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I 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



OFFICIAL ORGAN OF 



THE AMERICAN FORESTRY ASSOCIATION 



VOLUME XII— 19 06 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION PUBLISHING COMPANY 

PUBLISHERS 






Or 
WASHINGTON, D. C. 



I 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME XII 



Advice for Forest Planters in Oklaho 
ma and Adjacent Regions (re 

view) 

Aiding Cities and Towns to Name 

Their Trees 

Alabama's Interest in Forestry. By Les- 
lie L. Gilbert 

American Forestry Association, the An- 
nual Meeting (Twenty-fourth). 
Annual Meeting of the (Twenty- 
fifth) •. 487, 

Annual Report of the Board of Di- 
rectors of the 

Meeting of the (Twenty-fourtli) . . 

Meeting of Directors 

Membership Campaign 

Organization Work of the 

Report of the Treasurer of the... 

Work of the 

\merican Forestry Honored .\l)road.. 
.Vnderson, Resignation of Mr. A. .\. . . . 
.\ppalachian for ^Lay, 1906 (review)., 
r.eautifying the Steel Highway. By V. 

William Rane 

I'>enguet Pine. Xotes on t'lie, B\ Wil- 
liam M. Maulc 

iJlai-k Hills Beetle. The (review) 

I'.lack .Mesa Forest Reserve. The. I'.v F. 

S. Breen 

Black Walnut. The 

I'.uilding Great Reservoir 

Ihilletin of Xew York Botanical Gar- 

(den) review 

C.d.'iveras Grove of Big Trees. Tlie. By 
Mrs. Lovell White ". 

California, Fewer Fires in 

California Ground Waters 

California, Successful Fire Protection in 

Camp Fires in Canadian Rockies (re- 
view) 

Camps, To Enforce Order in 

Canada, Conservative Lumbering in. 
By E. Stewart 

Canada. Forestry in. By Judson F. 
Clark ' 

Canada. Forestry in 

Canadian Association, Meeting of 

Canadian Forestry Meeting 

Canadian Meeting 

Canal Tree Planting 



Pagre 

252 

97 

44 

3 

535 

20 
11 

55 
255 
525 

24 
45t< 
571 

345 



^5S 



149 
39S 
397 

345 

102 
442 
374 
153 

583 
212 

557 

499 
209 
442 

3 
394 

9 
(iii 



Canary Pine, to Plant 

Chair of Lumbering 

Change of Quarters 

Sentiment 

Chir Pine near Dehra Dun, Manage 
ment and Xatural Reproduction 

of, By T. S. Woolsey, Jr 

Circular Relative to Leasing of Agri- 
cultural Public Lands in the Phil- 
ippine Islands (review) 

Colorado, Forestry in — Some Recent 
Progress, By W. G. M. Stone... 

Forest Policy 

Con-'batting Damage by Rabbits 

Coopers ,-ind Forestry 

Cotton (review) 

Cotton Tree, About the 

Creosote in the United States— Causes 
Cnderlying tlie Limited Produc- 
tion of 

Davey's Primer on Trees and Birds 

(review) 

Dinkey Grove of Big Trees. Tlie. By 

John D. Guthrie 

Drainage of the Everglades. The. l?v 

John Gifford '. 

lv'irthf|uakes and the Forest, By M\ ron 

L. Fuller "....'.... 

ICastern Reserves, The. . 1()1, 

Eight Hour Law, The 

Eleventh .Xnnu.al Report of the Com- 
missioner of Public Roads of 

Xew Jersey (review) 

Engineers, Conference of 162, 

Evergreens; How to Grow Them (re- 
view) 

Favorable Report 

Fern Collector's Guide, The (review) . 

Ficus Elastica (review) 

Fifth Annual Report of Indiana State 
Board of Forestry (review) .... 

Fire Warden Service 

First Country Park System (review). 

Forest Cover on Watersheds 

Forest Fires 

Forest Instructor. A X^ew 

Wanted 

Forest Investigations, Some Sugges- 
tions for, By Treadwell Cleve- 
land, Jr 

) 



Page 

5 



304 
395 



183 



299 

579 
489 
56 
488 
390 
304 



482 
251 
454 

215 

201 
508 
470 

155 
349 

103 
207 
251 
391 

206 
488 
103 
59 
209 
538 
257 

548 



IV 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



Page 

Forest Legislation Advocated 4 

Before the Fifty-ninth Congress- 
First Session 325 

Forest Mensuration (review) 496 

Forests of Harford County, Maryland, 
Notes on the, By Treadwell 

Cleveland, Jr. •. 343 

Forest Park Reservation Commission 
of New Jersey, First Annual 

Report (review) 155 

Forest Planting on Coal Lands in 

Western Pennsylvania (review). 436 
Forest Policy, Suggestions for. By Ar- 
thur P. Davis 38 

Forest Preservation, An Economic Fac- 
tor in, By Caryl D. Haskins 27 

Forest Products, By R. S. Kellogg 466 

Statistics of 9 

Forest Reservation Policy for the East, 

A, By Frank West Rollins 25 

Forest Reserve Administration 161 

Forest Reserves, Agricultural Settle- 
ment in, By George W. Woodruff 267 

Foresters for 61 

Grazing Fees Will Be Collected On 581 

New National 544 

Profits From, to be Shared by 

Counties 341 

Telephones in 60 

West and the 394 

Forest Resources and the Public Wel- 
fare, By Herbert A. Smith 451 

Forest Service Appropriation 307 

Forest Service, The Growing 256 

The (History of a Month's Work 
in Government Forest Matters). 
138, 198, 232, 283, 331, 380, 428, 478, 
516, 560 
Forest Trees Suitable for Planting in 
the United States, Notes on : 

IV. The Russian Mulberry 128 

V. The Tulip Tree 203 

VI. The Black Cherry 221 

VIL The Beech 296 

VIIL White Elm 334 

IX. Chestnut 364 

X. European Larch 432 

XL Green Ash 468 

XII. Red Pine : 514 

Forests and Paper Supplies 302 

The Mining Industry and the, By 

Lewis E. Aubury 494 

Shifting 3(,8 



Page 

Forested Watersheds, By Alfred Aker- 

man 83 

Forester and Director of Census Will 
Co-operate in Collection of An- 
nual Statistics of Forest Products 481 

The (two volumes) (review) 250 

Forestry, A Profession for Young Men 

(review) 299 

And Irrigation in Congress 129 

And Landscape Architecture, By 

Samuel Cabot, Jr 408 

Association, A New 301 

At Fort Riley 530 

Building Improved 540 

Education Bill, The, By Samuel B. 

Green 532 

Education and Experimentation in 
the Agricultural Colleges and 
Experiment Stations, By Samuel 

B. Green 30 

Experiments in 538 

For a City Park 57 

In Canada, By Judson F. Clark... 499 
In Colorado — Some Recent Pro- 
gress, By W. G. M. Stone 579 

In Massachusetts (review) 103 

In the Public Schools and Col- 
leges, Education in. By George 

T. Winston 40 

Movement, Influence of the Work 
of the Reclamation Service on 

the. By Morris Bien 46 

Some Popular Misconceptions Con- 
cerning, By Leslie Harrison 414 

Fort Bayard Watershed, The, By J. C. 

Blumer 223 

Fort Riley, Forestry at 530 

Forty-eighth Annual Report of the Mis- 
souri State Horticultural Society 

(review) 299 

Fourteenth National Irrigation Con- 
gress, The, By Lydia Adama- 

Williams 421 

President's Letter to the 399 

Fourth Annual Bulletin of the Connec- 
ticut Forestry Association (re- 
view) 345 

Free Patent Circular (review) 299 

Funds, Allotment of 305 

Gardner, Wesley J. (obituary) 260 

Garfield, James Rudolph (biography) . 493 

Georgia School of Forestry 541 

Glenn, His Excellency, R. B 214 

Gold, Theodore Sedgwick (obituary) . . 161 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME XII 



Page 

Government Accounting 487 

Government Employees' Mutual Relief 

Association, Annual Report of the 95 
Grazing Fees Will Be Collected on Re- 
serves 581 

Guide to the Trees, A (review) 251 

To the Wild Flowers (review) .... 251 

Gum, Studying the 60 

Gunnison Tunnel, The 369 

Handbook of the Trees of California, A 

(review) 154 

Hardy Rhododendrons, Azaleas, and 

the Mountain Laurel (review) . . 251 

Has Authority But No Money 580 

Hawaiian Forest Work 398 

Hearing on Revised Bill 207 

Hill, Hon. Arthur (biography) 350 

History of the Lumber Industry in 
America (review), by Treadwell 

Cleveland, Jr 70 

How Shall Forests Be Taxed, By Al- 
fred Gaskill: 
Part L Inequitable Taxation Re- 
sponsible for Much Forest De- 
struction 119 

Part II. A Proposition to Encour- 
age the Growing of Forests for 

Profit 172 

How Should Our Future Forest Lands 

Be Taxed? By S. B. EUiott.... 178 

Huntley Work, Progress on 259 

Important Conference 489 

Improvement of Columbia, S. C, The 

(review) 206 

Indian Forester, The (July, 1906), (re- 
view) 484 

Individual Responsibility vs. Commis- 
sions, By Francis G. Newlands.. 63 

In Forest Land (review) 583 

Iowa Forest Bill 162 

Irrigated Farms, Size of. By F. B. Lin- 
field 309 

Irrigation and Forestry in Congress.. 129 

Fairbanks on 402 

In Hawaii 257 

In Montana (review) 436 

In the North Atlantic States (re- 
view) 345 

Irrigation Legislation, Important 271 

In the West, By Morris Bien 459 

Journal of New York Botanical Gar- 
den ( review ) 484 



Journal of the Western Society of En- 
gineers (review). Vol. XL, No. 

4, August, 1906 484 

Joy and Sorrow 206 

Klamath Project, The, By H. L. Hol- 

gate 115 

The 58 

Funds for the 306 

Land Laws, President Calls for Im- 
proved . 541 

],;ind of Opportunity, The, By C. J. 

Blanchard 190 

Land of Tomorrow, The (review) .... 436 
Land Reclamation By Drainage, By 

Guy Elliott Mitchell 134 

Land Withdrawals Effective 59 

La Plata Project, The 529 

Laws Relating to Public Lands in the 

Philippine Islands (review) 299 

Lower Yellowstone Project 259 

Lumber Prices, The Rise in. By R. S. ' 

Kellogg 68 

Lumber Statistics of Forest Service... 208 
Lundy, Mrs. J. P., Resolutions on the 

Death of 352 

Lure of the City, The, By Edward Ev- 
erett Hale 165 

Madison Project, The 373 

Maine, Forest Fires in 444 

Maine Forests 396 

Manti Forest Reserve, By A. W. Jen- 
sen 291 

Maryland, Forestry Board For 161 

State Forester For 287 

Maryland Forests, Reconnoissance of. . 471 

Massachusetts Forester, A New 442 

Massachusetts Society, Report of 4 

McLane, His Excellency John (biog- 
raphy) 213 

Meeting at Charlotte, N. C Ill 

Michigan Fire Losses 353 

Forest Fires 538 

Forests 536 

Planting Experiment . . . .' 395 

Mineral Land Laws, The Perversion of 

the, By A. C. Shaw 448 

Miners Ask Protection 492 

Mining Industry and the Forests, The, 

By Lewis E. Aubury 494 

Minnesota National Forest Reserve, By 

Rev. J. T. Brabner-Smith 7^ 

Minnesota Reserve, Endorsement of. . 73 
Minnesota. Tlie luUure Forests of.... 410 



VI 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



Page 

Alississippi, In 492 

Montana Code 541 

Mutual Relations of the Forest Service 
and the Reclamation Service, By 

C. J. Blanchard 42 

National Board of Trade, The 48 

National Drainage Congress 487 

National Forests, All Industries Fur- 
thered By 552 

Nebraska Notes 110 

Neighbors of Field, Wood, and Stream 

(review) 251 

New Hampshire Meeting 211 

New Jersey, Forest Reservation in.... 8 
New Mexico and Texas, Reclamation in 58 

New Secretary 393 

New York Forestry 302 

North Dakota, In Northern 537 

Reclamation 57 

Reclamation Work in 244 

Nut Growing and Forestry, By Leslie 

Harrison 100 

Ohio Association, Meeting of 3 

Oregon, Reclamation Work in 305 

Organization Meetings 440 

Packers, The (review) 390 

Palo Verde; The Evergreen Tree of 

the Desert. By Francis E. Lloyd. 568 
Pamphlet Containing the Mining Laws 
of the Philippine Islands (re- 
view) 299 

Parang and Cogonalcs in the Philip- 
pines, By William M. Maule 311 

Payette-Boise Project 58 

Pecos River Forest Reserve, By L. P. 

Kneipp 241 

Pennsylvania Work 440 

Permanent Sample Plots, By Alfred 

Gaskill 445 

Phantom of the Poles, The (review).. 391 
Philippine Bureau of Forestry, Reor- 
ganization of the. By W. I. 

i 1 utchinson 89 

Philippine J*"'orestcrs, .Meeting of 409 

Philippine Journal of Science (re- 
views) 391, 436 

Planting in Prairie Regions. 56 

Poles, Trouble With 537 

Post's Paper- Mill Directory for 1905- 

1906 (review) 206 

Practical Lumbering at Yale, Course in. 507 
President's Letter to Irrigation Con- 
gress 399 



Press Clubs Pledge Aid 

Primer Containing Questions and An- 
swers on the Public Land Laws 
in the Philippine Islands (re- 
view) - 

Proceedings of Iowa Park and Forestry 
Association, Fifth Annual Meet- 
ing (review) 

Proceedings, Society of American For- 
esters, Vol. I, Nos. 1 and 2 (re- 
view) 

Pumping Projects, Progress on, By F. 

H. Newell 

Pumping Water 201, 245, 279, 317, 

Ranger Convention 

Recent Publications. . 103, 154, 206, 250, 
345, 390, 436, 484, 

Reclaimed Lands, Settlement of 

Reclamation Fund, The 58, 

Threatened 

Reclamation Service Birthday 

Reclamation Service, The United States 
(Progress of National Irrigation 

During the Past Month) 

145. 194, 238, 276, 327, 376, 424, 
518, 

Reclamation Work, Cost of 

Fixing Control of 

Progress of, By F. H. Newell 

River Improvement 

Status of 

Recreation and the Forest 

Red Fir Testing 

Reserve Bill, Senate Passes the 

Reserve Timber, Remarkable Sale of. . 

Rhode Island Forester 

Rhode Island, Forest Interests of. By 

J. B. Mowry 

Rio Grande Project, The. 

Roth's Opinion, Prof 

Rubber Culture in the Philippine 

Islands, By W. I. Hutchinson 

St. Mary's Project 

Sales Circular (review) 

Salt River Canals, To Buy 

Seeds, Storage Tests of . 

Shoshone Project. Progress of. By II. 

N. Savage 

Work on 

Shoshone Reservation. Irrigation in... 

