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INDKX TO VOLUMK XXIII, 



JANUARY -JUNE, 1888. 



Abadiano Collection. The, 152 
Aboukir. Reclaiming Lake, 230 
Accidents. Building, 63 

" Exhibition for the Preven- 
tion of, 284 
ACCIDENTS : 

at a N. Y. Apartment-house Fire, 158 
from Electric Wires, 289, 301 
Fall of a floor at Bellefoute, Pa., 229 
" ' at Columbus, O., 229 
" " in Course of Demoli- 
tion, 253 

Midland Hotel, Kansas City, 136, 145 
Advertising. Returns from, 121, 143, 

156 

Afghanistan Wind-mills, 48 
African Pile-dwellings, 288 
Air of Theatres. The, 204 
Albany Assembly-Chamber Vault. The, 

71, 74, 191, 270 
Alcoholic Stimulants, 266 
Alexander. The Sarcophagus of, 132 
Alley-ways in Baltimore, 135 
Aluminium, 299 

" Amateurs' Guide to Architecture," 117 
American Architect. Returns from Ad- 
vertising in the, 121, 143, 156 
" Architecture Winning Atten- 
tion Abroad, 122 

A. I. A. and the Grant Monument Com- 
petition. The N. V. 
Chapter, 142 

" " N. Y. Criminal Courts 

Competition, 96, 168, 
203 
" Meeting of Chicago Chapter, 

168 
" Proceedings of the New York 

Chapter, 46, 95, 142, 203 
American Methods. French and, 62 
" Monuments. Some, 199, 219, 

269, 279 

" Public Health Associations 

Prize Essays. The, 181, 215 

" vs. French Architectural 

Training, 238 
Ammonia on Animal Life. Effect of, 

288 

Amoy, China, 164 
Analysis of Water. Sanitary, 226 
Ancient and Modern Light-Houses, 87, 

173, 11)5, 220 

Andrtf. The Captors of Major, 262 
ANECDOTES : 

Boycott. Horrors of the Irish, 247 
Church. Building the Wrong, 146 
Girl of Grit. A, 179 
Walnut Log. A Valuable, 150 
Watchman frozen in Bitumen. A, 180 
Antiquities. Aztec, 152 

Demand for, 290 

" Italian Export Duty on, 61 

Apartment-house. Burning of an, 158 
Apprentice cannot join a Union. An, 12 
Arbitration. Disadvantages of, 194 
Arcade Railway. The New York, 229 
Archaeological Notes, 69 

A RC II .ECOLOGICAL : 

Arizona. Hurled Cities in, 1 
Aztec Antiquities. 127, 152 

" Calendar and Sacrificial Stones. 

The, 127 

Babylonia. Excavation at, 98, 132, 230 
Babylonian Records, Discovery of, 

98,230 
Bath Discovered. Ancient, 312 



ARC H. to LOGICAL : 
Bells. Old, 164 

Bureau of Ethnology. Fourth An- 
nual Report of the, 18, 43 
Campagna. Drainage of the, 156 
Cerigo. Schliemann'8 Explorations in 

132 

Fayum. Mr. Petrie's Finds in the, 309 
(iallo-Roman Architecture, 175, 189, 

M 

Habitations at Paris in 1889. Pro- 
posed Exhibition of Human, 134 
Mithras at Rome. Discovery of a 

Chapel dedicated to, 69 
Mound Builders. Dr. Davis and the, 

264 

Paphos. Explorations at, ISO 
Pompeii, 289 

Pottery. Ancient American, 43 
Roman Sanatorium. A, 71 

" Statues. Discovery of, 288 
" Wall of London. The. 281 
Romanesque Architecture, 307 
Sarcophagus of Alexander. The, 132 
Sidon. Discoveries at, 86 
Statue of Buddha at Nara, Japan, 47 
Submerged Chinese City. A, 72 
Subterranean Chapel. A, 192 
Susa. Discoveries at, 290 
Tomb of Daniel. The, 60 
Tunnels. Some Ancient, 290 
Yucatan. Discoveries in, 239 
Architect. The Office of Supervising, 

98, 99, 148 
" Owner and Builder Before 

the Law, 267 
ARCHITECTS: 
Commission. The Uniform Rate of 

an, 13 

and Building Committees, 35 
Compulsory Examination of English, 

10, 26, 110, 139, 186, 218, 296 
Guarantee the Cost of Buildings'.' 

Should, 312 

Law in Relation to, 114 
and Material-men, 299 
in Rome. Registration of. 62 
Mutual Defense Society. The French , 

194 

AECHITECTUBAL : 
Autobiographies, 134 
Books, 179 
Journals, 11. 133 
League. Annual Meeting of the, 35 

Exhibition. The, 17, 29 
" and the Competition for the 

Grant Monument, 142 
" and the Competition for the 
New York Criminal 
Court*. The, 83 
" Reunion of the, 227 
Training. American s. French, 238 
" L' Architecture," 131 

ARCHITECTURE : 

at the Royal Academy, 268 

" Salon, 2117 
Gallic, 175, 189, 282 
in Baltimore, 82 
" Philadelphia, 75 
Lacks. What our, 304 
Proportion in Styles of, 153 
"A Short History of" 117 
" The Amateur's Guide to," 117 
William Morris on Modern, 251 
Winning Attention Abroad. Ameri- 
can, 122 



Arizona. Burled Cities in, 1 
Army a Blessing. Our Small, 179 
Army-Engineer and our Public Build- 
Ings. The, 292 
Arsenic In Clay, 215 
Art Commission. A National, 37, 109 
" and Congressional Legislation, 128 
" of House-Building. 176,189,201 
" Institute. The Chicago, 30 
" Japanese, 190 

" Museum, Boston. Addition to, 33 
" Side of Architecture. The, 26 
Artesian Wells in Paris, 180 
Artistic Metal Work, 241 
"Artists," 242 

" Legends of, 227 
Artists' Colors, 12 

" Pot-Boilers, 144 
Asphaleia Company. The, 97, 110 
Association of Austrian Engineers and 

Architects. Proposed, 242 
Athletic-Club Building, Boston. 137 
Austrian Engineers and Architects. 
Imposed Association of, 
242 

" Heating-Apparatus. An, 122 
Autobiographies. Architectural, 134 
Automatic Fire-Escape. An, 203, 254 

" Glass-blowing, 254 
Autumn Journeys in Mexico, 305 
Aztec Antiquities, 127, 152 

" Calendar and Sacrificial Stones. 
The, 127 



Babylon. The Business Records of, 98 
Babylonia. American Expedition to, 

132 

Bacteria In the Human Body, 254 
Baku. The Waste of Oil at, 239 
Ballooning with Compressed Hydrogen, 

242 

Baltimore. Dwelling-houses in, 83 
" Heater. The, 157 

" Letters from, 27, 82, 136 

Band-saw for Large Logs, 71 
Bastile. The, 58 

Bath. Discovery of an Ancient, 312 
" One Danger of the, 277 
" The Turkish. 273 
Bath-rooms. Hungarian. 97 
Baths. Gallo-Roman, 176, 190 
Bavarian Wrought-lron Work, 241 
Bay-windows. Copper, 80 
Bearing-capacity of New York Subsoil. 

The, 47 

" power of Piles. The, 24 
Beer in Mortar. The Use of, 110 
Bells. Old, 164 
Berlin Exhibition for the Prevention of 

Accidents, 284 

Storage Warehouse. Fire in a, 13 
" Woodworking Establishments, 

86 

Bidders. A New way to swindle, 74 
Birmingham, Eug. Burning of a Stor- 
age Warehouse at, 146 
Bitumen. Almost Frozen in, 180 
Black-walnut Stain. A , 302 

" Timber In Ohio, 38 

Blow-pipe Flame. A New, 181 
1 in.-kHifs New Picture, 286 
Boilers for House-heating. Green- 
house, 157 
Books. Architectural, 179 

" on Construction and Decora- 
tion, 11 



Books that Architects might write, 

134 

BOSTOK : 

Art Museum. Addition to the, 34 
Athletic-Club Building. New, 137 
Court-House. The New, 33, 80 
Electtic Light-Station Fire. An, 266 
Hotel Boylstou. The, 80 
Illustrations of Public Buildings, 238 
Letters from, 33, 79, 137, 188 
New Buildings in, 183 
Public Library Drawings. Exhibi- 
tion of the New, 132 
State-House. The Dome of the, 71 
Statues by Mr. Donaguoe, 34 
Water-colors by J. L. Smith at the 

Art Museum, 70 

Bottle-making by Machinery, 254 
Boycott. Horrors of the Irish, 247 
Boycotting in Cincinnati, 294 
Boyle's " Stone Age " Group, 78 
Breath. The Active Poison in Human. 

192 

Brasses. Exhibition of Rubbings of, 58 
Brescia. The Siege of, 271 
Brick-burning with Oil. 300 
Brick-fronts. Restoring Faded, 144 
Bricklaying in Frosty Weather, 66, 110, 

253 

Bricks of Altiniim. The Unbaked, 98 
Bridge. Failure of a Paris, 146 
" Firth of Forth. 167 
" Novel Way of Moving a, 186 
" over the Hudson River at New 

York. Proposed, 50 
" Spans, 72, 156. 167 
TbMgp* of Large Span. Brick and 

Stone, 72, 156 

Brighton. The " Chain Pier," 239 
British Interest in our Strikes, 275 
Bronze. Casting in Steel and, 252 

" in Japan. Monumental Use 

of, 178 

" Metals, 290 

" of the Vendome Column. 120 
Bruno's Work. The Late Professor, 239 
Buddha at Nam, Japan. Statue of, 47 
Buenos Ayres. Competition for a Par- 
liament-House, 168 
" " Harbor Improvements, 

179 

Buhot's Etchings. Felix, 91 
Builder Before th Law. Architect. 

Owner and, 267 
Builders' Rules for Estimates. National 

Association of, 143, 193 
BUILDING: 
Accidents, 63 
Art of House, 175, 189, 201 
Contracts. Forms of, 193 
In Chicago, 147 
" Cincinnati, 232 
Journals. Increase in, 133 
Laws in Chicago, 138 
Movers, 215 
News. Reporting, 300 
Plan Associations, 138 
Practice. United States Government, 

5, 165, 210, 260 
Safe, 7, 81, 104, 159, 207, 255 
Speculations in Rome, 223, 266, 302 
Bureau of Ethnology. Fourth Annual 

Report of the, 18, 43. 66 
" " Fine Art for the United 
States. The proposed, 37, 
109 



IV 



TJie American Architect and Building News'. Index. 



[VOL. XXIII. 




Cabl across the Lnan River, China, 35 
Cain's " Lioness and Cuba,*' 75 
Calendar and Sacrificial Stones. The 

Aztec, 127 

Campagna. The Drainage of the, 156 
Canada. Letter from, 21 
Canadian Forms of Building Contracts, 

193 

" Parcels-Post. The, 12 
Canal. The Corinth, 298 
Old Mexican, 43 
" Panama, 74, 158, 252 
"Canals" of the Planet Mars. The, 251 
Canopy for Ureenough's " Washing 

ton," 28M 

Capitol Kotunda. Decorations of the, 62 

" to Troy. Moving the Albany, 72 

Capitols. Defects In Stato, 71, 71, l!ll, 

270 

Captors of Andre. Memorial to the, 202 
"Carbonnatronofeu," The, 122 
Carolina Clay-Eaters, 214 
Carpenter-work, 260 
Cartridge. The Water, 31 
Casting in Steel and Bronze, 252 

" the Veudome Column, 120 
Castings. Loss from Defective, 157 
Cathedral lit by Electricity. A, 215 
" Liverpool, 295 

New York Kpiscopal, 77, 119, 

206 

Cavour Monument, Turin. The, 124 
Ceiling. To replace an Old, 203 
CEMENT: 
Concrete, 277 

for the Congressional Library Founda- 
tions. Rejection of, 49, S3 
Iron Slag, 182, 242 
on Lead. The Action of, 97 
Substitute for Hydraulic, 120 
Tariff and the Price of, 134 
Century of British Art. A, 57, 78 
Cerigo. Schliemann's Explorations In, 

132 

Cesspools for Houses, 202 
Ceylon. The Sigiri Rock at, 204 
"Chain Pier," Brighton. The, 239 
Chairs. Sale of Historical, 253 
Chamber of Commerce, Cincinnati, 232 
Chapel. A Subterranean, 192 
Charnay-Lorillard Collection. The, 152 
Chelsea ware. A bit of, 72 
Chemists. The Kisks of, 192 
CHICAGO : 

Art Institute. The, 30, 136, 142, 292 
bridge. Moving a, 186 
Building foundations, 147 
Club-houses, 142 
Houses, 140, 232 

Letters from, 30, 76, 135, 186, 232, 292 
McVicker's Theatre. Decorations of, 

47, 70, 118 

Ottlce-bttildlngs in, 88 
Strikes in, 186 

Chimneys. The Uses of Tall, 38 
China. The Popu atlon of, 24 
Chinese Cities, 104 

" City. Reappearance of a Sub- 
merged, 72 

Printing-house. An Old, 252 
Cholera from Impure Water, 201 
" Christian Art in Ireland." " Early," 

237 
Church Architecture, 304 

" A Draughty, 155 
Churches. Iron, 47, 60, 71 

Paris, 31, 221 
Cincinnati. Architecture, 303 

Convention of Master- 

Bullders, 37, 76, 143 
Letters from, 31, 76, 138, 

232,294 

Cistern Water. Lower Organisms in, 48 
City Architect of London. The, 11 
City-Hall. Proposed open Square about 

the Philadelphia, 138 
Clay-eaters. Carolina, 214 
Cleaning Metal and Stone-work, 240 
Clergy's Oversight of the Poor. The 

English, 169 

Club-houses in Chicago, 142 
Club in N. Y. Proposed Women's Co- 
operative, 229 

Cochin-China. Pall of a Meteor In, 182 
Coc.hrane, Archt. Death of John C., 13 
Coffee. Consumption of Tea and 266 
Color. The Decorative Use of, 243 

of Furniture, 245 
Colors. Artists', 12 
Column likely to Escape Dry.rot. A, 

Combination of Iron-makers. The, 85 
Combustibility of Iron, 96 
Combustion. Spontaneous, 177, 238, 

248, 264 
Commercial Schools Abroad, 14 

Spirit in Architecture. 76 
Commission. A National Art, 37, 109 
A Question of, 134 
on a Party-wall. The, 95 
Suit for an Architect's, 

217, 265, 289 

Uniform rate of an Archi- 
tect's, 13 
Commissions. The Question of Higher, 

78 
Compensation. The Uniform rate of 

an Architect's, 13 
COMPETITION : 
for Clock Tower. Architectural 

League's, 35, % 
the Grant Monument, 142 



COMI'KTITION : 

for the Indiana Soldiers' and Sail- 
" ors' Monument, 50, 191 
" the N. Y. Criminal Courts. The 

S3, 95, 108, 2113, 205 
" the Parliament-House, Buenos 

Ayre, 158 
" the Richmond, Va. Masonic 

Temple, 217 

" in New York. School-house, 50 
" Tennessee. A Church, 85 
Competitions. Limit of Cost In, 131 
Compulsory Examination of English 
Architects. The, 10,25,110, 139, 186, 
218, 295 

Comstock Mines. The, 132 
Concrete. Cement, 277 
" Concrete." " Notes on" 130 
Coney Island Hotel. Moving a, 169, 294 
Congress and our Public Buildings, 80, 

98, 99, 148, 301 

Congressional Library. Report on the 

Construc- 

tion of the, 

49,83 

" " Our Senators 

and the, 118 
" . " The Size of 

the, 286 

" " Threatened 

Stoppage of 
Work on the, 
301 

Connogocheague, 187 
Constitutional Monument at Philadel- 
phia. Proposed, 217 
Consulting-Architect. Who pays the? 

179 

Contract Labor. Importation of, 2, 205 
Contractors. Responsibility of, 206 
Contracts. Forms of Building, 193 
Convention of M aster-Builders. The, 

37, 76, 143 
Cooperative Club for Women in N. Y. 

Proposed, 229 
Copper Bay-windows, 80 

The Rise in the Price of, 61 
Copying Objects of Art, 25 
Corinth Canal. The, 298 
Corrections, 118, 264, 275 
Corrosion of Iron. Protection against, 

61 

Cost in Competitions. The Limit of, 131 
" of a Snial I Dwelling-house in Paris. 

The, 215 

" " Buildings. Estimating the, 214 
Cottage. A Model poor Man's, 206 
Counterfeit Antique Furniture, 218 
Court-house. The new Boston, 33, 80 
Crematory at Paris. The new, 41 
Criminal Courts Competition. The N. 

Y., 83, 95, 168, 203, 205 
'Cubing Out," 214 

Currents. Nature of Electric, 289, 301 
Curtailing too Lofty Buildings, 251 
Cushing's Discoveries in Arizona. Mr., 1 
" Cyclopaedia." " Alden's Manifold," 
118 



Daly and Labrouste. M. Cesar, 182 

Dam on the Panama Canal, 252 

Dangerous Wall-papers, 249 

Daniel. The Tomb of, 60 

Darley, Artist. Death of F. O. C., 177 

David d'Augers's Statue of Jefferson 
219 

Davis, Archaeologist. Death of Dr. C. 
H. 254 

Deafening a Dance-hall Floor, 47 
" Floors, 47, 146, 155 

Death's-Head in Central American Art, 
36 

Decoration for the Hotel de Ville, Paris. 
Interior, 62 

Decorations of the Capitol Rotunda, 62 
" McVicker's Theatre, 
Chicago. The, 47, 70, 118 

Decorative Use of Color. The, 243 

Defense Society. The French 
Architect's Mutual," 194 

Delorme. Philibert, 94 

Demolition. Accident during, 253 

Department of Public Works in the 
United States. A, 247 

Deterioration of Marble Roofs, 1 

Detroit Architectural Sketch-Club, 250 
" River-Tunnel. The, 283 

" Diamond cut Diamond," 300 

"Diettonnaire de I' Amf.ublement el de 
la fJtcoration." Havard's, 68 

Dieulafoy. Finds of M. and Mine., 290 

Disappearance in America of an His- 
torical Painting by Etex, 60 

Discoveries in the Fayum 309 

" at Rome. Recent, 69 
" Sidon, 86 
" Susa, 290 

Discovery of Roman Statues, 288 

Dismissal of an Architect. Unjustifi- 
able, 227 

Domes, SO 

Douaghoe's Statues. Mr., 34 

Door in Wind To cure a, 275, 300 

Door-knobs, 289, 290 

Downing, the Landscape-Gardener, 3 

Drainage of the Campagna. The, 156 

Draughts in Churches, 155 

Draughtsmen's independent Work, 277 

Dry-rot, 64, 118, 185 

" l>u Cerceau." *' Zcs," 45 

Duty on Antiquities. Italian Export, 61 
" Works of Art. The 61, 128 

Dwelling-house in Paris. The Cost of 
a small, 215 

Dwelling-houses. The Question of 
Raising the Commission on, 76 

Dwellings for the Poor. Improved, 206 



Early Settler Memorials, 262 
Edinburgh Theatres. The Air of, 204 
Education in France. Technical, 223 
Efluonne, the Universal Solvent, 192 
Egg-hatching in Egypt, 264 
Eggs. The Manufacturing Uses of, 233 
Eiffel Tower. Elevator for the, 12 
ELKUTRIC : 

Club in New York. The, 122 
Light. The Inventor of the, 240 
Light station. Fire in an, 266 
Lighting. Fire Risks of, 287 
Railroads, 233 

Shocks. A Protector from, 231 
Wires. Dangers of, 289, 301 
Electricity. Cathedral Lighting by, 215 

" and Sewage, 93 

" Elementary Graphic Statics," 35 

" Schools. The Planning 

of, 14 

Elevator for the Eilt'el Tower. The, 12 
Elevators in London Hotels. Hydrau- 
lic, 107 
Engineer and onr Public Buildings. 

The Army, 292 
ENGINEERING : 

Bridge. Novel Way of Moving a, 186 
" Firth of Forth, 167 
" over the Hudson River at 
New York. Proposed, 50 
Bridges of Large Span. Brick and 

Stone, 72, 156 
Cable Across the Lnan River, China, 

35 

Canal. The Corinth, 298 
" Canals " of the Planet Mars. 251 
Dam on the Panama Canal. 252 
Drainage of the Campagna. The, 156 
Harbor Improvements. Buenos 

Ayres, 179 

Lock-gates for the Panama Canal, 158 
Moving a Coney Island Hotel, 169, 294 
Niagara. Using the Water-power of, 

134 

Panama Canal. The, 74, 158, 212, 252 
Quicksand. Conquering a, 132, 168 
Quicksands. Bridging, 168 
liaising of the Great Yarmouth Town- 
hall. The, 166 

Reclaiming Lake Abonkir, 230 
" the Zuyder Zee, 145 
River and Harbor Works in the U. S., 

247 

Ship-railway. A Venetian, 271 
Tunnel. The Detroit Kiver, 283 

" The Toquixquiac, 276 
Tunnels. Some Ancient, 290 
Vinci's Invention of Lock-gates. Da, 

158 

Water-supply for Paris. New, 179 
Engineer's Club of Philadelphia, 203 

" Society of Western Pa., 203 
English Clergy and the Poor. The, 169 

Workman. A Sagacious, 288 
Englishman on American Architecture. 

An. 235 
Episcopal Cathedral. The New York, 

77, 119, 206 

Essays on Public Health. Prize, 181 
Estimates, 214 

" Adopted by the National As- 
sociation of Builders. 
Rules and Conditions for, 
143, 193 

Etex's lost Historical Picture, 60 
Ethnology. Fourth Annual Report of 

the Bureau of, 18, 43, 66 
Examination of English Architects. 

The, 10, 25, 110, 139, 186, 218, 295 
EXHIBITION : 
of Architectural Drawings at the 

Penna. Academy, 138 
of Boston Public Library Plans, 182 
of 1889. The Paris, 134 
of Water-colors at Chicago, 136 
Munich International Art, 12 
for the Prevention of Accidents, 284 
Exhibitions in London, 295 
Expansion of Terra cotta. The, 86 
Expert ? Who should pay the, 95 
Explosion of an Ammonia Tank, 288 

" " a Water-heater, 120 
Explosions in Underground Conduits, 

110 

Explosives. Careless Handling of, 182 
Extras. A Question of, 24 

" to an Outsider. Letting, 11 



Faded Brick-fronts. Restoring, 144 
Fall of a Floor at Bellefonte, Pa., 229 

" " " at Columbus, O., 229 
Fayum. Mr. Petrie's Finds in the, 309 
Fences for Government Buildings, 211 
" Fences, Gates and Bridges," 34 
Filtration. The Rate of, 312 
Fine Art for the United States. Pro- 
posed Bureau of, 37, 109 
" Finish" in Art. Mr. Ruskin on, 60 
Fire-escape. An Automatic, 203, 254 
Fireproof Construction, 13 
Fireprooflng Theatres. Aids to, 97, 110 
Fire-regulations In Chicago, 136 
FIRES: 
from Electric-lighting, 287 

' Rats gnawing Matches, 144 
" Spontaneous Combustion, 177. 
238, 248, 264 

in 1887 and 1888, 97, 181 
" 1887. Theatre, 86, 158 
' Berlin. Precautions against, 86 
" Paris in 1887, 264 
" Russia. Incendiary, 145 
on Shipboard 177, 248 
Peculiar Origin of, 21 
FIRES: 

Apartment-house, New York, 158 
Berlin Storage Warehouse, 13 
Electric-light Station, Boston, 266 



FIRES : 
St. Paul's Cathedral, Buffalo, N. Y., 

229 
Storage Warehouse at Birmingham, 

Eng., 146 

Theatre at Oporto, 158 
Union Square Theatre, 140 
Firth of Forth Bridge. The, 167 
Floor Accidents, 229 

" Beams and Girders, 7, Dl 
" Beams and their Price. Iron, 85 
" Construction. Warehouse, 11 
Floors. Accidents to, 63, 229 
" Deafening, 146, 155 
" Painting and Varnishing, 122 
" Strengthening Old, 281 
Fondaco del Turchi, Venice. 14, 97 
Force. Keely's New, 1 
Fort of Golconda. The, 155 
Foundations. Accidents due to Faulty, 

<i3 

" in Chicago. Building, 147 

France. Technical Education in, 223 
French and American Methods, 62 
" Architectural Training. Ameri- 
can vs. 238 

" at the Post-Office, 298 
Frescos at the Pantheon, 222 
Frosty Weather. Bricklaying in, 26, 

110, 253 

Fumes. Getting rid of Noxious, 38 
Furnace. A Remarkable, 121 
Furniture. Color of, 245 

" Counterfeiting Old, 218 



Gallo-Roman Houses, 175, 189, 282 

Garbage. Burinng, 203 

Gardening. Landscape, 3 

Gas Explosions. Various Kinds of, 110 

" in England. Natural, 96 

" Sixteen-cent, 267 

" Tar and its Uses, 36 
" Gavarni," 274 
Gelatine Prints of the " Villard House," 

25 
German. Notes, 286 

" Technical Society of N. Y., 

191 

Germs of Disease in Water, 225 
Gillmore, Engineer. Death of Genl. 

Q. A., 181, 212 

Girard College. The Marble Eoof of, 1 
Girders. Floor Beams and, 7, 51 
Girl of Grit. A, 179 
Girls. Technical Training for, 265 
Glasgow Tenement-houses. The, 169 
Glass-blowing by Machinery, 254 
Glass for Optical Instruments. A New, 
144 

" In Ancient Times, 176 
Godin. The Death of M., 66 
Godwin, Architect. Death of George, 73 
Godwin's Collection of Chairs. Sale of 

the late George, 253 
Golconda. The Fort of, 155 
Gold Mines in Manchuria, 309 
Gothic Detail in Boston. Some. 137 
Government Building Practice. United 

States, 5, 165, 210, 260 
" Claimant's Story. A, 3C 

Grand Theatre, London. Burning of 

the, 57 

Grant Monument Competition. The, 142 
" Great Eastern's " Fate. The, 28 
Greek Numismatists. Stories of Two, 

238 

" Outlines, 295 
Greenhouse Boilers for House-heating, 

157 

Grit. A Girl of, 179 
Ground-rents. Baltimore, 135 

" testing Apparatus. A Faulty, 

11, 59, 71 
Guarantee the Cost of Buildings? 

Should Architects, 312 
Guild of St. George. The, 276 
Gypsum for Masonry. The Use of, 122 

Habitations. Exhibition of Human, 134 
Hair-ropes, 209 

Hale. Memorials to Nathan, 171, 183 
Harbor Improvements in Buenos Ayres, 

Hardlng's Books on Drawing, 59 
Hardware. House, 285 
Heating-apparatus. An Austrian, 122 

Heine System of House, 230 
" Hot-water, 157 
Heine System of House-heating. 230 
Hello-chrome Prints. Our, 133 
Historical Painting. Disappearance of 

an, 60 
" Society's Old Masters. The 

N. Y., 196 
" History of Architecture." " A Short" 

Holbein Madonna. The, 42 
Homes. Art in American, 109 
Hospital-building. A new Form of, 278 
Hotel. Moving a Coney Island, 169, 294 
Hotel de Ville, Paris. Interior Decora- 
tion for the, 62 
Hot-water Heating, 157 
Houdon's Bust of Washington, 304 

Statue of Washington, 249, 304 
House building. The Art of, 175, 189,201 
hardware, 269 
heating in Various Ways, 157 

The Heine System of, 230 
" The Model, 190, 200 
Houses in Chicago, 140, 232 

" Philadelphia. Old Stone, 28 
Medieval, 282, 307 
Hydraulic Cement. A Substitute for 

120 

Elevators in London Hotels, 
167 



JAN. -JUNE., 1888.] The American Architect and Building News. Index. 



Hydrogen. Ballooning with compress- 
ed, 242 



I'Anson. Death of Edward, 86 

Ice Bombarding a Town, IT'.i 

Illustrations of Huston Public Hand- 
ings, 23S 

linages in Japan. Bronze, ITri 

Importation of Contract Labor. The. 
.', 21 M 

Incendiary Fires in Russia, 145 

Incubation in Egypt. Artificial, 264 

Indian i'ictogrrtphg, 18 

lncliai.il Soldier*' and Sailors' Monu- 
ment Competition. The, 90, 191 

Indicator. Pure Air, 152 

Industrial Nation of the Future. The 
United States the (ireat, 179 

Insurance losses in 18H8. Heavy, 181 

" lut> r'/ur Decoration," 226 

Inventor of tin- Klectrlo-Llght. The, 240 

Iron and Steel. Protecting, <>l 
" Churches, 47, 60, 71 
" Combustibility of, 96 
" Construction. Kireprooflng, 13 
" Non-corrodible, L'H, -'tH 
" Protecting American, s.-, 
" work. Bavarian Wrought, 241 
" " for Government Iluildings, 
165 

Italian Cities Turin, 111, 123 

" Export Duty on Antiquities, Gl 

Italy. Theatre Construction in, 37 

Jackson on the Compulsory Examina- 
tion of Architects. Mr. T. G., 10, 25 
Japan. Bronze Images in, 178 

" Mr. Menpes r s Pietures of, 234 
Japanese Pictures, 190 
Jefferson. Memorials to Thomas, 200, 

219 

Jottings about the United States, 235 
Journals. Architectural, 11, 133 

Increase in Architectural 
and Building, 133 



Kansas City. Midland Hotel Accident, 

136, 145 

Keeiy Motor. The, 1 
Kiteon, Sculptor. Death of J. W., 146 



Labor. Importation of Contract, 2, 205 

" Troubles. Six Years', 23 
Labrouate and "Truth in Art," 182 
Landscape-Gardening, 3 
Largest of Modem Buildings. The, 286 
Ijaundry. The Mexican, 5K 
" Lav) of Building and Ihiildinys" 226 
Law. Architect, Owner and Builder 

before the, 267 
" In Relation to Architects, 114 

" The Profession of, 228 
I/ead. The Action of Cement on, 97 
LKGAL : 
Apprentice cannot join a Union. An, 

Architect, Owner and Builder before 

the Law, 267 

Contract Lain cr. The Importation of, 2 
Law in Relation to Architects, 114 
Letting Extras to an Outsider, 11 
Lien Laws in Virginia and the Dis- 
trict of Columbia, 231 
Mechanics' Lien Law In Penn., 75 
'* Mutual Defense Society." The 

French "Architects." 194 
Relations of an Architect to a Build- 
ing-committee. The, 35 
Responsibility for Damages by the 
Kail of a Floor from concealed De- 
fects, 253 
Suit for an Architect's Commission, 

217, 265, 289 
" " Damages because of bad 

Uuderpining, 206 
" Fees on Preliminary Draw- 
Ings, 231 

Tolman vs. Phelps, 73 
Trespass. A Case of, 287 
Van Beer's Suit against alleged 
Counterfeiters of his Paintings, -jui. 
215 

Legends of Artists, 227 
Legislation. Art and Congressional, 128 
Letters from Baltimore, 27, 82, 135 
" Boston, 33, 79, 137, 188 
" Canada, 291 
" " Chicago, 30, 76, 135, 186. 232, 

292 
" Cincinnati, 31, 76, 138, 232, 

m 

" London, 139, 186, 295 
" New York, 29, 77 
" Philadelphia, 28, 75, 293 
" " Washington, 187 321, 282 
Liberty Statue on the Capitol. The, 180 
Library Plans. Exhibition of the New 

Boston Public, 182 

Lien Law in Penn. The Mechanics', 75 
Lien Laws in Virginia and the District 

of Columbia, 231 
Light-Houses. Ancient and Modern, 

87, 173, 195, 220 

Lightning. Pervasiveness of, 142 
Limit of Cost. Disregarding the, 131 
Lincoln Building in Boston. The, 189 
" Lioness and Cubs." Catn's, 75 
Liverpool Cathedral. The, 295 
Lock-gates for the Panama Canal, 158 
Lofty Buildings. Curtailing too, 251 
Logs. Band-saw for Large, 71 
LONDON : 

British Museum. Japanese Art at 
the, 190 



LONDON : 
" Century of British Art " at the 

Gronvenor Gallery. "A," 57, 78 
Exhibitions. Various, 295 
Grand Theatre. Burning of the, 57 
Grosvenor Gallery. The, 187 
Historic Furniture. Sale of, 2T<3 
Hyde Park Apartment house. 295 
letters from, 10, :,7, i.;:>. HI;, 2U5 
Menpes'i Japanese Pictures. Mr. -j:;i 
Metropolitan Board of Works Scan- 
dals, 139, 1*7 
Hail way Traffic of, 230 
Koiuan Wall. The, 251 
Koyal Academy. The, 246, 208 
Sewage of. The, 9:! 
St. Paul's. New Reredos at, 140, 295 
Theatres in the 16th Century, 28H 
Water-colors at the Koyal Society, 234 
Westminster Abbey. Vandalism at, 


Lots iu Baltimore. House, 135 

Ixjutherboure. the Scene-painter, 216 

Lowering a Cnurch, 215 

Lucigen, '' 



Madonnas of Darmstadt and Dresden. 

The Holbein, to 
Madrid. National Theatre, 24 
Manchuria's Gold Mines. 309 
Manganese on Steel. Effect of, 319 
Manufacturer. A celebrated Art, 215 
Marble Roof of Girard College. The. 1 
Maria Theresa Monument, Vienna, 251, 

297 

Mars. The " Canals " of the Planet, 251 
Mary Washington's Monument, 199 
Masonic Temple Competition, Rich- 
mond, Va., 217 
Masonry In Frosty Weather. Laying, 

56. 110, 253 
" Strength and Stability of, 91, 

113 

" Use of Gypsum for, 122 
Massachusetts State-house. The Dome 

of the, 74 
Master-Builders' Association, Boston, 

143 
Convention. The, 37, 

76, 143 

Matches. Rats and, 144 
Material-men and Architects, 299 
Mayas. Myths from the. 239 
Mcvicker's Theatre, Chicago. The 

Decorations of, 47, 70, 118 
Meat. The Preservation of Fresh, 194 
Mechanics' Lien Law in Penn. The, 75 
Medlteval Houses, 282, 307 
Memorials. Early Settler, 262 

to Nathan Hale, 171, 183 
" Thomas Jefferson, 200, 

219 

" William Penn, 269 
" " Israel Putnam, 279 

Menpes's Japanese Pictures. Mr., 234 
Metal-work. Artistic, 241 
Meteor in Cochin-China. Fall of a, 182 
Meteorological Observations, 74 
Metropolitan Board of Works Scan- 
dals, 139, 187 

Mexican Laundry. The, 58 
Mexico. Autumn Journeys in, 305 
" Aztec Antiquities in, 127 
" Old Canal found in, 43 
Microbes in the Human Body, 254 
Middle-Ages. Open-timber Roofs of 

the, 15, 39, 65 

Midland Hotel, Kansas City. Tin- Ac- 
cident at the, 136. 146 
Mineral Baths. Old Boman, 71 
Mines. Marvels of the Comstock, 132 
Ministers subject to the Contract-Labor 

Law? Are, 2. 205 
Minute. The Work of a, 275 
" Misfit" Architecture, 138 
Mitchell, Author. Death of Lacy M., 

169 
Mithras at Rome. Discovery of a 

Chapel dedicated to, 69 
Model house. The, 190, 200 

" in Place of the Statue. A, 209 
Modern Light-houses. Ancient and, 

87, 173, 195, 220 

Montreal and its Inhabitants, 291 
Monument at Philadelphia. Proposed 

Constitutional. 217 
" Commemorating the N e - 

gro's Part In the Civil 
War. Proposed, 2 
to Maria Theresa, Vienna, 

261, 27 

" " Mary Washington, 199 

" " Mozart. A, 204 

Monuments. Proposed, 227 

Some American, 199, 219, 

269,279 
to Thomas Jefferson, 200, 

219 

" In Turin, 123 

Morally-infirm. Chances for the, 275, 

300 

Morris on Modern Architecture. W. 251 
Mortar. Effect of Gypsum on, 122 
" in Frosty Weather. Use of, 56, 

110,253 
Mosaic, 265 
Motor. The Keely, I 
Mound-builders. Dr. Davis and the, 254 
Moving the Hotel Brighton, 169, 294 

" " New York Capitol to Troy ,72 
Mozart Monument at Vienna. The, 204 
" Mutual Defense Society." The 

French "Architects," 194 
Munich International Art Exhibition, 12 
Myths from the Mayas, 239 



Nail. Testing a Coated, 57 



National Association of Builders' Kulus 
for F. s 1 1 - 
mates, 14:1, 193 

" " ' Builders of the 

United states, 
Conven 1 1 on 
of the, 37, 76 

Natural-Gas Business. The, 2D7 
" " Fire fron 
" " In England, % 
Negro in the Civil War. Proposed 

.Monument to the, 2 

Nesfield, Architect. Doath of W. E., 206 
NRW YORK: 

Arcade Railway. The New, 229 
Bridge over the Hudson River. Pro- 
posed, 50 
Criminal Courts Competition. The 

New. 83. 96, 168, 203, 205 
Electric Club. The New, 122 
Episcopal Cathedral. The, 77. 119,200 
Fire in an Apartment-house, 158 
Grant Monument Competition, 142 
Historical Society's Old Masters, 196 
Letters from, 2, 77 
Subsoil. Hearing-capacity of, 47 
Technical School* for Girls, 265 
Trinity Church arraigned for Viola- 
tion of the Contract-labor 
Law, 2, 205 
" School, 208 

Union Square Theatre Fire. The, 141! 
Women's Cooperative Club. P r o- 

posed,229 

Niagara. Using the Water-power of, 134 
Nltro-glycerine. Careless Handling of, 

182 

Nobel, the Oil King. Lndwlg, 239 
Non-corrodible Iron, 241, 264 
Notes from German Sources, 286 
Notes of Travel, 88, 140, 147, 303 
Notre Dame, 31 
Numismatists. Stories of two Greek, 238 

OBITCARY : 

Cochraue. John C., Architect, 13 
Darley. F. O. C., Artist, 177 
Davis. Dr. E. H., ArchsBologtft, 264 
Gillmore. Genl. Q. A., Engineer, 181 
(iodwln. George, Architect, 73 
I'Anson. Edward, Architect, 86 
Kitson. J. W., Sculptor, 146 
Mitchell. Lucy M., Author, 16!) 
Netfleld. W. E., Architect, 206 
Pfeiffer. Carl, Architect, 241 
Pirsson. J. W., Architect, 133 
Qnestel. C. A., Architect, 86 
Sturgis. John 11., Architect, 73 

Octagon House, Washington, D. C. 

53. 

Office-buildings in Philadelphia. New, 

293 

Oil at Baku. The Waste of, 239 
" Burning Brick with, 300 
" Stains. Removing, 192 
Old Masters of the New York His- 
torical Society. The, 1% 
Olmsted, F. L. Landscape-Gardener, 4 
Opening for an Architect. An, 131 
Open-timber Roofs of the Middle-Ages, 

15, 39, 66 

Oporto. Burning of a Theatre at, 158 
Optical Instruments. A new Glass for, 

144 

Orientation of a House. The, 190 
Origin of Fires. Peculiar, 21 
Oscillation of Chimneys, 286 
Overcrowding of the Poor. The, 169 
Owner and Builder before the Law. 

Architect, 267 
Oxford. Exhibition of Sketches of, 187 



Paint for Floors. The best, 122 
Paintings at the New York Historical 

Society. 196 

Palace of Justice. The Brussels, 286 
Panama Canal. The, 74, 158, 252 
Pantheon, Paris. The, 221 
Paphoe. Explorations at, 180 
Parcels-Post. The Canadian, 12 
PARIS : 
Artesian Wells, 180 
Churches, 31, 221 
Crematory. The New, 41 
Dwelling house. Cost of a Small, 315 
Eiffel Tower. Elevator for the, 12 
Exhibition of 1889. The, 134 
Fires In 1X87, 264 
Gossip, 41,296 
Hotel de Vllle. Interior Decoration 

for the, 62 

Mansut's Book-shop. Mere, 168 
Pont d'Arcole. Collapse of the, 146 
Puvis de Chavanncs's Exhibition, 42 
Salon. The, 298 

Sorbonne. Changes near the, 168 
Ste. Genevii-ve, Paris, 221 
Vendome Column. The, 120 
Water-supply for. New, 179 
Parliament -house, Buenos Ay res. 

Competition for a, 158 
Partnership. Paying Premium for a, 

312 

Party-wall. The Commission on a, 95 
Patching Stone. Compound for, 12 
Paulding and his Companions. Me- 
morials to, 262 
Paving in Cincinnati, 31 

" Roadways and Curbing, 6 
Payment of Consulting- Architects, 179 
Penn. Memorials to William, 269 
Pennsylvania Academy Exhibition of 

Architectural Drawings, 138 
Pension Office, Washington. The, 292 
Persian Antiquities, value of. 290 
Petrie's Finds in the Fay9.ni. Mr., 309 
Petroleum. Russian, 239 



Pfeiffer, Architect. Death of Carl, 241 
Phelps. Tolman r.., 73 
Phidias. A Story about, 227 
PHILADELPHIA: 
Architecture in, 28, 75 
City-hall. The New, 138, 270 
Girard College. The Marble Roof of, 1 
House* In Old Stone, 28 
Lettr from, 28, 75, 138, 293 
OOce-bulldlngs. New, 293 
Pennsylvania Academy Exhibition of 

Architectural Drawings, 138 
Propodcd Constitutional Monument, 

217 

Sculpture for Falrmount Park, 75 
Strike of Marble-workers, 283 
" 1'hotoyraiihy." Quarter CtnlMTf eta," 

" 

Pictograpbs. Indian, 18 
" Pleta.' f lluckiiu's, 286 
Pile-dwellings In Africa, 288 
Pile*. Action of Sea-water on Cast- 
iron, M 

" Bearing-power of, 24 
Pirsson, Architect. Death of J. W., 133 
Plans. Ready-made house, 138 
Plaster Boarding, 60 

" Celling. Falling, 203 

" Model In Place of the Real 

Statue. Unveiling a, 209 
Plumbing, H7K 
Poison In Human breath. The Active, 

192 

Pompeii, 189 
Pont d'Arcole, Paris. Collapse of the, 

146 

Poor. Improved Dwellings for the, 206 
" English Clergy's work for the, 

169 
" of Glasgow. The Overcrowded, 

169 

Population of China. The, 24 
Portland Cement. The Price of, 134 
Posillppo Tunnel. The, 290 
Pot-boilers. Artist's, 144 
Pottery. Ancient American, 43, 66 
Power of the World. The Steam, 146 
Premium for a Partnership. Paying, 312 
Preservation of Fresh Meat. The, 194 
Preservatives of Timber, 64 
Prices of Iron and Steel. Keeping up, 85 
Princess Christian's Translation of a 

Book on Sanitation, 230 
Printing-house. An old Chinese, 252 
Prize Essays of the American Public 

Health Association, 181 
Profit-sharing. An Instance of, 157 
Proportion In Style* of Architecture, 153 
Proportions of Statue*. The, 227 
' Protecting" American Artists, 128 

" Cements, 134 
Iron and Steel, 61 

Protection of American Iron. The, 86 
Protector from Electric-Shocks. A, 231 
Protest against the Terms of the Grant 
Monument Competi- 
tion, 142 

" the Terms of the New 
York Criminal Court* 
Competition, 83, 95, 
168, 203 

Providence, R. I., Sewerage System. 261 
"Public Buildings" Raid on the Treas- 
ury. The, 80, 98, 
99,148 
" The Washington, 

188 

" Libraries In Ancient Baby- 
lonia, 229 
" Library Plans. Exhibition of 

the new Boston, 182 
" Works Department In the 

United State*. A, 247 
Pueblo Pottery, 43, 66 
Pure Air Indicator, 152 
Putnam. Memorial* to Iirael, 279 
Puvis de Chavannes's Work. Exhibi- 
tion of, 42 
Pyramid of Hawara. The, 309 

Questel, Architect. Death of C. A., RC 
Quicksand. Conquering a, 132 
Quicksands. Fathomless, 168 



Race St., Cincinnati, 31 
Raft*. Great Timber, 22 
Railroads. Electric, 233 

Snow-guards for, 192 
Railway In New Yoik. Arcade, 229 
Proposed Trans- Asian. 266 
" Traffic of London. The, 230 
Raising the Great Yarmouth Town- 
hall, 166 

Rat* and Matches, 141 
Heal Estate Panic in Rome, 223, 26G, 302 
Reclaiming Lake Aboukir, 230 
" the Zuyder Zee, 145 

" Jlecollectioni." Sir G. G. Scott'*, 134 
Redwood Planks and Veneers, 38 
Registration of Architect* and Engin- 
eers in England. Pro- 
posed, 10, 26, 110, 139, 
186, 218, 296 

" Architects In Rome, 62 
Relation* of Architect and Building- 
committee. The, 35 
Reporting Building News, 300 
Reredos at St. Paul's Cathedral. New, 

140 

Research In Chemistry. Risks of, 192 
Responsibility of Contractor*, 206 
" llnlaininff Walltfor Eartk," 34 
RKVIKWS: 

"Alden's Manifold Cyclopedia," 118 
'Amateur's Guide to Architecture," 

117 
"L' Architecture, ,"131 



VI 



TJie American Architect and Building News. Index. 



[VOL. XXIII. 



REVIEWS : 
" L'Art de batir sa Maison." 175, 189, 

201 

" Barnet's Essays on Art," 202 
"Delorme. Philibert," 94 
" Uictiowiaire de I' Ameuolement et de 

la Decoration." Havard's, 68 
" Dit Cerceau." ".es,"45 
'* Early Christian Art in Ireland," 237 
"Elementary Graphic Statics," 38 
"Fences, Gates and Bridges," 34 
"Gavarni,"274 
"Interior Decoration," 226 
" Law of Building and Buildings," 226 
"Monographs of American Architec- 
tureTrinity Church, 93 
"Notes on Concrete," 130 
"Photography," "Quarter Centnry 

in," 260 

"Retaining Walls for Earth," 34 
"Short History of Architecture," 117 
" Stone," 250 
" Technology Architectural Rcvltw." 

131 

" Ter Borch." " Gerard," 154 
"Travels in Tunisia," 310 
Richardson and the Queen's Gold Medal 
of the R. I. B. A. H. H., 
139 
" Commissions Received by 

the Late Mr. H. H., 14 
Richardson's Use of Landscape-Garden 

ing. H. H., 4 
Richmond, Va., Masonic Temple Com 

petition. 217 

" Old State-house at, 249 
River and Harbor Works in the Unitec 

States, 247 
Roman Sanatorium. A, 71 

" Wall of London. The, 251 
Romanesque Architecture, 307 
ROME : 
Mithras. Discovery of a Chapel 

dedicated to, 89 

Registration of Architects in, 62 
Real Estate Panic at, 223, 266, 302 
Vandalism in Modern, 223, 266 
Hoof of Glrard College. The Marble, 1 
" Trimmings for Government Worn, 

211 
Roofs of the Middle-Ages. Open-timber 

15, 39, 65 

Ropes made of Hair, 209 
Rose-hedges as Snow guards, 192 
Kotch Travelling-scholarship. The, 178 
Royal Academy. The, 246, 268 

Students' Work, 10 

Rules and Conditions for Estimates 
Adopted by the National Association 
of Builders, 143, 193 
Ruskin on Architecture. Mr. 26 

" "Finish." Mr., 60 
" " Iron Churches. Mr., 60 
Ruskin's Guild of St. George, 276 
Russia. Incendiary Fires in, 145 
Russian Petroleum, 239 



SAKITARY : 

Wall-papers. Dangerous, 249 
Water. Analysis of,225 

" Drinking, 201 
Scene-painters. The First of, 216 
Schliemanu's Explorations in Cerigo, 

132 

Schmitz. Bruno, 50 
Scholarship Examinations. R o t c h 

Travelling, 178 
School-house Competition in New York. 

The, 50 

Schools. Planning Elementary, 14 
Sea-water on Cast-iron Piles. Action 

of, 84 

" Uses of, 213 

Senate and our Public Buildings. The, 

80, 98, 99, 148 
Senators and the Congressional Library. 

Oar, 148 

Servandoni, the Scene-painter, 216 
Settler Memorials. Early, 262 
Sewage. Electricity and, 93 
Sewerage System. Forcing a Town to 

adopt a, 105 
" Providence, R. I., 

261 

Ship-railway. A Venetian, 271 
Sidon. Discoveries at, 86 
Sigiri Rock. Climbing the, 204 
Sites for Houses. The best, 202 
Six Years' Labor Troubles, 23 
Sizes of Planks and Boards. The, 38 



Sacrificial Stones. The Aztec Calendar 
and, 127 

Safe Building, 7, 51, 104, 159, 207, 255 

Salon. The, 296 

Samos. The Tunnel at, 290 

Sanatorium. A Roman, 71 

SANITARY : 
Air of Theatres. The, 204 
Bath-rooms. Ventilation of, 277 
Cesspools for Houses, 202 
Cistern Water. Lower Organisms in, 48 
Dwellings for the Poor. 206 
Electricity and Sewage, 93 
Flushing Drains with Sea-water, 213 
Garbage. Burning, 203 
Orientation of Houses. The, 190 
Plumbing, 278 
Princess Christian's Translation of a 

Book on Sanitation. The, 230 
Prize Essays on Public Health, 181 
Pure Air Indicator, 182 
Soils for Building on. Healthful, 202 
Sewerage. How a New England town 

secures, 205 

Tenement-houses. Improving, 169 
Vapors. The Dispersal of Foul, 38 
Ventilation of Houses. The, 202 

Practical and Theoreti- 
cal, 121 



Slag. Uses of Iron, 182, 242 
Smithmeyer'g Work on the Congres- 
sional Library. The House of Rep- 
resentatives and Mr., 301 
Smith's Water-colors at the Boston Art 

Museum. J. L., 70 
Snow-guards. Rose-hedges as, 192 
Soil of Chicago. The, 147 
Soil-pipes. Iron vs. Lead, 278 
Soils for Building on. Healthful, 202 
Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument Com- 
petition. The Indiana, 50, 191 
Solvent. Efluonne, the Universal, 192 
'Sophocles." Mr. Donaghoe's Statue 

of, 34 

Sorbonne, Paris. Changes near the, 168 
Southern Competition. A, 85 
Spans. Bridge, 72, 156, 167 
Specifications for Government Build- 
ings, 5 
Speculative Building in Rome, 223, 266, 

Spontaneous Combustion, 177, 238. 248 

264 

Staining Pine in Imitation of Black- 
walnut, 302 

Stains. Removing Oil, 192 
Stairs for Government Buildings, 211 
Standing Armies. Expense of 179 
State-house at Richmond, Va. Old 249 
Statue of Buddha at Nara, Japan, 47 
Statues by Mr. Donaghoe, 34 
Proposed Public, 227 
Steam-power of the World. The 146 
Steel and Bronze. Casting in, 252 

' Protecting Iron and, 61 
' Steeple Jack." Adventure of a 72 
St. Genevieve, Paris, 221 
St. George. The Guild of, 276 
Stillman, W. J. 48 
Stimulants. Alcoholic, 266 
" Stone Age " Group. Boyle's, 75 
Stone. Compound for Patching, 12 
Storage Warehouse in Berlin. Burn- 
ing of, 13 
a t Birmingham, 
E n g. Burning 
of a, 146 

stories. Weakness in Design of 79 
St. Paul's Cathedral, Buffalo, N. Y. 
Burning o f, 
229 

London. New 
R e r e d o s at, 

Streetpaving in Cincinnati, 31 
Street-watering with Sea- water, 213 
Strength and Stability of Masonry, 91 

113 

Strengthening Old Floors 251 
st-ike of Philadelphia Marble-workers, 



Sturgis, Architect. Death of John H., 7 
Styles of Architecture. Proportion in 

153 

Submerged Chinese City. Finding a 7 
Subsoil. Bearing-capacity of New York 

47 

Subterranean Chapel. A, 192 
Suggestion. A really good, 299 
Suit for an Architect's Commission 217 

265, 289 
" Fees on Preliminary Drawings 

" " Recovery of Drawings, 73 
Supervising Architect. The OrBce of 

98, 99, 148 

Support of the Church. A, 23 
Susa. Discoveries at, 290 
Swedish Glass. The New, 144 
Swindling Bidders. A new Way of, 74 



Strikea in Cincinnati. Building, 294 
" the United States, 23, 275 
" West. The, 186 



Tariff and the Price of Cement. The, 134 

1 on Works of Art. The, 128 
Tarver's Model Theatre. Mr., 170, 215, 

Taxes for Four Centuries. No, 216 
Tayloe Mansion, Washington, D. C. 

Tea and Coffee. Consumption of, 266 
Technical Education in Europe, 14 
" France, 223 
School for Girls In New York 

265 

Technology Architectural Review 131 
lenenieut-houses. Overcrowded 169 
Tennessee. A Competition in 86 
Tensile vs. Compressive Stains, 49 
"TerBorch." " Glrard," 154 
Terra-cotta. The Expansion of 85 
Testing Cement for the Foundations of 

the Congressional Library, 49 83 
Tests for Masonry, 92, 113 
Texas Capitol. The Dome of the, 74 
Iheatre Construction. Improved, 37, 97 

in Italy, 37 

Fire. The Union Square, 146 
Fire-escape. A, 203, 254 
Fires, 57, 86, 146, 158 
in 1887, 86, 158 
Madrid. The National 24 
at Oporto. Burning of a, 158 
Mr. Tarver's Model, 170, 215 284 
Theatres. Air of, 204 

Old London, 288 
Thefts of Valuable Coins 238 
Timber-rafts. Great, 22 

Roofs of the Middle-Ages. Open, 

15, 39, 65 

Tolman vs. Phelps, 73 
Tomb of Daniel. The 60 
Toronto, 291 

T ' Court-house Competition, 291 

Tower. Elevator for the Eiffel 12 

1 own-hall. The Underpinning of the 

Great Yarmouth, 166 
Trade Surveys, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60 72 84 
96 120,144, 156, 168,180 192, 204 216 
228, 240, 252 264, 276, 288, 300, 312' ' 
Irans-Asian Railway. A possible 266 
Translation of a Book on Sanitation b 

the Princess Christian, 230 
Travel. Notes of, 88, 140, 147, 303 
Treasury. The "Public Buildings' 

Raid on the, 80, 98, 99, 148 
Tree-planting Extraordinary 252 
Trespass. A Case of, 287 
Troy. Moving the Albany Capitol to 72 
i,.. in Ar t." Labrouste and, 182 
"Tunisia." " Travels in," 310 
Tunnel. The Detroit River 283 

A Long, 276 

Tunnels. Some Ancient, 290 
Turin, 111, 123 
Turkish Bath. The, 273 
Turpentine In Oil-painting, 287 
lyphoid Fever from Impure Water 201 



United States Proposed Bureau of 
Fine Arts for the, 37, 
109 

" Public Works in the, 
247 



Van Beers's alleged Works, 204, 215 
Vandalism at Westminster Abbey, 228 

" in Modern Rome, 223, 266 
Vault of the Albany Assembly-Chamber, 

The, 71,74, 191,270 
Vendome Column Paris. The, 120 
Venetian Ship-Kailway. A, 271 
Venice. The Fondaco dei Turchl, 14, 97 
Ventilation of Bath-room?. The, 277 
" Houses. The, 202 
Practical and Theoretical, 

121 

Venus. Statues of, 180 
Vera Cruz. From Mexico to, 305 
Versailles in Decay, 300 
Vienna. Maria Theresa Monument. 251. 

297 

Mozart Monument at, 204 
Villard House." Gelatine Prints of 
the, 25 
Vinci's Engineering Inventions. Da., 

Viollet-le-Duc's. Some Letters of, 236 

r-pers. Dangerous, 249 

Walnut-log. Value of a, 156 
Warehouse-floor Construction 11 

Varning. A, 227 
Washington. Hondon's Bust of, 304 

Houdon's Statue of, 249 
Washington's Monument. Mary 199 
WASHINGTON : 

Art Exhibition in, 231 

Canopy for Greenough's, 288 

Capitol Rotunda. Decorations of the, 

. The, 49, 83, 



n by 



Underpinning. Damage from bad, 206 
of the Great Yarmouth 

Town-hall. The 166 
Union Square Theatre Fire. The 147 
United states Government Buildina 
Practice, 5, 166 210 
260 
Jottings about the, 235 



CLUB-HOUSES. 

Design for a Club-house. Geo. F. Ham- 
mond, Architect, 630 
" Country Club-house. Hu- 
bert Westell, Archt., 651 
forN. Y. Athletic Club's Coun- 
try Club-house, Sedgemere L 
I. Geo. M. Huss, Archt., 649 
Marlon Social Club-House, Marion 
Mass. W. G. Preston, Architect, 637 
Review Club-house, Chelsea, Mass W 
A. Norris, Architect, 652 

DETAILS. 

Doorway on Commonwealth Ave. Bos- 
ton Mass. McKim.Mead 
& White, Architects, 639 
(del.) 

" Gloucester St., Boston 

Mass. Peabody & Stearns, 

Architects, 643 (Oel.) 

to House of Nathaniel Thayer 

Boston, Mass. Sturgis & 

Brigham, Archts., 652 (Gel.) 



ILLUSTRATIONS 

[The figure, refer to the number of the journal, and not to the page 1 

nteliece. " 



Indian Name of. The, 187 
Letters from, 187, 231, 292 
Liberty Statue on the Capitol, 180 
Pension Office. The, 292 
Planning of. The, 188 
Public Buildings, 188, 392 
Tayloe Octagon House. The, 6 
Waste of Oil at Baku. The, 239 
Water-cartridge, The, 31 
Water-colors at the Royal Society, ton- 
don, 234 

by J. L. Smith at the Bos- 
Art Museum, 70 
Drinking, 201 

Heater. Explosion of a 120 
Lower Organisms in, 48 
Pails full. Device for Keeping 

Power of Niagara. Using the, 134 
Sanitary Analysis of. The, 225 
Supply for Paris. A New, 179 
Waterfalls. The World's Big, 12 
Weather Predictions, 74 
Wells in Paris. Artesian, 180 
The World's Deepest, 71 
Western Association of Architects, 35 
Pennsylvania Association of 

Architects, 58 

Westminster Abbey. Vandalism at, 228 
William I as an Art-patron, 286 
Wind. To Cure a Door in, 275, 300 

Mills. Afghanistan, 48 
205 Ma88 ' Sewera S e System for, 

Wires. Dangers from Electric, 289, 301 
Woman's Work, 265 
Women's Cooperative Club In New 
York. Proposed, 229 

Woodworking Establishments. Berlin 

86 

Wrought-iron Work. Bavarian, 241 



Mantelpiece. James R. Hhind, Archi- 
tectj Dio 

Hart > Minneapolis, Minn. L. S 
Bufflngton, Architect, 642 
Old Colonial Work in the South. Drawn 
by Glenn Brown, 628 
652 St ne Portals> Stockholm, Sweden, 

Part of the Facade of the University 

Salamanca, Spain, 631 y> 

Tayloe Mansion, Washington, D.C., 628 

DWELLINGS. 

Bachelor's Home, St. Louis, Mo. Eames 
& Young, Architects 637 
i el ?S H , OU8ea ' Passaic, N. J., Lucil- 
le p' wVr ' ? n< l Larchn iont, N. Y. 
F. E. Walhs, Architect, 640 
Design for a City Front. E. R. Tilton 
Architect, 628 

" Country House. Hubert 
Westell, Architect, 651 

Twenty-foot House. F 
W. Beall, Architect, 642 ' 



HOUSE AT : 
Carpenter Station P. R. R. Cope & 
Stewardsou, Architects, 652 

II i. J ' K ' Ta y lor . Archt., 639 
i arbor , N - H. Longfellow 
Aldeu & Hariow, Architects, 646 



Stead, Ar- 
- Dietrich, 



F : 

H n - J / C. Abbott, Montreal, Can 
80 " 



'/i Al1ams ' Bo ton, Mass. Peabody 
D w t tST' Ar ai tects, 646 (Ge/.) J 

w[. - J?' 8h A 0p ', Lenol[ ' Ma88 ' " Neill 
Wilson, Architect, 634 

r P H V. C ' G> Brandt ' Cllnt on, N. Y. 
Q. E. Cooper, Architect, 633 



Yarmouth Town-hall. The Underpin- 
ning of the Great, 166 



Zuyder Zee. Reclaiming the, 145 
Zuni Culture Growth, 66 



HODSE OF : 
H. E. Brewster, Utica, N. Y. W II 

Symouds, Architect, 646 
Mrs. J. D. Cameron, Washington D 
C. Hornblower& Marshall, Archi- 
tects, 639 

J. H. Carter. W. H. Symonds, Archi- 
tect, 629 
P. E. Chitlman, Philadelphia, Pa. J. 

C. Worthington, Architect, 633 
G. K. Cooper, Utica, N. Y. G. E. 

Cooper, Architect, 633 
A. N. Elliott, Philadelphia, Pa. J 

C. Worthington, Architect, 636 
Henry Endicott, Cambridge, Mass 
Chamberlin & Whidden, Archts.,645 
T' L ;, Freema n. W. H. Symonds, 
Architect, 629 

James Hackett, Carpenter Station, 
P. R. R. Cope & Stewardson, Ar- 
chitects, 652 

E *: Gov - J ohn M. Hamilton, Chicago, 
111. S. M. Randolph, Architect, 639. 
*.B. Hart, Minneapolis, Minn. LS 
Bufflngton. Architect, 642 



- JUNE., 1888.] The American Architect and Building News. Index. 



vii 



ll.irsK OF: 

Gardner O. llubbard, noar Washlng- 
ington, D. C. Allen & Kenway, Ar- 
chitects, 646 
lion. A. u. Lane, Birmingham, Ala. 

Kdouanl SiJel, Architect, 633 
T. C. l.eake, Kichmond, Va. M. J. 

Dimmock, Architect, 652 
Brainier Matthews, Narragansett 
I'I.T, R. I. G. A. Freeman, Jr., Ar- 
chitect, 649 
James McKay, Pittsburgh, Pa. W. 

S. Kraser, Architect. i;:;;i 
H. R. Smith. Kansas City, Mo. W. 

\V. Polk & Son, Architects, 632 
Nathaniel Thayer, Boston, Mass. 
Sturgis & Brigham, Architects, 653 
(Gel.) 
Gorham Thurber, Providence, R. I. 

K. I. Nickerson, Archt., 649 (Gel.) 
C. F. Wash burn, Worcester, Mass. 
Rosslter & Wright, Architects, 630 
House on Berkeley St., Boston, Mass. 
Peabody & Stearns, Archi- 
tects. 640 (';./. i 

" " Hereford St., Boston, Mass. 
Shaw & Hunnewell, Archi- 
tects, 647 (Oel.) 

Houses for E. M. & W. W. Bliven. Yon- 
kers, N. Y. F. F. Ward, Ar- 
chitect, 634 

" on Commonwealth Ave., Bos- 
ton, Mass. C. B. Atwood, Ar- 
chitect, 642 {(lei.) 
Melrose Hall, Oak Lane, Pa. Harrison 

Albright, Architect, 64!) 
Sketch for an Artist's Country House, 

by J. G. Howard, 645 
" of House for T. E. Jones. E. G. 

W. IXetrich, Architect, 628 
Study for a Suburban House. A. J. 
Norton, Architect, 639. 

ECCLESIASTICAL. 

Andrew Presbyterian Church, Minne- 
apolis, Minn. W. H. Hayes, Archi- 
tect, 634 

Basilica, Quebec, Canada, 636 (Oel.) 
Cathedral of Notre Dame, Ottawa, Can. 

638 (Gel.) 
Christ Church, Herkimer, N. Y. B. W. 

Gibson, Architect, 635 
Church at Dublin, N. H. Andrews & 

Jaques, Architects, 645 
" " Guadalupe, Mexico, 639 
of Notre Dame, Montreal, Can., 

629 (OeJ.) 

|| " St. John the Baptist, Que- 
bec, Can. J. F. Peachy, 
Architect, 631 (Qel.) 
" " St. Pierre, Montreal, Can. 

633 (OeJ.) 

" Chapel & Parish-house of St. 
. I o] HI'S. Jamaica Plain, Mass. 
Appleton & Stephenson, Ar- 
chitects, 637 
Cloister of San Domingo, Salamanca, 

Spain, 628 
Congregational Church, Elizabethtown, 

N. Y. B. W. Gibson, Architect, 645 
Design for Eliot Church, Newton, Mass. 
Hartwell & Bichardsou, 
Architects, 646 

' " B. C. Church of St. Augus- 
tine, Brooklyn, N. Y. B. 
L. Dans. Architect, 637 
Kmannel Baptist Church, Brooklyn, 
' N. Y. F. H. Kimball, Architect, 644 

Interior of same, 644 (Oel.) 
First Congregational Church, Appleton, 
Wls. W. H. Hayes, Archt., 634 
" M. E. Church, Wlfkes-Barre, Pa. 

Bruce Price, Architect, 649 
La gran Madre di Dio, Turin, Italy, 638 
Lutheran Church, Los Angeles, Cal. E. 

A. Coxhead, Architect, 647 
St. Stephen's Church, Olean, N. Y. B. 

W. Gibson, Architect, 632 
The Superga, Turin, Italy, 638 

EDUCATIONAL. 

Design for Barnes Hall, Cornell Uni- 
versity, Ithaca, N. Y. Rossiter & 
Wright, Architects, 636 

Harvard Medical School Building, Bos- 
ton, Mass. Ware & Van Brunt, Ar- 
chitects, 632 .(;,/.) 

I. D. Farnsworth School of Art, Welles- 
ley College, Wellesley, Mass. Botch 
& Tilden, Architects, 643 

Laval University, Quebec, Can., 650 
(Qel.) 

Pennsylvania College, Gettysburg, Pa. 
J. A. Derapwolf, Architect. 643 

Pillsbury Science Hall, Minneapolis, 
Minn. L. S. Bumngton, Archt., 630 

State Normal School, Moor head, Wls. 
J. Walter Stevens, Architect, 649 

FOREIGN. 

Aztec Calendar and Sacrificial Stones, 

City of Mexico, Mex., 638 
Bank of Montreal, Montreal, Can., 651 

(Oel.) 

Basilica, Quebec, Canada, 636 ('.'./.) 
Belfry of City-Hall at Brieg, Germany, 

642 
Cathedral of Notre Dame, Ottawa, Can., 

638 (Oel.) 

Church at Guadalupe, Mexico, 639 
" of Notre Dame, Montreal, Can., 

629 (Oel.) 

" " St. John the Baptist, Quebec, 
Can. J. F. Peachy, Archi- 
tect, 631 (OeJ.) 



Church of St. Pierre, Montreal, Can., 

633 (Gel.) 
bolster of San Domingo, Salamanca, 

Spain, 628 
Entrance to Drill-shed, Quebec, Can. 

Derome & Tache, Archts., 634 (del.) 
;rand Opera-Hoiue. Paris. After an 

Ktching by J. A. Mitchell, 631 
House ol Hon. J. C. Abbott, Montreal, 

Can. Hutchesson & Steele, Archi- 
tects, 645 ( Oel.) 

Interior of the " Bardo " at Tunis C2it 
Kent Gate, Quebec. Canada, 041 (fit I.) 
La gran Madre di Dio, Turin, Italy, 638 
javal University, Quebec, Can., 650 

("el.) 

Mediasval Castle, Turin, Italy. 638 
Part of thu Facade of the University, 

Salamanca, Spain, 631 
Rath-bans, Breslau. Germany. After 

n Ktching by B. Mannfeld, 653 
_.,yal Palace, Turin, Italy, 838 
Street In St. Ltzler, Ariege, France, 633 
The Superga, Turin, Italy. 638 

" Valentino, Turin, Italy, 638 
Westminster Palace, London, Eng. 

After an Etching by Felix Buhot, 635 

(Qel.) 

GELATINE. 

American Unitarian Association Build- 
ing. Boston, Mass. Peabodr & Stearns, 
Architects, 630 

Bank of Montreal, Montreal, Can., 651 
Basilica, Quebec, Canada, 636 
Cathedral of Notre Dame, Ottawa, 
Can., 638 
hurch of Notre Dame, Montreal, Can., 

629 

" ' St. John the Baptist, Que- 
bec, Can. J. F. Peachy, 
Architect, 631 
" " St. Pierre, Montreal, Can., 

633 

Doorway on Commonwealth Ave., Bos- 
ton, Mass. McKim, Mead 
& White, Architects, 639 
|| " Gloucester St., Boston, 
Mass. Peabody & Stearns, 
Architects, 643 

" to House of Nathaniel Thayer, 
Boston, Mass. Stnrgls & 
Brigham, Architects, 052 
Entrance to Drill-shed, Quebec, Can. 

Derome & Tache, Architects, 634 
Ericson, Boston, Mass. Monument to 

Lelf, 628 

Harvard Medical-School Building, Bos- 
ton, Mass. Ware & Van Brunt, Ar- 
chitects, 632 

House of Hon. J. C. Abbott, Montreal, 
Can. Hutchesson & Steele, 
Architects, 646 

" " C. F. Adams, Boston, Mass. 
Peabody & Stearns, Archi- 
tects, 646 

" Nathaniel Thayer, Boston, 
Mass. Sturgis & Brigham, 
Architects, 663 

" ' Gorham Thurber, Providence, 
B. I. E. I. Nickerson, Ar- 
chitect, 649 

" on Berkeley St., Boston, Mass. 
Peabody & Stearns, Archi- 
tects, 640 

! " Hereford St., Boston, Mass. 
Shaw & Hunnewell, Archi- 
tect ., 647 

Houses on Commonwealth Are., Bos- 
ton, Mass. C. B. Atwood, Archt., 642 
Interior of Emanuel Baptist Church, 
Brooklyn, N. Y. F. H. Kimball, Ar- 
chitect, 644 

Kent Gate, Quebec. Canada, 641 
Laval University, Quebec, Can., 650 
New Public Library, Boston, Mass. 

McKim, Mead & White, Archts., 648 
Potter Building, Boston, Mass. S. J. 

F. Thayer, Architect, 637 
Westminster Palace, London, Eng. 
After an Etching by Felix Buhot, 636 

HOTELS. 

Design for Dedham Inn, Dedham, Max. 

Wheelwright & Haveu, Archts., 661 
Greene's Inn, Narragansett Pier, B. I. 

W. G. Preston, Architect, 631 
New Kent House, Chautanqoa, N. Y. 

E. A. Kent, Architect, 663 

Senter House, Centre Harbor, N. H. 

F. W. Stiokney, Architect, 634 

The Tavern, Decatnr, Ala. L. B. 
Wheeler, Architect, 629 

INTERIORS. 

Emanuel Baptist Church, Brooklyn, N. 
Y. F. H. Klmball, Archt., 644 (Oel.) 

LIGHT-HOUSES. 

Light-house, Mobile Bay, Ala., 642 

on Fowey Bocks, Fla., 635 

MERCANTILE. 

Bank of Montreal, Montreal, Can., 651 

(Gel.) 

Building for the "Pioneer Press," St. 
Paul, Minn. S. S. Beman, Archt., 645 
Design for N. Y. Life Ins. Co. Building, 
St. Paul, Minn. J. W. 
Stevens, Architect, 633 
" ' U. S. Trust Co. Office Build- 
ing, New York, K. Y. 
Babb.Cook & Willard, Ar- 
chitects, 638 



Design for a Business Block, by A. B. 

Sturges, 631 
Logan Offices, Philadelphia, Pa. Cope 

aStewardson Architects, 029 
Masonic Building, Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Shepley. Butan & Coolidge, Archi- 
tects, 642 

New Premises for United States Trust 
Co., New York, N. Y. B. W. Gibson, 
Architect, 651 
Potter Building, Boston, Mass. S. J. F. 

Thayer, Architect, 637 (OeJ.) 
Store for De Coster & Clark, St. Paul, 
Minn. J. W. Stevens, Ar- 
chitect, 635 
1 M. E. Mayall, St. Paul, Minn. 

J. W. Stevens, Archt., 636 
Study for a Store Building, St. Paul, 
Minn. Gilbert A Taylor, Archts., 645 
Warehouse for Bosenheim, Frankeu- 
thal & Goldstein, St. Louis, Mo. A. 
F. Bosenheim, Architect, 638 

MISCELLANEOUS.; 

Artec Calendar and Sacrificial Stones, 

City of Mexico, Mex., 638 
Belfry of City-Hall, Brieg, Germany, 642 
Bells. Some Old, 641 
Bird's-eye View of Copley Square, Bos- 
ton, Mass., 650 

Construction of Floors In a Flour Ware- 
house, Philadelphia, Pa. W. B. 
Powell, Architect, 628 
Design for Home for Little Wanderers, 
Boston, Mass. E, C. 
Fisher, Archt., 653 
" " a Country Stable. Walter 

Cope, Architect, 636 
" " a Village Clock Tower. T. 

F. Walsh, 640 
Entrance to Drill-shed, Quebec, Can. 

Durome & Tache, Archts., 634 (Qel.) 
Fast-Day Sketches at Hlngham, Mass., 

by W. W. Bosworth, 643 
Furniture designed by Charles E. Lau- 

derkin. 642 

Gate-Lodge for the Eastern Point Asso- 
ciates, Gloucester, Mass. Appleton 
Slephensou, Architects, 642 
Interior of the " Bardo " at Tunis, 629 
Kent Gate, Quebec, Canada, 641 (Qel.) 
Medieval Castle, Turin, Italy, 638 
Plans for Apartment-houses. E. T. 

Potter, Architect, 645 
Royal Palace, Turin, Italy, 638 
Street In St. Llzier, Ariege, France, 633 
The Valentino, Turin, Italy, 638 
Trusses over Court-room in the U. S. 
Court-house, Rochester, N. Y. W. 
A. Freret, Architect, 632 



MONUMENTAL. 

Designs for the Indiana Soldiers' and 
Sailors' Monument. S. S. lieman, 
Glenn Brown, Walt & Cutter, Ar- 
chitects. 647 
Ericson, Boston, Mass. Monument to 

Lelf, 628 (ilct.) 

Pro I 'atria. Lefeuvre, Sculptor, 643 
Statue of Louis Philippe and Marie 

Amelle, 644 
|| Marie Antoinette at St. 

Denis, France, 644 
Tomb of Leonardo Bruni in Santa Croce, 

Florence, 652 

" " Machiavelli, Santa Croce, Flor- 
ence, Italy, 644 
" " Mazarin, Louvre, Paris, 

France, 644 

" " Richelieu in the Sorbonne, 
Paris, 652 

PUBLIC. 

Design for City-Hall, Cambridge. Mass. 
Chamberlin & 
Whidden, Ar- 
chitects, 651 

" " Minneapolis, 

Minn. Long & 
Kees, Archi- 
tects, 641 

i' ii Museum of Fine Arts, De- 
troit, Mich. J. W. Stevens, 
Architect, 634 
i " Town-Hall. Band & Taylor, 

Architects, 653 
Nelson Memorial Hall, Kingston, Pa. 

Kipp & Podmore, Architects, 629 
Public Library, Boston. Mass. McKim, 
Mead & White, Architects, 648, 650 
(Oel.) 
Bath-haus, Breslau, Germany. After 

an Etching by B. Manufeld, 653 
Town-Hall and Library, Winchester, 

Mass. Band & Taylor, Archts., 646 
U. 8. COUBT-HOUSK & POST-OFFICB: 
Los Angeles, Cal. 637 
San Antonio, Texas. 641 
etc., Williamaport, Pa. 637 
Springfield, Mass. W. A. Freret, 

Architect, 637 

Westminster Palace, London, Eng. 
After an Etching by Felix Buhot, 636 
(Oel.) 

RAILROAD. 

B. & A. R. R. Station, Springfield, Mass. 
Shepley, Satan A Coolidge, Archi- 
tects, 640 

Bailroad Station at Charlotte, N. C. W. 
M. Poiudexter & 
Co., ArchtB., 644 



Railroad Station at Como, N. J. Cope 
& Stewardson, Ar- 
chitects, 636 

Tower of New Station for Canadian 
Pacinc R. U., Montreal, Can. Bruce 
Price, Architect, 661 

SOCIETY. 

American Unitarian Association Build- 
ing, Boston, Mass. Peabody & Stearns, 
Architects, 630 (Oel.) - 
Design for Masonic Hall, Pittsburgh, 
Pa. Blckel & Brennan, 
Architects, 662 

" " Y. M. C. A. Building, Provi- 
dence, R. I. Howard Hop- 
pin, Architect, 63*. 

Designs for Proposed Y. M. C. A. Build- 
Ing, Providence, R. I. Stone, Carpen- 
ter & Willson Architects, 636 
Y. M. C, A. Building, San Diego, Cal. 
K. A. Coxhead, 

Architect, 636 
" Utloa, N. Y. W. 
H. Symonds, 
Architect, 663 

INITIAL CUTS. 

[Then figure $ refer to the page of text, 
not to the platei.] 

Bay, Leek Town-hall, 10 

Bear 286 

Braslers, 21, 23 

Bridge near Canluo, 298 

Bull, 296 

Capitals, 22, 41, 42, 67, 68, 93, 189, 235, 

Cartouche, 234 

Cathedral, Brechln, Scotland, 286 

" Turin, 112 

Chapel, Spring Grove Cemetery, Cin- 
cinnati, O. S. Hannaford & Sons, Ar- 
chitects, 303 
Chimney, 297 
Church near Meiningen, 246 

" of the Redeemer, Lexington 
Mass. E. A. P. Newcomb 
Architect, 268 
" Toft Monks, Eng., 213 
Circular Chapel, Cunanlt, France 175 
Cornice, 248 

Doorhead, Isle of France, 147 
Doorways, 177, 228 
Dormers, 99, 113, 201 
Eagles, 166, 177. 190 
Kntrance Gateway and Bridire. 212 
Fire-dogs, 66, 63 
Font, 80 
Grotesque, 309 
Hale Monument, Coventry , Conn. 

Henry Austin, Architect, 171 
1 Statues of Nathan, 183, 184 
House at Dol, Brittany, 223 
11 Les Enfants du Rhone " by Pagny 196 
Light-houses 87, 173, 174, 196, 196, 220, 

Lion, 148 

Lookout Tower near Eisenach, 247 

Mantel, Van Bensselaer Mansion 

Albany, N. Y., 127 

Mt. Cents Tunnel Monument, Turin 125 
MONUMENT TO: 
Cavour, Turin, 128 
(iambetta, 219 
Joan of Arc, 172 
Mary Washington, 199 
Massimo d' Azeglio, Turin, 123 
Mazzini, 219 
Micca, Turin, 123 
The Bros. Calroli, 262 

' Duke of Genoa, Turin, 124 
|' Empress Josephine, 199 

"Green Count," Turin, 123 
" Sardinian Army, Turin, 123 
Monuments to Jefferson, 200 
Mosque in Algiers, 267 
Mural Tablet. Design for, M. N. Cut- 
ter, Architect, 152 
Office-Building, Chicago. John Addlson 

Archt., 90 
J. J. Panders, 

Opera-House, Chicago. Cobb & Frost 

Architects, 88 

Oriel, Bath-haus, Halberstadt, 243 
Ornaments, 249, 270, 273 
Pedestal, 223 
Plctographs. Indian, 19 
Porch, Gloucester Cathedral, 304 

Leicester Eng., 299 
Porte St. Denis, Paris, 210 
" Pro Patria" by Mercie, 183 
Putnam's Tomb, 279 
" Quand Memo by Mercie, 186 
Receiving-vault, Detroit, Mich. W E 

Brown, Architect, 91 
Staircase, Lubeck. 246 
Statue of William Penn, 269 
Statues from the Tomb of Maximilian, 

Innspruck 279, 280, 281 
Store at Buffalo. I. H. Kent, Archt., 69 



Synagogue, Turin, 111 

Tailpieces, 3, 5, 81, 78, 1M 

Tomb. Arabian, 2GO 

Totem-posts. Indian, 20 

Towers, 17, 111, 233. 236 

Treaty-stone. The, 270 

Turrets, 31, 114 

Tyler-Davidson Fountain, Cincinnati 

Ohio, 303 

Ulna, Vera Cruz 305 
Washstand. Old German, 128 



viii 



The American Architect and Building News. Index. 



[VOL. XXIII. 



GOTHIC SPIKES AND TUWEKS. 

[Published only in tlu /itijirrial Kditicrn.~] 
ALL SAINTS : 

Aldwinkle, (35:; 

Easton, lira 

Lelghtou Buzzard, 639 

Stamford, 662 
CATHEDRAL: 

Chichester, 630 

Gloucester, 634 



CATHEDRAL : 
Norwich, 639 
Salisbury, KID 
York, 652 

St. Andrew, Backwcll, 647 
" Dennis, Silk Willoughby, 630 
" Fimbarr, Fowey, 647 
" George, Alethwold, 043 
" Giles, Wrexham, 630 
" Gregory, Welford, 643 
" Helen, Broughton, 639 



St. Lawrence, Evesham, 634 
" Margaret, Crick, 643 
ST. MART : 
Bloxham, 639 
Kliightou, 634 
Mosham, 643 
Thornbury, 652 

St. Mary Magdalene, Oxford, 643 
" " " Tauntou, 639 

" " the Virgin, Fairford, 647 
" " " " Houghton, 643 



St. Mary the Virgin, Oxford, 634 

" Michael, Uflingtou, 630 

" Nicholas, Islip, 634 

" Oswald, Ashboume, 639 

" Patrick. Patrington, 643 

" Peter, Kettering, 647 

" Vincent, Caythorpe, 639 

" Wilfred, Brayton, 643 
SS. Cuthbert and Mary, Chesler-le- 
Street, 643 

" Probus and Grace, Probus, 647 



INDEX BY LOCATION. 

[The flgures refer to the number of the journal, and not to the page.] 



Appleton, \Vis. First Congregation 
Church. W. H. Hayes, Archt.. 634 
Birmingham, Ala. House of Hon. . 
O. Lane. Edouard Sidel, Archt., 63* 
BOSTON, MASS: 
American Unitarian Associatio 
Building. Peabody & Stearns, A 
chitects, 630 ( Oel.) 

Bird's-eye View of Copley Square, 6E 
Competitive Design for Home fo 
Little Wanderers. E. C. Fishe 
Architect, 653 

Doorway on C om mon wealth AT 
MoKim, Mead & White 
Architects, 639 (Gel.) 
" " Gloucester St. Peabod 
& Stearns, Architect 
643 (Gel.) 

" to House of Nathani 
Thayer. Sturgis & Brig 
ham, Archts., 652 (Gel.) 
Harvard Medical-Sohool Building 
Ware & Van Brunt, Architects, 63 
(Gel.) 

House of C. F. Adams. Peabody i 

Stearns, Archts., 646 (Gel. 

" " Nathaniel Thayer. Sturgi 

& Brigham, Archts., 65 

(Gel.-) 

" on Berkeley St. Peabody & 

Stearns, Archts., 640 ( Gel. 

" " Hereford St. Shaw & Hun 

newell, Archts., 647 (Gel. 

Houses on Commonwealth Ave. C 

B. Atwood. Architect, 642 (Gel.) 
Monument to Leif Ericson. Ann 

Whitney, Sculptor, 628 (Gel.) 
New Public Library. McKim, Mead 

& White, Archts., 648 (Gel.) 650 
Potter Building. S. J. F. Thayer 

Architect, 637 (Gel.) 
Breslau, Germany. The Rath-haus 
After an Etching by B. Mannfeld, 653 
Brieg, Germany. Belfry of City-hall, 642 
Brooklyn, N. Y. Competitive Design for 
K. C. Church of St. 
Augustine. R. L. 
Dans, Archt., 637 
" " Emanuel Baptist 

Church. F. H. Kim- 
ball, Architect, 644 
Interior of same, 644 

(Gel.) 

Cambridge, Mass. Competitive Design 
for City-Hall. 
Chamberlin & 
Whidden, Archi- 
tect*, 651 

" House of Henry En- 
dicott. Chamberlin 
& Whidden, Archi- 
tec 18,645 

Carpenter Station, P. R. R. House. 
Cope & Steward- 
son, Archts., 652 

" " P. R. R. House of 

James Hackett. 
Cope & Steward- 
sou, Archts., 652 
Centre Harbor, N. H. Senter House. 

F. W. Stickney, Architect, 634 
Charlotte, N. C. Railroad Station. W. 
M. Poindexter & Co., Architects, 644 
Chantauqua, N. Y. New Kent House. 

E. A. Kent, Architect, 653 
Chelsea, Mass. Review Club-house. W. 

A. Norrls, Architect, 652 
Chicago, 111. House. J. K. Taylor, Ar- 
chitect, 639 

" " House of Ejc-Gov. John M. 
Hamilton. S. M. Ran- 
dolph, Architect, 639 



Clinton, N. Y. House of Prof. H. C. G 

Brandt. G. E. Cooper, Areht., 633 
Como, N. J. Railroad Station. Cop 

& Stewardson, Architects, 636 
Decatur, Ala. The Tavern. L. I 

Wheeler, Architect, 629 
Dedham, Mass. Design for Dedhan 
Inn. Wheelwright & Haven, Archi 
tects, 651 

Detroit, Mich. Competitive Design fo 
Museum of Fine Arts. J. W. Stevens 
Architect, 634 
Dublin, N. H. Church. Andrews & 

Jaques, Architects, 645 
Elizabethtown, N. Y. Congregatioua 

Church. R. W. Gibson, Archt., 645 
Florence, Italy. Tomb of Leonardo 
Hruni In Santa 
Croce. 652 
" Tomb of Machiavelli ii 

Santa Croce, 644 

Fowey Rocks, Fla. Light-house, 635 
Gettysburg, Pa. Pennsylvania Col 

lege. J. A. Dempwolf, Archt., 643 
Gloucester, Mass. Gate-Lodge for the 
Eastern Point Associates. Appleton 
& Stephenson, Architects. 642 
Guadalupe, Mexico. Church, 639 
Herkimer, N. Y. Christ Church. R. 

W. Gibson, Architect, 635 
Hinghain. Mass. Fast-Day Sketches by 

W. W. Bosworth, 643 
Ithaca, N. Y. Design for Barnes Hall, 
Cornell University. Roasiter & 
Wright, Architects, 636 
Jamaica Plain, Mass. Church, Chapel 
and Parish-house of St. John's. Ap- 



- . 

pleton & Stephenson, Architects, 637 
Kansas City, Mo. House of H. R. 

Smith. W. W. Polk & Son, Archts., 632 
Kingston, Pa. Nelson Memorial Hall. 

Kipp & Podmore, Architects, 629 
-archmont, N. Y. House. F. E. Wal- 

lls, Architect, 640 
/enox, Mass. House of D. W. Bishop 

H. Neill Wilson, Architect, 634 
Litchfield, Conn. House. F. E. Wallis 

Architect, 640 

Little Harbor, N. H. House. Longfel- 
low, Alden & Harlow, Architects, 

<>n<lon, Eng. Westminster Palace. 
After an Etching by Felix Buhot, 635 
(Gel.) 

os Angeles, Cal. Lutheran Church. E. 
A. Coxhead, Archi- 
tect, 647 

" U. S. Court-House 
and Post-Oflice. W. 
A. Freret, Archi- 
tect, 637 

larion, Mass. Marion Social Club- 
house. W. G. Preston, Architect, 637 
lexico, Mex. Aztec Calendar and Sac- 
rificial Stones, 638 
IINNEAPOLIS, MINN. : 
Andrew Presbyterian Church. W 

H. Hayes, Architect, 634 
Competitive Design for City-Hall. 

Long & Kees, Architects, 641 
House of F. B. Hart. L. S. Buffine- 

ton, ArchiUct, 642 
Pillsbury Science Hall. L. S. Buffing- 

ton, Architect, 630 
obile Bay, Ala. Light-house 642 
ONTREAL, OAN.: 
Bank of Montreal, 651 (Gel.) 
Church of Notre Dame, 629 (Gel.) 

" St. Pierre, 633 (Gel.) 
House of Hon. J. C. Abbott. Hutch- 
esson & Steele, Archt*., 645 (Gel.) 



MONTREAL, CAN. : 
Tower of New Station for Canadian 
Pacific R. R. Bruce Price, Archi- 
tect, 651 
Moorhead, Wis. State Normal School. 

J. Walter Stevens, Architect, 649 
Morristown, N. J. House. Bruce 

Price, Architect, 647 
NARRAGANSETT PIER, R. I.: 
Greene's Inn. W. G. Preston, Archi- 
tect, 631 
House of Brander Matthews. G. A. 

Freeman, Jr., Architect, 649 
NKW YOKE, N. Y.: 
Competitive Design for U. S. Trust 
Co. Office-Building. Babb, Cook & 
Willard, Architects, 638 
New Premises for United States Trust 

Co. R. W. Gibson, Archt., 651 
Newton, Mass. Competitive Design for 
Eliot Church. Hartwell & Richard- 
son, Architects, 646 

Oak Lane, Pa. Melrose Hall. Harri- 
son Albright, Architect, 649 
Olean, N. Y. St. Stephen's Church. R. 

W. Gibson, Architect, 632 
Ottawa, Can. Cathedral of Notre Dame. 

638 (Gel.) 

Paris, France. Grand Opera-H o u s e . 
After an Etching by 
J.A.Mitchell, 631 
" Tomb of Richelieu in 

the Sorbonne, 652 
" Tomb of Mazariu in the 

Louvre, 644 

Passaic, N. J. House. F. Wallis, Ar- 
chitect, 640 

PHILADELPHIA, PA.: 
Construction of Floors in a Flour 
Warehouse. W. B. Powell, Archi- 
tect, 628 
House of P. E. Chillman. J. C. Worth- 

ington, Architect, 633 
" " A. N. Elliott. J. C. Worth- 

ington. Architect, 636 
The Logan Offices. Cope & Steward- 
son, Architects 629 
PITTSBURGH, PA.: 
Design for Masonic Hall. Bickel & 

Brennan, Architects, 652 
House ol James McKay. W. S 

Fraser, Architect, 639 
Masonic Building. Shepley, Rutan & 

Coolidge Architects, 642 
=>rovidence, R. I. Design for Y. M. C. 
A. Building. How- 
ard Hoppin, Archi- 
tect, 630 

' House of Gorham 
Thurber. E. I. 
Nickerson, Archt 
649 (Gel.) 

' Proposed Y. M. C. A. 
Building. Stone, 
Carpenter & Will- 

QUEBEC, CAN,- "*' Architects - 
Church of St. John the Baptist. J. 

F. Peachy, Architect, 631 <Oel.) 
Entrance to Drill-shed. Derome & 

lache, Architects 634 (Gel.) 
G nI J Battery and Laval University, 

650 (Utt.) 

Kent Gate, 641 (Gel.) 

The Basilica, 636 (Gel.) 
Richmond, Va. House of T. C. Leake 

M. J. Dimmock, Architect, 652 
Rochester, N. Y. Trusses in the U. S. 

Court-House. W. A. Freret, Archi- 

t <'<'{, 632 

Salamanca, Spain. Cloister of San Do- 
mingo, 628 



Salamanea, Spain. Part of the Facade 

of the University, 631 
San Antonio, Texas. U. S. Court-House 
and Post-Offlce. W. A. Freret, Archi- 
tect, 641 
San Diego, Cal. Y. M. C. A. Building 

E. A. Coxhead, Architect, 635 
Sedgemere, L. I. Design for N. Y. Ath- 
lecic Club's Country Club-house 
George M. Huss, Architect, 649 
Springfield, Mass. B. & A. R. R. Station. 
Shepley, Rutan & 
Coolidge, Archi- 
tects, 640 

U. S. Post-Office, etc. 
W. A. Freret, Ar- 
chitect, 637 
St. Dems, France. Statue of Marie 

Antoinette, 644 
' Lizier, France. Street, 633 
' Louis, Mo. Bachelor's Home. Eames 
& Young, Archts., 637 
' House near. Eames & 
Young, Architectsts 
636 v 

' Warehouse for Rosen- 
heim, Frankenthal & 
Goldstein. A. F. 



ST. PAUL, 
Building for the " Pioneer Press " S 

S. If email, Architect, 645 
Design for N. Y. Life Ins. Co. Build- 

ing. J. W. Stevens, Archt., 633 
Store lor Be Coster & Clark. J. W 

Stevens, Architect, 635 
" " M. E. Mayall. J. W. Stev- 

ens, Architect, 635 
Study for a Store Building. Gilbert 

& Taylor, Architects, 645 
Stockholm, Sweden. Old Stone Portals, 

Tunis, Africa. Interior of the "Bardo," 

TURIN, ITALY : L 

La gran Madre dl Dio, 638 
Mediaeval Castle, 638 
The Royal Palace, 638 
" Superga, 638 

' Valentino, 638 '' 

Utica, N. Y. House of H. E. Brawster. 
W. H. Symonds, Archi- 
tects, 646 
House of G. E. Cooper G 



M? P A eri i^- ltect ' 63; * 
. M. C. A. Building. W 

,.- t " 653 

H .'? 8e - Robert Stead, Architect 639 
of Mrs. J. D. Cameron. Horn- 



Ganer G - 



near. 



Tayloe Mansion, 628 
Washington, Pa.HHouse. E. G -W 
Dietrich, Architect, 651 



chitect, 635 
Winchester Mass. Town-hall an 



. Bliven. F. F. Ward, Archt.,134 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT AND BUILDING NEWS. 



VOL. XXIII. 



Copyright, 18?8, by TICKHOB * COKPAMT, Boston, Man. 



No- 628. 



JANUARY 7. 1888. 

Entered at the Pont-Offlce at Boston M teoond-olaw mttr. 




SUMMARY: 



Mr. Ciishing's Discovery of Buried Cltiw in the Giliv liivor 
Valley. The Perishing of the Miirlile Hoof of (iirurd 
College, riiil:ulel]>liia. Mr. Keely discovers a new " Force." 

The Iin]n>rt:iii<iii of Contract Labor. Movement to com- 
memorate the Negroes' Part in the Civil War 1 

I, \M.SI M'i: (J vi:i.rvix<i. III 

1 MII .1. ST.VTKS (iovKitNMKNT BL-II.DIXG PRACTICE. VIII. . . 6 

ILLUSTRATIONS: 

Lcif F.ricson, Boston, Mass. Construction of Floors in a 
Flour Warehouse, Philadelphia, Pa. Sketch of House for 
T. E. Jones, F.sq. Design for a City Front. Mantelpiece. 

Closter of Santo Domingo, Salamanca, Spain. The 
Tnyloe Mansion, Washington, 1). C 6 

SMI, P.I ii.i.iM.-. XXI 7 

LONDON NOTES 10 

COMMUNICATIONS : 

A Faulty Ground-testing Apparatus. Letting Extras to an 
( tutsider. Books. Architectural Journals. Warehouse 

Floor Construction 11 

NOTES AND CLIPPINGS 12 

TRADE SURVEYS 12 



TTR. FRANK GUSHING, the young ethnologist who 
I XI became by adoption a Zuni Indian in order to study the 
^ habits and history of the sedentary or Pueblo tribes, is 
now engaged in an exploring expedition among the ruins of 
the great aboriginal settlements in Arizona. It has long been 
known that a certain river-valley, now a desert, was once filled 
with flourishing towns, and the curious remains of houses which 
occupied the terraces along the valley have attracted the atten- 
tion of tourists, but no one, before Mr. Gushing, has had leisure to 
excavate among the ruins. Guided by his knowledge of the cus- 
toms of the existing tribes from the same stock, Mr. Cushing's 
researches have been very fruitful, and he has found proofs of 
the occupation of the valley at a very remote period by a popu- 
lation of something like a quarter of a million. To support 
this population, the desert tract was irrigated by open canals, 
cut, in many places, in the rock, and extending over a length 
of about three hundred miles. A race rich enough and civilized 
enough to build three hundred miles of canals to irrigate its 
fields must have accumulated a considerable amount of portable 
property, and a great number of specimens of pottery, stone 
implements and skeletons have been found and sent East. 
Curiously enough, the excavations afford abundant evidence 
that the towns, instead of falling gradually into decay, were 
destroyed by a series of earthquakes. The walls have been 
thrown outward and the roofs, which were of concrete, sup- 
ported on wooden beams, have fallen in, and in many cases the 
skeletons of the occupants have been found as they were struck 
down in the act of escaping. One skeleton in particular affords 
a curious glimpse of the circumstances of a catastrophe which, 
as Mr. Gushing thinks, took place before the building of the 
Pyramids of Egypt. It is that of a young" girl, and was found 
surrounded by sacrificial offerings, close to an altar in a cave in 
the side of the mountain, which seems to have been used as a 
sacred place. We must presume that ethnologists keep their 
imaginations in subjection and reason from nothing but facts, 
but of these they seem to have discovered so many that the 
expedition is convinced that this Toltec Iphigenia, after several 
shocks of earthquake, was sacrificed as a supreme offering to 
the offended gods, and it thinks that on the return of the citi- 
zens to their homes after this appalling ceremony, another 
shock, more violent than any that preceded it, overwhelmed 
them, leaving, perhaps, none to tell the tale. It is a curious 
illustration of the almost indefinite persistence of tradition 
among ignorant races that, although this catastrophe must have 
occurred, apparently, about seven thousand years ago, the 
Indians of the neighborhood still speak with dread of the mali- 
cious spirits who dwell in the heights above the valley, and 
their fears gained from the whites the name of the Superstition 
Mountains for the range long before anything was known of 
the tragedy which had been enacted in their shadow. 



FEW weeks ago it was found that water was coming 
through the marble slabs which form the roof of the 
Girard College building in Philadelphia, and on looking 
for tin- I-.IIIM- it was found that the surface of the stone was 
somewhat seriously disintegrated, and that the corrosion had 
extended into the joints. The walls and columns showed no 
sign of brin^ allected. and after consultation with a well-known 
Philadelphia architect, Mr. Windrim, who readily explained 
the phenomenon as being the result of the superficial decom- 
position, o -the marble by the sulphurous acid contained in the 
Philadelphia atmosphere, and brought to the roof by rain, the 
directors of the College decided to cover the stone with tin. 
Of course, the newspaper reporters seized upon the circum- 
stance as a text for the most startling fancies. One of them 
announced that pieces of marltle " an inch square " from the 
College roof " could be crushed between the fingers," and asked 
gravely whether the citizens of Philadelphia might not "awake 
some morning after a rain-storm to discover a mass of slaked 
lime in the middle of Penn Square," in place of the present 
City-hall, following up this lugubrious thought with the sug- 
gestion that it might some time " become necessary to erect a 
huge canopy of tin to house the Public Buildings." It is 
rather amusing to think of putting a tin canopy over a marble 
building to " protect " it, but apart from this, the way in which 
the Girard roof was affected is interesting. With most marbles, 
exposed as in this case for forty years, corrosion would have 
proceeded much farther, and it might have been necessary 
before now to replace the whole roof, but Dr. Walter was one 
of the best judges of building marble that ever lived, and the 
walls and colonnades of the structure are probably safe for 
ages. Whether it would be possible, with any marble, to make 
a fiat roof which would withstand the acid rain of a great 
manufacturing city for forty years is extremely doubtful. The 
marble roof of Milan Cathedral must in places be five hundred 
years old, but most of it probably dates only from the beginning 
of the present century, and it is constantly under repair, while 
the atmosphere of Milan is far purer than that of Philadelphia. 
For some reason an exposed horizontal surface of stone de- 
teriorates far more rapidly than a vertical, or even a somewhat 
inclined surface. In old graveyards, even in the pure air of 
the country, the top of a marble tomb-cover or horizontal tablet 
of any kind, which is more than a hundred years old, is gen- 
erally powdery with decomposed carbonate of lime, and leaves 
white, chalky marks on the clothes or fingers, while the vertical 
surfaces, particularly if protected slightly by a projecting 
cornice, retain their polish indefinitely. Dr. Walter's opinion 
was that dolomite, or marble containing magnesia, like that 
"found near New York, and in many other places, resists 
weathering far more efficiently than the pure limestone marbles, 
and he always used the dolomitic varieties in his own work. 



'7TN EXTRAORDINARY exhibition took place a few 
F\ days ago in Philadelphia, where the stockholders of the 
Keely Motor Company held a meeting, swallowed without 
a murmur the largest and most highly-flavored doses of im- 
pudence, to call it by no worse name, that have ever been 
offered to that long-suffering corporation, and finally adjourned, 
after voting to raise more money to go on with the " investiga- 
tions " for which they have already contributed so much. If 
we recollect rightly, the last important stockholders' meeting 
was made joyful by the announcement that within a few weeks 
a locomotive, propelled by " sympathetic vibrations," would be 
j running regularly on one of the Pennsylvania railroads, and 
| that other machinery, employing the same motive power, 
would be put in operation as fast as it could be put together. 
Years have elapsed since then, but no sympathetic locomotive 
has ever yet moved on a railroad in Pennsylvania or elsewhere, 
nor has the vibratory force been utilized for any service which 
has brought income to the corporation ; yet, instead of an 
apology for this trifling, the official communication from the 
j great inventor to the stockholders who have maintained him so 
long in luxury for so many years is said to have contained the 
announcement that as the company "had not for years fur- 
nished him any money to carry on his experiments," he had 
resumed "the exclusive ownership of his inventions." and had 
! "been obliged" to form a new association with these inven- 
j tions as its basis, and " to issue and sell certificates of stock in 
I the new company " in order to raise the money he wanted. 



The American Architect and Building Mews. [VOL- XXIII. -No. 628. 



This astounding message to the officia meeting of a corpora- 
tion whose stockholders have expended two hund red and hfty 
thousand dollars on their great principal s pa tents an 
periments," seems to have attracted the , attention of no o e 
except the retiring President, who mildly remarked that 

>ped that in all these new transactions "the interests of the 
en shareholders would be guarded," but did not mention 
how he would propose to guard them from a persor, , whc .had 
according to his own statement, appropriated all the interest 
they had, and sold them to some one else. A much greater 
sensation was excited when Mr. Keely's counsel read the other 
portion of the report, in which it was announced that alter 
reaching the point of promising to drag locomotives around by 
sympathetic vibrations, and actually showing a coffee-mill at 
work, attached to a " vaporic generator," he was baffled by a 
mechanical difficulty that was impossible for him to overcome, 
and had since then devoted his attention to the construction of 
a "sympathetic liberator," which will transmit an "uplifting 
expansive force" of twenty-five thousand pounds per square 
inch through a wire, and now occupies all his attention, in 
his own opinion the success of this "new departure would be 
greater than the most sanguine of his adherents had anti- 
cipated, but, although he was expecting to receive in a few 
weeks some machinery which would go far toward perfecting 
his discovery, he "would not venture to predict how soon his 
work would be concluded." As a confirmation of this interesting 
statement, his counsel read a supplementary report, drawn up 
by himself at Mr. Keely's request, in which he expressed the 
opinion that the great inventor "had reached the sphere of 
perfect vibratory sympathy." This cheered the stockholders 
to such a degree that they immediately raised the appropria- 
tion for expenses, without waiting to inquire whether it was 
they or the shareholders of the other company that the great 
man proposed to be in "vibratory sympathy" with for the 
future, and then adjourned, to wait with patience for the appear- 
ance of the "sympathetic liberator" in the mechanical world. 



[ from foreign parts to render a definite service is clearly for- 
bidden, and, unless the plea can be made that the cure of souls 
on Mr. Warren's plan is a new and useful industry, we do not 
see how the Trinity parish can escape a heavy fine. A still 
more interesting phase of the matter is, however, to be found in 
the glimpse which it gives us of the possibilities of the future 
unless the statute law is soon repealed .or modified. As the 
law now stands, not only the English clergymen, who are toler- 
ably numerous in this country, but the foreign opera-singers, 
dancers, actors and actresses, lecturers, pianists and other musi- 
cians, professors, teachers and artists, who come by invitation 
and promise of reward to instruct and delight us, are here in 
defiance of the laws of the United States, and must, according 
to those laws, be shipped back at once to their native country 
by the United States marshal, if he can catch them, while those 
persons who invited them to come here are subject to severe 
punishment. There is no difference between the cases of these 
persons and the Canadian ship-carpenters who were made to 
experience the rigor of the statute a year or two ago. Our 
native songsters and divines have just as much a right to pro- 
tection against foreign competition as the Detroit boat-builders 
or the New England weavers, and the arrest and expulsion 
from the country of Colonel Mapleson's opera troupe, for exam- 
ple, with the exile to the Dry Tortugas of a few impresarios 
and church committees, would teach the bloated aristocrats of 
the country a lesson in regard to the claims of native and natu- 
ralized talent, which seems as yet to have been thoroughly 
learned only by the working-classes. 



CURIOUS illustration of the truth of General Grant's 
maxim, that the best way to get a bad law changed was to 
enforce it rigidly, is furnished by a case now on trial in 
New York. Every one knows something of what is called the 
"contract labor law," by which American citizens are for- 
bidden, under heavy penalties, to engage foreigners to come to 
this country to work for them, an exception being made only 
in cases where the imported laborers are experts in an art 
which has not previously been practised in the United States 
and which the citizens of that enlightened country will have an 
opportunity of learning from the new-comers. Apparently, the 
law had its origin in the desire of unthinking legislators to 
please some of their recently-naturalized constituents, who had 
a dull notion that they would be in some way the gainers by 
shutting the gates through which they had themselves entered 
and monopolizing the trade which they professed, but its princi- 
pal effect has been to enable mischief-makers to annoy such 
manufacturers as might show enterprise or public spirit enough 
to wish to raise the standard of skill in their business or to 
defend themselves against Union tyranny. Within a short 
time it has occurred to some one that the law applies to labor- 
ers in other fields than that of manual toil, and that a consider- 
able commotion might be caused by trying its virtues with 
regard to people belonging to trades in which it is not the 
fashion to surrender one's common-sense into other people's 
keeping. With this view, an attack has lately been made upon 
the Corporation of Trinity Church in New York. The Trinity 
wardens have, it seems, recently engaged as assistant in the 
church a young English clergyman, who has already entered 
upon his duties. Innocent as this transaction seems, it involves, 
as we now learn, and as, in fact, cannot be denied, a flagrant 
violation of the statute. If the wardens had wished to do their 
duty as good citizens, they should have gone to Castle Garden 
and watched for emigrants with white neckties, and when they 
saw one of prepossessing appearance, have accosted him, pro- 
mising him suitable wages for his labor. They would then 
have been blameless, and, as fast as their new priests disap- 
peared with such portable property as might be at hand, they 
could have engaged new ones until the supply of clerical emi- 
grants was exhausted. This method of hiring, although per- 
haps not satisfactory at all points, is permitted by the law, but 
any attempt at getting persons of known character to come 



TJ CANVASS is being made of the colored population of the 
rj country for the purpose of raising funds for the erection of 
' a monument to commemorate the part which the African 
race took in our Civil War. While it would be unfortunate to 
distinguish in general by the accident of ancestry among the 
patriotic citizens who took up arms in defence of what they 
considered to be their country, the position of the colored popu- 
lation in relation to the great struggle was a peculiar one. If 
they had not lived in one section, under conditions which were 
unknown in the other section, the war would have been impos- 
sible, and as one of the results of it was to change profoundly 
the condition and prospects of the race in America, there is 
certainly good reason for wishing to commemorate a series of 
events which changed four million slaves into freemen and 
citizens and called thousands of colored men to arms, to fight 
heroically for the cause which had become their own. To use 
a common simile, the four-years' war was to the negroes some- 
thing what the Exodus from Egypt was to the Israelites, and, 
although the children of Israel, after the crossing of the Red 
Sea, had to wander forty years in the Wilderness before reach- 
ing the Promised Land, and it will probably be more than forty 
years from the date of the Emancipation proclamation before 
the colored people of the South acquire full recognition of 
their rights as citizens, nevertheless, the beginning of the pil- 
grimage is an event which should never be forgotten, and the 
Joshuas and Aarons of the movement, while the memory of 
them is fresh in the minds of their followers, ought to be 
honored with permanent memorials. The intention of the 
leaders of the movement is to raise, if possible, a million dol- 
lars, and erect with the money a monument at Washington 
which shall consist of a central design commemoratory of the 
part taken by the colored race in the war, surrounded by memo- 
rials of the individuals most distinguished in the emancipation 
movement. If properly managed, this scheme ought to be one of 
the most successful, from an artistic point of view, of those which 
the war has suggested. After the iron-foundries began keeping 
soldiers' monuments in stock, whatever sentiment had once 
attached to those structures evaporated, and it is a rare thing 
to be able to extract an idea from the compositions of granite 
obelisks and deformed lay-figures which occupy the most promi- 
nent positions in our larger towns, but the theme of the 
colored men's monument is full of suggestions. Fortunately, 
there is never likely to be more than one, so that the designer 
of it will not suffer the annoyance of seeing his ideas caricatured 
elsewhere, but with the strange, wild history of the Southern 
slaves in 1863-64 to inspire him, it would be strange if a man 
of decent abilities' could not evolve a monument which should 
excite more attention, at least, than anything of the kind which 
now exists in Washington. 



JANUARY 7, 1888.] 



The American Architect and Building News. 



LANDSCAPE GARDENING. 1 III. 




"Arrcn L/A.RT. 



*TJS it is difficult for the student of landscape-gardening to find 
f~\ teachers in the more artistic departments of his work, there is 
/ all the more reason why he should master the teachings of 
books. The literature of the art is not so large as might be 
expected, nor am I at all competent to draw up a catalogue which 
would show its actuat*4xtent. Hut even a partial list of prominent 
works may be useful, so great seems to be the ignorance of the 
public witli regard to them. These, then, are a few of the books 
which may be studied: 

MOKKL " Theorie ties jardins." 

GIRAUDIX " Composition des paynage*." 

HORACE \VALPOLE u Essay on Gaidening." 

HIRSCHFELD " Theorie de I'art des jardins." 

PRINCE DE LIGXE " Coup d'ceil sur lielozil." 

GILPIN " Forat Scenery; " "Practical Hints on Landicape- 
Garileniny." 

WHATELY " Observations on Modem Gardening." 

WKIVERT " Die schoene Landbaukun.it." 

BAUMGARTXKK " Idees pour la decoration des jardins." 

SIEGEL " Description des jardins modernes." 

REPTOX "Theory and Practice of Lind.icape-Gnrdening " ; 
" Fragments on Landscape-Gardening " ; " Sketches and Hints on 
Landscape-Gardening." 

CURTKN* " Essai sur le.i jardins." 

LOUDOX " Treatise on Forming Country Residences." 

UVEDALE PKICE " On the Picturesque " (Edited by Sir J. Dick 
Lander.) 

TIIOCIN "Plans raisonnes des jardins." 

LABORDK " Description des nouveaux jardins de France." 

SEELEY " Description of Stowe." 

MASON "Essay on Gardening." 

LAUGIER " Essai sur I' architecture." 

CHAMUEKS " Dissertation on Oriental Gardening." 

All these are books which date from the last century or from the 
first quarter of our own. It is needless to name works of earlier 
origin than these. They deal of course, with those more formal 
developments of the art which are infinitely beautiful when well 
managed in the right place and the study of which is essential to the 
cultivation of the student's mind and taste, but which from a practi- 
cal point of view are less helpful to him than those later develop- 
ments to which the word landscapes may more truthfully l>e applied. 
And besides, they are works of classic reputation which will be found 
in any catalogue that contains architectural treatises of the same 
period. Architecture and gardening were, in truth, so closely united 
in the seventeenth century that books which deal with the one art 
very often deal with the other too. 

Between the year 1820 and times which may be called our own, 
few treatises upon the art seem to have been written. The best of 
all recent books indeed, I think the most illuminative of all extant 
books is the work of M. Edouard Andre already referred to 
" L'Art des jardins." A few others are : 

ROBINSON "Parks and Gardens of Paris" : " The Wild Gar- 
den." 

VITET " Etudes sur t'ltistoire de. .'art," Vol. IV. 

CIIOULOY " L'Art di:s jardins." 

MEYEK " Lehrbuch der sclioenen Gartenkunst." 

Rupiticti-RoHERT "La Flore Ornementale." 

ANDRIJ: " Un mois en Kussie." 

SMITH "Parks and Pleasure Grounds." 

KKNNIOX " Trees in Landscape." 

LOUDON "Encyclopedia of Landscape-Gardening." 

KOCH " Dendrologie." 

DOWNING " Landscape-Gardening " (Edited by Sargent) ; " /Ju- 
ra/ Essays" ; " Villa and Cottage Architecture." 

SCOTT " The Art O'~ Beautifying Hume Grounds." 

WKIDICNMANN "Beautifying Country Homes." 

KERN "Practical Landscape-Gardening." 

