many places, and find that it always embodies the same elements. 
anil scc*ms to have been used to serve the same effigies, and is 
giMicrally connected with the same symbolism. One thing, how- 
ev.:r. is to he noticed, that the symbolism was more elaborate in 
( )riio. If the great serjK^nt was erected by the Dakotas. they 
must have in the course of their migrations, lost much of the 
symS'»lism which they then possessed. In fact, they degen- 
erated. The symt>oIism of Ohio was that of sun worship, as 
well as serpent worship. In Wisconsin and Dakota, serpent 
worship seems to have continued, but the emblems of sun wor- 
ship arc by no means numerous. Totemism here gained the 
ascendency. Sun worship almost disappeared. Serpent worship, 
however, retained its original power. 

How this superstition arose isunknown. It may have been intro- 
duced from the far east, but there is an uncertainty as to the date 
ami means. Ser{>ent worship lias prevailed in all parts of the 
^lobe. It was formerly very extensive in India, and became in- 
cor]>«)rated into the Buddhistic faith, though it is supposed to be 
deri\ed from the aboriginal tribes. The Hindoos tell the story 
of the great .serjK'nt which ser\*ed as the embodiment of the evil 
principle. \'ishnu, the destroyer. There is a sculptured figure 
in <»ne of the oldest j«godas. which represents Onshna tramp- 
ling on the crushed head of the seqKnt — the Creator trampling 
on the l)estroyer. The classical Hercules is represented as con- 
tending with a serpent, the head placed under his foot. The 
gardens of ! Ies()cridcs is a classical myth in which was the tree 
with the golden fruit, which tree was guarded by the hydra- 
headed serjx-nt. In the Kgyptian mythology the monster Typhon 
IS represented as a combination of two immense serpents. In 
the Scandinavian mythology there is the stor>' of the tree with 


the serpent at its root. This is the Tree of Life, the Ash tree. 
The great serpent Mid^^ard is said to have been precipitated by 
Woden to the bottom of the ocean, but he wound himself around 
the whole globe and became the serpent of the sea. The Chi- 
nese have as a common myth the story of the dragon which 
threw the universe into confusion. It was born out of an egg 
that floated on the waters of the great abyss. The Persian 
Mithras was depicted with a human body, a lion's head, wings of 
a bird, with the tail of a snake, all of the orders of creation be- 
ing combined into one. Some suppose these to be derived from 
the scripture account of the creation, of the Garden of ICden and 
of the cherubim which guarded the gate. Others would con- 
sider that the Scripture account had only pre.ser\ed the aborig- 
inal myths and given them a new interpretation, making the 
ser|)ent the embodiment of evil, winged figures the embodiment 
of good. The conception was just the opposite. The 
serpent Neph was the creator of the world and the source of 
good. The Phoenicians also considered the winged snake as a 
symbol of the gOv^d Agatho-demon. Among the Hindoos 
Twashta was the great artificer of thv universe and was supposed 
to bear the form of a ser|K.-nt. The worship of the ser(x:nt was 
prevalent among the Babylonians. The a{>ochr)'hal stoT>' of 
Ikril and the dragon shows that it was a well known superstition 
of the Chaldeans. In the my.stic theology of the Druids the 
serpent was venerated as the symbol of the Deity and was the 
sovereign dragon of Britain. It was typified in various forms and 
was described as moving around the huge stones of (laer-Sidi 
or Stone Ilenge and as pursuing a fleeting Goddess, who is 
styled the Fair One, a myth nearly allied to the legend of Jupiter 
under the fjrm of a serjx'nt violating Proserpine. Among the 
Syrians the Great Mother was typified as a ser|K*nt as well as a 
ship. According to the Hindoos an enormous snake is seen 
o|)ening its jaws, and the god Vishnu is seen driving into its 
mouth a herd of cattle, the story being that he was in immment 
danger from the rage of his enemies, but found shelter for his 
flocks in this way. Fohi, the reputed first em|)eror of China, is 
fabled to have had the body of a man with the tail of a ser|)ent. 
Vishnu also floats u()on the sea, borne u(>on the body of an 
immense ser|>ent. 

The ser|>ent. twisted in the form of a circle, was a familiar 
symbol among the Hindoos, Persians. Phcrnicians, Egyptians, 
Britains and the Greeks. The caduceus of Hermes exhibited 
two serpents wound antund a staff, a globe, and wings at the 
top of the staff. The Ph«L-nician symbol was a serjjcnt coiled 
around an egg. a symbol which is found in some of the altar 
stones of Mexico. The Assyrian symbol was a man rising out 
of a circle formed by a ser|)ent, with a bow and arrow in his 
hands. In Mexico the serpent is a common symbol. It guards 


the temples, forms the balustrades to the stairways of the pyra- 
mids, surmounts the walls which surround the temples, and is 
inc(»r|>orated into the form of their divinities. The shrines in 
which the Mexican divinities were contained were in the sha|>c 
of seri>ents, with m(^uth^ o|Kn, the fire li^htin^ up tlie interior 
and ^jivmj^ them a jjhastly apfKMrance. The altar temples or 
adoratorios at Talenque and L*xmal had the symlK)ls of the 
winded serpent covering the facade and surmounting the door- 
ways. In Henares. the ^rcat temples have circular domes which 
Cover the sacred piles, and the ima^'e of the ^od stands upon a 
raiNed ))latform or hi(;h place beneath the dome 

The figure of the cross is sometimes associated with that of 
the serjH'nt. It is a cross, however, which has a circle surround- 
ing; it. showini; that it was associated with sun worship, but at 
times the fi(;ure is also assticiated with ser()ent figures. 

There are manv siranjje myths associated A'ith serpent -wor- 
ship. In India the mvtS ot the chummy ot the sea; m Britain 
the mvih o\ the island in the lake; in China the myth concern- 
in ;; Kohi and the mountain, lyphcM>n, etc; in Greece the myth 
concerning Hercules; in E^vpt the mvth of Osiris. The lol- 
lowin^ is the story of the churning ol the (K^ean as related by 
Sir VViiliam Jones: Vishnu directed the kin^ ot seri^cnts to 
appear. I'hen Annnta bore the kmj; of the mountains, with 
all its forests, into the presence of the ocean. So the moun- 
tain was set upon the hack of the tortoise. Kendra bef^an to 
whirl it about as if it were a machine <a fire generator), the 
mountain .NIandar served as a churn and the serpent Vasookt 
for the ro(H.-. The Dewtahs, AssrKirs and DancxiS began to 
stir up the waters tor the discovery ot Amrtta, or the essence 
ol immrirtalitv. The mighty Assoors were employed at the 
serpent's head, the Soors at his tail. They pulled forth the 
ser^HrntN head repeatedly and let it ^o until there issued t'rom 
his mouth a stream of fire, smoke and wind which asc*'nded in 
thick clouds, replete with lightninp, when it bef;an to rain down 
U{>on the heavenly bands. A raging; fire was produced, in- 
volving the mountain with smoke and flame which spread de- 
struction upon all sides. The forest trees were dashed af^ainst 
each other, the inhabitants of the j^reat abyss were annihilated, 
a ra^in^; tire was produced involvm^ the whole mountain with 
smoke and flame. Everv vital bein^ was consumed in the con- 
flagration. The racing flames spread destruction on all sides, 
but were at length quenched by a shower, — a cloud-bourne 
water poured down by the immortal Eendra. The end was 
that there arose from the troubled deep, first the moon with ten 
thousand gleams of light, next the jewel Kowstooeh, a glorious 
gt-m worn by Narayan on his breast. Then the tree of plenty, 
also the horse, as swit't as thought; the cow that granted 
every )uMrt*s desire; the goddess ot fortune, whose seat is the 
white lily. In Great Britain the legend assumes a difTerrnt 


shape. A holy sanctuary was on the surface ot' the ocean, a 
floating island on the seventh wave, a holy sanctuary sur- 
rounded by the sea, a sanctuary with an iron door (a type 
ot the ark), and a citv not protected with walls. The divin* 
iiy entered his earthly cell in the border of the circle. Dis- 
turbed is the Island of Hu; deplorable is the fate of the aric of 
Aeddon. The goddess of the silver wheel in behalf of the Brit- 
ains threw around the sanctuary of the rainbow a stream which 
scares away violence from the earth and causes the bane of 
the former state around the circle of the world to subside. Then 
the masters ot the magic wand set the elements at large. The 
dragon chief was the rightful claimant in Britain. He wa« 
seated on his chair in the midst of the island. His belt a rain- 
bow; a protector of the sanctuary. 

The legend assumes an historical form in the legend of St. 
Cuthbert; of Merlin, also of King Arthur and the round table, 
and forms a very interesting department of mythical literature. 
He was said to have held the strong beamed plow; he sailed in 
a wonderful ship; he presided over a stupendous temple which 
is called the great stone fence, the circle of the world, the mun- 
dane circle of stones, the mound constructed of stone work 
typifying the world, the mundane rampart. The stall of the 
cow, the ark of the world, the common sanctuary. He places 
hiH chair upon the mystic island. He is able to protect his 
chair in the midst of a general fl'>od. 

Many of the stone monuments of Britain were associated 
with these characters. Kach kistvaen was regarded as the 
mystic stone cell of Ceridwen. The slab in the center of 
Stone Ilenge, which has often l)een taken for an altar, was the 
my.stii- tomb of Twain, or the Solar Hu, just as a similar stone 
in the midst of the Kgy plain temple ot Nuphis was a sepul- 
chre o! Osiris. The symbols which are connected with serpent 
worship are numerous. Among them are the circle, signifying 
the Miij; the hiirse shoe, signifying the principle of life, the 
iiiiirfit >ignifymg the same; the crescent, signifying the moon 
aiul the hf»<it: a crescent with three points, one signifying the 
pritw, another the stern, and anuther the mast of the iv>at. 
'I'liev were rei»ardeii by some as the s\mb<>l of the ark. The 
cro^-s JH also a common symbol. This assumes the shape ot 
thr su.istika, or the fire gener.ilor, the ends signifying the ixnnts 
o! the fompasi. The cross has the iircle adioining the arms, 
si;^iiilving the circle of the sun and the motion of the heavenly 
bodies. 'I'hese symhoU are rej^eated <»ver and over again in 
aii parts of the olil world, and are all very significant. Many 
ot them are found in thi?« countrv, though they are not as elab- 
orate, n(»r are :hey n^ ilii^elv a>soiiaTed as they were in the 
oltl world. S:ill we h.i\e the "^uasiika or fire generator, the 
cre«*irti!, I'ircle. the hor>e->hoe, as well as the »er pent, all d 
ihem very «iignini ant. 


Now our point is that we haxv all of these symbols in Amer- 
ica, the vfUffy mounds [trrpctuating mont of them; the two, Ihe 
the relics from the earth-works also containing the same lym- 
bols. The strange thing about all of these symbols, Ihe cross, 
the icri>ent, the circle, the crescent, the bird contained in the 
circle, the serpent and the horse shoe, are found in the State of 
Ohio, thv very place from which the Dalcotas, according to tra- 
ditions extant among them, are supposed to have migrated, the 
only exception being that of the bird in the circle, which is 
located in Georgia, in the very spot where the Tutelocs, a branch 
of the Dakotas. arc known to have dwelt at one time. We can 
not help, then, associating these symbols with this tribe and con- 
cluding that the same tribe when they migrated to the west car- 
ried some of these symbols with them. We might go even 
further and say that the Mound-builders brought into this coun- 

try that f*'rm of symbolism which prevailed in Great Hritain, 
and which belong to the Indo-Kuropean race, though they them- 
selves were not of that stock, but were of the Turanian. Still 
they m.iy have received from some itray member of the Indo- 
I-'uri<i>cin race that symbolism which i.s .supposed to have been 
Turanian, but which were introduced into Great Hritain by the 
Druids. There is a myster>' about this whole subject, but there 
arc enough facts constantly coming to light to keep our curios- 
ity constantly .twakc and to set new inquiries at work. We may 
call It all visii>nary and ascribe the theory to credulity, but the 
opposite theory — that is, the thcor}' of the autochthonous origin 
— may lead to equal or even greater credulity. We have, at 
least, the relics and the earth-works, which bear a symbolism 
which rL-S(.-mbles that of Great Hritain, and explain it a^ we will 
the relics arc substantial and genuine. They have never been 

1^-t us take the figure given above: It is a car\-cd stone which 
was taken out of one nf Ihe mounds in the enclosure on the 
north fork of ['aint Creek. It represents the ser|K-nt twined 
about the bowl «f a pipe. Other sculptures of the serfjcnt coiled 



in like manner have been found. This represents a variety not 
rcco^ni/ed. It has a broad flat head and a body singularly 
marked. Now we think that no one can look .it this fi^urewith- 
out bein^ reminded of the Mahadeo of India, a fi^^ure which was 
very Mj^Miificant. and was often seen in connection with the phallic 
worship of that country. Dr. Charles Rau says of this: "Mahadeo 
i^ worshipped by the Hindoo sect under the form of a phallis, 
re|)resente<l by an upright stone pillar, sometimes in conjunction 
with the V«>ni in the shape of a jewsharp " 1 )r. Kau thinks that 
the same symbols are found in some of the cup- shaped markin|;s 
of this country, especially in that found on Kald I'Viar's rock in 
West Vir^jinia. Here the serpent's head has the shape of the 
jewsharp. and above it is the symbol of the concentric circle, the 
concentric circle bein^ emblematic of sun worship. Prof Simp- 
son says: Much evidence has been (gradually accumulating of 

late years toprovethat there ex- 


in(;s in Great Britain that at the 

^-' V period in which they were made 

'r the whole of Britain was ]>coplcd 

- -i with tribes of one race, who were 

^ imbued with the same su|icrsti- 

^'^■ tinns and expressed them by the 

\- I same symbols. He seems to 

-," *; have a leanm^ toward the Ik- lief 

, _ ' -• 1-* v^- ■^';a that they originated uith the 

s . ..i v.. .' • ./. .. ... Untile. I >ruids and were conncctetl with 

- > t .>y n »-i, nffiH tH;/ t€ lilt ft. 

the rites t»f ihe priesthood. The 
C(»ncentric circlis shuw the motion it\ the heavenlv bodies. It 
is ri-m.irkable tiial these cu|) marks are very ccunmon in ( )hio» 
thciu^jh they are n<»t generally re;^arded as symbolic, a more use b«in^ a*»si^ncti Xa them — rests fur drills or holes for 
uf nut crai kin^^ I he h<»rse sIuk-, h iwcver. is found in the earth- 
works at t'lirtsmoiitli. the concentric circles at one end and the 
serpent effi;.:y .it the t»ther. The car\rd specimens i^f shell ijor- 
Ijets Itiiintl in T«-nne-Me contain figures of the serpent. These 
herjKrnts are ;^ent r.illy represented with their mouths wiile ;i|K*n, 
their t.iils twi-ted .iround. and rrn^s placed at intervals in the 
boilii <!. It soiiit-times Neems as if there was a conception of the 
dra^i'ii ii>n:ami<! in tluir.. the rin^s bein^ the place where the 
le;'s :..inrd tlu- b«ul\- thoii-'h there are nn clearlv defined dra;!ons 
aiU'ii^ the lU'iands. The dragon was a symbol among the 
Me\>: it r(.pre<ente«! tiu- m-ithtu of the heavenly biuiics. and 
w.i- u--i ;ri I. Jtinr. \\'.\\\ ih ir chrMnoio-'v I he mounds of 


< ):i: I Liutti.ii'j'! u» ^li. h sliL-!is .IN .i;i itiund :n I ennessee and the 







l-RrckhamptoD Hill. 3-W«n and IHtrh. S— Clrcl* of HtoiM^ 4-Avcntt«. 5- Brunei U 111. f-Mlbonr UtJ 





• \ 


•N'^^^'^JIPf^r '///^ » 






l-HUhhin. 2 IU.ii.l*Hth*. ;-H:i:. 

A iiai»'Way i'l«i<<f(|, h^'ud^tif •M-rfii'iil-. II -< t«it**wiiy, tail* of M*r|i«.'i)t*. 




! I 


'.■»;» ia'r«ay. 

V. )HK*- A : HAM.! . % 

» • . . 


Southern Stiilcs. \Vc concliufc from this that they were built 
bv A (htTerent tribe. Still the mounds of ( )hii> are. manv of them, 
built in the sh.ij>c i»f circles ami crescents, and have the same 
symbols which are found in the shell ^;or^;et^. 

III. There is a distinction bt-tween the relics f>f the diflrrent 
localities, and Vv't it would seem as if serpent worNhip existed all 
over the li»cahlies. Li-t us take the relics which have been dis- 
cover<-d in the altars near Chilticnthe. Sipiier and Havis have 
describeil these altars. There are t went v dour mounds, all of 
them .iltar or burial moun<is, or places of sacrifice, in one en- 
closure. The encl<»sure contained thirteen acres. There was 
no ixieri(»r ilitch, no elaborate ^jateway. It was merely enclo.sed 
by a \vall. l)iit it was designed as a burial place. One of the 
mounds was seventeen feet hij^h and one hundred feet in diam- 
ctiT. but mounds that yielded tJie mosi relics were comparatively 
small. It \M)u!ii seem tn l>c a p!ace for succes.sive burials, as 
Si) me of the mounds contained two altars, a lar^e itne and a 
smali^T t»ne. the lari^e one being about sixty feet in length ami 
forty five tert .icioss the top, the other one beinj; fifteen feet in 
len;.^tli and vi-^hi feel scpiare at the top. A Iwsin eij^htecn inches 
in tlepth was founil in the altar. It was burned tti the depth «)f 
two tt'it. one altar Iiavinj^' been built upon the first, both having 
bi*i-n used ,inil stibjecte*! to lieat. one after the other. Tlic con- 
tents of this altar consisted of cop[K*r and stone implements, 
spear-heads made of tpiart/ and (^.irnet. arrow-heads of olisidian 
and quartz. co|)|)cr gravers or chisels, twenty or more copi)cr 
tubes. .1 !ar|^r ipLintity «if pottery, two vases nearly complete. 
Another cxiitasned mi altar which is only six feet long an<l four 
feet w :dc. ( )n this altar was a lieposit <if two hundred pi)K*s, 
car\eii in st^ne, many pearl and shell l)eads. numerous disks 
and tulus iif c«»pper, .uid other ornaments of cop|K-r, covered 
Willi silver The pipes were made «»f red pipestone. had been 
cx;»>sed t'» the lieat. .md were many of them br«>ken. They 
wrre c.irve*! with miniature f'lgures of animals, birds, reptiles, all 
of th'.in true to nature, and with exi)uisite skill, representing the 
pein!:arities .ind habits of the animals. The otter is in a char- 
ai'tt ristic .ittitude. hoMin;^^ a fish in his mouth The heron also 
liol-i^ a fl'^h The hawk ;^ rasps a small bini in its talons, which 
It t« ar^ w ilh its beak. The panther, bear, w<ilf, Inraver. <»tlcr, 
si|u:rrel. rai c«Jon. hawk, heron. crow. swallow, buz/ard. |»aro<pict, 
t'lUi.m. turtle, !>'»;.;. t«»ad. rattlesnake, are ree(»gni/cd at first 
gl.UK'-. The rn-'si interesting and valuable m the list are a num- 
ber o! s. i]!;it'.Ked human heaiis. no doubt faithtully representing 
thi- jire*! •ir..nant physical features of the ancient people by whom 
the\- Were iiM-le Another mound in the same enclosure con- 
t.i.iie! a -ke!(.t->n and skull of one ot tlie Mound-buiMers. 

I h.;- -Ae have from this 4»nc locality not only the sha[>es of 
the aiiiiu.iU whuh were carved upon the pipe and which remind 


us of the animal effigies and the skill of this [>eople in imitating 
animal figures, but we have the portraits of the people them- 
selves, and to confirm it the skull of one of the persons that 
may have been the skillful worker whose hands wrought the 
relics. One remarkable circumstance connected with one of the 
portrait pi|)es is that it very strongly resembles the portraits of 
one of the Mandan chiefs which Catlin painted when he was 
among that f>eo|)lc and learned from them the traditions con- 
cerning their mi^^ration. We present the figure of this pipe and 
a portrait of a living chief, the grandson of the one which Cat- 
lin painted. It will be noticed that the last surviving chiefs had 
features almost exactly like those which are contained in the 
pipe. This may be by some regarded as a mere coincidence and 
not .is a proof If it is a coincidence, it is a very remarkable 
one. We are ready to acknowledge that the other pipes con- 
tained portraits which are very unlike this. And yet one of 
them, the one with the remarkable head dress, has features 
which we think are very like the features of Dakota women we 
have seen. Taking this evidence witn thcit which has already 
been given, we consider that there is pretty gocd proof that the 
Dakotas built the eflfigies of Wisconsin and the altar mounds ot 

Of course we shall need to connect serpent worship with the 
altars in Ohio to prove that they lielongeil to the eftigy builders in 
both states, but we have the animal figures in the pi{Hrs to sug- 
gest this point, and at the same time we have the serpent 
efTigy. the aligator effi^^y. the bird efllgy, all of them con- 
t.iining altars, thus shtiwing that the practice of building 
altars and oiVcring sacrifices was common with the efTigj* 
buil<ler> of ( )hio. The serpent w^irship was attended with sac- 
rifices. An:>tlK'r argument is found m the fact that altar mounds 
arc not confined to this one locality of Mound City, but they are 
<;uite romini>n tlirou^hout this district: another locality, that of 
Ci.irks Works, bong very reiiiark.ible f >r the richness of its 
deposits. In this |)lace were found several pijK-s, one of which 
We h.ive described above. Anotlier remarkable circumstance is 
that the altarN contained such a \ariet\' of i!e{H>sits. The mounds 
ditVert-d in the luirnberanil relative position u\ the sand strata, as 
well as of tlu- s:/r and .shape of the aitars and the character ol 
the depfisits made in them. The altars were sc>me\\hat alike, but 
the t!«p«»sits were entirely ihfTcrent. ( »ne nii^und covered a de- 
posit i»f pipts. another a deposit of s|H.*ar heads, another a dc- 
|»osit of galena. (»r calcine shells, another of mica plates. Some 
of the nii'unds containing relics had no altars. This was the 
case with the one which contained the C(.»t!ed seq>ent. In place 
of the altar a levi-l area, ten or t'lfteen feel broad, wa?» found, 
mtuli btrneii, on which the relics had been [)laced. Hundreds 
ol relics, many of them most interesting and valuable, were 


found, amon^ which were several coiled serpents, carved in 
st( me, and carefully envelo|xrd in sheet mica andcop|>cr; also 
several fragments o» ivor>' and a large number of fossil teeth 
and numerous fine sculptured stones. Another mound con- 
tained six hundred disks of horn and stone in two layers. An- 
other contained a layer of silver)' mica in round sheets, ten inches 
or a foot in diameter, overlappinf; each other like the scales of a 
fish, the whole forminj* the sh«ipe of a mica crescent. f;ivinj» the 
idea that the worship of the moon was symbi>lized hoth by the 
crescent and by the (^listenin^ color of the mica itself. Traces 
of cloth, several scrolls from thin sheets of mica, instruments i»f 
obsidian, and a lar^e quantity of |Karl beads were taken fr(»m 
the mounds at Clark's works. CopjKT bracelets were taken from 
another mound in the same local it v. This contained an altar 
which was paved with small round stone laid with the utmost 
precision. The copper bracelets encircled calcined bones, show- 
that human sacrifices ha J been offered. 

IV. The following are the elements which we have rcc<t^;ni/ed 
in connection with serpent worship wherever it is found. These 
elements are very apparent in the great scr{K:nt: but thry are 
aU(» perceptible in other localities. 

1st. The .serjient effigy always corres|Minds t<» the sha|K' of 
the gri»und «)n which it is placed. This is a ver)' remarkable cir- 
cumstance, the natural and the artificial being always assr>ciated. 
It IS perreplible in all localities. The great serpent in Ohio is 
i»n a cliff wiiich resembles a serpent in its sha|K*. the very en4 
of the cliff representing the n<ise.the limestone representing the 
white throat, the tortuous line of the cliflf representing the mi>tion 
of the serpent, the very shadow on its side making the resem- 
blance all the more striking. The .stone ser|>ent in Dakota i^ on 
a rid^e which resembles a great serpent. It is a ridge which 
overlooks the prairie on all sides. The stones of which the 
serpent is com))osed brings out the resemblance, the two stones 
in the head of the .serpent lx:ing ver>* expressive. The twn ser- 
pents near Totosi, Wisconsin, are situateil upon a riilge which, in 
Its shajK*. is suggestive. Here the two serjK'nts correspond with 
the shape of the cliff, ever}* bend in the cliff being followed by 
the effigy, and the line which constitutes the summit being 
transformed by artificial means into the shape of ser()ents. It is 
qiiile wonderful, for the resemblance is so close that one is left 
in uncertaintv after he has visited the localitv whether he has 
not been deceived. The author, in examining these was accom- 
panied by Mr. R. S. Foster, who is a graduate of Ikloit College 
ami a close observer, being a student of natural science. A 
gentleman, also, who owns lead mines and who has been familiar 
with the entire region for many years, was conbulted. He seemed 
to have recognized the sequent shape on the summit of the bluff. 

I)r I^ipham has descrilxd a row of mounds near Kurlington, 


Wisconsin, which was so arran(:^ed as to resemble a crooked 
snake. What is remarkable at this locah'ty is, that the line of 
the mounds follows the line of the stream — the Fox River — 
every turn of the stream being followed by the row of mounds. 
There are also three oblonjj mounds near the head of the snake, 
though it is uncertain whether these were intended to bring out 
the symbols of the three peaks which are always associated with 
the serpent effigies in the old world. 

The serpent effigy discovered by the author a lew miles from 
his home, in Adams County. Illinois, is also conlormcd to the 
tortuous shape of the cliff. This effigy is in a very conspicuous 
place. It overlooks the bottom lands of the Mississippi River 
for many miles. The effigy itself is a striking object. The head 
of the serpent rests on the south end of the blulf The bend of 
the neck follows the line of the bluff f«»r Ckjo feet. The roll of 
the body e.xtends ^cx) feet further, but is brought out more fully 
by f«>ur high conical mounds. The effigy then follows the line 
of the blulT for 6rx> feet more, the rattles of the snake being 
plainly visible at the northern extremity of the bluff. 

2d. Another element of seri>cnt worship is that it was a 
source of protection to the people. Tliis is seen in tlie serjurnt 
in (Jhio. Trof Putnam discovered an old village site, and look- 
out and burial mounds in the immediate vicinity. I le does not say 
that the ser|K"nt has any protective power liere, but merely refers 
to the burial mounds ind their contents. The spot .seems, how- 
ever, to have been occupied for a long time. Kvidence <if the 
former existence of habitations >l)own by the burnt places 
and ash-beds marking the sites 4if dwellings. Hut the dwellings 
and burials were of different times. He asks the question: ''Hik'S 
not llus burial sh«>w that the spot was rcvrreil as the home of 
ancestors, or fpm: its vicinity to the sacre«l slirine , abttut which 
traditions niay well have been presirvn! long after the inmiediatc 
destcndants t,( thi. builders had dts.tppcand from the region?" 
I'ruf Tut nam men I inns a grave cmh Liming a pavement of flat 
stonrs Me siays: "I'.igt-s could In- hlled with instructive de- 
tails relating to the burial place and viil.igf site." He mentions 
gravis wliuli have an .mtiijuily .i-^ i^ as that of the scrjHrnt 
Itself, .mil s.ivs we have everv rrasim to bilievr that the boiJies 
buneil at thissjii.t *.\itc of ihf- |Ki>pIe \\ li-» wi^rshijK'd at the ser- 
pent *»iinne Ihis uica f)f nr«'tccti««n v;:vi n by the serjK-nt to a 
villa. ;i- IS. wc think. emb->died mure I;i".ly in the f«»rts to which 
wc 1mv«- referr'ti — I- rts Aiuunt, Mam. Iron, (."olerain. It is also 
brought t);jt in t!i'.* s».on«" wi»ik nt .ir Hourneville. Here the 
serpent is linuMe. tin* tw«> !»»nlies furimng a circle, the necks 
comin;.; ti»g«ther l«irm:n^ the entrance, but the heads turning 
awav. the -amras thevdo at i''>lerain an*! at I'ort Ancient. The 
taper in.; piles *,( stone ai!;t»inm;^ this wnrk are symljolic of the 
rattles uf the seri>ent. but they arc doubU-d. In this wc have 




• \ 


i ; 

•I. . 

r \ ' 

Tin. <;i:i:\T >i:Kri:NT am> otiikk kkfi«.ik.<. :'j.» 

the ^.iiiu: svinlioliNiii winch is coninion in Mrxico.tlic tails oflcn- 
tifii'-^ 1)« Ml;.; li'MiMc* The cr«»SN at Tt'i> illustrates this. 
Ill \Vi*'t uiiNin the «^«riH*nt ^uanis a series <»f ;;.irilen l>c<ls, 
Aii'lli'T >rrj»(nl ;^iianU a small ciMiiuil li»msc. The srrpeiit 
\\v\v IS \rrv tiTtiiniis, th«' lua*! ami the tail comin;: verv near 
to;.,! lh< i. .in«! Ii»riiun«^ the upeiiii);; tt» t!ie couiuil house. 'I'he 
ju.\u!iarity «•! this tfti ;y i> that it (:«>rresprin«U to the shape of 
the It'wJ! on will* h it is plaee*!. rveiy Ik ml of llu* serpent rep- 
p'Sin'.iK. a !»eml ««f thr Muff, the \\ hole (••rmir^ an r-ol.itnl >pot 
<»n wh:».!i llu- e-uncil h(»use stt «m!. Scpiiir and l)a\i'» have «le- 
>cii!)e«i the vv'.rksat I'-'itsniouth .ishavin*^ a ciulein an isolated 
.sj»'»t. sill ni'.n«!« il l»y tw*» sm.ill streams, i^u.irded l»y the parallel!-- I he wall t't this circle. aii«'rd:n)^ t«» Mr I. li. Lewis. is 
in the ^l.a[K' n! a cri>i«kid serpent, the head and tail ci»min^^ lo- 
^' tilt r. Ml .is to constitute the open in-^. It may have been a 
cuiiDijl h»»i:se. 

:•! I h" acc'mjunimenl <if a **lli;di place" is a fnipient 
fratni' ol th- serpent effigies. We hm! this in Ohio. Ac- 
C"il:n,' to Mr T \V. Kmnev there was an at r(»rtsmoi:th, 
( >hi«» It w.i- C'»nta:nid witlnn an .irtitu lal nuiund. whuh had 
t!i- ^lit: (' ♦•! a rrpent. This mound lias lu-en ilchlroved, as it 
is t:: >,;:. ! .ill i>ij)! a-\luin. It was. h«»wev<T. l»ut a short 
<i! I Ii*'i!i tii<* iior^'f shoe enclosure. Mr. Kinney >upp«ses \\\. le u« re s.u'iitues «»llerid on this altar, lie savs that it 


.sh ».\-s iviliiii «' <•! lnMt A channel alsi. leads from the aitar to 
th:* ' • : li:* in«iun«l. which he thinks was a channel for 

hi- • '! • 

111 ■■ }l;.;;i j)!a* t" ov i .ipie*! !>y the oval near the scrjient has 
1»' "11 ■:■ -.1 : i.t d. It In sup;>"^cd that lliis was a *-j>ot where s.ic- 
rifu N u,!:- tn';::ent!\' uiiered. The eminence is one whiih can 
I)- s tM for mai:\- !iuies. The fire^ li^^htit! h.ere woultl at ni;.;ht 
c \ . r t!ie who! • va!!' v wilij a iM-iuliar ;:lare. It is evident that 
It w.t- th' ^;j •'. where my-terious c<*!i-m«»nies took place. 

I ! ■ -^ ijient 'tTij^y .It W:^ . attc niN a " Hi-^^li place." 
Tills .i!:.i: a as .iNo situated ^n an eminence tliat c«njld !je seen 
t'»r .1 I'll.: d;-:aiu*«' t*r«»m all ^iil^s. It :sa\<ry pciuliar riil^e, 
aihi "111- wli;ch .ittr.irt- .itttr^ti- n The lak's are «in a!: sides of 
:: .\! I ; -1 ::! :i. :; ! i-- uiii ccrpK il. It c m he >« t rMT« 'm the 
t.i- : .. ii: : :: ■v\ \\v ..\\\\'*x^\\\', and con-tilLte** thr thin: < mi- 
v. :;. w!; ii'.N \\\r s:ii.- m! the city, I'lres lij^litii! iipon this 
:il: : . ■•': 1 : II Ir-'T^i ..' t!.- ji ir-.t^ w In r** tfTuiy m<»und> .ire 

.1* : • t ; . t* ■; III- :■■ .iie :::.iiiv h'.:i:.i! \\\- i:ni!s m the 

I'T i* ;. .:i.:..Mit :ii:^ .i! Jii'i.Mi 1 is on the h:;;!ii.Nt p'»int, 

. :. ^ iv :..!■.:■ .s. Mere we have the ^.itr.e f !«-ment 
w:.. \ . .:>. .:. = if! mt I'.mVjt" of thf anci'-nt w.'i'ks in (ireat 
I'l: * . \\ 1 i. • tiji'.i" .i! Av' l»'.::y .md the hofNe sh«»es at Stone 

■-■ J •• I -.'.:-■ i» .»: \:: \i:i :ini xiv. 


Hengc surrounded an altar, the serpent at Avebury formind^ the 
passage ways to the altars. This is verj' suggcstive»though there 
is a great variation in the different localities. This '*High place" at 
Portsmouth is very remarkable. It is near the horse shoe and is 
on the bluflf which overlooks the city. Avenues lead from this 
bluflf in three directions. At the cast end of the avenue are the 
four concentric circles, with four passage ways in the shape of 
a cross, with a terraced mound in the centre, the whole making a 
remarkal)le sun symbol. At the west end is a large square en- 
closure, v/ith the avenue extending in both directions from it, one 
of them resembling the head of a serpent, the other the tail, the 
enclosure giving the impression that it may have been used as a 
pen in which prisoners were confined and kept for sacrifice. At 
the great cerrmonial day the heights may have been lighted 
with sacrificial fire, the one where is the altar am) horse shoe en- 
closure being the place of sacrifice, the one where is the square 
enclosure being the place in which the victims were taken; the 
olh^T, where the sun .symbol is seen, being the place where 
the offerings to the sun were made, the avenues being in the 
shape of a great serpent, the whole picture l>eing the scene 
where processions passed in groat solemnity. The river flowing 
between the place i*f the sacrifice, and the final place of the 
offering, the very bend of the river sugge^^ting the sha)>e of a 
great serpent. 

4tli. should lu* saitl that nearly 
all the effigies in Ohio have altars c«)nntfl(d with them. The 
alli;<>r niuund. near Newark, overlooked the site where there 
were villages ;irr)und which the woikN wer<- ( reded. The fire* 
couIill>e seen from both \iliaijes. It liatl an altar near. There 
was also an altar inside of the circle whirh is called the old 
fort. This altar was ci'vered with the bird efl'igy. An altar also 
attended the crt>ss Tarleton. < )luo. Si e l**i^. lO. Imme- 
di.iteiv back of it is .1 small circular elevatp mi «»I '^lone and earth, 
n-s.-niMm-.: in c«.nnection with the (iranville cffi^^y. Sijuier 
anil l>.iv> s.iy of ilu- tr«»^s that it i orre^^pon^iN in position with 
ill!- .il til*- li«-.i.i nt the ;::e.i: serpent Here then we have 
.ill «•!' the '»vmbi»U of th«* oil N rpent wor'^hip embodietl in the 
diiiiicnl « triples ..f < )hio. .il! »•! tin in allinili*! .lUo by an altar, 
sh«»wi:i.: thai ihey were eMdmlly wvA ifi coiinecli«>n with sacri- 
fues Whether ihev wrre human ^.iLfi!'ues or n(»t is umertain. 
Th" .i!tar niournis in \Vi^con^ln h.ive only the scrj>ent «ffigy in 
con:*t ilion w.lh them. MslIi ot the symbolism Ncenis to have 
been Im^-i. .-M tar mount Is are. lun\ever, in Ohio associated \Mth 
the '^un synibol, .iiid it may be that the sun worshijx-rs were 
llie pi*i'j»U: wh'» erectetl the great serjK*nl. ami that they ]>assed 

•*..«. K.'kr-r- « lli«tiir^ .tf Mi>:aTr«. Mauri- ■•« II •(••r> >-f Si.tli*. *<*r W.liiAni Jim«i* 
.\« .»i . |'.t-««-nr' Ii«-« lh^\ tr«' MT!lt'>i<>ir^ of II.' I'r .l<l>. I -.r •iiti; " lll«rr* ttf l.ll^, Kttr^ 
If ^a.. ti -. >«rr)N lit Wiirvlitt'. r«i^ii •r* •«*'r)4itl Wiir^tii|>, I *i<rinAn'« origin tif HupvnU* 
tlMii. MAltclB Niirthvru AlilWuillra. 


oft in another direction, possibly to the louthweat, the Natchcj 
bciniitUfir dc4ccn<icnt». VVc are ready t<»acknowlc<ii;elhat the 
comp.uison can not be carried out in the case of the effi^'C'* o' 
Wisconsin. In Ohio wc have the circle, cross, crescent, horse 
shoe accomp-inyiiin the altArt. In Wiitconsin we have only the 
s<:r[>ent cflTiijics. Was it Ik-c.iusc the |>eopIc dc^icncrateii. or was 
it bci.aiiw they were of different stock * 

;th. The prevalence of forts t;uarded by serpent effigies is 
ani>thcr |x>iiit Wc have referred to the Fort Ancient, and have 
sail) thnt it contained the shape cf a serpent embodied in its 
walU. The same is true of the forts at Colcrain and near Ham- 
ilton. In both of these forts there are walls which rcsemblr 
sct[x-nts. Set- Plates. In one case the heads of the serpents 
formed .1 K-'tt'^ay which was afterwards closed, the tails forming 
the j;uards to two .ithcr gateways, which were the regular cn- 
tr.mccs. In the Colerain works the heads formed the main 
entrance, and a mound near the heads formed the lookout for 

the fort and at the same time served as an out-work or protec- 
tion ti> the gateways. The question is whether there are any 
forti in Wisconsin, Illinois, Dakota or Minnesota which have 
this peculiarity of the serpent embodied in the walls, or guarding 
the gateways. In refercace to this there is some uncertainty, and 
yet there were at Attlan certain peculiarly shaped walls builtout- 
sidc and inside of the enclosure which might be taken to be ser- 
pent efTigics. though their shape has so &r been obliterated. 

6th. A remarkable coincidence has been mentioned. Mr.Wm. 
McAdams has described Uie paths of buflUo booet which were 


di'^coviTcd on the prairies of Dakota, and has jjivcn a cut which 
shows ihc shape whicli the paths assume, and which brinj^s out 
the resemblance of the jKilhs to a ^reat serpent, a mouncl being 
in the centre ot the hotly, a smaller mound at the head. an<l a 
taperinj^ mound at the tail. It may be a mere coincidence, and 
may seem \isionary that we shoulil mention this, and yet there 
is a resemblance l)etween this modern serpentine path made out 
of bu(Tal<» bones anil the remarkable stone path guarded by the 
double line-* o\ standin;^^ stuneN, which is a peculiar feature <if the 
Works at Avebury, l-ji;_^i.iihi. We place the two pictures side by 
side to shiAV this. 'I he centre of this patli is a hi'^h hill called 
Silbury Hill, the larj^est artificial mound in Great Iiritain. meas- 
uring' no less than 170 feet in height. Here was the i;reat circle, 
containing two smaller circles and the eml)ankment with the 
ditch in>ide of it. At the end of this avenue was another 
double circle, which was also uj)on an eminence, called liennet 
Hill. 1 he tail of the serpent went in the direction of Heck- 
hamjiton. The resemblance between the two structures, tiie one 
in l)al:ota ;ind the other in Great Kritain. is certainly remarkable, 
but the traditi<»n which Catim re|)eated Inn^ before the jMth of 
burf,dt> l)ones was known, is even more remarkable. It has been 
a <piesti«Mi uhc. built the works at Stone Hen^e and at Avebury, 
and it is still uncertain, ^nnie ascribinjj them to the Druids, 
other-* ti* ihc rhtinicians, ami >till <»thers to the earlv Hritams. 


Thr (c-lts c«»ul(l not have mine t'> thi*^ c«)untry. for ther** are no 
si'ii> tlje Critic, Sa\j>n. or anv of the branches <»f the Indi>- 
l'.uroj»ean I ini.Miaj^'s were <ver introtiuccd line, the stutlents nf 
the al>nri|.Mnal;.Mia,.;es all bein^^ a^jreed on this point. In 
ret< rence t«t the Hritains .nul the lia^<;ues the linjjuistN are not 
so s.:ri-. In l.ici. some of them, Mr. Horatio Haie amon^ them, 
have » i.iini' <1 that ih'-re were many resen;b!ances tt» thcM- in the 
ln«lnn l.mLMi.e.'cs. \Vc would refer to the ct>nnectin;' link l>e- 
tW' in til' p.-i structure^ in Great lUitain and the tfTiiMcs in 
\Vi>' «»ii^in ar^! I>.ik"!.i. 

lAJ.I.i: AliolT ( UKATIN<f TIIK AMMAI> T^^ 


A ;;rr.iT nianv Imnclri'd miow.h ii^o, K;iri*ya, hitting on the 
S u ifii S't)o|, ( rraifd tlu- ucirlfi: K:r>!, he mailc I lie fKHikrn in 
t!.r b'*^ w.iu;, litcit the .iniiii.iN on ihr ^rcrn hint i, and Ia.*«t ot 
a.l, I'tif Man. \UV thr aniniaN wrrc all alike yel in power, 
.i;i.i \: wasnu'ivei oitlaincd whii h should he t<»r lood tt>r ulluTS, 
.i!)i win ?i v'ioul i !*e lood i<ir Thr Man Then K a rev a hade 
:!i' :n .ill .l^s^nlhle t<>;tr:her in a icrtain place, that The Man 
nv^hr ;^ive each his power am! his rank. So the animaN all 
nil : ii«;^riher, a <;reat manv hiinilrett snows ayo, on an evening 
whtn '\ir Min wa,s M't that ihev mi^ht wait l<»r the eominjj ot" 
Tiir M.m on the morrow. Now, K.ireva conunanded The 
M,!T] •♦» niake h iwsand arrows, aMnanv as there were animaU. 
ariii to ^ive the lor;;e'»t to the one that should have the most 
pi WM', ;wui tiie siiMii«->t lu the one who should have the least. 
So he (i:(l, AV.ii alter nine sleeps his wurk w.ts ended, and the 
I'ow^ .tnd .irrows which he m.icie were vrr\ many. N(AV, the 
.iniTnal" b«rn;^ ^^a^hered tc^^elhtr in oiie pl:ue, went to sleep, 
:l..i; mi^ht lise c*n the nioirc>w and ;jo forth to meet The 
Mti Hut theco\<»le was exceeilinj^lv cunnin;;, alH)ve all the 
b'-..'-^ wtTe, lie was .^jo cunnin;;. So he considered within 
liirn^« h h<.\\ he mi;;ht ;;el the longest hiiw and so have the 
;'»t jM'Wer, and have all animals Ii»r his meat. lie delcr- 
nrncil :o vi.iy awake .ill ni^ht, while the <»thers slept and so go 
inith lit si m the mr»rnin;^ and ^et the liingesl bow. This he 
devisfii Within his cunning mind, ind then he laughed to him* 
srir, and s'ritchf<l out Ins snout c»n his tore-paw 5, and pre- 
urhiiii :m sleep like the c»lher!i. Hut about midnight he Ix'gan 
to ;^r-T *<](*(-pv, and he had to walk around cami> and scratch his 
rM-H a t unsiiierable time to keep them open. But still he grew 
nn'ie sleepy, and he had to skip and jump about like a good 
oni- !.» keep awake, lie made so muth noise this wav that he 
wi kc lip some <'t the other animals and he to think of 
.m-i'': IT plan. Alvuit the lime the morning star came up he 
w.iN V,, sli^pv that he coul(in*l keep his e\es open anv longer. 
T.'.t ri :.r :> <>*N two li:i!e sticks and sharpened them at the ends, 
.itjii prii;»pr«i open his eveliils. wln-reupon he thr)ught he was 
«'.i:i , .if}ii i.c lonciuded )\v would take Just a little nap, wiUi his 
e\r^ "I'tn, *A.i!ih«ng the mnrning star. Hut in a lew minuses 
hf wa** HifUMii .tsiti-r^ .mil the sharp sticks pierced through his 
rM-Iid"* .md pinnt d !hem last tn^rthrr. So the morning star 
niMurred up ver\ •»aji:Iv and then there came a peep ol dav- 
bic.ik and t!ie birds began losing, and the animals lK*gan to 


rise and stretch themselves, but still the coyote lay fast asleep. 
At last it was broad daylight, and then the sun rose and all the 
animals went forth to meet The Man. He gave the longest 
bow to the cougar, so that he had the greatest power of all ; 
and the second longest to the bear, and so on, giving the next 
to the last to the poor frog. But be still had the shortest one 
left, and he cried out, *'What animal have I missed?** Then 
the animals began to look about and they soon spied the coyote 
lying fast asleep with the sharp sticks pinning his eyes to- 
gether. Upon that, all the animals set up a great laugh. 


Editin American Antiquarian. 