Silas Strong ( review) 

Society of Ameriean Foresters, Meet- 
ings of 



Page 
395 



299 



345 



154 

55L 
388 
162 
299 
583 
440 
55b 
112 
349 



473 
573 
248 
110 
498 

58 
439 
461 

59 
255 
298 

25r) 

126 
513 
536 

230 

9 

299 

113 

55 



577 



CONTETS OF VOLUME XII 



VII 



Page 

South, Awakening Interest in 55 

Southern Forestry 5 

State Engineer and His Relation to Ir- 
rigation, The (review) 391 

State Forest Fire Laws, Suggestions 

For, By E. J. Cheyney 93 

Steenerson, Hon. Halvor (biography). 114 

Stream Pollution 538 

Sub-Surface Drainage of Land by Tile 

(review) 484 

Sugar Pine and Western Yellow Pine 

( review) 436 

Telephones and the Forest Reserves, 

By Bristow Adams 463 

Texas, Reclamation in New Mexico 

and 58 

Timber Stumpage Business of the Na- 
tional Government 293 

Timber Testing 56 

Topographic Development of the Kla- 
math Mountains (review) 345 

Turpentine Industry, A New Saving 

in the 99 

Turpentining, Reform in 56 

Umatilla Project, Progress on 56 

Uncle Sam, Auctioneer 360 

LTncompahgre Valley Project, By Mor- 
ris Bien 512 

Underground Waters of Great Plains. . 60 

Utilization of Tupelo (review) 484 

Vermont Forests 489 

Washington Fire Service 350 

Washington Irrigation Notes. .... .394, 540 



Page 

Washington State Notes 237 

Water Powers of the Southern States, 

By Henry A. Pressey 32 

Water, The Duty of," By Alex. Mc- 

Pherson 417 

West and Forest Reserves, The 394 

Western Pine-Destroying Beetle, The 

(review) 391 

West Virginia Favors Reserves 289 

White Mountain Forest Reserve, Let- 
ters LTrging the Establishment of 

the 90 

Wholesale Lumber Dealers Meet 109 

Women, Of Interest to 489 

Wood, Strength and Stiffness of 531 

Wooden Fence Posts, Huge Consump- . 

tion ot 98 

Woodlot Thinning, By E. E. Boguc. ... 385 
Wood-Testing Laboratory, For a Na- 
tional 510 

Working Plan for Forest Lands in 

Central Alabama (review) 251 

Write to Your Congressman 109 

Yale Forest School, Summer Session 

of the, By Charles S. Judd 122 

Spring Field Work of the Senior 
Class of the, By Herman H. 

Chapman 290 

Yale Student for South Africa 112 

Yearbook, U. S. Department of Agri- 
culture, 1905 (review) 299 

Yuma Reclamation Project, The 143 



WASHINGTON, U. C. 
PRESS OF C. F. SUDWAR'l 
1906 



V 



Forestry and Irrigation 



H. M. SUTER, Editor 



CONTENTS FOR JANUARY, 1906 



CONGRESSIONAL INSPECTION PARTY AT THE MOUTH OF 

THE GUNNISON TUNNEL, COLORADO - Frontispiece 

NEWS AND NOTES : 



The Annual Meeting 
Canadian Forestry Meeting 
Meeting of Ohio Association 
Report of Massjachusetts 

Society 

Forest Legislation Advo- 
cated 

Southern Forestry 



Work on Shoshone Project - 
To Plant Canary Pine - - - 
Resignation of Mr. Anderson 
Forest Reservation in New 
Jersey -------- 

St. Mary's Project - - - - 

Canal Tree Planting - - - - 

Statistics of Forest Products - 




MEETING OF THE AMERICAN FORESTRY ASSOCIATION 

(Illustrated) - - 11 

ANNUAL REPORT OF THE BOARD OF DIRECTORS OF 
THE AMERICAN FORESTRY ASSOCIATION - - - 20 

REPORT OF THE TREASURER, AMERICAN FORESTRY 
ASSOCIATION 24 

A FOREST RESERVATION POLICY FOR THE EAST. By 
Frank West Rollins 25 

AN ECONOMIC FACTOR IN FOREST RESERVATION. By 

Caryl D. Haskins .....--.- 27 

FORESTRY EDUCATION AND EXPERIMENTATION IN THE 
AGRICULTURAL COLLEGES AND EXPERIMENT STA- 
TIONS. Bv Samuel B. Green 30 

WATER POWER OF THE SOUTHERN STATES. {Illmtrated.) 

By Henry A. Pressev - 32 

SUGGESTIONS FOR FOREST POLICY. By Arthur P. Davis 40 

EDUCATION IN FORESTRY IN THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS 
AND COLLEGES. By Dr. George T. Winston - - - 42 

MUTUAL RELATIONS OF THE FOREST SERVICE AND 
THE RECLAMATION SERVICE. By C. J. Blanchard 

ALABAMA'S INTEREST IN FORESTRY. By Leslie L. Gilbert 46 

INFLUENCE OF THE WORK OF THE RECLAMATION SER- 
VICE ON THE FORESTRY MOVEMENT. By Morris Bien 

THE NATIONAL BOARD OF TRADE 

LETTERS URGING THE ESTABLISHMENT OF THE WHITE 
MOUNTAIN FOREST RESERVE 

Forestry and Irrigation is the official organ of the American Forestry Association. 
Subscription price fl.OO a year; single copies 10 cents. Copyright, 1906, by 
Forestry and Irrigation Publishing Co. Entered at the Post Office at Washington, 
D. ('., as second-class mail matter. 



Published MontUy at 

WASHINGTON, D. C. 





Congressional inspection party at the mouth ol the Gunnison Tunnel, Colorado, now 7,000 

feet within the mountain. One of the most interesting engineering 

projects the Reclamation Service is engaged upon. 



Forestry and Irrigation 



Vol. XII. 



JANUARY, 1906. 



No. I 



NEWS AND NOTES 



„. . , The meeting- of the Amer- 

The Annual . _^ = . . 

Meeting ican Forestry Associa- 

tion, held in Washing- 
ton, D. C, January 16 and 17, was one 
of the most important yet held. The 
reports by the Board of Directors and 
the Treasurer showed a splendid 
growth of the Association during the 
past year, and much business of im- 
portance was transacted at the three 
sessions. This number of Forestry 
AND Irrigation contains the complete 
proceedings of the meeting, including 
reports of the Directors, Treasurer, re- 
vised by-laws, papers read, and reso- 
lutions passed. 

Canadian Mr. Gifford P i n c h o t , 

MeX' F°-^":^- U. S. Forest 

b e r V 1 c e , returned to 
Washington in time for the annual 
meeting of the American Forestry 
-\ssociation, after a trip to Canada, 
where he attended the meeting of the 
Canadian Forestry Convention at Ot- 
tawa on the loth, nth, and 12th. Mr. 
Pinchot addressed the convention on 
the loth.his subject being "The LTnited 
States Forest Service." Previous to 
this, on January 8. Mr. Pinchot was 
the principal speaker at a luncheon 
given by the Canadian Club of Toron- 
to, when he spoke on "American For- 
-estry." 

The Canadian Forestry Association, 
under whose auspices the convention 
was held, is greatly interested in 
American forestry. A very large num- 
ber are members of the American For- 
estry Association, and have attended 
many of its meetings and contributed 
vah^able information in addresses and 
papers. Mr. Pinchot was warmly re- 
ceived, l)()th at the convention and at 



Toronto. The convention was the 
greatest and most representative gath- 
ering of its nature that has ever been 
held in the Dominion, in many respects 
equalling the very remarkable Ameri- 
can Forest Congress held under the 
auspices of the American Forestry As- 
sociation last year. 

Meeting of The Ohio State Forestry 

9^^° . . Association held a verv 

Association j- , 

successful meetmg m 

Columbus on January 9 and 10. The 
State Horticultural Societies, State 
Farmers' Institute, and Board of Agri- 
culture met in Columbus at the same 
time, and the Ohio Forestry Associa- 
tion convention was attended by a large 
number of the members of each of 
these organizations and a good attend- 
ance of its members. The program of 
the meeting was as follows : First ses- 
sion, Tuesday evening, January 9, at 
Townsend Hall, Ohio State Univer- 
sity : Address by the president, Prof. 
William R. Lazenby ; paper, "The 
Trees We Might Have and Do Not," 
by L. B. Pierce ; paper, "How to Get 
Farmers Interested in Forestry," by 
H. C. Rogers ; paper. "Practical For- 
estry From Actual Experience," by 
William Hanna; paper, "Some Rea- 
sons for Saving, Improving, and Re- 
planting Forests in Ohio," by Prof. 
William R. Lazenby. Second session, 
Wednesday evening, at Board of 
Trade Auditorium : Forestry address- 
es by W. W. Farnsworth, president of 
the State Horticultural Society, and 
Dr. W. O. Thompson, president Ohio 
State University ; address, "What Mor- 
row County is Doing Along Forestry 
Lines," bv Horatio Markley, secretary 
Morrow Countv Forestrv Association ; 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



January 



jiaper. "Windbreaks." by Prof. W. J.. 
Cireen. horticulturist Ohio Experiment 
Station. The session on Thursday 
morning'- was devoted to association 
business. After each of the addresses 
and papers at all sessions discussion 
was invited and some interesting- facts 
were elicited. 

In addition to the interesting ses- 
sions of the association, the Ohio State 
I'niversity had on exhibition sections 
of some of the more important forest 
trees of Ohio, and the Morrow County 
Forestry Association exhibited some 
trees and sections of trees of locust and 
catalpa. showing annual increment and 
height growth. In connection with the 
meeting of the Ohio Forestf)' Associ- 
ation, at the meetings of the various 
other societies in session at the same 
time many other addresses on forestry 
were given. 

The meeting was an undoubted suc- 
cess and much interest was manifested 
in forestry. The Ohio association is 
still a young one, but it is rapidly in- 
creasing in membership and influence, 
and has before it an interesting and 
l)road field of activity. 

Report of The report of the secre- 

Massachu- ^^^^V of the Massachu- 

setts Society ^^^^^ Forestry Associa- 
tion. Mr. Edwin A. Start, read at the 
annual meeting of the association, held 
in Boston December 14, and published 
in the December number of Woodland 
Olid Roadside, is interesting, and grat- 
ifying, inasmuch as it shows a healthy 
and growing interest in forestry in 
New England. The Massachusetts 
Forestry Association has now 735 
members, being, in point of size, the 
largest of the state forestry organiza- 
tions, with the exception of the Penn- 
sylvania Forestry Association, which 
is double the age of the Massachusetts 
society. 

Mr. Start, in the first portion of his 
report, details the work accomplished 
by the association during the past year, 
and makes recommendations looking 
to the broadening of the work of the 
organization. The second part of the 
report is ah interesting review of Mas- 



sachusetts forestry during the past 
vear. Mr. Start concludes his rejxjrt 
as follows : "Today it is not necessary, 
as it has been, to apologize when we 
wish to talk forestry in INIassachusetts. 
Rather must we be ready with the 
facts that are sure to be called for by 
eager questioners. Nothing can be 
more encouraging for the future than 
this, and wdiile it proves what has been 
done, it points the way to new and 
larger things." 

In the light of the recent co-opera- 
tive work of the American Forestry 
Association and the Massachusetts 
Forestry Association looking to the 
creation of forest reserves in the 
White Mountains of New Hampshire 
and the Southern Appalachian Moun- 
tains, this report is unusually gratify- 
ing. 

Forest At the Rivers and Har- 

Legislation j^^.j-s Congress, held at 
Advocated ^,^^ j^^^^. ^^.jj^^^j j^^^^j^ 

in Washington, at the same time as the 
meeting of the American Forestry As- 
sociation, the following resolution was 
unanimously adopted : 

"Whereas, the National Rivers and 
Harbors Congress, while advocating 
liberal expenditures for improving the 
harbors and waterways of our great 
country, remembers that an ounce of 
prevention is worth a pound of cure, 
and that the greatest natural factor in 
conserving what God has given us is 
the legitimate preservation of our for- 
ests. 

"Resolved, That it advocates appro- 
priate forestry legislation by the Na- 
tional Congress and adequate govern- 
ment expenditure in furtherance of 
protection of our rivers — great factors 
in building up our manufactures, in 
protecting the interests of agriculture 
and in silently and cheaply conveying 
to its ultimate market the enormous 
products of the mine, the soil, and the 
factory, with which our country is 
blessed." 

The question of the effect of silt 
washed down from the forest-denuded 
headwaters of streams, upon the clog- 
ging-up of the rivers and harbors of 



906 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



the United States, is one which, al- 
though appreciated for some time past, 
has not been given the prominence 
which its importance warrants. 

_ . An agent of the Forest 

Southern ^ • ^ i. j 

Forestry Service started on a trip 

January 20 for the pur.r 
pose of superintending the examina- 
tion of forest tracts aggregating over 
a million acres in the southeastern 
states. He goes in response to appli- 
cations received from owners who de- 
sire to introduce conservative manage- 
ment on their forest lands. Of these 
lands. 702,000 acres are in Florida. 
252,000 in Missouri, 38,000 in Louisi- 
ana. 23,500 in Mississippi, and 7,000 
in Texas. 

In addition to these preliminary ex- 
aminations, work will be begun to 
bring under conservative management 
a forest of 70.000 acres in Arkansas. 
Since the Forest Service has previous- 
ly prepared a working plan for a tract 
of 100.000 acres at Pine BlufT, .'Vrk.. 
and other co-operative plans have been 
requested in the same state for 20,000 
acres more, the total acreage in the 
southeast for which advice has been 
sougln from the Forest Service now 
amounts to about a million and a (|uar- 
ter acres. 



Work on 
fehoshone 
Project 



With the exception of 
the engineering work 
necessary in connection 
with the construction of the Shoshone 
dam and Corbett tunnel in northern 
Wyoming, no field work was done in 
December on the Shoshone project. 

Cross sections of the canyon have' 
been extended to develop accurately 
the topography for construction pur- 
poses. The final adjustment of the 
outlet tunnel alignment has been made 
and the topography up stream worl-ced 
out. At the Corbett tunnel, levels have 
been run and the entire tunnel line 
measured and checked for the purpose 
of determining grades. The lines and 
grades of the sluicing tunnel have been 
established and marked on the ground. 
The site of the lower portal of the 
main tunnel and that of the upper por- 



tal of the sluicing tunnel were cross- 
sectioned and about two-thirds of the 
angles necessary for the alignment of 
the tunnel accurately measured. 

During the past month the weather 
in the canyon was cold and windy, 
which retarded the work somewhat. 
The contractors' camp, with accommo- 
dations for about 100 men and 20 
horses, is completed, and work on the 
outlet tunnel is in progress. The rock 
appears to be exceptionally hard to 
drill and breaks out with difficulty, re- 
quiring the use of 60 per cent dyna- 
mite. A large boiler has been installed 
at the upper end of the tunnel, and the 
boiler capacity at the lower end will be 
immediately doubled, thus materially 
increasing the rate of progress. Two 
daily shifts of ten hours each have 
been occupied on the outlet tunnel and 
the contractor has been notified that he 
must proceed to employ three daily 
shifts of eight hours each. Four thous- 
and cubic yards of the excavation for 
temporary flume and dam were finished 
during the month, and about 2,400 
linear feet of cottonwood logs were de- 
livered for use in temporary construc- 
tion ; about^ 85 men and 32 horses are 
employed at this point. During the 
]iresent month it is expected that the 
cableway will be in operation at the 
(lam site. 

The Forest Service has 
Canary"pine recently placed an order 

with a firm in the Canary 
Islands for ten pounds of the seed of 
Canary pine, Pinns canariensis. This 
seed will be used in experimental 
planting in the forest nurseries in 
southern California, where hardy, rap- 
id-growing conifers are needed for 
planting on the semi-arid mountains. 
This pine is said to endure long peri- 
ods of drought and to grow well on the 
mountains as high as the snow line. 
The wood resembles our common pitch 
or Georgia pines, and apparently is 
very strong and durable. Two tons of 
this seed were exported to Europe last 
vear, where large plantations of this 
tree are being made. 