These last four authors are Americans and their works, therefore, 
are especially interesting to the student who must work amid the 

1 Continued from page 2frJ, Xo. 623. 



same conditions. Scott's book has already been referred to. Al- 
though intended primarily for the amateur it will be very helpful to 
the professional student if he absorbs the principles it lays down ami 
looks with a discriminating eye at its many illustrations. These last, 
however, cannot always be accepted as patterns of excellence, nor 
are the author's applications of his theories always as good as the 
theories themselves. Of his constructive work I cannot speak, but 
his book seems to reveal a man with more intelligence than taste 
one who mentally recognizes what is right but is not always able to 
tell the best from the less good in sneuial cases. Weidenmann's and 
Kern's books I have not read, but M. Andre cites them with respect. 
Downing's are extremely good quite invaluable to the American 
beginner. Some day, when this art is understood and valued as it 
should l>c, Downing's will be recognized as one of the gruat names in 
the intellectual history of America. A pioneer in what, if not an 
actual wilderness, was a wilderness of ignorance, bad taste and 
indifference, he showed, alike in his writings and his practical results, 
the true spirit of an artist and the true instincts of a man of intelli- 
gence, education and taste. The places he laid out or altered 
especially along the Hudson River are still among the very best in 
the country; and almost all the good work which has since been 
done, including Mr. Olmsted's, may be traced back to his inspira- 
tions, while such measure of popular interest and good taste as we 
can lay claim to lias almost altogether sprung from the same source. 
! Twenty years ago his books were on every one's shelf and it would 
be well if as much could be said to-day. In architecture his tasto 
was about on a level with that of his time which is to say, was 
pretty bad. Yet even as regards architecture he had a good influence 
in so far that ho first in his generation drew popular attention to its 
claims. And as regards landscape-gardening his ideas were far 
ahead of his time and are still far ahead of ours if we may judge 
ideas by average results. 

Koch's "Dendrologie" is a collection of lectures which treat in 
part of certain classes of trees, but also contain an interesting sum- 
mary of the history of landsca|X!-gardening in all ages of the world. 

Outside of books like those I have mentioned, there are many 
others of many periods which it will profit the student to acquaint 
himself with. The love of Nature is as old as the world, and, strange 
though it may seem, expressed itself for ages in a love for cultivate,! 
Nature before the attractions of wild scenery were perceived. Litera- 
ture which descants upon these latter charms is of comparatively 
modern origin, but literature which speaks or sings the praise of 
gardens begins almost as far back as history takes us. Roman 
literature, for example, as I need hardly sav, is full of it, and though 
such writing gives the student no practical instruction, it profits by 
awakening enthusiasm and stirring his artistic sense. Then, as we 
come farther down in time, we find a great deal of writing which 
has a more definite though not exactly a practical bearing upon 
modern work. So poetic, so idyllic in its nature is the landscape- 
gardener's art (specially so-called as distinguished from the formal 
gardening art of elder days), that we have no real right to be sur- 
prised when we find that before it actually began it was preached 
and foreshadowed by poets and essayists. The first great garden on 
the true landscape pattern of which we know was not created in 
tangible shape, but was pictured in "Paradise Lost." And from 
Milton's day onwards far into the eighteenth century, we find the 
poets and essayists teaching the landscape-gardener how he should 
conceive and sometimes how he should execute his tasks. Bacon, 
Pope, Addison, Mason, White of Selborne, Thomson, Gray, Delille, 
Rousseau and Goethe all have written many pages which should 
have a fertilizing influence upon the student if he has a soul to be 
stirred as well as a body to be nourished by his art. 

Numberless English, French and German books of practical as 
distinct from artistic or poetic bearing have been published during 
the past twenty years. A few of them may be cited as guides to the 
finding of others, although, of course, some are more valuable to 
foreign than to American readers : 

DE LAMBERTYE " Conseils aux habitants des campagnes." 
DECAISNE ET NAUDIX " Manuel de I'amateur des jardins." 
JACQUES (and others) " Manuel general des plantes." 
CAIUIIEIIE " Traite general des coni feres." 

RcwiNsox "Alpine Flowers" giving advice about rock work, 
etc.) 

VILMOKIX ET ANDRIEUX " Les F/eurs de pleine terre." 

ANDR^ "Plantes a feuillage ornemcntal." 

Du BRKUIL "Cours d' arboriculture" ; " Arbres et arbuitteaux.' 

A NDI: E " Les Plantes de terre de bruyere." 

STEWART ' The Planter's Guide." 

TUOMSOX "Handy-Book of the Flower-Garden." 

And to these and such as these may be added books on the princi 
pies of color like those of Chcvreuil and of Root. 

More American works of similar kinds must exist than I have 
chanced to hear about. I can only suggest that it would be well to 
supplement strict botanical works by those like Emerson's " Trees 
and Shrubs of Massachusetts," which describes the aspect as well as 
the characteristics of each species in a very clear and suggestive 
way. Professor Sargent's catalogue of the Jesup collection of 
American woods is also extremely useful as giving in compact shape 
not only a full list of all our native trees, but also the average sizes 
which they attain and the geographical limits within which they are 



The American Architect and Building News. [VOL. XXIII. No. 628. 



at home. 1 American literature as well as English also offers a num- 
ber of works of a descriptive sort which should please and inspire 
though they may not actually teach the student. The love of Nature 
and the habits of observation shown in the writings of Thoreau, for 
instance, and at the present moment of Charles Abbott and John 
Burroughs may do much to cultivate the same qualities in the reader. 
It may seem' a strange and it certainly is an unfortunate fact that 
there is to-day no periodical which either gives the landscape-gar- 
deWr theoretic counsels or enables him to follow what is being done 
in the world in his profession. Such journals as the Revue Horli- 
cole, the Revue tie I' horticulture tielge et elranoere, the Hamburger 
Garten uml Blumenzeitung, the Journal of Horticulture, the Garden 
dm/ the Gardener's Chronicle, confine themselves alt igether within 
the limits which their titles suggest. Even the first-named, although 
edited by M. Andre, does not treat of landscape art, but merely of 
some of the materials by means of which it works. In our own 
country, when Downing was alive, his words alone sufficed to give 
artistic value to the periodical for which he wrote the Horticultu- 
rist, if I am not mistaken. But to-day we are no better off than our 
neighbors. 

To turn away now from books to the living world, a word or two 
may be added with regard to sketching from Nature. Practice in 
this direction, if within the student's power, is, of course, useful not 
only as facilitating the execution of his working plans, and teaching 
him how to record the characteristics of those actual sites with which 
he will be called upon to deal, but also as training his eye to valm 
the nicer relations of outlines, colors and masses. But I think hi 
should guard himself against putting too high a value upon hi 
sketches after they are made. They will differ from the works o 
professed painters in being records of Nature's casual results insteae 
of careful, artistic adaptations idealizations of those results; an 
as such they are likely to be far less rich in suggestions with regarc 
to the effects he himself must secure when he begins actual work 
Moreover, too great a love for the generalized, undetailed charm 
proper to a sketch may foster a tendency to generalize, and, so to 
say, sketch too much when he addresses himself to concrete prob- 
lems. As has been said before, the landscape-artist must, like the 
painter, think first and most of his general effect ; but the care which 
he must give to all matters of detail is far greater since his public 
cannot be kept at a given distance, and, therefore, each feature 
in his composition is likely in its turn to become a foregrounc 
feature. But he has a quite modern helper which may profitably 
supplement his pencil. It seems to me that photography from 
Nature offers him an exc ellent means of study, as well as an invalu- 
able means of storing up hejpful memoranda. While photographing, 
as well as while drawing from Nature, he will learn to see the differ- 
ence between good composition and bad, between effective and in- 
effective massing, between the changes wrought by different kinds of 
illumination, between " variety in unity " and a mere heterogeneous 
accumulation of features. He will also gradually acquaint himself 
with the characteristic forms and manners of growth of the various 
species of plants. And the pictures he produces, being much fuller 
of detail, will furnish him with a more valuable store of suggestions 
for his future work than any amount of sketches he may liable to 
produce. And then, not every one can learn to sketch, while every 
one can learn to photograph. Nor is it a very costly or laborious 
pursuit, since a small portable camera for instantaneous work will 
serve quite well enough. 

The most important general counsel which can be given a student 
is to avoid all disposition to that narrowness of taste which will end 
by making him, as an artist, a man of set ideas, narrow schemes and 



mannerisms. 
is in 



er-isms. Appropriateness is the prime virtue in landscape as it 
architectural work. But there is, perhaps, even more danger 
that the landscape-gardener will sin against it than that the architect 
will even more danger that he will become a mannerist. The 
" styles " into which his art may be divided are as distinct as archi- 
tectural styles ; but the distinctions between them are more subtile, 
they pass more insensibly into each other, and it takes a very sensi- 
tive taste to decide when the one should be employed, and when the 
other, or when the best result may spring from a combination of 
several kinds ot effect in the different parts of a large composition. 
A landscape is not a park, nor a park a garden, nor a garden a lawn 
nor a lawn a shrubbery, nor a shrubbery a front-yard ; nor is the' 
aspect which each should wear, or the sentiment it should express by 
any means always the same. But there are no set rules which 
mark off the one from the other, nor any formulas by means of which 
even a " correct " treatment may be arrived at. Great as may be the 
diversity between an architect's different problems, the diversity be- 
tween a landscape-gardener's is still greater ; it may be called in- 
tact, coextensive with the actual number of his tasks. No two sites are 
ever exactly the same, and to secure appropriateness of effect the site 
must be as careful consulted as the buildings which may be planned 
to stand upon it, or the pecuniary resources, tastes and occupations 
of the client. Moreover, the elements out of which he must create 



his work of art are not codified as are the architect's. When he 
wants to design, every tiniest detail as well as every great feature must 
be settled upon by himself. He is thus the freest of all artists, but 
in his very freedom lies the danger that he will become a mannerist. 
It requires very catholic tastes, sensitive perceptions and conscienti- 
ous alertness of enthusiasm to ki-ep him from "getting round" his 
ever-varying difficulties by clinging to some single kind of effect, re- 
peating some two or three features, and narrowing his almost un- 
manageably rich vocabulary down to a small list of plants to be com- 
bined and recombined with small regard to perfect fitness. If he 
proceeds thus he may produce fairly good work now and then, but 
will often produce very bad work, and 'never work which is quite as 
good as it ought to be. Even such a broad preference as that which 
would say, " Natural-seeming effects are better than formal effects " 
ought not to be indulged. That effect is best which is most appro- 
priate, and when architecture comes prominently into the scheme, 
formality of the sort which means even clipped trees and trimmed 
hedges and discreetly colored pattern-beds may be the right tiling, 
and an attempt at a landscape effect may be as wrong though hardly 
as vulgar a thing as is the formality, for example, of those hide 1 
ously colored pattern-beds which in the Public Garden of Boston ruin 
what ought to be a landscape effect of the utmost purity, peace and 
softness. 

In conclusion I may return to what I said in my first article about 
the influence which the architect may exert upon the progress of this 
sister-art. Too often in the past he has been, although unconsciously 
no doubt, its foe. Every time an architect has insisted upon placing 
his building as he thought it would show to the best advantage with- 
out narrowly considering how the whole place, whether great or 
small, might be treated to the best advantage, he has sinned against 
both his client and the art of landscape-gardening, while the chances 
are that he has defrauded himself, too that had he consulted other 
rights than iiis own, his building would eventually have profited. 
Simply to be conspicuously placed is not always for a building to be 
well placed, though in many cases its designer seems to have thought 
as much. 

Something more is needed than that an architect should advise his 
client to call in a landscape-artist when his own work has been done. 
Even this advice is not so often given as one might think too 
frequently he seems- to believe that an artist is needed for every 
building, but that Nature, chance and the client are competent to man- 
age trees and water and surrounding surfaces and distant views. 
Each artist is equally needed, and the chief need is that they should 
work together from the very outset. If the landscape-gardener has 
studied architecture as he should, he is at least as competent as the 
architect to decide where a building should be placed to look well 
from a distance ; and if he understands his own art, he is far better 
able to decide where it should be placed in order that the outside 
world shall look well from its windows quite as important a con- 
sideration to its owners. Moreover, he alone can see the best sug- 
gestions of the site with regard to the laying-out of approaches ami 
the establishment of all minor constructions, while his advice may be 
very helpful even in the question, what sort of an architectural de- 
sign will best suit the locality? An architect ought to be willin<r to 
make great personal sacrifices, if it is proved to him that great benefit 
to general beauty in the common result will follow; but very often no 
such sacrifices will be needed. Very often such slight modifications 
of his wishes as the stubbornest spirit would not object to makinf 
may result in all the difference between a weli-laid-out place with 
convenient dependencies and beautiful views, and a botched place 
whose owners, if they have eyes to see, will be perpetually tormented 
by the thought of what so easily might have been. Moreover, in cer- 
tain things which are actually of an architectural sort the landscape- 
gardener should be allowed to aid with a very free hand in all of 

,hose which come in close contact with natural features. Piazzas, 
;erraces, external stairs, steps and seats, summer-houses, boat-houses' 
bridges, balustrades and boundary-walls should, whenever possible 
be built with his assistance. 

AVhenever we find ourselves considering what are the duties of the 
architect towards other arists, or how he should try to perfect his 
own results by incorporating theirs, we find ourselves thinkim' of 
Or. Kichardson as a shining example of rectitude. He 



was con- 




stantly turning to Mr. Olmsted for advice, even in those cases where 

seemed as though it could have little practical bearing upon his de- 

"?? . d wllere ll could have more conspicuous bearing he worked 

him as a brother-art ist of equal rank and of equarrights will, 

nmsel . I he Town-Hall at North Easton may be cited as one 

sample of the extraordinary success which can spring from such co- 

operation, and Mr. Richardson was never tired of explaining how in- 

valuable in this case had been Mr. Olmsted's assistance. 

bo firm a grasp of the essentials of architectual excellence as Mr 
Jlmsted possesses, and so true a taste with regard to architectural 

Im I l\ a '' e f ' T'T' exce P tional - Bl >t something akin to them 
liou Id be striven for by every student of landscape-gardening as one 
the prime requirements of his art. Few landscape-gardeners can 
"ope ever to put themselves as noblv on record with regard to 





bot 
tions of the 



d >- ntly done inthos 
at Washington which are to be lar-elv credited 
a "' 1 hls oversight. But they must, at 'east put 
on record as intelligent assistants in the architectural 
schemes of others if they would merit the name of artist n 1 efr 
own department. On the other hand, with the best will n the worW 



, 1888.] 



Tfie American Architect and Jiidldiny News. 



not every architect will always be able to secure competent assistance 
of tin; sort I have ile-rril> 'd. Mr. Richardson had Mr. Ohusted 
living :it his gates, and .Mr. Richardson had, too, a singular power of 
jicr-uadiirj: his clients to do whatever he thought best. For fear 
that such advantages as thee may lack and as things stand just 
now with the art of landM[i'--_';inlening they often must lack 
would it not be well if every architectural student should gain fome 
knowledge, of the sister-craft, at least as regards the general artistic 
principles upon which it rests, and the main things it requires of a 
building when elsewhere placed than in a city street? 

M. G. VAN KKNSSKI.AKR. 



UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT BUILDING PRAC- 
TICE.* VIII. 

PAVING, ROADWAYS AND CURBIX&. 




P 



AVING for sidewalks and for 
streets and roadways, made 
of almost every material known 
and used for the purpose in the 
United States has been used by the 
Government around its buildings. 
The kind of material is determined 
frequently by what is most in use 
in the particular locality for which 
the work is required, the character 
or expensiveness of the building for 
which it is needed, or by the amount 
of money available for the work. 
_^ For paving of sidewalks, the 

or AAMENS materials most often used are artifi- 
cial stone and brick, and for paving roadways, streets, etc., Belgian 
blocks, concrete and macadam. 

Bids are received in one lump-sum for all the work on the ap- 
proaches, including sidewalks, driveways, walks, curbing, fence-cop- 
ing, grading, sodding, etc. Fence-coping, grading and sodding have 
been treated in previous papers. 

SPECIFICATION. 

The plan of approaches shows clearly the paved sidewalks, drives, 
walks, roadways ami the lines of curbing, etc. 

Excavating. All excavating for sidewalks, roadways, curbing, 
etc., to be performed by the contractor to the proper depth ; also, 
any filling-in, grading, ramming, etc., that may be necessary for the 
proper execution of the work. . 

Brick Paving. Brick paving to be with good hard paving-bricks, 
sound and square, laid flat, herring-bone fashion, on a bed of sand 
from 4" to 6" deep. [Some soils require a deeper bed of sand and in 
some places in addition a bed of furnace-clinkers, cinders, etc., is put 
down before the sand.] After the bricks are laid and graded (which 
should be about 1" in 10') to drain water to curb or to its proper 
outlet, the entire surface must be covered with sand, which must be 
left to work into the joints or swept over the bricks until the joints 
are thoroughly filled ; or, to make a better pavement, the joints 
should be grouted in liquid mortar and the sand spread over 
afterwards. 

Where gutters are to be formed with brick, the bricks in the 
centre should be laid lengthwise and the joints should always be 
grouted in liquid cement-mortar. Where extra thickness of wearing 
surface is required, the bricks may be laid on edge and grouted or 
covered with sand as before. 

Brick and Cement Pavement. A pavement made of brick and 
cement is often laid by the Government in Southern cities. It has a 
base of furnace-clinkers or clean sharp sand 4" deep rammed and 
packed solid, on which brick is laid flat to an even surface ; after 
being well wet, all the interstices to be thoroughly grouted with 
liquid cement-mortar ; another layer of paving-brick is laid flat on 
top, breaking joint both ways with ^" thick layer of mortar between 
the bricks, and the top layer also grouted in liquid mortar. The 
wearing-surface to be J" thick cement-mortar, composed of one part 
cement and one part of finely-crushed granite or sand. When the 
wearing-surface for this pavement has been laid of the cheaper 
grades of cement, it has not stood well, but when laid of good Port- 
land cement, it makes a good pavement. 

Stone Flagging. Where stone flagging is used, it is to have a 
base of sand not les; than 4" deep. The flagging may be Milestone 
from 3" to 5" thick or granite or limestone from 6" to 10" thick, the 
stones generally to be rectangular in sizes from 2' x 4' to 5' x 10' ; to be 
properly dressed at corners to fit against curbing, etc ; the backs to 
be roughly pitched off to a fair surface, and the joints to be square 
from the top and to fit close; the top, if of Milestone, to be the split 
surface, smoothed or planed off ; if of granite, to be good pean- 
hammered work, and if of limestone, to be sawed, square-drove or 
tooled work ; all the flagging to have a regular grade to curb, to be 
jointed in cement-mortar, and also grouted full with liquid mortar. 

Concrete anil Artificial-stone Pavements. All concrete, asphalt 
and artificial-stone pavements to have for a base a bed of concrete from 
G" to 10" deep, composed of five parts by measure of clean, small, 



1 Continued from No. 268, page 623. 



broken stone (not larger than 2" in diameter), brick-bats, furnace- 
slag or cinders, one part uf go id American cement, and two parts of 
clean, sharp sand, laid in same manner as concrete for foundations. 

Cement Floor. For cellar floors and sidewalks the wearing-sur- 
face may be |" to 1^" thick, composed of one part by measure of 
Portland cement and one part sand. 

Asphalt Paoement. Asphalt is used for the wearing-surface for 
floors, sidewalks and driveways. For floors and sidewalks it is made 
from J" to 1J" thick, and for driveways it is made from 1J" to 2" 
thick. It is composed of two parts by measure of asphalt (unmixed 
with the products of coal-tar), with twenty per cent of heavy petro- 
leum oil, five parts of sand, one part of |>owdcred carbonate of lime, 
and one part of pitch. The concrete base must bo perfectly dry 
before, the wearing-surface is laid on, which must be properly 
crowned, graded, rammed and rolled. A surface is also sometimes 
made of about five-eighths sand three-eighths asphalt. 

The street pavement in the District of Columbia is usually made 
on a 6" base of concrete, with a cushion coat of asphalt $'' thick, 
and wearing-surface of asphalt, petroleum oil, sand, pitch, etc., of 
above proportions 2" thick. 

A rtificial-Stone Pavement. AH artificial stone is practically the 
same, the principal ingredients being Portland cement, crushed 
stone and sand. In the ordinary pavements clean, sharp sand is 
usad instead of crushed stone. The pavements known in the mar- 
ket as granolithic and flintolithic have crushed granite and flint chips 
respectively mixed with the cement. The base is composed of small 
dry, broken stone, etc., from 4" to 8" thick, rammed and packed 
solid ; on this base Portland-cement concrete 2 J" thick is laid, com- 
posed of two parts stone to one part of mortar, which is to lie o ic 
part cement and one part sand. The finishing coat to be 1^" thick 
of clean, crushed stone-chips or clean, sharp sand and best English 
or German Portland cement, mixed in equal parts ; to be laid in 
alternate blocks of from 2' to 6' square, with {" indentations on the 
surface except at joints, which will have a smooth border 1A" or 2" 
wide. It is this blocking or lining off the pavements which Schil- 
linger claims his patent covers, but which is not yet decided by the 
courts. 

Macadamized Roadways. The cheapest roadway laid by the 
Government is macadam, constructed of a layer from 8" to 12" thick 
of small, broken stone suitable for road-metal of a size to pass through 
a 2"-diameter ring and finished with coarse gravel properly crowned 
and rolled. The walks not used for driveways should have a layer 
of coarse sand about 1" thick on top of gravel. The writer has 
seen some very excellent macadamized roads made of broken lime- 
stone without any gravel or sand ; in a few years the wear of usage, 
assisted by the action of the weather, has made a solid and compact 
bed almost like a mass of concrete, with few, if any, loose stones. 
Streets of this description may be seen in the towns of Lexington, 
Va., and Paducah, Ky. 

Belgian-block Pavement. The bed of roadway to be built of 4" 
of gravel or broken stone (this first bed is frequently omitted) on top 
of this is placed 4" of sand. The blocks to be hard and durable 
granite or limestone from 6" to 12" long, 3" to 5" wide and 6" deep, 
to be close-jointed with projections of not over A," and to be laid at 
right angles to line of roadway, and each block to be thoroughly 
rammed and bedded ; each course to be of blocks of uniform width, 
and so laid that all longitudinal joints shall be broken by a lap of at 
least 2". The pavement to be proi>crly crowned and graded, and to 
have depressions forming gutters at curbs. 

The entire pavement is to have all the joints thoroughly filled with 
clean, hot gravel, and the blocks carefully rammed to a firm unyield- 
ing bed. The joints to be filled with the melted residuum of coal-tar 
of the proper consistency heated to 300 Fahrenheit, and poured into 
the joints while the gravel is still hot, until they will receive no more ; 
the whole is then to be covered with sand, and when the tar is hard 
and dry the sand to be swept off. 

Cobble-stone Paoement. This pavement should have a 4" bed of 
sand, the stones are irregularly shaped boulders, but should have an 
average depth of from 4" to 6", and not exceed 6" on the face, they 
should be crowned higher than other pavements and have gutters 
against curbs, the sides formed of cobble-stones and the centre about 
8" wide of hard paving-bricks set on edge. The interstices between 
the stones to be filled with fine gravel, and the whole covered with 
sand and left until it thoroughly works in. It is best not to remove 
the sand until after a good rain. 

Gutters. All roadways, drives and walks should have gutters 
built against the curbing, at each side where practicable, properly 
connected to iron or tile-drains carrying the water off; where the 
pi|>es are likely to become clogged with refuse, the outlets to be pro- 
perly protected by gratings or wire screens. 

Gutters for macadamized or cobble-stone pavements are frequently 
built of brick laid flat or on edge on a bed of concrete or sand. All 
gutters should have the joints fully grouted with tar, asphalt, or 
liquid cement. 

Curbing. All sidewalks are to have a stone-curbing separating 
them from the roadway and drives, and there must also be a curbing 
between the grass and .sidewalks, drives and walks, with gutters to 
prevent water from grass flowing across same. 

The cheapest kind of curbing is of bricks set on end, which 
should be in perfect line, and have no projection above the sod on 
one side or the wals on the other, depending upon the purpose for 
which it is wanted. Stone-curbing may be of granite, limestone or 



The American Architect and Building News. [VOL. XXI1L No. 628. 



blue-stone, and seldom of freestone or sandstone, it should extend 
deep enough in the ground to avoid all danger of dislocation by frost 
If of blue-stone it is usually made 4" thick, and if of granite or lime- 
stone from G" to 10" thick, and in as long lengths as practicable; to 



-aimm'iT. I. 
bevelled to conform to grade of sidewalk. The curbing to be set in 



. 
perfect alignment, and to the required grades. 




and 
etc , 

measured. 

Gutters are estimated by the lineal foot, giving description as to 
materials and construction; and curbing also by the lineal foot, 
giving kind of stone and dimensions, with quantity of face-dressing 
necessary. 

COST. 

The prices given per unit are for the completed work, including 
excavating and base unless otherwise stated. 

The cost of stone flagging is dependent entirely upon the locality 
and the kind of stone. 

Granite at St. Louis, 10" thick, cost, per square foot SI. 00 

'* " Augusta, Me., <>" rough, cost, per square foot .30 

Limestone at Jackson, Tenn., 4" thick, cost, per square foot 45 to .50 

" " " " C" " " " " " .60 

The cost of artificial stone, concrete and asphalt depends upon the 
locality, as to tools, implements, etc., being convenient for the work 

Artificial Stone (Gravel), at Poughkeepsie, N. Y., cost, per sq. ft S.18 

" (Crushed Stone), at Poughkeepsie, N. Y., cost, per eq. ft. .28 
" (Granolithic), " " " " " " 

" Greensboro', N. C., " " " 
" Jackson, Tenn., 
" Memphis, Teun., 

The cost of excavating and base must be added to the following 
prices per square foot, which are for the facing only 

Asphalt facing, 3" thick, at Philadelphia, cost 

Mastic " 1" " " Cincinnati, " : 

(Seyssel), 1" " "Philadelphia, " 

(Vuhwohlen), 1" thick, at Philadelphia, cost 

(Neufchatel),!" " " " " 

Concrete and asphalt, 8J" thick, streets in Washington, 



cost, per 



S .09 
.14 

.10 
.22 

.11 to .13 
.25 

2.30 
1.80 
.60 



.45 



D M' J * 

Concrete and asphalt, C" thick, ttreets in San Francisco, cost, per 

sq. yd 

Concrete, composed of small stones, sand, an tar, at Concord 

N. H., cost, laid hot 3" thick, per sq. yd 

Concrete, composed of small stones, sand, and tar, at Concord, 

N. H., cost, laid cold, 3" thick, per f q. jd 

Concrete, composed of small stones, sand and tar at Concord 

N. H., cost, laid hot 6" thick, per sq. yd ' 

Brick-paving costs, per square yard .' .75 to 1 00 

Double layer of brick and cement costs, per sq. yd - 1 80 to 2 09 

Macadamizing f- to 10" thick, costs, per sq. yd. (depending on the 

nearness of the stone) " .3510 " 

Cobble-stone pavement cofrts, per sq. yd 

Belgian-block pavement " " " 

Limestone blocks at Terre Haute costs, per sq. vd..: 

Granite blocks at Philadelphia " " " 

" st. Louis :::::::: 

Gutters cost about the same as the above materials with a slight 
addition for shaping them. 

Curbing for sidewalks, etc. , costs, per lineal foot ... 8 75 to 2 25 

Limestone curb, 6" x 2', at Kansas City, cost jg 

' 6" x 2' 6", at Jackson, Teun.. cost.. l\n 

" c" x 3' " " ' yS 

Granite " 8" X 3' " New Orleans, " .. 200 

BluesU.ne " 4" x 20" " Concord, N. H., " '.".". .45 

JAS. E. BLACKWELL. 

ITo be continued.! 



.60 to 71 

2 75 to 3 50 

o'-s 
3.60 




[Contributors are requested to send with their drawings full and 
adequate descriptions of the buildings, including a statement of cost.] 

LEIF ERICSON. BOSTON, MASS. ANNE WHITNEY, SCULPTOR. 

[Gelatine Print, issued only with, the Imperial Edition ] 
THIS statue, slightly more than life size, cast in bronze and SHD- 
> ported on a red sandstone pedestal near the entrance to the new 
park was unveiled, October 29, 1887. The inscription 

LEIF, 
THE DISCOVERER, 

SON OF ERICK, 

WHO SAILED FROM ICELAND 

AND LANDED ON THIS CONTINENT 

A. D. 1000 

gives a brief explanation of its presence. 

CONSTRUCTION OF FLOORS IN A FLOUR WAREHOUSE, PHILADEL- 
HIA, PA. MR. W. B. POWELL, ARCHITECT, PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

SEE Mr. Powell's letter elsewhere in this issue. 



SKETCH OF HOUSE FOR T. E. JONES, ESQ. MR. E. G. W. DIET- 
RICH, ARCHITECT, NEW YORK, N. Y. 

DESIGN FOR A CITY FRONT. MR. E. R. TILTON, ARCHITECT, 
NEW YORK, N. Y. 

MANTELPIECE. MR. J. R. KHIND, ARCHITECT, MONTREAL, CAN. 

CLOISTER OF SANTO DOMINGO, SALAMANCA, SPAIN. 
THE TAYLOE MANSION. THE OCTAGON HOUSE, WASHINGTON, D. C. 

TJISHOP MEAD, in his " Old Churches, Ministers and Families of 
J<J Virginia," tells us that William Tayloe emigrated from London 
to Virginia in 1C50. John Tayloe, his son, who was a member 
of the House of Burgesses, founded the noted estate of Mount Airy, 
Virginia. He had twelve children, one of whom, Col. John Tayloe, 
built the old Octagon House. The Tayloes intermarried with the 
Corbins, the Lees, the Washingtons, the Carters, the Pages and 
nearly every other prominent family of Virginia. The mother of 
Col. John Tayloe, of the Octagon, was a daughter of Governor Plater 
of Maryland, and his wife was Anne, daughter of Benjamin Ogle, 
Governor of Maryland. 

For those days, Col. John Tayloe (commissioned by Washington 
in the Revolution) was a very wealthy man, having at the age of 
twenty an income of nearly sixty thousand dollars a year, and when 
the Octagon was built he had an income of seventy-five thousand a 
year. His eldest son, .John, was in the Navy and was distinguished 
n the battles of the " Constitution " with the " Guerriere," and the 
' Cyane " in the Levant. 

The memoirs of Benjamin Ogle Tayloe state that Colonel Tayloe 
was an intimate friend of General Washington, and it was on the 
advice of the General that the Octagon was built in Washington 
City, Colonel Tayloe having previously determined to build" his 
winter residence in Philadelphia. 

The house was commenced in 1798 and was completed in 1800. 
During the process of erection, General Washington visited this 
building, as he took a lively interest in it, being the home of his 
friend and one of the most superior residences in the country at the 
time. After the war of 1812, the British having burned the White 
House, James Madison occupied the Octagon for some time and 
during his occupancy the Treaty of Ghent between the United States 
and Great Britain was signed by him in February, 1815, in the cir- 
cular room over the vestibule, shown on the plan iii illustrated plate. 
At this period Colonel Tayloe was distinguished for the unrivalled 
splendor of his household and equipages, and his establishment was 
renowned throughout the country for its entertainments, which were 
given in a most generous manner to all persons of distinction who 
visited Washington in those days, both citizens and foreigners. Jn 
this list would be included such names as Jefferson (Washin"ton had 
passed away before its completion), Madison, Monroe, J. Q. Adams, 
Decatur, Porter, Webster, Clay, Calhoun, Randolph, Lafayette, 
jteuben and Sir Edward Thornton, British Minister and father of 
the recent British Minister, and many others of less distinction than 
the ones named. Colonel Tayloe died in 1828 and his death to a 
certain extent terminated the splendid hospitalities of the Octagon 
which had covered a period of nearly thirty years. 

Ibis house is well built of brick, trimmed with Aquia Creek sand- 
n 6 ' ni i is trian S ular in for m and fenced in by a hMj brick 
wall. Ihe kitchen, stable and out-houses are built of brick for the 
accommodation of servants and horses, Colonel Tayloe beino- a noted 
turfman and keeping many fine running horses. The buildin"- and 
walls conform accurately to the street lines, showing that the streets 
were accurately laid off even at that early day.' The interior is 
e aborately finished, the doors and shutters being of mahogany and 
11 in an excellent state of preservation. All the work in the 
circular vestibule coincides with the circumference of the tower, the 
ioors, sash and glass being made on the circle, and all are still in 
ig order, ihe parlor mantel, illustrated on plate, is made of a 
me cement composition and is painted white. The remains of <*old- 
f show in some of the relieved portions. The figures are excel- 
-nt evidently having been modelled by some good artist. The 
el in the bed-room is of wood, the ornamentation bein~ putty 
Sh. 1 ff m * T't f BieltiMd on papier-mache, ! learn 
date w* f f m "? dS f makin the P lastic ornaments at that 
-e was putty, commonly used on mantels or flat work where they 
not carved in the wood, (this is the material with which most 
Colonial work is ornamented) papier-mache, carton-pierre, 
(1 plaster. Carton-pierre was a composition of whitino- 
the or ap ", and ,7 as llanl and eas % polished, and I am inclined to 
mnmn t.l,.t .!, par l or and dining-room mantel in the Tayloe 
The oldest cabinet-makers, and I have 
', are entirely 



Hou 



62d 



flXD BUILDING ffiEWS.,JflN. 7 



>-YK3fiT --133V n 




o. 625 iMEHiGflx IHGHITEGT ,q\D UUILDING IEWS.J^N. 7 1355. 



Old Colom&J Work 
The 

Washington D. C. 
Built /8JO 




OLD -COLONIAL -WORK- !.* -SOUTH- 



HttiKfft Prating aBusttn. 



MKKIC->flX 



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l<IGflX '$!<(; HlTI-XoT -q\l) KU'ILDINC. I^WS. JflX. 7 





JANUARY 7, 1888.] 



American Architect and Building News. 



the shape shown in the sketch, that and all timbers visible being 
hewn. Two old east-iron wood-stoves still stand in the niches pre- 
pared for them in the vestibule. There is an old negro living whose 
duty it was to keep thorn supplied with fuel. 

Dr. William Thornton was the architect. Dr. Thornton was a 




Truss in Roof of The Octexbon. 

very interesting character and is deserving of a separate article. I 
hope at some time to be able to put the matter I have in shape for 
publication. GLENN BROWN. 



SAFE BUILDING. XXI.i 

FLOOIt BEAMS AND OIKDKRS. 



n SLICE 
(n-i) SLICE 



SLICE 



2 ml 



. 










Tl 
















f 

f~ 

X " 




~r 




ci 

$ 







"l^sPf? 


v. X 



Moment 
of Inertia. 



THE 

writer 
has so often been 
asked for more in- 
formation as to 
the meaning of 
the term Moment 
of Inertia that a 
few more words 
on this subject 
may not be out of 
place. 

All matter, if 
once set in mo- 
tion, will continue 
in motion unless 
stopped by grav- 
ity, resistance of 
the atmosphere, 
friction or some 
-KI other force ; sim- 
i * ilarly, matter, if 
once at rest, will 
by some external force. 



Fig. 1 1 9. 

no remain unless started into motion 

Formerly it was believed, however, that all matter had a certain re- 
pugnance to being moved, which had to be first overcome, before 
a body could be moved. Probably in connection with some such 
theory the term arose. 

In reality matter is perfectly indifferent whether it be in motion 
or in a state of rest, and this indifference is termed "Inertia." As 
used to-day, however, the term Moment of Inertia is simply a symbol 
or name for a certain part of the formula by which is calculated the 
force necessary to move a body around a certain axis with a given 
velocity in a certain space of time ; or, what amounts to the same 
thing, the resistance necessary to stop a body so moving. 

In making the above calculation the " sum of the product of the 
weight of each particle of the body into the square of its distance 
from the axis " has to be taken into consideration, and is part of the 
formula ; and, as this sum will, of course, vary as the size of the 
body varies, or as the location or direction of the axis varies, it 
would be difficult to express it so as to cover every case, and there- 
fore it is called the "Moment of Inertia." Hence the general law 
or formula given covers every case, as it contains the Moment of 
Inertia, which varies, and has to be calculated for each case from the 

' Continued from page 266. No. 023. 



known size and weight of the body and the location and direction of 
the axis. 

In plane figures, which, of course, have no thickness or weight, the 
area of each particle is taken in place of its weight ; hence in ail 
plane figures the Moment of Inertia is equal to the " sum of the prod- 
ucts of the area of each particle of the figure multiplied by the 
square of its distance from the axis." 

Moment 1 op fiv Thus if we had a rectangular figure (119) b inches 
ertia. wide and d inches deep revolving around an axis 

M-N, we would divide it into many thin slices of equal height, say 
n slices each of a height = 2. X. 

The distance of the centre of gravity of the first slice from the 
axis M-N will, of course be = J. 2. X. = 1. X 

The distance of the centre of gravity of the second slice will be = 
3.X, 

that of the third slice will be = 5. X, 
that of the fourth slice will be= 7. X, 
that of the last slice but one will be=r (2 n 3). X. 
and that of the last slice will be = (2 n 1). X 
The area of each slice will, of course, be = 2. X. b ; therefore the 
Moment of Inertia of the whole section around the axis M-N will 
be (see No. 536, p. 163), 

t = 2. X. b. (I. X)' + 2. X. b. (3. X)'+ 2. X. 6. (5. X)'-f 

2. X. 6. (7. X)= + eto + 2. X. b. [(2n 3).X> 

2. X. 



- L . -r - -r-'+f'+etc 4-(2n 3) J 

+ (2-l)'] 

now the larger n is, that is the thinner we make our slices, the 
nearer will the above approximate : 



-.*! 

Therefore, as : 2. X. n = rf we have, by cubing, 

8. X*. n* = rf> ; inserting this in above, we have : 



3 3 

The same value as given for f in Table I, section No. 29. Of 
course it would be very tedious to calculate the Moment of Inertia in 
every case ; besides, unless the slices were assumed to be very thin, 
the result would be inaccurate ; the writer has therefore given in 
Table I, the exact Moments of Inertia of every section likely to arise 
in practice. 
Moment of The Moment of Inertia applies to the whole .ec- 

Resiatance. tion, the " Moment of Resistance," however, applies 
only to each individual fibre, and varies for each ; it being equal to 
the Moment of Inertia of the whole section divided by the distance 
of the fibre from the axis. 

(Sir) Now to show the connec- 

tion of the Moments of In- 
ertia and Resistance with 
transverse strains, let us 
consider the effect of a 
weight on a beam (sup- 
ported at both ends). 

jj If we consider the beam 

as cut in two and hinged at 
the point A (where the 
weight is applied), Fig. 1 20 ; 

further, if we consider a piece of rubber nailed to the bottom of, 

each side of the beam, it is evident that the effect of the weight will 

be, as per Fig. 121. 

Examin- 
i n g this 

closer we find that the cor- 
ners of the beams above A 

(or their fibres) will crush 

each other, while those below 

A, are separated farther 

from each other, and the 

piece of rubber at B greatly 

stretched. It is evident, Fig. 121. 

therefore, that the fibres nearest A experience the least change, and 



Fig. I 20. 



Effect of load 
on beam 




GLOSSARY OF SYMBOLS. The following letters, 
in nil mats, will be found to express the same mean- 
ing. unte/>s flistinctltt otherwise stated, viz.: 
a arva, in square Inches. 
b breattth, in inches. 
c = constant for ultimate resistance to compression, 

In pounds, per square Inch. 
ft d> i>Hi. in inches. 
= constant for mottulus of elasticity, in ponnds- 

ineh, that is, pounds per square inch. 
/ = factor-nf-safetu. 
g = constant for ultimate resistance to shearing, per 

square Inch, acrofs the grain. 
g, := constant for ultimate resistance to shearing, per 

square inch, lengthwise of the grain. 
h = height, in inches. 

i = moment of inertia. In inches. [See Tahle I.] 
k = ultimate modulus of rupture, in pounds, per 

square inch. 

/ =: lent/th. In inches. 

m = moment or bending moment, In pounds-inch. 



n = rmisfnnl In Rankine's formula for compression 
of long pillars. [See Table I.] 

o = the centre, 

p = the amount of the left-hand re-action (or sap- 
port) of be>ms, In pounds. 

q the amount of the right hand re-action (or sup- 
port) of beams, in pounds. 

r = moment of resistance, in inches. [See Table I.] 

. ft mi a. In pounds. 

t = constant for ultimate resistance to tension. In 
pounds, per square Inch. 

= uniform load, in pounds. 

I) = stress. In pounds. 

IP = loful at centre. In pounds. 

x, y and z signify unkuoiri; quantities, either In pounds 
or Inches. 

i! = intnl deflection. In Inches. 

pi = square of the radius of gyration, In Inches. [See 
Table J.I 

> = diaimter, in Inches. 

t = radius, in Inches. 



it 3.U150, or, say, 3 1-7 signifies the ratio of the cir- 
cumference and diameter nf a circle. 

If there are more than one of each kind, the second, 
third, etc., are Indicated mith the Knman numerals, 
as, for Instance, a, n,, an, am. etc., or b, fr, p A,,, !>,, etc. 

In taking moments, or bending moments, strains, 
stresses, etc.. to signify at what point they are taken 
the letter signifying that point Is added, as, fur In- 
stance : 

m = moment or bending moment at crnirr. 

point A. 



m. - 

mx = 

s = strain at centre. 

>B = " point fi. 

Sx =3 " point X. 

v = stress at centre. 
r a =. ' point D. 

rx = " point A". 

w = load at centre. 
W* = " point A. 



VoiMt It. 
point X. 




The American Architect and Building News. [You XXIlI.-No. 628. 

: ^ ^~ *^~ "^^"^^^^^"" ~ " 





Fig. 123. 



that the fibres 
along the upper 
edge are com- 
pressed or A B 
is shorter than 
before; on the 
other hand the 
fibres along C 
D are elongated 
or in tension, 




and C D is longer than before ; if we now take any other layer of 
fibres as E F, they being below the neutral (and central) 1 axis A-l 
are evidently elongated; but not so much so, as C D : and a Ji 
thono-ht will clearly show that their elongation is proportioned to 
the Elongation of the fibres C D, directly as their respective dis- 
tances from the neutral axis X-Y. It is further evident that the 
neutral axis X-Y is the same length as before, or its fibres are not 
strained; it is, therefore, at this point that the strain changes from 
one of tension to one of compression. 

In Fig. 124 we 
have an isometrical 
view of a loaded 
beam. 

Rotation Let us 
aro tVai a a"fs."now con- 
sider an infinitesi- 
mally thin (cross) 

section of fibres A B . 

C D in reference to their own neutral axis M-N. It is evident that 
if we wore to double the load on the beam, so as to bend it still more, 
that the fibres along A B would be compressed towards or would 
move towards the centre of the beam ; the fibres along D C on the 
contrary would be elongated or would move away from the centre of 
the beam. 

The fibres along M-N, being neither stretched nor compressed, 
would remain stationary. 

The fibres between M-N and A B would all move towards the cen- 
tre of the beam, the amount of motion being proportionate to their 
distance from M-N ; the fibres between M-N and UC on the contrary 
would move away from the centre of the beam the amount of motion 
being proportionate to their distance from M-N ; a little thought 
. therefore, shows clearly that the section A B C D turns or rotates on 
its neutral axis M-N, whenever additional weight is imposed on tb/ 1 
beam. 

This is why we consider in the calculations the moment of Inertia 
or the amount of resistance of a cross-section as rotating on it 
neutral axis. 

Now let us take the additional weight off the beam and it wi 
spring back to its former shape, and, of course, the fibres of the in 
finitesimally thin section A B C D will resume their normal shape 
that is, those that were compressed will stretch themselves again 
while those that were stretched will compress themselves back to 

their former shape and 
position, and those along 
the neutral axis will re- 

1 j J . _ main constant ; or, in 

f\ other words, this thin 
layer of fibres A B C D 
can be considered as 
a double wedge-shaped 
figure A B A, B, M N 
D C D, C, (Fig. 125) 
the base of the wedges 
becoming larger or 



e whatever resistance it has at that point to the resistances 
f the fibres of the section or wedge to compression and tension. 
Now considering the right-hand side of the beam as rigid, and the 
ection A B C D as the point of fulcrum of the external forces, we 
ave only one external force p, tending to turn the left-hand side of 
,e beam upwards around the section A B C D, its total tendency, 
fleet or moment m at A B C D, we know is m = p. x (law of the 

to resist this we have the opposition of the fibres in the 
ABA B M N to compression and the opposition to tension 
f the fibres in the wedge D C D, C, M N. For the sake of conyen- 
ence we will still consider these wedges, as wedges but so innnites- 
nally thin that we can safely put down the amount of their con- 
ents as equal to the area of their sides, so that if A B = o (the 
width of beam) and A D d (the depth of beam) we can safely 

j. d 

all each wedge as equal to o. . 

Now as the centre of gravity of a wedge is at of the height from 
ts base, or of the height from its apex (and as the height of each 

ved^e is = - } it would be = 1 4 = 4 f rom axis M ~ N ' Th 

2 / 3 2 d 

moment of a wedge at any axis M-N is equal to the contents of the 
ved"-e multiplied by the distance of its centre of gravity from the 
axis? the whole multiplied by the stress of the fibres, (that is their 
resistance to tension or compression). Now the contents of each 
dge being = b. , the distance of centre of gravity from M-N = 

, and the stress being say = s, we have for the resistance of each 
3 
wedge 

, d d 
= o. . . s 
2 3 



= -^-.s 
6 

Now if the stress on the fibres along the extreme upper or lower 
edges = k (or the modulus of rupture), it is evident that the average 

stress on the fibres in either wedge will = , or s = -^ (for the 

stress on each fibre being directly proportionate to the distance from 
the neutral axis the stress on the average will be equal to half that 

on the base). Now inserting A for s in the above formula, and 

multiplying also by 2, (as there are two wedges resisting), we have 
the total resistance to rupture or bending of the section A B C D 
(A, B, C, D,) 



Fig. I 25. 

smaller as the weight on the beam is varied. 

Resistance of ^ ow to P rO(; eed to the calculation of the resistance 

Wedge, of this wedge. It is evident that whatever may be 

the external strain on the beam at the section A B C D, the beam 



1 As a rule the neutral axis can be safely assumed to be central, but it is not 
necessarily so. In materials, such as cast-iron, stone, etc., where the resistance 
of the fibres 10 compression and tension varies greatly, the axis will be far from 
the centre, near the weaker fibres. 



Now, by reference to Table I, section No. 2, we find that -^~ = 

Moment of Resistance for the section A B C D ; therefore, we have 
proved the rule, that when the beam is at the point of rupture at any 
point of its length the bending moment at that point is equal to the 
moment of resistance of its cross-section at said point multiplied by 
the modulus of rupture. 

Where girders or beams are of wood, it becomes of the highest 
importance that they should be sound and perfectly dry. The for- 
mer that they may have sufficient strength, the latter that they may 
resist decay for the longest period possible. 

Formation of Every architect, therefore, should study thor- 
wood. oughly the different kinds of timber in use in his 
locality, so as to be able to distinguish their different qualities. The 
strength of wood depends, as we know, on the resistance of its fibres 
to separation. It stands to reason that the young or newly formed 
parts of a tree will offer less resistance than the older or more thor- 
oughly set parts. The formation of wood in trees is in circular lay- 
ers, around the entire tree, just inside of the bark. As a rule one 
layer of wood is formed every year, and these layers are known, there- 
fore, as the " annular rings,'' which can be distinctly seen when the 
trunk is sawed across. These rings are formed by the (returning) 
sap, which, in the spring, flows upwards between the bark and wood, 
supplies the leaves, and returning in the fall is arrested in its altered 
state, between the bark and last annular ring of wood. Here it hard- 
ens, forming the new annular ring. As subsequent rings form 
around it, their tendency in hardening is to shrink or compress and 
harden still more the inner rings, which hardening (by compression) 
is also assisted by the shrinkage of the bark. In a sound tree, there- 
fore, the strongest wood is at the heart or centre of growth. The 
heart, however, is rarely at the exact centre of the trunk, as the sap 
flows more freely on the side exposed to the effects of the sun and 
wind ; and, of course, the rings on this side are thicker, thus leaving 
the heart constantly nearer to the unexposed side. 
Heart-Wood. From the above it will be readily seen that timber 

should be selected from the region of the heart, or it should be what 
is known as " heart-wood." The outer layers should be rejected, as 
they are not only softer and weaker, but, being full of sap, are liable 
to rapid decay. To tell whether or no the timber is " heart-wood " 

8 






JANUARY 7, 1888.] 



TJie American Architect and Building News. 



9 



one need hut look at the end, and sec whether it contains the centre 
of tin- ring's. No bark should ho allowed on timber, for not only has 
it no strength itself, hut the, more recent annular rings near it, arc 
about us valueless. 

Medullary Rays. In some timbers, notably oak, distinct rays are 
noticed, crossing the annular rings and radiating from the "centre. 
These are the "medullary rays," and are elements of weakness. 
Care should be taken that they do not cross the end of the timber 
horizontally, as shown at A in Fig. 126, but as near vertically as 
]M)ssible, see li in Fig. 127. The beautiful appearance of quartered 
oak and ot her woods is obtained by cuttins; the planks so that their 
surfaces will show slanting cuts through these medullary rays. 



Seasonin 



Ml timber cracks more or less in seasoning, nor 



cracks, need these cracks cause much worry, unless they are 
very deep and long. They are, to a certain extent, signs of the 
amount of seasoning the timber has had. They should be avoided, 
as much .is possible, near the centre of the timber, if regularly 
loaded, or near the point of greatest bending moment, where the 





Fit. I 3. 



Fig. 127. Fig. 128. Fig. 159. Fig. 1 30. Fig. 131. 



loads are irregular. If timber without serious cracks cannot be ob- 



umun) mm uo IIOL weaken uie umoer. uut Horizontal 
D, Fig. 129), are decidedly so, and should not be allowed. 
Knots. Knots in timber are another element of weakness. 

They are the hearts, where branches grow out of the trunk, if they 
are of nearly the same color as the wood, and their rings gradually 
die out into it, they need not be seriously feared. If, however, they 
are very dark or black, they are sure to shrink and fall out in time, 
leaving, of course, a hole and weakness at that place. Dead knotsj 
that is, loose knots, in a piece of timber, mean, as a rule, that the 
heart is decaying. Knots should be avoided at the centre of a beam, 
regularly loaded, and at the point of greatest bending moment, where 
the loads are irregular. The farther the knots (and cracks) are 
from these points the better. 

Wind-shakes. Timber with " wind-shakes " should be entirely 
avoided, as it lias no strength. These are caused by the wind shak"- 
ing tail trees, loosening the rings from each other, so that when the 
timber is sawed, the wood is full of small, almost separate pieces or 
splinters at these points. 

A timber with wind-shakes should be condemned as unsound. 
A timber with the rings at the end showing nearly vertical (E 
Fig. 130) will be much stronger than one showinc them nearly hori- 
zontal. (F Fig. 131.) 

Signs of sound To tell sound timber, Lord Bacon recommended 
ber - to speak through it to a friend from end to end. If 
the voice is distinctly heard at the other end it is sound. If the 
voice comes abruptly or indistinctly it is knotty, imperfect at the 
heart, or decayed. More recent authorities recommend listening to 
the ticking of a watch at the other end, or the scratching of apin 
on its surface. If, in sawing across a piece it makes a clean cut, it 
is neither too green nor decayed. The same if the section looks 
bright and smells sweet. If the section is soft or splinters up badly 
it is decayed. If it wets the saw it is full of sap and green. If a 
blow on timber rings out clearly it is sound; if it sounds soft, subdued, 
or dull, it is very green or else' decayed. The color at freshly-sawed 
spots should he uniform throughout ; timbers of darker cross-section 
are generally stronger than those of lighter color (of the same kind 
of wood.) 

The annular rings should be perfectly regular. The closer they 
are, the stronger the wood. Their direction should be parallel to 
the axis throughout the length of the timber, or it will surely twist 
in time, and is, besides, much weaker. Where the rings at both 
ends are not in the same direction the timber has either twisted in 
growing, or has a "wandering heart," that is, a crooked one. 
Such timber should be condemned. Besides looking at the rings at 
the end, a longitudinal cut near the heart will show whether h has 
grown regularly and straight, or whether it has twisted or wandered. 
Thu weight of timber is important in judging its quality. If spec- 
imens of a wood are much heavier than the well-known weight of 
that wood, when seasoned, they may be condemned as green and full 
of sap. If they are much lighter than thoroughly seasoned speci- 
mens of the same wood, they are very probably decayed. 
Methods of Tredgold claims that timber is " seasoned " when 

Seasoning;, it has lost one-fifth of its original weight (when I 
green); and "dry" when it has lost one-third. Some timbers, how- j 
ever, lose nearly one-half of their original weight in drying. Many 
methods are used to season or dry timber quickly. 
_ The best method, however, is to stack the timber on dry ground 
(in as dry an atmosphere as possible) and in such a position that the 
air can circulate, as freely as possible around each piece. Sheds are 

9 



built over the timber to protect it from the sun, rain, and also from 
ie\ere winds an far as possible. 

Timber dried slowly, in this manner, is the liest. It will crack 
somewhat, but not so much so as hastily dried timber. Many proc- 
esses are used to keep it from cracking, the most effective being to 
bore the timber from end to end, at the centre, where the loss of 
material does not weaken it much, while the hole greatly relieves the 
strain from shrinkage. Some authorities claim that two years' ex- 
posure is sufficient, though formerly timber was kept very much 
longer. But evtn two years is rarely granted with our modern con- 
ditions, and most of the seasoning is done after the timber is in the 
building. Hence its frequent decay. There are many artificial 
methods for drying timber, but they are expensive. The best known 
is to place it in a kiln and force a rapid current of heated air past it, 
this is known as "kiln-drying." It is very apt to badly " check " or 
crack the wood. To preserve timber, besides charring, the " creo- 
soting " process is most effective. The timber is placed in an iron 
chamber, from which the air is exhausted ; after which creosote is 
forced in under a high pressure, filling, of course, all the pores which 
have been forced open by the suction of the departing air. Creo- 
soted wood, however, cannot be used in dwellings, as the least appli- 
cation of warmed air to it, causes a strong odor, and would render 
the building untenantable. 

Manner of 1 shrinking the distance between rings remains 

shrinkage, constant, and it is for this reason that the finest 
floors are made from quartered stuff; for (besides their greater 
beauty), the rings being all on end. no horizontal shrinkage will take 
place ; the width of 
boards remaining con- 
stant, and the shrinkage 
being only in their thick- 
ness; neither will tim- 
ber shrink on end or in 
its length. Figures 132 
Fig. i 3J. and 133 show how tim- 
ber will shrink. The first from a quar- 






tered log, the other from one with parallel 
cuts. 'I he dotted part shows the shrinkage. 



Fig. 133. 

, --- ..,...,,.._.. The side-pieces G 

in Fig. 133 will curl, as shown, besides shrinking. By observing the 
directions of the annular rings, therefore, the future behavior of the 
timber can be readily predicted. Of course, the figures are greatly 
exaggerated to show the effect more clearly. 

Decay of M tlle heart is not straight its entire length, the 

Timber, piece will twist lengthwise. Shrinkage is a serious 
danger, but the chief danger in the use of timber lies in its decay. 
All timber will decay in time, but if it is properly dried, before be- 
ing built in, and all sap-wood discarded, and then" so placed that no 
moisture can get to the timber, while fresh air has access to all parts 
of it, it will last for a very long time ; some woods even for many 
centuries. In proportion as we neglect the above rules, will its life 
be short-lived. There are two kinds of decay, wet and dry rot. The 
wet rot is caused by alternating exposures to dampness and dryness ; 
or by exposure to moisture and heat ; the dry-rot, by confining the 
timber in an air-tight place. In wet rot there is " an* excess of evap- 
oration ; " in dry rot there is an " imperfect evaporation." Beams 
with ends built solidly into walls are apt to rot; also beams sur- 
rounded solidly with fire-proof materials ; beams in damp, close, and 
imperfectly ventilated cellars; sleepers bedded solidly in damp mor- 
tar or concrete, and covered with impervious papers or other male- 
rials; also timbers exposed only at intervals to water or dampness, or 
timbers in " solid " timbered floors. 

Dry rot is like a contagious disease, and will gradually not only 
eat up the entire timber, but will attack all adjoining sound wood- 
work. Where rotted woodwork is removed, all adjoining woodwork, 
masonry, etc., should be thoroughly scraped and washed with strong 
acids. 

Ventilation Where wood has, of necessity, to be surrounded 

necessary, with fireproof materials, a system of pipes or other 
arrangements, should be made to force air to same through holes, 
either in the floors or ceilings, hut in no case connecting two floors ; 
the holes can then be made small enough not to allow the passage of 
fire. Where the air is forced in under pressure it would be advisa- 
ble at times to force in disinfectants, such as steam containing evap- 
orated carbolic acid, fumes of sulphur, etc. 

Coating woodwork with paint or other preparations will only rot 
the wood, unless it has been first thoroughly dried and every particle 
of sap removed. 

Cross-bridging. Timber must not be used too thin, or it will be apt 
to twist. For this reason floor-beams should not be used thinner 
than three inches. To avoid twisting and curling, cross-bridging is 
resorted to. That is, strips usually 2" X 3" are cut between the 
beams, from the bottom of one to the top of the next one, the ends 
being cut (in a mitre-box), so as to fit accurately against the sides of 
beams, and each end nailed with at least two strong nails. The strips 
are always placed in double courses, across the beams, the courses 
crossing each other like the letter x between each pair of beams. 
This is known as "herring-bone" cross-bridging. Care should 
be taken that all the parallel pieces in each course are in the same 
line or plane. The lines of cross-bridging can be placed as frequently 
as desired, for the more there are, the stilfer will be the floor. About 
six feet between the lines is a good average. Sometimes solid blocks 
are used between the beams, in place of the herring-bone bridging 



10 



The American Architect and Building News. [VOL. XXIII. No. 628. 



Cross-bridging is also of great help to a floor by relieving an individ- 
ual beam from any great weight accidentally placed on it (such as 
one leg of a safe, or one end of a book-case), and distributing the 
weight to the adjoining beams Unequal settlements of the individ- 
ual beams are thus avoided. Where a floor shows signs of weakness, 
or lacks stiffness, or where it is desirable to force old beams, that 
Stiffening cannot be well removed, to do more work, two lines 

weaKTloors. o f slightly wedge-shaped blocks are driven tightly 
between the beams, in place of the cross-bridging. The beams are 
then bored, and an iron rod is run between the lines of wedges, from 
the outer beam at one end to the outer beam at the other, and, of 
course, at right angles to all. At one end the rod has a thread and 
nut, and by screwing up the latter the beams are all forced upwards, 
"cambered," and the entire floor arched. It will be found much 
stronger and stiffer; but, of course, will need levelling for both floor 
and ceiling. Under the head and nut at ends of rod, there must be 
ample washers, or the sides of end beams will be crushed in, and the 
effect of the rod destroyed. 

Girders, which cannot be stiffened sideways, should be, at least, 
half as thick as they are deep, to avoid lateral flexure. 
Framing of ^" usm S wooden beams and girders, much fram- 

oeams. ing has to be resorted to. The used joints between 
timbers are numerous, but only a very few need special mention 
here. .Beams should not rest on girders, if it can be avoided, on ac- 
count of the additional dropping caused by the sum of the shrinkage 
of both, where one is over the other. If framing is too expensive, 
bolt a wide piece to the under side of the girder, sufficiently wider 
than the girder to allow the beams to rest on it, each side. If this 
is not practicable bolt pieces onto each side of the girder, at the bot- 
tom, and notch out the beams to rest against and over these pieces. 
The bearing of a beam should always be as near its bottom as possible. 
If a beam is notched so as to bear near its centre, it will split longi- 
tudinally. Where a notch of more than one-third the height "of 
beam, from the bottom, is necessary, a wrought-iron strap or belt 
should be secured around the end of 'beam, to keep it from splitting 
lengthwise. 

If framing can be used, the best method is the " tusk and tenon " 
joint, as shown in Figs. 13J, and 135. In the one case the tenon goes 
through the girder and is secured by a wooden wedge on the o"ther 

side; in the other it goes 

in only about a length equal 
to twice its depth, and is 
spiked from the top of gir- 
der. The latter is the most 
used. By both methods the 
girder is weakened but very 



Which for wrought-iron (Table IV.) becomes. 

Thickness of ,, " 

Stirrup-iron * 



(71) 



16000. x 

Where y = thu thickness of stirrup-iron, in inches. 
Where s = the shearing strain on end of beam, in lb(. 
Where z = is found by formula (69). 

Providing, however, that y should never be less than one-quarter 
"* thick. 

Louis DECOPPET BERG. 

fTo be continued.1 




Fig. 134. 




little, the principal cut being near its neutral Fig - l35 ' 

axis, while the beam gets bearing near its bottom, and its tenon is 
thoroughly strengthened to prevent its shearing off. The dimen- 
sions given in the figures are all in parts of the height of beams. 
Headers and trimmers at fire-places and other openings are fre- 
quently framed together, though it would be more advisable to use 
"stirrup-irons." The short tail-beams, however, can be safely 
tenoned into the header. 

In calculating the strength of framed timber, the point where the 
mortise, etc., are cut, should be carefully calculated by itself, as the 
cutting frequently renders it dangerously weak, at this point, if not 
allowed for. For the same reason plumbers should not be allowed 
to cut timbers. As a rule, however, cuts near the wall are not dan- 
gerous, as the beam being of uniform size throughout, there is usu- 
ally an excess of strength near the wall. 

Stirrup-irons. Stirrup-irons are made of wrought-iron ; they are 
secured to one timber in order to provide a restingplace for another 
timber, usually at right angles to and carried by the former. They 
should always lap o'ver the farther side 
of the carrying timber, to prevent slip- 
ping, as shown in Fig. 136. 

The iron should 1 e sufficiently wide 
not to crush the beam, where resting on 
it ; the section of iron must be sufficient 
not to shear off each side of beams. 
The twist must not be too sudden, or 
it will straighten out and let the carried 
timber down. To put the above in for- 
mulae we should have : 




Y'ES-I 
firs 



From' 
Leek Toum Hall. 



LONDON NOTES. 

LOXDOX, December 17, 1887. 
ESTERDAY the 
first pitched battle 
was fought b e- 
tween the promoters of 
the Architects' and 
Engineers' Registration 
Bill, which is going to 
b e introduced into 
Parliament next ses- 
sion by Colonel Dun- 
can, II. A., M. P., and 
their opponents. The 
object of this movement 
is, no doubt, pretty well- 
known. There are a 
large number of archi- 
tects in England who 
feel that architecture, 
as a profession, does 
not receive that pro- 
tection from the State 
that it deserves. They 
point to the sister pro- 
fessions of law and 
medicine, and say, with 
much justice, that the 
honor and dignity of 
these professions is up- 
held by a State Regula- 
tion whereby no person 




Fig. 136. 

for the width of stirrup-iron (x) 



Width of 

Stirrup-irons. 



6. 



(7) 



(69) 



Where x the width of stirrup-iron, in inches. 
ried. = Shea " nS Strain ' in lbs '' on end of beam > e.ing ear- 

Where 6 = the width of beam being carried, in inches. 
Where (j] = the safe resistance, in pounds, to compression, 



across the fibres, of the beam, being carried. 

For the thickness of stirrup-iron "we should have : 



y = 



1.x.[ SL 



(70) 



10 



... . . vmuicuy uu person 

may publicly practise, without having previously passed a qualifyin" 
examination. 

Therefore thase professions are kept clear of quacks, and the 
public, when it employs a lawyer or a doctor, feels confident that it 
is not throwmg its money away upon mere charlatans, persons, in 
tact incompetent to carry out what they profess. 

The other side reply that it is quite impossible to compare such 
protessions as law and medicine with architecture. Architecture 
they say, is an art, not a profession. Our companions are the' 
painter and the sculptor, not the engineer and surveyor, and it is 
manifestly impossible to satisfactorily conduct an examination in a 
subject winch is, after all, merely a matter of taste. Therefore to 
impose a uniform qualifying examination in architecture is, first of 
all, impossible ; and, secondly, even if it were practicable, would be 
most undesirable. " We have in England," say they, "a delightful 
freedom in design, and we have only to point to France to show you 
what injurious effects are produced by this stiflin" of individual en- 
terprise, and of liberty in design." And so the fight ^oes on. 

Ihe meeting last flight was promoted by the Architectural Asso- 
ciation, and was held in the Council Chamber of the Royal Institute 
of British Architects. The room was crowded to excess, and araon^ 
those present I noticed Mr. Arthur Cates, the Chairman of the 
Board of Examiners for the Obligatory Examination in Architecture, 
Irofessor Kerr, of King's College, Mr. Roumien GotHi, Leader of 
the Registrationists, and many other gentlemen of high standin- in 
the profession. Ihe eminent Oxford architect, Mr. T. G. Jackson 
M.A., opened the discussion on behalf of the anti-Reo-istrationists 
with a most able paper, abounding in neat hits and telling arguments, 
n which he strongly, almost vehemently, opposed the institution of 
qualifying examinations. He resumed his seat amid rounds of 
ringing applause. Speaker after speaker followed, but there was no 
doubt on which s,de the feeling of the meeting was; indeed, the 
students were at times a trifle too demonstrative in their hostility to 
he Reg.stratiomsts. It was a little amusing, though, to see the neat 
wa> in which responsible speakers steered clear of the difficult sub- 
ift, and 1 question very much if last night's meeting was more than 
a preliminary skirmish before the fight. There are exciting times 
before us, we may be sure. 

I went to the Royal Academy the other day to see the exhibition 

of the Academy students' work for the past year. There was 

large and fashionable gathering, but as Jal thl palnti,!'. we e he 

chief attract, "No doubt these are all yery clever," laid a lady 

o me when looking at the architectural drawings, "but, you know 

I really don't understand them. Let's go and look at thupictur "s." 

lie subject set for the Gold Medal and 200 'I 'ravellm- 

Studentdup was a Railway Station ! Could any one, in his en ef 

havebeheved it possible that the august body It Burlington House 

would have descended to so matter-of-fact, a subject. This is a " si<m 






JANUARY 7, 1888.] 



The American Architect and Building News. 



11 



of the times," with a vengeance. The difficulties of the problem 
were very courageously attacked in several eases, but the huge iron 
roof proved too much for most of the competitors. One or two tried, 
with more or leas success, to treat it architecturally, but the majority 
hopelessly gave it up, and we were cdilied by most ingenious at- 
tempts to decorate the segmental end of the roof. The prize was, I 
think, fairly won by Mr. behultz, though the decision of the judges 
met with a good deal of criticism. 

The competition for an oil painting upon the suggestive word 
" Captives," produced a most interesting collection, the early 
Britons and their Roman masters being the favorite subject. One 
most attractive picture depicted a first-class railway-carriage con- 
taining a forger who had just been arrested, and his wife, while the 
detective in the corner, was sharply watching (over the top of his 
newspaper) the struggles of his prisoner to free himself from the 
"bracelets." Altogether the exhibition was pronounced to be highly 
satisfactory. 

On Thursday, the Corporation of the City of London elected a 
city architect, in the place of the late Horace Jones, who received 
his knighthood, it will be remembered, when the Prince of Wales 
laid the foundation of the new bridge which is to be thrown across 
the Thames at the Tower. As the salary and emoluments of the 
office are considerable, there was a sharp competition. Mr. Alex- 
ander Peebles, an architect well-known in the " City," succeeded in 
gaining the appointment. Mr. Charles Barry, son of Sir Charles 
Barrv, who designed the Houses of Parliament, and Mr. W. H. 
Crossland, architect to the Royal Holloway College, taking the 
second and third places respectively. "CmEL." 




A FAULTY GROUND-TESTING APPARATUS. 
To THE EDITORS OF THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT: 

Dear Sirs, While waiting in the Baltimore depot at Washing- 
ton I made the following notes, which I send to you : 

While in Washington last Saturday I noticed the machine being 
used to test the soil under the footings for the new Government Library 
building of which you recently spoke editorialy, and it seemed tha't 
from the way it was constructed that it would give unsatisfactory 
results unless the greatest care was used in operating it, and even 
then I should think it would be inaccurate. It was not in operation 
when I saw it. Reference to the accompanying sketch will explain 
what follows. 

The platform, loaded with bars of iron, rests upon two I-beams, 
each I-beam resting upon five or six supports flanging out to a broad 
base. The load was placed directly over four of the supports, but it 
was not evenly distributed over the platform. Now what impressed 
me was this : as soon as any one of these four supports begins to 




settle, the load is thrown upon the supports not under the load and 
in amount inversely as the distance of the support from the centre of 
gravity of the load, but, as the soil may vary slightly, settlements 
might occur under some of the supports which would make it impos- 
sible to tell which ones carried the load and consequently how much 
load there was upon each. Although it would take more time, I 
should think that more satisfactory results could be obtained by 
having a larger base and only one, and thus testing one point at a 
time. Very respectfully, 

CLARENCE O. AREY. 



LETTING EXTRAS TO AN OUTSIDER. 

MONTREAL, CAN.. December 15, 1887. 
To THE EDITORS OF THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT: 

Dear Sirs, I would be obliged if you think proper to give an 
answer to the following. On the following question, A is the archi- 
tect, P the proprietor, and C the contractor. 

P gives a building contract for a certain amount, say $50,000, to C. 
Later on P wishes to give some new works, say cupboards and the 
like. He orders A to ask a couple of tenders for said work, one to C 
and one to an outsider. Then the tenders are in and it happens that 
the outsider is very much the lower on some items, though higher on 



others, and on the whole comes a little lower than C, say some $50 
on $1,000 or job. P had some idea to give part of the job to one 
and part to the other according to their prices, but A had no diffi- 
culty in dissuading him from that, but P sticks to giving the extra con- 
tract to the outsider, while A thinks that is not absolutely fair. There 
is no ill feeling between A, P and C, the only thing is that A would 
not wish to look too much interested in C, but desires to give him full 
justice, and P, representing a committee, feels as if ho had to be 
positively legal. The answer I wish, if you have the kindness to give 
it, should not be on the legality of P's intentions, but on the dignity 
to be observed on such matters. I remain, sirs, 

Your obliged servant, J. V. 

[THE answer to this question depends in some degree on the wording of 
the contract. There is no doubt that the ordinary courtesy among mechan- 
ics would give the 'contractor for the building the preference in any extra 
work that might be required. This does not mean, however, that he can 
get an extravagant price for It, and most architects, instead of getting esti- 
mates from two or three parties for the extra work, and thus putting them- 
selves in the predicament of havjng either to accept the contractor's price, 
which they may consider too high, or give the work to an outsider, with the 
prospect of hard feeling and annoyance, find it better to order all extra 
work to be done by the general contractor, without stipulation beforehand 
as to the price further than that usually contained in the contract, that 
extra work shall be paid for " at a fair and reasonable valuation." and 
trust to their own authority for seeing this stipulation complied with. To 
illustrate this point : We once had some work done by a rather sharp con- 
tractor. A little extra work was necessary, and the owner asked us, rather 
against our judgment, to <;et an estimate from the contractor before ordering 
it. We did so, and the contractor estimated the work at eighty-five dollars. 
The re.il value was about fifteen dollar*, and If we had been permitted to 
order It without question, we should have refused to certify for more than 
this, and the contractor would probably have accepted It without objection. 
His previous estimate of eighty-five, however, made it difficult to order him 
to do the work without, by implication, agreeing to his price, while an 
order to do the work for fifteen would have provoked a quarrel at once. 
We were obliged to escape from the dilemma, therefore, by notifying him 
that his offer was not accented, and allowing him to finish his contract, 
sending some one else after he had got through to make the needed change, 
lu the case of which onr correspondent speaks, P, as acting for others, is 
quite right in thinking it important for him to accept the lowest tender for 
tne work, but we think that A would be justified in saying that the annoy- 
ance of having two mechanics in the building would be worth nearly the 
difference, and C might well afford, in consideration of not being dis- 
turbed, to reduce his price to that of the other man. EDS. AMERICAN 
ARCHITECT. I 



BOOKS. 

ROCHESTER, N. Y. 
To THE EDITORS OF THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT: 

Dear Sirs: Will you be kind enough to inform me what would 
be the best books to purchase, one of them a general treatise on 
Architecture of a constructional nature also a good book on In- 
terior Decoration. I would like the latest publications. Could you 
give me the cost and author of each, and where to be obtained? 

Yours truly, F. A. BROCKETT. 

["Building Superintendence" by T. M. Clark, published by Ticknor & 




--------- ------ ..... ...... ------- . 

T. Tryon, published by W. T. Conutock, price $3. Eos. AMERICAN AR- 

CHITECT.] 



ARCHITECTURAL JOURNALS. 
To THE EDITORS OF THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT: 

Dear Sirs: Kindly assist a student by giving names of archi- 
tectural publications in France, Spain, Italy, Germany and Russia, 
and names of publishers. Names of journals published in other 
countries (not English) will also be " thankfully received." 

Very respectfully, F. W. FITZPATRICK. 

[Revue Generate d" Architecture; Moniteur des Architectes ; Encyclo- 
pedia d' Architecture ; Bulletin Mensuel de la Societi Centrale de Archi- 
tectes; LaSemuine del Conttructeurt ; La Construction Moderne, all of 
Paris. Deutsche Bavzeitung, Berlin : Weiner Sauindustrie Zeitung, 
Vienna ; Architectonische Rundschau, Stuttgart ; Zodtchy, St. Petersburg; 
are among the most important. Eos. AMERICAN ARCHITECT.] 

WAREHOUSE FLOOR CONSTRUCTION. 

PHILADELPHIA, PA., December 12, 1887. 
To THE EDITORS OF THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT: 

Dear Sin, In your last issue I notice under heading of "A 
Poorly-constructed Floor" several diagrams of post and girder con- 
struction, which, from the lack of proper precaution in the propor- 
tioning and placing of its parts, is decidedly dangerous by reason of 
the timbers forming the girders deflecting laterally and severally 
crushing, as in this case they have done and will continue to do 
beyond hope of repair. The system here attempted is one of the 
best that can be devised for continuous girders of wood, but the parts 
require the nicest adjustment to ensure stability. The element of 
shrinkage needs to be taken into account and parts so connected and 
designed as to admit of tightening up from time to time. I take 
pleasure in sending you blue prints [see Illustrations] of the con- 
struction of a five-story flour and grain warehouse built hi this city 
under my supervision when architect for the Pennsylvania R. R. Co. 
The load per square foot, including weight of construction, runs as 
high as three hundred pounds. Yours truly, 

W. BLEDDYN POWELL. 



11 




kef ItTs obtamed f rom the precious lapis lazuli,. d commands a 
fah ilous nrice Chinese white is zinc. Scarlet is iodide of mercury, 
InTcmnfbTr!- or native vermilion, is from quicksilver ore.-^e* 
Orleans Picayune. 

THE WORLD'S BIG WATERFALLS. -According to Dr. Wertsch, the 
highest waterfalls are the three Krimbs Falls, in the upper x-rmzgau 
S, have a total height of 1148 feet. The three falls next in height 
are found in Scandinavia the Verme Foss, in Romsdal, 984 feet, M 
Vettis Foss on the Sogne Fjord, 853 feet; the Rjuken Foss, in Thele- 
narken 804 feeP WHh a decrease in height of 218 feet, the three 
VeUno Falls 591 feet, near Zerni, the birthplace of the historian 
Tachus, fo low next and are succeeded by the three Tessa ialls in the 
Val Formazza 541 feet. The Gastein Falls, in the Gastem Valley 4f 
fee are mfdway between the Skjaggedal Foss, in the Hardanger i jord, 
424 feet and the Boring Foss, in the same fjord. The great Amo Cas- 
cade near Tivoli, 315 Srt, appears small by the side of the foregoing 
still larger than the Falls of the Elbe in the Riesengebirge, which 
are on y 148 ff et h. If the width of the falls is taken into consider- 
ation, the most imposing are those of the Victoria i alls of the Zam- 
besi which are 394 feet high by a width of 8,200 feet. A ong way 
be ind con e the Niagara Falls, 177 feet high and 1,968 feet wide The 
third largest fall is that of the Rhine at Schafflmusen, 148 feet wide, 
bv only 38 feet high. The highest waterfalls mentioned cannot com- 
pare with those gigantic falls as regards cubic contents. Iron. 

THE EIEVATOR FOR THE EIFFEL TOWER. A curious elevator has 
been proposed for use in the Eiffel tower, which it is proposed to erect 
in Paris for the next exhibition. The tower is to be 984 feet high and 
none of the ordinary forms of elevators could be used with safety. 
The plan proposed is to construct in the interior of a cylindrical tower 
a spiral railway track, on which shall run a truck occupying the whole 
interior space. This circular truck carries a double-decked car which 
is raised by the latter's revolution. Motion is communicated to the 
truck by an endless cable driven by a stationary engine. This cable 
passes through the car and runs over a series of friction-pulleys, winch 
communicate their motion to the trucks through a worm-gear and 
spur-wheel. The weight of the elevator-car is supported by the wheels 
of the truck, and these are only to be revolved by the worm-gear. 
Consequently, if anything should happen to the cable, the car would 
not descend, but would remain stationary until the persons in the car 
started the gear, and would then only descend as long as motion con- 
tinued to be given to it. The cable is run at a high speed, which the 
gear reduces, and thus it is possible to use quite a small cable to give 
motion to a car containing two hundred people. Iron. 

COMPOUND FOR PATCHING STONE. The restoration of some of the 
most important stone structures in Paris, such as the colonnade of the 
Louvre, of the Pont Neuf, and of the Conservatoire des Arts of Me- 
tiers has been mainly accomplished by means of a metallic cement 
invented by Professor Brune. It consists of a powder and a liquid, the 
first composed of two parts by weight of oxide of zinc, two of crushed 
limestone of a hard nature, and one of crushed grit, the whole inti- 
mately mixed and ground, ochre in suitable proportions being added as 
a coloring matter. The liquid employed consists of a saturated solution 
of zinc in commercial hydrochloric acid, to which is added a part by 
weight of hydrochlorate of ammonia, equal to one-sixth that of tha 
dissolved zinc, and this liquid is diluted with two-thirds of its bulk of 
water. In using the cement, one pound of the powder is mixed with 
two and a half pints of the liquid. The cement hardens very quickly 
and is of great strength. Exchange. 

THE CANADIAN PARCELS-POST. As there appears to be an im- 
pression that the new parcels-post to be established on the 1st of Febru- 
ary between Canada and the United States is to be confined to corre- 
spondence, books, etc., it may be as well to state that it is to include 
merchandise. The maximum weight will be five pounds, and the rate 
12 1-2 cents per pound. Montreal Witness. 

MCNICII INTERNATIONAL ART EXHIBITION. This Exhibition will be 
held in the Royal Crystal Palace at Munich. It will be opened on the 
1st of June, 1888, and will continue open until the end of October. 
Works of art of all countries in the departments of painting, sculpture, 