I have before me some hundreds of fragments of broken 
flint which are, for the most part, so rude and unshapely as not 
to be distinguishable bv casual or unskilled observation, from 
those which are commonly found on the hillsides and in the 
beds of streams in this country. They bear no traces of human 
handiwork which are discernible to the unpracticed eye. They 
have been walked over for years, many of them lying on the 
surface in a thickly settled district, without its being discovered 
that they ditlcred, in any material respect, from the other frag- 
ments of flint with which they were associated. Vet every 
one ot these rude and uncouth fragments ha«, in truth, been 
deftly shaped, in some part, by skillful human hands, guided by 
intelligent design, in order to conform it, as nearly as possible, 
to a preconceived ideal in the mind of the artificer, and adapt 
it to some valuable mechanical use. Taken altogether, these 
pieces of flint comprise a complete system ot mechanical im- 
plements covering a wide range of form and utility and em- 
bracing, as nearly as possible to the material of which they are 
composed, all the best forms and mechanical principles em- 
ployed in the most perfect metallic implements now in use; and 
show, in almost every part of this system, the process ot forma- 
tion of the more elaborate and complex from the ruder and 
simpler forms, and the gradual emergence and establishment of 
distinct and fixed types, from forms which are, at first, nascent 
and variable. 

Comparison of the most perfect forms attained in these im- 
plements with the most perfect and useful metallic implement ■ 
now in use leaves room for doubt whether it were extravagant 


to assert that these implements represent the hi|*hest possibili- 
ties ol ini^enuity and skill in the particular department of 
mechanical art to which they belonj;, and the material of which 
they arc composed. 

They are, doubtless, the only remaininj; vestiges of a people 
or succesfiion ol races who have, long since, vanished from the 
face of the earth, and convey in the delicate tracery of light 
and shade on their surfaces, much more of the genius and 
aspirations of the |K*ople or races who made them than is at 
first apparent. They clearly evince the conception in the minds 
ot their fabricators of very perfect ideals of the best forms, and 
an energetic striving to overcome the obstacles presented by 
the im|>erl'ect material of which they are composed, to the 
complete attainment of the ideal toward which their efTorts 
were directed. 

Thr>ugh of rude workmanship, except comparalivelv a few, 
In-ing formed bv a tew well directed fractures, they evince great 
ingenuity in adapting natural or accidental forms to the various 
mechanical uses. In some instances, an implement of good 
form, often appro.vimaiing very nearly some established type 
now in uv, with an efficient point or edge and a convenient 
handle, is produced, by one or two well directed cleavages, 
from a very favorable natural or accidental form. 

K.ich type or class of these implements is, nevertheless, rep- 
re^rntrd by thoroughly elaborated and tvpical forms, which 
arr«>rii saf<* and salisfactorv standards of comparison and classifi- 
cation. Between these extremes there are, in most instances, 
many intermeiiiate gradations showing unmistakable traces ot 
a process nt development, having its inception in the simplest 
recognizable forms, and its gradual advancement, bv slight ions, to more perfect and finished results. The first step 
in tills gradation or series consists, in each case, in the adapta- 
tion of a natural or accidental form to some simple u»e by slight 
modifuatidn, as by making or shaping a process or projection 
whiih would answer for a handle on a fragment which had a 
share ed^e or point fitted for use in cutting or piercing, or in 
making an edge or point on a fragment so shaped as to furnish 
a convenient handle, or in breaking oft from a larger mass, by 
a single ileavage, a spall which has a sharp edge or point 
suitable for use. Development of the art thus called into 
exercise would apfKMr in the elaboration of the forms thus 
.idopted, the selection and improvement of the best of them, 
tliereby originating and perfecting new and improved forms 
anil estabii hing distinct and fixed types. Even in the simplest 
adaptations some ideal of form would be dimly discernible, as 
is the case in these implements, which would become more 
clearly defined in the process of further elaboration and im- 
provement. These would become fixed types, or pass into 


othrr forms nearly related to tlu'm, v\hich wouki he improved 
and bt.*i()nie lixcd types. 

All the iVjH's or varieties thus originated, bein«( gener;ited 
under eon(iin«»ns ditleiiii;; sli;;htly and by re;;ular gradations, 
woulii torn) a sy>teia oi transit innal and ;;raduated variation. 
Henri' \vi»uld result, not a i^nuip i*r '.on^eries ot groups, ot 
disiiru : unrel.iteii forms (»ri^in;i!int^ separately, but a system of 
Ivpes and varieties, every j>arl <»l whiih would be related, in 
its tt*rni, to every <»iher part; and wliii-li, taken to;ielher, would 
cinbraie all Us ions anil liitlerences in a c<»mple!e imity. 

Wliili* the varieties ol torms anion;; these iniplements are 
nuinertius, inanv ot ihern iransiiional or intermediate, the sev- 
eral l\pes wliiili h.ive bet u ;iener.ilt d in the process of their 
devel«»|U)ien:, .oe, iii-\eriheNss, ile;M !y detined and permanent 
to a nnu h ;:n'a:cr decree than wuiiM seem p«>ssib!e. Thev 
indicate a tnui h ii!;^her de;;ree ct inventive in;^enui:y an<l skill 
and a inui h ;;realer kno\\ed;^e .ind um* ot mechanical principles 
than it uld be iii(>u;;ht possible ti(;m the use ol such a material 
as thnl. Thev embrace all the common mechanical u^^es ol 
cu'lini^, pirii in;^, bt'iinj;, scrapinj^, smoo;hin;^, <»r pl.inin^, ex- 
cav.ilin;^, elc; and it mav be >.ii«l in eVery instance, that the 
ver\- best nil . Imimi al piiticiple** available are bmuirhl into 
exeiiisc wiih kn it-rue Tn \\\r end to be acc(jmplished and the 
pe« lil aii'i' •« • t the mr.i rnip'n«\ed. 

1: |N fv'.ili !•• ih.i', .li'liniii^h \\)i- turulaiiM T'.tnl mechanical prin- 
ciples involve I. .i:e ^ii':"»!an:i.iii\ d:l}ei in;; onlv in their 
app'ir iii(»n in sn t.:i .t^ n:<jdilieil l>\ the )v-i uli.ti ities ot the 
ma'.iM.ii iiMii, ..fp. li.ifii; likr a lu-ar a[>p!n.iih to tlie lurms of 
tlie iT^'-T |M ! iiK » ii.«:.ili:i inij^le.i tills \Miu!d n«»l be posMPie in 
tlii- i:-r ••! "I ii I: .li :•'! \ a nia'er ;!»* dint. 

'V'..i' T!! :t:i!:.ii !iin r «il tne*.. impit inmTs, bv d:rit ol nu'lilin;*, 
h.iniriit I m::;. ^r i!!!'.!!':; .i!:ii the\ ti'hti ..j^tiuiis tnipii'Xed, 
( an >ii.i:r ii^ u<iik t.» e"i ii'spcnd prii:sr!\ wi'h the imaiel 
bi-:-: I- !i::si or :l;e iiii ..'. in i.:> nniid. Tl.tieli it- '. \ j*es m metallic 
irnt' ■■•ii'-T".!^ n».i\ lev" -ni'- :^fi tfv. '!v tiffiri:*!* .i!:-.! rc-rin.inenT 


I'll.' •;.' !:...N' I • I !* !■' ■ri;;-!';!: 'r.*-. i<!- '.].. i. n::.,r\, i< u!tl, 
\ir. ■'■: ■-■::. " * .'.• : ." !■■ « ::i •.:: -'. r'l i-*. i-i;' ?i ::."*r!\ ''i*!'*"' ^' 
ini I ■»■ .»:•'. I- \ -•::■; :■ 1.1 !» : : : « ^ i» »;■.« i: :..... • ij i. -r ni. He 

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appropriate and usclui as those applied to the metallic tmple* 
mcnts to which they correspond, or. indeed, any other which 
would at all suhaerve the rrouired purpose. The sanie nomen- 
clature and classification will, theretore, be employed in describ- 
ing the^e implements, as is applied to metallic implements of 
the .name sort or analogous kinds. 

In metallic implements, where the adherence to typical forms 
is more rij^ii!, the nominal dftinition ol the types and varieties 
implied in the mere classification and nomenclature would be 
sutlicient. Hut in ihe5e implements, where the typical lorm is 
more vaguely expressed and the range ot variation is wide, and 
when the intervals between the distinct tvnes are occupied by 
intermediate fornrs, so that they may be said to p«iss, by insensi- 
ble ^r.idation, from one to another, some further definition will 
l>e neceH!«ary to separate and define the several classes or types 
into which they are divided. 

Such definition will, of necessity, have to be made by means 
of the leading characteristics which are common to both the 
flints and metallic implements, characteristics separating both 
ot these classes into what may be fitly termed two varieties. 
This {Hrruliaritv in the mode of operating; them is, in each 
instance, the leading, if not the only characteristic by virtue o( 
which the entire class coheres. 

In like manner, while the classes designated as axes and hoes 
are each repre<(ented by thoroughly differentiated and typical 
forms, the boundary between the classes cannot be defined by 
reference to form alone. It is necessary, in this case also, to 
dis!in^ui>h them by difTerences in the modes of usint; them. 
Both these cl.isses are o|ierated by impacts, and a part of each 
are used in the hand without handles. The ultima*c and con- 
troliin;; distinction, which will serve to completely define the 
bound.iry between them, lies in the fact that the axes are used 
wiih the cutting ed^e in line with or parallel to the axis of the 
arm in u<»in^ them ; while the hoes are used with the edge at 
ri;;ht an;>ie> with the line or axis of the arm. While this dis- 
tinction may seem, at first, too fine-di awn and remote for such 
use. It IS, nevertheless, accurate and efl'ectual, and the only one 
avaii.ible for the purpose. 

So, too, all forms which, under this classification, must be 
included with the augurs, could not be well identified as such 
hv itieir torm^ alone. A spc*cial reason for this exists in the 
l.tit :!i.i! the nit-chanical principles which ore employed in the 
i'u^^tir are extensively used for excavating, as contradistinguished 
If I. Ill boun;;, withmit anv clear line of demarcation between 
ilje>e two suh-< lasses. iJut, in this case, the distinguishing 
di.irai teriniii' of rotary movement in the au^ur which sufli- 
( u'litlv idrntities all that need be included unrer that designation 
iN >o OBVIOUS .md discriminative that the further definition rt - 
t|uireil may Ih: made without difficulty. 


All excavating and borioj; implements which are operated 
b}' rotation may be anpropriately classified as augers. T^is 
definition will be founo accurate and sufficient in every respect. 

Under the designation ol planes may properly be included all 
forms of scrapers which are operated by being moved over the 
surface to be smoothed, in the manner of the carpenters* plane, 
however they may vary in other respects. 

The chisels are, perhaps, sufficiently distinguishable by their 
forms. They include all narrow bladed cutting tools which are 
operated either by impact of the implement itself, (which will 
be found to be a peculiar feature of a part of these chisels) or 
by impact of some other body, or by pressure merely. Their 
character is really determined by the form of their blades and 

The gouges, which are numerous and variant in form, may 
be taken to include all implements, with curved or angular 
edges, used in excavating concave surfaces in wood or other 
substances, except earth. This form, so far as used in exca- 
vating earth, would more properly fall under other designations. 
They are more clearly separable from other implements of 
similar form than in the case of the augurs before referred to. 
In the latter case there is no other class to which those larger 
implements used in excavating earth could be assigned. 

Gkorgb W. Havrs. 

Chicago, III. 

Editor AmcrUan Antiquarian : 

Mr. William Wye Smith will find a little earlier date for 
'* Maple .Sugar" than any he gives in his communication in the 
May number, in Karon I^ihontan's "New Voyages to North 
America." 2 vols , London. 1 703. V*>l. 1, pa|;c 249. he says. 
writing of the maple tree: *'lt yields a sap. which has a much 
pleasanter taMte than the best lemonade or cherry-water, and 
makes the wholsomest drink in the world." Then after describ- 
ing the mode of collecting the sap. hr adds : "Of this sap they 
make su^ar and syrup, which is so valuable, that there can't be 
a better remedy for fortifying the stomach." R. C. 

Cincinnati, O. 



luiitor Ameruan Antiquarian , 

Allow mc to call attention to the followini; relics in my col- 
lection : 

I. Spindle Rests. — These objects arc sandstone boulders of 
various forms and sizes. They tippear to be. with some excep- 
tions, of nature's fashioning: Hut a large |>erccnta(;e of them 
are of a form and si/e convenient for (grasping with the hands. 
They are characterized by a depression — centrally IfKated — 
about one inch m diameter, and from one- fourth to one-half inch 
in depth. 

Their Probable Application — Assuming that those ancient 
arti«ans understood the use of the bou-.strin^ in the pnKess of 
dnllin^j. these *'rejiis'* may have been very eflficicnt. The per- 
fect drill. fi»r [>erforating tut>es» is a slender and delicate object, 
with .1 T Nha[)e<i base neatly chipped to a sharp ed^e for inser- 
tion in .1 cleft stick. Securely attached to a shaft of convenient 
length. It is in position for ser\'ice. In 0{>erating it the spindle 
rest 1^ held in one hand, with the depression resting upon the 
ii{>(Kr end of the shaft, while the motion is applied with the 
other. ( )t course, stability is essential. 

2 I^ip-StoncN — These objects are distinguished by a smooth 
level surface, and ver>' closely resemble the shoemaker's "lap- 
stone." Hence the name. The specimen in my collection is of 
the (^reen stone variety, highly polished, apparently, from per- 
sistent handling. With a smooth-faced quartz hammer, copper 
niav have been beaten into thin sheets and then rooled into a 
compact cylinder for bracelets, or more loosely for beads or 
other trinkets. 

5. lied .Stone, or Nether Mill-stone, and Roller. — This process 
for pulveri/.ing grain is still in use in Africa, according to Uv- 

4 Mace and Banner Stone. — I applied the term "mace" to a 
lon^ cylindrical stone, with a knob on the smaller end, from its 
close resemblance to a police officer's club. I think, however, 
that they were not symbolical, but used with terrible effect in 
battle. They were, prot>ably, used by those in authority, and 
hence may l>e suggestive. 

5 A grooved hammer, as its name implies, is partially en- 
circled by a groove for the attachment of a handle. In some ex- 
amples thry are provided with a perpendicular groove for wedg- 
ing Some of them approach the axe in form and may be termed 
axe* hammers. One end is, very comoaoniy, larger than the 


Other. The hand-hammer is distinguished by the braised spots . 
on the sides, by its synimctr>', and by the absence of a groove. 
This object is the /n>/////7v hammer, and is still occasionally 
used. The "shuttle stone" was thus named from its fancied re- 
semblance to that appenda(:;e of the loom, but could not be ap- 
plied with any more success than a ram's horn. 

Besides these relics, there are several uncommon specimens 
concerning which I have uo opinion to offer as to their use. The 
following is the description : 

Figure I was found on the surface near the village of Wood- 
bourne, — the site of an ancient village. Its length is 4 3-8 
inches. Greatest width, namely at the angle, is I 1-4 inches. 
Cross .section at the same point. 3-4 of an inch. The sides arc 
beveled down to a tolerably sharp edge, resembling the bit of an 
axe. The upjK-r side, or edge, is grooved from a to b nearly 1-2 
of an inch in diameter, and al)out the same in depth; decreasing 
in depth to the point b, whence, to the end, it is slightly concave. 
The inci.sed line.;, c d, extend to the top of the opposite .side, 
possibly with the view of attaching it to a staff. I have no con- 
jecture to offer as to its a{)pIication. Material, light-colored 
ribboned shale. It is highly (xtlished. 

Figure 2 was found near Hravcrtown, four miles southeast of 
Dayton, — pierced at a b f<»r suspension, or, more proUibly. for 
a staff. The aperture is oblong or elliptical, 3 H by 5 S c»f an 
inch. Tlw-- cIii^mI marks are plainly visible. Material, dark, 
ribboncf! shale. Th*; horn was cniblrmatical of power. 

Figures 3 anil 4. 'I he **(I<irget". Material, sunite. From the 
I)od{> s jiicaiity. I h.ive a piece <»f a perf«)rateil plate or slab, 
covered on both sides with numerous Imes. i)i\ first view it 
looks like child's pl.iy. but a close inspection reveals regularity 
an«i t»r<!ei. Many ol ihe^-e lines r.uli.ite trf»ni the perforations; 
others ;ii right aii^^le. forniing nuiiurous "^ijuares. In some 
of th-'^e ^'ijM.iies an* minute tioiM»i piinvtiiris. 

I*'i ; ; — 1 iii-H "*j>ecmic ri w.i^ |i.i;nii in Miami^burg by a Mr. 
\Veav« r. win it tii;.;;^':n,: a wliuli wm^ on the circumvalla- 
ti«'n <»i .ill .UK (-nt eni «'>ijre. It-i p"sitp.ri was three feet from 
the N:r:.4» f. tir at tin- p«>:i:t «■! eoiit.i- t l)elwten the clay and 
un«l' T vr.;* 'r.iV' 1 A;; ■ n«>iti»n n! th'.-"-*- a:uicnt walls was 
utili/'.'I !>• th" • .irlv cjtj/" i:> m tile manu:.i» tin*- nf brick, grail ing, 
fiilin/. iti. 1 :i'" •I'ie^ti'-n .o« :■» \\h<t::ii th*- p'siti"n <»f the 
sp-i ::m I) A i-* t;i ■ rf'»'.i!t i»f .1 ti.l i! tii it ;* irticiilar Np. it i> of deep 
intrrt -; I- r . if fi-«t. lli'U t'lc is clear the wall 
was bu:'.t <•'.•! .t. .111.1 ilirrclt-ff Wi- .ire iuNtiTiMl in i^lainim;: for 
it .1 V r\ • «in-.t!f r.i:»!e tie/rie **{". 

S II Dkinkiiv. 

A.' X ir'.ir: \. ( »:::••. 





The* comparison of the e fli^ies of Wisconsin with the totems 
fit' the I).ikotas will he of interest to our readers in view of our 
recent find ot a serpent effigy in Illinois The corresf>ondence 
in very remarkahle. This correspondence appeared in tabcx>8 
whiv h were placed upon the diflerent kinds of animals, the 
clans never bein^; allowed to eat the flesh ol the animal whose 
tdtcm they bore. To illustrate: The elk clan are forbidden 
elk; the buffalo clan, buflalo; the han^a clan forbidden ^eese, 
sw.ins and cranes; the turtle clan, turtle. The deer clans could 
not wear deer hkins tor moccasins. Another clan was f'orbid- 
cien to touch 5n;tkes, toads or fro^s, and hence they are called 
reptile people. The Dakotas also have peculiar superstitions 
at>out their totems. Thev believe that the animal s)>irit pos- 
«iesse^ them, that the animal whose totem thev l>ear is within 
them. l*he .Mmnelarees dresf» in wolf ^kins when thev fj^o to 
war, the >kin and tail han^in^ down the back. The Tetont 
have raven >kin?« fixed to the back of the girdle, with the tail 
stukin^ out behind, and the raven u(>on the head with the beak 
projecting from the forehead. '^I'he Iowa clans have a peculiar 
wav ol iires!»:njj the hair, the hair of the children, es|Hrciall\ of 
the BulTahi clan, wearing; two locks of hair in imitation of horns. 
The;;a ilan wear a crest of hair to imitate the back of a 
butlalo. The turtle clan cut ofl all the hair except six locks, 
which represent the le^s, head and tail ot the turtle. The bird 
clan leave a little hair in front for the bill, and some at the back 
<*t the heail tor the tail, and locks over each ear for the wings. 
Heiore hunting, the Dakotas act a bear pantomime. The med- 
ii inr man dre>ses in the skin of a bear; all wear masks con- 
M^tin;; ol the IhmtN head, and all of them imitate bears. When 
hutlaio are scarce, the Mandans wear masks of buflalo heads 
\v:!h hi»rii!i on them and imitate the buflalo in the dance. There 
wrre a?»s«»iiations or societies which were based upon this 
ti'teniiMn, Ihmh^ imitations of the attitudes of the animals whose 
i«»*rnM they l>ore. The encampment of the Dakotas was ac- 
cofiim^r to their totem, each clan having its particular place in 
\)\r viu ampment or the village, and oftentimes had the figures 
ol the ilans painted on the tents. In the Ottawa village the 
(iitltrent clans had separate wards, at the gates of which were 
po<iis Inraring the figures of the clan totems. Sometimes the 



I • •• 



f I 



















skin was stutlcd and 
stuck on a polrl)elore 
the docir. It was paint* 
ed on the tomb or 
^ravc post, but gen- 
crallv reversed, with 
the head down. Some 
1 times the skin of the 
i animal hun^ over the 

Now we have onlv 
. to put these clan to- 
tems into the shape ol 
an tlliiiv CM' emhlrm- 
atic nwaind to find an 
expianntion which is 
verv sat i> fact or v. Of 
cour>e this mi^ht be 
dont* hv iinv other 
tribe as well as by the 
Winnebii^joes, but as 
;i mailer ot t.u t the 
n.ikot.iH wm- m the 
h.ibtt ot rmboiiyinjj 
llinr tott u»x in this 
w:iv, as no o:hrr tribes 
dui. Tliev not »'nlv 
p.iidtiil tlic'H) upcfn 
ihi* irntt, in«cri<H'd 
tlnni i:; «»n llic t<h ks, 
\^\r ImmIi s'fiir till ;,'!!• S 
w l.ii li >i;« lilii tL-pie- 
vi-n* Mu'Mi. .ilMi %%e 

>'.i|M" ^*' ••i»it ;" \V:!i- 
K < D-^-.u r}\v\- u^rii the 
I .11 : II til perpt lii.ite 

1 i.i* ii.«n.r> III liie 
I !.!!?" .i'>»» n'?ii *j*rnd 
•' ' •}■!• i 1 in rrT:bn m» 
;. ijr li .-.n:' I ;^ 'J'.r i tll- 
;^'i s '*- arr in mv 
:n't ! I <:i ii \akI> to il- 
i'*v.i*i- !:.'*. The 
I ).;K ••'.!> I.ave the 
r.'.tv.i s of <i:lK*rrnl 
atiiiti.iiN wl.iih thev 
;j-vr to tJ.«*:r ilans. 
• Tlii-^e* lorrc- 

Tin: .•'NVKi: II. \N \Mt>N.. TIIK l'AK)iTA<, :.3> 

5[M»it) to .) rtTi.tiii ()<-i<ri-f H i:li i)it* I laii i-iiiMtnis whk'ti wc h;ivc 
ri'ii>j;iii/.<'<l iti llie rtVv^y n)i)iin<!!i ot WisiiinMii. Thf l<illouin|r 
arc the i l.iii cinhli'iDi niiun ur li.tvi- di.Miurrfii iimuD^ lliv 
*tlii;v iiu.miil>, I. 'I'i.i' |i.iii:l:ir; t\\i* w..* Mtuatt-tl al Itij; Ilvnd 

h 2 p 

.;•!. ....:i.>i:.. .., i-~-„ii:;^___.-___j__:t— ^2s^ 


■ 'i.m:' !t!i. I.'.*.s '■' ' '--'^- '' •■ '■■''■.-« 

i..-.-ii ., 

•■■i)-iii. li .t« li.i-i-iiililfm i>nv.ilrnt .It :; Tlifliix; 


.:. ;... i:,.i .1: M .rj..m. .NLiyviUu .iii.l F..\ L.ikf. llu- ihkl 

1' il<-i>>in. '• Ttii' »niiiifi: li.i« ;• ;t ii-rv Miiiiiiiont-m- 

K.-MI .. 

: iJir.-'i L.Ik,', liiit t' ;i;-.. Mill 111! llic tMM'si.if i.l L.ikc 


'•::- '. 7. "I'l;. iiiirl.; is .tn .ni;-'.-!!) i> l..iii:il at 


. . .irv! It^rliJM I.ik.-; H iinvlM\.-!».-iri :i t <mi»:i-m .ir 

I! in.iV ii.lV»M-lllb...l(.-.i >..mri.!lnT M1|HT- 

^k i>!:;i iTi. >«, Tt.i' ji'^i-'ii u,is ();f I'lan 

flS cniiiiiiii •■» ilii- I.riiiotiAi ii Kivt'i; it ia 

■^U||l_^^^ •>iilv <-[ii!<lrii] .11 M.iiiMon. 

IMMBMV*^^ J. rill- ■'■;;!<'; itn- il.i:) ti.xl i:> li.ihitat 

IfSmm^ ■■'! !.i-\\i'~' i'i-;ii R;v. r. v^!;j^h.■^u■r(^■i^ 

P'Bl lr..i:] '11, (• !>,;;, i,> 'ri-'^),|v..i|ii'<Hl ol 

|3wi MiiM'-i.i. lu. )':.•■ •A.nii.w M.Lt itic 

^•'' t! Ill iT!i''*< m iiT !'if iiTniili i-l Uir Wi^. 

o-ti-in Kiv.i; i::>..vvryi<.m:n.:itlli-v 

;>i K : . 

!-.M'!i; (.'■■'i;rv. -.I.c lir-I ;; ;« \^^■■.r•^ I-.timi ;i' ('..ri 

A-i' :-■ 

v. IT. r 1! ....... i,.n.i ii„- l.-i Uiiii; i,.umi ri.ii:;o 

.^i! 1. ;, 

■■■■•. II. ■n,.-!i.!l,,:.,«..>.io.iimi..,: - 

i:: j\ 

:n (Jr.i.i: f..u.->. 11. Tl,,- l-.-.,r -WW 

■ ^..\.- Inn ;l.,- i:..ii , i»!.:itii .,t J^^Sb^^ 

I !•<• rr.i.^fii/.ii iM lii.- i-lli;;;.-- wiiiih 
iiliiu-m lix.ili!ii-;i. Ill m(i-.t ni tlii- 


locRlities, the boundaries of the clan can be recognized and the 
diflerent features of the clan life identified — the villace site, the 
game drives, the burial places, the sacriticial places With some 
of the clans, however, the boundaries are uncertain, as the 
effigies which are regarded as the clan emblems are spread 
over a considerable amount ot territory, ditVerent centers ap- 
pearing in the same clan. Illustrations o\ this are seen in the 
case ol the squirrel clan, as the squirrel effigies are very numer- 
ous on Green Lake and again on Lake Winnebago, making 
two separate centers. The panther effigy is also seen at Big 
Bend, at Racine, at Milwaukee and at Burlington, making four 
centers and lour village sites. The turtle clan had its chief 
center at Beloit, but the turtle is a very common effigy at Pe- 
waukee, which is some tiftv or sixty miles away. The eagle 
clan has its ihief center in Eagle Township, but there are eagle 
effigies at The Dolles, on the Wisconsin River, and at Sauk 
Prairie, and other places, showing several centers tor this clan. 
The same is the case with the bear— one center being at BItie 
Mound, another at Nine-mound Prairie, another at Madison. 

The wolf is found at Waukesha, and again at West Bend, two 
centers. Tlie race* ion is tound at Milwaukee and again at She- 
boygan, two sc*)>.irate centers. This ciicumstance, however, 
prove> cithi-r that all belonged to one tribe or that there were 
phr.itrr'i in the ditK-rent triin-s, the |>hr.itres always having the 
same emblem as the m.irk ot' their sck ial or totemic affinity. We 


have i-nough t-yidmie Iiom tlie rffi;jie>, hnwfvrr, to enable us 
to tlx upori the n.trnt's nt the clans, and we may well compare 
th<*ni with tiic iMint'*< ot the Winni'b.igo and othrr Dakota 
triSie^. We sh.ill hot find anv one trilH* w hii h contains all Ol 
the I Ian einbieni'* rxai iK a> rhr\ aie ;iivin by the ttHgies, nnd 
yet il \\r t;ikf* a'»i ot '.fie I>akota tri!u-s wi* ni.iv Ih' able to pick 
out emblems whii h .ire exactly the >ame as those tound in the 

Wi? tind that the Kaws liave tlir nrarc^t approa*.h to the clan 
cmblemN in thr illi;^ifs, Iml the Winnrbagors art* thr jn'ople 
w h«) are MippoM-d to have been the buiUiiTi ot the rtFigies. The 
lollt>-.ving is the ll^l of cian I'mblfsu'* as pre^entevl by the dirter- 
cnl !)akr)ta tiilMS : » i \ The Winnrbagors have the ziW/^/^ear^ 
buffali'^ r/;;/V, elk^ dri-r, Snake^ thun«irr, — t>nlv four ol them 
hiund amoni; the i tli;^irs. .:•. Tfn* have the deer, 
bir(i, turtlt\ f'uf.ilo^ ht\:r^ mriiuinr,, fsr.ul, red, thunder, — 
otiiy three of them amtjn^ !h- -tli^ic* \^ . The l*unka8 have 



the A^ar, trik, ftkunk, biifah^ Snake« mtfdicme, — only two found 
amon^ the cRi^jic*. The lowaM have ihe «W/*, bear^ hufalo^ 
elk, ea^le^ ptgeon^ Snake, owl,— five found amon^ the efliifies. 
^5». The Sioux have the torioisr^ Snakr, squirrel^ f^^'olf^ buffalo^ 
lour amon^ the i*trij;ie«. (6). The Kawtt have the drer, htar^ 
buffalo^ ivhite ca^le and black ea^U^ duck, elk, raccoon^ prairie 
woif^ turtUy earth, deer — tail, ttrnt, thunder, — »ix of ihrm among 
the efTi^ie*. (7^. The M«indanH have the aW/, bcar^ prairie 
chicken, knife, ri/4>/r, Hat head. 

hi;;h viha^e, — three ol them 
among the eli)gie». Out of' 
thi* fnlire lis! wt find the fol- 
lowing emhlcniA contained in 
the rrtigies used aft clan em- 
blems: The Inrar and bufl«do 
in 5ix trilK**, the eagle in live 
Irilx's, the woll in tour tribes 
the turtle in two tril>eii, the 
pigeon m one tribe, but we 
<l<i not find the >quirrfl, swal- 
low, the panther or mink, in 
any ol the tribes. It i** difli- 

•%f • ••••* 

cult to account tor the absence of these totems, for they are prom- 
inent among the efligies. It she"''' ^ said that l>oth these animals, 
the panther and squirrel, are ...^!y found among any of the 
tribt .H, whether Algonquins or Dakotas In fact the Sioux is 
the only one of all the northern tribes which has the squirrel as 
a cl.tH emblem at all, and the Chickasaw is the only one of the 
southern tribes. The MiamiH and Shawnees are the only tribes 

among the Algonquins which 
h.*vr the panther. The Da- 
kotas do not have the panther 
at all. This discrepancy be- 
tween the efligies and the 
clan emblems ol the Dakotas 
is to be recognized, for it may 
be that th«* effigy builders 
were not Winnebagoes, but 
Mdscoutens, or possibly Ojib- 
/%i/ :'-ihr,u u,ru*m. iu. was, or some other of the 

A'jiifiiiuin tribf!!,— |>ossibly the Foxes, Menominees, Kickapoos 
<»r Po'.i.uv.ilt.imies. 

'Vt\r \ i lowing are the Algonquin tribes which have clan em- 
hirm-i C'irre-ipontling with theethgies: Oiibwas, Pott a watt amies, 
<):mw.ih, MtamiH, Shawnees, Sacs and Foxes, Menomineeii and 
Ku k.ipoo>. All of these have resided at one lime in Wiscon- 
s:n. Nf) one ol them, however, has all the emblems which arc 
i ont.nnrd in the effigies, though they come as near as do the 
Dakoi.iH. The following is the list of clan emblems of the 


AI|;onquins which are found in the eHi);ies: The Ojibwas have 
lour, which correspond, ihe wolf, bear, turtle, ea^le. The Pot- 
tawattamies have the wolt', bear, eagle, fox. The Miamis have 
the wolf, eagle, panther, raccoon. The Shawnees had the 
wolf, bear, panther, raccoon, turtle. The Sac« and Foxes had 
the wolt, bear, eagle, bufl'alo, fox, five that are found among 
the efligies. There is about the same correspondence between 
the Algonquin totems and the efligies as between the Dakota 
totems and the cfliijics. While we have the panther and the 
turtle among the Algonquins corresp«>nding to the emblems io 
the effigies, we find ihit the mink, squirrel and s^wallow arc 
absent from ihe Algonquins. It the argimieni in reference to 
the D.ikotas or the Winncbagoes having l>een the effigy builders 
rested upon the resemblance between ih«* effigies and the totems, 
we should be at a loss to chuose Inrtween the Algonquins and 
the Diikolas. It (Lies not rest on this, but it rests u|>f»n the 
prevalence of the snake totems among the Dakota tribrs, five 
ol the tribes having snake elms among them — the Wmne- 
bagms, the I'unkas, the lowas and the Si<iux. This mav be 
said to turn the scale. In fact, we depend upon tiiis to deter- 
mine the starting point ^'1 the Dakotas, the line along which 
they migra'ed, and the points ac which th«* ItilK-H settled. It 
is a singular circurnstancr si*r|H*nt etligies are tound only in 
the teriisoiv which was once <»ccupied hv the Dikotas. They 
are not tounii in thf region when* the Algonquins lived. The 
MascMurens nr Kii k.i|>oos have hetn hv some regardeil as the 
earlifs» iribr in Wisconsin, ami the effigif's hav** In-en aMTilMrd 
to thi'in. Milt thi-re are no srrpcnt itlig:es in any locality 
whnr ihf Kuk.ipoiiS lived. Th*' Sacs anil F«>\rs were at one 
tinu' in the Irrritorv where thf rtlii^irs .irr Iwunil, but so far as 
thf \ lil i^t-s n\ tin* Sai s anil ^^J\l•^ ,ire ctMictrned thev contain 
noMT'.v n; i lli 'ies. The locali!n'S which have W'vu stud eJ, and 
near wfiuh '^rriM-nt i fli^^ies havr hern iii>. t.viTcii are not vil- 
l.igr> \\)i:Jj tia.::'i" n Ii\l•^ iip»»n .i*» having brt-n lucupird U\ the 
S ii **. I'l tut tMf .rl'-ir** mu\ till- iTinia'ion p!.ui> c)t the two 
r.urs \\l.:» !, i'lj.i; -.iirir vill.igr^ •t:"^:^ --.i* M'^-i'^^ipjM River and 
in W;-^. ••ri^ifi inr'tirni lit* iiir'.i\ ti»r I)..k(»'aN wtre tic 
peopif v\i.n lni:i; ;)jc t lligit"*, r.i'.ii* r '.litn ar:v«''l.iT known trilH*. 

A!:r|| I iil.iH.H \I. NoTI>. 


\!:( li I i'l.iH.irAi. smv 

\!:( li I i'l.iH.irAi. Sitiv^ 

Till "^1 I I I NT I t » :• ^ :% li I i\<-i- 11 litiT III i)i'- f.iiriiui l..i- r« 1 1 ntly 

II.. fit- .1 -li-' ••%•!% « !tii 1 1 :« -• liii M ) r-!art'. tlih: .ili<! T* \>>!!l!i<>l :ir\ I[i fiit't. 

iii.i'i -t t ti.i' k f !ii- ti>ii- xf ••] : III ••II w h.i )i !iit- f**** n »•• ••iri>iiu'l> 'ir tfiMtir i<iU;iril 
t)ii* ( ^i-••^\ ••t' tfii* iii<>i)ii>l (•tiii-!i-ri li.i\ 111,; I't'i-i. ^!l lrii!:.iif, ;iii>l iii:i\ ri*- 
• •!.iM.-}i till- •>: ! !^•••^^ :i- !•• T(.<- !iii<iii.>i tmi lii r*> tavinu' Ih'I h lultiiH 
\« ll!i-^ - link iif M n ti> -••Mil- ••!' till- Iipli.iti-. .!>.•! « l.i< )i W.I* till *jiiii<' ;i> lliftt 

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w ' ■.*'■■:•■ ' r It - . ni,!'\ :ii I .'iroi**-. or in lii'i .1 

.. :.i - ■'. !l.. tiiil wi I<! ifU »:;■••■ ••/ -! .i!l ••!j!\ • »'. 
: ■ ■ ■ ' • I i\ v .1- ;".■■■ -I .!• a *.ii|' •-ri.k«- iiii- U -i. aImI m.i- • r« !i-.4!i--1. 
**■ . » A" :• : '..t> • 1 ■ I. :!.« "..TM -ai.- 1 1m '. a! ii.-*.ii.i • - \.if \ .i.y; 
■ ■ • '. . . :• ' ' ■■;! I'll I .•.!■' ir.i' iir-i !....|\ '1 In -kii.l i>i M.r :>>Hf r 

i-Ki" • f«- i*'ir»- .■f!ln- !'.:.■! >••!»«• '.'r. i» I- »'iif:r..!\ iii-» Tl.i* 
■■ • ■ • - r . ■ > \ • 1* il •• ■ I » ri ■! '.;; ■ ii :l.i ■• • ri t • :ir !" i-f • ! 1- I !.:• f. r r 

■^ " : w 1- • fi 1 •• ■'. I t.i- »i< iki -ki '• •• r. *% I- \iki !i ■■ I* ill l'l 

I • ■ ■ 
• ■ 


.* • 

I . ■• *M"t« . 

'..•11 ;.:...••* t?.i* J i-.i.!:- »-.r-!. j .i- 
■ ' V • -', I J ■• \ .i:.t 1 .i! t!n» Tin •• \].*- I'ir,.ii wa- ii..i-if ' »'!i« r 
I - -^ i ■< I , .1 w .* I ■ ' ..• r -t..ik« *. I.i' ii-»rH- — • !.. i;^' •! a* ti.i- Tin* 

•A •■.....? ••' ;• !?.'■. ■ f' Tl.f ::ii.| ari- li'fii-r.i''- i- jiiil!* II •ii. » I." i-.»ii 

'.'-' '. I- ' • . i ■...'! r, ■■: !:.i- . .;>!-ii.iKi Tin- I Ti i:.a'.- 11 -if Mn Un1\ ».i^ 
«.. ■ ■ 1 ' ■ ■ . !. .1!. t -. I !.! !l.a? '.'i»- I'i.ii k -'II w.i- lurin'l i» a Liity a!|« 


ance. for ten inrht*^ bolow tli(* ImnIv. Tho Uuly it><i*lf, that iii, the Ifonen of 
the IhmIv, wvrv luully bnninl; hut not so hailly charred hut that a picture 
of it (NMil'l Ih* tiikf'ii, XUit ytt'iii'um of tlic handi^ anii the plaet* of the tiDfreni 
with thetf»il of th(* Ht*r|»ent iK'in^ plainly vinihU*. Theiiieth«Hl of (Teiuaiion 
iRunkni»wn: Imt a white (•iilii'tance reM*nihhii^ rhalk or hurned liinentone 
oiver»« thi* entire ntirfaiv of the naiuvr, ami U>n(>ath the white lime noii a 
re«l(lihli hiil>»*tanre, which, at lin>t apin^aranre. reH*nilile«l tine plai(t**rer'a 
hair, hut which pntvcd to In* huinfd matiriul, though whetlter it wof animal 
or vet^'tahle huhi^tance has* not yet hren aM'crlaineil. Th«*re wan ni» hair 
almut it. hut it had that appearance when tir^t H'^n. The hize of the 
Haucer wan twflve fi'«"l acnn"?*; dcpr«'.'"Hi(»n tif it thnt* fret. Thi* foundation 
for the tire U'd w:u< i»f hlack earth, th«* cuvi-rin}: i»vcr the tire Utl waA 
Holid yellow Hami. I'i^dit fcfi deep. Tin* liurialr^ in th«* .-aihl, all «»f tht-m, 
having iHfn on the out^idi' of the nmuni); nothing' ua** aUiVi* the i»riirinal 
iMMly. Fi»nr of tlie huriaU, tlii>he neart*^t the ImmIv, Mkvw at the iNiintK 4if the 
rrinipa.*"«, anil wert* attendeil with Hke!et«inb of Miakeri. thonuli the im^ition 
4»f the hnake?« wan not ilelinitely marki'd. The pit-iiinns of the 4-i>ntrml 
ImnIv, an<i of the accompanying; U)die;<. in the haucerlike altar or tire b«*d 
Were ph«itok;ra]>hed. 

A party f»f ppife^ii-iiinal irentlenien fri>iu i^iiincy Here pn*»<ent at the final 
exhiniiHtion. llonfiralile \V. H. Cnilin*-, Mr. Whe^-ii-r, the itiitor of The 
Journal, Mr. < ir.itit M. CurtiH, mie nf the r-ial! ff TIm* .hiurnal. Mr. W. II. 
Mi-Mcin, of the tlrni nf V«»lk. .Imit** «v MiMein. uho ar»* ih** printer* of 
Thk Ami>/i Mil w, Mr.> ifii the >i)ii Kit iif Tt'chniil- u' ll>i-t<in. and 
hn htittlo'i.uiiil -eviral ••tliiT |N«r-iiii». ISmm l.4Mnjin and hi- ^urpliceii t-tmir 
4if the Catiiflra). in l^iiini \ , ui-rr i'anip:iik: ii< ar )<\. The) were aUii pn M*nt 
and i*\iitiiiiii*d till* I r! I try dimn^ tin- li.iy Mr. ( ••Ihn- Xi*»tk. the >keIeton 

of tite ^tiake fr<i|ii aiiioni: the lili(:er-)"t|ie<« i>: l)ie )«idy, .iiid al"<i ••(•eni**!, 
Willi hi- { I.I ltd- 1 1 If |>Lh*f in Hhith till* -kull t>r Til ;<- »fr;<i-iiT wiir>hip)tr wan 
r^-!!!;/, aii'i till- I .iM\ w Mm *i«l the pi.-iii-n It r-n- tin- -kiill wab taken uUt. 
Tlii' \\ .III* ^-•"' ut rt- ^DiiiiiKintil !iii<t \tr\ kii.>i.v ii-i-finli •!. anil t).t-ir lifi- 
tiiii •i.\ u.ll f>iri;i an i .tt-n-'iii.' fiMluri- • t ;).•■ !.')!. \\ :- a reiiiarkahli* 
enlilir ii:.i*...ri ••! Uti- ll.r><r\ \\ !i :• ii Ir.i- Im-imi Im !> I ) •\ t|,i • i if i -r, aiii| t he W It- 
III--! - ;ir« -.M. t;« <! ;ii « •• r\ \\av !«■ -li-'-'ai.t .iS !l.t j'.i- !- .ii.d di l,ii.» 

t " ■■; : \».;~ \ ' : ; 'ir **! .ti \ i I i j : : f •« i :i :-.;-.•..■.• r\ I'f an »iriL'v !■••• 
i<i<i • I • ■ I -. ' ■ . ■.■ A .--■, .1,1 r • - 1 •,'•-*- .1 • ■»■• I' - ■•» 1% .' rj Mi»» ^Tf^l ••■{H'lit 
erii/. -1 ' • I . I' ■!" Ti'-iiii li I- 1 1 i .1 ■ I i; ■> ;:i - ll.i ^m.-le. 
p r-. ■ I- i ;ii / ■.- ' ' .' - . t 'r \ j-r .! !"*•♦.■•• :..•■ - ;■ ■- ■ n-- :!i'.«'r»— Im^ f.l Ij*. 