FOKEriTRY AND IRRIGATION 



January 




Tempe, Arizona, showing how irrigation transforms the desert. 




A western town in an irrigated region Cody, Wyoming. Developed by 
Buffalo Bill (Col. Wm. F. Cody.) 



1906 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



Resignation The resignation of Mr, 
An^^' ^' ''^' -^"derson as su- 

perintendent of the Yel- 
lowstone Forest Reserve, which takes 
elTect March i, is fully explained in his 
letter to Mr. Gifford 'Pinchot, chief of 
the Forest Service, and the latter's re- 
ply. Mr. Anderson filled a difficult po- 
sition in a very satisfactory manner, 
and it is with regret that we note his 
withdrawal from active service in for- 
estry. The letters are as follows : 
80 West 40th Street, 
Xew York City, Dec. 28, 1905. 
My dear Mr. Pinchot : 

( )n ni}- return from Wyoming last 
autumn, I asked for a furlough until 
the coming spring. 

I now fear that it will be impossi- 
ble for me to resume my accustomed 
field work at that time. Some four 
years ago, at your request, I took up 
forestry work, and since then have 
given almost m}- entire time to my du- 
ties as forestry officer. This has neces- 
sitated the neglect of my private inter- 
ests, my art, etc., and as the field work 
required my presence upon the reserve 
during five or six months of each year. 
I have during those periods necessarily 
been separated from my famil}-. As 
my wife's health is in such a condition 
as to require treatment abroad, I do 
not consider the present condition of 
the Yellowstone Forest Reserve neces- 
sitates a further sacrifice of this na- 
ture. 

The reserve has been extended, its 
boundaries definitely settled, its patrol 
service fully organized, and the crea- 
tion of a game preserve south of the 
park insures protection to the large 
game of that region. But what is of 
far more importance — the transfer of 
the Forestry Bureau to the Agricultu- 
ral Department — has been effected (to 
which end, as you know, I strenuously 
labored), thereby placing all forestry 
matters in your able hands. 

Owing to the fact of the recent mar- 
riage of our only child, I find it quite 
imperative that I should accompany 
my wife to Europe the coming sum- 
mer, as my daughter, having taken up 



her residence in California, will be 
unable to go abroad with her mother. 
In view of these facts, and with sin- 
cere regret at being obliged to discon- 
tinue the congenial work in connection 
with yourself by severing my relations 
with the forestry department, and feel- 
ing that I should give you timely no- 
tice of my intentions, I hereby place 
my resignation in your hands, to be 
acted upon at your convenience. 
Yours very truly, 
(Signed) A. A. Anderson. 

Hon. Gifford Pinchot, Forester, 
Washington, D. C. 

To this letter Mr. Pinchot made the 
following reply : 

Washington, January 2, 1906. 
Mr. a. a. Anderson, 

80 West 40th St., New York, N. Y. 
My dear Mr. Anderson : 

On my return to Washington I find 
}our letter of' December 28, in which 
you tender your resignation. During 
the four years of your work in forestry 
you have, as you justly observe, given 
u]) almost your entire time to that 
work, and you add that Mrs. Ander- 
son's health, and your daughter's mar- 
riage, will make it necessary for you 
to go abroad for the coming summer. 

First of all, I want to express my 
great appreciation of the personal sac- 
rifice you have made in order to do 
your forest work, and of the service 
you have rendered to the Yellowstone 
Forest Reserve, and hence to the peo- 
ple of Wyoming who live in its neigh- 
borhood. Two years ago I had occa- 
sion personally to investigate the com- 
plaints made against your administra- 
tion of the reserve, and to learn some- 
thing from my own observation both 
of the puerile and often unconfessed 
reasons which lay behind so many of 
the complaints, and of the high char- 
acter of the force of supervisors and 
rangers which you had organized. The 
whole reserve is in immensely better 
condition than it was when you took 
hold of it, and it gives me great pleas- 
ure to testify to that fact. 

Since you were furloughed, at your 
own request, on returning from the 



FOUESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



January 



field at the end of last summer's work, 
and since you do not propose to re- 
enter active service, it does not matter 
when your resignation takes effect. 
Some date, however, must be fixed for 
the sake of the record, and I shall ac- 
cordingly recommend to the Secretary 
of Agriculture the acceptance of your 
resignation to take effect upon the ist 
of March. 

With high appreciation of the good 
liard work vou have done (hard work 



purchase of 25,000 acres of land in 
Atlantic county and the establishing 
thereon, and occupying the whole 
tract, of a forest reservation according 
to the ideas of Governor Stokes as 
embraced in the law passed last winter 
creating the board and providing for 
such reservations. 

The proposition is modified some- 
what by the present owners, who will 
present to the board an opportunity of 
purchasing the tract at a very reason- 




Shoshone Dam Site. 
Reclamation Service. 



Highest dam in the world; to be built at this point by U. S. 
Dimensions: 310 feet high, 85 feet long at bottom, 200 feet at top. 



which has been to you a source of ex- 
pense, not of revenue), and with all 
good wishes for the future, believe me, 
Very sincerely yours, 
(Signed) GiF'Ford Pinchot, 

Forester. 

Forest The New Jersey State 

Reservation goard of Forest Park 

m New Terse y t-. ,• ^ • • 

Reservation Commission- 
ers is considering a proposition for the 



able figure. It is made up of good for- 
est land and also contains fine water 
power. Two offers have been made to 
the board, one to purchase the lands in 
their entirety, the other to acquire it 
minus the water power. The price 
would be made less under the latter 
proposition. According to the report 
of the state geologist upon the water 
supply, this water power could be 
made to develop 500 horse power. 



1906 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



There are several reasons, the board 
considers, why it would be best for the 
state to purchase the tract including 
the water power. 

If the tract is acquired by the state, 
the board would follow the directions 
of the law and "Put in operation the 
best method to reforest cut-over and 
denuded lands, to forest waste and 
other lands, to prevent injury of for- 
ests by fire, the administering of and 
care of forests on forestry principles, 
the encouraging of private owners in 
preserving and growing timber * * * 
and the general conservation of forest 
tracts." 

To acquire the 25.000 acres and es- 
tablish the reservation will require a 
much larger sum than the $14,000 al- 
ready appropriated for the use of the 
board, and it is believed the board 
therefore will ask the legislature this 
winter for a special appropriation to 
meet the situation. It is understood 
that the sum asked will approximate 
$125,000. 

The forestry commissioners have ac- 
cepted the deed of 104 acres of land in 
Atlantic county which were presented 
to the board by Dr. John Gifford, of 
Princeton, formerly a professor in the 
New York State College of Forestry 
at Cornell University. Ithaca, N. Y., 
and Mrs. Gifford. This tract is near 
Mays Landing along the Great Egg 
Harbor River. 

The commissioners have also con- 
summated the purchase of 268 acres 
adjoining the Giflford tract from the 
Mays Landing Water Power Com- 
pany. Another tract purchased is one 
of 597 acres in Burlington county. 
This was bought from Charles VV. 
Matthews, of Tuckerton. The com- 
missioners are duly in possession of 
these tracts, and the forestry work will 
be commenced at once. 

„, ., , The Secretarv of the In- 

St. Mary's , / 

Project tenor, on January 17, 

granted authority to the 
Reclamation Service to draw specifi- 
cations and advertise for bids for the 



construction oi the canal from St. 
Mary River to the North Fork of Milk 
River, the estimated cost of which is 
$900,000. 

Owing to international features in- 
volved, the importance of the interests 
of the United States, and the necessitv 
of preserving its status in relation to 
these waters, it is deemed essential 
that the work should be pursued with 
diligence, to offset the claims which 
Canada may in future advance. 

Canal Tree '\ municipal corporation 
Planting oj Lhicago, ownmg over 

six thousand acres of 
land along the canal from Chicago to 
Joliet. 111., has applied to the Forest 
Service for advice as to planting about 
four thousand acres of this tract to 
forest trees, with a view to securing 
revenue from property which is at 
present unproductive. An agent of the 
service will visit the tract as early as 
possible to study planting possibilities. 

Statistics Extremely valuable re- 

Prfducts ^"^^^ ^^^ expected from 

the gathering of statis- 
tics of forest products which the For- 
est Service has now under full swing. 
The design is to secure accurate fig- 
ures covering the past year, and to 
publish these in a statement which will 
be the first of an annual series. The 
question cards to be filled in by wood 
manufacturers throughout the country 
are now being distributed at the rate 
of about a thousand a day. The total 
number of these cards will exceed 25,- 
000. The lumber trade journals and 
the journals of wood products have 
expressed hearty appreciation of this 
work, and a number of manufacturers' 
associations have tendered their efforts 
in co-operation with the Forest Ser- 
vice. A great deal of interest attaches 
to the difficult task, and the definite 
need of which has long been felt for 
precise published information on for- 
est products at more frequent intervals 
than census years promises in large 
measure to be satisfied in this wav. 




The Roosevelt Road, leading from Phoenix, Mesa and Tempe, Arizona, to the Roosevelt Dam (Salt River Pro- 
ject j. This road is 62 miles in length, over 40 of v/hich extend through the Canyon of the Salt River. The 
road was built by the U.S. Reclamation Service and the three towns mentioned contributed $75,000 of its 
cost. A remarkable feature of its construction was the fact that the day labor was performed by Apache 
Indians, remnants of the mighty Geronimo's former band; a tremendous step in civilization this marks in 
turning these Indians from terrorizing the country to actually assisting in its development. 



MEETING OF THE AMERICAN 
FORESTRY ASSOCIATION 



Held at Washington, D. C, January 1 6 and 1 7. 
Much Important Business Transacted. 



"W/HILE not approaching in mag- 
** nitude the Forest Congress of 
last January, the meeting of the Amer- 
ican Forestry Association held at 
Washington on January i6 and 17 was 
a notable one in every respect. The 
attendance was large for a business 
meeting and of the most active mem- 
bers of the Association — those who 
plan and carry forward the forest 
work this Association stands for. That 
there is a rapidly increasing interest in 
forestry was amply demonstrated by 
the large number of public men who 
either appeared at the meeting or for- 
warded messages expressing their ap- 
precitation and support of forestry. 

The opening meeting, on Tuesday, 
January 16, was called to order by 
President Wilson at 10:30, in the sit- 
ting room of the New Willard Hotel. 
Secretary Wilson's address, as presi- 
dent of the American Forestry Associ- 
ation, was an especially happy one. 
He traced the growth and broadening 
of the forest movement from its be- 
ginning and was emphatic in his pre- 
diction of the early recognition by all 
citizens of the importance of the forest 
movement, and its extension and adop- 
tion in all sections. Following the 
president's address, Mr. H. M. Suter, 
secretary of the Association, read the 
annual report of the Board of Direc- 
tors (printed in full elsewhere in this 
number). This report, together with 
that of the treasurer, following shortly 
after, showed that the Association is 
in excellent condition financially; and, 
in accepting the two reports, several 
members took occasion to express their 
gratification not only of the thriving 
condition of the organization, but of 
the amount of work carried forward 
<luring the fiscal year of 1905. 



The chair then appointed the fol- 
lowing committees : 

Committee on Resolutions — ■ Mr. 
Pinchot (chairman), Mr. Harvey, and 
Mr. Ayres. 

Committee on Audit — Captain J. B. 
Adams (chairman), and Mr. George 
P. Whittlesey. 

Committee on Revision of By-laws 
—Mr. Hall (chairman), Mr. Cutler, 
Mr. Start, Mr. Harvey, and Mr. Her- 
bert Smith. 

Committee on Nominations — Mr. 
Hall (chairman) and Colonel Fox. 

Committee on Affiliation — Mr. Cut- 
ler (chairman), Mr. Gaskill, Mr. Start, 
Mr. Lippincott, and Mr. A. G. Forbes. 

Committee on Forest Reserve Bill — ■ 
Mr. Woodruff (chairman), Mr. Cut- 
ler, Mr. Harvey, Mr. Ayres, and Mr. 
Elliott. 

Dr. Edw^ard Everett Hale, chaplain 
of the Senate, was then called upon for 
a short address, and responded in ex- 
cellent spirit, particularly urging upon 
all public-spirited citizens considera- 
tion of the proposed White Mountain 
and Appalachian Forest Reserves, and 
earnestly advocating their creation by 
the passage of the various measures 
now before Congress. 

Mr. Bainbridge, chairman of the 
committee of the New York Manufac- 
turers' Association for the revision of 
the second-class postal laws, was in- 
troduced to the meeting by Mr. W. S. 
Harvey, whom Secretary Wilson called 
to the chair when forced to attend a 
Cabinet meeting. Mr. Bainbridge ex- 
plained the abuse of the second-class 
rate bv publishers, and expressed the 
conviction that a curtailing of this 
privilege would save a vast amount of 
pulp paper, and thus in a measure 
lessen the demand for pulpwood. 



12 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



January 



The chair then called on Mr. S. B. 
Elliott, of the Pennsylvania Reserva- 
tion Commission, for an address. Mr. 
Elliott explained in an interesting 
manner the progress Pennsylvania has 
made in protecting and extending her 
forests, and urged the extension of the 
forest reserve idea. Mr. Robert C. 
Lippincott, of Philadelphia, formerly 



forcibly, that the movement would 
have their strong support. He cited 
clearly the situation in Pennsylvania, 
and gave the reasons why the general 
lumber trade has delayed in accepting 
forestry. Now that the practical busi- 
ness value of forestry to the lumber- 
man is known, the more progressive 
and far-seeing members of the trade 




HON. JAMES WILSON 

Secretary ot Agriculture, recently elected for the ninth successive time President 

ot the American Forestry Association. 



president of the National Lumber 
Manufacturers' Association, then spoke 
on the interest of the lumber trade in 
forestry. He denied that the progres- 
sive lumbermen of todav were antag- 
onistic to forestry, and stated his con- 
viction that if the practical value of 
scientific treatment of timberlands 
could be brought to their attention 



have accepted the offer of advice made 
by the Forest Service, and are practic- 
ing forestry on their lands. 

Mr. Edwin A. Start, secretary of the 
Massachusetts Forestry Association, 
then spoke, particularly on the forest 
situation in New England. Mr. Geo. 
K. Smith, secretary of the National 
Lumber Manufacturers' Association,. 



1906 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



13 



was then called upon. He dwelt par- 
ticularly on the importance of the ef- 
fort which the Forest Service is now 
making in connection with the associ- 
ation which he represents to collect all 
available statistics relating to timber 
supply and consumption. Senator J. 
H. Stout, of Wisconsin, then made a 
brief address to the meeting, express- 
ing his interest and appreciation of 
forestry. The meeting then adjourned. 

The program for the afternoon ses- 
sion, which convened at 2 130 on the 
same day, included discussion of the 
forest and water problems of the 
United States. Authoritative address- 
es were given by Mr. Arthur P. Davis, 
assistant chief of the United States 
Reclamation Service; Mr. Morris Bien, 
consulting engineer of the United 
States Reclamation Service, and Mr. 
C. J. Blanchard, statistician. United 
States Reclamation Service. Mr. C. D. 
Haskins, a well-known engineer of the 
General Electric Company, was pre- 
vented by sickness from being present 
at the meeting, but his paper was read 
by request of the presiding officer, Mr. 
Pinchot, by Mr. James H. Cutler. The 
paper was an interesting non-technical 
discussion of the vital importance of 
protecting the water powers of the 
South by protecting the forests of that 
region. Mr. Henry A. Pressey, for- 
merly connected with the United 
States Geological Survey, and an au- 
thority, on the conditions in the South- 
ern Appalachian Mountains, next pre- 
sented a paper, with an interesting ex- 
position of the resources of that region 
and its vast stored potential power. 