The American Architect and Building News. [You XXIII. - No. 628. 

~~~^^^^^^^^ 

architecture drawing, and reproduction are admitted Works of art- 
fnduVtry if they arc entitled by artistic invention and execution to be 
cons dored as works of art, will also be admitted, but only on the spe- 
;Ti vita ion of the Central Committee, or by the Collective Commis- 
sioners The Central Committee defray the expenses of transport of all 
works of art approved by a jury of admission. All applications must 
e received by the Central Committee (Luitpoldstrasse, Nr.3, Munclien) 
by the 15th of March next, but no work of art must arrive at Munich 
before the 1st of April. 

AN APPRENTICE CANNOT JO.N A UNION. -In the County Courts to- 
day Jud-e Baily gave a boy apprentice in a glass factory one week m 
wWcl, to return to work or suffer sentence. The boy's defence was that 
he supposed he was discharged because he had joined a labor union, 
which had entered upon a strike. Judge Baily decides that an appren- 
tiee cannot join a union. 




IN the six cities of New York, Philadelphia, Cmcago St. Louis, Kansas 
City and St Paul, the estimated increase in this year's building operations 
over the oast, and it is largely guess-work, is put at between twenty and 
twenty-five million dollars. In three of the Western cities, architects and 
buUders have received instructions to push work a little sooner than usual. 
Manufacturers of building material in several Western cities have already 
secured contracts for material and supplies to be furnished during the 
coming spring and summer. Several railroad companies have also bought 
liberally of lumber, brick, stone and other material to be used m the con- 
struction of work agreed upon. These are favorable indications and they 
certainly point to an active resumption of work in the spring. All that has 
been said m the trade and financial columns of daily and weekly papers has 



money-lenders, especially in real estate and land schemes, which seem to 
be multiplying of late rather than declining. There is an abundance of 
money available for Western borrowing farmers and Southern borrowing 
planters Builders who have important house-building schemes in hand are 
encouraged by local capital throughout the West and in some parts of the 
South During the month of December, a great many requirements were 
made out by railroads, manufacturers and buyers of material of one kind 
or another, and these requirements will take the shape of orders this month. 
There is a slight downward tendency in prices, but it may disappear at any 
moment. A slight decrease in the volume of business is noted day by day 
and week by week as against twelve months ago, but this is not regarded 
as of anv moment. The stocks of material for working up in the hands of 
manufacturers, the stocks of supplies iu the hands of railroads, and the 
stocks in the hands of jobbers and retailers are all lighter than business 
experience and prudence require, but consumers prefer to run with light 
stocks chiefly because of the enormous producing capacity of the country 



of an over-supply. A few reasons for this confident belief against an over- 
supply can be given in a few words. First, the volume of money is suffi- 
cient to keep enterprise actively engaged. Railroad expansion, while it has 
gone a little beyond immediate requirements, is below the requirements of 
twelve months 'hence in three-fourths of the territory in the United States. 
Railroad-builders recognize this fact. Then, a great demand is already 
springing up for river and lake crafts, a fact which cannot be too strongly 
dwelt upon. Then, again, the demand for materials and supplies for shop- 
work, mill-work, factory and foundry work, is a factor which is under-esti- 
mated by all excepting the few whose business it is to follow up and solicit 
work of' this character. The machinists, the founders and the manufac- 
turers of the country know better than editors and financial reviewers the 
real extent and depth of the coming demand for supplies. Bankers are 
preparing weekly clearing-house exchanges from thirty and forty cities, and 
weekly aud monthly returns from one hundred railroads and more, and are 
noting the weekly list of commercial failures, and the volume of freight- 
traffic over the trunk lines, but there are other and more important matters 
to be looked at in order to have a proper understanding of the real tenden- 
cies at work beneath the surface of trade. The country is not really over- 
producing, and there is not any danger of over-production in sight, yet an 
apparent over-production may develop itself within ninety days. If it does 
it will. The merchant-steel workmen are endeavoring to advance wages 
ten per cent. Bituminous miners in some parts of the West are demanding 
a recognition of the old basis of wages made at Columtvus, 0., and the refu- 
sal to recognize it may probably sult in the suspension of work in several 
localities. Neither the supply" of coal or prices can be affected by any 
probable action of miner? in the West, because of the great increase in the 
number of mine openings. Several Western railroad companies have 
within the past four months developed their own sources of supply, and 
most of the railroad companies west of the Mississippi are now following 
this policy. The anthracite miners went on strike this week and declare 
their ability to remain out six months. The production of both anthracite 
and bituminous coal is, according to present estimates, about eight million 
tons ahead of 188(5. The anthracite miners have been the victims of oppres- 
sion and injustice beyond the lot of the average workman, and public sen- 
timent in Pennsylvania, where the conditions are understood, and in some 
other sections, seems to be largely with them. A Wall Street paper it 
authority for the statement that next year's building 'operations in New 
York will ri-ach sixty-five million dollars. Very heavy disbursements this 
mouth will help to ease up the money market and possibly improve collec- 
tions, which for some weeks past have been rather difficult. Brokers and 
manufacturers expect an improvement in the volume of business during 
this month, and the conditions of the country seem to fully warrant the 
expectation. In a general way stocks are light. The textile manufacturers 
are crowded in the cotton-producing line. Makers of machinery in the 
New England and Middle States are mostly busy, and about fifteen to 
twenty per cent of the capacity will work overtime for a few weeks. The 
iron and steel mills throughout the West resumed full time on Tuesday. 
Throughout the South that industry continues to be exceptionally prosperous. 
On some railroads in the West large discharges of men have been made by 
way of guarding against the anticipated demand for an advance. 



S. J. PARKHILL & Co., Printers, Boston. 



12 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT AND BUILDING NEWS. 



VOL. X*l 



Copyright, 18>8, t>y TICKMOB ft COMPANY, Boston, Mam. 



No- 629. 



JANUARY 14. 1888. 

Entered at the Poet-Office at Boston as second-claw matter. 




SUMMARY : 

Burning of a Storage- Warehouse in Berlin. Death of John 
C. Cochrane, Architect. The Uniform Rate of Compensa- 
tion of Architects. Practical Utility of the Rule. Instruc- 
tions as to Planning Elementary Schools. The Fondaco 
dei Turchi, Venice. Commercial Schools Abroad. ... 13 

Ol'KN-TIMBKK HOOFS OF THK MIDDLE AGES. 1 15 

TIIK Tiiiiii) EXHIBITION OF TIIK ARCHITECTURAL LEAGUE. ... 17 
ILLUSTRATIONS : 

The Church of Notre Dame, Montreal, P. Q. The Tavern, 

Decatur, Ala. The Nelson Memorial Hall, Kingston, Pa. 

The Ix>gan Offices, Philadelphia, Pa. Houses for J. H. 

Carter, Esq., and for George L. Freeman, Esq., Utica, N. 

Y. The Interior of the Bardo, Tunis 18 

FOURTH ANNUAL REPOJBT OF THE BUREAU OF ETHNOLOGY. I. . 18 

PECULIAR ORIGIN OF FIRES 21 

THE GREAT NOVA SCOTIA RAFT AND ITS PROGENITORS 22 

Six YEARS' LABOR TROUBLES 23 

COMMUNICATIONS : 

The Bearing-power of Piles. A Question of Extras. ... 24 

NOTES AND CLIPPINGS 24 

TRADE SURVBYS 24 

IT is a satisfaction to find that the Americans are certainly 
giving lessons to the rest of the world in matters of construc- 
tion, if not of art. Perhaps the art will come later. Not 
long ago a great fire took place in Berlin, totally destroying a 
structure composed wholly of brick and iron, and built with the 
solidity characteristic of German work. The building was a 
storage-warehouse for the great Berlin express company, and 
was about a hundred feet wide, and a hundred and fifty long, 
six stories high, with a small court-yard in the centre. A 
heavy brick wall divided it through the middle, and the floors 
were all made with brick arches, turned between iron beams, 
which rested on the walls, and on ranges of iron girders, sup- 
ported by cast-iron columns. The doors in the partition-wall 
were of plate-iron. We have learned by experience the vulner- 
able points of such a structure, but to the Germans, un- 
accustomed to destructive fires, it must have seemed as fireproof 
as it would have to us thirty years ago. Five months after the 
building was substantially completed, one or two temporary 
openings were made in the third story floor, for the purpose of 
finishing some part of the work, and while these were still open, 
an accident occurred, by which fire was set to some goods 
stored in the third story. The flaming brands immediately fell 
through the holes in the floor, setting fire to the goods in the 
next story below, which were mostly cotton and woollen 
materials, and although the fire-engines arrived in five minutes 
after the fire started, they were too late to be of any service. 
Five minutes seems a short time for a fire starting in a little 
bundle of dry goods to accomplish the destruction of a huge 
building, in the construction of which there was not a trace of 
inflammable material, but no sooner had the nearest bales 
become kindled than the iron beams over them, quickly heated 
by the flames, expanded, violently wrenching the girders, and 
in many cases breaking off the capitals of the columns. In'this 
effort the beams themselves were bent and twisted, letting the 
brick floor-arches fall ; and so quickly did this effect occur that 
many of the floor-arches had fallen out before the engines 
arrived, five minutes from the setting of the fire. The collapse 
of the arches not only opened a passage upward for the flames, 
but piled broken cases, torn cloth and other combustibles, in 
the best condition for speedy kindling, upon the blazing goods 
beneath, and the west half of the structure, in which the fire 
first caught, was soon a mass of flames. The eastern half was 
cut off by means of the iron doors, all of which had been duly 
closed, but these soon became red-hot from the action of the 
fire behind them, and in that way set fire to goods lying againgt 
them, and they also soon warped enough to let the flames 
through, and hasten the effect, so that in one hour from the 
first alarm little remained of the western half of the building 
but the tottering outside walls, a large portion of which had 
already fallen, while the three upper stories of the eastern half, 
notwithstanding the brick partition wall and the iron doors, 



were totally destroyed, and the lower stories nearly ruined by 
the fall of the upper floor-arches. On examining the place 
after the fire, it was found that out of one hundred columns 
which originally held the floors, thirty-eight had been thrown 
completely out of their places, while thirty-four more, although 
they remained standing, were so broken or bent as to be use- 
| less, the only ones still fit for service be.ing those in the lower 
stories of the eastern half of the building. The girders were 
formed of iron beams, eighteen inches deep, and these were in 
some places twisted like corkscrews by the strain which they 
had undergone. An expert commission was immediately ap- 
pointed to study into the causes of the fire, and made a report 
expressing the opinion that no building could henceforth In; 
considered fireproof unless the flanges of iron -beams, and all 
portions of iron columns, were "covered by some non-conduct- 
ing material," as " is now commonly done in such structures in 
the great cities of the United States of America." 



TJR. JOHN C. COCHRANE, of Chicago, an architect of 
\oL high reputation all over the country, died last month at 
his residence, after a short illness. Mr. Cochrane was 
born iu New Hampshire in 1833, and, after completing his 
education, removed first to Chicago, and then to Davenport, 
Iowa, where he entered upon a very successful practice. In 
1864 he returned to Chicago, and has been prominent in pro- 
fessional matters in that city ever since. His best-known 
building is the Chamber of Commerce, but he designed many 
churches and private dwellings, showing a refinement of taste 
which, at the time when he first began his work, was par- 
ticularly valuable in the West. He will be greatly missed in 
the profession and in society in a large part of the West. 



BOTH the Builder and the liritigh Architect have of late had 
a good deal to say about the uniform rate of commission 
which is maintained among architects all over the world. 
To them, as, indeed, to a great many thoughtful persons in the 
profession, there seems to be a good deal that is objectionable 
in a rate of compensation which is the same for the consum- 
mate artist as for the young beginner or the ignorant pre- 
tender to professional knowledge. In the interest of art, both 
of them think it a misfortune that a man capable of making 
perfect examples of architectural art should be condemned by 
the rule on which his compensation is based, either to disregard 
the beautiful ideals floating through his mind and get through 
his work with the same expenditure of thought that his soul- 
less competitor next door would bestow on it, or, if he 
chooses to follow art for art's sake, to be obliged to do so at his 
own expense, since no higher remuneration is provided for the 
author of a beautiful building than of an ugly one. It must be 
confessed that there is a good deal to say on this side of the 
subject, but there is another side which is well presented in a 
letter to the British Architect by Mr. Basil Champneys. In 
this letter, although Mr. Champneys admits that the architects 
who study their work like true artists are very inadequately 
paid by a five per cent commission, and, moreover, that it is 
rather an anomaly that the most experienced men should be 
paid at the same rate as beginners, he considers, nevertheless, 
that there are advantages in the present system which should 
not be rashly given up. As to the artistic part of the work, he 
believes, at the outset, that this is never paid for directly at all. 
No matter how consummate an artist a man may be, he is paid 
for designing and putting up a building which is reasonably 
convenient and will not fall down. If he accomplishes this, he 
is entitled to his full fee, and the idea that if he studies iu 
masses and proportions, refine* its details and seeks inspiration 
for its decoration, he is entitled to be paid any more, has not 
as yet occurred to the public, whatever the profession may 
think about it. For the present, moreover, Mr. Champnevs 
thinks that this state of things is inevitable. A time may come 
when the public will understand architectural art and pay for 
it directly, but it is now practically incapable of recognizing 
such art when it is offered them, and would be quite as likely 
to be taken in by the outcries of an advertising architectural 
buffoon as by the pure and deeply-felt beauty of a master's 
work, so that whether we wish it or not, we must content our- 
selves with what he calls the wholesome position, that we must 
do the best we can for art because we love it and not because 
we love money. 



14 



The American Architect and Buildiny Hem. [Voi~ XXlIl.-No. 629. 



- 

IMPLY as a practical matter, however, the five per cent 
uleis worth holding on to until something better can be 
Generally accepted. It is true that under it the beginner 
receives the 'same proportionate fee as his abler or wiser rival, 
but the beginner's commissions are usually tew and ot no g t 
importance, while his experienced neighbor is kept constantly 
busy with work involving the expenditure of large 
that the hitter's income, at the same percentage is many times 
as great as that of the younger man. Besides th, , the same 
rule brings about an indirect compensation for artistic capacity 
and study. Although the public cannot say what it likes a, 
is easily misled by every one with a new architectural nostrum, 
in the end it usually comes back to what is pretty, unassuming, 
and interesting, .in other words, to what is artistic, and the man 
who tries hard and successfully to make his work artistic is 
generally rewarded by having plenty of employment, while the 
ill-trained and unfeeling designer of vulgar and commonplace 
buildings, although he gets as large a percentage on his com- 
missions as the artist, has fewer of them, and will have still 
less as the public taste advances. The physicians, who main- 
tain uniform rates of fees for general practice, find it advanta- 
geous to do so, the income of the abler ones being increased to 
their satisfaction by the greater number of their patients; yet 
they need to study their cases quite as much as architects do 
their designs, and the architects have an advantage over them, 
that their compensation increases with the importance as well 
as the number of their commissions, while physicians, unless 
they happen to be specialists, receive the same amount for a 
visit to an overfed child as to a patient in mortal extremity. 
Where a doctor chooses to devote himself to a certain branch, 
and attains recognized skill in it, he can claim a much higher 
rate of fees as a professed specialist, and this is already to some 
extent the case in architecture. The late Mr. Richardson, for 
example, was rarely content with five per cent commission, and 
found no difficulty in obtaining seven and one-half, even for 
buildings of great importance, and much more for many struc- 
tures which young architects would be glad to undertake at the 
usual rate. ^ 

'TT SET of instructions for the planning and fitting up^ of 
f\ public elementary schools has been published by the Eng- 
' lish Education Department. An English primary school 
is so completely different in nearly every respect from one of 
ours that the rules for planning them are of no very great 
value to us, but there are some interesting points. The stan- 
dard width for schoolrooms is less than with us, the rules speci- 
fying eighteen to twenty feet where long desks accomodating 
four or more children are used, or twenty-two feet where double 
desks are preferred. This seems rather surprising to our 
notions, the long desks, or forms, having been obsolete in our 
schools for thirty years, while even double desks are now con- 
sidered objectionable, and in the best American schools each 
pupil, even in the primary departments, has his tiny single 
desk to himself. The elasticity of the specified dimensions, 
again, strikes us as rather strange. . If eighteen feet is wide 
enough for a schoolroom seated in a certain way, twenty feet 
must be too wide, and if twenty feet is right, a width of only 
eighteen must mean constant crowding and annoyance to the 
pupils. The convenient and comfortable dimensions of desks 
and aisles have with us long been settled, and the dimensions 
of a schoolroom are, in well-planned buildings, just such as to 
contain the desired number of desks and aisles, without super- 
fluous space and without robbing any part of its standard 
dimensions. In regard to the height of rooms, the Pinglish 
code seems to have borrowed something from the recent French 
and German rules, and demands that all school and class rooms 
shall be at least twelve feet high from floor to ceiling, provided 
the area does not exceed three hundred and sixty superficial 
feet. If the area is between this and six hundred feet, the 
height must be thirteen feet, and if larger than this, it must be 
fourteen feet as a minimum, no maximum being specified. If a 
schoolroom is ceiled on the collar-beam and lower part of the raft- 
ers, the distance from the floor to the wall-plate must be at least 
eleven feet and to the collar-beam three feet more. Roofs open 
inside to the ridge are not favored, and, if used, must be venti- 
lated from the ridge and covered with impervious material. 

OOME of our readers may remember Signer Boni's account 

kj of the Fondaco dei Turchi, published in November, 1885. 

One front of this building was restored some years ago, but 

the other has remained until recently in the condition in which it 



was put after it was abandoned as a public resort, and its arcades 
bricked up to fit it for a place of storage, and is well known to 
architects by photographs, either under its own name or the 
absurd one which is often given it by the foreign photographers 
of the " Palace of Lucretia Borgia," the fact being tlfat if this 
lady ever saw it at all, which is by no means, certain, it must 
have been at least five hundred years old, and in a state of 
disrepair highly unsuitable to the dwelling of a cardinal's 
daughter. As a result of the passion for polishing up and 
repairing old buildings, which is just now very prevalent in 
Venice, the remaining front of the Fondaco dei Turchi has 
just been restored with such thoroughness that, as Signer Boni 
says, there is no longer any hope ' of finding any part, even 
the smallest, which we may look upon with confidence as a 
relic of the ancient palace." As the restored front was much 
the more interesting of the two, its restoration is certainly a 
loss to picturesque architecture, and the remains of the Vene- 
tian Byzantine are now so few in number that it seems a pity 
to have any of them falsified by the restorer's chisel and scra- 
per. 



ft' 



MONG the good things accomplished by the Congress for 
the Advancement of Technical Education which met at 
Bordeaux last year one of the best was the public notice, 
given in an excellent report, presented for the commercial 
section by Mr. Merckling, of the importance of the schools for 
commercial education which are now in operation in many 
places on the Continent. In Germany, the leader of all coun- 
tries in most matters of education, the first thought of those 
who see a prospect open for the development of a new industry 
is to prepare a course of instruction intended to fit persons for 
pursuing the new employment with advantage, and the result 
of the Imperial policy of extending German influence, where- 
ever possible, in all parts of the world, has been to create a 
great demand for schools in which young men, as a preparation 
for employment in the new commercial enterprises, can learn 
book-keeping, the principles of finance, and commercial law, 
besides such foreign languages as will be most useful in an ex- 
tended business, and the details of certain branches of manu- 
facturing, if manufactured goods are likely to occupy an im- 
portant place in the future merchants' affairs. In response to 
the demand, such schools or courses of instruction have sprung 
up everywhere, and the consequence is that as the German 
manufacturers, through their enterprise in establishing techni- 
cal schools, have succeeded in making themselves first in the 
markets of the world, and even sell their goods in immense 
quantities to the French, their chief competitors, so the Ger- 
man merchants' clerks, equipped with the training of their new- 
schools, find their way to profitable employment all over the 
world, and are met with in great numbers in England, where 
their business-like habits, and their usefulness in the foreign 
trade which forms a large part of the affairs of most great Eng- 
lish merchants, gives them an immense advantage over the 
native clerks. Following the example of the Germans, the 
French have, in a quiet way, done much recently to promote 
commercial education, and schools for the purpose of providing 
such education have been established at Paris, Lyons, Mar- 
seilles, Havre and Bordeaux, while prizes, in the shape of 
scholarships for foreign travel, are offered by the Government 
to the most industrious and successful pupils. A new experi- 
ment has also been tried in France, in the opening of education 
of this kind to girls, Lyons having a commercial school for 
girls, as well as one for boys, while in Paris the great muni- 
cipal school for girls has a commercial section. Considering 
how large a part of French retail business is carried on by 
women, it is certainly desirable in every way that the same 
opportunities for preparing themselves to manage it successfully 
should be open to them as to the other sex, and the Congress 
adjourned with a special recommendation of the girls' commer- 
cial schools to the attention of the public, and the wish that 
other cities might follow the example of Paris and Lyons. 
Before the next meeting of the Congress, which is to be held 
in St. Petersburg in 1888, it would be interesting to collect in- 
formation in regard to our own commercial schools and busi- 
ness colleges, to which both sexes in this country owe so much. 
In some respects their curriculum is very limited in comparison 
with that of the German schools ; but our clerks and salesmen 
have little use for foreign languages, and the best of our busi- 
ness colleges teach what they undertake to impart with re- 
markable success. 



JANUARY 14, 1888.] 



The American Architect and Building News. 



15 




OPEN-TIMBER ROOFS OF THE MIDDLE AGES. I. 

"AlLarchitecture is but a glorified roof.** llugkin. 

"There are few features of Medireval art In this country to which attention 
could be more profitably directed than the roof; for, whether applied to secular 
or ecclesiastical buildings, the framed and carved wooden rout is essentially 
English in execution and application, and is one of the most beautiful and appro- 
priate manifestations of our national art." Fergitsion. 

H E builders of the 
Middle Ages 
have left us many 
proofs of their skill, 
but none more inter- 
esting than those re- 
vealed by a study of 
their open-timber 
roofs. Certainly it is 
in these if anywhere 
that the Mediaeval ar- 
chitects succeeded in 
doing what they have 
always been credited 
with doing, namely, 
boldly recognizing and 
accepting forms im- 
posed by the e x i - 
gencies of construc- 
tion, and then, by ar- 
tistic decoration, en- 
deavoring to render 
them beautiful and har- 
monious. In this re- 



Fig, i. 



Notre Dame, Mantes, Prance. [After Jo -nson's 
" Specimens of Early French Architecture."] 



spect these roofs afford excellent examples of successful applica- 
tions of the principle of " ornamental construction." 

In design these roofs were not always scientific, but in execution 
they were invariably excellent. In the earlier periods it must be 
admitted that much was done that cannot be admired either from a 
constructive or an artistic point of view. It may be said of these 
unsuccessful efforts, however, that they are of exceeding interest as 
showing the many difficulties encountered and overcome, and thus, 
when contrasted with the beautiful works of later times, serve not to 
detract from but rather to heighten our admiration for those remark- 
able specimens of Mediaeval art. 

To-day, practical questions, such as expense, acoustic properties, 
etc., tend to prevent anything like general use as in the period of 
Gothic Revival, but it is still to be said that " no form of wooden 
covering is so good in the internal effect as the high-pitched, open 
roof with its massive timbers crossing and recrossing in perspective 
and giving mysterious shadows and half lights above." l 

ABSENCE OF EARLY EXAMPLES. 

A very noticeable feature in the history of wooden roofs is the 
absence of early examples, especially on the Continent, The num- 
ber of examples previous to the fourteenth century is surprisingly 
small, though, considering the perishable nature of the material, it 
might be urged that the existence of any examples, not the lack of 
many, should occasion surprise. The existence of so few examples 
may be accounted for in several ways. It is largely due, of course, 
to the inflammable nature of the material. Though time and decay 
were not without their effects, fire was a far more destructive agent. 
One needs but to read the early history of the great cathedrals to 
learn how frequent and disastrous were the conflagrations of those 
days. The labor of years was often lost in as many hours. A mate- 
rial with which this was not only possible but even probable, naturally 
came to be held in more or less contempt. Moreover, this prejudice 
against timber construction was, no doubt, encouraged by that great 
body of workers in stone, the Freemasons. Thus, not only were 
many specimens actually destroyed, but also many others were not 
erected because of their liability to such destruction. On the Conti- 
nent, except in Normandy, it is found that stone vaults were mostly 
used, wooden roofs being merely for the protection of vaulted ceilings, 
and composed of large, roughly-squared timbers, which were framed 
for the work they had to do without regard to their appearance 

(^ l)- 

SUPERIORITY OF ENGLISH ROOFS. 

In Normandy, as just intimated, wooden roofs did not give way to 
stone vaults to the same extent that they did in other parts of the 
Continent. As early as the eleventh century the Normans had made 
considerable progress in the construction of timber roofs. Taken in 
connection with several others, this fact is of considerable signifi- 
cance. Why is it, for instance, that timber construction received 
more attention in Normandy than elsewhere on the Continent ? Why 
is it that the English roofs should be so vastly superior to those of 
the Continent, in fact, being unsurpassed for variety, richness and 
beauty? An explanation is to be found in the fact that the race 
origin of the English and Normans is the same and is altogether 
different from that of the French. Moreover, the original Normans 
or Northmen were a great sea-faring people, a nation of sailors and 
ship-builders. Now, before the Iron Age to be a nation of ship- 
builders was to be a nation of carpenters. The original Britons 
were Northmen Angles, Saxons, Jutes. After the death of Alfred, 



1 From an article on the "Architectural Treatment of the Boof," Builder, 
December 16, 1876. 




England was conquered by the Danes or Norsemen, and shortly 
afterward c.ime the Norman Conquest. The English, thus having 
the same race origin as the people of Normandy, naturally had the 
same race characteristics. Moreover, the insular position of the 
English was not without its influence on their national character. 
The English were thus a 
carpentering people, and to 
this element of their char- 
acter it is easy to ascribe 
their superiority in timber 
construction to the French, 
who inherited no such na- 
tional trend of mind. 

This explanation finds 
confirmation in the history 
of English Gothic architec- 
ture, a singular feature in , 
the development of which 
is the constant progress 
from the forms of masonry 
to those of carpentry. The 
whole course of English 
vaulting is in fact a grad- 
ual -approximation to pan- 
elling, which is essentially 
a characteristic treatment 
of wood. Fan-vaulting is 
quite as easily executed in 
wood as in stone. An ex- Fi _ 2- 

ample of a wooden groin -wooden Groined Roof. Warmington, England, 
vault is given in Fi<*ure 2. (1260). [After Itickmau's " English Architect- 
Such a result certainly be- vrai styitt."} 

speaks a carpentering turn at mind. The development of English 
open-timber roofs will, therefore, be the subject for detailed con- 
sideration, the French examples receiving merely incidental atten- 
tion as they serve to illustrate intermediate steps. 

WOODEN ROOFS OF ANTIQUITY. 

Before taking up the English roofs, however, it will be worth 
while, perhaps, to briefly consider what had been done in this direc- 
tion previous to the Mediaeval period. The earliest and simplest 

form of wooden roof is that 
known as the tie-beam. In 
this form of roof (Fig. 3), 
two inclined rafters are 
framed together at the top, 
while they are held together 
below by a horizontal beam, 
called the tie-beam, which 
serves to counteract the 

Fig. 3. tendency of the rafters to 

spread apart below and ex- 
ert an outward thrust on the walls. 

Very little is known about wooden roofs as used by the ancients : 
no examples, of course, remain, but, though it has been held on this 
account that they had none, it is probable that they were of this 
simple tie-beam description. There is no evidence of progress in the 
construction of timber roofs until the later days of the Roman 
Empire. Vaults were then erected that required centres of no mean 
construction, and basilicas were built which required roofs of large 





Fig. 4. 
The Basilica of St. Paul, Rome. [After Tredgold.] 

span. The Ulpian basilica is considered a typical specimen of those 
with wooden roofs. This was one hundred and eighty feet wide and 




Fig. 5. 
Ste. Sabine, Rome. [After Hubech.] 

divided into five aisles. The central one, nearly ninety feet wide, 
was covered with a wooden roof of semi-circular form. 4 Built largely 

1 A restored section of this basilica is to be found oil page 317, Vol. 1 (Fergussou) . 



16 



The American Architect and Building News. [VOL. XXIII. No. 629. 



after Roman models, the wooden roofs of the Early Christian basili- 
cas may fairly be taken as representing Roman forms and methods. 
The common forms, king and queen post trusses, are shown in the 
accompanying figures, viz., 4, 5, G and 7. 

These examples show just about how far the construction of tim- 
ber roofs had advanced be- 
fore the Middle Ages. It is 
evidet that the principle of 
the truss was well under- 
stood. The use of iron 
straps, bolts, etc., which are 
not found in the Mediaeval 

roofs, was almost necessi- 
tated by the enormous spans 

which were covered, some of 

these being twice the width 

of the average Gothic nave. 

Moreover, in most instances, 

these roofs were intended 




the span was increased to any extent, the tic-beam had a tendency to 
sag. This sagging was prevented in the first instance by making 
the tie-beam of very large dimensions. The massiveness so charac- 
teristic of all early 
roofs is sometimes 
attributed to the 
abundance of ma- 
terial at hand, but 
it would seem to 
have been quite as 
much the result 
of methods of de- 
sign then i n [ 




J 



Fig. 10. 
[Viollet-le-Duc.] 



ditional weight on the trusses, concealed them, and consequently no 
attempt was made at artistic design or decoration. 

CLASSIFICATION AND DESCRIPTION OF ENGLISH TIMBER ROOFS. 

The different varieties of English open-timber roofs may be 
arranged in the order of their development as follows: 

A. Tie-beam Roofs. J Trussed.' - Single Frame. 

I Lntrussed. Double Frame. 

B. Roofs without Tie-beams : 

1. Trussed Rafter. Untrussed. Single Frame. 

2. Hammer-Beam. ) , _ 

3. Collar-braced. j Trussed. Double Frame. 

Another classification would be this : 
(<0 Hoofs from which the thrust or pressure is vertical. 
(6) Roofs from which the thrust or pressure is oblique 
(a) and (6) of the latter correspond. to (.4) and (B) of' the former 
classification. Practically^everything except the tie-beam roof 

comes in the 
second class 
(V) unless an 
exception is 
made of the 
low-pitch roof 
of the late Ter- 
pen d i c u 1 a r 
period, the 
thrust of 
which was ap- 
proximately 
vertical. 

(A) Tie- 
Beam Roofs. 
The s c i - 
ence of truss- 
ing which had 
been so suc- 
cessfully ap- 
Slied by the 
Romans was 
lost durins 



vogue. In the ' 
course of time this 
tendency to deflec- 
tion on the part of the tie-beam became the source of much difficulty and 
resulted finally in the introduction of the king-post as a tie (Fig. 11). 
The first attempt to brace the rafters was decidedly unsatisfactory. 





the Dark 

rViollet-le-Duc.] Ao-es. In the 

theoretically perfect truss, the load should produce no" transverse 
strain on any part, and the pressure transmitted 'o the abutments 
should be vertical. 
These two . essential N 

principles of the truss . ^ # 

are not recognized in 
the early Mediaeval 
roof. The real func- 
tions of the king-post 
and tie-beam are often 
wholly misconceived. 
For example, the king- 
post is frequently 
found as an upright 
strut supported by the 
tie-beam (Figs. 8 and 
9). 

The primitive form 
of Mediaeval roof, ac- 

Fig. 9. 




Fig. II. 

[Viollet-le-Duc.l 

The manner in which this was accomplished is shown in FiV ure 19 
The curved struts which were introduced to stiffen the rafters were 
themselves supported by the tie-beam. Additional strength WM 
given to the rafters, but it was secured at the expense of "the tie! 

beam. It was 
not long, how- 
ever, before 
this method was 
abandoned and 
a better one de- 
vised. By sim- 
p 1 y reversing 
the position of 
the struts and 
framing them 
into the king- 
post instead of 
the tie-beam, a 
transverse 
strain was con- 
verted into a 
tensile one and 
a scientifically- 
constructed 
truss was ob- 
tained (F i a 

MS). 

Most of these 
roof s were 
d o u ble-framed, 
that is to say, 




Fig. 13. 
[Viollet-le-Duc.] 



composed of two sets of rafters. The common " raTter"'wM,.h 
ceived the roofing material, rested on a framin" of ' puriins that 

naTr TIT" 1 t ^"^ "^^ *>' hea ^ truSSCS > ^ P K 
pair of large rafters known as "principals." Such a method of 

struetion made the roofs very heaVy and necessitatedthe u^e o f verv" 




a'-T^^ 

trussed m the latter case when it is suDDortpd t int te . cl ' mcall y. said to be 
rafters ("principals") which are strongly P ted and bo # V"' of lar S e - 
between these "trusses are spanned hamate ?4,nZn ") SaSS* " ^^ 



Fig. 14. 
rViollet-le-Duc.] 

S5SSKS <;a 3*i sA w - 
8aaaasjs=s!affrts4 



JANUARY 14, 1888.] The American Architect and Building News. 



17 



ishcd, and the less transverse strain there had to be provided for, 
the smaller the timbers and the lighter the framing could be. 

Two methods of stiffening the rafters and at the same time lessen- 
ing their effective thrust on the walls merit attention. One effect of 
increasing the inclination of the roof was to increase the vertical dis- 
tance from the inner edge of the top of the wall to the under side of 
the rafter (a, Fig. 15). By inserting a vertical strut here and fram- 
ing the lower ends of both strut and rafter into a horizontal shoe 





Fig. 15. 



Fig. 16. 



[VioIlet-le-Duc.] 

(c, Fig. 15), not only was greater stiffness given to the rafter, but its 
thrust was made more nearly vertical. The shoe (c) was sometimes 
made the end of the tie-beam. 

When short and separate, as in Figure 1 7, the tie-beam was raised 
or arranged as in Figure 16. Both of 
these examples (15 and 16) are French. 
That shown in Figure 17 is English and 
differs only in the method of fixing the 
shoe-piece to the wall. In England, the 
tie-beam roof was never used to any extent, 
and even when it was, the proper func- 
tion of the tie-beam seems to have been 
misapprehended. It was generally made 
quite independent of the other timbers ; it 
was really nothing but a heavy beam laid 
across from wall to wall and used as a sort 
of foundation from which to build the roof. 
To prevent the deflection which such usage 
would develop, the beam had to be made 
of very large section. In effect this was 
very heavy and depressing, and so, as Mr. 
Street says, " the old architects were con- 
stantly varying their designs with the ob- 
ject of improving the construction of their 
roofs and very often with a view to dis- 
pensing with the tie-beam, which in many cases was felt to be an 
eye-sore." For example, it was almost invariably cambered in order 
to prevent any appearance of sagging, which is the case with a 
perfectly straight tie- 
beam (Figs. 8 and 9), 
and accordingly the 
latter is of rare occur- 
rence. As a further 
means of overcoming 
this disagreeable effect, 
curved braces were 
often introduced (Fig. 

<r: 




Fig. 17. 



Tie-beam roofs 
very low pitch 



rf 



were 

used in the Perpendicu- 
lar period. Frequently 
the pitch is so low that 
it is obtained by merely 
cambering the tie-beam. 




Fig. 18. 
Outwell Church, England. [Brandon.! 

The tie-beam roof has no disturbing effect on the substructure and is 
simple in its construction. For utilitarian purposes, it is the best 
form and probably the most economical. " It can scarcely be con- 
sidered as conducive to architectural effect, however. This is ob- 
tained when the tie-beam is dropped and the roof may be said to 
spring from, not merely rest on the walls. The structure then 
becomes a complete whole ; walls and roof are dependent on one 
another; the roof becomes a part of the architecture, not a mere 
covering laid on." 1 

ITo be continued.! 



IF our readers have wasted half as much time as we have in trying 
to find some definite illustration which we know was published in this 
Journal at some indefinite past time, they will be glad to know that the 
Decennial Index of Illustrations in the American Architect is now ready in 
book form. 

1 Prom au article on "Architectural Treatment of the Hoof " Builder, 1876. 




7c*VER.cy.5TPERE 



THE THIRD EXHIBITION OF THE ARCHITECTURAL 
LEAGUE. 

HE third of the annual exhi- 
bitions of architectural draw- 
ing which have, fortunately 
for the profession, been carried 
out by the energy of the New 
York Architectural League, is to 
be found in new and very pleas- 
ant quarters on the ground floor 
of the new building on Fifth 
Avenue, between the Stewart 
Mansion and the Caswell House, 
the old University Club, which 
has just l>een erected for the use 
of a few artists and a well-known 
firm of picture-dealers. Although 
not quite so brilliantly illumi- 
nated by day as the old galleries 
on Twenty-third Street, thelight 
is pleaeantcr, and the arrange- 
ment of the rooms better adapted 
to give effect to the collection. 
Under these favorable circum- 
stances the exhibition presents 
an appearance which we may 
well call remarkable, and in the 
brilliancy and variety of the 
JOU.T VEZELAY, drawings shown, the skill with 
">" "-*" which they are arranged, and the 

piquant interest of many of the delightful designs, the New York 
collection far surpasses the architectural portion of the Royal Acad- 
emy exhibition in London or that of the Salon in Paris. Not long 
ago one of the English professional journals warned its British 
readers that their American cousins had nothing to learn from them 
in respect to clever sketching, and that if they did not look to their 
laurel*, they would see them transferred across the water, and the 
exhibition of the present year certainly indicates that the Americans 
mean to get a good place when the start in the artistic race is made. 
As compared with the exhibitions of previous years, the present 
one is, as a whole, agreeably marked by the absence of those obtru- 
sive, elaborate and depressing colored drawings, in which a painter 
has done his best to infuse interest into a commonplace design, 
which not long ago formed the staple of such collections, and the 
unquestionable tendency, which this fact indicates, of the younger 
architects to draw and render their designs themselves, is fulfof 
promise for the future of their art. It is true that they are not 
always very successful in their renderings, and many consumptive, 
raw and sprawly sketches mingle with the others, but an architect 
learns more and advances faster by making a bad drawing of his 
own design than by " directing " the efforts of the most accomplished 
artists in the evolution of his idea. 

To begin at the beginning, the catalogue of the exhibition is this 
year a little treasure, free from the grotesque proof-reading which 
characterized the former ones, exquisitely printed and illustrated, 
and bound and arranged with perfect taste. A large part of it is 
given up to advertisements, but it is none the worse for that, and 
the finances of the League are considerably better, so much so, in 
fact, that the continuance of the yearly exhibitions is, we understand, 
assured, through the success of the catalogue, in lightening the bur- 
den of expense which they entail. If we might make a suggestion 
which would make the next year's catalogue perfect, it would be that 
the illustrations should comprise a few reproductions of such beauti- 
ful decorative works as the committee was this year fortunate enough 
to secure. 

The most conspicuous drawings to be seen in the vicinity of the 
entrance-door are those made by Mr. Joseph Pennell for the Century 
Company, to illustrate Mrs. Van Rensselaer's papers on the English 
Cathedrals. With most of the visitors these seem to be the favorites 
of all the drawings in the room, and they are indeed masterly, but we 
must confess that we did not find them quite as interesting as we 
expected. Some are in India-ink wash and some in pen-and-ink, the 
latter, which are splendidly executed, and in some portions show a 
good deal of that delicious tenderness which we have learned to 
prize so highly in Mr. Pennell's smaller works, being, to our mind, 
preferable to the washed drawings which have an uncomfortable air 
of having been drawn from phetographs. Besides the main group 
of these, others are, with a clever purpose of relief by their broad 
black and white surfaces, scattered among the smaller sketches in 
various parts of the room. A considerable part of the colored draw- 
ings and, of course, many of the best, are by Mr. Louis C. Tiffany, 
whose clever sketches from nature form brilliant spots over the best- 
lighted wall. Next to some of these, which follow the large Pennell 
group, the most interesting drawing is a pen-and-ink sketch of a 
Romanesque doorway, executed, we think, for a Chicago club-hou.se 
by Messrs. Burnham & Root. This is reproduced in the catalogue, 
and has already been given in the Inland Architect and copied inthe 
London Builder, and, as a design, no less than as a masterly draw- 
ing, well deserves the high praise bestowed upon it by the editor of 
the Builder. Near this is a clever sketch of a proposed alteration by 
Mr. James Brown Lord, drawn by Mr. T. Rockwood Cutler in body 



18 



TJie American Architect and Building News. [VOL. XXIII. No. 62 



color, with a little transparent color in the shadows and clouds, on 
rough brown paper. Although very sketchy, the bare paper show- 
ing through in many places, the lines are firmly put in, so that there 
is no uncertainty as to the forms intended and the effect is excellent. 
In No. 46, near by, Mr. William Convers Haxlett gives a pretty pen- 
and-ink drawing, somewhat in Mr. Wright's manner, of a country 
house. This is one of several by the same architect, who is compara- 
tively a new contributor to professional exhibitions, but who is 
honored, and justly, by having two of his works in the present one 
reproduced in the catalogue. 

We look rather eagerly for specimens of the work of Messrs. 
Rossiter & Wright, and are happy enough to find several, some 
drawn by Mr. Wright, and others by Mr. Rossiter. It is needless to 
say that all are strikingly pretty, both in design and drawing, but we 
look with confidence to find some special treasure among them, and 
find it in a colored sketch, No. 129, of a house in Connecticut, by 
Mr. Rossiter. Such drawings as these of Mr. Rossiter's and Mr. 
Cutler's seem to us nearly the perfection of architectural sketches in 
color. More finished drawings, unless of large buildings, are apt to 
sacrifice either the architecture to the color, or vice-versa, and less 
finished ones often leave the architecture so indeterminate as to 
come barely under the head of architectural drawings at all. Among 
the impressionist works of this sort in the exhibition, the most con- 
spicuous are perhaps some drawn by Mr. Clarence S. Luce, either 
for himself or Mr. George Martin Huss. It is needless to say that 
all these are pretty and taking at a distance, but on closer examina- 
tion the design appears wanting. Some lines are there, not always 
tending to an accurate vanishing point, but they are far between, 
and might mean almost anything. This is the more disappointing, 
as all Mr. Luce's lines are precious, and one does not wish to see 
them economized. 

We have, unfortunately, only space to mention a small portion of 
the works shown, but must notice a beautiful study for a tower, by 
Mr. John Calvin Stevens, of Portland, which well deserves its re- 
production in the catalogue, and a drawing of an hotel at Orange 
Mountain, New Jersey, made by Mr. Hazlett for Mr. Arthur 1). 
Pickering, which is singularly picturesque and brilliant, both as a 
drawing and design. 

Mr. Cass Gilbert has also a pretty interior, sketched in pencil on 
tinted paper, with a little color over it, and a rather similar one, of a 
country house, heightened with white, and Mr. Stevens also some 
clever sketches, particularly one of a picturesque tower, which sug- 
gests Mr. Kirby. Both this, and a pair of slight drawings of a stone 
country house, by Mr. Wilson Eyre, of Philadelphia, are filled with 
the spirit of picturesque architectural grouping, which seems to 
flourish better in America than in any other modern country. As. 
contrasted with these, we find an interesting series of school designs, 
made at the Paris School of Fine Arts by Mr. Richard M. Hunt" as 
well as geometrical drawings of the new portion of the Louvre, made 
by him as assistant to Lefuel. Just beyond, we find sketches of the 
successful design for the Madison Square Garden, by Messrs. McKim, 
Mead & White, showing the famous tower which is destined to 
become one of the architectural landmarks of New York, if it meets 
with the study which such an object claims from its designer. This 
reservation is perhaps the more judicious, as the interior sketch of 
the same building, which is shown near by, in an apology for a 
drawing by Mr. Hoppin, has the air of having been designed in 
about fifteen minutes, and drawn in about fifteen more, without even 
the preliminary ceremony of stretching the paper, which is drawn 
and " cbckled " in all directions in consequence. 

At this point we arrive at the entranco door of the Loan Ex- 




paintings, stamped-leather 
hangings, and so on, which ought to have a separate description 




[Contributor, are requested to send with their drawings full and 
adequate descriptions of the buildings, including a statement of cost.] 

THE CHURCH OP NOTRE DAME, MONTREAL, P. Q. 
[Gelatine Print, issued only with tlie Imperial Edition ] 

10 ' 00 P crsons was built of limestone 



, 



' eso 

measures 2o5 feet in length and 144 feet in width. 



THE TAVERN, DECATUR, ALA. MR. L. B. WHEELER, ARCHITECT, 
ATLANTA, GA. 

cos! SIK^OOO. 111 ^ Wh Se interi r 1S t0 bC decorated b y Tiffany, will 

THE NELSON MEMORIAL HALL, KINGSTON, PA. MESSRS. KIPP & 
PODMORE, ARCHITECTS, WILKES-BARRE, PA. 

Tins building is to cost, about $22,000. 



THE LOGAN OFFICES, PHILADELPHIA, PA. MESSRS. COPE ,t 
8TEWARDSON, ARCHITECTS, PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

HOUSES FOR J. H. CARTER, ESQ., AND FOR GEORGE L. FREEMAN, 
ESQ. MR. W. H. SYMONDS, ARCHITECT, UTICA, N. Y. 

THE INTERIOR OF THE BARDO, TUNIS. 



FOURTH ANNUAL REPORT OF THE BUREAU OF 
ETHNOLOGY. I. 

PICTOGRAPHS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN INDIANS. 1 

0NE of the bright pages in the 
record of what may be called 
the higher functions of our 
national Government is to be found 
in its fostering of scientific in- 
quiry. We still perpetuate the 
iniquity of according to foreign 
authors no rights under our laws, 
and thereby discouraging native 
literature to the utmost ; we have 
made an exorbitant tariff for for- 
eign works of art, and thereby 
done our best to retard the aes- 
thetic development of our country ; 
but in its promotion of scientific 
investigation our Government has 




CATHEDRAL 



in Tcovigrtuuu uur viuve; 
long since merited the admiration of the intellectual world. 

It seems particularly appropriate that a republic designed on the 
grandest scale yet known to be a government of man, by man and 
for man to change slightly the phraseology, though not the purport, 
of a familiar saying should make a special feature of the science 
of mankind, the youngest, and yet the greatest of the natural sciences, 
comprehending, in fact, all the others, and uniting them to its service 
The work of the National Bureau of Ethnology, as a department of 
the Smithsonian Institution at Washington, is probably greater and 
more elaborate than any similar work conducted under the auspices 
or patronage of any other Government, and for its magnitude, as 
well as its quality, we are indebted to the scholarly mind and the 
energy of its director, Major J. W. Powell. The aboriginal races of 
America offer the richest field for ethnological investigation, and the 
results are certain to be of high practical, as well as scientific, value 
Through the study of the so-called savage races, both in their livino- 
aspect and in the light which familiarity with present conditions 
throws on their archaeological remains, we have the best key to a 
knowledge of human nature in the abstract, for it affords us the in- 
dispensable means of beginning at the very foundation which is 
necessary in all studies. We shall thereby be enabled to penetrate 
to the inner recesses of human action, motive and thought, and thus 
gain the means for the solution of many a mysterious problem. It is 
impossible to overestimate the importance of giving this knowledge 
into the keeping of the wisest men, and therefore necessarily the 
leaders, of the great nation which is to be composed of nearly all 
races of earth fused in a common crucible, and where the greatest 
problems of humanity are destined to be wrought out. For the 
primitive aspects of many questions of human nature and conditions 
which are vexing us, or are destined to vex us such as the socio- 
logical problem we have but to look to the wild races that still in- 
habit our territory, and to the records of centuries that they have 
left in the soil throughout the land from the Atlantic to the Pacific 
and from the great lakes to the Gulf of Mexico, Here to well- 
trained eyes are opened chapters of knowledge which will brin-r 
about the correct understanding of many weighty questions 

The recently published " Fourth Annual Report of the Bureau of 
Ethnology has a value, in this respect which makes it worthy of its 
predecessors. Its elaborate illustration partially accounts for the 
delay m its appearance (it is for the year 1882-83), but its character 
makes us eager to see the four succeeding volumes now in hand. It 
also makes us feel the importance of instituting some system by which 
the scientific publications of the Government can be made more 
accessible to those who are most capable of appreciating them. In 
the first place, it should be a rule to send the reports to every public 
and incorporated library in the country, and to every higher educa- 
tiona institution, while the proposed plan of having the volumes 
placed on sale should be carried out. They are now largely dis- 
tributed by Congressmen, like seeds from the Agricultural Depart- 

So a swin V . 0rS W constituents - and in great measure are pearls cast 
before swine. We are aware that the Bureau of Ethnology makes a 
special effort to get its publications into the right hands bu^t 1 e^e is 

neOn fit a. TOmilo*. atrcstn* tf**, *!,,. ,] 4. 'I .. 5? ,, 

tlie distribution nf all .<;,.,, i ;<:,. .....].. o f 



' f th . e . Bllreau f Ethnology makes a large 
volume of 532 pages, comprising six papers by three contributors 

' 



j . .., are colored, and 564 firrures in 
.--.., ^^u-cu wood-engraving and proccss-work. The papers 
cons,st of an elaborate preliminary essay on " Pictographs of the 



'ByGarrickMallery. 



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JANUARY 14, 1888.] 



TJie American Architect and Building Neva*. 



19 



North American Indians," by Lieutenant-Colonel Garrick Mallery; 
Three Essays on Keramics, by Mr. William H. Holmes "Pottery of 
tin- Ancient Pueblos," "Ancient Pottery of the Mississippi Valley," 
and "Origin and Development of Form and Ornament in Kcramic 
Art;" and "A Study of Pueblo Pottery as Illustrative of Zuiii Cul- 
ture-* i row tli," by Frank Hamilton Gushing. 

These papers are a credit to American ethnological scholarship, 
and should furnish food for reflection to the dominant element in the 
American Institute of Archaeology, which is disposed to see no field 
but that afforded by classical ground in the Old World, and which 
we feel inclined to hold resjwnsible for the certainly not creditable 
fact that the latest number of that beautiful quarterly, the American 
Journal of Archctolnyy, should contain but one page of notes con- 
cerning America amidst dozen of pages about the Eastern Continent. 
The publication thus belies it* name, for there is next to nothing 
"American" about it, and such open disregard for its most appro- 
priate field is adapted to give it an amateurish appearance in the 
eyes of European scientists. We are not disposed to underestimate 
the importance of classical archaeology, which, however, constitutes 
but a very small proportion of the whole field. In fact, our very re- 
gard for the classical work makes us see the importance of the 
American, which affords peculiar opportunities for gaining the 
knowledge of the conditions out of "whicn grew the exquisite blossom 
and fruit of classical culture, and which is therefore essential to a 
proper understanding of that culture. 
Neither do we urge a cultivation of 
the American field by Americans for 
so-called " patriotic " reasons, but be- 
cause it is our legitimate territory, 
lyin" before our very door and be- 
neath our feet. The disposition to 
regard classic archaeology as alone 
worthy of pursuit by scholars, is a 
survival of the archaic habit of sci- 
entific exclusiveness long since re- 
placed by the enlightened point of 
view that all branches of a science, 
and all sciences, are as interdepend- 
ent for a correct understanding of 
each other and of any one, as are all 
the different parts of any organism 
to the existence of the whole and of 
each of those parts. Therefore the 
classic spirit can only be truly un- 
derstood in its highest value and 
significance in the light of the eth- 
nology and archaeology of primitive 
peoples. 

Major Powell's thoughtful com- 
ments on these papers aid very ma- 
terially to an assimilation of their 
meaning and conclusions, as well as 
an understanding of the preceding 
work of their authors which led up 
to these. Colonel Mallery's paper 
is the longest, occupying the great- 
er part of the volume with 345 pages, 
including illustrations. It is worthy 
of mention here that this paper so 
interested Mr. Francis Galton that 
he conceived and carried into ex- 
ecution the idea of making a series 
of pictographic medallions, each de- 
voted to a leading or significant 
event, symbolically illustrated, in 
one's life, and this he suggested as a 
new and fascinating field for the ex- 
ercise of amateur artistic talent. 
Such a set of medallions might be 
modelled or engraved, and repro- 
duced in metal, making a beautiful 
chain or necklace to be preserved as an heir-loom, or given as a 
family present. The idea seems an admirable one, and amateurs 
should be grateful for it. 

Colonel Mallery has for some years made a specialty of the study 
of sign-language among the Indians, and his present researches in 
pictography are, it may be easily perceived, intimately associated 
with the former, since the graphic representation of ideas is naturally 
akin to their representation in gesture-speech, the same fundamental 
principles underlying both. As Major Powell remarks, " both of 
these modes of conveying ideas and facts, by one of which they are 
also recorded, prevail among the North American Indians with a 
development beyond that found among any other existing peoples, 
and therefore the study of both developments among them is most 
advantageous when combined." Colonel Mallery has accumulated 
an enormous quantity of material on the subject, and this paper, 
voluminous as it is, is but preliminary to the undertaking of an ex- 
haustive monograph. The present paper is therefore confined to a 
presentation of experiences and results, serving the almost vitally 
ini|x>rtant purpose of communicating to others already interested in 
the subject the amount and character of the information so far 



Indian Pictograph 



obtained. Their cooperation is thus enlisted, and their own in- 
vestigations arc promoted by the suggestions received from the im- 
portant work of another. The working up of theories is postponed 
until the collection and comparative study of the materials gathered, 
has been far advanced towards completion. 

Here, therefore, pictographic characteristics are explained and 
classified, and suggestions are made for the collection, description 
and study of specimens. The following editorial summary by Major 
Powell gives a concise statement of the character of the paper : 
"The author has first stated the distribution in North America of 
pictures on rocks, either painted or incised, or both, with a few illus- 
trative comparisons from foreign countries. He has then enumerated 
the instruments used at different times in pictography, together with 
the coloring matters employed and the methods of application. The 
materials upon which pictographs are made are discussed, the objects 
being divided into natural and artificial. The first division includes 
many objects, consisting chiefly of stone, bone, living trees, wood, 
bark, skin, feathers, gourds, horse-hair, shells, earth and sand, and 
the human person. Designs upon the human person are in paint 
and by tattooing. Under this head much information is presented for 
the first time, and it is compared with some recently published 
accounts of the process in the Pacific Islands. The subject is then 
considered with reference to the special purposes for which picto- 
graphy has, in fact, been employed by the North American Indians. 

They are: 1, Mnemonic, embracing 
order of songs, treaties, war and 
time; 2, Notification, comprising no- 
tice of departure and direction, of 
condition, warning and geographic 
features, claim or demand, messages 
and communications, and record of 
expeditions; 3, Totemic: this em- 
braces tribal, gentile and ]>ersonal 
designations, insignia and tokens of 
authority, personal names, property- 
marks and status of individuals, and 
signs of particular achievements; 4, 
religious, comprising mythic person- 
ages, shamanism, dances and cere- 
monies, mortuary practices, grave- 
posts, charms and fetiches ; 5, Cus- 
toms and habits, requiring details 
rather than classification ; 6, Tribal 
history; 7, Biographic, in which 
are examples giving continuous rec- 
ord of events in a life, and other 
cases of particular exploits and oc- 
currences. The manner in which 
pictographs have long been employed 
by the North American Indians, 
showing their advance from simple 
objective representations to true ide- 
ographs, is then discussed, and in- 
stances are given of their expression 
of abstract ideas of emblems and 
if symbols. Indications for classi- 
fication are noted by identifying the 
pietographers through their general 
style of type, and through the pres- 
ence of characteristic objects. Modes 
of interpretation are recommended, 
with cautions originating in experi- 
ence. Attention is invited to the 
important bearing of conventional- 
ization, hints are given for avoiding 
errors, and, finally, practical sugges- 
tions are submitted intended to as- 
sist investigation and simplify its 
record. Under every heading sev- 
eral examples appear, with requisite 
graphic illustrations." 
Colonel Mallery's opportunities for beginning the study of picto- 
graphs were exceptionally fortunate. His first studies were uixm 
the remarkable pictorial chart, with which he became acquainted in 
the winter of 1876, represented to be a history of the Dakota Indians, 
but which he ascertained was not strictly historic, its purpose being 
to designate successive years by the most remarkable, or rather the 
most distinguishable, events that occurred in each. It therefore 
became useful chiefly as a calendar. His next study was sign- 
language, affording instructive parallels with the Dakota calendar 
and with other forms of pictography. His point of view on ai>- 
proaching the subject was therefore the most simple and direct. In 
the words of Major Powell : " There was in him no bias towards a 
mystic interpretation, or any predetermination to discover an occult 
significance in pictographs, whether on rocks, skins or bark. The 
probability appeared, from his actual experience, that the interpreta- 
tion was a simple and direct, not a mysterious and involved process, 
and the course of his studies natura'ly tended to ascertain, collocate 
and compare facts, but to eschew suppositions. At the same time 
the author by no means denies or forgets that poetry and imagina- 
tion may be discerned in the Indian pictographas as well as in their 




__ 

gesture-speech and in their 

lad illustrates by example, given 



. 

farricas to 



I HHl , ill G> *^ 1 J * . , 

have been adopted as emblems, with some 

the secret religious associations long known to _-. - 

the tribes. This admission is not, however, to allow ot resort to 

mvstie symbolism as a normal mode of interpretation. In the ex- 

knTwn to him, simply as facts. When a pictograph h [appeared 
fron intrinsic or extrinsic evidence to convey an idea beyond i 
obTct vHy, the fact has been noted. Decisive extrinsic evidence n 
each case s required for the adoption of mystic symbolism as tie 
true mode of interpretation. By this method of treatment the sub- 
iect of picto-rraphs has been rescued from the limbo of morbid fancy 
] to be marshalled with proper place in the evolutionary order of 

hU Mai'or U p t o l weil is right in his characterization of the straining after 
mystical interpretations which has so long characterized, P^haps, 
the greater part of the attempts to study pictographs, and the 
methods laid down in this paper are the rational ones which should 
be pursued by all serious investigators. At the same time, however, 
it appears likely, in view of the important part which esoteric organi- 
zations play in the life of the In- 
dians, that pictographic devices 
have an esoteric significance to a 
greater extent than perhaps Maj- 
or Powell is inclined to admit. A 
valuable line of research would 
be to pursue the lines upon which 
devices have grown in signific- 
ance from a simple, direct and 
evident meaning to a complex, 
involved and esoterically em- 
blematic meaning. To this end a 
comparison with the growth of 
symbolical meanings in the eso- 
teric organizations of our own 
civilization will be of exceeding 
importance. 

The study of pictographs is 
one of the most important factors 
in throwing light upon the ways 
and methods of thought charac- 
teristic of primitive man, and it 
is hardly necessary to add that 
for their correct study it will be 
found to be an absolute necessity 
for the student to enter into and 
for the time being completely 
identify his own mind with the 
habits of thought peculiar to 

Srimitive man. The failure to 
o this and the insistence upon 
carrying over to the examination 
of savage institutions our own 
civilized modes of reasoning and 
viewing their growth in the light 
thereof, is one of the most fruit- 
ful sources of the multitudinous 
fallacious conclusions that have 
characterized ethnological re- 
search conclusions hardly more 
erroneous than those reached 
from the hasty generalizations 
of the traveller who deems him- 



We American Architect and^BM^News. [You XXIlL-No 629. 

wde of record was an invention, and not probably a very old inven- 
tion as it has not, so far as known, spread beyond a definite district 
or been extensively adopted. Had it been of great antiquity, it 
would probably have spread by intertribal channels beyond the 
Dakotas, where alone such charts have been found and are under- 
stood It has been suggested that the idea might have come from 
contact with the whites, either missionaries or traders, but this seems 
improbable. "Instead of any plan that civilized advisers would 
naturally have introduced, the one actually adopted to individual- 
ize each year by a specific recorded symbol or totem, according to 
the decision of a competent person, or by common consent acted upon 
by a person charged wither undertaking the duty whereby confusion 
was prevented should not suffer denial of its originality merely 
because it was ingenious and showed more scientific method than has 
often been attributed to the northern tribes of America." In the 
Lone Do" chart, "the careful arrangement of distinctly separate 
characters in an outward spiral starting from a central point is a 
clever expedient to dispense with the use of numbers for noting the 
years, yet allowing every date to be determined by counting back- 
ward or forward from any other that might be known." 

The name " Winter-counts" comes from the fact that the Dakotas 
naturally count their years by winters, the season in their high 
levels and latitudes practically lasting more than six months, and 
they say that a man is so many snows old, or that so many snow- 
seasons have passed since an occurrence. A few instances of the 
method of designation may be given. The characteristic event of 

the winter of 1800-01 was, ac- 
cording to Lone Dog, the fact 
that thirty Dakotas were killed 
by Crow Indians. The device 
signifying this consists of thirty 
parallel black lines arranged in 
three columns of ten lines each, 
the outer lines being united. In 
the chart made by Lone Dog, 
such black lines always signify 
the death of Dakotas killed by 
enemies. The next winter has 
for a device the head and body 
of a man covered with red 
blotches, and it signifies that 
there was an epidemic of the 
small-pox in the nation. One 
record calls it the " Small-pox- 
used-them-up-again winter." The 
succeeding winter is designated 
by a figure of a horse-shoe, which 
means that at that time the first 
shod horses were seen by the In- 
dians, and the season is therefore 
known as the " Brought-in-horse- 
shoes winter." As a last instance 
may be taken the winter of 1876- 
77 in the chart made by the 
Flam*. That was the winter of 
Custer's defeat, and in his com- 
ments on Lone Dog's chart, pub- 
lished in 1877, Colonel Mallery 
remarked: "The year 1876 has 
furnished good store of events for 
his choice, and it will be interest- 
ing to learn whether he has se- 
lected as the distinguishing event 
the victory over Custer, or, as 
of still greater interest, the gen- 
eral seizure of ponies, whereat 
the tribes, imitating Rachel, weep 
and will not be comforted be- 
cause they are not." It turned 

out that two of the counts selected the event of the seizure of the 
ponies, and none of them yet seen make any allusion to the defeat 
of Custer. This is a striking fact. The disposition of our own race 
would of course be to chronicle a victory of such great importance, 
but a misfortune appears to have been a more memorable event 
with the Dakotas. It would be interesting to see if this tendency 
were a general trait of Indian character. Colonel Mallery's^paper 
includes a valuable and elaborate communication from Dr. W'illiam 
II. Curbusier, assistant surgeon, U. S. A., on the subject of Dakota 
winter-counts, containing much of special value and importance. 

Under the head of pictographs upon the human person, there is an 
interesting contribution by James G. Swan on "Tattoo Marks of the 
Haida Indians of Queen Charlotte Islands, B. C., and the Prince of 
Wales Archipelago, Alaska. Some errors of Hubert H. Bancroft's 
history in this respect are corrected ; errors inevitable in a work, 
valuable though it is, largely the result of compilation. Tattooing is 
almost universal among the Haidas, but few white people who have 
come into contact with them are aware of the extent to which it 
prevails. "It should be borne in mind," says Mr. Swan, "that 
during their festivals and masquerade performances the men are 
entirely naked and the women have only a short skirt reaching from 
the waist to the knee ; the rest of their persons is exposed and it is 
at such times that the tattoo-marks show with the best effect and the 




Indiar Totem-Poitt. 



Ul I-UC UIVWUM W**W VAVV-111LJ UAUI 

self competent to " size up " an alien people on the basis of the most 
superficial observations. 

Fifty-seven pages of Colonel Mallery's paper are devoted to a 
description of the calendar-charts or " winter-counts " of the Dakota 
Indians, and among the illustrations is a beautiful colored lithograph 
of the famous Lone Dog calendar, painted on a buffalo robe by the 
Indian of that name, and representing the seventy-one winters begin- 
ning with 1800-01. This is the chart which, as aforesaid, attracted 
theattention of Colonel Mallery to the subject. This was the first 
attempt ever heard of among the Indians west of the Mississippi to 
establish a chronological system. This chart and its purpose was 
found to be well known throughout the Dakota nation, and various 
copies as well as similar charts were afterwards discovered. 

It is believed that the chart originated in the habit maintained by 
Lone Dog ever since his youth, with the counsel of the old men and 
authorities of his tribe, of deciding upon some event or circumstance 
which should distinguish each year as it passed, and when such deci- 
sion was made marking what was considered to be its appropriate sym- 
bol or device upon a buffalo robe kept for the purpose. The robe was 
at convenient times exhibited to other Indians of the nation, who 
were thus taught the meaning and use of the signs designating the 
several years in order that with the death of the recorder the know- 
ledge might not be lost. Colonel Mallery holds that the peculiar 



JANUARY 14, 1888.] 



TJie American Architect and Building News. 



21 



rank and family connections known by the variety of designs. Like 
all the other toast tribes, the II nidus are careful -not to permit the 
intrusion of white persons or strangers to their Tomanawos ceremo- 
nies, and as a consequence but few white ]>eople, and certainly none 
of those who have ever writen about those Indians, have been pres- 
ent at their opening ceremonies when the tattoo-marks are shown." 
To illustrate this tattooing and its relations to other features of 
Haiila design, a view taken at Massett, Queen Charlotte's Island, of 
the carved columns (totem posts) in front of the chief's residence is 
given and also representations of the tattoo-marks on two women and 
their husbands. " It is an interesting question," says Mr. Swan, "and 
one worthy of careful and patient investigation, Why is it that the 
Haida nation alone of all the coast tribes tattoo their jtersons to such 
an extent, and how they acquire the art of carving columns which 
bear such striking similarity to carving in wood and stone by the 
ancient inhabitants of Central America, as shown by drawings in 
Bancroft's fourth volume of ' Native Races ' and in Mabel's ' Inves- 
tii/ntlon in Central and South America f . . . The tattoo-marks, the 
carvings and heraldic designs of the Haida are an exceedingly inter- 
esting study, . . . they seem to me to point to a key which may 
unlock the mystery which for so many ages has kept us from the 
knowledge of the origin of the Pacific tribes." 

SYLVESTER BAXTER. 



PECULIAR ORIGIN OF FIRES. 




W 



THEN it is considered that 
there is not a process or 
method of manufacture 
which does not contain more or 
less the possibility of a cause of 
fire, and that these various proc- 
esses differ one from another in 
the relative hazard, then it will be 
conceded that there Is scarcely an 
element in the whole range of 
manufacture which is not in a like 
manner a factor in the question 
of safety and of insurance. The 
larger amount of losses is, as 
would naturally be assumed, due 
to oil, both in-consequence of its 
imperfect use on journals and the 
hot bearings which result from a 
lack of proper lubrication. In 
the mechanical processes of dye- 
ing and bleaching there is a great deal of chemical action, which 
at times results in ignition. With such rapid machinery as that of 
the picker-room in cotton and the dusting-room in paper-mills, there 
is great liability of sparks ; such sparks are the antecedents of fires 
which occur among the light, textile, fibrous material found in such 
machines, and enormous fires occur from other causes which cer- 
tainly entitle them to be classified as among instances of proverbial 
happening of the unexpected. 

One large insurance company in America declares that their 
aggregated payments for fires caused by lanterns have reached 
nearly $2,000,000. The causes of these fires from oil are threefold, 
and they are all included in what an underwriter would call the pre- 
ventable cases of fires. The use of lard or sperm oil of the very 
dubious purity generally offered in the market is always attended 
with a crusting wick, and many a watchman or repairing-laborer in 
the night has unwittingly started fires caused by opening the lantern 
and picking the wick to remove the crust in order to get a better 
flame. For such lights, more satisfactory results are obtained by 
the use of what is known as the signal oil, which consists of a mix- 
ture of animal oil and mineral oil. In many places the instructions 
of the manager that the lantern should never be opened except in 
the boiler-room or some similar place of safety are carried into exe- 
cution by placing spring-locks on the lantern, which cannot be opened 
except by a key hung up in the boiler-room. 

Other fires are caused by a lamp dropping out of a lantern ; any 
type of lantern where the lamp is placed in at the bottom is liable to 
such an accident, notwithstanding the method of construction may 
be such as to guard against that difficulty when new. In some lan- 
terns closed at the bottom/ the globe at the top is removed in such a 
way that the hand reaches down to the light. In others, the lamp 
of the lantern, although at the bottom, is secured in its place by a 
hinge, so that at worst, in case of any mishap, it would only swing 
down and not fall. 

The tubular lanterns, made solely for burning kerosene, have been 
the source of a great many fires by reason of poor methods of con- 
struction. They are soldered by an easily-fusible alloy, and when 
such lanterns are hung up in places of unnsual warmth and the light 
turned up somewhat higher than usual, the upper part of the lantern 
sometimes is heated sufficiently to melt the solder so that it falls apart. 
This is an accident entirely inexcusable when it is considered how 
readily lanterns are constructed without depending upon the soldered 
joint for the attachment of the handle to the body of the lantern, 
but use rivets, locked joints in sheet metal, and eyes bent in wire 
guards. 

A curious lantern-fire resulted in the burning of an American mill, 
and at the same time subjected an innocent person to an unjust sus- 



picion. The facts were that the mill very suddenly burned at an 
early hour of the morning, the only direct evidence upon the case 
being that of the watchman, who testified that while making his 
round he entered the upper portion of the mill, finding the room in 
flames, but beyond control. There were many details of circum- 
stantial evidence connected with the fire which convinced the under- 
writers that the fire was incendiary in its origin, and this, coupled 
with the fact that the mill had not been financially prosperous for 
some time, and also that the proprietor did not possess a reputation 
above suspicion in commercial affairs as to strict integrity, diverted 
a great amount of suspicion towards him. This suspicion was not 
sustained by any direct evidence inculpating him witli incendiarism, 
yet the underwriters refused to insure a second mill which was re- 
built on the ruins of the first. Fifteen years later the proprietor of 
the mill was awakened in the middle of the night by a message from 
a priest who was receiving the confession of the watchman now on 
his deathbed, and related to the priest that he had accidcntly set the 
mill on fire by breaking his lantern against a machine ; fearing that 
he would be put in prison for the act, he had disclaimed all knowl- 
edge respecting the origin of the fire. At a later day, learning how 
suspicion liad adverted to his employer, ho dared not state the truth, 
although the crime had haunted his conscience for all those years. 
The priest refused to administer the rites of the church until the 
watchman's confession had been repeated to the proprietor. 

Water is generally referred to as the ideal antagonist of fire, and 
yet there are many instances where water has caused fires, as in the 
case of a mill in Rhode Island, U. S., where the supply of water to 
an overshot wheel was regulated by an immense gate, called a leather 
apron, used in former days for that type of water-wheel. During the 
night a sudden storm raised the water in the river, and imposed an 
unusual pressure against the leather apron, which had become old 
and unsound, broke it, let a flood upon the water-wheel revolving it 
with unusual velocity, and ignited the mill in several places on 
account of the friction of the hot bearings. Another instance was 
that of a Connecticut mill, where the flood raised the river to a 
sufficient height to cover the first floor of a machine-shop to the 
depth of about two feet. The water rose very rapidly, and there 
being a large amount of iron-turnings commingled with wood-chips 
on the floor of the machine-shop, the iron-turnings oxidized so rapidly 
that the heat of the process ignited the wood and started a fire which 
cost the underwriters $30,000. 

Fires produced by the action of water upon lime are so frequent 
as not to require especial notice in this reference to fires outside of 
the expected and well-known causes. 

Streams from hose used in extinguishing fires would not ordinarily 
be classed among the causes of fire, yet such results have occurred 
is at least two instances. In the one, a stream upon a small fire also 
met some lime in a neighboring building, starting a fire which did 
not attract attention until it reached an extent threatening serious 
results. The other instance was in a large store in Philadelphia, 
where the stream of water, charged with carbonic acid gas discharged 
from an extincteur upon a small fire, also served as an electric-con- 
ductor, and started another fire from the arc-lighting system. 

The oxidation of iron-turnings is quite frequently the cause of 
mysterious fires, igniting sheds used for storing scrap around iron- 
working establishments. There have been numerous fires in the 
roofs of foundries caused by explosions, of melted iron thrown 
violently against the roof when by any mishap the iron came in con- 
tact with water. 

The foundations for a light building upon a very yielding soil were 
arranged by placing posts down in tubs of iron-turnings set in the 
earth in proper situations, and then pouring over the iron a solution 
of salt in water. The iron-turnings rusted into a solid mass, but the 
process was carried on so quickly that the heat of oxidation charred 
the lower ends of the posts, holding them firmly, and also served as 
as an antiseptic treatment, diminishing the liability to decay. 

The combustibility of iron is quite noticeable in tack factories, 
where the tacks are polished by attrition against each other on re- 
volving cylinders, and the fine comminuted dust is so easily combus- 
tible that it has served as the source of several fires that were started 
from some slight accident like dropping a match or exposure to an 
open light. 

Certain forms of fireworks, known as parlor fireworks, obtain some 
of their most beautiful effects from the combustion of fine iron. The 
sun, on the other hand, also serves its purpose as a factor of insur- 
ance. For its rays have been time and again concentrated upon 
combustible matter by bull's-eyes, in such a form that they crudely 
acted as a double convenx lens when placed over doors. It is also a 
frequent incident in physical laboratories, that large double convex 
lenses are left in such position that the sun will reach them in time 
and start fires. In fact as a protection against such accidents, these 
lenses should always be covered with a cloth bag when not in use. 
Dishes of tinned-iron for domestic use have also concentrated the 
rays of the sun, as any concave mirror might, upon combustible 
matter; and it is a well-known fact that two considerable fires in 
America, one at Lynn an 1 the other at Sheboygan, were both caused 
in this manner by the tin-dishes in the window of an ironmonger's 
shop. There are other fires caused by peculiar circumstances com- 
parable to that of the " arrow shot at random reaching the joint of 
the armor ;" as, for instance a hotel-keeper, at Biddeford was so re- 
joiced at the election of President Cleveland, that he set off a num- 
ber of fireworks in front of his hostelry in honor of the event. A 



22 



Tfie American Architect and Building News. [VOL. XXIII. -No. 629. 



rocket shot up into the air and descended in a vertical direction into 
the dust chimney of a cotton-mill in the vicinity. Reaching the bot- 
tom of the shaft, it exploded, igniting the dust-room and starting a 
serious fire. Sparks are sometimes the cause of fires as a result ol 
the most unexpected circumstances. In an establishment making 
table-knives, a milling-machine which finished the outside ot tne 
knife-handles was cleared of dust by a large tube projecting down 
from the room above and connected to an exhaustive blower in the 
attic. An emery-wheel which had been in the same position for a 
number of years, situated about twenty feet from this milling-machine, 
struck a spark ao-ainst a window; thence glancing back, it rebounded 
some twenty feet igniting the dust in the lower part of this tube. 
The flame was carried by the blower to the room above and through 
a hole in the roof, causing a destructive fire which was not known to 
the occupants of the room until au alarm had been given by those 
who had seen it from the outside of the building. 

In another instance, a spark from an emery-wheel struck the win- 
dow in front of the wheel ; this glancing back to the belt rebounded 
again, and entered a crack between the upper part of the window- 
frame and the masonry of the building and ignited the impalpable 
dust situated there, an accident which had never occurred before, 
although that machine had been in the same position subject to daily 
use for over twenty years. Although sparks from grinding-wheels 
frequently ignite combustible matter, yet it is a very difficult thing to 
do the same thing designedly even by holding fine matter, as cotton 
card-waste, in a line of the sparks as they are thrown off from the 
wheel. There have been numerous fires in cotton-mills caused by 
sparks from the dull-axes used in chopping hoops of cotton-bales, and 
yet it would be considered an impossibility if one were to take the 
task of setting the cotton on fire in this manner. A carpenter, while 
nailing a board to the ceiling in a picker-room of a jute-mill, struck a 
nail on one side so that it glanced across the room, entering the feed- 
ing-apron of a jute-picker and struck a spark which ignited the 
stock, passing through the picker, and thence spreading to a very 
severe fire. 

The capability of steam-pipes to set fire to wood will doubtless 
continue to be a moot question in the face of conclusive evidence to 
the contrary, merely because such fires cannot be produced at will. 

A few years ago a steam-pipe covering composed of wood-pulp and 
ground wool- waste was extensively introduced into American markets 
with the result of being ignited quite frequently by hot steam-pipes. 
There have been a few instances of the ignition of hair-felt used for 
such non-conductors ; in the course of investigation upon some fires 
of that class, it was found that while the hair-felt was not combustible 
at ordinary temperatures, yet when it had been warmed to higher 
temperatures it was quite readily combustible. Fires are of frequent 
occurrence in drying-rooms heated by steam-pipes for seasoning small 
bits of lumber used in the decorative portions of cabinet-work, under 
circumstances which do not permit any hypothesis of spontaneous 
combustion, because the wood at that time has not received any 
treatment from oils or varnishes. 

A mill in Providence, R. I., was burned by a fire originating from 
the steam-pipes in an unlooked-for manner. At the time of its con- 
struction, the proprietor exercised great care that all pipes should 
be free from direct contact with the woodwork, but when the steam 
was let into the pipes the expansion increased their length and 
pushed their end against the wood partition, which was eventually 
set on fire. Although the fact of fires originating from steam-pipes 
is well established, there is still some obscurity as to the exact sub- 
jects which produce such combustion. It is well known that the 
ignition point of charcoal bears a certain ratio to the temperature of 
carbonization ; the lower the temperature the more readily combusti- 
ble the aharcoal, and this fact is made use of in producing charcoal 
for the manufacture of some grades of gunpowder by means of 
superheated steam. Yet applying the data which' have been pub- 
lished upon the subject, it will be readily seen that the ignition point 
of charcoal produced at even the temperature of boiling water, is in 
excess of the heat of steam at the highest working-pressure, and yet 
there are instances of fires produced by steam-heating pipes at pres- 
sures as low as ten pounds and also from the heat from the tiers 
containing hot water used in bleaching. It seems probable, however, 
that the charcoal which is ignited under these conditions is not that 
charcoal which has been carbonized by direct contact with steam- 
pipes, but rather that which has been carbonized by radiation from 
steam-pipes, and therefore, at a materially lower temperature than 
that of the pipe, and then by some changes this charcoal is brought 
into absolute contact with the iteam-pipes. Fires from spontaneous 
ignition of oily waste are so alarmingly prevalent that, as such, an 
allusion to them has no place in a list of peculiar fires. The intro- 
duction of mineral oils for lubrication has tended to reduce this class 
of fires materially, as the paraffin oils will not oxidize at ordinary 
temperature, and when commingled with animal or vegetable oils in 
proportions varying from one-third to one-half, it wil^lso prevent 
such oxidations of the other oils contained in the mixture. 

A watchman in the locomotive works in Boston was very much 
alarmed when, one evening, the safety-valve of the boiler, which was 
used only for heating in winter, began to blow off, and he learned 
that there was a dangerous pressure of steam in the boiler and a 
fierce fire upon the grates. After the fire was dulled by a stream of 
water, the matter was investigated, and it was found that the furnace 
under the boiler had been a receptacle for a lot of small bits of wood 
in the cleaning up of the boiler-room which followed a spasm of 



order on the part of the boiler-tenders ; then later, some other per- 
son threw some oily waste matter into the furnace-door as the best 
method of getting rid of a dangerous article. A beetle flying into a 
mill at night became caught in a bit of sliver and straightway Hying 
into the gas-jet, dropped and started a fire among the contents of the 
card-room. In another instance, a can of cotton-sliver in a cotton- 
mill was found to be on fire, and investigation afterwards revealed 
the fact that the can was in contact with the belt over the pulley, 
and the friction of the belt on the outside of the can produced enough 
heat to ignite the cotton. There are records of several similar 
instances. The blow-off pipe of a boiler burst, causing a back 
draught, and the flames coming out of the doors of the boiler-furnace 
set the roof on fire. 

On the Pennsylvania Railroad, an exhaust blast-tube of a locomo- 
tive turned around, so that it blew a blast in the reverse direction 
into the furnace of the boiler, and the flames bursting out of the fur- 
nace door set the cab on fire, driving the engineer and fireman from 
their post to a refuge in the water-tank of the tender. The engineer, 
under circumstances of great bravery, came out and reversed the 
engine, saving the train from a total wreck, although he paid his life 
as a forfeit for his bravery. 

One of the most peculiar fires resulting from a sequence of unhappy 
circumstances was that of a storehouse connected with a mill in 
Vermont, U. S. Oil is transported on American railways in tank- 
cars, in which a cylindrical tank about five feet in diameter and 
twenty-five feet in length is secured upon a platform-car. One of 
these cars was standing upon the siding of a railway near the store- 
house, when one of the rear cars of a freight-train passing by on the 
main track jumped the switch at the siding. Numerous persons had 
observed that this rear car had a hot bearing, which had already 
ignited the oil on the journal, and, as it tore away from the train and 

E lunged down into the oil-car, breaking the iron tank, the flames 
om the hot bearing ignited the oil running out from the broken 
tank on to the ground, and surrounding the storehouse, burned it 
down. 

These fires are all from an American source of information, and 
while the conditions may not be the same to repeat the identical 
results in all instances among any industries, yet it is none the less 
true that destruction of property is quite frequent from unexpected 
causes, which are nevertheless preventable in their nature. Engi- 
neering. 

THE GREAT NOVA SCOTIA RAFT AND ITS PROGENI- 
TORS. 

HEN we last week again drew 
attention to the monster raft 
which left Nova Scotia on the 5th 
inst. for New York, we excused the brev- 
ity of our comments on the speculation 
till we knew whether or no the huge 
quantity of timber chained together 
would reach its destination or come to 
grief, as we had our apprehensions of the 
adventure being a risky one, and, as 
many expected, it has so far come to 
grief that it is adrift on the open ocean, 
PROM entirely at the control of the elements. 
DECRHUR5T CHURCH. An easterly gale sprang up on Sunday, 
' the 18th, and in latitude 40 16', longi- 
tude 70, the tow-line parted, and the raft was lost, and when last 
seen was drifting in a southerly direction. 

In the accounts of the disaster yet to hand no mention is made of 
the steersman or was there none ? If so, the voyage must have 
been hopeless from the first, as in a contrary wind or a cross-current 
it would be impossible to keep an elongated mass of material as this 
presented from coming athwart without something in the shape of a 
helm. The towing appears to have been set down as too easy a job, 
and it is evident proper provision was not made to meet one of the 
land-gales, or rather, hurricanes, which are so frequently encoun- 
tered along the Atlantic coast. 

If it was worth while to build a raft on such a gigantic scale, it was 
certainly false economy to put it under the management of one 
steamer. This vessel, called the " Miranda" may have been of 
sufficient power to have towed the raft, but when the connection was 
severed by the parting of the tow-line, all control was gone till the 
gale subsided, and the chance of clawing hold of this floating island 
of wood, with seas running mountains high, became no light under- 
taking. The catastrophe might have assumed a less serious form 
had two tugs been employed, as when one line parted there would 
have been the other holding on, affording time for the other to again 
lend her help. 

We shall not be a bit surprised, however, to hear that the 
" Miranda " haf again picked up the raft, which, of course, in fulfil- 
ment of her contract, she will go in search of directly the gale moder- 
ates. One would have thought that a prudent commander, as soon 
as his line parted, would have run down to leeward of the sea-washed 
mass, and there ridden out the storm in comparative comfort, the 
huge pile of timber forming a splendid breakwater. 

In severe gales, where there is danger of a ship straining, it is not 
unusual for those in charge to get all the spare spars lashed together 
and launch them overboard, secure with a strong line, and allow the 




w 



JANI-AKY 14, 1888.] The American Architect and Building News. 



23 



ship to drift to leeward, slacking up till the spar* or raft is suffi- 
ciently far to windward to hreak the force of the sea. 

We" cannot understand why, in the storm, the " Mirnmln " con- 
tinued to tow ; she should have slacked up and saved the strain on 
her calilcs, keeping as near the raft as she safely could, hut, of 
course, there may have Iwen circumstances of which we know nothing 
that made it expedient for the steamer to look to her own safety, 
and, perhaps, after all it was a case of abandoning the raft instead 
of the tow-rones parting. This view has some coloring in it from the 
fact that a United States man-of-war is said to have been sent in 
search of the " raft," but if the " Miranda" had not broken down, 
we cannot see why she was not quite as capable of looking after the 
raft as any other vessel. 

In 1792 a raft containing about 1,000 tons of timber was built at 
Swan Island, in the Kennebec, by Dr. Tupper, a somewhat noted 
eccentric character. It was made by tree-nailing square timber 
together in the form of a ship's hull, and was ship-rigged, the inten- 
tion being to send her across to England. At that time no manu- 
factured lumber was admitted to the ports of Great Britain ; hence 
the timber in the raft was simply squared with the axe, to make it 
stow well. The ship or raft fay at Bath for some time, it being 
difficult to get men to go in her. She finally went to sea, however, 
carrying a small vessel on her deck. But oft the Labrador coast her 
crew became frightened by bad weather and abandoned her. She 
was afterwards boardwd by men from a passing vessel and found to 
be in good order, and it was suspected that she was deserted without 
sufficient cause. Two other similar attempts were made from the 
Kennebec, and both vessels went safely across, but foundered on the 
English coast, under the same suspicions of fraud as in the case of 
tin "Tupper ship. In 1825 the ship "Baron of Renfrew" was 
launched at Quebec, having made a previous unsuccessful attempt, 
when stopped on her way, owing to the grease being consumed by 
fire from friction. She was towed down to the Island of Orleans 
and anchored. Her dimensions are given as follows : Length, 309 
feet; breadth, 60 feet; depth, 38 internally and 57 externally; ton- 
na"e, 5,888 tons; draft when launched, 24 feet; cargo on board 
when launched, 4,000 tons of timber. She was ship-rigged, with four 
masts, and was perfectly flat-bottom, with a keel of about 12 inches, 
wall-sided, sharp forward and rather lean aft, and looked more like 
a block of buildings than a ship. She sailed in August, 1825, draw- 
ing 36 feet of water, in command of a Scotchman, a half-pay lieu- 
tenant in the British navy. October 27, the "Baron of Renfrew" 
drove on shore on the coast of France, near Calais, and went to pieces. 

It is evident there are too many contingencies attached to rafting 
timber across the ocean to make it probable that any such method of 
transport will ever become general even if this Nova Scotia raft 
ultimately reaches its destination. 

For the information of those of our readers who may not have re- 
tained the particulars we gave of this extraordinary structure, we 
may mention that the raft consists of twenty-seven thousand trees, 
bound together by a series of chains which connect those around the 
outer edge? with a larger central chain, running lengthwise along the 
mass. The shape of the raft resembled that of a cigar, its length 
being five hundred and sixty feet, greatest diameter sixty-five feet, 
the weight of the raft being eleven thousand tons. The total cost of 
the raft, including timber, construction and transportation, is about 
thirty thousand dollars. The raft has the capacity of seventy large 
schooners, and the usual freight charges alone for this amount of 
timber are twenty-five thousand dollars. Two other rafts of the 
same size are now being built in Nova Scotia. 

This mighty mass of timber, though estimated by some of our 
American contemporaries to be equal in weight and dimensions to 
the still "living," but not for long, wonder of the world, the "Great 
Eastern, falls far short of the bulk and capacity of that Leviathan 
steamship, and we are well within the mark when we state that the 
big steam vessel could stow all the trees in the Nova Scotia raft and 
a score of bin- shiploads besides, her burden being 22,000 tons, and 
her length 700 feet, and breadth over all 87 feet. The raft, it will 
be observed, falls far short of this, and is a long way removed from 
exceeding the largest ship afloat, one of Her Majest's ironclad fleet, 
the "Northumberland," being over 12,000 tons, if we take the actual 
burden, which in comparing with a raft of solid timber it is only fair 
to do. Those who have been out at sea in bad weather will fully 
understand the magnitude of the task the shippers of this huge mass 
of timber undertook, and those who have invested in the venture will 
wait with bated breath the news which passing vessels which have 
sighted the floating mass will bring. To vessels ignorant of its com- 
position the first sight will lead them to the conclusion that they 
must have got out of their reckoning, whilst some amongst the super- 
stitious might think that they had met with the great sea-serpent at 
last. It will not surprise us to hear some more legends of that great 
unknown animal conveyed to us by those whose glasses have been 
pointed in 'the direction of the "raft," when the weather was misty 
or a gale blowing that gave them no opportunity of taking more than 
a flying look. - Timber Trades Journal. 



A SUPPORT or THE CHURCH. A gentleman generous in his contribu- 
tions for church purposes, but not regular in his attendance upon pub- 
lic worship was wittily described by a clergyman as being " not exactly 
a pillar of the church, but a kind of a flying-buttress, supporting it 
from the outside." Errhantje. 




SIX YEARS' LABOR TROUBLES. 

HE Boston Herald pre- 
sents the following ab- 
stract of Commissioner 
Carroll D. Wright's third 
annual rej>ortof the Bureau 
of Labor, which relates 
entirely to strikes and lock- 
outs for the period of six 
years, ending December 
31, 1886. It gives the 
result of the first general 
. investigation ever made by 
any nation of the facts concerning strikes and lockouts for any 
extended period or for any wide extent of territory. The report 
covers about seven hundred printed pages and gives the details of 
each strike and lockout occurring in the United States during the 
period named. It exhibits the facts belonging to each industrial 
disturbance for each locality where trouble was found, without 
attempting to establish or decide upon the connection between them. 
The following table shows the number of strikes occurring during 
each of the last six years, the number of establishments involved and 
the average number of establishments involved in each strike : 

Average Mo. of estab- 
Eatabliahmenta lUbruenU involved 



mr Cfrrr 



Years. 
1881.... 
1882.... 
1883 .. 
1884 

ISK.-V... 

1886.... 



Strikes. 
471 
434 
478 
443 
648 
1,412 




In each ttrike. 
6.2 
4.6 
M 
U 
U 
T.O 



Totals 3,903 22,336 6.7 

. In 1887 there were, according to the best information obtainable, 
853 strikes, details of which are not available. The report shows 
that, during the six years covered by the investigation, New York 
had the largest number of establishments affected both by strikes and 
lockouts, there being for the former 9247 and for the latter 1528. 

The building-trades furnished 6060 of the total number of estab- 
lishments engaged in strikes. The total number of employe's involved 
in the whole number of strikes for the entire period is shown to have 
been 1,318,624. The number of employes originating the strikes 
was 1,020.832. The number of employe's in all establishments before 
the strikes occurred was 1,662,045, while the whole number employed 
in the establishments involved after the strikes occurred was 1,636,- 
247, a loss of 25,798. There were 103,038 new employes engaged 
after the strikes, and 37,483 were, brought from other places than 
those in which the strikes occurred. 

In 2182 establishments lockouts were ordered during the period 
named. In these there were 173,995 employe's before the lockouts 
occurred and 169,436 after, while the number actually locked out 
was 159,548. There were 13,976 new employe's secured at the close 
of the lockouts and 5682 were brought from other places than those 
in which the lockouts occurred. 

" It should be remembered, however," says the report, " that these 
figures do not represent the actual number of individual establish- 
ments or different employes engaged, as in many cases there have 
been two or more strikes or lockouts affecting the same establish- 
ment in the same year. In such cases the establishments and the 
number of employe's engaged are duplicated." 

Of the whole number of employes involved in strikes during the 
six years 88.56 per cent were malne and 11.44 per cent females. Of 
thos'e in lockouts during the same period, 68.78 per cent were males 
and 31.22 per cent females. 

An examination of the tables appended to the report shows that 
New York, Pennsylvania, Massachusetts, Ohio and Illinois represent 
74.74 per cent of the whole number of establishments affected by 
strikes throughout the country and 90.80 per cent of the lockouts. 
These five States, it is stated, contain 49 per cent of all the manufac- 
turing establishments and employ 58 per cent of the capital invested 
in mechanical industries in the United States. Of the 22,336 estab- 
lishments in which strikes occurred, in 18,342 or 82.12 per cent of 
the whole strikes were ordered by labor organizations, while of the 
2,182 establishments in which lockouts occurred 1,753 or 80.34 per 
cent were ordered by combinations of managers. Of the whole num- 
ber of establishments temporarily closed for business, 13,443 or 
60.19 per cent were on account of strikes; on account of lockouts, 
62.60 per cent. The average duration of stoppage on account of 
strikes was 23.1 days and for lockouts 28 days. 

The results of the strikes, so far as gaining the objects sought are 
concerned, are shown to be as follows: Success followed in 10,407 
cases, of* 46.59 per cent of the whole; partial success in 3,004, or 
18.45 per cent of the whole, and failure followed in 8,910 cases, or 
39.89 per cent of the whole. By lockouts 564 establishments, 
or 25.85 per cent of the whole, succeeded in gaining their point; 190, 
or 8.71 per cent partly succeeded, and 1,305, or 59.80 per cent, failed. 

As to the causes or objects of strikes, it is shown that increase of 
wages was the principal one, 42.44 per cent. The other leading 
causes are given as follows: For reduction of hours, 19.45 per cent; 
against reduction of wages, 7.75 per cent ; for increase of wages and 
reduction of hours, 7.67 per cent; against increase of hours, 62 per 
cent. Total for the five leading causes, 77.83 per cent. All other 
causes, 22.17 per cent. 



24 



The American Architect arul Bmldirw "News. [Vot. XXIII. - No. 629. 



Disclaiming absolute accuracy, the report gives .the .losses of 



bb* strfkes and lockout in 24,518 e-tablUhmonU, or an^cr^ loss 
of $3 445 to each establishment, or of nearly $40 to each stuKcr 
"nvolved. The assistance given to striker, for the "I**!^" 
far as asccrtainable, amounted to $3,325,057 ; to those suffering from 
lockouts, $1,105,538, or a total of $4,430,595. These amounts, how- 
ever, the commissioner says, are undoubtedly too low. 

The employers' losses through strikes for the six years amounted 
to $30,732,653; through lockouts, $3,432,261, or a total loss to the 
establishments involved of $34,164,914. 

The tables also show that the chief burden of strikes was borne by 
13 industries, viz. : Boots and shoes, 352 establishments ; brick-laying, 
478; building-trades, 6,060; clothing, 1,728; cooperage, 484; food 
preparationsri,419; furniture, 491 ; lumber, 395 ; metals and metal- 
lic ioods, 1,595; mining, 2,060; stone, 468; tobacco 2,9o9 trans- 
portation, 1,478. These represent 89.35 per cent of the whole num- 
ber subjected to strikes. In lockouts, five trades bore 80 per cent of 
the whole burden, as follows: Boots and shoes, 155 establishments; 
building trades, 531; clothing, 773; metals and metallic goods, 76, 
and tobacco, 226, or a total of 1,761. 

Beside completing the field-work for this report and the compila- 
tion of the information, the Bureau has carried on almost to comple 
tion the investigation begun last year concerning the moral, physic: 
and economical" conditions of the workingwomen of great cities, and 
has continued its investigation into the cost of the distribution ot 
great staple products. It has also undertaken, according to Congres- 
sional instruction, the collection of statistics of marriage and divorce 
in the United States, a report of which may be submitted before the 
close of the present session of Congress. 




THE BEARING-POWER OF PILES. 



CLAY CENTER, KANSAS, Dec. 27, 1887. 
To THE EDITORS OF THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT: 

Dear Sirs, In your issue of Dec. 3, 1887. you speak about a 
paper on the bearing-power of piling, read by Mr. Ira O. Baker 
before the Western Society of Civil Engineers and published in the 
Journal of the Association of Engineering Societies. I have lost the 
address of the Journal named. Would you please give me the ad- 
dress and number containing the above article. 

Respectfully yours, HENRY S. MADDOCK. 

[WK do not know. Our article was suggested by a reprint of the paper 
in pamphlet, which, we fear, has found its way to the waste-basket. 
EDS. AMERICAN ARCHITECT.] 

A QUESTION OF EXTRAS. 

ASHLAND, Wis., January 7, 1888. 

To THE EDITORS OF THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT : 

Dear Sirs, Will you kindly advise me what is customary in the 
East in settlement of the following bill of extras. After the contract 
is let, client orders a system of indirect steam-heating to be used in 
the building, this necessitates the building of 54 flues 8'' x 8" square 
16' 4" high in the centre brick wall, the flues being put in at the time 
the wall was built. The contractor completes the flues according to 
orders, and brings in a bill for $75 for extra work. Client demurs 
and refers bill back to architect for adjustment. Would the amount 
of bricks saved be taken into account in settlemei't with contractor. 
I have a very decided opinion regarding the matter, but would like 
your advice before giving it. Hoping this may be of common in- 
terest to more than one young man, 

I remain yours respectfully, H. 

[IT Is customary to consider the saving of bricks in the flues as offset by 
the extra trouble of forming the flues properly, so that under ordinary 
circumstances there would be no difference in cost between a solid wall and 
one containing flues. In this case, however, there may have been special 
difficulty in arranging so many flues, or the contractor may have been put 
to some extra personal trouble by the change, for which, of course, he is 
entitled to be paid. EDS. AMERICAN ARCHITECT.] 




THE SPANISH NATIONAL THKATRE, MADRID. An historical play- 
house is soon to disappear from Madrid. The Spanish National Thea- 
tre, which is over 300 years old, is unsafe through age, and must be 
pulled down to make place for a new building, with all modern im- 
provements. It was originally built by the monks for the performance 
of miracle plays, and afterwards housed an Italian pantomime troupe. 
The performances took place in the day, as the so-called theatre was 
only a walled enclosure where the spectators stood promiscuously in a 
paved court-yard. When Philip IV succeeded, early in the seventeenth 
century, a regular theatre was built, where boxes or raised seats were 
assigned by royal order to distinguished personagei, and an entrance 





fee of three duros was charged. The masterpieces of Calderon and 
Lope de Vega were produced on this stage. N. 1 . Evening Post. 

THE POPULATION OF CHINA. The authorities of Pekin have re- 
cently taken a census of the Empire, and as it was for taxing purposes 
the proneness to disbelieve in the large estimates must be modified ac- 
cordingly The figures returned by the village bailiffs make the popu- 
lation 319 383,501), which together with the estimates of five provinces 
omitted makes the aggregate about 392,000,000. These figures arc in- 
dependent of the population of Corea, Thibet and Kashgar. As the 
population of India exceeds 250,000,000 the Hindoos and Chinese con- 
stitute more than half the entire human race. London Junes. 




THE anthracite coal-strike is causing some inconvenience to manufae- 




settled. The rolling-mills i 

supply of which is not affected at presedt by the strike. 1'ig-iron remains 
nominally unchanged, although some companies which are pretty well sold 
up have nominally advanced prices 50 cents per ton. 'Ihere are no stwks 
to speak of, consumption having kept pretty close track on production. 
Standard No. 1 is 821-$22; standard No. 2, $18-819; standard forge, $17- 
818 The pig-iron makers do not feel in the least concerned over the situa- 
tion and naturally apprehend a little stiffening of prices. There is, of 
course, a possibility that demand may slightly fall off because of the in- 




85 at furnace, and heavy contracts 'have been placed within the past few 
davs. Bituminous coal is also in active demand. Iron and steel making 



will go on as usual unless, the supply of coke and soft coal should eive out. 
There is fear, of course, that the Wyoming anthracite region, now in, may 
come out, and that the Clearfield region, now at work, may seize this 
opportunity to strike for the contested Columbus scale, and that the Con- 
nellsville coke-makers may take another rest, but the manufacturing in- 
terests are hoping to escape all these threatened evils through the accept- 
ance by the Reading Company of arbitration, a measure which, it must be 
said, is particularly offensive'to them. The bar, plate, sheet and all other 
iron-mills throughout New York and Pennsylvania are at work with fair 
orders and good prospects for the winter. An immense consumption of Iron 
will take place this year. Locomotive-building was 25 per cent grentrr in 
1887 than 1886, and car building was nearly one bundled per cent greater. 
This activity mav not be repeated this year, but we do not apprehend much 
of a falling off. "Steel-rails are quoted firm at $32 at mill Very few orders 
are arriving. Buyers want supplies for next year at 830 and 831. Wages 
have been quite generally reduced, and buyers think this reduction ought 
to allow a little reduction in prices. We have been heavy buyers of foreign 
material fora year, and our dependence is not at end. although just now 
very little foreign business is being done on account of the upward tendency 
of prices abroad. A great deal of railroad-building will be done despite the 
pessamistic assertions to the contrary. The general trade outlook is good, 
and we feel certain that we will have an excellent year. Tariff discussions 
do not create s much unrest as might be supposed. The industries have 
had timely notice, and they are preparing to defend themselves. The heavy 
distribution of lumber which was keut up since May 1 until the close of the 
season will probably be renewed early in the spring. Much as may be said 
against the wisdom of prosecuting railway construction upon a large scale, 
the building of railroads will continue to absorb an enormous amount of 
capital, iron, steel, lumber and building material. Nothing hut a sweeping 
panic can check enterprise, and prevent the building of cities and towns, 
the opening of mines, and the building of manufactories large and small all 
over the country. The impulse has been given, and newspaper-writing 
cannot check it. The fact that the volume of monev is steadily increasing, 
and that there is confidence in our monetary system and that the people at 
large have confidence in the permanency of healthy-trade conditions all go 
to strengthen the belief that the business for 1888 will be, if not larger than 
last year, at least as large in the aggregate. In some directions there will 
be no doubt a falling off. In other directions there will be an expansion. 
Averaging the probabilities we may safely say, fully as much money will 
be expended this year as last, and enterprise will have as many inviting 
opportunities open to it. It may be too soon to say that labor will not be 
troublesome, and especially in view of recent disturbances in Pennsylvania 
and elsewhere, but if the instances which could be specified were examined 
into, it would be found that there are special causes at work to aggregate 
labor and make it apparently despotic for the time being. Taking labor all 
through there is a stronger conservative feeling than ever, and a clearer 
comprehension of the underlying intimate relationship between employers 
and employed. The prospects for the early spring trade are certainly 
favorable. Farm-products have a higher range of values. The lumber 
dealers throughout the country are holding their present supplies of lumber 
for higher prices. The lumber manufacturers in the Northwest and South 
are preparing to so act that they will not check the healthful influence at 
work. In regard to lumber itself, there will be a much heavier demand for 
hard-wood, and manufacturers are already preparing for it. A largn 
amount" of oak is being taken out and prepared for the mill. It is con- 
sidered in lumber-trade circles there is no probability of an over-supply of 
oak on account of the heavy demands from furniture manufacturers, car- 
builders and general consumers. Walnut has perhaps seen its best days in 
the East, but the demand throughout the West will absorb all the surplus 
stocks, if there are any, and leave prices at their high notch. There is 
.1 great deal of inquiry for cherry, mahogany, poplar and ash, and the 
probabilities are that these woods will hold their own without any difficulty. 
Cypress is also coming in for a variety of purposes, as well .is North Caro- 
lina sap. Yellow-pine will crowd its way farther to the front against com- 
petitors. From reports received from brick manufacturers in different 
parts of the country it is impossible to form an intelligible opinion as to the 
probable course of prices. Brick-makers insist upon and will receive 
higher prices. They are making ample preparations for an increasing 
supply, and the mamifacturers of brick-machinery are also receiving orders 
for additional machinery and are filling extensive orders, so that so far as 
these indications go, it would seem the supply of brick will be equal to all 
demands. 

S. J. PARKHILL & Co., Printers, Boston. 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT AND BUILDING NEWS. 



VOL. xxni. 



Copyright. 1K8, by TinxoR A COMPANY, Ballon, MM. 



No. 630. 



JANUARY 21, 1888. 

Entered *t the 1'iMtrOfflea at Bucton u Moond-elmm i 




SUMMARY 

Tin- Gelatine Print of tin- Fin-place in tin- " Villaril House." 
How Owners of Objects of Art might do Rood. The Com- 
pulsory Examination of English Areliitfcts. Mr. T. G. 
Jackson's Paper on this Subject. The Art Side of Arch- 
itecture and its Professors 

LETTER FKOM BALTIMORE 27 

LETTER FROM PHILADELPHIA 28 

LETTER FROM NEW YORK 29 

LETTER FROM CHICAGO 30 

ILLUSTRATIONS : 

American Unitarian Association's Building, Boston Mass. 
Gothic Spires anil Towers, I, II, III. House for C. F. 
Washburn, Esq., Worcester, Mass. Competitive Design 
for the Y. M. C. A. Building, Providence, H. I. Pillsbury 
Science Hall, Minneapolis, Minn. Competitive Design for. 

a Club-house. Calendar for the Year 1888 .30 

LETTER FROM CINCINNATI i 

PARIS CHURCHES. VII. Notre Dame .31 

LETTER FROM BOSTON 

BOOKS AND PAPERS. "-, 34 

SOCIETIES : ... 35 

COMMUNICATION : 

The Relation of an Architect to a Building-Committee. ... 35 

NOTES AND CLIPPINGS 30 

TRADE SURVEYS 36 



WE find ourselves in the very uncomfortable position 'of 
being obliged to apologize for the commission of an 
alleged wrong which we quite innocently have had a 
hand in. We feel called on to apologize because we readily 
perceive that a grievance is felt and we speak of an alleged 
wrong partly because it rests on allegations that are disputed, 
and partly because we feel that the offence, if one exists, was 
committed innocently. Soon after the publication of the 
view of the fireplace in the " Villard house," we received a 
letter from the architects of the building, which declared that 
they and the present owner of the building were " incensed " 
at this publication, that the photographer from whom we 
obtained the negative had " uo moral right to dispose of " the 
views, and begging us to "take some proper action in the 
matter." This we have done by telling our printers to destroy 
the edition of plates of another view in the same house 
already printed for issue next week and applying to the 
photographers for an explanation from their point of view, 
which they furnish by writing that while they regret the con- 
troversy they do not feel, inasmuch as they " obtained full per- 
mission from the residents to photograph " the rooms, that they 
have done any one a wrong. Since all the parties to this con- 
troversy are known to us as, in Mark Antony's words, " honor- 
able men," we do not propose to carry our investigations 
farther. It is not our part to inquire into the right of the 
" residents " to accord permission any more than it is to dis- 
cover whether the negatives were made before or after the ac- 
quisition of the property by the present owner. We can only 
regret that any one has been annoyed and that we have been 
subjected to loss. We cannot, however, shut our eyes to the 
fact that an interior view i.= not a thing that can be secured 
surreptitiously with a detective-camera and a drop-shutter. 

O PEAKING about photographs, we wish we had the gift 
|i^ of knowing beforehand whether the proprietors of interest- 
ing objects would be pleased or displeased at having their 
beauties held up to the admiration of the public. There are 
thousands of such things, belonging to private owners, the rep- 
resentation of which in such a publication as this would do 
great good in showing persons denied access to museums and 
collections of art what was really worthy of admiration ; but, 
although perhaps the majority of owners are perfectly willing 
to be of service to the public in this way, the objections of the 
other sort take so pronounced a form that we are always a 
little afraid to mention the subject at all to persons whom we 
do not know. 

fllE current numbers of the English professional journals 
contain a good deal about a matter which is now engross- 
ing to an extraordinary degree the attention of architects 
all over the world. It is true that -they are by no means 



agreed on the subject, and we find earnest and able men 
arrayed on both sides, but the fact that instead of pursuing each 
his own way, independent and unmindful of all the rest, as was 
the rule twenty years ago. nearly ull the architects worthy of 
the name in England, France and America are now interesting 
themselves in a question of professional policy, is one on which 
the world is to be congratulated. In the agitation of this 
matter the compulsory examination of architects the 
French seem to have taken the first step, with, however, less 
success than the English, who, while their brethren across the 
Channel were applying in vain to the Government to establish 
such an examination, took the very efficient preliminary step 
of requiring all applicants for admission to their own principal 
professional society to pass an examination prescribed by that 
society. The results of this movement have been so valuable 
that a very influential group of the younger men in the profes- 
sion have drawn up a bill to be presented to Parliament, pro- 
viding that after a certain date any person wishing to practise 
the profession of architecture must, after passing not less than 
five years as apprentice, to a registered architect, present him- 
self for examination, and, on passing such examination in a satis- 
factory manner, shall have his name registered as an architect ; 
and that after the Act goes into operation, any unregistered 
person calling himself an architect shall be liable to a fine of 
twenty pounds for the first offence and fifty pounds for each 
subsequent one ; that no public body shall give any professional 
appointment to an unregistered person ; that his certificate shall 
have no legal value, and that he shall not have the aid of the 
.law in recovering compensation for professional work. This is 
very nearly the same as the law of most civilized countries in 
regard to the practice of medicine, but as there is no great 
school of architecture in England, a term of apprenticeship is 
substituted for the course of study in a medical school which is 
required of physicians. 



TTFIIIS proposition, although supported by a great many archi- 
J[ tects of high reputation, has been violently assailed by 
others and by some of the professional journals, the Builder, 
in particular, forgetting its usual dignity in a rather personal 
attack upon the " small clique " of people who have taken the 
trouble to bring the matter before the public, while, as men- 
tioned lately by our English correspondent, so distinguished an 
architect as Mr. T. G. Jackson recently read a long paper 
before the Architectural Association, drawing quite a dreadful 
picture of the results which would follow from the enactment 
of the measure proposed. Leaving the merits of the case out 
of the question, we must say that the promoters of the bill in 
England have so far much the advantage in point of logic over 
the opposite party. They know what they think is needed, 
and their measure is obviously framed so as to accomplish what 
they consider desirable, while their opponents seem to find 
nothing better to meet them with than gratuitous predictions of 
all sorts of frightful things which, as they say, will follow from 
the passage of the bill. Even Mr. Jackson's paper, the most 
earnest and convincing that has yet appeared on the subject, 
begins with a glaring petitto prlncipii in its very title, which 
calls it an essay " on the Proposal to make Architecture a 
Close Profession by Imposing the Test of Examination," just 
as if examinations i'or which any one could be a candidate were 
not the best means of opening instead of closing a profession to 
all who were qualified to pursue it ; and goes on with arguments 
which give a singular ideaof its author's Oxford training in logic. 
" Evidently," it says, " the bill proposes to adopt the restric- 
tions of the old trade guilds and modern trade unions." It in 
curious to see these linked together, but to compare a measure 
which expressly provides that all persons who reach a certain 
standard of attainment shall be admitted to a profession, with the 
rules of bodies whose cardinal principle in their bad days was, 
and is now to some extent, to cut off competition by limiting the 
number of persons admitted to them, without regard to the 
qualifications of the candidates, seems about as questionable as 
the assertion which follows, that the result of the bill " would 
be that there would be fewer architects to share the same 
amount of work, and that poor men, however, well qualified, 
would be left on the outside of the door, while a golden shower 
of premiums would fall on those who are on the right side of 
it ; " and " as the same fortunate persons are to have the sole 
right to hold public appointments, it is easy to see who would 



eoWen shovvers into the laps of those who have a ready taken 
Eir diplomas. In fact, the bugbear of the exclusion of the 
poor but worthy person who wishes to be a physician, in favor 
oi his rich rival who can afford to pay tuition fees, has been so 
recently trotted around several of our own States, m which 
aws for the regulation of the practice of medicine were under 
con ideration, that another of the same genus ,s perhaps more 
readily recognized here than in England, and it may be a com- 
fort to our friends across the water to learn that the tribe has 
here proved to be quite harmless. 



'TT GOOD deal more is to be said in favor of Mr Jackson s 
/I forebodings lest a compulsory examination should be de- 
' trimental to the pursuit of architecture as a fine art. 
examination proposed would, he said, ' open still wider the 
breach which unfortunately divides it from the sister arts of 
painting and sculpture, and in so doing would condemn it to a 
lifeless monotony and hopeless unprogressiveness. _ ; Believe 
me" continued this sincere and thorough artist, "it is m the 
extending of an architect's skill into the decorative arts, in the 
closer union of himself with other artists, in the cultivation of 
the power to ornament his own handiwork, and so of mtroduc- 
ino- consistency and harmony into what otherwise is a mere 
ian^le of jarring notes struck by unsympathetic hands, that the 
hotTe of architecture among us lies. The true brethren of the 
architect are the painter and the sculptor, not the surveyor and 
the engineer, and those are no longer true friends of our art who 
would try to persuade us otherwise." We are sure that every 
one who cares for his profession will subscribe enthusiastically to 
this view, and it is a pleasure to see it so earnestly upheld by 
a man who adds to it his belief that " there can be no good 
architecture without good building," and who has shown him- 
self to be a consummate master in both ; but we cannot help 
marvelling that any one should reason that because an architect 
should be" an artist, therefore a person could not be a good 
architect if any one tried to find out whether he knew anything 
or not For ourselves, we believe with all our heart that an 
architect should be a perfect artist, trained, as Mr. Jackson 
well says, to skill and knowledge in the arts of both painting 
and sculpture, as well as deeply versed in that most subtile and 
difficult of all the arts of expression which he himself professes ; 
but that the true way to educate such artists is never to put 
them to any tests, and that the best way to select them is to 
take without question their own statement as to their genius, 
we are not prepared to admit. On the contrary, the curse of 
art among English-speaking nations has been for two centuries 
the impunity with which quacks have been permitted to parade 
their inventions, with beating of tomtoms and blare of trumpets, 
under the label of art. So far as the English are concerned, 
there is good reason for believing them to be in their inmost 
souls the most artistic people in the world yet their very 
virtues have been made the means of deluding them. Un- 
fortunately for them, one art, that of letters, is not susceptible 
of much change, and the English mind is always open to its 
charm. Knowing this, the man who wishes to bring about a 
revolution in artistic fashions devotes himself, not to devising 
something more beautiful than has been, done before, but to 
getting the books and newspapers to say that what he has done 
Ts the most interesting, or aesthetic, or spiritual thing in exist- 
ence. Then the English public rushes to admire the new 
wonder, and finding it, in general, ugly, concludes that what 
it liked before must be bad, and that conscience requires it to 
prefer ugliness, and, it is needless to say, real art goes into an 
eclipse until that particular cloud passes over, generally to 
suffer a new eclipse immediately after. What architect of 
mature years cannot verify this by thinking of the Ruskin in- 
fluence? Many years ago, under Barry and the other great 
architects of the early part of the century, London began to be 
beautified with a considerable number of noble compositions, 
not particularly original, for even their authors were tied down 
to the Italian Renaissance which their books told them was the 
purest of styles, but well studied and good. Then arose Mr. 



[VOL. XXIII. No. 630. 

Ruskin, and launched at them the most brilliant rhetoric that 
has ever been written iu any language. He denounced their 
unoffending pediments in phrases which brought conviction to 
all who read them ; he held up their classical frets and festoons 
to irresistible scorn, and described the Venetian or Lombard or 
French Gothic, according to his varying fancy, m terms which 
brought tears of tenderness to the eyes, and enthusiasm to the 
heart Immediately all the traditions, the learning, the tastes 
and examples of the architects' offices were thrown overboard, 
and their owners trooped to Northern Italy, not to learn what 
was good, that being a liberty which they would have shud- 
dered at the idea of allowing themselves, but to discover and 
copy what would please Mr. Ruskin. We all remember the 
result. Those of us who are old enough can recollect the ad- 
miration with which we beheld the rows of pinched little win- 
dows with cusps, the polychromatic " wall-veils " of red and 
black bricks, and the extraordinary towers with which our pre- 
decessors did homage to the great rhetorician who had washed 
their souls away by his floods of eloquence on matters which he 
knew very little about ; and we can probably recall also the 
sensation of scales falling from our eyes when disenchantment 
came, and we looked at what had been done and saw how bad 
it was. Then Mr. Norman Shaw and Mr. Nesfield published 
their beautiful volumes of sketches, and the world turned to 
French Gothic as the correct thing. Mr. Norman Shaw him- 
self, it is true, left the rest to learn the fashion from his book, 
and devoted himself to designing houses which were simply 
beautiful, without being in this, that or the other styles, but, 
though other people saw his work and loved it immediately, 
they were too intent on " correctness " to follow him, and the 
French Gothic from the conscientious ones, with the ugly non- 
descript from the careless and unfeeling ones, held the field 
until the delights of the Queen Anne were unfolded in another 
book, and the architectural world hurried off to measure and 
copy moulded brickwork and Dutch orders. What went on in 
this country meanwhile we hardly venture to describe, but the 
general result was that a hundred years, which might have 
been used for filling two countries with beautiful buildings, 
were thrown away in dragging architecture at the ^ tail of 
literary whims. It is time for a change, and, to our mind, the 
surest way of accomplishing it is not, as Mr. Jackson thinks, to 
let every one exalt his own conceits as the purest architecture, 
and prevent any one from applying a test to them, but to sub- 
ject the would-be designer of buildings to some sort of inquiry 