I I .1.- ' I' • ' '. i' "i' r - :; ir • .. ■ • 'ij. i . r/- i .»! -i • lit 1. .in 1 lh.At thin 
fii'-';t. 1 . ..n'.i M ■! .1 .ir.-i ■■ :.ti.' .* '. -i ••..,- .ir. 1 .n. ■ . I I- .r plai • w huh 
W.I- .i::. r w ..; i- ! > -.•■ ■■: .i ; . ..,j' .i - ■ -.•. - . i .t:.- • ;.' fi.i'.\iti..ii-. tiurni 
pl.i- • - ir. ; i f i I \' ■■'., ] .!■ • - lit. :• r tit -■ ii . * ^ ' j'.i\* ' .ii.: .t i.nii If-r 
• •:" -! . . !•■■.;.<.- ..- \\> . .1- »*'.i . • - ^\ * ' . r • ' . :• t -k* .• ?• |.- *»1 !!:•>• lern 
I11I..41.' 1 ' «• ■ \ .» • !.- ■•-■;?• . . !.•.■.;!.• I ,1 :r ■.' : : r .ri ! -r- i.f. >l.<'Wi[>i: 
th.if ">;■•<. I. r« .J .- r .'• » : x . * • 1 t. • ii.-'. ■ ■ •• ■'. f • :•■ I'l' : 1''.tt..i|i. *h\- 
\Vi- I I* .'. I . .'.'..•.'•».. t! . .:. t J ' .1 i«-..j: ■ :• •:.! .1.. It .- { r< iMile that 

III . i"' r r . Ill-- • '.■■ -'.r.i.f -a i- .1 : i • -f r* - •' . i- --." ■. .i- • i..- I.i-'d **irei| 
11. :;..'•.- .It. ! -v ' '.- 1 «. : ■•■'.i' : f .1- • ' w :. ' ■ .1' " ' - -t • | * 1.! Ki.t» huill 
I i-r.' ■;' • - .i^- ■ Ni . ; : . i «.k. •. ; - ■ f t.« • ' f* "I ' ■ - ■ ' ^ ■• :i* i: 1 ' t '.-I • t- tia\e 
laki Ii j ..-. •' Ii.i.-. . '. ',.1 - i..i . • i • I :i : :.▼ •-•: .;. 1 •!.!.• 1 t. i; « jlh 1 i-rt iieinicv 

AIUMI.i:ol.(H.l(\\I. NoTK<. 24:i 

fif tin*, :inil in two iii«1.iiit*i'^. nt Ii*a^1. urt'iiiiip.ini«*<l liv tin* )*iirnifiw* *»f hiiiiiiiii 
iHNhi-* |HM*tli|y liwiiiaii ^airilii-f, ihat 4'«>ii-tai]t Afii*r>hi>ry iif ntaii) am ii nt 

\Vi* tirnl thru a ri**i-iiiMai]rf Utwiiii thi^ MTp nt rtli^'V nrn! t)>i«M* tlmt 
ari-foiinil in Wi-«Mn-iM <iii«l Illnnn*. t)>**i)i:h tlii-ri- 1» nMiri*"nMilar:t\ In-twifii 
If .ml i)h* ^ir|N-ni <-l!i,;> j'l-t f>iiin<r T(i«* \rry fm i. !i<iwi-\ir, that ttii*ri* 
art-'*-* of an ani-ii*ri1 \iil.ik''' ati>l *>( ani^t-nt Itat'itatinn-* n*urt)it> (Mii<« 
M-r|N>nt ni.iki*> ii» riMl:/t* thai hrri>«'nt iili^rit** wiri- fritjurntly ii»i«l a* a Mirt 
I'f j»r«ilti ii'»ii In villaji-*. Hi- Wi-ll a* a •hriiit* wht-rt- ri-lii:iiiii" •••■r\nt" i-hmiltl 
!•*• I <-iiii>i<'!« •! Wf h.i\«* ^h'liiii thi* in thi* I'.i^i* **{ ihr »fr)N'ni «*llikry n«-ar 
^Ia^ \ lii . \\ I" ni ar whw'h wi*ili«i*«i\i*r«-<) a lark'** iiUMi)*«'r iif krnriii n U iIn 'I'hi* 

• iiiH- '.!■■! riinti— ••'ii in ih** I"*"!' iliar nrrl*' n» ar ^ll■rnil ?*prMij:'». 'I "hr •■•■r- 
]•• I.*, t i!.»Mi-<- I. far l'i'ti>-i •{•• lift -(•«-(ii \** ha\«' thi- f<>r tht-ir i>t |tit, f^r thi-rc 
I* I. • \ '..i.*«- It i\w\ > i-f |«i«i>i)ily it «%• inti-inh**! «• « k'*i^r<l \** thi> 
l>:r:.i! M.'Ui.-U \»hii-h ar«* oialtcTi-l n1 int*-r\nN n!<inu* thi* 1mm{% nf niii»t i>f 
t!.> • !l:.M - 1>r Ijiphaiii ha- -|«iLi*n of l>niiai niiMiipl- )>• iii^* .irran^'t-'i in 
!l.« ! r-ii ••! I -• r;<i'nt iifar liiirlinjtoM, \Vi-i>in-in, thn* *>h>iu iii^* that thi>* 
-ii^-r-!:' .iiM i-ri'vaiit .1 r\!«-iifcj\i-|\ uni<*nc t)i«* I'ltikTy hirl-h r-. 'Ihi- ili— I'M-ry 
i! tli;" -• r;-f:i*. i!li«*> ni>ar ij.iiiii y. Iii:ri<>:-. i» iiiiimrtaiit. 'Ihi* •■irjit-iit i* 

• }):.'•- Ill trki •!. ari'i i- «,iMti* i-a-i!\ ri-i->>Lrn :/•*•!. .f thi- natufa! aii-i thi-artif'ii lal 
.!'« '••■'!'i '.% )-!Mi'!i>l. '1 h« rt* a'l- ^'i iitany {•••iiit* «ihi*rf thi* ani'u-iit 
-v iiil"< >!i. w h:> h 1- • nl\ T iin«l in uru-ntal I'oiinlrn - ua* mil***!!! •! in thin 
•■ i|.tr\ '.l..»! !lii- Iiirii!l!> N-iiiMi*-* vrry ••ij'intlfan!. I; h.i" rr',i:;ri'il thr i |i«»i' 
-• . '\ 1 ! •!n- Mm;!- tn r»»i ■>:»»;"■ ^h»' h« r-i'-hiH-. iln* tlir*** ]<<-ak-. Ihr itir\«' 
"f T :•■ -i;.i-t.ka <r :'•»•■ ^••mrai'-r . l-nt ihi-y arrail ht-rr. 

\\ i i.-u i-M.f t • t!,i' |<.irt;i ii!ar* In th«- tir*! }<l:u ••. thi- I.irL'** •••niml 

?'. .■ .- rt-t«i J. .■ !». ni-al ni"i:fi'! nt-ar thi* M'r|»riir r:I:jy in t'hm. 

**• !■: I.< ;rf ii,<«i<l l--iri..i ni<>iitp|« in tht- ininit*«liatf \!iini!\ i* ^u;;* 
/■ -• \' \ •• w \ I .i"» flL"' thf ■■:!:/fii-. M h:!i' ijra'iii.^ thi- r»'a'l It-Niw th:* 
-•';•:.* f :: J'. ;!>w«<i i ii! .% larc*' ijiiantMy ii| l«<r>f «. ••hou iiiij that :t Ma* 
a ^- if t I ■: • \\ r h.i\i' •■xhiiii.i-'l h-iiii •* lY'iMi iifMii-I* lit th>- i:iiiiii-ihatt* 
\. .t..'\. .iii<i l-.iVi a- trta.ii'-<l lla! ihi n* u.i^ a -mi .■i-«>:'"ii <•! h>iriat<* 

• ' ri .t- ! r.i T. w i- \.* AT !*.«■ •• ri^-ii! 1 il:jv in * Mn-i 'Ihiril. An ••rilnik: '•■ thi' 
■ i" :'.M,i-i' i'\ Tr--! I' itii.iin. thrr» i- a '.•'■■k"!it V. -'Wil •!! thi }>liil! n}- 

- •• '".t t";.!: .:!.,;>. I. Tihi»i -I Ir-'ht tin- •• ri-^i.t •■M:-'\ . an.! it -iini* 

I" •■ . v..!* ir.i ■•■r. ■ a. ii..'ii!i'l. N<i -'i, i-Xi a\.iS-i l-y Pr--! I'nf nHin. u.i« a 

■ •. .' ;: -.'i I .1 ■ ->« I !. .(- l<-ir..i! !i.<>iin<i Til* rr I* ;« -trAin«r ri'«i-ti.i>r.ihi •' t«i 

T '. i" .'. f. !'..'■. f I ; !ii. • .' M ♦• •«■ ri"*!!' W'-r-h }■]■• r- :ii I.'"i-. a* lliiTr 

I- ■ • .! !.,i'.r;- ••!• !'.■ •!!./) aii-i ■•':.•! iiii:.Nik m."MI.-!» "ili thi* 

..•,.• 1 •■ !•• I. Ill" ••.:■■* w J. ii h li.i". • *■«■•:» ■!••. .iv i-r* •! hy 

I- ■ I' ■ .-1 ..». ■.-■ -•!• 1. r» ■ - .1- ati* !■ ui'i ■■x« f •!.• • i.i.r* it ;;.• n • n.- 

.* •:-••• f .•.■r\ .'! rii •:!.»;> i •:. -i'f- I !■• \ fi-i.-.-r > 1 -••.!. i« 

. ■ ; r. • •- ■•■. iVt-. jr'-'\ •••-!• i.t .ji. J • r..i r.t*. arn-u hi .i<!>, 

■ - . • ;•:•"-■?". .ir ■■;•■ k I <i- I }.• rt !« .« i.* .ii--- ari* 

: . •■ .'.:.•,•••■. .t. .ii,.l «•■ an- fi'- -'in- r ■.!• :..i! M,« i-i.» - at. -l 

• . . - ■ : • ... • .r ■ .. r r.i t - . f !..■. ;;i i ' » !• : i. » •• ri.i\ •■ ■{.*• < ■! • ri-l 

\ -t- .»■■..! t. -. w ■■■i.'l i" I ; i-*i-'J a- l'tl"U.Miik* !•« M.f *aii.«' rui"i* 

M •■ • ..-• :i •". .1-'. l-ni- .1? :!.i *.■■". :.j -if thi* luii.! ai 1.:" if l- III .ir i!ii' 
.-:■ i' - • . • ■ • r. \ i.iu •• * •■■ti T\ . i ►h;-'. I ilMi, 'I hi rr i- • !.• < .fi wiii^tafii •• 
\i .' ..-]•>. .ar NI" iii-M'ii.-:i r*' {■:i^'« j.aii- Ki-n i><un>i .it (■hi". «ti<l 


neur I).ivon|>ort, Iowa. Then* in a ntrikin^ rvHeiiiblance between Uiefe pipefl. 
TliiiH far. to Ih* sure, no Huch \t\\iw liavu be^-n found in connection with any 
of the ctri^ieH, ifrtainly not with any her|»ent (tliiry. Still, the Fer|ient 
etli^'v and tho pijK'H of the two re^riunn nhoulil \tc cimiiiariH]. There are, 
to ho Hin\a frw |iiiK*ri whirli have fteriHMitH inhtTiU*<l ii|Nm them. OneKurh 
in (U-KTiheil hy Si|ui<*ranil Pavin, thou^'h thfy flo not nay where it war foumi, 
(Hi*e Anrit'nt MoinniH'niH. p.L'tiM. tie l^^»i anti an«>th(*r i«eiilpturi*«l vtone hav- 
ing the form of a Hfr|H*nt in ih^MTiUt) hy the fame author, (Hi*e ]i. 27'i, (i|f. 
l«f}). Thin woH found in thi* ^Teat ('nrlo!«ur(* on the north fi>rk uf I*aint 
CriH'kf whii'h in at quite a tli^ta^^e from the ^reat ceriM'nt, ami in an entirely 
tlitferent Htru<*turi> from any fotind near the M'r|K'nt elli^y. The i'oile«l ser- 
pent from ()hi<i reniin«l>i uh of the na^.i or ^ynilMilir si*r|H'nt of Imlia, ami we 
notitv that I*rof. I'utnum in hi^arlii'lt• (pptti':- <ifn. Kurlontr ami I>r I'liene 
ami other auth«in> ulm have hrlii tn thf th(«iry that *-er|*ent-wi-r>hip all 
ori^inati'd'in (»ne placf, un<! hpr«'uil mcr ihc rntirc ^'Inln* fmni one o-ntre. 
Sixth. Thi* liiiuifli* rur\«* like a hnu'i* Irttcr CO ih ihi* ni«i*-t noti«vahle thini; 
in rnnnrrtinn wiih thr ^erjient 4 tli^y. Sfvcnth, The «'• infirmity nf th«*M*r- 
|ient to till* ^ihaI•<• uf thr itlull* i.x rvch iiiorc inarktil in thin HT|H'nt in 
Illinnih than in thr Ohio M-r|ient. Kvrry t-pur of the hluli in Mnrmuuntetl 
hv a low iiinunil. whifh ntak«'*< a ^wrll in thi* IhhIv tif tin* ftiaki*. At the 
ifuti-r of t)ir fli'iL'y tliiTf nTv fiiur hpur^ in the hUxiX. Th«**-i* wt-re taken ail- 
vant:i;;f nf and hi^di ('unifal niniind*- Hiri> p!ai*«'«l on tht-ni mi ar ttiiuakrthe 
roll <ir nintnrtion of thi* hnaki* all th«- ini>r«' iniprifhivc. 

TiiK r»i>:ii M>ii Ml \Vi< ha\r \'*vt\ ot't-kiiitr fvir th«* t'onmvtin^' linki lie- 
tm'i*{i tlif « tii^i«■^ in \arii>nr* p:irT*i fir<ifi>ri;ia and oliin, aihI thi>»«* in Wiii- 
4'iiii-in :iiid haknta W«- Iium* :'i>nii<l that all i>f thi-M' «'t!i^il■^ art* "itiiati-tl iu 
a Uiir ft' thi' nii^'iatiMii nf thf dillcrtiit l-ram hi ^ of thi* Pakota r:ii*»v Thr 
iiiMr>* ui* >*tiiil\ \\i*- -ulij*-i't thi- iii'irr Mr )>i-i-iiiiir i'iiii\ UK'i'd that thr Pakotaa 
wrrr thr huiliU-i*. 1 hi- l-ird rth^»y fiiriii-hi*»- :in :i>ldiriiin:il prii«»f nf thi* 
]Miint \S'r h:t\r ^pxki-ii ff thr hir>l rlfiL') at l'i<rt Ahdnw . ha\i' i>lat«'«l that 
thrff w<ri- i-i> nn'iiitiU mar ilir \%in»'^«>I thi- h:iii iIk "hajK' of 
thr '-M.ii!>'\« ^\A^ rei-i>/ii:/r>l m tin- i-<>!:itid kn>>tl <>it whiih it w.i* plai'«*«l. 
\Vr )i.i\<- it u.i- »tirr<>iindi d hy imxiiid- *>•■ :i- t<» inaki* a Mtrt ff 
^a•-r•■•! • t.i I'l-urr w hiih ri-*Tinl>!t d th>">«- f"Uihl m :ir MiiM>.«!ii ii» «i-ll oii that 
nn • ill."- r..i.ri' iii-.i*- M:i h-MH. Tin- i i!ij\ ha- n^t \>*'tu t\i-a\atr«l and it in 
nil! kif M!k .! •-••II?. III.- ail a' ai.i! >i-t ili'-ri i^ .1 rr-riiililani'v l^'lMecn 
it ari 1 tl.* l>ir 1 t-tlij\ .it \i«ark, aiid lhra'i!.ir *t!ik'k*> S< '.iiid rl^vwhrn-. 

Mm- " ! Mif iii'>-t '.i.t- n-tii.i: ill.jn- f1i11.1l :n thr liiiti-.! SlaN* i* thr 
I I'll '-r.i?* d l-.rd II. "'If. I 'tf I'lrd Ih:- 1- oiTii.ilfl 111 thi* t'rnlrv 
nfthi L'ri-.i* i :ri !i' ••? > M l'>>rt at Ni-'A.iik, hut 1! h.i- ^••uir i>trikint! n'*«*iu- 
Mai»« ••- t-i « I rT.i.ii • t}ij;r- uhi'h l..i\tUiri f>>iiiid :n \\ t"i»>nMii. aii<l M'«-niii 
ti' h.i\f !'t»h i:-i'l f -r tl.i- "aiiii purj-i-t- .i- ilii-r. >i|iiU'r and I*a%ii* "ar 
«if tl.." Ill- ii^d itl.j\ ' It ii.ii* li ri-in.{>!<» -niiir i«f *lir aniinal ^lla|4Hi 
ni-tiin i" •■: \\ i-."ii-.h. and u.i- pr-l-aMv d»-:/ t«i rrprr»«-fit a l>ird with 
fsilfifit •) w.i..-- \*. laii }iarl!> lH<ra!!id a ;-iiii;!t' nifUiitl. hut iii rattier a 
^ri'U]><if f-'ir :). ■<::ii". >•< arr.iiit**'! an>l •••iinri-t«-d a.-* t** i ••n-titiitr an tin- 
hr>ikrn "■itiiiit- Thr diitii n-.'-ii- ari a^ f'i!!i>i%* . I^ n^th of Nuly IV* feet; 
of I a- li Willi! -i'» fi-« t . U lwi« It tlif !ij- f.f ll.i- u iMrf^ l'«o fi-tl . wiilth *if l^xly 
t\A fr*-! li< l^lit Kf l(i''irid- • •'Ilili'^llik: thr l«>*t\ 7 ft^t . hiM^'ht of uifHindl 

o'iti|>«»-ink; thr win).'* ■'> fi«-t. 1 hi* I* -Li; iiiound it'ni|ivii:^ the hfad run* 

AKr||.i:iiI.(N.irAL NtiTK>. 1M7 

taiiMil uit altai. Thifi fi-Aliirf, tn rfififxitinn «i:li ntliir^.pn iii* !•• |^>iiit i>iit 
H rilik'K*"'* ^Itfii^Mi tn thr i-t!:i:y, :ui*\ |-4-r)ta|>* tn ihv hImiIi* ^triirliin* viitliiii 
uhh h lh«- t-tt)t:> ^iv- {•l.u-rtl. " Thf PAlin- iuitlfipi rla^Mil tliin liiril With tin* 
^TfAi -i-riH'iit iiKiiiiiil 111 Atlttiii- I'linnty, tin* ullikrutiir in'iuinl iii*ar (ininiiU**. 
uii-1 till* .iitiiiiHl iiiiiiiii'l 111 S-f>t«i i-Muiit\ . firar 1*1 •li'iii' lilt h. TlifV i^iN-ak i>f 
th«' ni"Miil wlii<-)i hu'l Ix^'ii fiMimi within thf •i\iil iirar th«* k*rrut Nrr- 
jM'ii*, .ii|.| rn'iir thi';ilii.;:iltir iiitniiiil. nrar NfWcirk, ;iiii| Aii>it1ii-r in ri>iinf«-tifiii 
with tl.i- rT'*"" iii'ar I'.irlt'ili. <>hi>i. \Vr -hi>ii!<| Jiiil^i* fri'lii thrr>«* riri'lllii- 
-tain «"• lli.i*. ill! ••f tl.i' ilhtrM •> iiinhiii ha>l altari* r*iiiii«-«*tiii with tht-iii. und 
t!iat tl.> \ I -"•Ill a -V iiilMihiul im-aiiint; 

>a:>p« ^M■ >• ii.ntI'*!^ i't»\. <iarritk Miillnry, « hn i» nvncih'*! af nni* i<f 
tfic l--t :iri ]i.i •■•••krft- 111 tliifi t-iiuiitr\ . anil vihu i* •!i-tiittnii*-h(i| Tir hi* af- 
fa)-i..t\ ui.'l I ••iirtf«\ . ''ii iii*> t<i U' »-lrai)p«!y ili|iartifi^' (rnnt )ii» u^iinllNar* 
:ii^ In t!.f la-t nniuiH-r uf Pi/ Auth^nj^H'-jipt^ «hi!i* n \ti'Hink* a IxH-k prr* 
I'itrf^l h> thf Mar^tii- ili* Nai'ailW, h** wiiiil* \\y with a hurh-*>]iii* mnark 
i.n !ht i>rth<>t!i'\ ri lik'ii-n, «hii*h i^i nnU-«i<niifikr to hiii., a- fi'l'iiMp*: "It 
ri*al!- thf riiriian pniniiiii-miurnto Ki-»>m1\ii1, (Ip-t, thi* lartfi iK-lniipt t«» 
Ml*- >a;nt- n—iUfl. ••« riin<!. Hi- an* the Saintti." Ni«w h«» himiiiI a-k ful. 
M.rt- r> ti> • hatik.**' that i \|irf^pi<>n ai.d niaki* it ri ii*! * Thriarth U-hmipi 
\" il.i- *•• ii fi!;-l» H« nri> tht- Siirnti^t^." vifiilil N- Iik«' thr iii^iniiatHtii. 
\VI, I'.r -}•• .iLiiiL' t'li fli.» xiihji'i t. «!■ t*«>^ ha\r til *-ii\ th»t th«r« ha^ Ix'tii 
al!i /I :!.» r l««' iii'it h "f tlj> •ii-|Mi*itiiifi tn fi'i*t rth}:>"n* ^Jn•■^^l••Il^ intn lh«» 
!iiil-! ''f -■ :t-nTii:>- •)>! ii-^Mii-, an>l !•• pi niit ••f thi< Hu\ to hirf in »irri-t at- 
T.i< L« <<n till- r.iiih of ••r:htMli»& ('hri-ti.iii« Thi« HaM nianifi-»t at th»* nuft- 
1:1,: "Mill An)i' \-»>« latii^n, hcM at NrH Vnrk. Hhi-n Trnf K. S. Miirm* 
-." i'-i I ill- -i-n-i- <f |-rii|'ri»ty a* ti' intriM'iiri- '\u\** hi> aiMn^^.u* IVt-^ii- 
hi.! ••:!!. I- V-o M i.ithii. xrvt rul ni«>*t ufirHl!«r A\\f> en thi- rhur« h. ami 
:';..i!. t<-<i. wlit-n thf .\"»*>«-iati>in «a* a cutftt in a iitanm^r nf rh:ir<-h piijiU*, 

• -rat '.i .i-'. ulii-ii niai.> ihiiri h t-«-ii|.!f Wi-n* puvinj thmi f\«-ry attmtii n 
|i..i>-;r>lr. I hf kjiiif of ri<iirti-^\ !•• iiianifi-?>tcl hy kT^'Htli ni«-n whi* 
:aiii- T'-r thr:r a-l'ln-^i-- a hni- of thiHi«rht whiih iin>h'r the ini)*«> uf 
*• .* Ill •-.jhikrht Ix- rivar<ic<l a« mwrt atta« kn i>n thr ('hri^t:an ri-h^'ifUi If 
t!:i ff!<-rT i-«to niaki* ^ thr Hjian" of h-adint; i-lF a ('rii*-ai!i* uiraiii^t 
f.ii:^. th'-n i!if iiixri* iN'i'AMofii thi-n* an* tin* tifti«T. Itiit if, i-n thi> other 
l..ii>-i.i(< - h^fi 1 .-to "a«l\anrf -i icnn*," h-t rfli^K-n* i)iir»tiorif* alt r.f It 
.1. w I.- •i-*-i].- an nni-otirtc'ou*' and unfair thin^ U\ hriiikf rohiricxifi ■•uhjii*t« 
.r.i'< -. !• iit;i*i. A»« It latiiifi". HhtTf M'li ntif'u' Mjhj«M'tfi art- i'i|4-«*t«tl anil %iitn1r| 
N [:.-!•- a|<;-r->priatf Wf xay thfM* thiiiir* UvatLM* w«* know th«> atlai'kt 
1 ..ill \\' \ N'fii hr«-is»"hl ;n ]iy n-lijiMii- i^Niph-. It M^fni^iiMfhx** f>ir m*ii'nti!iUi 
!-• W< •;•:;•. I w.irfarf w hi> h will r«-»>ult in no i:ihn| tn ihrniM-lviii or i>thent 
.1!. ! 1. .^ M.aki- )t->ip!i- fit-1 !in«-unifortAhh* p>nrra11y. 

I'i!'>.^ ri:> faiijnu- author hA.^N-«'n ^n i>fti*n <inoti^i 21- authority nn the 
- .*- •- : :' '.hi ni'iiiniN that it m-vmh** iniii^irtant wt- ^honl-l know f^'inii-thinK 

• / r,.:i. I i:f fir«t \<ihi:tif of "Thr Narrati\«* and rritiral lli"t<iry" hai^ a 
-. • :\ «r ■■• i ^kf!. h of hi 111. a<^'ont{4int«*d hy a liki*n«f^, and Hf draw fmm it 
!).»• f -.! •« iiit* f.ii-tii III' H.i^ n»'\<'r in thii* country, hut wah k) fortunate aa 
to U fai:i \:.kx with thr rarly [•irtur*^ anil ina|i« whirh wi*n* draMn. and for 
*.!.:- ri-a.- <n ww* ah'.t* t«i rnitnNly th«*in in hiji ivlrbra'itl pnlihration, which 
\m ||. .w *.• tH-ani* lit« WM an fngravpr at Frankfort, hut aftrr tli«* piihlirm- 
ti«»n of Ilakluri'« soyti^st^ he undcrtocik a aiiniUr taiik, l»ut |iubli»hed hit 


work in I^tin, Krenrh and (lorinan. He diinl in 1508. but hiii widow con- 
tiniicil thr work. The tank wafl not finiHlitHl until ir»34»MM>n after the land- 
ing of tlu* I'il^rim FAtlicrti. Mr. JiiKiin WinsorV critlripm of hiH worku ia 
that wliili* thrre ih tliiitinrtivc* merit in it, yet uieretririuuH reputation ha« 
btHMi ^iven to it f»n ii(HY>tint of the nrarrity of the work, and efiieinally te- 
rause it i.-* exp«'nMively illuKt rated. The (>n»;ravinp>, however, whieh form 
■41 attractive a fi'atun*, an* of uneven merit, f«ome of them l>ein|{ honent 
rendering «>f the >;i*nuine hketeh<*!(, hut not a few the nierei«t fanry of Home 


Liif QnrMinn»: iw^imlhiij our Vrnnl MaHiintry and it* VUiimii. Hy John 
Alt^eld. l)iinahue uml llennel»erry, C'hii-ak:i*. 

The rhapten> of thi** hiMik have the fullowin;: titlen: Arhitrati«)n of 
Striked IVn-i'ins for Si>Mifrs. .Tu.^tiiv in Chicapt. The Ke«' Syrteni. The 
Kieh ManV llrea<l an*! the l*<H>r. Slave (iirl« of ('hicai^K Anonynioui» 
Jiinrnalir*m. KiKht-lxiur Mi>vi'ment, Vac. The hiMik i?« a Herien nf artii*leii 
iuihli>hed in the newiiiijipers' It i<t not a hixik in any onlinary i>enM* of 
tlie word, ft»r lhen> is w* unilv ti> it, unv further than that the artii-h*ff were 
writtrn hy nne man utiil (itiitain the o|iinii>n*>. The faettf are, httwever, 
vahiahlf. and the tith- a takiiti; om*. Thi* hot-ial t|Ue(«tionH are n«iw eni:a|^ 
in;; atlenlii'n. 

tttrt* ti}. ti l^ffiiUM .V..ii#jt 1./ \i.rfh ,li»i#rii'i iM-orire Kr^Mleriek Kuni. II- 
lii-trati>4t Ni w Yi»rli .Simtilii- I'nl' t'i». 

Till- .iiiTlp>r nf i)ii<j l> i.ik ha- had i'\i-ftl«-nt itpp'irtunitieit fur U-eviminK 

familiar with thi> jvm*' a(i>l \*u* imi- -tittit- <>f ArinTiru. a.** he i- itmneete*! 

«iTh T:t!.iii\'x larL'<' i---taMi-hiiii>iit in Nii« ^••:k. lit- uay attendant u|<im 

tiK'ji*.!; •■\|ii>«itii»n at Pari*'. ileiMti mnithrr i^f thi* .VmeriiMU .\*-»iOi'ia- 

tii'ii. :ii: i li;i» wriftfti a niiiither t>f artii If- f^r th<' AMi:i:i« an AmiviI ahia^. 

All'! 1- Miil kiii>i\n t ir rfa>if p- a* .lit ai •-••n'pli-^htd an ii.i«>li>i;if*t a» well 

ar* iii'.r:* r.iii'.'i^V Tin' \ k i- a -iiiiipiit'M- I'lir. t-lfkriiiitly In-ihiiI, vifll iihif»- 

tra'<-'i i\ ;Mi •-••!'<rti| |-!.itf«. Mr Kiin/ iia« i:i\rn .i df^(-ri|itii>n nf many 

\.i'i:..'! •■ .11' \, ' >!••/:> .! r* in -. .tti.i>riLr tl « in -i-\i-rai maii«' friiiit the jmh*, am! 

fr"*ii !■■'•. if\-M! !!• I.. I- ui^»i«. al-«'. tin* lit -i ri|'titiM i f thf meth«rtl nf 

• '.r.ii.i .' * It 1 -1 rn- ar.-l ••ft i|-piiu' :l>(.! rt-h- ^ I Kr tnMik I'tiiitain- ruti* 
ri'i'Ti -• • » '...• j«.ir- jTi'iii I.ii!!«- Mi.iM.: ii.- lii.i. «;»i.t'l !«y l*r"f. I*uin«ni 

a — ' t;.i .:*♦■ .I-;.'" T. f-« .i«l- :m Tlii\ illt y -t M«'\:- •. |--ii*lM'*l tii;urilti-« nf 

• i*i'.;t! i(. :i 111 N|i \.. . L.iTjf i"!'-!.!..!!. kii Ji". " i'-.i! .ill iiiirri*r, ir«»n pjkri'*"* 
mirr- : :•■ ii. '.!• \ ■ •. .ii. i ! ;!! ■!• ^"i r i v !.- ■ : •!.■ -.iti.f \n>>thrr platr rr|»- 
ri'*i-i.' - • {.I «•..«■• !■•?.■. P.iik aril '1.1 .\jV...'* i !ri •■• • * ar«* tttiTt* fiMiUil. 

• >ni- i-i.ri- i..i- • I.' ! • .1 ;• .: il .i!r.< rl \ •'. w .M. : ! t . ..'. r \* r\ li—tlv imitate*!. 
.\ii. •'':•• '■ I- • II.' r.i -i *••;.! .11. -1 I! I'.i' :..*•. \ I r\ tnu- r.. lijturi* Anothrr 
!i.i- !■■ .r:: .i f.- .ii. 1 T j ..,• \i.-t! •: i..i- *.].* ^km!! .iii<l ■l.ifc'kfr i-m'ni"lol 
Hitli i-.r .•:■ -« '. r'],, ,',f -.•■. . 1. '...•... II. 1;; w .•.}.../ :..« >;.'..*r*. Anollirr 
ffj-rt-t «.'- • :.• I!- 1 • .1 : : !:.« /. iiii- i m r's-S 1 u .?h t'.rjii.nM- Annllirr 
h.i- tiir-,-;' .'I- ■ I .ir !: -. ' • .1-:- ..1 i . ::;.iii . ft-. i!..i.!i- r\ !|.i- Nii\ujii Indian*. 
.\ii-*' • • I ..!'• }..i- TJ.f • I.! -.i: i'l..rf rr-.m ^! -r.:.!: i .iii 1 Tin- •li-»i-\ diamond 

■ ■ ■ 

fi":.. \ r. !. I !■ - .1 : -K :!i \\ h:- 1^ .i:^\. • '. »•.-!- .iii t ii.iiif r.t'i<iri»tji will 

}m- .: •■ ■. >'. ■: 


^mcviatn Antiquarian. 

Vifi. \II. Skiti MitKK, i>y/). No. 5. 



Bv SihrilKN I). I*KK1 

'V\v study of ihc arch.rolo^ii'al relics of ilu* Mississippi Valley 
!.irn:sl)is l«» Us .1 vfTV intcri-slin^; ficM. and brings tieftrc u^ many 
ftunts of inquiiy: but ni» one ttf them is more interesting than 
ihf otii" SI t l«t:!orr us in the title of this |>a|H-r. There be 
sure, a t'-vv rriirs which rernmil us of the disttnctiun between the 
pi*. -<li;h:i and the neolithic a^es; relics which have Inen re 
i (Mtly <iiM >i\''reil ami which retjuire us tn modify the position 
uluJ) ua*^ taken in a prevnius [M}K'r. The majitrity of the 
T' 111 s, h")v\«vir, are tliose which belonj^ to the neolithic a^jc, 
th'U'^li. perhaps, if we were to make the distinction between 
tlu- stone a^c anil the cop(KT a^^c, we mi^ht say that the relics 
beliin*^' to this i. it her than the former n(;e. The enquiry as to 
whcth< r theie is a ditTerence l>ctween the Mound -builders' and 
tlu- Ir.dian relus is an old one. Opinions u|x>n it have drifted 
tro:n ^ne suie to the other, the pendulum vibrating to either ex- 
tri t::e lust at present the opinion seems to be setting toward 
\:\ ' tcin >val of the thstinction. At the next turn, however. 
It may be that the distinction will l>e the more clearly brought 
I u!. and the iIifTerences t>etween the two be more striking than 
ever. Mveii if we call them all Indians, we shall by and by sec till Indians themselves differed radically, and therefore may 
well be called bv ilifferent names. 


I < )ur first point will be that the terms Indian and Mound- 
buildefN are correct, and may properly be used. The following 
ur^Miments. we think, will show that the terms are correct. 

I . It will be acknowledged by all that there was a time when 
mound-building was a common custom, and that there came a 
tune when the custom ceased. This Cact, we maintain, establishes 


a mound-building period. The question we ask is whether the 
existence of such a period is not sufficient reason for us to U3C 
two terms, namely, the Mound-builders and the Indians, making 
the first significant of the people who lived during the mound- 
building period, but the last significant of the people who lived 
after that period. This may be a new use for the term Indian, 
and yet if the term Mound-builders should be made definitive, 
we see no reason why the last term should not also, especially 
as the time of the cessation of mound-building is not taken into 
the account, the only point being the use of the terms. There 
are, to be sure, other terms which might be used to express 
the same fact, yet these terms are also ver>' suggestive. We fix 
upon the date of the I'iscovery as the time when the prehistoric 
age ceased and the historic began; there was a time, however, 
which intervened between these two. or which overlapped the 
two, to which we give the name protohistoric. This makes 
three terms, each of which is expressive of periods as well as of 
people whi> lived during these periods. The Mound-builders 
we may ngard as the prnplr who lived during ihr prehistoric 
period; the Indians the {K*oi)Ie who lived during the protohis- 
toric age; the whites the historic |K*ople. These three terms 
we consider appn»priate as indicating the periods, two of which 
have been fnriy ascribed tn flistinct people, namely, the Mound- 
builders and the whites. The (luestinn we ask is. Is it not as 
correct to ascribe the middle perioil to the Indians, and to say 
that they were also a distinct jK'ople. 

2. The contrast between the proli'hiNti'ric re I its and the pre- 
historic will be bn»u;^ht out m«»re fully il" we apply the term 
•' Mound-!)Uii(iei" to <»ne and '* Indian" U* the «»ther The absence 
nfthe white man's intliience would be di'^lwutive of the first, and 
the incrcisiHi; evidence of it would be d;**tin»tive nl the secc^nd 
cla'^'^. This line n(»t alwaxs been dr.iwri. With some there 
is .1 teii(l(-ni'\' ti> c.irry tlu white ni.ui s histi>ry as ba^ k as 
pips-^iM . ami t** trace tlir evid»-nce nltln- wlutt- tnan'st'uuh mto 
the eaiiu *-: part of the Mount! I»u:!«!er-^" per:"d. the effort appar 
entl\ b'ln.; t-» prove that many of the inniiui.^ were built afti r 
the tune t»l the tii-^coverv. The truth i<. !itiw»vt r. in nearly 
all part^ • 1 tli- country, the line which <ii\idts the white man's 
w<»rk from tin, is tin* l:ne whuh "^ejiarat'^s the pn»- 
tithistor ic troll) the prehi^toru , an«! sh.iuld Ih <«o rt i o.;ni2eil. That 
line ni.iy be at tini's found deej'!y i inbeddei! in *«ome <tf the 
moiin!>, one |» 'ftion ot the mound havni'^ been built after the 
time of til'- wiiit" man. and anotlier p 'rtion before that time; 
but th'- la* t that there arr so iiianv relics discovered in the 


mounds which bear the tracv'^ ••! the toueh of the white man, 
proves that tlie period we are erecting was an imjv^rtant one If the 
white man's hist* iry i^ recorded in the protohistoric tokens, the his- 
tory of the Mound-builders is reci»rded in the prehistoric tokens 

it" •! 

MnlNIi!.l:>' AMI IMHAN HKI.lCS ^- ..i 

which piLCi-ilirii thctn. the {}>r(K r line bvtWL'cn tlic IiiNltiric and 
the |»r'-hi^ti»riL hrin;; Iruh.iii. It in.iy ht- v«ry iMflchnitc and 
■^hiidouy. yet we may t.t'r.t tiii* ^rciund lK*r>re h.ind that there was 
a NKiuntl-hinl'lcr^' pern'd and what nii^ht h<' called a ni«'dcrn 
Indian {MTiod. 

; I h<- tait the Indian wa^ a^^sMciated VMth the white 
i:'.an during a Iar;.;i- |M>tti«'n i»f l!ie protolii-^tfiric periiKi. we think. 
1-^ c !!fuj,;i) ti»}iri>vr that the terms ** Mound )}u:ld(-r"an<l "" 
arc appropriate Thr Mtnind hiiilder had a hinti^ry which wmn 
un:<|ur. hut the Indian. •'«»-ca!led. aUo has a hiNti»ry, notwith- 
•tandini' the presence i«| the white man. I l;e <.haractir of 
the a:\ whuh wa^ introduced at »\n early date and copied l»y the 
.r).» .iii«l i-mSodicil in their relics was. t-i he sure, wtv 
i::t!i- « Miiip.ited With that whuh had existed earlier, hut the very 
.t'ivan-^ «tt thf white man s art had a tendency t** ovrr^had<>w 
.i:id Nup{)!afit the ali«trii;inai art. Ni>w we have- only to tipply the 
ti-rin Indian t-i tins ileteii-.r.iti d art, a^ we d" Mound-huilder to 
liii'.ir! Inti-rr it had tletenorated. ani! we shall at unic notice a 
m.irk' ! d:st;n. tmn hetweiii lliem. The Mound l)uildei chan^jed 
t' Ind.tri fnt rrlv l»v contact witli tlie wliite Still, Iiis art 
wt> .!.! Ix li.tV-re:.: from that of the Intiian. Mvi n if it w.i^ the 
M" sc n*. • «'f t!i' v. :j:te man that dlsmls^cd the Mounil-builder s 
..7t anii til'- s.iiiir- prrsenie that made the Indian art what it was 
and i'^, <\\\. the- tiis:;ni:tir>n is pl.iin. The Mound-huilder s. 
t'v l-.ii:c.i'.!y ^p* akir^j.;. were unacijuainted with the white man, the 
IniiL.ii:^. .IS we und'I^t.lntl them, were well acipiainteil with 
)i:m IhiH i:ist:nLt:<'n he ie«.0';:n/rd. The natives sei^rd 
iht :nv'n!n»!i-- '•! the civil:/eil races .in<l adapted thi m t«» their 
».\\n u-n -, i«iv' ri::^' tiiem witli tlu-ir iwn h.irharic ima^^ery and 
^i\;n^tii ths n] that r;:de -hape whicli was the result of their 
• wii cultu**. hut wh:cli could n««t hj«!e the evidence of the 
inrru*!'il iult.;s »rj \\u wi^iu- man. I her«- was a ^vnilKjlism 
.1:1: i;/ till nat:v<- race which did not immed:ate!v pass awav. 
^ lur "f It was union»-i i"i:n;v mm l* led with the art fMrms which 
w r< :nrroi!-.ict d I lu* min^'.in^ ol this earlier symbolism with a 
\\:vli. i;:sm whuh was intr- duced has brought much lonfu^ion 
:';•■• !ii!- arch.r"ii»^y of tin jH-ri«»d. Vet this of itself constitutes 

':\.a^ :*. sht^ws Imw the Mound builder ^^vsteni l>ecamc 

<: :nt<> the Ind;an. 

I ::•• li!-:i>rv of this country has Ix-en written frt»m the 5ide 
wi;.:r i:'..i!i — a h!>tory of the civili/ed rates, hut the relics 
■.!> :n!i» c-ntait with the historv as recorded hv the "red 
till- fe'.i. s Ji-iMj^ the archive* in wUich those records were 
I h* I!uro{>eans wiio can^.f to this continent at an early 
1! iv \\i f n-it iikf the l'".ur"j>ean< "f the present day. nor would 
!'::i W'fks i>t art or indu->try whiih they introdui^ed be regarded 
.1 •<; to tliose wh'.ch we are accustimied to call modem in- 
vr nti"ns These rude and antujuated relics which we call proto- 

■t ! 



r ■■ 

< : 









historic are, liowcvcr, difTerent from the prehistoric, and so we 
wo have the three records contained in the reHcs, the Mound- 
builders' record being contained in the prehistoric, the record 
of the modern Indian and early settlers in thcprotohtstoricand 
the record of modern civiJi* 
zation in the historic. 

;. The degrees of culture 
which have prevailed in pre- 
historic times arc brought 
out by acknowledging the 
distinction. \Vc find that the 
prehistoric races were not 
improved by their contact 
with the white man. Their 
1 native art rapidly declined, 
and the borrowed art did not 
SL-cm to improve it. The na- 
tives chose only the rude 
specimens, and made these 
a substitute for the better 
sixrcimens of their own work, 
and so took the poorest and 
left '>iit the best. The arch- 
.t-oli>)^ist who gathers relics 
IS iTftcntimes very much 
recognizes the native handi- 
intrudcil cultus; and yet the 
combination of the two presents to him a mongrel lot of relics 
which are <.f little 
value fi.r the study 
(if prehistorie anh- 
aiotogv, and of still 
lens value for the 
study iif early hii- 
lory : and yet it 
seems iin|i<>rtant 
that these rehc-; 
should be gathered. 
ThelcNbiin i-. plain. 
The red h.ts 
declined, and the 
white man ha.s ad- 

I'l. This contrast 
between the Indian 
relics and the Mound-bnildcrs reveals the histor>' of the lost arts. 
The reason they were lost was because of the change from the 
prehistoric to the historic ijcriod. The motive, spirit, form, execu- 

piiz/led by this means. Me 
work ; he also recognizes the 

» ItHlttl. 


tion, of prehistoric relics were all difTcrcnt from anythinf; which 
can be called historic. If we would umlerstand the lost arts we 
must [lo totlioise relics which arc purely pn.-histofic. Changes 
m.iy, to ite sure, have occurred during; prehistoric times, but 
greater cluinces iiccurred durin); the protn historic. This may 
be st-t^^n by i:(im{iarin(; the Inthan relics with those which have 
(ome from the mounds. The rclici are inferior tn the 
Mouiiil-hiiildfr's. Thi^ may be i>wint; to the incursion of s:ivai;e 
hi'inu-rs, who drove ofT the sedentary (lopulation and took |k>s- 
si'^-mn of their works, or it may be ouin^; to the intrusion of 
vihitr men, who c.uiie m ami transformed the entire life of the 
,ilHii]i;m( s. Thi- history of the lo^t arts is contained in trath 

!>(-[>'Tior.itii>n is >irani;ely st.'ini]>ed on .ill the works of the red 
liiiii.iii, Thi- hunters deteriorated in their >kill .is Inintcrs. They 
.^li.iniloiiid their ^.ime- drives, uhich were built of e,irlh and loiik 
: > I'on&inii'tin^ tem{ior.iry screens made from brush and the 
br.mclies of trees. They e\<;han(;cil the bow and arrow for the 
t.:li ; no longer hunted on foot, but went with their p"nies,mov- 
m.: thi'ir \ill.t^< s with thim. Their stone relics jjr.idiially dis- 
.ipprand. and iron weajxins which they borrowed from the white 
ni-iii t..ol; iheir The aurittilturc dcicrior.itcd. The lar^c 
!*(-:<l-. wliji h formerly surrounded their vill.i(;cs were reduced to 
«m.ili ibitches of Corn. Their ;,'arden iK-ds. which were so rcj;- and < o^ered such^c pl.ils of ground, were reduced to 
mere hiiis of t)eans and M)uashes. The l.iri^e hoes and spades 
whuh, as af^ricuUural tools, .ire re(;arded as interesting works of 


work ill I^tin, Frent'h xin<l (ieniian. He tlitNl in liVJS. biit hiii widow con- 
tiniii'tl till* work. The task wam ni>t finiHlKHl until lf>34,w>on after the land- 
ing of tlif I'il^rim Knthen<. Mr. .TiiHtin WinsorV oriticipm ur hiii works i» 
that whilt' thtTe ii« (IiHtinrtiw merit in it, yvt inerotririoufl reputation hait 
lHM*n K'ivt'n to it on ntHv>unt of the ^rarcit y of the work, and efpet^ially l*e- 
rause it i.** ex]trnHively ilhiM rated. The cni^ravinp*, however. whi(*h form 
B*t ;ittrui*tive :i feature, are of uneven nifrit, ^'ll^le of them Iteing honest 
rendering of the ^*nuine hketehi^s, l»ut not a few the merent fancy of Home 


Lire i^HfrtittUM: Jnrhulhitj our Vrunl Mnrhimru and its Virtintit, By John 
AU^'i'ld. Oonahuc and HrnnclM'rry, C'hii'auo. 

The rhapters of thi** h«N>k have thi* fullitwin;; titlen: Arbitral inn of 
Strikes renf-i'ms for .*Nildierf*. .lui-titv in Chieak!o. The Ke«* Syrteni. The 
Kirh Miin'<« Un-ail anil the I'oor. Sl:ive Oirln of Chieairo. Aniinymoui* 
Journali-ni. Ki^ht-hdUr Moviincnt, Kte. The htMtk if^ a t*eri«*i« uf artielev 
})uhIi}*htHl in the neuMpaiifrs' It if* md a hook in any onlinary neUM* uf 
the word, f(»r I here i» no unitv tu it. anv farther than that the artiili*^ were 
written hy une man and runtain the opinion». The fat'tn an*, however, 
vahiahle. uml the title a takiri;; one. The ho«'iul (pi«i'tii»nri are uow eni^aip 
in;: »ttentii»n. 

twtnt." *tini /Vmiiij« S*'-ht.t >'f y^-rffi At'iirnn tn-*tT)!v Fre«lerirk Knni. H- 
lii-trateii .New Yi»rk Srimlilii I'li)' t'n. 