This finished the set program for the 
afternoon, and the remainder of the 
session was devoted to impromptu ad- 
dresses. Mr. G. O. Shields, president 
of the League of American Sports- 
men, spoke on the relation that pro- 
tection of the forests has on the pro- 
tection of game ; Mr. R. C. Lippincott 
was heard again in an interesting ad- 
dress, and Prof. Henry S. Graves, di- 
rector of the Yale Forest School, spoke 
briefly. 



In the evening, a reception was ten- 
dered in honor of the members and of- 
ficers of the Association by Mr. and 
Mrs. James W. Pinchot and Mr. Gif- 
ford Pinchot, at their home at 161 5 
Rhode Island avenue. 

Wednesday morning, the Associa- 
tion convened at 10 130, with Mr. Wm. 
S. Harvey presiding. Ex-Gov. F. W. 
Rollins, of New Hampshire, was un- 
able to be present at the meeting, and 
his paper was read by Mr. Philip W. 
Ayres. The secretary then read a let- 
ter from Senator J. H. Gallinger, of 
New Hampshire, who was unfortu- 
nately prevented from being present. 
Senator Gallinger expressed his inter- 
est in the work the Association is ad- 
vancing in regard to the creation of 
national forest reserves in the White 
Mountains and the Southern Appa- 
lachian Mountains, and pledged his 
support to the movement. The secre- 
tary also read a paper prepared by 
Prof. Samuel B. Green, of the UniveN 
sity of Minnesota, on education in for- 
estry. Capt. J. P. Walker, U. S. A. 
(retired), then spoke briefly on the re- 
lation between destruction of the for- 
ests and the injury to the rivers and 
harbors of the United States. The 
chair then called on Judge Warren 
Higley. of New York. It was in 
Judge Higley's law office in Cincin- 
nati that the American Forestry Asso- 
ciation had its first inception, some 
thirty years ago, through the enthusi- 
astic work of a few public-spirited 
citizens. Judge Higley's talk was 
largely reminiscent, and he dwelt at 
length on the change in sentiment to- 
ward forestry which has come about 
since the organization of the Associa- 
tion. 

Mr. George H. Moses, secretary of 
the New Hampshire Forestry Com- 
mission, then spoke briefly on New 
Hampshire forest conditions. In the 
absence of Dr. George T. Winston, 
president of the Agricultural and Me- 
chanical College of North Carolina, his 
address was read by Mr. James PI. 
Cutler. The paper was in the form of 
a summarv of reasons for the estab- 



14 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



January 



lishment of a forest reserve in the 
Southern Appalachian Reserve, and a 
plea for education in forestry in the 
schools and colleges. 

Mr. L. L. Gilbert, secretary of the 
Alabama Commercial and Industrial 
Association, at Montgomery, was next 
called upon. He responded in a brief 
address, defining the forest needs of 
the South, and particularly of Ala- 
bama. 

The chair then asked for the report 
of the committees. Mr. Cutler, chair- 
man of the Committee on Affiliation, 
reported that it had been found prac- 
ticable and necessary for his commit- 
tee to confer with the Committee on 
By-laws, since the plan of affiliation 
proposed involved many changes of 
the by-laws. The committee recom- 
mended the appointment by the Board 
of Directors of a committee of five, 
who were to consider the question of 
affiliation with local and state soci- 
eties in all its phases, and be ready to 
propose a plan at the next annual 
meeting of the Association. The re-, 
port was unanimously adopted. 

The report of the Committee on Re- 
vision of By-laws was presented by 
Mr. William L. Hall, as chairman. 
The committee recommended nume- 
rous changes, which, after some dis- 
cussion, were adopted, with minor 
amendments. 

Mr. George P. Whittlesey, acting 
for Captain J. B. Adams, chairman of 
the Audit Committee, reported that 
that committee had carefully audited 
the accounts of the treasurer, found 
the same correct, and recommended 
the adoption of his report. 

The report of the Committee on 
Forest Reserve Bills was presented by 
Mr. George B. Woodruff. Mr. Wood- 
ruflf read a bill prepared by his com- 
mittee for introduction in Congress. 
This bill embodies all of the four indi- 
vidral measures which have been in- 
troduced by Messrs. Gallinger, Brown- 
low, Overman, and Currier, The re- 
port of this committee was unani- 
mously adopted. 



The report of the Committee on 
Nominations was made by Mr. Wil- 
liam L. Hall, in place of the chairman, 
Professor Graves. The nominations 
were presented to the meeting, and all 
elected by ballot. The new officers 
are : President, Hon. James Wilson 
(re-elected) ; vice-presidents at large 
(under new by-laws), James W. Pin- 
chot, F. E. Weyerhaeuser, Dr. Edward 
Everett Hale, John L. Kaul, Dr. B. E. 
Fernow ; treasurer. Otto Luebkert ; 
Board of Directors (under new by- 
laws), Hon. James Wilson, Ex-Gover- 
nor N. J. Bachelder, Rutherford P. 
Hayes, George P. Whittlesey, Gififord 
Pinchot, F. H. Newell, George K. 
Smith, Allan Chamberlain, William S. 
Harvey, James H. Cutler, Prof. Henry 
S. Graves, Dr. Albert Shaw, William 
L. Hall, Samuel Spencer, and H. A. 
Pressey. 

The Committee on Resolutions then 
made its report, Mr. Suter presenting 
the same in place of its chairman, Mr. 
Avres. All of the resolutions recom- 
mended by the committee were unani- 
mously adopted by the meeting. 

There being no further business be- 
fore the Association, the meeting then 
adjourned sine die. 

REPORT OF committee; on forest 

RESERVE BIEE. 

The Committee on Forest Reserve 
Bills reported that it had considered 
the bills for creating the Appalachian 
and the White Mountain Forest Re- 
serves, now before Congress, as intro- 
duced by Senators Gallifiger and Over- 
man, and Representatives Brownlow 
and Currier, respectively, and, with 
very slight modifications, amalgamated 
those bills into one entitled "A Bill for 
the Purchase of Two National Forest 
Reserves in the Appalachian Moun- 
tains and the White Mountains, to be 
Known as the Appalachian Forest Re- 
serve and the White Mountain Forest 
Reserve, respectively." 

The committee offered to the Asso- 
ciation this amalgamated bill and rec- 
ommended that the congressmen who 
introduced the four individual bills 



1906 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



15 



join to influence the Senate and House 
committees before which the respec- . 
tive individual bills are pending, in in- 
troducing the amalgamated bill before 
Congress. The bill is as follows : 
59th Congress, 
1st Session. 

A BILL 
For the Purchase of Two Nation- 
al Forest Reserves in the Appa- 
1.ACHIAN Mountains and White 
Mountains, to be Known as the 
Appalachian Forest Reserve and 
White Mountain Forest Re- 
serve, RESPECTIVELY. 
Be it enacted by the Senate and 
House of Representatives of the Uni- 
ted States of America in Congress as- 
sembled. That the Secretary of Agri- 
culture is hereby authorized and di- 
rected, in his discretion, to acquire 
by purchase or condemnation lands 
suited to national forest reserve 
purposes in the Appalachian Moun- 
tains within the States of Maryland, 
West- Virginia. Virginia, North Caro- 
lina, South Carolina, Georgia, Alaba- 
ma, and Tennessee, and the White 
Mountains in the State of New Hamp- 
shire, to be known as the Appalachian 
Forest Reserve and the White Moun- 
tain Forest Reserve, respectively, and 
to care for, protect, use, and make ac- 
cessible the said reserves under the 
laws governing national forest re- 
serves. 

Sec. 2. That the Secretary of Agri- 
culture shall advertise in the several 
states named in this act for lands to be 
purchased under the provisions here- 
of ; and as between lands of equal val- 
ue, for the purposes of this act, the 
lowest bids shall be accepted: Pro- 
vided, that the Secretary of Agricul- 
ture shall have the right to reject any 
or all bids : Provided further, that the 
Secretary of Agriculture is hereby 
authorized and empowered, in his dis- 
cretion, to contract for the purchase 
of lands, exclusive of the timber there- 
on of kinds and sizes to be specified 
in the contract, said timber to be cut 



and removed in accordance with rules 
and regulations to be prescribed by 
him for that purpose ; and Provided 
further, that the Secretary of Agricul- 
ture is hereby authorized and empow- 
ered, in his discretion, to contract for 
the purchase of lands, exclusive of the 
mineral rights therein ; and on such 
lands mineral deposits may be mined 
under such rules and regulations as the 
Secretary of Agriculture may pre- 
scribe, and the rules and regulations, 
as provided in this section for cutting 
and removal of timber and mining of 
minerals, shall be embodied in the con- 
tract for purchase and conveyance of 
title. 

Sec. 3. That in the acquirement of 
lands for the purposes of this act the 
Secretary of Agriculture shall, in each 
of the several states named herein, 
conform to the conditions prescribed 
in the present or future act or acts of 
the legislature of each such state ced- 
ing to the United States the right to 
acquire and control such lands, and 
the Secretary of Agriculture is hereby 
authorized and empowered to exercise, 
as to such lands, all the rights and 
powers granted in said act or acts: 
Provided, that when the owners of 
lands sought to be acquired for the 
purposes of this act are unwilling to 
sell the same on terms satisfactory to 
the Secretary of Agriculture, condem- 
nation proceedings for the acquire- 
ment of such lands shall not be had so 
long as the said owners protect and 
perpetuate the forests on said lands, 
under such regulations as may be pre- 
scribed by the Secretary of Agricul- 
ture for the control of the forests on 
lands purchased by the government 
under this act, so far as the same may 
be applicable. 

Sec. 4. That the Secretary of Agri- 
culture is hereby authorized and em- 
powered to accept gifts of land for the 
purposes of this act, and such lands 
shall thereafter be known by such 
names as the donors, with the appro- 
val of the Secretary of Agriculture, 
mav prescribe. 



16 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



January 



Sec. 5. That the Secretary of Agri- 
culture may do all things necessary to 
secure the safe title in the United 
States to the lands herein provided to 
be purchased or otherwise acquired; 
but no payment shall be made for any 
land purchased or otherwise acquired 
under this act until the title to such 
land shall be satisfactory to the Attor- 
ney General and shall be vested in the 
United States and accepted, and when 
vested as aforesaid the land thus trans- 
ferred shall become and be adminis- 
tered as national forest reserve land. 

Sec. 6. That the Secretary of Agri- 
culture shall as far as practicable make 
provision for the reforesting of clear- 
ings on lands acquired under the pro- 
visions of this act whenever he shall 
consider such action necessary for the 
protection of the soil or the water sup- 
ply. 

Sec. 7. That the Secretary of Agri- 
culture is hereby authorized and em- 
powered to make contracts for the pur- 
chase of lands and accept conveyance 
thereof or otherwise acquire the same 
in accordance with the provisions 
of this act to the amount of not 
to exceed three million dollars, which 
sum shall be available immediately and 
until expended and is hereby appropri- 
ated to carry out the provisions of this 
act out of any moneys in the Treasury 
not otherwise appropriated : Provided, 
that the Secretary of Agriculture shall 
each year make a detailed report to 
Congress of his doings in the premi- 
ses : And provided, that no part of 
said sum hereby appropriated shall be 
expended for the purchase of lands un- 
der the provisions of this act until a 
valid title to the same shall be vested 
in the United States, and until the 
state in which the land lies shall have 
ceded to the United States exclusive 
jurisdiction of the same, during the 
time the United States shall be or re- 
main the owner thereof, for all pur- 
poses except the administration of the 
criminal laws of said state and the 
service of any civil process therein. 



REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON AFFILI- 
ATION. 

The Committee on Afifiliation, 
through its chairman, Mr. Cutler, re- 
ported that, on discussing this matter 
in committee, it was found that joint 
action with the Committee on By-laws 
was necessary, hence asked that the 
chairman of that committee be allowed 
to report for both committees, so far 
as immediate action was concerned. 
The committee further recommended 
that the Association sanction a selec- 
tion by the Board of Directors of a 
committee of five, with instructions to 
report at the next annual meeting of 
the Association what action in the line 
of closer affiliation they would then 
recommend. This, on motion, was 
adopted. 

The American Forestry Associa- 
tion 

BY-LAWS. 
(Revised January 17, 1906.) 

Article I. 
Name. 

The name of this Association shall 
be "The American Forestry Associa- 
tion." 

Article II. 
Objects. 
The objects of this Association shall 
be the discussion of subjects relating 
to tree planting, the conservation, 
management, and renewal of forests, 
and the climatic and other influences 
that affect their welfare ; the collection 
of forest statistics and the advance- 
ment of educational, legislative, or 
other measures tending to the promo- 
tion of these objects. It shall especial- 
ly endeavor to centralize the work done 
and diffuse the knowledge gained. 

Article III. 
Members. 
Section i. Any person may become 
a member of this Association, as here- 
inafter provided. 



1906 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



17 



Sec. 2. Members shall be divided 
into five classes: Patrons, Life Mem- 
bers, Sustaining Members, Active 
Members, and Honorary Members. 

Sec. 3. Any person contributing at 
one time the sum of one thousand dol- 
lars ($1,000) to the permanent fund 
of the Association shall be a Patron. 
Any person may become a Life Mem- 
ber by the payment of one hundred 
dollars ($100) at one time. Patrons 
and Life Members shall not be liable 
for annual dues. Sustaining Members 
shall be those who pay annual dues of 
twenty-five dollars ($25). Any for- 
estry association or other organization 
approved by the Board of Directors 
may become a Sustaining Member. 
Active Members are those who pay 
annual dues of two dollars ($2). Hon- 
orary Members shall be the officers of 
state, territorial, provincial, or other 
forestry associations, or the delegates 
from such associations, or the dele- 
gates of any government. 

Sec. 4. Applications for membership 
shall be referred to and voted upon 
by the Board of Directors at any reg- 
ular or called meeting therefor. 

Sec. 5. All members except Honor- 
ary Members shall be members of this 
corporation and shall be entitled to 
vote and hold office in said corpora- 
tion. 

Article IV. 
Officers. 

Section i. The officers of this Asso- 
ciation shall be a Board of Directors, a 
President, five Vice-Presidents at 
large, a Vice-President from each affil- 
iated organization, as hereinafter pro- 
vided ; a Treasurer, a Secretary, and 
an Assistant Secretary. 

Sec. 2. The Board of Directors, 
President. Vice-Presidents at large, 
and Treasurer shall be elected by bal- 
lot at the annual meeting of this Asso- 
ciation, and shall serve one year, or 
until their successors are elected. The 
Secretary and Assistant Secretary 
shall be elected by the Board of Di- 
rectors at the first meeting following 
the annual meeting of the Association. 



Sec. 3. Any forestry or other or- 
ganization which may become a Sus- 
taining Member shall be entitled to 
delegate as advisors of this Associa- 
tion three of its members, one of whom 
shall be elected by the Board of Direc- 
tors a Vice-President of the Associa- 
tion. The advisors so elected from the 
various organizations shall constitute 
the Advisory Board of this Associa- 
tion. 