as to his real artistic knowledge. We should not, any more 
than he, wish to have a candidate for entrance into the pro- 
fession judged by the designs he might make at an examina- 
tion. It is universally acknowledged among architects that 
liberty in this respect ought to be allowed to every aspirant ; 
but Mr. Jackson himself tells us that " the hope of architecture 
lies in the extending of the architect's skill into the other de- 
corative arts," and, this being so, why should not the capacity 
of a candidate for responding to that hope be tested by inquir- 
ing into his skill in those other decorative arts ? According to 
the theory which we hear often repeated by those who fear 
that art would lose by the examination of architects, the 
scientific part of the examination is useless, since architects do 
not use mathematics, physics or chemistry, and the artistic 
attainments of the candidate, which are the most important, 
cannot be determined in that way ; or, in other words, skill in 
the management of light and shade, form and color, being as 
essential to an architect as an artist, it is necessary that he 
should never be asked any questions about his training in 
them. Moreover, as Mr. Arthur Cates well remarked, during 
the discussion which followed Mr Jackson's paper, one of the 
chief uses of an examination is to point out to students what it 
is, in the opinion of the best masters of their time, necessary 
for them to learn in order that they, too, may be set in the way 
of attaining to eminence, and to prevent them, while inex- 
perienced and ignorant of the quality of the art which they 
desire to profess, from wasting their time on useless or mis- 
leading studies ; and if training in drawing, painting and 
modelling is, as we all agree, very desirable, it is all the more 
important that the student should have some standard in those 
arts set before him, to which he must attain, not by talking in 
a patronizing manner about them, as is now the ordinary way, 
but by practising them diligently under good instruction, until 
he can show by his work in them that he has reached that 
knowledge of their resources which he needs as an essential 
part of his equipment for the practice of that art which, in a 
sense, comprehends them all. 



JANUARY 21, 1888.] 



The American Architect and Building News. 



27 




CAUSES WHICH HAVE IIIKFF.KKX Tl ATED 

TIIEGKOWTH OK BALTIMORE FIIOM THAT 

OF OTIIElt CITIES. 

fT is doubtless somewhat trite to observe that 
in architecture we find a continuous process of 
evolution, perhaps in a more marked degree 
than in any other art or science, or, indeed, than 
in anything on the face of the earth that bears the 
impress of man's mind and hand and that is not 
merely the result of a simple action of Nature. True, from time to 
time, and particularly in later days, there have appeared here and 
there creations certainly striking, but apparently the result of mere 
whim ; they were things born without parentage, inheriting no char- 
acter and leaving no issue. Hence, the true architectural status of 
any given epoch or locality can hardly be intelligently understood or 
criticised without a certain degree of knowledge of what has pre- 
ceded it, under such influences as changes in historic, social, commer- 
cial or climatic conditions, and it is only with this preparation that 
we should undertake any architectural description or criticism, not 
only of schemes of gruat archaeological research, which are bringing 
to light ruined cities from the bowels of the earth or the depths of 
the sea, telling marvelous tales that we involuntarily consign to 
the age of legend an.l romance, but we may apply like methods with 
like results to a very limited circle of time and space and to very 
recent years to our own new world of America, to our own nine- 
teenth century. So rapid have been the changes in the conditions 
that have affected our city architecture in the past hundred years, 
that what it is to-day is a very different thing from what it was in 
the year eighteen hundred, or even fifty, or indeed twenty-five 
years ago, a difference almost as great as what would formerly mark 
a period of several centuries or two distinct nationalities. 

There is a certain amount of both profit and interest in looking 
back some half century, more or less, at what were the prevailing 
tvpes in any one of our Eastern cities, and noting the several steps 
that have led us (up or down) from then to now. New York, Phila- 
delphia, Baltimore and Boston, ranking in population in this order, 
were then our only cities that had rightly any claim to the name, the 
place of second in importance being probably disputed between the 
Puritan and the Quaker, while such respectable towns as Albany, 
Richmond and Charleston were already some distance in the rear, 
the national capital little more than a group of public buildings 
slowly rising in distant view of each other, and our great Western 
prodigies, at the best, merely precocious infants. 

One might possibly question, however, if, in the confusion of these 
rapid transitions, any of our cities could rightly lay claim to any 
" architectural status," and also might pardonably ask what the sub- 
ject has to do with a letter from Baltimore, presumably meruly on 
matters of current interest, more or less local. It is simply from the 
fact that we are writing of a city which we cannot but feel does not 
to-day in many respects hold quite the architectural rank she should, 
and that perhaps she once did, among her neighboring sisters nearest 
her equal in size and importance. The extent of her building trans- 
actions, on the other hand, is often boasted of, or, at least, regarded 
as satisfactory, and in 1880, she was within her corporate limits 
about co-equal in population with Boston. Fifty years ago or more 
the difference was rather one of degree than of kind, that is (with 
some few exceptions) the best things in and around Baltimore were 
quite as good in their way, quite as substantial and well-designed, as 
the best in and around New York, and this notably the case in 
dwelling-house architecture, and the dwelling is really the architec- 
tural type that tells the story of a people more accurately than any 
other, being the clearer exponent of their habits and tastes, in that 
it is more intimately associated with their lives than any public 
building, secular or religious. 

While, then, we find the generation of our grandfathers living in 
the steep and narrow but well-paved streets of Boston in houses 
usually built of brick, frequently combined with granite and very 
solid in construction, among whose characteristic features were the 
deeply-recessed "stoops" (leaving no unprotected steps projecting 
onto the sidewalks) and the rapidly-developing " swell front " 
severely devoid of any decoration, or else, in the more pretentious 
examples, exhibiting very interesting bits of classical and colonial 
detail, and all more or less the natural result of local conditions; 
while we may note all this in the sturdy old New England city, we 
find a decidedly different type of house prevailing in New York, 
Philadelphia and Baltimore, but a much greater similarity in the 
style of things between those three cities themselves. Here the mate- 
rial was also generally brick and laid in " Flemish bond," but marble 
as a rule taking the place of granite. Broad steps, with iron rails, 
projected upon the sidewalks, or else we had the low front door of 
the " English basement." " Swell fronts " were rare exceptions, the 
houses here were somewhat broader and lower than in Boston, and 
there was more ornamental detail of gootl classical proportions often 
expanding into very artistic bits of decoration. 

In New York the most distinctive feature has always been that 



everything is perhaps a little bigger and rather more of it than else- 
where, ;m element that was largely developed with even less com- 
incii lulilc IT.-II|;S in the succeeding hrownstone age. In Philadel- 
phia, we have always had the almost unbroken flatness of the entire 
city, tlie uniformly narrow streets and prevailing sameness of the 
hnii<es, with the marked local characteristics of the solid white 
wooden outside shutters. While in Baltimore we find a great diver- 
sity of hill and level land, wider streets and more variation in the 
treatment of the house-front. The uniformly wide streets, and that 
rather in the driveway than in the sidewalk, were in some parts of the 
city uncalled for by the amount of tradic passing through them, often 
on the side of steep hills that were not inviting to vehicles, an.l 
being but badly paved with cobble stones (till within the last few 
years) not infrequently gave good grounds, in some spots at least, 
for the rumor that grass grew in their midst. The difference in the 
class of houses, with conspicuous exceptions, was likewise rather that 
of degree than of kind, the more pretentious and ex|>ensive being 
simply larger, and that rather in the number than in the size of 
their rooms, and containing richer details of interior finish. Balti- 
more, unlike her more Northern sisters had no suburbs of pleasant 
towns about her, nothing to correspond to Cambridge, Brooldine, 
Koxbury and Charlestown, that cling to the outskirts of Boston : her 
streets gradually lost themselves in the country, after degenerating 
into rather unattractive highways, chiefly occupied by mechanics' 
houses and factories some dozeuor so of the principal avenues sud- 
denly converting themselves into the old-time turnpike road, and, 
to the North, South and West stretching themselves out through 
most attractive country toward neighboring points of more or less 
importance, whilu to the East lay the rather uninteresting and thinly 
populated low-lands around the shores of the river and bay. These 
main roads for many miles wound on three sides of the city, branched 
off into a perfect net-work of picturesque lanes, recalling in many 
respects the rural charms of their English prototype, and led to 
innumerable country seats of various descriptions " Colonial," 
' Italian," " Gothic " and " vernacular " from the simple country 
home of five or ten acres within sight of the city spires to the more 
distant farms of many hundreds, where many of the citizens spent 
their summers, and many made their homes for the entire year. 

There were no local railroads, the through lines had few stations 
near town, and horse-cars were unknown, hence access was obtained 
to all this charming country only by private conveyance, or by a few 
most aggravatingly slow and accommodating lines of stages or omni- 
buses, while the main highways were thronged with huge canvas- 
covered market-wagons, drawn by four, six or eight horses bearing 
rows of tingling bells in their harness that could be heard half a 
mile away which brought the country produce of every description 
into the city. Yet with these somewhat primitive characteristics 
Baltimore proper never had, even long before the days of which we 
are now speaking, anything of a rural town aspect, like, for example, 
her very ancient and interesting neighbor, Annapolis, who for many 
years had been regarding her rather id the aspect of a commercial 
parvenue of somewhat mushroom growth. Once you touched her 
boundaries you found yourself in streets that were all paved with 
bricks and cobble-stones, systematically laid out and closely built: 
few and far between were the houses that were surrounded by a 
garden, though not uncommonly those of the better class had re- 
served a side-garden of the width of the adjacent city lot, inclosed by 
a brick wall and usually with the view to future building improve- 
ments ; in one or two streets was to be found the arrangement of high 
terrace as it still exists in Mt. Vernon Street, Boston, but what 
usually is known as the row of "Terraces" or " Villas " was nowhere 
seen, and frame-buildings, except of very anciont date, did not exist 
within the city limits. 

Such was Baltimore half a century ago. She is something very 
different to-day. Not that the transformation is anything abn irmal, 
or due to anything more than the natural development of a pros|>er- 
ous modern city, indeed her progress has not been so rapid as that 
of some of her sisters, and from the rapid growth of Western towns 
and the all-embracing policy of Boston toward her surroundings, in 
1880 she had fallen from the third to the sixth place in the 
scale of population, and that, too, in regarding Brooklyn as only an 
outgrowth of New York. But, on the other hand, the census returns 
only include the area within her old corporate boundaries, which 
have not been extended for many years, and which have long been 
so far overrun that they now have only a legal but no visible exist- 
ence, and a Bill is at this time in preparation for the Legislature to 
extend the limits, and to add from fifty to a hundred thousand to her 
population. Already her streets extend far out into what was a 
few years ago picturesque and sometimes almost wild country, and 
various lines of steam and horse-cars connect her with her rapidly 
developing suburban towns. We need not follow the changes that 
moved her centre of social fashion from Battle Monument Square up 
to the now central Mt. Vernon Place and far beyond, that gave her 
the six hundred acres of the beautiful Druid "Hill Park for her 
pleasure-ground, and that has made her conspicuous as a literary, 
musical and art centre in the new light of her University, her libraries, 
her Peabody Institute and her Walter's Gallery ; but must not fail 
to consider these elements in a community as important factors that 
necessarily influence its architecture, botli directly and indirectly, 
and in a future letter we can look more closely at what are particular 
subjects of architectural interest that exist in the city as creations of 
to-day, or of the last few years. Lo. N. 



ArcMect and Suilding 




LOTIIFULNESS IN ADOPTING 

THE MODEUN OKDEK OF THINGS. 

EXCELLENCE OF THE BUILD- 
ERS. OLD STONE HOUSES OF THE 
COLONIAL PERIOD. 

IN none of the older cities of this coun- 
try has the architectural awakening of the 
last siven years produced such striking 
results as in Philadelphia. Not only has 
the actual amount of building done increased steadily since 18 ' 
the year's record, indeed, showing over seventy-five hundred build- 
ino-s or one and three-fourths times as many as were erected in iNew 
York during the same time but many of these are distinctly good 
from an architectural point of view. Some of them, in fact, are of the 
very best type, and many, even among the worst, show an amount 
of daring in design that would have amazed and very likely shocked 
the dwellers in the then universal red-brick and white-marble houses 
that have made the streets of Philadelphia proverbial for their mono- 
tony. This very monotony, by its contrast with the variety of 
treatment in the new style, only serves to emphasize the change that 
is beim* wrought. It took a long time, to be sure, for this change to 
be felt? In order to appreciate its nature and extent, it will be 
necessary to take a rapid glance at the past history of local building. 
Long after New York and Chicago had built and filled their huge 
office-buildings, the general opinion was that such structures were 
not needed here where the business part of the city was so spread 
out that there was no demand for great height, and where the pro- 
fessional men were supposed to prefer their offices in buildings hav- 
ing some pretensions to antiquity. Then, too, the often-quoted pro- 
vincialism, or, let us say, ultra-conservatism of Philadelphia's 
prevented them from taking anything like a general interest in archi- 
tecture until some time after the Bostonians had begun to dot the 
reclaimed land of the Back Bay with beautiful houses and to regard 
the great fire in the light of an artistic windfall. 

Another thing that kept Philadelphia behind the other large cities 
was the excellence of its builders. Instead of going to an architect, 
it had been the immemorial custom for one when about to build a 
house to consult a builder. And no wonder. These builders, capa- 
ble men and admirably trained, had for the most part inherited the 
trade of their fathers and with it a name and a reputation that they 
could not afford to lose. The prospective house-builder, then, had 
no hesitation in leaving everything to one of these men, who would 
allow him, if his lot were a> wide one, to have rooms on both sides 
of a dark entry ; if the lot were narrow, on only one, while the entry 
was darker. The front, of course, was exactly like its neighbor's. 
This plan was so inevitable that one can find dozens of houses on 
corner lots with, say, twenty-five feet of the orthodox type of front, 
furnished with outside shutters and marble steps on one street and 
on the other sixty feet of blank wall. This extraordinary piece of 
planning is to be met with, it is true, in other cities, but never, I 
think, with such depressing frequency as in Philadelphia. And this 
in the city where Mr. Notman was building churches whose justness 
of proportion and purity of style gave them, until in comparatively late 
years, a place in the front rank of American ecclesiastical architec- 
ture, and where Mr. Walter was designing Moyamensing Prison and 
Girard College, examples of consistent architecture that are better 
and better appreciated in the midst of the Babel of styles that how 
surrounds them. For now at least the charge of Philadelphia's 
monotony is no longer hard to refute : a three-minutes' walk in the 
down-town streets will show the astonished visitor Greek and Roman 
temples, relics of eighty years' standing, hemmed-in by picturesque 
buildings of the most original character, whilst examples more or less 
pure of Gothic, Moorish, Italian, Renaissance, American, Classic, 
Romanesque, Egyptian and modern French stand shoulder to 
shoulder in a bewildering perspective. And cropping out here and 
there are quiet little bits of Colonial work, for here, as elsewhere, the 
revival of that unostentatious style is exerting a strong influence. 
No one can predict how long this fashion will continue, or whether, 
on the other hand, it may not be something more permanent than a 
fashion. It has already done good service in that it has brought 
about more or less harmony between the creations of different archi- 
tects who are less apt than formerly to build adjoining houses of 
inharmonious colors and clashing styles. It may, of course, be said 
that an architect's work loses in individuality when confined within 
such narrow limits as a style like this imposes, but the old saw is 
still a good one, that an artist's hand is easy to recognize through 
whatever medium he may choose to employ. In suburban work, 
especially, there would seem to be a particular reason why this style 
should run a good chance of being more permanent than the jig-sawed 
Gothic of I860 or than the later parodies on Queen Anne. For 
there are still left on the outskirts of the city numbers of ante-Revo- 
lutionary houses with an air of having grown up with the country 
such as no other type of house can boast. It is a matter of dispute 
whether association may not be the secret of their real charm, but 



that charm undoubtedly exists, and it is one that appeals very 
stronMv to most people. 

The "houses, then, whose character some of our architects are 
striving to impress upon their own work have some local peculiari- 
ties that may be worth noting. In the first place, they are almost 
invariably of stone; there are very few brick ones outside the city 
and wooden walls were never thought of by the early builders, and 
verv naturally, for the soft gray local stone that is easily split into 
lintels and sills or steps six or eight feet long, if necessary, is found 
all over this part of the country. No wonder then that the frame 
houses, exquisite though they may be in design, that have been 
lately built in the suburbs fill the general public with admiration, 
perhaps but certainly with wonder that a man should be willing to 
live in a house that can never be as completely in harmony with the 
landscape as one built of the stone that is a part of it, and that, from 
the nature of the material, requires that inadmissable rejuvenator, a 
fresh coat of paint, for a painted house becomes shabby, but never 
mellow, by neglect of this concealer of old age, and a shingled wall 
either stained'or unstained becomes black and spotty after a dozen 
years' exposure to the moist inland air. These old country seats, 
then, had enormously-thick walls, the stones in them laid flat and 
well, with very wide mortar-joints. The more pretentious, of course, 
have the face of dressed stone or are pebbled-dashed or stuccoed in 
the usual ways. If stuccoed, the tint is usually buff, which, with the 
quoins, window-heads and doorways of white marble, gives a very 
satisfactory effect. I have in mind a house of this character where 
a broad pair of marble pilasters have their bases at the water-table 
and their capitals at the third story. 

The smaller houses, and they are by no means the least attractive, 
were often whitewashed over the rough stonework. It may be 
objected that this is a very effectual way of destroying all local 
color and perhaps it is, but frequent whitewashing year after year 
by successive generations has gradually filled the deeper hollows 
between the stones and rounded the too jagged projections, result- 
ing in a most delightful surface. Here and there, in cottages of 
tins class, may be found a hint for breaking a monotonous wall that 
weather-boards necessarily preclude, and that is the embedding in 
the masonry of a stray bit of carving or even of a prettily-veined 
slab of marble. The carving, for that matter, is generally execrable, 
although one can sometimes find a fragment from the hand of those 
Italian workmen who were so universally employed for fine work in 
marble, wood and, with sorrow be it said, in putty at the beginning 
of the last century. The long pent-eaves, with their plastered soffits, 
that give such a delightful air of comfort and solidity to the houses 
on a village street, are much better appreciated by the architects 
than by the owners of the present time, many of whom, with about 
as much reason as a man who should cut off his eyelashes, are pull- 
ing down these picturesque protectors against the storms of winter 
and the summer's sun. 

If I have dwelt at such length on the advantages of the old Penn 
sylvania house for this part of the country, it is because the prefen 
revival of Colonial architecture seems to have taken a strong hold on 
the community. If it is to be the prevailing style for some years to 
come, why not have it, at least, consistent? We are lucky enough to 
have before us examples of early work that were the result of adapt- 
ing as well as possible the materials at hand to the ideal aimed at. 
This result is a local style of some beauty and undeniable practical 
fitness. Why, then, should not those of our architects who work in 
this vein take up the style where the colonists left off and adapt it 
to their present aims, instead of building expensive houses of wood 
(that came to be used in New England for exactly the same reason 
that stone was used here its cheapness) because the owner wants 
his house to look like So-and-So's at Mt. Desert, or covets for his own 
cottage the delicious silver gray that the salt air has given to the 
Newport shingles? 

THE "GREAT EASTERN'S" FATE. The " Great Eastern," the big- 
gest ship ever built since the world began, a living monument to the 
skill and enterprise of the English nation, constructed on the River 
Thames within a few miles of the biggest city on the surface of the 
globe, is at length to be broken up for old iron. We can hardly be- 
lieve it, and till the work of demolition lias actually begun we shall 
still cherish the hope that some other destiny will await her. It will be 
recollected that this ship was designed by Brunei, the younger, in 1858, 
at Millwall, the constructor being Scott Russell, was launched after con- 
siderable delay sideways into the Thames, and afterwards employed in 
the passenger trade between New York and Queenstown. She assisted 
to lay the first Atlantic cable, but after many vicissitudes was found to 
be too costly to keep employed, her expenditure being always in excess 
of her earnings. She was first intended for a transport, being capable 
of carrying 20,000 troops, but the authorities never had occasion to use 
her. During the Civil War in the States President Lincoln made an 
offer for her, but it came to nothing, and now, after so many ups and 
downs, she is to go to the ship-breakers, having been purchased by a 
firm of metal brokers for .10,000. She is now lying in the Clyde, 
where the work of destruction is arranged to commence. If this is 
carried out no greater phenomena of the nineteenth century will appear 
in the historical records than the construction and destruction of this 
leviathan steamship. Timber Trades Journal. 



JANUARY 21, 1888.] The American Architect and Building News. 



29 




REFLECTIONS BUOOESTKD BY THE EXHIBITION 
OF THE ARCHITECTURAL LEAGUE. 

HK Third Annual Exhibition of the New 
York Architectural League suggested cer- 
tain considerations as to the tendencies and 
prospects of our present architectural art which 
it may l>e interesting to note hefore the recollec- 
tions of it be gone. Many of the best-known 
architects sent drawings, and, as a whole, the 
exhibition may be considered fairly representative, since it served to 
indicate the general drift of our architectural designing, while at the 
same time it showed very clearly some of the dangers that surround 
the course of all good art and that, necessarily, seem to threaten the 
younger men. 

Compared with similar exhibitions abroad, there was a praise- 
worthy absence of pompous, over-finished drawings. There was 
nowhere to be seen that kind of elaborate rendering of which the 
prodigious labor is almost painful to contemplate. In its place was 
shown throughout a great knowledge of the short-cuts in rendering, 
with a snap and vigor of draughtsmanship, frequently a telling use 
of color, and almost invariably an effective play of values that 'gave 
to the whole exhibition an air of cheerfulness and artistic vitality 
that was most agreeable. There was also a propriety of design, a 
successful adaptation of the architectural treatment to the surround- 
ings, and an evident comprehension of the artistic problem in each 
case to be solved, that were all indicative of great general improve 
nient in our architecture, considered as a fine art. 

The very exuberance, however, shown in the methods of presenting 
the subjects, and the clever artifices of draughtsmanship have their 
disadvantages as well as their more visible good qualities. The chief 
of these disadvantages is that the clever drawings are very apt to 
misrepresent the subject, be that subject a bit of interior detail or a 
sketch of a cottage in the fields. They can be deceptive in that 
while the cottage, for example, as seen by this attractive drawing, 
looks a graceful and picturesque structure, yet it may, perhaps, 
appear in execution only a commonplace effort after all. 

The good draughtsman has it in his power to invest the drawing 
of even the baldest construction with an apparent amount of interest 
that the actual building may lack by reason of the hardness of the 
lines, the uncompromising stiffness of the planes, or an unsympathe- 
tic coldness that is ever to be feared, but all of which the drau^hts- 
man can disguise by his rendering. That effective little toucn of 
intense black in the angle of the gable will be replaced in the most 
exasperating way by a prosaic shadow running smoothly down to 
the eaves and persistently refusing to get itself bunched up to empha- 
size the peak as it should " according to the plans and specifications." 
So frequently is skilful rendering a great and misleading factor 
that many of the bestmanaged competitions have been freed from 
its influence in pure self-defence, by excluding all rendering whatso- 
ever and going back to simple outline as the only means of getting 
an unbiassed comparative idea of different schemes. In fact, " chic " 
must necessarily be discarded for purposes of study whenever a 
piece of work is attempted with a serious intent to make it unusually 
good, drawing and architecture being entirely dissimilar things. It 
has even been true in great ages of painting that the greatest mas- 
ters, though always full of subtlety of hand and facility of execution, 
have ever kept these in their true position as accessories only to the 
general effect and to the higher end in view. Decadence has set in 
as soon as the greater object has been lost sight of in the mazes of 
manual dexterity. It may even be contended that a building which 
will not look handsome when inartistically drawn will be unlikely to 
look so in execution, no matter how striking the brilliant drawing 
may make it appear. For purposes of study, therefore, the client 
should desire the apotheosis of the office-boy, since it is often such 
unimaginative drawing as his that represents the effect of the exe- 
cuted work on the unprofessional eye. 

Too much praise cannot be given to the beautiful drawings of 
many who use their gifts in the true way, making them stepping- 
stones to higher things. The good draughtsmanship of these men 
assists to a better knowledge of what thev would attempt, and by 
its very picturesqueness serves as a fruitful mine of suggestions in 
then- endeavor to attain their ideal. 

The most encouraging sign of the exhibition was not that any 
particular men had made such great strides in advance, though this 
was, happily, true, but that the general practice has made a very 
real progress in the right direction. In the direction, that is to say, 
of work that fulfils the necessary requirements of well-ordered and 
sensible structures, together with those higher and more abstruse 
qualities of beauty and aesthetic fitness which are necessary to be 
attained before such work can be regarded as entering into the 
higher realms of artistic effort. Did our advancement rest only on 
the work of a few men, there would be little hope, for a long time, 
of our getting within even measurable distance of the great ages, since 
these were always the result of many minds working together and 
by their mutual influence and corrections tending toward some gene- 



ral result, fortunately, however, this small number of drawings is 
enough to show that, with all the individual differences and some- 
times caprices, there is undoubtedly a pretiy clearly-defined unitv of 
object, for to make the building suitable for its purpose and to make 
t look so are surely among the elements of good architecture, and 
these qualities, though long unattained, are now oftencr attained, 
and what is of great consequence, are almost always striven after. 

We can see also, getting clearer and clearer every year, a general 
tendency toward such Dualities of design in architecture as shall be 
compatible and harmonious with the highest efforts of paintin" and 
sculpture; getting from them their best results, so that while the 
paintings and sculpture shall decorate and enliven the architecture, 
the architecture shall perform its highest function in unitin" these 
adding to their dignity and largeness of effect, and formin- with 
them one magnificent whole. 

All this must necessarily be viewed by the light of the criterion of 
exce lence, and the present age is, in many ways, the poorest of all 
in the accumulated traditions that go to make such a criterion 
Ancient races invariably made large use of color a factor, but go 
strangely does this strike the modern mind, that only within com- 
paratively late years has it been fully admitted that the Greeks were 
actually in the habit of overlaying even white marble with color, 
fcvery little while some fresh piece of evidence has been surprising 
the world, by showing their practice in this respect, such, for ex 
ample, were the completely colored statues found in Athens. The 
almost unbroken line of tradition and evolution from the earliest 
dawn of art to the Renaissance, seems to have nearly stopped then 
and we can only learn the principles of our predecessors from close 
study of incomplete examples. But the use of color in architecture, 
r rather the actual conception of a true-colored architecture is 
something of which the higher conditions are nearly absent from the 
practice of to^lay. 

Some sketches made in Japan, were among the most precious 
things in the exhibition when regarded in their relation to all that 
the world ought to know about the possibilities of colored architec- 
ture, but of which it has, unfortunately, lost so much valuable 
tradition. Ihese sketches show us how rich, and yet dignified, while 
really in good taste even the smallest structure can be when colored 
on principles to which the weight of many experiences gives an 
authority not to be expected from inexperience. A little shelter 
over a well, a few posts upholding a roof that is all : it is simply 
carved, but magnificently colored and gilded till it looks like some 
bird of paradise resting on the green lawn among the shady pines. 
Our best efforts seem but amateurishly timid after one has been im- 
pressed by the charm of such work. Marvellous as is the interior of 
ht. Marks at Venice, yet it cannot be considered as an isolated 
artistic effort ; the smaller churches of its day, without such a wealth 
and overabundance of rare marbles at their command, must yet have 
attained to a great beauty of color, otherwise there could not be 
developed the experience necessary to make of St Mark's such a 
masterpiece. How different seem these conceptions of a buildinf 
entirely colored, with all its statues and bas-reliefs and paintings 
thus brought into unity and forming all together one tremendous 
effect, from that of a mass of white marble, glaring in the sunshine and 
chilling in the rain, such as would be the Greek temple so far as our 
actual traditions picture it. 

With all the recent advance in architecture, it is quite evident that 
there is a long path yet to be travelled before the work in this country 
can attain to the standard of much that was done, and done in the 
natural course of things in past centuries. 

Even now a sketch of old work is to be distinguished at a glance 
among sketches of modern work. The old designers seemed to get 
more frequently at a complete solution of how to unite dignity with 
grace, and not stray into the pitfalls of affectation on every side 

Our young men coming back, as most of them do, from abroad, 
with natural enthusiasm for what they have seen and studied, set at 
once about emulating the spirit of that work. Many of the designs 
show evident traces of this desire, which is surely one in the rht 
direction. But underlying the whole question are the general prin- 
ciples, from the expression of which the old work derives a ereat 
part of its charm. 

The manor-houses of France, for example, arc picturesque in the 
extreme, with their varied outlines, bold massing and exquisite 
arrangements of detail, all making an effect that seldom fails to be 
igreeable when seen with its proper surroundings of every kind. 
But many of the characteristics of similar examples would be 
utterly incongruous when appropriated for our buildings. If a 
modern dwelling be made to look forbidding and inhospitable no 
matter how cleverly done, it certainly cannot be in harmony with the 
best side of our present life. It offends us because we are no longer 
obliged to live shut up in gloomy fortresses, and fascinatin^ asat 
the moment, it may be to twist the facts into such an appearance, a 
more mature consideration will condemn the effort as essentially in- 
artistic. The Italian Renaissance, even admitting it to have been 
fostered by desire to imitate, and by admiration of classical models 
was very far from attaining literally such a result. 

The men of the Renaissance had in mind a persistent conception 
of what would be appropriate to the time, and used classical devices 
while imprinting.this character on their work : and it should not be 
otherwise, for the world had changed, had grown older, and saw 
.lungs from a different of view and so the most classical work of 
the early cinque cento, when the tutelage of Rome and Greece wa 



30 



The American Architect and Building News. [VOL. XXIII.-No. 630. 



direct, as yet something in it that is not antique, but **"***' 
the thoughts and habits of a different race of men and a ch anged 
condition of life. This ever holds good, acd the really art.stic work 
must be that which interprets what is best in the thoughts and lives 
of our time, not that which reproduces most quaint conceits 

Having few traditions coming to us as the heritage of the past 
there must, to take its place, be more careful study of the buildings 
which incorporate our lost birthright. 




THE ART INSTITUTE, ITS WORK, ITS EQUIP- 
MENT AND ITS BUILDING. 

HE formal opening a comparatively-short 
time since of the new Art Institute 
Building marks in art matters the long- 
est step forward that has ever been taken in Chicago, and from 
Chicago's influence as a great centre it certainly records a most 
important epoch in the history of art in the West. The opening 
evening, in spite of wind and weather, was still in every way a most 
notable success ; friends of art, not only in Chicago, but elsewhere, 
loaned many choice works, which, with the possessions of the Insti- 
tute itself, formed a most splendid collection for the first exhibition. 
In this building, aside from the permanent collection even now well 
worth a visit ^it is intended to have a constantly-changing exhibit, as 
well as several annual exhibitions of more or less importance. 
Already one gentleman has offered a perpetual annual prize of two 
hundred and fifty dollars, and two more of like amount are being 
arranged by friends of the Institute. These, together with special 
schoof prizes for work of the students, form a liberal commencement 
of a prize fund. The collections are open to the public every 
week day, and the constant stream of visitors, especially on Saturday 
(the free day) testifies that people thoroughly appreciate the advan- 
tages furnished. 

Five or six years ago a small brick building, now a wing of the 
present edifice, was built, but it was recognized as a fact that in all 
probability a good many years would elapse before any steps would 
be taken towards the construction of the main building. However, a 
young and prominent Board of Trade member put himself at the head 
of the movement and, early and late, advocated the cause of the Insti- 
tute. He went among the rich citizens and because of his own wealth 
and position and by the generosity with which he himself gave, he 
fairly forced money from the pockets of many who possibly might not 
have been as generous to a poorer or more humble petitioner. So at 
last, thanks to his zeal and energy, the building is now finished and 
thrown open to an appreciative public. 

The collection of antique casts, due to the generosity of a Chicago 
lady, will be the finest in the entire United States. Already there 
have been numerous presents of pictures and works of art, and whis- 
pers of more that are to come are heard on every side, so that the 
Art Institute, with its more than three hundred pupils, will certainly 
very shortly have a tremendous influence on art not only in Chicago 
but in the entire West. 

With its large window-openings and its pointed roof, the building 
itself is in general outline decidedly pleasing, although its form is 
certainly not that of one's preconceived ideas of an art building, since 
it might with equal good judgment be taken for a club-house or even 
a produce-exchange. The architects, Messrs. Burnham & Root, 
have combined the different reds of the stone and the tile roof into 
an extremely harmonious whole, but the selection of a torso to do 
duty as a finial seems decidedly questionable. On account of height 
all its beauty if by chance it has any is lost, and the poor muti- 
lated legs sticking out over the sidewalk involuntarily cause one to 
wonder how far the feet must have projected beyond the building- 
line before they were broken off by the city authorities. In fact, the 
greater part of the carving on the exterior of the building is simply 
atrocious ; such work would scarcely pass muster on a warehouse, 
but when it is put upon a building that is supposed to represent all 
that is best in art, and, by its very position, does stand as the typical 
representative of sculpture, it becomes decidedly sickening. The 
plain stone would have exemplified better the old saying about beauty 
unadorned. Numerous medallions of celebrated artists are used as 
ornaments and it is commonly reported, and many people mention it 
with apparent pride, that these did not have to be made by any regu- 
lar sculptor, but were done by a common stone-cutter and that 
he had nothing to do them from but small wood engravings ! Cer- 
tainly it is to be earnestly hoped that for the honor of Chicago 
sculptors they had nothing to do with them, for a worse lot of carica- 
tures were never seen. 

As regards the interior of the building, it would seem as if that 
careful study had not been spent upon it that the subject demanded. 
At present a certain portion of the building is used for purposes not 
connected with the Institute, and this condition of affairs will proba- 
bly exist for a good many years, if not always. Under these circum- 



stances, it would have been extremely desirable, if not a necessity, to 
arrange the plan so that once inside the building, these parts 
should be somewhat separated, though capable, at need, ot 
beinc thrown together, but nothing of the kind was done. W hen 
the buildinn- was occupied, this difficulty at once became apparent, 
and recently a turn-stile was put up in the already much-crowded 
and cramped vestibule. This, of course, keeps out people who have 
no business in the galleries of the first floor, but at the same time it 
deprives the public of the stairs and forces them to use the elevator. 
However, this is apparently by no means satisfactory, for the eleva- 
tor-boy explains, with apparent great glee, that unscrupulous people 
o to the second floor on the elevator and then as soon as he is out 
of si"ht slip through the railing that separates the museum depart- 
ment' from the rooms on that floor, and so, after inspecting these 
galleries, boldly march down the stairs into the galleries on the 
entrance floor. As many of the upper rooms are rented to clubs and 
associations, naturally liable to come and go in crowds, an elevator 
of considerable capacity should have been provided, but a smaller 
and more cramped one than that actually installed scarcely 
exists in the city. When entering the galleries, people are 
naturally obliged to leave canes, umbrellas, etc., at the door 
in this case, very literally at the door, as there is no 
sign of a cloak-room. They are left, sometimes checked, sometimes 
not, standing up against the basement stair-rail, where they can be 
conveniently clawed out either by oneself or by a long-suffering small 
boy, who, under the circumstances, cannot possibly arrange the 
checks in numerical order. Similarly, the means of getting from the 
new building to the old portion appears to have received no atten- 
tion, and, in fact, no other impression can be left upon one's mind 
than that after arranging four or five rooms upon the first floor (and 
these are very nicely arranged) the rest was obliged to work itself 
out for the sake of the exterior, no attention being paid to the smaller 
but very important necessities of the building and the comfort of the 
people who were to occupy it. 

The success of the Western draughtsmen in the recent Architec- 
tural League exhibit at New York is extremely gratifying to the 
younger members of the profession here, and the draughtsmen of 
Chicago are much elated, although they only came in second best. 
The encouragement thus received will surely bear fruit in more 
of our designers taking part in such friendly competitions and in 
helping to break down the feeling that many Western men have, 
that the people of the East are narrow-minded and not willing to 
give the " Wild West " even the justice that is their due. 




[Contributors are requested to send with their drawings full and 
adequate descriptions of the buildings, including a statement of cost.'] 

AMERICAN UNITARIAN ASSOCIATION'S BUILDING, BEACON STREET, 
BOSTON, MASS. MESSRS. PEABODY A STEARNS, ARCHITECTS, 
BOSTON, MASS. 

[IleUo-Chrome, Issued only with the Imperial Edition ] 

GOTHIC SPIRES AND TOWERS, I, II, III. SALISBURY CATHE- 
DRAL ; ST. GILES, WREXHAM ; CHICHE8TER CATHEDRAL ; ST. 
MICHAEL'S, UFFINGTON ; ST. DENNIS, SILK WILLOUGHBY, ENG- 

[Issued only with the Imperial Edition.] 

HOUSE FOR C. F. WASHBURN, F.SQ., WORCESTER, MASS. MESSRS. 
ROSSITER & WRIGHT, ARCHITECTS, NEW YORK, N. Y. 

T TATERIALS, brick and light and dark Longmeadow stone, 
I XL tcrra - cotta " Roof of black slate with red slate bands and hips. 
J Entrance porch, stone. Interior handsomely finished in hard 
woods. Cost, $40,000 ; now building. 

COMPETITIVE DESIGN FOR THE Y. M. C. A. BUILDING, PROVI- 
DENCE, R. I. MR. HOWARD HOPPIN, ARCHITECT, PROVIDENCK, R. I. 

THIS design, to which was awarded the second place, was to have 
been carried out in yellow brick with brownstone finish. 

PILLSBURY SCIENCE HALL, MINNEAPOLIS, MINN. MR. L. S. BUF- 
FINGTJN, ARCHITECT, MINNEAPOLIS, MINN. 

COMPETITIVE DESIGN FOR A CLUB-HOUSE. MR. GEORGE F. 
HAMMOND, ARCHITECT, CLEVELAND, O. 

CALENDAR FOR THE YEAR 1888. 



to. 630 




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Submitted by Howard Hop 



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JANUARY 21, 1888.] 



The American Architect and Building News. 



31 




INCINI^ATI 




THE NEW STREET-PAVING. RACE 

STKEET AND ITS BUILDIM;>. 

DURING the past year this city has 
taken advanced ground and now 
presents to the traveller many mat 
ters of interest that were not to bo 
seen a year or two ago. In the first 
place, it has now what is essential to give character and tone to every 
first-class city well-paved streets. This work was commenced some 
two years ago, and during that time there have been paved twenty 
miles of streets with granite blocks and six miles with asphalt, and 
most o! the citizens are considerably provoked because they did not 
reverse the order of things and have twenty miles of asphalt and six 
miles of granite, as everywhere the asphalt gives the greatest satis- 
faction on account of its smoothness, durability and noiselessness. 
The work of both grades seems to have been well done and reflects 
credit alike on the engineers who have had charge of and the contrac- 
tors who jMjrformed the work. 

It is to the asphalt paving that Race Street owes its wonderful 
improvements. Two years ago this street except for the Shillito 
Building erected by Mr. McLaughlin some five years ago was con- 
sidered a by-street with very little business on it ; now it is by all 
odds fast becoming the most important street of a retail character in 
the city. Buildings of the better class are springing up on every 
hand, and as it is the only street in the city paved with asphalt from 
Fourth Street to the Hills, a distance of about two miles, and is, 
moreover, without street-car tracks its entire length, it is, of course, 
much sought after as a drive by all vehicles having business in its 
vicinity. 

Among the buildings on this street that command your attention 
is, first and foremost on account of its great size if nothing else 
the dry goods house of the John Shillito Company, with which 
our readers are familiar, as it has been described and illustrated in 
the American Architect on a former occasion. Opposite to the Shil- 
lito Building, Mr. Hannaford is putting up a neat freestone front for 
the Frank Estate : the building is about one hundred feet front, is 
six stories high, capped with a galvanized-iron cornice, and has, 
moreover, the inevitable two-story cast-iron front of which Mr. Han- 
naford seems so fond of late that he has used it without stint, in 
season and out of season, until it has grown somewhat into the nature 
of an architectural "chestnut." 

A few doors farther up the street Mr. Rapp is building for Mr. 
Scarborough a six-story stone-front store about thirty feet wide, 
somewhat Norman in design, and a decided step in the right direc- 
tion. The two-story iron-front business must be contagious, as Mr. 
Rapp has it in his building, and, in looking at this and other build- 
ings of recent erection, one wonders if the new law actually requires 
that all stores shall have two stories of iron. This feeling is further 
enhanced by the fact that just below the buildings above mentioned 
Mr. McLaughlin has a fine building on the corner of Sixth and Race 
Streets, about one hundred feet square, with the two stories of iron, 
and one feels as though light could have been obtained from the 
front side without so much ironwork. The building is of pressed 
brick and presents a very fine appearance. 

The Lincoln Club-house, by Mr. Hannaford, farther up the street 
(corner of Eighth) is of pressed brick and stone, and is decidedly a 
good thing. 

Just in front of tb.3 Club-house, and standing in the middle of the 
street, is the recently unveiled statue of the'late President James A. 
Garfield. As this is the first public statue erected in this city, and 
is, moreover, in such a prominent place, it is very unfortunate that 
so good a statue should stand on so bad a pedestal. Mr. Charles 
Neihaus executed the statue, but did not design the pedestal, and the 
result of this effort goes to prove that while the stone-cutter a n 
generally execute a contract, it is not safe, as a rule, to leave him to 
design anything whatever. 

The Phoenix Insurance Company's building, owned by the Emerys 
and designed and built by Mr. Hannaford some years ago, and one of 
best-designed buildings in the city, is of pressed brick and stone. 

Thus it will be seen that Race Street is fast becoming a fine street, 
and this is further evidenced by the fact that value of property has 
nearly doubled in value in a comparatively short space of time. 

CART. 



THE WATER-CARTRIDGE. Reviewing mining inventions during the 
past year Mr. Andre 1 , in the Colliery Guardian, says that the water-cart- 
ridge has undergone important development in the year that is now at 
an [end. In its present state it constitutes a safeguard to the miner 
worthy of his confidence, and it seems that a combination of the water- 
shield with explosives would afford in a fiery mine the nearest approach 
to absolute safety it is reasonable to hope for. The water-shield is 
largely used in England, but it has made but little headway on the 
Continent 




FPA CHI 



AKtr THE BUILDER. 



PARIS CHURCHES. 1 VII. 

NOTRE DAME. 

HE origin of Nfltre Dame 
i- fiivclii|H-d in mystery. 
Whether the first bishop 
of Paris, St. Denis, or Diony- 
sius, was the Areopagitc spo- 
ken of by St. Paul and sent 
by the fourth bishop of Rome, 
St. Clement, to preach the 
Gospel to the Parisians, or 
whether he was another per- 
son of the same name who was 
sent into Gaul in the third 
century and martyred during 
the Decian persecutions, there 
is no evidence of any value. 
But it is certain that the first 
bishop of Paris liore this name 
and that he suffered martyr- 
dom with his two companions, 
Rusticus and Eleutherius, on 
the summit of the hill now 
called Montmartre. 

Under the Roman domin- 
ion, Paris was comprised in 
the fourth Lyonnaise divi- 
sion, of which Sens was the 
metropolis. Hence, the bish- 
^AAtRSArm.E^iGops of Paris acknowledged 
HE BUILDER.* the archbishops of Sens as 

their primate until 1622, when 
at the request of Louis XIII, Pope Gregory XV raised the see into 
an archbishopric. The succession has consisted of one hundred and 
nine bishops and fifteen archbishops, eight of whom have been 
cardinals. Besides St. Denis, there have been six canonized : Mar- 
cel in the fifth century, Germain in the sixthcentury, Cdran, Landry 
and Agilbert in the seventh century, and Hugues in the eighth cen- 
tury. No less saints are the uneanonized martyrs of our own times : 
Stbour, who was stabbed by a discontented priest in St. Etienne-du- 
Mont; Affre, who was shot upon a barricade in 1848, and whose 
last words proved him to be a worthy follower of his Master : 
" Puisse man sang elre le dernier verse. 1 '" and Darboy, the liberal- 
minded, who was shot as a hostage by the fanatics of his own party. 
In former times, the entry of the new bishop into his episcopal 
city was accompanied by much gorgeous ceremonial. All the muni- 
cipal officers mounted on horsec, went to meet him at the Abbey of 
St. Victor. Thence they processioned, with the prelate seated on a 
white palfrey, to the abbey church of Ste. Genevieve, from which he 
was taken chaired by his vassals, to the Rue Neuve-Notre-Dame, 
where he met the dean and canons of the cathedral. After taking 
the oath to uphold the privileges of the church and to observe the 
engagements entered into by his predecessors, he was installed and 
received the homage of the chapter. Mass was then said and at the 
conclusion he was conducted to his palace, where he gave a sumptu- 
ous entertainment. 

In 1674, Louis XIV conferred the lands of St. Cloud, Creteil, 
d'Ozouer-la-Ferriere and d'Armenticre upon the archbishopric, a 
donation valued in the last century at a revenue of 140,000 livres. 
The chapter of Ndtre Dame was one of the most important in the 
kingdom. Its revenue amounted to 180,000 livres and its jurisdic- 
tion extended to the Hdtel Dieu and the churches which were called 
le.i filles de Notre-Dame. These were St. Merry, the Holy Sepul- 
chre, St. Benoit and St. Etienne-des-Grcs. Four other colleges, St. 
Marcel, St. Honore and St. Opportune, bore the title of Jilles de 
Varchei-eque. The enciente of the cathedral enclosed two churches, 
St. Aignan and St. Jean-le-Rond, and a garden at the eastern end, 
which the chapter called le terrain and the people, Motte auz Pape- 
lards. 

The cathedral is now open on all sides, and the coup d'ceil is very 
fine when seen from the Parvis Xotre Dame 3 or from the garden, but 
to obtain this effect, many interesting buildings have been sacrificed 
the cloisters, St. Jean-le-Rond, St. Christophe, the episcopal palace, 
the oldest parts of the Hotel Dieu, and the Hdpital des Knfants 
Trouve's, and the chapel built in the fourteenth century by Oudart 
de Mocreux. 

Some remains of altars of the time of Tiberius, dedicated to Jupi- 
ter, which were found under the choir, seem to suggest that the 
Christian church was built upon the site of a Roman temple, or that 
the latter was converted into a church by the early Christians, as 
was done at Rome, Ravenna and other places. But the earliest 
authentic record of a church in Paris is in the life of St. Marcel, 
where we find that in the fourth century one stood at the eastern 
extremity of the island. This is supposed to have been rebuilt by 
Childebert I at the instance of St. Germain, for it is not probable 
that the building described by Fortunat, bishop of Poitiers, as rich 
in marble columns, glass windows, and magnificent ornaments, could 
have been the original edifice. Indeed, a discovery made in 1847 



1 Continued from Ko. 624, pace 278. 

1 From time immemorial, the space to the west of the church was called Par- 
vitparaduui, the terrestral paradise which led by the celestial Jerusalem 



The American Architect and Building News. [VOL. XXI II. No 630. 



seems to prove this. During some excavations in the place du Par 
vis it was found that some Roman houses had been destroyed to 
make room for the foundations of Childebert's church, and, together 
with the Roman remains, were marble cubes, which formed the pave- 
ment, three columns in Aquitaine marble, and a Corinthian capita 
in white marble. The Christians of the fifth century adhered to the 
stvle of building adopted by the Romans for their basilicas ; in fact 
as is well known, the basilicas were frequently adapted to Christian 
worship. Hence, it is but probable that Childebert looked to Rom! 
for the design of his church. 

From the sixth to the twelfth centuries there is no record of N6tre 
Dame, but Gregory of Tours and d'Aymoin, toward the end of the 
sixth century, speak of two churches close together, but distinct from 
one another the one, St. Etienne, to the south of the present 
church, the other, Ste. Marie, towards the northeast. A rather 
doubtful tradition attributes certain works of construction in the 
church to bishop Erchenrad I during the reign of Charlemagne. 
But it is known that in 829 the celebrated Council of Paris was held 
in the nave of St. Etienne, and in 857 the other church, Ste. Marie, 
was burned by the Normans, the bishop, fine"e, being able to save 
only the former church. In the twelfth century, archdeacon fitienne 
de Garlande, who died in 1142, made some important restorations to 
Notre Dame, and Suger, the great abbot of St. Denis, gave it a 
stained-glass window of great beauty probably similar to those in 
his own church. So, too, the early Capetian monarchs frequently 
visited this nooa ecclesia (as it was called to distinguish it from St. 
Etienne) and presented it with valuable ornaments. 

We now come to the building of the present church. Maurice de 
Sully, the seventy-second bishop (1160-96), had scarcely mounted 
his episcopal throne, when he determined to rebuild his cathedral by 
joining the two existing churches, and upon his epitaph in the abbey 
church of St. Victor he was accredited as the builder of Notre 
Dame. On April 21, 1163, at the instance of Abbot Hugues de 
Monceaux, Pope Alexander III consecrated the recently-constructed 
apse of St. Germain des Pres, and it is also affirmed that he laid the 
first stone of the new cathedral in the same year. In 1182, the high 
altar was consecrated by Henri, the pope's legate, and three years 
later, Heraclius, patriarch of Jerusalem, who had come to Paris to 
preach the third crusade, officiated in the choir. Geoffrey, count of 
Bretagne, son of Henry II of England, who died in 1186, was buried 
before the altar of the new cathedral, and towards the end of the 
century, the wife of Philippe-Auguste, Isabelle de Hainault, was laid 
near the same place. When Maurice de Sully died, the church could 
not have been completed, as he left 5,000 livres towards the leaden 
roofing of the choir. Indeed, the western facade was only com- 
menced towards the end of the episcopate of Pierre de Nemours, 
1208-19, although the work had been continued during the time of 
his predecessor, Eude de Sully, 1197-1208. According to 1'abbe 
Lebeuf, the remains of the old church of St. Etienne were demolished 
to\?ards the end of the year 1218 to make room for the southern part 
of the facade, and, amongst other finds, were some fragments of the 
saint's tomb. The west front, as high as the gallery which connects 
the two towers, was probably finished about the year 1223, when, to 
make them harmonize with this rich faQade, it was determined to 
rebuild the portals of the transepts. An inscription at the base of the 
southern porch attests that on the second day of the Ides of February, 
1257, Master Jean de Chelles commenced this work in honor of the 
mother of Christ, St. Louis being then king of France and Renaud 
de Corbeil bishop of Paris. And, in spite of certain documents 
amongst the archives, there is no doubt that the little porte rouye and 
the first chapels on both sides of the choir belong to the same period 
and were the work of the same architect, for they are quite similar 
in style and are built of the same stone. 

The original design of the church did not comprise the chapels on 
the flanks of the nave, which somewhat spoil the effect of the exte- 
rior, and, in this respect, the cathedral of Paris cannot be compared 
to those of Reims and Chartres, which have no chapels between the 
buttresses. They were added to Notre Dame in 1270, Jean de 
Pans, archdeacon of Soissons, having bequeathed 100 livres for their 
construction. The chapels of the chenet were finished at the end of 
the thirteenth or beginning of the fourteenth century. An inscription 
at the entrance of one of them, St. Nicaise, placed upon the pedestal 
of a statue of Simon Matiffas de Buci. recorded that this chapel and 
the two next were founded by the bishop in 1296 and that the others 
were added subsequently. This precious relic was discovered at St 
Dems amongst a number of others from different churches One of 
these gives the name of Canon Pierre de Fayel as the donor of 200 
livres towards the histoires which surround the choir and some new 
glass, and another ives the name of the sculptor of these same his- 
toires, the Masters Jean Ravy and Jean le Bouteiller, who carved them 
in Uol. It must be remembered that the great churches of the Middle 
Ages were more the work of the people than of the nobility, and thus 
we find that the armorial bearings upon old glass or upon the pedestals 
of statues are mostly those of the different trades-guilds-the bakers 
the butchers, the woollen-drapers, the furriers, and the like These 
i'nnwne 8 'or in'S r * C rp rate ^ en "ohed the old churches 
All the six doors of Ndtre Dame bear distinctive names -the 
por , du Juijement, de la Vier ffe and Ste. Anne at the west end- the 
portes ,lu clyre, St. Marcel and Rouye at the east end. The e are 
all a mass of exqmsite sculpture, but, unfoftunatelv, a "reat deal is 
modern work. The central portal of the west front'in particular was 



wrecked by Soufflot in 1771 in order to increase its width for pro- 
cessions ; it is one of the many examples to prove the fact that the 
stupidity of man has done more harm to old buildings than time or 
even disastrous riots or revolutions. In 1773 and 1787, so-called 
restorations, by architects who ought to have known better, still 
further mutilated the church. Nothing gives a visitor to Ndtre 
Dame a better notion of the richness of its sculptures than mountin" 
to the gallery of the Blessed Virgin, whence he obtains a full view 
of the roof and the galleries, with their numerous pinnacles, crockets, 
images, finials and gargoyles. 

The interior is imposing, though somewhat heavy in character ; 
and although the nave and choir were sixty years in construction, 
there is scarcely any difference in style, except in the details. There 
is a certain clumsiness about the great round shafts of the nave, but 
the carving upon the angles of the plinths, and of the capitals help 
to relieve this effect. Most of the capitals are ornamented with ex- 
amples of the flora of Parisian fields. At the west end is a gallery 
now occupied by the great organ, but which formerly was the stage 
where miracle-plays were performed. The choir is by far the most 
beautiful part of the church ; and being filled with stained-glass, it 
has not that painfully cleaned-up appearance which is the result of 
over-restoration. Some parts of it, the bays which separate the side- 
aisles from the crossings, are of the fourteenth century ; and the 
little angels blowing trumpets which surmount the archivolt, are 
beautiful specimens of sculpture of that period. The capitals of 
some of the choir columns being the oldest in the church (the early 
part of the twelfth century) are very rich in the quaint style of 
decoration delighted in by Medieval artists masses of foliage, with 
heads of grotesque animals peeping out, and biting off the leaves 
and flowers. One capital (between the seventh and eighth southern 
chapels) is interesting, as showing the transition between the use of 
personages and animals, and that of foliage only, which was customary 
in the later period. The subject is very unecclesiastical, as was so 
often the case in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries two Harpies, 
male and female, with human heads and bird bodies, issuing out of 
the foliage. Much of this is treated in the most realistic manner, 
and we find specimens of the oak, the ivy and the trefoil. 

In many of the chapels are double piscinas ; from one, the water in 
yhich the priest washes his hands before mass, is ejected by a pipe ; 
'rom the other, used after mass, the water descends into the ground. 
They are ornamented with carved canopies. 

The Lady chapel, or chapel of the Compassion, and the two on 
either side, are painted and gilded, a good deal of the old coloring hav- 
ng survived as a guide. There is some good carving, and in front of the 
abernacle hang seven lamps of elegant design. These, added to the 
>eauty of the stained-glass, make this end of the church far the most 
>eautiful part. 

The alto-reliefs, alluded to above, by Jean Ravy and Jean le Bou- 
-eiller, are against the wall behind the stalls of the choir. Formerly 
hey were continued across the jube and all round the choir ; but, 
unfortunately, when the choir gates were constructed, these sculp- 
ures were sacrificed. The subjects are : 1, the Visitation ; 2, the 
Appearance of the Star to the Shepherds ; 3, the Nativity ; 4, the 
Adoration of the Magi ; 5, the Massacre of the Innocents ; 6, the 
Flight into Egypt ; 7, the Presentation in the Te liple ; 8, Christ dis- 
juting with the Doctors; 9, the Baptism of Christ; 10, the Marriage 
n Cana; 11, the Entry into Jerusalem; 12, the Last Supper; 13, 
Christ Washing St. Peter's Feet; 14, the Mount of Olives. Ou the 
ube were the mysteries of the Passion and the Resurrection. It is 
o the Cardinal de Noailles, that we owe its destruction. On the 
outh side, the subjects are of later date (fourteenth century) : 1, 
Christ appearing to the Magdalen ; 2, to the Three Maries ; 3, the 
Apostles running to the Sepulchre; 4, the Journey to Emmaus; 5, 
Christ appearing to the Disciples ; 6, to St. Thomas ; 7, to St. Peter 
)n the Sea of Tiberias ; 8, Another Appearance to the Disciples ; 9, 
he Charge to preach the Gospel in all Lands. Jean Ravy was 
epreseuted kneeling with joined hands in the last of these alto- 
ehefs. The whole was finished by Jean le Bouteiller in 1351 ; and 
t is recorded that a part was a votive offering in honor of God, of 
he Virgin Mary, and of Monseiijneur St. Etienne, given by Guil- 
aurae de Melun, Archbishop of Sens one of two bishops of the 
namewhooccupiedtheseeinl317-29and 1344-96 respectively. The 
culptures are all colored and gilt. A very good cast of them all 
may be seen at the Crystal Palace near Lond'on. 

Ihe choir remained intact until 1638, when Louis XIII, puttin" 
us kingdom especially under the protection of the Blessed Virgin, 
egistered that unfortunate vow, that he would consecrate the 
anctuary of JSdtre Dame to the fulfilment of it. "A fin, que la pos- 
6rite ne puisse manquer a suivre nos volonte's a ce sujet, pour monu- 
ment et marque incontestable de la consecration presente que nous 
aisons, nous ferons construire de nouveau le grand autel de I'eglise 
"attiedrale de Part*, avec tine imaye de la Vierge qui tienne entre sea 
ras cetie de son precieux Jils descendu de. la croix, et oil nous serons 
"epresentes aux pieds du fils, et de la mere, comme leur offrant notre 
ouronne et notre tceptre." Louis XIII died in 1643, before he was 
able to accomplish his marvelous design; but, unfortunately, his son, 
s AI V, was only too ready to embellish buildings in the bad 
uste of his times, and so the altar is disfigured by a descent from the 

oss by Nicholas and Guillaume Couston, and a pair of kneeling kings 
>n each sule by Coyzevox. The altar itself with its bronze angels was 

ven by Napoleon in 1803, to replace those destroyed during the 
revolution. The statue of the Virgin on a pillar at the entrance of 



JAXUARY 21, 1888.] 



TJie American Architect and Building News. 



33 



the choir, had the reputation of working miracles. It was thrown 
down at the revolution, but was found later at St. Denis and re- 
placed ill Notre Dame. Such is its history, but whether it is the 
identical one, it is impossible to say. Jn any case it is mainly of the 
same date as the church, which cannot bo said of the reliquaries in the 
treasury which are also supposed to have survived the revolution. 
That many sculptures were saved by a deputy named Chaiimette, and 
by Ale.xandre Lenoir, as works of art worthy of preservation, is a 
well-known fact ; but, unfortunately, reliquaries were of more value 
as metal, and most of them passed through the melting-pot into coin- 
age for the bankrupt national treasury the reliquaries shown at 
the cathedral are mere modern imitations of those they profess to be, 
and which were formerly in the Ste. Chapelle. Of the glass which 
dated back to the twelfth century, little remains but fragments in 
the apse, and the three great rose-windows. These repeat the imagery 
of the three great doors, which proves them to be contemporary with 
the stonework which surrounds them, and are most magnificent 
specimens of Mediaeval glass. The bells have been no less un- 
fortunate, for out of the original thirteen, only one, the bourdon 
(and largest) remains. It weighs over thirteen tons, and was 
founded by N. Chapelle, J. Gillot, C. Moreau and Florentin le Guay 
in 1400, when it was presented to the church by Jean de Montaigu, 
and named after his wife, Jacqueline de la Grange. In 1686 it was 
re-founded and received fresh names, those of Emmanuel-Louise- 
Therese d'Autriehe. In like manner, the tombs were mostly de- 
stroyed, and those saved by the exertions of citizens Chaumette and 
Lenoir, have, since the dispersion of the objects placed in the 
Museum of the Petits-Augustins, found a home elsewhere. Indeed, 
there is nothing in Notre Dame which strikes one as venerable but 
the glass, so unmercifully has every portion been scraped and 
cleansed. That it wanted it after the pollution it received by the 
1 793 fanatics, there can be no doubt ; but at the same time one can- 
not but regret that it was necessary. All Viollet-le-Duc undertook 
was well done, and he was, no doubt, the first amongst the restorers 
of Gothic buildings of this century. Nevertheless, it may be a mat- 
ter of opinion, a debatable point, whether so much restoration was 
necessary. There is nothing poverty-stricken in the work at Notre 
Dame or at the Ste. Chaj>elle, or at St. Denis, such as we find at Si. 
Albans ; Viollet-le-Uuc would never have dreamed of making an entire 
new front to a church, evolved out of his poor nineteenth-century 
inner-consciousness ; such an act would have appeared to his artistic 
mind the height of Vandalism. But there is a difference between 
repairing and restoring, and we may wish that our old churches were 
treated to less of the latter system. By all means repair the ravages 
of age where absolutely necessary ; but let the work of each succeed- 
ing age that has come down to us remain. There is something 
monstrous and appalling in the conceit of a man, who pulls down 
Perpendicular work, and rebuilds in the " original " Early English or 
Norman, because, forsooth the two styles do not harmonise. 

S. BEALE. 




ATTENTION RECENTLY GIVEN TO PROPOR- 
TION IN DESIGN. THE NEW COURT- 
HOUSE. THE ADDITION TO THE ART 

MUSEUM. DONAGHUE'S STATUES. 



w 



fHAT a pity it is that sound and sense 
are not always in harmony, that each 
design from the hand of an architect 
cannot have applied to it some word or phrase 
which would express its character conclusively and at sight. What 
sort of word would it be that could carry with it a realizing sense 
of the incongruities, the vagaries, the thoughtlessness of most of our 
present architecture a word that would condemn and stigmatize 
justly and not with mere ridicule? 

It is this necessary lack of acknowledged definition that allows 
indiscriminate criticism and eulogy alike. Where there is no stand- 
ard, words lose their value. Yet it seems that it should not be so 
hard a matter to find some general terms or reasons for worth or 
worthlessness which should be applicable to all design. It is plain 
that a building is an organism more or less complicated and can be, 
in a general way, compared with other organisms, and is subject to 
similar adjectives. The life of a building is dual; it must satisfac- 
torily fulfil its purpose of utility and its duty of character. The 
question of utility is never an open one; the question of character 
changes with each subject and with every mind that approaches the 
subject. There are surely buildings equally useful, of good and of bad 
character, and there are still others which are monstrous. Physical 
and moral monstrosity is repulsive. Monstrosity in architecture 
should be equally so, but the natural impulse of recoil is doubted 
because it cannot be fully defined. But the same reasons for repul- 
sion are in both, that is hick of relative proportions and uncertainty 
of outlines and of purpose the very qualities that make or mar a 
building and of which we hear nothing, while, on the other hand, 
every piece of alleged architecture is labelled as belonging to some 



classified style and criticism is disarmed. Styles are at most but the 
costumes of architecture, and a scrupulous adherence to them smacks 
somewhat of archaeology. 

This desultory meandering of thought wag suggested by the si'_'lit 
of several buildings either recently completed or in process of erec- 
tion that seemed to give promise of a better understanding of things. 
These buildings are as follows : the Algonquin Club-house, the Coch- 
ran house, two light-colored stone houses on Beacon Street, K. H. 
Stearns's new store on Temple Place, and a small building near thu 
entrance to the Providence H. K. depot. The qualities of these 
buildings will only be mentioned in the most general way in this 
letter, as the details and materials of each will be taken up later. 
They all have this in common, that thev are simple throughout and 
esjiecially so in sky-lines. This alone is refreshing. After the usual 
tortured silhouettes that cut against the western sky in the Back 
Bay district, it is a pleasure to see a straight line of any length. 
They depend upon proportions and not upon projections, and espe- 
cial study has been given to the relative proportion of openings to 
wall-surfaces. None of these buildings have descended to the bar- 
barism of using rock-face stone, that announcement of cheap mate- 
rial and curtailed labor that is so prevalent. The quietness of the 
simple skylines, the dignity of the cornices (so few buildings lately 
have ever shown that a cornice meant more than a necessary gutter), 
the sense of stability and inertia in the unbroken, horizontal courses, 
are all qualities of much greater value than the would-be picturesque. 
round arches, the rock-face facets, and the restless carving of the 
usual work. It matters not whether these buildings are Classic or 
something else, except for the matter of detail. All architecture 
partakes of a classical character when it is studied carefully and 
refined, for it is to study and refinement that Classic architecture 
owes most of its value. The use of precedent always raises the cry 
of " affectation," but it is apparent that we wear shoes similar to 
those of our ancestors except that we have discarded the buckles, 
and affectation in clothes usually means the conspicuous parade of 
a new conceit rather than the suggestion of an old habit. Perhaps 
it may be the same in architecture. 

There are two important works going- on in Boston that ought to 
receive an expression of general opinion to create much more interest 
than they seem to do. They are the Boston Court-house and the 
addition to the Art Museum. The Court-house has been carried on 
with activity, and is now on the Pembcrton Square facade at the 
height of one story. It at once invites criticism. The Commis- 
sioners in selecting the plan now being carried out, showed most ex- 
cellent judgment so far as the plan was concerned. As published in 
their report it is a masterly plan of great possibilities. The eleva- 
tions showed less study, and created a hope that they would undergo 
material changes and be simplified. Of the details it was impossible 
at that time to judge. The long series of windows on Pemberton 
Square, the flanking pavilions and the entrances if they could only 
be deprived of a few unnecessary ornaments which it would be better 
and cheaper to omit, had in them an excellent scheme of composi- 
tion. The precedent, the Brussels Town-hall, was most unfortunate 
as it is a very mongrel and bad piece of design, but this precedent 
had been markedly improved upon. With such a start, there was 
great hope in the result. It does not seem that this hope is being 
sustained. It seems to be a popular, and at the same time a very 
erroneous impression, that if the plan of a building is good, and if 
sufficient money is appropriated, the result must be of value in pro- 
portion to the sum expended, no matter in how unskilled a manner 
the artistic work is developed. In all professions except architec- 
ture, a critical case requires an expert, and perhaps a consultation. 
In this case, the public are in the same position as the lawyer's 
client or the doctor's patient. The case is critical. Here is a build- 
ing to stand not for this generation, but for many successive genera- 
tions. It will not be compared with past work, but with future 
work, and the standard of excellence has risen sufficiently in the last 
ten years to justify the expectation that this progress is only the 
faint beginning of a much more general appreciation of excellent 
things, and o? fine art and architecture. Every good building 
erected is an epoch. It is a thing to point to as a standard for 
achievement. We have few enough of such standards. Every build- 
ing that fails to meet the higher requirements, the better taste of the 
progressing time, is an obstacle, and will be felt every successive year 
to be a thing that cumbers the earth, and at last to be a shame and a 
disgrace. It is, therefore, no longer a question of policy or of pre- 
ference. The Commissioners and architect have devised an excellent 
plan, but they have not obtained the requisite skill to carry out the 
facades as they should be in the matter of proportion and detail. 
This is no easy matter. It requires not onlv a training that is 
essentially academic, but a sense of refinement and a personal 
quality of work which is most exceptional. But it is obtainable, and 
it is manifestly the duty of the public to request the Commissioners 
to obtain it. The architect has so carefully studied and carried out 
his plan, that it is not justice to himself for him to allow the develop- 
ment of the exterior to be any less able. If he is to be known in the 
future, it will be by the artistic merit of the buildins;, and not by its 
suitability to the requirements of the latter end of the nineteenth 
century, ereatly as that may be desirable at the present time. It in 
no way depreciates from his dignity or ability as an architect if he 
covets the assistance of men with different talents. No man can 
carry such a work single-handed, but it most 'seriously behooves all 
concerned to see that the present commonplace detail and unstudied 



The American Architect and Building News. [VOL. XXIJI. No. 630. 



proportions of the first story of the Court-house are not repeated a 
the building ascends. 

We understand that Mr. Cabot has been appointed advisory arclii 
tcct on the Court-house, which is a very decided step in the righ 
direction. Only it is to be hoped that his advice will be followed 
implicitly, and not hampered by preconceived ideas. 

In regard to the Museum of Fine Arts : the present building is 
to be enlarged by the addition of a wing upon Dartmouth Street, bj 
another corresponding wing at the other end, and by a building con 
necting the extremities of these wings and parallel with the present 
Museum. These additions will materially increase the available 
floor-space of the Museum, but even when completed, there will be 
lack of room for the proper disposition of the material the Museum 
has at its command, and still further additions will be necessary. 
It is partly for this reason and partly from the artistic standpoint 
that the following remarks are made. The decoration of the present 
building is in terra-cotta and the principal motive of the architecture 
is an arcade in Victorian Gothic, with twisted and belted columns, 
decorated voussoirs, ball-flowers, crockets, label-mouldings, canopies, 
weathered buttresses, pinnacles and finials. These various and 
varied motives, which require the nomenclature of Parker's Glossary, 
are expensive and have been a constant source of annoyance. 

It is said that terra-cotta is not to be used in the new wings, and 
it is a subject for congratulation that this " on dit " is authentic. 
The great fault with the Art Museum (apart from the garishness of 
its color, which will become subdued in time) has been its lack of 
dignity and scale caused by an overproportion of ornament. The 
opportunity has now arrived to, at least in part, remedy this fault. 
The new facades can be made simple, frank pieces of architecture, 
relying upon their relative proportions alone for their worth. There 
is no objection to using the present facade as a rich mask for a sim- 
pler mass of building behind. 

There are many precedents for this treatment Pavia, for exam- 
ple, and the west fronts of many of the Lombard churches, as com- 
pared with the courts and walls behind them. The great Ospedale 
at Milan, which possibly gave a suggestion for the use of terra-cotta 
in the Museum, is much more dignified and noble and has much more 
plain wall-space in proportion to its openings and ornamentation. 
There is only one case that occurs to us of a facade where the terra- 
cotta has anywhere nearly the same proportion to the brickwork that 
it has on the Museum. It is a small house in Mantua and it is by no 
means the best of the houses of its class. 

The exterior, also, should in some way endeavor to express the 
interior, and, with the varied uses to which the rooms will be put, it 
is difficult to do this with so inflexible a motive as this Gothic arcade 
and buttresses. And while we are being disagreeable, a word might 
be said about the detail. Some twelve or thirteen years ago " Col- 
ling's Art Foliage " was a standard work. It was even in greater 
demand than " Talberl's Furniture," and was equally bad. Its chief 
characteristics were a staccato system of light and shade and a love 
for disagreeable angles and for granulated beasts. It was during 
the heyday of this work and under the direct influence of its author 
that the Museum was built. Time has adjudged the book valueless. 
Whatever treatment the new fapades of the Museum may receive, 
let us hope that the disintegrated design derived from ' Calling's 
Art Foliage," will not form a part of it. 

There are now at Horticultural Hall three statues by Mr. Douaghue 
which deserve at least a passing glance, if not more than that. 
Sculpture should stand in very close relation to architecture, and it 
is not .especially to our credit that it has not done so. What few 
attempts we have made to associate sculpture with architecture, 
though far from being discouraging, have not been so signally suc- 
cessful as to encourage a following. The difficulty has been twofold 
lack of sense of proportions in the architect lack of concentra- 
tion of idea in the sculptor. The examples of sculpture that are 
everywhere about us, not alone groups, but isolated figures, are each 
and all doing too many things at once, the action is diffused, the 
energy is dispersed. In all the best sculpture of the Greeks, the 
motive, the action, or the repose of the statue is single and unmis- 
takable, and not dissipated in a number of little side-thrusts that 
only serve as distractions. Each statue is a unit or group. Per- 
haps with us it is the natural result of the complex nature of our 
surroundings that wrongs our work so. Be that as it may, Mr 
Donaghue has so far concentrated his idea in each of these statues 
that it is unmistakable. They have the same merit relatively with 
other modern American work that the characters of great novelists 
which become personalities to us, have to the numberless story-ghosts 
of the petty novelettes. Whether the idea is one worth bein con- 
centrated is another matter. Taking these statues in what see'ms to 
us the prder^of their merit, i. e., " Sophokles " the "Boxer" the 
"Hunting Nymph " apart from the simplicity 'of action in each 
there are many things worth study. The Sophokles is, properly 
enough, etudied from the Greek. The head strongly resembles the 
Hermes head. But the influence of M. Falguiere is "felt as a sort of 
galvanic shiver, that stirs and spasmodically animates the limbs. 
There is an inward twist to the left heel, a tense line in the left leo- 
which though it may add vivacity to the general action, makes it lose 
in dignity. The strong inclination of the figure to the ri<rht, tends 
to heighten this accentuation of the real over the ideal. To what ex- 
tent this can be carried without losing more than is gained, is purely 
a matter of individual opinion; for our own part, we prefer to thir,k 



of the youth Sophokles with the dignity of victory in his step, not 
with the elation of conquest. 

In the " Boxer " the torso and legs are certainly well done. The 
man stands easily and well. The head and arms express brutality, 
swagger and insolent confidence. If that is what the sculptor 
wished, he has certainly attained it but whether it is worth the 
doing is an open question. 

In the "Hunting Nymph" a very original and daring conception 
has been well carried out. She is leaping down the mountain-side, 
with her weight thrown back upon the right leg, the left thrown for- 
ward and downward, and in mid-air her eyes following the arrow 
which has just left her bow, the right hand raised, falling after 
having released the bow's ring. Her drapery is flying backward 
with the rush of air past her from the speed of her descent, the 
whirling lines serve to check the apparent fall of her body downward. 
It is all done so well, there is so much spirit in it, the drapery, 
though perhaps a little heavy, is so carefully studied that it seems 
a thankless task to be a carping critic and yet, it is doubtful if any 
statue which represents suspended continuous action is ever lasting 
in the pleasure it gives. It is a good motive for a statuette, for 
something on such a small scale that the lack of quantity has to be 
balanced by a more sensational quality not for a statue. We would 
like to say more about this difference between a statuette and a statue, 
but will have to postpone any subject with such vistas in it for the 
present hut we have what we think are fairly good reasons for 
believing that the extent to which a statue should go in action is to 
represent the intervals of rest between a series of actions, not the 
suspension of an action itself. The technique of these statues, the 
evident facility in modelling and getting the results desired, is most 
refreshing after the platitudes of statuary that are to be seen all over 
the city. Certainly here is an able, trained man, who, if he will 
only omit the little tang that is so often felt in a Frenchman's work, 
like the burr in a dry-point etching, and will give us the clean, skil- 
Eul strokes without the burr, should be most heartily bade Godspeed. 







II ANDY little volume recently issued deals with retaining walls 
for earth. 1 It is one of those works which are almost a neces- 
sity in an engineer's library, and are often quite valuable to an 
irchitect; and the volume in question is so complete and exhaustive 
n its nature that architects would find it useful in many ways. The 
>ook claims to be an attempt to present the subject in a simple man- 
ner, and to show by a few examples the simplicity of the application 
of the formulas to actual constructions. The author wisely states in 
lis preface that the reader who does not care to follow the theory 
mtil he is persuaded of its practical value in application can skip the 
brm ulas and turn to the problems in the second portion of the 
volume, which deal entirely with applications of the deduced formulas, 
t is a treatise which partakes more of the nature of an extract from 
he transactions of some engineering society than of the text-book 
irder, but it is none the less valuable in its special field. 

Mr. Howe is very rigid in his formulas, but he does not entirely 
icglect the practical teachings of experience, and he cites part of a 
discussion upon the old question whether a competent engineer could 
iot guess at the section necessary for a re tain ing- wall much easier 
ban he could calculate it. While his arguments in favor of using 
he formulas are not the most conclusive, still he shows that there 
ertainly is no harm in making sure of one's rough calculations. He 
nakes a very sensible statement in one place in regitrd to tables of 
etaining-walls such as are given by works of the character of Traut- 
vine, saying that they are of little practical value, excepting, per- 
laps, in as far as they relate to rectangular walls and a level ^arth- 
urface, and adds that the numerous tables giving the calculated rn- 
uired thickness of retaining-walls to three places of decimals, stand 
n the same scientific basis and have the same practical value as the 
feather records for the year in old Moore's almanac. 

ANOTHER work of a very different character deals with the sub- 
set of fences and gates, 2 claiming to be a practical manual of the 
ubjects. It is a capital book for a farmer or any one who has 
o look after an estate. It is not at all scientific or artistic, how- 
ver. The gates and bridges illustrated are purely practical and 
lomely enough to suit any one, but the work tells all there is to be 
old on the subject, and commends itself to the man of hard, prac- 
ical ideas, who is going to make a thing right first, and make it 
wetty afterwards. One would hardly imagine that a volume could 
36 evolved from such themes. The author states in his preface that 
he building and maintenance of farm-fences in the United States 
tiave cost more than the valuation of all farm-buildings, a fact which 
eems a sufficient raiion d'etre for so comprehensive a book. The 
author has aimed at a work which will show the evolution of the 
B from a road-barrier of logs, brush or sods to the latest improved 



' * , A V av , er ! . owe, 
arUn.' C New York:' 0.flud2Tco. 



theory as developed bv Professor Jacob 
.owe, C. E. New York: John Wiley & Sou. 

A practical manual. Edited by George A. 



JANUARY 21, 1888.] 



The American Architect and Building News. 



85 



forms of barbed wire. The illustrations to the number of 294 an 
mainly representations of fences, uati-s and bridges in actual use. It 
does not go into the subject of bridges any farther than would be 
called for in and about a large farm, giving only the ordinary forms 
an 1 a few bridges which pretend to be artistically rustic, but whicl 
are irretrievably ugly. A number of elever devices are illustrates 




in the way of gates, one of which seems to us so sensible that we have 
reproduced it herewith. The author described it as a cheap, light, 
durable gate which, in over twenty years' use has never sagged, 
though standing in a thoroughfare between three farms, and also in 
th years past used for access to a saw-inill a gate, which, it is 
claimed, could not possibly sag. 

A WORK which has lain on our shelves for some time is the treatise 
on " Graphical Statics," by Professor Ricker. 1 The matter embodied 
in this book represents essentially the course of study in graphical 
statics pursued by the students of the School of Architecture in the 
University of Illinois, and is the result of a good deal of study and 
condensation from all available sources, and re-arrangement by Pro- 
fessor Ricker in the form in which it now stands. To those who are 
acquainted with the author, it will go without saying that the work 
is thorough and exhaustive ; a book to be studied consecutively and not 
dabbled into ; one that gives everything on the subject that is worth 
studying. It is not as compact and concise as Greene's work on the 
subject, but it is more thorough, and as a reference-book is much 
more available. Professor Ricker's work is written for beginners, 
while at the same time it is fully abreast with the most recent in- 
vestigation. Having to deal with immature minds, the author has 
been led to use a simplicity of arrangement and a consecutiveness of 
subject-matter, which makes it very easily followed. There .are 
good definitions of some of the terms. For instance, he defines 
the moment of a force as the measure of its tendency or power to 
rotate its plane about the centre of rotation. Another definition is 
of the Moment of Inertia which he describes as a numerical quantity, 
whose value depends on both the form and the area of the figure, and 
which is always represented in formulas by the symbol I. This de- 
finition is less happy. We doubt if any one has a very clear idea of 
what the moment of inertia really means. We confess to being com- 
pletely befuddled, ourselves, though we know how the quantity is 
used in formulas and appreciate its importance, but an exact com- 
prehension of the factor is a task from which most architects are 
quite ready to shrink. Professor Ricker gives in his work some very 
good tables, both graphical and numerical, and the book is greatly 
increased in value by an admirable general index. The author has 
supplemented the purely theoretical side of the question by discus- 
sions of large trusses and details of joints, showing by diagrams how 
the members are put together and how joints are formed, always a 
dark subject for the beginner. For a single problem which will 
illustrate the practical nature of the book, the one on page 77 is 
about as good as could be selected; a problem calling for a semi- 
circular truss of eighty feet clear span, with a depth of ten feet at 
the top, and divided into twelve panels by radials ; trusses sixteen 
feet between centres ; radials to be in tension and to be of iron rods, 
if possible ; diagonals to be in compression and to be wooden timbers 
in any case ; upper and lower chords of truss to be built up of plank, 
bent to the curve and firmly fastened together. We venture to say 
that when the student has conquered such a problem as this, he will 
have nothing to fear from any truss to be encountered in ordinary 
architectural practice. 

Professor Ricker has worked out some formulas for the lengths of 
members of various trusses which he claims are original. They are 
somewhat clumsy on account of the complication of terms involved, 
but for bridge-work would be very useful. Taken all together, the 
work is calculated to give one a very clear idea of graphical statics, 
and to make one who will study it carefully, thoroughly at home with 
the subject. 

A REMARKABLE ENGINEERING FEAT has just been carried out in China 
in the face of unusual physical obstacles. This was the stretching of a 
steel cable of seven strands across the Luan river by Mr. A. de Linde, 
a Danish civil engineer, aided only by unskilled Chinese labor. The 
cable is strung from two points 4,648 feet apart. The height of one 
support is 447 feet above the present level of the river, and the second 
support 737 feet above it. The vortex over the water is 78 feet. The 
Chinese cable is the longest but one in the world. The telegraph 
air-cable across the Kistna has a span of 5,070 feet ; two similar cables 
across the Ganges, one 2,900, and the other 2,830 feet. A third line of 
1,135 feet crosses the Hooghly, and in the United States there is one 
over the Missouri of 2,000. Invention. 

i" Elementary Graphic Statist and tne Contraction of Tnuied Koo/t." A 
manual of theory and practice; by N. Clifford Kicker, M. Arch., etc. New York: 
William T. Comstock. 




T1IK ARCHITECTURAL LEAGUE. 

HE annual meeting took place January 9, when the following 
officers were elected : 

John Beverly Robinson, President; Frederic Crowninshield, 
Vice-President : For Members of Executive Committee, J. D. Hun- 
ter, II. O. Avery, C. I. Berg. 

The Secretary read a report showing ninety-eight active members 
and thirty-one non-resident, and much other statistical information as 
to papers read, etc. 

The retiring President Mr. J. Du Fais, made a report showing 
what Cad been accomplished during the year. 

The Treasurer's report showed the League in good financial con- 
dition notwithstanding a deficit in the exhibition accounts of over 
$600. There was a profit on the catalogue of over $600. 

Attendance at meetings sixty-eight. Mr. Robinson's speech upon 
his election was one of the best short speeches ever listened to by the 
members. 

THE following were the awards in the " Memorial Bell and Clock 
Tower " Competition for the gold and silver medals of the Architec- 
tural League : the gold medal, James A. MacLeod, Minneapolis, 
Minn. ; the silver medal, William B. Mundie, Chicago, HI. ; honora- 
ble mention, Julius Harder, New York, N. Y. ; William C. Noland, 
Philadelphia, Pa. ; Timothy F. Walsh, Cambridge, Mass. 

Forty-four sets of designs were received and forty-three considered, 
one signed with a monogram composed of two E's being thrown 
out for non-compliance with the conditions. 

RICHARD M. HUNT, 
CHARLES F. McKiM, 
RTJSSELL STURGES, 
JOHN Du FAIS, 
CHARLES I. BERG, 
WILLIAM C. HAZLKTT, Chairman. 

Please note that the authors of one design and one with cipher 
three circles interlacing forming trefoil, are not known and should 
send addresses to Charles I. Berg, Secretary, 10 West Twenty-third 
St., New York City. C. I. BERG, Secretary. 

WESTERN ASSOCIATION OF ARCHITECTS. 

D. H. BURNHAM has resigned as Chairman of Committee on 
Uniform Contracts. S. A. Treat has been appointed in his place. 

NORMAND S. PATTON, Secretary. 




THE RELATION OF AN ARCHITECT TO A BUILD- 
ING-COMMITTEE. 

BALTIMORK, January 14, 1888. 
To THE EDITORS OF THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT: 

Dear Sirs, Can you refer me to any case in which the power of 
Church Building-Committees over Architects has been defined, or 
state any facts relative thereto? A committee appointed me their 
supervising architect, according to written statement, " in usual pro- 
fessional manner." The contract with builder is in usual form, 
orders to be given" as work progresses, on certificates that it is done 
according to plans and specifications, the architect having the right 
by specifications to give verbal orders. Now comes the rub : I have 
seen good reason, during the building operations, to make several 
deviations from written or drawn statements, not affecting design or 
cost, and adding to the goodness of the work. I am ordered by 
committee in writing to change all such proceedings and to do sev- 
eral things against my better judgment, one of which I explained my 
isons for not doing and which I have learned since the drawings 
were prepared, it is impossible to do satisfactorily. They still insist. 
Is an architect to be governed by a committee in matters of 
detail, or is he, in his professional capacity, to act as a free agent ? 
[ may say also, that this committee has refused to pay my second 
order to the builder, just given him, because it is averred, I cannot 
state that the work is done by plans and specifications. The builder 
ias given several things without additional cost, and there have been 
several extras ordered by committee and now in building. An 
answer in American Architect, to which I subscribe, as soon as you 
conveniently can will oblige me greatly. I am, Gentlemen, 

Yours, etc., T. BUCKLER GHEQUIER. 

[COMMITTEES whose acts are liable to review by others, generally object, 
with considerable reason, to deviations from plans or specifications officially 
approved, and it is but courteous on the part of the architect to consult 
them in cases where he thinks changes advisable, even though the contract 
may authorize him to vary from the drawings and specifications without 
first obtaining their consent. At the same time, if be thinks it necessary to 
make changes, either with or without their consent, the law unquestionably 
gives him the right, as the expert to whom the conduct of the building is 
nt HIM nl, to do so at his best discretion, unless the contract provides other- 
rise, and not only this, bnt it requires him, as a part of his duty to his em- 
ilnvers, to make such changes on his own responsibility in time to prevent 
ivil consequences from neglecting them, and to remonstrate, clearly, and 



36 



The American Architect and Building News. [VOL. XXIII. No. 630. 



with the authority belonging to his professional position, aeamst any pro- 
ceeding of his principals which seem to him likely to compromise the saletj, 
or convenience of their building. We remember hearing once of a French 
case where the architect was directed by his client to have certain change 
made in a building in process of construction. He obeyed the order to t 
letter, and the building was injured in consequence ; and the court held thi 
architect responsible for the damage, on the ground that it was his province 
as an expert to foresee the consequences of the change, and his duty as a 
trusted adviser to warn his client of evil results which the latter, as a non 
professional man, could not be expected to anticipate. This great and 
necessary authority, however, we must repeat, ought not to be used by II 
architect to the annoyance of his clients. Many contracts provide that the 
orders for changes given by the architect shall be subject to the consent of 
his principal, and he ought never to forget that he is employed, not to fol- 
low his own ideas at some one else's expense, but simply to carry out the 
wishes of his client in the skilful and prudent manner of which he is sup 
posed to be master. Whether the client's object is, or is not, best secured 
bv leaving a good deal of liberty to the architect is another question, but 
w'e should say that one who took the negative view of it would be sustainec 
by the courts in requiring his architect to carry out any ideas which did not 
endanger the stability or durability of the building, or obviously expose its 
designer to ridicule or loss of professional reputation. EDS. AMEHICAN 
ARCHITECT.! 




A GOVERNMENT CLAIMANT'S PATHETIC STORY. It seems to us that 
every one who lias a printing-press at command should use it to bring 
about the righting of a wrong by informing some portion of the public 
that needless injustice is being done which it will cost the public nothing 
to set straight. W. C. Reed of San Francisco, a Government claimant, 
tells the following story in a petition which was presented to Congress 
recently, and has just been printed by order of the Senate : 

In the year 1855 he chartered a vessel, loaded it with marine stores, 
investing his entire fortune in the enterprise, and set sail for Simoda, 
Japan, to establish himself in business in accordance with the treaty 
negotiated by Commodore Perry. He carried the necessary passport 
and papers, but despite treaty, passport, and papers he was refused 
permission to land. He called upon Commodore Kodgers, commanding 
the American naval forces, who assured him of his right to do as he 
had contemplated and who lent his best efforts to secure him in the 
right. After several months of diplomacy the Emperor made a posi- 
tive refusal to permit the landing, and he turned homeward. Commo- 
dore Rodgers wrote him officially as follows : "I have sufficient forces 
at my command to enforce your rights, but I am not commissioned to 
declare war with the Japanese Government. I must therefore ask you 
to withdraw and return home. I report your case to my Government, 
to whom I refer you ; but in doing so I am American enough to believe 
that it will fully indemnify you against your great loss." Reed re- 
turned to find himself 30,000 in debt for his vessel, with no market for 
the stores he had on board. He therefore sent the ship to the Okhotsk 
Sea to find a market, but she foundered on the way and he lost every- 
thing. He now sets forth that for thirty years he has been a petitioner 
for the redress assured him by Commodore Rodgers. He says the De- 
partment of State has declared his claim valid, and once it has been 
passed upon favorably by the Senate and once by the House, but never 
by both during the same Congress. He is informed that there is a 
fund of more than $1,000,000 in the possession of the State Department, 
being accrued interest on the Japanese indemnity fund, which no one 
claims. "Shall I," he concludes, "an old man now in want, fail of 
my rights because too poor and too feeble to vigorously urge my claim t 
May I riot with hope and propriety ask of Congress to adjust my claim, 
take prompt action, and cause to be refunded the money so wrongfully 
wrested from me 1 I am the sole survivor of the expedition. Both of 
my Captains are dead. Commodore Rodgers is dead. My partner, T. 
T. Dougherty, is also dead." 

GAS-TAR AND ITS USES. ^On this subject the Chemical Trades' 
Journal reminds us that, besides the manufacture of varnishes, gas-tar 
is largely used in the manufacture of roofing-felt. The best factories, 
however, partially distil the tar, collecting the more valuable products,' 
but there is no reason why, when tar is cheap enough, it should not be 
used in its virgin state. The felt is passed through the hot-tar and the 
excess squeezed out by rollers, which also causes the tur to permeate the 
interior of the felt. Tarpaulin and packing-cloth is generally made 
with wood-tar, but in some instances gas-tar has been substituted, but 
with no apparent advantage, as the latent coloring matters of the tar 
have sooner or later caused damage. The vapors from a tar-distillerv 
are well known to cause paper, cloth and other textile materials to take 
a rosy hue, chiefly due, we suppose, to the volatile bases present, while 
pine wood in its new condition is deeply stained a deep yellow. When 
once formed, these colors are very permanent, and care should be taken 
that coal-tar is not used where it is likely to do damage. We have 
been informed that gas- tar may be employed for use in the "lucigen" 
and "luminator" lights with as much ease and safety as creosote. If 
this be so, there is another outlet for tar, which, up to the present, has 
been neglected. We fear, however, that warm tar would have to be 
employed, as cold gas-tar does not find its way very readily through 
small apertures. There are now many . very many of these lights 
in existence, and it would be a very easy matter to get a trial made 
with tar in one of them. 

THE DEATH'S HEAD IN CENTRAL AMERICAN ART. One of the most 
common symbols that we find in Central America is the death's head 
says the American Antiquarian. It is seen sculptured upon the side of 
the altars ; also at the top of the idol pillars. It is also seen painted on 
pottery vases, and many other ornamental articles. It assumes a great 
variety of shapes, and sometimes is so complicated as to be with diffi- 
culty recognized. Stephens speaks of rows of death's heads of gigantic 
proportions, as seen half-way up the sides of the pyramid at Copan 



He has also pictured an altar seven feet square and four feet high, with 
a death's head sculptured on the side of it at the same place. In this 
figure we see two bulging eyes, two large front teeth and the nostrils, 
and recognize the general shape of the skull. There is a resemblance 
between the eye of the skull and that of the god Tlaloc, and the ques- 
tion is, whether the skull was not intended to symbolize this personifica- 
tion of a Nature power, as Tlaloc was the god of the weather. In con- 
trast to this are the heads and faces which Stephens describes as having 
such a remarkably serene expression. One is at a loss to understand 
why there should be such a contrast, but it shows that there was a de- 
sign. Everything in the sculpture of this ancient people was significant. 
The death's head was made at least as terrific as possible ; and the other 
head and face as placid as stone could make it, and the impression on 
the worshippers must have been marked. 




IF trade probabilities for midsummer and later were to be based upon 
facts and statistics and trade probabilities as they appear at present writing, 
they would be of a favorable character. The latest utterances of large 
manufacturing and buying interests are that there is a strong probability 
of a withholding of orders for the next six weeks. Even if these proved 
true, it does not argue anything against a healthy activity throughout the 
year. For reasons which some authorities attempt to set forth, there is 
just now a disposition to hold back large orders, and one of these alleged 
reasons is the uncertainty involved in the proposed discussion over tariff 
duties. The people at large are probably very little influenced by this. 
Confidence is strong in the consuming capacity and the necessities of the 
country, and the belief is general that mills, shops, factories and mines 
will be kept busy throughout the year in supplying these necessities. There 
Is one position taken by the railroad authorities which is entitled to some 
respect, but the fact lies in giving it too much consideration, namely, that 
during the past two years future railway-building requirements have been 
sufficiently met, that new territory has been sufficiently covered, and that 
there are now very few probabilities of outside parties, as big railway man- 
agers call them, coining in to construct competitive lines between the Alle- 
gheny Mountains and the Pacific Coast in order to use them as nagging 
instrumentalities against strong corporations. It is true that during the 
past years especially a very large amount of Western railroad building was 
designed to forestall competition, but the limit of this kind of railroad build- 
ing has been reached, yet how much of it will be done it is hard to say, but 
those who carefully follow the projection of roads and the movements of 
railroad magnates in Boston and New York are aware of the fact that a 
large, amount of railroad building will at least be undertaken during the 
coming summer and fall. This enterprise will not manifest itself early in 
the season, as those engaged in it desire to see how things go before risking 
the expenditure of the necessary millions in this new, and for the time 
being, non-paying enterprise. The possibility of its heavy construction, 
however, should be taken into consideration now, in order to form a correct 
estimate of business probabilities for another year. A great deal of mine- 
ral and timber territory is to be opened throughout the country. Much of 
this territory will be opened by lines from ten to fifty, or, at longest, one 
hundred miles in length. The railroad companies having these schemes in 
hand so far have said very little about them. and. therefore, prophets of 
the business situation overlook this factor and underestimate the probable 
volume of business in steel rails, and in iron, steel and timber generally. 
The proof that there is a great deal of business of this kind in ambush is to 
be found in the fact that inquiries for large amounts of railway material 
and lumber have been made in Pennsylvania, Ohio and Chicago, and that 
half bargains or options have been entered into for a supply of material 
during the summer. It is, therefore, soon to say that while business proba- 
bilities in the railroad direction are not very bright, the actual results when 
the season is at its end may be surprising. Yet, to make things safe, it 
must be said that this contemplated building may not be undertaken and 
certainly will not be unless the situation later in the season shall jus- 
tify it. House-building will be begun on as large a scale as last year and 
in several places on a larger scale. The improvement in this direction will 
be manifested in smaller manufacturing cities and towns. Where house- 
building was undertaken in one place on a large scale last spring, it will be 
undertaken in three or four this year. There is a very urgent need for 
small houses for laboring men in all newly-developed sections. A good 
uany companies have been formed to build these houses, and they are 
generally composed of manufacturers who are interesting builders and 
capitalists with them. In addition to these, it is evident that there will be 
i great deal of building of churches and charitable institutions. Several 
Western cities have arranged for the building of fine market-houses. It is 
;he intention of a good many large and small municipalities to spend money 
n improved pavements. A great deal of roofing material is also under con- 
tact, and all kinds of building material will be quite active. Our advices 
:rom a number of Western architects are of a rather favorable character. 
The great anthracite coal-strike at present writing is still threatening. The 
teading Railroad authorities, for some wise reason, perhaps, are strongly 
opposed to concessions, but high commercial authorities give it out that the 
vages demanded will be quietly paid rather than let the strike spread. 
The iron and steel makers are all busy in a moderate way. There is no 
rushing demand, The lumber manufacturers are pursuing the logiiig 
operations in every part of the lumber field. The hardware manufacturers 
of the New England States are all working industriously. A good many 
new buildings will be started early in the spring in Connecticut and Massa- 
chusetts A large amount of house and shop building will be done durin"- 
he coming year in the New England States, but most of it will be bv way 
>f enlargement of existing capacity. The textile manufacturers, especially 
n cotton goods, are much pleased over the slight advance of one-half per 
ent m print and cotton goods and expect to be able to maintain it through- 
>ut the year. The textile manufacturing interests as a whole are in good 
nape. The good management of the Southern interests is leading to 
urther investment of capital in the projection of new enterprises and the 
nlargement of old establishments, A good many labor strikes are threat- 
ned. Manufacturers, in view of the possible decline in prices, do not feel 
ike yielding to the demands for an advance. There will be no serious dis- 
mployment of labor during the winter. The manufacturers, bi* and little 
re more willing than they ever have been in vears past to permit a mode- 
ate accumulation of stocks. There is, however, no disposition to accnmu- 
ate beyond what prudence dictates, that is to say, there will be nothing 
iKean overproduction in any line of trade. 



S. J. PARKHILL & Co,, Printers, Boston. 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT AND BUILDING NEWS. 



VOL. xxiii. 



Copyright. 1888, by TICKNOR & COMPANY, Boston, MUM. 



No. 631 



JANUARY 28, 1888. 

Entered at the I'i>it-Offico at Boston u econd-cla natter. 




SUMMARY: 

The Proposed Bureau of Fine Art for the United States. 
The Second Annual Convention of the National Association 
of Builders of the United States of America. Theatre Con- 
struction in Italy. Tall Chimneys and their increasing use. 
The Size of Redwood Planks. The Value of Redwood 
Stnmpage for Veneers 37 

Ol'KN-TIMBEK ROOFS Of THE MIDDLE AaKK. II .39 

PARIS Gossip 41 

ILLUSTRATIONS : 

Church of St. John the Baptist, Quebec, Canada. "Greene's 
Inn," Narragansett Tier, H. I. The Paris Opera-house. 
Business Block, Cleveland, O Detail of Facade of the 

University, Salamanca, Spain 42 

THE HOI.BKIN MADONNA 42 

FOURTH ANNUAL RETORT OF THE BUREAU OF ETHNOLOGY. IL . 43 

BOOKS AND PAI-EKS. 45 

SOCIETIES : ... 46 

COMMUNICATIONS : 

Who makes Iron Churches'! The Decorations of McVick- 
er's Theatre, Chicago. The Bearing Capacity of New York 

Subsoil. . . , 47 

NOTES AND CLIPPINGS 47 

TRADE SURVEYS 48 



IT seems likely that the proposition which has more than once 
been made, that the Government of the United States should 
establish a Bureau of Fine Art to have charge of transac- 
tions by the public authority requiring a knowledge of this sub- 
ject, may be definitely brought before Congress at the present 
session. While we should be very sorry to see an official 
board interfering with the teaching or practice of any sort of 
fine art in this country, it is certainly not to our credit that the 
most pitiable examples to be found in it of bad taste, and of 
gross ignorance and indifference in regard to subjects which 
even here are considered to form a necessary part of a decent 
education, are those presented by the works which are executed 
for the people of the United States by direction of the supreme 
legislative authority ; and the provision of some sort of official 
board of reference, to whom might be referred, as is now done 
in New York, the question of the suitability of proposed plans 
for decorating the public property, would be an excellent thing. 
At the same time, we have very little expectation ef seeing any 
such measure adopted at present. A large proportion of the 
people of the United States are at present in a condition of 
such absolute ignorance of everything relating to the fine arts 
that they cannot conceive that there is anything about the sub- 
ject that they do not know, and this element is well represented 
in the national legislature. Moreover, with all of us, promo- 
tion to a position of authority is apt to bring with it a sensa- 
tion of omniscience which naturally finds itself more at ease in 
dealing with matters of taste and feeling than those which are 
concerned with scientific realities, so that legislators who suffer 
occasional wounds to their complacency through mishaps about 
their representations of fact are likely to be all the more tena- 
cious of their privilege of asserting themselves in matters where 
their opinions cannot be so effectually controverted. We all 
remember the governor who, when it was suggested that it 
might be well to have an expert opinion on the plans of a new 
State-house which was to be carried out under his administra- 
tion, replied, with asperity, that he " would rather trust his own 
opinion than that of any four architects in the United States," 
and that the plans suited him ; and this is too widespread a 
feeling among politicians to be easily overcome. Indirectly, 
perhaps, the result might be brought about more easily in 
another way. It is often proposed to hold the executive and 
the legislative branches of our Government more closely to 
their duties by giving the members of the Cabinet seats in the 
House of Representatives, where they will be ready to answer 
questions as to their acts. Whatever effect this change might 
have in other matters, it would be highly advantageous to the 
public administration of the fine arts. While Congress is 
impersonal and irresponsible, and can with impunity appropri- 
ate enormous sums of public money to buy worthless pictures 



executed by fascinating females with curls, a Cabinet minister 
could be brought to account at once, and an interpellation in 
the French manner, addressed to a high executive officer on 
the floor of the House by a clever political opponent, on the 
subject of a Vinnie Ream contract, or gome similar transaction, 
would be a lesson which would not need to be often repeated. 



l IE programme for the Second Annual Convention of the 
National Association of Builders of the United States of 
America has just been issued, and promises a most interest- 
ing meeting. The Convention, which naturally is composed of 
delegates from the various exchanges and other builders' asso- 
ciations, with their wives, who are thoughtfully invited as 
guests of the Association, meets in Cincinnati on Tuesday, 
February 8th. The session continues three days, but delegates 
are invited to remain over another day, Friday, in order to 
enjoy the hospitality of the members of the local organization. 
In addition to the regular business, which is likely to be this 
year of great importance, provision has been made for the read- 
ing of three papers, one on " Improvements and Advances made 
in Stone-cutting," by Mr. Charles F. Cheney, of Boston, the 
second on " Improvements and Advances made in Carpentry," 
by Mr. William Goldie, of Chicago, and the third on " Improve- 
ments and Advances made in Roofing," by Mr. E. E. Scribner, 
of St. Paul. These subjects, treated by experts, make the 
convention interesting to the outside world, as well as to 
builders and architects, and the latter will be hardly less curious 
to hear the discussions on the reports of the Committees on 
Uniform Contracts, on Uniformity in Lien Laws, and on Rules 
for Estimating Work, which are to be made at this session. 
Provision has been made for securing rooms for delegates at 
the Gibson House in Cincinnati, but in order to make sure of 
these the names of delegates should be sent at once to the 
Secretary, Mr. William H. Sayward, Boston, as well as to Mr. 
L. H. McCammon, Secretary of the Builders' Exchange, corner 
Sixth and Vine Streets, Cincinnati. 



TITHE Italian Government has attacked the subject of theatre 
"X construction in a new, and, we think, the only effectual way. 
In a circular addressed to all the prefects of the Kingdom, 
it calls attention to a new and brief regulation, under which 
every theatre hereafter built or altered must be entirely 
isolated, and possess on each front one or more doors giving 
access from the floor directly to the street. Besides these, 
there must be at least two doors leading from the outside 
directly to two or more staircases communicating with the 
boxes. These doors must be exclusively reserved for the use 
of the spectators in the boxes. It is forbidden to build more 
than three tiers of boxes above the ground-floor, but one gallery 
may be added, on condition that it is served by two staircases 
and at least two outside doors, exclusively belonging to it. All 
stairways and corridors must be wide and convenient, and all 
doors must open outward ; and, for the benefit of the actors, a 
door must open directly from the back of the stage to the street. 
It is hardly necessary to say that such a theatre as this regu- 
lation prescribes, and only such a one, is, if constructed of solid 
materials, such as are used in Italy, practically safe, without 
the use of iron or asbestos curtains, sprinklers, automatic ven- 
tilators, or any other of the ingenious but unmanageable devices 
which, it must be said, serve mainly to delude audiences into a 
false sense of security. Whether it will be pleasing to the 
theatrical managers is another question. For a theatre with 
three tiers of boxes and a gallery it will be observed that the 
minimum number of outside doors permitted is eight, and as 
the law, unless intended to be simply a farce, must provide that 
all these shall be kept open during a performance, the manage- 
ment will be compelled, unless some method of ticket-taking 
not yet in use shall be invented, to maintain ticket sellers and 
takers at each entrance, to the serious detriment of the profits. 
In addition to this, the requirement that the structure shall 
stand on an isolated lot will drive the builders of theatres to 
the most costly sites, in place of the comparatively inexpensive 
ones which are now utilized for such purposes, and the inter- 
est account will be correspondingly increased. These consid- 
erations will undoubtedly lead to resistance on the part of man- 
agers to the regulation, and, if it is enforced, to the diminution 
of the number of theatres in Italy, but between the blessings 



38 



The American Architect and Building News. [VOL. XXIII. No. 631. 



of having theatres numerous* and having them safe, we imag- 
ine that the public will in the end prefer the latter. 



WE doubt if many persons know what the highest buildings 
in Great Britain are, or what they are used for. At 
present, the loftiest structure in the British Islands is 
the chimney of a fertilizer factory in Glasgow, which rises to 
the height of four hundred and sixty-six feet above the ground. 
The motive of its construction is, it seems, as unromantic as the 
object itself. The factory happened to be situated in the midst 
of a dense population, which, before the new chimney was 
built, complained bitterly of the stench from the burned bones 
and offal used in the manufacture of the fertilizer. The pro- 
prietors did not wish to move their business to a less thickly 
settled region, so, when the remonstrances of the neighbors 
became so pressing that they could no longer be disregarded, a 
compromise was made by which the manufacturers undertook 
to discharge the foul vapors from their processes so far above 
the heads of the citizens as not to be troublesome; and the 
chimney was built to effect this object. The celebrated chimney 
of the Saint-Rollox Chemical Works, also in Glasgow, which 
is four hundred and forty-six feet high, and was for many years 
the highest building in the world except the Great Pyramid, 
was also constructed for the purpose of discharging acid vapors 
out of the way of the townspeople, rather than with the idea 
of gaining a strong draught for the furnaces. It seems from 
an interesting article by Dr. Hector George, in Le Genie 
Civil, that the use of very high chimneys is likely to become 
more general, as their advantages are better known. For the 
present, it appears to be impracticable to get rid of noxious 
fumes from manufacturing processes. The combustion of coal 
alone not only sends into the air enormous quantities of car- 
bonic acid, but of sulphurous acid, a suffocating and poisonous 
gas, of which nearly two million cubic feet are discharged 
every day by the chimneys of Manchester alone. Associated 
with these vapors, in places where soft coal is burned, are 
usually many tons of unconsumed carbon, in the shape of soot, 
which forms the most obvious, though not the most deleterious 
ingredient of a smoky atmosphere. Not long ago great efforts 
were made in manufacturing countries to suppress the smoke 
fumes, by requiring the use of " smoke-consuming grates " and 
other devices, but, according to Dr. George, these are almost 
abandoned, experience having shown that careful firing, in 
which the coal is spread evenly and thinly over the grate bars', 
will do more to prevent smoke from it than any consuming de- 
vice yet invented. In fact, the interesting competitive tests 
between stokers, with the pressure exerted upon them by their 
employers, who sometimes deduct from their wages a part of 
all fines imposed for allowing smoke to escape from the 
chimney, have made a change in the practice of that modest 
profession, and furnaces are now so managed, with the ordinary 
appliances, as to throw off no unconsumed carbon. The in- 
combustible gases, however, are discharged in greater volumes 
than ever, scattering sulphuric, nitric, carbonic, hydrosulphuric 
and hydrochloric acids through the atmosphere ; and the best 
method of obviating bad effects from them is found to be by 
exposing them to the greatest possible amount of dilution and 
condensation before they reach the earth by pouring them out 
into the atmosphere at as great a height as possible. One of 
the sources of noxious vapors which Dr. George mentions is 
new and curious. It appears that the demand for artificial hair 
in Europe is now so great that it cannot be supplied from the 
home markets, and great quantities of human hair are imported 
from Japan, China and India. Naturally, the black locks of 
the Asiatics do not match well with that of the European 
customers of the Paris wig-makers, and it is necessary to color 
them, which is done by boiling them in nitric acid until they 
are bleached to the required tint. This process develops quan- 
tities of nitrous acid vapors, which are suffocating to the per- 
sons engaged in the work, although not very dangerous to 
those at a distance. 



EVERY one has seen some of the wide planks of redwood 
which occasionally appear in the Eastern markets, but few 
persons outside of California know the gigantic dimensions 
in which redwood lumber may easily be obtained from mills 
which possess machinery capable of sawing it. We remember 
seeing once a solid redwood plank five feet wide, which was 
the admiration of the building portion of the town for a time ; 



but, according to the California Architect, this was small com- 
pared with some to be had in the vicinity of the redwood 
forests. Not long ago the managers of a State fair in Cali- 
fornia sent circulars to the saw-mills, inviting exhibits of red- 
wood planks. In response to this a certain mill sent a " good- 
sized " plank, which measured six feet in width. Hearing of 
this, the proprietors of another mill worked up some planks 
eighty inches wide, and sent samples for exhibition ; and soon 
afterwards a third establishment, the McKay mill, forwarded a 
lot of perfectly clear, sound planks and boards, varying in 
width from ten to eleven feet. If there were any special de- 
mand for such enormous pieces of this unrivalled timber, they 
would be more frequently seen, but the wood construction of 
the world has for a thousand years been based on the assump- 
tion that sawed sticks measuring more than twelve inches in 
breadth or depth of section would be costly, and difficult to 
obtain ; and a new system must be made to suit the materials 
of the Pacific coast, or the redwood logs will continue to be 
subdivided into pieces approaching in size the Eastern lumber. 
On the other side of the water, the standard of size for framing 
timber is still smaller than with us. If we are not mistaken, 
few mediaeval cathedrals on the Continent contain a stick larger 
than eight inches square in cross-section, and, although English 
timber was of larger dimensions a thousand years ago, there 
would be little difference now. 



IN regard to the same matter of redwood lumber, another 
article in the California Architect, in the shape of a letter 
from a manufacturer of furniture, gives a suggestion which 
ought to be valuable. This gentleman, having worked red- 
wood of all sorts, has found, as might be expected, that the 
lumber from the root, or from the trunk just above the root, is 
far more beautiful in figure, and more suitable in other respects 
for his purpose, than that taken from the upper portion of the 
tree. In consequence of this observation, he has been accus- 
tomed to visit farms in the redwood district, from which the 
timber had been cut, and offer to remove the stumps. These, 
in most cases, have been left in the ground, the cost of extract- 
ing them, or blowing them to pieces with gunpowder, having 
deterred both the lumberman and the farmer from meddling 
with them, while the latter, remembering the spruce stumps of 
the East, has comforted himself with the expectation that they 
would soon rot away. Unfortunately for this theory, the red- 
wood is very durable, and as a quarter of a century has passed 
over many of the stumps without producing any symptom of 
decay in them, the farmers have become tired of ploughing 
around them, and are glad to accept a proposal to take them 
away. On his side, the furniture manufacturer finds himself 
abundantly supplied with the material he likes best, at the cost 
of getting it, and finds it, when worked up, so useful and 
popular that he seriously asserts that by proper treatment the 
stumps alone on a farm in the redwood region " can be made 
to bring more money than the price of the land and the value 
of the timber which has been cut from it." Extravagant as 
this claim seems, the experience of the farmers in the black- 
walnut district of Ohio indicate that if not entirely reasonable 
now, it is likely to be so before many years. Hundreds of 
Ohio farmers, who have toiled half their lives in clearing their 
land and " improving " it by cultivation, would be far richer 
to-day if they had never touched it at all; and if there had 
been any with taste and foresight enough to leave some clumps 
of the beautiful black-walnut trees to diversify their farms, and 
had used a little forestry science in managing them, they would 
by this time have found the crops from the uncleared land by 
far the most valuable resource of the estate. To us there is 
something sad in the sight of an agricultural region, which has 
once been enthusiastically and laboriously denuded of its 
forests, reverting, as southeastern Massachusetts now is, to 
the slow and painful cultivation of the same forest-trees which 
were cleared away with such zeal by the men whose grandsons 
can find no more profitable crops to grow on the farms which 
they have inherited than the very trees which their ancestors 
exterminated with axe and fire. Moreover, the descendants of 
the^ Pilgrims are glad to sell the knotty, defective product of 
their " second growth " forests for one-third the price that the 
timber from their grandfathers' trees would bring if it had been 
let alone, and the Ohio farmers, when they return to the cultiva- 
tion of the black-walnut, as they probably will, are likely to 
get a similar lesson on the value of moderation in throwing 
away one's present blessings for the sake of making room for 
possibilities of fortune of some other kind. 



JANUARY 28, 1888.] 



The American Architect and Building News. 



39 




li 



OPEX-TIMBER ROOFS OF THE MIDDLE AGES. 1 IL 

(B) Roofs without Tic-Iieam.t. 

I f I' E invention of roofg with- 
out tie-beams is sonictiinrs 
said, however, to have re- 
sulted from tin- substitution of 
stone vaults for wooden roofs. 
This statement is obviously 
based on the assumption that 
the vaults rose above the level 
which would be occupied ordi- 
narily by the tie-beam (Fig. 
19). The cathedral of Autun 
and the churches of lieaunic and 
Sanlieu are cited by Viollet-le- 
Duc as examples of this kind 
of vaulting. Such construction, 
f >*- " however, was exceptional. In 

[After vtollet-le-Due.] t jj e vagt ma j or ity of instances 

the vaulted ceiling will be found to rise no higher than the feet of the 
rafters. A typical example is that given in Figure 1, [No. 630.] 
Roofs without the tie-beam are of rare occurrence in France. 





FIJ. 21. 
[Alter Viollet-le-Dne.] 



Fig. 20. a. Fig. 20, ft. 

[After Viollet-le-Duc.] 

Like the Romans, the French never made much of a departure from 
the simple king or queen post truss. In the roof over the Episcopal 

Palace of Auxerre there 
are some trusses without 
the tie-beam (Fig. 20, a 
and 6). This roof is no- 
ticeable for its steepness, 
its lightness, and ele- 
gance, and also for the 
introduction of inclined 
cross-braces, which 
throw the framing into a 
system of triangles, 
thereby greatly increas- 
ing its rigidity. But if 
we wish to see good ex- 
amples of roofs without 
the tie-beam, we must go 
to England. 
"Si nous voul- 
ora voir ties 
char pe ntes 
app a re ntes 
dont I'ecarte- 
men t e si 
maintenusans 
entrails, el au 
mo ye n d'un 
sysleme d'as- 
semblage dif- 
ferent de ceux 
que nous 
venons d' ex- 
aminer, ilfaut 
oiler en An- 
gleler r e' ' 
(ViolleHe- 
DucJ. The 
English roofs 
Fig. 22. of the Gothic 

Malvern Abbey. [After Viollet-le-Duc.] period are 

generally without the horizontal tie-beam, and for nicety of execution 
and elegance of form are unsurpassed. 




(/J 1 ) Trussfd-Rafler Hoof*. In order to get rid of the tiu-heatn, 
says Viollet-le-Duc, the Anglo- Xonn ins hail to solve this problem, 
viz., to give to the triangles .4 and B (Fig. 21) a common base, CD. 
When this was done the tie-beam could be dispensed with. The 
roof over Malvern Abbey (Fig. 22) is a good example of one solu- 