T)ii> iiurlior iif thi- h-"<k ha- liail fXii-llcnt opportunitieff for li«i'«iminit wuh till' L'eiii- aii-l pn-* iini- -iiiiii- nf Anirrira. tin he i- ennntH'teil 
«ith 'Iil!,tn\'- lark'«' e!-lahh«)ii)ieiit in Nt i« ^'i.'k. Iff uar atti-mlant U|itin 
thi' t\p>»-ititin at I'.iri-. tie i« :i nii'Mil>i'r nf Ihi* .Xnierii'an Ammvia- 
tinti. ai i lia*" uriTt* t] a iiiiiiiher of artu Ii-« r>ir the .\«i»i;i4 .«> AmiviI .«kiA>i, 
atiij 1" \\*\\ kii<>\\M ti< "iir ri-ad«-p- a;- art a> •••n p1i-ht-tl arf-h.ii>li»t;tf*t a« wtdl 

:ij* iiiir.i r.iiii;;i-t. Dir ) k >■< a ^iiiiipt:-'".- ••iif. i-lfj.iittlv N'Uitd. %iell ilhl«- 

tra?i-i \*;ili i'i!-ri.! jlati- ^lr Kuii/ K.i- t'l^'ii .» di-^enptmn of many 
\a!i:..- •- .11 • I •>>!•> J ■ •! i« lii--, .ii],><iiLr tl • n. *-i\«-rai iiiAih- fr>>ni the jaiie, an^l 
fr-'Tii I ■ 1-. ii\-Ta! II* li.i- LiVtii, ;il- ■. !lii' •!» -•■r:]>riiin ••f the methi«l of 
• lr,;!.i .• '..If I -!• Ill- an I "f i i|piii.' :'.?.; :•!.-- TK* l--'k etintaino «'Utii 
repTi ■• 1 • ' _• :r.iiii I.itTli- \l..i:i.: n.- mlI. iV^t-i! t-y I'fi'f |*utn«n> 
a'-'tl.. . '1 '•■ .t-pt r. f'l .i'l- :n t!.- \ . 11. \ J ^l• \:- ■. |- i.-he<l liiruruie* of 
"*t-i.l; o. ;»-iii N|i \:. L.irj. .■!-.ii ..ii. ki. :• . ■ •■••.•! .in :u:tt*»t, in-n pyri*** 

mill" ? :r . :i. M. \.. 1. .11.! } ..: .'• ji r I ' . !-«;*'• -.i:i.f \ii*it her plate rep- 
ft-.-t,'- • I • J l-.i' i 'i'-tiN I'.iik ai:d '!;• .i.-.t! . .'• ■ ! •.f.»-t'..ii are ! heH' f« Kinil. 
I Hii J- .I't I..,- tl.. } • .1 .• :: ;! a!i.i !l.\ '•. w ."). :] . ■ !.t \i »\ . !..-il\ imitate*!. 
Af!"'!.'* ' i-iM.»vi-i !••>! iii.'i r:..i"..i- I .■•■. \« r\ !nii-!-- i;ature An<»thrr 
!i.i- '. ■•::. I f.' III! • ; .>/ \r.-ll.r i..i- 'f. ''mi! .iii-i •f.u'j^-r eii*-ni«teii 
« Lth \-.T ]■:• •!■ •■ f 'i.i « -ii ■-.• . . 1-:!. ■ 'i-n. ! ii ■.* i'l.- .;: tit- i «'^"r*. Antiihrr 
ri'i-rt-t I.*- ■ .'.• I!'> * .» i ■ ; ::.• /'ir..- • i.« r'.:*Ii l u ;th ti:r-[u<>f>e Another 
lia- tur, i. .-I- . } .it?; V * . .li- ..r ! • : :.i!j . i !-. ii .t!i- \ \ ti.i- NA\»;ti Inilianii. 
All'-? • ' \ ..»■• f..i- !!.••' '.' -.ii i-hirt- !r-.iij X! r.i.ii:.!. a'j! Mje •IrWcv diannind 
Ii'-: I ^ ■ -■ • .» I' - .1 ■; ■■•K ill A ii;. ii ar ■:.•■!,:.•'. - an-i iiiiin<>iri»ti» will 
!"■ .1 •• -i ■•.■! 



mcvxcau .r^nxxauavxatt. 

V.n. XII. Skitlmukh, 1S9CV No. 5. 



Bv SlKrilKN I). Pk.i.i 

Tlu' stiuiy of lliL* arch.rolo^it a1 relics <>f the Mississippi Valley 
!.jrm"»h«s t«» Us .i vitv inten-slin^^ ficM. aiu! brings tief >rc us many 
p'»mts .if intpjiry; but no one of them is more interesting; than 
thi- i»ne St t Neltire us in the title of this (>a{kt. Tliere be 
^urc. .1 f'*w rflus which reminii us of the di.stinctii>n between the 
pi! o'.ithu aiii! tlie neolithic «i(;es; relics which have tnen re 
^ 'Htly lii-^i ox creii and which reijuire us to modify the position 
whuii wa-* taken in a previi»us pa|K;r. The majority of the 
ff I:. N, h«>\\f-vrr. are tlio^e which belong to the neolithic a^c. 
th«»u^h, {H-rhaps. if we were to make the distinction between 
till- stone a^e and the copper a|;e. we mi^ht say that the relics 
belong: tit this rather than the former a(;e. The encjuiry as to 
wheth' r tlieie is a diflerence lietween the Mound -builders' and 
tl'.i- Indian reliis is an old one. Opinions u|X)n it have drifted 
from one side to the other, the pendulum vibratini; to either ex- 
tri !ne hist at present the opinion seems to be setting; toward 
til - rem tval of the distinction. At the next turn, however. 
It may be that the distinctit>n will be the more clearly brou^^ht 
< lit. and the difTcrences between the two be more strikini; than 
ever, t'.ven if \\c call them all Indians, we shall by and by sec 
that the Indians themselves difTered radically, and therefore may 
well l»e called l)V different names. 

I < )ur first {Htint will be that the terms Indian and Mound- 
bi:.ldrrs are correct, and may properly be used. The fi)llowing 
arguments, we think, will show that the terms are correct. 

I . It will be acknowIed(;ed by all that there was a time when 
niMund-buildinj; was a common custom, and that there came a 
time when the custom ceased. This (act, we maintain, establishes 


a mound-building period. The question wc ask is whether the 
existence of such a period is not sufficient reason for us to uje 
two terms, namely, the Mound-builders and the Indians, making 
the first significant of the people who lived during the mound- 
building period, but the last significant of the people who lived 
after that period. This may be a new use for the term Indian, 
and yet if the term Mound-builders should be made definitive, 
we see no reason why the last term should not also, especially 
as the time of the cessation of mound-building is not taken into 
the account, the only point being the use of the terms. There 
are. to be sure, other terms which might be used to express 
the same fact, yet these terms are also very suggestive. We fix 
upon the date of the discovery as the time when the prehistoric 
age ceased and the historic Ixrgan ; there was a time, however, 
which intervened between these two. or which overlapped the 
two. to which we give the name protohistoric. This makes 
three terms, each of which is expressive of periods as well as of 
people who lived during these periods. The Mound-builders 
we may n-j^ard as the |>eoplc who lived during the prehistoric 
period; the Indians the {K'ople who lived during the protohis- 
toric age; the whites the historic j^eoplc. These three terms 
wc consider appropriate as indicating the periods, two of which 
have been freely ascribed to *!islinct people, namely, the Mound- 
builders and the whites. The question we a^k is, Is it not as 
correct to ascribe the middle period to the Indians, and to say 
that they were also a distinct jK'ople. 

2. The contrast between the j)roti)hist(»ric relics and the pre- 
historic will be brought out more fully if we apply the term 
** Mound-builder" to one and *' Indian" to the other. The absence 
of the while man's influence would be distinctive i)f the first, and 
the increasing evidence of it would be distnutive ol the second 
class. This line has not alwavs been drawn. With some there 
is a tendency to carry the white man's !)»story as far back as 
possihlf. .ind tn trace the evi<lence of the white man's toi:ih into 
the earliest jKirt of the Mound builders' jHrrn'd. the effort ap(>ar 
enllv bein;^ t«» prove that manv of the nMunds were built after 
the time kA the ilistovery. Tlie truth is. lu»wever. that in nearly 
all p.iits Ml' the country, the line which diviilts the white man's 
work from tlie aboriginal, is tin.' line which sejurates the f^ro- 
tohist(»ric trnin tlie prehistoric, and shc>uld lu m) recognized. That 
line mav be at times found deei»!v emlnddcd in some of the 
mounds, one portion of the mnund liavin*^ been built after the 
time of the wliite man, and another portion before that time; 
but tht: tat t there are so manv relics discovered in the 
mountis which bear the traces «.| the touch of the white man, 
proves that the jKTiod we are erecting was an important one. If the 
white man's history is recorded in the protohistoric tokens, the his- 
tor>' of the Mound-builders is recorded in the prehistoric tokens 

• l-..» 

MnrNi»mii.i»!;i:s' am« ini>ian uklio .».* 

which prLCidcil thc-ni. the l><irt!i-r line between tlic hi^liinc and 
the pr'-hi^ti>rK hnn;; Intli.m. It m.iy he very indefinite and 
shadowy, yet wc may t.iKi tin- ^roundlK'fiae hand tliat there was 
a Mitiimi-huil'.lers' period and what mi^^lit be called a mcdcrn 
Iniiian pi-riud. 

;. I ii«- iai t that the Inilian was associated uith tlie white 
man «liirin^ a lar;.:e (nirtiMn nf the protnhistoric (K'ritxI. we think. 
i^ I nou-;h to prnyc tile terms " Mound buddrr" and "Inch. in" 
are a;>propriate. The Moi:nd builder had a history which 
iin:iiiii-. but the Inthan. vo-called, also has a liistory, notwith- 
^laniiinc the pn ^enc*- «•! the white man. The charattir of 
the .It? \\li!c)i was introduced at an early date ami copied by the 
.4"».»n;j:nr'- and fTnbi>died in tlieir relics was. t'» be sure, wry 
r-.;i!e i iimpaied with that which ha«! existed earlier . but the very 
.iivant'- ot tlie uliite man's art had a tendency t«» overbhad«iw 
.i:u! supplant tlie .ibnniMnai art. N«»w we have i»nly to apf)ly the 
term Indian t** t!i:s lUlei crated art. as we i\** Mound-builder to 
iDt'art bc-ti>r(- it I:. id «ieteriorated. and we shall at once notice a 
mark' «! di^tMii tion l)elwei-n them. The Mound-builder changed 
t<> m? relv bv i« intact with the white man Still, his .irl 
w.''..!d bi I'LiY'-ier.: tVom that of the Inilian. K vi n i! il was the 
pr SI nee I'!' t!i-- ■.\ ir.te man that dismissed the Mound-builder's 
.^rt ami the N.uiif- presence that made the Indian art what it was 
anv! 1^. >:;!1. llie i:is:;nction is plain. The Mound-lnidders, 
!• I ;'.n:c.i!!y -p'.'.ik!!!^'. were unac(]uainted with the white man. the>^. .IS we iindi rstand them, were well accpaainted with 
!i;m Ihjs dis::nct:i'n can l)e reLf>;;ni/ed. The n.itivrs sci?e(i 
tlv :nvT ntititis -I the civii:/eil races and aiiapted thim to their 
iwn u-' -. *ovi lir.;^* them with their iwn barl^aric ima;^ery and 
^r. :n^ti> tij'-m that nuie shape which was the result of tlieir 
-wn r..itiv( cultijs, but winch cinild not hide the evidence of the 
intru-iiil Lult;:s i-i the "Ai.ite man. There was a svml»olism 
.ii:i n • the n.itive race which ihd not irnme«i:ate!v pass awav. 
"s :ne "! It was unttin^^i i-usiv min-'led with tlie art forms which 
w f :n!roi!;K-i<I The min^lin^ot thiseariitr symbolism with a 
•-yTybiilisni whhh was intr<i!iued has broujijht much «onOisi(>n 
::i!o till- .trcli.i-'ioj^y «»f the ]M'riod. Yet thi> of itself constitutes 
.1 !i ->:••!% . .1^ i! >hows how' the Mound builder system became 
iiv r ' >: :nto tlie Inilian. 

a !;•.•• Isi^torv of this count rv has l>een written froni the side 
' : !:.f wh.:< r::an — a hi>tory ui the civili/ed races, liut the relics 
:-r 11/ u-* :n:i) c-ntav t with the histt»rv as recorded bv the "red 
in. in. tii»- relii s Ikim^ tlie archives in which thoNC records were 
k< ;•: 1 hr I-.uru|K.-ans who came to this continent at an early 
«! i\ \\rr not likf tlie l*'.ur"j)rans i.f the present day. nor would 
:::i w>>rks lit art or indu^trv which thev introduced be regarded 
.i^ «>;-:a! to those w'h:ch we are accustomed to call modem in- 
v'-nti^ns These rude and antitpiated relics which wccall proto* 



proof that the Indians of this region were always diflereat from 
the Mound-builders of the region to the west of it, the two col- 
lections showing a great contrast. With reference to the Mound- 
builders' region the same can not be said. If we take the locality 
where Mound-builders have prevailed, we find a great contrast 
betu-een the earlier and the later relics, the earlier relics being 
supposed to belong to the Mound-builders, but the later relics 
to the Indians. This subject ol the sequence of history has 
been referred to by other writers. To some, it seems to prove 
that there was a great difference between the races; toothers it 
seems that there was no difference whatever; but in our opinion 
the study of the relics will prove the correctness of the position 
which we have taken, — the differences depend altogether upon 
the locality wc are studying. 

>"ry. M.-iv.MroiI. t-lff. II.— OfoHMgfifim-. «B. IT.—OIomi mopprr. 

Sir William Dawson has spoken of the village of Hochelaga, 
He i;ivcs the history of the village and an account o( its discov- 
ery by J.icijues Carticr in the year 1534- Sometime in the 
interval between 1 335 and 1642 Mochela^a was utterly destroyed 
and the encroachments of the warlike Iroquois made the island 
a Sort of frontier or debatable land, on which no man lived. The 
llochelagans were not precisely either of the Iroquois or Algon- 
quin stock, but a remnant of an ancient and decaying nation, to 
which the Kries and some other tribes bclonjjcd, and which had 
historical relations originally with the now extinct Alleghans or 
Mound-builders. Ur. Dawson draws the line between the Alle- 
ghans and the lloclielagans, and says that they were bounded 
on the north by the Algonquins, but thinks that there was a belt 
of scmi-Alleghan and <emi-Alf;onquin territory along the great 
lakes and the St. I-iwrence. the |K-ople inhabiting which had 
borrowed some of the habits, arts and modes of life of the AUe- 
ghans or Mound-builders. To this probably belong such natioiu 
of At^ricultural and village-dwelline Indians u the Eriet, the 

M"IMH!I Il.l'l !>■ AM- IM'IAN IM l.H -. 


TlK- ,., 
till- ni> 

.. thr n.nln-I.i^;.nis Thi'< ili^iiiictfii i-» ntn- which jicr- 
l! .11.1 ii> in ."ir ^ "!' the icl;. *. W .- take these 
i.try tritirs .mil liml tli.ii then r< lies \-.\'- no Ir.ti r <>f con- 
h tin- «hit«- ni;in Tiny wen- '■ H-i, hil.inans". My 
till m l» twt III the Inili.itis that .itc krixuii tn history .ind 
III'! Itviilili'iN, wliu .iri' imknowii t-xtc[il liy name, wcni.iy 
Ik- al>!.- t'> i!i>tiin;ui»h three 
r.i-<-s ime Iriimari'ithcr. Tin- 
altiiiitn-s.'l thi- AIlvi;h:ins iir 
Moun.l hu>l.l.-r> have tK-eii 
>tii<li<(l l>y SirWiiliam Daw- 
>nii 'I'hi-y havr hi-fn pro- 
ni-ijiict'it t" he Toltecan. 
Tlitytfitinbli-. however, motl- 
<Tn Ifi<Ii.iii as iiimh as they 
.1.. tlic r.>Ii,,;..n r.n.cs. The 
' ■■•""■""""•' nlics ..1 ih- Allc-^hans ..r 

-h:ii:.ii is .iiucr viry nuith fr.-ni thi- relic-. lA the Tollccs. 
:i< r> ■ ( the ll'iihcl.i^aiis is ccrlainEy -u|H-ri(>r to that <if 
• \'-,n Inthans.butit Joes not" ihe "Allenhans". 
,1. ■. .'1 iliL- lliichL-la^aii'^ were ^;eni rally e.irthern .iiid have 
..i; -liait — -tiiiraKy truni|>cl shaiic. The M^'und build- 
in-- ■.lire viTV liitTi-rcnt tr.mi these Tin- rupix-r .ixt-s. 
in.i kim.s'.l the Al' <.r M.-und-biiiMers are 
.iiti:\ ■■■ r>- .lilT'-rtnt !i..m the * knives i-f tbf Hoehela- 
11;^ )ia'!;;e-. mare- and nthcr iTnamints ol the Motind- 
.;> r- .»:<■ . eit.cnlv Mii"riiir In anv ..f which are lound 

. II.. i,.:.,i:.. 


!iM;:it.i:n that there is a history i if the Iniliani and the 
'! ':■ .:'A<is. and that this history is seen in the rehcaat well 
:'..■ ■■•■ UfaiS l,ct 114 take the difTerent relics for our illus- 
1- '] here arc very many rehcs found U]>on the surface. 
i.t iinly of tbiMi-pr.-tiably belong to the later Indiana. There 
■o tii.iiiy relics found in jjraves. We a'cnbe the graves to 
.inderint; trilies of Indians, .some of thcni t<> tribes who 
.i-t <t.s.i|>pi-arcd The rehcs found in the (graves are fre- 


qucntly mingled with histcric articles, showing that the graves 
were subsequent to historic times. There arc many relics found 
in bone pits. We ascribe the bone pits generally to Indians. 
The Iroquois, wo know, buried in bone pits. There are relics 
found in stone cists. These stone cista or graves arc widely 
scattL-retl ; they have been generally assigned to the Shawnecs; 
we may safely say that the stone graves belonged to modern 
Indians. There are many relics found in the top of mounds. 
These arc generally supposed to belong also to modern Indians. 
It is a mistake to suppose that the mounds were all built at one 
time, or that any one mound was finished with one burial ; there 
were many buriils in the mounds, and each burial furnished a 
new record to the mound, .several burials having bei-n made be- 
fore the final record was completed. The burial mounds along 
the Mississippi River, which have been examined by the author, 
have all uf them contained .several burials. The bones and the 

ri )■■ I f<i- . y-o- •■•■■ - r-jw- /-.I-. 

relics contained in these mounds were evidently de|)Osiu-d at 
different periods and btlongtd t» different tribes of Indian-^. 
There is a history <if the country eontainvri in the- mounds, the 
histc.ry i.f the tnlHS whieh formerly mh.ihitcil the country. The 
author lUKigines he has discKVeretl the bones of several dilTereni 
tribes of — ."^acs ami l-'ox<-s, lllinoi-, and iJakota-. all of 
thitn tube-. whoM- names are known t<> hi~i<>ry. "'"he original 
Moiinil liiiilderN' b'lies wcrv, however, lowir tliwn than any of 
thi--e Imri.iN, anil the Imnes fouml in this l>'west l.iyer have 
scinu-d tu t.r tiiffi rent from tho-,- t'..un<l in th<- upjter I.Iyer In 
some i.isis till- ij;i]«r layer bl■'on^;eli to thr lii<'t»rie {leritid, the 
lower l.iyer Uli.ii.;.<l to the prehi-tonc. The liiflTcrencc in the 
bones ,tnd re!io> .if the prehi-l'-nc .tnd historic {>eriuds would 
seenitoindic.ite the -Mound -builder* and the Indians belont^ed 
to dirfl T.iit r.u-i-s 

III. The ihar.ictir of the relic-; in the different (li>tri<.ts may 
well Ix- <."n-;.!ind 

l*ir->t, lh'- niulenal In the Montreal district a^;e majority 
are made of pottery In Ohin the pi)x*s are mainly ^•i ste,>tite. 
There are vt-ry few poitcry \i.\ti:^ in thr Mound-builders' collec- 
tion. In the Ii,ivt(ip..i; di-tntt. piiH* are mainly of steatite or 
of c.ttlinile. ;i!nl in this resjK-ct the I'avcnport collection resein 
bles the Ohio much more than it does the Montreal district. 


The modem semblances are recognized in the (tortnit pipes 
inure than in any other. We find ihcm, howi-%-cr, in the Toronto 
collection. \Vc call attention to the modern Kuropean taees in 
the New York pipes. Some of these faces resemble French, 
Spanish, some Fnt^lish types (Figs. 5, 6|, though it is aquestion 
whether this was intended. In two of the cut^ the Indian faces 
may be reco^^nitcd. In the relics from the mounds of Ohio 
iIktc are no modern portraits, at least no [Mrtraits of the white 
man, th<iui;h tho Mound^builder's Cace in one may be said to 
resemble the Dakota Indians and in the other the lace of a 
Shawnee. This would indicate that the Muund-buildcr tribes 
m.iy h.ive t>ecn followed by modem tribes, the features of original 
r.tifs having been perpetuated even to the present day. If we 
i:T.inl this, we must acknowledge that tltcy were dtflcrent tribes 
Irom the Fa^tern Indians. See Fig. 10. 

Tht- jjroic'iiui- i(ua!itie^ which are found in the modern Indian 
.Hi.' n'H;.i-.ible. Ver)- few such grotesque images are found in 
tin- Motind-builders' relics. The sportive element wa.<> evidently 
in till' .iscrndency when these pipes were made. The artist took 
:i n<'<iu!c of stone, and, finding a resemblance to a face in it, he 
ti:nio) it inti> a grotesque image. In one case he used the 
mouth .IS the bowlof the pipe, filled it with tobacco, and smoked 
1; nut of the back of the head. See Fig. 8. In another case he 
ni.i-!f a caricature of the eye (see Fig. yi, and used the pipe with 
it-. o>:iiic fi-.ituri-^ out of mere wantonness or sport. A third 
[>;;>(' It. Ill it.'i portrait toward the smoker (see Fig. $), but its 
Miiilil.ince can not l>e easily recognized. It may have been 
eithi-r .1 native American or Kuropean. The square form of one 
|, :))<.■ \\iii:!d indicate that it was a modern product. The spike 
Ml '.111 center (if the pipe would suggest the phallic symbol, but 
in a m «!ern pij>c would be without significance. The grotesque 
\-i\K- h.ivi- been described by Mr, K. A. Barber. The most of 
thi-sc arc modern Indian, New York State being the source of the 
m.r..ri;yof them. 

Two mure i>onrait pipes are given. One is a pottery pipe, 
with a face resembling a white man's. Another is a carved 
ipccimen, and looks like a Chinese with a turban. This last 
was from a piece of limestone, and is almost black. The head- 



cIresN is ijuitc unlike any Inilian. The s)>ecini(.-n is as beautiful 
as it is rt-niarkal-lf. ^o says tlic curator. Sec Fig. 7. 

J. W'c take uji the animal pipes. The contrast here i.-i very 
niarki:(l. We fimtthat the Mound-builders were very skillful in 
imilatiiir.'; the .ihapc «( animals. Thecolkction whieh is now in 
the Itlackmorc Museum of 
Hn^land has many piiK-s rep> 
re-xentiii'; animals. These 
pi|K;s arc well wrought, and 
contain ixcellent imitations 
of the animal figures. The 
liaMts of the animals are 
brought nut as well as the 
shajH-.s. The Davenport eol< 
lection ha-i many aniinal- 
sha{>ed pipes. The animals 
represented in the Mound- 
buildiT.s' relics are, some of 
them, extralimital, toucan:^, 
/■■v. r,.~ri.,i it,.r. manitii-s, showing that they 

were finiiliiir with birdN and animaK f<<im>] only in Stexico and 
the (inll Siatis. The majority of the amiiuiK ;ire ^ho^e which were 
comniMii II) the valley ol th.' t)hi«' and Mississippi — turtle, frog, 
toad, lit; r. Kiix., b-avtr. lia«k, clii;rry hini. wood-peekir. 

duck, -w.iII.'W. luri'n, fisi.-ii.iwk, r.iljt>,[. wi:.! lat. -quirre!. owI. 
all:t;al..r. The ;-!pis Innii N- w York .tn-1 ' 1 are. -nme of 
them, imit.iliie -.f ;tnim:i;-. but ;;■!) [..n-r imitat:i>ns. 
We lia\e thiee inntativi nlits Inturf u-. It is .dn-.n-t impo.ssi- 
blc to recn^m/c the creature represented. In one ca*f we have 



the short bill of ihc biril, in the other we have the tail of the 
bird and a rude imitation of the bill. In the third ue have the 
ncclc. hvad and eye of the bird, but a poor imitation of both. 
This la%t is a pottery pi{K-, and is) very rude. See I't^s. 1 1 and 
IV They >how the imitative skill fit the Indians of thiii region. 
The wu<>d-i>ecker and the chcrr^' bird, which arc from the 
mounds of Ohio, will show the contrast. Sec Ki|;. 12. It is 
evident that the Mound -builder's skill was much greater 
tliat of the Canaila Indiana. 


;. The sha|M- of the pijies is next to be con^idcfed. There are 
tinus sh.i[)<-d pipes, which may Ik- recognized as mo<lern by 
L- sha[K-. As a general thin^, a pipe which has straight .sides, 
.iT]i angles, looking' as if they were sawed, like the one (^iven 
I'li; $• ^i" ^' regarded as *a modern pipe. There are m.tny 
I h |ii|K-s throughout the country. Some of them have {uncU, 
d siirnc have plain sides. S4]uier and Davis have described a 
\. hut they were jiipe^i which were known to belong to certain 
•tone Indians. The pi|>c of Keokuk is depicted in thi.s book. 
r. K A. lUrber has described other pipes from I jke Sup<.Tior, 
il Mr. (.Atlin described many others. These were the 
>es ot chiefs. All of them had strai^^ht sides ,in(l a 
ul .It one end; the material was catlinite. A pipe which has 

ihi- 'hajn- of a glass stopfter seems to be common. Figs. |6. i-. 
rhr« .ire evidently modern, and have the appearance of having 
been turned in a lathe, as the bands are all parallel, and the bowl is 
dividrti inti>difTerent parts. No such pipe was c^'cr found among 
t^enuinc Mound -builders' relics. It can not be called a prehis- 
toric s|>ccimen. 

The trumpet- shaped pipe: This is a shape which may be 



cither modern or ancient. Wc present two specimens from the 
collection. Sec Figs. i8 and 19. The first has ornaments and 
bands on it, and was evidently made by some Indian. The shape 
of the pii>e was, however, so much like the common clay pipe 
of the white man that we place it amonj; the modern semblances. 
A pipe from a mound in .Sullivan County, Tennessee, has, how- 
ever, been described by Dr. Cyrus Thomas, which has a bowl 
like thi<i one from Ontario, hut its stem has llanges or win{;i on 
either side, making it re- 
semble both the Mdund- 
buildcr's pifie and the 
white man's pipe. This 
was discovered in the 
midst of tlicstunc heaps 
which have t>cen ascribed 
ti) the Cherokees, and 
was undoubtedly a Cherokee pipe: pus^ibly was made after the 
advent of the wliite man. Mr. \.V.. D.iu^ also described 
a tru III j>ct- shaped pijw fri>m Mexico, though it is uncertain 
whether it is prehistoric nr historic. Thi' triirni)et-sh.i[>i-d pi|H: 
whii h is next ^jiven is pcrhajis typiial ot' lhi«.e. S-e l-'ij;. l8. 
Sir Willi. nil D.iwsiin has descntMil a itiiinber of the-e. lie sayii tin; liijjhest skill of the I liehela.;.! potters l>e stowed on 
their to!j,ic.:o pipes Thi-y possessed pijKS of steatite or soap- 
" el. ^borate form have been foun<l. 

but none 

lie of atriim[K:t pifH.-. m.-idr ofcatlinite, number nf fr,i;;mems of clai 

tri:ni;i-t >lMpe >liow that t)ii 
It \mII b<- noticed the 
p:]ir lia- the -ll.lJK 

th;l., tlK-|>...Ucoi 

eotnmon form. 


:■ l-in, 
bearing; the 
See l-ig. 20. 

the h. 


thr ll.uldl. 


.Iul>. the 


1 resented. the 


th'- In 


1 j.ip.^ 

titi;;- l-t .1 bow ;. the oni'iceof 
the \--]'- hiiii.; Ill the tenter "I the p'..itc S-nh a pij>c as this n .virdid in .1 nu.isurc iis .'^ee h'ljis .'l. 24 and ;;. 
The l.h.uc. H.ts pla.rd up-n the Mirt.iee. Iii;hted. and the 
pipi- p.iss.d ar..iinJ the irinSe. tor thv w.iinors it council 

men to hlow the smoke as a si^n ..f j; If.iith and worship. 

SL:..h pi|xs I)clong tothe moiicrn inJun*. cither to ihe Algon- 
q ;ins or the Iroijuois. They arc quite widely distributed. We 


have seen one in the cullection at I'otoxi.Wiscontin. Catlinhas 
picturcti one in liis bwtk on the Mandan Indians and the Smith* 
si> kci)orts speak nf other pijics uf a similar shape. 

We ha%'e dwelt ujhui the description of these relics for the 
rcasiin that they are suppo'.cd to have been typical specimcmi. 
The execution of the cut^ is, to be sure, somewhat im|ierfect, 
and yet the ?ihape 
of the relics will be 
easily wen from 
Ihem. Wc take the 
))Osition that the 
collection as a 
whole illustrates 
the ficculiahties ot 
the Indian an, pe- 
culiarities which 
are not reco^fnized 

• ■"■ ■ in the Mound- 

builder>' art. The»r |H-culiaritics seem to have been derived from 
[irehist'inc times, and to indicate tiut the Indians of this region 
at least were always diflcrcnt, or. at least, had different types ol 
art, from the Mound-builders. Certainly, so far as the relics can 
shi)W it. wc shiiiild say that there was a wide difference between 
the (wo cLi^seodf people, and that this diflerence existed in pre- 
historic times as well as in historic. We might here draw upon 
hist.iry to show the same fact. It is well known that the rceion 
wc li.ive been describing, and from 
uhich these rclits were gathered, the one which was first occu- 
pied by the white man. It is the , 
ret;ion in which the protohistoric j 
period was most prolonged. There 
havf been, to be sure, a few other 
loijlities in which this period was If 
e'lu.tlly protractetl, but in none was 
It IiL-L-ly that so many protohistoric i 
relii-s would be left as here. 

4 There are ccrtam relics which 
Mifii to h,i\e been widely distrih- 
1^1"!. !>ut thiy ire at the same time 
tf:;.ir.!t li as Mound -builders' rel- 
u -, i<T tliey .ire sumctimes found in mounds and have all of 
tii^ fiiiKh whi(.h (.tiaractcri/cs the Mound-builders' art. We 
T-. tr :•• t!ie sadi lie- shaped sjiccimens. These are sometimes 
i.i"e! tiro.'din); ornaments, as the supposition is that they reji- 
nr-r-.tcil birds as broofling. and at the same time were worn as 
*:,:ns ■■{ nutcrnity There is one thing to favor this view of the 
rel:c<. The head-dress of the KgyptiangoddessNeith, who was 


thf goddtfss of maUTnily. was in the .-.h.-ipc of a viilnirc. the 
winfTs resting down over the tars, but tlii: head and tail project- 
ing above the head, formini; a sort of crown. It is possible that 
the bird ornament, or broodinj; ornament, as it is called, was used 
in the same way. There are portrait \»]m:s which have horns 
projecting above the head, drapery thrown over the horns and 
falling; down at the side of the head. The i|iiestion is whether 
the horns which furnish the support for the drapery were not 
formed by a broodint; ornament, the head and tail of the bird pro- 
jecting above the head upward, the body of the bird forming the 
support for the draiH.T>'. This may have been one use. Another 
way of wearinK the ornament v/ould be to fasten it on the top 
of the, nuikin;; projections over at the side, as well as 
above the hea<l. a cord |>:i'i^int^ around under the chin and over 
the head. Another 
way of wearing; the 
ornament wouId,be 
to plaee it on top 
of the head, where 
It wouM make a 
!>in)^Ie horn, the 
three Mays of wear- 

___^^^^_ '"H '''*^ urnamcnt 

ir .' ~ 9^^^^^^^^ reipiirin^ three dif- 
ferent shajies. .-Xs 
an argument in fa- 
vor of thi^ view, 
we wiiuKI mention 
y..,. V v.....,..r I-.,'. /*!...». iin. n^t that bro..d- 

in;; .■rnam> iit% li.ive three sh.ipes, onebiin^ irulic >h.ijK;t.-f a sad- 
dle, Willi IW'. project ioii>. but with no hinl -iMp.: in it . a second 
w.iiM he the bird sh.iiK'd .■rit.imcm. thi- Icnutii and the >!/c 
v.iryin;; .icCiTihrii; t.. cin iiniNtance^. hut with t.iil and head b<ith 
e:r\,ite.l. nuking two horn*; tlie th:idc.isc i'. an imitation of the 
bird. Iiiit the head .done i-. .lev.itr.t, iii.ikjii;; a -Hi-le burn instead 
(if .1 d.viM'- i-ne We i;ive tin r..::..W!iii; , nt* to lilustr.itc th(-.e 
point- UV havr til.- binl sli.,,,,,! .muilet oi |■l^;* ^4. j;. .-6; 
«e h.iv. the i...rtr.iits which sh-.w ih-- |...-m1.:,- -.i^c .f these orna- 
111' lit- III l-;j;-.. .•,-. :X. J., Ih. thrre -!n;« , ..f the br^odini; nt- .ire ^jiven m the . l.I-. .iifl liie three «.ivs .f weatinj; 
them . 01 !..■ •^.■.11 :m th.- \- f.r.ut j.iiK:- .\, .in addition.d ar^u- 
nun;, «r tt. 11; I i.ier t.> the ni. rii-.l -t «..irii!t: the luir which 
w..^ . .Mi:i..n .1:11. .nn the I'je!>: . ^..mcii. lli.r. i« a roll .d-we 
or ov. r tin- i .us, wimh r< -eiiililes the^t:on< at the »:de of 
the bird's he.i'!, an-1 .it the '■.Line -..rM- rcxtiihle- the kt>ool orna- 
ments «hi. h aie •>■> driimi.n i;i the I In »e spool 
oiii.iiiienti .ire re:ti.itVab!e f'..i- 1 iitfi- w.i% tvnieiitiy a sym- 
b'/is::) ali'iuttluni.a svnih'iisni whiLii w,i- very uiJcsprcad. We 

MnrMt-liriMiH.Iti- ANI» INt'lAS KF.U(N, 


take tin- •.]>i.i.l nrnamcnt*, the broodion ornament, and compare 
thrni will) ilii- K^y]>tian head drt.-s«. We t)it-n take the Pueblo 
manner of we.itin^ the Ii.iir, .mil thi- various pictures, and plact.- 
tlicrii ti>^t tliirr, jnd A-'k w)ii-thcr there was not a symbolism in all 
thi'i.a s\iv.l> whith [Hjosibly had a ciminion source in some 
hist'TJcanci-slry. This c\)>lanHtion may mn be accepted by all. A 
few tiinl aiiiukts have iK-en found which in ^ha[1c contradict it. 
Then- is a binl amulet in the posftssion of Mr. I,. ( >. HIiss. ol 
low.i Kill> It con'-isteil oriyinally of tllrcc pieces, the top piece 
Ixinj; in the ^liajie of a duck with a ll.u twclc. the middle piece 
Ik'iiI'^ .1 men- tablet, rcscnibltn(j the jx-rforated tablets, the 
lower piete t(eiiit> boat-sh.'ipi'd, resembling the b<'at-shx|K'd relit s 
which arc so coniinon. The ex|)lanation of this remarkable 
ri lu I- that a duck was pl.iccd upon the boat shajied reltc, anit 

could be rocked in a way to resemble the floatinc of a duck on 
the water The relic, remarkable as it is, does not in reality 
contradict the explanation which we have ^^ivcn. The duck 
nii^ht l>e taken as a symbol of maternity; it is a vcr^' common 
syinhol, nut only amon^ the Indians and Mound-buildcrs, but 
anion^ the Peruvian.^. It would seem u if this idea of repre- 
senting maternity by the brooding; ornament or bird-shaped 
hia^l-drcss was very widespread. 

The •jut-stion arises whether these were Mound-builders' or r<'l:i s. In answer to thi( we would sufjgest that if they 
«i re Mound-builders they are very interesting specimens, since 
tli'-c which are undoubtedly Indian are much ruder than those 
w hii li wen- Mound-builders'. We call attention to the brooding 
ornaments from the Canadian Institute at Toronto as compared 
with the ornaments in the Blackmore Museum, described by 
I'.. 'i Siiiiiir in ■* Ancient Monuments."" Still, we would say 


that Dr. C. C. Abbott has mentioned the prevalence of these 
-brooding ornaments in New Jersey, found on the sites of the 
ancient Indian villages in New Jcrscy.t Mr. Henry Gilman 
also says of these bird-sliapcd stones: "I have learned through 
an aged Indian that in olden times these ornaments were worn 
on the heads of the Indian women, but only after marriage; the 
figure of a brooding bird was a familiar sight to the children of 
the forest." Dr. Kdward Sterling, of Cleveland, says: "Such 
bird effigies made of wobd iiavc been noticed among the Ottawas 
of Grand Traverse Hay. Michigan, fastened on the top of the 
head of the women as an indication of maternity." \Vm. Penn 
says: "When the young women are fit for marriage, they wear 
something on their heads for an advertisement, so that their 
faces arc hardly to Im: soen, except when they please." Dr. Ab- 
bott speaks of one bird-sha(>cd stone found in Vermont, another 
found near Trenton, New Jersey, another in Cumberland County. 
New Jersey. This was intended to represent a diver or duck 
with a long neck. A very t>eautiful specimen was recently dis- 

covered by Mr. Thompson in Michigan After considering the number of these relies, and the fact that they arc found 
tiixin the surface, we should say that they belong to the modern 
Indi.m r.ithcr than to the Moiiiid-buiKler 

5. The next cla-j> -if relics ab"iii nhuh there might l>e a 
contention a-. t<> whether they were Mound-builders' or Indians, 
is that class which might Ik- ciilled mace- it banner stones. 
These are perforated, and have fl.mge- or win^*. but v.iry m 
shafK-. size and l'ini-.h. They arc verj- ui.!' !y di-.tnb;:ti ■! S^ime 
of Ihem are found in (.', r.thirs :n liurid.i In f.iC. they 
are common all o\er the Mi>ui;il !>ui!i)> 1- ili^lcict It would 
seem as if some <>f them were m.ide t>y m'»icrn Indians, but that 
in m.ikiii,: thctn they unly perpetuated .1 n.itive symbol, or en- 
sign of .•(Tue. « ithoi:t pieserviiig the skdl will' h formerly had 
lieen exercised in finuliln^ them. We call .ittintion t^illie .-pec- 
mit-ns which .ire fuinivheilby theCaii-ii!:.\ii li;>.[itti:e a> ii'mparcd 



with those described by Mr. A. E. DuugUs^. It will be seen 
that the Toronto s|iecim<-ns arc much ruder than the Florida 
si>ccjmcns. The contrast might possibly !« owing partly to the 

engraver, but not altogether. Of one of the specimen!* furniihcd 
by the Toronto Institute, Mr Iloylc says: "It is an unfinished 
s)>ccimen and is valuable chiefly as another proof that the Indians 
(lid not |>erforate their work until it was almost or wholly fin- 
ished. This s|)ccimen eame from Kentucky. Other unfinished 
s|>ecimens have been deicribed by Col. Charles Whittlctey. They 
were sjiecimcni fruui Oliiii. Many broken specimens have been 
fnunil in various ]iarts of the country-. One is in possession of 
thr writer It came from the region of the effigy mounds. It been [lerft^rated in such a way as to show that it had been 
larricd .is a charm by some Indian, who was perhaps unconscious 
that it had iK-en «ncc used as an emblem of honor or as a badge 
or m.iL'e. These rei- 
ns have c%-idently 
come down to us 
through the hands of 
modern Indians from 
the Miiund-builders' 
jxriod. They illus- 
trate very clearly the 
jioiijt winch wc have 
m mind ThcMound- 
luiiMiTs' jicriod was 
liiMinnuiNlud for the 
Mi]nrioiity of the 
n.itivc art. The 
m^'dcrn |>criod is dis- 
tin-tiiNhed f.'r tin- 'V »>.-v»-ii..r i-,,^, v«.«« n^w^-.. 

. inline .if the native art. We may call the Mound-builders 
Iniiiaiis, but the difference between the specimens of art which 
h.ivi- cotnc down to us from the Mound-builders and those which 
li.ivc been fnund in the hands of nuKtern Indians prove the posi- which we have taken. The term "Mound-builders" is an 
.i)>|iriipriate i>ni-. fur it suggests a stage of art which was much 
-u; •<■(;< If m prchi>t<>ric times to that stage which is exhibited by 
ttie hi''t<it]i' or protohistoric times. One of two things is proved 
liy t!;- til. Miiher till- hunter Indians who have come in and 
t.itr n l!;i- jil.iic of the preceding tribe» were a much ruder class 
■ I ]• iijilr tliiise whom we c.ill Mound-builders, or the 
M' und liiiiMer-. Iiiive very much dcgencr.ited and are not prop- 
• :'.v ^cp!e^•■llted l>y tlieir de-'Cendanls, wh<<m wc call modern 
lr:^i:.iri. I hi-. i> .ii; we care ti) substantiate. We think that 
til ■■i'Vnncebetwetnthe modern Indians and the Mouml-build- 
II-, 1^ pl.i.nly exhibited. We do nut claim for the Mnund- 
!<u:!'i r- a:iy hi^li dL-gree of civilization, nor tlo we claim (or them 



any radical race distinction, but \vc claim for them a superiority 
in all that constitutes abori«;inaI art, and so maintain that the 
term Mound-builder is to be Ci)ntinued. 

C). \Vc now come to the monitor pipe. The difTcrcnce between 
the Indian and the Mound-builders' relics will be more fully 
seen in these than in any other. We furnish several specimens 
of the pipes (see I'igs. 32, 33, 34, 3;\ which may be said to be 
imitations or attempts at the monitor pipe, from the Canadian 
collection. It will be noticed that they arc exceedingly rude. 
Tile peculiarity of the monitor pipe is that it is composed of one 
single stone, and was smoked without the addition of a stem : it 
was a simple specimen, and is contrasted with the compound 
S|K*cimcns which were common amon^ the Indians. The advan- 
tage of havin*^' a simple pipe was that it was easily placed in the 
medicine ba^, where it was i»ut of the way anti yet was conve- 
niently present. There was a sacredness about the pi|H.* which 
made it important to ]) reserve it. The pi|>es of the modern 
Indians do n<it seem to have had the same .sac redness: thev were 
commonly carried suspended to the belt, and were often in plain 
sii^ht. The pipes of tlie Ivi^tcrn Indians seem to have been, 
many of them, simple specimens — that is, simple as contrasted 
with compound ones. Tiiey were, however, in jjreat contrast 
with the Mound-builders' pipes, in tli.»t they were exceedinjjly 
rude. It is possible that some of ihrsf specimens art* unfmished; 
that in course of time they would luive been moulded into sym- 
metrical shapes, and yet c>ne tif ilif-m scem^ to ha\e *>een designed 
for the insertion of a stern, and ^o woii!d be c.illcd compound; it 
was prol>ab!y Indian We present one specimen of the Mound- 
biiilclcrN' ]Mp<-. to Nhnw the Contrast. It i> a portrait pi|K*. but has 
the t\|)n al iii«t:nt<»r sliape. the main ihrT- n-iice beinj; that the 
b'w! ]> in th'- ^h i]ic of a human hr-ad instcail <>t a rimmed cyl- 
inil'-r. Monitor p!j»es were \t ry common am >i\^ the M«»und- 
bii.!-Iers. c-p 'Lsally am-'n^ the M 'unl bui'.ilers ol 1 )hio. They 
arc !"iiriil in ma:iy paf'> "t I!Iin 'i^, .ind .U'- u'lmerous in the 
vi<'in:tv •>! I )a\en;i'irt, Iowa, th "i^h tii' (.h.iracten^tic pipe of 
that n ;jian i- .irniiia! -<}:i:»-<! 

TIti^ c!"^^•*' the r-vi' w W'** think 'TVi :;;ii contrast between 
th l:'.«l:.m an 1 the Moun'Mnii'.lir'." :r'.:> ^ ij.i-. bctr) shovm to 
C'ir.\.n.. .::v '-ir ' tw > i!t^'r^til jr.-iip!*- ilwlt u^ n the con- 
tin- Mt. \k':\ ih \\ r ■■ «I 'V r»nt eiioii,;li -ri tli ■.: ait pr^^liKts f^r us 
ti> ,!.f Vi !;;•::: d fT r n* n i:i. -, ir: i >► w i' « '.i:!^ t- • the lirms 
ML>'.ind !i::i!<!i-r^ and In i.^n. 




Kv l*Koi-F>H«)k A. S. Packarp. 

Not far from the I^ind'^ Kn€l of France, and adjoining;; the 
picturcsf]uc coast c»f Finistcrrc, a favorite resort not only of 
French, but aUo of Kn(*Iish and Amc rican artists, lie the barren 
ami ahiidst treeless plains of Morbihan. one of the eighty-six 
I )i*partments into which the French Republic is now divided. 
Morbihan is Celtic for "The I.ittle Sea/' and the district is famous 
not for Its scenery, for the landscape is tame, but for its inipres- 
sivo and mysterious so-called Celtic or Druidical ruins. These 
remains are mounds, tombs, and monoliths erected by a race 
uliose remote descendants still occupy the soil, their famjs and 
dwellings and hamlets l>orderin|; u{K>n,and in part inclosing the 
tumbs and lines of stone pillars which keep silent watch over 
the region. The most im|K>sing and best known of these scries 
of pillars or "menhirs" are the great **ali(;nments" of Carnac. 
uhich have for centuries excited the curiosity and interest of 
travelers and anti<]uarians. 

Sach m<»ni]ments, if they ever existed in so great perfection 
m other |>art^ of France, have lK*en removed by farmers in clearing 
th( ir lands, or in building their own dwellings, as with us glacial 
ho... tiers have been removed and used for building stone walls. 
( )n the remote coast of Morbihan. houever. where the land is 
( oniparatively >terile and treeless, and the population is sparse, 
11' t only have the monuments been tolerably well pre5er\'cd, but 
the Hretons themselves, perhaps s|)eaking a language derived 
frt'tn their pre-Celtic ancestors ot the later stone and early bronze 
a,;( . have preserved in a degree the probable features, the folk- 
1«;,.. .md S4»nie of the customs of the times when these monu- 
fU' Mts were erected. 

Hi Hi e a iournev to Morbihan. with its weird, somber land- 
si.i;*'. is ciiier-drmking. su[K'rstitious. Celt-speakmg (K*asants, 
i!ai 1:1 their solx:r black garments, environed by the many 
niii'jn !>*. tombs, and standing stones, rising as silent witnesses of 
th* mysterious past, and becoming an integral part of the ever>' 

*It.* i-.'iLnthina c>\«>n hrivwith arv Ukktfi from rv /wffp^iwf^iii. AucnstT. II and 
.1 ■ . il*- i.|> of •rirriitina. Thrv arp r«»|iiint«*d A>r th« purpiMr of ahoirinc tll# K/Bi- 


day life of the inhabitants — a journey among such scenes has a 
strange fascination. 