Article; V. 

The Board of Directors. 

The Board of Directors shall consist 
of fifteen (15) members, of whom 
eight (8) shall constitute a quorum. It 
shall elect its own Chairman and have 
the power to fill any vacancy occurring 
in its own membership or in the offi- 
cers of its Association, the appointee 
to serve until the next annual meeting 
of the Association. The Board of Di- 
rectors shall have the control and man- 
agement of the affairs, funds, and 
property of the Association. It shall 
take, receive, hold, and convey such 
real and personal estate as may be- 
come the property of the Association 
for the purposes of the Association set 
forth in the certificate of incorpora- 
tion and in Article II above. The 
Board shall meet one hour before the 
annual meeting of the Association, and 
at such other times as it may be called 
together by its Chairman. The Board 
of Directors shall designate five (5) 
of its members to act as an Executive 
Committee of the Association, to whifih 
Committee the Board shall, from time 
to time, entrust such duties as it may 
deem best in the interests of the Asso- 
ciation. 

Article VI. 

The President. 

The President shall preside at all 
meetings of the Association. 

Article VII. 
Vice-Presidents. 

In the absence of the President, a 
Vice-President shall preside at the 
meetings of the Association ; and in the 



18 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



January 



absence of all of them, a President pro 
tern, shall be elected by the meeting. 

Article VIII. 
The Secretary. 
The Secretary shall keep a record of 
the proceedings of the Association and 
of the Board of Directors, shall have 
the custody of the corporate seal of 
the Association and of all documents, 
books, and collections ordered to be 
preserved; shall conduct the corre- 
spondence of the Association, and keep 
a Hst of members with their addresses, 
notify members of the time and place 
of all meetings, and shall perform such 
other duties as may be assigned him 
by the Board of Directors. 
Article IX. 
The Treasurer. 
The Treasurer shall have the cus- 
tody of all moneys received. He shall 
deposit and invest the same in such 
manner and to such extent as the 
Board of Directors shall direct, and 
shall not expend any money except 
under the direction or approval of the 
Board of Directors. The financial year 
of the Association shall close on De- 
cember 31 of each year. 
Article X. 
Meeti7igs. 
Section i. The annual meeting for 
the election of officers and the transac- 
tion of such business as requires to 
come before the entire Association 
shall be held on the second Wednesday 
in January, at such hour and place as 
the Board of Directors may determine. 
Sec. 2. A quorum shall consist of 
thirty (30) members of the Associa- 
tion (Patrons, Life Members, or Ac- 
tive Members), as specified in Section 
5 of Article III. 

Sec. 3. Special meetings may be 
called by the Board of Directors. The 
Secretary shall give to all members at 
least seven days' notice of all meetings. 

Article XI. 
Ditcs. 
The annual dues for Active Mem- 
bers shall be two dollars ($2), pay- 



able in advance on the first day of Jan- 
uary. The Board of Directors shall 
have the power to remit the annual 
dues of any member. 

Article XII. 
Amendments. 

These By-laws may be amended by 
a three-fourths vote of the members 
present and entitled to vote at the an- 
nual meeting of the Association. 

Report of the Committee on 
Resolutions. 

The following resolutions were then 
unanimously adopted : 

Resolved, That the need of estab- 
lishing national forest reserves in the 
Southern Appalachian and White 
Mountain regions grows more urgent 
day by day. We therefore urge the 
prompt passage through Congress of 
a bill which shall create these reserves, 
and thereby not only preserve the nat- 
ural resources of two exceedingly im- 
portant regions, but at the same time 
contribute largely to the stability of 
the national prosperity. 

Resolved, That the American For- 
estry Association again recommends 
an increase of opportunities for gen- 
eral forest education in schools and 
colleges, and- for professional training 
in post-graduate schools ; and we earn- 
estly request Congress to take favor- 
able action at its present session upon 
the bill now pending which appropri- 
ates funds for the promotion of forest 
education and forest experiment work 
in the agricultural colleges and experi- 
ment stations of the United States. 

Resolved, That we urge upon Con- 
gress the repeal of the timber and 
stone act, so long a source of fraud 
and loss to the government ; the imme- 
diate withdrawal from entry of all 
public timber land, and the sale of the 
timber thereon at its market value un- 
der proper regulations. 

Resolved, That this Association 
again protests against the attempt to 
reduce the area of the Minnesota Na- 
tional Forest Reserve, and against any 



1906 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



19 



step that would render more difficult 
the perpetuation of the forests upon it. 

Resolved, That we concur emphati- 
cally in President Roosevelt's desire 
for the preservation of Niagara Falls, 
and pledge him the support of the 
x\ssociation in his wise effort to that 
end. 

Resolved, That the American For- 
estry Association believes that the na- 
tion should own the Calaveras Grove 
of Big Trees, and earnestly recom- 
mends the prompt enactment of leg- 
islation by Congress for the purchase 
of these trees. 

IMPORTANCE OF WATER POWERS. 

The Charlotte Daily Observer, in its 
issue of January 14, printed an inter- 
esting table of figures, showing the 
cotton mills in North Carolina, South 
Carolina, and Georgia which are op- 
erated by water power, and therefore 
directly dependent upon an equable 
flow of water from streams rising in 
the Southern Appalachian Mountains. 
This article was read at the Tuesday 
afternoon session, and it was voted to 
make it a part of the records. The fol- 
lowing table, being the aggregate fig- 
ures taken from the large table, shows 
in a striking manner how closely the 
protection of the forests in the Pied- 
mont Region, and the consequent con- 
servation of the streams, is related to 
the industrial welfare of the South and 
the nation as a whole : 

Capital stock $33,647,500 

Nmnber spindles 2,077,831 

Number looms 50,926 

Number employees 45,685 

Number horse power 90.495 

Number bales per year, 

counting 11 hours a day.. 640,895 

The total value of the annual pro- 
duction of the mills enumerated is ap- 
proximately $64,060,776. 

In presenting the table, which is a 
most comprehensive and accurate one, 
the Charlotte Observer remarks : 

"This table is compiled to show what 
interests are involved in the mainte- 
nance of the regular flow of water in 
the various streams on which this pow- 



er is made. It shows the cotton con- 
sumed, the operatives, the number of 
spindles and the number of looms. The 
number of operatives should be mul- 
tiplied by at least three in order to 
show how many people are dependent 
upon this resource. It seems that it 
would be entirely fair to assume that 
the water power used for all other 
manufacturing, such as operating saw 
mills, planing mills, woolen mills, knit- 
ting mills, furniture factories, cotton 
seed oil mills, etc., etc., would make 
an additional amount equal to that em- 
ployed in the operation of the cotton 
mills, and would involve the interest 
of as many people in respect to em- 
plo3'ment. 

"Therefore it is seen that the pres- 
ervation of the mountain forests, which 
is the main influence in regulating the 
flow of these streams from the moun- 
tains, is a matter of the most vital im- 
portance. It has been said that when 
the mountains of Lebanon were cov- 
ered with cedars and other forest trees. 
Palestine supported, in affluence, a 
population of ten million. After and 
since the denudation of the mountains 
of Lebanon, Palestine has scarcely 
supported five hundred thousand peo- 
ple, and these, in the main, in poverty. 

"In the table, North and South Car- 
olina and Georgia are considered. Vir- 
ginia has interests which are not in 
the enumeration. So also has Tennes- 
see and Kentucky, on the western side 
of the mountains, which would swell 
the grand totals given." 

The publication of this striking ta- 
ble and the inferences which can be 
deduced from its figures should stimu- 
late a powerful interest in the South 
in the Appalachian Forest Reserve. 
The South has not yet awakened to the 
magnitude of the menace which aft'ects 
its industries. Such matter as this is 
a powerful argument for the reserve, 
and should have the effect of arousing 
public sentiment to an immediate ap- 
preciation of what the Southern Appa- 
lachian Reserve would effect — a safe- 
guard to the treasured industrial ac- 
tivitv of the South, and an asset whose 
value is incalculable. 



22 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



January- 



owned by the state along the Costal 
Plain was brought to completion. 

Up to the close of the past fiscal 
year, 167 applications were received 
for advice and assistance in the care of 
private forest lands, of which 45 were 
for timber tracts, with a total area of 
1,439,763 acres. Working plans were 
prepared during the same period for 
eight tracts, with a total area of 1,982,- 
000 acres, in the States of West Vir- 
ginia, Kentucky, Texas, New Hamp- 
shire, Idaho, Washington, and Colo- 
rado. The acreage under forest man- 
agement, in co-operation with private 
owners, has in this way increased from 
500,000 acres, the figure for last year, 
to 857,995 acres. 

A reorganization of the work deal- 
ing with "forest products has been suc- 
cessfully carried out. The service now 
conducts several series of laboratory 
experiments under a trained staff of 
engineers, including timber tests, the 
preservative treatment of timbers, and 
dendro-chemistry. In dendro-chemis- 
trv a study was begun to determine the 
best methods of wood distillation as a 
means of using waste in logging and 
at the mill. 

The service has taken up the work 
of gathering for publication full re- 
turns showing the annual consumption 
of forest products. The National Lum- 
ber Manufacturers' Association and a 
number of the associations of pro- 
ducers are co-operating in the work ; 
the trade journals are giving it their 
support, and there is every prospect 
that the returns for 1905 will be full 
and accurate, to the great advantage 
of all interested in forest products. 

A new series of experiments looking 
to the saving of waste in turpentine 
made successful progress during the 
vear on the lands of a company which 
has offered the service unusual facili- 
ties near Jacksonville, Fla. It has 
been tentatively established by these 
experiments that shorter and shallower 
"faces" may be chipped without re- 
ducino: the flow of rosin. This means 
that the life of the tree may be pro- 
longed and its yield may be largely in- 



creased. Another result, which fol- 
lows from these, is that the investment 
in turpentine lands becomes a longer- 
time investment. 

The forest exhibit, in conjunction 
with that of the Reclamation Service, 
at the Lewis and Clark Centennial Ex- 
position, was the most complete and 
brilliant forest exhibit ever seen in this 
country. 

State and "^^^^ Association notes 

Local with much satisfaction 

Associations the growth and activity 
of state and local forest associations. 
It is only through such organizations 
that many state and local forest prob- 
lems may be brought to a prompt and 
practical solution. A striking exam- 
ple of the value of a state association 
is furnished by Pennsylvania — certain- 
ly the most advanced of our states in 
forest matters. There the state has ex- 
cellent forest laws, a very capable state 
forest organization to administer them, 
substantial appropriations annually, 
and an excellent spirit favoring fores- 
try among the citizens generally. This 
desirable "situation is in a great meas- 
ure due to the splendid efforts of the 
Pennsylvania Forestry Association, the 
largest of the state associations. As 
referred to elsewhere in this report, the 
American Forestry Association has 
been co-operating with the Society for 
the Protection of New Hampshire 
Forests, and the Massachusetts For- 
estry Association, especially through 
Forestry and Irrigation, our official 
organ. These organizations^have for 
some months been sending two thous- 
and copies of Forestry and Irriga- 
tion to the editors and other influen- 
tial persons in New England in sup- 
port of the White Mountain Forest 
Reserve project. Through the maga- 
zine there has also been some co-opera- 
tive work with the Connecticut For- 
estry Association, which organization 
has been growing in numbers and in- 
fluence. Two new associations were 
formed during the year, the first being- 
in Ohio. The latest was organized in 
Michigan, last August, with a snbstan- 



1906 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION' 



23 



tial membership and with the oppor- 
tunity to do much effective work. 

The Association for the Protection 
of the Adirondacks, the Vermont For- 
estry Association, the Minnesota For- 
estry Association, the Iowa Park and 
Forestry Association, and the Colora- 
do Forestry Association have all con- 
tinued their work to advantage, in 
their particular fields. 

As stated before, the American For- 
estry Association views with satisfac- 
tion the work of the state and local for- 
est associations and hopes to see many 
more formed. While wishing in no 
way to interfere with their work, this 
organization stands ready and willing 
to aid in every way possible those now 
in existence, and to assist and encour- 
age the formation of others wherever 
needed. 

Eastern For several years the 

Forest American Forestry As- 

Reserves sociation has gone on 

record as favoring the prompt estab- 
lishment by Congress of federal forest 
reserves in the Southern Appalachian 
region and the White Mountains of 
New Hampshire. These are among 
the most important of all the great for- 
est problems that face the country, and 
the reasons for these reserves are well 
known to all members of this Associa- 
tion. A special meeting of the Execu- 
tive Committee of the Board of Direc- 
tors, early in October, decided unani- 
mously to put the strength and re- 
sources of this Association, as far as 
possible, behind these two projects. 
Since that time considerable attention 
has been given to the matter, and it is 
safe to say that the movement for 
these reserves is more united than ever 
before. About 40,000 extra copies of 
Forestry and Irrigation, containing 
authoritative articles regarding the 
proposed reserves, have been distrib- 
uted by this association among the edi- 
tors of the eastern and southern states 
and to the officers of commercial or- 
ganizations. In addition, personal 
work has been carried on, and will 
continue, in interesting the people of 
the South throuHi interviews and 



meetings. In this connection, it is only 
fair to say that the southern people 
have not yet been fully aroused to the 
vital importance to their leading in- 
dustries of the creation of a Southern 
Appalachian forest reserve. But the 
public men of the South are taking up 
the problem, and the pointed warning 
by President Roosevelt in his speech 
at Raleigh, last October, made a 
deep impression. It is hopeful that 
wherever the project is understood it 
secures solid support. With the South 
heartily behind the movement for this 
reserve, it is felt that Congress will 
act favorably. 

In New England, the people are 
aroused to the importance of preserv- 
ing the forests of the White Mountain 
region, through the establishment 
there of a federal forest reserve. This 
is due in a large measure to the splen- 
did efforts of the Society for the Pro- 
tection of New Hampshire Forests, 
and the Massachusetts Forestry Asso- 
ciation, with whom this organization 
is actively co-operating in this work. 

In connection with these eastern for- 
est reserve projects, the American 
Forestry Association has set itself to 
probably more important work than 
any it has yet undertaken ; for the 
proposed Southern Appalachian and 
White Mountain reserves are a vital 
necessity to not only their immediate 
regions but to the country at large. 

A matter of satisfaction 
Canada and encouragement to 

this Association is the 
attitude of the Canadians. They have 
joined the American Forestry Associa- 
tion in substantial numbers and given 
it both financial and personal support. 
A notable delegation from Canada at- 
tended the Forest Congress and took a 
prominent part in its sessions. This 
interchange of ideas is valuable to 
both parties, and as the two countries 
have many forest problems in com- 
mon, it is fitting that there should be 
such close and friendly relations. 

There is now p-ood reason to expect 
that the Association work will soon 
have the large membership, with its 



24 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



January 



accompanying increase of influence, 
that the officers have long looked for- 
ward to. A well-organized force is at 
work, including a secretary, an assist- 
ant secretary, and four clerks, devot- 
ing much of their time to membership 
work. As a result, there is a steady 
and substantial increase day by day. 
In addition to this working force, the 
members of the Executive Committee 



of the Board of Directors are devoting 
time and energy to the more important 
matters in which the Association is in- 
terested. There is also a growing ten- 
dency on the part of our members to 
lend assistance in the Association 
work. Once they generally lend a 
hand, the large membership and great- 
er influence will be assured. 



REPORT OF THE TREASURER 

For Fiscal Year Ended November 30, 1905. 
Otto Liiebkert, in Account with the Americati Forestry Association. 