tion of this problem. The merits of this design, however, are more 
than counterbalanced by its defects. Extravagance of material is 
not a feature of any good design. Due regard must be had for econ- 
omy in the sense that all material used in addition to the amount 
required for stability should be offset or com|>ensaU;d for by the 
attainment of some d'esired effect, as dignity or grandeur. The end 
should justify the means. In a good timber roof, for example, 
strength and lightness must be combined, the one being essential to 
safe construction, the other to artistic effect. 

The heavy and oppressive effect of the early roofs has been 

referred to. The 
roof at Malvern Ab- 
bey is an example of 
one of the first at- 
tempts to overcome 
this defect, but the 
construction of this 
roof calls for an ex- 
cessive amount of 
timber, making it so 
heavy that it could 
never be used for 
anything but a small 
span. Moreover, it 
was expensive to a 
degree that may be 
fairly considered inad- 




Fig. 23. 
[After Tredgold.] 




1 Continued from No. 629, page 17. 



equate to the result obtained. The tie-beam was dispensed with, but 
at too great a sacrifice of economy, and the depressing effect of the 
tie-beam roof had been only partially done away with. 

The practical solution of the problem was found in what is known 
as the "trussed-rafter" roof, which was much used in the Early 
English and Decorated periods. The general scheme of its construc- 
tion is shown in Figure 23. Every pair of rafters is provided with 
a collar-beam and braces. The latter may be straight or curved and 
above or below the collar-beam. The trussed-rafter roof is distin- 
guished from all other roofs without tie-beams in that it is a single- 
framed roof that is, one 
in which every pair of 
rafters is trussed, there 
being neither purlins nor 
principals. There is, thus, 
no really characteristic 
form for this roof. In 
practice, however, it must 
be necessarily a simple 
one, for anything elabo- 
rate, repeated as it would 
have to be with every set 
of rafters, would prove 
very expensive and at a 
certain point a different 
kind of roof would recom- 
mend itself as giving a 
better effect with the same 
amountof material. Where Hg- 24. 

the braces are curved, the 

effect of "an arched ceiling is obtained, and if in this case the roof 
be sheathed, a wooden barrel-vault is produced. Polygonal-shaped 
ceilings (often called wagon-headed roofs) are of more frequent 
occurrence. The trussed-rafter roof thus admits of great variety in 
treatment inasmuch as it is purely a question of taste where the 
ceiling shall be put. (See Figs. 24, 25, 26.) Brandon hold> to the 

opinion that originally 
none of the roofs of the 
trussed-rafter form were 
intended to be sheathed. 
In modern roofs, how- 
ever, it is oftener done 
than not. 

(B 2) Hammer-B earn 
Roofi. The general prin- 
ciples of hammer-beam 
construction are shown in 
Figure 27, in which HH 
are the hammer-beams, 
W W the wall pieces, BB 
hammer-beam braces, .s'.s' 
hammer-beam struts, C 
collar-beam, etc. The or- 
Fig. 25. dinary form which this 

roof takes is shown in Fig- 
ure 28. It will be seen that the construction of this form of roof is 
based on that property peculiar to the triangle, namely, that the 
angles cannot change so long as the sides remain dt the same 
length. In the hammer-beam roof, the various timbers are so ar- 
ranged as to form triangles. The joints at the angles are thu 




40 



The American Architect and Building News. [VOL. XXIII. No. 631- 



rendered immovable and the rigidity of the framing is secured. 
In regard to the origin of the roof there have been several theo- 
ries, but that advanced by Brandon seems to be the most reasonable. 
According to his theory the hammer-beam was developed directly 
from the triangular foot of the trussed-rafter roof (Fig. 29). Thi 
was used merely on a much larger scale, being made to projec 
inwards and supported by a brace on the under side. That view o 
the hammer-beam roof which considers it a tie-beam roof with the 

central portion of, the 
tie-beam cut out as it 
were, he proves to be 
erroneous inasmuch as 
it can be shown that the 
tie-beam roof had been 
discarded before the 
hammer-beam was intro- 
duced. The fact seems 
to be that neither the 

// s \ K\ tie-beam nor the trussed- 

// j I \\ rafter roof were suitable 

V o r '' j- I for anything but moder- 

ate spans. A new form 
of roof had to be devised 
in order to meet the re- 
quirements of larger 
spans. Progress rarely, 
if ever, goes by leaps ; 
it is gradual and pro- 
ceeds by the improve- 
ment of existing forms, not by the direct invention of absolutely 
new ones. Accordingly, the particular form that the new roof took 
was probably sug- 
gested, in parts, at 
least, by the form of 
roof last in use, 
namely, the trussed- 
rafter. 

The hammer-beam 
is really a bracket or 
canti lever upon 
which the roof rests. 
Practically, it re- 
duced the actual 
span of the roof, for 
it gave excellent sup- 
port to the rafters at 
their weakest point, 

namely, near their Fi e- 27 - 

feet. That is to say, After Tredgold.] 

as far as the rafters were concerned, the span was really only the dis- 



roof would for the same span when used in a tie-beam or trussed- 




Fig. 26. 








Fig. 28. 

[After Tredgold.] 
tance between the hammer-beams. 



Fig. 29. 

[After Brandon.] 
Thus a rafter of a given section 




Nave of Knapton Church, Norfolk, Eng. [After Brandon.] 
rafter roof have too great a tendency to bend or sa<*. In other 
words, with tim- 
bers of a given 
section a larger 
span was possible 
;han before. 

The new form 
of roof was also 
controlled to a 
certain extent by 
he character of 
the buildings 
erected at this 
time. In the Per- 
pe n d ic u.l a r 
period walls were 
pierced by large, 
lofty windows 
and strengthened 
in the spaces be- 
tween the open- 
ings by narrow 

buttressed piers. The trussed-rafter roof, which practically re- 
quired continu- 
ous support, thus 
became impracti- 
cable. The new 
roof had, of ne- 
cessity, to be one 
which could be 
supported at in- 
tervals. More- 
over, the oblique 
thrust which the 
hammer-beam, m 
common with all 
roofs without a 
tie-beam, had a 
tendency to ex- 
ert, was well met 
by the but- 
tresses. Nor did 

before, for 




Westminster Hall. [After MtM Carpentry ' by Smith.] 
ich would be proper for a given span when used in a hammer-beam 



This style of roof, 
therefore, had 
many good quali- 
ties to recom- 
mend, it. The 
rafters were well 
stiffened;, the 
thrust of the roof 
was made not 
only more nearly 
\ vertical than it 
had been with 
the trussed-rafter 
roof, but was 
also brought low- 
er down on the 
walls where it 
could be easily 
met by greater 
lateral resist- 
ance ; the con- 
struction was of 




executed by a combination of small 



JANUARY 28, 1888.] 



The American Architect and Building News. 



41 



The largest and most magnificent specimen of a hammer-beam 
roof is that over Westminster Hall (Fig. 30). This roof covers a 
hall two hundred and thirty-nine feet lon^ hy sixty-eight feet wide. 
A striking feature is the large timber arch which spans the entire 
width of the hall. This arch obviously plays an important part in 
the construction and is not merely decorative. What is a most sin- 
gular fact is that this roof (1397) is the earliest known sj>eeimen of 




Fig. 35. 



the hammer-beam variety. It is scarcely possible, however, as Bran- 
don observes, that a design so bold, complete and successful could 
have been among the first to have been executed. Beautiful speci- 
mens of hammer-beam roofs of more moderate spans are found in the 
churches of Norfolk and Suffolk. Many of these have a second 
hammer-beam introduced (Fig. 31). The multiplication of hammer- 
beams can hardly be considered an improvement, for, though it gave 
greater richness of effect, it did not bring increased strength to meet 
the greater weight thus given to the roof. 

Hammer-beam roofs almost defy classification, but the following 
list will be found to comprise nearly all the different varieties. 

1. Complete with braces, struts, as in Figures 28 or 32. 

2. With no struts, as in Figure 33. 

3. With no collar-beam braces curved to ridge, as in Figure 34. 

4. With no collar-beam and no struts, as in Figure 35. 

,'!'' be continued.! 




PARIS GOSSIP. 

THE NEW CREMATORY. EXHIBITION OF PCVI8 DE CHAVANNES'S 

DESIGNS. 

0N the 25th of October experiments the 
results of which were not absolutely sat- 
isfactory were made at the crematory 
recently built at the cemetery of Pere La- 
chaise. On the 15th of last month I was 
present at the new experiments which pro- 
duced better results. A society for the prop- 
agation of cremation, founded in 1880, and 
comprising a number of experts, have made 
an active crusade in support of this reform. 
In 1888 the Council of Hygiene concerned 
themselves with it, and after several exam- 
inations, discussions, and reports approved, 
in 1881, the selection of one of the lofty por- 
tions of the cemetery of Pere Lachaise as the site of three crema- 
tory furnaces. These furnaces were to serve for experiments and 
the destruction of bodies which had already been used for anatomical 
purposes. On the 27th of July, 1885, the Municipal Council ap- 
proved the construction of a funerary building, with apparatus for 
cremation, and authorized the immediate execution of that part of 
the project necessary for the incineration of refuse from the hospitals, 
which reach a total of about three thousand bodies a year on the 
average. Finally, on March 30, 1886, the Chamber voted by a large 
majority, freedom of choice for every individual of full age between 
burial and incineration in his own case. 

The design adopted has a monumental aspect, and the general 
appearance will be very imposing. The authorities have felt that to the 
first device of this kind erected in France there should be given such 
character as to make an impression on that portion of the public 
which feels repugnance for this system of destroying corpses. The 
estimate of cost was 629,274 francs. The architect of the Ville de 
Paris, M. J. Formige', was the one charged with its construction. It 
consists of a ground-floor with vaulted galleries, whose use is not yet 
absolutely fixed upon. This ground-floor will form the sub-basement. 
Above will be the rooms that are intended for the public. The 
annexed plan gives the arrangement of the first story. A large cen- 
tral hall covered by a dome and surrounded by large galleries, 
terminates in three hemicycles. each of which is to contain a crema- 
tory furnace. This story will be reached either by a grand incline 
of gentle slope or by staircases. These details are still to be studied. 
The part actually built contains only the three hemicycles which en- 
close the furnaces, only one of which has been installed up to the 



present time a furnace of the system Gorini, adopted in Italy, 
built of brick, anil arranged as the annexed section shows. The 
hearth F at the level of the ground-floor is fed with wood. The 
(lame, stimulated by a strong draught mounts in the chamber, licks 
the body lengthwise, and descends to the entrance of the chimney- 
shaft T. The body is placed on a dish of sheet-iron and covered 
with asbestos cloth. This dish, running over a system of rollers and 
dragged by a chain which crosses the 
furnace, is thus introduced into the 
chamber. The material now used is 
only experimental. It has certain in- 
conveniences. The sheet-iron dish, sub- 
jected to the great heat of the furnace, 
yields rapidly. The one which I saw, 
and which had only been used for two 





experiments, was already warped and covered with scales. When 
the arrangements are finally completed they will be compelled to use 
everywhere that may be possible apparatus made of infusible clay. 
It is likely, too, that the system of Gorini will be replaced by that 
devised by Siemens, which employs gas, and is far superior ; but 
still it was interesting to observe that already good results were ob- 
tained with the system of Gorini. 

Three or four hundred kilogrammes of wood were needed for the 
incineration of a single body. The flame traverses the furnace as I 
have described, and gas and fumes disappear up the chimney-flue. 
To prevent any dangerous gases, given off during combustion of the 
body, from vitiating the surrounding atmosphere, a grate fed with 
coke is fixed at a certain height in the chimney-flue. The putrid 
gases are burned while passing through this fire, which serves at the 
same time to accelerate the draught of the main furnace. Experi- 
ments made at the mouth of the chimney upon the gases which are 
delivered from it have shown that in point of view of hygiene they 
no longer contain any deleterious principles. Experiments made on 
the 15th of December before some members of the Academy of 
Medicine and the Municipal Council, and at which I was present as 
correspondent of the American Architect, gave the following results: 
The average time required for the incineration of the body is 
one hour and three-quarters and upwards in a furnace raised to 
the temperature of six or seven hundred degrees [centigrade]. The 
resulting relics were some fragments of bones resembling pumice- 
stone and very friable. The portions upon which the fire had the 
least effect were the teeth, vertebrae, the hip-bones, as well as the 
joint of the tibia and the thigh. These fragments weighed about 
two kilogrammes. 

I enclose a sketch of the rear elevation of the monument as it was 




first arranged by M. Formige'. In execution certain modifications 
have been introduced. The chimneys have been brought in between , 
hemicycles, as is indicated upon the plan, which is exact. The 
architect, by employing bands of black stone, has secured a decora- 
tive effect very much in keeping with the character of the building. 



42 



The American Architect and Building News. [VOL. XXIII. No. 631- 



The estimated expense of the portion actually built was 245,075 
francs, and up to the present time it lias not reaehed the sum of 
200.000 francs. 

Tins building, when it shall be complete and crowned by its dome, 
will surely have an imposing air still more enhanced by the colum- 
barium already projected, in which will be arranged niches for the 
reception of funerary urns: this columbarium will surround the 
furnace-building proper. But it will probably be a long time before 
the practice of cremation becomes a matter of daily occurrence : 
already it has encountered numerous adversaries, who attack it from 
different points of view, one of the most serious of which is the im- 
possibility in criminal cases of deriving proof from autopsies. Crema- 
tion will be under the control of regulations, whose discussion will 
consume much time in a country where different societies and com- 
missions play so important a role, and where the least undertaking 
gives rise to such numberless reports. More than this, it will be 
necessary to overcome the violent opposition of the Church and the 
deeply rooted prejudices of the people. 

During the month of December took place at the Gallery Durand- 
Ruel the exhibition of paintings, pastels and drawings of Puvis de 
Chavannes. It was interesting to see here brought together the 
different works of this artist, so unequal, and so unequal in a wholly 
voluntary fashion. This, at any rate, is the notion which naturally 
comes to you when, at the side of his magnificent drawings in red 
chalk, so solid, and recalling as they do those of the greatest masters, 
you find compositions of such poverty and such slip-shod drawing. 

M. Puvis de Chavannes has his admirers, who follow him every- 
where, and sustain him through thick and thin. These admirers 



have the 
exampl 



IB audacity to try to make us understand and appreciate, for 

- r le, " The Poor Fisherman," that absolutely bad painting of the 

Salon of 1881. I am free to say that they will have their trouble for 
their pains. Fortunately, M. Puvis de Chavannes, who is an artist 
of distinguished worth, has done other work upon the merits of which 
everybody is agreed, and several of his decorative paintings are very 
fine. They have in every case that soft color which is so harmonious 
and goes so well with architectural surroundings. All the same, 
there is need of an architecture of peculiar character, antique and 
solemn, for M. Puvis de Chavannes does not vary his style. It is 
grand in sentiment, but always a little mystic. There is need of the 
grand, calm lines of religious or academic architecture to put his 
talent at ease with itself and produce its best results. His paintings 
at the Panthe'on are magnificent, and we have seen with pleasure the 
reduction. The same may be said of the paintings for the Museum 
at Amiens "Repose," "Labor," "War" and "Peace." These 
four compositions are superb. This is truly grand decoration. They 
are well grouped, and vie in color and drawing. The studies made 
for them in red chalk are superb. 

I will mention once more the " Women on the Sea-Shore " (they 
were shown at the Salon of 1879), which has a graceful movement 
and an agreeable tone. The reduction of a large painting, " Autumn," 
is very pretty and decorative ; a fine nude torso in pastel, and the 
very beautiful and the very pure drawings for the mural paintings of 
the stairway of the Hotel de Ville at Poitiers "Radegonde in" the 
Convent of St. Croix," and "Chailes Martel victorious before 
1 oitiers," and finally some figures for his beautiful mural paintings on 
the Staircase of Honor at the Palace of Longchamps at Marseilles 
and that for the Museum at Lyons. What difference between 

I he Young Mother," harsh in drawing "The Prodio-al Son" 
Salon of 1879, and "The Decapitation of St. John the "Baptist!" 
Irom the Salon of 1869, which the partisans of M. Puvis de Chavan- 
nes nevertheless count among his fine paintings. This one lacks air 
and is disagreeable in color. I do not care much more for his figure 
of ' Hope, which hung at the Salon of 1872, in which 1 find, ntfver- 
tneless, a background which is perfectly ravishing 

Finally, must we admire the great canvas styled "Sleep," which is 
Lttle known, the artist having kept it in his studio since the Salon of 
1867, to which he had sent it? The composition is not -rood. A 
group of persons asleep occupy the right of the painting This 
Eroup is confused and too crowded; other n , = 

tion on the left. There is no bond in the arrangement, no * ensemble 
but on the horizon above the sea arises an enormous half moon. It 
acks sentunent, and it is impossible for me to discover in this work 
tl, at ^f, ,! .-.,.... conception) which some Q h 



In spite of these inequalities the exhibition was interesting f or 

Puvis de Chavannes evidently must be counted 
masters of decoration. He is an artist of originality and conseienti 
ous, whose name is attached to magnificent works, and who has that 
conviction and veneration for art which have alw'ays a right to ouV 




[Contributor* are requested to send with their 
_ n^uate detention, o/tke Aiding,, including a 

CHURCH OF ST. 4OHN THE BAPTIST, QUEBEC, CANADA. 

PEACHY, ARCHITECT, QUEBEC, CANADA. 
[Gelatine Print Ipsned only ^ith Gelatine and Imperial editions.! 



MR J F 



"GREENE'S INN," NARRAGANSETT PIER, R. i. MR. WM. GIBBONS 

PRESTON, ARCHITECT, BOSTON. 

TITlIIS building is the result of an effort to produce a hostelry pro- 
J I mising some of the creature comforts so commonly found in the 
smaller hotels of England and which the great caravansaries 
lining our coast are the farthest possible from furnishing. In addi- 
tion to being a noted and delightful summer resort, Narragansett 
Pier, like Newport, has a mild and bracing winter climate, owing to 
the proximity of the Gulf Stream, and it is the intention of the o'wn- 
ers to offer an attractive and comfortable house for invalids or others 
desiring a change from their home life without the necessity of a 
journey to Old Point Comfort, for example. Hence the Solarium, 
which is on (he south-cast corner and is a great glazed piazza, with 
sashes removable, shingled within, a fish-net covering the ceiling and 
containing a wide, open fireplace built of field-stones and beach 
cobbles. In summer the sashes can be removed and the Solarium 
will then form part of the front veranda. A -former building will 
be used for kitchen, laundry, etc., and during the winter theIarge 
dining-hall will be disused and the smaller south dining-room take its 
place. Chimneys, foundations, etc., are of field-stone; walls shingled; 
belt above Solarium, mortar on wire lathe, with scratched design. 

THE PARIS OPERA-HOUSE, AFTER AN ETCHING BT J. A. MITCHELL. 

JOHN AMES MITCHELL was born in New York in 1845. He 
studied architecture at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts from 1867 to 1870, 
and then practised his profession in Boston for six years. Durin 
this time he built a church in North Easton, Mass., a library at Kan- 
dolph, Mass., a church in Halifax, N. S., and many houses. In 1876 
he again went to Europe and studied painting i'n Paris under Le- 
febvre and Boulanger, and etching with Brunet-Debaines until 1880. 
He then returned to New York and in 1883 founded Life, the well- 
known comic journal of which he has since been editor. 

In addition to the "Paris Opera House," which we reproduce by 
the kind permission of M. Rouam, the publisher of L' 'Art, Mr. 
Mitchell has produced the following etchings: "The Door of a 
Church at Chateaudun " (from a drawing by Brunet-Debaines) 
The End of the Act"; "A Political Marriage" (from his own 
painting), and ten sketches of the Paris Exposition of 1878. 

Looking at the many merits of the admirable plate before us its 
sense of light and space, the well-rendered types of Parisian life in 
the foreground, and the exceedingly clever drawing of Jhe architec- 
tureone wishes that Mr. Mitchell had given us more work in this 
direction and that the products of his art were not confined now to 
an occasional bright drawing in the pages of Life. 

Ten years ago when this print was made, but little had been done 
of the mass of brilliant work which we can now point to as the pro- 
duction of American etchers, and if the "Paris Opera House has 
since been equalled as an architectural etching by an American 
artist, it has certainly not been surpassed. 

BUSINESS BLOCK DESIGNED BY MR. A. B. STURGES, CLEVELAND, O. 
PART OF THE FACADE OF THE UNIVERSITY, SALAMANCA, SPAIN. 



THE HOLBEIN MADONNA. 




the events of the year just 
ended, there was none so important 
to the credit of art-criticism as the 
identification of the Darmstadt Madonna, 
through the cleaning of the paintin" by 
Hauser in Munich. 

The public aeceeds to the superior <ren- 
eral knowledge of professional critics, but 
that insight of connoisseurs as to this 
touch of the brush having been made or 
not made in this or that century by this or 
. the other master is felt to have no sub- 

QjURCH stance, or a substance so very superfine as 
.., .,. . . to irritate robust common sense. So, too 

w th this old controversy as to whether the Madonna in Darmstad 
01 that in Dresden is the original by Holbein. 

Americans know the picture. In the Dresden rr a llerv it is tha 
only pamtmg besides the Sistine Madonna of Raphael That 1 as a 

3 n0 A 1 , t tn tSelf ' H d { \ ^ bel nSe(1 l the -&on for over I 
All the world valued it as havin<r been from its origin tl, P 
renowned work of Holbein, and the masterpiece of Cla fc Ger- 
art, just as Raphael's Madonna is of Italian art Wher 



CAPITAL PROM 



of 



I journey to England 






Jo. 631 







UILDING RK\VS,JflX.2o 1555. 










^X . 



63 1 



flN IHGHITEGT ^ND BUILDING $EWS, JflN.25 1555 




( Jrm tfie^acaSe <sf<ffi<H\Jni verity. Salamanca , Spam. 



IKGHITEGT flND lUILDING REWS, JflN.25 1555 go. 63 1 



: <: -.-. .. 




Helritjrjx Pnfo* ftBwtn. 



JANUARY 28, 1888.] 



Tfie American Architect and Building News. 



Hans Meyer one tradition says to show his attachment to the 
Church at 11 time when lYotestantism was becoming the vo^ne in 
Basic, and another as an offering of thanks to the Virgin for h:ivin<; 
cured the lame left arm of his sickly baby. The whole family are 
grouped before the Madonna, the Ilurgcrmpiftter. his two sons, his 
wife with her (laughter Anna, and his dead first wife. The mantle 
of the Virgin spreads itself protecting towards the group, and the 
child on her left arm stretches his hand over it. What has always 
made the picture so renowned is its wonderful domesticity of air. The 
Madonna witli her blond almost imperceptible eyebrows and floating 
blond hair is stiff ; but her stiffness, her passive mildness and im- 
perfect grandeur answered exactly, one felt, to the ideal of the 
Virgin in the mind of this lumbering, brave, honest-souled Burgcr- 
meister, who looks up to her with folded hands and ardent childish 
expectancy. 

It was the one Madonna in the world that spoke, in spite of its 
old-fashionedness, to the Germanic heart of respectable, family, every- 
day piety. Raphael's Madonnas have a grace that is poetic ; 
Murillo's are dark-eyed girls of half gipsy blood they convey no 
sense of well-ordered family life; and as for Van Eyck'g and Durer's, 
they have too much gold drapery and state. Connoisseurs marvelled 
at the solidity of the painting, the life-likeness of the personages, the 
perfect mastery of anatomy and grouping. 

The first striking difference between the Dresden picture and the 
new one that had Ix-en brought by Spontini for his brother-in-law, the 
Paris art-dealer Delahaute, to Merlin, and sold to Prince Wilhehn, 
was that the Madonna in the latter is pressed closer under the 
niche, and the Burgermcister's family closer to the Madonna. It 
was later that minuter differences were detected ; in fact all came to 
light for the first time when the two paintings were exhibited side by 
side in Dresden in 1871. Then it was seen that the Darmstadt 
picture is fuller of warmth and life. The well-known critic Kugler, 
liad pointed out that the shadows in the Dresden Madonna's neck 
are not of the carnation tone which Holbein loved ; now others saw 
that the parted lips of the elder son are wooden, that the gold crown 
of the Virgin and the hair of all the personages are thinly laid on, 
that the black lines of the embroidery on the white dress of the 
young girl are unevenly drawn, nd the carpet roughly drawn in 
comparison with the Darmstadt picture, and that the whole coloring 
is more insipid. The English authority, Wornum, of the National 
Gallery, declared once for all that in his judgment Holbein had 
never laid a hand on the Dresden picture ; and Woltman, the most 
learned Holbein connoisseur in Europe, wrote with fervor to similar 
effect. 

Among the sketches of Holbein studied by Woltman, there exist 
studies for this picture of the Meyer Madonna. In these the heads 
of both women are wrapped about with a cloth, according to a 
fashion of the times and a custom still existing in some parts of Ger- 
many ; and the daughter Anna has floating hair. On both pictures, 
her hair is in a net, and only the head of the dead first wife is bound 
in a chin-cloth. The Darmstadt painting won powerful support 
when it was found that under the outer layer of paint there are per- 
ceptible earlier lines representing floating hair. 

But in spite of these proofs and others, habit has been a heavy 
weight on the side of the Dresden picture. It was the old, well- 
known one ; too many had praised it to give over -without further 
ado. Besides there were certain unanswerable points, as that of the 
insipid smile of the Darmstadt Madonna, which was so wholly unlike 
Holbein. 

What is the excitement now and earnestness when the Darmstadt 
painting has been cleaned, to discover that it was not merely covered 
with a thick, disadvantageous varnish, but that whole portions had 
been painted over more portions than any critic hasclaimed. Hauser 
removed the overlays of paint, as well as the varnish : not the layer 
over the floating hair of the girl- and the chin-cloth of the wife of 
Meyer; these are solid impasto, equal in age with the rest of the 
painting; but the superficial layers. It comes to light that the 
Madonna's nose, had been made straight by these, her original in- 
describable expression of mildness and majesty disfigured by a smile 
drawn in her cheek?, and the profile nose of the daughter Anna 
made straight and shorter. The last points, in short, that told 
ajainst the picture, have fallen away ; it is granted to be the original, 
and its worth has risen from twenty thousand to a million thalcrs. 

COUNTESS VON KROCKAU. 



AN ANCIENT MEXICAN CANAL UNCOVERED. The Riverside (Cal.) 
Tr ss reports H. J. Stephenson, surveyor of the Palm Valley Water 
Company, as making a singular discovery while surveying the canal 
line running south and easterly from the old Agua Caliente Springs. 
" He had run one line on a grade of four feet to the mile from the pres- 
( nt terminus of the stone canal to the new town site, but in crossing 
n depression near the mountain it would become necessary to build a 
quarter of a mile of fluming. In order to obviate this expense, he was 
instructed to make a new survey on a grade of eight feet to the mile, 
so as to strike the town site at a lower level and cross the depression- 
without a flume. On this last survey, after crossing the depression in 
good shape, he struok an old canal that must have been used centuries 
ago, for large trees had grown up in the very bottom of the canal, and 
tlie indications were that when used it carried a \ery large volume of 
water. The most singular thing about the canal was that the survey- 
ors found it just where they wanted to construct the new canal, and, in 
following it up for a distance of about a mile, it was found -to have a 
regul ir grade of about eight feet to the mile." 




Fig. 303. 



FOURTH ANNUAL REPORT OF THE BUREAU OF 
ETHNOLOGY. 1 II. 

STUDIES IN POTTERY, BY WILLIAM II. HOLMES. 

R. VVM. II. HOLMES, 
who contributes three 
important studies i n 
pottery, is the artist in 
charge of the illustrations 
for the publications of the 
Bureau of Ethnology, and is 
honorary curator of the pot- 
tery collections in the Na- 
tional Museum. He hai thus 
had excellent opportunities 
for the study of ceramics and, 
moreover, unites with high 
artistic talent a mind well 
trained in careful scientific 
observation. The first of his 
three papers relates to the 
more ancient groups of Pue- 
blo pottery in the National 
Museum collections, considered under the heads of coiled, plain and 
painted wares. As Major Powell remarks editorially, " He has used 
the information in his possession to elucidate the processes by which 
culture has been achieved and the stages through which it has passed. 
It is to be noted, however, that the Pueblos were sedentarv and thus 
practised ceramic art continuously for a long period; also that in 
their arid country there was special need of vessels for the transpor- 
tation and the storage of water." Major Powell justly points out 
that in the illustrations some designs will attract attention from their 
resemblance to the most exquisite patterns of Classic art and Oriental 
decoration, with which they will bear favorable comparison. " The 
special feature of this paper is that it explains more fullv than has 
been explained before, with practical examples, the devefopment of 
geometric ornamentation. It is shown that forms of decoration, 
originating in the previously existing textile art and hence purely 
conventional, were imposed upon the potter's art, which, at the time 
of the Spanish conquest had not yet acquired a style purely its own." 
Among the copious and beautiful illustrations, to show Mr. Holmes's 
method of study, we may select four examples drawn from one speci- 
men, a dipper from the ancient province of Tusayan in northeastern 
Arizona. These give a good idea of the nature of the methods of 
design among the ancient Pueblos. First, in Figure 302, we have 
the engraving of a dipper reduced to one-third the size of the origi- 
nal. The handle is plain and terminates in a horizontal loop. The 
painted design is not arranged about a square, but leaves a space in 
the centre of the bowl resembling a four cornered star. "This shape 
is, however, the result of accident. The four parts are units of an 
elaborate border, not severed from their original connection, but 
contorted, from crowding into the circular space. The design drawn 




Fig. 310. 

upon a plain surface is shown in Figure 303. Projected in a straight 
line, as in Figure 304, it is readily recognized as the lower three- 
fourths of a zone of scroll ornamentation. A unit of the de.-ign 
drawn in black is shown in Figure 305. The meander is develoj)ed 
in tiie white color of the ground, ami consists of two charmingly 
varied threads running side by side through a field of black, bordered 
by heavy black lines. The involute ends of the units are connected 
by two minute auxiliary scrolls'." 

Another beautiful example is that of the vessel from the same pro- 
vince presented in a reduction of one-half in Figure 310. It has a 
flattened upper tarttfSG, an angular shoulder and a high body, 
slightly conical below. " The painted design is nearly obliterated in 
place* by abrasion or weathering, but is correctly presented in 
Figure 311, which gives the three zones in horizontal projection. 
This brings out a very marked feature, the cruciform arrangement 



'Continued from No. C2, page 21. 



The American Architect and Building News. [Vol.. XXIII. No 631. 



of the parts, which would not be apparent in a vertical projection. 
The two inner circles occupy the upper surface of the vessel and the 
outer one the most expan led portion of the body. The inner belt is 
separated into four panels or compartments by as ma'ny series of 





transverse lines, the panels being filled in with longitudinal broken 
lines. The second band is also divided by four series of straight 
lines, but the compartments are occupied by scrolls in white, bordered 
by serrate wings in black. The outer band exhibits a very curious 
combination of features, the whole figure, however, being based upon 
the meander. It is probable that the grouping in fours is accidental, 
the division of a surface into four being much more readily accom- 
plished than into any other number above two." 

In this conjecture about the reason for the grouping in fours, Mr. 
Holmes is probably mistaken, since four is a number of peculiarly- 
sacred significance among the Indians. They use it in the same way 
that we, in our Aryan race, 
are habituated to use the 
nu ..her three, as, for instance, 
where in starting in upon a 
physical contest of any kind 
we would naturally exclaim : 
" One, two, three, go 1 " an 
Indian would invariably say : 
" One, two, three, four, go ! " 
In formal preliminary repeti- 
tions, also, as in relating a 
folk-tale, they repeat four 
times, as we are accustomed 
to three. The reasons for Flg< 

these adoptions of different numbers would probably have to be 
sought far back in the early days of the respective races. 

In conclusion, Mr. Holmes has a word to say about the origin and 
character of the leading decorative conceptions : " Glancing through 
the series of vases illustrated under painted ware, we find tliat 
ninety-four out of one hundred designs are meanders or are based 
upon the meander. Beginning with the simple waved or broken line, 
we pass up through all grades of increasing complexity to chains of 
curvilinear and rectilinear meanders, in which the links are highly 
individualized, buing composed of a signoid line terminating in 
reverse hooks, but in no single case do we reach a loop in the curved 
forms or an intersection in the angular forms. The typical inter- 
secting Greek fret does not therefore occur, nor, I may add, is it 
found anywhere in native American art. The constructional char- 
acter of the art in which these linear forms developed, although they 
encouraged geometrical elaboration, forbade intersections or crossin- 
of a line upon itself, and the genius of the decorator had never freed 
itself from this bondage. The forms imposed upon decoration by 
the textile art are necessarily geometric and rectilinear, and their 
employment in other less conventional arts has been too limited to 
destroy or even greatly modify these characters. The study of 
Pueblo art embodied in the preceding pages tells the simple story of 
the evolution of art and especially of decorative art in a period 
when the expanding mind of primitive man, still held in the firm 

grasp of instinctive and traditional methods the bonds of Nature 

was steadily working out its aesthetic destiny." 

Mr. Holtnes's^second paper, upon the ancient pottery of the Miss- 
issippi Valley, is an important contribution to that branch of the 
general subject under discussion, but for the present we must content 
ourselves with a quotation from Major Powell's editorial remarks 
and pass on to a consideration of the paper on the origin and devel- 
opment of form in ceramic art. Says Major Powell : " A prominent 
feature is the great diversity of form, indicating the long practice of 
the art, a high specialization of uses and considerable variety in the 
originals copied. The manual skill was of a fair order, and symme- 
try of form, combined with grace of outline, was achieved without 
the use of the wheel. The rank of this ware is higher in these re- 
spects than that of the historic pottery of Central and Northern 
Europe, though inferior to that of Mexico, Central America and 
Peru. In characterizing the degree of culture represented by this 



ware, Mr. Holmes decides that there is no feature in it that cannot 
reasonably be attributed to the more advanced historic tribes of the 
valley where it is found. It indicates a culture differing in many 
particulars from that of the Pueblo Indians, ancient or modern, but, 
on the whole, is rather inferior to it." 

Mr. Holmes's third paper is brief, but highly suggestive. We 
cannot do better than reproduce Major Powell's characterization : 
"The prominent feature of the present paper, which combines the 
results of the three former papers, the first of which, " Prehistoric 
Textile Fabrics of the United States derived from Impressions on 
Pottery*" appeared in the Third Annual Report, is that it presents 
the evolution of form and ornament in the ceramic art and suggests 
the same evolution in all other developments of art. The course of 
development here, as elsewhere, is shown to proceed from the simple 
to the complex, and the causes and processes of the developments 
are explained, analyzed, classified and illustrated from examples 
never before presented. The accessible material on the subject 
shows that in America there is opportunity for the study of the 
origin of art beyond any hitherto enjoyed in the Eastern Hemi- 
sphere. In the order of evolution, the character of the specimens 
now under examination ends where Classic art begins, and though 
the recent discoveries by Schliemann and others have brought to no- 
tice the lower archaeological substratum of the East, its productions 
are few and meager compared with the multitudes of representative 
objects of the same general character already in the National Museum. 
These now open to the student the advantage of a method which ex- 
amines into the beginnings of art in reference to form and ornamenta- 
tion, as well as into the earliest traces of manufacture or construction 
and of function, which show a widely different evolutionatory line." 

The foregoing remarks are to be commended to the attention of 
those devotees of Classic archaeology who can see nothing in the 
American field worthy of aesthetic consideration. They must be 
blind indeed if they cannot now perceive the important bearing 
which studies on American ground have upon a correct understand- 
ing of the results of the explorations conducted upon the historic 
soil of the Old World. 

In the present paper, Mr. Holmes confines himself to the geometric 
side of the study. The important results already obtained cause us 

to give a doubly hearty wel- 
come to the announcement 
that he is preparing a mono- 
graph on a comprehensive ba- 
sis. Major Powell deduces the 
important general observa- 
tion from the subject, as now 
presented, that no metaphys- 
ical law of beauty is to be 
ascertained : " The aesthetic 
principle is not to be found 
directly in or from Nature, 
but is an artificial accretion 
of long-descended imitations 
of objective phenomena. Objects are not made because they are 
essentially pleasing, but are actually pleasing because they have 
been customarily made. The primitive artist does not deliberately 
examine the departments of Nature and art and select for models 
those things which are most agreeable to an independent fancy, nor 
even those which simple reason would decide upon as most con- 
venient. Neither does he experiment with any distinct purpose to 
invent new forms. What he attempts in improvement is what hap- 
pens to be suggested by some preceding form familiar to him. Each 
step is not only limited, but prescribed by what he already possessei 
in nature or in art, and, knowing his resources, his results can be 
closely predicted. On the other hand, knowing his products, much 
can safely be predicated of his environment and past stages of 
development." 

Major Powell shows a fine discernment in these words. Many a 
thoughtful student of aesthetic principles has reached certain conclu- 



304. 




sions in this regard. Habit has a powerful influence in the forma- 
tion of a standard of what is commonly called the beautiful, and 
that this standard varies according to conditions of time and place 



JANUARY 28, 1888.] 



The American Architect and Building News. 



45 



is shown by manifold observations. The power of one of the most 
fickle influences of our modern life, the influence of "fashion," 
strongly reinforces tin- remark that objects are pleasing because they 
are customarily made. Forms of personal ornament which, should 
they api>ear suddenly upon the street, would IK' received with deri- 
sion and would often be sufficient to raise a mob because of their 
unwontcdness, become by usage in a very short time endowed with 
the equivalent of beauty in the eyes of the multitude. Hut here a 
distinction should lie drawn between the pleasing and the beautiful. 
'I'o the truly artistic eye the cylinder hat, the big bustle and the like 
will ever remain hideou< objects, however familiar custom may make 
them. To the multitude, however, with the aesthetic faculty unde- 
veloped, the unwonted is displeasing. This may be seen in the 
matter of what we call learning to like, certain articles of food, when 
through a desire to conform to the habits of our fellows, we force 
ourselves to find pleasure in what was originally repulsive to us. 
And how disgusting a certain viand is made if we unexpectedly find 
it imbued with the flavor of some other viand, no matter how pleas- 
ing the latter may be to us in itself. Is not this principle at the base 
of what we call " a cultivated taste," even in the broadest sense of the 
term? And may not even pain arise from the misapplication of the 
same sensation that produces pleasure? 

While there may be no absolute standard of beauty, it seems as 
though there might be an intrinsically existing beauty quite apart 
from what is ordinarily pleasing. With persons in whom the feeling 
for true beauty resides the faculty appears to be intuitive, and quite 
independent of custom or fashion ; based on those divine laws of pro- 
]K)rtion, affecting the perceptions in harmoniously adjusted relations, 
and making music, in the Classic and highest meaning of the word, 
for whatever sense to which the producing cause may be addressed. 
And these relations, must of necessity have a strictly mathematical 
origin, causing pleasurable sensations by series of vibrations rythmi- 
cally affecting the nerves of perception. This must be the action of 
that rule of ' the Golden Cut," which is said to lie at the base of struc- 
tural beauty, and the existence of which enables us, for instance, 
without knowing exactly why, to tell whether architectural work is 
well designed, or no. 

The advantages of the American field of archaeological research in 
comparison with the favorite fields of the Old World are shown by 
Mr. Holmes's remark that the dawn of art in those countries lies 
hidden in the shadow of unnumbered ages, while ours stand out in 
the light of the very present. " This is well illustrated by a remark 
of Birch, who in dwelling upon the antiquity of the fictile art, says 
that 'the existence of earthen vessels in Egypt was at least coeval 
with the formation of a written language.' Beyond this there is 
acknowledged chaos. In strong contrast with this is the fact that all 
pre-Columbian American pottery precedes the acquisition of written 
language, and this contrast is emphasized by the additional fact that 
it antedates the use of the wheel, that great perverter of the plastic 
tendencies of clay." 

Mr. Holmes finds in ceramic art two classes of phenomena of im- 
portance in the study of the evolution of aesthetic culture, relating, 
first to form and second to ornament. No form, or class of forms, he 
maintains, can be said to characterize a particular age or stage of 
culture, though, in a general way, of course, the vessels of primitive 
people will be simple in form, while those of more advanced races 
will be more varied and highly specialized. The shai>es first assumed 
depend upon the shape of the vessels employed at the time of the 
introduction of the art and upon the resources of the country in 
which they live. This is illustrated as follows : " If, for instance, 
some of the highly advanced Alaskan tribes which do not make pot- 
tery should migrate to another habitat, less suitable to the practice 
of their old arts and well adapted to art in clay, and should there 
acquire the art of pottery, they would doubtless, to a great extent, 
copy their highly developed utensils of wood, bone, ivory and 
basketry, and thus reach a high grade of ceramic achievement in the 
first century of the practice of the art; but, on the other hand, if 
certain tribes, very low in intelligence and having no vessel-making 
arts, should undergo a corresponding change of habitat and acquire 
the art of pottery, they might not reach in a thousand years, if left 
to themselves, a gfade in the art equal to that of the hypothetical 
Alaskan potters in the first decade. It is, therefore, not the age of 
the art itself that determines its form, but the grade and kind of the 
art with which it originates and co-exists." 

Ornament is found to be subject to similar laws. " Where 
pottery is employed by peoples in very low stages of culture, its 
ornamentation will be of a simple archaic kind. Being a conserva- 
tive art and much hampered by the restraints of convention, the 
elementary forms of ornament are carried a long way into the suc- 
ceeding periods and have a very decided effect upon the higher 
stages. Pottery brought into use for the first time by more advanced 
races will never pass through the elementary stage of decoration, but 
will take its ornament greatly from existing art and carry this up in 
its own peculiar way through succeeding generations." 

The author considers the possihle origin of form as by adventition, 
by imitation of natural and artificial models, and by invention. He 
finds a key to unlock many of the mysteries of form in the observa- 
tion that clay is so mobile as to be quite free to take form from sur- 
roundings, and where extensively used will record or echo a vast 
deal of Nature and of co-existent art. A number of most convincing 
illustrations are given to show the derivation of pottery forms from 
various sources, as from vessels of stone, bark, wood and basketry. 



In Figure 4G5, for instance, we have a form derived from a natural 
object, the vessel of clay being a palpable imitation of the conch- 
shell. A remarkable example of coincident forms is to be seen in 
Figure 4 73, showing how the contact of a nation of |K>tterswitha nation 
of carv'ers-in-wood would tend very decidedly to modify the utensils of 
the former. Here we have first, in a, an Alaskan vessel carved in 
wood. " It represents a beaver grasping a stick in its hands and 
teeth. The conception is so unusual and the style of vessel so char- 
acteristic of the people that we should not expect to find it repeated 
in other regions; but the ancient graves of the Middle Mississippi 
Valley have furnished a number of very similar vessels in clay, one 
of which is outlined in l>. While this remarkable coincidence is sug- 
gestive of ethnic relationships which do not call for attention here, it 
serves to illustrate the possibilities of modification by simple contact." 

Mr. Holmes's consideration of the origin of ornament, as of that of 
form, are of extreme interest and suggestiveness for nearly all fields 
of depictive art. In the study of the evolution of ornament this im- 
portant fact, concisely stated by the author, should be borne con- 
stantly in mind : " Elements of design are not invented outright : 
man modifies, combines and rccombines elements or ideas already in 
existence, but docs not create." 

One of the most fruitful sources of pottery ornamentation arc the 
suggestions afforded by constructional features of artificial utensils or 
objects whose forms serve as models. We may quote our author's re- 
marks on the influence of basketry: "Of the various classes of 
utensils associated closely with the "ceramic art, there are none so 
characteristically marked by constructional features as nets and 
wicker-baskets. The twisting, interlacing, knotting and stitching of 
filaments give relieved figures that by contact in manufacture impress 
themselves upon the plastic clay. Such impressions come in time to 
be regarded as pleasing features, and when free-hand methods of re- 
producing are finally acquired, they and their derivatives become 
essentials of decoration. At a later stage these characters of 
basketry influence ceramic decoration in a somewhat different way. 
By the use of variously-colored fillets the woven surface displays 
figures in color corresponding to those in relief, and varying with 
every new combination. Many striking patterns are thus produced, 
and the potter who has learned to decorate his wares by the stylus 
or brush reproduces these patterns by free-hand methods. AVe find 
pottery in all countries ornamented with patterns, painted, incised, 
stamped and relieved, certainly derived from this source." 

In considering the development of fret-work and scroll-work, Mr. 
Holmes takes issue with the late Professor C. F. Hartt's theory, that 
the development of ornamental designs took particular and uniform 
directions owing to the structure of the eye, certain forms being 
chosen and per|>etuated because of the pleasure afforded by move" 
incuts of the eye in following them, and that, in unison with the gen- 
eral course of Nature decorative forms began with simple elements 
and developed by systematic methods to complex forms. " Let us 
turn to the primitive artisan," says Mr. Holmes, " and observe him 
at work with rude brush and stylus upon the rounded and irregular 
forms of his utensils and weapons, or upon skins, barks and rock- 
surfaces. Is it probable that with his free-hand directed by the eye 
alone he will 1x5 able to achieve these rythmic geometric forms ? It 
seems to me that the whole tendency is in the opposite direction. I 
venture to surmise that if there had been no other resources than 
those named above, the typical rectilinear fret would never have 
been known, at least to the primitive world ; for, notwithstanding 
the contrary statement by Professor Hartt, the fret is, in its more 
highly developed forms, extremely difficult to follow with the eye 
and to delineate with the hand. Until arts, geometric in their con- 
struction, arose to create and combine mechanically the necessary 
elements and motives, and lead the way by a long series of object 
lessons to ideas of geometric combination, our typical border orna- 
ment would not be possible. Such arts are the textile arts and 
architecture. These brought into existence forms and ideas not met 
with in Nature and not primarily thought of by man, and combined 
them in defiance of human conceptions of grace. Geometric orna- 
ment is the offspring of technique." SYLVESTER BAXTER. 




JACQUES ANDROUET DU CERCEAU 1 is a name which we 

J fancy is not very familiar to the majority of our readers, though any- 
one who has had an intimate acquaintance with a French atelier will 
recall the name in connection with a volume entitled " Lts Plus Exctl- 
lents Bailments fie France," a work which is not only classical in French 
architectural history, but is also invaluable for the insight it gives 
into the architecture of the transitional ]>eriod in French art. Du 
Cerceau might be called the ajxwtle <5r almost the creator of the style 
Henri II. The exact date of his birth is so shrouded in conjecture 
that we can only assume that he was born some time before 1520. 
He visited Italy in 1531 as we know by some sketches of his which 
bear that date, and which seem to indicate that he was a stranger to 
Italian art up to that time. Du Cerceau was the first Frenchman, 
we believe, who went to Rome to study architecture, instead of going 



"Lea 7>u Cerceau. leur vie et Itttr cetirre, (Tapres tte nnv.vt.llea rcchtrchet," par 
le Baron Henri de UeymUller. Paris : J. Kouam, Editeur. 



46 



The American Architect and Building News. [VOL. XXIII. No. 631. 



to Milan or the northern Italian cities, after the manner of Jean de 
Bullant, Philbert de 1'Ormc and others who preceded him by a num- 
ber of years. In Du Cerceau's time the Renaissance was just 
beginning to show itself. The influence of Francois I and his artists 
made the people somewhat acquainted with the nature of the move- 
ment which was taking place in Italy ; but Du Cerceau can almost 
be credited with being the real founder of the French Renaissance. 
Certainly he did a great deal to give the new style a pure direction, 
as is seen by his numerous publications, and to popularize a taste for 
Italian ideas in art. His stay in Italy was not very extended as 
nearly as we can discover, but he was very much impressed by the 
works of Bramante and his school, and the creations of the Henri II 
period show how much he sought to follow in the steps of the illus- 
trious architect of Saint Peter's. Those who are familiar with the 
Paris churches will remember that Saint Eustache was begun about 
the same time as Saint Peter's at Rome, and the construction of the 
two churches was carried on simultaneously. Du Cerceau prepared 
a very interesting scheme for the facade of Saint Eustache, and we 
believe it was partly carried out in the lower stories, though sub- 
sequently changed in the upper portions. By the sketches which he 
has left of his idea, it would appear that he aimed to produce a front 
after the style of the Palazzo Farnese Court-yard a bold, severe 
Doric. We can easily imagine how Du Cerceau, fresh from the in- 
fluence of Bramante, should endeavor to engraft the Italian ideas on 
the semi-Gothic stock. Still, one cannot altogether regret that Saint 
Eustache is no more pure than it is, for the mixture which now ex- 
ists is thoroughly pleasing and picturesque. 

Du Cerceau's actual work as an architect appears to have been 
very limited. Aside from the church and chateau at Montarges, we 
have no absolute record of his work, though judging from his notes 
it is reasonably certain that he was at least associated in the con- 
struction of the Chateau de Madrid and the Chateau de Verneuil ; 
while among his drawings are several projets for portions of the 
Louvre, though it is doubtful if any of his designs for the Royal 
Palace were actually carried out. His general title to fame lies in 
his publications. Almost immediately upon his return from Italy, 
he became inspired with the desire to popularize throughout France 
a knowledge of Italian architecture in order to put his country in a 
condition to compete with Italy and the Italian artists, at that time, 
so numerous in France. He says himself of his works that they had 
for aim to " servir a ceux qui sont curieux de I'antiquite, et encore plus 
(a mon jugement) a ceux qui sont maistres en V architecture, lesquels y 
pourront trouver plusieurs beaux traits et enrichessements pour alder 
leurs inventions." 

With these aims in view, he published during his lifetime so ex- 
tended a series of works that it seems almost as if much that was 
attributed to him must have been the work of some other architect 
of the time, though his biographer submits very substantial evidence 
of the authenticity of all the works that are attributed to Du Cer- 
ceau. His volumes can be divided into three categories : first, 
works for painters or draughtsmen, in which the human figure plays 
the principal role ; secondly, works relating to decorative art ; and 
third, works devoted entirely to architecture. There are many 
things in the second group which are architecturally interesting, but 
the most valuable of his productions are comprised in the last cate- 
gory. Du Cerceau published successively books on " Architectural 
Ruins," including all the Roman antiquities which have since been 
studied so exhaustively by the French students ; also a book on the 
" Orders;" another on " Triumphal Arches;" another on "Fountains 
and Gateways ;" and an exceedingly valuable volume of architectural 
details, all of them purely Classical and taken directly from the old 
work. The work on the " Grands Cartouches de Fontainebleau " is 
also ascribed, with reason, to him. Besides these works, which have 
all to do more or less with Classical architecture as distinguished 
from the Renaissance, he published three large volumes dealing with 
^Religious Monuments, Temples and Fortified Habitations" 'which 
include the Renaissance work to a certain extent. But his best 
known work, the most valuable, both for itself as A document and 
for its relation to history, is " The Most Excellent Buildinr/s of 
France," a collection of the best chateaux and palaces of the period, 
including many which have since entirely disappeared, and also in- 
cluding schemes and projets which were never carried out. The 
drawings were all made by Du Cerceau himself or by one of his sons, 
and are simply invaluable to any one who cares to study the French 
Renaissance. The work is almost too well known to need any men- 
tion. 

Of Du Cerceau's manner as a draughtsman, M. de Geymiiller gives 
us some details which would probably interest a student. Du Cer- 
ceau was obliged to work very rapidly in order to accomplish all that 
he did, for he engraved all of his drawings, besides making innumer- 
able sketches which are scattered through the European collections, 
and especially in some of his later works we find him adapting many 
little tricks to expedite his drawing. For instance, when lie drew 
columns in perspective, the ellipses of the capitals and bases were 
often replaced by arcs of circles, of which the centres were placed on 
the axes of the columns. In one very clever drawing of his series of 
" Orders," a column is shown surrounded with spiral (lutings, each 
one of which is traced with two arcs of a circle, and sometimes he 
even replaced perspective ellipses by segments of circles. Of course, 
such processes did not add to the value of his work, still Du Cerceau 
was so immeasureably ahead of any draughtsman of his age, that we 
can easily see how he could have adopted such devices with a clear 



conscience. We remember being very much struck a number of 
years ago with the contrast afforded in an exhibition, where the 
original drawings of Michael Angelo, Bramante and Raphael for 
Saint Peter's at Rome were displayed together with very clever 
architectural sketches by some modern French draughtsmen. The 
contrast was the more striking in that the ideas in the first case were 
so good, and in the second so poor; while the execution of the old 
masters was almost ridiculous as to technique, and the sketches of 
their modern descendants were absolutely perfect. The same con- 
trast is suggested by a perusal of Du Cerceau's works, and one cannot 
but question whether what we have gained in technique has not im- 
plied a loss in ideas. Du Cerceau's personal sketches are scrawly, 
ill-drawn and misshapen, but the ideas are there every time, and the 
sketch means something ; each line shows that the artist thought a 
great deal more than he drew. It is exactly this quality which makes 
Du Cerceau's work so valuable. Much of it is, of course, foreign to 
the present needs, but through it all we can see the imprint of serious 
thought; and it may be well questioned whether a return to some of 
the feeble methods of drawing might not be for the good of our archi- 
tectural students of to-<lay, provided it could be combined with a cor- 
responding return of freshness of ideas. 

Du Cerceau was one who influenced more than he created, in which 
respect he may well be compared to his modern successor, Viollet-le- 
Duc. Du Cerceau certainly exerted an enormous influence on his 
contemporaries, and moulded the art-thought of his time into the 
lines, which in later years developed with such strength of architec- 
tural thought, It is interesting to know that Du Cerceau, in common 
with his illustrious co-worker, Jean Goujon, was a Protestant, but 
more fortunate than the sculptor he escaped the Saint Bartholomew 
massacre, and was even protected by Catherine de Medici, to whom 
he dedicated some of his works. 

M. de Geymiiller in this biography has accomplished, what no one 
but a Frenchman could have done, giving us the details of his life, 
character, works, surroundings and influences down to the very last 
supposition, even taking up his heirs and descendants to the tenth 
generation. The work is prolix in the 'extreme, and were it not for 
the admirable illustrations to the number of 128, that are scattered 
through the volume, it would be such as no one but a book-worm 
would ever care to seek for. The pictures tell the story just as Du 
Cerceau's own publications gave the key to his life. 




NEW YORK CHAPTER OF AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF ARCHITECTS. 

HTTT a regular meeting of the New York Chapter of the A. I. A., 
rj held January 11, the following officers were unanimously 
' elected : 

President, E. II. Kendall ; Vice-Presidents, Geo. B. Post, C. W. 

linton ; Secretary and Treasurer, A. J. Bloor. Standing Com- 
mittees (the President and Secretary being ex-officio members of 
2ach) : Executive, N. Le Brun, F. A. Wright ; Library and Publica- 
tion, Jas. E. Ware, Theo. de Lemos, H. O. Averv ; Examinations. 
N. Le Brun, R. M. Upjohn, R. M. Hunt. 

The following reports were submitted and accepted : 

To the N. Y. Chapter, A. I. A.- 
Mr. Le Brun, the chairman of your committee on examinations, 
md ipso facto the representative of the Chapter in the Board of 
Examiners of the Building Bureau of the New York Fire-Depart- 
nent, was, with his colleagues of the board, invited by the commis- 
iioners of that branch of the municipal government to unite with 
hem in joint committee for the purpose of suggesting amendments 
:o the New York building-law with a view to perfecting the same 
and presenting it to the Legislature for enactment. The invitation 
vas accepted, and on the organization of the joint committee the 
chairman of your committee on examinations was elected its chair- 
man and the Hon. Elward Smith its secretary. This joint action 
resulted in the presentation of two reports, o'ne in the interest of 
;ood building and the retention of the influence of the Chapter 
;oward that end, the other more in the interest of speculative builders 
md calculated to minimize the professional and ameliorative in- 
luence of the Chapter. The better influence prevailed, however, and 
the building-law, though still not everything that is to be desired, re- 
ceived distinct improvements. To those, familiar with the history of 
he building interests of New York under the municipal government, 
lie gradual and of late marked improvements in the methods and 
personelle of that branch of it having those interests in charge, is 
very apparent. Your committee on examinations, during the twenty 
years of its existence, has, it may be conceded, fairly earned some 
portion of the credit for extending the growth of a faithful profes- 
sional animus in this branch of the city government, contrasting 
strongly with the old-time prevalent spirit of mere self-seeking 
Xditical placemen, frequently incompetent at least in the lower 
;rades of service to the proper performance of the duties attached 
to positions in public employ, and bringing undeserved discredit on 
competent and conscientious fellow employls. 



JANUARY 28, 1888.] 



The American Architect and Building News. 



47 



And in view of the immense importance of the interests in ques- 
tion, involving, as they do in large measure, the tcsthetiral environ- 
ments, the sanitary conditions and the comfort and safety of the 
homes and the public places of worship, of justice, of business, and of 
recreation of two millions of people, at an enormous annual expendi- 
ture nearly seventy millions of dollars having been spent during 
the past year in building operations within the city limits this im- 
provement is something on which the public, as well as the muni- 
cipality, may well be congratulated. 

Respectfully submitted, 

N. LE BRU.V, 
A. J. BLOOR, 

Welles BuUdiny, 18 Broadway, N. Y., It. M. UPJOHN. 

January 11, 1888. 

To the N. Y. Chapter, A. I. A.: 

Your Executive Committee for the year 1886-87, as soon as it en- 
tered office, found itself confronted by the financial problem of how 
the Chapter should find the means to entertain the Twentieth Annual 
Convention of the Institute, which was due in this city on December 
1 and 2, 1886. For many years, when a convention of the Institute 
has met in centres where a chapter exists, its members have been 
treated as the guests of that chapter, and it was now the turn of our 
chapter to reciprocate the hospitalities of many occasions. But the 
small revenue derivable from the dues of its members is necessarily 
absorbed in current expenses. The matter was finally referred to 
the committee of arrangements appointed by the Board of Trustees of 
the Institute, namely, Messrs. Littell and Hatfield, and the president 
and secretary; and after much painstaking on their part, and the 
issue of several circular letters, the handsome sum of seven hundred 
and twenty-one dollars was received from the members of the chapter 
and from four members of the Institute not members of the chapter. 
This amount enabled us to give our guests the handsome entertain- 
ment at which most of you assisted, and left a small balance over. 

Your committee desire to call your attention to the fact that at the 
twentieth convention of the Institute the special committee appointed 
to review the reports of the various chapters called the attention of 
the Institute to the statement that some of the chapters attributed 
their current success to the fact that their meetings were carried 
through on social lines, the business being preceded by a dinner, after 
the labors of the day were ended; and the special committee ex- 
pressed it as their opinion that if this system were followed by other 
chapters it would have a good effect. The older members of the 
chapter will remember that these lines were partially followed by it 
for a number of years, the midday meetings being preceded by a 
light lunch. The result was, on the whole, tolerably successful, but 
a moiety of the members was in favor of evening meetings, and the 
custom fell into desuetude. It is a question whether it might not be 
revived with good effect in the shape of dinners after the profes- 
sional labors of the day and preceding the chapter business. But here 
again the financial element comes in. Your committee, however, 
think that the subject might well be made the question of a succeeding 
meeting. Respectfully submitted, 

EDWARD H. KENDALL, 



Welles Building, 18 Broadway, N. Y., 
January 11, 1888. 



RICHARD M. UPJOHN, 
N. LE BRUN, 
A. J BLOOR. 



To the N. Y. Chapter, A. I. A.: 

Your Committee on Library and publications for the year 1886-87 
have only to report that the books and photographs of the chapter 
library have received during the year perhaps somewhat less than 
the average share of inspection and use from members and students. 
The most notable instance of the employment of the photographs was 
the borrowing by the Architectural League of New York of twenty- 
five examples from the Gambrill collection for use in the League's 
highly creditable exhibition in the Kurz Art Galleries, followed since 
by their very recent and even more admirable one in the Ortgies Art 
Galleries. 

There is a law of the chapter that none of its contents shall be 
allowed to be taken from its library and reading-room, and this 
regulation, notwithstanding being frequently urged to overlook it, 
your secretary and librarian has always rigidly respected. But on 
this occasion he thought he would not only best meet the desires of 
the lamented collector and munificent donor of the Gambrill collec- 
tion, but also best subserve the beneficent purposes of the chapter by 
temporarily giving up the custody of these illustrations to Messrs. 
Wright & A very, who are members alike of the Chapter and of the 
League. It is hardly necessary to add that the photographs were all 
returned duly and in good condition. 

Respectfully submitted, 

E. H. KENDALL, 
H. H. HOLLY, 
JAS. E. WARK, 
THEO. DE l.i. MH-. 

Welles Building, 18 Broadway, N. Y., A. J. BLOOR, 

January 11, 1888. 




WHO MAKES IRON CHURCHES? 

riin.ADKr.iMUA. PA., January 20, 1888. 

To THE EDITORS or THK AMERICAN ARCHITECT: 

Dear Sirs, Can you or any of your readers give the names of 
parties who construct iron churches in the United States? In 
England such buildings for use not only in that country but in 
warmer climates are made upon designs prepared by church archi- 
tects, and their use presents obvious advantages where temporary 
buildings are desired for missions, or where parishes are not strong 
enough to erect permanent buildings, or where shifting population 
may require future removal. In many if not all large cities, wooden 
buildings are not allowed, and if iron churches can be furnished at 
a reasonable cost, a great want would be supplied. M. 

THE DECORATIONS OF McVICKER'S THEATRE, 
CHICAGO. 

CHICAGO, ILL., January 18, 1888. 
To THE EDITORS OF THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT: 

Dear Sin, Will you kindly give space to a correction of Mr. C. 
H. Blackall's paper, " Notes o! Travel," which appeared in your 
issue of December 24th, erroneously giving credit to Messrs. Adler 
& Sullivan for the decoration of McVicker's theatre. The work was 
executed under my charge and dictation and was my own conception 
without control of architect or owner. Yours faithfully, 

JOSEPH TWYMAN. 

THE BEARING CAPACITY OF NEW YORK SUBSOIL. 

CHICAGO, ILL., January 10, 1888. 
To THE EDITORS OF THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT: 

Dear Sirs, Would be pleased to get information on the following 
questions : 

1. What is the formation of the subsoil of New York City on 
which the foundations of the larger and heavier buildings are placed, 

and what is the bearing capacity 
per square foot of this subsoil as 
accepted by architects. 

2. Which is the best method of 
constructing the floor of a dance- 
hall so as to practically deafen 
noise as much as possible and also 
to avoid the vibration of ceiling 
below to prevent cracking of plas- 

_ f ter, etc. Hall is 70' x 90', and 

has only one line of supports 

through centre below. Would it not be advisable to make ceiling 
joists of apartments below independent of floor joists ? 

By answering the above question you will confer favor on a 

CHICAGO SUBSCRIBER. 

[1. The lower portion of New York City stands mostly on gravel, vary- 
ing In resistance from the hard central ridge, along which Broadway rung, 
to the river-banks, where it is mixed with mud and is quite soft. ' From 
Mndison Square northward to Harlem, the subsoil is mostly gneiss rock, 
capable of bearing almost any weight, and at the northern extremity of the 
island limestone appears. So far as we know, there is no rule accepted by 
architects for the bearing capacity of the soil in the lower part of the city, 
which is the only portion in which it usually needs to be considered. On 
and near Broadway five tons to the square foot would not be too much, but 
east or west of this line the resistance varies greatly, and it is common 
before designing foundations to consult the records of the Department of 
Buildings, where very valuable notes of the character of the subsoil in 
various parts of the city are kept and explained to architects with the 
utmost courtesy. 

2. As suggested, the only efficient way of deafening the floor of sncb a 
dance-hall is to use ceiling- joists entirely independent of the floor-beams. 
EDS. AMERICAN ARCHITECT.] 




A STATUS OF BUDDHA AT NARA, JAPAN. This town of Nara, 
Japan, was once a great city. Where to-day in the Valley the rice 
fields spread their carpets of verdure there once were long streets lined 
with houses and the palaces of princes. To-day there are but 21,000 
inhabitants in the place. Once there were nearly a quarter of a million. 
Nara was the capital of Japan from 700 to 784 A. p. It was a great 
city when London was in its infancy, Paris a mere village and Berlin a 
wind-swept waste. The site of the Mikado's palace is now a broad 
field of growing grain three miles to the west of the present town. The 
temples and shrines of that olden time are nearly all gone, having been 
burnt, or having fallen down and been consumed by the elements. A 
few only of the works of the past remain to attest the fact that the 
civilization of Japan in the eighth century in many respects was equal 
to that of the nineteenth century. Among these monuments of by- 
gone days the most famous is the great image of Buddha. This stands 
in an ungainly building, the roof of which is seen peering above the 
trees on the mountain-side. This building is quite modern, having 
been erected about the boginning of the last century as a protection to 
the huge idol. It is surrounded by a broad garden, which is enclosed 



The American Architect and Building 



[VOL. XXIII. -No. 



631. 






of Japan to send in their 



vein since it came from the hands of the founders. In 859, 
'Great Buddha" lost his head," which had not been PJP 
Skilled workmen succeeded at once in putting a new and st 

,n him In 1180 during one of the civil wars by which Japan has 
been from time to time convulsed, the temple covering the image was 
burned UnV te new head was melted. The image and the temple were 

m both restored but the head troubles of the old idol were not at an 
end vet In Io07 the temple was again burned, and when the smoke 
ckared away it was discovered that once more Buddha was sitting with 
the molten remains of his face and cranium sticking to his arm, : and 
shoulders like tallow to a dying taper. This lamentable state of affa 
led a generous private person to give a sufficient sum to repair the dam- 
age and the workmen once more succeeded in putting a head on 
Buddha. Until the beginning of the last century the image was 
doomed to remain unprotected, and passed the time as a nurebotoke or 
wet god as the Japanese say, exposed to the assaults of ram and storm 
Ld the defilement of birds. In 1710, or thereabouts, the priesthood 
and the laity built the present great barn-like structure. 
land in the Philadelphia Press. 

WHO W. J. STILLMAN Is. The editor of the Century submits to the 
New York Evening Post a letter from a New Hampshire subscriber, whict 



You will confer a favor on me if you will tell me who W. J. Stillman, 
author of the paper on John Ruskin, in the January Century, is and a 
little something of him, or at least where I can find such general infor- 
mation as one likes to have of those whose papers he is reading. I 
have referred to everything I could think of within my reaoli, and still 
I have to leave unanswered a number ot questions. VV lie 
Stillman t " It seems to me as if I could place the man, but wne 
try I fail I enjoyed this article (John Ruskin) much not to men- 
tion a number of others and it has caused me to begin reading Rus- 
kin critically, which makes me wish the more to know of Stillman. 

The editor suggests that a reply to this inquiry through Tht>Evm\nq 
Post would outstrip his own in the magazine itself. Our readers cer- 
tainly could have no difficulty in "placing" one who a few years ago 
was the art critic of The Evening Post, and is still a frequent contribu- 
tor on his special subject as well as on divers others. Mr. Stillman, to 
begin at the end, is now the Roman correspondent of the London 1 imes. 
He was born in Schenectady in 1828, was graduated at Union College 
in 1848, in the same class with the late President Arthur, and took to 
painting as his profession, receiving instruction in landscape from F. 
E. Church, N. A. In the winter of 1849-50 he went abroad for a few 
months, and made the acquaintance of Turner and other leading Eng- 
lish painters, and, more intimately, of Mr. Ruskin. Up to 1852 he was 
painting in the Adirondack country, when his admiration for Kossuth 
led him to embark in a hazardous mission to Hungary, which did not 
succeed. On this trip Mr. Stillman studied in Paris, in the school of 
Yvon. In 1856, with Mr. John Durand, he founded the art journal the 
Crayon in this city, which he conducted for two years. He was abroad 
again in 1859, making a summer tour with Mr. Ruskin in Switzerland. 
In 1861 he was appointed United States Consul to Rome, and in 1885 
was transferred to Crete, where he witnessed and became the historian 
of the last unsuccessful rising in that island. In 1869, being out of the 
service, he brought out a noble volume of photographs of the Acropolis 
at Athens, the views being taken by himself. Since that date litera- 
ture rather than painting has been his vocation, but he has never ceased 
to pursue photography as a pastime, to which he has contributed many 
useful inventions and several manuals. His services as correspondent 
of the London Times enabled him to write a history of the revolt in 
Herzegovina that preceded the great Russo-Turkish war of 1877-78. 
His latest publication is "In the Track of Ulysses," which we have just 
reviewed in these columns. Mr. Stillman is familiar with all parts of 
the Levant, is caricatured in the press of the war party in Greece, and 
so hated and feared by the Turks that he is forbidden to enter the Sul- 
tan's dominions. We ought to add that a fuller account of his check- 
ered life than we can give here is to be found in the Photographic Times 
for September 9, 1887. N. Y. Evening Post. 

THE LOWER ORGANISMS IN CISTERN WATER. Mr. Gustav Bischof 
has extended Dr. Koch's method of estimating the number of micro- 
scopic organisms in a sample of water in such a way as to show how 
dangerous it may be to drink water which has been stored in a cistern 
for several days. Dr. Koch's method was, briefly, to mix a measured 
quantity of water with some sterilized gelatine spread over glass plates. 
After two or three days numerous spots, due to " colonies " of minute 
creatures, are visible to the eye, and their number is a measure of the 
organisms in the original water. Mr. Bischof has prolonged the dura- 
tion of the test from three days to nine. He finds that the total num- 
ber of colonies is thus largely increased, particularly in the case of 



filtered water. Thus a quarter of a teaspoonful of water, which gave 
3 colonies in three days, yielded 158 colonies in nine days A similar 
tin ty of water, taken from the same main and stored for six days, 
ol h an open house cistern liable to all sorts of contamination but in 
proper y protected vessels, yielded 3744 colonies of living creatures in 
U short and no less than 115,344 in the longer period. Such facts 
belong to the marvels of creation, but their practical use is to show how 
very hWortant it is that house cisterns should be frequent y emptied, 
and that water should not be left to stagnate in bedroom water bottles. 
As Engineering points out, even filtration evidently allows a large num- 
ber of organisms to pass which are capable of this great development. 

AFGHANISTAN WIND-MILLS.- A clipping from the Milling World 
says that Thomas Stevens, who recently bicycled around the world, has 
given the following description of peculiar wind-mills used on the 
? rontier of Afghanistan, in Asia : High noon finds us at our destination 
for the day the village of Tabbas, famous in all the country round for 
a peculiar wind-mill used in grinding grain. A grist mill or mills con- 
sists of a row of one-storied mud huts, each of which contains a pair of 
grindstones. Connecting with the upper stone is a perpendicular shaft 
of wood which protrudes through the wood and extends fifteen feet 
above it Cross pieces run through at right angles, and plaited with 
rushes transform the shaft into an upright, four-bladed aftair that the 
wind blows round and turns the mill-stones below. So far this is only 
a very primitive and clumsy method of harnessing the wind, but con- 
nected with it is a very ingenious contrivance that redeems it entirely 
from the commonplace. A system of mud walls is built, about the 
same height or a little higher than the shaft, in such a manner as to 
concentrate and control the wind in the interest of the miller, regard- 
less of what way the wind is blowing. The suction created by the pe- 
culiar disposition of the walls whisks the rude wattle sails around in a 
most lively manner. Forty of these mills are in operation at 1 abbas, 
and to see them all in full swing, making a loud " sweshing' noise as 
they revolve is a most extraordinary sight. Aside from labbas, these 
novel grist-mills are only to be seen in the territory about the Seistan 
Lake. 




THE volume of business for the dead of winter has not been disappoint- 
ing Restricted mercantile operations are indicated by a return of a large 
amount of currency to Eastern financial centres from its Western pilgrim- 
age Manufacturing activity is fair in all sections. Mining operations are 
being conducted on the usual scale except in a large portion of the anthra- 
cite reion. Shop and factory capacity is quite busily engaged on spring 
work "New enterprises are quite freely spoken of, some of them of very 
large proportions. The volume of money to all appearances will con- 
tinue to increase. Foreign investments are not checked, and there is 
much anxiety abroad to find good speculative opportunities. Real-estate 
has not been handled much of late in the Western States owing to the 
apprehensions created over the overdone talk of restricted railroad building 
operations this year. For actual building requirements more than ordinary 
activity has been displayed among buyers and sellers of real-estate, es- 
pecially in the larger cities. As to probabilities of a general advance of 
real-estate in manufacturing centres, the signs are not so propitious from 
the sellers' side. Concerning mortgage indebtedness, the snowball has been 
rolled until the lenders look like pigmies behind it, but every essential 
feature is safe. The earning capacity of the country has been greatly in- 
creased by these loans, and a volume of business has been done which 
would have been impossible but for its use on the scale of magnitude seen 
last year. Speaking specifically the industries are doing well. The paper- 
mills in some localities have been stopped. The electrical, hardware, tex- 
tile and shoe-making interest of New England have no reason to complain. 
The jobbing interests have effected an immense distribution, and the job- 
bers who talk see no cyclones ahead. All through the New England States 
there is an air of contentment in the manufacturing interests. The pos- 
sibilities of adverse legislation cause more scare than they will probably 
cause hurt. The competition of foreign goods will probably increase mther 
than decline, but this pressure will, no doubt, reach in the production of 
finer qualities of goods. It is guesswork to say what will be the outcome, 
but not half the evil is probable that is foretold. The building activity in 
Now England will be greater than last year, so builders predict, because of 
the steadier work, steadier wages and greater accumulation of the workers 
who are now more than ever directing their attention to the securing of a 
home. Reports from nearly all our larger Maine. Massachusetts and Rhode 
Island mills and manufacturing establishments show that employment will 
be equal to the supply. There is a constant but quiet weeding out of skilled 
labor in these States" which finds welcome in newer places at higher pay, 
and hence all other things being equal there is an upward tendency in 
waes, but not strong enough to show itself in figures except where suc- 
cessful strikes cause it. There will be fewer labor strikes this year, and 
comparatively little agitation for shorter hours. Congressional action will 
hardly reach the point of shutting oat foreign labor, and it is a question 
whether artificial expedients, even if applied, would help. Building enter- 
prise will be less subjected to interferences this season as employes intend 
to act, and to act conservatively in time. The iron trade is strong. Prices 
are close to cost. Rails are not selling freely, but some day soon the 
announcement will be wired over the country that orders aggregating a half 
million tons have been placed. Manufacturers of agricultural machines 
will restrict production largely this year, it has just been definitely 
announced, and a strong combination will be attempted before spring 
opens. Wood-working machinery have still a good block of business on 
hand, but they are watching how things are likely to go after booked orders 
are filled. Furniture manufacturers on account of the extraordinary house- 
building of the past few years have been driven, or rather tempted, to use 
inferior and cheaper woods, and thus meet an expanding demand for 
cheaper furniture by a liberal use of improved varnishes and paints. Gum , 
cotton-wood, cypress, sap and other woods are coining in, and yellow-pine is 
making a vast market for itself, aud growing in the estimation of architects 
and builders. The furniture manufacturing interests in this way anticipate 
better margins this year, but the sunshine will be like an April one. The 
use of lumber is gaining per head of population in spite of brick, because of 
the much greater building activity in rural localities where wood is so gen- 
erally used. 

S. J. PABKHILL & Co., Printers, Boston. 



Slje ^njericar? ^rcljitect and Buildiiy; IJeivs, January 23, 1555. Qo. 631. 



Copyright, 1888. byTicKNOR & Co. 




HIUOTYPC PRINTINO 00 . BOSTON 



CHURCH OF ST. JOHN THE BAPTIST, QUEBEC, CANADA. 

J. F. PEACHY, Architect. 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT AND BUILDING NEWS. 



VOL. XXlll. 



Copyright, 1888, by TICKNOB ft COMPANY. Boston, Man. 



No. 632. 



FEBRUARY 4. 1888. 

Entered at the Poet-Office at Button u second-clam matter. 







SUMMARY : 

Report on the Construction of the Congressional Library. 
The Rejection of Cement offered for the Foundations. 
Tensile vs Compressive Strains. The Indiana Soldiers' and 
Sailors' Monument Competition. The New York School- 
house Competition. Proposed New Bridge across the Hud- 
son River. Device for Keeping Fire Water-pails full. . . 49 

SAFK BUILDING. XXII 61 

ILLUSTRATIONS : 

The Harvard Medical-School Building, Boston, Mass. 
House for Mr. II. R. Smith, Kansas City, Mo. Trusses 
over Court-room in the United States Court-house, Rochester, 

N. Y. St. Stephen's Church, Olean, N. Y 66 

BRICKLAYING IN FROSTY WEATHER 66 

TESTING A COAJED NAIL 67 

LONDON NOTES.'.' 67 

THE MEXICAN LAUNDRY 68 

SOCIETIES : ... 68 

COMMUNICATIONS : 

Testing for the Foundations of the Congressional Library. 
Harding's Books on Drawing. Iron Churches. Plaster 

Boarding 69 

NOTES AND CLIPPINGS 60 

TRADE SURVEYS 60 



IN obedience to an order passed by the United States Senate 
January 4, a special report has been prepared upon the con- 
struction of the Congressional Library Building, which is 
now printed, and offers some interesting details in regard to 
this great public work. Although the report does not go out 
of its way to refer to personal matters, it seems not unlikely 
that the occasion for its preparation is to be sought in the out- 
rageous attacks made in the newspapers on the integrity of the 
architect in regard to the tests which he applied to the cement 
which was furnished by the contractor for making the concrete 
to be used in the foundation of the building. The fact appears 
to have been that the specifications required that the cement 
should pass the ordinary tests, showing a tensile strength of three 
hundred pounds per square inch after one day in air and six 
days in water, and leaving not more than ten per cent residuum 
upon a sieve of twenty-five hundred meshes to the square inch. 
The samples furnished by one of the bidders fulfilled both these 
requirements, and the contract was awarded to him. On com- 
mencing the work, however, the contractor sent to the building 
a lot of cement of a brand not included among those which he 
had submitted by sample for the original test. The architect 
promptly rejected this, as not being in accordance with the con- 
tract, which was, of course, based upon the samples accompany- 
ing the original tender. The Commission in charge of the con- 
struction of the building, however, on being appealed to, in- 
structed the architect to test the new cement, which had not 
previously been offered by any bidder, and to accept it if he 
found it capable of passing the tests required in the specifica- 
tions. Seventy-two samples were, in pursuance of this direc- 
tion, tested, only sixteen of which showed a tensile strength of 
three hundred pounds, as required, while most of the others 
were far below the standard, the lowest being seventy-eight 
pounds. This alone would necessitate the rejection of the 
cement, as being inferior to the plain and reasonable demands 
of the specification, but Mr. Smithmeyer found also that it was 
very quick-setting, and this quality, always a dangerous one in 
Portland cement, and particularly so in cement to be used for 
concrete, seemed to him, as well as to several other experts, to 
whom he submitted it, quite sufficient to condemn it for the 
purposes of the Library Building, independent of other con- 
siderations. 

0N the second, and final rejection of the cement of the new 
brand, the contractor sent a quantity of cement of one of 
the brands submitted by him with his bid, and perhaps the 
oldest and best known in this country of all the Portland 
cements. The watchful architect immediately took samples 
from the barrels delivered, and tested them as before. Instead,, 



however, of showing a tensile strength averaging three hundred 
and seven pounds to the square inch, as did the samples sub- 
mitted with the bid, the samples from the barrels delivered on 
the work gave an average tensile strength of only two hundred 
and thirty-three pounds, only four specimens, out of two 
hundred and seventy tested by different experts, reaching the 
strength demanded by the contract. Moreover, some of the 
contractor's cement proved more quick-setting than that which 
had been already rejected, and an engineer officer of the army, 
who ought to be a good judge, wrote to the architect to say 
that in his opinion the cement was probably not what the 
brands on the barrels indicated it to be. In private work the 
architect, under such circumstances, would simply order the 
contractor to remove the whole of the cement from the ground 
at onoe, but in Washington, where an immense amount of in- 
fluence can be brought to bear upon public officers, this is not 
so easy, and the contractor, together with those who sold him 
the condemned cements, appeared by counsel before the Com- 
missioners, criticising the tests, and urging the acceptance of 
the cement without regard to the architect's opinion of it ; 
while a paragraph appeared in the press despatches all over 
the country to the effect that the architect of the Library Build- 
ing had been detected in a scheme for keeping out, by arbitrary 
and unreasonable tests, cements of excellent quality, in order 
to compel the use in the building of a particular brand, in the 
sale of which he had a personal interest. Fortunately, the 
people of the United States have found in Mr. Smithmeyer an 
architect who not only understands the art which he professes, 
but suffers neither personal influence nor cruel calumny to 
turn him from the path of vigilant fidelity to the trust reposed 
in him, and, while he makes in his part of the report no com- 
plaints .or accusations in regard to any person, and assumes no 
airs of injured professional dignity, all architects will cordially 
sympathize with him in his modest suggestion that considera- 
tions of generosity toward contractors ought not to justify the 
relaxation of requirements indispensable to sound construction, 
and that for this reason, the judgment of the architect in in:it- 
ters within his province ought to be sustained, even if he 
should seem at times too strict in the construction of his 
specifications. In this particular case, it certainly cannot be 
said that a standard of three hundred pounds tensile strength 
after seven days is too strict, and, in view of the danger from 
the swelling of some quick-setting cements, the architect ought 
to have the privilege, which, indeed, the specification expressly 
reserves to him, of " subjecting the cement to such other tests 
as he may require," so that Mr. Smithmeyer can hardly be 
accused of having been too strict in his interpretation of the 
specification. 



IN one of the tests, which was made independently for the 
Commissioners by General M. C. Meigs, a question of con- 
siderable technical importance was brought up. Although 
the cement sent to the building fell below the required tensile 
strength, General Meigs expressed the opinion in his report to 
the Commissioners that it was " quite good enough for the 
foundations of the Library of Congress," and stronger than any 
cement known to him as having been used in the foundations 
of any United States building in Washington, and went on to 
say that "these concrete foundations a.re to. be subjected to 
compressive strains only," and that " the tensile strength is 
used in the examination of the material, because the test is 
easier and cheaper, and not because the concrete is expected to 
be pulled, exposed to tensile strains." Now, although this is 
unquestionably the case with concrete foundations in soil of 
uniform resistance, it would not be so where the concrete lay 
upon a subsoil of unequal consistency. We once knew a cellar- 
floor laid with concrete under the direction of a clever archi- 
tect, in a building, the walls of which stood on piles driven 
through a soft-made ground to a firm stratum. Il the con- 
crete were laid on the made-ground, the iettlem.ent which was 
constantly going on in this wouUl carry down the portions of 
the floor not attached to the walls, causing craokt and inequali- 
ties of surface, 'and the architect, understanding this, solved, 
the problem' by making the concrete-layer of sufficient thick-, 
ness, and of materials strong enough, to form a bridge aver the 
whole space between the walls, capable of carry-Ing all the 
weight that would, ba likely to come upon it without any help 



50 



from tl,c ground beneath. As in a less degree a 

01, ground w hu-h is soft in phu-es ui.,l hard m others, 

to rT-lk-vo the soft spots by bridging on them and 

off the strain to the harder places around them, it wou 

tainly appear that a considerable transverse strength 

necessary in concrete under such conditions, which , as 

Smithmeyer's report says, are those winch unavoidably exist 

under the Library building. As the tra nsverse 

mass im 



e rary u. 

perfectly supported below, and subjected to a vertical 
load is composed of a compressive strain in the upper portions, 
and a tensile strain in the lower part, and is limited by the 
capacity of the material for bearing the kind of strain to which 

in such cases 



cap 

it yields most readily, it is of great importance in such cases 
that concrete which presents an almost unlimited resistance to 
compression, should have a maximum tensile strength, as on 
this its power of sustaining a transverse strain entirely de- 
pends, and it seems to us that Mr. Smithmeyer was therefore 
perfectly justified in specifying a reasonable tensile strength 
for the cement to be used, and that he was bound to reject 
cement which would have given him a concrete possessing only 
three-fourths of the strength which he believed necessary for 
giving perfect security against the strains which he considered 
likely to come upon it. 



The American Architect andJBwldmg^^ [Voi- XXIII.-No. 632. 

and the law strictly confined the jury to designs capable of 
bt-iiK' executed for the specified sum, they could hardly do more 
thankee that the estimating was done as impartially and intel- 
li.rently as possible, and this, we may be sure, they did. In 
the classes where premiums were awarded. Messrs. Appleyard 
& Bowd, of Lansing, Mich., carried off the first prize in 
Classes 1,2 and 4, the second prize in each of these classes 
beiii" awarded to Mr. John R. Church, of Rochester, N. Y. 
In Class 3, Messrs. J. C. A. Heriot & Co., of Albany, took 
the first prize. Special mentions in several of the classes were 
voted to Mr. Warren R. Briggs, of Bridgeport, Conn., a noted 
designer of school-houses, and to Mr. John Cox, Jr., and Mr. 
C. Powell Karr, of New York. 



was 
Mr. 



strain o n a 



<TTS the daily papers have already widely announced, the 
H Indiana Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument Competition has 
' resulted in the selection of Mr. Bruno Schmitz, of Berlin, 
as the designer of the future monument. To laymen this is, 
perhaps, the most important fact, but to architects the manner 
in which the Commission reached its decision and the degree of 
regard maintained for their official promises is of equal or even 
greater moment. Upon these points we cannot do better than 
quote the words of one of the expert advisers to whom as a 
body the Commission has from the outset shown the most 
appreciative attention. 

The Commission maintained to the end the scrupulous attitude 
they had first assumed. After making themselves thoroughly 
acquainted with the seventy designs they received two of 
which they threw out because the author's name appeared in the 
memoranda accompanying them and making a preliminary choice 
of eight or ten, they awaited the comments of their Board of Experts. 
These in like manner presented eight or ten as most suitable for 
serious consideration. The Commission reported the next day that 
they had decided upon a shaft or column as the most desirable form 
of monument and had narrowed their choice, informally, to two or 
three. The experts then recommended, in writing, that they should, 
as provided in their prospectus, obtain further information before 
making a formal choice, by first ascertaining the names and profes- 
sional prowess of the authors of these designs, and then, if necessary, 
asking for further drawings and explanations. The Commission 
accordingly broke the seals and found that the design most in favor 
both with themselves and with their professional advisers was by 
Mr. Bruno . Schmitz, of Berlin. As his name is well known and his 
position beyond question, inasmuch as he is the bearer of many per- 
sonal and professional distinctions, they at once took a decisive vote 
adopting his design subject to such modifications as might be 
agreed upon and sent him a letter and telegram to that effect. 

The report of the experts and the final action of the Commission 
will be sent to all the competitors as soon as they can be got through 
the press. 

Mr. Schmitz was the winner in the International Competition for 
the National Monument at Rome some years since. He has the 
Prussian and Dutch Gold Medals for art. 



HE competition for designs for small school-buildings insti- 
tuted by the New York State Superintendent of Schools, 
has resulted quite successfully, fifty-eight designs having 
been submitted. Of these a large portion were excluded from 
consideration on account of the estimated cost being greater 
than the sum allowed, and, apparently for this reason, no prize 
or honorable mention was awarded in either of the two higher 
classes, the best two plans for the ten-thousand dollar building 
being computed to cost thirteen thousand and sixteen thousand 
five hundred dollars respectively, while the best five-thousand 
dollar design was estimated to cost sixty-six hundred. No 
doubt the authors of these designs are a little disappointed at 
the result, and it is not impossible that, if estimated as their 
designers intended to build them, some of them might have 
been brought fairly within the limit, but as it was obviously 
impossible to call in the competitors to assist in the estimates, 



HE Engineering and Building Record publishes a few par- 
ticulars about Mr. Lindenthal's proposed bridge across the 
Hudson River at New York, and gives a comparative view 
of the design for it and that of various other bridges of great 
span. The smallest of these shown is the steel arch bridge 
over the Mississippi River at St. Louis, not many years ago 
the chief engineering wonder of the country, the longest span 
of which is only five hundred and fifty-two feet. Next in 
order is the Poughkeepsie bridge across the Hudson, now in 
process of erection, which is a mixed girder and cantilever 
construction of five spans, the three widest spans being each 
five hundred and forty-eight feet. The third example is the 
suspension bridge between New York and Brooklyn, which is 
fifteen hundred and ninety-five feet and six inches from centre 
to centre of the piers, and next to this is the huge cantilever 
bridge over the Forth estuary, with its two spans of seventeen 
hundred feet each. The proposed Hudson River bridge, if 
built, will greatly surpass even this, the middle span being 
twenty-eight hundred and fifty feet, or more than half a mile 
from centre to centre of the piers. In construction, this gigan- 
tic affair is intended to be a suspension bridge, with cables 
forty inches in diameter, those of the Brooklyn bridge being 
sixteen inches, but the cables are furnished with a system of 
lattice trussing which appears novel, and the towers, instead of 
being of stone, as in the Brooklyn and most other large suspen- 
sion-bridges, are of iron lattice-work. These towers are figured 
on the diagram as five hundred feet high, so that the structure 
would have a most imposing effect, and with six railroad tracks 
traversing it, as the plan contemplates, there would be few 
more interesting structures in the world. 



1CIRE AND WATER mentions a device of some value for 
promoting the efficiency of that simple fire-extinguishing 
apparatus, a pail of water. According to insurance statistics, 
more fires are put out by water-pails than by all other appli- 
ances put together, and they ought to be always within reach. In 
point of fact, however, although the pails are generally pro- 
vided abundantly in hotels and office-buildings, the water is 
very apt to be wanting, and even if kept full, the pails are 
often borrowed for some purpose and not returned, so that 
when most needed they are of no avail. A common way of 
meeting this difficulty is to use pails with round or conical bot- 
toms, which will not stand on a floor, and are, therefore, not 
likely to be borrowed, but this formation seriously diminishes 
the value of the pail as a fire-extinguisher, since a man with 
two of them in his hands, arriving at the scene of action, 
cannot use either without setting the other on the floor and 
losing all its contents. As an improvement on this, a mill- 
manager, who had found it difficult to keep the fire-pails filled 
and in order, recently fitted up the hooks carrying the pails 
with pieces of spring-steel, strong enough to lift the pail when 
nearly empty, but not sufficiently so to lift a full pail. Just 
over each spring, in such a position as to be out of the way of 
the handle of the pail, was set a metal point connected with a 
wire from an open-circuit battery. So long as the pails were 
full, their weight, when hung on their hooks, kept the springs 
down, but as soon as one was removed or lost a considerable 
portion of its contents by evaporation, the spring on its hook 
would rise, coming in contact with the metal point, thus 
closing the battery-circuit and ringing a bell in the manager's 
office, at the same time showing on an annunciator where the 
trouble was. As the bell continued to ring until the weight of 
the delinquent pail was restored, it was impossible to disregard 
the summons, and the ingenious manager found no more reason 
to complain of the condition of his fire-buckets. 



14 



FEBRUARY 4, 1888.] 



The American Architect and Building News. 



51 



SAKE BUILDING. XXII.' 




Example. 

A girder carries the end of a beam, on which there is a uniform load 
of two thousand pounds. The beam is four inches thick, and of 
Georgia pine. What size must the stirrup-iron be? 

example stir THE shearing strain at each end of the beam will, 
rup Irons. o { coursei fa one thousand pounds, which will be the 
load on stirrup-irons. (See Table VII). From Table IV we find 
for Georgia pine, across the fibres, (-j\ = 200, we have, therefore, 
for the width of stirrup-iron from Formula (69) 

_100__ 1 , 
x 4.200 ~~ * 

Therefore the thickness of iron from Formula (71) should be 

1000 _ J_ 
y ~~ 16000.1^ 20~ ' 

we must make the iron however at least \" thick and therefore use a 
section of 1^ X i"- 

In calculating ordinary floor-beams the shearing strain can be 
overlooked, as a rule ; for, in calculating transverse strength we 
allow only the safe stress on the fibres of the upper and lower edges, 
while the intermediate fibres are less and less strained, those at the 
neutral axis not at all. The reserve strength of these only partially 
used fibres will generally be found quite ample to take up the shear- 
ing strain. 

Rectangular The formulae for transverse strength are quite 

beams, complicated, but for rectangular sections (wooden 
beams) they can be very much simplified provided we are calcu- 
lating for strength only and not taking deflection into account. 

Remembering that the moment of resistance of a rectangular sec- 

b.d' 1 
tion is (Table I) = ~g~ an( l inserting into Formula (18) the value 

for m according to the manner of loading and taken from (Table 
VII), we should have : 
For uniform load on beam. 

b.d* 



Transverse 

strength of I 

rectangu- 
lar beams. 

For centre load on beam. 



Or 



(f) 



A.rf 3 / k \ 
' = ^(7) 



18.L, 
For load at any point of beam. 

. fc-rf'-L 

"-Tiira 

For unifoi m load on cantilever. 

u = 



S6.L 
For load concentrated at end of cantilever. 



For load at any point of cantilever 

w '= 7& 
Where = safe uniform load, in pounds 



(72) 
(78) 

(74) 


(75) 

(76) 
(77) 



Where w = safe centre load on beam, in pounds ; or safe load at 
end of cantilever, in pounds. 

1 Continued from page 10, No. 628. 



Where ir,= safe concentrated load, in pounds, at any point. 

Where Y= length, In feet, from wall to concentrated load (in can- 
tilever). 

Where jl/ and AT = the respective lengths, in feet, from concen- 
trated load on beam to each support. 

Where = the length, in feet, of span of beam, or length of canti- 
lever. 

Win-re b = the breadth of beam, in inches. 

Where d = the depth of beam, in inches. 

Where/ -, }= the safe modulus of rupture, per square inch, of 

the material of beam or cantilever (see Table IV). 

The above formula are for rectangular wooden beams supported 
against lateral flexure (or yielding sideways). Where beams or gir- 
ders are not supported sideways the thickness should be equal to at 
least half of the depth. 

No allowance The above formula! make no allowance for dtflee- 
for deflection, linn, and except in cases, such as factories, etc., 
where strength only need be considered and not the danger of crack- 
ing plastering, or getting floors too uneven for machinery, are really 
of but little value. They are so easily understood that the simplest 
example will answer : 

Example. 

Take a 3" X 10" hemlock timber and 9 feet long (clear span), 
loaded in different ways, what will it safety carry t taking no account 
of deflection. 

The safe modulus of rupture ( -1) for hemlock from Table IV it 

= 750 pounds. 

If both ends are supported and the load is uniformly distributed 
the beam will safely carry, (Formula 72) : 

u = ?^j! . 750 = 2778 pounds. 
j.y 

If both ends are supported and the load concentrated at the centre, 
the beam will safely carry, (Formula 73) : 

2 . 750 = 1 389 pounds. 

If both ends are supported and the load is concentrated at a point 
I, distant four feet from one support (and five feet from the other) 
the beam will safely carry, (Formula 74) : 

Q 1 A3 Q 

to, = a -* u * . 750 = 1406 pounds. 

If one end of the timber is built in and the other end free and the 
load uniformly distributed, the cantilever will safely carry, (Formula 
75): 

u = ?-^! . 750 = 694 pounds. 

OO.<7 

If one end is built in and the other end free, and the load concen 
trated at the free end, the cantilever will safely carry, (Formula 76) : 

to = i^j! . 750 = 34 7 pounds. 

I rU 

If one end is built in and the other end free, and the load concen- 
trated at a point I, which is 5 feet from the built-in end, the canti- 
lever will safely carry, (Formula 77) : 

to, = ?' 10 - . 750 = 625 pounds. 
72.5 

Where, however, the span of the beam, in feet, greatly exceeds 
the depth in inches, (see Table VIII), and regard must be had to 
deflection, the formulae (28) and (29) also (37) to (42) should 
always be used, inserting for t its value from Table I, section No. 2, 
or: 

. _b.d 
= 12 

Wliere b = the thickness of timber in inches. 

Where d = the depth of timber, in inches. 

Where t = the moment of inertia of the cross-section, in inches. 

Table IX, however, gives a much easier method of calculating 
wooden beams, allowing for both rupture and deflection and Formulie 



lo." 



GLOSSAHV OF SYMBOLS. The following letter*, 
in all case*, will bo found to express the same mean- 
ing, unless distinctly otherwise stated, viz.: 
a =r arra, in square inches. 
b = breadth, in inches. 
c = constant for ultimate resistance to compression, 

in pounds, pur square inch. 
d = depth, in inches. 
* = constant for modulus of elasticity, in pounds- 

lnch v that is, pounds per square inch. 
/ = factor-nf -safety . 
y = constant for ultimate resistance to shearing, per 

square inch, acrors the grain, 
y, constant for ultimate resistance to shearing, per 

square inch, length vise of the grain. 
A = height, in inches. 

i = moment of inertia. In Inches. (See Table I.] 
t = ultimate- mottulus of rupture, in pounds, per 

square Inch. 
/ = lexulh. In Inches, 
m moment or benilitty moment, in pounds-inch. 



n = constant in Uankiue's formula for compression 
of long pillars. [See Table I.] 

= the centre. 

p = the amount of the left-hand re-action (or sup- 
port) of beams in pounds. 

q = the amount of the riaht-kand re-action (or sup- 
port) of beams, in pounds. 

r moment of resistance,^ \mAef. [See Table I.] 

s = strain, in pounds. 

= constant for ultimate resistance to tension, In 
pounds, per square inch. 

u = uniform load, in pounds. 

v = stress, in pounds. 

to = toad at centre. In pounds. 

x t tj and z signify unknoten quantities, either in pounds 
or Inches. 

1 = total defection, in Inches. 

p> = square of the radius of gyration, in inches. [See 

, i 



Table I.) 
j. =. diameter, in Inches. 



I = radius, In inches. 



15 



JT 3.14159, or, say, 3 1-7 signifies the ratio of the cir- 
cumference and diameter of a circle. 

If there are more than one of each kind, the second, 
third, etc., are indicated with the Itoman numerals 
as, for Instance, a, a,, a u , am, etc., or b, b,, , 6,,,, eta. 

In taking nioinonta. or bending moments, strains, 
stresses, etc., to signify at what point they are taken, 
the letter signifying that point Is added, as, for in- 
stance : 

m *> moment or bending moment at centre. 
mx " point A. 



mx " 

i = strain at centre. 
ti _ " point B. 

II " point X. 

v > stress at centre. 
r " point D. 

rx = " point X. 

w = load at centre. 
tA= " point A. 



. 
point X. 



52 



The American Architect and Building News. [VOL. XXIII.-No. 632. 



(72) to (77) have only been given here, as they are often errone- 
ously given in text-books, as the only calculation, necessary I 

To still further simplify to the architect the labor 
"" xn I xmf of calculating wooden beams or girders, the writer 
has constructed Tables XII and XIII. 

Table XII is calculated for floor-beams of dwellings, offices, 
churches, etc., at 90 pounds per square foot, including weight ot 
construction. The beams are supposed to be cross-bridged. 

Table XIII is for isolated girders, or lintels, uniformly loaded, 
and supported sideways. , 

When not supported sideways decrease the load, or else use timber 
at least half as thick as it is deep. 

In no case will beams or girders (with the loads given) deflect suf- 
ficiently to crack plastering. 

TABLE XII- 

WOODEN FLOOR-BEAMS. 
[Calculated for 90 pounds per square foot of floor .] 




For convenience Table XII has been divided into two parts, the 
first part giving beams of from 5' 0" to 15' 0" span, the second part 
of from 15' 0" to 29' 0" span. 

How to use l' ne use f the table is very simple and enables us 

Table Xll. to select the most economical beam in each case. 
For instance we have say a span of 21' 6". We use the second part 
of Table XII. The vertical dotted line between 21' 0" and 22' 0" is, 
of course, our line for 21' 6". We pass our finger down this line till 
we strike the curve. To the left opposite the point at which we 
struck the curve, we read : 

21.6 spruce, W. P. 56 4-14-14 or: 

at 21' 6" span we can use spruce or white-pine floor beams, of 56 
inches sectional area each, viz : 4" thick, 14" deep and 14" from cen- 
tres. Of course we can use any other beam below this point, as they 
are all stronger and stiff er, but we must not use any other beam 
above this point. Now then, is a 4" X 14" beam of sp'ruce or white 
pine, and 14" from centres the most economical beam. We pass to 
the columns at the right of the curve and thre read in the first 



cok m 48 This means that while the sectional area of the beam 
is 56 square inches, it is equal to only 48 square inches per square 
foot of floor, as the beams are more than one foot from centres. In 
this column the areas are all reduced to the "area per square foot of 
floor " so that we can see at a glance if there is any cheaper beam 
below our point. We find below it, in fact, many cheaper beams, the 
smallest area (per square foot of floor) being, of course, the most 
economical. The smallest area we find is 36, or 36 square inches 
of section per square foot of floor (this we find three times, in the 
sixteenth, twenty-ninth and thirty-first lines from the bottom). Pass- 
in" to the left we find they represent, respectively, a Georgia pine 
beam, 3" thick, 16" deep and 16" from centres; or a Georgia pine 
beam 3" thick, 14" deep and 14" from centres; or a white oak beam 
3" thick, 16" deep and 16" from centres. If therefore, we do not 




TABLE XII. (CONTINUED.) 




of either white oak or Georgia pine. The four other columns on 
the right hand side, are for the same purpose, only the figures for 
each kind of wood are in a column by themselves ; so that, if we are 
limited to any kind of wood we can examine the figures for that 
wood by themselves. Take our last case and suppose we are 
limited to the use of hemlock ; now from the point where our verti- 
cal line (21' 6") first struck the curve, we pass to the right-hand side 
of Table, to the second column, which is headed " Hemlock." From 
this point we seek the smallest figure below this level, but in the same 
column; we find, that the first figure we strike, viz: 41, 2 is the 
smallest, so we use this ; passing along its level to the left we find it 
represents a hemlock beam of 48 square inches cross-section, or 3" 
thick, 16" deep and 14" from centres. 

In case the size of the beam is known, its safe span can, of course, 

be found by reversing the above procedure, or if the depth of beam 

"and span is settl-d, we can find the necessary thickness and distance 

between centres; in this way the Table, of course, covers every 

problem. 

Table. XIII is calculated for wooden girders of all sizes. Any 
thickness not given in the table can be obtained by taking the line 
for a girder of same depth, but one inch thick and multiplying by the 
thickness. 

How to use The use of this table is very simple. The vertical 

Table Xlll. columns to the left give the safe uniform loads on 
girders (sufficiently stiff not to crack plastering) for different woods : 
these apply to the dotted parts of curves. The columns on the right- 
hand side give the same, but apply to the parts of curves drawn in 
full lines. 



16 



FEBRUARY 4, 1888.] 



The American Architect and Building News. 



53 



TABLE XIII. 

WOODKN OIKDERg, BBACEU SIDEWAYS. 
[Safe uniform load In pound*.] 



Jb/e uniform 1 

for dotted 




Length or Jpoon in feet ^^^sfel?.^ 101 ^ 


Ceorytfi. 
Pine 


White 


Jprucc 


White 

Pmc 




1 


i 


3 t} I 

' *? ' 


1 

'*! 

' 
' / 

7 / 
J. 

1 

-V 

f 


b d 'J 

g> 


1? S ? 3 ? 1 81 fl 


1 ! 

B < 


'D 

>j 
a 




\ 




^ \ 

V i 

\ ' 


D 


TJ ' 
j 

T ^ 


5 
I 


> 
I 






ttSmm&*** 


KfllkkJ 


f ( 03 

1330 

IO0S 

nec 

3323 

gag 

myo 

7OOQ 

&31O 

asfrs 

pff4g 

12603 
I330C 
gS 
146 JC 

MUtJ 
17933 

1&02O 
KMO 
Mm 

2130O 

iooS 

23SJ3 

jaw 

30 

MB29 

31233 
31920 
323 CO 


6)0 

.30*30 
36GO 

6IOO 
O71O 

I-VX) 
22OO 

J430 

4C40 
3330 

Doeo 

470 
7000 
76 dO 

10920 
2074O 

22370 

33790 

3G2U 
2S2JO 

9QOO 
BS9O 


II 10 

ices 

2-?20 

Q5S 

JO&3 

6103 
7j3^j 

9990 

ICO43 
11100 

^-JiO 1 

-3073 
44V3O 
14003 
U340 
003 

77 GO 

M00 

20333 
21090 

E2300 

23JIO 
^303 

23330 
27199 


30O 
|OO 

V HJ 

^3OO 

poo 

TOpQ 
OJOO 

MMK 

axxv 

11000 

I2OOO 
13500 
I30OO 
IJOOo 
14000 

leooo 

loooo 
io3oo 

19300 

^1000 

3I30C 

220OO 

Q3OOO 
93500 
24OOO 
9430O 


I6O 
2073 

Ik'jo 

7033 
7-+7O 
7&Q3 
63OO 
0715 
9130 

9090 

10073 
O70O 

1203 

343O 

U200 
I36A3 

0600 

7-4.30 
7045 

O-j*:o 

9O9O 

9020 
2Q3J3 






*2 

| 

/ 

/ 


' 
' 


r^*" 

^. 

A 

7 
' 


^ 

^ _ 

?t 

y 
// 

' / 

/ 
$ 

t 

-f 

-^ 
t 

r 
f- 


,v 
// 

// 


i 

/ 

/ . 

/? 

v/ 

I ' 
/ 1 


L, 

Z 
/ 


.- 

P* 

/ 


2*! 
; 

/ 

/^ 
/ 

/ 
{ 

/; 


-,' 
t 

2 

/ 


a. 

^ 

// 
/ 

/ 
/ 

f 
t 


-.-- 

k.^ 

;* 

i 

,-r 
/ 

// 

T 

V 

f 

_ 


jj 

r j 
^ 

/" 
/ 


- - 

^ 

/ 
/ 

/ 
--/ 


^j 
: ^ 

' /, 
' 


1 

E 

t- 

f i 

f 
J- 


3 

T*^ 
? 

/ 

y 


- 
j- 

/ 


2 




-*-4 

rl 

^ 


-- 

! " 

^r- 
^ 

/ 


i 

B- 

S 

rn 

r=J 

>ii 




IX. 

**\ 

2 


- 
V 

^ 


S 

r^- 

f- 

s 

i 


_fl 

^ 

|j 


* J 
- 

S 
_^ 


* 

r- J 


-T7 

-^ 

i v< 


^ 

31 

^4 

!SS 

, 

^i 

,^ 


| 

1C 

-i' 1 

< 

f*' 


" 


B 

IMS 
J333 
4AC3 

TTS5 

910 
75 

IM1B 

Ilft0 

TWI3 
I75J 

2l4J 
93IO 

A304C 

24*03 

aao 

270JO 

13JJ 
a.wao 
323*! 


900 

tooo 

2000 
JOOO 

3900 

4000 
9OOO 

Tooe 
ooe 

9OO 

toooc 

MOOO 

H300 

laooo 

12900 

I300C 
13900 
MOOO 

I500C 
U3|E>0 

1*000 
I30C 
17000 
17900 
10000 
IC500 

11000 

23000 
23900 

33fOO 
.M009 


930 

IOO 

9oJK> 
3323 
30OO 

4790 
37OO 

riry 
O33 

9300 

yfg 

10490 

MO79 

U9OO 
13755 

I4-73J 
13300 
13473 

17IOO 
17975 

1*000 
1*47:1 

o^o 

*I3?9 

3.2*00 


e*o 

raoa 
_1>22 

7 

Ji '3 

400: 
44 3C 

*7J 

O K 

^oo 

7*0 

ioa 

11137 

T55 

K34Q 
13130 

17000 
1M0 

oouu 

90*10 


33915 
343OO 
332-45 
3J8MC 
3X3 
37240 
37905 

32J3 
3990C 

|403eS 

, 41O93 

ma: 

MM 
44333 

5*553 

47213 

40743 
432 tO 
ftMQ 

50740 

5.1O70 

TO o 

33063 
543 JO 

57I; 

J70S3 
903 2O 

ei IOQ 

GIO43 
GI64C 

krfh 


"5 MR: 
31720 
3733O 

33590 
341 60 

34770 

JSJod 

372TO 

,7020 

J *?-> 
4O20 
400 7O 
41400 
43O9C 
43700 
43310 

4 1 .!.' L 

45750 

4*97O 

47JKX? 
401 9O 

40410 

IM 2* 

30:jr 

MV-JC 

T i r -vc 

SJOJ-u 

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M^"-*v 

3C7JC 
3734C 
37930 

503 CC 

W.OvK 


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^9413 

30^)5 
TiOOO 

J1CJ.5 

3J7AJ 
3J300 
JJO3S 
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3JJ20 

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371^5 

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42735 
4Jo43 

-I.T.IO 

.4 //JO 

-VI ,'(15 

*_T?lVi 
4995C 
90909 

-31 A: 

332C 

/price 


23000 

2OOO 
2C300 

27000 
27500 

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33000 

29300 
3000O 
3O50O 

stooo 

32000 
33000 

JJ300 

34JOO 
JJOOO 

37000 

3OOOO 
30900 

393OO 

40900 
41000 

43OOO 

* J50O 
44OCO 
4130, 

47OOO 
47JOO 
40000 

V.'.Pinr 


10750 
2O73O 

2I3OO 
21993 

22410 
-2297.5 

34O70 

^7300 

20C39 
3003O 
294*3 

30710 

31123 

0193) 

3aN 

33300 
33I3 
34030 

34O60 

J6IO3 
3C310 

3735O 

jiwos 7 

a 90*0 
39433 

bnfcx* 


\ 




i 


1 


1 


, ( 

i 

1 
>j 


^ 
/ 

fc 

-t 

*- 

/ 


i 

1 

1 
1 
1 

\ 


1 

\ r 
lit 

1 
J 1 
f 1 

1 

I 


] 

a 

j 

r 

1 
I 
T 1 

/ 
I 


'^ 

; 

r^ 
p: 

| 


/ 

a 

P- 

f 

i 


-/- 

i 
i 

-^ 

1 


i 


/ 

- 

j 


/ 


i 


' ! 


' 

f 


i 

1 


! 


? 
l 


1 
1 

p 


! 


r 
S\ 


r~) 
t 





- 


V 

- 


. 1 
> *i 


! 

i 1 


> 


1 1 


' 


33290 

3A*I9 

39245 

379 
3724O 

5755* 

3*370 
>AJ 

410** 

SUM 

473IJ 

4Oaio 

49o79 
50940 

31203- 

33C39 
3O* 
53)99 

PJM 

03 ij 

> 
3A40 
>o^Vw 


zaooo 
19900 

aTOOO 
2X900 

aoooo 

A0300 

a 0000 
90000 

3090O 
3IOOO 

37999 

33000 

33300 

37000 
37900 
36000 
300 
3000 
3300 

4IOOO 
4I50O 

42301 

44366 

499O4 

4aoo 

WOo> 


33790 

391-79 

37079 
37*3*0 

M300 

3S.5B 

30079 

3103-0 

33/JJ 
94 T*72 

33ai 

3>O 
37929 

4O979 

41323 
4-1 DOO 
4227? 
42730 

43700 

3S5? 


*WD 
3MO 

25K> 

30705 
9150! 

3*100 

aaary 

9W10 

5jri 
jTao] 

30715 
391 Sc 

400*D 

X3ST 

teoocn 


.So/e. uniform loe\d in Ibj; 
(for dotted line./.) 


:. Length of Jprxn in feec 




Jb^ uniform locxdmlk.w. 



17 



54 



The American Architect and Vuitdmg News. [VOL. XXIlI.-No. 632. 



If we have a 6" X 16" Georgia pine beam of 20 feet span and 
want to know what it will carry, we select the curve marked at 
upper end 6 X 16=: 96;' we follow this curve till it interacts the 
vertical line 20' 0"; as this is in the part of curve drawn full ,6 
pass horizontally to the right and find under the column marke 
Georgia Pine," 7980, which is the safe, uniform load in pounds, bup- 
posin", however, we had simply settled the span, say 8 feet, and load, 
say 7000 pounds, and wished to select the most economical girder, 
bein", we will sav, limited to the use of white pine: the span not 
bein <rcat we will expect to strike the dotted part of curve, and 
therefore select the fourth (white pine) column to the lejt. We pass 
down to the nearest figure to 7000 and then pass horizontally to the 
rifht till we meet the vertical 8 feet line ; this we find is, as we ex- 
pectcd, at the dotted part, and therefore our selection of the lett 
column was right. We follow the curve to its upper end and find it 
requires a girder 4" X 1 2" = 48 square inches. Now can we use a 
cheaper girder; of course, all the lines under and to the right of our 
curve are stronger, so that if either has a smaller sectional area, we 
will use it. The next curve we find is a 6" X 10" = 60" ; then 
comes a 4" X 14" = 56"; then an 8" X 10" = 80"; (hen a 6" X 
12"= 72" and soon; as none has a smaller area we will stick to our 4 
X 12" girder, provided it is braced or supported sideways. If not, 
to avoid twisting or lateral flexure, we must select the next cheapest 
section, where the thickness is at least equal to half the depth ; J the 
cheapest section beyond our curve that corresponds to this, we find 
is the 6" X 10" girder, which we should use if not braced sideways. 

In the smallei sections of girders where the difference between the 
the loads given from line to line is proportionally great, a safe load 
should be assumed between the two, according to the proximity to 
either line at which the curve cuts the vertical. The point where 



work, and to this should be added 70 pounds per square foot which 
is the neatest load likely ever to be produced if packed solidly _ with 
people? Furniture rarely weighs as much, though heavy safes should 
be provided for separately. The load on roofs should be 30 pounds 
additional to the weight of construction, to provide for the weight of 
snow or wind. Look out for tanks, etc., on roofs. Plastered ceil- 
insrs hanging from roofs add about 10 pounds per square foot, and 
slate about the same. Where a different load than given m the 
Table must be provided for, the distance between centres of beams 
can be reduced, proportionally from the next greater load ; or the 
weight on each beam can be figured and the beam treated as a girder, 
supported sideways, in that case using Table XV. Both tables are 
calculated for the beams not to deflect sufficiently to crack plastering. 
The use of Table XIV is very simple. Supposing 
Fable XIV. we have a span of 23 feet and a load of 150 pounds 
per square foot. We pass down the vertical line 23' 0" and strike 
first the 12" 96 pounds beam, which (for 150 pounds) is opposite 
(and half way between) 3' 4" and 3' 8" therefore 3' 6" from 
centres. The next beam is the 12"- 120 pounds beam 4 < 
centres; then the 12"-125 pounds beam 4' 5" from centres; then 
the 15"- 125 pounds beam 5' 6" from centres and so on. It is sim- 
ply a question therefore which " distance from centres " is most de- 
sirable and as a rule in fireproof buildings it is desirable to keep 
these as near alike as possible, so as not to have too many different 
spans of beam arches and centres. If economy is the only question, 
we divide the weight of beam by its distance from centres, and the 
curve giving the smallest result is, of course, the cheapest. Sup- 
posing however, that we desire all distances from centres alike, say 
5 feet. In that case we pass down the 150-pound column to and 
then along the horizontal line 5' 0" till we strike the vertical 



TABLE XIV. 

IRON I-BEAMS FOR FLOORS, 150 POUNDS PER SQUARE FOOT. 




FOK STKEL BE \HS : Space one-quarter distance (between centres) larger than for iron beams ; but length of span (in feet) must not exceed twice the 
depth of beam (in inches), or deflection will be too great for plastering. 



the curve cuts the bottom horizontal line of each part is the length of 
span for which the safe load opposite the line is calculated. 
Heavier Floors. Where a different load than 90 pounds per square 
foot, must be provided for, we can either increase the thickness of 
beams as found in Table XII, or decrease their distance from cen- 
tres, either in proportion to the additional amount of load. Or, if 
we wish to be more economical, we can calculate the safe uniform 
load on each floor beam, and consider it as a separate girder, sup- 
ported sideways, using of course, Table XIII. 

Basis of Tables The Tables XIV and XV are very similar to the 
XIV and XV. foregoing, but calculated for wrought-iron I-beams. 
Table XIV gives the size of beams and distance from centres re- 
quired to carry different loads per square foot of floor, 150 pounds 
per square foot of floor (including the weight of construction), how- 
ever, being the usual load allowed for in churches, office-buildings, 
public halls, etc., where the space between beams is filled with arched 
brickwork, or straight hollow-brick arches, and then covered over 
with concrete. A careful estimate, however, should be made of 
the exact weight of construction per square foot, including the iron- 

1 The rule for calculating the exact thickness will be found later, Formula (78). 



18 



(span) lino, in this case 23' 0", and then take the cheapest 
beam to the right of the point of intersection. Thus in our 
case the nearest beam would be 15"-125 pounds; next comes 12^" 
-170 pounds; then 15" -150 pounds, etc. As the nearest beam is 
the lightest in this case, we should select it. The weight of a beam 
is always given per yard of length. The reason for this is that a 
square inch of wrought-iron, one yard long, weighs exactly 10 
pounds. Therefore if we know the weight per yard in pounds we 
divide it by ten to obtain the exact area of cross-section in square 
inches ; or if we know the area, we multiply by ten and obtain the 
exact weight per yard. 

How to use The use of Table XV, is very similar to that of 

Table XV. Table XIII but that the safe uniform load is given 
(in the first column) in tons of 2000 pounds each. The continuation 
of the two 20" beams up to 40 feet span is given in the separate 
table, in the lower right-hand corner. To illustrate the Table : if we 
have a span of say 19 feet we pass down its vertical line ; the first 
curve we strike is the 10" -90 pounds beam, which is one-quarter 
space beyond the horizontal line 6 (tons) therefore a 10" -90 
pounds beam at 19 feet span will carry safely 6^ tons uniform load, 
and will not deflect sufficiently to crack plaster. (Each full horizontal 



) 632 SME^GflK IKGHITEGT HUD lOTlUXG REW* FEB. 4 1555 

P* 




O. 632 i MEItfGffN IK6HITEGT flND BUILDING lEWS, FEB. 4< 1555 




0. 6,^2 



l^GHITEGT ^ND BUILDING J|EWS, 



1555 



:> BYTIC1DJCH 1 C9 




flND gUILDING H>KWS, FEU. J< 1555 Ro. 032 



- ;.- - - 




JfUGHITEGT fl.M 

COFRTOBTIMBITTianM tl> 



\VS, FEU. <! 1555 ^o. 032 




WS, FKB. 4 1555 



JKJV-MJBC-dO- _f ^l*K**-ZX *t-at^a-UL-&L- 



-OVER- 
POST OFFICE- 




U.S.CUST.HO.*P,O. 

ROCHESTER NY 

Oja_>vjny Js: c 1 4 tf. . 



-TRUSS ES E 1 . D.V D-^ - 

WITH - 
- Dt TAILS OF ROOF - 



Hthatrpt. Pfisnag Ct.Sustn 



FEBRUARY 4, 1888.] The American Architect and Building News. 



55 



TABLE XV. 

IRON I-BEAM GIRDERS, BRACED SIDEWAYS. 

[Safe uniform load In tons of 2000 pound*.] 



S^on o-f Girder in feet 

o 'p o o *o o *o 

<D e> - 



:t 




19 



56 The American Architect and Building News. [VOL. XXIII. No 632. 



space represents one ton). The next beam at 19 feet span is 
10"-105 pounds, which will safely carry 7^ tons. Then comes 
the 12" -96 pounds beam, which will safely carry 7J tons, and so 
on down to the 20" -272 pounds beam, which will safely carry 33 J 
tons. 

If we know the span (say 1 7 feet) and uniform load (say 7 tons) 
to be carried, we pass down the span line 1 7' 0" and then horizon- 
tally along the load line 7| till they meet which in our case is at the 
9" 125 pounds beam; we can use this beam or any cheaper beam, 
whose curve is under it. We pass over the different curves under 
it, and find the cheapest to be the 12" -96 pounds beam, which we, 
of course, use. 

Iron beams must be scraped clean of rust and be well painted. 
They should not be exposed to dampness, nor to salt air or they will 
deteriorate and lose strength rapidly. 

Steel beams. Steel beams are coming into use quite largely. 

They are cheaper to manufacture than iron beams, as they are made 
directly from the ore and in one process ; while with iron beams the 
ore is first converted into cast iron, then into wrought iron, and then 
rolled. Steel beams, however, are not apt to be of uniform quality. 
Some may be even very brittle ; they are however very much 
stronger than iron (fully 25 per cent stronger), but as their deflec- 
tion is only about 9, 3 per cent less than that of iron beams, there is 
but very little economy of material possible in their use. If steel 
beams are used they can be spaced one quarter distance (between 
centres) farther apart than given in Table XIV for iron beams ; or 
they will safely carry one quarter more load than given in Table 
XV ; but in no case, where full load is allowed, must the span in feet, 
(of steel beams), exceed twice the deplh in inches. With full safe 
loads the deflection of steel beams will always be greater than that 
of iron beams (about larger). Louis DE COPPET BERG. 

[To be continued.] 




[Contributors are requested to send with their drawings full and 
adequate descriptions of the buildings, including a statement of cost. ~\ 

THE HARVARD MEDICAL-SCHOOL BUILDING, BOSTON, MASS. 
MESSRS. WARE * VAN BRUNT, ARCHITECTS, BOSTON, MASS. 

[Gelatine Print, issued only with the Imperial Edition.] 
HOUSE FOR MR. H. R. SMITH, KANSAS CITY, MO. 

THE materials of this house are common brick with finish of 
pressed brick, the foundation walls being laid up in random stone- 
work. Cost, about $6000. 

TRUSSES OVER COURT-ROOM IN THE UNITED STATES COURT- 
HOUSE, ROCHESTER, N. Y. MR. W. FRERET, SUPERVISING 
ARCHITECT. 

ST. STEPHEN'S CHURCH, OLEAN, N. Y. MR. R. w. GIBSON, ARCHI- 
TECT, ALBANY, N. Y. 




BRICKLAYING IN FROSTY WEATHER. 

<7J REPORT issued by the Foreign Office dealing 
fj with this subject is sufficiently important to the 
I building interests in this country to induce us 
to draw attention to it. In this report one on 
" Subjects of General and Commercial Interest " 
(No. 75) the method of carrying on bricklayers' 
work in Norway is described. Mr. T. Mitchell, 
Consul-General at Christiania, having noticed durin" 
'his residence in that country extensive buildin" 
operations carried on in the depth of winter, which 
are generally suspended during frosty weather in 
I-.ngland, sought information from Mr. Paul Due, 
_ one of the leading architects at Christiania, and his 
Tire-dog. reply forms the chief portion of the report to which 

d, 8 nedby we refer. Mr. Paul Due has had experience in the 
-7^ou-rr.r.Ln,tl btates as well as in Norway, and he says 
building during the months of winter has been prac- 
tised at Christiania for at least twelve years. He mentions, amongst 
the public buildings erected in the capital during winter, the prhfci- 
pal railway-station (1879-80), several public schools, and the And- 
ean Church (1883-84), which was commenced in November and 
opened in June, 1884, in addition to several private houses and 
mansions, all of which have stood, it is alleged, remarkably well with 
one exception, owing to want of care in preparing the mortar. Mr 
Due says : "In the use of unslaked lime lies the whole art of execut- 
ing brickwork in frosty weather." The mortar prepared is " made 
in sma 1 quantities immediately before being used," and the proportion 
>f unslaked lime is increased as the thermometer falls. Warmth 

l 6 't P T' b3 ;-, the T - M Slake<1 limc ' H is onl >- a 1 uesti " of 
g it so handily and quickly as to enable the mortar to bind 



20 



with the bricks before it cools." The report further states that the 
degree of frost in which bricklayers' work can be done is variously 
estimated at between 6 to 8 Reaumur (18 to 14 Fahr.), and 
12 to 15 Reaumur (5 above to 12 below zero Fahr.). The Nor- 