There are in the single department of Morbihan 306 dolmens 
and throughout France 3410. They are rarer in the north and 
east than in central, southern and western France. Beginning 
with the most eastern point at which dolmens occur, archa*olo- 
gists have observed them in western India, where they have 
been used to the present. They are found in Palestine, near the 
Dead Sea, in the land of the Moabites. Going west we find 
them on the other side of the Caucascs Mountains in Circassia 
and the Crimea. Passing farther to the westward they occur in 
Central Europe, northeast of Dresden, from Mecklenburg through 
Denmark into southern Sweden, but none occur in Norway. 
Returning to Germany, many have been discovered in Hanover 
and the Low Country, as well as in Belgium, in Lu.xembour^ 
and Switzerland. They also occur on the Channel Islands, in 
Cornwall, in the Isle of Man and of Anglesea, some in western 
and a few in the eastern counties of Kngland. while many occur 
in Scotland and in Ireland. Turning to the Mediterranean 
region, there are the ruins of dolmens in Corsica, in northern 
Spain, in Andalusia, in Portugal, while in Northern Africa they 
are abundant from Morocco to Trii)oli. especially in Algeria. 
Mortillet rejects the theor}' once held that the dolmens were 
constructed by a niigrator>' people, maintaining that they were 
the work of a sedentary papulation and not of one and the same 
race, as skeletons of very different races have been found in 
them. At the same time, many facts tenil to show that the 
dolmen-builders came from the luist in the first place. Mortillet 
also states that dolmens were burial chambers ii<ed as places of 
sepulchre by families or by tribes. The menhirs were also 
quarrieil and erected by the designers and builders of the fl«»l- 
mens, who roughly hewed and chipped the niiinnliths inti> their 
present sh^{Krs with small axes of polished flint, jade, and the 
harder varieties tif serj dentine. 

One should visit the excellent musrum .it Winnes before pass- 
ing f»n to Carnac. The Mii^-rc .\ri hi'»!M'^:t|:f is situated in the 
third st<»ry t>f a very ••Id. raiiiMin^. :imlK-reil liuildinij, with 
creak i nj^ (»ak '^lairsaru! ^;hostly v ••rriii'»r>. I lie room> ari- small, 
but the c.4ses Ci-ntain very ruli c"l!eitior.> t.iken tr«'m the dol- 
mens ani) tumuli we were titterw.iid la vi-^ii. Hrre were placed 
toj^'cllier in tin- c.ise tlu* r<lics r\iM\atLd in iS'-j Irom Mont 
St. .Mii h<I. at ( .irnac. th'- lar^' hurial r'.ouru! in Kr.uue. It 
compr:sr.s a si;p» rb series i»f jKV.i'^hcd axes in ;.ui«;le. chl««ri»mel- 
anile, hbr'iiit*' and tin»rite. with a heaulitu! nfvk!a».e of ^'rcen 
turijuoi'^e. Tlu- re wa^ also a Unv srrirs tV.-ni the triTiralus of 
Mane-er-H'r»»* k .it I,«»ckniar:.niiK r.C"n:pr:**jn'.: bi sjiii s nix jadeite 
axvs ninftv two <•! fihr'-lite. wh;ch is a dark varittv <! scrtK-n- 
tine. Tile pottery of the tnound was represented, and among 


them were ^cn the rude, unfinished earthen-ware, precursors of 
€iur bowls, tumblers and cups and saucers. Some of the *'green 
turquoise" beads were cylindrical, perforated, and exactly resem- 
bled, in sha{)e and color, a jade bead we had obtained at Cholula 
from a Mexican Indian. The jadeitc implements were illustrated 
by unworkcd specimens of jade from Thibet and of jade ncphite 
from Siberia, as well as Jaussuritc from the valley of the Saas. 

Reluctantly leaving this ()uaint and attractive town we took 
the evenm^ train for Plouhamel Carnac, reaching the Hotel du 
Commerce, kept by the two daughters of M. Felix Gaillard. to 
whom we took a card of introduction from Prof. Topinard. and 
from whom we received evcrv kind of attention and aid, the 
learned arch.Tologist freely giving us the benefit of his many 
years' exploration of neolithic menhirs and dolmens, as well as 
('i.iulish burial-places. Part of the hotel is devoted to a very rich 
local museum, crowded with stone implements, ornaments and 
ornaments in bronze and gold, potter)', including funeral lamps 
with holes for the wick, and three graves removed with their 
contents from Ouiberon. the whole illustrated by stone imple- 
ments from North America and New Caledonia, with objects frorfi 
the Swiss {)alafittess. or pile dwellings, which M. Gaillard told us 
are of the same age as the dolmens of France. 

And now Inrfore we actually visit these strange memorials ol 
}Kist neolithic occu|)ation, let us explain the meaning of the Celtic 
names ap])lied to them. The megalithic monuments are rude 
m4inoliths of the granite of the Breton coast called w<'w///rj. from 
tuo Hreton or Celtic words, mrn a stone, and /r/r long; they are 
alho callril pcuivans. The menhirs are arranged in groups ot 
tmm nine ti) thirteen rows, each row being called an alignment. 
The tomb-like structures called dolmens are so named from mtn^ 
A stonr. and f/i>/ table. They consist of a few large, broad, flat 
st'tnes .set up on edge so as to enclose a more or less oblong 
sjMce . the larger ones are about six feet high and covered over 
by a bin^:le great slab (called table) or several flat stones. The 
sm.i!lcT ones are said to resemble tables and altars. Manv ol 


tht^e in the Morbihan are approached by covered galleries, which 
are ^'tntrally straight, but at times curved; the main structure 
or 1 h.imhcr is sonirtimes wider than long. They, in nearly each 
t.i**!-. !'.u*- the east, and were places of sepulchre or tombs, t>eing 
thr jirniirsois of the old-fashioned tt>mbsof our cemeteries. and 
Wf re- t «>\(Te<{ bv mounds of earth called tumuli. A tumulus 
^ mi linu^ rnclosfij a cairn or jf//<W, or heap of squarish stones 
s.x ar ei,:ht inches or a fo<-i in diameter, thrown *»r laid over the 
liolintn to protect it fr»»m wild beasts. A iromltik in France is 
a t rcle i-r semicircle of menhirs *^r upright stf»nes. The stones 
C'-mpnsing a cr(»mlcch arc usually smaller than the majority of 
th< menhir^, and the stones touch each other, while in an align- 
nu r.t ot menhirs, the individual stimes are from two to several 


feet apart. The word cromlech is from kroumm, curved, and 
/a'V/, meaning sacred, or, according to some writers, smaller 

At the village of Lockmariaquer we engaged two fishermen, 
who took us in their boats to "Gavr' Inis," on which is perhaps 
the most interesting tumulus and best preserved sculptured dol- 
men in the Morhihan, and probably in Kurope, which is a cairn 
twenty-six feet high. 

The view from the summit of the mound, over the Gulf of 
Morbihan and its shores, is one of much interest, from the fact 
that some ot the distant eminences arc artificial mounds, and 
that on some of the islands there are dolmens. 

Descending, we enter the gallery of the dolmen by a path 
walled in with the square p:/rphyritic granite blocks taken from 
the sides of the gilgal, and passing through the low narrow gal- 
lery about twenty-five feet long (Cartailhac says thirteen meters) 
we enter the chamber, which runs east and west. About forty 
huge slabs form the pavement, the walls and the ceiling, one of 
the slabs in the ceiling is of quartz; and we judged the largest 
slab to be about eighteen feet square. But the distinguishing 
feature of this dolmen is the mysterious sculpturing on the slabs. 
All the granite wall-slabs are thus sculptured, the marks t>eing 
cut in. And what was the nature of the tools? The quartz 
slabs alone had been untouched. Cartailhac argues with good 
reason, we think, that the implements could not have iK^en of 
iron, as only the softer granite was grooved and engraved, and 
that the engravings were made with stone tools. It is also no- 
ticeable that in other dolmens we visited, symbolic stone axes, 
mounted on handles, arc engraved on the slabs of the ceiling, 
while on a single upri^'ht slab in the dolmen we are now de- 
scribing, there are eighteen such axes figiire<i with others in the 
same g.illery. 

Thr marks themselves roughly resemble the tattoo marks ot 
Tacific Islantlf-rs As Cartailhac remarks in his ** La France 
l^tthi^torujUi " i iSSr)), they are ihverse linear combination^. l>eing 
straight, curve <1, waved Imes, either i'«t«lated i>r parallel or rami- 
fied like fern leaves. i>r arranged m segments or ct»ncentric circles, 
either limited or not. and trimming certain compartments of 
spiraN with short turns, recallm;^' exactly the figures made by 
the wrinkles <»f the skin on tlie palms uf the hands and finger tips. 

The last dcscrilnrd marks are certainly the most typical and 
abundant, and perhaps were suj^gested t" the protc»- Celtic en- 
graver by st inlying the lines on his hands. The artist was not 
hurn(-<i in lii^ work, anil as Cartailhac say^.-the sculptures must 
have bjen made bel«»re the st<»nes were put in place. 

Hut the tide was going out. and we nui^t leave this fascinating 
ruin and return to I.t»ikmar:aiiuer. to vi^it other dolmens One 
of the most notaMe. situated south *»f the town near the ba*c of 


*f f 

an rlliptical mound, y) feet hi|jh, is the dolmen Manr crH'rocck 
(the m<iiint.iin of the f.uryi. The 4>|>cnin^ to the ^:.•l!lery, as in 
al". the ollur dnimcns. faces to the east, and to enter it wc pass 
l»y tu(i enormous but prostrate menhirs, one 31 and the other 
?; If et lon^; The walls of the dolmen are huilt in horizontal 
layers, am! i-nc of the stones raised on the ri^»ht side of the en- 
trance is ornamented with very l>cautiful and curious sculptures, 
M'tiu like e'-cutcheons, l>csidcs ten fijjr.rcs of symbolic axes with 
h.iiitlies. '1 hence walking; across a potato-fiild, occasionally 
st.ppin^ ti» pick up fragments of Roman tiles, we approach the 
•• k;iv.; of the menhirs." called Mane-ar-(iroac'h. His monolithic 
in.icsty IS second in size and height to ni»ne in Kur«>[)c, or any 
otlit r Country; the next largest one in Krittany being 37 feci 
hi^:h. It lay, however, prostrate, and broken into four pieces. 
When entire, it was 67 feet 6 inches long, 7 feet 6 inches thick 
in «nc diameter, and 1 3 feet 6 inches m the broadest |>ortion. 
Ihis C(»los>al menhir, as usual, when one or two stand alone, 
ser\ id as a monument, and was evidently in direct relation to 
the tumulus and the inclosed dolmen, for we noticed one stand- 
in^; sentinel <tver a dolmen: and they are sometimes erected on 
the s-:mmit of a tumulus, as at lie de Sein; in such case they 
may have been put up to indicate burials. The dolmen near 
the base of the Mane-ar-Groac'h is a famous one, and like many of 
th«' otiiers has been purchased and restt)rc<l by the Government. 
It l^ the I )ol-ar-Marc'hadouricn, or Table of the Merchants. On 
the uiiiirr or inner side of the great table or covering slab. 
whuh is J) feet long by 13 feet wide, was engraved a large 
stone synd>«»!ic hatchet with its handle. That these images 
are m reality rude representations of hatchets seems plausible. 
St'»:v axes, apparently made expressly for ceremonial use, are 
t'lund in ni-ariy all dolmens, having been placed there l>eside the 
dead, and tliey arc in nearly all cases beautifully finished, with 
sharp, unbroken edges, and often of jade, which is only now to 
hr toind in Asia and Polynesia, being one of the rarest minerals 
in Mil rope. Some authors suppose that the a.\ was regarded by 
thr- ;"-.ip!e as the symbol of sej^iration — an emblem of the end 
< t It!' However this may l>e. whether from its utility alone in 
e\f ;\ I lay lite, or its use as a weapon of war, it must have been a 
h :;;::!> pri/ei! and venerated instrument to l>e so often engraved 
• II t'>inl)s. .ind >o invariably buried with the dead. 

I !". N region is especially rich in dolmens as they are scattered 
.t'.! .i!>o;i: l^oikmariaquer; the dolmen of Mane-Lud being situ- 
.it< <! (tn i>ne <>f the ]»rinci{)al streets, next to a house, the tumulus 
i'lu f- em losing it rising behind. 

A hllle way out from the town is the dolmen of Kervress, 
rr tiKirkal>!e f«»r the cup-sha|>ed pits in the under side of the cov- 
er :n,: slab, and which, of course, must have l>een made before 
th'.- >tone was put in place. These cup-shaped hollows are 


scattered irregularly over the surface, varying somewhat in size, 
the largest being about an inch and a half in diameter. They 
are a great puzzle to archa*ologists, who can make nothing of 
them. Occurring in Germany, Switzerland, among the Alps and 
the Pyrenees, and in Portugil, both in dolmens and on menhirs, 
they had some meaning to the men of the stone and of the 
bronze age. after which they ceased to be formed. It is only to 
be said, with Cartailhac, that at the present day, Hindu women 
at the approach of maternity, may be seen carrying water from 
the Ganges, with which they sprinkle these symbolic cups in 
their temples, with prayers to the divinity indwelling. Such 
superstitions still prevail in France, and in the Pyrenees, and in 
Sweden, as well as in Switzerland, where they arc either regarded 
as the work of elves, or visited by young girls or widows in the 
hope of getting husbands. 

The great mound of St. Michel looms up as on return we ap- 
proach the little village of Carnac. It is the largest tumulus in 
France, ovr^rlooking the rather flat surrounding countr>' and the 
Atlantic. The tumulus is now sixty-five feet above the surround- 
ing field, though originally it must have been considerably 
hi(;her. its summit having been levelled by the Romans to build 
a temple upon. We ascend the tumulus by the fifty-two steps 
made of the small granite blocks taken from the cairn which 
protected the dolmen. The great elliptical mound of earth 
covering both dolmen and cairn is 4CX).\JOO feet in its greater 
and lesser dianuters. Toward the north and northwest are 
plainly to be seen the famuus alignments of Kerlescan. Kermario 
and Mcnei'. which we were to visit. M. (laillard was again our 
"guide, pliilosiiphcr and friend." without whi»se intimate knowl* 
c.'^'e of the striking monuments we could not have seen or 
understood them. The next day. M <'iaillard wisely conducted 
us throu^jh Carn.ic. jKi^t mr»und St. Michel, to the easternmost 
point, and w.ts to lead us three or four miles westward, so that 
We i't)uld review the ruins, one aft«r an<»lli(r, beginning with the 
thirteen ali;;ninents of Kerlesc.m, aud ending with tho'^e of 
Ml -nee. 

There arc ,it Kerle^can tliirteeti rnws »ir a'.i;^nments. compris- 
ing :G2 nu'ulur-. and «\tendiii.; we^lw.inl alnn;! I,C>0«> feet. At 
the>\e-»ltrn end i^ a iroinlcch n<-w re-^tnn d. which instead of 
beinij srni:*. ircuLir i- >i»niewhat xjuan. irulnsinj.; a '^patc about 
3<*''l et in •ii.iineter We then v:Mtrd tiir inltrc»«t:n^ elliptical 
mo\:nd en'lt'-^rn^; th- <!n!inen nt" Kerlescan. !>;!'.^; just north of 
the ninit!!'- ••! tlie :;ro'.;p ot menhir-, wlihli is exc'-ptiona! and 
indeed uis: |'j- in Mnttany, lrt»m havin,^ been surroiiniled by an 
eMijilical tronileih. «r i:ri'.«- ot iT', >onie <»f which were 
six "T s- vn t' et hi;.:h. .in-1 pl.ictc! a !'■ 'a fee* .ipart — p.««t t-iuching 
each o:ht r. .in in tlii'-« .it the liead "I the .il;";nnunt. Retracing 
our sirp-. picking; our way back throi.^li n^.^ssc^ of the prickly. 


forbidding; Rorsc, which bore an occasional yellow, pea-like 
flower, we examined the cromlech, and, taking to our cart, drove 
f)n to the next series of alignments, the Iar|*cr one of Kermario. 

The avenues of Kermario consist of 8; 5 menhirs planted in 
ten rows, cxtendini; over the undulating heath for nearly a mile, 
or. to be exact, 4,037 feet. The standing stones are impressive 
fur their si/e and height, some of them bein(;r twelve feet hi(;h. 
Moreover, an added interest are the traces of Roman occu|>ation 
on the south side, near the western end; in fact, traces of the 
civilization of Rome of the |)eriod of the Gallic wars are scat- 
tend over Morbih.m ; and the {>eas«ints call the alignments 
('.i*>;ir's Camp. Indeed their explanation of these lines is that 
their patron Saint Corneille w;i5 pursued by the Roman army, 
which was. as a punishment, turned to stone, the taller pillars 
represent in tj the officers. 

After cro.ssing another inter\'al, we reach the eastern end of 
the alignment of Menec. whose cromlech, at its westernVnd, en- 
closes some of the farm-houses of the hamlet of Menec. which 
IS ni>t far from Carnac. The menhirs lie to the north ol the road 
between Carnac and IMouharnel. The group is a little shorter 
than that of Kermario, being 3.37^> feet long, and consists ot 
eleven instea<I of ten lines, and the stones are not quite so high 
and imposing as those of the middle group. The stones or 
pillars var>' much in shafK-; some are much rounded; many 
were, however, planted with the smaller end down; and whether 
it IS a fiu-ie loimidence or not the highest stone is about 1 1 fc^l 
hi^h. the number of rows is eleven, the alignments themselves 
are about eleven yards a|>art, while the s{>aces between the stones 
1 oinposing each line are often about ten or eleven feet apart. In 
this, as in the other groups of alignments, the rows are not 
ni.ithematic.illy straight, but more or less wavy, and the stones 
vary much in distance apart, all the way from perhaps three or 
four to ten or eleven feet. In general the stones decrease in 
hi^hl toward the end, where they are not much over four or five 
fert lii'^'h. The groups follow the natural inequalities of the 
p!ain. wliosi- .surface is rolling, the country slightly descending 
lri»!u Mriuc toward Kerlescan. 

Ihe Miiiicircle t-f stones or cromlech at the western end of 
th'- M'-ncc '^r«»up was enclosed by standing stones from about 
tlv t . ■ ven and even eight feel high, which touched each other. 
At pi' -I nt many are prostrate, and there are two or three small 
N!.»n« !.irnihi»use> \Tithin the circle. Fortunately the government 
{•.Ml h f^cii the entire gi"iip in 18S8, and will raise and plant the! -n ^t«>nes. and as the inhal>itants «►! the ilie or remove, 
t:.'-* iiiiil'iings will l)e taken down. The restoration of the 
K- ::narii» s'^^'^^M* '^ nearly accomplished, and is almost entirely 
cnc'.o-kftl bv a low stone wall. 

Returning to our hotel to breakfast, we si>cnt the afternoon in 


Lxplnring tlic dolmens and ali[;nmcnts of the Qtiibcron jicnin- 
stila, accompaniL-d by M. (iailLrd, who was <>n enthusiastic and 
interested in having lis sec ever^-thing of arch;Lli)giraI interiit. 

After visiting the dMlmens and tumuli of I'ort Hlanc on the 
west shore, near St. I'icrre, gathering pieces of (Kittery, bones 
and Hint chips, and seeing how the ocean has encroached on the 
slowly Ntibsiding coast, mi us to undirniinc the cliff .ind the lii- 
muUis, which nuist have Ken situated niucli Oirilier inland in i>re- 
Ccltic times, we walked t-ver the t^rassy, sandy wastes back to 
our cart, and druve past the village of Siiint I'ierrc and its oM 
windmill to the menhirs and cromlech on the shore, Kuw long 
the rows of >tanding .stones were originally it is diflTiciilt to say, 
bccausi' the coast has -unkcn and the waves have undent ined 
and oviTturned the stones at the eastern end. Walking down 
ai tm-s iliv tiild. «lnre the men, and women, too, were digging 
potatoe-, We slood on the edge of the/li/rf/j.*, or sandy ciiff. and 
the tide being partly out wc could trrce some of the line-, into 
(he -iia. .-\ few i^f the stones wen- lying prostrate on the be.tch, 
while others beyonil were overgrrnmd with sea-weed, and ^till 
beyond l.iy -■■me under the waves. Then; are in all live lines 
mIiicIi ext'-nd in a southeasterly direction lor 63.) fut seav.trd. 
\t adist,inceof about »f, yards from the head stosics of (h.- T' ws. 
(he highc-t menhirs being about II rret. is situ.itidthe ruined 
cromlech, which, according to I.ukis, was ^kj feet m dianictir 
\Vl- did not .itti-inpt to measure it. This group has not yet been 
ri-tpirnl, and only about a do/en of the stonis .ire still upright. 

M I'.aill.ird had l.rou;;ht his lompa-s w;th him .ind now 
.leni' n-tr.ited a i.irious f.ut to us, lie ,dreai!y cilird our 
atl-nli'n. while v;sitmg ili.- .ili^'nmcnls oi Kermari<i .\i\>\ of 
Mrm. , to Ih, !.. Iwe. nceil.i;n .1 the ro«s - f ,1 -m-Ie 
iiiiv.iiii, sMiidin;.: by it-c!f, ,iiid whivh his 'n-n overlooki-!. he 
sai.!, I.v all . thrr .irt'ogi-ts. hi the ,i;i;.'nm(-[its .,1 Kcilrs. 
tan [)i':s my t< iious <.dd sloiie is s:t<:aud. ue think, near the 
S.'.e!:th 01 .■■,;l:t!i sp.i, ,■ I'etween the r-ws It i^ ,ir'Ou! I [ fe.t 
h!i:h.a:;d Vom ■, !■■ I" !, . t thi^k ,it lis -re.iti st dmn. tcr. «hich 
is H'-l U: ;r. Ill !!.< •.<!>, the stone he.iig -ri;..;:er ,it its t,,i.v In 
the ali.-nii'.-ii:-, -.1 M-n<. the -;n^!.- iii- nliir is in ilie third -j^ice 
from th', n..i:l..rn si.;,-, turn, ly, b. tw, n tlu llunl .01.! f..,:tth 
T- »- i-f p!u»-.! !.!;■- In.-,L.!i gr'.;;. of aligiiir-.nts. .it least 
in f"-,r of ill' III, th,s .'■:■! n\> idur oniii-, \\\- iigli v.iry iii,; in sn- 
uatiiii!, lii \\- \\>'..'.v^ nfy ■■n tin po-i;:..n ■ f the r-ws, n nc 
of (ibiih ar-' e\.iit!y in .in east and «e-t . " iheir builders 
had no >><mpass. Thiy are a-1' d not ir.any ]>j<.es, |>erh.tps 
fifty, more or le-s. 'Vi^m t!:>- cioiidc !i 

Now our fill nd ,ind gui.'e t'>-k tin- :,'re.ilesl intcn -t and satis- 
fact:on :ii pl.iciMg his tompa-s on ■ ne .-f the m.ddii- st-nes of 
the ciondeJi at .'^t I'leire .ird d.->!ioiisirat<d to us that the line 
,,r 51. :t van. s fr: ri .1; to;, in dilVercnt gnuips of align- 


fiicnts) intersects the single nu-nhir. M. G.iillard has l>cen here 
as well as at the other ali^jnnients, at sunrise on the mcirninf^ nf 
ihf lon^jcst day in the year, the ^ist of June, and has placed his 
compass on this menhir and at the moment the sun ap|K*arrd 
above the hori/on. the mUl or single unalij^ned menhir was seen 
to be in line with the friethan stone m the cromlech and with 
the sun It is therefore inferred, and very naturally, that the 
desi^ntTs and builders planted these stones in accordance with 
a fixed plan, Atnl that the enclosure must have been the scene of 
s*«nif ceremony at the time n{ the summer sc»lsiice. And this 
confirms the ulea insisted on by arch.T:olt>gists, amon^ them 
MM Cartailhac and (jaillard, that the (;;roiips of standing pillars 
wc'ie planted after a common clesi^n and nearly at the same 
epoch, and that the |K'OpIc who erettcd them were possibly u«»r- 
shipprrs iif the sun. havin|; brou^jht with them from the far l-.a^t, 
their on^inal home, the cult so characteristic of ICastern races, 
t )n the murnin^' of our last day spent in the M(.>rbihan — and 
V. SI 'ul- stirring; and awc-inspirinj^ days they were, with the 
ch.irm t.f tile fiish Atlantic bree/es, .ind the bright sun li^^hting 
up th(* heaths and plains, the quaint costumes and dialect i>f the 
peasants lending; an unusual human interest to the scene — wc 
tlr^vi' t«» the dolmens and alt^jnments of Krdeven. through a 
rc:;:i»n •»! lilliputian farm-. The projK-rty of the country |)e«'|)le 
IS i!i:trty in ianti, and the farms, handcil down fmm one jjenera- 
tio:i to .iiifthcr, become gradually halved and (]uartered, though 
many wt ir tiian^ular or polyjjonal in sha{K\ until some of them 
secni scarcrly lar^;e cnou^;h to support a sheep or cow, or to 
atffid room enough for even a small potato {>atch Moiei vcr. 
they are hedjjed in by hij^h turf walls overgrown with porsc, 
.•ne ol the most forbuliling of i)rickly plants. Some of the farms 
were enclosetl in turf fences, jierhaps four or five feet high, with 
thr Coiners elaborately built of stone. 

I he largest of the dolmens in Brittany is that of Crucuno. 
c.illrd /.it A\\ //« iiw.r /vrj. or the Stone (»f the Fairies. A farmer 
had built h:s hi>use next to it, and the dolmen, by no means of 
fairy-l:ke proportions, was used as a cow-house until its purchase 
and restoration by the (lovernmcnt. It is 24 feet lonj; by 12 
wide, anil one can stanii upright in it. From this impressive 
di»linc*n, a path, which a boy will p<.>int out for a slight cupreous 
^ir.itifli at:on. leads across the fields to the very remarkable dol- 
iiu-n I't .Mar.e (iroh, which is galleried, and besides the principal 
viiamber. ha^ four lateral inclosures. 

Wc ^h.t^ now dismiss the ilolmens, which are so numerous 
.ind :n!erest:n^. They are regarded as the tombs or burial- 
;>!ai c-s, p«issiblv in some cases ossuaries, of tribal chiefs and their 
lain:! us. They were opened at intervals, perhaps for the inter- 
tiunt of the successors <»f the warriors for whom they were first 
b'.iilt. Many of them have a circular hole cut in the stone door 


a little over a foot in diameter, too small for the passage of a 
body, and probably used for the deposit of food for the service 
of the departed in his wanderings in the other world. It is not 
improbable that our pre-Celtic, neolithic ancestors brought with 
them from their Eastern homes the observance of burial rites 
and very primitive religious ideas, involving some notion of a 
future life, besides the worship of their ancestors and of the sun. 

On the whole, the Krdeven group of alignments is more im- 
pressive than the others, on account ot the greater length of the 
ruws, the larger, higher stones, and their greater number, 1,120 
having been counted by M. Gaillard. They extend over the 
rolling plains a distance of more than two kilometers, or over a 
mile — viz., 6.SS6 feet. One of the standing stones near the 
western end is nineteen and a half feet in height, and two others 
a little over twenty feet high; one of the prostrate sti>ncs is 
called the "sacrificial stone," but the furrows in the surface seem 
due rather to weathering than to artificial means. 

Could one stand at or near the head and overlook the entire 
grouj) of alignments, the impression made would be, of course, 
more striking than at present, since many of the stones have 
fallen, and the lines are much bntken, while they make a turn to 
the southeast near the mi<idle. Hut as they stand, the longer 
the observer lingers among them the more impressive d<.> they 
become, and not to see the alignments t»f Carnac and Krdeven 
is to miss nne of the wonders of the world. They rank in im- 
jiortance and interest with the ruins of Central America and of 
Mexico, and the so called I'riasgic walls and bunal-moumls of 
(irifee, whilr they are by far the nu)st impiising relics of prc- 
hist«nn tMni-^. 

Kr»\vs ol standin;^ stnni-s are n«»t. however. Ci»nfinejl to the 
Moi)>; till- rnenhir-ereiitin;.; and dolmm-builtlm^ race, judg- 
ing li\' the ni'inuMUfits it ii.ts left brlund. existed in other parts 
if li.ini'- .mil of the- ( )ld Wurld Aeinrtling to the latest and 
ini)ot ti ust^^•lrlhv .luthuntx', M. ( .irt.iiih.u. whos<- work entitled 
"I. I ii.inr.- I'fihis'.i.ricjue " apjM*if« d :n I S>/. the re are in Mor- 
b:i. Ml r\/h\ "I ill- sr 'groups ot a!i.;ijnie:-.: - . iMLhidin;.; tlie ciom- 
!<■» iis c-..nii 1 ti«! Witii th* m. .md n:n'-. !e-*s iniport.uit, in 
F.n -t'-rrr. r '. e III t:.'- H-. partir.i !il "I I.Ij i L-Xilaine. and ^ix or 
^ev' ti t.*!i' I - <i! -in. 11! ^1.''- aijt! --Is^lil ::iij'i .rtaiKr m the rest i>f 
Ki-iH' • . iiHi-'l -ft lilt Ml •nly funning »'ii' 1 r two "hurt r"Ws of 
Nt.iii i:ii • ■-! ':'.•>. M'-r!;!!et -a'. •» ti.'re.ire 111 I'r.incc tiftv-six 
.ii..n!:vn!s :rif:!t''n 1 'epailnieiit- .\n.i!i'-;iu:N t«i the ah^nmentN 
t»I I ra::. '■ .ire '.lie >.t:-': :i >t' nes 1:! li i).s:isre. I n.^and, uhich 
I • -.ijiui'- ■ • li ■ : • • ' n;- :-.liir- 



Hv Rev. Siij^s T. Raniv* 

The tradition rcspcctinjj Glooscapt i> that he came to this 
country from the cast, far across the ^;rcat -wa, that ho was a divine 
bcin^. though in the form of a man. ///• uuts not far from any 
of the Induins. ^'I his in the identical rendering of the words 
used hy my friend Stephen in relatinf;^ the sketches of his histor>' 
here j^iven ) When (llooscap went away he went towards the 
west There he is still tentetl, and two im|)ortant |)ersonage!» 
are near him, who are called Kuhkw and Coo!pajr>t. of whom 
more anon, (ilooscap was the friend and teacher of the Indians 
All they knew of the artN he taught them. He taught them the 
names t»l" the con^'tellation^ ami stars. He taught them how to 
hunt anil t'lsh. and cure uhat they took, and how to cultivate the 
groimti as tar as they were trained in husbandry. When he first 
came he hmu^ht a woman with him, whom he ever addressed a> 
No\j^miu-«- — f^tandmothfT — a very general epithet f«»r rn old She was not his Wife, nor did he ever have a wife. He 
wa** always sober, v^rave and jjood. All that the Indians knew 
of what was wise and ^ood he taught them. His canoe was a 
granite rock On one occasion he put to sea on this craft and 
took a youm: w<»man with him as jvissenjjer She proved to 
Ih: a t)ail ^trl. and this was manifested by the troubles that ensued. 
A .sti>rni arose, and the waves dashed wildly over the canoe, and 
he a- cii^ed her *»f hein^ the cause by her evil deeds. So he'd to rid himself of her. For this pur]>ose he stood in 
for the land, and leaped ashore, but would not allow her to follow 
and, piittin-: Ins foot af^ainst the heavy craft, he pushed it off to 
>ea a^.i:n. wit!i the girl on it. telling her to "become whatever 
she t!'-^ir««l t'» Ik' " She was transformed into a large, fierce, 
!rr •* ii»iiN t'lsh. called by the Indians KecgAnlbe, said to have a 
hii^:r' <!iir^.il tin, like the sail of a boat, it is so large and high out 
o{ thr' r 

r.'ir' In I: ms sometimes visit Glooscap at his present residence. 


•IS 4'.«-«1 ti> titr Hr|t|rinlM»r 90, UW, bj Htfphrn llond.a vrry lntrn!c*'nt and rrllab.* 
.iitl \\. 

• III.* rr M. Jkr k mM^ piprMiiuicr flfnrM In all thtf>tr .IKfnrk4«r^AHtn*. Ilrrp larvtilrfiU) 
A -iji' t'.il.t;''n iif lifid. Aa th# frirnd. ciimpAntt*u. cul<t«*. ln»triirti*r And hrtp«ir i*r 
tti^ li-:iii«ri r«*r Th<» di%lnr frirnd I^AvInc thrtn im ftmHini of thrlr dlMtlirdlefirr. 
Ar.ll tt:i 'r i<inc rf n firrliktliin nC hU rHom. kwika innrv»ll«iUttlT Ithr tlif J^wtUi ri 
|^*<t.»(l'>n of a M«> alahaadcBr thr rMMuo fftv«n bj lb* |i«oph«U vbjr liod fbraonk 
thrill III riimi^r d*yi. 


so says tradition. This is in a beautiful land in the west. He 
taught them when he was with them that there was such a 
place, and led them to look forward to a residence there, and to 
call it their beautiful home in the far west, where, if good, they 
would go at death. The journey to that fair region far away, is 
long, difficult and dangerous. The way back is short and easy. 

Some years ago seven stout-hearted young men attempted the 
journey and succeeded. Before reaching the place, they had to 
pass over a mountain, the ascent of which was up a perf)endicu- 
lar blufT and the descent on the other side still more difficult, for 
the top hung far over the base. The fearful and unbelieving 
could not pass at all, but the good and the confident could travel 
it with ease and safety, as though it were a level path Having 
crossed the mountain, the road ran between the heads of two 
huge serpents, whose heads lay opposite to each other, and they 
darted out their tongues so as to destroy whoever they hit. Rut 
the good and the firm of heart could dart past between the 
strokes of their tongues, so as to evade them. One more diffi- 
culty remained. It was a wall as of a thick heavy cloud that 
separated the present world from that beautiful one beyond. This 
cloudy wall rose and fell at intervals, and struck the ground with 
such force that whatever was caught under it would Ik* crushed 
to atoms. Hut the good could dart under it when it rc^e and 
come out on the other side unscathed. This our sevrn young 
heroes succeeded in doing.* There thty f(»und thrcr wigwams 
— one tor (ilooscap, one for CooIpOrjot and one for Cuhkw. 
These arc all mighty pcrsona;;es. but (ilooscap is supreme and 
the other two subordinates. 

('oolpurjiit has no bones. He can not move himself, but is 
rolled over every ^prinj; and fall by (ilooscip's orcier, bemg 
turned with handspikes, — hence the name. "Rolled ovir liy hand- 
spikes." In the autumn he is turnrd toward the west, in the 
sprmg toward the c-ast, and this is a ligurc of spc*-tli denotmg 
the n-volv.H)j '•radons nf the year. His nu^Mity hrc.ith aiu! U»(tks. 
by which he .swei-p down whole arni:'s an*! W(.>rk wonders 
f)n a ;;r.irul stale, intiualmg the \veat!'.»T. !ro-i, s^.i.w. ra:n and 
sunshiiir < Siuli was Stephen"^ vltv '».it.>;.u t.iry rxplai:.i:ion.) 
"C'uIikw" iiuan^ rarlhijuake This i::i;;:ity i)i-r>on.i^i' can ]»ass 
along iin<!- r \\\r surface of the ^rt»un«l, i:'.ik:!v,; ai! ihip*^^ sh.ike 
and tretn!)!e l>y his p«»uer 

Ail ihfsc: vi^ili»rs liaii rnjuests to prniTcr. an*! all rcti ived \khat 
they askeil r»r. lJ:-u«^h I he ^ili did at titnes corrt>pi.nd with 
the spirit •)! the rrijurst. th'>i!;;h it mi:.;ht a.^ree with thf letter. 
For inslaiiie. one *»! tin ■r r.even visit«'rs uas enamored *»f the 
fine country, an«l e.xprt s'^ctl a de*«ire to remain there and to live 

•I atnincly «ii«|iM t Mial ttifrr (• aiiiit^ inl«tAk«' hrrr. mi'I thnt n\y infomiaal IMS 
nnrifiiiinM^ thf IrMaillmi* r*Ni|iM iiiif trir |«*ii«||c nf ■tiiiia !•• llir liji|i|i]r abttctoof tto 
blaai wlUi ih« Jiiuriiry nf iimriAU Ui OUiuarmp'* pr«M«>ut rMiiiS«>Dcr. 


long. WhiTcu}M>n. at GlooscAp's direction. '* IC.irthquake"cook 
him .111(1 stood hini up, and he became a cedar tree. When the 
wind blew throu'^h its bought, thfv were l>ent and broken with 
a ^rcat uproar, inakin^^ a thunder-storm that nulcd far and wide 
over tht* country, accompanied by strong; winds, which scattered 
the Cedar boughs and seetin m all direction^. prcHkicm^ all the 
eedar <^ro\es that exist m New Brunswick and Nova Scotia and 

The iithei men started and were home in a ?ihort tmie. One 
f )f these had ^'one for a medicine that wnuld be efTcctual in curing 
disease This he obtamed. but ne;jlectin'; in follow implicitly 
the direction^ ^iven, he lost it before he reached home. It was 
i-arefuliy \^ rapped up. and he was charged not to undo the 
|Mr» el until lie reached Immr Hut his curiosity got the better 
ot hi> iut lament. He couM not M*e what odds it eould make if 
he just l«^i>k('d at his prize as he was K^'i'^d alon^^. So he undid 
the parcel, anil, presto! the mr<Iieine slip|K'd <»ut cm the ground, 
spread and slid in all directions, covering up all the face of the 
earth, and vanishing from sight 

On another occasion several youn*^ men went to see Glooscap 
in hi< pre-*fnl a^«»dc. One of them went to obtain the power of 
winnifu; siiine ta.r one. which all his unaided skill had failed 
hitherto tii <i v .\n hundred times he had tried to get a wife, but 
thr* girl* all Nhunncd him. Many of the |)arty who started on 
the tjitruiilt expedition failed to pass the obstructions that lay 
in t}.e;r way. and turned back, baffled and defeated; but several 
• iT theni Nil I'. cedc<i. and amtmg them the poor fellow who was so 
desirous ol ha\ing a wife. They were all profitably entertained. 
a' I pif ■ ntfd their requests and were favorably heard. The man 
wlio N.»ii'.'ht pow<*r to win some female heart was the last to 
protT r hi> petition. Glooscap and his two sub<irdinatcs conferred 
to>^( th(T in a \vhis|K-r. and then Ivaithquake informed him that 
liis ii'jly l«»'»ks and stdl more ugly manners were the chief hin- 
Ir wu ■• t I IiiN suiLess. But they must try t*) help him. So he 
w i>; haruit.-i! .i sTnn'.l parcel, and directed not to open it until he 
r«Mi hed his i»wn village. This he to(»k with him, and they all 
^.■: .'ii: !"iir !io:n'.- l.».:rther The niijht l>efore they arrived, the 
! » '!i .1: till-.w ci'uld rc-^train his c^jr:osity no longer. He opened 
th-' pir*'-! 1 hit flew vain;: women by scores and hundreds. 
. .iv« f in.; thf f.ii r I't the earth, and piling themselves up in tow- luMps, anil liurying the p<ior lellow. crushing him to the 
■.irrh iindi r th** aciumulatin,: wei-^hl of their bodies. His com-' H hid iMtitii>n'-<l him against disobeying the mandate, and 
h.i! bi*^:;^eil him ni»t to undo the {parcel. Hut he had n^'it heeded 
the 1 lut-.on They now hear him calling for help, but he calls 
in v.iin. They ran not help him, and his cries become fainter 
and fainter, and finally cease altogether Morning dawns at last 
I hr yiung women arc all vanished, and the fragments of their 


cxplnrinjj the cinlmens .ind alignments of the Quibcron penin- 
sula, acciuiip:uiir(i by M. (faillaril. who was ^o cntluisiastic and 
inlc rusted in Iiavin^ us sec everylliinj; nf archii-lnjTical interc«*t. 

After visit in;^^ ihr dolmens and tumuli of I'ort Blanc on the 
we>t shore, St. I'ierre, j^alhcrinj^ pieces of pottery, b<>nes 
and flint chips, and scein;^ how the ocean has encroached on the 
slowly subsidini^' ci»ast, so as to undermine the cliff and the tu- 
mulus, uhich must have been situ.ited much farther inland in pre- 
Celtic linu-s, wc walked <»ver the j^rassy, san<iy wastes back to 
our cart, and dr<jve i)aNt the villaj;e r»f Saint I'ierre and its Mhi 
windmill to the menhirs and cromlech on the shore. How ion*' 
the rows of ^laniling stones were mi^inally it is ditTicuIt t«» say, 
because the c<msI has sunken an* I the waves have undern.ined 
and overturned the stones at the eastern end. Walk in »j d«»wn 
aiH'ss the held, where the men, and women, too. were dij^j^in^ 
potatoes, wc stood on the ed^e of the fti/titst', or sandy cliff, and 
the tide bein^j partly out we c<juld trrce some of the lines into 
the sia. A few i»f the stones were lyinjj prostrate on the beach, 
while others bevond were over;jn»und with sea- weed, and slill 
bevond lav snmc under the waves. There are in all five lines 
whiLJi extt nd in a southeasterly direction for 634 fei t seaward. 
\t a distance nf .ibout <><» v.ird^ from the head stones i«f the r- ws, 
the lii|.Miest menhirs beinv^ .iln»ut II feet, is situated the ruined 
crorr.Kih. which. :iccor*i:n^' to Lukis. was j<.k> feet in diameter. 
We di<i nnt attemjit to measure it. I his;.;roup has not yet been 
resti.rrd, and only about a <l'»/en »»f the stones are still upright. 

M (i.till.ird had brou;^ht his CMinp.iss with him and now 
dem< n-tr.ite4l a i ::rious fa'.t to us. He h.iil alreadv c.dled our 
att'-nt!' n, while \isitsnL' th«* ali'.'nments ^^\ Kermario and of 
M'Ut • .lt» ihr iKLiwreiue between cettain i-f the ri»ws of a ^iUljIc 
nu:i!i:i, ^t.indin;.; by it»»eif. .iiul whikh been overlooketl, he 
^.11'!. by all - th'T .iti !!M^;i^ts. In the a-i^nments t»\ Keilrs- 
lap. th '^ my -t' ijiii.s mUl >iijiie is ^!ti:ated, we tl:;nk. near the 
b<\ei'.lli III r .; St.. I, I- between ih«- r-ws Ii :^ af>out II feet 
h:;;);. .i::-! !t<>ni ■ . !■ • I- * t* ( ! thu k .it 1!^ L;re.iti si di iiiu ter. w hich 
:^ n-'! t.iJ Ii' ::i !l.i !ip. lh«- *!■ n-.- be.::.; -::: li'er .tt its base. In 
tin- .i.:.;ii;:.f II? ■ < f Mmki the t:.;!i- ti'- r.liir :s in the third *«pacc 
Iroin til' ii- r!):- rn -n:« . n.tiiv !\ . bitv^i-ii tli th:id and fiur'.h 
I'W - I -t' I'liti!' '! ti-:'.' - in •■ :■ ii y;t. •■.:!. ..! .ilij^ninenls. at least 
in I'-'-r «■! til' tj\ \]\\> o'jil nu f.:i:r Munt^. tl: j/h \arvini: m '':l- 
uat:- '.^. ■!';■■ n '..:\-^ i'.l!y . n tlv. p--:: »n « f the r'-ws, n -ne 
(•! 'Ah:^!! .if f\.iil.y 11: m ? arv: \\r^' • ir^''*. .1^ their builders 
h.i'i Ui) ■ ii.:-.i- TI.iv are .I'.I ■ .t . it- •! nt»t !i:.i!iy pates, |K*r haps 
t*:f'y. uitTt r»r le--. ?ri-m i!;» «.r».»r.:!t . :i 

NoA "ur U * Mi! .in-! -^ui ie to- k l!".'- Te.ite-t :ntcri^t and satis- 
!'a«-t ■ :i .:! ; 1 ;• i:^.; his . -^nipa-^ *n ■ iv- ! tlie m.<!»!Ie sti-nes of 
!!;•• « :<»::!• > h .;! "•' l':e:rc .in! •!• f:;«»::* •r.i!; d !u us the line 
:t van? ^ I: tti ^; to ; < ::'. d.ilv rent ..;roup> rif alijjn- 

* • . 


mcnts) intersects ihc sin^^lc menhir. M. Gaillarcl has Ixrcn hero 
as well as at the other ah^nment^, at sunrise on the mornini; t»f 
the longest day in the year, the J 1st of June, and has placed his 
compaNS on this menhir and at the moment the sun ap|K*ared 
above the horizon, the o<ld or single unahf^ned menhir was seen 
to he in line with the median stone in the cromlech and with 
the Sim. It is therefore inferred, and very naturally, that the 
dcsi liners and builders plante<l these stones in accordance with 
a fixed plan, and that the enclosure must have been the scene of 
s«>me ceremony at the time of the summer solstice. Anil this 
confirms the idea insisted on by archxoloi^iNts. amon^ them 
MM Cartailhac ami (jaillard, that the groups of standing pillars 
were planted after a common design and nearly at the *«ame 
e]>och. an<I that the people who erected them were possibly wur- 
shippers <if the sun. having brought with them from the far I-^st, 
their original home, the cult so characteristic of ICastern races, 
i )n the mtirning of our last day spent in the Morbihan — and 
\^hat SDuI-stirnng and awe-inspiring days they were, with the 
charm nf the fresh Atlantic breezes, .md the bright sun lighting 
up tlu* heaths and plains, the quaint costumes and dialect of the 
jyeaNanis Icntiing an unusual human interest to the scene — we 
driive to the dolmens and alignments of Krdeven, through a 
region «»f lilltputian farm<. The projKTty of the country |>eople 
IS cliictly in I.iml. and the farms, handed down from one genera- 
tion to ani'ther. become gradually halved and (]uartered, though 
many were triangular or polygonal in shape, until some of them 
seem scarcely large enough to support a sheep or cow. or to 
afri»rd room enough for even a small potato |)atch. Morccver. 
I hey are hedged in by high turf walls overgrown with gorse, 
one of the most forbidding of prickly plants. Some of the farms 
were enclosed in turf fences, {xrrhaps four or five feet high, with 
the corners elaborately built of stone. 