Receipts. 






Disbursements. 






Balance December 1, 1904 

Interest on bonds 


$180 00 
20 90 
800 00 
500 00 
5,748 33 
11 00 
2 15 

2 00 


$61 08 


FORESTKY AND IRRIGATION 

Pub. Co. : 

3,000 copies per month of 
magazine, Dec. 1904 to 
Nov. 1905, inclusive, at 
9% cents 


$3,510 00 
146 25 
















Dues Sustaining 






Dues— Annual 








1,500 additional copies 
of Sept., Oct., and Nov. 
issues, at 9% cents 

Postage 




Exchange on remittances.. . 
To make good a bad check 






■ "7,264'38 




$3,656 25 








118 60 




Salary and clerk hire 




206 00 








25 15 




Payments on demand loan 

Interest on same 


200 00 
5 08 










Proceedings of American 
Forest Congress, 1,000 


205 08' 
450 00 








To make good a bad check 
(See Contra) 




2 00 




File cabinet 




23 00 








1,000 00 




Sundries 




7 70 




Balance on hand Dec. 1, 1905: 

Wash. Loan and Tr. Co 

Union Trust Co 


1,023 94 
607 74 






5,693 78 










1,631 68 




7,325 46 


7,325 46 



Special Secretary Fund, 



DE. 




Cr. 




Balance on hand Dec. 1, 1904 

Draft returned by E. A. Bowers 


$1,531 75 
500 00 
25 83 


Wm. Hall, part expense of Forest Congress 
H. M. Suter, for Secretary's expenses .... 

Balance Dec. 1, 1905 


$164 31 
1,890 00 




2,054 31 
3 27 




2,057 58 


2,057 58 



1906 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 

Additional Assets. 



25 



Dr. 






Cfe. 






Two Chicago and Eastern 
Illinois 5 per cent bonds 
(purchase price) 

Two Minneapolis & St. Louis 
R. R. 4 per cent honds (pur- 
chase price) 

Dues outstanding : 
Annual membership 


f2,305 00 

1,982 50 

340 00 
50 00 


$4,677 50 


Balance,beingnetadditional 
assets, subject to realiza- 




84,677 50 









Sustaining membership ... 












4,677 50 


4,677 50 



By referring to the foregoing Statement of Receipts and Expenditures it 
will be readily observed that financially the Association is in good health. 
The remainder of demand loan ($200.00) was paid off during the year and the 
bonds of the Association are free now of all incumbrance. 

Unpaid dues to the extent of $390.00 are outstanding. Last year the 
amount was $814.00 ; this shows an improvement. 

During the year 136 members were dropped for non-payment of dues, the 
amount lost being $666.00. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Otto IvUEbkert, 

Treasxirer , 
Washington, D. C, December i, 1905. 



A FOREST RESERVATION POLICY 
FOR THE EAST* 

BY 
FRANK WEST ROLLINS 

Formerly Governor of New Hampshire ; President of the Society for the Protection 
of New Hampshire Forests. 



T^HERE are now forest reservations 
•*• in the West amounting to loo,- 
000,000 acres. These lie west of the 
Mississippi River, and all have been 
set apart from lands owned by the 
government, except the Minnesota 
Reservation, at the headwaters of the 
Mississippi. This reservation was ac- 
quired partly by purchase, and estab- 
lishes the precedent on the part of the 
federal government of acquiring forest 
lands by purchase for reservation pur- 
poses. 

The proposition is now before Con- 
gress to purchase two forest reserva- 

*Read at the Annual Meeting of the Ameri 
January 16 and 17. 



tions in the East, in the Northern and 
in the Southern Appalachian Moun- 
tains. It is the purpose of this paper 
to point out some of the reasons for 
this extension of the forest policy of 
the government. 

The main reasons are, of course, 
economic. From the days of our great 
great grandfathers we have neglected 
systematically one of the nation's sta- 
ple products — wood — which, next to 
food and water and fresh air, is essen- 
tial to our well-being, giving us houses, 
furniture, tools, fuel, and, more re- 
cently, paper. The primeval crop of 

can Forestry Association, Washington, D. C, 



26 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



January 



timber in the East is gone, save in the 
less accessible mountain regions, where 
patches still remain. The new growth 
is very far from supplying the annual 
demand upon it, and for the most part 
is cut off before it is well started, ren- 
dering cheap returns instead of profit- 
able returns. Yet there are millions of 
acres of non-agricultural land in our 
eastern country, fit only for forest 
growth, that might yield enormous 
profits, but do not. They are awaiting 
an intelligent forest management. 
Much of our main timber supplies, and 
all of our best material, is shipped in 
at great expense from the west. Our 
wood-manufacturing plants are still 
found east of the Mississippi River, 
though they are tending to move to 
the source of supply. These are axioms 
to members of this convention ; but it 
is important that the whole people 
should know them, and that they 
should be kept closely in mind by 
members of Congress. 

What can be done to remedy the 
situation ? The answer is plain : To 
give up the time-worn, destructive 
practices of our ancient ancestors, and 
replace them by an intelligent forest 
management. And how can this be 
attained ? The answer is equally defi- 
nite, though less axiomatic, namely, by 
government control on non-agricultu- 
ral land. 

The older countries — particularly 
France, Germany, and Austria — have 
arrived at this solution, and by such 
drastic experience, that their laws gov- 
erning the cutting of timber interfere 
with the freedom of the individual 
landholder. Let us be wise enough, if 
possible, to profit by their experience 
without undergoing their suffering. 

Because of the time element in- 
volved in the growth of trees, private 
ownership of forest lands in all coun- 
tries, including our own, has proven 
both wasteful and unproductive. Most 
of our forests in the eastern portion of 
the United States are in the hands of 
private owners ; for the most part they 
are either cut for immediate revenue, 
without reference to the future, or 



else, having been cut, they are neglect- 
ed entirely. Two splendid exceptions 
to this statement occur in the state for- 
ests of New York and Pennsylvania, 
New York having purchased more 
than one million acres in the Adiron- 
dack Mountains at the headwaters of 
the Hudson River, and Pennsylvania 
nearly a million acres in the water- 
sheds of the Susquehanna and the Del- 
aware. Massachusetts has made small 
beginnings, and public sentiment is 
awakening in New Jersey. These are 
the wealthier states. Some of the less 
wealthy states may follow, but in less 
efficient ways and upon diverging lines 
of policy; but public welfare demands 
that more prompt and efficient action 
be taken. The forests of New Hamp- 
shire and Vermont, of West Virginia, 
eastern Tennessee, North and South 
Carolina, are of inestimable value to 
the country. It is folly to permit 
the forest-covered mountains in these 
states to be denuded, with the irrepara- 
ble losses by fire and erosion to the soil 
that always follow irresponsible cut- 
ting, making the land in many places 
barren for all future time. The report 
of the Forest Service in northern New 
Hampshire tells us that 84,000 acres in 
the Wliite Mountain region have been 
made completely barren in the last fif- 
teen years, and the report for the 
Southern Appalachian Mountains that 
probably no region in America is more 
subject to erosion and flood when the 
forest cover is removed. 

It is not possible that states relative- 
ly small in population and in wealth, 
having no large cities, shall from their 
scanty ^means take any well-defined co- 
operative action. If the facts are once 
put clearly before the country, the 
common sense of the people will com- 
pel action by Congress. 

Few people have stopped to think of 
the importance of the forest to the for- 
est industries, lumbering and wood- 
working factories in the eastern states, 
or of the importance of steady water- 
flow, both to navigation and to manu- 
facturing along the water courses. 
The president of the Amoskeag Com- 



1906 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



27 



pany, manufacturing cotton cloth at 
Manchester, N. H., has said that in 
1896 a single flood cost that corpora- 
tion $100,000. There are in the east- 
ern mountain region several million 
people directly dependent upon the 
steady continuance of the forest sup- 
plies. Many lumbering towns and 
smaller cities have collapsed from the 
exhaustion of the forest. Even the 
larger cities, like Buffalo, have suf- 
fered when the hardwood market shift- 
ed from Buffalo to Memphis. Com- 
pare the ephemeral character of our 
mountain towns with the thrift and 
contentment of the people in the Black 
Forest region in Germany, where all 
sorts of small wares are manufactured 
with no fear of an exhausted supply. 
The Black Forest is managed with a 
view^ to permanent returns. This 
steadies the life of the whole people. 
This principle is equally true in Amer- 



ica, though we have given so little at- 
tention to it. 

It appears that the time for action 
has arrived for making a beginning. 
The bills for forest reservations in the 
White Mountains and the Southern 
Appalachian Mountains, having been 
before Congress in previous sessions, 
have been introduced in the present 
session. They have met no serious 
opposition, except that most serious of 
all opposition — • inertia. Let every 
friend of the forest come to the front 
at this time. I appeal especially to the 
friends and farmer sons and daugh- 
ters of New England who have gone 
to nearly every western state, and to 
the many who have visited the White 
Mountains from all of the states. 
Each is urged to write at once to his 
representatives in Congress, both mem- 
bers of the House and of the .Senate, 
asking that these bills may speedily 
pass. 



AN ECONOMIC FACTOR IN FOREST 
PRESERVATION* 



BY 



CARYL D. HASKINS 

Kngineer, General Electric Company. 



'T' HERE is no one fundamental of 
industrial economics more widely 
recognized than that very simple one 
relating to the maintenance and exten- 
sion of foreign trade. 

Foreign trade built Carthage, main- 
tained the revenues of Egypt, and gave 
Greece first place for many centuries 
among the Mediterraneon nations. 

None can fail to appreciate the ad- 
vantages of a creditor nation. So long 
as a nation can compete successfully in 
foreign markets, gaining a little from 
year to year, in relation to other na- 
tions, in exports, sending out more 



goods to foreign nations than are 
brought in from foreign nations, so 
long will that nation continue to in- 
crease in strength and prosperity in re- 
lation to others. All this is obvious. 
It is less obvious what relation can ob- 
tain between the maintenance and in- 
crease of foreign trade and the pres- 
ervation of forest areas. To the aver- 
age mind, considering the problem in 
a casual way, there might seem to be 
but one possible connection between 
the two matters — the very simple and 
obvious one that, having once cut away 
all of our forest tracts, we can no long- 
er be an exporter of lumber. 



*Read at Annual Meeting of the American Forestry Association, Washington, T). C, 
January 16 and 17. 



28 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



January 



I have no reference, however, to this 
very small issue. It is quite obvious 
to those who have studied the question 
that conservative and judicious lum- 
bering may be carried forward indefi- 
nitely without the destruction of any 
forest areas whatsoever. We need look 
no further than Germany's well-main- 
tained forestry system for confirma- 
tion. 

This simple question, however, has 
no real relation to the subject matter 
of this paper; it is an issue far less 
large and important in its bearing 
upon the whole problem than than 
that which has prompted this paper. 

In pointing a conclusion, it is per- 
haps preferable to localize the discus- 
sion to some relatively restricted area, 
and the region chosen for the present 
argument is the Southern Appalachian 
chain (with the Smoky Mountains the 
central group) extending through the 
Carolinas and into Tennessee and 
Georgia. Certain sections of this area 
have been, and I understand others 
are still being, ruthlessly stripped of 
its timber. Over the lower country, 
sloping downward to the Atlantic, are 
scattered numerous textile mills, which 
constitute one of the chief elements — 
perhaps the greatest single element — 
making for the increased prosperity of 
the South. 

From these great weaving and spin- 
ning establishments the South sends 
out annually an already vast and rap- 
idly increasing volume of export cot- 
ton goods. The South is, in short, 
struggling for, and has perhaps already 
in a large measure achieved, su- 
premacv in the cotton goods trade of 
the Orient. The balance of foreign 
trade is, in short, in favor of the South, 
and this balance is growing daily with 
the growth of the industry.* 

To maintain or increase its position 
in the cotton industry, it is essential 
that the South should produce its ex- 
port cotton goods at low initial cost. 
Only by the introduction and constant 
betterment of machinery and modern 
methods can we hope to compete with 



the cheap labor and physical propin- 
quity of Japan and other industrial na- 
tions in the great eastern market. One 
of the large factors in the cost of pro- 
duction of textiles is power. The 
maintenance or loss of foreign trade 
may very well rest in the cost of power. 
Over 50,000 horse power of electri- 
cal energy is already in actual use to- 
day in southern textile mills for driv- 
ing weaving and spinning machinery 
and for kindred purposes, directly con- 
tributing to the low cost in the manu- 
facture of cotton goods. The applica- 
tion of the so-called "electric drive" on 
an extensive scale is relatively new, 
and has had a most pronounced effect 
upon the first cost of the product; in 
fact, one may venture to say that it 
has been a very large factor in the in- 
creasing credit balance of the South 
in connection with foreign trade. 

There can be no doubt that the ex- 
tension of this economic step will be 
rapid, and if the obvious precautions 
which are pointed out in the latter por- 
tion of this paper are promptly and ef- 
fectively taken, the rapid increase in 
our percentage of the total cotton trade 
of the Orient should apparently be se- 
cure. Of the 50,000 horse power of 
electrical energy utilized in driving 
textile machinery, a very large propor- 
tion is derived initially from water 
power. 

Like most countries underlying an 
extensive mountain system, the South 
is rich in water powers, many of them 
of great volume. A relatively very 
small number of these have as yet been 
fully developed. The character of the 
Southern Appalachians is such that, 
in their natural condition, with their 
relatively dense forest areas, their 
thick tangles of laurel, and their deep 
bed of moss, loose decomposed rock, 
vegetable mould, and other absorbent 
• material — all technically known in for- 
estry, I believe, as the "sponge" — these 
mountains are almost ideal in their 
ability to store up the rainfall and de- 
liver it over slowly and at an equal rate 
to the headwaters of the rivers which 
flow into the Atlantic. 



1906 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



29 



The stripping off of the forest, giv- 
ing the rain full immediate access to 
the "sponge," rapidly washes away all 
of the loose and absorbent material, 
and the result is quite obvious: Na- 
ture's storage system is destroyed, the 
water is no longer conserved and fed 
down to the streams at an uniform 
rate, but rushes immediately into the 
stream heads and thence into the sea 
in flood. A short period now suffices 
to carry ofif the rainfall, and in a brief 
time (and especially during periods of 
drought) the streams are without 
feeders and the water powers without 
water. 

Such mountain sides, stripped of 
their soil, can no longer produce the 
vegetation essential to the building up 
of a new "sponge," and the result is 
obvious. 

An endeavor has here been made to 
draw a picture of what may very well 
result from a general condition such 
as that which now unfortunately pre- 
vails in more than one comparatively 
extensive area in the Appalachians. 
There are already a few points where 
the effect is felt and appreciated indus- 
trially. Doubtless there are many more 
where it is felt without any real appre- 
ciation of the cause. The necessity for 
checking this danger is too obvious to 
require enlargement. There are other 
issues involved, which are immediately 
associated with that which has been 
pointed out. One may, for example, 
point to the washing down of the soil 
from the mountain sides as having a 
second disastrous and permanent effect 
upon export trade. 

This "sponge," washed down from 
the naked mountains, becomes mud 



and silt in the stream bottoms. Car- 
ried down yet further, it deposits in the 
lower reaches of the streams, filling 
channels and obstructing deep water- 
ways, and finally, by rendering the 
harbors unsuited for deep-water ves- 
sels, has a direct and serious effect 
upon the shipping industry. More 
than one harbor which fifty years ago 
gave anchorage and wharfage to deep- 
water craft, is today practically ruined 
for foreign trade purposes; and the 
constantly increasing activity in har- 
bor improvement, dredging and main- 
tenance, which is so conspicuous a fea- 
ture of our national statistics, is, in a 
large measure, a result of the bringing 
down of mountain "sponge" to places 
where it is not wanted. 