wegian Society of Engineers and Architects have decided that the 
variation as to temperature is to be explained by the degree of care 
bestowed on the preparation of the mortar, and that by fixing a rule 
for the preparation, a maximum limit of frost may be determined. 
It has been found in practice that bricklayers' work at Christiania 
does not pay when the temperature is more than 14 to 9 Fahr. 
below freezing-point. 

Such are the main propositions that have been put forward, and 
have given occasion to a number of paragraph-writers to draw some 
rather misleading conclusions as to the prospects of bricklayers and 
hodmen if they, or rather their employers, the master-builders, only 
adopt the Norwegian practice. There is nothing, however, very 
novel in the suggestion. In Berlin the erection of buildings has 
been carried on during frosty weather for years past, and it is only 
lately that the authorities issued an order forbidding any brickwork 
being undertaken when the temperature fell to or below 2 R. or 26 
Fahr. It seems to have been overlooked also that the theory of 
mortar freezing but not setting at such a temperature has been 
before contradicted by German architects of repute. Herr Krause 
published in the Baugewerke Zeitung some time ago particulars of a 
building erected by him during a severe frost, the temperature being 
as low as 23 C to 14 Fahr. The mortar began to freeze in the 
operation of laying the bricks, and much trouble was experienced in 
setting them. He had the lime slaked in small quantities, mixed the 
mortar with hot water, and the result was the work stood quite firm. 
AVhen the building was pulled down some years afterwards, the 
mortar was found so hard that the bricks broke. In fact, it is a 
common opinion in Germany that frost rather improves than injures 
the brickwork under certain circumstances. It is necessary, how- 
ever, to discover what the conditions are which promote these 
results. It would be unsafe and misleading to assert that, given a 
Frost and unslaked lime, any brickwork can be erected that shall 
turn out to be sound. Herr Krause mentions a case in which a wall 
settled and bulged out after a sudden thaw, though a sudden frost 
made it again firm. Every experienced bricklayer will assert the 
same, and every builder and architect is aware of the effect of a 
thaw after a frost. 

There are certain conditions necessary for the process mentioned 
in Mr. Due's statement. (1) The lime should be of exceptionally 
good quality, and be supplied in a burned, not slaked, condition, the 
proportion of lime being increased with the degree of frost. (2) 
The bricks should be kept dry and not exposed to the frost. (3) 
The frost must be continuous, not followed by a sudden thaw. 
These conditions the last especially are necessary for carrying 
on brickwork in frosty weather. A wall can only "freeze itself 
dry " when no moisture is present and the action of freezing con- 
tinues for some days. When we take into consideration the chances 
there are against obtaining all these favorable conditions, the impro- 
bability of a steady frost and the want of care amongst workmen in 
the preparation of the mortar, it will be seen how little reliance can 
be placed upon following the rule in the majority of buildings. One 
of the main precautions stated in the Norwegian report is that 
" Bricks which have been out in the rain or exposed to the frost 
should never be used," which requires that they should be stacked 
under cover. The circumstances of most buildings render such care 
almost impossible. Unless the work is carried up as dry as possible, 
the warmth developed by the unslaked lime would be absorbed by 
the moisture; the mortar also should be as stiff as convenient for 
working and the bricks warm. 

The thickness of main walls in Norway is never less than a brick 
and a half (15 in. English). It is also stated in the Memorandum 
that outside plastering is not possible in frosty weather for the 
reason that the manual labor in the cornices would require a longer 
time than the mortar does to lose its warmth. Even plasterin<r"to 
flat surface is seldom undertaken. Another clause states thai in 
Norway the lime is always supplied to the market in a burned, not 
slaked condition. 

The concluding remarks on wages and hours of labor are of 
interest. During summer the hours of labor are from 6 A. M. to 7 
P. M., with three hours' rest for meals, etc. In winter the workin" 
hours are reduced by four hours, when they are from 8 A. M. to 3 
P. M., with an hour's rest. The wages of a first-class bricklayer 
range from 4s. Cd. to 5s. in summer, in winter being regulated to that 
cale. A second-class bricklayer earns 3s. 4d. to 3s. lid. per day of 
ten hours and a hodman 2s. 3d. to 2s. 9d. per day. In frosty 
weather, the bricklayers use an additional thick woollen vest under 
ie jacket, and the only stimulant used is coffee after dinner. These 
are facts worth noting by the English bricklayer, whose wa-es in 
London are 10d. per hour. 

With regard to the suggestions thrown out bv the report of the 
Consul-General at Christiania, we cannot see how they can be 
largely practised in this country. The preparing the mortar in 
small quantities, the use of dry bricks, the protection of the walls 
from rain and snow at night, would entail an extra cost of labor 
that could only be followed in special work requiring expedition. 
use of unslaked lime and hot water in small works requiring 
completion during a frost ,s occasionally resorted to, but generally 
i these eases, the bricks have been stored in a heated room before 



FEBRUARY 4, 1888.] 



The American Architect and Building News. 



57 



being used. The rapid changes from frost to thaw, followed, per- 
haps, liv ii five/, ing more intrn.-r than the first, render it undeciraUr, 
even when the materials can be obtained, to run the risk of carrying 
up any considerable amount of brickwork during the winter months 
in this country. 




IF 1 



TESTING A COATED NAIL. 

THERE 
have re- 
cently 
been made at 
the Water- 
town Arsenal 
some tests of 
the adhesive 
resistance of 
(different 
kinds of nails 
in wood that 
seem to be of 
more than or- 
dinary inter- 
est to the 
users of nails, 
so we print a 
summary of 
them below. 
The nails 
used were 
plain wire 
nails, cut 
nails, and a 

wire nail exactly the same as the plain wire nail, but coated with pure 
refined Trinidad asphalt under Copeland's patent. The cut and plain 
wire nails were all of standard makes. In all of these tests the nails were 
driven perpendicular to the grain of the wood, and but one stick of each 
kind of wood was used, and in all but the white oak the nails were 
driven to within one-fourth inch of the head. In the white oak the 
nails were driven about one and three-quarter inches. All of the cut 
nails were driven with their tapering sides acting lengthwise the 
grain of the wood. In figuring the surface, no account was taken of 
the taper at the points of the wire nails. Four nails of each kind 
and size were tested in all but two or three instances, and the aver- 



The average resistance in pine per square inch of surface was 667 
pounds for the coated nail, 398 pounds for the cut nail, and 280 
pounds for the plain wire nail. It will be noticed that the resistance 
per square inch does not differ very materially with the different 
sizes of cut and plain wire nails, but with the coated nail it is much 
higher in the smaller sizes. This is owing to their having much 
greater surface in proportion to their mass than the larger sizes and 
so are heated to a higher degree of temperature by driving, thus 
cementing them more firmly into the wood. The very slight loss 
from starting as compared with the other nails is accounted for in 
the same way : In starting the nail, the cement is fractured, which 
generates heat and softens it, and so as soon as the nail is at rest 
again, the cement unites as before. The average loss in holding- 
power of the nails that were started one-fourth inch was seventeen 
per cent for the coated nail, thirty-seven per cent for the plain wire 
nail and fifty-two per cent for the cut nail. If the cut nails had 
been driven with the taper of their sides acting across the grain of 



the wood they would have given a somewhat higher resistance to 
l>eing started, but they would have suffered much greater loss from 
being started. 

The average variation between the lowest and the highest result 
I in each test was twenty -four per cent for the coated nail, twenty-nine 
| per cent for the plain wire nail, and thirty-three per cent for the cut 




















Kind of 
Wood. 


Specific 
Gravity. 


Kind of Nail. 


Size. 


No. Nails 
to the Ib. 


ll.s. to 
pull nail 
out. 


Ibs. per 
square inch 
of surface 
in Wood. 


Ibg. to pull 
out after 
being 
drawn fin. 


W. ^Ine 


1118 


Plain Wire. 
Out 


4d 

M 


394 

262 


H 
128 


238 




If 

W. Pine 

14 


it 


Coated " 
Plain Wire. 


I.I 

6d 
6d 


388 

274 
142 


265 

142 
284 


914 
335 




M 

W. Pine 


ii 
ii 


Coated " 

Plain Wire. 
Cut 


6d 

8d 
8d 


271 

128 
86 


312 

227 
581 


763 
304 




41 

W. Pine 


ii 
u 


Coated " 

Plain Wire. 
Cut 


i-.l 

I'M 

lod 


126 

88 

.">'.' 


506 
259 


677 
258 




41 

W. Jine 


ii 


Coated " 

Plain Wire. 
<jut 


lOd 

20d 
20d 


87 

35 
31 


641 
526 


638 
281 


338 


41 

W. Pine 

14 


u 
ii 


Coated " 

Plain Wire. 
Cut 


2"d 

fiOd 
UOd 


35 

13 
10 


1181 

1077 
2025 


631 

264 

350 


1016 


14 

Spruce 



4384 


Coated " 

Plain Wire. 
Cut 


GUd 

lOd 
KM 


13 

88 
59 


1900 

368 
652 


465 

366 
410 


204 

307 


W. Oak 

u 


ii 
6255 


Coated " 

Plain Wire. 
Cut 


I'M 

20d 
20d 


87 

35 
31 


657 

760 
1000 


654 

804 
925 


511 


u 


" 


Coated " 


20d 


35 


999 


1054 





nail. This variation was probably caused by slight inequalities in 
the wood, but is of value, showing to what degree the nails are 
effected by the varying*density of the wood even in the same stick. 

To illustrate the effect of the different nails on the wood, we print 
two cuts, which show very clearly the displacement of the fibres 
caused by driving the nail. The wood used was Michigan pine and 
the nails were ten-penny standard and were driven into the edge of a 
plank and the block then sawed off and split by driving in a chisel 
along the edge. A study of these blocks would lead one to the con- 
clusion that a test of the nails after they had been driven some time 
or exposed to the action of the weather would be more favorable to 
the wire nail. We believe that no such test of the wire nail has ever 
been made, so we have no definite figures to judge from. 




CAPITAL FROM 

DeeRHUR.5 



LONDON NOTES. 

I.( >x in , January 16, 1888. 

PUBLIC attention has been rudely 
called to the necessity of doing 
something to make theatres less 
dangerous by the two terribly destruc- 
tive fires which have recently taken 
place at the Grand Theatre, London, 
and the Theatre Royal, Bolton. For- 
tunately most fortunately the fires 
at both these theatres occurred at 
times when there was no performance 
and thus we are spared the horrors 
that followed the Exeter calamity. I 
hear, however, that theatre-managers 
j. are experiencing a very marked dimi- 

C.HURO. nution of their profits, which, at this 
festive season of the year, should be 

considerable. Let us hope that this attack on their pockets will 
make them devote a little more care to the safety of the lives of 
their patrons than they have been wont to do, for after all it is the 
theatre managers and lessees, not the architects, who are mainly 
responsible for the present lamentable state of affairs. Indeed, I 
am informed by an eminent theatrical architect in London that he 
has to bring considerable pressure to bear upon his clients to per- 
suade them to adopt even the most elementary precautions. 

One noteworthy result of the Grand Theatre fire has been the 
remarkable proofs that have been adduced of the trustworthy char- 
acter of concrete as a fire-resisting material. For example, the iron 
girder over the proscenium-arch is encased with some inches of con- 
crete, and though it was evidently exposed to the hottest flames, it 
stands erect among the ruins an eloquent argument in favor of 
more general employment of this material in public and in private 
buildings. The uncased girders have, as usual, twisted and contorted 
in the most grotesque manner. The plans for both new buildings 
are being prepared by Mr. Frank Matchain, who has had a consider- 
able experience in this particular branch of the profession. Mr. 
Matcham expresses his intention of lighting the theatres entirely by 
electricity and this seems to me to remove one of the chief causes of 
danger, notwithstanding the fact that it is scoffed at by a gentleman 
whose experience should enable him to speak authoritatively. I 
refer to Mr. Augustus Harris of Drury Lane. 

_"A Century of British Art," is the somewhat ambitious title of 
this winter's exhibition at the Grosvenor Gallery. I was a little 



21 



58 



TJie American Architect and Building News. [VOL. XXIII. No. 632. 



curious to sec what would be the effect of the recent split in the man- 
a"ement upon the character of the Kxhibition, but I must say that 
Sk Coutts Lindsay has succeeded in gathering together a very 
creditable collection. The period selected is from 1737 to 1837, and 
most of the principal artists who flourished during that century are 
represented. Whether all the drawings that are exhibited are 
worthy of the honor conferred upon them, or whether some well- 
known artists, such as Gainsborough and Reynolds, for instance, 
have been quite fairly treated, is, I think, an open question, but it 
must be remembered that Sir Coutts Lindsay's task was no easy one. 
Hogarth is strongly represented, and for those who like his pictures, 
theeollection will doubtless prove of great interest. One extremely 
quaint sketch entitled "The Sleeping Congregation," is a capital 
satire upon the religious worship of our forefathers. Another of a 
totally different character, " The Lady's Last Stake," represents a 
young and virtuous lady, who, playing at cards with an officer, 
loses 'her money, watch and jewels. Her opponent gathering these 
articles together in his hat proffers them at the price of a greater 
p r i ze her virtue and fidelity to her husband. Her hesitation 
forms the subject of the picture. 

Of the other artists, Constable, with his singular treatment of 
skies ; Turner, with his delightfully dreamy landscapes, full of rich 
subdued light; Morland, Mulready, Crome, the elder, and Wilkie, 

are all more or less fairly represented. One of Wilkie's pictures 

particularly took my 

fancy : it was called 

"The Letter of In- 
troduction," and the 

attitude of the old 

gentleman, who, sit- 
ting at his escritorie, 

deliberately opens 

the missive while 

carefully stud y 'i n g 

the looks and atti- 
tude of his simple 

but dignified guest, 

is charming in the 

extreme ; and the 

delicate model ling 

of the Japanese jar 

in the foreground is 

beyond all praise. 

Altogether, although 

the exhibition is, in 

a sense, both incom- 
plete and too complete, yet, Sir Coutts Lindsay deserves our warmest 

congratulations upon the result of his labors. 

I have not yet been to the Academy Exhibition of the works of 

Deceased British Artists, but from what I hear it is hardly up to its 

usual standard. 

"Brasses" formed the subject of a lecture at the Architectural 
Association the other night, by a well-known amateur rubber, M. A. 
Oliver. The collection of rubbings was one of the finest I have ever 
seen, and it certainly gave the room a weird appearance to be sur- 
rounded on all sides by life-sized figures of grim knights in armor 
and stern ecclesiastics frowning down upon us. The room was 
fairly full, and the audience very enthusiastic. 

A Travelling Studentship of 100 which has been established by 
the British School of Athens, in conjunction with the President of 
the lloyal Institute of British Architects, for the purpose of research 
into the architecture of the ancient Greeks, has just been won by 
Mr. R. Elsey Smith, son of Professor Roger Smith, the well-known 
and justly esteemed Professor of Architecture at University College, 
London. Mr. S. R. Greenshale has also won a prize of 20 For 
measured drawings offered by Colonel Edis. 

Nothing further has yet been done about the Board of Works 
scandal. CHIKL. 




THE MEXICAN LAUNDRY. 

THERE are some things connected with 
the architectural economy of Mexico 
that are worthy of imitation by Ameri- 
cans, but it cannot be said that the public 
laundries are among them. They arc, how- 
ever, quite curious, and a sketch of them 
may prove interesting if not instructive. 
They are a feature of every Mexican town. 
Throughout the republic every runnin^ 
stream is converted into a laundry and 
every day is "wash-day." The women 

'ir atl '7 *,' * e river ,'" b f ari "g great b un - 

CHI IRTH US clothm S and selecting large, flat 
CHURCH stones for washboards, and using the roots 
of a kind of cactus for soap, wash out the 
various garments (rubbing them with such vigor upon the flat stones 
as to remove every particle of dirt and parts of the garments also), 
and then hang them upon the bushes to dry. Sometimes they wear 
the clothing to be washed down to the river and " kill time " while it 
is drying by taking a bath. Thus there are favored spots upon the 



river banks in the outskirts of every town and village which present 
a gay scene from sunrise to sunset every day in the week, Sunday 
not exceptcd. 

Down in that part of the country whore lava abounds, and espe- 
cially in the neighborhood of the city of Mexico, the municipal or 
other authorities have been at some pains to provide special places 
where the poorer classes can do their washing. What part lava has 
to play in this benevolence on the part of Mexican rulers is easily 
explained : lava enters largely into the construction of such a laun- 
dry in addition to the other uses made of it in the localities where it 
is to be found. Pedregal, which means "a stony place," is an 
immense lava bed lying near the famous battlefield of Churubusco, 
and has itself a name and place in the history of the Mexican War. 
It furnishes an immense quantity of lava, which can be hewn into 
any shape without difficulty, and is consequently in great demand 
for paving-stones and for metate.i the stones upon which the women 
grind corn. It is very dark colored and contains innumerable cavi- 
ties of every size, showing where air has been confined as the molten 
mass has flowed down the mountain sides and spread over the plain. 
In times past the lava beds of Pedregal must have been largely drawn 
upon for the construction of a large number of laundries which I 
have seen in the City of Mexico and in neighboring cities. 

These laundries consist of from fifty to a hundred rectangular 
troughs of lava placed side by side on both sides of a narrow reser- 
voir. Each trough is 
about three feet long 
by half that width, 
and probably two feet 
thick, though it usu- 
ally stands but a foot 
or so out of the water. 
It is scooped out to 
the depth of two or 
three inches only. 
Being placed oblique- 
ly to the water, the 
water-line is a regu- 
lar zig-zag. These 
troughs may have 
been originally de- 
signed to hold the al- 
lowance of water for 
each laundress, but 
they are now used 
as washboards, and 
the surface of a lava 

block being far from smooth, owing to the numerous air-cells men- 
tioned above' clothing which passes through the hands of one of 
these laundresses does not last long. It is buttonless after the first 
washing and hangs in shreds after the second or third. 

The scenes at one of these public laundries are very picturesque and 
would delight the soul of any artist with a penchant for peasant life. 
The women work hard, pausing now and then to gossip with their 
neighbors, and their children play around until the washing is done 
and are carried home in the wooden " dug outs," which are a part of 
every Mexican's household outfit. Strange as it may seem, there are 
seldom any quarrels among the women at these laundries. 

When these laundries were first instituted I have never found any 
records to show. They must be very old, for they were built at a 
time when more regard was paid to the needs of the poorer classes in 
Mexico than at present. ARTHUK HOWARD NOLL. 





WESTERN PENNSYLVANIA ASSOCIATION OF ARCHITECTS. 

the Annual Meeting of the W. P. A. A., the following officers 
were elected. President, Andrew Peebles; Vice-President, 
(reo. S. Orth; Secretary, L. O. Dause, C. E.; Treasurer, Jos. 

Anglic; Directors, Thos. M. Boyd, C. E., Jos. Stillbum-, T. D. 

Evans. (Certified,) L. O. DAUSE, Secretary. 



22 



WHAT MIGHT HAVE BECOME OF THE BASTILE. The king who hesitates 
is very often lost, just as much as though he were an ordinary mortal 
A very interesting discovery of recent date shows that if Louis XVI 
had only been a little less dilatory he might have prevented the taking 
the Uastile, and possibly changed the course of history. It is now 
clearly proved that early in 1788 he had given his conditional approval 
to a plan for demolishing the Bastile and for laying out the site as a 
garden; and a plan was actually prepared showing how the proposed 
change could be effected, but the king, unfortunately for himself, did 

)t at once approve this plan when it was placed before him. He said 
he would think about it, and while he was thinking, other and more 
stirring events followed, till presently, on July 14. 1789, the Parisians, 
a ot waiting for the king's consent, pulled down the Bastile on their 
own accoun The original plan for laying out the site as a public 
garden is still in existence, and may be seen by the curious among the 
historical treasures at the National Library at Paris. London Figaro 



FEBRUARY 4, 1888.] 



The American Architect and Building News. 




TESTING FOR THE FOUNDATIONS OF THE CON- 
GRESSIONAL LIBRARY. 

OFFICE OF THE ARCHITECT OF TIIF. CONGRESSIONAL LIBRARY) 
BUILDINO, 14.1 KAST CAPITOL STKF.KT, 

WASHINGTON, D. C., January 19, 1888. ) 

TO THE EniTOKS OF THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT: 

Dear .Sir,*, My .attention has been called to a communication in 
your valued journal of January 7, headed " A Faulty Ground-test- 
ing Apparatus," accompanied by an illustration. Permit me to say 
that both the illustration and the writer's deductions are extremely 
itiarriirato, and would indicate that his visit "between trains" to the 
Library site must have been a very hasty one. The sketch was 
evidently not made on the spot, but subsequently from the vague im- 
pressions received. The apparatus of which I send you drawings, 
consists of a set of cast-iron pedestals, exactly twelve 'inches square 
on the base, which are placed four feet apart from centres. Over 
these pedestals, and fitting into shoes placed on the pedestals, there 
rest two rolled iron deck-beams. The weight (pig-lead) rests on a car 
built of four cast-iron flanged wheels with wrought-iron axles, which 
carry a timber platform in the manner shown on the drawings. The 
lowest foundation coujses of the Library have been designed to sus- 
tain, from the superincumbent weights of all descriptions, a uniformly 
distributed load of two-and-one-half tons per square foot; the test- 
load applied to the apparatus being double that amount, or five tons 
per square foot. The car which is placed precisely over four of the 

CA^ AT WORK 




pedestals is loaded with twenty tons of pig-lead, and after a record 
has been taken of its effect upon the ground, is shifted on to the next 
four pedestals which have been established in line with the former, 
an'l the operation is then repeated. Accurate levels are obtained 
w ;th a levelling instrument, care being taken to have the four 
|,,.dt stals on a level at the start, and disconnected from any others for 
the time being. 

Now, it will be apparent that with this method a practical result is 



achieved, which, under the circumstances, is very satisfactory. The 
ground under the proposed Congressional Library Building' is of a 
fine sand mixed with particles of clay, which would, under ordinary 
conditions, be accepted as a first-class substratum to build upon. In 
this case, however, it was considered advisable to use. more than 
ordinary caution in the preparations for the foundations of this 
structure, and the simple and inexpensive plan illustrated herewith 
was devised for the purpose. On the other hand, it would have 
been injudicious to overshoot the mark by complicating the apparatus 
for the purpose of obtaining mathematically accurate results, the 
benefit of which would be lost in the practical execution of the work. 
It is known to every experienced architect or engineer that in most 
cases where practical results are to be obtained, the subtleties of 
scientific tests and nice mathematical calculations are engulfed in the 
"factor-of-safety," and this especially so with such materials as and 
and clay which are influenced by all kinds of atmospheric conditions- 
The use of a travelling car was chosen for its ease of transporta. 
tion. If, as Mr. Arey suggests, the load were piled upon single 
1 pedestals, it would require a large force of men, and a great deal of 
time to load and unload the lead, and to handle and transport the 
lead in bulk would again require staging and other apparatus. As 
constructed, the loaded car is satisfactory. Indications are given in 
the excavation trenches of any weak spots, and the remits obtained 
show that the apparatus is perfectly sensitive. The minimum compres- 
sion so far as has been proceeded with, was less than one-eighth inch 
per square foot, and the maximum one-and-one-half inch, all in a tn-nch 
one hundred and eighty feet long, and, with one exception no spot 
has been discovered which would justify the use of any extraordinary 
means of strengthening the foundations by spreading or deepening, 
as the eoncre' ^ed will be strong enough to bridge the slight in- 
equalities thus far discovered and noted. In isolated pier-pits, the 
single pedestal mentioned by Mr. Arey had to be used as there was 
not room enough to run the car. In these instances the load had to 
be steadied and braced latterly to keep it from tumbling over. From 
a strictly theoretical point of view this would also obviously affect 
the correct result, but for the practical point in question it was con- 
sidered sufficient evidence of good ground when the load of five tons 
on the single pedestal left no impression deeper than one-eighth of 
an inch. Together with the drawings I enclose a schedule of "the re- 
sults obtained with the apparatus. 

STATEMENT " A " or THE RESULTS IN TESTING THE SOIL WITH A WEIGHT 
OF 6 TONS PER SQUARE FOOT, FROM OCT. 25, UP TO Nov. 11, 1887, INCLUSIVE. 



Number 
of 

IV.Ir.stnl. 


Settlement 
in inches. 


Remarks. 


Number 
of 
Pedestal. 


Settlement 
in inches. 


Remarks. 


West. 
Fed. 


East 

Still. 


West.j East 
Pedestal. 


1 












31 


1 








2 












32 


1 








Fine dry Sand. 


4 












33 






1 






5 












34 












6 












35 












7 












36 












8 












37 












9 












38 












10 












39 












11 












40 










After rain. 


12 












41 












13 












42 


I 










14 












43 








After rain. 


15 












44 


3-10 


a-f 


; 


- 


17 












45 








18 










After rain. 


Fieri 








19 












" 2 








20 


none 


none 




." 3 








21 
22 


\ 


i 




" 6 








23 


none 


none 




" 6 


I 






24 


i 


* 




" 7 


| 






27 

2K 


none 


none 




" 8 


I 






29 
30 


! 


i 


Fine dry sand. 


Maximum = 1} in. Minimum =r J In. 
Av'r'ge = 8-32 in. in 83 teats, 185 ft. space. 



In conclusion I wish to extend a cordial invitation to the members 
of my own and the related engineer profession to drop in upon me 
" between trains," my office being on the Library site, where I shall 
be happy to extend any facilities in my power to examine the draw- 
ings, the work and everything else of interest in the construction of 
the Congressional Library Building. 

Very respectfully yours, 

J. L. SMITHMEYER, 
Architect Congressional Library Building. 

HARDING'S BOOKS ON DRAWING. 

TORONTO, Jan. 26, 1888. 
To THE EDITORS or THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT: 

Dear Sirs, In your issue for October 25, lf84, you recommend 
to a correspondent J. D. Harding's "Principles and Practices of 
Art " for architectural picture-making. I have before me a list of 
books in which I find Harding's "Lessons on Art, 140 Pnxressive 
Lessons on Drawing" 1849, small folio, would this be the work to 
which you referred ? An answer would much oblige, 

Yours truly, A DRAUGHTSMAN. 

[No. The books mentioned are distinct works b\- the same author 
Kus. AMERICAN ARCHITECT.] 



60 



The American Architect and Building News. [VOL. XXIII. No. 632. 



IRON CHURCHES. 

BOSTON, Jan. 28, 1888. 

To THE EDITORS OF THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT: 

Dear Sirs, Mr. Lawrence B. Valk, Architect, Tribune Building, 
New York, can probably give information as to the builders of iron 
churches in this country. v- 

[ANOTHER correspondent reminds us that Mr. Ruskin wrote a year or so 
BO to a church committee to the effect that "of all manner of churches 
thus idiotically built, iron churches are damnablest to me. EDS. AM. 
ARCHITKCT.] 

PLASTER BOARDING. 

EAST Los Axcict.KS, CALIFORNIA, Dec. 29, 1887. 

To THE EDITORS OF THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT: 

Dear Sirs, Could you kindly give me any information regarding 
a material called plaste'r boarding. I am desirous of knowing where 
it is manufactured and how used. I enclose stamp for reply. 

Yours etc,, WM. A. POTTS. 




RUSKIN'S NEW ATTITUDE ABOUT " FINISH." There is a little book, 
and a very precious and pretty one, of Dr. John Brown's, called " Some- 
thing About a Well." It has a yellow paper cover, and on the cover a 
careful wood-cut from one of the doctor'* own pen-sketches two wire- 
haired terriers begging, and carrying an old hat between them. There 
is certainly not more than five minutes' work, if that, in the original 
sketch ; but the quantity of dog-life in those two beasts the hill- 
weather that they have roughed through together, the wild fidelity of 
their wistful hearts, the pitiful irresistible mendicancy of their eyes and 
paws fills me with new wonder and love every time the little book 
falls out of any of the cherished heaps in my study. No one has 
pleaded more for finish than I in past time, or oftener or perhaps so 
strongly asserted the first principle of Leonardo, that a good picture 
should look like a mirror of the thing itself. But now that everybody 
can m rror the thing itself rat least the black-and-white of it as 
easily as he takes his hat off, and then engrave the photograph, and 
steel the copper, and print piles and piles of the thing by steam, all as 
good as the first half-dozen proofs used to be, I begin to wish for a 
little less to look at, and would, for my own part, gladly exchange my 
tricks of stippling and tinting for the good doctor's gift of drawing two 
wire-haired terriers with a wink. And truly, putting all likings for old 
fashions out of the way, it remains certain that in a given time and with 
simple means, a man of imaginative power can do more, and express 
more, and excite the fancy of the spectator more, by frank outline than 
by completed work ; and that assuredly there ought to be in all our na- 
tional art schools an outline class trained to express themselves vigor, 
ously and accurately in that manner. Were there no other reason for 
such lessoning, it is a sufficient one that there are modes of genius 
which becomes richly productive in that restricted manner, and yet by 
no training could be raised into the excellence of painting. Neither 
IJewick nor Cruikshank in England, nor Uetsch, nor Ludwig Richter 
in Germany, could ever have become painters ; their countrymen owe 
more to their unassuming instinct of invention than to the most ex- 
alted efforts of their historical schools. John Raskin, in the Magazine 
of Art. 



DISAPPEARANCE OF A FRENCH PICTURE IN AMERICA. A curious 
reminiscence of the ill-fated Crystal Palace Exhibition of New York of 
1853 is brought up by a memorial received here from M. Antoine Etex, 
the distinguished French sculptor, architect and painter. M. Etex 
states that, filled with admiration for the institutions of the United 
States, he executed a large historical painting, "To the Glory of the 
United States," in which he depicted Washington, Franklin and other 
heroes of the Revolution, many of the faces being copied from authen- 
tic portraits in the possession of descendants of Lafayette, the back- 
ground being filled by portraits of all the Presidents of the United 
States down to 1855, and tlie wliole surmounted by the JEg'is of the 
Goddess of Liberty. He was persuaded by a German named Buschek 
to send this work for exhibition to the New York Crystal Palace. 
Horace Vernet and a number of other eminent French artists were in 
like manner persuaded to forward works for exhibition, it being 
expressly stipulated that all the contributions should be safelv returned 
without cost. In 1855 an alarming rumor reached him that all the 
works of art exhibited at the Crystal Palace had been seized and would 
be sold for the benefit of the creditois of the affair. He determined to 
come to the United States and take nieasures to protect his own pro- 
perty and that of his fellow-artists. The Emperor Napoleon, notwith- 
standing M. Etex's known republican sentimen s and the part he had 
played in the revolution of 1848, sent his private secretary M Moc-V 
quart, to him with 5,000 francs in an envelope, which he accepted as a 
loan to defray the expenses of the trip. He landed in New York, and 
to his joy, found his work as well as those of his Parisian confrere's still 
intact, and succeeded in removing them from the Crystal Palace build- 
ing before the disastrous fire whieh subsequently destroyed it. At the 
request of Mayor Wood, M. Etex's painting "was taken to the City 
Hall and there exhibited on the 4th of July, 1855. M. Etex came to 
Washington, was presented to President Pierce, and was entertained at 
the White House. He made a bust of President Pierce, two medallions 
of Mr. Cushmg, one each of Mrs. Fremont and her father and Senator 
Benton. He also executed a portrait of Mrs. Fremont and a bust of 
lernando Wood, for all of which he declined to receive any compensa- 
tion, being led to believe that his picture would be bought "by the Gov- 
ernment for 200,000 francs whether by the general Government or by 



the city of New York his memorial does not distinctly show. The war 
of secession came on before anything was done, and now, at eighty-one 
)ears of age, M. Etex, through leading European bankers, writes to 
ask what has become of the 200,000 francs for which he has been wait- 
ing over thirty years. The records of Congress and the departments 
here fail to discloss that any effort was ever made to secure an appro- 
priation for this purpose. A more difficult question to answer is, what 
has become of the picture itself ? A large and valuable historical 
painting of this character by an artist of more than national reputation 
can scarcely have passed into oblivion. But where is it? New York 
Evening Post. 

THE TOMB OF DANIEL. Sir Henry Layard thus describes the so- 
walled tomb of Daniel: "The vast mound which marks the site of the 
ancient city of Susa, the capital of Susiana and Elymais, was visible in 
the distance, and as we drew near it appeared to me to be little inferior 
in size to the Mujelibi, the principal ruin of Babylon. We rode first to 
the tomb the principal object of my visit. I found it to be a building 
of comparatively modern date, resembling the Imaum-Zadehs, or tombs 
and shrines of Mussulman saints constantly met with in Khuzistan, sur- 
mounted by a high conical dome of irregular brickwork somewhat re- 
sembling in shape a pine-cone. I entered through a gate into a court, 
in which pilgrims find a resting place for the night, safe from wild 
beasts and Arab thieves. A dark inner-chamber, opening upon an 
outer-room, contained the so-called tomb a square case of plaster 
which might be supposed either to cover a grave or to enclose a coffin. 
Above it were suspended some ostrich eggs and lamps. The tomb was 
surrounded by a wooden trellis. In the outer-chamber I observed one 
or two small capitals of columns in marble, and in the court-yard a 
larger one of the same material, with a kind of lotus-leaf ornament, 
one foot ten inches in height. They were of the early Persian or Per- 
sepolitan period. The building, surrounded by a few konar trees and 
palms, stands on the bank of a small sluggish stream, called by the 
Arabs the Shaour, which rises in the plain not far from the ruins. I 
found the remains of a flight of steps, built of large dressed-stones, 
leading down to the water's edge. Among them was a slab, with a bas- 
relief, whieh has been described as a man between two lions, and has 
been converted by a lively imagination into Daniel in the lions' den. 
There had formerly been preserved within the tomb a black stone, or 
slab, said to have been covered with mystical signs and human figures. 
The dervish informed me that it had been broken into pieces by two 
Arabs, as they believed that it contained gold." 




THE usual weekly summary of trade shows results that are calculated to 
increase confidence in future developments in trade aud manufacturing. 
The percentages are safe, the gross and net earnings are all right, the sta- 
tistical summaries read right. The country is producing and absorbing 
fully up to all anticipations. Those who a month or two ago shouted 
"Look out!" are quiet now. Under the abundance of money and the 
anxiety of buyers of bonds to purchase and of investors to invest, there is 
an eagerness and impatience in the markets to put out money in a safe way. 
Investments rather than speculations are sought after. Commercial reviews 
and manufacturing summaries show activity in traffic and trade channels 
and this indicates that the consumption of products of all kinds has not 
been retarded. In fact, an expansion of consumptive demand is probable 
in building and most kinds of railway material. Numerous brick contracts 
now run into midsummer. So do railroad-equipment contracts, but not 
contracts for rails, although last week one hundred thousand tons of rails 
were ordered There is an abundance of money seeking investment, 
Builders have been employed in many Western cities to erect dwellings in 
large numbers to be sold when completed. Lumber manufacturers both 
West and South are entering into contracts for next season's deliveries. 
There will be extensive developments of hardwood interests. Everything 
points to a gradually-increasing control over the lumber supply, but it will 
never approach the degree of control exercised over oil, coal or many other 
raw products Both timber and minerals are passing under the control of 
fewer hauds but the practical results will be comparatively harmless for 
the next few years. The iron and steel makers look anxiously for an 
Improving demand from somewhere to offset the anticipated falling off in 
the railroad-building demand. The coal production has reached one hun- 
dred and ten million tons and possibly one hundred and fifteen million tons. 
The idleness of two-third* of the anthracite region has not diminished the 
supply a ton, in fact, the weekly output is nearly one hundred thousand 
tons greater than a year ago. Machine-shop work is abundant. Electri- 
cians complain of a temporary falling off in orders. Hardware manufac- 
turers are combining to regulate prices. Textile manufacturers are aroused 
to protect threatened interests at Washington. Cotton is strong. Wool is 
weak. Foreign textile-goods' competition is seriously felt in two or three 
branches, but withal there is a steady expansion of capacity. All kinds of 
machinery and tool makers are busy, but late advices from implement 
manufacturers show duluess. Shop work west of the Mississippi is plenty. 
East of the Hudson it is lighter than late last year. Most repairs and exten- 
sions m factories and mills have been completed. The anthracite coal- 
strike will probably continue a month yet and do harm. The miners will 
be encouraged to hold out by delusive prospects of State or national inquiry. 
No actual harm has been done aud prices will rule stronger in all markets 
for the next six months than they would have done but for the strike. The 
financial situation is strong, but a corner in money is more probable than 
for two or three years because of the extraordinary'expenditures of the past 
two or three years. No scarcity is immediately probable, but those who 
will hold on to their money will increase in number until some more satis- 
factory banking basis for the people is devised by Congress. The produc- 
tive capacity of the country has been too greatly enlarged to justify the 
fears expressed by some otherwise sensible financial authorities as to over- 
production, llns nightmare does not threaten the American people, nor 
does a money stringency, nor even are its fiscal or protective policies really 
endangered. The cards are being shuffled at Washington bv expert hauds, 
and the political Ah-Sins for the let-well-enoii"li-i " 
to the occasion when the national game is played. 

S. J. PARKHILL & Co., Printers, Boston. 



24 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT AND BUILDING NEWS. 



VOL. xxin. 



Copyright. 1888, by TICKNOR & COMPANY, Boston, Mam. 



No. 633. 



FEBRUARY 11. 1888. 

Entered at the Foal-Office at Button as second-claw matter. 







SUMMARY: 

The Italians to impose an Export Duty on Antiquities. The 

Kise in the Price of Copper. Methods of Protecting Iron 

and Steel in Constructions. The Registration of Architects 

at Rome. Lucigen. The Interior Decoration for the 

ll'.h-l de Ville, Paris. Difference between French ami 

American Methods C 

BUILDING ACCIDENTS. V 6J 

OPEN-TIMBER HOOFS OF THE MIDDLE AGES. III 66 

ILLUSTRATIONS : 

Church of St 1'ierre, Montreal, P. Q. House for P. E. Cliill- 
man, Ksq., Chestnut Hill, Philadelphia, Pa. House for A. 
< '. l.ane, Ksq., Birmingham, Ala. Competitive Design for 
the New York Life Insurance Building, St. Paul, Minn. 
Houses for K. W. Cooper, Utica, and for Prof. II. C. J. 
Brandt, Clinton, N. Y. Street in St. Lizier, Ariege, France. 6< 
FOURTH ANNUAL KEPOKT OF THE BUREAU OF ETHNOLOGY. IIL . (X 

BOOKS AND PAPERS (ii 

ARCH.EOLOGICAL NOTES 61 

EXHIBITION or WATER-COLORS AT MUSEUM OF FINE ARTS, BOSTON. 7( 
COMMUNICATIONS : 

The Decoration of McVicker's Theatre, Chicago, HI. Band- 
saws for Large Logs. Testing for the Foundation of the 
Congressional Library. The Albany Assembly Chamber 

Vault. Iron Churches 70 

NOTES AND CLIPPINGS 71 

TRADE SURVEYS 72 



II THE Italian Government has taken a step which was long 
A a g suggested, us a retaliation for the American imposition 
of a duty upon works of art. Scores of clever artists in 
Italy have lived for many years on the proceeds of the pictures, 
copies or originals, which they sold to American visitors. 
These were naturally their best customers, as Americans have 
110 such opportunity as is enjoyed by the citizens of other coun- 
tries for seeing great paintings in the original, and are glad to 
get good copies Aand the suppression of the business by the in- 
fliction of a hea^y duty is said to have caused a good deal of 
distress to very wfc-thy people. An urgent appeal was made a 
year or more agomo the Italian Government to impose an ex- 
porMtefy- .on wqmfs of art, in return for the American import 
duty, but it &tfns to have reflected that this would not help the 
Italian paintM, and has taken the more sensible, as well as 
less viok-iiL/ourse of laying a tax on exports of antique objects 
of art. -rft present, antiquities are admitted to the United 
States free of duty, as representing an industry which obviously 
does not need protection, and an immense number of them are 
annually imported by tourists and dealers in bric-a-brac. The 
Italian Government, therefore, desiring to relieve its living 
artists by handicapping their antique competitors, has voted to 
impose an export duty of twenty per cent upon all works of 
antique art, which can henceforth only be removed from the 
country by declaring their value, paying the duty, and going 
through the usual vexatious custom-house formalities. More- 
over, to avoid undervaluation of a class of objects which have 
no definite market price, the Italian Government expressly re- 
serves the right to appropriate oil the spot any article of the 
kind which it finds in possession of a traveller or dealer, on 
paying him the sum which he mentions in his declaration as 
the cost. Although this new law is likely to bring in a con- 
siderable sum to the Italian Treasury, it is sure to be felt as 
an intolerable annoyance to travellers, who will have to submit 
to long searches, and may very possibly be required to pay 
duty on objects purchased outside of Italy, and simply brought 
through the country, since it would be virtually impracticable 
to distinguish between coins or bronzes bought in Venice and 
those which came from Trieste or Munich. "We cannot say 
that we are extremely sorry to have American tourists, who 
allowed their representatives to vote for their own law without 
energetic protest, made to realize how much trouble may be 
caused by ill-considered statutes, without any correspon<lin< 
good to any one, but it is a misfortune for every one outside of 
Italy, except, perhaps, the Swiss and English manufacturers of 
sham antiques, that a check should be put upon the distribu- 
tion of the unrivalled works of antiquity among those who, have 
education enough to appreciate them. 



MREMAURY writes to Le Genie Civil a letter on the 
, subject of the recent rise in the price of copper, which is 
interesting, and shows, as often happens in such rntrm 
that the movement might easily have been anticipated if those 
in a position to know the state of the market had taken the 
trouble to reflect upon the inevitable consequences of its condi- 
tion. According to the letter, the production of copper has 
not greatly varied for several years, the total for the world 
having been two hundred and twenty thousand tons in 1884, 
two hundred and twenty-six thousand in 1885, and two hun- 
dred and sixteen thousand in 1886. The price, however, has 
changed greatly. To say nothing of the enormous prices of 
ten years ago, the average market-value of copper in 1884 was 
about twenty-two per cent, and in 1885 about six per cent 
higher than in 1886. Even in 1884, the low price of the metal 
had been severely felt at the mines, and 1885 found several of 
the smaller ones closed, on account of unsatisfactory condi- 
tions of the market, while the owners of the others were com- 
plaining loudly of their condition. The effect of this was 
shown in the diminished production of 1886, yet, although a 
loss of five per cent in the output of an article, the consumption 
of which is usually so closely adapted to the supply, was obvi- 
ously a serious matter for consumers, the price continued to 
fall during 1886. This set up an abnormal condition of the 
market. With such a desirable material as copper, any fall in 
price leads to an increase of consumption, since every one is 
ready to substitute copper for iron as soon as it is economical 
to do so, and in 1886 the price was falling, the consumption 
increasing, and the production materially diminishing. It could 
only be a question of a few months when the reaction would 
occur, and the demand again be equalized with the supply by 
an advance in price, yet so slow were dealers to perceive this 
that during 1887 the stock of copper on hand, through the 
excess of demand over the supply, fell at the rate of fifteen hun- 
dred tons a month, until, on the fifteenth of last December, 
the total stock of Chilian and Australian copper in England and 
France fell to forty-four thousand tons, or less than four months' 
supply. At this very moment the fire occurred in the Calumet 
and Hecla mine, burning out the galleries, and effectually clos- 
ing for a year, at least, as the best judges considered, a source 
from which came thirty thousand tons a year, or about one- 
seventh of the whole production of the world; and the now 
famous French syndicate thought that the time had arrived 
for a turn in the market. One of the principal members of the 
syndicate was the Societe 1 Industrielle et Commerciale des 
Metaux, which consumes regularly in its own factories twenty- 
five thousand tons of copper a year, and would thus be quite 
justified in buying a year's supply for its own purposes, without 
regard to any profits to be made by selling again ; but it was 
not unnatural, in view of the situation of the market, to do 
more than this, and secure the whole stock in Europe, advanc- 
ng the price afterward, as the syndicate has done, to exactly 
double the market rate of December, 1886. Of course, the 
rise in value will set at work the smaller mines and the supply 
vill again increase, but meanwhile the syndicate will have 
>ocketed its profits as the reward of an intelligent study of the 
conditions of the business for a suitable period. 



TFHE Scientific American mentions something which is worth 
J. remembering by those who have iron roofs or floors to 
take care of, and which it finds in an article in the Engi- 
neer, describing the precautions taken to protect iron and steel 
hips. According to the Engineer, the corrosive action which 
takes place in metal ships, and which forms the principal source 
of their deterioration, cannot be entirely arrested by any prac- 
ical process. Painting, either with lead or iron pigments or 
he black paraffins varnish, is found to be of little, if any use, 
he rust going on under the paint quite as fast as on an unpro- 
ected surface, especially on the inner surface of the hull, where 
he wash of the bilge-water, the rolling of lumps of coal and 
)ther hard objects, and the careless stowing of the cargo, 
cratch or detach the coating in places, and set up centres of 
>xi<lation. In fact, the covering of paint seems to hasten corro- 
ion, jmd it is found that the portions of iron decks around the 
latchways. where the paint is immediately worn off, lose less 
iy rust than the undisturbed portions near the bulwarks, as is 
asily shown by the greater thickness, after years of use, of 
de plates around the hatches. At one time asphalt was much 
used to protect the inner surfaces of the ship, but at certain 






m practice, but in modern ships every inch is of 
concrete udess put on in a 



ru The tar is then put on in a good coat and s 
dry Portland cement in fine powder until as much ha .been 
nut on as will adhere. The cement absorbs the tar and slowlj 
Lts formm" a hard and waterproof skin. It seems not 
unlike lyThaf the same treatment might with advantage be 
pplied to iron roofs. An ordinary corrugated iron root is a 
very short-lived affair, and paintjng does not greatly improve 
Tt! but a tar and cement coating, which in most cases need on y 
be applied outside, since the inside would usually be dry, would 
not be P expensive, knd_ought to be farmore effective than paint. 

OTCCORDING to the Builder, the .Municipal Council of 
n Rome has recently passed an ordinance which is likely b 
/ be of some indirect benefit to architects. * or some years 
it has been the rule that applications for permits to build m 
Rome must contain the name of some architect who should 
held responsible for the proper planning and construction o 
the work. The Building Law of New York contains the same 
requirement', and it was found fajfcme, just as it is m New 
York that the "architect" namefciB the application for a 
permit is in many lases a mere figrfrpiead, being very often a 
clerk or an ingenious journeyman in the employ of a builder, 
who is sometimes glad of the,fipportunity which the law gives 
him for shifting on the shoulders of such irresponsible persons 
the liability which ought properly to rest upon himself. With 
a view to the prevention of this abuse, which may easily have 
serious consequences, the Roman city government issued a 
notice that, with a view to the protection of the public, it will 
henceforth accept as architects in connection with building per- 
mits only those persons whose names shall have been registered 
by a Commission appointed for the purpose as being qualified 
for the practice of the profession of architecture. Of course, 
all the persons who wished to practice this profession m Rome 
immediately applied to the Commission for registration, and, 
according to its report, one hundred and twenty-five, out of one 
hundred and sixty-six candidates, were accepted as possessing 
the necessary qualifications. These, according to the Builder, 
comprise a diploma in physics and mathematics from the Univer- 
sity of Rome or that of Bologna, besides a certificate of three 
years' attendance at a technical school, and a course of instruc- 
tion in a school of art, so that the standard of theoretical train- 
ing among the Italian architects would appear to be very high. 

GOOD deal is said just now about a new light, the so- 
called "lucigen," which has been brought into use in 
several of the English railway stations, and has proved 
very successful and very cheap. The principle of it is simple 
enough, oil of creosote, a cheap coal-tar product, being blown 
in spray into the lamp by a jet of compressed air, and allowed 
to burn in the jet of air ; but the effect is remarkable. Naturally, 
it is most economical to employ it on a large scale, a powerful 
jet, carrying a considerable amount of spray, requiring little 
more power or machinery than a small one, so that it is 
employed for lighting railway-stations in large lamps, each 
having an illuminating power of three thousand candles. This 
is about equivalent to six ordinary electric-arc lights, but the 
lucigen has the advantage over the arc light that its flame is 
much larger. While a lucigen lamp throws out six times as 
much light as a common arc-light, it presents a luminous sur- 
face three hundred and fifty times greater, and this is found to 
assist very much in that diffusion of the light which is so neces- 
sary to good artificial illumination, and which is so difficult to 
obtain with asc-lights. 



HE Parisians, who, as we all know, are very old-fashioned 
in their notions, have just finished a splendid building and 
now desire to have it decorated. Acting in accordance 
with that slavish subjection to tradition which characterizes, we 
will not say the subjects of monarchies, but the effete inhabi- 
tants of the old world, they have not been able to think of any 



XXIH. No. 633. 

^^^^^^ "^^^^^^^^^^"^^ 

better way of having~this done than by getting the best decora- 
tors to do it, and the only question which has occurred to he.r 
paralyzed intellects was that of determining who the best deco- 
rators mi-ht be. With this idea they, or their representatives, 
the Municipal Council, have appointed a commission of experts, 
comprising twelve members of the Council four architects, 
three sculptors, and several critics, which, under the presidency 
of the Prefect of the Seine, is to make choice of the artists 
most worthy to embellish the town-hall of the _ great city. 
Obviously, such a commission, if the opinions of its members 
were worth anything, would hardly be unanimous in Us choice, 
and a certain amount of balloting has been necessary to fix 
upon certain names, but it seems to be agreed now to recom- 
mend the employment of Cabanel for the painting of the ceiling 
of the Salle des Cariatides, of Puvis de Chavannes and Roll 
for the decoration of the vestibules leading from this room to 
the Salle des Fetes, of Delauney for the grand staircase, of 
Bonnat, Jules Lefebvre and Bernard for the three reception- 
rooms facing the Seine, and of Jean-Paul Laurens for the his- 
torical pictures which are to adorn the adjoining corner room. 
All these artists rank among the very best in France, but, in 
order to give room for the discovery of some genius Hitherto 
unknownT one apartment, called the Prefect's Parlor, which 
presents a peculiarly favorable opportunity for mural painting, 
is to be reserved for an artist to be selected in public competi- 
tion. The scheme, as formed by the Commission, must be 
sanctioned by the Municipal Council, but there can be little 
doubt that it will be adopted. 

IT will be observed that this plan, although it will make of 
the Hotel de Ville the treasury of the masterpieces of the 
greatest artists of France, has not the merit of great 
novelty, since most large public buildings in Paris are made 
interesting in much* the same way, but we wish to insist on 
the fact that such antiquated proceedings are not to be taken 
as models for the conduct of similar affairs in this free and 
enlightened country. To use the words of an enthusiastic poli- 
tician, it is just a hundred years since, by a desperate struggle, 
we cut loose from all bondage to Old- World ideas, and we 
must beware of the tempter who would now try to persuade us 
to return to them. Instead of this laborious way of choosing 
the persons who are to furnish the objects of art for which the 
public treasury pays so liberally, the practice consorting most 
with our unsurpassed institutions appears to be for those who 
have the care of our public affairs to speak habitually with 
scorn and contempt of artists and art, to refuse to recognize 
them as understanding anything about their own business, and 
to pay no attention to their almost unanimous petitions, but as 
soon as an attractive widow with a talent for painting, or a 
pretty girl with long curls and a gift of sculpture, comes along, 
or a "good feller" of a wandering Italian fresco-painter drifts 
to Washington, to set them at work disgracing the public 
buildings with their ridiculous devices at a rate of remunera- 
tion which would seem fabulous to a Baudry or Puvis de Cha- 
vannes. but which here is said to yield only a moderate income, 
on account of the enormous percentages levied upon it by 
the lobbyists and go-betweens who claim to have had a hand in 
procuring the necessary appropriations. We should be sorry 
to interfere with the affairs of the well-meaning persons who 
have hitherto furnished the public art, and it is something to 
be proud of that not the slightest breath of scandal has ever 
sullied their relations with the Government, but not even inno- 
cent enthusiasm on one side and indulgent prodigality on the 
other can'excuse'such freaks as the abandonment of the Rotunda 
of the Capitol, the central point, as we may say, of the whole 
United States of America, to the manipulations of a man who 
can think of nothing better to decorate it with than a band of 
little figures with big heads and shaky knees, executed in stone 
coior, with painted shadows, to imitate a sculptured bas-relief. 
We have very little patience with the people who praise 
everything bad which happens to be American and decry every- 
thing good which has been invented abroad, but we have still 
less with those persons in authority who, in a country which 
can furnish a St. Gaudens, a Warner or a LaFarge, to say 
nothing of many others, deliberately turn their backs upon 
their own fellow-citizens, who, without public aid or counte- 
nance of any kind, have raised their country very nearly to the 
highest rank in the world of art, and call in a foreigner to dis- 
play the cheap accomplishments of an Italian village white- 
washer upon the walls of the principal public room of the prin- 
cipal building of the nation. 



B -] The American Architect and Building News. 



68 




BUILDING ACCIDENTS. 1 V. 

TITHE " One-horse Shay " claims to be 
1 a triumph 'of logic, but to the writer 
it appears a triumph of engineering 
in which the clearly framed specifications 
were faithfully carried into execution. 
The statement of the deacon : 

"One thing is plain, 
The weakest part must stan' the strain," 

must certainly be admitted as one of the 
soundest of engineering opinions. 

Although there is so much repetition 
in the methods of construction and load 
imposed that a mere regard for precedent 
would, in most cases, insure the safety 
of buildings, yet there are numerous in- 
stances of failure which are never known to the general 
public, because those responsible for the matter are naturally 
averse to any publicity, and generally succeed in avoiding it, 
unless loss of life or serious personal injuries gives rise to judicial 
investigation. ^- 

It must be an easy task for the brilliant sceptic to lecture 
upon the mistakes of Moses, because his framework is clearly 
a matter of record ; but the mistakes of the Jack-builders and 
the rascality of the Buddensieks are kept in a corner as far as 
the circumstances will admit. A citizen of Pittsfield, Mass., 
recently deceased, well-known as the largest real-estate owner 
in the place, and equally well-known on account of his aversion 
to extravagance, was severely injured by the falling of a stag- 
ing on one of his buildings. After his return to consciousness, 
some one by way of consolation told him that two of the men 
were hurt a great deal worse. ' Well," he said, " I think that 
f we had braced it with just one more lath and two nails, all 
these suits for damages would have been avoided." 

Thoughtless acts on the part of workmen sometimes lead to 
lisastrous results. A well-known instance of a falling mill has 
been ascribed to fastening a block and tackle to a column, and 
pulling it out of position while moving some heavy machinerv. 
A few years ago, one of the roof-trusses fell into the hall "in 
Marblehead, Mass., because a piper had cut one of the mem- 
bers nearly in twain, rather than make an offset in his pipe. 

There are two classes of accidents to buildings ; first, those 
occasioned by faulty construction ; and, secondly, those arising 
on account of the depreciation of the building or changing of 
the purposes for which it was originally constructed. 

Most of the elements of weakness in buildings are disclosed 
during construction, because at those times the structure is apt 
to be subjected to more severe and concentrated loads than will 
occur after it is finished. It is not unusual to see lumber 
piled up in building so as to impose a load of two or three hun- 
dred pounds to the square foot upon floors which will not after- 
ward be required to sustain a load of over thirty pounds to the 
square foot. When machinery is being installed in mills, it is 
generally pressed up together so as to occupy as little floor- 
room as possible, although by so doing the load per square foot 
may amount to three times as much as it will when the 
machines are in position. 

Another important circumstance which prevents building 

accidents from reaching disastrous results, is the warning which 

timber gives of undue strain, so that breaking can be averted by 

timely repairs. A number of years ago, Rev. Lorenzo Dow, 

lebrated and eccentric itinerant preacher, was announced 

>fhciate in a church in Charlestown. While sitting in the 

>ulpit he noticed that the side-galleries of the church showed 

that they were overloaded, and rising, he said to the congrega- 

There will be no services in this house this evening." 

A murmur of indignation arose, and in giving vent to it over 

what they supposed to be merely one of the inexplicable eccen- 

icities of the man, the church was emptied very slowly and 

without shock to the overloaded galleries. But before the 

church was entirely empty he announced that he would lead 

the services from the church steps. A similar forethought 

might have averted the casualties resulting from the fall of an 

iron-pillar in the Church of the Immaculate Conception on 

Fourteenth Street, New York, during a crowded mornin<r 

service on the eleventh of December. A similar story of the 

presence of mind of a speaker, in slowly relieving the load in a 

-ously crowded building, is attributed to General B. F. 

1 Continued from page 134, No. 612. 



Butler, who adjourned a crowded political meeting from a hall 
to the public square. 

Two years ago during an excursion of one of the national 
engineering societies, while holding their meeting in Boston, 
they visited an establishment for the purpose of listening to the 
exposition of important engineering matters by their designer. 
I he members did not enter the room in the order of their going, 
but their president brought up the rear, who noticing that the 
beams and joists of the floor above were showing unusual 
flexure by reason of the excessive load imposed upon it by the 
crowd, summoned the help of a number of workmen, and 
the floor above was shored up as the weak places were dis- 
closed, and in this manner without alarming or even informing 
any of the crowd above, a most deplorable accident was un- 
doubtedly averted by the energy and presence of mind of one 
person. 

Accidents to buildings are, in many cases, primarily due to 
faulty foundations. Walls are placed on inclined ledges, in 
some instances even those overlaid with clay, without cutting 
steps in the ledge in order to remove any horizontal component 
due to the load of the structure. At the present time I have 
knowledge of a building resting on an inclined bed of clay 
which has already moved about six inches in a horizontal 
direction, and although only one story in height it is fissured 
with cracks, and only held together by means of numerous and 
unsightly tie-rods. Such accidents are frequent in buildings 
placed on the banks of rivers. 

Under certain conditions, buildings have been injured by 
reason of too broad foundations; that is, when placed upon 
compressible earth, portions would settle unequally. A very 
high mill which was recently taken down in Eastern Massachu- 
setts to make way for one of modern construction and cor- 
responding facilities for manufacturing has settled under the 
walls about three inches more than under the columns, making 
the floors more like a ship's deck than is usually found on land 
buch injury may be obviated by the use of the system of inde- 
pendent foundations which are so arranged as to impose a uni- 
form load per square foot upon the earth. Some of the build- 
ings in Chicago have been erected upon such foundations re- 
ceiving a uniform load of about two tons to the square foot, and 
the settlement of such structures is uniform and without injury 
to the building, while it is well known that many buildings in 
that city have been very seriously injured by unequal settlement. 
Another difficulty in foundations, especially those under mill 
buildings, has been due to springs or to water oozing from the 
canal furnishing the water-power and percolating under the 
walls. 

Other injuries have owed their origin to the decay of piles 
which were cut off at a grade above that of the water-stratum 
in the earth, and there have also been difficulties arising from 
the transverse yielding of the piles in the soft-earth of the Back 
Bay, Boston, which was caused by the horizontal stress from 
the roadway; although these mishaps have been infrequent 
except in the case of the approaches to the highway bridges in 
that portion of the city. 

The knowledge of resistance of materials is undoubtedly 
more complete in regard to transverse-stress than any other 
element of applied mechanics. The simplicity of the general 
problems is such that the precedents which form the basis of 
all formulas are easily assimilated in the mind of observing per- 
sons, even though they cannot integrate their own mental 
actions; and the intuitively correct judgments of persons of 
practical experience yet without any knowledge of mechanical 
principles in regard to the question of safety of a structure 
under transverse loads, is a matter of frequent course ; but, 
when any complication is introduced in a design, the mind of 
such a person is rarely trustworthy from inability to conform 
to new conditions. A complete formula is nothing but organized 
experience, and it requires more skill to apply a formula than 
U> deduce it. One of the leading engineers in this country once 
declared that the art of machine-design consisted in the free 
use of pig-iron ; and in this connection it may be truly said that 
a good designer must be a good copyist. 

A frequent error in floor-design is caused by the endeavor to 
obtain an economical distribution of material by increasing the 
depth of the beams and diminishing the width, so that the in- 
tensity of pressure at the points of support exceeds what should 
be permitted for conditions of safety, and such beams some- 
times shear off near the points of support rather than break by 
bending. The resistance of wood to transverse-pressures is about 
one-third that of compression in the line of the grain, and it is 



64 



The American Architect and Building News. [VOL. XXIII. No. 633. 



noticeable that the transverse contraction by seasoning amounts 
to three-eighths of an inch or more per foot. A due considera- 
tion of these facts should prevent any one in the design of a 
mill-structure from placing wooden bolsters over the columns, 
and transmitting the load from one column through the bolsters 
and beam to the column below ; but rather let each column be 
surmounted by a cap of at least three times the area of the 
cross-section of the column, and above this an iron-pintle should 
run to the plate forming the base of the column above. In this 
manner the whole resistance of the column can be utilized and 
the building saved from being thrown out of line with the 
attendant deterioration and injury to machinery by the aggre- 
gate movement due to the transverse contraction of the beams 
and pilasters, which reaches an excessive amount in the upper 
stories of a high building. 

Since the days of Samson, it might appear that careful atten- 
tion would be given to the strength of columns, but it is within 
the memory of persons too old perhaps to be called young men, 
but not old enough to call themselves so, to recall a deplorable 
accident to a mill which fell in a neighboring manufacturing city, 
with attendant loss of life and serious injury to person and 
property. It was shown in the course of investigations follow- 
ing that matter, that the columns supporting that mill were 
hollow iron pillars of unequal thickness on opposite sides, 
owing to the floating or dislodgment of the cores when founded 
in a horizontal position. These columns were, moreover, further 
weakened by a three-inch pintle pressing upon cast-iron plates 
three-fourths of an inch thick, and six-and-three-fourths inches 
across the hollow end of the column, which caused the pintles 
to punch through the ends of the column as soon as the equili- 
brium of the mill was disturbed. Those desiring to examine 
into the matter, can see a drawing representing the whole 



arrangement in the " Transactions of the American Society of 
Mechanical Engineering," Vol. II, page 271. 

But these mills were not the only ones loaded to a dangerous 
extent, or with iron-columns containing shells of unequal thick- 
ness : during other investigations I have seen instances where 
iron-columns safe for twelve tons, using a factor-of-safety of 
five, have sustained thirty-six tons for nearly thirty years. " In 
another instance, wood-columns whose estimated resistance to 
crushing was thirty-eight tons, had sustained a load of seven- 
teen-and-one-half tons for fifteen years. 

In some repairs upon a mill, the excessive deflection of a 
large cast-iron beam was noticed, and the careful computation 
of the load upon it and also its resistance to breaking showed 
that the beam had sustained eighty-five per cent of its estimated 
breaking-weight for forty years. 

These instances are given not as precedents to justify small 
factors-of-safety, but merely to illustrate what dangerous 
elements of construction are comparatively frequent, and yet 
by reason of other matters of unusual stability by way of 
foundations or walls, the stress upon these members has been 
so uniform and free from transverse or other disturbances that 
the logical result of such continued loads has not occurred. 

It should be carefully arranged in the design of storehouses 
that the height of each story should not be sufficient to allow 
an excessive weight of goods to be placed in each room. 

A building connected with a woollen mill, built for the pur- 
pose of holding empty goods cases, was afterward used for 
storage of compressed bales of rags for shoddy, loading the 
floor so that the modulus of rupture upon the spruce-beams 
amounted to three thousand and two hundred pounds, or twice 
that which a due consideration for safety would have allowed. 

A large amount of terra-alba was stored in a building of a 
paper-mill designed for the bins of paper trimmings, and before 
morning the clay had passed into the cellar by the most direct 
route. Experiments upon full-sized wooden columns at the 
Watertown Arsenal show as a result that Southern pine 
columns would sustain, on the average, four thousand and four 
hundred and fifty pounds to the square inch, while it is known 
that the general allowance of load upon such columns is six 
hundred pounds to the square inch, and that they sustain this 
load without depreciation or sign of weakening. 

The most frequent cause of depreciation of buildings arises 
trom dry-rot of timbers, which can generally be avoided by 
allowing the air to have free contact with the timber, and the 
application of whitewash or plaster on wire-lath seems to pre- 
serve timber as well as protect it against fire. There have 
been some instances where the plaster has been covered with 
stucco for decorative purposes, completely sealing the timber 
against the air, and thig in turn has been followed bv dry-rot 



The use of tinned-coverings upon large timbers and doors for 
the purpose of defense against fire, is apt to cause dry-rot when 
the lumber is imperfectly seasoned ; and, as such tinned fire- 
doors have served their purpose better than any other type of 
fire-doors, it is important that they should be constructed of 
well-seasoned stock. 

A similar cause of dry-rot results from attempts at decora- 
tion by varnishing partially seasoned timber which completely 
seals it up, and furnishes the most perfect expedient that can 
be adopted to accomplish this end. It requires at least six 
years after the building is finished, to season Southern pine 
timbers one foot in width. 

Beams are frequently sealed so tightly where they enter the 
wall that dry-rot takes place within the walls, while the ex- 
posed portion of the beam within the room is entirely sound. 

A large mill was built a number of years ago, just previous 
to the failure of the corporation, and lay unoccupied for about 
five years. When the property was sold, the new owners did 
not dare to place machinery in this mill until the beams had 
been removed and new ones substituted. The portion of the 
beams in the rooms was entirely sound, the decay being limited 
to the portion built into the walls. 

The general method of construction to obviate the difficulty 
is by building pilastered walls containing vertical flues into 
which the end of the beams project, while at the side of the 
beams and on top, a slight air-space is left during construction. 
Dry-rot frequently occurs in the beams of the first story of a 
mill without any cellar, and it has been obviated in the most 
successful manner in cotton-mills by running a flue from the 
picker-room to this space under the mill, and making a number 
of six-inch holes through the underpinning walls of the mill ; 
the pickers requiring a supply of air draw it from outdoors 
beneath the mill, and in that manner dampness is prevented 



from gathering upon the beams. 

It is proverbially well-known that wood will withstand decay 
when kept either entirely wet or absolutely dry. The piles 
that supported the houses of the pre-historic dwellers over the 
Swiss lakes, and the wood in the tombs of Egypt, both attest 
the accuracy of this statement. But in a more familiar way it 
may be noticed in the beams used in wet places around water- 
wheels where timber pressed against a wet ledge will decay 
towards the wheel where it is exposed to dampness, and remain 
perfectly sound at the end which is constantly wet. 

Much has been said and little done about the antiseptic treat- 
ment of timber. The most valuable contribution to the subject 
being contained in the " Transactions of the American Society 
of Civil Engineers" Vol. IV, page 274, but the difficulty with 
all preparations has been their solubility in water or their ex- 
pense. Lime seems to be the most perfect preservative for 
wood as long as it can be kept in contact with it. Exposure 
to water which will remove the lime, will, of course, leave the 
wood defenceless, although one may notice in the old-style 
paper-mills operated by overshot wheels, that the portion of the 
wheel receiving the lime refuse thrown out from the bleaches 
will remain sound, while the rest of the wheel will decay with 
a rapidity dependent upon the character of the water in the 
stream and the lumber employed. The general value of lime 
as a preservative of wood, may be noted when one considers 
the admirable condition in which laths are always found. I 
doubt if any one ever knew a decayed lath to be removed from 
contact with plaster. 

The use of modern types of rolled-iron beams has been fol- 
lowed by the most satisfactory results in the matter of 
safety ; a result no doubt largely due to the skilled supervision 
which such work has received, but in a great measure it is 
ascribable to the excellent tables and information of the most 
reliable nature contained in the catalogues issued by the rolling- 
mills, which are prepared by the best engineering skill, and are 
far more trustworthy than pretentious treatises upon the subject. 
It should be stated that the foregoing notes are offered 
entirely from the standpoint of an engineer, and not from that 
of an architect who is obliged to consider these various problems 
in combination with elements of design, and also with questions 
of convenience which are rarely in harmony with the best con- 
ditions of applying engineering principles and economical dis- 
tribution of material. 

Like all other works of mankind, those of the architect do not 
reach an idealism, but their defects are generally the result <sf 
obstructive conditions limiting every element of the work, and 
far from what would be done in accordance with the untram- 
melled judgment. 



FEBRUARY 11, 1888.] The American Architect and Building Newt. 



As Carlyle said of Voltaire, "You, indeed, swing the torch 
to burn old abuses, but where do you wield the hammer to 
build new reforms." 

It is, indeed, more easy to offer a criticism than to apply any 
practicable suggestions with prospect of prevailing ; knowing 
that the accomplishment of sounder methods of buildings can 
be established only as public sentiment is developed to require 
such courses as will attain greater measures of stability, perman- 
ence and beauty. C. J. H. WOODBURT. 

[To be continued.] 




OPEN-TIMBER ROOFS OF THE MIDDLE AGES.' III. 
(B 8) Collar-braced Roofs. 

E collar- 
braced roof 
is properly 
considered as a 
simplification of 
the hammer- 
beam. It had 
been found, as is 
shown in the dif- 
ferent varieties 
of hammer-beam 
roofs (33, 34, 35) 
that the different 
members, as col- 
lar-beam, braces, 
etc., could be 
separately d i s - 
pensed with. In 
the Westminster 

example it was evident that the ability of the hammer-beam for so large 
a span had been questioned and assistance was sought and obtained in 
the form of the large arch. As a matter of fact, the arch does nearly 
all the work, as may be seen from the method of framing. The next 
step in the order of 
development, there- 
fore, was to discard 
the hammer-beam 
itself (Fig. 36) and 
emphasize other 
members, viz., the 
collar-b e a m and 
braces, whence the 
name collar-braced 
roof. The forms of 
trusses used in this 
kind of roof often 
resemble those used 
in the trussed-rafter 

roof, but it must be fr ' g - 37> 

remembered that 

the former is double-framed, whereas the latter is a single-framed 
roof. This distinction must be kept in mind, for the term collar- 
braced roof is made 
to include roofs in 
which the braces are 
very flat and the col- 
lar-beam is reduced 
to a mere wedge at 
the ridge. (See Fig- 
ure 87.J 

Collar-braced 
roofs, with flat Tudor 
arches, were used in 
the late Perpendicu- 
lar period, but were, 





Fig. 38. 



of course, limited to small spans. 

ROOFS AS THEY OCCUR IN THE HISTORICAL STYLES. 

Norman. The wooden roofs of the period are of the simplest 
type. Generally the 
tie-beams are placed 
close together, and 
to their undersides a 
flat wooden ceiling is 
nailed. Often, how- 
ever, the roofs are 
not sheathed, but in 
such instances then 
is little effort toward 
decorative treatment. 
The roofs of Roches- F'- 39. 

ter and Winchester 

are cited by Rickman as examples of Norman open-timber roofs, while 
that at Peterborough is typical of the flat-boarded ceiling class. At 

1 Continued from No. 631, page 41. 





Fig. 40. 



Peterborough the tie-beam is raised so as to give a form like that in 
Figure 8|$ The ceiling is painted with a geometrical design, in 
which appear zigzag lozenges and other characteristic Norman 
ornament. The roof at Ely is treated in a similar style, but the roof 
takes a pentagonal sha[>e somewhat as shown in Figure 39. 

Early English. Very few examples exist of roofs which can be 
clearly distinguished as l>elonging to this style. The trussed-rafter 
roof is generally supposed to have come into use during this period. 
The decorative treatment is rather plain. The timbers are usually 
chamfered ; the tie-beam is sometimes moulded. Wooden ceilings in 
imitation of stone-vaults are found, the details of which are Early 
English in character. An example of such a wooden roof was shown 
in Figure 2. The cloisters of Lincoln were roofed in this fashion. 
The pitch of the roofs in this period was steep and did not vary 
much, the angle at the ridge generally approximating a right angle. 
Decorated. The construction of roofs in this period does not 
differ materially from that of the preceding except in the more 
careful elaboration and greater richness of details. A form of 

frequent occur- 
rence is the 
trussed-r after 
with arched 
ribs. Inter- 
rupted mould- 
ings are termi- 
nated with 
carved leaves, 
etc. Spandrels 
where they oc- 
cur are generally 
pierced and 
filled with trac- 
ery. An inter- 
esting roof is 
that over the 
Archbishop of 
C a n t e r b ury's 

palace at Mayfield, Sussex. This roof is really supported by great 
stone-arches, a device that was adopted in several other places. 

Perpendicular. The characteristic roof of this period is the ham- 
mer-beam, of which the best known specimens are those at West- 
minster Hall, Hampton Court, and Eltham Palace. The roof of the 
hall at Eltham (Figure 40) is not so large nor so well designed as that 
at Westminster. The large arch is made so flat and the hammer- 
beam braces are so short and placed so high up that the construc- 
tive proportions of the hammer-beam roof were, as Fergusson says, 
destroyed. In fact the constructive significance of the big arch, so 
striking in the Westminster example, is neglected in that at Eltham. 
Nevertheless, " with all its constructive faults there are few examples 
of more elegance to disarm criticism and invite admiration." 2 

These hall-roofs were very large and elaborate. Those used in 
churches were much smaller and less pretentious. A good example 
of a roof of the latter class would be that of Trunch Church (Fergus- 
son, Vol. II, page 183.) In Figure 84 the main lines of the roof 
may be seen. As has been said, the varieties of the hammer-beam 
roof are many, no two, in fact, being exactly alike. All, however, 
are characterized by rich decoration, tracery, mouldings, bosses, 
angels, etc., are found in great profusion. 

Another kind of roof commonly used in churches of small span is 
the tie-beam roof of very low pitch (Figure 19.) In this roof the 
purlins and rafters were made by their intersections to form squares 
or oblongs. These were marked by flowers or shields, or filled with 
tracery ; the effect in general being one of panels so characteristic of 
this style. 

CONCLUSION. 

Material. The timber used in the construction of these roofs was 
oak. Chestnut is said to have been used to some extent, but the 
statement cannot be said to have been substantiated. 

Fastenings. The invariable method of fastening timbers together 
was by mortice, tenon and wooden pin. No iron bolts or straps were 
used. The reason for this is that the corrosion of the iron is fol- 
lowed by decay of timber, and this by loosening of bolts. 

Purlins. In almost all the roofs it will be observed that the pur- 
lins instead of lying over the principals, as in ancient and modern 
roofs, a:e framed into them, thus making the common rafters flush 
with the principals on their upper surfaces. 

Ridge. One peculiarity to be noticed in the framing of the rafters 
is the absence of the ridge piece, the rafters being simply halved and 
fastened by an oak pin. Even where the ridge piece is found the 
rafters are framed as before, and the ridge timber appears beneath 
them. 

^ There can be no doubt that in many cases the Gothic carpenters 
relied too much on the sizes of timbers and the strength of timber 
used, rather than on strictly scientific construction."* This is un- 
doubtedly true, but it is to be said on the other hand, that one great 
beauty of many of these designs is that they show that due allowance 
has been made not only for sufficient strength for actual construction 
but also for the appearance of strength, an effect that is always satis- 
factory. 



From an article on JJHtiik Carpentry," Building If act, 1870. 

From an article on " Koof Construction of the Middle Ages," Building Ae 



The American Architect and Building 




-No. 638. 



Decoration. -Many of the roofs were decorated 
relief, lied, green, yellow and gold were the colors most freque 
used. The carving is always excellent. fntMr- archi- 

So essential does the vault appear to have been to Gothic a.chi 
lecture . . . that it is at first sight difficult to admit that any other 
form of covering can be as beautiful. But some of the <fj*j 
lish churches go far to refute the idea. Kven, however, if thej are 
not in themsefves so monumental and so grand, they had at least this 
advantage, that the absence of the vault allowed the architect o 
play with the construction of the substructure. Great merit of the 
wooden roof was that it enabled the architect to dispense with all 
flying-buttresses, exaggerated pinnacles and mechanical x P edlents > 
which were necessary to support a vault, but which often sadly 
hampered and crowded his designs." [Fergusson.] 

APPENDIX. 

A list is subjoined of the authorities, consulted in the preparation 
of this paper. 

Brandon. " Open Timber Roofs." 

Builder, 1876. Article on the " Architectural Treatment of the 

Building News, 1870. Articles on " British Carpentry." 
Buildinq News, 1876. Articles on " Woodwork." 
Building News, 1880. Articles on the " Roof Construction of the 
Middle Ages." 

Da vies. "Architectural Studies in France. 

Fergusson. "History of Architecture." 

Hubsch. Monuments de L' Architecture Chretienne."^ 

Johnson. " Specimens of Early French Architecture." 

Parker. " Glossary." 

Rickman. "English Architectural Styles." 

Smith. " Specimens of Ancient (British) Carpentry." 

Tred<rold. " Elementary Principles of Carpentry." 



Viollet-Ie-Duc. 
(Charpente.) 



Dictionnaire Raisonne de L' Architecture " 
HARRY ELLINGWOOD DONNELL. 




[Contributors are requested to send with their drawings full and 
adequate descriptions of the buildings, including a statement of cost.] 

CHURCH OF ST. PIERRE, MONTREAL, P. Q. 
[.Gelatine Prliit, issued only with the Imperial Edition.] 

FOR some mention of this building, see the American Architect for 
October 1, 1887. 

HOUSE FOR P. E. CHILLMAN, ESQ., CHESTNUT HILL, PHILADELPHIA, 
PA. MR. J. C. WORTHINGTON, ARCHITECT, PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

TTATERIAL, Chestnut Hill stone throughout; roofs throughout, 
lYl cedar, shingle stained with Cabot's Creosote Stain ; woodwork 
J painted in neutral colors; gable ends, dashed plasterwork; 
interior finish, white pine, natural finish ; hall in oak. Building 
about 40' x 50'. Cost approximates $8,000. The special feature of 
the house is in arrangement of bath and water closet rooms, which 
may be made common or separate at will. 

HOUSE OF A. O. LANE, ESQ., BIRMINGHAM, ALA. MR. EDOUARD 
8IDEL, ARCHITECT, BIRMINGHAM, ALA. 

THIS house is now in course of construction and is situated 
on the corner of 8th Avenue and 19th Street. It is built of 
stone, cast-iron, St. Louis pressed brick, and has a slate roof ; con- 
tains all the modern improvements in the way of heating, ventila- 
tion, and electric bells, etc. It will cost when completed $30,000. 

COMPETITIVE DESIGN FOR THE NEW YORK LIFE INSURANCE 
BUILDING, ST. PAUL, MINN. MR. J. WALTER STEVENS, ARCH- 
ITECT, ST. PAUL, MINN. 

HOUSES FOR E. W. COOPER, UTICA, AND FOR PROF. H. C. J. 
BRANDT, CLINTON, N. Y. MR. EDWARD W. COOPER, ARCHITECT, 
UTICA, N. Y. 

STREET IN ST. LIZIER, ARI^GE, FRANCE. SKETCHED BY MR. H. 
P. KIRBY, ARCHITECT. 



THE DEATH OF M. GODIN OF GUISE. The founder of the "Familis- 
tere" at Guise, Aisne, has just died. St. Jean Baptiste Andre Godin 
was the son of a locksmith, and was born in 1817. In 1846 he set up as 
an iron-founder at Guise, and speedily became wealthy. In 1859 he 
erected the " Familistere," consisting of 600 cottages, with co-opera- 
tive shops, club, theatre, etc., for his workmen. In 1871 he was elected 
a Deputy, but withdrew from public life in 1875. London Times, 




Fig. 510. 




FOURTH ANNUAL REPORT OF THE BUREAU OF 
ETHNOLOGY. 1 HI- 

FRANK HAMILTON GUSHING ON PUEBLO POTTERY AND ZUNI CUL- 
TURE GROWTH. 

'HE paper by Mr. Frank 
Hamilton Gushing on 
"A Study of Pueblo 
Pottery as Illustrative of 
Zuni Culture Growth " is 
made, by the method adopt- 
ed, a most important and 
remarkable contribution to 
ethnological research. It ap- 
propriately follows the pa- 
pers by Mr. Holmes, for, in 
pursuing a different line of 
investigation, Mr. Gushing 
affords absolute confirmation of the correctness of Mr. Holmes's 
conclusions, arrived at wholly from an archaeological standpoint. 
Mr. Gushing combines his archaeological knowledge with a close 
intimacy with the Zuni tongue, obtained by his long course of 
ethnological researches among that people. Working largely on 
lin<nristfc lines, in a way that shows the born philologist, with rare 
ingenuity he weaves from the inherent evidences of language a net- 
work of evidence that runs far into the forgotten past, and from van- 
ished ages he brings facts concerning the origin of an art into the 
li<rht of "this century's knowledge. 

Through the kindness of the Bureau of Ethnology, the American 
Architect was enabled a few months ago to lay before its readers, 
from advance sheets, the first part of Mr. Cushing's paper relating 
to " Habitations affected by Environment." It formed a unique con- 
tribution to the literature of " American architecture " in the purest 
sense, and therefore it was with peculiar appropriateness that it first 
saw the light in this journal. Many of our readers must have been 
impressed with the strength 
of the evidence afforded by 
the linguistic argument where- 
by was indicated the proba- 
ble sequence of architectural 
types in the evolution of the 
Pueblo, from the brush lodge, 
of which only the name surv- 
ives among the Zunis of to- r\ s . 511. 
day, to the present many-sto- 
ried and terraced communal structures to be found throughout New 
Mexico, Arizona and contiguous regions. 

The linguistic evidence of the derivation of Zuni pottery from bas- 
Ketry, as cited by Mr. Gushing, affords a complete chain of proof. 
He describes the lining of a shallow tray of basket-work with clay to 

make it available for roast- 
ing purposes or processes, 
which he has witnessed 
among the Havasupai In- 
dians, a sedentary tribe is- 
olated in the Colorado Can- 
on. This clay lining, hard- 
ened by continual heating 
from the coals placed upon 
it, when detached from its 
matrix of osiers, forms in 
itself a complete roasting- 
vessel. The modern Zuni 
name for a parching-pan ; a shallow bowl of black-ware, has a name 
of the same meaning as that applied to a basket tray, signifying " a 
shallow vessel of twigs." 

Anciently, boiling was done, with the aid of hot stones, in water- 
tight baskets of pot-like shapes. These and kindred forms of basket- 
vessels were often quite elaborately ornamented by angular devices, 
like serrated bands, diagonal or zig-zag lines, chevrons, and even 
terraces and frets. Mr. Gushing traces the development of these 
methods of decoration to the elaboration on suggestions of the lines 
and figures unavoidably produced in wicker-work of any kind when 

strands of different colors 
happen to be employed tc- 
;ether and even by slight 
iscolorations in occasional 
splints. The probability of 
this view is shown by a 
consideration of the etymol- 
ogy of a few Zuni decora- 
tive terms. A terraced loz- 
enge on their pottery, in- 
Rg- 5I3- stead of being named after 

the abstract word that signifies a double terrace, or two terraces 
joined at the base, as would naturally seem to be what they would 
do, is called by a word signifying "the double-splint-stitch-form 
mark," a term clearly derived from basket-work, as may be seen 
from a comparison of Figures 510 and 511 with 512 and 513. Also, 
a pattern composed of a series of diagonal or oblique parallel 

'Continued from No. 031, page 46. 




Fig. 5 I 2. 




fo 633 

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IKGHITEGT ,HND BUILDING- REWS.FEB- II 1555. 

GGPnEB&rVWSTttQKBDB 1C 




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KK 11 1555 $O. (>33 





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iKttHITKGT flM) gnLDIXG $KNVS. p.Hli. 1 ] 1555 fe{c). 633- 




FEBRUARY 11, 1888.] 



The American Architect and Building News. 



lines, as in Figure 514, is called a name meaning " tapering " or 
"neck-splint mark." "Curiously enough, in a bottle-shaped, Bas- 
ket, as it approaches completion, the splints of the tapering part 
or neck all lean spirally side by side of one another (see Fig. 514), 
and a term descriptive of this has cone to be applied to lines resem- 
bling it, instead of a derivative from as set lai e, signifying an oblique 
or leaning line. Where splints variously arranged, or stitches, have 

given names to decoration applied 
even to painted or embroidered de- 
signs it is not difficult for us to 
see that these same combinations, 
at first unintentional, must have 
suggested the forms to which they 
give names as decorations." 

It seems that the method of form- 
ing basket-work by a coiling pro- 
cess suggested the method of mak- 
ing pottery by coiling it of thin 
ropes of clay. The evolution of 
the cooking-vessels of modern Zuni 
from the coiled boiling-basket of 
ancient times is indicated by the 
close resemblance of form between 
the vessels of pottery and of bas- 
ket-work, with even the rudimen- 
tary survival of the basket-han- 




Fig. 5 I 4. 




dies in two conical projec- 
tions near the rim of the clay 
pot, varied in later times to 
form scrolls. A most con- 
vincing link in this chain of 
connection, however, is to be 
found in the names of the two 
kinds of vessels, the name of 
one meaning " coiled cooking- 
basket " and the latter "coiled 
earthenware cooking-basket." 
Mr. Gushing shows how other 
important types of vessels of 
pottery developed in a similar 
way from basketry forms. 

An important fact in influ- 
encing the development of 
the ceramic art of the South- 
west is shown by Mr. Gush- 
ing to be the mineral char- 
acter of a locality. " Where 
clay occurred of a fine, tough Fi - 5 ' 5- 

texture, easily mined and manipulated, the work in terra-cotta became 
proportionately more elaborate in variety and finer in quality. 
There are to be found about the sites of some ancient Pueblos 
potsherds incredibly abundant and indicating great advance in deco- 
rative art, while near others, architecturally similar, even where 
evidence of ethnic connection is not wanting, only coarse, crudely 
moulded and painted fragments are discoverable, and these in 
limited quantity." A modern instance is to be found in the outlying 
farming Pueblos of Zufii, at one of which, there being an abundance 
of clays of several varieties and of color-minerals, the finest pottery 
of the tribe is made in great quantity, while at another, where 
clay is scarce and poor in texture, the pottery is of miserable quality 
and poor shape. The same holds true in regard to decoration ; 
where the mineral deposits furnish a great variety of pigment- 
material, the decoration of the ceramic remains is "so surprisingly 
and universally elaborate, beautiful and varied as to lead the observer 
to regard the people who dwelt there as different from the people 
who had inhabited towns about the sites of which the sherds show 
not only meagre skill and less profuse decorative variety, but almost 
typical dissimilarity." Yet the inhabitants of both sections may be 
of common derivation and even closely related and contemporaneous. 

An important fact brought out in Mr. Cushing's discussion of the 
materials employed and the methods resorted to in burning pottery, 
is that bituminous coal, according to tradition, was the most perfect 
fuel, and where abundant and accessible, was much used. Support 
is given to this tradition by the traces of little pit-kilns filled with 
cinders of mineral-coal about many of the ruins in the northwestern 
portion of the Pueblo region, coupled with the semi-fusion and well- 
preserved condition of most of the ancient jars found associated with 
them. Additional confirmation was found by Mr. Gushing by dis- 
covering that some excellent counterfeits of ancient pottery, brought 
him at Aloki, wers made by the use of bituminous coal. When asked 
why they did not use it commonly in burning their household pottery, 
the Indians told him that the pots broke more frequently than when 
fired with dried sheep-dung in the common way, and that the latter 
was also less troublesome, requiring only to be dug from the corrals 
near by and dried to make it ready for use. In this connection, it 
is of interest to remark that Professor Putnam's explorations in Ohio 
show that bituminous coal was also used by the mound-builders, 
although its use was not general, owing to the abundance of wood. 

The remarks on the evolution of form and decoration are so sug- 
gestive and instructive that their brevity is to be regretted. The 
discussion of decorative symbolism gives a charming glimpse at Zufii 
mythology. Mr. Gushing calls attention to the fact that on every 



class of food and water vessels, in Ixjth ancient and modern Pueblo 
pottery (with the important exceptions of pitchers and some sacred 
receptacles), it is a singular and almost constant feature that encir- 
cling lines and often even ornamental zones are not joined at the 
ends, a slight space always breaking the completion of the cin-lr. 
He asked the Indian women, when he saw them making these little 
spaces with great care, why they took so much pains to leave them 
open. They replied that to close them was dk ta HI, " fearful ! " 
that this little space through the line or zone on a vessel was the 
" exit trail of life or being." Of course they could not tell how it 
came to be first left open and why regarded as the "exit trail." 
" But," says Mr. Gushing, " if one studies the mythology of this 
people and their ways of thinking, then watches them closely, he 
will, however, get other clews. When a woman has made a vessel, 
dried, polished and painted it, she will tell you, with an air of relief, 
that it is a ' Made Being.' Her statement is confirmed as a sort of 
article of faith, when it is seen that as she places the vessel in the 
kiln, she also places in and beside it some food. Evidently she 
vaguely gives something about the vessel a personal existence. The 
question arises, how did these people come to regard food-receptacles 
or water-receptacles as possessed of, or accompanied by, conscious 
existences. I have found that the Zuni argues actual and essential 
relationship from similarity in the appearance, function or other 
attributes of even generically diverse things." This mental bias hag 
both influenced pottery decoration and been itself influenced by it. 
The noise made by a pot when struck or when simmering on a fire 
is supposed to be the voice of its associated being. The clang of a 
pot when it breaks or suddenly cracks in burning is the cry of this 
being as it escapes or separates from the vessel. The fact that the 
vase when cracked or fragmentary never resounds as it did when 
whole is regarded as proof that this being has departed. " This 
vague existence never cries out violently unprovoked, but it is sup- 
posed to acquire the power of doing so by imitation ; hence, no one 
sings, whistles or makes other strange or musical sounds resembling 
those of earthenware under the circumstances above described 
during the smoothing, polishing or painting, or other processes of 
finishing. The being, thus incited, they think, would surely strive 
to come out, and would break the vessel in so doing. In this we 
find a partial explanation of the native belief that a pot is accom- 
panied by a conscious existence. The rest of the solution of this 
problem in belief is involved in the native philosophy and worship of 
water. Water contains the source of continued life. The vessel 
holds the water ; the source of life accompanies the water ; hence, 
its dwelling-place \a in the vessel with the water. Finally, the vessel 
is supposed to contain the treasured source, irrespective of the water 
as do wells and springs, or even the places where they have been. 
If the encircling lines inside of the eating-bowl, outside of the water- 
jar, were closed, there would be no exit trail for this invisible source 
of life or for its influence or breath." 

Two considerations are submitted as to why the source of life, or 
its influence, must be provided with a trail by which to pass out. 
The difficulty of smoothly joining an incised line around a still soft 
clay pot, and the still greater difficulty when the ornamental band is 
laid on in relief, would naturally cause the savage to leave the ends 
unjoined. When paint came to be the decorative agent, the lines or 
bands would be left unjoined in imitation. As set forth in Tylor's 
" Early History," a " myth of observation " like the above would 
come to be assigned in after ages. But whether this be true or not, 
Mr. Gushing considers it an insufficient solution of the problem. 

The Pueblo, he goes on to say, naturally considers water the prime 
source of life, or as accompanied by it, for, without the presence of 
living water, very few things would grow in his desert land. He has 
therefore come to regard water as the milk of adults, to speak of it 
as such, and as the all-sufficient nourishment which the earth, in his 
conception of it as the mother of men, yields. When his race was 





Fig. 548. Fig. 549. 

one of cliff and mesa dwellers, the most common vessel appertaining 
to his daily life was the flat-bellied canteen, or water-carrier, which 
was suspended by a band across the forehead, so as to hang against 
the back, thus leaving the hands as well as the feet free for assist- 
ance in climbing. Its form (Fig. 547) seems to have been suggested 
by that of the human mammary gland, or perhaps its peculiar form 
may have suggested a relationship, as may be seen by a comparison 



68 



The American Architect and Building News. [VOL. XXIII. No 888. 




of Figures 548, 549. Its name in Zufii is derived from the same 
source as that of the human mammary gland. A surviving supersti- 
tion inclines Mr. Gushing to the view that the me he ton, as it is 
called, was originally left open at the apex instead of at the top, but, 
beino- found to leak with the aperture so low, this was closed. When 
a woman has completed the vessel nearly to the apex, by the coiling 
process, and before she has inserted the nozzle, Figure 549, 6, she 
prepares a little wedge of clay, and, as she closes the apex with it, 
she turns her eyes away. When asked why she does this, she 
replies that it is" "fearful" to look at the vessel while closing it at 
this point ; that if she look at it during this operation she will be 
liable to become barren, or various other calamities may befall her 
or those who drink out of the vessel ! Mr. Cushing's impression is 
that, reasoning from analogy, the Zufii woman supposes that by 
closing the apex she closes the way for the source of life, and that 
the woman who closes this way knowingly (that is, in her own sight) 
voluntarily closes the exit way for the source of life in her own 
mammse, etc. 

Other types of the canteen, of later origin, not only retained the 
name-root of this primitive form, but also its attributed functions. 
The canteens used by hunters, shown in Figure 550, has a name that 
means " mammaries joined together by a neck." In closing the 
ends, c c, of this curious vessel, the women are as careful to turn the 
,, ^^^ eyes away as in closing 

-^^^- the apex of the older 

form. The resemblance 
to the end of the mam- 
ma not being striking, 
they place on either side 
of the nozzle a pair of 
little conical projections, 
resembling the teats, and 
so called. The reason 

Fig. 550. for there being four of 

these seems to be that this canteen is designed for the use of the 
hunter, whose proper nourishment is the game he kills ; hence, the 
source of his life, like that of the young of his game, is symbolized 
in the canteen by the mammaries, not of human beings, but of game- 
animals. We are brought nearer to an understanding of the ques- 
tion under discussion by a feature in these canteens. When orna- 
mental bands are painted around either end of the neck of one of 
them, they are interrupted at the little projections. Mr. Gushing 
has, indeed, observed specimens on which these lines, if placed a 
little further out, were interrupted at the top opposite the little pro- 
jections, as shown in the illustration. It would seem that paint, like 
clay, came by analogy to be regarded as a barrier to the exit of the 
source of life. " This idea of the source of life once associated with 
the canteen would readily become connected with the water-jar, 
which, if not the offspring of the canteen, at least usurped its place 
in the household economy of these people. From the water-jar, it 
would pass naturally to drinking-vessels and eating-bowls, explaining 
the absence of the interrupted lines on the oldest of these and their 
constant occurrence on recent and modern examples, for the painted 
lines being left open at the apices, or near the projections on the 
canteens, they should also be unjoined on other vessels with which 
the same ideas were associated." 

This description, which we have necessarily somewhat abbreviated, 
affords a good example of the subtile methods of research employed 
by Mr. Gushing, and shows how necessary it is to identify one's self 
with the life and mode of thought of a people in order to understand 
them with a correctness essential for true ethnological work. He 
concludes that we may hope, by a patient study of the ceramic 
remains of a people, no matter where situated, to discover what was 
the type of their pre-ceramic vessels, and thereby we might also 
learn whether, at the time of the origin of the potter's art or during 
its development, they had, like the Pueblos, been indigenous to the 
area in which they had been found, or whether they had, like some 
of the Central Americans (to make a concrete example and judge it 
by this method), apparently immigrated in part from desert North 
America, in part from the wilderness of an equatorial region in 
South America. 

There are some things established by the linguistic evidences 
developed by Mr. Gushing which have a most important bearing on 
ethnological science. It is shown that the art of pottery-making 
must have been developed by a people speaking the Zufii language 
from the time of the primitive beginnings of the art founded upon 
basketry forms entirely within its own ethnic lines, and apparently 
unaffected by influences from other peoples. And the long lingual 
line of descent which has thus preserved the tokens of the ancestry 
of forms from a past which must be considerably remote, shows a 
remarkable stability of language. Indeed, it proves how completely 
erroneous must be the theory advanced, we believe, by Mr. Herbert 
Spencer, that the languages of primitive or illiterate peoples are 
unstable. On the contrary, it seems safe to assume as an ethnologi- 
cal law that the language of a people is stable according to the sta- 
bility of its environment. A language naturally changes to suit 
changing conditions, and the changes consequent upon a commingling 
of different peoples, like those entailed by the conquest of England 
by the Normans, resulting iu a new and conglomerate tongue, are, 
of course, far more swift and radical than those coming from the 
removal of a people into even an entirely new set of natural sur- 
roundings. Investigation would probably show that while the lan- 



B uage of a people is made more stable by a general literacy, which 
ixes and preserves its forms as shown by the petrifaction of even 
;rave errors of pronunciation and spelling by dictionary authority in 
;he English tongue the language of an illiterate nation of a high 
culture grade is made unstable by its subjection to the influences of 
'oreign contact. But a race developing amidst a uniform environ- 
ment and not subjected to foreign influences, would naturally evince 
a, lingual evolution of a slow and gradual kind, corresponding to the 
normal growth of the race in thought as modified by experience. 

SYLVESTER BAXTER. 




T T HENRY HAVARD, whose name is ever properly held in 
lyl regard because of his works on art, has just put forth the first 
J "** volume of his " Dictionary of Furniture and Decoration " 1 from 
;he thirteenth century to our own days. The complete work will 
consist of four quarto volumes, in two columns, and will have from 
ive hundred to seven hundred illustrations in each volume. In his 
preface, M. Havard says that the collection of the materials for this 
work, the researches and preparatory studies have demanded nearly 
ten years. This is not at all unlikely, considering the care and 
attention paid to details that one finds in every article.' The author 
lias delved amongst all the memoirs, all the journals, dictionaries 
and inventories century by century since the fourteenth, and it is 
From Froissart, Clement, Marot, Rabelais, Brantdme, Se'vigne', 
D'Argenson, etc., that he has extracted instruction. 

His object was to complete and, where possible, rectify the cele- 
brated work of Viollet-le-Duc upon the furniture of the Middle Ages. 
This dictionary, to judge by the first volume which has just appeared, 
and includes the letters A to G, will be valued by the learned, by men 
of letters, archaeologists and artists. Here gathered together and 
disengaged from every detail which does not refer directly to the 
word sought, are facts and documents, to discover which for himself 
would demand enormous time and numberless searches on the part of 
the artist or the inquirer who has need of it. 

The practical side, without being absolutely neglected, occupies a 
more modest place in this work, which is written rather from the 
historic and anecdotical standpoint. In this respect the dictionary 
of M. Havard is very complete and exact. It is at the same time 
as interesting and amusing for the serious artist as for the amateur. 
Every word has its history and its complete genealogy sometimes 
a little too long. In confronting so serious a work and such con- 
scientious efforts, one experiences a scruple in risking any criticisms, 
especially before the work is complete, and consequently cannot yet 
be judged as a whole. Nevertheless, it may be allowable to point 
out at the present time the somewhat excessive agglomeration of 
details of quite secondary interest in certain articles considered and 
the brevity of certain others. The absence or the multiplicity of 
documents relating to these articles may be the cause of this, but the 
author might have been able to prune and condense a little more in 
some cases. The criticism of such works is a very delicate task ; 
being addressed to everybody, that which seems useless to some may 
be precious to others, and M. Havard could answer complaint by 
citing such or such groups of artists, curiosity mongers, or investiga- 
tors, for whom the very things which are considered valueless become 
the best of qualities. Thus, in order not to risk imposing an opinion 
which may not be shared and giving voice to an unjust judgment by 
looking at the matter from a point of view altogether too special, 
it is perhaps preferable to take certain articles in the dictionary and 
show in what manner they are treated. Let it be then two words of 
different characters that of a movable utensil in daily use, such as 
a knife, and that of a portion of a habitation a chamber. I 
choose these articles with intention. The first is a detail and occu- 
pies relatively a modest place in the ranks of furnishings ; the second, 
on the contrary, the chamber, incloses a quantity of indispensable 
accessories which form the whole. It is interesting, therefore, to see 
how M. Havard has treated these two articles, and by applying the 
same method to other articles, one can more easily take cognizance 
of the utility and value of the work. 

To the word "knife" have been devoted twelve columns and 
twenty drawings, and yet the author, leaving one side all the differ- 
ent applications of this utensil, has limited himself to mentioning the 
adaptations which strictly concern furniture and present a direct 
contact with the service of the table and the toilet. The article 
commences with a little history of the guild of cutlers, which, in the 
thirteenth century, was divided into two communities, one manufac- 
ing blades and the other handles. This separation did not long con- 
tinue, and the two professions were united in the first half of the 
fourteenth century. At this time the richness of knives was already 
considerable. If proof were necessary, one could turn to the inven- 
tory of King Charles V, in 1380, where knives are mentioned in 
whose make-up enamelled gold, ivory and silver-gilt played the prin- 

1 " Dictionnaire de I'AmeuUement et dc la Dtcoralian," par Henry Havard. 4 
vols., flexible binding. Price, $40. Paris : Maison Quintin, 



FEBRUARY 11, 1888.] 



The American Architect and Building News. 



cipal part. Here, too, is a description of a personage who was style 
the master of carving and the ceremonial surrounding this personage 
as well as the rules which regulated royal and princely tables during 
the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. The form and color of the 
knives are quite curious : thus, the color of the handles was not the 
same during Lent as at Easter, nor at Kaster as at the Passover. 
This curious custom is supported by numerous documents, and M. 
Havard cites some which emanated from Etienne de la Fontaine, 
silversmith to King John (1352), the accounts of Geoffrey de Fleury 
and Guillaume Brunei, silversmith to Charles VI (1887). 

The historical and anecdotical side is treated profoundly, thanks 
once more to information derived from the trousseau of Marie 
de Bourgogne, countess of Cloves (1415), the inventory of the 
Chateau d' Angers (1471), etc. It is thus that we see amongst other 
things that the first personage who had any idea of rounding the 
point of a knife was Cardinal Richelieu, compelled to endure at his 
table the Chancellor Seguier, who ate in a most improper way and 
picked his teeth with a Knife. Richelieu invented, the story goes, 
this means of preventing the Chancellor indulging before him in this 
ignoble practice. From that time all knives were made round-pointed. 
From the seventeenth century they began to manufacture knives 
especially made for cutting fruit, as is stated in the inventory of the 
Baroness Castelmauron (Toulouse, 1668). Finally, the author 
speakx of toilet-knives, which, from the fourteenth century, were 
employed for cutting and cleaning the finger-nails. The eighteenth 
century substituted the pen-knife for the case-knife for this useful 
task. Then the file took the place of the pen-knife. Finally, in the 
eighteenth century, appeared on the toilet table of the ultra-fashion- 
ables a knife to scrape off face-powder. These little instruments 
were extremely rich in design ; that of Madame de Pompadour had 
a lacquered handle, and the blade and ornaments in gold. Finally, 
the article closes with a few words on the modern paper-knife. 

We see by this epitome how complete is the treatment of 
this article and with how many documentary proofs the author sup- 
ports himself. What will they be then for a more important sub- 
ject, such as is the chamber. Forty-eight columns quite a small 
volume are consecrated to it, and eighteen engravings, four full- 
page plates in color. And first of all comes the history of the word 
itself, and its meaning at different epochs. Formerly it designated 
indifferently all the rooms of a house ; thus one said, " the king's 
chamber," " the bathing chamber," " the tapestry chamber," etc. 
This manner of designation persisted for generations. In the seven- 
teenth century the " blue chamber " of the beautiful Julie D'Angennes 
was celebrated amongst the habitue's of the Hotel de Rambouillet. 
In our time the custom is continued, and in the chateaux they still 
designate the chambers by their color or the nature of the hangings ; 
but the one chamber with which M. Havard concerns himself in his 
dictionary is the bedchamber, the room in which, throughout all 
time, people have slept. 

In the feudal habitations of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries 
we encounter two distinct kinds of chambers, although both are bed- 
chambers the chambre de parade and the chambre au giate still 
smaller. Charles V, ill in the Chateau de Beaute, suffers and is cared 
for in the chambre au giste upon a narrow palette, but when his last 
hour is near he is carried into the swell chamber and placed upon a 
grand ceremonial bed, in order that he can draw his last breath with 
becoming dignity and surrounded by the paraphernalia that com- 
ported his rank. This digression upon the r61e which the chamber 
used to play, in spite of its curious and interesting side, is a little 
too long. 

In the sixteenth century, the separation between the spare cham- 
ber and the ordinary chamber disappeared at court, at least, where 
the kings and queens used to admit a crowd of courtiers at their 
awakening or their rising from bed. Everybody knows how impor- 
tant in the time of Louis XIV was held the favor of being present at 
the rising or couching of the king. This singular promiscuousness 
brought about a transformation in the furnishing of the chamber: 
there was first the " ruelle," a free space arranged under the cur- 
tains and draperies between the bed and the wall ; then the " alcove," 
which was imported from Spain, but which was not at this epoch the 
recess to which we have since given this name. The alcove at that 
time consisted of columns and balustrades, which divided the cham- 
ber into two unequal parts : in the smallest was the bed, the prie- 
dieu, some chairs, etc. Then follows a rehabilitation after the most 
authentic documents relating to the furniture and the arrangements 
of the chambers of a certain number of illustrious personages, lords 
and ladies : Jeanne de Bourgogne (1316) ; Queen Clemence of Hun- 
gary (1328) ; Marie de Bourgogne, countess of Cleves (1425) ; 
Louise of Savoy (1525) ; Catharine de Medici (1589) ; Gabriel 
Destrdes, Madame de Maintenon, Madame de Pompadour, etc. ; 
and on the masculine side, Louis XIV and Louis XV. The list is a 
long one. These names give opportunity for very interesting his- 
torical and anecdotic details, but the author stops suddenly, and it is 
only by three engravings, representing a chamber under the 
Restoration, that of Mile. Mars, a celebrated actress, and that of the 
Empress Eugenie at St. Cloud, that one can derive some contempo- 
raneous instruction which gives opportunity for comparisons of much 
interest. 

We see by these two examples that practical questions have been 
set aside. Under the article " Assemblage " we find, it is true, 
what is a mortise and tenon joint and what a dove-tail joint, but with 
this exception guch articles are rare and they are alo treated very 



briefly. It is always the anecdotic side which receives most atten- 
tion. We learn, for instance, that elevators, which are generally 
believed to be of recent invention, have been employed in houses for 
more than two centuries. They were in use in 1660 at the court of 
Savoy. This apparatus was introduced in France by the Sieur 
Villayer, a man full of invention and much intelligence. Says St. 
Simon, " It is he who invented those chnines volantes, which bv their 
counterpoise of weight rise and descend between two walls "to the 
story where one wishes to go while seated within. Madame la 
Duchesse, the king's daughter, wished to have one for her entresol at 
Versailles. Wishing one evening to ascend, the machine stopped 
short half-way up, so that before they heard her screams and could 
release her by breaking through the walls, she remained there a good 
three hours. This mishap caused the apparatug to pass out of 
fashion." 

In fine, the " Dictionary of Furniture and Decoration " is a work 
carefully done from every point of view. We only incline to com- 
plain that it embraces too long a period of time for the author to be 
able, in four volumes, to treat all the articles, taking care to preserve 
their relative importance and interest, in a complete and equal 
fashion. Such as it is, nevertheless, there may be found in it curious, 
interesting and, especially, exact information. It is only fair to add 
that the author and publishers recognize the obligation in which they 
may be placed of exceeding the number of pages or volumes pre- 
arranged, which would not, however, bring about any augmentation 
of the price of the work to the subscribers. 

The illustrations are carefully made, and the drawings are scrupu- 
lously exact. As to the full-page plates, the greater part are in 
color and have been reproduced by a new process of chromo-typo- 
graphy. There will be sixty-four of these for each volume, or, at 
least, two hundred and fifty-six for the entire work. 




ARCREOLOGICAL NOTES. 

ROME, January 17. 1888. 

HE controversy raised among the 
arcliJEologists by the finding at Rome 
of a chapel (sacrarius) dedicated to 
the worship of Mithras is not yet ex- 
hausted. This important discovery was 
made in the vicinity of Termini under 
the constructions which, according to 
the inscriptions, belonged to the Nummi- 
Albini family. 

Without pretending to settle the con- 
troversy, I will state the principal ele- 
ments of it. The existence of the wor- 
ship of Mithras at Rome was already 
proved by several other objects. In 
1864, some fragments relating to this 
Persian divinity were exhumed at Ostia, 
at the mouth of the Tiber, in the build- 
ings of Pius Antonius. The Mithriac 
had even cleared the walls of the ancient 
metropolis of paganism before Christian- 
ity had definitely supplanted it, towards 
the third or fourth century of our era, 
and positive traces of it have been found 
at several other points of Europe, 
notably in Transylvania and ancient Ger- 
many. Some doubts still existed as to 
the real character of the Asiatic myth. 
The Greeks and Romans believed that 
Mithras symbolized love as the principle 
of fecundity and procreation which per- 
petuates the living world. 

The painting that ornaments the re- 
cently-found chapel will aid us to settle 
the opinions on this subject. This paint- 
ing represents the taurobolium. Mithras 
seizes with the left hand the victim's 
nostrils, whilst with the knees he keeps 
down the body as though he wished to 

master it. The right arm, which probably held a dagger for the 
tilling, has been worn off by time. All that we see are the hind 
egs and a part of the back of the dog representing Sirius, guardian 
of the heavens and regulator of the year, but we divine by the pos- 
ure of the legs that the dog leans towards the wound of the sacri- 
iced beast in order to lick his blood. The bull's tail, although 
>esmeared with earth, appears to be still ornamented with a bunch 
of spike, symbol of the year's fertility. On each side of Mithras 
:here are two torch-bearers, one holding his flambeau turned towards 
he ground, while the other raises his to heaven. 

Mr. Capannari, who has written a great deal about this highly 
mportant archaeological object, and who has just died greatly 
regretted by the scientific world, saw in the lampadaire's different 
x>stures an allusion to the spring and autumn equinoxes, which 
mark the sun's coming and departure. Mithras wears the Phrygian 
miter and the red mantle (caudys). According to Mr. Capannari's 
nterpretation, the Greek and Roman idea of Mithras, which made 
dm the incarnation of the sun, was the true one, but thii eminent 



Store at Bufftlo. I. H. Knt, 
Architect. 



70 



Tlie American Architect and Building News. [VOL. XXIII. No. 633. 



archseologist expressed the opinion simply as an hypothesis and cer- 
tainly had no pretension of having closed the debate that has so long 
agitated learned societies. 

Here is a list of the latest discoveries made by the Italian exca- 
vating committee : 

At Rome an inscription has been found in the Ccelian Hill which 
probably has some connection with the epoch of the reestablishment 
of the colleges, in virtue of the Claudian law of the year 696. In 
the neighborhood of the Via Cavour they have unearthed a fragment 
relating 5 to the restorations made by order of Flavius Philip of a 
nymphoea existing in that quarter. 

At Tivoli a Hercules has been found in a well-preserved state. 
By its elegance and the finish of its forms it belongs to one of the 
best epochs of Roman art. 

In an old Capuchin convent near Verona, a collection of wine 
amphoras has been discovered, and some of the vessels still contained 
a pitchy liquid, whilst a fragment of polychromatic mosaic is re- 
ported from the vicinity of Policelle, on the Po. 

The Superintendent of Excavations at Bologna reports an im- 
portant discovery in the shape of a series of sepulchres of the first 
Christian epoch,'some of which belong to persons of distinction, to 
judge by the richness of the accessories with which they were orna- 
mented. 

But it is abave all in the Etruscan region that the researches have 
given excellent results. In the Bolesena and Orvieto zone, as well 
as in the neighborhood of Arezzo and Civita Vecchia, some very 
profitable excavations have been made; a great number of tombs 
have already been dug out, and it has been shown that the Etruscan 
burial places were much more extensive than has hitherto been 
supposed. The objects discovered have not yet been definitely 
catalogued, for they relate to an uncertain and little known his- 
torical epoch. The archaeologists are not yet agreed upon the vari- 
ous periods of Etruscan art, and the objects that are ordinarily 
founp in the tombs, such as arms, amphoras, lamps, cups, jewels 
and other accessories, give only insufficient indications of the 
periods to which they should be attributed, although the degree of 
nicety and the perfection of the artistic embellishments may gen- 
erally be considered as characteristic of certain centuries. 

H. M. 



WATER-COLORS BY JOSEPH LINDON SMITH AT THE 
BOSTON MUSEUM OF FINE ARTS. 

TITHERE is now, and will continue to be until February 22d, an 
J I < exhibition of water-colors by Mr. Joseph Lindon Smith at the 
Museum of Fine Arts, which is more worthy of attention than 
the work usually brought to the notice of the public. There are 
some sixty numbers in all, the larger part of architectural subjects, 
though there are many pencil studies from old masters and from life 
and several landscapes. The work is that of a painter, not of an 
architect, as is manifest by the facility of the technique and by the 
attention devoted to the varying tones and delicate tints with which 
time clothes architecture, in contradistinction to the clearness of out- 
line and of light and shade which to an architect appear paramount. 
Not that purity of outline or that chiaroscuro are at all lacking in 
these drawings; on the contrary, they are wonderfully rendered, but 
that the painter leaves out nothing, while the architect usually for- 
gets the accidentals, and by so doing becomes more topographical 
and less interesting except to his own ilk. It is the fact that these 
water-colors render everything that makes them so remarkable 
everything in the best sense of the word, not only drawing, color, 
sense of material, but that much better thing, the spirit and quality 
of the thing portrayed. The technique is certainly eclectic. It 
shows no strong leaning to any school. There may be a taste of the 
Paris atelier, but it is slight. There is a suggestion of the methods 
of the devotees of Ruskin, but the work has much more vigor than 
the emasculated productions of those disciples. Whenever a copy is 
made from an old master, the quality of that master is wonderfully 
reproduced. Here is evidently a man with his eyes and his heart 
open to be impressed and a hand skilful to record the impression, 
and yet he is not an impressionist (so called). The drawing is exact, 
yet without dryness, and is absolute in its fidelity in most cases. We 
remember going to the London water-color exhibition on Bond 
Street a year or two ago and coming away with a dreary distaste for 
painfully-labored, bloodless inanities, and then going into an Exhibi- 
tion of American water-colors a few doors farther on and coming out 
with an irritation at badly-drawn specious cleverness. 

These works of Mr. Smith belong to neither of these classes. 
They are skilful in drawing, beautiful in color and show a mastery of 
technique. 

It is hardly in our province to speak of anything except the archi- 
tectural work, but we cannot resist the temptation of calling atten- 
tion to No. 7, a pencil study of Rubens, " Chapeau de Faille," and 
the pencil studies Nos. 18 and 46 after Rubens, No. 26 after Holbein, 
No. 32 after Velasquez. In as few lines as possible, with but little 
shadow, and with a peculiar softness and richness of touch, these 
studies render the fleshiness and color of Rubens, the restraint and 
austerity of Holbein, the breadth and vigor of Velasquez. 

In a remarkable way, No. 10 a small color study of Bona- 
fagios, " Lazarus at the House of Dives," in the Academie dei Belle 
Arti in Venice gives an excellent sense of one of the most wonder- 



fully colored canvasses in the world. The portrait of a choir-boy in 
oils, has the simplicity and quietness of key of color of an old master. 
Of the architectural work, which gives the warmth of Venetian, 
Italian color with its co-existent delicacy, not with the garish brutali- 
ties so prevalent in Venetian views, No. 31, west front of the Cathedral, 
Verona, is one most worthy of notice. The quality of the stone in 
reflected light (the subject was painted with the light reflected from 
the pavement of the piazza), the stained surfaces, the rich glow of 
Verona marble are all expressed in a masterly manner. This glory 
of color, this wealth of opalescenee is produced from a very limited 
palette, only four colors being used, i. e., cyanine, aureolin, yellow 
ochre, rose madder, with Chinese white as a vehicle at times, when 
the chalky bloom on the surface of marble was desired. This subtile 
commingling of four colors prevents the possibility of a crude tone. 
No. 18 "Archway," S. Toma, Venice, in which the detail of the 
arch is beautifully drawn. Nos. 21 and 28, " Studies of Venetian 
Arches," with the most delicate subtility of line and gradation of 
color. Nos. 2, 3 and 4, " Venetian Wells," with very able drawing, 
the character of the carving of each type felt for each type. Besides 
these, No. 30 has fine drawing and delicacy almost reverence of 
touch, and the capitals to the pedestal of the Colleoni statue, No 20, 
are exquisitely drawn. This is only a hasty survey of the work and 
inadequate in its analysis, but that the work is of unusual character, 
is manifest at once upon seeing it. 




THE DECORATION OF McVICKER'S THEATRE, 
CHICAGO. 

CHICAGO, ILL., February, 1, 1888. 
To THE EDITORS OF THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT : 

Dear Sirs, We are led to reply to Mr. Twyman's note in your 
issue of January 28, solely for these reasons : First, to relieve Mr. 
Blackall from the embarrassment of an apparently false position ; 
second, to protect ourselves and our profession. For we feel that 
such irresponsible statements, allowed to go unanswered, cannot be 
otherwise than detrimental generally to those of us with whom archi- 
tecture is a loved and cherished art. 

We beg, therefore, to say, that Mr. Blackall is thoroughly right in 
his statement that the decorative work in McVicker's Theatre, Chi- 
cago; was executed from our designs ; and Mr. Twyman is thoroughly 
in error when he claims credit for the same. In Mr. Twyman's 
statement, however, there is a faint suggestion of truth which will be 
clearly understood, we think, when it is made known how Mr. 
Twyman, who, at the time of the remodelling of McVicker's Theatre, 
was a salesman in charge of the retail wall-paper and interior-dec- 
orations department of the extensive wall-paper house of John J. 
McGrath, Chicago, plays upon the meaning of the word decoration. 

The architectural treatment of the interior of McVicker's Theatre 
is based upon a single consistent scheme or plan which is differen- 
tiated into form, color and illumination. The transitions and inter- 
blendings are subtile ; and we deem it evident to the critical observer 
that the conception is identical throughout form, color and illumination. 

The decorations, as we understand the term, take their origin in 
certain changes of form initiated in the constructive subdivisions of 
the design. This tendency toward change gathers increased definite- 
ness as it passes through certain geometrical ramifications, and, 
taking on swiftly but without abruptness an organic semblance, cul- 
minates finally in intricate and involved folliation and efflorescence. 
Within this work, and incidental thereto, are placed the bulbs of the 
incandescent system of illumination. This method of treatment 
applies to the proscenium with its large sounding-board and twelve 
boxes : the whole converging toward the stage-opening and elabo- 