The largest <if the dolmens in Brittany is that of Crucuno, 
called I. a Roiht aux Ffts, or the Stone of the Fairies. A farmer 
had built his house next to it, and the dolmen, by no means of 
fairy- like proportions, was used as a cow-house until its purchase 
and restoration by the (lovernmenl. It is 24 feet long by 12 
wide, and one can stand upright in it. From this impressive 
dolmen, a path, which a boy will p<jint out for a slight cupreous 
gratification, leads across the fields to the ver)' remarkable dol- 
men of Mane-Ciroh. which is gallcried, and besides the principal 
(.hamber, has four lateral inclosures. 

We sh.ill now dismiss the dolmens, which are so numerous 
anil intercNting. They are regarded as the tombs or burial- 
places, possibly in some cases ossuaries, of tribal chiefs and their 
families. They were of>ened at intervals, perhaps for the inter- 
ment of the successors t)f the warriors for whom they were first 
built. Many <»f them have a circular hole cut in the stone door 


a little over a foot in diameter, too small for the passage of a 
body, and probably used for the deposit of food for the service 
of the departed in his wanderings in the other world. It is not 
improbable that our pre-Ceitic, neolithic ancestors brought with 
them from their Eastern homes the observance of burial rites 
and very primitive religious ideas, involving some notion of a 
future life, besides the worship of their ancestors and of the sun. 

On the whole, the Krdeven group of alignments is more im- 
pressive than the others, on .iccount of the greater length of the 
rows, the larger, higher .stones, and their greater number, 1,120 
having been counted by M. Gail lard. They extend over the 
rolling plains a distance of more than two kilometers, or over a 
mile — viz., 6,SSr) feet. One of the standing stones near the 
western end is nineteen and a half feet in height, and two others 
a little over twenty feet high; one of the prostrate stuncs is 
called the "sacrificial stone," but the furrows in the surface seem 
due rather to weathering than to artificial means. 

Could one stand at or near the liead and overlook the entire 
group of alignments, the impression made would be, of course, 
more striking than at present, since many t>f the stones have 
fallen, and the lines are much broken, while they make a turn to 
the southeast near the middle. But as they stand, the longer 
the observer lingers among them the more impressive do they 
become, and not to see the alignments of Carnac and Mrdevcn 
is to miss one of the wonders of the world. They rank in im- 
portance and interest with the ruins of Central America and of 
Mexico, and the so-called iVlasgic walls and burial-mounds of 
(jferce. while they are by far the most imposing relics nf prc- 

R«»w^ ol st.iiulin^ Nli»nrs .ire not. however, confined tti the 
Morbih.m; the inenlur-erecting and dolnien-builijing race, judg- 
ing; l>y the iii"niinirnts it Itt't brliind. existed in other parts 
nf Ir.ini"'- .mil of the ( )UI \Vt»rlil .\LiMiding to the latest and 
nwjst tiu^tu«>rthv .lutlioritv. M. 1 artailhac. whose ut>rk entitled 
"Li lnn«'- ruliistt.ritpie" appe.nrd in iS^-,. there .ire in Mor- 
liij. iM r.^[\\\ I til- •ie '^ruuj)s o! ali.;nnie!'.*o. includm;^ the ciom- 
lei !is r.inn'ittt! w:lii th'in. ^\^^\ iww. t'.ir '.e-^s iinpftrtant, m 
I''in:>ltrre. !:.e >ii \\\r I )« partiin iil "I \'.\r etA'ilame. anil ^^ix or 
sevi :i i'TIj't- -■! Mn.iii **:/*• .trui "li.^hl :in|>iir!arice in the rest of»<. MH'-^l -it tli'in I'niy lurnun^ **iv «'r l\vo Nhori r«»ws of 
^t.iiii:!'..' -^t'^.L^. .M"r!il!et '•a*. ^ tha: tl;v:c.ire in Trance flftv-six 
ali.;n:r.'n!s in fif:«-^ n I 'ep.irtnirntN .Xn.ioj^ou^ ;>> the alignments 
<•! Ir.i!i4i* are the Si:^:' ii .'^t-nes 1:1 H- I'^.^hire. l-.ii;^I.ini!, which 
1- . Kjiu\r ' -i! ■ ! "" ' ■ ni'.::li;r- 

<aXV)8CAr. CUIIKW and a)OLPUIU0T. 2W 


By Rev. Siij^s T. Raniv* 

The tradition rc^ipcctinjj Glooscapt is that he came to this 
country ff oni the cast, far across the ^rcat sra. that ht* was a divine 
l>cin^, thouj^h in the ft»rm of a man. Hf xvas not t%ir from any 
of Ihf Indians. ( Ihis is the identical rendering of the words 
used by my friend Stephen in relatini; the sketches of his histof)' 
here ^iven ) When (llooscap went away he went towar<!H the 
west 'I here he IS stiil tented, and two im]>ortant |>ersonages 
are near liiin. who arc called Kuhkw and CooIpAjot. of whom 
mi»re anon, (ilooscap was the friend and tear her of the Indians. 
All they knew (if the arts he tau(;ht them, lie tau|;htthem the 
names of the concatenations and stars, lie taught them liow to 
hunt ami hsh. and cure uhat they t(M>kpand how to cultivate the 
prounii .IS as they were trained in husbandr)'. When he first 
came lie l>r')u;^ht a w«»man with him. whom he ever addressed a.% 
No\^unu'r — i^randmothrr — a ver\- general epithet for rn old Slu* \%a^ \\o\ his wife, nor did he ever have a wife He 
was always sober, vjrave and jjooil. All that the Indians knew 
t)f what was wise and i;ood he taught them. Mis canoe was a 
jjranite rock. On one occasion he put to sea on this craft and 
took a yoiin*^ woman with him as jussen^jer She proved to 
l>e a t>ai! ^irl, and this was manifested by the troubles that ensued. 
A sii>rm ariose, and the waves dashed wildiv over the canoe, and 
he a:cuNeiI her <»f hcinf^ the cause by her evil deeds. So he 
deter nuiied to rid himself of her. For this purf>ose he stood in 
for the land, and leaped ashore, but would not allow her to follow 
and. puttin;; hts fi>ot af^ainst the heavy craft, he pushed it off to 
sea a;^Min. with the girl on it. telling her to "become whatever 
she ilrsirrtl t«» be." She was transformed into a large, fierce. 
ler-Hious fish, called by the Indians KeegAnlbe, said to have a 
hii^:(* liiifsal fin. like the sail of a l>oat. it is so large and high out 
ot the \\at<T 

Th" In lians sometimes visit Glooscap at his present residence. 

•\U AIM u« inr HepirmtMr SB. IMi, bj Htrphrn llond. % \9rf lnt#lllffrnl and rrli*b.« 
In it I. Ill 

• I tt- rrM:i%rkiiht#> prrMinaff^ flffnmi In nil thrir AhUm^w^kkHnM. I|rrt> U rrMi«U> 
a- ,*,\i t's'liii'ifi of ii<i« tb# ftlrtid. c^>m|wnlitn, cul4^, inairurtiir nnd b^lpi»r of 
th«* i.itiiiAfi r»< •• Tha du inr ftt^nd l«>nvlns tbrm nn nrrvHini nf ibrlr dlanbrdlem*. 
RM't ih. ir iiinc DC ri|irrt*tlMn nf bla rHam. httika mnrvrlluusljr like Ui« J#vl«h 0& 
ti#«-t.«ti<*n i*r A M^ AiAh nnd oi \h» r^nnno flvna bj Um pfft>ph«^ nrby (lod Mnonk 
Ihnii In fiinii^r dnya. 


make his Indian blood buts!i;;ht,not more than athirty-sccondth 
part. S. Ci. (ioodrich. in his Recollection*!, gives us lliis descrip- 
tion of Kamiolpirs appearance durin^^ one (»f the Missouri de- 
bates in 1820: " Mis hair was jet-black, and clubbed in a queue; 
his eye was black, small and [jainfully penetrating. His com- 
plexion was a yellowish -brown, bespeaking Indian blood." It 
was doubtless from his Indian ancestors that this extraordinary 
man inherited his wonderful powers of oratory. 

McUoNAI.I) l''l'KMAN. 

Ramsey. Sumter County, S. C 



The following description dI' a mound l)urial is furnished to 
us by the local pn-ss. It app^*ars tliat a scries of mounds on 
the Illinois River, opposite Virgini.i City, had attract! d atten- 
tion, and one f>f these on bemi.^ excavated lieijan to vield 
some remarkable rclic^. \)r. Snyder, the arcii.i'i'logiNt of the 
region, lieard about it, and \vas ;ib!i: to secun- the n^o>t %*( the 
relics. riie ttillowing is his description of the find: 

Tile mount] (i{Krned is two liundred feet in length at ihe base, 
and une hundred tret l)r«Mi!, !)y t!j:ily feet :n bright. In its cen- 
ter a sliLihl depression i.f the n«»ticed, anti at tliat 
p<iint an exc.i'.ation twelve feet -(pi.ire was lairinl di»wn, w;th 
side cutting tor removal i»! tiie e.irth tiken nut. Tlie mounds 
are bu:lt on the .illuvi.i! snj] 4>f the river bi>tinni, but are con- 
striictt'd .lit' X. f tlier i>t ( :.iv taken troin the .idi.icuit bl:ifr<« It tiiuu'l tills iiMiiind .1 tuiinibi^. i-r tiie m«>numrnt of 
a tl.'»tin;'uisiii<i peison.iv^'" It" n»ii^'.r ::eliiin was i:')ninu n^ei! by 
c.r»itmg a piatlufm nl el.iy f". i- let! hi.'.h and twelve wuic. its 
lcn;/tii U'lt yet dtterminet! I'pcn iIiin .1 fire had bei n built to 
bake tli« sin l.u e ii.ird U;>or: this ■.•.;.;.int:«. biiT was ilepositcd 
srvi r.d ^hmis.mii^ -I i»!.u k !]:r:t^. ■ a.h i:i iiu:!:ne. on one side 
an<i (on\ex in tin- I'tlur; ..\< i.i/in*,^ i^iiii .in Iun in d:.imeter and 
ne.iriy .pi mt !i in tiuLkness m :i.e 11:1 iil!-- In i S('j< • .1 »!tjiiisit of 
thirlyl'u'- iiuniii'd ^iTnil.ii lini?^ w.i^ t un«i at I'le-ii ru k. in 
.Sclmyler I oiinty. bui i» 1! .ii»- 'Ut !• 'i r h 1 ; tii • :• . .in«! in I ^^?. when 
diggm-.; a •< tlie iivit iMiik .1' ]'• . r l^tnwn. .iruitlu r de- 
posit nf !h. ^.i:ri rl :-.:».. mj:i. I '■: ::■ l.'irt n l:u:*dic d. w.ts ti und 
.it the ^.iir.c- tii|.:!i [.f!,.w tf 1 ^;.:".:w In ti*.- l.if'. e niound the 
rtir-.ts h.i'! be-, n t:-! :e ii!.iri\ ::i -.x I.iwis. .tin! .is ev»n .is shin- 
gles are }i!.i. ' 'i I I'l .1 T ii!. !■ >rv- •■ .; .1 }r ■! ? ■ .;M! It ft \v .i!e by fi»ur- 
tee:i in len^;th. < >r. •.ii> r.::\:\ .. iiv- »r: ri:\. the e.-rp-^e o( the ihief h.til l-'e:: i.inl. u:*!i ii^ ::»i«i !" lie f-.i-'t. .iiiii prfhanly 
MT.ipjM li :n tile liiir.-^t III I:.r. .i::.i tiroN-^ij skins .\r<'<..nil thift 
(iinerai I'tucii .1 li-nib nf 1«'^> had l>«vn ert^teiJ .1 t'*w feet high 


and cov'crcii with other loq!( of hu|;c si/c; some of them fully 
eighteen inches to two fret in dianu-ter. < )\'er all this, clay taken 
from the hluffs wax thrown to f«)rm the moinul of the chmensions 
sMtetl. On the forehead of the decayed skeleton was found a 
crescent *»ha|>ed ornament of thm hammered copjK-r; at each 
kidc of the heaii was a s|x>oI*sha|>ed c-ar-ornamtnt also of ham- 
mered C(>p|Kr; and on the brea*»t hail been placed a large .sheet 
of mica tiiat no doubt had served as a mirror. On «>ne side of 
the skull was a small pottery vase of })ecuhar form, and on the 
« it her side was half of a sea-shell with its inner whorls cut out 
so as to form a drmkinj^-cup. In one hand was a small stone 
ax. anil m the other several arrow and spear heads of flmt, a 
ftw hone awls and fragments of a lar^r sea shell. All of these 
olji-ctsjncludin'^ about five thousand ofthebtack flmtdiscs, were 
Mcurei! by Dr. Snyder, and added tc» his collection. The skele- 
ton of thr mi|;hty warrior, to whose memory thin immense 
earthen monument was erected, \%as decayed so that only the 
enamel »! the teeth could l>e identifirfl ; and th«- crib-work of 
lo^s enclosed it had lon|; a^o been resolved into dust, 
leaving nuthin^ but their forms mouldeied in the clay. 

The Mound-builders w*ho buried their dead chief here in such 
maie>tu style were evidently of a very ancient race. Dr. Snyder 
s^iy^ \ve have>f.ictory pnuif that all thi»se h(*rnstone (flint) 
disc s t«>und in this mound, as well as all similar ones found at 
Frcili-rick. IUMrd>town and other (H>ints in the west, were made 
at l*imt Kt<i;.^r. in Muskingum County, Ohio, and it is sup{>oscd 
by soim* antiipiaiians were buried along our rivers as propitiatory 
<»Mcrings to tlie spirits or gods of the streams. It is his opinion 
that the flints were tools for shaping and digging out canoes, 
and as such were fit ami appropriate objects for votive offerings 
to appease the wrath of the ri\er gods and insure success on the 
water in fishing, fighting ant! navigation 


The surve\'s at present being made for the Kansas City, El 
Taso and M- xican Railroad, which will be built in a diagonal 
dirri't:on tiirough New Mexico from northeast to southwest, 
promise to bring to the light of modern exploration Mime regions 
ol remarkable: interest \%hich have heretofore been cl«>st:d to the 
scientist on account of their inaccessibility. lietween the 33d 
and yyAi latitude, and at their intersection with the 106th degree 
ot !oii;^ituiJr. the surveying parties have })assed along a lava flow 
wh:ch by the hical populatit)n is called the molpais, which is 
prol>.ihly the most unique of its kind in America. It conitists of 
a sea of molten black glass agitated at the moment of cooling in 


ragged waves of fantastic shapes. These lava waves or ridges 
are from ten to twelve feet high, with combing crests, and the 
whole formation presents the appearance of having been made 
at a comparatively modern period. This lava flow is about forty 
miles long from northeast to southwest and from one to ten 
miles wide. It can be crossed at two places, and its narrow por- 
tion, where, in process of time, with infinite labor and trouble, two 
diflcrcnt and difTicuIt trails have been formed. 

For miles on all sides of this lava flow, the country is the 
most desolate that c<in be imagined. It has lK:cn literally burned 
up. It consists of fine whit cashes to any depth which, so far, 
has been dug down. To the north of the lava flow, and lying 
in a country equally desolate and arid, the surveyors have come 
upon the ruins of Juan Quivira, known already to the early 
Spanish explorers under Coronado, but which have been visited 
by white men less often even than the mysterious ruins of I'a- 
lenque, in Central America. Only a few people at St>corn) and 
While Oaks have been at jnan Quivira, l>ecausc it is at present 
forty miles from water. The surveyors found the ruins to be of 
gigantic stone buildings, made in the most substantial manner, 
and of grand proportion ^. Onir of them was four acres in ex- 
tent. All indications around the ruins point to the existence 
here at one time of a dense population. No legend o! any kind 
exists as to how this great city was destroyed or wlien it was 
abandoned. One of the engineers attached to the surveyinj; 
expedition advances the theory that Juan Ouivira was in exis- 
tence and abundantly supplied with water ;it the time this terrible 
Volcanic eni{)tion took place which fonneil the lava flow or mol- 
pais; that the heat generally, destroyed the whole country and 
|K*rmanently dried up the water "^ispply.and that thus the inhab- 
it.ints were forced to abandon it .iiiii the country generally. 

The f "w sciltered through this country herding their 
small goat herfls. still have a tradition untold treasures are 
seciettd umler theNe ruins, and a few years a;^o an expedition of 
adventurers left S.icorro, N. M . f'r the T)ur!>i>sc of tligj.!»ng for 
this treasure. Thrv stavetl at luan ( hi:\iia and hunted till their 
water gave uul and they returr. d i;nsiiccfs-iiil and di'^heartcned. 

The stuiicnt of Mexican ht-T'try u:;l r« member that Juan 
()«iivira was the i itv in sean li i»t wliu h the expeihtion of Coro- 
nailo Ntarte.l frotn old M.-xic-i i:i I ;4' • I'he ri:iUt»rN of such a 
cilv re.iclied hrvjind belff. Tlii a* \m. r«- br'»u;»ht to bv 
l-'.slrv.i!i. th'- nc^ro co:7i|>.in 'U of < .d»e/a de \*.ica, ul;o was a 
very M;:nv:haijsen in li!'* taleN of iinniense wealth among the 
seven i i!;es of Cili'»la and other plaeis he claimed to have 
passed lliri=u:^ii, Juan (Jutvira niu^t have been a!;andoned long 
be f' J re Coronado'.s time. — O'A';^ IhfUiunU 




or .ill tiic intcrcstini; stories which h.ivc come down to us 
from the i-arly times of the Spanish conquest and the wander* 
in^s 4if the Spanish troops, the most interesting; is that which 
relates to the celebrated but mythical city of (Juivira, \%hich we 
call tile Phantom City. It appears that when Coronado was in 
the .uuient Tiicblo of the Pecos, on the Pecos River, he was 
sttU entpiirin^ C(^ncernin{; ^old and silver mines and famous 
cities, lie was therefore pleased when he met an In<iian who 
filled his ears with stories ol a ^reat city, situated somewhere at 
a distance. This Indian used the word Quivira frequently, and 
so the word lx*camc the name of the fabled city. The Indian, 
however. Icil the Spani&h general and about thirty horsemen not 
to a city, but far out to the barr-jn plains of Central Kansas, 
where wen- only a tew wanderinj* tribes of hunters and countless 
herds of HiifT.ilo, and the villa^t-s made up of round loii^es con- 
structed ot mats and brush. The Spaniards returned disappointed, 
but the impression formed by the Indian im()oster continued, and 
many an ex|x'dition went out in the early days — from 1541 to 
ijcjS, iii»\\ii to xiiiio — seeking f»»r the phantom city. Each jour- 
ney provni fruitless, .ind vet there are those who are still enouir- 
in^ where the fabied city is. The tradition has even fixed itself 
on tl;e m^:>, so tliat we have now not 1 nlv one Ouivira. but I hese names are, to l>c sure, variously applied, for at 
one u\.wi' ill Southeastern Kansas the name is fixed to a barren 
o(»en |>r.i:r;e, at another place it is descriptive of a city or village 
situ.iti d .iinim^ the lava beds and rocky heif^hts of the great 
pl.itc.iu. and then a(;ain it seems to have a mere shadowy and 
incirhtute M^-nificance, very much like the seven cities of Cibola 
and till* celebrated A/tlan 01 the west. 

The lurne is deceiving, for even durinf; this year the discoveiy 
of uTt.iin ruins in the re^jion of Kl Paso has startled the discov- 
rr(-r*>. .i!i*i it is sup]>oscd that the fabled city has at last been 
fouiu! riuN. however, is well. and as it shouhl be. The science 
of .iri h.i'<'ln;;y has lon^ run its course in a dry channel, and the 
ol'jtits «if ^jreatest interest have been the hmely ruins and deso- 
late I itics and the sijijht «»f |»raves rifled of their contents. We 
nerd a I:ttle of the spice and of the novel sensation to make it 
lntc^e^tm;^ Therefore we are glad to publish the stories of great 
ruins, which may possibly mark the site of this mysterious 


place. The only difficulty, however, is that when we come to 
examine the descriptions of the same place, ({iven by a corres- 
pondent, one has liis ima<;ination iired by the stories brought 
in from the past, but fails to yet .iny real information. We there- 
fore ask in rcfcrt-nce to this find in New Mexico, Can we not 
have a more complete account ? What is this new old city? Is 
it the Quivira which Coronado.sou(;ht, or is that still a phantom 
city, and this somethin;^ else ? Can we not jjet somethini; definite 
about the newly-found ruins? We therefore a;;ain put the [en- 
quiry, where is this (Juivira, which has been found ? 



The >tudy of symbolism in America always brings up a great 
m.iny en(}uiries, but ni)nir more intL're>tin^ than one which has 
relation to a contact with luirope in ])rehistoric times. This is, 
to be sure, a point which is constantly arism^ in connection with 
ail departments of arch.folo«^y. but in this conuection it is 
especially su;^j^estivi'. We therefore jirojwsc ti» spc.ik of the 
phallic symbol as it is found m tiiis country, es|K*cially among 
xhr Mound builders, anti to sei- if this d«»cs not prove a pre- 
Columbian contact with other countries. We shall not. how- 
ever, confini" t>urselves to tiiis unr symbol, but shall take it in its 
combination with oilier symbols, such as tlie symbol of fire, of 
the sun, of the serpent. Atu\ other nature powers 

The ilest notion of the dolmens and menhirs of Western 
I"*.urope. whuh ua^* ^iven a year or Xwn ii^tt by Mr. Thomas Wil- 
"O'l. ami now a^;ainby rrot. A. S. I'akacrd, has brought up the 
subject afresh The same is ai^o tiw result of readmv; abitut 
the remarkable find on the Illinois River The i|uestii»n is how 
came tlie custom of makm^; offer in;.^s to tire and water, and other 
cu'toms in I ■' .Shall we ^.ty the Prutds were here 
during pr<*-Coliimi)ian timers, or ^iiai! we ;^o farther back and 
ascril e them t«> an Asiatic source? 

I. We b<-^jii \.i;h the cup s'.iUies nr perforated symbols. It 
forms one of llie stand:n^J jir-Mfrus t-ir American arch.eoloi^ists 
hiiw to aci oiinl tur ihes^- Tli'-e ravitwN have been studied by 
various party's aiiti have been !oun>! in miny and widely sep- 
arate«l tountr:(N It :s ln-causc <>i \\\:> exteUMve distribution th'*y I'.avv l>een r-'^.iidtd a-* iiiip- 'rtanl The ar;;ument is the prev.ileisi e ff tlu:ii in Amerua pr<»ves I-!uro(>ean con- 
ta« t in j>reh:sl»iric tjm«-^ I he arjMjment :«» a ;;oiid one, provided 
Wi- a^sl^n to tlv c.ivitn- a -.ii red c harai t« r. ar.ii ret<»j;n;ze them 
as the -^ymb lU of a w;iiespr'ad !a:th 1 lui is. hi»wever, the 
Doint We ima;'ine that if thev were not so widely distributed 


the thought of thoir Nymhol cliaractrr would never have arisen. 
The sh.ipr of the hole* su;»tjrsls a vrry jiiniplc c.iuse. nothing 
more nor less thr nut -cracking, which was a natural thinj; 
for the natives of this country. The <liscovcry of m> many 
boiihlers anil slabs, filled uith these cavities, in Southern Ohio, 
which IS a forest region abi^undin^ with all kinds ot nuts, natur- 
ally suj^i^c^ts that tills was the source nf llie cavities. IVrhaps 
we should say that the (^uestmn is a faux f^as. It su^(;est5 a 
niyst«'ry when no mystery exists. Still, a.s various authors have 
written U|>on tlie subject and l*'.uro|>ran arch•'^:(»loJJ!^ts, as well as 
Ameruan. have n-j^arded them as symbolic, we take up the 
subjc-it in all candor. It is noticeable that the matterol fact and 
careful I)r. (*ha^le^ Kau thought it worth his while ti» write a 
bodk alxuit them, and tt) recount all the places where such holes 
have e\er been sn-n. I'Vom this book wc learn that ihev are 
scatt<*red ov<T the continent of America, iK-in^; very ctimmon in 
the Mound builders' territory A few sprciiiiens are fourd in 
Ih'- rcLjion *'f the I'ucblos and on the r«»cks <)f California, and 
one MKi mirn ii.»s l>een tlisco\ered near Oii/.iba. Mcxjco. Ihev 
are al-*') niiin<'ri>us in France, Hrittany. Ireland. Swii/erlaml. 
Sax»iu-, Sweden. Scand:navia. though in these latter tnuntrics 
they are attended with rm^s and loops antl varii>us grooves and 
cliannei^. as if a sprLia! had been inailc of th( in ami stran<^e 
SUP' r^'.ition-N hai! been assoeiated with them, makin;^ them sacred 
s\ r'.itKt!^ We li arn, too. that the same Wiu'ks are numerous in 
In«::.i. .ind that in that etumtry, where evir\thin^ sfmi** t«i have 
a syin!.'i!K ih.iracier, they are regarded with pcctiliar viiu ration, 
and that cm n pha'.lic worship has bc-en associated with them and 
the synihiti <pt \\v' Maheiieo is always rcco^ni/ed in them. 

N.iw the po:nt which we make is this, if we must associate so 
^reat a si^nituance with so simple an object as a cavity, whsch 
sv/m^ t'> h ive b-.-en used !or n at -cracking, then wc shall conclude the evidences of contact with older countries during preliis- 
t'»r:c tunes are very Ciimmon. vVe can imagine the practice to 
have pri \ai;ed .imonjj a rude |K*oplc of making; a very common 
thr:,; li» sft m unctMnmon. The very tools and weapons and 
orn.itTunS which thry ha<l mi^ht become the embodiment of^t:*- siiprrNtith^ns. and even feathers anil sticks mi;^ht be ex- 
prf^-.:v«- I'erliaps there was the addition iA a myth or of a 
tran riiittci! i ust im. and this would acci»unt for the unusual 
s}:.ip's ,\m\ Ciiinbinations by wluch these cavities are S(»metimcs 
char.ii ters/rtl Stdl there are tl^jures on the H'.ack I**r:ar> Kock, 
in \\ nr. sy I van i a which resemble 5er|K'nts. the eyes Inin;^' cup 
i.iviti' s i.r perf' nations, the heads only b< in;; viable. In these 
h'-it!-* we reen^nire the Jew's-harp pattern, and ^«» we have in 
An-.r-rua. as in In*lia. not only ser|»ent worshij* but fjossibiy the 
phallii symbol, with all of its conventionalities We are not 
dt^|Mrscd t<» minimize the M|;nificance of these symbols, and ycC 

29G tiif: amkkk^an antiquarian. 

we should make ;i distinction between a practical and a symbolic 

We find that the symliols are quite widely distributed in 
America, as widely as they are in Kuropr, and arc sometimes 
found connectcil with the cremation of the bodies of the dead, as 
they are in f(>rci;.;n lands, and arc also associated with altar 
mounds. It is aUo noticeable that anintal figures, human faces 
and forms, and sun symbols, as well as serpent heads, are 
associated with the perforated cavities. Dr. Charles Rau has 
referred to the bird symbol found in the San Pete Valley of 
Utah and the peculiar fi^'ures found among the rock paintings in 
I^ike County, Oregon, and to the human and animal fi«;ures on 
the sculptured boulders in Arizona. These may all have been 
symbolic, and it i*^ possible that a ccmimon symbolism has spread 
over this entire continent, either from the east or west, and that 
the connection may be traced even as far away as India. Still 
we think that a distinction should be drawn, and that the Ameri- 
can symbols should be left lo themselves until it can be proved 
thai they were transmitted from other lands. 

The positions of these cup works are. to be sure, sometimes 
significant. .Hill the association with various pictures is sugges- 
tive. For instan<e. there i»; a jitcture of a Scandinavian boat 
which reminds ii> tf the Norse- sea-kin;^s, and a picture of battle 
axirs and stelf in the Kiv:k rr.onnment in Scania, 
.Sweden. So iIktc .ire many cup cavities m tiK rt>of> of dolmens 
m France. .m<i I'rnt. A. S. I'ack.ird drrl.ired that these must 
be symbolic. So there arc peculiar fij^MircN resembling Runic 
letters on the K.iM I''s Kork in t*u^ C(n:ntr\" There are re- 
markabic coiiii wV n^cs .il'^o in th«* sli.itHS iit the rin-^s surround- 
ing the ' avit:' > \\\\\y I: are fi>i:ni! \\\ Uci'.ni.irk aiu! Sweden and in 
this coiiiitrv S«»riif wi»ii!<} iii.ik*- theiii ••vnibois f»t the sun, and 
uoiiM p:o\i .1 i'>r;t.ii : \ii*.h Furcpi.i:! natii^ns ur eNe a remarka- 
ble pi!.i!l'l «1' vf'l- piii'-r^:. Soir.e wtJiiid .r.sci inn*»idcr the Dighton 
Koi k .I-- still II. « I I "Ml lusivc. but liiis ri»ck I )r R.iu is especially .lOi'iit. l.ik:i^;j ihe jioM'ioii it only fabricated 
bv or'!irMr\- Irirli.if.s It seem t*» in.ik( .t cniiipluation with our 
svsteiii ii thef arc r'-^'iiiblances 1. 1 ( Jid \\'iir!il forms m America. 
Whuh -h.iii W4* il'i' Shall v.e tike the siir.ole t.uts nnti be sal- 
isfi -il witli the«.f , oi shall w«- a — ;'.:n .i my tcrious si;/niTuance to 
them } W'r- I'.ive '. ■ n tins; ji r!<»r.i::'.n ^ <:i: \ai.i'Us st^-nes, but 
h.ive II. t :■ III/:':.' «i .i'i\ r'uiii;; sy. \^^^\\y \\\ i itl'.cr the sha{>es or K»n< '.T I' 1 /.AC \y ^:lh n- ot the !i"!' s At onetime wedis- 
ti'vered a s::;.-.; :« \\\ sIjIi. !'n:ne«! aiu! srnnr.eil. ntar the altar of 
the Lclelir.iti-"! .i!l '.'.it'ir rfii 'v :n < >h!«». th*- pr«»X!mity suggesting 
that i: was once on li:e altar Tii.s perforated uith a cup 
cavity. wA m.^y ! av'- bren d ."^i^nei .i- a ^y!:i!).>l. Still other 
stones, with smirar ci:p sh. iped cavities, arr found in many 
places. We s.iw or.c on the banks o! the (ihio at the steamboat 


landinf; at Maysvillc. Ky., a place which was not su^i;rstive ol 
anythini; sacred We aUo at one time examined the (^reat 
boulder which wa«i take n from the bank of the Ohio near I ron- 
ton, and ^ivcn by Dr. II. II. Hill to the N.itural History Society 
of Cincinnati, and were told that there uerc one hundred and 
sixteen of these perforations on this single bouldrr. Similar 
ktones iiave l>een found in Summit County, Ohio, at Portsmouth 
and (iraveport. Ohio, and at various places in Pennsylvania and 
Tennessee, and the common impression is that they were used 
for nut cracking. 

The boulder at Cincinnati has certain grooves on its surface, 
four or five inches lonj^. which have the appearance of being 
worn by continuous rubbing. But about these we enquire, in 
what resfKCt do they differ Irom the marks made by arrow sharp- 
ening, winch are so common throughout the country. Ikau- 
rh.imp has descril>ed such w<irks as Ixring common in New York 
and (ien. Thruston in his new book has s|x>ken of others in 
Tennessee, and has given a cut representing the same, but they 
seem very simple things, and we do not sec that any symbolism 
can possibly be made out of them. 

c!oI. Charles Whittlesy thought that the perforations were 
inadt by spindles, and that they were evidences of the domestic 
art o\ spinning and weaving. Others have taken the ground 
that sonu' of them were used for paint cups, especially as pestle 
and niiirtars have been found in New Mexico with the cup mark 
in tliv- pestle. The explanation is that the paint, which had been 
^^riuind. v^a^ f>laced in the cavity while the process of grinding 
other paint went on. How could symbolic significance come to 
such simple objects? We suggest the following: It is possible 
thai the W'^nien. who .so frequently have left the marks of their 
handiwork, may have used the cavities as signs, giving them the 
hidiien significance vvhich would be expressive of certain sexual 
desires. We are aware that the bird amulets and various other 
• •biect'' i>f personal decoration were symbols of maternity with 
the al>origines. The spool ornament was aLso made symbolic 
•t some nil re spiritual desire, and the axe. es|)ecially when made 
■ >t' jide. was symbolic of the immortality of the soul, supersti- 
tion rr(]uirin;^ that bits of jade should Ixr placed in the mouth of 
the \.\r,u\ 

It 1^ thf practice with the women m India to take water out 
of the (ianges and {K)ur over the cavities and the channels sur- 
rounding; them, as they have a superstition that maternit>* will 
br the result. I)r. Kau seems to think that phallic worship is 
u-prc seated in this way. The question is whether these cup 
:iiark- in America are to be regarded in the same light. If they 
are. then we should say that they form only another link in the 
i hain which connects this country with the (ar east, proving not 
only that serpent worship, but phallic worship and fire worship 


and sun worship were all connected and prevailed on this conti- 
nent in preiiistoric times. 

II. Thispoint has been impressed upon us by recent discoveries. 
We now refer to the discovery which we made in connection 
with the threat serpent cfli^y near Quincy, Illinois. This serpent 
is a massive eflfi^y, which conforms to the hlufT throughout its 
entire length. Its folds are brou^jlit out very forcibly by four 
conical burial mounds located near the center of the ridge, mid- 
way between thi- he:Kl and t.iil of the serpent. The mounds 
contained m my bodies, none of them remark.ible except the one 
which cremated at ih.* base of the mound. This was a large 
body. It was lyin;^ on its back, and was ]).irtially burned. Th^ 
bones, however, were preserved, and what was the most singular 
about the case, on the very center of the body, near the secret 
parts, a skeleton of a serpent was found coiled up, as if there 
was an int-'ntion to make it significant. The hands wltc folded 
over the body just below this skeleton. The body liad ils feet 
to the ea.«t. anil its face was turned upward, as if to look toward 
the sun. Thus we have in this cremation .scene both the phallic 
symbolic and tiie serjK-nt effigy, and we have at the same lime 
some evidence <»f sun worship. But there was an<>ther feature 
still more remarkable. It was noticed that there were several 
bodies lyin;^ parallel with the central one, and th^it the^^e Ixidies 
had b/en l)iirne<l. The fire bed was .ib'iut twelve feel «icross.and 
contained the remains of at lea^^l f'»ur boii:es. all <if them par- 
tially burned, all of them cremated atid apparently with tlie faces 
looking upwari!. There were also skeletons of snakes found 
with the biKlies. thtni;;h the po^ition c»t the snakes was not closely 
obst rved. Now the point that we make i>. if there was phallic 
Worship .It all. it was alsn attended with tiie eastern custom i*f 
suttee burning. We learn from the early explorers that at the 
south t!ie laslimn was to kill the slaves and wjfe t»f a chief when 
he (lied .imi tM burn the binlic*^ with the b>'dv of the chief If 
thi^ was the cas«- .i:n»»nv: the soutli-rn trj!>es. it iii.iv also have 
been l!:'- I.t-^liP ii with tins n-^rth rii \i:\>r 'I lie*.' . \\r think, are 
iinnnrtaiit l.icts While ^ vervtliin/ in this Muincv tlnd was 
v( rv !;de — n • u!j. s, n-i ji.i^ ij .i'tai. no ela'i»i.ite contrivance 
further than tiie (In \v it-«!! --t:!l the cr-.-nnti in was remarka- 
b!'-. We .!< l.n«»\ilrii.i' liii re are mm'. l!i::i;;s m connection 
with .ill tl:e .Mouu'I buiil'Ts' burial- wliuli .ire •'! :)urt Iv native 
i»rJi.MM \ et i! liie pr.allii sy:i.b«l i^ tn :»• m- n in .'iie case it is 
alsji \i\ til nv. m'!. is m ire, i*. ;■«. .ils « a!m •-»• aiwavs con- 
neit'd V. .::i ll; -i-ip ::t ^;.::.:'"I. 

It IS vtr.ii* »■ !;• r ;ri .\!Tien a nat:ve si:i>'-rst;tion seized 
upon til- rn.'st ;.iMi; ■ l-; ■• t** ich .is .irrow luMds, •-pear- heads, 
lea? •*ha;i:<I !:!:|i!mii'I.: •. t'i^«s n! ini' i. t^r even pebbles and 
rtpunti s» and in IV- <»l thi •• altars \\1; ch sh»u!t! be svmbolic 
of sun Worship: b<:t i: is stranger still that n.itive superstition 

DIcriDU' WOlL^llII* IS PKF;4^>L11MIUAN TlMh>< V0 

should at times }^ivc evidence of contact with the more advanced 
fashions and customs of countries which have long been historic 
and the twn svNtcnis of symbols should l>e so near to one 
anotiicr I he find at Vir(«inia City, in Illinois, reminds ut of 
similar drpuMts in ()hii>. it was a simple altar or artificial heap 
foriiu-tl out of li-af-shafx-d relics, the s|»ecimens all having' come 
pri'bahly from Flint Rul^ie. but here were used as the resting 
plai<' i^f the dead. There was. however, a mica cresent on the 
brlM^t and i:n])}>er s|k)oN the head and stone weapons near 
the ! lands. Kvcrythin^ about the hnd showed a very ru<le state 
of art. and yrt showed a strange ..nd conventional symbolism. 
'I hr same i^ true also i»f the various altar and burial mounds of 
Ohio llctv in anv place were altars composed of similar flint 
rrlii s. rhi|»;K-4l into lcaf-sha|H'. and deposited in two layers, one 
abti.c* (he other, the entire heap having been used as a platform 
on uhuh immense numbers of relics had been placed, but no 
oth'T rt iic-^ In another place, at Mound City, mica plates are 
laid like sialt s. one a;;ainst the other, the whole deposit having 
made .i ninarkable crescent, which mi^ht be supposed to have 
glislemrti with the silvery radiance of the moon. This crescent 
was situated at (he bottom of the larj^est moun i in the group 
found at Mnund City, and was itself placed al>ovc a layer of clay, 
iour iayrrs atjuve it com|M>sed of sand, the whole lieing very 
harii a!ul compact. The mound itself was seventeen feet high 
and nj.'uty f -et m diameter, and overtopped all the rest. The 
sym!) .li>ni consisted, however, in the crescent, which was ninc- 
tn n down and lunrteen feet across from horn to hf>rn. the great- 
c^l u;iilh bi in^ about five feet 

Stii! ihf two altars — the one foimed of lcafsha|>ed implements 
am! :iie other contain in*^ the crescent — were very large, and it 
IS sup|)ii>eii that b(»th de|>osits were equally sacred among this 
mysti-riou> people In the Ohio mounds were other altars, on 
uhidi many valuable relics had l)een placed. At the fort on the 
niirtli fork' of Paint Creek, where the leaf-sha|)ed flints were 
p'.ac • .i, .1 Iar}*e number of pi{)es had been offered, and among the 
p.;K-s ucre some in the shape of seqK*nts, the very symbol of the 
Malntl'.'o bein^ su*^' 'jested by one of them This coiled snake 
m.iy inln-d have been a mere mytholo^ic object, embodying one 
r>f thr nivths which have survived to modern times. Still the 
prrsrr'.Cf of the ser|)ent eftijjy with the other features would 
md.t at'- that phalhc worship had been observed. The clay was at 
thr tifittun of thrs'T altars, and sand layers above just as clay 
was Ir-nrath the tlint deposit in Illinois. So there was afire-bed 
of b'.ack s.>il brnrath the cremated bodies and white soil above, 
the evidence of a studied design given in both cases. There 
are, to be sure, no two altars alike and no conventional or sterc- 
oty{MiI moilc of burial in the mounds, yet with the variety the 
uniformity is apparent, the uniformity being always confined to 


the symbol, but the diversity coming out in the mode of burial 
and the articles deposited. This is also one of the strange fea- 
tures of the Mound-butldcrs' religion. They seem to have been 
saturated with superstition. It was almost childish in its sim- 
plicity, for it seized upon the most trifling things to express 
itself; it was also held under the control of a fixed and formal 
symbolism, which constantly reminds one of foreign 
Stately ceremonies resembling those of Druidic worship were 
associated with the trifling details of a savage people. The in- 
ference is that human sacrifices were made, and that burials of 
an extraordinary character were practiced in certain cases, but 
in other cases the commonest things seem to have been laid 
away as if with all the care of the most sacred treasure. We 
are puzzled by these deposits, and yet wc recognize a strange 
symbolism in them all. The great serpent in Ohio is only such 
an efli^y as perhaps any superstitious savage might possibly de- 
vise; nothing conventional or foreign about its shape, but when 
we come to the oval and the altar in the oval, wc are at once 
reminded of the phallic symbol and the offering to the fire divin- 
ity of the east. So, too, the serpent ef!i;4y in Illinois seems like 
a very rude semblance of a massive snake. Its shape conforms 
to the bluff in every part. It seems only an effigy, but when we 
compare its double bend to the curve of the Hindu fire generator 
and to count the number four in the mounds on its summit, and 
see the contents as they are, it seems as if the same latent sym- 
bolism was strangely present, and so it is every where. Superstition 
degenerated or advanced, one of the two. Symbolism, too. was 
either graiiualiy lost, being merged into the totem system of the 
hunter r.iccs. or it grew up under the same races and became a 
c«>m;)!Kalrcl system, verv like the sun svnibuls of <»ther countries. 
The rrsi-iiiM.iru'e may have been accident il, but the impression 
is growing that the symbolism was not a nattvc growth, but was 
introduced Irorn sdtne other land. 

III. It IS to 1)1* rc-mcmfH-rt <1 that ion was in Kuro^ie dis- 
tin«:t;vi- <>! tlie Ijron/'* A^y, ami was c«»rn[)aratjvtly unknown in the 
neii'.sliuc .i^;i- \\\- are .iNo to reinemlur the phallic symbol 
was vciy common (luring .i^e. si> cxiiiu.'n tiiat many think 
it wa^ introduced into the north ff Kiiro:)e bv the rhcrnicians. 
who look Ion.; vi»yages tor the sake ol t'nid:n;^ tin. The Druids 
aUo are >up;>)<e-liO have creniatrd boiieN. and t<i them have 
been ascrtl)t«i thr liorse »»hoe synilu'ls uluch are stiij rect»^;nized 
in th INC cckbraled temples tornifd fmm standing st«ines. With 
the Dniiiis, fire worship, sun worship, serjK-ni wi»r>htp anil phal- 
lic worship formrd a com;)licated system, v^hich stamped itself 
up >n the mci»r.ilhiv: moniitncnts of the Ian I. The discovery of 
these various forms o\ sup^Tstition in thr American continent 
su'^.j'.'Nts to us the p o-^^ibihty of a iransmissun of the same com- 
plicated cultus to the western coasts of the great sea. This is 


an important fact. Was it owinf; to the extension of the Pha* 
nician voyaf^cs or to the zeal of Druidic priests that these things 
were introduced? The contact seemed to have produced a mar- 
vellous effect. It was not a decline from the bronxe z^c which 
we sec in these familiar symbols, but the eflcct of contact with 
European voyagers in pre-Columbian times, pre-Columbian dis- 
covery m fact. The conclusion is .startlini;. but this is the only 
w.iy that we can account for the marvellous resemblances. Cer- 
tainly no urdinary nature worship could produce a cultus which 
would combine all the elements of the eastern faiths — Druidic, 
PiHrntcian, llittite. all in one, nor could the law of growth ac- 
count for the details as they are seen. Parallel development 
mi^lu indeed result in the prevalence of animal worship among 
the hunter races, of sun worship among the agricultural races, 
l>t)ss}b!yof serpent worship; but when all of these are combined 
and inaile expressive of a strange esoteric system, with the mys- 
tic si^nitu'.uice of the sun symt>ol as the source of life, we are 
led to say that something else must be brought in to account for 
the* phenomena. Phallic worship is not a simple cult which 
mi^ht be introduced anywhere, nor is it to be expected that the 
worship of fire, or of the sun, or the serpent, would all come from 
natural causes. 7'here might be a decline from a previous ad- 
vam c(l condition. The bronze age might sink back into the stone 
a;'e. Ihe .iSscnce of tin might result in the substitution of cop- 
()er lor the l>ri>n/.r, and the change go on until savage hunters are 
sien carrying .iboul with them strani^e reminders of their pre- 
vious c >n«iitinn; but we cannot see how the process of growth 
coulii lifiiu; to;.;cth(T on the American tree the varied fruit of the 
eastrrn climes or place its many symlx>ls in these western lands. 
Tlie < ust«)in i.f keeping alive the sacred fire was common among 
tile Noiithi rn tribes With them the sun was the great divinity. 
M.i'.itry. •»! a primitive kind. aUo prevailed among them. They 
built {lyr.rnul^ of e.irth. and placed their idols in niches on the 
siii. N of those pyramids, with their faces towards the four points 
of tlie sky They kept their dead in sacred charnel houses, and 
p!.i. li itn.i^^es near by to witch the remains or to receive the 
Nprits .ts they returned, reminding us of Egyptian customs. 
IIh se .ire at! suggestive facts. 