The general sweeping away of the 
forest areas of the Southern Appala- 
chians would menace and in a large 
measure destroy the water powers of 
the South. The destruction of the 
water powers of the South would seri- 
ously increase the gross average cost 
of cotton fabrics, and an increase in 
the gross cost of cotton fabrics directly 
menaces the maintenance and growth 
of foreign trade in these commodities. 
The loss of foreign trade in cotton 
fabrics directly menaces the prosperity 
of the South. 

The South must save its forest 
areas. It is obvious that the same con- 
ditions which have been pointed out in 
this paper in relation to a single in- 
dustry obtain directly and with the 
same arguments and force to most 
other manufacturing industries ; and 
to agriculture also, for, with alternate 
drought and flood, agriculture cannot 
prosper. 



FORESTRY EDUCATION AND EX- 
PERIMENTATION IN THE AGRI- 
CULTURAL COLLEGES AND 
EXPERIMENT STATIONS* 



BY 



SAMUEL B. GREEN 

Professor of Horticulture and Forestry. University of Minnesota. 



AS I see the forestry situation in 
this country today, it is about as 
follows: Our more progressive and 
thinking people are deeply interested 
in the subject of forestry, and eagerly 
grasp any good matter that may come 
into their hands that bears on this sub- 
ject, and the owners of forest land 
want to treat their holdings more ra- 
tionally, but as a whole they know lit- 
tle of what practical forestry means. 
The present situation has been largely 
made through the efforts of the nation- 
al Forest Service, and it is a very 
hopeful condition. This grand service 
is in close touch with the forest inter- 
ests of the country, and is doing much 
to stimulate thought along these lines ; 
but of necessity its work is largely con- 
cerned with the administration of the 
national forest reserves, which it is 
fast putting on a sensible basis. I 
think what the situation especially 
needs at present is the development of 
more detailed ideals of forestry more 
generally among our people. The chief 
of the Forest Service is well aware of 
this fact, and for some time has been 
trying to get some forest studies intro- 
duced in the schools. In connection 
with this thought I would like to call 
attention to the history of agricultural 
education in this country. 

In 1862 Congress passed what has 
become known as the first Morrill bill, 
which gave to each state and territory 
the proceeds from the sale of a large 
amount of public land, and 30,000 
acres for each representative and sen- 



*Read at Annual Meeting of the American Forestry Association 
January 16 and 17. 



ator in Congress, for the purpose of es- 
tablishing agricultural colleges. Later, 
in 1887, an annual appropriation was 
made, which now amounts to $15,000 
a year for each state and territory, for 
experiments in agriculture. In the fol- 
lowing year what finally became an 
annual appropriation of $25,000 was 
made for the purpose of teaching agri- 
culture in the agricultural colleges. 
The result of these appropriations for 
education and experimentation in agri- 
culture has been to put agriculture 
upon a very different basis from what 
it was previously. Instead of an em- 
pirical practice, it has largely become 
a profession, and not only has it devel- 
oped as a science, but as a result of the 
teaching given in the colleges and the 
results of experiments undertaken in 
the experiment stations, the wealth of 
the nation has been greatly increased. 
Some of the brightest statesmen in this 
country believe that the increase in the 
value of agricultural lands, which has 
been so rapid in the last ten years in 
the western states, has come largely 
from the spread of correct agricultural 
knowledge, largely as the result of this 
national movement. 

If any one will examine the agricul- 
tural literature that was read by our 
people previous to 1890, and compare 
it with what we have today, a great 
difference will be noted, and the em- 
piric statements of even twenty years 
ago would scarcely interest the best 
farmers of today. Not only is this 
true, but while formerly our farming 

Washington, D. C, 



1906 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



population paid very little attention to 
agricultural literature, they now seek 
for it and our best farmers are closely 
in touch with agricultural science. 

The time from 1890 to 1900, when 
the great force of agricultural teaching 
was most effective, might be aptly 
termed "The awakening of American 
agriculture." As yet the agricultural 
colleges have done very little in the 
way of teaching forestry, which is a 
form of agriculture that they are well 
equipped to teach. The collateral for- 
estry subjects relating thereto, such as 
botany, soil physics, surveying, ento- 
mology, and economics, in which the 
forester should have some training, 
they are well equipped to give. They 
also give courses in a large number of 
subjects that help to excite interest in 
country life and which the forester 
would find helpful and should under- 
stand. The one thing that they lack to 
fit them for giving good forestry 
courses is that which relates to the 
cultivation and growing of trees and 
general forest management. This 
could be easily supplied by a professor- 
ship in forestry in each state. It seems 
to me, therefore, that these institutions, 
which are in a measure national ed- 
ucational institutions, having been 
founded by the national government, 
should be provided with the means and 
required to teach this subject, the 
proper practice of which will have 
such a wonderful effect upon the na- 
tional welfare. Then, too, the agricul- 
tural experiment stations are well 
equipped for experiments and demon- 
strations in forestry, and are naturally 
looked to for counsel in rural matters. 

I believe that Congress will respond 
to an application for funds for this 
purpose, provided that what is here 
stated can be clearly shown. To have 
attempted to carry out this idea twenty 
years ago, at the time when the agri- 
cultural colleges received their appro- 
priation from the second Morrill bill, 
would have been difficult of fulfill- 
ment, for it would have been almost 
impossible to have found men with 
suitable training to teach these sub- 



jects. The situation today is very dif- 
ferent. With the example set by the 
Forest Service in the matter of correct 
forestry ideals, and with the encour- 
agement which it has held out to in- 
duce young men to take hold of this 
subject, we now have a large number 
of young men who are well trained to 
teach these subjects, and I feel that 
the present Congress ought to be asked 
to take hold of this matter and make 
appropriations exclusively for teach- 
ing and experimenting in forestry. If 
national funds are appropriated for 
this purpose they should be spent un- 
der suitable supervision, for otherwise 
there is such a great ignorance in re- 
gard to the subject in a few states that 
I fear the funds would be frittered 
away or be spent foolishly. 

At the instance of the chief of the 
United States Forest Service, I have 
prepared a bill asking Congress to ap- 
propriate $1,500 for each agricultural 
college for teaching forestry, and 
$2,000 a year for each experiment sta- 
tion for experiments in forestry. The 
supervision of the spending of this 
fund is put in the hands of the Secre- 
tary of Agriculture, who has the pow- 
er, under this bill, to withhold appro- 
priations from any state if he thinks 
the funds are being misused. As I 
drew the bill it provided that the fund 
should come from the sale of public 
lands ; but Hon. C. R. Davis, who has 
introduced and has charge of the bill, 
thinks it would be best to have it come 
out of the general treasury fund. It 
will require about $150,000 a year to 
carry this into effect. 

As to just what the agricultural col- 
leges should teach in the way of for- 
estry. I do not wish to discuss at great 
length here ; but would say that their 
efforts should, in my opinion, be large- 
ly confined to the teaching of what 
might be called farm forestry; and 
they should in but few cases attempt 
anything in the way of turning out 
professional foresters, although in the 
very nature of the case many of the 
young men trained in the forestry 



32 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



January 



course in these colleges will become 
professional foresters through later 
training. I believe that the possibili- 
ties for good work in popularizing for- 
estry in this country, through the in- 



strumentality of the agricultural col- 
leges, in some such way as has been 
outlined, is not generally realized, and 
I think that this idea should be adopted 
as a part of the national forest policy. 



WATER POWERS OF THE SOUTHERN 
STATES* 

A Discussion of Their Relation to the 
Southern Appalachian Forest Reserve. 

BY 

HENRY A. PRESSEY 

Hydrographer, U. S. Geological Survey. 



'"THE water powers of the southern 
■*• states have for many years re- 
mained undeveloped and this great 
source of power has been allowed to 
run to waste. 

The reason for this is, perhaps, four- 
fold: First, the southern people had 
become interested in the production of 
raw cotton rather than in its manufac- 
ture. Second, during the last fifty 
years there has been insufficient capital 
for the development locally of water 
powers and the construction of manu- 
facturing plants. Third, the necessity 
of placing the factory at the site of the 
power, now overcome by long-dis- 
tance transmission of electric power. 
Fourth, northern capital has been un- 
der the impression that the southern 
rivers were practically dry in the sum- 
mer season. 

The first reports written concerning 
the rivers of the southern states were 
made by northern engineers, who were 
accustomed to the large lakes and 
marshes of the northern states, and 
who thought that rivers not having 
these equalizers of flow were sure to 
have exceedingly small discharges dur- 
ing the dry season. 

Fortunately, the United States Geo- 
logical Survey in 1895 began a sys- 



tematic study of the discharge of the 
south Atlantic and gulf states, and 
has since that time maintained gaging 
stations on nearly all of the important 
southern rivers. From the data ob- 
tained very satisfactory estimates of 
the daily flow have been made which 
are, without question, far more valu- 
able in determining the low water dis- 
charge during the last ten years than 
any possible estimates that could have 
been made from rainfall data, or by 
comparison with northern watersheds. 

From these records a comparative 
list has been prepared showing that the 
minimum flow of rivers throughout 
the Carolinas and Georgia are larger 
per square mile of drainage basin than 
on the rivers of New England or the 
middle states. 

The lowest flow ever recorded on 
the Yadkin, Catawba, Broad of South 
Carolina, Broad of Georgia, Savannah 
or Coosawattee, is over .2 of a cubic 
foot per second per square mile ; while 
records are available on the Potomac 
and Susquehanna showing less than 
one-half this amount per square mile 
of drainage basin. 

The reason for this is not difficult 
to determine. The very high rainfall 
and remarkably even distribution of 



*Read at Annual Meeting of the American Forestry Association, Washington, D. C., 
January 16 and 17. 



1906 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



33 



this rainfall throughout the year has 
an important efifect, and while the 
southern rivers lack lakes and marsh- 
es, the soil is deep and porous and re- 



tain slopes, upon which the rivers rise, 
are in general forest-covered. 

Great interest is now being taken in 
the development of southern water 




Toccoa Falls, Habersham County, Georgia. 



tains the water, allowing it to gradual- 
ly reach the stream, equalizing the flow 
throughout the year; while the moun- 



powers. There are eight or ten pow- 
ers now being developed, or which are 
soon to be developed, each of these 



34 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



January 



powers aggregating 10,000 horse pow- 
er or more. There is no natural re- 
source of the southern states that 
needs more careful fostering and_ at- 
tention than water powers. 

The region proposed to be set aside 
as the Southern Appalachian Forest 
Reserve is well watered, and from it 
several of the largest rivers of the 
country receive their supply. The 
chief rivers in the states of Virginia, 
North Carolina, South Carolina, Geor- 
gia, Alabama, Tennessee, and West 
Virginia rise in these mountains. One 
of the principal tributaries of the Ohio 
and one of the largest feeders of the 
Mississippi head here also. So that 
this region may justly be considered 
one of the important watersheds of the 
United States. The Yadkin, Catawba, 
Broad, Saluda, and Chatooga flow into 
the Atlantic; the Chattahoochee and 
the Coosa flow into the gulf. New 
River flows to the north and enters the 
Kanawha, whose waters finally reach 
the Mississippi through the Ohio; 
while the Tennessee with its large trib- 
utaries, the Holston, the Nolichcucky, 
and the French Broad, flow to the west 
through the state of Tennessee, finallv 
entering the Mississippi. The Cheoah, 
the Nantahala, the Oconalufty, and the 
Tuckasegee, all large streams, join 
their waters to the Tennessee and flow 
in a narrow and rocky gorge through 
the Great Smoky Mountains, while 
the Hiwassee unites with that river in 
the state of Tennessee beyond the 
mountains. 

At various points along their courses 
all of the sti earns possess magnificent 
water powers which present conditions 
favorable to development, and which 
at some future time will be made to 
supply the varied and growing indus- 
tries of the nearby region with the 
power necessary for their continuance 
and growth. 

The value of these water powers is 
limited by their low water flow. De- 
forestation means the desti^uction of 
the only source of natural storage in 
the region, and that the rainfall will 
reach the stream almost as soon as it 



falls, so that in the dry season there 
will be no reserve supply to aug- 
ment the low-water flow, which is 
drawn principally from the sub-sur- 
face sources. 

The area embraced in the proposed 
Southern Appalachian reserve belongs 
to that portion of the eastern -United 
States characterized by the greatest 
annual rainfall, there being places 
along the southea'sterh slopes of the 
Blue Ridge which receive an annual 
precipitatidh not exceeded elsewhere in 
the United States,' €xcept along the 
northwest Pacific coast." The average 
rainfall for a period of more than ten 
years at various places in the Southern 
Appalachian Mountain§:.,in northern 
Georgia and western North Carolina 
and South Carolina has been nearly 73 
inches, while at times the precipitation 
for a single month has been between 
20 and 30 inches, the greatest amount 
falling in the- three summer months 
and the least in autumn, the amounts 
in winter and spring being about the 
same. 

This is pre-eminently a region of 
mountains. The slopes are mostly 
covered with deep soil, which is kept 
in an open, porous condition by the 
humus that enters into its composition 
and is spread over the surface, and 
which is held in place by the myriads 
of roots of trees and shrubs and grass- 
es growing upon it. In this region the 
raindrops are battered to pieces by the 
twigs and leaves and the water is 
caught by the grasses, shrubs, and 
ferns below and soaks through the 
covering humus into the soil and rock 
fissures underneath. 

The portion that is neither used by 
the vegetation nor evaporated from 
the surface emerges about the moun- 
tain slopes weeks or months after its 
fall in countless springs, that feed with 
striking regularity the many brooks, 
creeks, and rivers which thus have 
their sources here. These conditions 
combine to make this one of the best 
watered regions on the continent. 

After a storm, the streams rising in 
the deforested areas are extremely tur- 



1906 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



35 



bid with mud from the mountain sides, 
while those from the forest areas are 
comparatively clear. This erosion can 
be noted by the most casual observer. 
and it forms one of the greatest men- 
aces to the region. The soil is fertile 
and deep, as is shown by the splendid 
growth of forest trees and by its yield 
under the first cultivation ; but it is 
only a question of time, if the forests 
are wantonlv cut, when all of the soil 



stream — is liable to be swept away by 
its rapidly increasing force. 

During the spring of 1901 this re- 
gion was visited by the most severe 
rainstorm of its recent history. Many 
of the streams rose to unprecedented 
heights, and the flood damages to the 
farms, bridges, and dwellings on or 
near practically all of the streams 
flowing from these Southern Appala- 
chian Mountains were enormous. Dur- 




Soil Removed and White Sand Spread Over the Surface of the Catawba River Lowlands. 

The damages along this river from the floods of May and August, 1901, 

aggregated about $1,500,000. 



and vegetation will be washed from 
the mountain sides and nothing will 
remain but the bare rock. 

The floods, due to protracted rains, 
are also destructive in strips of valley 
lands bordering the streams in the 
mountain region and in the wider val- 
leys along their courses across the low- 
lands beyond. Bridges, mills, settle- 
ments, public roads, dams for develop- 
ing water power — indeed, everything 
in the course of such a mountain 



ing the summer season, later floods 
added largely to this destruction. 