rately framing the same. It applies also to the main entrance vesti- 
bules. For this part of the work we not only made the designs, but 
we furnished carefully worked-out full-size details, even for the 
foliated work, which were most faithfully and without the slightest 
deviation carried into execution by James Legge, the carver, with 
whom the contract for the same was placed. Inasmuch as this work, 
executed in plaster, was completed, stored and covered by an insur- 
ance policy prior to our entertaining the idea of asking sketches and 
bids for color decoration from decorative concerns, it is manifest that 
neither Mr. Twyman's conception nor handiwork nor supervision 
entered into this part of our operations. 

Considerations of economy necessitated that the remainder of the 
auditorium and its appendages should be treated very simply, we, 
therefore, at the time the general contracts were let, did no more as 
regards appearances, in addition to the purely utilitarian and 
acoustic handling, than to definitely determine the number and 
approximately the location of the electric-light bulbs and the inlets 
for the supply of fresh air for the fans. 

When the time approached that the contract for color decoration 
should be considered, we began anxiously and carefully to think of 
the coloration, for it became distressingly evident that the delicate 
rythms and modulations of the plaster ornamenation, now in place, 



FEBRUAUY 11, 1888.] 



The American Architect and Building News. 



71 



would be deprived of their sequence, significance and context by an 
inadequate or bizarro scheme of applied color. Gradually then 
arose the conviction that the structural, the geometrical and the 
foliated parts could not be given relative color values which should 
differ essentially from their relative solid values, lest, through false 
accentual icin the equilibrium and repose of the single simple idea or 
impulse underlying the conception be disturbed, and thwarted of its 
full expression. From this sense of balance followed logically the 
belief that these parts should be in close and delicate self-tones ; 
and, finally, the determination that the principle of gradual and 
smooth change carried out in the design should also be the dominant 
idea in coloring. Upon reaching this decision, or rather, as it would 
seem, reverting to the original conception of the whole, we made 
known our idea and wishes to Mr. Twyman and to other decorators, 
and asked them for sketches covering the unfinished parts above re- 
ferred to, and for schemes and prices for the color-work of the 
whole. Mr. Twyman was the only one of these who submitted a 
proposal in accordance with our suggestion (the choice of color as 
between many desirable and befitting ones was left open). His 
choice of color and treatment was in the main sympathetic with our 
architectural treatment, and to him, or, rather to his principal, John 
J. McGrath, the contract was awarded. Here, then, we begin to 
discern the first awaking of Mr. Twyman'a conception. Let us 
progress a step nearer to it. 

Mr. Twyman proposed to use for the wall-covering a wall-paper 
which wo had designed, full-size, for Mr. McGrath some two years 
previously. The pattern of this paper required six or seven blocks 
twenty inches square for its development, and as it had the charac- 
teristic movement we were glad to use it in this house. Mr. Twyman 
proposed to heavily flock the pattern, and to add a raised rosette to 
the centre of the flower. This suggestion was accepted. To use 
this paper was Mr. Twyman's own thought: we had utterly for- 
gotten its existence. 

There now remains for examination only the flat part of the main 
ceiling, the ceiling under the gallery and under the balcony, and the 
foyers and retiring-rooms, which are small. For these were required 
flat treatment in paper, bits of papier-mache foliated work at the 
electric-bulbs, and the limited amount of stencilling called for by Mr. 
Twyman's sketches. In actual execution, these forms seem to us, as 
they must to any skilful and discerning eye, to possess that peculiar 
suggestion of caricature that the ear notes in the speech of a foreigner 
uttering our native language neither grammatically, musically, nor 
with deft and rythmic enunciation. The plastic forms here are Mr. 
Legge's execution of an already beheaded conception, which, in that 
condition, is assuredly the exclusive property of Mr. Twyman. The 
stencil patterns were carried out full-size by the foreman on the 
work. The great pressure and rush of the whole undertaking 
toward completion, unfortunately made it impossible for us to give 
the time to a revision of these designs. 

As to Mr. Twyman's statement, ' The work was executed under 
my charge and dictation, and was my own conception without con- 
trol of architect or owner," this is manifestly absurd ; for the work 
was done under our regular form of contract. This contract was 
between John J. McGrath and J. H. McVicker as principals, and 
contained the customary stringent clauses regarding the supervision 
and rejection of work by the architects, payment upon acceptance 
and certificate, etc. These powers were used. Mr. Twyman 
represented his principal at the building in the capacity of over- 
seer or superintendent, or what-not, or as what is known in the trade 
parlance of these houses as their " artist." 

This is a correct statement of the case. How, then, shall we 
understand the full scope and content of Mr. Twyman's connection 
with this work otherwise than by applying to the language of his 
note his evident " conception " of the meanings of English words. 
Very truly yours, ADLKR & SULLIVAN. 



BAND-SAWS FOR LARGE LOGS. 

MISUAWAKA, IMD., Feb. 1, 1888. 

To THE EDITORS OF THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT: 

Dear Sirs, In connection with your item about California Red- 
wood, American Architect, January 28, it may be of interest to you to 
know that Lonaon, Berry & Orton of Philadelphia are building 
band-saw machines capable of sawing redwood logs ten feet in diam- 
eter. Respectfully, R. D. O. SMITH. 



TESTING FOR THE FOUNDATION OF THE CON- 
GRESSIONAL LIBRARY. 

CLEVELAND, O., Feb. 6, 1888. 

To THE EDITORS OF THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT: 

Dear Sirs, As I have just finished Mr. Smithmeyer's article in 
the last number of your journal, I would like to occupy enough of 
your valuable space to say a few words more upon the subject. My 
sketch was made from memory as Mr. Smithmeyer suggests, but with 
the exception of the movable car I do not see'but that it was sub- 
stantially correct. Unless my memory utterly fails me, the track 
upon which the car runs rested upon either six or eight pedestals, 
although the car was directly over four of them. Also the pig-lead 
was piled much higher on one corner of the platform than elsewhere. 
My idea of the apparatus was that it was intended to ascertain the 



load that a square foot of the soil would carry for a constant settle- 
ment, and not as I find it, to determine the amount of settlement for 
a constant load. For the first of these purposes I think that mv 
objections would hold. As it had been raining all day when 1 visited 
the -site, I obtained a very good idea of the character of the soil from 
the large amount of it which accompanied me upon my departure. 
Thanking Mr. Smithmeyer for the courtesy of his answer and hoping 
that he will understand that I was not responsible for the heading of 
my communication, I remain very respectfully yours, 

CLARENCE O. AREY. 



THE ALBANY ASSEMBLY- CHAMBER VAULT. 

NEW TOKK, Feb. 7, 1888. 

To THE EDITORS OF THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT: 

Dear Sirt, I beg leave to direct your attention to the report of 
the experts who a few days ago advised the immediate tearing down 
of the vaulting of the Assembly Chamber at the Albany Capitol. My 
researches into the matter issued in your paper October 29, 1881, 
and March 29, 1884, having been fully justified in spite of all attack*, 
I should like to learn what steps you are going to take concerning 
this affair, which at all events should be used to show that science 
and truth are above political tricks and " bossism." 

Truly yours, H. W. FABIAN. 



IRON CHURCHES. 

NKW YORK, N. Y., February 7, 1888. 

To THE EDITORS OF THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT: 

Dear Sin, In your issue of February 4, 1888, page 60, you 
suggest that I can give information as to the builders of iron churches, 
and add a supplementary paragraph of what a correspondent reports 
Ruskin as saying. 

Will you be kind enough to state in your journal that the last iron 
church was erected in 1873, that not one has been built since, and 
that no one need apply to me for any further information relating to 
building iron churches. Very truly, LAWRENCE B. VALK. 




A ROMAN SANATORIUM. An important discovery has just been 
made at Susa, about six miles from Castelforte, which points to the 
conclusion that the Romans were acquainted with the use of mineral 
springs for medicinal purposes. The erection of new mineral baths is 
contemplated in that spot, and during the work of excavation the 
remains of what proved to be old Koman mineral baths hove been met 
with. A road paved with Basaltic lava separates the two principal 
groups of buildings. To the left of this road, and leaning against the 
mountain side, is the bath for hot mineral springs. The atrium is en- 
tered, as in classic dwelling-houses, through a portal adorned with col- 
umns, its floor being laid in black and white mosaic, and its roof proba- 
bly formerly supported by four columns. Between these columns is the 
impluvium, a square marble basin, round which are seat*, which leads 
to the supposition that it was used for bathing purposes. In the mid- 
dle of the impluvium a hollow marble column supported a smaller basin 
of alabaster, into which the water rose through the column, flowing 
over its edges into the large basin. The further wall of the atrium 
opens into a large hall ; through its side walls corridors lead into cham- 
bers tq the right and left, the use of which for bathing is indicated by 
the whole arrangement of water basins and a network of water conduits, 
some of which are placed in the walls. On the other side of the main 
road, with a view towards the river, two buildings are located, in front 
of which a row of columns with walled parapet probably inclosed a gar- 
den extending along the river bank. Between the two buildings, con- 
taining rooms of various sizes, all of which give into outer corridors 
surrounding them, a colonnade provided with seato has been erected. 
It is concluded that this group of buildings formed a hospitium or inn 
for the bathing guests that is to say, a hostelry for those staying for 
their cure. The purpose of the whole establishment is also shown by 
the condition of the statuary in the atrium, which has been much 
injured by the mineral water. The sanatorium must have flourished 
for a long time, for, together with coins of Augustus's and Vespasian's 
time, Arabian and Norman gold coins have been found. Sanitary 
Record. 

THE WORLD'S DEEPEST WELLS. The deepest well drilled in the 
United States is that of George Westinghouse, at Homewood near the 
city of Pittsburgh, which, on Dec. 1, 1880, had reached a depth of 4,018 
feet, when the tools were lost and drilling ceased. The Buchanan Farm 
well of the Niagara Oil Company, drilled by Frederick Crocker in Hope- 
well township, Washington county, is 4,303 feet deep. The Rush Well 
of the Niagara Oil Company in Washington county was abandoned at 
3,300 feet The deep well of Jonathan Watson, "near Titusville wag 
drilled about 2,600 feet. J. M. Guffey & Co's well on the Walz farm at 
West Newton, Westmoreland County, was drilled to a depth of 8,500 feet. 
The well of Isaac Willets at Sargent's Mills, near Sycamore, in Greene 
county, was abandoned at 3,008 feet. The deepest bore hole in Europe 
is at Schladebach, near Kotschau station, on the railway between Cor- 
betha and Leipzig, and was undertaken by the Prussian Government in 
search for coal. The apparatus used is a diamond drill down the hollow 






72 



The American Architect and Building News. [VOL. XXIII. - No. 



633. 






feet but under favorable circumstances as much as 180 feet 
bored i that time ' Other decp h leS arC aS '' 



Domnitz, near_\Vettin 



Feet. 
'<J57 



Probat-Jesar, Mecklenberg " 4 ' 176 

Sperenberg, near Zossen " 4 ', 42 

Uuseburg, near Stassfurt 4 ' 3go 

Lieth-Elmshorn, Holstem 4 ' 615 



Schlailebacu . 



The Progressive Age. 



BRICK AND STOKE BRIDGES OF LAKGE SPAN. -According to Pro- 
fesfor E. Dietrich, of Berlin, there are only fifty-seven bridge, of 
hrick or stone existing having a span greater than 131 feet, forty of 
these have spans lying between 131 feet and 164 feet, ten have spans of 
from 1<M fee P t and y 200 feet, three of from 200 feet to 230 fee , and one 
oSy the Cabin John Bridge, near Washington, exceeds , thi. limit , and 
has a sran of 237 feet. Thirty of these are road and twenty-two arc 
raThva/bridges; one carries a canal, another a conduit, and three are 
not classified. Fourteen of them date from before the commencement 
of the present century, twenty-two were built between the years 1800 
and 18(iO five between 1800 and 1870, six between 1870 and 1 ,80, and 
Zee then ten have been erected. In twenty- two of the bridges the 
rise lies between half and one-third of the span, in eighteen between 
le third and one-fourth the span, in ten between one-fourth and one- 
fifth he span, and in six between one-fifth and one-eighth the span. 
One bridge only, a road bridge in Turin, has a flatter arch tha^given 
by the smallest of the above ratios, and in this case the rise is -jg the 
radius at the crown lies in fifteen cases between 60 feet and 98 feet in 
eteht between 98 feet and 131 feet, in eleven between 131 feet and 1 
fef and in three cases between 164 feet and 187 feet 8i inches, the 
latter being the radius at the crown of the Devil's Bridge at Bevizzo. 
Italv The ratio of the arch at the crown to its radius at the same 
point is in thirty bridges between one-tenth and one-twentieth, m ten 
between one-twentieth and one thirtieth, and in eight between one- 
thirtieth and one-thirty-fifth. In all the railway bridges this ratio lies 
between one-twentieth and one-thirtieth, the smaller fractions being 
solely confined to road bridges. Twenty-seven of the bridges are 
situated in France, thirteen in Italy, ten in England two in Austria 
two in Spain, and one each in Germany, Switzerland, and the LmiteU 
States. Engineering. 

A BIT OP CHELSEA. Speaking of the Chelsea china factories, the 
London Standard says : "Time was when enthusiasts used to wait their 
turns for the crockery as it came out of the ovens, and Gay made merry 
over the lady whose rest could be broken by ' A cup, a plate, a dish, a 
bowl China's the passion of her soul.' Even Dr. Johnson was affected 
by the prevailing mania, and not only bought the wares, but tried to 
fashion them himself. Yet, in spite of the furor for 'Chelsea, and 
the high prices paid for it, the factory closed its doors, to the amaze- 
ment of the public, who explained it by saying the porcelain people got 
their clay from the Chinese, who, when they found out the use made of 
it refused to let the captains any longer ballast their ships with the 
precious material. Some of the Chelsea works of art were quite equal 

. . oi .n n .,,,.1 iT^ii-a/lairo flmv rtmnmnnfl nripps wlni'll 



CXOtlC DlnlS DrOUgllL IieiHiy j-tnjv, LHV; ii.iin*-j i*j3 i" 

or about five times its weight in gold. Even the cups and saucers were 
sold at figures varying from 40 to 60 the pair. A vase two feet 
high brought 566; and at another sale, three little vases were dis- 
posed of for 1300. The late Lord Dudley bought the Chesterfield 
vase for 2000, and one which had stood for 100 years in the Foundling 
Hospital for a sum not mucli less." 



ADVENTURE OF A "STEEPLE JACK." A singular accident occurred 
at Slaithwiite, near Huddersfield, County of Yorkshire, England, on 
Saturday, which for the time caused a good deal of excitement. A 
very extensive cotton-mill has been erected for the Slaithwaite Spinning 
Company, and on Saturday, December 31st last, the chimney, which 
reaches to a height of one hundred and eighty feet, was so far com- 
pleted that a " Steeple Jack" from Huddersfield was engaged to fix the 
lightning-conductor and remove the scaffolding which had been used to 
complete the chimney-top, round which there is a very wide parapet. 
The "Steeple Jack" successfully removed the scaffolding and was 
about to make preparations for his descent when the rope by which he 
was to descend somehow became detached and fell to the ground. The 
man was left on the chimney top. Soon a large crowd of persons 
assembled and they were for a time somewhat puzzled to know how he 
was to get down. The " Steeple Jack" was equal to the occasion and 
while the people were wondering how it was to be done, he sat busily 
engaged in unravelling one of his stockings, and when this work was 
completed, he let down one end of his thread and in course of time was 
provided with a rope sufficiently strong to let himself down by. 

MOVING THE NEW YOEK CAPITOL TO TROY. No; the State must 
look elsewhere for a spot whereon to erect a new capltol, one which can 
be sure of its foothold and its roof-tree alike. Our suggestion, made in 
all modesty, is, that the "monumental folly" be taken down, a por- 
tion of the stones transported to Troy, a building erected here for State 
Government purposes at the cost of .?4,000,000 or 5,000,000, and the 
rest of the material sold to meet the expense. We are not sure but 
that such a sale of the left-over material would be more than sufficient 
to foot every bill and leave a surplus equal to the public debt of the 
State. Troy Times. 



REAPPEARANCE OF A SUBMERGED CHINESE CITY. The city of Nai- 
yen, north of Ningpo, which was submerged about 1000 years ago, has 
recently been exposed to view and a number of vases, plates and other 
utensils of the Sough dynasty have been recovered by the natives. 




IF there are any influences at work in American and European trade and 
manufacturing circles to decrease the volume of business or the output of 
mills, miues or factories, or the traffic of railroads or of ocean tonnage, they 
are not on the surface. In fact, there is 110 broad-guage reason to be given 
why any decline iu activity of any kind should take place. Those who are 
usiii" microscopes to discover evidence- of worm-eating going on in the 
foundation timbers of our business structure have been unable to find 
them. There is no dry-rot in progress. A good ventilation is maintained 
throughout the entire business structure from the basement to the finial. 
In fact, there is nothing going on or there is no growth possible that should 
obstruct the natural and orderly development of this nation or any other 
nation, and the wisdom theoretical and practical, which is the common 
property of all, will prevent the growth of evils which could bring 
about distressing results. In short, business is good, trade picking up 
month by month and year by year, manufacturing and railroad-building en- 
terprises are increasfng, and developments of all kinds are feeding on 
healthy material. There is nothing to alarm, but there is a great deal of 
work which calls for the highest order of business and commercial manage- 
ment. One of the strongest, and at the same time weakest points within 
our reach, is the abundant supply of money. That abundance if rightly 
used will swell the volume of business and strengthen the body politic in 
every fibre. If it is wrongly used, it will create paralysis and congestion or 
some other evil that will not be likely gotten rid of. Taking a brief sweep- 
ing survey of the various industries, we find the facts to-day to b about 
these. Architects in all our larger cities are not overcrowded with work 
but are busy. Builders in cities and towns are making extensive prepara- 
tions for a year's activity, and they are buying to cover contract work 
already given. Their purchases cover iron, steel, lumber, stone, slate, 
glass, paper and everything used in the completion of our better cla.^s of 
building work. Those who have given particular attention to heavy work, 
such as bridge-building, heavy warehouse work, railroad work and the 
like, as well as engineering jobs, are nearly all in a good frame of mind 
over the requirements that have already been brought to their attention, 
and prospects for employment in the prosecution of heavy enterprises in all 
sections of the country. References ha\e been heretofore made to the 
prospects of a number of important engineering enterprises, and every week 
brings out one or two more that will probably be prosecuted. It is impos- 
sible to say at this writing, with any certainty, as to what railroad-building 
will be done this year. Two weeks" ago the hope was indulged in by many 
writers that the dead-lock between buyers and sellers of rails was broken, 
and that orders for one-half million or more tons would be crowded in. Up 
to this time only a half dozen roads have bought, and those mainly for 
trifling requirements, such as repairing or extensions. No contracts have, 
as yet, been placed for big work, such as for the construction of a trans- 
continental line or for any parallel roads. But we know there are several 
enterprises of this kind which have passed the ordeal of Wall Street. That 
is funds have been promised, bonds have been sold or are selling, and 
even-thin" is beln" put in readiness for construction. The rail-mills have 
very" little work in hand, and by the time spring opens they will be in a 
starving condition for business. The theory of railroad builders and rail- 
buyers is, that by that time the rail-makers will have reasons for accepting 
830 to 830.50 as the bottom mill prices in Eastern Pennsylvania. All other 
branches of the iron trade are fairly active, excepting the pipe-makers. It 
is rather strange that this industry should be dull considering the facts and 
possibilities in store for transporting natural gas for domestic and manufac- 
ing purposes. Car, locomotive and ship and boat-building will be very 
actively prosecuted all this season. Our advices up to within a few days 
show that nearly all yards along the coast and in the iuterior are pretty 
well loaded up with o'rders. Further discouraging news is received from a 
number of Western implement works. A few have been sold out. quite a 
number are working half time, but the stronger will survive. The industry 
will, iu a few months, probably, be upon a stronger foundation. It haa 
beeu overdone, and, naturally, a reaction will take place. The lumber 
trade is remarkably active this winter. Loggers in the Northwest thus far 
have been unable to bring out the usual percentage of logs, and this fact ia 
being used as an argument in favor of higher prices next year, but the 
winter is not yet over, and the makers will, no doubt, have the usual 
supply on hand" for the spring. Hard woods will be in abundant demand. 
Several new Southern woods are coming in. Sap-pine is taking the place 
of cherry. Yellow-pine is, to a considerable extent, taking the place of 
hard woods. Walnut is not in demand. Cherry, ash and poplar hold their 
own. The Western yards are pretty well supplied, and buyers, as a rule, 
are deferriu"- the placing of large contracts until a little later. The pos- 
sibility of a strike in the Wyoming coal region has put up prices 25 cents a 
ton. A. further advance will take place within a week should the probabili- 
ties of a strike increase. The industries depending upon anthracite coal 
have not suffered excepting in isolated cases. The output of coke has been 
reduced, and two strong syndicates now control the entire Western 
Pennsylvania production. The bituminous coal production will be con- 
siderably increased this season by the extension of short lines of railroad 
into nearby coal-bearing territory. The commercial situation is very good, 
although the volume of business is below last January. Conditions are 
such that an increase iu the volume of trade can be relied upon. Stocks are 
low in nearly all markets. Textile production is maintained at high points 
in all kinds of cotton goods. In woollen goods the prospects are better. In 
hosiery foreign competition is still causing a good deal of trouble. Money 
is seeking investment where it is safe. Speculation is doing but little mis- 
chief. Congress is playing with the tariff question, labor troubles, the sur- 
plus question and two or three others. The Third House has given it out that 
nothing will be done to jeopardize existing arrangements. In labor matters 
the striking miners at Philadelphia, the carpenters at Pittsburgh, the buililiug 
trades at Chicago and some classes of labor in Cincinnati are causing a little 
anxiety to many employers as to friendly relations during the spring. In 
other cities labor organizations are discussing hours of labor and rates of 
wages, but advices from several authorities go to show that labor difficulties 
will diminish rather than increase during the next sixty days. Labor, as a 
whole, is anxious to arrive at an understanding and stick to it through the 

year. ___^ 

S. .1. PARKHII.L & Co.. Printers. Boston. 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT AND BUILDING NEWS. 



VOL. XXlil. 



Copyright, 1888, by TICKNOH & COMPANY, Boston, MAM. 



No. 634. 



FEBRUARY 18. 1888. 

Entered at the Poet-OIBoe at Boston as seoond-clam matter. 




SUMMARY : 

Death of John H Sturgis, Architect. Death of George 
Godwin, Kditor of the liutlder. Tolman v. Phelps. The 
Panama Canal. Meteorological Observations. The Vault 
of the Albany Assembly Chamber. A New way to Swindle 

intruding " Bidders." 7: 

LETTER FROM I'HILADELI'IIIA f 7f 

LETTER FROM CHICAGO ' 7f 

LETTER FROM CINCINNATI 7t 

LETTER FROM NEW YORK 7 1 ] 

Il.l.l'STRATIONS: 

Entrance to Drill-shed, Quebec, Canada. Gothic Spires and 
Towers, 4, 6, 0. Andrew Presbyterian Church, Minneapo- 
lis, Minn. First Congregational Church, Appleton, Wig. 
Competitive Design for Museum of Art, Detroit, Mich. 
House for D. \V. Bishop, Ksq., Lenox, Mass. House for 
Messrs. K.'M. and W. Bliven, Yonken, N. Y. The Senter 

House, Centre Harbor, N. H 78 

A CENTURY OF BRITISH ART AT THE GROSVENOR GALLERY, LON- 

... 78 
... 79 
... 80 
... 82 
... 88 



LETTER FROM BOSTON 

TIIE " PUBLIC BUILDINGS" RAID ON THE TREASURY. . 

LETTER FROM BALTIMORE 

SOCIETIES. 



COMMUNICATIONS : 

Cement for the Concrete Foundations of the Congressional 

Library Building 83 

NOTES AND CLIPPINGS 84 

TRADE SURVEYS 84 



0UR Boston readers will hear with great regret of the death 
of one of the most prominent architects of that city, Mr. 
John H. Sturgis. Mr. Sturgis was the second son of the 
late Russell Sturgis of London, who was first the American 
partner, and afterwards the head, of the great mercantile and 
banking house of Baring Brothers, and spent his early life in 
England. As a young man, he travelled extensively in various 
parts of the world, and finally, after pursuing a suitable course 
of study in London, came to America where he had many rela- 
tives, and established himself as an architect in Boston. Here 
he soon gained a high reputation in the profession for his con- 
scientious and thorough construction, and the peculiarly solid 
and satisfying character of his designs, while he was univer- 
sally esteemed for his sincere and manly character, and rapidly 
built up a large practice. Besides many private houses, he, 
either alone, or in association with Mr. Charles Brigham, who 
was his partner for many years, designed and executed the 
building of the Boston Museum of Fine Arts, that of the Bos- 
ton Young Men's Christian Association, several business struct- 
ures, the Church of the Advent, and the new Athletic Club. 
We think that he always spent Christmas at his father's house 
in England, and even after he had become engrossed in the 
cares of an extensive business and a growing family, he found 
time to keep up close relations with his old home, frequently 
bringing back from England some novel material or method of 
building. To his efforts in this way is undoubtedly due the 
early introduction of terra-cotta as a material into this country. 
At the time of the somewhat celebrated competition for the 
Boston Museum of Fine Arts, the buildings of the South Ken- 
sington Museum in London, then, as they still are, among the 
best examples in the world of terra-cotta architecture, had just 
been completed by General Scott ; and Mr. Sturgis caught 
from the English architects their enthusiasm over the new ma- 
terial. His success in the Boston competition gave him just 
the opportunity he desired, and, as no one in this country knew 
anything practically about the making of terra-cotta, the details 
of the Art Museum were executed in England by the Messrs. 
Blashfield, from Mr. Sturgis's drawings and set in place, on 
their arrival here, under the supervision of Mr. Taylor, who 
was sent from England for the purpose, and after his work was 
accomplished, remained in America, where he was instrumental 
in the formation of several of the terra-cotta manufacturing 
companies which have since been so successful here. Besides 
terra-cotta, Mr. Sturgis introduced at the same time the 
selenitic cement invented by General Scott, and used it some- 
what extensively in the Art Museum building. Like all 



thorough architects, he was fond of experimenting with new 
materials, and as he enjoyed nothing so much as solid and sin- 
cere construction, his buildings were not only unusually inter- 
esting, but have undoubtedly exerted a very beneficial influence 
upon the architecture of Eastern Massachusetts. The Church 
of the Advent, for example, although similar in construction to 
many modern English Churches, was the first that had been 
built in or near Boston with the brick and stone work showing 
frankly inside ; and it produced a strong impression, both in 
the profession and among the public. In his management of 
detail, Mr. Sturgis was as careful and successful as in his other 
work. The richest of his buildings in this respect is the Art 
Museum, but the most beautiful single examples, to our mind, 
are to be found in the house of Mr. Ames, on the corner of 
Commonwealth Avenue and Dartmouth Street, which possesses 
a wrought-iron gate, and some carved exterior panels, which 
are not surpassed by anything that we know of in this country, 
and by very few pieces of modern work anywhere. Of late 
years, Mr. Sturgis's energy has been compelled to struggle 
against repeated attacks of painful disease. A few months ago, 
while barely convalescent from a long and severe illness, he 
was summoned to the bedside of his dying father in England. 
The exertion and anxiety of the long journey and the days 
which followed it were too much for his imperfectly restored 
health, and soon after his father's death he was again pros- 
trated. This last attack was so serious that his family was 
sent for from Boston, and he expired at Saint-Leonard's-on- 
Sea, with his beloved wife and children beside him. In the 
profession he will be greatly missed. Although not very far 
advanced in middle life, he had been for many years Vice- 
President of the Boston Society of Architects, and was always 
a wise, as well as kind and manly counsellor. If anything 
needed to be done for the good of the Society, he was always 
ready to devote his time and energy to it, and whatever he 
undertook was sure to be well done. His failing health was of 
late years a constant subject of regretful comment and inquiry 
among his fellows, and his death will be to them a painful 
shock. 



OME time ago misled by the announcement in the Ameri- 
can newspapers, almost on the same day, of the death both of 
Mr. E. W. Godwin, the lamented architect and artist who 
was fifteen years ago so conspicuous a figure in professional 
life in England, and of Mr. George Godwin, the no less dis- 
tinguished editor of the Builder, we published an obituary 
notice of both. Later advices showed that there had been a 
confusion of names in the telegraphic advices, and that Mr. 
George Godwin was still spared to complete his useful life. 
Within a few days the news has come that he, too, has passed 
away full of years and honor. We have at present nothing to 
add to our previous account of his life except renewed express- 
ions of regret at the loss which the profession has suffered. 
Later, when the English journals come to hand, we shall un- 
doubtedly find some interesting details of a career so efficient 
and honorable. 

MR. GEORGE R. TOLMAN, the hero, as we may call 
him, of the rather celebrated Tolman - Phelps cases in 
Washington, calls our attention to several inaccuracies, in 
our account of those cases in our issue for November 7 last, 
resides giving further details. The origin of the affair seems 
to have been a misunderstanding. The architect asked his 
client, by letter, for a payment on account. The client, Cap- 
tain Phelps, sent him half what he asked for. The architect 
sent a message back, asking for the full sum. Nothing could 
lave been more innocent than the proceedings so far. As it 
lappened, however, Mr. Tolman had occasion to send to Cap- 
tain Phelps's building for a particular drawing which he wished 
to consult in his office. The foreman at the building, not being 
,ble to distinguish the drawing wished for, sent a large roll, 
saying that he should not need them immediately, and that Mr. 
Tolman might pick out what he wanted. The next morning 
'attain Phelps went to his building and missed the drawings, 
and was told that Mr. Tolman had them. Being of a peppery 
lisposition, and possibly somewhat uneasy in conscience at 
laving disappointed Mr. Tolman in the matter of the payment, 
appears to have jumped at the conclusion that Mr. Tolman 
md carried off the drawings as a means of coercing him, and 



74 



The American Architect and Building News. [VOL. XXIII. No. 634. 



forthwith flew to the law for vengeance, entering a civil suit 
for damages for the retention of the plans, as well as a criminal 
suit for embezzling them. An officer was sent to seize them, 
but Mr. Tolman very naturally refused to give them up ; and 
he was soon after arrested on the criminal complaint and locked 
up over night, the bail laws in the District of Columbia being 
peculiar. The matter then came into the courts. The first 
o;tso tried was that of Phelps versus Tolman, for damages for 
retention of plans, and the jury gave a verdict for Captain 
Phelps for one cent and costs. The next case was that of Tol- 
man versus Phelps, for compensation for services. The jury 
awarded the architect two hundred dollars and costs. The 
judge ruled that Tolman could claim nothing for the work 
represented by the plans in his possession, although they seem 
to have come back into his possession against his wish. If it 
had not been for this ruling, the verdict of the jury would 
probably have been for about twelve hundred dollars instead of 
two hundred. The last case tried was that of Tolman versus 
Phelps for false and malicious imprisonment. Phelps's case 
against Tolman for embezzlement of plans having been dis- 
creetly dropped long before; and in this the jury awarded Mr. 
Tolman five hundred dollars damages for his night in the 
station-house. Mr. Tolman, it is hardly necessary to say, won, 
besides, the sympathy of the whole profession in his unmerited 
trouble, but, as he sensibly says, the circumstances were 
throughout so peculiar that his case can hardly serve as a pre- 



U S 

(client. 



TITHE Engineering and Building Record gives an admirable 
J X abstract of the paper read by Lieutenant C. C. Eogers, 
U. S. N., before the annual meeting of the American 
Society of Civil Engineers, last month, which presents the 
most sensible and most recent view of the enterprise that has 
yet been made public. Lieutenant Rogers happened to be sta- 
tioned at Aspinwall in the United States ship " Galena " 
during the months of March and April of last year. Just 
before the arrival of the ship at Aspinwall, M. Charles de 
Lesseps, with other high officials of the Canal Company, had 
reached the same port on their way to inspect the work on the 
canal, and Lieutenant Rogers, on calling upon these gentlemen 
with the request to be allowed to visit the works, was kindly 
invited to accompany the official party in its tour. He accepted 
the invitation and in this way saw every foot of the canal and 
the auxiliary works, besides inspecting the hospitals and bar- 
racks and acquiring an immense amount of information from 
those best able to furnish it in regard to the organization and 
administration of the undertaking, during a tour which lasted 
nearly three weeks. As is well known, the excavation of the 
canal is all contracted for, the work being divided into five 
sections, each of which is entrusted to a separate contractor, 
who is under heavy bonds to complete his work. It seems to 
be certain that the excavation has proved far more costly than 
was expected. To say nothing of the unusual physical diffi- 
culties encountered, the labor available has been both costly and 
bad, wages being very high, while the negroes, who do most of 
the work, are lazy and unreliable, and, as they rest entirely 
for three hours during the middle of the day, do not accom- 
plish as much as would be expected from a laborer in a cooler 
climate, and the Canal Company, according to its own reports, 
has already spent more money than was originally estimated 
for the whole cost of the canal. With this, however, more 
than half the work has been accomplished, and the end may be 
considered already in sight. Many assertions have been made 
to the effect that the work on the canal was only just be<nm 
and that it would soon be entirely abandoned, but the Colum- 
bian Government is not likely to be deceived, or to make rash 
advances of property to an expiring company, and it has, by 
>tficial deed dated December 30th last, transferred to the Com- 
pany the public lands, amounting to six hundred and twenty- 
five thousand acres, which, by the terms of the concession were 
to be surrendered when one-half the total work necessary for 
the construction of the canal had been done. Up to the end 
of last year, the total expenditure had been about one hundred 
and eighty million dollars, one hundred and twenty-five mil- 
lions of which have been for excavation. About one-third the 
excavation is done, but the machinery is ready for doing the 
rest, and it is tolerably certain that the whole can be completed 
for three hundred and seventy-five million dollars, but accord- 
ing to Lieutenant Rogers, it will be hardly possible to complete 
it in less than five or six years, even if the necessary money is 



M. CAMILLE FLAMMARION has recently published 
a little book on meteorological observations, from which 
Le Genie Civil makes some interesting extracts, on the 
subject, more particularly, of weather predictions. Most 
people know that a fall in the barometer indicates the ap- 
proach of a storm, and a high barometer indicates fair weather ; 
but more than this may, according to M. Flammarion, be 
learned from the mercury column. When, he says, clouds are 
to be seen moving in a long line, whatever may be the height 
of the barometer, it may be taken as certain that a depression, 
or storm centre exists in a direction which may be readily 
ascertained by facing in the direction in which the clouds are 
moving, and extending the left hand. On land, the position of 
the storm centre is of no great importance, except, perhaps, as 
showing whether it will cross a given locality, but at sea it is 
often possible for a captain, after finding in what direction the 
most violent part of a storm lies, to steer away from it, and 
soon bring his ship into pleasant weather. As to the distance 
and seriousness of the storm, something may be learned from 
the velocity with which the procession of clouds move ; a 
severe and near storm being always indicated by a swift cloud 
movement, and a high barometer. 



HE Fates seem to have a grudge against State Legislators. 
Hardly does the dust from the fall of one State Capitol 
subside before another is found to be in a dangerous condi- 
tion, and the occupants are kept in a mild panic until something 
is done, or the building collapses. The dome of the Texas 
Capitol, about which there was much talk a few weeks ago, has 
been pronounced safe by experts, much to the relief of the citi- 
zens, but the Albany State - house, or rather the stone vault 
over the Assembly Chamber, has shown renewed signs of 
weakness, and the architect, with a commendable desire to pre- 
vent the possibility of injury to any person, even at some 
sacrifice of his own self-esteem, is said to have sent a formal 
warning against the further occupation of the Chamber. The 
groining ribs are said to show menacing cracks, while there 
have been dislocations in the neighboring rooms, so that the 
question seems to be now one of getting the vault taken down 
as safely and speedily as possible, and replacing it with some- 
thing^ else. As architects, we cannot help regretting the loss 
of this bold and effective piece of construction. Few men in 
the profession in this country would have ventured to throw a 
groined vault in one span over a room sixty feet square, and 
Mr. Eidlitz's partial lack of success only serves to call attention 
more strongly to the immense difficulties which he had to over- 
come, and so nearly vanquished. A few days after the an- 
nouncement of the necessity for a speedy change in the Albany 
ceiling came a story that the condition of the Massachusetts 
State-house was such as to cause serious alarm. Cracks had 
suddenly appeared in the plastering of the rooms, pilasters had 
started out from the walls, and everything seemed to indicate 
grave disorders somewhere about the building. Fortunately, 
the dome of the Boston State-house is only of wood, covered 
with tin, so that a sudden crash is hardly to be feared, but per- 
haps the symptoms indicate a disturbance all the more grave 
for occurring in so light a building. 



'IT NEW fraud is described in the Builder, and some of our 
j\ readers may be glad to have been forewarned when it 
reaches this side of the Atlantic, as it is likely to do before 
long. It seems that an ingenious individual advertised in the 
local newspapers in various parts of the country, inviting 
tenders for the erection of villas near some specified place in 
the vicinity of the place where the advertisement appeared, 
"under the provisions of the Boyle Trust." To insure good 
faith, a deposit of one pound was required from those wishing 
to tender, on receipt of which a copy of the plans and specifica" 
tions would be sent them. As it happened, the Mayor of 
Leamington was one of those who were attracted by the adver- 
tisement, which certainly had a very innocent and attractive 
air. He sent his five dollars, as required, but, receiving no 
plans or specifications in return, began to be suspicious, and 
finally placed the matter in the hands of the police, who dis- 
covered and arrested the advertiser. On searching his. room, 
no plans, specifications, or any other documents relating to the 
Boyle or any other trust were discovered, and as it was found 
that he had received numerous remittances from his dupes, an 
example was made of him by sending him to jail for a year. 



FEBRUARY 18, 1888.] 



The American Architect and Building News. 



75 




THE PUBLIC 8 APPRECIATION OF ARCHI- 
TECTURE. MECHANIC'S LIEN LAW. 
CAIN'S "LIONESS" AND BOYLE'S 
"STONE AGE." 

PHILADELPHIA is essentially a long- 
suffering place. Its Government is 
not so pure as it should be, its streets 
are always more or less dirty and its 
architecture is pretty generally bad. Yet, 
when the election frauds become too gross or the streets are 
choked with filth, the easy-going public turns upon its " bosses " and 
drivrs them from place. To be sure, it is not always easy to per- 
suade the people that the time has come for determined action, and 
it has happened more than once that individual citizens have hired a 
gang of laborers and had one or two of the chief streets cleaned from 
end to end. But, as a rule, when the people see that they are not 
getting what they are paying for, they shake off their apathy, reform 
as many abuses as they conveniently can, and for a while all is as it 
should be. With bad architecture the case is not so simple. The 
great muss of citizens do not know that it is bad, or those who sug- 
pec't that the art i at a low ebb have been so long in the habit of 
taking their architecture philosophically, like their streets, that they 
hesitate to do anything more than remonstrate. Yet, these very men 
have taken the most determined stand when other abuses were 
pointed out to them. Who shall say what might not befall if they 
should suddenly discover huw far, architecturally, Philadelphia is 
from holding the rank she ought to hold among the cities of 
America? One might almost wish that some influential critic would 
proclaim from the house-tops so that all the town might hear : " For 
years you have been surrounding yourselves with buildings of which 
the greater number range between the monstrous and the common- 
place. Even the building you are proudest of, your very City-hall, 
has entrances far too narrow for the swelling streams of foot- 
passengers that pour continuously through. Its tower, so far as it 
has gone, is impressive and beautiful. Why will you degrade its 
honest white marble by making it support a cast-iron representation 
of columns and cornices? Uo you know that after you iiave put up 
enough of this iron sham to reach the height of five hundred feet, 
and have perched on top of it eleven tons of bronze moulded to the 
likeness of William Penn, you will have paid more than the price of 
the Houses of Parliament at Westminster? Suppose you compare 
the available room in the two buildings." The sour-tongued critic 
might go on to inform those who would listen that vulgarity and 
ignorance were stamped on the face of many of Philadelphia's 
most prominent buildings, and that these would become a laughing- 
stock to the other cities of the Continent, and a shame to the next 
generation. But he has said enough. A change for the better is 
being brought about without him a change every whit as important 
as the one begun in 1876 when Philadelphia architecture began to 
lose all sense of propriety and rushed into the wild extravagances it 
has since been guilty of. The advance in the direction of good taste 
is slow, but it is doubtless better so. The city's politics need a 
periodical shaking up. They slip back only too easily into the old 
grooves. May it not be that its architecture without the hope of 
any sudden and sweeping improvement is little by little making a 
steady advance; that the very slowness of its progress is a 
guaranty against any relapse, and that the day will come when our 
people shall not be afraid to ask a stranger's frank opinion of their 
buildings? 

This improvement in style is more noticeable just now in country 
and suburban work than in the city proper. Mr. W. R. Emerson 
has been doing some admirable country houses, generous in plan, 
original in composition and with most beautiful detail, but, in spite of 
the local prejudice in its favor, with very little stonework visible ex- 
cept for terraces and the like. Mr. McKtm, too, has done much 
toward raising the standard of public taste. A Philadelphian him- 
self, he knows the fondness the people have for the solid stonework 
of their fathers, and although there are plenty of houses in the 
neighborhood where he has been lavish of shingles and weather- 
boards, his later work here shows a fine appreciation of the feeling 
for the old-fashioned country house. It is to be hoped that he does 
not resent imitation, for in Germantown especially so many people 
are struck with the beauty and fitness of one of his last houses that 
impressions of it some of them tortured almost out of recognition 
are springing up on every side. This house and its prototypes 
(many of them are still standing on the Main Street of Germantown) 
are an admirable source of inspiration for architects, but unluckily 
there is another type of house that is as offensive as this one is 
agreeable, and that for very different reasons has taken quite as firm 
a hold as the first. This is the " Seashore Cottage " type. Not the 
modest nestling cottage of the New England coast, as gray as the 
cliff it clings to, but the type which building papers of the "every- 
man-his own-architect " class affirm can be built for twelve hundred 
dollars, the type of flimsy, jig-sawed, polychromatic house that has 
spread from its home on the New Jersey beaches to the uttermost 



edge of our frontier towns. Some day, perhaps, it will disappear, 
but it would be rash to predict its fall during the lifetime of this 
generation. 

One practical defect in the pattern of the early stone house mentioned 
above is its lack of as much [Kirch-room as our summer climate makes 
desirable. It is, of course, out of the question when working in this 
manner to let the upper stories project, and thus take away from 
the temporary look that a " lean-to " porch so often has, so that 
architects have tried the most diverse ways of overcoming the 
dilliriilty. The colonial porch, with its columns running two stories 
high so that the second floor windows are protected as well as the 
first, is out of favor, as the extreme height of the roof makes it a poor 
protection when the wind is blowing on a rainy day, or when the 
shadows are lengthening on a clear one. But let the problem be 
solved as it may, by a second story covered porch, by exaggerated 
penteaves, or by the obvious one-story porch covered with any of the 
innumerable kinds of hipped roofs or pediments, it is gratifying to 
note the less and less frequent use of the long narrow strip of a porch 
where it is im|X>ssiblc for people to arrange themselves except in 
parallel lines, and the growing popularity of the square or round 
form, with a smaller area than the old kind, perhaps, but with the 
general proportions of a living-room. 

The mechanic's lien law, which has been a source of annoyance in 
this State for more thari a dozen of years, has become more thau ever 
obnoxious since the passage of the Bill last summer intended to 
amend it. The Bill of 1874 provides that in case of the contractor's 
failure to pay, any one furnishing material to the amount of $50 may 
attach the building after the owner has taken possession. 

Under this provision, the material-men do not hesitate to furnish 
everything to a builder who may have no credit whatsoever. Build- 
ing thus becomes almost the only trade in which unscrupulous men 
can get unlimited credit, and they have not been long in taking ad- 
vantage of the law. Thus a class of irresponsible builders has sprung 
up against whom neither owners nor architects have any means 
of protecting themselves. The obligatory release of liens is no safe- 
guard, because a dishonest contractor can get a little material from 
one man, pay for it, get the seller's receipt for the money and obtain 
elsewhere on credit an unlimited amount of the same commodity. 
The owner, with no means of telling from whom the material used in 
his house was bought, finds, after making what is certified to be his 
final payment, that liens have been filed against his property, and is 
in the condition of a man who having just paid his tailor's bill finds 
his suit of clothes seized by a still unpaid cloth-dealer. It has been 
maintained that if liens were filed, the fault was with the architect 
for handing the owner his release and certifying that the final pay- 
ment was due the builder. In this way some of the most prominent 
architects in the city have been obliged to pay thousands of dollars 
because the contractor was insolvent. Presumably, it was in order 
to counteract the manifest injustice of this law that the Bill of 1887 
was passed. It provides that the owner must be notified of the in- 
tention to file a lien within ten days after the material has been 
placed on the ground. So far so good. He is at least warned and 
may give the builder a good deal of wholesome anxiety by insisting 
upon looking over his receipts. But any relief that the Bill of June 
17 affords is more than counterbalanced by the clause stating that 
" All building and machinery made liable to a mechanic's lien 
. . . shall also be liable to a mechanic's lien for any work done 
on said building as machinery by any sub-contraclor, mechanic or 
laborer." Laws of this sort only serve to do harm to building in all 
its branches, and to injure more than to protect contractors of the 
better class. It is reassuring to. see that the amended law has 
already been appealed from as being unconstitutional, and that a very 
general impression prevails among lawyers that it cannot stand. 

In front of the Post-Office, where the Chestnut Street sidewalk 
becomes generously broad, have been standing for some time two 
bronze groups soon to be placed in Fairmount Park. One is M. 
Cain's " Lioness and Cubs," and the other Mr. Boyle's Salon piece, 
" The Stone Age." Although the lioness by her gigantic size rather 
dwarfs the scale of the other group, it is easy to see which of them 
holds the first rank in popular favor. The lioness, in an attitude 
that strongly recalls the proud pose of the same sculptor's superb 
lion in the Luxembourg Garden (of which there was such a clever 
sketch in the New York Architectural League's Exhibition this 
year) is not, like this one, standing victorious over the freshly killed 
game, but holds her prey aloft, out of reach of her three cubs that 
are crawling toward it flat upon their bellies in the most admirably 
cub-like manner. In fact, it is doubtful whether these cubs do not 
make the most truthful part of the group. Some people find the pose 
of the lioness herself theatrical. It is much easier to prove this 
charge unfounded than to deny that she is exceedingly well fed, and 
has an unmistakable air of the menagerie. There is, indeed, so little 
of the wild animal about her as almost to make one think if the 
thought were not rank heresy that M. Cain is so sure of his world- 
wide reputation as an animal sculptor as to be content in these latter 
days to work on the strength of it. This is a reproach that one cer- 
tainly cannot make to Mr. Boyle. While his group composes satis- 
factorily, the actors in it show that same thoroughly untamed look 
that marks his earlier " Indian Group." His present subject is its 
companion piece. An Indian woman, a bear-cub just killed beside 
her, looks intently toward its approaching dam. The squaw's right 
hand grasps a stone hatchet, and her left is clasping a baby that she 
has just snatched from the ground, and now strains to her side with 



76 



The American Architect and Building News. [VOL. XXIII. No. 634. 



such instinctive energy that her convulsed fingers press into its flesh. 
Half hiding on the ground an older child a young savage, if there 
ever was one crouches clingingly at her feet. 

As between these two works of art the public prejudiced, per- 
haps, by local pride has decided that the Philadelphia sculptor 
has beaten the great Frenchman. Many artists have had the 
temerity to acknowledge that there was some reason in the popular 
judgment, and after all, why should it not be so? During the life of 
William Rush, was lie not by all odds the first sculptor of the young 
Republic, and was it not a Philadelphia!! who entered the Ecole des 
Beaux Arts at its last competition in the Department of Sculpture 
at the head of seventy odd applicants ? 

In connection with its regular exhibition, the Pennsylvania 
Academy of the Fine Arts holds its second annual exhibition of 
architectural drawings. The doors of the Academy were opened to 
the public on the sixteenth of this month, and the exhibition will 
continue for six weeks from that date. An extended notice of it 
will be given next month. 




THE EFFECT ON THE PROFESSION OF THE 
COMMERCIAL ATMOSPHERE OF THE CITY. 
ATTEMPT TO RAISE THE COMMISSION 
ON DWELLING-HOUSE WORK. 

FROM Chicago there seems to be cause, as well as from the East, 
for the raising of the lament made by some architects, that 
architecture is no longer considered as a profession and that the 
public treat it merely as any other purely commercial business. 
Undoubtedly there is some truth in this, but to a very great extent if 
this is the feeling of the public, it is because the standard of profes- 
sional etiquette is falling from what it should be, and this more by the 
fault of the profession itself than of the people. That it should in 
America partake even more of a commercial character and tone than 
in Europe is natural and unavoidable. Abroad we perhaps rightly 
have the almost universal reputation of being a nation of traders, 
that and nothing more. This commercial spirit crops out every- 
where and with every one. Our instincts are all in that direction. 
We form partnerships as naturally and easily as possible, and all for 
the sake of expedition and increase of business, in fact, to make 
more money. This very circumstance of partnerships shows of itself 
how differently from the Italian or French the architects here look 
upon the profession; with Americans to a very great extent it is 
business. Such, then, being our nature, strengthened as it is by 
education and contact with those about us, it is necessary that while 
conforming to the age and conditions that we live in, we should at 
the same time keep architecture above mere commercial business, 
and conduct all its details with the greatest possible accuracy and 
despatch according to approved business methods. 

Chicago has the reputation of being one of the most remarkable 
business centres of this age and country. On every hand are evi- 
dences of it and it requires no particular brilliancy to perceive the 
commercial spirit standing out everywhere. It permeates everything 
and art and architecture are under its baneful influence in no small 
degree'. The spirit has gone so far and penetrated so deep that even 
those exponents of the profession, the architectural journals which 
supposedly would stand upon the highest plane, now commence 
praising those methods which pervert everything to the wettinc of 
business. The following is a clipping from a recent obituary notice : 
Even in his social relations he was always on the alert for business 
not offensively so, but enough to characterize him as a typical 
Chicago man and he secured many large commissions when" to all 
appearances he was simply indulging himself in a little recreation " 
All this seems to be said with the idea of praisincr a most laudable 
characteristic and saying a very complimentary tiling but, indeed 
ideas of what is praiseworthy and commendatory sadly vary ! 

On the above principle, every pleasure and recreation of life should 
be prostituted to the getting of work. No evenin" party, no recep- 
tion, no private dinner, should be honored with an architect's pres- 
ence unless there were a chance for business to come from it 
Unfortunately, this is truly so much the case that some architects 
here have the unenviable reputation of going into society and belono-- 
ing to clubs for absolutely no other purpose than business. ' As a 
natural result, others who would like to enjoy social life for itself 
have the same imputation put upon them whether they will or no 

On the other hand, in such a commercial city as this, commercial 
methods have undoubtedly done considerable to increase the respect 
that the architects are held in by the public. By no other means 
than commercial methods can some business men be brought to respect 
anything, anybody, or any class of men. They can only judge of and 
respect those who follow in the lines that they themselves know and 
appreciate and admire. It can very justly be said of most of these 
business men that when once they have made arrangements with an 
architect, they make no question of delay in paying commissions 
whatever trouble there may be in this direction seems to come to a 



greater extent from those not strictly engaged in commercial affairs. 
Neither will these business men as freely ask gratuitous competition : 
several buildings of importance for which commissions have recently 
been given, notably, the new armory of the First Regiment, were 
awarded to the architects " without competition." 

Just at present the matter of professional compensation is receiv- 
ing considerable thought here, and a strong movement is on foot to 
agitate the matter and, if possible, advance the rate on isolated 
dwellings from five per cent to seven. The feeling seems to be 
growing that the schedule of the American Institute of Architects is 
not in all respects entirely satisfactory. The idea now being pushed 
is to eventually modify the entire schedule by raising some items and 
lowering others. The commencement of reform, however, is to be 
made by the raising and not the lowering process. The movers say, 
and very truly, that the amount of time, worry, vexation and actual 
labor on an average dwelling-house is many times greater, notably in 
the superintendence, than on an ordinary commercial buildinf, and 
yet, according to the existing schedule, the same percentage can be 
demanded. This certainly does not seem exactly just and equitable 
either for client or architect. Naturally, all architect! would be 
pleased to see their work better paid for and their profits larger, but 
when it comes to signing the paper now being circulated, binding the 
the signers to adopt the seven per cent for a certain length of time, 
there is some hesitancy. There are those who fear it would have 
the appearance of a " trust " and scare the public. Others are per- 
fectly ready and willing to sign any number of " whereas's " relative 
to the desirability of making the rate of compensation seven per 
cent, but as to resolving to charge nothing less, that is a somewhat 
different matter. So that probably the whole outcome of the matter 
will be that, aside from the recommendatory report already made at 
the last meeting of the Illinois Association, nothing of present defi- 
nite importance will be accomplished. Jt may, however, cause mem- 
bers to more strictly adhere to the schedule clause relative to dwell- 
ings which cost less than five thousand dollars, and to obtain full 
fees for all cabinet-work. Eventually, it seems quite probable that 
the matter of general revision will be brought up and at least dis- 
cussed in some of the conventions. 




1NCINNATI 




SECOND ANNUAL CONVENTION OF THE 
NATIONAL BUILDERS' ASSOCIATION. 

TTFI1E Second Annual Convention of 
Jj t the National Builders' Association 
of the United States was held in 
this city on the eighth, ninth and tenth 
days of this month. The meetings were 

ably presided over by President J. Milton Blair, of Cincinnati, and 
Mr. W. II. Sayward, of Boston, the Secretary of the Association, 
filled that post to the entire satisfaction of the body. 

About one hundred and twenty-five representatives were present 
from twenty-six different cities, all the principal cities of the coun- 
try having sent representatives. Each day's session opened with 
prayer, and the meetings were conducted under strict parliamentary 
rules, and the debates upon the questions before the house were all 
of a character that would reflect credit upon any men assembled 
for any purpose. The architectural conventions might well take 
pattern by the late Builders' Convention and throw more " Vim, 
Vigor and Victory " into their conventions. 

The architects of the country are hereby warned that the builders 
are in earnest and that all plans and specifications must hereafter be 
done up in a finished and complete manner and "in ink or by some 
process that will not fade or obliterate and be complete in every 
part." From the passage of the above resolution it is reasonable to 
infer that it has been the custom of some architects to make their 
plans in pencil, get bids on them, and then, in the process of finish- 
ing up, to alter them as their needs seem to require. 

2. Drawings must be made to a scale, not less than eight feet to 
the inch, and such portions of the work as seem to require a more 
thorough explanation should be made to a larger scale. In the pas- 
sage of the above resolution the architects of the country are to be 
congratulated upon a very narrow escape they had from the labor 
and time and trouble it would take to put all 'their details, full-size 
and otherwise, in ink, as an amendment embracing such a -thought 
was very nearly carried. 

3. Specifications hereafter must be more specific, and all such 
indefinite demands as that "the contractor must furnish all work 
that is necessary and that may be demanded by the architect," 
should be eliminated from the specifications before estimates are 
submitted. 

4. This resolution embraces what would seem to be a just demand 
on the part of tbe builders, i. e., that their estimates should not cover 
an indefinite depth of foundation, but that they should be paid extra 
for all such work not distinctly shown on the drawings. 

5. Our friends, the builders, in this clause take a magnanimous 



, BUDV lABbD 11 illillillilllllllUua 

view of their business, and will hereafter (even if they have not 
heretofore done so) cover in their estimates all demands made by 



FKUKUAKY 18, 1888.] The American Architect and Building News, 



77 



the specifications, unless objections are made thereto in writing at 
the time the bids are submitted. They will " also take the specifica- 
tions as their guide for estimating." One wonders what other means 
a contractor would have of making up his estimate, and this clause 
will, no doubt, puzzle many an architect striving to arrive at a cor- 
rect understanding of his relations to the builder. 

6. Everything shown on the plans must bo mentioned in the speci- 
fications or it will not be put into the house. 

7. Builders do not want to pick out of twenty or thirty pages of 
specifications what should be on perhaps one or two or more pages, 
and so they want the architects to classify all work and put all that 
pertains to each separate department by itself and grouped under 
appropriate headings. 

8. This clause was one that caused considerable discussion and 
one that very nearly caused a confusion of tongues and a second 
Tower of Babel. In brief, the resolution as passed was about as 
follows : The owner is to have his house left complete and in perfect 
condition as far as possible ; all cutting, patching, pointing-up, etc., 
is to be done by the mechanic having control of such department, 
but the cost of such cutting, pointing-up, etc., must be paid for by 
the mechanic who is the cause of ripping-up. One member said that 
on one job it cost him more to repair after the other mechanics than 
he got for the entire contract. 

9. Contractors, when required to estimate for work involving any 
or all sub-contracts, should not be restricted as to whom they shall 
employ as sub-contractors unless previously notified. 

10. 'The builder will hereafter charge at least ten per cent on the 
cost of any work and materials that may have been reserved from 
his contract and afterwards added thereto. 

11. After estimates have been opened, the lowest bidder is 
entitled to the job, and the owner must deal with him for any 
changes that are made on the drawings (unless such changes involve 
a complete alteration of the plans), and if they cannot agree, then 
the matter is to be left to arbitration, and in no case are the two 
lowest to figure on any changes. 

12. If the owner docs not accept the lowest invited bid, but 
rejects all such bids, then he is to pay such lowest bidders as follows : 

For work amounting to 93,000, or under, . . $16.00 

For work from $5,000 to #50,000, .... 60.00 

Over.50,000 100.00 

18. Contracts must be awarded within a reasonable time (say ten 
days) after the competition is closed (or builders cannot be held to 
their bids), and invited bidders are to have the privilege of being 
present at the opening of bids. 

14. When security is exacted from a contractor, a like amount of 
security is to be required from the owner, and where a penalty is 
exacted from a contractor on a time contract, a like amount is to be 
paid the contractor as a premium if the work is completed before the 
time specified. 

In the passage of the first part of this resolution the builders must 
have forgotten that the lien laws give the builders ample security 
for all claims against the owner, and that the owner has no such 
remedy. 

16, 17, 18, are resolutions governing the relations that exist or 
should exist between contractors and sub-contractors. A contractor, 
where he uses a sub-contractor's bid in securing a job, must give 
such sub-contractor his work unless said sub-estimate is sent to the 
head contractor unsolicited, then the head contractor need not so 
award the work unless it is his pleasure to do so. The owner must 
elect which way he intends to let his work, whether in a lump con- 
tract or in separate departments, and not solicit bids both ways. 

As the foregoing resolutions were the only ones involving the rela- 
tions existing between architects and builders that were passed upon, 
it is not necessary to further follow the actions of the convention 
except to say in a word that all their debates were tempered with 
justice to all parties involved, and not a little wit as well as wisdom 
crept in, perhaps unawares to the speakers. 

The papers read were of a high character and showed great 
research, but each one seemed to deal more in generalities and his- 
tory than in plain common facts, and while it may be a very fine 
thing to say that bricks are the oldest building material known to 
man, and that roofs always have formed an essential element in the 
make-up of the house, and so on, vet those that listened would have 
been better edified if the papers had been more technical and had 
less of the college oration about them. This association cannot, 
however, but result in good to the building fraternity, and each 
recurring convention will add new lustre and knowledge to be drawn 
upon at demand by all who desire progress. 

As to the social part of the coming together of these men, they 
certainly enjoyed themselves, if their testimony is to be taken on tho 
subject. What with receptions, carriage drives, personal attention, 
etc., it would seem that the social part was well looked after by the 
local committee, and the whole wound up with a banquet at the 
Gibson House, given by the Builders' Exchange of Cincinnati, which 
was as fine an affair as was ever given in this city upon any occasion. 

The following officers were elected for the ensuing year : 

President, John S. Stevens, Philadelphia. 

l-'irst Vice-President, E. E. Scribner, St. Paul. 

Si rnnil Vice-Pn -sidt nl, John J. Tucker, New York. 

Secretary, W. H. Sayward, Boston. 
er, Gus Topper, Chicago. 



Hoard o/" Directors. David M. Alexander, Albany, N. Y. ; E. L. 
Bartlett, Baltimore, Md. ; Ben. 1). Whitcomb, Boston, Mass.; J. H. 
Tilden, Buffalo, N. Y. ; Henry Oliver, Charleston, S. C. ; Geo. C. 
Prussing, Chicago, III.: II. E. llolt/inger, Cincinnati, (). ; A. Mc- 
Allister, Cleveland, O. ; Thos. B. Knauss, Columbus, (). ; Alex. 
Chappotoft, Detroit, Mich.; John Howson, Grand Rapids, Mich.; 
W. P. Jungclaus, Indianapolis, Ind.; Richard Smith, Milwaukee, 
Wis.; H. N. Leighton, Minneapolis, Minn.; I. N. Phillips, Nash- 
ville, Tenn.; F. H. West, New Orleans, La.; Marc Etdlitz, New 
York, N. Y. ; Wni. Harkness, Philadelphia, Pa.; Samuel Frances, 
Pittsburgh, Pa.; John W. Briggs, Providence, R. I.; Chas. W. 
Voshall, Rochester, N. Y.; E. F. Osborne, St. Paul, Minn.; E. F. 
Beck, Sioux City, Iowa ; C. A. Meeker, Troy, N. Y. ; E. B. Crane, 
Worcester, Mass.; D. J. Macarty, Washington, D. C. ; Geo. T. 
Elliott, East Saginaw, Mich.; Win". Taylor, Kansas City, Mo.; Win. 
Dickinson, Syracuse, N. Y. ; Thos. Armstrong, Louisville, Ky. 

A medal to cost 8100 was voted to the retiring President, J. Mil- 
ton Blair, of Cincinnati. CAIIY. 




HOMK DIFFICULTIES ATTENDING THE DE8ION- 
ING OF THE PROPOSED EPISCOPAL CATHKUKAL. 

lirllE scheme for a great Episcopal Cathedral 
J| has been again agitating the public mind in 
New York, at least in so far as the daily 
newspapers can be said to be that most imjior- 
tant factor in all such undertakings. 

It is generally understood that the site is 
secured, although a rumor has it that there is a 
mortgage on the property, which mortgage is assumed by the new 
owners. To an outsider this would not seem a desirable state of 
affairs, but then an outsider's opinion must necessarily be of small 
consequence, since he is not in a position to judge intelligently of the 
conditions which may have made such a proceeding advantageous. 
It would seem to tend somewhat to chill the enthusiasm with which 
this noble scheme was greeted, since in a measure it conflicts with 
one of the best intentions of the originators that of going on only 
so far as the funds would permit and leaving the completion to the 
next generation. However, it is hardly fair to criticise the actions 
of such a body of distinguished men on the basis of a mere rumor, 
which in all likelihood is far from the truth. 

As to the scheme itself, so much has been written about it and it 
has been so ably and intelligently discussed, that it would seem on 
paper a comparatively easy affair to carry it through successfully. 
In some respects it is. The science of engineering has reached a 
high state of perfection now-a-days, and notwithstanding the lament- 
able failure of the best known and most important stone vault yet 
built in this country, the one at Albany, we have men fully compe- 
tent to build so vastly larger a structure as the new cathedral would 
inevitably be. As to painters and sculptors, it may be reasonably 
doubted whether they could that is, in sufficient numbers rise to 
the necessary high level of work, although this seems like an hereti- 
cal opinion in view of the popular jubilation over our modern artistic 
triumphs. This is said without any wish to reflect upon the merits 
of our artists, many of whom can no doubt be, mentioned, all of 
great ability and long training in their art, and whose reputations 
ought to assure us that their work would bear fitting testimony to 
succeeding generations of the best artistic thought of to-day. But 
while it is true, it cannot be accepted as explicit reassurance that 
their combined work will give the unity of effect in the result that 
above all else should be attained. To be sure, Mr. A. is our most 
important figure-painter and Mr. B. is the best known decorator, but 
these two men may never have worked together on a large affair and 
neither of them has ever yet been obliged'to grapple with the pro- 
blem of making his work effective at a distance of say five hundred 
feet, and in an interior, with the difficulties of cross-lights added to 
that of mere distance. And yet this is even a less difficulty than that 
which confronts them when they are obliged to make their combined 
efforts on the vaults harmonize with the work Mr. C. is to do on the 
walls ; Mr. C., let us say, whose paintings of Eastern interiors have 
long shown his great ability. The accurate and charming style of 
drawing of all Mr. A.'s figure-work will not improbably lose some of 
its effect when swallowed up in the immensity of the space, while 
Mr. B., the decorator, will have a seneral scheme of color for his 
vaults that may prove to be in irrepressible conflict with Mr. C.'s 
plan of treatment for the walls. 

Not but what all three of these distinguished men will work 
together in perfect friendliness and dine together once a week, but 
it is well known that Mr. A. studied in England, while Mr. B. has 
long lived in Paris, and Mr. C., being the long-suffering " rich ama- 
teur " of architectural students, has roamed about the world, study- 
ing first in Munich, and then in Rome, and just before returning 
home, has made long journeys in the East, gathering bric-a-brac and 
impressions of color with equal ardor and success. The work of 



78 



TJie American Architect and Uuilding News. 



. XXI1L No. 634. 



these men, each of strong individuality, and each still farther sepa- 
rated from the other by different training, cannot t>3 reasonably sup- 
posed, when placed in" absolute juxtaposition, to give such a resul- 
tant harmony and unity as would ensue had they been long accus- 
tomed to work together with the grand general effect always in view, 
each adding his part to the central harmony rather than solicitous as 
to the particular effect of his isolated picture. 

It would never do to say that the variety thus obtained would be 
all-sufficient, since this variety will come of itself as the work pro- 
ceeds, whereas the more important quality of unity will have to be 
continually in view, otherwise it will not be attained. If unity be 
not obtained, the new Cathedral will not have the characteristics of 
a monument but of a picture-gallery. 

To be sure the picture-gallery and museum are peculiarly modern, 
and, perhaps, this side of our life is one that should find its expres- 
sion in this great effort, but it could not give future generations a 
very hicrh notion of our grasp of the central truths of art that is 
to say of the general harmony of all the arts. Rather would they 
say that we collected excellent pictures and charming statues, but 
that at heart we remained barbarians with a mere varnish of artistic 
appreciation, since we did not know how to use them when they were 
done, so we hung up the paintings in almost any place and stuck 
statues about, and then rested from our labors in serene unconscious- 
ness of more general laws underlying and uniting individual ex- 
cellencees. 

In the Renaissance when a great lord built himself a new palace, 
he did not send about to the art-galleries to pick up examples of the 
old masters and have them hung on the walls. Far from it; he in- 
vited some artist to come and paint his walls not to paint pictures 
for his palace in the modern way; for there is a vast difference 
between the two. The first presupposes art to be a necessity; the 
last presupposes it to be merely a luxury. That in either case the 
painting would be on canvas and placed against the wall, is no re- 
futation' of the distinction. One means enriching and beautifying a 
wall, the picture forming part of the design, while the other is merely 
hanging a picture against a wall, and. for this, one picture will do 
about as well as another. 

Now, our painters in the vast majority of cases are accustomed to 
paint pictures merely the frame isolates it from everything else, 
and the artistic care does not really extend very much beyond the 
frame. 

This is the result of a purely modern condition of things, but it is 
by no means the condition that will train men to work toward unity 
in a tremendous monument. It is not so much the fault of the artists 
as of the conditions of life that demand this false conception of art. 

It cannot be too strongly insisted that to fittingly build this great 
cathedral, means that it must be essentially a monument, and for a 
monument unity is the one most absolutely vital quality. Unless 
throughout there reigns such subordination of parts as is necessary 
to the tremendous singleness of purpose, the work will miss the 
highest qualities and effect which should be had in such a structure. 

The necessity for this cooperation of the arts has not yet come to 
form part of the habitual practice of the majority of the people of 
to-day. 

It has not in past times necessitated the work entirely of famous 
artists to ensure harmonious results up to a certain point ; but we 
have to-day a vast gap between the work of our best men and that 
of inferior talent, and it cannot be possible to have only the work of 
our most distinguished artists on this great cathedral. 

The men in charge must have their efforts supplemented by those 
of others less considerable, and the great artistic difficulty is just 
here, that at the present time, owing to the isolating tendencies of 
training and popular requirements, we have no united school or style 
that would make every one feel sure that the Cathedral can actually 
be made as great an artistic triumph as we could desire. 

The relation of the architect to this proposed popular monument 
is naturally the most important of any. He must be the head and 
centre of the work ; upon his shoulders must rest the burden of 
direction, and he more than any other will have to give style to the 
whole. Not that the selection of any one, in particular, of the various 
manners of art. otherwise known as styles of architecture will deter- 
mine the success of the work or its ineffectiveness. The matter rests 
on larger and deeper considerations altogether. The architect may 
not feel his labors done when the beautifully prepared and attractive 
drawings are executed with the greatest exactness, unless his work 
be given life and interest, and be supplemented and reinforced by 
the arts of painters and sculptors. Stained-glass, mosaics, gilding, 
all the arts must be brought into their proper places and duly sub- 
ordinated to the unity of the whole. 

The architect must necessarily be a very able man to do 
all this. It is very easy for any one to arrange that all eminent 
artists shall each do something on the work. It is more than difficult 
to so order the structure and their work in it, that all these shall 
combine into an harmonious whole. Judging from popular estimation, 
the only man who was most capable of this effort has passed away, 
and it may be fairly doubted whether any one else could be named, 
who, by his training, work and habit of mind, would seem neces- 
sarily the one man of all others for the work. 

This condition of things makes one feel more keenly the need of 
greater unity of purpose among the various branches of art, and of 
greater perception of the fact that they are all branches whose 
highest and best effects are attained when properly employed in 



unison on just such a building as the proposed new Episcopal 
Cathedral, but which, separately, are shorn of half their dignity. It 
is when this cooperation is most complete that the artistic life of 
nations has reached its culminating point it has always been the 
undue preponderance of any one that has opened the way toward 
decadence. L. 




[Contributors are requested to send with their drawings full and 
adequate descriptions of the buildings, including a statement o/eosf.] 

ENTRANCE TO DRILL-SHED, QUEBEC, CANADA. MESSRS. .1. li. 
DEROME AND E. E. TACH1'5, ARCHITECTS, QUEBEC, CANADA. 

[Hello-chrome, issued only with Imperial Edition. 1 

A GENERAL view of this building was published in issue for Decem- 
ber 24, 1887. 

GOTHIC SPIRES AND TOWERS, 4, 5, 6. ST. MARY, THE VIRGIN, 
OXFORD ; ST. LAWRENCE, EVESHAM ; ST. NICHOLAS, ISI.IP ; ST. 
MARY, KINGSTON ; THE CATHEDRAL, GLOUCKSTEU. 
[Issued only with the Imperial Edition.] 

ANDREW PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, MINNEAPOLIS, MINN. MR. 
WARREN H. HAYES, ARCHITECT, MINNEAPOLIS, MINN. 

TTTIIIS church is to be erected at the corner of Fourth Street and 
J I ( Eighth Avenue, s e, this season, in brown sandstone walls, rock- 
faced, and with slate and red-tiled roofs. Cost to be, $50,000 ; 
capacity, GOO sittings in auditorium. This building is to be located 
only one block from the First Congregationalist Church, recently 
completed and opened for service on January 2S)th, 1888. 

FIRST CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH, APPLETON, WIS. MR. WARREN 
H. HAYES, ARCHITECT, MINNEAPOLIS, MINN. 

THIS church is to be erected at once in red sand-moulded bricks 
and brownstone from Lake Superior ; roofs of slate and red tiles, 
with copper finials, etc.; inside finish in antique oak; capacity, GOO 
without gallery ; cost, $35,000. 

COMPETITIVE DESIGN FOR MUSEUM OF ART, DETROIT, MICH. MR. 
J. WALTER STEVENS, ARCHITECT, ST. PAUL, MINN. 

HOUSE FOR D. W. BISHOP, ESQ., LENOX, MASS. MR. H. JvEILL 
WILSON, ARCHITECT, PITTSFIELD, MASS. 

HOUSE FOR MESSRS. E. M. AND W. BLIVEN, YONKERS, N. Y. MR. 
F. F. WARD, ARCHITECT, NEW YORK, N. Y. 

THE SENTER HOUSE, CENTRE HARBOR, N. H. MR. F. W. STICKNEY, 
ARCHITECT, LOWELL, MASS. 




A CENTURY OF BRITISH ART AT THE GROSVENOR 
GALLERY, LONDON. 

X TOT only 
\ is this 
J * exhibi- 
tion a feast 
of art, but 
it is the 
best which 
has been 
held at the 
G r osvenor 
for some 

years, in spite of the difficulties caused by the split between the pro- 
prietor and his assistants. Sir Coutts Lindsay may be congratulated 
upon his success in bringing together so interesting a collection and 
proving once more that the gentlemen who magnanimously uphold the 
"dignity of art" are no more indispensable than eminent cabinet 
ministers, statesmen and imperial rulers. 

The Constables are simply magnificent, although perhaps none of 
them actually equal the " Hay Wain " (now in the National Gallery), 
which was the picture exhibited in the Salon or rather the Louvre in 
1825, and which not only brought the painter into notice in Paris, but 
opened the eyes of his compatriots to his merits. The influence of 
Constable upon the French painters was enormous ; it was he who 
first taught them to see Nature as she is, and that the earlier school 
of pai/sagistes of our own time, such as Decamps, Diaz and Rousseau 
owe their style to the Englishman is proved by a comparison between 
a little picture of Constable's in this exhibition, "Gravel Pits," and a 
tiny Diaz, " Les Pyrenees," in the Luxembourg gallery ; they might 
have been painted by the same hand. It is not easy in a short arti- 
cle to specify any particular work when a master is represented by 






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TJie American Architect and Building News. 



79 



thirty-three pictures, all more or less noteworthy, but the " Salis- 
bury, " " Dunham Vale," " Arundell Castle and Mill " (his last work), 
and "Dudhain Mill" arc particularly fine in luminosity. The skies 
are exquisitely clear and light and the " Arundel " is specially 
remarkable for that flickering sunlight, which seems to sparkle all 
over the picture. 

Bonington is a painter one has rarely seen except here and there 
in I'aris, but he, too, had the art of filling his skies with light and 
air. His " Chateau of the Duchessc do Berri " is exquisite ; so, too, 
are the " Shores of Normandy " and " Ships at a Pier," which some- 
what reminds one of the modern Frenchman, Montenard. 

Gainsborough is poorly represented ; his portraits arc weak and 
affected or black, some of them even inferior to the worst in the 
collection shown in the same galleries two or three years ago, while 
one or two are almost caricatures. Xor is Sir Joshua Reynolds well 
represented. But, on the contrary, Romney eomes out better than 
usual partly because there is only one " Lady Hamilton " and that a 
bad one. We arc most of us weary of that mass of beauty, igno- 
rance and shamclessness, although 1 presume some people still take 
an interest in her, or Mr. Fitzgerald would not have taken the trou- 
ble to use bis whitewashing brush in her behalf. But to be able to 
admire a liomney which is full of a beauty not that of Lady Hamil- 
ton is refreshing, and this we may do in the portrait of the Countess 
of Mansfield, a pensive lady under a tree, bathed in a beautiful light 
of pale gray and lemon-colored tones. "Mrs. Carwardine and 
Child " is another charming portrait a mother nursing a little 
round-faced baby, who nestles in her arms. The whole picture is 
beautifully painted, even the hands are well modelled, which is very 
unusual with Romney. 

Hogarth is represented by twenty-five works, of which several are 
portraits. There is the Queen's " Garrick and his Wife," two or 
three " Peg Wellingtons," one or two " Conversation Pieces," and 
one or two landscapes, as well as some portraits, but, on the whole, I 
must confess that 1 was disappointed. Some of them show Hogarth's 
sharp crispness of touch, his exquisite flesh painting, his careful 
finish of accessories, and his talent for happy composition. But, 
having seen all these, my feeling is, that if I want to study the 
painter, I can do so better at the National Gallery, where there is 
less, but that little "The Marriage a la Mode" is of better 
quality. There is an exaggeration about some of the works at the 
Grosvenor and a want of life in some of the figures, and even at his 
best Hogarth makes one sad. A painter des moeurs is useful to his 
generation and perhaps also to posterity and so we may be thankful 
tfcat Hogarth devoted himself to the actualite's of his day, but we 
cannot but lament that society was what it was, and it is not pleas- 
ant to dwell upon. No doubt such pictures do good at the time, and, 
acting as lay sermons, influence a class of people who would not 
listen to clerical discourses. But when once the fashion has changed, 
and the " point " is lost, one cannot but wish that the merit of the 
work was not marred by the subject. The " View in St. James's 
Park " is curious, as showing that the present black condition of 
Westminster Abbey Church is subsequent to Hogarth's time. 

Morland's work is very different, being always of rural subjects. 
One or two white horses in this collection are exquisite and one only 
wishes that he had never spoiled his pictures by introducing the human 
animal into the company of his pigs and sheep and horses the 
latter are so superior ltli in morals and technique ! 

By Wilkie, the best is one of his chefs-d'nuvre, the " Letter of 
Introduction," a picture which may rival any by Terburg or 
Metzu in refinement of color and silvery grayness of tone. Mul- 
ready's " Widow " may be coupled with it, although I do not agree 
with the compiler of the catalogue that it is superior. Nor can I 
endorse his words that the " ' Widow' is a complete Pre-Raphaelite 
picture, painted before even the most stringent Pre-Raphaelite 
Brother began to think out his principles, and it amply justifies 
Mulready's saying, that he ' long ago painted in that way,' i. e., 
long before 1848-49, the natal date of the Brotherhood." If by 
Pre-Raphaelitism is understood a care for detail and a faithful ren- 
dering of Nature, these two pictures may be of that school, but so 
must be the old Dutchmen's work, and although those were the aims 
and the intentions of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, they failed to 
carry them out. Wilkie, Mulready, Terburg and De Hooghe 
made the accessories of their pictures subordinate (as they should 
be) to the figures, whereas the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood swamped 
the figures by the surroundings. One need only to think of Millais's 
"Carpenter's Shop" or his " Ophelia,"' or any of liolman Hunt's 
pictures, and compare them with Wilkie's or Mulreatly's to compre- 
hend this. In the " Letter of Introduction " is a wonderful Oriental 
vase, which, although made out in every detail, keeps its place and 
does not " swear " with the figures. Can the same be said for the 
" Carpenter's Shpp's " tools or shavings, or the et ceteras in the 
' Finding in .the Temple " V That Wilkie and Mulready had much 
in common with Terburg and Metzu is true, but whatever charm 
there is in the early Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood pictures, it is not 
gained by truth of the different " values " in their relation to one 
another, which is before all things the merit of the works of their 
older brethren. Even the " Huguenot," charming as it is in senti- 
ment and color, fails in this, that the leaves, the wall and surround- 
ings assert themselves too much. A lizard may be on a wall, or a 
fly on a woman's coif, but if the fly attracts the eye of the spectator 
from the woman's face, or the lizard from the mass of wall, the rela- 



tive values are false however true to Nature the painting of the 
lizurd or the tly may be. Mr. II. Hunt paints the reflection of win- 
dow panes upon his eye-balls, and no doubt if we look hard enough 
we may see it, but the light on the pupils of the eyes is not the first 
thing which attracts our attention when we look in a friend's face, 
nor ought it to be in his portrait. Tne difference might lie summed 
up thus : The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood aimed at the individual 
truth of particles, the Dutchmen, Wilkie and Mulready, at collective 
truth of the whole ; in the former the pursuit of truth led to false- 
hood, in the latter to absolute truth. 

Mrs. Grundy might point to the Ettys as examples of the immor- 
ality of the nude.. Exquisite in color and ]Kirfect in modelling, 
Etty's pictures arc always unpleasant, and the reason is not far to 
seek. Like all his contemporaries, including Ingres and Gerard, his 
idea of the nude was simply the undressed. His Venuses have their 
hair bound up at the top of their heads with large combs, and hit) 
Cupids have crops of curls all round, after the fashion of the chil- 
dren of his day. Etty, in fact, merely painted what he saw in 
Nature, whereas his predecessors and the great men of the present 
day who follow this branch of art, idealize her. I could not help 
wondering when I looked at " Robinson Crusoe " whether Cournet 
ever saw the picture before he painted his wave in the Luxembourg; 
there is a wonderful resemblance in form, color and movement. So, 
too, it reminds me of Delacroix. 

In one of the rooms, as neiulants, are two portraits of painters, 
painted by themselves Turner and Wilkie and, although the 
latter is the finer work, that of Turner shows that if he had chosen, 
he could have devoted himself to portraiture with success. It is 
almost impossible here to specify any of the great master's works 
they are all so fine, from the furious tumultuous sea in the "Mino- 
taur," to the sweet calm and softened sunny glow of "Calder 
Bridge" and "Somer Hill." 

The gallery contains some good examples of Wilson, refined and 
placid if somewhat over conventional. The first picture which 
introduced Opie to fame is proof that he deserved it. The painting 
of the old woman in the " Schoolmistress " is equal to Bonnat or 
Deschamps. A little portrait by Corway ought to be mentioned as 
being full of charm and showing the painter's work in an unusual 
medium. Numberless miniatures by him are to be seen, but oil- 
paintings are rare, which is a pity, as his handling of this portrait of 
a demure little damsel is quite equal to his water-color work, if not 
superior. Linncll is represented by two pictures, not his best, but I 
cannot help thinking that posterity will reverse his present high 
reputation ; his works are terribly crude and glaring in color, and 
his touch is so constantly woolly. Where is the air and the crisp- 
ness of brush work which we see in Constable's pictures? 

Amonsrst other names in the catalogue are the Barker?, Blake, 
Calcott, Collins, Copley, Cotman, the two Cronies, De Wint (only 
oil paintings), Copley Fielding (oil pictures), W. Hunt, Landseef, 
Lawrence, Nollekins', Raeburn, Reinagle, Smirke, Stubbs, Varley, 
Vincent, James Ward, Wheatley, Withington and Xoffany (two 
caricatures). The Royal Academy Exhibition deserves some notice 
also, as it has struck out in a new line by showing a choice collection 
of Italian bas-reliefs and bronzes, but want of space compels me to 
postpone doing so until a future occasion. S. BKALE. 




WEAKNESS IN DESIGN OK LOWER STORIES. 
UNFORTUNATE CHANGES IN THE HO- 
TEL KOYL8TOX PARTICULARS IN WHICH 
THE COURT-HOUSE DESIGN MAY BE IM- 
PROVED. COPPER BAY-WINDOWS. 

E have noticed on several occasions, 
that many of our more important build- 
ings are at their best when seen lising 
over other buildings for instance, the best point of view of the New 
Old South tower is from Newbury Street, between Dartmouth and 
Exeter, where the base is hidden ; and before the new high buildings 
on Boylston Street were built, the Providence Depot, seen from the 
Public Garden, stretched a long quiet line of roof above the masses 
of the Boylston Street houses. 

The reason that these distant views are the best is not hard to 
find, it is because the first stories of the buildings themselves are 
hidden and these first stories arc usually bad bad in two ways; 
they have not sufficient wall-space and apparent strength for the 
stories above, and they have no horizontal continuous base-course 
from which the farmlc is to rise and upon which it is to rest. Every 
one knows the rtiison-d'etre of string-courses, of mouldings and of 
cornices, i. e., to accent the separation of one thing from another 
story from story ; base from wall ; wall from frieze ; building from 
sky. The more difference there is between the things separated, the 
more imjtortant become the separating courses. Is there not a good 
reason, then, for having lines separating the building from the earth 
on which it rests. There is no ancient temple without its stvlobate, 
no Florentine, Roman, Bologncse palace without its great projecting 
base-course, no English manor without its terraces. 



80 



The American Architect and Building News. [VoL. XXI11. No 634. 



Yet, we seem to have forgotten that such an idea existed, and our 
buildings seemingly driven into the ground like pegs are seen best 
when the first story is hidden. It "is pitiable. There seems to be 
some utilitarian excuse for the lack of wall-surfaces in first stories of 
business buildings, as there is a demand, which seems at times a 
little excessive, for show-windows and for as much light as possible, 
but surely there is some better solution of this problem of getting 
small piers with wide spaces between them than any we have yet 
attempted. 

The iron piers, used in such numbers in our business districts, are 
direct descendants of the sawed and chamfered piazza posts of the 
country carpenter. A high wall-surface supported on an arcade, or. 
upon a colonnade with lintels is no new thing. It was common in 
both Rome and Pompeii the Basilica Julia (Cuninas Restoration), 
the Pompeian Forum, the Cloisters of S. Giovanni Laterano and 
of S. Paolo fuori la mura. In Gothic work there are numberless ex- 
amples, the Cloisters at Viterbo, at Caen, at Mont St. Michel, at 
Barcelona and San Juan de los Reyes at Toledo. Bologna, Milan, 
Turin, Paris, have whole streets treated in this way. Any one of 
these examples would suggest a facade of which the first story is 
nothing but columns or slight piers and spaces (these spaces glazed) 
but the columns should be the same color as the walls above, and, if 
possible, of the same material. 

This applies very strongly to the block on the site of old Boylston 
Market. It is (above the first story) so quiet and simple, of such 
comparatively good proportions that the uneasiness and change of 
idea in the first story shows only another example of our inability to 
as yet successfully master the problem of shop-fronts. 

This building, by the way, has two long unbroken faQades, which 
is a great gain over the chopped-up fronts near it and its general 
character is a marked improvement over the children's building- 
block architecture of the work a little farther up the street. 

We wish we could say as much of the additions to the Hotel 
Boylston. Hotel Boylston belonged to a type of work which pro- 
claimed itself as a union of Victorian and Venetian Gothic. In 
point of fact it but slightly resembled either. Its distinctive charac- 
teristics were pointed arches, corbelled cornices and, especially, parti- 
colored voussoirs. In white and gray marbles, as in the building at the 
corner of Summer and Chauncey Streets, it was too pronounced in 
its contrasts, but in the Hotel Boylston, where the two shades were 
more alike in tone, it was at its best. There was, however, always a 
lack of good detail. The buildings of this type were vigorous, inter- 
esting, heavy and crude to barbarism, yet they were much better 
than others of their time and Hotel Boylston was one of the best of 
the type. 

Its situation is an excellent one and it is a positive evil to have a 
building in such a situation made worse instead of better. Recently 
two stories have been added ; the old corbelled cornice has been left 
except where it was cut by the gables, where there are now abrupt 
meaningless gaps in its continuity. The two stories, which by their 
proportions, are neither frieze, mansard nor wall-surface, are termi- 
nated (we cannot say crowned) by a feeble cornice. Add to this that 
copper bays of a character utterly out of keeping with the building 
jut out in these two stories, and the result is a spectacle of architec- 
tural treatment that has few parallels in the city. Compare this with 
the Mason & Hamlin Company's building on Tremont Street, where 
the delicate proportions of the arches, the refinement of lines and 
mouldings, the simplicity of treatment and material, really recall the 
best in Venetian work, and the difference is very marked. 

We spoke last month of the " commonplace detail " of the Court- 
house and have since thought such a remark might be ambiguous 
and now hasten to explain it. The columns, the balcony platforms 
and the brackets seem to justify such an expression most of all. 
Stone carving of all kinds, and espeeiajry when of Classic character, 
needs to be done in the most skilful and masterly way or not at all. It 
is not a case of "half a loaf is better than no bread," as seems to be 
the popular opinion, it is a question of whether the bread is to be 
palatable or not. Every one knows that to make a good salad 
requires a very distinct knowledge of the proportions of the ingredi- 
ents, and every architect knows, or should, that the designing of a 
successful piece of ornament requires a very distinct knowledge of 
style, of proportion, scale, light and shade, projection of ornament, 
proportion of ornament to ground, proportion of ground to surround- 
ing surfaces, accompanied by a thorough ability to draw finely. It 
is not every morsel that is fit to set before a king ; it is not every 
piece of carving that is fit to adorn a building for the people; for 
decoration should only enhance something that is able to dispense 
with it and to which it only supplies richness or delicacy. For 
this reason, we would only suggest such changes on the Court-House 
as would save it from inferior enrichment and vulgar detail. 

Tt is not too late to make the main cornice a fine one, studied care- 
fully from Vignola if need be, nor to leave out the panel mouldings 
and the weathering of joints, which is all out of scale ; to lessen the 
projections of the string courses, which in section do not show their 
exaggerated overhang on the diagonals when turning corners ; to 
concentrate the three openings on the top story into one, so that that 
story may have some dignity and not be a mere wall shot full of 
holes. Apart from this there are several very bad pieces of design. 
First, the combined corbel, column and balcony which ought to be 
taken down ; second, the openings in the third story of the end pavi- 
lions and the pediments over, which ought to be changed ; third, the 
dome, which, as proposed, is very bad too light at the base, too heavy 



above, with a pinched, meagre profile and a weak spring the whole 
dome utterly unworthy of the mass of building below. 

There are domes enough to study from. Brunelleschi's at Florence 
would seem to suggest that noble simplicity is a virtue in a dome. 
St. Peter's, inferior as it is to many others, echoes the same principle. 
St. Paul's, the Invalides at Paris, the numberless Eastern domes, 
such as the tombs of the Mamelukes outside of Cairo, all point em- 
phatically to the same conclusion, /. e., that a dome should be a geo- 
metric unit and not a combination of several geometric forms, and 
that it should be very firmly planted on a simple base. 

The dome is not yet under contract. If the facades cannot be 
changed or bettered (and we do not believe it is too late for that), 
at most, they will only be seen from the immediate vicinity and if 
one has no need of recourse to the law, he need never see them and 
can try to forget their existence, but to raise a dome into the air that 
will be seen for miles, this should require a reverent courage, a depth 
of daring, that should make the architect who attempts it work with 
cautious hands, for the result will laud him or damn him for all 
time. Finally, though, this has something the nature of an anti- 
climax, we do not think a French mantel-clock the finest central 
motive for the sky-line of a fa9ade. 

The latest fashion, probably nurtured by the Building Law, is the 
copper bay of all descriptions, but principally of the straightened, 
squeezed variety, with a feeble intention, when painted, to resemble 
wood. There should be no intrinsic evil in the use of copper for 
bays, but we have yet to see it well used. Perhaps the trouble is 
more in the want of knowledge of handling bays than in the copper. 
A bay (unless a broad square one) is essentially a perpendicular 
thing. Either a part of an upright prism or of a cylinder, and sets 
(unless contrasted with broad masses of wall-surfaces) a perpendic- 
ular scheme for the building. This is in most cases forgotten, and 
the bays are so many Jacks-in-the-box, jumping up and through 
horizontal string-courses, etc. Nash's " Mansions of England " give 
many suggestions for better treatments. 




THE " PUBLIC BUILDINGS " RAID ON THE TREASURY. 

f JJ C O RRES- 
F\ PON DENT 
/of the New 
York Times writes 
as follows: The 
public building raid 
upon the Treasury 
now contemplated, 
and already begun 
in the Senate, will 
take from the Treas- 
ury, if it is success- 
ful, the sum of $25,- 
000,000. That does 
not include a num- 
ber of propositions 
before the Senate, 
but not yet before 
the House, aggregat- 
ing about $3,000,- 
000. If the House 
gets all the Bills 
through which have 
been introduced by 
its own members, 
and also those of the 
Senate, the appro- 
priations will reach up to about $30,000,000. It is no wonder that 
Senator Vest said a day or two ago that before the public build- 
ings appropriations the Blair Bill and the Tariff Bill sink into insig- 
nificance as plans for reducing the surplus. 

It was an easy thing to invent a plan for capturing votes enough 
in the House to pass every public building Bill reported. There are 
325 members with votes. Get 200 of them behind a Bill and it was 
as good as a law. If a Bill is introduced for a public building in 
New York, San Francisco, New Orleans or St. Louis, it is sure to get 
the votes of all the members from each of the States of New York, 
California, Louisiana and Missouri. If a New York Bill goes in 
alone, and comes up alone, its merits may be great, but New York 
alone is greatly interested in it. By extending the plan and inducing 
Representatives, two, three or four from each State, to introduce 
Bills, a common interest was aroused. This has been done. One 
hundred and twenty-three members have introduced Bills. All of 
these members except four delegates from as many territories have a 
vote each. They represent all of the States except Delaware, Rhode 
Island and Nevada. But these States are to be provided for. Rhode 
Island has two Bills in the Senate. Delaware has one at least. It is 
not too late for Nevada to get a share of the Treasury surplus, if it 
thinks it would like to have a public building. 

Having gone on introducing Bills as fast as they could be prepared 
and turned in, the next step was to drive them through the House 
on the mutual plan. So Mr. Dibble, of South Carolina, who is Chair- 
man of the Public Buildings Committee, has asked for, and, by con- 
sent of Mr. Mills, the chosen leader of the majority, will have five 



FEBRUARY 18, 1888.] 



The American Architect and Building News. 



days, beginning February 21, in which all Bills to be indicate'! by 
tlic 1'ublic Buildings Committee are to be considered. That means, 
of course, that they are to be passed. Dilatory motions are to be 
prevented. That means that no attempt to stop a Hill is to be coun- 
tenanced, and that the procession of plunder-hearers is to move 
majestically on regardless of the rules of the House that restrain 
other measures. 

This scheme of wholesale treasure-grabbing is best illustrated by 
the use of names and figures. The Bills introduced in the House up 
In February 1 were brought in by the following members: 



Abbott, Texas, (2) 
Allen, M i^>. 

liaki-r, 111. 

HanklM'jnl, Ala. 
ItayiH-. IViin. 
Biggs. Cal. 
i:.-i:,.';ianl, I.a. 
Boothman, Ohio. 
limit. -11... Mr. 
Bowden, Va.,(2.) 
Hrcuvr. .Mich. 
Itrowne, T. 11. I!. 
Va.. (.) 

Bnebanan. N. J. 

Hurrmvs. Mich. 
Hutler, Ti-nn., (2.) 
Bynmn, lnil. 
Oampbell, J. E.. 

Ohio. 
Campbell, T. J., N. 

Carey, Wyoming. 
Caruth, Ky. 
Caswell, \\ la. 
('atchiiigs. Miss. 
Compton, Mi!. 
Cox, N. Y. 
Crain, Texas. 
Grouse, Ohio. 
Culberson, Texas. 
Cutcheon, Mich. 

(U 
Darlington, Penn. 



Davidson, Fla., (2.) Lodge, Mass. 
Dibble, S. C., (2 ) iMaish, Penn. 
IDorsey, Neb., (2.) 
:l>unn. Ark. 
Knloe, Tenn. 
Fisher, Mich. 
Flood, N. Y. 
Ford, Mich. 
Funston, Kan. 



Kowland N. C. 

Kii*k, Md. 

Kussell, Conn. 

Scull, Penn. 
, , Seney, Ohio, (2.) 
MeClammy, N. C. Simmons, N. C. 
MoKenna, Cal., (2.) Smith, \\ I*. 
MeKinley, Ohio. Snyder, W. Va. 



Mansur, Mo. 
Martin, Texas. 
>, N. 



Gilford, Dakota. 
Granger, Conn. 
Grimes Ga. 
Grout, Vt. 
(Juenther, Wis. 
Heard, Mo. 
ll> uderson, N. C. 
Hermann, Oregon, 

Hii-stand, Penn. 

Hogg,' West Va., (2 ) O'Donnel'l, Mich. 
.Holiuan, Ind. O'Neall, Ind. 

Hi'lnifS. Iowa. Osborne, Penn. 

Hopkins. Va. Ow,-n, Ind. 



HoV-y, Ind. 
Howard, Ind. 
Joseph, New Mex- 
ico. 

Ketcham. N. Y. 
Lawler, III. 
Lnndes, 111. 
Lchlbach, N. J. 



Mi-Kinuey, N. H.,Sowden, Penn. 

(2.) Stahlnecker, N. Y. 

Mcltae, Ark. Stewart, Ga. 

Mi Shane, Neb.. (3.) Stewart, Vt. 
Milliki-n. Me., (2) Struble, Iowa. 
M., Mitt. N. Y. Symes, Col.. (2.) 

Morrlll, Kan. Tarsney, Mich. 

Morrow, Cal., (2.) Thomas, Ky. 
Morse, Mass. Thompson, Ohio. 

Neal, 1'enn. |'l hoinpson, Cal. 

Newton, La. iToole. Montana. 

Nelson, Minn. .Vanduver, Cal., (2.) 
Norwood, Ga. Warner, Mo. 

Weber, N. Y. 

We, N. Y. 

Wilber, N. Y. 

Wilkins, Ohio. 

Parker, N. Y. Williams. N. Y. 

Perkins, Kan. Wilkinson, I.a. 

Wilson. Minn. 



, 

Perry, S. C. 
Peters, Kan., (3.) 
Phelps, N. J. 
Kice, Minn.. (2.) 
Robertson, La. 
Rogers, ..rk. 



Wise, Va. 
Yost, Va. 
Yoder, Ohio. 



Three new members T. H. B. Browne, of Virginia, Peters, of 
Kansas, and McShane, of Nebraska are the leaders in the list. 
Each has introduced three Bills. Abbott, of Texas, Bowden, of Vir- 
ginia, Hogg, of West Virginia, McKinney, of New Hampshire, Rice, 
of Minnesota, and Van.levcr, of California, also all new, have in- 
troduced two Bills each. The old members are satisfied if they can 
introduce and get through one Bill in a term of two years. The 
Bills came in from fifty-nine Republicans and sixty-three Democrats, 
and one Independent Smith is among the aspirants for local 
fame in this way. The 123 members ask for one hundred and forty- 
nine new buildings, as follows : 



Akron, Ohio. $100,OOOiGardenCity,Kan. $100,000, Oakland, Cal. 
Albuquerque, New |Gr'd Haven, Mich. 100,000 1 Olney, 111. 

Mexico. 100,000 ( Grand Island, Neb. lOO.OOOl Omaha, Neb. 

Alexandria. La. 100,000 Greenville, S. C. 100,000 Onancock, Va. 
Allegheny, Penn. 200,000 Hamilton, Ohio. 
Alleutown, Penn. 100,000 , Helena, Ark. 



150,000 ; Helena, Montana. 100,000 , Paterson, N. J. 
50,000 Hoboken, N. J. 100,oofli Pensacola, Fla. 
Ings, Ark. 50,i Ofl'Piqua, Ohio. 



, 

Altoona, Penn. 
Annapolis, Md. , 

Atchison, Kan. V'O.OOO Hot Spri 
Atlanta, On. 75,000 i Houlton, Me. 

Atlantic City, N. J. 100.000 Hudson, N. Y. 
Asheville, N. C. 
Baltimore, Md. 



100,000 Oneonta, N. Y. 
80,000 Palestine, Texas. 



8250,000 
75,000 

1,500,000 
25,000 
75,000 
75,001) 
100,000 
50,000 
t.0,000 
40,0'0 



, , 

50,000 Plattswortli, Neb. 
100,1100 Pt. Pleasant, W. Va.75JOOO 

IOO.OJHI lluntingiou, W. Va.100,000 Portland, Oregon. <600 (100 
GfjO.UOO Hutchlnson, Kan. 100,000 Portsmouth, Ohio. fifl.iioo 



Bar Harbor, Me. 50,000. Indianapolis, lud. 125JOOO Pueblo, Col.' 

Bay City, Mich. 250,000 Jackson, Mich. 100,000,' Racine, Wis. 

Baton Rouge, La. 100,000 Jackson, Tenn. 1,000 Koanoke, Va. 

Beatrice, Neb. 40,ooo|jetfcrsonville Ind. 25,000 1 Sacramento Cal. 



Kirmingham, Ala. 50o)o0| Jersey City, N. J. 



Boston, Mass. 



250,(KM) | Kalamazoo, Mich. 100,000 



Bridgeport, Conn. 200,'ood Kansas City, Kan. 10o)(IOO 



Bridgeton N. J. 50, 100 Kansas Cilyj Mo. 
Brownsville, Tex. 60,000 1 Keeue, N. H. 
Bristol, Tenn. 20,000 1 Lancaster, Penn. 

Brunswick, Ga. 100,ooo| Lansing, Mich. 
Charleston, S. C. 400,000! Lima, Ohio. 
Charleston W. Va. 52,000 ILogansport, Ind. 



Saglnaw, Mich. 

St. Album, Vt 

St. Paul, Minn. 

Salem. Oregon. 

San Diego, Cal. ,,,...,.,., 

San Francisco, Cal. 830,o< o 



2110,000 
100,000 
100.000 
150,000 
2"0,dOO 
75,000 

100,000 

150,000 



100,000 

125,000 

100 ,0 K) i San Francisco. Cal. 400^000 
' Schenectady, N. Y. 75,000 



Charlotte, N. C. 20'i)ooo 
Chattanooga, Tenn.300,<iOO 



76,00 



Chester, Penn. 
Cheyenne. Wy. 
Chicago, 111. 
Columbus, Ga. 
Dallas, Texas. 
Defiance, Ohio. 
Denver, Col. 
Dover, N. H. 
Duluth, Minn. 
E. St. Louis, 111. 
Klmira, N. Y. 
Eureka Cal. 
Evansvllle, Ind. 



I.MS Angeles. Cal. 178,500 
" luisville, Ky. 10,000 

250,000 
KKt.flOO 
75,000 



75,000 Lowell, Mass. 

80.(x> Lynn, Mass. 
200,000 Madison, Ind. 
150,000 ;Ma)one, N. Y. 20,000 

12,000 Manchester, N. H. 48,000 

25,000 Manchester Va. 60,000 



, . 

1 .IKKI.IKHP Manlstee, Mich. 
100,000 Maysville, Ky. 



50,000 
50,000 



, , 

300,000 Milwaukee Wis. 1,200,000 



, 

40,000 'Moberly, Mo. 
150.0IK) Monroe, La. 



75,000 



Sedalia, Mo. 
Sioux City, Iowa. 
Sioux Falls, Dak. 
Springfield, Mo. 
Statesville N. C. 
Stannton. Va. 
Stillwater, Minn. 
Stockton, Cal. 
Suspension Bridge, 

Tallahassee, Fla. 
Texarkana, Ark. 
Texarkana, Tex. 



, 
100,1100, Tlfflln, Ohio. 



Fayettevllle, N! C. 75!ooo 
Flndlay, Ohio. 



00,000 Morristown Tenn. 20,000] Vicksburg, Miss. 
100,0(10 " 



'5,000 

300,000 
100,1100 
100,000 
150,0(10 

75,000 
100,000 

85,000 

'150,000 
75,000 
100,000 
50,000 
30,0011 
125,000 
75,000 

100,0(10, Washington, D. C. 800,000 
L'.MI.IKHI Watertown, N. Y. 120,000 
100 ,000! Wichita, Kan. loo.OOO 

--_,_-- New London, Ct. 150,000 , Wilkesbarre, Pnn. 150,(X)0 

Fortress Monroe, V Orleans La. I,500,000 Winlield, Kan. SO.OO'i 

Va. 10,000 Newport News, Va. 100,000 Winona, Minn. 200,000 

Fort Worth, Tex. l.lo.iioo Now port. Vt. 50.000 1 Yonkers, N. Y. 100,000 

Fredericksburg, Va. 50,000 New York, N. Y. l,5nO,000 York, Penn. 150000 

l'ii MKint, Neb. 100,0001 New York, N. Y. 250,000 Youngstown, O. 150,000 
Gallipolis, Ohio. 25,000 1 Norfolk, Va. 260,000 Zanesville, O. 150,000 

Total $24,994,500 

The table below gives the number of buildings proposed for each 
State, with the total prizes for the States : 



., ._. 30,000 
Fond (hi Lac Wis. 50,000 
Fort Dodge, Iowa. 100,000 



!:,... 
lihi 



.Mnskegaii, Mich. 100)000 Vlncennes' Ind.' 
Nashua, N. H. 
Newark, N. J. 
Nw Beme, N. C. 



Number of Estimated 
Buildings Cost of New 
Pro|Hwed. Buildings. 

Alabama 1 500,000 

Arkansas 2 230,000 

nia 8 

Colorado 2 1,200000 

(oniK.'tieut 2 .-150.000 

Hmi.la 2 126,000 

Georgia.. 3 

Illinois 3 :;i:,.ito 

Indiana 6 475,000 

Iowa 2 400,000 

Kansas 6 

Kentucky 2 60,000 

Louisiana 4 1,800,000 

Maine 2 HKI.<KI 

Maryland 2 700,000 

MassachusetU it I.IHI.IKHI 

MI 8 1,010,11011 

'Mmn.'sota 4 1100,000 

Mississippi 1 I-J.-..MI.I 

Missouri 4 1,250,000 



Number of 
Building! 

Proposed. 

Nebraska 6 

New Hampshire 4 

'New .Jersey 8 

New York 10 

North Carolina. 6 

Ohio 11 

Oregon 2 

Pennsylvania 7 

South Carolina 2 

Tennessee 4 

Texas 6 

Vermont 2 

Virginia 8 

Weit Virginia 3 

Wisconsin 3 

Dakota 

Montana 

New Mexico 

Wyoming 

District of Columbia.. 



Krtlmmted 

Cost of New 
IfuiMingH. 
1.7X0.000 



1:00,001) 

2.0B5.000 
825,000 
780.000 
000,000 
960,000 
600,000 
841,000 



120,000 

uofl.ooo 
217.000 
1,350,000 
100,01 K) 
100,000 
100,000 
KO.OOO 
800,0.0 



Total .......................................................... 149 124,994,500 

A prominent Eastern Republican, whose attention was directed to 
the fact that the Fiftieth Congress was preparing to make an ex- 
traordinary record for the passage of public building Bills, answered 
that it would be found that most of them were for Southern cities. 
Well, look at the following analysis and sec if that is true. Take 
the Eastern States first : 



Buildings. 
Connecticut ........................................................ 2 

Maine ......................... .................................... 2 

Massachusetts ...................................................... 3 

New Hampshire ................... - ................................ 4 

Vermont ............................................................ 2 



Total 
Cost. 
tSSO.OOO 



600,000 

;:|I.,IMII 
126,000 



Total 13 $1,521,000 

The Middle States expect to draw more and richer prizes. Their 
share is as follows : 

Proposed Total 

Buildings. Cost. 

New Jersey 6 COO,000 

New York 10 2,MB,<mo 

Pennsylvania 7 950,000 



Total 23 $3,315,000 

The West cries for the lion's share of the plunder, and asks for 
these appropriations : 



Proposed Total 

Buildings. Cost. 

California 8 $2,123,500 

Colorado 2 1 ,20,UOO 

Illinois 3 315,000 

Indiana 475,000 

Iowa 2 400,000 

Kansas 6 550,000 



Proposed 
Buildings. 



Michigan... 

Minnesota 4 

Nebraska 5 

Ohio 11 

Oregon 2 

Wisconsin 3 



Total 

Cost. 

1,010,000 

Odo.uoo 

1,780,000 
780,000 

voo,ooo 

1,35U,000 



Total 

This is the share of the South : 

Proposed Total 

Buildings. Cost, 

Alabama 1 $500,000 

Arkansas 2 230,000 

Florida 2 125,000 

Georgia 3 325,000 

Kentucky 2 00,000 

Louisiana 4 1,800,000 

Maryland 2 700,000 

Mississippi 1 125,000 

Total... 



.GO $11,183,500 



Proposed 
Buildings. 

Missouri 4 

North Carolina 6 

South Carolina 2 

Tennessee 4 

Texas 5 

Virginia 8 

West Virginia 3 



Total 
Cost. 
1,250,000 
025,000 
500,OI>0 
341,000 
327,000 
000,000 
227,000 



48 $7,795,000 

The territories and the District of Columbia come in for a small 
share : 

Proposed Total 

Buildings. Cost. 

Dakota i $100,000 

District of Columbia 1 800 (MK) 

Montana i 100,000 

New Mexico i loo i too 

Wyoming i 80.000 

Total 6 $1,180,000 



SUMMARY. 



Kastern States 

Middle States 

Western States 

Southern States 

Territories 



Buildings. 

13 

23 

00 

48 

6 



Total 

Cost. 

$1,521,000 

3,315,000 

11,183,500 

7,795,000 

1,180,000 



Total 149 $24,994,500 

Does any one doubt, after reading this chapter, that a large sur- 
plus in the Treasury is demoralizing to legislators, or that the 
Fiftieth Congress is more anxious to spend money than it is to re- 
duce taxes. E. G. D. 



1 The estimates for the public buildings at St. Paul, Minn., and Jersey City N 
J., are not furnished. The Senate bill for St. Paul calls for $1,200,000, and the 
Jersey City building may be put at $250,000 to $500,000. 



82 



The American Architect and Building News. [VoL. XXIII. No. 634. 




THE ELDER TYPE OF DWELLING-HOUSE. 
THE EPOCH OF CLASSIC DETAILS. BRICK- 
AND-MARBLE FRONTS OF YESTERDAY. 

BALTIMORE is distinctively the city of " in- 
dividual " homes. One of its marked char- 
acteristics has always been the preponder- 
ance of the single dwelling of all grades from 
the homes of the millionaire standing alone, down to those of the day- 
laborer, built in blocks of from three to thirty. Ten years ago either 
the typical tenement-house or the modern "flat" was unknown, and 
they are still so few in number and so abortive in arrangement, that 
neither the extreme evils of the one nor the advantages of the other 
have, as yet, been thoroughly developed. It is the private dwelling, 
then, that here first demands our attention, and it may be the tradi- 
tional spirit of conservatism in this old city that tempts us, even in 
architecture, to still linger perhaps not altogether idly among 
the good things of the past rather than at once to deal with the more 
practical questions of the present or the prospects of the future. For, 
when one thinks of the "good old houses of fifty years ago," referred 
to in the Baltimore letter of last month, or when we look upon the 
calm and dignified faces of some of these worthy old citizens of a 
former generation, now too often abandoned to ignoble uses and 
neglect, patiently waiting their ruin under the invading tide of im- 
pudent upstarts pressing upon them from every side, when we walk 
through their ample halls and rooms, and over their broad and easy 
stairways, we cannot but dwell upon the fact of how really genuine 
and good they were, in the light of their own day and generation, 
and what comfortable homes they made in all that the life of refined 
and cultivated people then asked for. 

True, they could boast of no plumbing worthy of the name no 
gas rarely a furnace, and the present "butlery," with its very ship- 
shape concentration of modern conveniences in some stolen corner, 
can look back at its progenitor, the "housekeeper's-room," as of 
quite wasteful dimensions, while the place of closets was nearly 
altogether supplied by " wardrobes " and " clothes-presses " and 
"chests," and most satisfactory pieces of furniture they were, too, 
both to use and to look upon. That dark age of constructive and 
decorative immoralities and abominations had not yet settled upon 
the world, whose crying evils finally called forth such reforms as 
" Eastlake" and "Queen Anne," and, alas! all the later slanders and 
traductions that have been done in their sacred names. Bricks and 
mortar, stone and wood and iron were generally used, each in its 
fitting place, and were not subjected to the humiliating office of 
imitating each other. Wide, open fireplaces lead into real flues, and 
doors and windows did not shrink and rattle. All this was true 
even for the houses which, although about twenty-five or thirty feet 
broad, were in those days regarded as quite modest and unassum- 
ing dwellings, renting at the moderate rate of two or three hundred 
dollars a year. But the type has entirely disappeared from among 
the erections of recent years. Hundreds are still standing all 
through the older parts of the town, and most respectable and well- 
preserved specimens they are, too, but under the anathema of " old- 
fashioned " their few frailties are derided and their many merits 
overlooked. 

Immediately succeeding this type, some forty odd years ago or 
more, there appeared a very distinctly different style of design in 
the house-front that quite generally prevailed for the better class of 
dwellings for a short period, and nearly all the examples of which 
are still standing in unimpaired freshness, scattered through the 
better streets near the centre of the city still reserved for private 
residences. 

This first change was by no means one of retrogression, but rather 
a renaissance of more strictly Classical and monumental proportions, 
as a reaction after the somewhat ad libitum and attenuated use of 
colonial details. 

These houses, usually slightly separated from their neighbors on 
either side, had broad f^ades of brick with simply treated and well- 
disposed openings a good Classical cornice crowning the whole 
and the chief ornamental feature being an admirably proportioned 
Doric or Ionic portico of white marble, usually projecting some- 
times merely in antis, and rather of Greek than of Roman feeling in 
detail. This portico, only over the main entrance and of the same 
height as the principal story of the building, is altogether a most 
effective and appropriate thing in its place, of just such degree of 
monumental dignity as may fittingly belong to a private residence, 
without being sufficiently obtrusive to suggest a public building 
and it is altogether a distinct thing from that typical, ill-propor- 
tioned, ante-bellum portico of the South, extending through two or 
three stories over the entire front of the house, and of which there 
are a few examples here, as there are also in more Northern towns. 
On the other hand, so good are these bits of Greek reproduction in 
Baltimore that their merits seldom fail to attract the attention of the 



architectural connoisseurs from other cities, and, indeed, we do not 
know of anything quite so good of the kind and of that period in 
New York, Philadelphia or Boston. One peculiar feature about 
these successful designs is that usually the name of no particular 
architect is connected with any of them, and, perhaps, the name of 
architect was never connected with the men who built them, but, 
be this as it may, if the same knowledge of Classical proportion* 
and details, and the ability to so intelligently reproduce them were 
possessed by half the men who claim the name of architect to-day, 
the world would be the better for it. 

A word should be said here in passing in commendation of some 
few of the quite excellent fa9ades to public buildings, somewhat ante- 
cedent to, or of about the same period as those houses. More par- 
ticularly do we note only two or three. First, the little granite 
building on East Baltimore Street, originally erected for a school, 
and which is a complete little Greek Doric temple, barring the win- 
dows in its side walls. About a mile to the west of this, on the 
corner of St. Paul Street and Court-house Lane, is an admirable 
piece of refined Doric, forming the front of an old Court building, a 
mere screen to the totally insignificant structure behind it, but a very 
beautiful screen for all that. A ten minutes' walk farther on brings 
us to the corner of Charles and Franklin Streets and to that often- 
commended piece of Italian Classic, the Unitarian Church, a most 
agreeable bit of architecture for the eye to rest upon at all times and 
never more so than on a clear summer day, its round arches framed 
in by the thick dark-green vine closely clinging to its red-gray stucco 
walls, the sharp, square corner of its roof-line and the low dome 
above against a deep blue sky, with the tall white-marble columns of 
its opposite neighbor, the Athenamm Club, in the foreground. By 
moving a few steps only from this point, we obtain a view of the 
rear of the Eoman Catholic Cathedral, a building certainly of very 
dignified and imposing effect, notwithstanding the fact that it is a 
curiously composite structure, a rather severe, Romanesque, round- 
arched building of granite, to which has been added a huge Doric 
portico in brownstone, with columns reproduced from those of the 
Erectheum, and the whole surmounted by two small towers crowned 
with domes of Moorish form. In spite of these seeming incongrui- 
ties, the Cathedral and its various dependent buildings, including 
the Archbishop's residence, now known as the Cardinal's " Palace," 
which form a group which from some points of view is strikingly 
picturesque and with a decided foreign suggestion about it. 

Here, too, we would appropriately speak of Baltimore's objects of 
special pride, the Battle and the Washington Monuments, had they 
not both been so recently and so ably criticised in the American Archi- 
tect and the latter assigned to the honorable place of second only in 
point of design among the monuments of modern times and of all 
lands. 

And now, with the close of this period of the " Classic portico," 
about the middle of the century, even the most friendly spirit of 
criticism must turn to all that follows for the next twenty-five years 
with shame and acknowledge not only that it finds no place for com- 
mendation, but rather that the kindest charity might say, in all that 
was done, there was really nothing to criticise. To a certain extent 
this was true for the same period in all our cities ; it was the most 
debased age of American architecture over the whole country, but in 
Baltimore the fact seemed more glaringly emphasized than elsewhere. 
All the good things that had gone before seem to have left no results 
behind them in the taste of the builder or of the public, beyond sug- 
gestions for the most absurd misuse of their weakest points and 
entire neglect of the better ones. Any desire for decorative effects 
was satisfied with cheap and pretentious shams and a profusion of 
perfectly meaningless ornamentation. First, the white-marble portico 
was most cleverly imitated in painted wood, the due proportions so 
closely copied that the deception was not at first apparent, till little 
by little the details lost all suggestion of the Classic, the good 
" Flemish bond " gave place to the mere four-inch-thick pressed-brick 
screen of the smoothest and reddest of bricks and the finest and 
whitest of mortar joints as a facing to a very poor wall behind it, 
while cornices and windows and door lintels and sills of white marble 
or painted wood, with mouldings conceived in the carpenter's shop, 
formed the " trimmings." 

The only variation in the type was here and there a " brownstone 
front," whose even coarser details, cut in the rapidly disintegrating 
Connecticut stone, possessed the sole merit of speedily crumbling 
away and adding that unintentional interest to the fa9ade which is 
usually associated with a ruin. By the score these architectural 
abominations arose and cumbered the ground in the best streets of 
the town, and there they still stand, still accepted by some few 
people as the climax of architectural perfection. But ev^n this pop- 
ular approval after a quarter of a century was not proof against the 
ever popular cry for " Novelty," and it was to meet this demand, and 
also impelled by the dawning spirit of disgust for what had so long 
obtained and a knowledge of better things, that one or two archi- 
tects timidly ventured to pioneer a few " Eastlake " and " Queen 
Anne " designs into the community. Evil day ! for the enterprising 
builder, eagerly seizing upon the suggestion of all the novel possibil? 
ties in the style, flooded the city with an array of cheap and small 
houses with every imaginable form of gable and turret and bay, 
moulded-brick and terra-cotta applied with conspicuous lack of intel- 
ligence, and with interiors so overcharged with corner cabinets and 
fireplaces (real or sham), fanciful newel-posts and spindle screen- 
work, and with possibilities for portieres so unlimited as to satisfy 



FEBRUARY 18, 1888.] 



The American Architect and Building News. 



the aesthetic aspirations of the most artistic housekeeper. Even 
the better things aimed at by the architects had little more of real 
merit to commend them. 

The story is now an old one, a well-worn theme with slight varia- 
tions in different cities. Like the evil things that came before it, 
this style is still flourishing in our midst with wonderful vitality and 
prolificness. But the inevitable reaction is also here, with strong 
evidence that its steps are at last turned in the right direction, and 
already there is once more to be seen in the streets of Baltimore not 
only a vast amount of building, but also some architecture. 




NEW YORK ARCHITECTURAL LEAGUE. 

fj T a regular meeting of the Architectural League of New York 
rj held Monday, February 6, 1H88, it was 

/ Resolaed, that a Committee of Five l>e appointed, of which 

the President shall be one, to present the following protest in person : 
To the Commissioners of the Sinking Fund, Abraham S. Hewitt, 
Mayor and Chairman : The Architectural League of New York most 
respectfully protests against the terms of the competition announced 
by your honorable body under ''an Act to provide for the erection of 
a building for Criminal Courts and other purposes in the city of New 
York." Li our judgment a competition of such magnitude demands 
careful preliminary consideration at the hands of professional advisers 
of known ability ; and we respectfully urge that the terms l>c modified 
through such agency even at this late day. We submit that it is 
only by such action that men of acknowledged reputation commen- 
surate with the dignity and importance of the municipality can be 
secured as competitors. 

J. BEVERLY ROIIINSON, PrrMent, 

FRANK A. WRIGHT, 

A. II. THORPE, 

WM. B. TUTHILL, 

FRANK WALLER, Committee. 




CEMENT FOR THE CONCRETE FOUNDATIONS OF THE 
CONGRESSIONAL LIBRARY BUILDING. 

NEW YORK, February 4, 1888. 
To THE EDITORS OF THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT: 

Dear Sirs, In your issue of this date, you remark upon the 
report presented by Mr. J. L. Smithmeyer to the United States 
Senate on January 4th, which gives his reasons for the rejection of 
the Portland cement furnished for the concrete foundation of the 
Congressional Library Building, and your editorial has the color of 
an endorsement of his action. There are two sides to every contro- 
versy, and the contractor for the work has yet to be heard from. 
Knowing something of the status quo, and assured that you act upon 
the principle Fiat justilia, ruat ccdum, I trust you will give this com- 
munication e(|ual publicity to vindicate the reputation and integrity 
of those affected. 

The first lot of cement purchased by the contractor was Black 
Cross Portland, as it had proved a safe cement for concrete, and was 
endorsed by eminent engineers and contractors. The report made 
by the inexperienced person employed by Mr. Smithmeyer to test 
cement being incorrect, it wa not considered, and tests were made 
by Capt. T. N. Symons, U. S. Engineer Corps, and A. G. Menocal, 
of the Washington Navy Yard, which demonstrated that the cement 
exceeded the architect's specifications, viz. : To stand a tensile 
strain of three hundred pounds on the square inch at age of seven 
days and leave not more than ten [>cr centum residuum on a sieve of 
twenty-five hundred meshes to the square inch. Captain Symons 
reported that the cement set in five minutes, and therefore it should 
be condemned. Mr. Menocal reported that the cement set in twenty- 
five minutes, and passed no opinion. 

Investigation of the methods employed for testing the set of cement 
by Captain Symons proved that the ganger was not accustomed to 
test Portland, his time being more especially devoted to testing the 
slow-setting natural cements of which large quantities are used in 
the District. After mixing up sufficient Black Cross to make a bar 
briquette and pressing it into the mould, it was shaken out upon 
absorptive paper, the entire operation consuming less than three 
minutes. The cement was then tapped with the finger, and when it 
failed to take an impression, it was considered set. On this method 
<>f testing for set, the cement is condemned by Mr. Smithmeyer. An 
expert or one familiar with cement recognizes that to shake cement 
out on absorptive material draws out the moisture quicker than is 
intended and a scale will form sufficient to prevent an impression 
hein<.j made by the finger-tip ; further, the warmth of the finger will 
tend to dry out the cement at that point. It was suggested that if 
the quick setting of the cement was due to faulty manufacture the 
tensile strength at longer date would give some indication of it, and 
therefore further briquettes were made up at the same time and 
broken at seven days and thirty-five days, with the reult of four 



hundred and fifty-six |K>unds and live hundred and one pounds 
respectively on the square inch, conclusively proving that the set 