'I hr:];:d builder's cult was as strange as this. Here we 
set- thr ;''.i>' s i»tTLred to the sun. but the pipes arc covered with 
.inirn il fi^.ires. suggestive of animal worship or totemism. Here 
als.i \\r s' e the serj>ent cflTigy, everything about it expressive of 
.1 ^\.'A ir.,;hcr cult, namely, the worship of (ire or the sun. Here 
wr s-r- \Ur sun circle and the crescent, showing that sun worship 
u.i> \riy jirrvalent. Here we see the phallic symbol, a marvel- 
!oi:s i nit, !i<>!ding its sway over a united |K'opIe, Southern Ohio 
Ik- in;: i*** ch.ii f seat of power. Hvery thing of value which was 
ever i tTcred to the sun was subject to the action of the sacred 


flame. Here we see the horse-shoe symbol in the mounds and 
the phallic symbol in the serpent pipes. And with all this com- 
plicated symbolism we learn that the bodies were cremated 
exactly as they were on Druidic altars, though the flames are 
smoothered beneath the layers of the sacred soil. Surely it is 
mysterious. Could the Mound-builders have invented all this, 
and established their system over so great a territory, brought 
so many strange conceptions into their worship, unless they 
had received from some source a cult which was not indigenous 
to the continent. It is said by some that they were nothing 
more and nothing less than the ancestors of the present race of 
Indians, but by others that they were gifted with great intelli- 
gence; but whichever way we look at them, it does seem that 
they Could not have had such a marvellous symbolism unless 
there had been among them some one fiom another continent 


The curious practice of saluting a (>erson who sneezes with 
some words of congratulation, such as '* Maycst thou live," etc., 
is one of the most widespread customs, and so is worthy of 
study, as showing contact of the nations at an early date. The- 
odore Irving, in his narrative of the expedition ol DeSoto 
through the Southern States in 1540, tells of the natives bowing 
and saluting the chief, who hap|>ened to sneeze, and says that 
the Spaniards were surprised to find the same custom which pre- 
vailed among themselves. latterly Mr. Heal, in visiting Gibraltcr 
and afterwards South America, was amused to find the same 
custom continuing. The same custom, according to the story 
found in the Jataka, prevailed in India. 1 he question is. How 
could the custom become known to the Indians of Georgia 
without there had been contact at some time with the east? 


Nnrii. Pirict,— .\fi item fn»m a (\ma'liin iit«ir«(iapi*rinvf« infumuition 1a 
n*ffrf luv ti» iMiiiir novi*l pi|N*«. Ttn* it«*iii i^ written in the n*f(uUtion new^ 
pafKT iT{M»rter iitylp ami i» wortli |»r(*m*rvin^on that Ainmnt. The fuHow* 
inir in th«* dtvt'riptiun : 

**rwo fiftlio inti^t unii|tio objivtj« in thr Ijiiillaw c •lltn^tion are rrprcveBted 
by the ai'i'vmt pan villi; mtji. nhii'h are aorur.ite draninir* Piiecially made for 
r/i/ Seu» Thi"*«* an* pi|M*4 which were no <l>>ubt intended for bi|t pow- 
wow bu<«in«f^, an^l are niatrnificeni examples uf the meclianical Keiitut po#* 
iie«M>d by the ancient "!^»." The eagle pipe ii* Hurrmian alate, a material 
murh atTeirteil by the old "R*h1h" for the manufacture of ceremonial artielM. 
It \* 6 inchefi lontr and IJ inche« acroMi the widest part The bear pipe ii 
even iiu|iehur in deeii^n and workmanahip. The material is 1011— piobably 


ttmtiu*— An«l th«» rarfim ban bM»ii itaiorvl m drrp iclofwy hUirk. Thto pip« 
mrariirni 3} inrhm in li*nirth ami in 2 inrhn at the wiclmt fiait. Aa ap^ci- 
mrnit iIk-m* have* no PU|>rrior im) Car an our Canatlian alwiriirtnrp arv nincpmiMl, 
and t(Mt iiiiii'h rrt^lit rannot In* givrn u> Mr. Ijiidlaw for the in^nrroaity he 
ha^ tli'tilayitl in plarinir them with thonvt of hiH niairnifitvnl rrtllnrtion in 
a |»1a4*i* a«i'«w»i)tli* i«» Mmlrntn fn»ni all |iartji of the world. When the real of 
thi* IjiidUw coIl4*cti«in i» pla«*«Nl in raM« The A'nct will nipply ita readeta 
with a ro)»if)*jii divrriptinn nf the variouH interv«tinic ohjrrtn it rc»nipriMa." 
Till- \*\\H*n are repr<<iM*nittl by rutit. One in a tiear <'limhinit a trr«. A part 
of \Uv fiU-ui U*twt*en the fiintr(* f>f the bear and the tree ii nit out ao aa to 
repri<»i*nt the l>ear nien*Iy rlinirins to the tree, but the UMly of the bcAr la 
mini Ai\i\ forni«« the bowl of the pipe. The ea^le pi|>e reprmenta the eagle 
an U-arinic the Uiwl of the pipe on ita bark, the Im>w1 and the body being 
car>i^l fM*|wiriitfIy 

H'lXBi i!< A <waAvai. Rait —Some workmen in Auklaiie rounty, Ohio, re- 
<*«*iitly ranie a4*niiw iwme human booei in a l>eil of gravel. Mr. Charlea 
Jtin(<n. a well-known and wealthy land owner of Spemvrville, Allen ooonty, 
•ayn itf the diMtivery : 

"There wan a remarkable diacoTery of prehivtoiic remaina in oor acnii>n 
the other day. The inntance eame under my own obnervation. Laat week 
I had (M'canion to vifiit the farm of I. Hemley. about two milea weal of Koa- 
•nth. jiitit aornan the border in Auglaiie county. Scime workmen were en- 
gagr«l in digging a well, and had deacended to a depth of 32 feet, when thoy 
ntnirk a gravel drift, from which they eshumed a akuM, 38 inchea in cirmm- 
fereniv. Further down the other bonea were found. There can be no doubt 
aa to the kind of n*niaina. The thigh bone meaauml three feet two inchea 
long All the lionni were in an excellent itate of pnwervation, and were 
prt»baMy thom* of a prehistoric warrior who waa killed in battle, aa the pkull 
ne«*initl to have lieen rninhed with a blunt instrument. The whole skeleton 
niea^uriNl <>i|;ht ft-et eleven and one-half inchea in height h, and when 
cIothe«l in fl<i»h niurt have lM^*n a tremendoualy powerful man. A huge 
«t4me ax w<*it;hing twenty-feven pound* and a flint vpear head of aeventeen 
|)oundi* weiirht were found with the bone*, and were, no douM, awayed liy 
the giant with the greatent eafe. A copper meilal lion, engravrd with sev- 
«*ral iitrange charatierv, wan alno found with the bonea. Tbi* in a atartling 
dinroxiTv. The nrientiflc value of the dincovery ia alno conniderable. and 
may lead to nnme interenting developmenta.** 

A l*Y<iMT Hacb.— Mr. Stanley fmind them in the very heart of the great 
I>Ark < Continent— a race of queer little people not more than four feet high. 
Thf\ nrv the oldest race known, and from earliest tinien thev have never 
gt>iii< A«iiy from their homea— little Ptay-athomea we miffht very well call 
thrm Ni*ar a place called Avetiko, on the Ituri River, bin men found the 
Arvt |iair nf there tiny |ier»ple nquatting in the midnt of a wild I-Iden, and 
|te«liriir ]*]antain«. The men carried them tii the explorer "in the aame 
#pirtt" he par*, "an they w«»uld have brought me a big haak moth for in- 
p|iei'!:>>ii A« they «t<HMl t n*m hi ing before me I named the little man Adam, 
anil tli«' miniature woman Kve. Toor little thinga! Their Cicr* raid clearly 
aa tht y liHikml at one and the other of un, 'Where have thene big people 
come friim? Will they eat a«? There wereMme nervoun twitching! altoat 
the amrl«« uf the noae.aad quick opUftingof the eyelidn, and fwift^ acarch- 


ing lookii to know what was in Rtore for them." Yoo may be quite mre the 
feani of the little (xmple wt*rc quite groundleei*, and they met with the kind- 
est of treatment from Stanley, who deiwribee them afl followa: 'Little Adam 
waM four feet hijth, and Eve a little Icm. He may have weighed about 
eighty-five pounds; the i*olor of htfi body was that of a half-baked brick. 
and aa far an intelligence wan cx)ncerne<l, he was certainly luperior to any 
black man in our i^nip. The mvMteriet* of woodcraft, for inittance, he knew 
better than any of u*; he knew what wild frulta were wholerome, and what 
fungi were poiminriu**. He could have given ui valuable ]t*fW)nfi on how to 
find our way through the forest. The little man talke<l very hriiikly by nigna, 
and gave many proofx of his quick undenitanding." After thin, Stanley and 
his men |)as«ed through about one hundred villages inhabited by this an* 
eient anti tiny folk, who have been able to nold their own land for over fifty 


By ALRKirr S. Gaivciibt, Wamuinoton, I>. C. 

Ix>roiiKiiMii'H (*HREK pKTiuNAHY is a haudy little volume of 236 
which cimtaimithe dctinitiom* of about 70110 words of the language dimKiecd 
in two columnn. The manuMTipt has lain idle for a long time, before il 
G«>uld be forwardtil to tht* prew, and the kN*ginning of it n'ai* a FUiall collee* 
tion of wordH by Itev. John Fleming, the flrvt Preflbyterian miMionary to 
the (V(M»kf(, in 1H32. after their removal to the Indian Territory'. With the 
aid of various interpn*ten*, He v. K M. I,ough ridge and I>avid M. Hodge in- 
rrt*aMH| it to itj4 pret*ent nixe, and Htnc«« Imlian languagre are exceedingly 
rich in verbal derivutionHformeil by pretisation andMiftixation.theamoonI 
of it!* t«*r nil* could lH*triplt>«l ami quadrupleil. Iliii orthonraphy is that of 
the mtlifr iiii|HTf<N*t niiohionary aiphalH*tadopte«iin I K't3 at the Old Agency, 
(*re«*k Niition. in nhii-h the vuwrU have |iartly the English eound^. A 
fi|i4*<'iiiit*n of the ronju^tiiiii of ii transitive verb -mifkita. to tirike — is ailded 
ai" an ap|M*ndix. FUi-h wiml uf the di«*tii>nary i*« arcmird, and this we con- 
sider a^ a mark of |>rit^n>M*. il«iiiiiil in cloth.lhelNMik may liennlered. poft- 
|Miid. for on** ilnilar. lr»im (Sfnrtjf \V. (irtiyum, Kuf'tnla, ('n»ek Nation, /ndton 
TVrri/'rry. Th«' full titli* mil** h.<« f>ill>>««* t'ujUah awi Muskottf lUiiumtifp 
i\ilU(ied from f»ir|.iii« untirrrn tint r/wA^d '»•; H'T it M I^myhridtfe, If. D., 
miM^iiiriary to th«* ('ri*«*k Iiiili:in«. :tii«l IH'ifr /Mnd M. llttdge^ interpreter, 
i\rtek .Ifujimi. I T. I.vni. {'.i^rtf L':ii; Pnii'.irik' hotiM-of J T. Smith, 11 Hridgs 
Apftnmi'h. iSI />'*ii«. Nf.i A Mu-LokiH* Kiu'li*h ilti-tt-irmry fttriii* the secoad 
part of thi* viiliiiiii-. pp. *Xi Tl%. 

Km II. a I'kTiKri. the nti-^innary Anmn)* thi* Ivnr anil explorer of their 
va«t rnuntrii*". i^ thi* uiithor of a larj^n* niiinlM*r of puMi«'ation«on geoffraphy, 
g«-iilogy. ethn<»irr»phy. Iini:iii*tiiv. travel**, and the hiptory of religions. Td 
ttii« f'frit'!* he ha* j'l-t a't^h-il artitihi-r on ci>iiiiiarMtive mythol >gy, enti'led : 
Arr'trd dfi mythiti"'jifs d'lnM la o»rm *tj>m\rdeM iKmitts tirrti'ptrs. /Viru. H*mUUm^ 
Iv.iO. ll*fno., ;>;i V*3 The vnluini* i« a gathering of a Urp* numU-r of A mar 
i« .in niythx an-l Tilklort* ptorii-«, bri>ii;;ht tii;:«-(hrr fir the ap|»arrnt pnrpoM 
of cumjiaring them with (larallelii from the old world before and nflar 


(*hri*t. Many anAli«Kii*# mrr finiild tn rt'tpi l4*twprn thr Mirfr of 1 lie TiniW 
tri! •€•■«. or. a- hi* ralU tliriii. I>Anitm (from a ^imiUrity of miind lirtumi 
l>«MM« nriil I>aii of the Oiil Tmlaiiirnt). ami Ihr JfHi^h tradition, but the 
Ji-mn ha\i* |ir«^T%-t*«l tht' mi>rr antii|iii* and purr form of tlie lirltrf.or.ap he 
rall<« i7. rt'vrlation. I'a^ni^m in a violation or miMindrrvtandin^ of the 
holy Ittwi* of iittturi* in many flairrant inMano** put for«anl by the author 
M>tliH* ti^Mircfi fihirh h<* iiubj«vt« to thtp «'oin|«rati\r treat mrnt are the 
nial!t;ii *>|>irit, marfii*ni, thr puprrme itimI, tmlur and hinar myth^, dehi^e and 
Niiah. ili»|N>p>i«iii of |H*opl«-<, di»tr-mi*n. U-ar^men and hinl-woinen, etc 
\Vlifri*\i*r t)t«* «*niditf« author d'-ei* not yirld Um\ Iaripi<Iy to i main nation, 
i««{H>«'ully of lUv linkTui^tit* Mirt, hi» remarku may l>e put to pniflt by wtudents 

• if t)i<- imnu'hN* tii-M of Amen«'an folklore 

Cmt (iBitaiiic M. WnaBi.Ett'ii (iBiMiRAriiioAL RKniKT — The Fplendid end 
rniinrntly u«r(ul iwrif-f* of ipurto rrfiorta u|ion the <ilieervationa made bj 
th«* |»:irtit>fi of thf KniciniHT IVpartment, in charge of (^Apt tSeo. M. Wheeler. 
in th«* Stai<*ii and Trrritoriea wret of the one hundredth meridian, from 18410 
to l^7*.l. ban jn-t U<en ronrludnl by the imbliration of the ireofcraphieel 
n*|iort arrani^* I by (*apt. Wheeler himself The whole^rieR nowconnintaof 
fH*vt*n i|tiArti» voliimt^ and one vupplement, one to|M>irr4phir ami one ifeo- 
loiftr altai*. Th«* vohime lteft»re u* «*«)ntainf>, «ith thi* < iyht apfiendiiea and 
thf* iniln. Ts<» |«tnfi. thri<e ma|Hi, and thirty-eight platen. The main peit 
of thi* ri*|Htrt draU fiith Mirh pubjwtii an the mountain |iaMK« viaitrd. the 
Wf?>t4'rn nm of th«« grrat interior liei*in. alt it uile* and divtanrea. puminary 
of rif^uit^. itim-mry of (*olora<io (Sraml (*anon and Kiver. trip of 1871; 
|Mtpiil:itii>n. iniluf*tri«*<*. r<»mniunirationn, irrigation and arteeian wellii; ata- 
tiftiri* of «i-«tiTn Inilian*; land rlaa^ifii-ation. To readem of |Mipular liters 
tiirt*. thi* \iiliiiii«« will \n* mort* attraiiive than mof>t of the othera of thia 
firii'tttifir #M-ri«-»« 

<ti <*i.4a StMM i« the name given to a p|»erial kind of epie poema fbond 
iini«>ni; thi* Nlanntu* Smthern Slavp. M»uth of the I^anulie. in Boenia, ller- 
a**^ tviiia. rtr Thr t»hjfx*t of theM* fxiem* in the hemir period of the per- 
|H'tiial ligliiii of theSIavfiaml Magyarvagainft the Turku during the pi I teentli 
and M*\fnt«'enth cvntunee. whirh endeil in the expulsion of theTurka from 
lliiMLrary The trf»uliai|ourp,or gtifi|afv.who|ierpetuate theae poemi, eoron* 
pany tlii*ir t>mging with the aoundp of the giiWa, or one^honled violin, mad 
thr ciiMreani-irnt pie<<et embo<iy many iieanagfe of aarpnaing beeaiy. A 
nii;nlH*r iif th«*«e f*pi«* pieoee have lieen ndlerted by I>r. Frederick Krmoaa ia 
|H>|, an,) wrff fiintY |*artly pu)>lii(heil by him in the original dialert, like 
"(^rio^if. thf (\iunt of lUab," Freiburg, i. B.. 18H9. with a rredable Gemma i>>n • A%iKHir««<( AwTigrARUH. IHH9, page 391). Another (tiiplar aong 
diiM .i^iTi^il by him hap jui«t been tranvlated into (werman troc^haic verveaead 
pt:h^«)),..{ in Virnna by (*arHtnpl>er. whoae title run* aaffdlowp: **Mehmtftf§ 
/tV.ii«;'',|.Srf i.S'm<iM«i^u* Ufho\ tin V%dkMfpo$ der tmtdalar\$then Mohamwudamtrp 

• 1"tiio.p|. i:*»it, iH*.ii)i 1 he tubjvH-t- matter of thiP truly hemir poem ia a 
«arl:kf tM>i*<»«)o of the year Um7, the liattle of ("Eikrar, near Stohl^ 
prtii*«'irj. Iliinitarr. ThiP waa the time when the Turkiph domination o^ 
lliin»Mry wa^ Mill in full forrr, and although many inridenta of the alorj 
an- thf rt-MiIt of fHietiral Action, the hiatorical foundati«in «if the whole !■ 
diptinrtly |4>freptible. Young Mrhme«l. who had jupt inditred abeaotlM 
li«*iri-m« Ut f'lllite him t<>()frn, the capital, with all her treaauree, convcye 


her there At the head of a lance and eplendid retinue, and from thereto the 
field of Moharx, when durinyc the jutfMMre over the Cilina River, the whol« 
body or fta^ant ih middenly attorkeil t»y Peter, a Christian commander 
from Wallachia. The contest in a terrible one and laatfl three day*; it endi 
in the defeat and i^apture of the Chriptian leader. Theorifcinal of "Mehmed'a 
Bridal Party'* containH 21<iO trochaic verHCfl of five feet each, and was firat 
poblifihed by Kraiif>p at I^fnif*a in 188(>, in the publinhini; office of D. Pretner, 
with all the ethnof^raphic an<l philolof^ic elucidations which are neccaaary 
for a full understanding of a pro«luction of this unique character. 

Aht Amono Till Dayaks.— The Malayan inhabitants of Borneo are knowo 
to the whites as Dayaks, althoui^h this name is unknown to the people, 
which calls itself Olo oC.or (Ho ngadju. Although they have amonjc as the 
reputation of cruel barbarians, on account of their native custom of ** head 
banting" and ezhibitini; the heads of their victims on their buUdinipi, they 
are a talented, industrious and }0'^<*<1 jieople, eminently capable of becom- 
ing more civilixed un<ler appmpriate piidance. Professor Alois Raimaod 
Hein, of the Vienna University, has made of their plastic arts the object of 
a memorable and very instructive treatise,* after having studied them in 
the ethnographic collections at the Imperial Museum at Vienna (to which 
the army surge<m. Dr. F. Inidor Bacs, haa l)een the principal contributor), 
and in the public collections at Hamburg, Berlin, Amsterdam, I^eiden and 
other cities. 

Hein subdivides his material into five sections— architecture, sculpture, 
painting, technical arts, and tattooing: the whole Iwing preceded by a gen- 
eral and historical introduction and followed by the author's * conclusions'* 
upon the whole subject matter. The illust rations consist of ten plates 
repreM*nting ornamental devicen, ninety woo<l-init» and a frontispice. The 
only material uimh) for arch itiirtu re s re the solid and imperishable woods 
producetl by the tropi<«l forests of the island. The ilwel lings have high 
roofo; tht* v<*randahs. ami the doors, fiostii and (tanols are often full of taste- 
ful ornamentation. P<Kipli* of note are burit*«l in "halls of the dead," rulid, 
lofty iiiortnary stnirtures standing uj^m piles. In sculpture, the I>ayaks are 
not tHip«i'iAliy rtun*eM<ful ai far an the huiiian fi>rm is concerned, for the 
manifolfl **niAnnikin«" of l>oth S4»xo« found in the niuvums are esftecially 
cfiar^v and hIiow no tiniNh. Hein N*licvc« that M»m«* «»f their numlter rep- 
rem*nt pmhI and liad genii, of wliirh their inytht»!o',?y is full, a list of them 
bcing;;ivenonpa^MMi*:{-L*), wh i lei >thep« an* tali^rnanM. imitations of animals, 
etc. The I>ayuk4 living on the Katintratn plait* siime rude idols, called 
konto, tip n the road* to ke^'potTrpiilemicdi^^amfi. More ingenuity is dis- 
played in the war anil dantv niiu*k«. A** to the art t>f |iainting, the }-jisteni 
Asiatirs delight in the reprtMluction of mon«teni and ogree of vari'»iuid^ 
script ion«, al-o in the drawing of the dragon, which in our lra<liti«»n is a 
monster inr-pinng termr. but Mgnitit-* jiitt the Cfintrary to tlief>e A?*iati«9. To 
them it i<« a Umiik' pn>piti<>ii*i to niankinil. anil may M'rve alst> as a pymbol 
for the pn»i|ii«-ti\i*n4-»-, ffrtiiity runiing from the rain, for im|>erial dignity 
and other ezt«illin;r <ltiaittie«. Thin i< so. tHvaUM* the entrance of the sun 

•|>lr I»:if1en<1rn Kiicn«tf tn-t dm pAVAk* aiif IWirnf* Kin fWltrs* lar uliarmelosa 
Kiin«i|;i««-iiii-iiir, \iifi Ai"\» H. //'t**. K. K. I* tif«'m««ir uDd AaaucuiiM-bcf Malar. 
WlCU. A. Ilii-ldrr. IMn.-l.«ftl(Trii-<lcUVo. llaudZ>|«crik. 


into th« n>nfft«lUtioii of the dragon marka the commenrement of tprinp. 
From riiina thin monitt<*r-4iyni!K)luim wm intnMlure<l into Daymk art and th« 
fllpirm on the inniimrrmhlc* nhirldi in Kuro|M*an muMfumn i^how inventive- 
netm, if not oriffinality, an«l a rather ronrct and FtU4lied human anatomy. 
Thr Htudy of th«wfl* nhielflu in more attractivt\ |>erhapii, than of any other 
•uhj<H*t in ll<*in*f« lMM>k. The mont imperiahahle ohjrrt« umkI in drawing, 
carvinic an«l pAintinf^ are manufarture<l of ironwitod, ' tabalien,** which if to 
tenai'ioii* an to rrnivt i»vt*n the attacks of the white ant. 

(Mothd and other textiU* fahrim are excel Ifnt an to durabiUty and of ex- 
t|uiffite omaraonlation ; iMwketry ia maile of rattan, iipht bamboo and |ialm 
1i*avt«. In the "get-up" and ornamenting of their textile Cabrica the Dayak 
womrn are nil >re Mel f- reliant and inde|iendent than the Knrupean women, 
who ran pnxlure nothing of the 9nri without having a pattern before them. 
Ilein |«ayii a high cumpi intent to the character of the Dayak lair aex ; ih« 
fomalen are lalNiriou*. cha«ta without prudery, attractive in their exterior, 
living wholly within and for their Cuniliat. They are not fertile, and the 
nation ifl at prt*eent diniininhing. The whole Dayak people la pawionatcly 
fend of mu>«ii\ and a primitive mutic alwaya reaounda within their halla of 
festivity. They also make poems, which are songa of travel, of love, of 
worship : they invent farrea. puns and legends of all sorts, like the Battaa, 
their characters are found to be sincere; they evince love of Juatiee and 
truth, and abhor deception. 

Till KiMBrsDU LAKcirAna is one of the western Ba'ntu dialecta, spoken 
by more than a million of negroea east of the port of San Paul de Loanda* 
fiouth Africa, some distance south of the equator, in the vast country named 
Angf»U. A Swiss missionary, Ileli ChateUun, who lived three years among 
three natives in the interior and on the cviaat, has published a grammar of 
tliat tongiie. with Portuguese text, this being the language spoken by the 
white inhabitants and the numerous Creole population. Its title is: "Gram-' 
tmatica rlfmentnr Jo Kimbufuiu <m Lingua de AngoUi,** tienebra, typ. de 
Charlcn Schuchardt. IKAH-89, 8*; 24 and 172 pages. Ukeall theotber Ba'ntn 
dialects. KimlKindu is rich in grammatic forms, and these are formed chiefly 
by prcfiiation of relational elements, not often by sufBxation. Kxercisea 
after the oU<indor1f method greatly feci I itate the acquisition of the language. 
The lHM>k has several pn*fece», one by Roliert Cust,and all of these dsecriba 
the lintnii*'tic and literary position of Kimbundu (or "speei-h of the negro") 
among xUr nther lia'ntu tongues south of the equator. Parties interested 
in this publirmiion may addreM Albert 8. (latachet, P. O. Box 333, Waahing- 
Ion, I> (\ 



The Antiquitif* of Tmnffufnnd the Adjacent Staten, and the State of Aborigimi 
Society, and the Scale of (SufiMtimi Iteprefmted fry Them, A Series of Hi» 
toricml and KtlinoloKicAl Studies. By (Sates P. Thrunton. Correspondinf 
HeoreUry <.f the Tennemce IliMtorical 8<K*iety. Cincinnati : Robert ClarlM 
A Co. 1890. 

Thin iri a very excellent book, and is written in an eicelleot style. TIm 
author in not confined to t(*i;hni(*alitieF, but takes a broad view of his salH 
je>ct, and throws the light of historical learnini; into the entire arrhvolonical 
field. In doing so, hon-ever, he <ioes not allow himself to be carried away 
by any theory, and kin^fm himself free from the charge of special p eading. 
In this respei*t it i* the niont satinfactory treatise yet issued upon th# 
Mound -builders, and comes nearer to the solution of the Mound -buildei^ 
pn)blem than anything heretofore written. The special value of the work, 
however, is to be fuund in the d(*scription of the relic* which have beea 
gathereil, many of which an* new find-*, and so have never been described 
U'fori*. Thefc relicii, to be Hiirc, were n(*arly all of them found in Tennes- 
see, but the fact tha' thf* Ihwik in limit4H| ti> the antiquities of one district, a 
district which has not Imh'U d(*s4*rilifd iM'fure, maken it all the more valua- 
ble. We have now st^veral fields which have nnvived special treatment; 
Ohio, with is many vilUge sites*, s.icrf«l enclojiu res, altar mounds, tempto 
platforms, a<«h pit^, and ancient firtr>; Wii*c«inf<in, with its emblematic 
moundn, animal effigies, ancient villages, and clan residences; and also th« 
southern distrirt or < julf Slates, with their estenxive pyramids, many sitea 
of ancient villages, and rel-t^*, which may l>e<'ull<*4l either Indian or Mound* 
builder; and in this IxNik. Tennivsee, with its stone graves, its ancient 
ft>rts, and remarkable ile|MH>its nf ancient (Mittery. vtone implements, shell 
anil (*«)|»|M*r rtrnaments, and i^|»e<Mally its ^culpturetl idoU. Taken^together, 
and com|ian*<l fiith one another, the )MN>kB uliirh have l>een written upon 
tht»se ilifferent Mrch:i>ol(tgical fieliU will give to iin a very fair idea of tb« 
M'>und-buil<ierv' territory, and will help u." to M»Ive the mystery which bai 
surntund«*d the Mound-builders. Ilihtory may help xm U) understanil theat 
field*<, but it if* hot ftutlirient; an-li:i-ilogy im the k'reat ex|K>nenL This la 
certiimly the t*mfM* with TenniftMt*, whw h wai* fi«r insny years "as unknowa 

to tlie outftT worlil UM ( Vntnil Afri<-H rheve fmtn are stated to show bow 

little history <'an teli \\* directly of unrieiit Tenm^rt-e, or of the stone grava 
race '* The author rtavs. " It ii* dttlhult ti» amitIaiii the exact relauon of tha 
utitne grave rai>* of Tennt-^Mi' to the hi*ttiric retl Indian;*," l>ut best'enis to 
think that they were Itaith unterior and ^U|m* rior tn them. 

We think thi- i' the |»'»-iti<in for i^cientific men tn take. It throws l«ck 
the prvhifttorv (if iiiir ciMintrv U^vond the nil Inilian>. and re-establishM 
th<> niiiundhiiilding ihtkhI The test Imi ki* on hi^ti>ry should have this 
di-tinrtion elearly drawn, for the new -fanglitl idea of di«mi«sing tha 
Mound bujlilepi from preJii»|i»rir Amern-a has rii-eive<il a •••tla«*k which H 
ran not uvercimie The M>Mir><l lnjiMer*' art.»»r rather the native art in %hm 
mound -building iwriiNl iii plainly i^hown to have bevn of a sii|ierior cl 


trr— timt in, it wm fiti|ic>rior to any aK which ha* appfarrd among th^ rvd 
Indian! in n)<Mli*rn ilayn Of coun^, if we muhl tit» tak(»n liark to ItnSoto'a 
iimt*. and coitM trav«*nM* thr whole territory, and examine* the furniture of 
thi* houM«, th(* drlv^ t»f the rhirfii, the i-qutpment of the warri«»r«, the do- 
nniitir utenniln of thr |HHi|iIe. and i^iuld have poine dne explain to un the 
prpMinal «)rnauirntp and the p>niU>tir n*|»repentationp whit'h were roninion 
in thime tlayp. we nii);ht In* ahle ti» ei plain the relioa which are now fiund 
in till' uumniln, and uy that Mime of thfur were de|ioiiitetl aHer the time of 
the di«*ovcr\. Hut «e «ant t<> |m further liark than IN^^to'i ex|M*<lition, 
anil we think that the M«ine |{ravi^ and burial mounds of Tenne*eee will 
i*arr\ ni th«-re. \Vv are glail that the author of thia book haa rrcogniied 
tliM. an«l nia<le it a (Miint. We are not kept in the pmtohinioric fierirMl. nor 
14 thrre any nfieiMal elT.trt to minimiie the rrlicw of the Mound-buitderv, bot 
Wf an* oarrii*«i at on«*e t4i prtdiiM«»rir tiroen, and are led to m« clearly tha 
iiiM*iaI ptatun of the |>«Niple in that period. 

Tlirre are, of itMirve, ivime prubleoia which we iihould lika to have had 
•«ilv«*d. To illuntraie. the vtone fH^vet are found Kvttered over almont the 
i*ntire Mi«(pi«pippi Valley; they have been found an far north a# (*<aihortoii 
(\Minty in Ohio. Mender (\>unty lllinoiii, ap lar fouth af> Ktowa. (leriririAtaa 
far eaiit an Taldwell (Vmnty, North Carolina, and an lar wrat aa Warren 
r«iiinty. Mii*m»iiri, thouieh Tennrte r g M*em^ to have l>een the irrrat center, 
iiinre ttiouiuindi of thorn are found in that State. The question in. Were 
thi* ptfini* tsmvfii all l»uiU hy one {HWpIe? 

AiTiin, many of the nhell ir>riretii of Tenneapee have ntriking re#emhUmcea 
U) the liaii-relu'fii of Mexicf» and (Vntral America. I low came three reaem- 
hUm^eii? We are not quite natinAed t4» have thin problem aummarily dia* 


Thi* car veil pi|it« are found in Tenn w pre, in Southern Ohio, in Cent ml 
llhnoiji and Smtheai^tem Ion a. and Mrikinf reeemblance» are to be traced ; 
htkw came thm? Wa* there a tnl«e which fiaMied over thia entire territory 
and left their pi|iee. or did the Mound -buildera Ixirrow |iatteina from one 
another? The idola which are found in Tenneaaevare very intereatinK. They 
i*how tliat the inttple had paiwed lieyond the ataice of ann-worvhip, and bad 
ri*ai-he«l the Uirdera of that ataice which eaiated in Central America. No- 
rn here cine in then* auch a minglinit of animal fiinirea, aun aymbola and 
human repreaentationa aa in Tennca w e. Thia baa not been accounted for 
ami there in no theorv to ratinfv ua. 

Attain, the |»ortraitii which are contained in the idola are aniqae. There 
in k'v'ncrally a r%*sM*mblance kietween them. Ik> the portrmita irtve to oa an 
nlt-a nt the phynit»|p>my of the |ietf)ple. Cien. Thrualon baa npoken of the 
tMviflii which wrre taken out of the Noel cemetery at Naahville. lleaaya 
ihi« -rt of planteriuff toola in a mont intereating and aunreative dincovery ; 
he thiiikn that men followeil the tmaineaa of plaaterinir in the prehiatoric 
|M-ri«i.l Wr would (mil attention to one fact: theae trowela are found not 
only III Trnneaaee. liut in other localities. In fart there are okijecta on the 
lii*.« 1 .Irtw^v f>f idol* found in Tennewee. and in the (toede collection from 
I'l'rto iCiot. in the Went Indiea, which look like trowela. Thequeation we 
ank 1*. wan there a craft of plaatererv, and were theae the emblema of the 
<>raft. or in the renemhlance merely accidental? The aame qoeation might 
(>«- a*ke<l in fffrrence to the apool omamenta and objecta of copper which 


an* Uken from the moundfl of Tennecwee and of Ohio. How oomcff it thai 
ohj-Ttfl reeotr.hlinf; th«Fe an^ found as far away as Mexico and Gentiml 
America? Wc will not, however, auk any more queationn. The author 
says: " We have devoted more attention to the i Hunt rations of ipecimen* 
than to theories repmlin^ them. It in not our intention to enter apon an 
oztendcil consideration of the intert'sttin^ ethnoIo;;iral and arch«ological 
prohleniM naturally HUirf;e>ite«I, hut any anti<|uarian or i*ollei*tor will be im- 
pressed with the fai't that it will Im» imi>of>sible to pither a ct>lleciion of 
antiquities of such u varie«l and advanfHr<l ty|ie as have t)een illustrated 
within the limits of the Uuitod Stat<>M, outride of the territory of the rooand 
building trilies. They pn*s«*nt unmiritakable evidem^c of a state of society 
above the social couiiition of the pn*hiHtoric tribes of Canada and the north- 
eastern States. UnmiHtakuhle ('viden<*fH are prt^t^ented of interroorse or 
relationship with the ancient (K'ople of the s«uithwtvt and of the Paeblo 
districts." " We can not l>elievf* that tliu^e hitrher ty|»eH reprcnent nothing 
more than the onlinary culture of Indian trilies like the Shawnee* and 
Cherokees, neither do we a»n^5e in the opinion with the authors who insial 
that they wore the works of a su|>erior rare of Tolters, Ast(*cs, or Mayas.*' 
In other wonls, the author undertakes to des^Tibe the ezairt status of the 
people, whomi){ht be <»lled the Mound -builders of the middle distncta,and 
in this he has suct*eeile<i. 

l*hy$iognmy in Ejcffretution. By Paolo M an ttrvsza, Senator; Director of the 
MuMMini of Anthrftpoloiry in Floremv, etc. I'arts I and II. New York: 
The Humltoldt Puhlishiii)? (*o. 

This is a ver%' remarkable wurk. It tir^t dei«cril)cs the writers who hare 

written on the subjc<'t, and reviews the va^ries apfiarent in their worka 

It then paJ*S4ii on to the Htmly of the dilTt*r«*nt parts of the human Cue, 

ftiviniKcharai't eristics of expreHHion in carh. Then foil o«- some gocvi thouithta 

on the dilffrenl ra(*«*fi an<l their mHh«NU or habits or ezpressitin. The 

ai^icultunil nu*cHan* l<*ss cxprrsHive than the war-like, "ca^farini; or tradinir 

nations. The efri*«'t of emotion on tli«* ninnteiianre ir* «lef«Tilied. In lart,a 

picture of htiiniin nature (r^'Ucraliy is i:iv<*n. and the reail<*r is ex|iecte«l to 

be(*oiiie a itimmI jiplire of human nature from the |ieriif(al of the botik. The 

price is only thirty cents. 

QuitUftmrnrr of \»rniltiifn. fly I'mf .\. SiliatUiv Tran^Uteti by Itemard 
l(ii«:iri'|ilet Itiiru mt'm ririr/ /'n/ifK-i Ity h.lM'l Kitrliie. M. A. I'pnntki 
(trujiu ttf Alfuftr nn-l ImU'in l^ike^ 'in / tii' /-.V'Ki'tri |ty variou* author*. 

Tbe>e littli- b'H.kx «iin-tiniTi- %••*• I J.;. iL't iifi'l 1'.'% of the HumUtldt U- 

brary. The pruv nf eai h i-* tifinn • .-nt-* !}>*•> iixersu'*' a)»out fifty |«|Sce 

of tinely priiitet! uiatti-r. and are \%i-ll w«irtti the niniify 

Thf L\ff au'i Tttuf i»f l'f»hrxi\m t\tUr \\\ l.i- «}aii»«bter, Julia iVrkina 
Cuili-r. <'inriiittati l^»)>rrt Cliirki* l*«'»(i 

KjibniMo <'iiiiiT njL'' the •ii)n ^f K*v''4»*h <*iiller. who was one of 

the f•llln•)l•^^ <>f the ('«>iitiiii<iii»ea!ib ^'f Ohin snil the N<irlhiifT>t Territory. 

The son iii.iy l<f ralle«| niu* nf the foanib-r* of tlir t*i>iiiiititfiwralth of Ohio 

and Ht h-.i-r iine iif thi* k'ri-:it leji«latop» ttf the State, lie ii* not so well 

known 11" hf father, hut mil* a \ery honoruMe man. and hi* memoir it 

worthy of a pluce m the hiMtory i^f the <ireat Wf*t Mr. (Markt* has done 
)rn*af ••«'r\ii-i' to Mie ci>iit>try in briru'in.* oiit the««* dilTiTi-nt volumes abiial 
the CutliT-, /^•loU-rv.iT" and the pinneer* of < Miiii. and "htMiiil \^* |iatroniaMl 
by all th** l>i\fr« 4if ^h>i1, «hole*4j[ne biographical literature. 



nicvtcan ^nixauavxatt. 

V'l Xll N*»viMiiik. iN/-) No. 6. 

/ODl \C ALCHkONOI.oilV • 

B\ () I). Mil II K 

I lit' Kir^o .iinoiint (^t tn.itcrial introilucct) into this treatise in 
x\:c I »f refill nj^ chapters, in some cases in a crowtletl state, has 
pii ^Iiniril the p.»SN:hilily. ii\ many instances, of jjivin^ it a proiKT 
tr-.iMncn! . we have contrnte*! ourselves with indicating gener- 
ally ::s lHMrini;s uiH>n the particular topic in hand, without refcr- 
' r. t.» ::n inijMirt in i^tlier resjKrcls Not infreijuently, also, wc 
li.ui ir!f.\:n'cl rr'»in stating thr full. le^^itimate conclusion until 
.;'». :i'.t p:«M»ls had l»ecn hiou-'Jit forward to confirm it. Morc- 
. \ r. \:\' i\\u\ points of the argument in support of our j'encral 
ti. »fv liave iK-rn Ml nercssiiy hut ;.^ra(Jually devclo[Krd. so that 
.! i.a-. Ik en iinpi>'»s:blr to hiin^j them together under one view. 
'!.» r' incil) »» 'Hie i!tf«-ct:» oi this natMre. but more cs|K*ciaHy with 
i!i» \i a t<» a I onnecled statement of the results of these inves- 
l:.' i!:i«n>. ami of their lKMnnL;> upon other subjects relating to 
i!'.t.i -isty. uf ^ivr the foil*. wing ^unmiary of the argument. It 
r: i> l>'" re'^arded a^ an mlr«Mh:ction to the work. 

It :- jr- posed to give here, for the convenience of readers as 

u i IS . i:r own. a sumrrary statement, chapter by chapter, of 

tiirth; r p.»intN eNta!)lished throughout the work, introducing 

: ':-. .1'! : ti.»nal explanation^, from tune to time, as seems to be 

!n.i:-. In the opi*nin,: ciiaptrr. the existence of the zodiac. 

jJi l i!it a!!y .is transmittal to us, is traced back to the prehis- 

t r: I ;»• ri't! jn the valley of the Kuphrates. It was shown to 

•. • r\i^?!-. I, fcir instance. pri«»r to the times <»f lak-liargos. or 

kii tin earlif st known kmg of the Chahleant. whose epoch 

i- -'n variously estimated at from 20CX) to 30CK) years B. C. 

. :. • «rT|( I* :• liilr«Mtui-liirjr !•• i% «i<>rk riiTlUr<l l^rlmltiv^ ll^v«^lAllon. At 
!..■ AHl:at*ul i hnin>>i*«y tif thr \nrtriit«. Thi* la tlit- ilr«t i-haptrr And 



Not only this, the zodiac is shown to have been in use anterior 
to the orij^in of the Babylonian ^tmealogy ot antediluvian kings. 
Alomes. Alaparus, etc.; anterior, also, to the origin of the Baby- 
lonian traditions of the creation, embodied in the "Creation 
Tablets" discovered by Mr. Geor^^e Smith ; anterior, finally, to 
the invention of the cuneiform sy^tem of writing; itself, in which 
we find, under their liieratic tonus, all the names desijjnatinjj the 
ilifferent parts of the 7.<»diac, the ci»nstcllations, signs, months, 
etc. These facts being established, the usual impression among 
astronomers, and even among antiquarians oftentimes — namely, 
that primitively the signs of the zodiac occupied the same 
position, respectively, as the constellations havmg the ^ame 
names — is shown to be wholly erroneous; since, at the fK'riod 
to which we had traced the existence of the zodiac, the si^fis 
were at least one entire division, or thirty degrees, in luivami' of 
their respective constellations. This fact being firmly grounded. 
it is necessary to admit, first, that the original positions of all 
the signs m ailvance of their constellations was the result, not 
of accident of any conceivable circumstances of a normal devel- 
opment of the system, but of an cxf^n'ss, delihinUf desii^n: sccoml, 
that such an original arrangement could have been designed 
only for the purp4)se, in one important rc^jxrct, of a /.oduwat 
Chro9wli\^\\ ^\\\ck: , K\\\ iy\\^ hand, this arrangement is admissably 
adapted for this purpose, and since on the other hand, a zodiacal 
chronology, dating from a period anterior to the invention of the 
zodiac, was absolutely ifnpi>ssible without just such an arrange- 
ment of the signs in relation to their constellations. The entire 
problem then resolve*! itself into th«- one simple question: Hcnv 
far in advance of their res[KCtive constellations were the ^^igns 
originally found ? 

The pr«>hl«in bein^ thi:-* simplitletl and piatnly stated, the 
question as to the riiiars of its solution becomes all important. 
Thr .iim is nut. as it been witii M. Hiipries and others, to 
disct»ver wh'» W'.re the inventors of ti:»- /iniMC. nor to fix the date 
o! its inventn'i). It is ratlhr t<» dettriniii'- the epoch to which 
the t .If best tr.i«iiti«»ns of m.inl. ;n»i rttirr-. *i. tli • traditii»ns, namely, 
resp<M ting the biilh oi ih; '.sorlil. I'f iinn. h:s primeval ab*><le 
^}^A priiuitue hisiiiry. Th» iii* .ii^n t«i li-- nnployeii. .ind the 
n)' lh« d li» be pursiutl, in the -» !i:ti"n -f the problem, arc 
essfnti.illv dslfen-iU from thu r I: r-ti't^ue .idojited bv m\csti- 
gatufs. '-o as we .irr'- It to in\e.stigatc. as the 
chi' t .ud. tht trad:!i"iis th« :;i-' !'. es.the <!ate nf uluise origin was 
to be a-' ert.uneii . t»i ;nvesti.;.i*.e tlietii \utii the view »»f detecting 
eerl.iiM .i-lr- -n- niical .illu'-h'r.s ant! relermics. tending t«» reveal 
the'- "f the hra\en^. r»r the p-'sitit-n u\ the earth in rt lation 
to thi- he.ivrns, at the e|)och t" wjiiih they .ill pertained. Thus 
we av'»i«! the necessity «»f' as».!imipg any hypi»thesis at the start 
on\\hi<i)t«> prtdic.itf- < iir ti^tory. a liypothesiN which might 

jii«i;r in tiic * i\l, .IS in M Dhjuu-n Nystrm, uht.Hy L*rr«inroiis. 
i y\.t m.\h"<\ IS. in f.itl, Ntmtly n« ic-ntit'u in ll^ iharaitcr. ihr 
pr*!*:*'.' Ml .t?» 1: .s riti-.iitil t«' liir "Sfuplcst • li-nu-nts pn»isih!f..ui«i 
m.i.i ;:.i' ::i .ii'.>' !•• iinoivc i-!ily t\i'i ^r<'unil prnpnvition^ Mu* 
t.rst tuinl.ini nt.ii .»:::: i- t> « urincct the tradition-^, whnsc ilatt: 
was t'» Ih- !"i\<«!. \\\\\. '/( ii'.'./.-'; .»/.^'/; «•! til'* /utliai , wlu>sr rc'tr'»- 
•;i.iil» iiiiK'-Mirnl '»li«>.ilil niaik tlir pri'CtsMtMi. llu* sci onti |jr'»iiii«l 
pi> :tii>M -^ t- lonnt ct thr •«amc traditiDnii \%itli onr Lcrtain 
.';/./.'./.'; '/ i>! thi- /ndiai , .IS tlu- point linHi whicli thr prrcrss-on « u^^n.iily li'. partci! 