registered was incorrect and that the cement was safe ami sound. 
In the n-|iiirt submitted by the architect, no mention is made of this 
fact whirli is on record. The contractors not being permitted to use 
Black Cross, and another cement that the architect ordered them to 
obtain !>eing also condemned, it became necessary to present the 
matter last November before the Library Commission. The Chair- 
nun, Secretary Lamar, decided that Geu. M. C. Mcigs should test 
and re|mrt on the cement for which his practical knowledge well 
fitted him. 

On December 3d, General Meigs rc|H>rtcd in the following words : 
" The Black Cross cement has a tensile strength of five hundred and 
fifty-nine pounds to the square inch at age of seven days, much more 
than the specifications require. In regard to rate of setting, I find 
it, as intimated on Block 12, a quick-setting cement, stiffening in 
twenty-five minutes after beginning to teni|>er it with water. This 
morning I tempered a batch of it, and after waiting some time, took 
it down stairs to my office. After mixing it in the second storv, I 
forgot to look at it again till after the lapse of eighty-four minutes. 
It then took some pressure to make a distinct impression on it with 
a three-sixteenths inch brass wire, but it was easily written on with 
the |x>int of a |>en-knife. I am of the opinion that skilful workmen 
will be able to make a strong concrete of Black Cross cement." 

The cement, therefore, did not fall below the required tensile 
strength, as the types unfortunately state in your editorial, and when 
it can be written upon with the point of a knife eighty-four minutes 
after mixing, it is not a quick-setting and a dangerous cement. 

A request to permit the placing of some concrete made with this 
cement according to s|iecifications in xitu and its action watched wag 
refused by the architect, although accompanied with the offer that 
if the concrete was condemned it should be replaced with cement he 
selected. As cold weather was approaching, when no work could be 
done, the concrete would have several months of seven* trial, and 
the rejection of the offer was unreasonable. 

When this cement is being used by the contractors for the Croton 
Aqueduct (all of which is subjected to a rigid test by the engineers, 
as it is employed in situations exacting more than is required in the 
Congressional Library foundations), and not a single complaint hag 
been made of the twenty-five thousand barrels already delivered, it 
is incredible that it is the worthless material the architect imputes it 
to be, and there is foundation for the assertions which your article 
intimates have been circulated in press dispatches all over the coun- 
try. The reputation of a well-known manufacturer and the honor 
of an importing merchant are not to be lightly impeached, even by 
the political influence that has been brought to bear in this case. 
Yours truly, HOWARD FLEMING. 



NEW YORK, N. Y.. February 8, 1888. 
To THE EDITORS OF THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT : 

Dear Sirs, In your issue of February 4, you refer editorially to 
the tests of Portland cement made by Mr. Smithmeyer, architect of 
i the Congressional Library Building, and his rejection of cements 
purchased by the contractors. Those tests have already been made 
the subject of much controversy, and we should not refer to them 
again had the article not shown such strong prejudice in favor of the 
architect, while manifestly ill-advised as to the facts. 

We represent, as sole agents for the manufacturers, one of the 
cements referred to. The one mentioned by you as " perhaps the 
oldest and best known in this country of all the Portland cements," 
and while we have never questioned the integrity of the architect in 
his unbiased desire to secure a suitable cement for his purpose, we 
do impeach his specifications and his ability to test cement even under 
those specifications. He states that owing to the peculiar nature of 
the soil a concrete of high tensile strength became a necessity, 
hence, he formulated such specifications as to cement as, in his 
opinion, would secure an article sufficiently good to accomplish that 
end, and placed his reliance upon a tensile "strength of three hundred 
pounds per square inch when mixed neat. 

Now, we submit that Portland cement is never used neat, and that 
tests of neat cement are no criterion whatever of its value for making 
concrete. A cement to be used for concrete should be tested as to its 
ability to carry the sand with which it is mixed, and that ability can- 
not be shown by neat tests. This has been clearly demonstrated by 
{ the experience of the New York Department of Docks, the Boston 
Sewerage Department, and, in fact, wherever the testing of cement 
has been made an intelligent study ; such authorities would not accept 
a neat test as evidence of practical value. 

If, then, the tests prescribed by the architect are incapable of de- 
monstrating the value of the cement for practical purposes, as in 
concrete or mortar-making, they are worthleis as a safeguard and 
unjust to the cement in Hot giving it an opportunity to show what it 
is good for. 

Giving the architect credit for his expressed determination to secure 
I a concrete foundation sufficiently strong, if he did not provide proper 
I tests to guarantee that, it is fair to presume that the specifications he 
j did formulate indicate the limit of his knowledge of Portland cement. 
The testing of cement is a very delicate operation and necessitates 
great care and that knowledge which is only the result of experience. 
It is no reflection upon architects, therefore, when we say that very 
few of them have any practical knowledge of making such tests. 



84 



The American Architect and Building News. [Vou XXIII. No. 634. 



Inequalities in tests can be mainly attributed to slight variations 
in treatment by the tester. At the cement manufactories, where the 
persons employed solely to make tests become adepts at that busi- 
ness, they make mid break briquettes all day without varying over 
ten pounds, but when that same cement goes out to the trade and 
gets into less skilful or less careful hands, the teats show much 
greater inequalities. 

Taking up the tests reported by the architect as having been made 
in liis office and upon which the cement was rejected, we find an 
irregularity that it is impossible to obtain except through Incom- 
petence or gross carelessness on the part of the tester, and we 
venture to say that no expert in the country will corroborate th >se 
tests, nor has' Mr. Smitlmieyer been able to secure any corroboration 
of them even among departments to which he has himself submitted 
samples of the cement. The first tests reported by the architect as 
made in his office last October, show a range from two hundred and 
ninety pounds, the highest, to thirty-nine pounds, the lowest, a varia- 
tion of two hundred and fifty-one 'pounds, while on the previous day 
tests of cement, taken from the same lot, by the Engineer Depart- 
ment, District of Columbia, show a range from three hundred and 
six to two hundred and twenty-six pounds, a variation of only eighty 
pounds. 

The following month tests were again made in the architect's 
office, and at the same time at the Washington Aqueduct and United 
States Navy Yard. Again the architect's office discovers far greater 
inequality than either of the others. About that time it should have 
dawned upon the architect that some one in his office was at fault, 
instead of which he lays great stress upon that irregularity as show 
in<* the poor quality of the cement. 

It is a significant fact that the separate tests made at the Unitet 
States Navy Yard, by different persons, each averaged higher than 
the tensile strength required by the architect's specifications and the 
tests made at the Engineer Department, November 29, also aver- 
aged higher than required. The question then arises, why did the 
tests in the other departments fall short of that? Was not the 
cement as good? Unquestionably it was. 

The particular lot in question was imported by us in one cargo 
direct from the factory, and reshipped by us to the contractor 
directly from import vessel. It is all alike, presumably made at the 
same time and is of uniform quality. It is fair to presume, then, 
that difference in treatment at the separate bureaus and difference 
in the care with which the tests were made was what occasioned the 
difference in result. It is held by good authorities that the highest 
test a cement will stand should be considered its strength. If, in 
other tests, from same sample, they fall below that, it is proper to con- 
sider that in some part of the process the tester has been at fault in 
making or breaking the briquettes. Of the one hundred and fifty-six 
tests made in the architect's office, only three exceeded three hundred 
pounds,-the remainder straggled away down to thirty-nine pounds with 
absurd irregularity : of the twenty-nine tests made at the same time at 
the Engineer Department, Navy Yard and Washington Aqueduct, 
fourteen exceeded three liundred pounds, or, in other words, two per 
cent of the architect's tests and fifty per cent of the tests made in 
other departments exceeded the requirements, we should like to hear 
the architect's explanation of that difference. Finally, we protest 
against this cement, recognized in all the markets of the world as a 
standard of high quality, being made the victim of ignorance, and we 
maintain that the cement is eminently well fitted for the purpose for 
which it was purchased, and nothing has yet been shown to the con- 
trary. Yours respectfully, SINCLAIR & BABSON. 




THE ACTION OF SEA-WATEH ox CAST-IRON PILES. 'The chief 
engineer B. B. and C. I. Railway in reporting on the condition of the 
superstructures of certain of that company's wrought-iron girder 
bridges, says, according to Indian Engineering, that having considered 
the question of the stability of those bridges, and as the condition of 
the cast-iron columns forming the piers supporting them was necessary 
for the purpose and had to be satisfactorily ascertained it was therefore 
decided to dismount and take up for examination a pile-column, which 
had been erected during original construction, from one of the piers of 
the South Bassein Bridge. Accordingly the 3d column of piers No. 
37 of the South Bassein Bridge was selected as being one of the original 
and undisturbed columns of the bridge. Mr. Hargrave, Resident Engi- 
neer, who conducted the examination states that this column was screwed 
into position in the year 1862, and hence its present age may be taken 
at 25 years, when the column was extracted. On examining the indi- 
vidual piles of which it was constructed, two of the piles were found 
almost as fresh in appearance as when originally put in place. In order to 
determine as far as possible the exact condition of the metal of the piles, 
he had specimens cut from each pile that was considered likely to be 
affected to any extent by corrosion. The specimens cut from the two 
piles referred to, show no corrosion ; of those specimens cut from a 
third pile immediately over one of the latter, some show no corrosion 
while others have been corroded, but the greatest depth of this corrosion 
measured does not exceed 3-32 of an inch. The corrosion is greatest in 
specimens taken as they approach low water mark. As to the pile bolts 
they are as good as the day they were put in place. The lesson to be 
learned from this experiment is that the greatest corrosion in the piles 
exist close to low water, and does not extend to any considerable depth 



underneath it ; the same has been observed in the case of the bolts and 
bracings. If this column can be taken us representing the average 
condition of the remainder of the columns in this bridge, we are in a 
position to state that after a period of 25 years other pile columns in a 
salt waterway aiv in a very good condition, and that the piles where 
corrosion has been found are in 11 position which can easily be got at for 
examination or renewal. This experiment further set at rests all ground- 
less fears as to the speedy deterioration of pile columns from the action 
of sea water. The result of these examinations of the company's 
bridges is, therefore, most reassuring and highly satisfactory. The 
specimens have been put up in a case, which will be kept in the board- 
room for future reference, when possibly 25 years hence another 
column may be examined and the results compared. 




PERHAPS tlie most instructive review that could be written at this time 
concerning the industries, railroad and commercial affairs and finances 
would he a simple enumeration of new enterprises, new combinations, new 
loans, and evidences of reviving activity in all channels of trade and com- 
merce. Those who keep track of new work and new movements of all 
kinds know that, even with all the admonitions to go slowly and to beware, 
there is an enormous amount of new work in contemplation. To go 
no farther than the journals of the country, in nil branches of trade we find 
abundant evidences of prosperity and of coining activity. Columns and 
pages of new enterprises of additions, alterations and of improvements are 
furnished, and the reliability of these statements is tested by the replies of 
builders, contractors and material-men, who for the past two weeks havu 
begun to close engagements for the season to begin April 1st, and in some 
sections of the country sooner. The year 1888 will be far from being a 
booming year, but it will not be such a year of depression as those who rely 
upon the railroad-building barometer are prepared to expect. Even this 
barometer may rise. Just now twenty-five per cent of the producing capa- 
city has been purchased, and there are inquiries sufficient in the market to 
double that figure if the inquiries result in business. As regards the rail- 
road situation, so far as the construction of new roads and earnings of 
existing roads are concerned, it is only safe to say that all predictions look- 
ing to restriction are made without a thorough understanding of the facts. 
As to railroad earnings, they must of necessity increase. Even in the 
Northwest, where a sixty to seventy per cent cut has been made within a 
few weeks, there are healthful underlying conditions which will shortly 
assert themselves. Could such wars extend all over the country it might 
be better for the railroads themselves in the long run. Traffic is not bear- 
ing the highest rate it will endure, but it is not carried at the lowest rate 
that is possible. Cheap freight rates are very important factors in the 
development of business, and this is a factor which has been overlooked. 
If railroad building has suffered, it is not because of insufficient traffic to 
make legitimate earnings, bnt for other and less creditable reasons, in 
which stock-jobbing manipulations and freight-wars have prominently 
figured. The public has but little to lose, if anything, by wars of the kind 
now going on in the Northwest, yet it is to be regretted that there are no 
other means by which the lowest possible freight rates can be ascertained 
and maintained. The Southwestern traffic association fears a repetition of 
the Northwestern contest, but the trunk lines east of Chicago have made 
themselves safe against any such disasters. Probabilities point to lower 
passenger and freight rates on the entire railway system of the United 
States. Influences are at work improving the management and making it 
more honest if not more capable. Large loans have been made within a 
week or two and there are now more railway securities upon the market 
than there has been for many months. Foreign purchases are large and the 
buying demand seems to be equal to all railway-building requirements. 
Good loans are easily placed. Railroad building will not decline on account 
of a scarcity of money, nor for poor crops, nor on account of declining 
employment or decreased earning capacity of the country. Every influence 
points in the other direction, although there may be some little conserva- 
tism displayed by builders this year. References have heretofore been 
made to the expansion of mining capacity. The capacity of the iron and 
steel mills is being improved, and since the first of the year a host of 
improvements have been either undertaken or announced. Hardware 
manufacturers are also expanding their facilities. Several new works are 
to be established in the West. A great many of them will look particularly 
to the wants of the farming community and to the developing manufactur- 
ing communities of the Mississippi Valley. The multitude of little indus- 
tries starting up there are promising, and the bulk of them are on the solid 
foundations of individual earnings and the experiences of the possessors of 
these small amounts of capital. New Englnnders are reaching out west- 
ward and southward, and are quick to secure and utilize the opportunities 
of these new regions. Architects, builders and manufacturers of material 
are following in the wake of new railroad enterprise and are contributing 
their share to the rapid development of the country west of the Mississippi 
River. It has been stated recently on good authority that 400 lumber yard* 
have been established in four States west of the Mississippi River,' 200 
foundries, over 100 machine-shops, besides several large railway equipment 
and repairing establishments, to say nothing of innumerable small shops 
employing from five to twenty men. Western trade and manufacturing 
journals call particular attention to this phase of development and offer it 
as an inducement to Eastern capitalists for the increase of investments. It 
is certainly encouraging to observe the rapidity with which small individual 
operaters or business men can plant themselves and extend their business 
in a short time. Conditions throughout the West and South must certainly 
be very healthful. This fact is proved by the steady expansion of trade. 
Missouri, Iowa, Nebraska and Colorado are all feeling the influence of 
manufacturing enterprise. The production of the precious metals is not 
increasing as rapidly as the expenditure of money for new machinery would 
seem to call for. There is an urgent demand for a great deal of machinery 
for hydraulic purposes for establishment of water, gas and electric facili- 
ties and for the utilization of water-power in the South. Perhaps the steadi- 
est business this year will be that of the manufacturers of boilers and 
engines and general machine work. Whatever may come to other indus- 
tries, it seemr very probable that the workers in this branch of industry 
will have their hands full and their shops full throughout the season. Some 
istablishments in the South are now sold three to four mouths ahead. IB 
;he Northern States there is less work already booked, but sufficient work 
n sight to induce manufacturers to write and talk very hopefully coucern- 
ng the future. 



S. J. PARKHILL & Co., Printers, Boston. 



THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT AND BUILDING NEWS. 



VOL. xxin. 



Copyright, 1808, by TICKNOB & COMPANY, ii.wt.iii, Ma 



No. 635. 



FEBRUARY 25. 1888. 

Entered at the 1'ont-offlce at Buton as (ocund-olau matter. 




SUMMARY : 

The Way in which the Price of Iron and Steel has been kept 
up. Probable effect of removing the Tax on Imported 
Metals. A Southern Competition. Deaths of M. Questel 
and Mr. Edward I" Anson, Architects. The Expansion of 
Terra-Cotta. Wood-working Establishments in Berlin. 
Discoveries at Sidon. Theatre- Fires in 1880 85 

ANCIENT AND M.IDI.KN LKIIIT-IIOI -HE*. XVIII 87 

NOILS in.- TKVVEL. CHICAGO. Ill 88 

ILLUSTRATIONS: 

Wi Mminster Palace. Fowey Rock Light-house. The 
t'niti'd Statrs Court-house and Post-office, Williainsport, Pa. 
Y. M. C. A. Building, San Diego, Cal. Store for Messrs. 
De Coster & Clark, St. Paul, Minn. Store for Mr. M. E. 
Miiyall, St. Paul, Minn. Christ Church, Herkimer, N. Y. . 91 

SOME GENERAL OBSERVATIONS ON TIIE STRENGTH AND STABILITY 
OF MASONRY. 1, j , 91 

ELECTRICITY AND SEW AC u 93 

BOOKS AND PAPERS , 9-'! 

SOCIETIES : ... 95 

COMMUNICATIONS : 

Who should pay the Expert ? The Commission on a Party- 
wall. The Architectural League's Competition. Address. 95 

NOTES AND CLIPPING* 90 

TRADE SUBVEY* 9(3 

0NE of the New York papers has recently called attention 
to the unnecessarily high price of structural iron in this 
country, describing the well-known combination of manu- 
facturers by which the price is kept up. We will not under- 
take to criticise the morality of the combination, or to enter 
upon the general question of the policy of keeping up prices 
by artificial means, but there is something interesting in the 
consideration of the effect of the present system upon the art 
of construction in the United States. The wholesale price of 
rolled-iron floor-beams is now in this country three and three- 
tenths cents per pound at the mills, the rate being the same at 
all the seven mills which furnish such beams. In France and 
Belgium there has recently been a great advance in the price 
of this, as of other sorts of structural iron, but the latest quota- 
tions give one and nineteen oue-hundredths cents per pound for 
rolled floor-beams as the price at the French mills, while the 
Belgian manufactories sell even lower, the market quotation 
for floor-beams in Belgium having been, not long ago, less than 
nine-tenths of a cent a pound, or little more than one-fourth of 
the American price. The present English price is one and 
sixteen one-hundredths cents per pound. Of course, at these 
rates the foreign beams would be imported if it were not for 
certain obstacles, of which one of the most serious is a specific 
duty of one and one-fourth cents per pound, or about one hun- 
dred and forty per cent on the Belgian price. The cost of 
handling, and transporting four thousand miles across the sea, 
adds nearly as much more, but even with these burdens, the 
foreign beams are delivered in New York for considerably less 
than the price of the American ones, and would be extensively 
used, were it not for the fact that most architects depend, in 
estimating the strength of floors, upon the tables given in the 
books which are issued by the American rolling-mills, and 
write their specifications in accordance with what they find in 
those books, so that the foreign beams, which differ in section 
from ours, are likely to be rejected, as not in accordance with the 
specification, and be thrown back upon the contractor's hands. 
"U Y had once a case which illustrates this point. The specifi- 
cation required that a certain sidewalk should be laid with 
twelve-and-one-quarter-inch rolled beams of a certain weight 
per yard, the weight being that of a familiar American pattern. 
The contractor, instead of sending to the American mill for 
beams of exactly the size and weight specified, ordered his 
beams from Belgium. They arrived, all cut to the proper 
lengths, but proved to be only twelve inches high, and some- 
what lighter than the specification required, so that, as the 
specification did not provide for any surplus strength, there 
was nothing to be done but to refuse to accept them, and to 
order American beams in the place of them at the contractor's 
expense. In some respects the foreign beams are better than 
ours, the flanges being usually wider, so as to give a lateral 



stiffness which is valuable, while various patterns of floor-beams 
are furnished five or six inches high and very light, so that a 
man can handle them much more easily than he could a wooden 
beam of the same length, but the unwillingness of architects to 
cut off competition by specifying any particular manufacture, 
together with the difficulty of getting accurate profiles and cal- 
culating the momenta of itiertia of the foreign sections, practi- 
cally prevents their use by architects, unless for very extensive 
buildings, where contracts are made on so large a scale that 
special measures can be taken to secure the greatest economy. 

WHAT would be the result of removing the burdens from 
the importation of structural iron, or the reduction of the 
price of American beams to the English and Continental 
standard, may be readily predicted. At present, a floor laid 
with iron beams is too costly a luxury in this country for any 
but the very rich ; but if such beams could be procured at one 
cent a pound, they would be very nearly as cheap as wooden 
joists. In practice, the floor-beams used in Paris are rather 
lighter, with a given stiffness, than our patterns, but taking as a 
standard of comparison a Penooyd four-inch I-beam, weighing 
eighteen and one-half pounds to the yard, we find that such a 
beam twenty feet long will carry three thousand two hundred 
and twenty pounds distributed load, or one hundred and sixty- 
one pounds to the foot, and will weigh one hundred and twenty- 
three pounds, and cost, at something more than the Belgian 
price, a dollar and twenty-three cents. In comparison with 
this, a three by twelve hard-pine joist of the same length will 
carry thirty-nine hundred and sixty pounds distributed load, by 
the most recent data, but it will weigh two hundred and twenty 
pounds more than the iron beam, leaving the net bearing 
capacity for comparison thirty-seven hundred and forty pounds. 
This is seventeen per cent more than the iron beam, but at 
thirty dollars per thousand feet the wooden joist will cost a 
dollar and eighty cents, or fifty per cent more than the iron, 
while, as it will occupy three times the height, and require a 
correspondingly greater amount of material, in the shape of 
masonry or iron columns, to secure the same height in the 
rooms, the cost of using it would be practically more than 
double that of the iron beam. In districts where spruce is the 
ordinary framing timber, cheap as this is, there would still be 
a considerable economy in using iron, while the advantages in 
point of resistance to fire and decay would be enormous. On 
the other side of the water the clumsy methods used to attach 
floors and ceilings to iron beams carry the cost of such a con- 
struction beyond that which employs wooden joists; but the 
art of handling structural iron is much more highly developed 
here than it is abroad, and if our architects could get metal 
floor-beams at the foreign rate, they might be depended upon 
to improve the details of the construction in which they are 
used so rapidly that in a few years a city building with floors 
of wooden joists would be a rare exception. 



SOUTHERN correspondent sends us a circular inviting 
designs in competition for a church in Tennessee. The 
cost of the structure is not to exceed sixty thousand dollars. 
Intending competitors are requested to furnish " plans, specifica- 
tions and estimates," and "the architect whose plans and 
specifications are accepted will be paid one hundred dollars." 
Moreover, " gilt-edged bond will be required of the successful 
competitor for faithful and satisfactory work, and quality of 
material in all their branches." Just what this last sentence 
means is not clear, but we suppose that it is to be explained 
by remembering the confusion which exists in the South 
between builders and architects. The average Southerner, 
when he wants a house, goes to the man who deals in houses, 
namely, the nearest builder, and makes such a bargain as seems 
to him proper. Perhaps the man of planks has an apprentice 
who has been to an evening drawing-school, or a talented son 
just entering upon the study of long division at the Academy, 
and, to hasten the conclusion of the trade, or, perhaps, to head- 
off a rival builder, who does not enjoy these advantages, he 
has the proposed structure "drawed out" for his customer's 
edification. That there could be any better course than this 
for securing a suitable design for a church edifice does not 
seem to have occurred to the good people of this particular 
Tennessee community. They have a glimmering of an idea 
that there is such a thing as a beautiful building, in distinction 



86 



The American Architect and Building Mews. [VOL. XXIII. No. 635. 



from an ugly one, and mention that " architectural beauty and 
finish are sought," although " not at the sacrifice of substantial 
solidity," and, apparently feeling that it may be an extra ex- 
pense to the builder to get anything like " architectural beauty 
and finish " inserted into his drawings, they considerately 
promise a douceur to cover this outlay. We presume that the 
idea of paying an architect fifteen hundred dollars to "draw 
out " their church would seem to them preposterous, and we 
are not sure that they may not be right, considering the sort of 
appreciation that might be anticipated for a good design. 

WO more distinguished architects have died within a few 
weeks, M. Questel in France, and Mr. Edward I' Anson, 
the President of the Royal Institute of British Architects, 
in England. Mr. I' Anson studied his profession under his 
father, who was an architect of distinction in the City of Lon- 
don, and the son succeeded to an important practice in the de- 
signing of commercial buildings, and in the adjustment of 
cases relating to City property, with the value of which he was 
thoroughly familiar. His skill as a surveyor and referee was 
so remarkable as to win for him the office of President of the 
Surveyors' Institution in the same year that, in recognition of 
his attainments in another department of the profession, he was 
elected President of the Royal Institute of British Architects. 
Although constantly occupied with work demanding judgment 
and experience rather than more aesthetic qualities he was a 
good deal of an artist. He spent much time in travelling and 
sketching, and his executed works, among the more important 
of which are the Corn Exchange in Mark Lane, and the 
Bible Society's house on Queen Victoria street, are worthy 
of the highest praise. Among other things, he is said to have 
the credit of being the first man in London to design buildings 
intended wholly for business offices. It was formerly the rule 
for merchants to have counting-rooms in their warehouses, and 
for other business men to hire rooms in private houses ; but, on 
his suggestion, two or three buildings were erected, entirely 
occupied by small rooms for offices, and these proved so popular 
that the fashion soon spread. In the death of M. Questel, the 
profession loses one of its wisest and most honored members. 
Born in 1807, he had been for two generations a conspicuous 
figure in French art, not only through his own work, but by 
his singular success in directing the career of a long list of dis- 
tinguished pupils. He received his own training under Peyre, 
Blouet and Duban, and after a three years' residence in Italy 
was appointed to a modest position on one of the Government 
buildings in Paris. He rose rapidly, and was Inspecteur des 
Travaux when he won in competition the important commis- 
sion for the Church of St. Paul at Nimes This was followed 
by the design for the fountain in the Esplanade at Nimes, with 
several other important works, and he was about the same 
time appointed to the Commission for the Preservation of His- 
torical Monuments, preparing in the course of his duties many 
restorations and measured drawings of the principal Roman 
buildings on French soil. His connection with the School of 
Fine Arts was soon resumed, by his succession to the place 
formerly occupied by his own master, Blouet ; and the merit of 
his pupils, among whom were Daumet, Brune, Pascal, Joyaux, 
Noguet, Raulin and many other winners of the Prize of Rome, 
gained him a high reputation as a teacher as well as an artist. 
Various other important works brought him added honors. In 
1871, he was elected a member of the Institute of France, in 
the Section of Fine Arts, succeeding his master Duban ; and 
in 1884 he was chosen President of the Societe Centrale des 
Architectes Fram;ais, the principal French professional body, 
and, soon after, of the Caisse de Defense Mutuelle des Archi- 
tectes, then just formed. 

1I7IIE Builder mentions an article by Mr. T. Mellard Reade 
J_ in the Geological Magazine, upon the permanent expan- 
sion of terra-cotta by the weather. In the case which he 
describes, a terra-cotta coping on a garden wall lengthened so 
much after setting in place as to raise itself in the form of an 
arch, the middle portion of which was lifted an inch from its 
bed. Naturally, the coping pieces at the middle and springing 
points of the arch were broken, and on replacing the broken 
pieces it was found that since the first setting the coping had 
expanded about a quarter of an inch in a length of thirty feet. 
One might suppose that such expansion would be more likely 
to be due to the swelling of the cement in the joints than to 
any change in size of the terra-cotta, but careful tests, and 
comparison of similar cases, convinced Mr. Reade that the 



cement was not here at fault. The English terra-cotta is 
softer than ours, and it seems not impossible that it might 
absorb water enough, when exposed to the weather, to cause 
some enlargement. We have never heard of any similar occur- 
rence in this country, but if terra-cotta is to be used, as in the 
new Pension Office at Washington, in bands three or four 
hundred feet long, it would be a wise precaution to have some 
careful experiments made. 

E Scientific American copies from the Vienna insurance 
journal, Assecuranz, an account of the new police regula- 
tions in regard to wood-working shops in Berlin, which 
would rather startle the proprietor of a New York or Chicago 
planing-mill. By these regulations every wood-working estab- 
lishment must have its principal walls of brick or stone. If 
there are rooms over the shop for habitation, the shop ceilings 
must be plastered, and the plaster covered with corrugated 
sheet-iron ; and the floors of the rooms above must be packed 
with fireproof filling. The shop doors must be of iron, hung 
on pintles or in iron frames, and the stairs leading to them 
must be fireproof. Shavings must be placed in a brick bin, 
vaulted overhead, and shut off by an iron door. Under no 
circumstances is a shop to be heated by iron stoves, or to have 
a metallic smoke-pipe carried through it. Stoves, if used, must 
be of stone o.r tiles, so arranged that they can be supplied with 
fuel only from outside of the work-room ; and flues must be 
built in the walla. Glue must not be warmed in the shop, but 
every shop must have a glue-heating room, having thick brick 
walls, a brick vaulted ceiling, and floor of masonry, separated 
from the shop by an iron door. 

TTX archaeological treasure has recently been discovered at 
rj[ Saidi, the ancient Sidon, on the coast of Asia Minor, and 
' secured by the Turkish Government. It seems that some 
workmen, while digging a well in a garden in the town, broke 
into a chamber, with walls of masonry, in which were some 
ancient sarcophagi. A telegram was immediately sent to the 
Director of the Imperial Museum at Constantinople, who 
arrived at the spot in time to prevent any displacement of the 
precious objects. On removing the debris in which they were 
buried, seventeen of the sarcophagi were found, of various 
ages and styles, six being considered to be Greek, six Phoeni- 
cian, one Egyptian, one Libyan, and three of indeterminate 
character. Some of them were exquisitely sculptured, one, in 
particular, having its exposed face divided into eighteen panels, 
in each of which was a beautiful bas-relief of a weeping girl. 
On opening the sarcophagi, nothing was found of value except 
two gold buttons and an ornament for the head, nor any in- 
scription or other indication of the quality of the persons in- 
terred in them, so that the Director concluded that they must 
have been opened and robbed ages ago, probably, in his opinion, 
by the Crusaders. La Semaine des Constructeurs, however, 
defends the reputation of the Crusaders by remarking that the 
tombs are much more likely to have been desecrated by the 
Persians, who captured and destroyed Sidon in B. c. 351, just 
after the period to which the best of the sarcophagi seem to 
belong. 

T A SEMAINE DES CO NSTRUCTEURS publishes first 
this year the list of theatres burned during 1887. Includ- 
ing circus and concert hall?, the list comprehends nineteen 
structures used for public amusement which were wholly or 
partially destroyed during the year, with a loss of about four 
hundred lives. The first fire mentioned is that which con- 
sumed the theatre of Gottingen in Prussia on the tenth of 
January. Six days later the circus of Sidoli at Bucharest was 
burned, and on the thirteenth of February the Northampton 
Opera-house in England. Four days after this a theatre was 
destroyed at Laybach in Austria, and on March 28th the 
Cirque Herzog at Ghent. The terrible fire at the Paris Opera 
Comique occurred May 26th, and in June a theatre and a 
circus were burned in Russia, a concert-hall at Rotterdam, and 
the Theatre Lafayette at Rouen. In July one theatre was 
burned in the United States, one in Spain and one in Holland. 
In August the opera-house at Stockport in England, and on 
the sixth of September the Exeter Theatre. On the fourteenth 
of September a concert-hall at Calais was destroyed, in Novem- 
ber a circus at Hamburg, and in December the Islington Thea- 
tre in London. To these eighteen conflagrations La Semaine 
adds the panic at the Dilettanti Theatre in London, caused by 
a harmless blaze, in which many persons lost their lives, ah a 
disaster which should be classed with the fires. 



FKBKUAKY 25 1888.] 



The American Architect and Building News. 



87 




ANCIENT AND MODERN' LIGHT-HOUSES.' XVIII. 

CAPE HATTEKAS. 

OR .many years the subject has been 
agitated" of establishing a light-house 
cm the Outer Diamond Shoal, off Cape 
Ilatteras. This shoal is alxnit eight miles 
from land, and in such stormy waters that 
it is next to impossible to maintain a light- 
vessel on or near it. All the sea-going com- 
merce between the Northern and Southern 
States has to round this point, and it is pro- 
verbially the most dangerous place on the 
Atlantic coast. 

There is, of course, a light on Cape Hat- 
teras, but the shoal 
is so distant that it 
is very difficult to 
estimate its locality, 
south-bound vessels 
to avoid the current 
of the gulf-stream 
have to pass close 
to it, and it has the 
gloomy reputation 
of causing more 
wrecks and disas- 
ters than any other 
place in America. 
The success with the Rothersand and Fourteen-foot Bank Light- 
houses in my opinion point the way to obtaining a secure foundation 
in these shifting sands, and I bolieve that the solution of the problem 
consists in building a steel or cast-iron cylinder forty-five feet in 
diameter, sinking it on the shoal so that its base will be below any 
possibility of wave-action, filling it with concrete, and protecting it on 
tlir exterior by the liberal use of rip-rap in large blocks. 

The cylinder should be double, the inner cylinder being fifteen 
feet in diameter and very strongly braced to the exterior one, the 
connection between the interior and exterior cylinder at the bottom 
should be conical in shape, and would answer for the working- 
ehamber if the cylinder were to be sunk by the pneumatic process, 
though I believe it possible to sink it rapidly by dredging from the 
interior. The cylinder could be so built as to admit of either plan 
being used. 

At a suitable locality on the Outer Diamond, there is a depth of 
about twenty feet; the "cylinder should be put together at some safe 
harbor, floated to this point and sunk as quickly as possible. I 
estimate that when the bottom of the cylinder reaches fifty feet below 
the surface of the shoal and the rip-rap is placed around it, it will be 
safe from the scour of the waves. 

One of the many difficulties attending this work is that the nearest 
available harbor is Cape Hatteras Inlet, only fifteen feet deep and 
fifteen miles away. Should a storm overtake the cylinder while 
being towed to the site, it would, in all probability, be lost, and the 
same catastrophe might occur if there were a heavy blow during the 
first part of the sinking of the cylinder ; after it had gone down ten 
or fifteen feet the danger would be much less, and if the attending 
vessels were driven away by stress of weather, they might have a 
reasonable assurance of finding the cylinder in place on their return. 
The power of the cylinder to resist the waves, before it was filled 
with concrete, would depend entirely on the strength of the interior 
bracing, and too much pains could not be expended in making this 
of the best design, material and workmanship. 

With the foundation once secured, it would be of no great difficulty 
to erect a suitable superstructure. 

Should this light-house be successfully established, it will be a re- 
markable feat of light-house engineering, and be of benefit to more 
commerce than any one light-house in the world. 

Barring accidents, the cost should not exceed $300,000 for the 
foundation, but it would not be safe to commence work without 
having at least $500,000 available. The accompanying sketches give 
a general idea of the plan and elevation of the kind of cylinder pro- 
posed. 

Congress will be asked this session to appropriate the necessary 
funds For this important work. Should the appropriation be made, 
the foundation could be built and placed, barring accidents, in less 
than two years. 

SKELETON IRON LIGHT- HOUSES. 

Another type is the skeleton iron light-house : this is especially 
adapted to sites where it is desired to erect a lofty structure without 
too much weight ; it may rest on iron-piles, screw-piles, grillage or 
other foundation, depending on whether the light-house stands in the 
water or on land, and whether the site is rock, stiff clay, sand, earth 
or mud. 

The finest two light-houses of this kind, which rest on iron-piles 
driven in coral rock, are those erected on Fowey Rocks and Ameri- 
can Shoals, Florida. They are duplicates of each other, the first one 
built being the one at Fowey Rocks on the east coast of Florida, at 
the northern extremity of Florida Reefs. 

Examinations to test the character of this reef were made in 1875 ; 



'Continued from page 312, No. 627. 



the engineer reported : " It was with the greatest difficulty and delay 
that a sailing vessel could reach the spot in weather sufficiently calm 
to do any work. The rock composing the reef is harder than that 
farther south and west, and it is bettered will furnish a secure 
foundation for the kind of structure decided upon." During the same 
vear the designs for the light-house were well advanced, and pre- 
liminary works connected with the erection of the light-house were 
begun. These consisted in building at Soldier Key, four-and-one- 
half miles distant from the reef, a substantial wharf witli track, store- 
house and quarters: all these buildings had to be raised six feet above 
the surface and strongly secured, as during hurricanes the sea sweeps 
entirely over the surface of the Key. At the site the working plat- 
form was completed, and contract was made for the delivery of the 
ironwork for the foundation and first btories of the light-house, which 
was delivered at Soldier Key in the spring of 1867, and during the 
same year all the foundation-piles were driven as follows : 

The disc for the central foundation-pile was first lowered to its 
place, and through this disc the first iron-pile was driven. One of 
the perimeter discs was then placed in ]>ogition and located by a 





. _ - . 





gauge consisting of a heavy iron I-beam, lying on the bottom between 
and in immediate contact with the edges of both discs, and then^the 
first perimeter-pile was driven through the centre of this disc. The 
greatest precaution had to be taken to drive these piles vertically ; 
hence, after each blow of the hammer the pile was tested with a 
plummet, and the slightest deviation from the vertical was rectified 



88 



The American Architect and Building News. [VOL. XXIJI. No. 635. 



by tackles, used as guides, fastened to the top of the pile. Each 
iron-pile was driven about ten feet into the rock. In locating the 
disc for the next perimeter-pile, two gauges were necessary, one to 
obtain the proper distance from the central pile, the other to main- 
tain the proper distance from the perimeter-pile just driven; and 
these two gauges were alike except in length. The discs were 
dragged along the bottom until their outer edges just touched the 
free edges of the gauges. Each pile was then driven through the 
centre of its disc. After all of them were driven, their tops were 
levelled by cutting off each to the line of the lowest. The piles were 
then capped with their respective sockets; the horizontal girders 
were inserted, the diagonal tension-roils were placed and screwed up, 
and the foundation series was completed. This work, including the 
building of the temporary platform occupied just two months, during 
which time the sea was quite smooth. 

Owing to various delays in the manufacture of the superstructure 
it did not arrive at Soldier Key until November 12, 1877. The 
weather preceding its arrival and for three months after was unfavor- 
able for its erection. Gale followed gale, and though a large force of 
workmen was at Soldiar Key ready to work when weather per- 
mitted, nothing could be done. For six weeks there was but one day 
on which a landing could be effected at the light-house site. This day 
was utilized by laying a decking of four-inch plank on the wooden 
platform. Finding the weather still unfavorable, with no immediate 
prospect of getting to the site, and all the shore-work completed, it 
was decided on December 13, 1877, to temporarily suspend operation. 
On February 24, 1878, the weather appearing moru favorable for 
reef-operation, work was resumed ; the party arrived at the site on 
the 25th February, and encountered a tornado which considerably 
damaged the vessels. 

One of the lighters, a small schooner, capable of carrying twenty- 
five to thirty tons of freight on four feet draught of water, was loaded 
with the portable hoisting-engine, derrick, tackles, shear-poles and a 




small quantity of iron. The sea continued so rough that this load 
could not be landed until March 12, when a landing was effected 
through the breakers by means of small boats, and the derrick and 
shears erected on the platform. During the next sixteen days five 
more cargoes of iron were landed, and the first series of columns 
girders, sockets and tension-rods placed in position. 

It became evident from the slow progress thus far made, owin<* to 
stormy weather and the danger attending frequent landings through 
the breakers, that, unless a lodgement could be effected on the plat- 
form and the men be made to live thereon, the structure could not be 
completed within a year. Therefore, on March 29, the lighter was 
loaded with one month's supply of provisions, water, etc "towed to 
the platform and its freight landed ; two large tents were set up on 
the platform, a temporary kitchen built, and twenty men left to con 
tinue the erection of the light-house. The advantages of this 
arrangement were very great. No matter how hMi the sea mHit 
be running, the men were there out of water, on a safe and steady 
foundation, and they could continue the work so lon^ as they could 
be^kept supplied with material. 

The remainder of the force was employed in loadino- the lighter 
and steamer, and when the weather was favorable, in unloading the 
ighter at. the platform. On days that were too rono-h to unload the* 
lighter, all hands would land at the site in small boats, if a landino- 
was practicable, and assist in erection. By keepin<* the lighter 
loaded and steam on the tender day and night, no available time was 
Jost. 



On June 15, 1878, the tower was completed and the light was ex- 
hibited. 

The cost of this light-house was about 1 75,000. 

Another advantage of this typeof light-house is the quickness 
with which it can be erected. At American Shoals the ironwork was 
completed at the North, shipped to Key West, Florida, and the 
light-house completely erected and lighted in one year. 

Both Fowcy Rocks and American Shoals Light-houses are first- 
order lights, one hundred and fifteen and one-half feet hi; r h, and 
visible sixteen and one-fourth nautical miles. 

There are several other light-houses of this type on the Florida 
Reefs, such as Carysfort Reef, Alligator Reef, Sombrero Key and 
Sand Key, all first-order lights, from one hundred and ten to one 
hundred and forty-four feet high. 

Florida is rich in first-order lights; she has twelve in all, as many 
as Maine, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut and New York 
combined. 



NOTES OF TRAVEL. 

CHICAGO. III.l 




Opera-house Building. Cobb & Froit, Architects. 2 

IT is interesting to note in these Chicago buildings the change in 
scheme from the time when elevators were hardly known, and the 
stairs were a very important feature of the building, to the new 
arrangement wherein elevators are, one might say, the key to the whole 
plan, and where the stairs are reduced to almost nothing. In such 
buildings as we are considering, the stairs are not used atTall except 
in communication from floor to floor. There are some other points 
of .arrangement which are also worth noting, not as being peculiar to 
Chicago, because they are involved in the construction of all build- 
ings, but because they will at least show what is done. One is the 
relation between the first story and the grade line. Of the structures 
just considered, the Opera-House is entered directly from the street 
with but a single step. In the Munroe Street Building, and the Mon- 
tauk Block, the first story is raised a few steps above grade and the 
basement is sunk a few more, so that the basement has high win- 
dows, but is below the grade. In the Home, the Pullman Building and 
the Rookery Buildings the basement is on a level with the street. 
Where practice differs so widely it is hard to say which is the best 
arrangement. It is a question that comes up with every new office- 
building that the architect has to deal with, and where owners and 
real-estate dealers differ so widely, it is not strange that architects 
should sometimes recommend one method and sometimes another, 
even under the same circumstances, but it seems as if the plans 
adopted in the Opera-House, the Rookery and the Home Buildings 
were, on the whole, the most satisfactory, and especially so in Chi- 
cago, where the nature of the soil will not admit of a deep cellar that 
can be of any practical value. Besides, we are inclined to think, 
judging from appearances, at least, that a building with a flush base- 
ment and first story entirely raised above the ground rents better and 
gives more satisfaction than one in which the basement is partly 
below grade. 

Another question which is solved in many different ways is the 
height of stories. Without going into the consideration of all these 

1 Continued from page 315, No. 627 

of the Man<i 4rfi>ueft tor p 6 ^ " 



FKBRUARY 25, 1888.] Tfie American Architect and Building News. 



89 



buildings, wo will simply slate that in the Rookery Building, the 
latest of its kind, the heights arc eleven and twelve feet for the ofliee 
stories. 1 In the Home and the Opera-House Buildings we Iwlieve the 
stories are somewhat less than this. The changes in arrangements 
of these buildings have hcen no more radieal than the changes in the 
construction. 

In a subsequent paper we will consider some of the problems 
involved in the foundations of these office-buildings. The construc- 
tion of the superstructure is a chapter by itself, and we fancy an 
investigation of the methods in me in Chicago would be a revelation 
to cvi-rv thinking man in the country. The old constructions of the 
jieriod before the fire were slip-shod, flimsy, and in every way defeo 
tivc. Now, there can hardly be found better constructions, on the 
whole, than those of some of the Chicago architects. Their buildings 
arc scientific in the manner in which the weights art; distributed and 
the loads calculated, and are economical of space, money and light. 
Indeed, we are almost inclined to think that at present the most 
praiseworthy side of the Chicago architecture is its construction. 
Certainly there have been problems solved there that are never met 
witii elsewhere, and what is more, they have been worked out in a 
manner that shows the most careful study and thorough appreciation 
of the conditions. 

We have thus far considered the office-buildings only in relation to 
their construction and arrangement. It goes without saying that the 
buildings are grand and imposing. No structure can be erected 
covering the area that these do, and carried up into the air ten or 
twelve stories, without being majestic and awe-inspiring. We well 
remember our sensations on emerging from the Kock Island Railway 
.Station one frosty morning. The sun had not yet penetrated the 
depths of the cavernous streets, and, walking up the avenue towards 
the Grand Pacific, with the huge buildings to the right and left and 
the great hotel looming up ahead, with its numerous chimneys and 
gables, the first turn bringing us face to face with the enormous Rus- 
sian-like tower of the Kxehange, the effect was overpowering, and 
completely annihilated criticism. Such structures seemed more than 
human, especially under the dim veil of the morning light, which 
revealed only their immense forms and shrouded their defects of 
detail. 

One such building is imposing, but a whole street of such huge 
structures seems like the work of giants, and is too much to be com- 
prehended in a day. The effect is hardly less stirring coming up 
l,a Salle Street from Monroe, with the huge blocks of the Rookery 
ami the Home Buildings on the left, the Insurance Kxehange, Mai- 
ler's Building and others on the right, and the great tower of the 
Board of Trade looming right across the street at the end. It forms 
a picture such as can be found nowhere else in the world, and one 
feels very small indeed when undertaking to grasp the whole of such 
structures and weigh them and consider them in the mind. It is 
only after coming back to them day after day that one begins to 
appreciate them, to see how they are put together and how they are 
formed, and also to understand that these great creations had their 
beginnings in much smaller ways and on much lesser scales; that they 
are no less the results of growth than the more humble buildings, in 
size at least, of our own Boston. Mushrooms we might call them, 
considering their number and the rapidity with which they have 
been evolved. But there is nothing " Western " about these build- 
ings; they were built to endure, just as emphatically as any of the 
structures which grace our Eastern cities or the capitals of Europe, 
and whatever one may say of their architectural excellence, no one 
can deny their impressive value. 

Before the fire the German elements in design prevailed in Chi- 
cago much the same as they did in New York and do still for that 
matter, and a pseudo-Classic front, with panelled pilasters, string- 
courses at each story, and with arched, bowed and lintelled windows, 
was considered the correct thing. For many years the finest build- 
ing in Chicago was assumed to be a structure called Booksellers' 
Row, an undefinable mixture of incoherent Classic and badly-man- 
gled Gothic, neither pleasing in general effect nor tolerable in detail, 
but largely implying a feeling^ in style which one would characterize 
by the hateful adjective " Western " as applied to art. To the 
credit of Chicago the day of such buildings is entirely passed, though 
there are people so benighted as still to consider Booksellers' Row as 
one of the ornaments of the city. 

All the older buildings were not so bad as this, however. Occa- 
sionally, some very successful designs were executed, successful, at 
least, in the mass, and now and then evincing a mastery of detail 
and choice of arrangement which give warning of better things to 
come. There are a number of old dwellings in Chicago, with wide, 
over-hanging cornices, too simple to be bad in detail and too straight- 
forward to DC awkward in expression. Unfortunately, such build- 
ings are rare, and the new movement in art which has been mani- 
fested in the more recent buildings has almost taken the form of a 
protest against these old shams ; against galvanized-iron, sanded to 
look like stone ; against thin veneering to take the place of solid 
masonry ; against the feeling that bad stonework was better than good 
brick, and against the general lack of artistic expression. The fore- 
runner of the new work was a building, the name of which we do not 
recall, on the south-east corner of Washington and Dearborn Streets, 
designed by W. L. B. Jenney. This structure is built almost entirely 
of brick and terra-cotta, and was a revelation to a great many of the 



1 The exact heights from top to top of the stories, beginning with the cellar, 
re 8* 8", 11' 8", 17' 6", 12' 0", \V 4i, 12' 6", 12' 6", 13' 9", 12' C", 17' 6", It)' 6". 



Chicago architects. Mr. Jenney, we Ix'licvo, had studied at I'.iris 
and came to Chicago as a comparatively new man when he erected 
this structure. In the light of subsequent achievements, it might be 
criticised as somewhat boxy in treatment and unnecessarily empha- 
tic in structural manifestations, but on the whole, it was a very suc- 
cessful building, especially so for the time when it was erected, and is 
still one of the good, first-class office-buildings of Chicago. 

It is interesting to compare this building with the latest work of 
Mr. Jenney, the Home Insurance Building, the plan of which we 
have previously considered. Externally it is a ten-story structure, 
simple and straightforward in its character, built almost entirely of 
brick, with the ornament used very sparingly, but, on the whole, well 
and in a judicious manner. The style of the building is Classic, but 
not pronounced in detail, with each story marked by string-courses, 
and a bold cornice crowning the whole, the pilasters running up 
between the windows and being continued to the top. The chief 
charm of the building is in the interior, which is certainly the most 
successful of its kind in the city. The vestibule on the La Salle 
Street front extends through two stories and is finished in polished 
white marble, with the columns supporting the wall and the stair- 
work, including rails, the posts and the elevator-screens, all in dark 
bronze. The vaulted roof of the vestibule is of marble slabs, su]- 
ported on bronze ribs. The elevator-screens are very light and 
graceful in structure, and Iwing arranged as they are, directly oppo- 
site the entrance, with the broad stairs winding up from the first 
story, and the passage underneath leading directly through into the 
basement-corridor, the effect is exceedingly pleasing. The entrancc- 
port.il is carried up with a broad round arch, the top of which is 
filled with an elaborately-wrought grille of iron, very light and grace- 
ful in its character and forming a perfect picture in combination with 
the dark bronze and the white marble of the vestibule. Mr. Jenney 
has shown great taste in the treatment of the interior of the building 
throughout. The walls of the corridors are tinted a pale salmon. 
The dados and floors are of white marble and the ceiling is a pale 
buff. The woodwork, which is confined almost entirely to doors and 
architraves, is of pale oak, and the elevator-fittings and stair-rails 
throughout are bronze. It seems like an expensive building, but 
when we consider how charming the combinations of marble and 
bronze and tinted plaster are, it would seem worth while to pay 
more to be in such a building than to have to put up with the blank 
walls and dreary corridors of even so good a building as the Opera 
House. 

Diagonally opposite from the Home Insurance Building is the 
structure known as the Insurance Exchange, a sketch of which we 
publish herewith. This building was erected by Burnham & Boot, 
and as an example of pure brickwork, it is one of the best in the city, 
if not in the country. We certainly know of none other where 
simple red brick has been used with such a breadth of treatment both 
in the mass and detail, helped out only by such terra-cotta as is 
needed for sills and lintels. It is kept quite plain, the only orna- 
mentation in foliaue or carved-work being about the entrance. 
Everything is dark cherry-red, except the relatively low basement of 
granite. In the Home Building there is no perceptible attempt at 
grouping the stories in height, hut in the Insurance Exchange a very 
successful endeavor is manifest to diminish the extreme height of the 
building by grouping the stories together. The basement is of stone. 
The first story has simple round arches and plain piers; the two 
stories alxjve are treated as one, the piers being carried up through, 
with panelled backs between the stories. Then follows a single 
story, and above that are four stories grouped across the front in 
three divisions, and finally, the upper story is treated by itself, and a 
simple projecting cornice and parapet crowns the whole. The 
corners are very emphatically marked by wide piers, a scheme which 
we should fancy would meet with sharp opposition from real-estate 
agents, but which somehow, seems to be very often adopted in Chi- 
cago buildings. Nothing can give so much character and dignity to 
a building as such treatment. The lack in most ollice-buildings is 
in wall-spaces. Of course, it is impossible to have much of this 
where so much light is required, but by massing the wall-spaces in four 
broad piers, as has been done in the Insurance Exchange, a very pleas- 
ing effect is obtained without any real sacrifice of light to the interior. 
The corners of the buildings are further marked by Iwld turrets, 
which recall the work on the apsis of the Albi Cathedral, and are 
very satisfactory in effect. A very clever device is adopted in the 
spandrels above the eighth-story windows and on the walls of the 
attic. The brickwork is laid with very strongly marked horizontal 
lines formed by projecting every alterate course of brick, so that the 
effect is to give an appearance of a different texture to the wall, 
though the material is, of course, the same. As the height is so 
great above the ground, one cannot see the coarseness of the device, 
and the result is only a pleasing appearance, similar to that of the 
rough-surface paper on which artists so delight in making water- 
colors. This gives a very decided character to the building, and by 
carrying these lines up to the arches above the eighth and ninth 
stories, the circular-topped motives are brought out and made to 
show for all they are worth. The whole design is admirably 
balanced, and the effect of color is quite pleasing, though one is 
tempted to question whether the building would not have been far 
brighter and pleasanter if the sashes had Men painted white instead 
of black. The problem is thoroughly handled, and the scale of the 
building carefully preserved. It is large and high but not feeble, 
and solid and substantial without being clumsy. The interior of 



90 



The American Architect and Building News. [VoL. XXIIL No. 635. 



this building is not at all good. It is dark, with some very bad scag- 
liola in the vestibule, quite in contrast to its neighbor the Home 
Building. 

The Opera House-Building is an exceedingly practical building; 
in fact, it is nothing but a big box, pierced with square holes. It is 
said to be very well built, and is certainly very satisfactory in ar- 
rangement, but one cannot but wish it were treated in a more artistic 
manner. 

Buruham & Root, who are among the most progressive architects 
in the city, have twice attempted a feature of exterior design which 
is certainly interesting, though it can hardly be said to be successful. 
In the Rialto Building, as well as in a small structure opposite it on 
Pacific Avenue, the exterior walls are built with a pronounced batter 
or are diminished by external offsets, becoming visibly thinner and 
lighter as they ascend. This is, of course, a mere trick, and is by no 
means an essential element of character in design. A building to be 




JiBM ALLERS-0 mCL-BUILDiNG- E- 



truthful in character need not show all it has, nor exhibit every de- 
tail of its construction, and although in these two buildings the archi- 
tects have made a great deal of the scheme attempted, the result 
does not seem to justify the means. The gri-atest wonder in our 
mind is how Burnham & Root ever persuaded a client to sacrifice 
the amount of office-room implied by such a device. 
_ The Rookery Building is, all things considered, the most satis- 
factory of the ChiCMO office-buildings. A great deal can be said 
against it, but there is so much that is good in detail, that it easily 
holds its place as the best designed structure of its kind. It is built 
entirely of brick, a favorite material with the Chicago builders but 
unfortunately (we say " unfortunately " advisedly) the brick is a'dark 
chocolate color. Had the same forms been followed in the stron- 
cherry tones of the Insurance Exchange, which is directly opposite 
the Rookery we believe the results would have been much more 
pleasing. The lower story of the Rookery is built of very dark 
granite, with heavy piers alternating with polished shafts of dark 
speckled granite O r marble. All above the first story is of brick and 
terracotta. The grouping is, first, two stories together ; then a wide 
string-course; then three stories with round arches at the top- then 

u n ee , m re , stories with similar arches - Ab v e this is a wide cor- 
belled band, and an attic story with square openings. In detail the 
work recalls the Spanish-Moorish brickwork, though a considerable 
Romanesque feeling is introduced into the style. The piers are 
rounded throughout the corners of the building are rounded; the 
archivolts are rounded, and the round-arch feelino- predominates in 



the whole design ; but in the diaper-work and in the details, in the 
outlines, in the turrets which mark the corners, no less than in the 
wide projected bays over the entrance is there a strong Moorish feel- 
ing. The detail is coarse, rather too coarse, it seems to us, but per- 
haps not so when we consider its relations to the whole enormous 
bulk of the building. Delicate detail would be impossible in such 
relations, and although the crudity of some of the work grates on one 
at first, it may be questioned whether it is not, after all, in keeping 
with the rest of the building. Certainly, the design is handled in a 
masterly way in spite of the enormous size to be treated. The en- 
trances are well wrought out, with good lines and just enough emphasis 
to make them central features, without unduly pronouncing their inde- 
pendence from the rest of the design. If the same design were car- 
ried out in stone, it would be overpowering. In brick even, it is 
massive, ponderous and imposing, in spite of petty details and sharp, 
crude carving. It is a design which grows on one, immensely, and 
has the advantage of showing up well at all points. One would wish 
the lintels over the lower bays were more massive, and more depth 
would, perhaps, be better for the arches above. The building looks 
somewhat as if it needed more height, and had been intended to be 
higher, but had been crowded down, and the arches rather squeezed 
in between the stories. It is always a difficult problem to work in 
round arches of such span as is necessitated in a building of this 
kind, especially when the height of stories is kept so nearly "the same 
throughout, and the arch is obliged to cut into the windows ; and the 




"W C. l**t<*t. Oil. 

OFFICE BUILDING FOR L. P. HANSEN JOHN ADD1SON, Architect, Chicago. 

effect, especially in the sixth story arches is as if there were not quite 
breathing-room enough, as if the arches had settled down and should 
have been broader and wider in their spring. 

All the buildings are not so successful "as the Rookery, either in 
mass or detail. We present with this, two buildings, the Mailer 
Building, remarkable for its extreme height of thirteen stories on the 
street, which is rendered even more pronounced by the multiplicity 
of vertical lines and the long bay on the corner. Also the building 
for L. P. Hansen on Dearborn Street, by Mr. Addison, a very clever 
bit of work in a style which apparently has not found much favor 
with the more recent office-builders, a semi-colonial or classic style. 

All the foregoing buildings are the work of Chicago architects. " In 
marked contrast to these is the recently erected buildinn- for Mar- 
shall Field & Company, from the design of H. H. Richardson, a 
simple, quiet, unassuming structure, looking like a little Quaker in 
its simplicity, being contrasted with the gorgeous, overpowering 
buildings all around it, but none the less pleasing and satisfactory 
for itself. Then there is the Board of Trade Building a more or 
less satisfactory structure of which there has been very unfavorable 
comment at times, but which has a great deal of grandeur in effect ; 
and, besides, there are very numerous office-buildings scattered all 
over the city, the mere enumeration of which would take up more 
space than is at our disposal. The buildings we have considered, 
however, will serve to illustrate the present condition of the work in 
Chicago. It is but fair to say that there has been, as yet, no real 
style developed. Each building is a law unto itself, and no architect 






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FEBRUARY 25, 1888.] TJie American Architect and Building News. 



91 



seems to feel called upon to follow even his own precedent, either in 
tin- choice of design or the character of the detail. There seems to 
l>c, throughout, a restless striving after originally; a seeking for 
striking effects, which, while interesting, is not always good, and gen- 
erally serves to belittle the character of the architecture. But the 
mass of these buildings is generally good. The problems attacked 
have been met openly ; there has been no dodging, no avoiding of 
necessities, no striving to work-in blind stories or false pediments, 
and the ideas adopted have been worked out to final conclusions as 
far as was consistent with the circumstances; so that with all these 
buildings there is evidence of mental activity. The chief faults lie 
in the details. The ideas are good, but the Chicago architects will 
pardon the suggestion that the designs sometimes seem to call for 
more careful study ; that there is a lack, possibly intentionally, of 
delicacy in the treatment. The designs are handled with too free a 
hand. Still, with all the life and vigor and thought which has been 
manifested, one cannot wonder at the crudity of some of the ideas, 
and the coarseness of some of the details. It is far better to be bold, 
even to brutality in treatment, than to be refined to weakness. 
There is always hope from such vigorous, architectural life as is here 
displayed, and these noble buildings demonstrate Chicago's claim to 
an honorable position ii 



position in the national art-life. 



C. H. BI.ACKALL. 




[Contributors are-requested to send with their drawings full and 
adequate descriptions of the buildings, including a statement ofcost.~\ 

WESTMINSTER PALACE. AFTER AN ETCHING BY FELIX BUIIOT. 

[Gelatine Print issued only with Gelatine and Imperial editions.] 
IIFIIB imposing river front of Sir Charles Barry's greatest work 
JJI* has been etched by other hands beside those of M. Buhot. His 
print ranks in size (our copy is about six inches shorter than 
the original) between Whistler's small plate of " Westminster Bridge " 
and Air. David Law's large etching of the Houses of Parliament. 
While not equal in the highest artistic qualities to the former, it is a 
strong, assured and effective piece and much nearer allied to the 
work of Whistler than of Law. In this, as in others of his etchings, 
Buhot has surrounded the central picture with a margin of fanciful 
sketches which on a little careful inspection are seen to bear a sympa- 
thetic relation to the subject. Among them we recognize the West- 
minster Column ; the statue of Lord Beaeonsfield in Parliament 
Square; and various "bits" relating to the state, the city and the 
church. There are the arms of England and the Speaker's mace ; 
the Lord Mayor's coach and state barge,, with two or three London 
sparrows; and a kneeling female figure which suggests Elizabeth 
Woodville, Queen of Edward IV, taking refuge in the Abbey 
Sanctuary. 

Buhot was born some forty years ago at Valognes in Normandy, a 
quaint old town once both wealthy and busy, attributes which it has 
long since lost. He studied under two teachers of the first rank, 
both more renowned for their pupils than for their own works first, 
Lecocq de Boisbandran, the master of Lherniitte, of Fantin-Latour, 
of Legros, and of Guillaume Ilegamey ; second, Gaucherel, who 
taught such etchers as Itajon, Courtry and Lalauze. He has never 
sought for his work any oflicial endorsement which we believe in his 
case has been limited to a third-class medal, received in 1880. He 
is independent and modest, which together with the fact that his 
work requires some study before it can be fully appreciated, has 
probably prevented his name and productions from being as widely 
known as they should be. For it is still true that the most popular 
art is the shallowest. Buhot served through the Franco-Prussian 
War under General Chanzy, and afterwards taught drawing at Paris 
in the College Rollin, until having introduced some innovation in 
teaching not approved by the governing professors he abandoned 
this and relied only on his own work for support. 

M. Philippe Burty in a recent article, speaks of some plates which 
Buhot etched from Japanese objects in his [Burty 's] collection and 
compares them favorably with the work of Jules Jacquemart, whom 
Hainerton has called "the most marvellous etcher of still life who 
rvcr existed in the world." Buhot has also etched, from his own 
designs, illustrations for several of the novels of M. Barbey d' Aure- 
villy, one or two portraits, some'cups and vases made by the gold- 
smiths Froment-Meurice and Christophle and reproduced several 
pictures by other artists. But the great bulk of his work is from 
Nature studies of donkeys or geese, scenes of Parisian street-life, 
landscapes in his native Normandy and some English subjects on 
the Thames and at Folkestore or at Hastings. His etchings are 
powerful and expressive and show a keen eye for beautv in Nature 
and character in people. He uses all the resources of tb.e etcher in 
his plates and makes many changes, the last states generally being 
an improvement on the first. He controls all his plates and is an en- 
thusiast on the subject of paper, printing and proofs. Those he 
thinks the best he stamps with his device an owl between the 
initials F. and B., in red. The proof from which our reproduction 
is t;iken licars this device, with Buhot's signature. An exhibition of 
ctrliin^ and drawings by this painter-etcher is now open at the gal- 
lery of Messrs. F. Keppel & Co., of New York, to whose kindness 



we are indebted for permission to reproduce the " Westminster 
Palace." 

FOWEY UOCK LIGHT-HOUSE. 

FOR description sec article on "Ancient and Modern Light-houses" 
elsewhere in this issue. 

THE UNITED STATES COURT-HOUSE ANI> POST-OFFICE, WILLIAMS- 
PORT, PA. MR. W. A. FltEKKT, SUPERVISING ARCHITECT, WASH- 
INGTON, D. C. 

Y. M. C. A. BUILDING, SAN DIEGO, CAL. MR. ERNEST A. COX- 
HEAD, ARCHITECT, LOS ANGELES, CAL. 

THE estimated cost of this building is $60,000. 

STORE FOR MESSRS. DE COSTER 4 CLARK, ST. PAUL, MINN. MR. 
J. W. STEVENS, ARCHITECT, ST. PAUL, MINN. 

STORE FOR MR. M. E. MAYALL, ST. PAUL, MINN. MR. J. W. 
8TF.VEN8, ARCHITECT, ST. PAUL, MINN. 

CHRIST CHURCH, HERKIMER, N. Y. MH. R. W. GIBSON', ARCHI- 
TECT, ALBANY, N. Y. 



SOME GENERAL OBSERVATIONS ON THE STRENGTH 
AND STABILITY OF MASONRY. I. 




fl 



ERETOFORE experimental investigation, into the strength of 
building stones, cements and mortars, has been directed chiefly 
to the determination of the ultimate resistance under tensile or 
compressive stresses, neglecting for the most part observations on 
the compressibility of the material. This has been a very important 
omission, for without knowledge of the behavior of the component 
parts under stress, it is, of course, impossible to so proportion a 
structure that each part shall carry its share of the load, and the re- 
sult generally reached is that some parts are seriously overstrained 
while there is a corresponding understraining elsewhere. Examples 
of this kind are of frequent occurrence in architectural work, and the 
unequal distribution of stresses are made manifest by the develop- 
ment of visible defects to such an extent that it is difficult to choose 



The American Architect and Building JVewt>. [VOL. XXI J I. No. 635. 



wliich are perfect specimens of successful photography; the view 
of the chancel and the interior of the great tower looking upwards 
being especially notable. 

There are two plates which will attract most attention, one the 
portrait of Mr. Richardson, who is here shown in what looks like a 
disguise for a fancy-dress ball, but wliich those who know the semi- 
invalid condition against which he so long struggled, and also recall 
the eager and nipping airs that drew through his great study and its 
adjoining work-rooms, will recognize as a hooded dressing-gown from 
which he extracted much solid comfort. It has all the effect of in- 
tention, however ; as if feeling that he was working in the same direc- 
tion and along the lines of the old monkish freemason, he had come 
to believe that if clad as they were, he could better understand how 
they would solve the problem before him, and so secure that con- 
sistency for which he always strove. The great emphatic autograph 
below is full of character, and scales with the man. The grim face 
and the set mouth give a hint of the spirit which rode down all 
obstacles animate and inanimate that stood in his way. One feels 
that this is the architect, the builder, but it gives no glimpse of the 
man whose social powers and bonhommie made him the most enter- 
taining of hosts, the most amusing of acquaintances. 

The other plate which attracts attention is the colored print of the 
building from the east, the view which is most typical and most 
satisfying. As a piece of color-printing it is a most successful and 
accurate work, and adds immensely to the value of the work by ex- 
hibiting truthfully the colors of the materials used in the building. 
If the same process could have been applied to some of the interior 
views, the gain would have been great : that it was not, could not 
have been because of any shortcomings in the possibilities of the pro- 
cess, but because the publishers were unwilling to make the work so 
expensive as to be out of reach of those who only carry modest purses. 
It gives one a shock to find on the title-page Mr. Gambrill's name 
as architect with Mr. Richardson, whose name alone has for many 
years been associated with the building, and we cannot help feeling 
that he was spared many a pang by not living long enough to discover 
how completely it was forgotten that he had ever had anything at all 
to do with the church. We have heard it whispered that Mr. Gam- 
brill's untimely death was, in some degree, brought about by his 
chagrin at finding his partner was in the public mind more in- 
timately associated with the work done by the firm than he felt was 
just and proper. However this may be, we are glad that, through 
what would have been an excusable piece of carelessness, Mr. Gam- 
brill's name was not forgotten. 



THE worthiness of Philibert de 1'Orme 1 to occupy a portion in 
the heirarchy of great architects, must now be taken a great deal 
upon faith. His contemporaries speak of him as the equal of 
the great Italians of the Renaissance period ; and although he con- 
stituted himself their rival, and was a. thorough chauvin, there is no 
reason to doubt the justness of contemporary opinion. Indeed, 
the fragments of his work which remain, prove the judgment of his 
friends to have been correct. Unfortunately, very little remains. 
The Tuileries was partially destroyed by the Communists, and party 
feeling has caused the ruins to be pulled down. "However much we 
may sympathize with the desire of the French Republic to destroy 
all the remains of former despotisms, we cannot but feel that the de- 
struction of a palace will not prevent the return of a monarch. 
Plenty of suitable lodgings remain for the sovereign should he ever 
want them. The pulling down of the ruins of the Tuileries was the 
action of carping vandals as well might they destroy Versailles, 
the Trianon, Pierrefonds and even the Louvre, for they were all 
built by despots, and architecturally, they do not possess the merits 
of the Tuileries. That the latter was too much wrecked to be re- 
built is far from the fact it was no more so, than many other build- 
ings ; and had it been restored, it would have put an end to the end- 
less discussions as to what to put in its place. A new building would 
not be in harmony with the Louvre ; and without a building, the 
Louvre looks mean, isolated as it is in so much space. The Champs 
Elysees and the Louvre are not in a direct line, and now that the old 
palace is gone, this defect is only too evident this probably is the 
reason that the whole space is still occupied by shanties such as 
I imagine might be seen in a new squatting in the far West. But 
patriotism seems sometimes to run away with taste and artistic feel- 
ing, and common sense; and, consequently, if you want to study 
Philibert de 1'Orme's building, you must go to the'Trocadero Garden, 
where you will find two doorways all that has been preserved. 
Monseiur Vachon claims for French artists, many of the buildings 
hitherto forming the reputation of the Italians ; and he considers de 
1'Orme's great merit to have been, raising the. character of French 
art; that is to say, Frenchifying the Italian Renaissance. Thus M. 
Vachon : " Toutes les grande* w.uvres architecturales, toutes les mer- 
veilles d'art, dont elle (la Renaissance) a counerl notre pays, elaient 
a/tribuees presque excluxii-ement aux artistes Italiens ijue Charles VII f, 
Louis XII el Francois I avaient amends en France. Vignole ai-ait 
btiti C/iambord, qui est de Trinque.au et Jean Marchand ; Giocundo, 
Gail/on, I'oeuvre collective, incontestee aujourd'hui, de Guillaume 
Senault, Pierre Fain, Pierre Delorme ; le Dominique de Cortone, dit 
le Boccador, recenait exclusivement tons leu houneurs de la construction 
de ^ I'Hotel-de- Ville de Paris, que j'ai tente de reslituer a ce glorieux 
me'connu, Pierre Chambiges. A Serlio nous devions Fontainebleau et 

'Lea Artistes Ctlebres, Philibert de I'Orme, par Marius Vachon: Rouam, Paris. 



Saittt-Gcrmain-en-Liti/e, dont les vraix nrrf/i/i </.< .<;/// i-.i- inf.nti- Cluiiii- 
biyes et flilles le Breton." 

Philibert de I'Orme was born about the year 1515. He styles him- 
self "Lyonnoil," and puts this, his birthplace, before his honorary 
titles of " Conseiller et. Ausntiinirr <In fi-u my, i/'afilie de saint Him/ tie 
Noyon." His father sent him to Italy when very young to study the 
great masters' works : and at Rome he seems to have entered tin: Pope's 
service for a time; but in 1530 Cardinal du Bellay made him return 
to France, and he began building for General de Bretaigne in Lyons. 
A document discovered in 1858 in the Bibliotlieque Nationale in- 
forms us that he was named architect to the king, and in this 
capacity he seems to have been engaged in inspecting the fortresses 
of Brittany. Curiously enough, he not only found the castles and 
fortifications wanting repair, but the finances in confusion, and he set 
to work to put both in order. Nor was he wanting in energy, 
diligence and vanity ; for according to his own account, had it not 
been for him, the English would have taken Brest. As it was he 
mounted all the available artillery, and painted false guns on the 
ramparts to deceive the enemy; he got together some of the in- 
habitants as false soldiers, and setting up pikes without men, thus 
frightened away the enemy. 

In 1548 he was nominated Inspector of the Royal Palaces, and was 
given the revenues of several abbeys. But his natural pride, his 
vanity and his love of reform; his rigid honesty, his avarice and his 
desire to prove his contemporaries guilty of robbing the State gained 
him many enemies in spite of the protection of the king and his 
favorite, Diane de Poitiers. Bernard Palissy spoke of him as " u 
architects francoys qui se fnisnit quasi appeler le Uien di-s m/ii-ons ou 
architectes, et d'autant qu 'il possedoit vint mil (livres) en benefices et 
qu 'il se scavoit bien accommoder d la Cour." The first volume of de 
1'Orme's "Architecture" is full of laments about the calumnies of 
which he was victim, and the cabals that were formed against him. 
He justifies his possession of ecclesiastical revenues as being payment 
for his work and what he had laid out upon it. But if he were 
scandalized, he knew how to revenge himself. Upon almost every 
page of his "Architecture" are the most bitter allusions to his con- 
temporaries, who " as draughtsman of plans, mostly knew not how to 
draw them," "si ce n'est par I'ayde et moyen ties peinctres, qui les 
scavent plus tost bienfarder, laver, ombrager et colorer, que bien faire 
et ordonner avecques toutes leurs mesures." And, carried away by 
his anger and his convictions, he devoted the last chapter of his book 
to a psychological study of a true and a false architect, with cari- 
catures drawn by his own hand. M. Vachon reproduces the plate 
of the good architect, which resembles some of the allegorial cuts of 
Albert Du'rer in style. 

n the death of Henri II, de I'Orme fell into disgrace. Robbed of 
the patronage of Diane de Poitiers, he lost his Inspectorship of Royal 
Buildings, and had the mortification of seeing Primaticcio put into his 
place; but the ecclesiastical benefices he seems to have kept until 
his death in 1570, wliich took place in his house in the cloisters of 
Notre Dame, Paris, of wliich he was a canon. 

The project of erecting a palace, "des Tuileries," was conceived 
by Francois I, but the idea was not carried out until after his death. 
Catherine de'Medici entrusted the work to Philibert de I'Orme, but 
she seems herself to have made certain saggestions to the architect. 
Desiring as she did. to have a building which would be the direct 
opposite to the sombre fortresses of the Louvre and the Tournelles, 
her idea was to surround it with gardens, and to make it picturesque. 
De 1'Orme chose the Ionic Order, because he says "il estfeminin et-a 
este invente apres les proportions et ornements des Dames et Deesses, 
ainsi que le Dorique des liommes, comme m'otit appris les anciens ; 
car quand Us vouloient faire un temple a quelque Dieu, Us y emploient 
I'ordre Dorique et a une deesse le lonique." Where de I'Orme learned 
this we cannot tell, as a very limited study of the work of the 
" ancients " proves the fallacy. To go no farther than Athens, the 
Parthenon (the temple of Athena) is Doric ; but doubtless study of 
the antique in Philibert's time was confined to Rome and a few 
other Italian towns. However that may be, he considers the Ionic 
" delicat et de plus i/rande beaute que le Dorique et plus orne et enriclti/ 
de sinr/ularitez." Certainly these qualities may have fitted it to be 
the style of a palace built for Catherine de'Medici, especially its 
singularity. But the Queen's Florentine tastes- desired that the 
palace should be a mass of marbles and incrustations, and no doubt 
had it been finished by de I'Orme it would have equalled some of the 
Italian palaces of the period, for the plan of it left by du Cerccau, 
shows the grandiose scale upon which it was to be built. The 
original design for the central pavilion was a sexagonal attic support- 
ing a dome. This was never carried out, de 1'Orme's building only 
being partially finished at his death, when it was committed to Bul- 
lant, Lemercier, Levau and d'Orbay in succession, who all of them 
modified the original designs ; the last architect replacing the beauti- 
ful staircase with a commonplace one with a balustrade decorated 
with the emblems of Louis XIV. 

But de 1'Orme's greatest work was the Chateau d'Anet, built for 
Diane de Poitiers. Possessing an immense fortune and being a 
woman of taste, she desired the building to be original, grand and 
noble. Moreover, being the rival of the queen, she wished to out-do 
the latter's new palace in magnificence and toeiect a building which 
should be purely French. This being so, what more natural than 
that she should endeavor to carry off the queen's architect. 

The plan of the chateau shows a central building surrounded by 
gardens, terraces, and out-buildings, including a chapel and hotel 



FEURVAHY 2o, 1888.] 



The American Architect and Building News. 



95 



<//'' '/. the wlmlc enclosed liy a moat anil external wall?. The entrance 
w:is a triiini|>li:il arch, in the tympanum of wliich was the celebrated 
bronze group of Diana and the Stags, by Henvenuto Cellini, whic 
was exeontM by order of Francois 1 for Fontaincblcafl, and after 
wards taken to the chateau d'Anet by Henri II at the instigation o 
Diane de Poitiers. This alto-relief, now in the Renaissance Muscui 
of the Louvre, and called the " Nymph of Fontainebleau,"^wa 
placed in 1806 above the gallery by Jean Goujon, at the entrance o 
the Salle des Caryatides of the Museum. In 1846 it was taken down 
and replaced by a east, which still remains. At the angles of th 
arch, on cadi side of the " Diane," were two Fates in bronze, alse 
by Cellini, while at the sides of the niches were bronze heads o 
winged cupids. The following inscription was placed upon a blacl 
marble tablet above the door : 

Pluebo sacrata est nlmtr domn* ampin Dianaa 
Veruin auceptn cui cuncta Diunn refeit. 

On the facade of the chateau we read another inscription, whic] 
.shows a curious trait in the morals of the sixteenth century : 

Brmzeo hsec statuit pergratn Diana marito 
Ut dint in n:i sill siut uiouumeuln viri. 

For what was Diane " reconnaissante a son mart tie Rrize" 
This facade was destroyed in 1799-1810, but a portion of it was 
saved by Alexandre Lenoir and placed in the Mused des Petits 
Augustins, may now be seen in the court-yard of the ficoledes Beaux 
Arts, which occupies the same site. De 1'Orme, with his usua 
vanity, speaks of his work thus: "J'ay fait faire au chateau d"Anne> 

entn- />!i sii </;.< Mies ceuvrei ," and then lie enumerates his severa 

works. The chapel, which is domical, and a remarkably beautifu 
example of French Renaissance, with one wing of the chateau, is all 
that remains of the splendid building. The chapel was restored b) 
Caristie in 1844. 

Another of de POrme's famous buildings was the Chateau de Saint- 
Muiir-les-Fosse's, belonging to the Cardinal du Bellay, bishop ol 
Paris. This, too, has disappeared it was destroyed before the 
Revolution. Engravings from the artist's book on " Architecture" 
of this, the chateau d'Anet and the Tuileries, with plans, are all 
reproduced in M. Vachon's book. 

But there is one of de I'Orme's works which can be studied in all 
its original beauty, viz., the monument of Francois I at St. Denis, 
one of the most beautiful tombs of the Renaissance. The monument 
is of the form of a triumphal arch, with Ionic columns supporting a 
platform, upon which are kneeling figures of the king, Claude, his 
wife,, and three children. Underneath the arch is a sarcophagus, 
upon which repose the figures of Fran9ois and Claude, while all 
around the lower part are bas-reliefs by Pierre Bontemps, represent- 
ing the various campaigns carried on by the king. De 1'Orme was 
assisted in this work by other sculptors besides Bontemps Germain 
Pilon, Ponce Jacquiand, Franc,oys Mart-hand, Ambroise Perret, 
Jacques Cliaulerel, Bastien Galles, Pierre Bigoine and Jean de 
Bourges. De 1'Orme also carried out work at St. Germain-en-Laye, 
at Fontaincbleau, at Vineenues, at Chenonceau and at Madrid, in 
the Bois de Boulogne. 

M. Vachon excuses de I'Orme's egotism and vanity because of his 
hatred of the foreigner. At that period, the connection of the 
sovereigns with Italy through their wives, and the wars which were 
carried on in that country, naturally forced the beauty of Italian 
buildings upon the notice of men of taste like Francois I. Conse- 
quently, he invited a whole corvey of Italian artists to France. Of 
these, de I'Orine and his friends were jealous, but unjustly, for lie had 
himself studied in Italy and owed his success to that study. That 
he was a man of genius there is no doubt, but his talent consisted in 
acquiring knowledge from the Italians, which he applied to his own 
wants. That he created a French Renaissance is true, but that it 
was modelled upon the Italian is equally true. M. Vachon is a 
p:\triot and de I'Orme's chief merit in his eyes is that he was "bien 
francait " but art is not a matter of patriotism, it is cosmopolitan, 
and fa.- more was it to the credit of de 1'Orme that he had true ideas 
uiion the right uses of art than that his art was " bien Francois." 
lie desired that buildings should be suitable to the purposes to which 
they were to be put. " Mieux vawJrait," he says, in his first volume 
of "Architecture," "ne sucoir fnire ornement/t ni enrichexsements de 
nntr/iilles ou uutres, et entendre bien ce t/u'il/aut pour la sante et con- 
xerration tlen perxonnex et ties liens." This is a golden rule which 
might to advantage be observed in these modern times. 

S. BEALE. 




having at heart the proper architectural embellishment and future 
architectural standing of this metropolis, believe it to be their dutv, 
which they owe to the municipal officers, to the citizens, to the pro- 
fession of architecture, and to themselves, to earnestly advise against 
the adoption or execution of any plans based upon the instructions 
and general plans issued, and would recommend to the Commis- 
sioners, if it is still their determination to place the proposed struc- 
tures on the City Hall Park, in contiguity to the City Hall, that 
sufficient extension of time be granted, and the following conditions 
be observed : 

1st. That the manner of grouping the buildings and the planning 
and distribution of the rooms be left to the competitors, limited only 
by the specified requirements of space for the various departments, 
etc., to be accommodated. 

2d. That disinterested professional experts, who should be archi- 
tects of acknowledged ability, experience, and standing, should be 
appointed, to whom all the plans would be referred for analysis and 
classification, and who would make a detailed report to the Commis- 
sion for their consideration, with recommendations as to the award 
of premiums and choice of plans. 

3d. That the successful competitor should be appointed architect 
of the building ; provided that in case he should not be, in the judg- 
ment of the said experts and Commission, a person of sufficient 
artistic or constructive or administrative capacity, then there shall 
be appointed an associate or consulting architect, so qualified, whose 
compensation shall be deducted in equitable proportion from that of 
the architect. A. J. BLOOR, Secretary. 

A true copy. 




WHO SHOULD PAY THE EXPERT? 

ALBAWY, N. Y., February 4, 1888. 
To THK EDITORS OF THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT: 

Dear Sirs, Will you kindly favor us with your opinion in regard 
to ease stated below ; we dislike to take up your valuable time, but 
it is a matter of adjustment depending on what is customary or 
rig! t. 

We are architects for a large hall to seat 2,500, and the heatinw 
and ventilation is of the greatest im|>ortance. The Committee and 
ourselves are both desirous of having the heating and ventilating 
plans prepared by an expert, and the question arises, who shall pay 
for such expert work. We claim that after the heating plans are 
prepared that we will have to lay out all flues, etc., on builder's 
plans, and, in addition, must get all estimates and give special super- 
intendence to this part of the work, as expert is non-resident and is 
not employed to do that portion, and that we should not pay expert 
from our commission, but that he should be paid in addition to per 

cent we receive on the entire work including heating and ventilation. 

Respectfully yours, ENQUIRERS. 

[!N regard to the question. Who should pay for expert advice about lieat- 
ng and ventilation, we think that most experienced architects would agree 
,nt the heating and ventilation of a building was a matter Ktrlctlv within 
he architect s province. If, as often happens, the architect wished' to have 
us plans for it criticised by nn expert, and to obtain suggestions in regard 

to details, he would do H> iu such manner as he might wish, paying the 
sxpert out of his own pocket, and, of course, in such a case, the expert 
>emg only called in for comment* upon the work of the architect, hi.- fee 

would be a small one. If, instead of this, the committee desires to deprive 
he architect entirely of a responsibility which, with such advice an he can 
irocure for himself, he is willing to take, and to trust the whole matter to 

an outsider, leaving to the architect the cnre of carrying out the expert's 
deas, we think that the con mittee should bear the whole expense Al- 
liough the architect Is nominally relieved of a part of the responsibility 
fhich he is paid for taking, he really gains little or nothing in this respect, 
or if he is obliged to look out for the execution of the plan, he is sure to 

wry all imperfections in the working of the scheme charged to hl.< account, 
rlnle the extra labor thrown on him by the necessity of changing his plans 
or tbe arrangement or decoration of the building to suit the wishes of an 
utsider who cares for nothing except his own scheme, will be very cou- 
idei able. Eos. AMKRICAN ARCHITECT.] 



NEW VOUK CHAPTER OF TIIE AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF ARCHITECTS. 

EXTRACT from minutes of the New York Chapter of the Ameri- 
can Institute of Architects: 

" Whereax, the Commissioners of the Sinking Fund of the City 
of N"ew York have, under authority given to them by an act of the 
Legislature entitled 'An Act to provide for the erection of a build- 
ing for Criminal Courts and other purposes," issued on invitation to 
architects to prepare plans, in competition, in accordance with cer- 
tain printed instructions and general plans." 

The New York Chapter of the American Institute of Architects) 



THE COMMISSION ON A PARTY-WALL. 

CHICAGO, ILL., February 13, 1888. 

'o TIIE EDITORS OF THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT: 
Dear Sim, What would be a reasonable and proper charge to 
make a client for computing the value of partv-wall, making and sub- 

litting a statement of same? I do not find any official state- 
ment of fees, and am somewhat uncertain as to what custom has 
sanctioned. Owing to some delay in using the wall, after the state- 
ment had been submitted the actual settlement was made between 
the two owners themselves, instead of through their architects. 
My client accepted the offer of *3,000 for the wall. Mv statement 
made the value of the half sold $:!,109.87, wliich included" SI 19.61 as 
architect's commission. This last item was objected to by the archi- 
tect of the purchaser, he claiming that he was entitled to architect's 
commission on the wall purchased by his client. Of course, it made 
no difference to me as I had already been paid my commission, but J 
would like your views u]>on the question as to which was right, if 
cither, in the light of established precedent. Also what, under the 
circumstances as detailed, a proper charge would be for uiy services 



96 



The American Architect and Building News. [Vou XXIII. No. 635. 



in computing the value of the wall, drawing up statement and spend- 
ing some little time perhaps one-half day in visiting the owner 
and the other architect before the matter was finally adjusted. 

Very respectfully, O. J. PIERCE. 

[WE should say that the best way would be to charge according to the 
time occupied in the work of making estimates and preparing the statement, 
reckonin" the value of the time according to the architect 8 engagements. 

It is customary in this vicinity to count the commission of the architect 
under whose direction the wall was built as a part of the value of the wall, 
to be shared between the parties, just as Mr. Pierce estimates it; but this 
does not at all affect the right of the architect of the adjoining building to 
charge his commission also on it, under the general rule that the architect s 
commission is always reckoned on the total cost of the structure ready for 
occupancy, including materials furnished by the owner. Both architects 
are therefore right in their view of the case. EDS. AMERICAN ARCHITECT.] 

THE ARCHITECTURAL LEAGUE COMPETITION. 

Los ANGELES, February 4, 1888. 

To THE EDITORS OF THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT : 

Dear Sirs, Having seen the prize designs in the late Architec- 
tural League Competition, I can say nothing against either of them 
regarding their fitness as ornaments to a village green, but I feel 
disposed to take exception to the manner in which the programme 
was worded. 

It is apparent that if only three of forty-four competitors properly 
interpret the problem, that the committee should have used a phrase 
to more clearly define the same than the word " tower," which means 
a high edifice. The forty-one competitors who were, unfortunately, 
in ignorance of the fact that the word " tower " meant a low edifice 
is such a large majority of all as to raise at once the query, Why so 
many dullards? a fact which (being one of the dullards) I attri- 
bute to the wording of the circular of the competition. 

Very truly yours, WILLIS J. POLK. 



ADDRESS. 

NEW YORK, February 13, 1888. 

To THE EDITORS OF THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT: 

Dear Sirs, The address of the Secretary of the Journal of Asso- 
ciated Engineering Societies, called for in a recent number, is Henry 
G. Prout, 71 Broadway, New York. Yours very truly, 

C. POWELL KARR. 




COMBUSTIBILITY OF IKON. Some curious experiments to demonstrate 
the combustibility of iron were made by the late Professor Magnus, of 
Berlin, Ger. In one a mass of iron filings is approached by a magnet 
of considerable power, and a quantity thereof is permitted to adhere to 
it. This loose, spongy tuft of iron powder contains a large quantity of 
air imprisoned between its particles, and is, therefore, and because of 
its extremely comminuted condition, well adapted to manifest its com- 
bustibility. The flame of an ordinary spirit lamp or Bunsen burner 
readily sets fire to the finely-divided iron, which continues to burn 
brilliantly and freely. By waving the magnet to and fro, the showers 
of sparks sent off produce a striking and brilliant effect. The assertion 
that iron is more combustible than gunpowder has its origin in the 
following experiment, which is also a very striking one : A little alcohol 
is poured into a saucer and ignited. A mixture of gunpowder and iron 
filings is allowed to fall in small quantities at a time into the flames of 
the burning alcohol, when it will be observed that the iron will take fire 
in its passage through the flame, while the gunpowder will fall through 
it and collect beneath the liquid alcohol below, unconsumed. This, 
however, is a scientific trick, and the ignition of the iron is due to the 
fact that the metal particles, being admirable conductors of heat, are 
able to absorb sufficient heat during their passage through the flame 
brief as this is and they are consequently raised to the ignition point. 
The particles of the gunpowder, however, are very poor conductors of 
heat, comparatively speaking, and during the exceedingly brief time 
consumed in their passage through the flame, they do not become 
heated appreciably, or certainly not to their point of ignition. Spring- 
field Republican. 

NATURAL GAS IN ENGLAND. Mr. Richard S. Bluck writes to the 
Peterborough Advertiser: "Many of your readers are aware that on the 
Fletton and Woodstone side of Peterborough there are a number of 
brick-works, but perhaps they may not know the lower the clay for 
making bricks is obtained, the less coal it takes to burn the bricks. 
After getting some few feet down, the clay contains natural fuel, and 
the deeper the clay is dug, the more natural fuel it contains. When 
the bricks made from the lower clay (which is really a shale) are being 
burnt, they throw out a gas which can be clearly sen burning in the 
kiln between the bricks, and I wish to point out the great probability 
of there being at no great distance below the shales now worked stores 
of natural gas similar to that now used in Pittsburgh, Pa., and lately 
discovered in north-western Ohio, and which, if found, would make 
Peterborough into one of the most important manufacturing centres in 
the w.prld. Builders in Peterborough are aware that bricks can now be 
bought cheaper at the Fletton and Woodstone yards than anywhere in 
England, the reason being the coal-bill is so much reduced since the 
lower shales have been made into bricks. I would most respectfully 
ask the Peterborough Town Council to consider the desirability of bor- 



ing down to see if the gas is below the town of Peterborough. As a 
matter of course, it is needless for me to point out to so able a Board of 
business men how natural gas, if found, would find employment for 
every man in the district who was willing to work, how it would increase 
the value f all property in the neighborhood, and cause manufactories 
and new industries to spring up on every side." 




"TRAFFIC is up to the average" summarizes the reports in some fifteen 
or twenty trade journals of the past week. Not a few journals speak of the 
upward tendency in values and prices, and those editors who are inclined to 
take a hopeful view of things, say, the outlook is decidedly better than it 
was twelve months ago. So far as the opinion of editors of trade journals 
and writers of financial articles go, there is very little to fear and very few 
regrets to be expressed with the volume of business which has been trans- 
acted since January 1. Reports from all quarters are favorable for a 
steadiness of productive capacity throughout the winter. Rending between 
tlie lines and going below the surface, facts and conditions are met with 
which must modify the hopefulness that is so freely expressed in so many 
quarters. Yet, the tr;ide representatives are doing good service, and finan- 
cial writers are accomplishing some good in checking a decline iu confidence 
where there may be really no good reasons for it. At the same time there 
are some influences at work which will have their way regardless of what 
people may say about them. One of these influences concerning which but 
little is said, and, perhaps, less noticed, is the disposition of a great many large 
consumers and operators to purchase material only for immediate require- 
ments. If this policy could be kept up year in and year out, it would be 
much better for all concerned. The opinion is entertained by some that 
business is never good unless people are buying what they do not want, and 
what they do not expect to use for from one to six months ahead. We are 
having less prosperity of this kind than usual, and perhaps more of the 
prosperity which is based upon the purchase or immediate and actual re- 
quirements. To the extent that this policy affects prices, prices are declin- 
ing. There is nothing of a speculative character to be met with or to be 
found in stock-broking circles. Even iu our stock-boards complaint is made 
of the absolute duluess and the absence of outside buyers. The outside 
buyers for once are showing good sense in allowing speculators and boomers 
of stocks to have their own way. This is due largely to the experience of 
the past two years in manufacturing and legitimate commercial directions 
of the great body of private speculators who are awaiting developments. 
The general public who have experience and labor to sell and trade require- 
ments to fill, have but little interest in the ups and downs of stocks, but are 
chiefly interested in the actual condition of things apart from their specula- 
tive values. A little study of these conditions will throw a great deal of 
light upon the present and future trade prospects. Since the opening of the 
year $70,000,000 worth of bonds have been sold, and it is believed that moht 
of them have been taken by foreign and small investors. A host of en- 
gineering and other enterprises are before the public wherein money can be 
invested, whether safely or not, it is not an easy matter to say. Opportuni- 
ties for railway investment are growing smaller, because of the fact that 
established railroad companies are doing the bulk of the new railroad, build- 
ing. This is true largely of mining operations. Large companies are ex- 
tending their operations without outside help. Individual investors will, in 
time, be compelled to organize special agencies to secure safe investments. 
There are combinations among investors iu new schemes and enterprises, as 
well as combinations in trusts and syndicates. The outflow of money on 
Western bonds and mortgages still continues. The opportunities for profit- 
able investment are increased rather than otherwise on account of the great 
expansion in manufacturing throughout the West. Money is wanted there, 
and will, no doubt, seek the opportunities that are being offered. The fact 
that 8200.000,000 will be divided among holders of railway bonds and securi- 
ties this year will help to strengthen the confidence in the earning capacity 
of our railway systems. The fact that there is a vast amount of uncovered 
territory in the West and South will, in all probability, lead to the projec- 
tion and the construction of a number of new roads there. The importance 
of this fact cannot easily be overestimated. Just now the opinion is enter- 
tained that railway construction will fall far below the limit of la?t year. 
But the necessity of covering railroad territory against competitors is not 
fully taken into account. Last week two or three permanent railway en- 
terprises were brought to the attention of a few large tiuauci il organizations 
in New York, in which railway managers are interested. Whatever assist- 
ance is wanted by the railroads themselves will be obtained from these 
quarters. Another important fact of recent development is the early 
emigration of a large number of manufacturers, mechanics, traders and 
others into the region west of the Mississippi river. The competition East 
and the better opportunities West, coupled with the abundance of money 
which can be borrowed and aided by the prospects of continuance of busi- 
ness prosperity, has laid the foundations for something like an exodus of a 
most desirable class of people. Iron and steel makers, carriage and wagon 
builders, hardware manufacturers, house-builders, material manufacturers', 
lumber-dealers, coal-miners, among other equally valuable factors in indus- 
trial development will seek new homes and opportunities in the new region 
made available by the 20,000 miles of railway-construction in the far West 
during the past three or four years. This movement simply means that 
there is a new force at work to equalize energy, labor and capital, and that 
the West will receive the first benefit of it, and the East the resulting 
benefit of the equalization. 

Without theorizing or dealing in generalities, it may be said that this 
movement is a wide and a far-reachiiig one, and it may be said that there 
are such abundant opportunities for a spreading out of the population that 
no very serious results need be apprehended to the industries at large. 
Labor, in general, is well engaged. The anthracite strike is practically 
over, the Northwestern Railway war will be ended, perhaps, in two weeks. 
Other railway systems have taken warning and are putting their defences 
in order. The industries of New England anticipate an early revival of 
trade, and all its mills and factories will be pretty well employed. The 
multiplication of combinations still continues, but 'the Government, State 
and National, is on their path with a view of keeping them from trampling 
upon the public. How much Legislation can prevent or retard this tend- 
ency it is not easy to say, but vast combinations are the legitimate and 
necessary result of the conditions under which we live, and it is probably 
safe to say that nothing more than a police surveillance can be kept upon 
them. 

S. J. PAKKHILL & Co., Printers, Boston. 



Slje Tlnjericaq ?Ircl}itect ai?rt Building IJews, February 25, 1555. tyo. 655. 

Copyright, iSSS, hy TICKNOK & Co. 



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THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT AND BUILDING NEWS. 



VOL. xxill. 



Copyright, 1888, by TICKXOB A COMPAKV, Boston, Mi 



No. 636. 



MARCH 3. 1888. 



Rnterml at the Pot-O(Boe at Boston a> >eoond-elaw matter 




SUMMART : 

The Action of Cement on Lead. A Bad Beginning in the 
way of Fires for this Year. The Theatres built by the 
Asphaleia Company. The Fondaco deiTurchi, Venice. 
Babylonian Contract Records. A Senate Discussion on 
the Method of Appropriating Money for Public Buildings. 
The Public Buildings Raid and the Supervising Architect's 
Knioluments 07 

P- ii I'rm.ic BUILDINGS AND ouu SENATORS 99 

ILLUBTKATIONB : 

The Basilica, Quebec, Canada. Design for Country Stable. 
Station at Como, Monmouth Co., N. J. Design for Barnes 
Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. First Premiated 
Design for the Proposed Young Men's Christian Association 
Building. Providence, R. I. The Amended Design for the 
same Building. House for A. N. Elliott, Esq., Chestnut 
Hill, Philadelphia, Pa. House near St. Louis, Mo. ... 104 

SAFK BUILDINO. XXIIL 104 

TT PRACTICAL MAN writes to the Oesterreichisch-ungar- 
f\ ischen Eisenzeitung some of his observations about the 
acrion of cement upon lead, which are new to us. Every 
one knows that bits of plaster, falling from a ceiling into a 
lead-lined cistern or tank, will often perforate the lead in a few 
weeks, and experiments carried on in Germany have demon- 
strated that under certain circumstances there is a strong 
chemical action between lime or cement and lead, but just what 
the circumstances are under which the action takes place no 
one seems to know. The Practical Man does not know, any 
more than other people, but his experience seems to show con- 
clusively that certain qualities of lead are affected, while others 
are not. His first observation was made in 1880, when he was 
summoned to look for the cause of a leak in the ceiling of a 
room in the house of Count Karolyi, in Budapest. Over the 
room was a bath, made in a manner which is, we hope, peculiar 
to the Danube provinces, by building a brick enclosure in 
cement, plastering it inside with cement - mortar, and then 
casing over the outside with marble, and lining the inside with 
heavy sheet-lead, over which was put a thick coat of cement, 
in which were set tiles, to form the visible interior lining of 
the tub. On pulling away the marble, and breaking out the 
tiles, the lead-lining was found to be very badly corroded on 
both sides. On one side it was eaten through, so that the 
water escaped, and soaked into the masonry beneath, and on 
the other, although not perforated, the metal had become con- 
verted into a brittle, powdery substance. A year later the 
same expert was called to the house of Count Zichy, where a 
wet spot showed itself under a bath-room. This bath was pre- 
cisely similar in construction to the leaky one of the year 
before, but had been in place for a much longer period, so the 
Practical Man and his assistants tore it to pieces with con- 
fidence, sure of finding the lead corroded by the cement. To 
their surprise, after the tiles were removed, the lead proved to 
be in perfect condition. No trace whatever of corrosion could 
be discovered, and the leak was soon afterwards found in a 
waste-pipe. As there was no apparent difference in the circum- 
stances, the immunity of th Zichy tub from corrosion was 
quite as inexplicable as the perforation of the Karolyi one, and 
the Practical Man did not try to account for it. However, 
these cases seemed to interest him in the matter, and he took 
pains to collect specimens of lead-pipe which had been buried 
in mortar or cement. Out of a large number of these many 
were found as perfect as when newly set, yet many more were 
corroded to a greater or less degree. With only these facts as 
a basis, it would hardly be possible to form any deduction in re- 
gard to the matter, but the writer of the letter very sensibly 
suggests that some one with more time than himself might with 
advantage collect samples of lead from different manufacturers, 
and of different brands of cement and lime, and test the mutual 
action of the various sorts, for the benefit of mankind. 



llf HE present year bids fair to be one of great fire losses, 
X the six or seven weeks already expired having been dis- 
tinguished by about an equal number of very destructive 
conflagrations. The total losses by fire last )'ear, according to 



the Insurance Standard were something more than one hundred 
and five million dollars, or two million a week. This is about 
two hundred dollars a minute, so that supposing the cost of 
insurance and fire protection to be as much more, which is, we 
believe, nearly the case, the people of this country send up 
twenty-four thousand dollars every hour of the day and night 
in smoke as incense to the spirit of cheap construction. Of 
human sacrifice this American deity last year demanded less 
than usual, but the present season has commenced with a 
liberal offering, and the chances are that his appetite will be 
fully supplied before the year is over with the young girls and 
children which satisfy it best. The statistics of 1887 seems to 
indicate that a slight change for the better is taking place in 
our older communities in methods of construction. Thus the 
losses in New England, with a population of three and one-half 
millions, were but seven per cent greater than those of Illinois, 
which has a population of about two and one-half millions. 
Moreover, among the large fires, the greatest losses appear to 
occur in places where the art of fighting and preventing fires has 
not been so long practised as in the Eastern Cities. New York, 
as is natural for a place containing such vast accumulations of 
city goods, shows a large average loss, the destruction of prop- 
erty in the two hundred and three conflagrations which consumed 
more than ten thousand dollars' worth of goods during the year 
having been nearly fifteen million dollars, or seventy-three 
thousand for each. In Massachusetts the average was only 
twenty-seven thousand dollars, and in Pennsylvania forty-nine 
thousand, while it was one hundred and two thousand in Wyo- 
ming, one hundred and sixteen thousand in Wisconsin, one 
hundred and nine thousand in Minnesota, and ninety-one thou- 
sand in Florida. 



WE have before mentioned the Asphaleia Company, which 
undertakes the construction and arrangement of theatres 
in any part of the world, and has adopted a large number 
of devices for improving the construction of theatre-buildings 
and facilitating the work carried on in them. The first theatre 
built by the Company was, we believe, the Royal Opera-house 
. at Buda-Pest, and many radical changes in the arrangement of 
the stage and the setting of scenery were introduced there. 
Since then the company has built another important theatre, 
the Stadt Theatre at Halle. So far as means permit, the 
Asphaleia buildings are fireproof, but by intelligent study of 
the problems of stage mechanism, an unusual degree of safety 
is secured, even with the ordinary materials. On the stage, 
for instance, the old-fashioned system of " fly-bridges " and 
light scaffolding for manipulating scenery and lights is entirely 
done away with. Our readers will remember the ingenious 
panoramic mechanism by which a painted sky, running on ver- 
tical rollers, is made to encircle the Asphaleia stage, and is 
gradually changed by the movement of the rollers, if the piece 
demands effects of sunrise, twilight or approaching storms. 
This device supersedes the dangerous and ridiculous "sky 
borders," or strips of painted canvas which depend from the 
upper part of the stage in most theatres, close to the gas-lights, 
and in the best possible place for setting the building on fire, 
and leaves the stage ceiling open and unobstructed. As a cer- 
tain amount of hoisting of angels and other properties has to 
be done from the roof, wire ropes are provided for doing this 
work, but they are so arranged as to be operated from a single 
station, where is also concentrated the management of all the 
other stage machinery. The master-machinist, from this post, 
has a complete view of the stage ; under his hand are levers, 
valves, and so on, and to him alone, with his assistant, is com- 
mitted the control of all the traps, ropes and other mechanical 
appliances of the stage. The Asphaleia traps are simply small 
direct-acting hydraulic elevators, having a piston attached 
directly to the under side of the trap, and moving in a cylinder 
to which water is admitted under pressure by means of valves 
in the machinist's station. It is evident that theatres built on 
this system must be costly, but experience shows that in this 
country, at least, a radical novelty in the construction of a 
theatre is one of the surest means of attracting business. 

UFIIE Journal of the Royal Institute of British Architects 

J J[ contains an interesting note from Signor Giacomo Boni of 

Venice on the ancient building known as the Fondaco dei 

Turchi in that city. Although as purely Byzantine in type as 



98 



The American Architect and Building News. [VOL. XXIII. No. 636. 



St. Mark's itself, and usually attributed to the tenth century, it 
seems, according to Signer Boni, that it was built about the 
year 1230, by Giacomo Palmieri, Consul of Pesaro, who was 
driven from his own city by a hostile faction, and settled in 
Venice. Although he retained his family name of Palmieri, 
which was inscribed on his tomb when he died, his new palace 
was known in the Venetian dialect as the Ca' Pesaro, from the 
town in which he had once been the principal citizen, and his 
descendants were known by the name of Pesaro until the 
extinction of the family in 1830. Palmieri's son, Angelo 
Pesaro, seems to have been very proud of his father's archi- 
tectural achievement, and in his will, which is dated 1309, and 
is still extant, he bequeathes it to his son Nicolo, with an 
injunction to him, as well as to his other descendants, never to 
allow it to pass out of the hands of the family. Notwithstand- 
ing this, it was sold in 1381 to the Venetian Government for 
ten thousand ducats, and presented by the city to one of the 
Este family as " Marquis of Ferrara," apparently with the idea 
of gaining some point in advancing the Venetian claim to the 
sovereignty of Ferrara. The palace remained in the hands of 
the descendants of this " Marquis of Ferrara " until the seven- 
teenth century, and it is not impossible that Lucrezia Borgia, 
after her marriage with the head of the family of Este in 1501, 
may have seen it in the course of her visits to her new hus- 
band's relatives, so that a little color is given to the name of 
the " Palace of Lucrezia Borgia," by which the building is 
known to the photographers. The Venetian branch of the 
house of Ferrara conveyed their palace, now somewhat dilapi- 
dated, to the Doge Antonio Priuli, who let it to some Turkish 
merchants as a storehouse. The granddaughter of Priuli 
brought it back, as part of her dowry, to her husband, Leonardo 
Pesaro, and for two centuries it continued to be occupied by 
Turkish merchants. In 1830 the Pesaro family became 
extinct, and the palace passed into the hands of Count Manin, 
who sold it to Antonio Petich, by whom it was let for a tobacco 
factory. About 1860 it was cleared of manufacturing appli- 
ances and rubbish, quietly restored, and fitted up for the recep- 
tion of the Correr collection of local and other curiosities. 
Singularly enough, the walls of the Fondaco dei Turchi are 
built of small, unbaked bricks, known to the Venetians as 
altinel/e, and supposed to have been brought from the ruins of 
Altinum, the city on the main land from which the first settlers, 
driven from their homes by the incursions of the savage Huns, 
are said to have taken refuge on the then uninhabited islands 
of the Venetian lagoon. The unbaked bricks of Altiuum must 
have been of extraordinary quality to have been in condition 
for use in a new building nearly six hundred years after the 
house for which they were made had been destroyed, but it is 
certain that the " altinelle " now existing in the walls of the 
Fondaco dei Turchi show traces of colored plaster on them, 
which must have come from a much older building, and the 
tiles themselves seem, from their want of adherence to the 
mortar in which they are laid, to have had, when used, the 
greasy quality, familiar characteristic of very old bricks. 



7HE ancient writers have always held up to us the city and 
province of Babylon as the richest and most luxurious 
community that ever existed in the world. Even the 
Romans, whose wealth and splendor far exceeded anything that 
has been seen since, spoke of Babylon with a kind of awe ; and 
there is no reason to doubt the substantial accuracy of the 
ancient descriptions of its walls, which were three hundred feet 
high, and enclosed an area about equal to that of London, of 
its bronze gates, its hanging gardens, or its temples, with their 
colossal statues of solid gold. Recent discoveries have made 
us certain of the curious fact that the Babylonians were not 
only the richest, but the most business-like of people, more 
so even than the Romans, who, however, followed them closely. 
Far from being the brutish and irresponsible slaves of an 
Oriental tyrant, the inhabitants of Mesopotamia have left 
abundant proofs of a thrift, a clearness and prudence in making 
contracts, a care in recording them, and an exactness in per- 
forming them, which is well worthy of our study. Every one 
remembers the extraordinary stores of records, made in cunei- 
form characters on cones of clay, and afterwards baked to 
render them permanent, which have been found from time to 
time, forty thousand having been discovered at once in a sub- 
terranean chamber ; and the deciphering of the inscriptions on 
these, which has been going on for years, has given us a strik- 
ing idea of the care with which such records were made and 



preserved. A few, recently interpreted, have proved to give 
what amounts to a map of a portion of the city of Babylon, by 
means of the accuracy of their descriptions of the boundaries 
of the lot conveyed, and the references to the rights-of-way of 
the adjoining owners. These particular records referred to the 
property of the firm of Egibi Brothers, who seem to have been 
merchants with a taste for investments in real-estate, and were 
dated in the twenty-sixth year of Nebuchadnezzar, or B. c. 
o 79. Together with the deeds of this lot, which included a 
judicial decree in regard to some rights-of-way apparently dis- 
puted, the Egibi records contained numerous mortgages, rent- 
rolls and receipts, one of which contains a reference to a 
custom which may furnish a useful hint to modern landlords ; 
the receipt acknowledging the payment of the rent to a certain 
date, and also the deposit of " ten shekels of silver as security 
for the new year." The Builder, which gives these interesting 
details, says that the cones or tablets are stamped with the 
seals of the contracting parties, and attested by witnesses. 
This must have been a good protection against forgery ; and 
property seems to have been guarded as well by the banks of 
the Euphrates as it is now on the shore of the Thames. 



JTTHE lengthy quotation we make to-day from the Congres- 
\J sional Record is sufficiently interesting to be read atten- 
tively in spite of its length, and deserves all the more con- 
sideration for its short precession of the debate that will prob- 
ably take place in the same body in consequence of the Public 
Buildings "grab" which has recently been engineered through 
the House. The discussion, if the somewhat informal talk 
really deserves that name, seems to promise that the bills for 
new and possibly not needed public buildings will not be rail- 
roaded through the upper House without some show of discus- 
sion, and perhaps salutary opposition. It shows that there are 
some influential members of the Senate who know something 
of the iniquities of the present routine method of grinding out 
Government buildings to satisfy the greed of political heelers, 
or gratify the aspirations of a present Member of Congress 
desirous of reelection. But there is no positive proof that any 
one really comprehends the impossibility of effecting in the 
office of the Supervising Architect the mere administrative 
handling of the quarter of a billion of dollars of which the ex- 
penditure is to be one oft he results of the raid ; while it does 
not seem to occur to any Senator that he ought to feel a pre- 
monitory shuddering at the possibility that in the course of a 
twelvemonth or so designs for one hundred and thirty or more 
new public buildings may be prepared under a system, which, 
according to the statement of a Senator during the debate, 
makes it impossible that these designs shall be such as would be 
prepared in the offices of architects of the highest rank, whose 
services so wealthy a Government as ours surely ought to 
be able to command. 



IT is only fair to acknowledge that, having a very great inter- 
est in building and all that relates to it, it would give us 
more satisfaction to see the surplus expended in these enor- 
mous building operations which would distribute so large a sum 
of money through trades in whose welfare we have a concern, 
than to see it frittered away on any of the vast service-pension 
schemes or on so chimerical an enterprise as the Blair Educa- 
tion Bill seeks to set afoot. But the conscience of the citizen 
who abhors a " steal " of any kind is quickened by the feeling 
of the artist who knows what kind of work is likely to be 
turned out under the present system of procuring designs for 
Government buildings. If Congress endorses and the Presi- 
dent approves the bills for all the new buildings which have 
been introduced, it will be distressing to imagine the harrying 
and worrying of the unfortunate Supervising Architect, sub- 
jected to the necessity of endeavoring to pacify the appointed 
representatives of one hundred and thirty communities and 
produce satisfactory proofs of his assurances that the public 
building to be erected for each is all that it should be and is 
making all desirable progress. To be Supervising Architect 
to the Treasury Department of the United States on a petty 
and inadequate salary may have its compensating glories, but a 
man must have a high regard for this very impalpable and 
unbankable commodity not to feel himself wronged and de- 
frauded when he stops to consider that for less than fifteen 
thousand dollars he devotes four years to doing work for which, 
as a private practitioner, he might receive a million and a quar- 
ter of dollars. 



26 






MARCH 3, 1888.] 



The American Architect and Building News. 



99 



OUR PUBLIC BUILDINGS AND OUR SENATORS. 

fjS there probably were no 
f~\ architects in the Senate 
' Chamber galleries when the 
interesting discussion on February 
14th of some of the peculiar meth- 
ods by which our (i.ivcniment 
buildings are built took place, and 
as the summary in tho daily papers 
was very insufficient, we make no 
apology for reproducing the discus- 
sion in extenso from the Congres- 
sional Record. 




Mr. Pasco. I should like to 
call up the bill (S. 1 723) provid- 
ing for the completion of the pub- 
lic building in the city of Pensa- 
cola, Fla., as originally designed. 

By unanimous consent, the Sen- 
ate, as in Committee of the Whole, 
proceeded to consider the bill, 
which had been reported from the 
Committee on Public Buildings 
and Grounds with an amendment 
in line 8, before the word " thousand " to strike out " fifty " and 
insert " thirty-two," so as to make the bill read : 

That the Secretary of the. Treasury be, and he is hereby, author- 
ized and directed to have the United States court-house and post- 
office building in the crty of Pensacola, Fla., completed as originally 
designed, including tower, basement and attic stories, fences, grading, 
and heating, and the sum of $32,000 is hereby appropriated out of 
any money in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated, for the pur- 
pose herein mentioned. 

Mr. Edmunds. Is there a report? 

The President pro tempore. No report accompanies the bill. 

Mr. Pasco. I will state that the appropriation is recommended by 
the Supervising Architect and is according to the original specifica- 
tions and estimates. 

Mr. Edmunds. Are there any papers from the Supervising Archi- 
tect on the subject? 

Mr. Pasco. I have a letter from the Supervising Architect in the 
committee-room, stating that $32,000 will be sufficient, and upon that 
estimate the committee reduced the appropriation from $50,000 to 
$32,000. That report of the Supervising Architect was before the 
committee when the bill was considered. 

Mr. Edmunds. I must say with great respect (not as applying to 
this particular case, for I know nothing about it) that I am very 
much afraid we are acting rather rapidly and without due considera- 
tion on the subject of public buildings over the United States as 
well in the State of Vermont as elsewhere, I will add. I should like 
to have some definite official information about this possible change, 
and I should be glad if the Senator would not press the bill at this 
moment, and get the official papers, as the Senator has them not with 
him now, wherein it is represented, I have no doubt, as the Senator 
states, but so that it will go into the Record and show exactly upon 
what grounds it is that the Senate passes the bill. 

Mr. Pasco. I should like very much to get the bill through to-day, 
as certain days have been fixed in the other House for the considera- 
tion of bills of this kind, and the building is in an unfinished condition. 
I should like very much to get the bill through to-day. As proposed 
to be amended it is in exact accordance with the report of the Super- 
vising Architect. 

Mr. Vest. If the Senator from Florida will permit me, I will state 
to the Senator from Vermont that I happen to know personally the 
correctness of his statement in regard to the report of the Supervis- 
ing Architect. We took the matter up in our committee and exam- 
ined it carefully at the last meeting, and reduced the amount from 
$50,000 to $32,000 in conformity with that report. 

This is one of the most deserving bills of the kind that has been 
before the Senate. The public building at Pensacola is unfinished 
and its usefulness is c