! he pi'>i.!;ir. •>!at(-(!. ani! thi- nuthod ot' it^ solution pointed 
i»ijr. w<- .uc j)r»paffd n^w to li.ll«»w tht* coufm' oI the invcsti/a 
ti. II It i< nnt a'.or.c :n thf* tnain position rstabiishcil in this 
ti' ..!: -r. Ill ct»n::(\ti' n with thr ;.:tnrral pro! )lcm. that ur h«'|K* 
t'> ii.u< \-i'ntrii»uti il s*>inrwhat tt> our knovvlrd^c of antiquity 
and thr prchistoi i« al si uncc. but as nun h. pcrhajis. in the tacts 
whit U }iav(- lit- < n suhstantiatcd incidentally (hiring «iur (esc-ar<iu-s 
Ihus the ixtirnic .mtujuity of the /oiiiac itself, in the valley of 
the iMiphralr-. is .i Jatt nnt with«»ut value in it>elf ccni.sidercd. It 
:s the ^anie witii k ^peit tt»thc lead:n^ tact veiified in the scc^Mid 
ihapter. whuh rc-t^.iids tlu- synihoii^m attached to the s«>lar nih 
Ihts solar syii)S«.lism. s.i ancient anil so widely prevalent .imonj; 
the n.itj-nis of ant:*|uity. has n-'t Dniy served the underlying pun- 
iipli i»! the>e invcsliijatnMis. it affi»rils the pr»HH-r |xnnt **\ view 
tfdii: wi-.ich ti» interj)ii t the myth of the <!y>nj: sun-^"d. n! whii :: 
W |).i]incs .ind h:s si.ln»oi have made such etfictive use to dis- 
^ f« iit the •ii»''| e. nairati\e. The facts relative tn lh:s myth are 
umii niah!«- . i! • rxMeme antujuity and wide prevalence are mi- 
ilern.ii»!i . ti.f only ipn st;in is as regards its real im{iort. ils 
.icf.:al hear; 11^;-. tiie circumstances tliat gave rise to it All th:^ 
wr hei:i \e to ha\e l»rt n suggested, if n^t fully demonstruted. m 
xi-nneition with (>ui ina.n problem. Sir G. \Vilkin!»on ha!i these 
prr'^'nant rettMrks 

• III' N'lritring- in! death ot O^iris were the great mystery 
• 1 the- \:, Nptaii re'.i.iNii . and s^me traces of it arc |)erccptible 
am-:'.;; "the: j.' .iple -•! asiti-juity. Mis bein;; the divine goodness 
.01' i til .,!tN!i.«Lt I'le.i «»t ;.;oik1. his manifestatinn uptm earth lik*- 
ill ln«:..i!i .; il . l;i> »:ratij and re>urrectu>n, and his nffire as jud::« 
. I til- I- .i-: :m .1 tut ::• 1 1!-. !ook like the *ii//) fi:r/«//;r/;j i^ .i 
•;*.';.rr- "./»/■' >';.';■; ' /'.. /'.;.'» converteti into a mvlhnl»t-i. .i! 

• .1 '. ' , ' li 

I. until • til- '^iJ^; s.m ^^od was in n-i sense { t-* 

•h' I Ji\\* i''. :» ■«:.;"'•> it was as familiar t<» the rhu*nicians. the 

"-^v: a:is. :;;r 1 iir> j^ an- if Asia Minor, the (haldcans. Assyria:. s, 

.1 ! ' *h- ; pui./i- n- ••! the Nile N'alley. It, then, it was not an'i\ I'*.', it. on •>! a luture manifestation of the Deity" nn 

• -•. K.iw ■ •-I* • l|i-ri-!ii!ii«. II. |>. .IV Nol^ S. 


earth. wcscL- no way to .iccount for and to inteq^rct it in harmony 
with the intei^rity of the- (iospcl narrative of the deatli and resur- 
rection nf Cl)ri.^t. Tlicrc wa^, then, a primitive revelation; and 
it was written in llie heavens in starry -hieroglyphs. It was by 
nu ans ol tlie symbolism attached to the sun. as a type of man, 
thus as both a 14 ^d and a man: the inventors of the sphere 
were .ible t<> transmit to after aj^cs the<ntal doctrines of 
the primeval nli^'ion It was by means of this s««ca!leil mj'tli 
of a dyin^ sun-;4od the nrij^inal priniu'*- tif a Redeemer 
was embl.i/'Mud on the face of the northern h.-Mvens. where we 
can see Hercules, the sun-f^od. who dies and is raided a'^ain. 
stamping with his h«<l «>:i the he.i«! ol' l)ra.:o, til rej)rcsentativc 
of the serpent of l\dtn. < >f c»»iii s,-. when the key li» this sym- 
boiisiu wa>» li'st. the i/vm/.^ up'-n whu li iL \v.i> ;.;roundi'd became 
themsrlvcs the cent«T"% »»f worship, ^ivm;.; riNi- to the Sabaenistic 
cultijs *iiul ihr Worship of ilu- elenienls. while .ill that remained 
were the detaclied threads t}\ the primev.i! tr.iili!ii'n'» 

It jN iinnecessaiv t" r::\tv int«.« tin- (i-t n!- •■! tlu* manner in 
whiv^h the .syiul)«»! siiveil the in\tnti»r^o! thr sphere 
■:i till t lulMuhnunl "f tli«»-i* w ]\\c\\ tin y dc-ii- 'i !• ■ transmit 
'- I ti.c- .iljei world. 11. cv u-ii;<ihiv< bt m i.;..i!ili- to .i^i oinnli^h 


t.ieir 'bri.t withoi/i It. !'i\- tin biith 'f th ■ .::i. iind-.'; th.- torni 
•: i:',!.i:n y, .it th'- 'j-'uli 1.: tii-- winl«:r Ni»isi!( c. the >■ W'-ie able 
:-■ ^v:j:boli.i- th*- bwti; of lii.- woi!'! .1:1! ot m in It was bv 
: c- i:t «>l th«. -UP. tin- ..-.■h 1 iln.i. in--' ti^- l<nvf r. \*'. ;i :n^ a -^er- 
1 :\\ .1- p -Mriat'-I! 'M |'»1 liii> . < !:.i il ■:;■/ ■:■■::. ' tiny will Ik* 
■ I • I I s\ nili'li.i tl.r l.i!! o! :.\iM .M! :::• . i.'>w« \\:, 1- f.imiliar 
• I :iie iiMdri. 

I ii- !." iti-:: .i! :';.■ ^ ..•//•.•■ v ■ ' «i si ■ . : :■ :'.::!v.-.: w/di the 

■/ ' ..• lif til- I I ill- i-.: . lii" .1." ' /■ ■■: :h'- i"- :-:.-.:i .tin- /'■." A' ''.■;»'. I /■ 

;.' A .; ■ .' ■ I i;.' A- i .itii.i:; ;:i i : ii^t »»i;-. ■ ; •■:: liji iw^'U l.ible- 

lad ■ «■! « ■ r:l: .! .\ .1 .i'«l tl: ?■ •! :ii- ■ nt.. i: ;..!.i! •;.»■. 2 . ! rainir, 

.\ .i ; ! .' I I< •!! ■ ■.:'i ■■ \\ ■'. ).'■ : ■ r.\ .'I'l ■:■ i'!!'.-: ■ V .IV ■ X \ :t .: :»•, -ome 

• ::: 1' !-:.:.. ■■! ■ :.,■; 1: \\ . - :ii : ;.. • .1. !< il i:i»'-..:*.t that 

■ ■ ■.= :•.■ tr.i i/i :• ■ ■■i-* . '..'.<'■ .• ■ n \::r.,i!. ■'.■.• to 

■ . : i:.i r.« -: \' w.i !•■. ■'-■..: 5 ■ ; - :•.»:'.:■. .!..t: tr u! ::iinar\" 

■■.::■; t;.: . 1:: -iri'i.' 'I:-.' ■ • \\i. .I'l!' !•• work 
: til'- ! I : * :...■ •• I : ■ ■ • • \ :■ ::iir.:i.\ ».■ ikjsi- 

'■••Ik 'i -.k^l . 

• • ■ ■ - * 1 


• I <. . .1. 

I! ■ :::"r :. • .- w :' ' t! ■ •■: :;' t: ..:-••*. iiMUcnccs 

• . .. i: tl; r<! lJi.::.!- : "I ! ■ .: i\\ :i ';.; . ' -.M r .^ t • c- nnect 

' ■ ;■• m- \ :'. •:.»':. I ■■■ ...'ii :■■ :t i :• .■' tlir / '.iiac. as 

::: ■\- I'i ;■ -n! « ri til!" I '■!(* ri.j'. lii.i -: '.i!'-. ri-. ■■ .il! the ^i^n^ 

. :ii- .1 i:. v. :r.*':'t ::.■.:'•■: ill- j ■:«-■.; re ■ ! ! : ; :ii . -^'-m n. which 

y :-!".'»we': 1: u -..; i r ir., a!:*. :.r!;i: !.:i :tv. r-rtors o! the 

; :i' : li.i i m.i'!-- n; ;• a! pi'V -:■■» ! ■! til - :i .:;>■ ^.r In embody- 

■ ■ th- L- -ij'.m.'.juv j:-. t::c ';•!:• i'-. tl: \ hi.: .. -..c..i!i«i thr birth 

■ : thj \\«r!i anl ot in.iii :M:tKi:lar!\- witli :!*.' ep- ch of the win- 

* « i 


ter solstice, selecting at the same time one certain lodiacal sign 
to represent this epoch— the sign Capricorn. Hence the widely 
prevalent notion in antiquity that the birth of the cosmoa and of 
man had taken place precisely at this solstitial period. It was 
here that took place tne conflict of the two cotmical principles. 
light and darkness, resulting in the organization of the world 
and in the establishment of the rule of law and order. It is 
true that at a later period the creation was associated oftentimes 
with one or the other of the equinoxes. Such, however, could 
not have been the primitive doctrine. Among the Chinese and 
Egyptians especially, whose civilizations wereexcecdingly ancient, 
the great commencement was marked by the triumph of light 
over darkness at the winter solstice. The analogies of ideas, the 
production of all things from the humid watery element, neces- 
sitated the assumption of this epoch of mid-winter as that of the 
creation. As Dr. Asmus has shown, the all proceeds out of 
oceans ; and even the fire is from the humid element^ Thus, as 
the watery and wintery signs are the same, the epoch of all birth 
is that of mill-winter, marked by the sign of Capricorn. 

Having connected the traditions relating to the birth of the 
€0S9Hos and of man with the sign of Capricorn, it is necessary 
next to connect them with one certain constellation as that in 
whicli the sign was found at the creation epoch. As the constel- 
lations never change their positions in the heavens, that in which 
Capricorn was primitively located would constitute the fixed 
point from which the precession had originally departed. This 
coHNtcllation was ascertained to have been no other than Gemini. 
the zodiacal Twins, There are many circumstances tending to 
the conclusion that Gemini must have marked the epoch of cre- 
ation and of the paradisiacal man. The two cosmiou ilrinciples. 
from whose union or conflict the cosmos had orii^inated. were 
most frequently conceived as iwims; and the fir^t human pair. 
like Zama and Zami of the Hindus, were likewise regarded as 
hvins. To confirm the first impression, it was found that Shu 
and Tcfunt among the Egyptians, whose coamical character was 
not to Ik* doubt^. had also been put to represent the zodiacal 
twins. This proves that the cosmical and zodiacal twins had 
been conceived as originally one and the same; and thus that 
Gemini represented the cosmical epoch. Then there was the 
birth of the Dioscuri, repres e n ting Gemini, from the egg of 
Leda. evidently to be identified with the mundane or Orphic egg* 
from which was bom the Greek Eros, the god of love. <rtherwtse 
conceived as bom from the height of C^aos and the humid. 
watery element. The Dioscuri are also re g arded as the chief 
Cabin, whose cosmical character was wdl known. 

Kut the most conclusive reason for assumingthts constellation 

•iDdIg RffUckM. I. yp. tSS-ISk 


as havin'j^' marked tlic creative epocli, is tlic fact that the orig- 

iiKiI liiern^'lypl] for Gemini involvctl unquestionably the double 

n''>lion n| the watery element .mdoflove; a combination of ideas 

wiiirh loiilcl find nn explanation other tli.m that of the birth of 

l.ros, tile Hindu Kama, .is t^od of love, from tlic orij^inal chaos. 

This |»roved .d)soliiti ly the reference of Gemini to the birth of 

tiie cosmns. Thtre are. aj^airi. evidences of a very direct char- 

.uter. df-rived fn>m the luneifnrni text, thai (lemini represented. 

undi r the title of " ^Mte <if the j;ods," the paradisiacal mountain, 

ami under the name - /v-A'^//' the paradisj.ieal man; for the Accadian 

Ian;^iMjxe l>eloni;inj^ t«) the If^ro-I-'iiuiish i:P>up. there is much 

reason fnr identif\ini» As Ktn with .\s-hnr i\ tiie Norse mvth- 

• • • • 

oh>;^y, both as desijjnations «»f the first 

C'on^iderint^ all the liata, the pro»f (r mini marked the 
birth «f the world and of man, se'ins to be perfectly eMnclusivc. 
'1 liij**. as lliv rreation of \\m' world ant! of man took plat:e at the 
winter M->l>tice. (jemini stood for the ereati«in at tli.** sol ^t see. The 
si'j.n r.ipricorn was then in (ieinini re;:ardrd a^* the tixeti pomt 
OP. tilt- /tKliacal dial [)i ale friim which the precession of the 
ei|mn«\''v had orij^irally ilej)arlt d. A-* the sam«- constellation 
now -tand-. for the summer snistiic. ti.e a;;;^MCL;ate amount of 
pr^ cessi-.n is half tlie /oiliatal ciic!'-. which <(n\<r:td into time 
etpials i2.;'N' ye.irs from the presi iit prriod. as the approximate 
d.iU- '■» whit Ii llir primitive trailiti«i;:s o! f»iir rai e jertamed. 

111.- l.ii t last stattd. the as*«iiinpl:-'n of Gvmini .is having 
in.trk'd the pi winter soUin i, tontntlN a.i !)jc subse- 
«ju- lit st.i^'i's «»t the invc.sli;^.itio:) 

i ill- UNult. a-* ^Tat'd at tin «l«i^!- nf ihr fourth i hajiter. is 
stiil !•■ be p '/ardi'tl. in s.ii:u- si i;si-, .i-> pri»v:s:M!:.i!. A!th«iu^,'h in 
• If ::ii .!v m.stli i^ tin evide:!ees .iddu ed w u'-i l»e re^^aniei! as 
*- flu lit. in .1 matter «»f sn* h .'real inii"»rtanir. aii-i i 'msitltrin'' 
tli' xtia"! 1 n.ii\" I l:.iia" ter m* \\v i l:-. -i-ri'n .irrivc-d at, no 
.iij:ii- I \\i»u!i !••■ \'. !!l:n.; li» .i-ami th: r- "»p. r^.^tliry c»f sut h a 
:h' .»: ■ ixc j»t iip.n lln ,.ii»'.inil- .i!r: •st . r" av. .ibswl-tr •!•. mon- 
s!: ■! ■ n 1 i;*. th-- r i:i\ • t'.'.;.i* < -n WMp'd ivv" 1. ivr '«■ r-u the 
li ;.: ". d.i\- i..»'! :; nut !•' r:. ••■: :!. ;.•«■■•'.■ rn-. ^u}»-»e«p.cnlly 
m.i'i'- .i!j«: ? r:.' d.''i!!ii::' :";':lt .i-'i \!:^ ■ '. i* ••■r- I !.r. -iv* con- 
str'- t -: 'ii ■ :ii:i; t.iMi- intp«! :■ t •: ;:: t: ♦■ - ;« ii:nt* ■ f the fifth 
ih.i:!-' : jiie ■ nt.ii.: ti'.e pn:r. !i\ ■ ;■■ '. ::- ■■• a!I tl:- "^i^r.N in 
til". I : it 'jn^ f ■ -:'ei t!\e!v t'»':i- \:-.\ «.'.la! •ii-. tlie in- 

ft V 

'■UT',- i: iT::r.i.''. ■ ...'l''.'^:» d i'.m-"!. .\:.'::.-r tin-* t.iMt . if'i«rile«l anv 
iM-i / n ••: ;;<•'<! s.j. h I;.i-i l> m .it > iit- time the actual 
A \\- -I :!.«■!. .1. n-. ti"- !• ::"!.r.. : ■ ■ '■!iT'rt:i th- p:e\ :<.ius con- 

Til \ :v ri'VMik.ii' ■ !:.i'i t. : •: -in! ■; \>\' l»an\i*c:us, ic- 
..-.f, • M.- ?li-" ! '■;•-!. I- f ■ (Ir.i ■.»!! • .i.!- i // • .'..« ar'.-i ^ r.-';;»Jt. ti>- 

\\\ • w \\\ \h" ' N tiiat :; • .•••«! a .u la rus and ihe 
.\ -.I -.:: m .n \^..\ were .ntir! at-. !\ a-- •. :.ilrii Hercules as 

/' »IiI \i \; (111:- iNtil ■".\ . 


I. . 

\iir-.-. • rs* -.. !■ •■. ! -.: Xh'- inif ;: ?.irit !' i t this 

.*!.■».•'.;. I .i! :• r-i .1 » w.i-n-! r. v !■ t ::. ■•• i >• « liiin « !• li \\ illi 

: 1 ■■. ;-r !i;i! lli.-.l ! •: lin; * i !i:.!: u- j ! ! !■■ 

1 : .' rn 

:m . : n 

ir .1 



: :■ i •: - : t.'v v. fii.wv 

. I 

! ' 

.■; ! ^\':irj 

: \ 

•1 .! 

• . .i 

I • 

1 I . •;.■ -• ■■!• ':: nils I jr^'t. !!.r tif. 

',..n !•:".• A.')! til- I ;jri :.' i.iii .i « -.■> li:!Iv 

• i I, :i-i:;.!:!'. . - u . !! .is tiv nlrii'.ty .iNu nf 

:■■•'. ■; M:^.:.- ■..::■!!:• \'iv ( li ri:l»iin n! 

r»\ I • I. J • ■. .nil! .1- .i:»;» .i\> I -r i! • !! .it ihr 

■ ■ 

i' I • r." li;:: "> i':i 'i ..r.ii !i s\ :nSi. is, .i-* »:;•.•!• ipfd 
'■■•1 .!'. !;i !i!''i . i ii'V r . .1": i lli" H- li:«A- .iiu! lliristi.iil 
.t. I ■• ::, :■: -rn: i ^-liI i-I lii- wuin.m, l'».'ft!u'i witli 

"III sf.inti ■.;mn .in- \4-:\ fiii::*.rrou^ .iiitl 
t' nij.irr. f'-r . \.i:r.;"!f. tli*" S- • i!ii, luii- 
:': ;r iMMtivt' iu'.hl ut .t triuwnl witli tlic 
: ■ •• I i- -I .ii-s .In " I'tri! ••! '.'rn*»»n. in \\!:u'!i lir .i!;!c> 
; I \I. :!'.;. .s .in! In* !.i.:f ;js i»-:li ri/miiil .i'* Ivi-cn o! 
•:". .i\ ::;•• « » iw.r i! -'-ns-. .in*! i:i t!ii srn-f .t!^'i nl r^'^in 
■ '. \\: '■" ' ■■'. ■: till- t.iiir .. . .il- ■ ..r.ipiiuMlIy ri*|»r« -rntt-ii 
:i {'.. M r::r . rii :*.;;::; n! • !V;' li'.r mo-t itnii- -it.ii'.l .in.ili'/v. 

tii.i: : «iin :■ •! muui tiv; i tcr ■ ! Ilrrii:!:"^ .i-^ 
..:i ".. ' .i:':-.;- .. v; ".int •! itll .mil i** ^ub-r i;'.:cntl\' i.ii-r«l 

■ ::i • ill: \\i^\i\ ! \i- ii:i; »*- Mo. JuMVi'vi-r. li.» i pit'ini;/'.' 

•. : ' - . ■! I I till t-i^v^JJ'T '-i '»"• ^ = '^Jj ch.iptrr. c 'nn- iim;; 
: .. - / ! :: A .:!'. !:-.: j»r«iTii-i ■! S'-rti (»f liu- wi-rihtn. u itii tlI'- 
^■.:■■' i .■ n in : is|,i ^-laliv \\ :lii tilt* crii stui I .:• n I- ' atcil 

1 m 

■ I : . ■. .\:\ ■ ■ t til" -;«!ii*:!;. .i-- tl'.*.' !c;ion !"riinrl\' trCLii- 

: :'V !". ■■ i; n ^n i !t< c!.r.\s I ht* it!ist;.il A'.;v'; fitnnd 

i*'-: tii: n- ; ini! -.ihtiNily t!;r J.-v to tin- tntif j-mMcm 

! I li • '.:■:] '. v. .\> \\r\\ I- III tlif NvrnbuiK il ripr- *cnta- 

•i . !!?• :.:: ' :n tin* s.hjk- rr^:»ii ol tl.f |)ri!:*.«v.i' i-vi'm!** nf 

I ::.- • \!;.i r.I:n.irv .i: ■! ki'.it'.:! iiMniuT in whirli the 

:': .r ^ 1. '..jv»il :<» In- !.K.i!i«! Willi the ll.iiniM;^ swnrd 

i:: i S : ji.' ». *i i i .* ( :i:;.»!i ■;. ■<! t« - h\ ll]f j>r iitii1i\ c pi»sition 

, : n v!. i' s :• t-.i! ^ .Mis. In set Sinth in the nflh Lh.ijilcr. 

• .I' ■: :i^ \i- :: !.i«.it i ;n :.^!ii cTtain it»n-t»!l.iti'in- .in»l 

:^: r. V.!:- !i in .-: i»'- i x.utly lirnm-'i. since .i iliMci- 

'■'■.■ : .Nii:«: ;: .iki- .k illfmn'. c ::i ii.t!cn<>t I's^ than 

'.•:.":» *. * t» ^••* t'ni:»! 'xctl roii!il nut ■ r«iipv 

• . n 

« • t 

■ ' 

•I ■ 


i.t-i* •Ti; fi ■• ln-» t.tik* ;■ II • ••tilif* tinn 

'. • 

^. ^ • 

• •. •, ••...•. .11 1 1..1I II n'. • « ■' .•! >• i'l :ritifrlli-«l 

* !■ ■■ k- ! •• • S. .!< .%«•■.• :4it 1 H : !, 1. itiii.i<«! ■!« il- n 

t!i- \f •^j.-- l;j.'r:i'.. \ • !:.'.«. Mt.-if the 

>:..i:> ■ ••in t t'"t* "•' f '■' • Itu'.i- It r ••f (t|i- 

'. • i 1 • 

'* * ii. .»• t< !»•■!. • M> I r« w •. w 4« (• tt ti I' ..lal. 1 rif< wnnilrr 

■ ■ •. . !■■ ■•. -' . ! i •• •. ii^ •,!• !i fe'r'fc:i,K i»li.»:>i«;l«-« « .'li If .Ml iif 

• - .!• 1 ■< ''1 " • I ■'.•' *!. Tr-jti rjif:->ii* \% •• ri (aril :! «• ri>it llif* Irmml 

•• %'.' ?•■ '* t -ri.! . . -1 ii ■: f-i- ■.ii\i^!:tf*t ...I.-. U.«i lli-r'-5;!r*Maturii 

■!.■•. :i. t.'. « t« !■ . . f. r Ji ■I'Afe.-.-ii. Mitit ri.:»I ■>:••'•-« ii'r«1. f-ir Itir I'm 

- I'' -.. •« '1 -tat 1 T.'i* 1«' 1 I *•'«• ll!> 1 IfAi •-• fill >1-< ill*. 1* II M««*|||« III 

• I-..' •!. I .: !»-T»-l« ■■< ■:ir.r;ii •.!•• I!i''.ri-w an'l •'«'•!". iU t"*-.!!'! iif llir 

. » J •> J- .• !;■ |-*-r-"l.lfcW' 


are taken fn^iii the innundH of Tenneiwce and of Ohio. How oomcp it thfti 
olij'TtH roponr.lilin}; Ihe^ie are fouiifj as far away as Mexico and CentrmI 
Aiiierini'.' We will not, however, ai«k any more qiiefltion^. The aathor 
Rayn: " We have dcvohMl mort* attention to the illuMtrationfl of Bpeciaieiia 
than to theorieH re^nlin^ them. It in not our intention to enter apoD an 
eztendel oourtiileration of the interci^tin;; ethnolo<;i(:al and archieological 
lirohleniM naturally puirfrestiHl. hut any antiiiuarian or ('oIlei*tor will be im- 
pretwed with the fact that it will Ik* iini>o}itiibli* to pither a collertion of 
antiquitien i»f Hurh u varied and ml van red ty|ie as have hei*n illmrtrated 
within the limitM of the Tnited Stati*M, outside of the territory of Che moond 
build in}; triliefl. They pre»><*nt unniintakahle evidence of a state of wKiety 
al)ove the Hoeial condition c»f the pnduNtorir triU^H of Canada and the north- 
ca.stern States. IjimiHtakahU* cvidentch are pnt^ented of interronrve or 
relationnhip with tht* ancient iH'opIc (»f the Houthwc»«t ami of the Pueblo 
dietrictH.'* " We can not In^lievi' that the^e higher tyiH?fi reprewnt nothing 
more than the ordinary culture of Indian trilN*H like the Shawnetw and 
CheroktH*)*, neither ilo we a^rn'e in the opinion with the authoni who intid 
that they wen* the worku of a Huperior rare of Tolte<*(«, A stem, or Mayaa." 
In other wordn. the author umlertakt^s to deinrrilM? the exact ittatus of the 
people, whotnitfht he r;ille<l thi; Mouml-huilderH of the middle diptrirt«,and 
in this he han HUcce«HltMl. 

PhynitHjimiy in Krprrnfum. Ry I'aolo M an tp*zza, Senator; lUreetor of th« 
MuMMiin of Anthro|M)lo;rv in Klon'mv, etc. I'artH I and 11. New York: 
The IIundNiMi Puhlii^hiii^' (*o. 

Thin in a very renuirkahli* work. It first descriUi* the writer* who hare 

written on the HuhjiM-t, anil rcviewH the vamiriit* apfiarent in their worka. 

It then pa*iHcH on to tin* ntu^ly itf the dilftTiMit partit of the human face, 

irivinKcharai'teri**tics of cxprt**«*iiin in cai-li. ThcnfulloM iMimeKoocl thouffhta 

on tht* di(l'cn*iit ractni und their nicthiMh nr liHltitH or expreiwion. The 

afcricultunil racc*'Hrf Ic-h i*xprrHr-ive than the war-like, sra-farinic or trail in|r 

nations. The ellii t «if pinntion nn the niunteiiuiu-e i-deMTiliefi. Id fart,a 

picture i>f huiiian nature u'*'n<-rHlly ii u'lvm.nnd the reailer i* ex|ieeted to 

iH'Cuiiie a irmiil jiiiij" iif human nature fnuo tlie ]HTn<«al of the lMH>k. The 

price m iiulv ili:rt v rent*.. 

ifmulf*it,i,- of .s.H-,4t',»tn. V.y Tn-f A. Si'li;iilli» Trau-Uttsl hy Itemard 
Jl'i-ariijUf! l>>r't.t.t'ir, 'lU'i /'i/..'*. • \K\ |».i\i! Kltrliie. M. A. t'-^tnin lh§ 

Orijtn ,,i .\!f,it„ titi'i / ii.'i.iM l.'iKf* 'in I '/. i'"i'i.' /.'- •••'•■I. Ily varion* authnni. 

Tlii-e liTtli- l..i.k- .|ti' N- IJ ;. l:"l .111.1 I'J'* ff the llumUklilt li- 
hniry Tin* yxu*' nf i-.i> li i- [ii;i-iii • • li'^ I Im-v ii\«'r:i;.'<* a)»«iu( fifty paf^m 
of ti:i«!y pr.nti'-l iii.irtiT, and are \\< ii M-r!li thi- nfii«y 

Tli^ l.*ff 'r* I 7'''f.>* "f J'f'Kruim t'.f'.r ]\y K:- -lau^jlitcr, Julia IVrkine 
rmiir. (Ml. l:>ilitrl Ci.rki- l*«'ii 

V!;>)ir.iiiii Cis'li-r «ii- the »>in of \l ■\ M iti.i--fh (*-it!er. who wafftoneof 

the f..u:i'!tT- of llif (*tiiiiitii>TiMr.i]:)i i-f nl.m uli'l the Nurthllbe*! Trrrilofy. 

The f'W II: IV )••• i"i!!i'>l ••III- ••!' \).f fiilii'li T' i*f the ('••IMUiMllWi^lth nf (Ihio 

and at Ii .1-* «i f till- kTi-.i* I><>r» I'f the St.ite He !!• not im> well 

kn<i«ii a- III- f.iihi-r. )<(ii M.t- .i \*r\ h-'W^nOA*' man. and hi* memoir it 

wi»rMiy of A j.'.i.f in tin- lii-T-.rx --f flu* <ir»M! W.-t Mr t*Urk«* hai* «lone 
^•rt'.iT -••r\!i *ii ' III' I -Hiiif rv I'l I'rinj.ri.* I'li* Tfn-^** •liili-ri nl \iilunmi alwiQt 
the i 'n'ii-t-. /• ,-'•• r;*iT« :iii>) ti.e i-i"nif-r» ■ f t if.;... a?i.i ^h•tllId lk«* |iatroniaed 
hy all tilt- i 'V'-r- nf k'>iM>l. uh<iie-i:ne hiiit*r.iphii'al literature. 



mcvxcan ..t^mtaitavtatt. 

V -I XII NoVIMIllK. lNy<> No. 6. 


H\ (> n. MiiifcK 

I h'- Kir^c anitiiint ot nutcTJal introduced into this treatise in 
tlu* |ir«v.f«lin^ chapters, in ^omc rases in a crowded state, has 
|n- i.!i:di il thr p'•s^:l)lllty. in many instances, of jjivin^ it a pro|K'r 
tr-.itnu nt . we h.uc ct>nttnte<! ourselves with indicating (;cner- 
A..y It** iiiMrin^jN ujH»n tiie particular topic in hand, without refcr- 
r. t » its import in other rtsinrcts Not infreiiuently. also, wc 
hiv. rrir.isni'c! troru statin;; thr- full. legitimate conclusion until 
.xV. \\:r p:i)o!> liad lircn liM>ui.:hl forward to confirm it. Morc- 
» \ f, tli" rhi* f points of the arj^iiment in sup|)ort of our 'general 
tl. .^ry Ii.ive lH*«-n Ml ncTc^-stty hut ;:raihially dcvcIoj>cd. ^o that 
.: l.,i' ''.en iin})osN:l)lc ti> bnn^; lliem together under one view. 
I.» r- inrtl;, s >nie defects o! tlii> natijri*. but more esiR-cially with 
\hr \i \\ t«» a i:i)nnccted statement of the results of these invcs- 
t:.' iVi'nN. and of their iKMrmL;^ upon other subjects relating to 
ititi'imty. wf ^ivt- the following smnmar)* of the argument. It 
IV. t\ !*i rr<^arded as an mtrtKliiction to the work. 

It I- jr4'p(»$ed t*> give here, for the convenience of readers as 

w 1 IS ..i:r own, a summary statement, chapter by chapter, of 

tii'*ihi t pMnts estahhshed throughout the work, introducing 

:. I; .i'! I.ti'>nal exf)lanations. from time to time, as seems to be i: i. In the o|>«nin^: chapter, the existence of the zodiac. 

:ti 1 int!.i!iy .IS transmitted to us. is traced l>ack to the prehis- 

t r: .1 ;»• ri"! m the v.illey of the Kuphrates. It was shown to 

". c\r!'ti. for mstan* e. pri'-r to the times <*i I.ik-Iiargos, or 

■ :kh. ihr carlu st known king of the C*halt leant, whose epoch 

. !»■ '-n v.iriously rstimatetl at from 2cxx) to 3<xx> years B. CV 

. i. • Art!< .• .• iiiir<Mli.4-t«>rjr U* m «<<rk i'filltl«**t |»r1mitlT«i iUvf^Ullnn. Ml rs|||bH4Hl 
■r.f Atl-ikf-ui ( linin>Mi«y *»( the \ii4-irnia. ThUU th** flr*t «-hA|*irrau<l run tain* • 
•..,-'*' •) i.A:>u* iif tti^ «tK>Ir Miirli.^KiiiTiiH. 


than these simple facts, that the original position of the winter 
solstice in Gemini was a reality, and that it marked the para- 
disiacal epoch? A fixed astronomical principle underlies these 
facts, and takes our problem at once out of the sphere ol mere 
prohaliiiities into tiie domain of scientific truth. We demonstrate 
here tliat the inventors of the celestial sphere actually intended 
to make these two paradises, the one centerinjj in Libra, the 
other in Lyra, correspond with the epoch when Gemini marked 
the winter solstice; or to the epoch tixed, we might say, by the 
chetubim located in Libra, as explained in the fifth chapter; for 
this arrangement, instead t»i Ciemini, seems to have Inren design-^d 
as the kev to the chronology of Eden In either case the result 
istiiesam^; there was an express, deliberate design in these 

But independent of all these combinations, are the evidences 
tending to show that the star Vega, in Lyra, actually marked 
the position ot the pole at the period to which the ir..ditions 
peitained relating to the creation of the world and the paradis- 
iacal man. First, in the order of these proofs, are the various 
le<:eiuisot the tortoise. IIow came the tortoise to be associated universally in anlii|iiity, though olten vaguely, with the 
roMiKis itnd with the cosmogony.' I low came it to be nss^iciated 
with the great Asiatic (Olympus, the traditionary Mount ol 
ParadiNf? Most reniaikabie ot all, how came this animal asso- 
cialrd with a rofiCftreJ I'hromtloiiy of the rrratizr efHH'h^ It is 
po*«invely certain that the torloiM* represented: ist, tlu- cosmos; 
2(1, tlie traditional cosmos; thr particular heaven and earth 
unUf.'d by the sacred mount, and imaged on the upper and 
lower shells; 3d, the chronology of the creative pericnl. These 
are 'liree facts jiertecilv certain. They present a combination 
ot ideas the most singular and rare. Hut one explanation is 
P'issible, and that establishes our entire theiiry of zinliacal 
1 fironologv. Tin* tortoJM' ctuild represent the chronology of 
tlu- creative epu*.h in no wav possible rxcej>t as the constella- 
ti- fi inarkin:^ tin* p<»Mlioii ol the pole ol that e|K>ch. The 
siiim:ii:l oi the s.u red mount pi-netr a'.rd the heaven at that 
pun!: .ind the tradttinnnl coNrno*^ was associated with that 
m«>iiii;. This is thr rxpl.inalion, thr only one conceivable; and 
it ^:«•n^'::s!^a!e•^ our theory. 

\Vf I on»e now lo thr Mus.i:." accoiir-i nl the tall ot man. and 
c»! x\\r t^roinix* o! a Keiii-fme: , .>s revresrnted in lh»* loniiella- 
ti'MH Mirroutuiit^g Lvra. The pr<»ol tuat the con>u-ruitions ot the 
L.tglr .iful Lyra rrpresrntfd the great Father .md M«ither is 
vi-ry (iiri'it .i!i«i clear. Mfrops was the king i**iued Irom Meru, 
transtornu'd into the eagli- <»! the spheic. L\ra, under the 
I'lrm 01 the vulture, represented the "mollier ol all living.** 
Connuier, then, that lh<* hi-ati ••! Draco, whose name A'a-/fasA 
in applied to the seri>ent of Kden, is situated only about six 
(ir::rres lr(»m Lyra, put lor the great mother. This immediate 

/.•»!'IAI'AI. t HKnN«»lM' .^ ;;js 

pii.\!!!n'.v 'i! il.r two .istrri.sms, in Kinmlion willi ihr olhcr 
liL't^ Niatctl, vti V toriil^Iy ?*u^^i*!»ts tht- ln>!<»ry ol the tcinptatinn 
.i':«: \\\r l.ill. 'Vhv )v»?«itit»n i»I Hrriuirs, m a km-clin^ pusilion. 
I. ' iiti'l liiii'Ctlv «»vfr aiui within l\\«> iii';ju"rs dl \\w lu-nd ol 
:;.^ ^c'i;ht.I, ami in the very ;u"l c»l st.impin;* upon .iml l>rii:>in|; 
:', : r.i!i/rs .iml httT-ili/is the aiCdiint dl ihr pminisi' in.ulr tii 
< .iT U\it\ p.iifnt.H in a inn*i* (XtraotiiinaiN niar.i'.rr. '^Khr a!hi>inn 
1.1 n* t>> the pat.i(iisiMral cp(»rh \% si\u\Av srll- evident. Mut in 
•All! \\a\ line- It ll\ the ihronuln^v o\ ep<»ch: As \vr 
*.. I', :;;err i> liere iinterin;; in L\fa a lele^tial jMradise, leali/- 
:::;:•!;«• trailition wliiih Itnated a ee]e.stial Mclen at the north 
i^'.c, ino;.:eIeil alter tiie terre>trial Kiicn in all iti prim ipal 
!»■ lUirfs. At the same lime, ami aii-nniini^ to traciition, the 
^innin:t itt the p.iraiiisiai'al mtiunlain proentec! the heaven pre- 
V .^ei\ in the I f;^i'in ot the erles!!al parn(ii>e, and at the same 
!:rne in the re^iun ot thr north eele.stial pole. Thus at the 
cp'uh 1)1 llie paiadi> man the sacred summit pierced the 
hr.ivenH in lh»* region •>! the t^ole, winch wa» at ihr same lime 
liie ie;;i«.n ni the cele>liai Mden. Nt>w, there exists no! the 
^Iii^litesi trace ot anv oilier cele^!ial Kden in the northern 
hiMvrns iMii thi«4 f»ne i entering in L\ra. Hence Lvra marked 
the pijsitiin i>t the p<'ic at the j>aratii*»iac.ii epoch. We lultill 
iiere .i!i the i ••niiiiiuri« mpiireii h\ the traditions, and sh(*\v that 
M!r\ wtre :»ii!iiied iipi»n lads. The sai ret! mount pmelraled 
the iuMvcn a: Lvra; Ifiis antrrism was the p«»le f)! that epoch 
.iTu: rill- i« titer n! the conceived celestial paratiise. We have 
i:eii- a sr-Mi's (»! coincidences and ol* symh'>hcal rcpre>en?.«tions 
t»: .1 » iiirai !« r the most rare and extraordmary. The prtiol of 
tl.i- * »T:ectne<«« o! our thecifv resjH'Clinjj the primitive |>oie 
ctnsM iMii wtii he mure satista^ tory an<i conclusive. Aiid to its 
f'Hii. then, that iierive<l from the variou** le^rnds of the tortoise 
II v\f woulti re.iiixe tlie strength ol' thr position laici down. 

T:.e <fjeek Ie;^en(i, relatm^; to the "garden of the UrsjHfri- 
(ir^/* .i:}iir<is mu4 h additional evidence to the correctness ot our 
ti.-- ly i'\ till- primitive pole-star. It is only another form ol tlie 
Hfivrw traiiition repreftentinj; the garden of Eden. It »s rc- 
fiMik.ihle that former critic*, who have hvatrd this le:,»rnd at 
t:.e I rle-*:al poU-, have uniformly referred to the identical con- 
*N- it ;»•!!> winch we have interpreted of the Hebrew • radii ic^n; 
\. t ii>:.r have suspected, so far as we are aware, that L\ra was 
:) r ;«-.!e to which the lej;end referred. That prec:.selv these 
.i-"i r>nis Hhc)uld l>e m.ide U> emlwKlv two distinct traciiiMins re- 
l.i ..' j^ to the same subject, \et so verv diflerent in their char- 
.ii t' ! , I'* a verv notahli* i ircum stance. Thev confirm each other, 
■'^-t'h as rr^ards U»cation and the significance attached to them. 
'!':.« A mutuailv tend to confirm the l«H"atton of the KdiCn of ihc 
{■«•.(• :ri the region surrounilin^ Lvra, Lfoinj^ to prove that such 
v. I* the fvile, thcrelore, of the paradisia<'al era. 

Ti'ie three srrpenti, Draco in the north. Hydra near Cancer and 


Serpens near Libra, each associated with a form ot Hercule.^ 
afibrd another confirmation of our theory. Their connection 
wiili tiie i^erpent of Eden, in such instance, and with the prom- 
ised Seed iA the woman, is perfectly apparent. The exact 
manner in which an astronomical relation is established between 
them, and all are connected with Lyra, as the pole of the epoch 
of Eden, is fully set forth in our sixth chapter. All this is ac- 
complished by means of the cherubim, with whose asterism, 
Taurus in Libra, Aquaris in Cancer, Serpens and Hydra are 
placed in direct relation. They are made thus, together with 
the legends attachea to them, to refer to the period fixed by the 
cherubim, and thence to the pole of that period, near which is 

We recall here the proposition laid down in our fifth chapter; 
namely, that the dyin^ sun-god of antiquity, more especially 
the Asiatic Hercules, actually represented to the first ages, as 
prophetic type, the promised Seed of the woman, ifie expected 
Redeemer of the world. Not only the resemblance of Her- 
cules' character, as traced in the fifth chapter, to the Hebrew 
and Christian conception o! the promised Seed, i^oes to bub- 
ftantiate this hypothesis: but the established connection ot 
Hercules with the cherubim and willi the serpent of Kden, witli 
the paradise, in f.ict, centering; both in Libra and in 
Lvra. Add to lliese proofs, the representation of Hercules 
with his lu-el bruisini; the .-Herpenl's head, as pointed out in the 
sixtli chapter; and not les^ his connection with the dragon in 
tht* legend ot the Hesperides. Fmally, add to all these proofs 
the legends associated with the three ser|H'nts, each definitely 
connected with a form of lleriulc^; the reference of the>e ser- 
pents and legends to the fall ot man .md the promised Seed 
beinj; perfecilv transparent. In view i»t all these prouN we 
claim to have esiat)lishcd hevond reasonable doubt the proposi- 
tion be tore stated. To the lirst a^es, and especially Xo the 
Cientili* world, the dyin;; sun-;»od, p.iriicularly the Asiatic Her- 
culrs, Was ilir prtjpljfiic ivpe and re[uesentatton ol the promised 
Seed, the rxpecletl Retleemer »»l niankirid. The im|H)rtance 
u! this l.Kt, in its hearings upon the theories ot Dupries, Nork 
and others, representing the dvin;; sun-;^«)d, will be recognized 
at once. It completely refutes tho^^e thrt»ries. Moreover it 
l^oes tar tr) establish the fact ot a piimilive revelation actually 
written in the lieavens, The vaiious aiul ilirect analoj*ies ex- 
isting between the prophetic iharacter and that set forth in the 
(ro.spel liistorv of Jesus Christ, exhibit a most extraordinary 
fact, tending' :o confirm that liistury. The entire subject, indeed, 
is C'liculated to exci'e our wonder and our most profound re- 

\Vi* have now p.isscil throu;jii the liiffcrent ihapters, tracing 
the various s!.i;;es ot the devrlopnieiit of t.ur theory, and that 
nearly in tiie order in which it wa^ o(i;^:naily wrought JUt 


But some important points csiabllthvd during the progress of 
the investigstion have been wholly passed over in lliis review. 
In the filth chapter, especially, the views put forth respecting 
the tree of Hit and the connection of the sonpion with the cber* 
ubim, we believe to be correct, and not without inportance. Yet 
they are not vital to our theory, nor to the argument in its 
support. They serve, however, to exphm and confirm many 
other points. It is proper to call attention to the fact that the 
fourth, fifth and stxtn chapters are in one aense separate from 
each other, cootabing each an independent argimient in support 
of the i^eneral hypothesis. The fourth chapter, on the pnmi* 
tive position of the constellation Gemwi as marking the winter 
solstice* stands in one sense by itself. Prove that this consid* 
lation did mark the winter solstice at the paradisiacal period, and 
our theory is that instant established. So with respect to the 
fifth ; show that the cherubic figures did fix the original poai* 
tions of the eqtiinoctial signs, and the same conclusion residts. 
Finally, as regards the sixth chapter, if the star Vega in Lyra 
was the pole at the traditional epoch of the creation, the same 
result follows as before. These three chapters, then, are com- 
plementary, proving each other. Admit tne correctness of the 
theor}' of one, that of the othera haa also to be admitted. 

There are certain points in the general argument which we 
believe might be very much strengthened, had we access to 
the proper sources of bformation. Thtis with rej^ard to 
Gemini : the Egyptians had another mode of representmg the 
asterism, which was by the figure of two plants, or sprigs of 
plants, having the phonetic power of Aem* We strongly suspjsd 
that the reference was to an elementary divinity r epre s enting 
the original waterv chaos; but we have not the means of prov- 
in^ it. This would go to establish the cosmical character of 
Gemini, which is, in fact, suflkiently apparent. Again: on the 
Hindu zodiac and many othera Gemim is represented by a man 
and woman holding each other by|the hands or a. ma. We be- 
lieve the reference was not only to the two cosmical principles, 
male and female, regarded as twins, but also to the first human 

Eair, conceived as twins, like Zama and 2bmi of the Hindua, 
iut this we are not able to fully substantiate exactly in so many 
words. Doubtless there exisu an abundance of material known 
to schohrs, of which we ourselves are ignorant, that would go 
to confirm these and other points. But we believe that the re- 
.Hults, as already worked out, will prove satislactory to those 
best qualified to judge in such mattera. 

In another work treating upon **The Andent Co sm ogonies,** 
which, if the circtimstances are favorable, we shall hope to 

Eublish at no very distant day, we have shown that the Baby-