Along the valley of the Catawba 
River, in its course across the two 
Carolinas, these flood damages to 
farms, bridges, highways, buildings, 
etc., during the high-water season of 
1901, aggregated nearly two million 
dollars. The storm damages during 
the same season along the tributaries 
of the James, the Roanoke, the Yad- 
kin, and the Broad, in Virginia and 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



January 



North Carolina, added a million dol- 
lars; and those on the tributaries of 
other streams rising about the Blue 
Ridge in South Carolina and Georgia 
add still another million, making four 
million in all for the streams flowing 
from the Blue Ridge across the Pied- 
mont plateau. Add to this the dam- 
ages along the streams flowing out of 
the Southern Appalachian Mountains 
to the north, west, and southwest, and 



On the Tuckasegee, Little Tennes- 
see, and Hiwassee, in North Carolina 
and Tennessee, $500,000. 

On the tributaries of western Geor- 
gia and Alabama streams rising in this 
region, $500,000. 

This aggregate of $10,000,000 tells 
a story of destruction never before 
equaled in this region. Bridges were 
swept away by the score, houses by the 
hundred ; thousands of miles of pub- 




Layer of Sand spread over the lowlands bordering the Catawba River by a flood in May, 1901. 



we have another and a larger story of 
destruction : 

On the New (Kanawha) and other 
smaller adjacent streams in Virginia 
and West Virginia, $1,000,000. 

On the Watauga, in North Carolina 
and Tennessee, $2,000,000. 

On the Nolichucky, in North Caroli- 
na and Tennessee, $1,500,000. 

On the French Broad and Pigeon, 
in North Carolina and Tennessee 
$500,000. 



lie roads were washed away almost be- 
yond the possibility of repair. 

The soil in the narrow, irregular, 
fringing valley lands in the mountain 
region was in many cases partially and 
in other cases completely washed 
away. In the lowlands beyond, the 
broader bordering valleys were de- 
nuded beyond recuperation. Some 
areas were denuded of soil, while 
others were covered with desert-like. 



January 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



37 



almost barren, white sand, extending 
for miles along the course of a stream. 

Since the value of a water power 
depends entirely upon the water avail- 
able, anything tending to reduce its 
amount or to change its distribution 
by increasing the violence of the floods 
and at the same time diminishing the 
low-water flow, will work injury in 
precise proportion to the change pro- 
duced. This result is inevitable upon 
the deforestation of the drainage basin 
and on many of the streams has al- 
ready become evident. 

More than 24 per cent of the total 
area of this region has been cleared of 
its forests. 

The states through which flow the 
streams rising in the region of the pro- 
posed Appalachian forest reserve have 
for many years past been devoted 
mainly to agricultural pursuits; but 
within recent years a great awakening 
has come, and a tendency to manufac- 
ture the raw material at home has be- 
come manifest. Already the results 
are to be seen in the increased pros- 
perity of the region, resulting from the 
development of diversified industries. 

There has been wonderful progress 
in cotton manufacturing during the 
last ten or fifteen years. 

North Carolina, which had in 1887 
200,000 spindles, in 1904 had 2,000,- 
000 ; and South Carolina, with 230,000 
spindles in 1887, had in 1904 nearlv 
3.000,000. 

North Carolina has today as many 
cotton mills as Massachusetts, though 
they are not as large. 

The five first states in the Union in 
cotton manufacturing, arranged ac- 
cording to number of spindles, are 
Massachusetts, South Carolina, Rhode 
Island, North Carolina, and Georgia. 
These facts are stated to show the im- 
mense progress that has been made in 
manufacturing in the South during the 
last few years and illustrate the impor- 
tance of power in these states. Many 
new mills are run by water power, and 
from the present outlook the day is not 
far distant when the great majority of 



southern mills will be operated by the 
power delivered to them electrically. 

Water power is universally recog- 
nized as the cheapest power to be se- 
cured for any kind of manufacture ; 
for when once the constructional de- 
velopment is at an end the attendant 
expenses become very small, since, 
through the operation of the laws of 
nature, the water flows without cost, 
day and night, while every ton of coal 
that passes in at the furnace door rep- 
resents a certain expenditure, and in 
plants requiring great power this fuel 
cost may come to represent a large 
proportion of the cost of manufacture. 

In the past the chief advantage of 
steam power over water power was 
the mobility of the former, for steam 
could be generated wherever fuel could 
be obtained and mills could be built 
where the transportation facilities were 
such as to insure the quick disposal of 
the finished product. By reason of the 
great improvements in electrical trans- 
mission of power, steam has lost its 
advantages, for water power can now 
be brought to a mill for distances of 
many miles more cheaply than power 
can be obtained from coal at most 
points. The water powers, therefore, 
in the not far-distant future may be- 
come as valuable as coal mines, and 
as the local coal supply becomes more 
costly by reason of deeper mining the 
water powers will increase in value. 

This wealth should not be wantonly 
wasted. Its present value can be con- 
served and its future value increased 
by the preservation of the forests about 
the headwaters of the streams; and 
this preservation would seem desirable 
therefore, if for no other reason than 
this, entirely apart from the wealth- 
producing capabilities of the forests 
themselves. 

It is impossible at this time to give 
an accurate statement of the total pow- 
er available on all the streams rising in 
and flowing from this area. Any "dis- 
cussion of this, based on the total fall 
from source to mouth and the average 
quantity of water carried by the 
stream, would be worse than mislead- 



38 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



January 



ing. The fact that there is on any 
stream a certain fall within a certain 
distance, over which flows a certain 
amount of water, does not mean that 
this locality constitutes an available 
water power. Theoretically the power 
is there, but practically it is non-exist- 
ent unless it can be developed and 
brought to use for a sum which is not 
prohibitive. In other words, the avail- 
ability of a water power depends en- 
tirely on the economic situation at the 
point considered, and every location 
must be viewed by itself in such deter- 
mination. 

It is, however, certain that on all of 
these streams large amounts of power 
can be easily and cheaply developed 
when the demand for it is sufficient, 
for the average fall in the streams is 



great, and is noticeably high at great 
numbers of points, while the low-water 
flow is fairly large on account of the 
large annual rainfall and the storage 
effect of the great forests. Further- 
more, at many points the conditions 
favorable for easy and cheap develop- 
ment are present, and on some of the 
streams surveys have been made which 
render approximate estimates easy. 

It is safe to estimate the available 
but undeveloped water power on the 
streams rising among the Southern 
Appalachian Mountains as equivalent 
to not less than 1,000,000 horse power, 
and the developed power is 120,000. 
The future value of these water pow- 
ers, as, indeed, the future value of 
almost anything of value about these 
mountains, depends largely upon pres- 
ervation of the forests. 



SUGGESTIONS FOR FOREST POLICY 



BY 



ARTHUR P. DAVIS 

Assistant Chief Engineer, U. S. Reclamation Service. 



IT IS gratifying to note that the 
* American public is now thorough- 
ly alive to the necessity of preserving 
and fostering its forest resources. 
This valuable public sentiment should 
be utilized to the utmost by the lead- 
ers of the movement to secure needed 
legislation to stop the devastation of 
our forests and secure the renewal of 
those already destroyed. 

To this end the first and most im- 
perative step is to stop, at once and 
forever, the alienation of the public 
forest lands. Every acre of forest land 
in public ownership should be includ- 
ed in a forest reserve and a scientific 
control exercised over the grazing and 
cutting thereon. This policy should 
have been adopted forty years ago. 
There is no excuse for further delay. 
Private lands bearing forests should 



be added to these reserves as fast as 
practicable and they should be made 
nucleii for forest extension by planting 
and cultivation. 

Much has been truly said in con- 
demnation of the fraudulent entries of 
valuable timberland under the Timber 
and Stone Act. Without excusing the 
frauds, it must be admitted that the 
primary blame rests with the law. Un- 
der present law there is no way to ob- 
tain leave to cut timber except by 
acquiring title to the land. No one can 
file on more than 160 acres, and this 
area is entirely too small to furnish a 
timber supply to a modern sawmill. 
To secure such a supply of timber as 
will justify the establishment of such 
a mill as can be profitably operated, it 
is necessary to obtain control of thous- 
ands of acres of timber, and under 



*Read at Annual Meeting of the American Forestry Association, Washington, D. C. 
Jannarv Id and 17. 



1906 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



39 



present laws it is almost impossible to 
do this without fraud, or at least eva- 
sion of the law. The only remedy is 
such change in the law as will permit 
the sale of mature timber on public 
land, while the preservation of the 
gowing- crop remains in scientific 
hands. It is peculiarly fortunate that 
the forest reserves are under a super- 
vision that inspires universal confi- 
dence. 

In the absence of public control of 
the timber that has now passed into 
private hands, it becomes important 
that every device be employed to check 
the destruction that cannot be directly 
prevented. The moral force of this 
Association in this direction can hard- 
ly be overestimated, and we should be 
faithful and vigilant in exerting that 
force at all points. 

In view of the present tendency to 
revise fiscal laws, the friends of the 
forest should not forget that we are 
at present virtually offering a pecuni- 
ary bounty on the destruction of our 
forests by levying a tariff on lumber, 
woodpulp, and other forest products. 
Far more efficient than steel, cement, 
glass, paper, or any other possible sub- 
stitute for our native woods are the 
forests of Canada and tropical Ameri- 
ca, which, if permitted, would be 
largely used in this country, and would 
tend to check the destruction of our 
native forests. Incidentally, it would 
ameliorate the lot of the settler on the 
plains and every one who employs this 
prime necessity of civilization. If it 
were possible to import iron and steel, 
it would stimulate the use of these 
more_ permanent and less inflammable 
substitutes for wood, and in a measure 
accomplish by a short cut what we are 
trying to promote by laborious and 
expensive measures of preservation 
and reforestation. 

The devastation of forest fires can 
be, and should be, stopped. An effi- 
cient patrol can largely prevent fires, 
and they can be held in check by an in- 
telligent system of fire guards. Many 
fires are caused by railway locomo- 
tives, and these should be prevented by 



clearing the ground of combustible 
material for a considerable distance on 
each side of every railway track 
through forests. These would thus 
become fire guards to stop the progress 
of any fire started from any cause. 
Every wide river is a natural fire 
guard ; smaller streams may become 
fire guards by clearing their banks for 
a distance on each side. ' By clearing 
occasional short strips in suitable 
places the guards formed along rail- 
ways and rivers may be so connected 
that the whole forest region would be 
divided into blocks of moderate area, 
to one of which any fire would be con- 
fined. 

During the past fifteen years the 
production of Portland cement in the 
I'nited States has increased about 
ninety- fold ; it has nearly quadrupled 
in the past five years. In 1890 nine- 
tenths of the Portland cement used in 
this country was imported; now less 
than one-fortieth is imported, and the 
imports are still large. To a great ex- 
tent this has been used in the erection 
of concrete structures which would 
otherwise have been built of wood. 
The use of steel, glass, and other ma- 
terials as substitutes for wood has 
greatly increased in the same time, and 
yet the consumption of wood in this 
country is constantly increasing, in 
spite of the steadily increasing price 
of lumber. This means that the actual 
demand for wood has greatly increased 
and is constantly growing. 

There is no doubt that wood is now 
used for many purposes for which its 
use should be discouraged or prohib- 
ited, on account of its inflammable na- 
ture. The construction of wooden 
buildings and the finishing in wood of 
stone, brick, and steel structures is far 
more common than it should be, and is 
a menace to both life and property. 
The remedy lies in more education 
along the lines of true economy and 
greater stringency of fire laws. 

Scientific forestry does not mean the 
continued preservation of individual 
trees, but merely their preservation 
until ready for harvest and the preven- 



40 



FORESTRY AND IKRIGATION 



January 



tion of wanton waste. The present 
system of waste and destruction is sim- 
ilar to the practice that was followed 
regarding the American buffalo, which 
led to quick extermination. Scientific 
forestry, on the other hand, means the 
handling of our forests as the farmer 
handles his herd of cattle. The young 
are cared for to maturity, and the 



slaughter is carried on in such a way 
as to preserve and increase the race, 
while securing the maximum results in 
the shape of matured product. The 
proper policy will not materially de- 
crease the present output of forest pro- 
ducts, and will ultimately greatly in- 
crease it, if we are consistent in apply- 
ing rational methods all round. 



EDUCATION IN FORESTRY IN THE 
PUBLIC SCHOOLS AND COLLEGES* 



BY 



DR. GEORGE T. WINSTON 

President, North Carolina College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts. 



/^ NE of the greatest problems be- 
^^ fore the American people is the 
building up of rural life. This prob- 
lem resolves itself into three great fac- 
tors, to wit: Agricultural education, 
road building, and forest conservation. 
The national government, recognizing 
the supreme necessity of agricultural 
education, has provided liberally there- 
for through the "Morrill Bill," estab- 
lishing agricultural colleges in each 
state and territory; the "Supplemental 
Morrill Bill," increasing the appropri- 
ation for the colleges, and the "Hatch 
Act," establishing agricultural experi- 
ment stations in connection with the 
agricultural colleges. Various states 
have supplemented the work of the na- 
tional government in the direction of 
agricultural education by additional 
appropriations to the agricultural col- 
leges, and by state agricultural depart- 
ments, whose work supplements that 
of the colleges. This system of agri- 
cultural education will not be compkte 
until it includes a series of agricultural 
normal schools for the training of 
rural teachers in all subjects relating 
to rural life. 

Of equal importance with agricultu- 
ral education as factors in the upbuild- 



ing of rural life are road building and 
forest conservation. Indeed, they are 
essential parts of agricultural educa- 
tion, and they should be included in 
any complete scheme of agricultural 
instruction. The national government 
should add to the agricultural colleges 
departments of road building and for- 
estry, with adequate appropriations for 
their support, and the state govern- 
ments should join in supporting and 
developing them. The problem is too 
great and the task too big to be under- 
taken exclusively by the states. 

The conservation of our forests is 
not a local matter, but a supreme na- 
tional necessity. Every use to which 
wood is now applied, every influence 
exerted by forests upon water supply 
and water-flow, every reason that 
makes forests valuable today for 
health, for pleasure, for sport, for 
scenery, for timber, for manufactures, 
for grazing, for soil preservation, for 
flood prevention, is an unswerable ar- 
gument for forest conservation. 

Forest conservation means the pres- 
ervation of mountain soil from denu- 
dation and of Piedmont soil from flood 
and destruction. Over 200 square 
miles of soil is annually washed into 



*Read at Annual Meeting of the Antierican Foreptry Association, Washington, D. C. 
.Tannary 16 and 17. 



1906 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



41 



rivers and carried to the sea by devas- 
tating floods, not to consider the de- 
struction of crops, houses, and ani- 
mals. Forest conservation will pre- 
vent increase of, and wise reforesta- 
tion will diminish, this tremendous 
loss. 

Forest conservation means a perpet- 
ual supply of wood for manufactures. 
Furniture factories, box factories, bar- 
rel and tub factories, woodpulp and 
paper mills will need timber hereafter 
as well as now, which can be supplied 
only by a wise system of forest con- 
servation. 

It means a perpetual lumber supply 
for building purposes. Houses, ships, 
cars, bridges, mines, and other struc- 
tures will always need wood. The rail- 
roads alone are consuming annually 
over one million acres of forests. 
Without forest conservation the supply 
will soon be exhausted. 

Forest conservation means a maxi- 
mum of forest yield, a maximum of 
lumber, of water, of agriculture. De- 
forestation means destruction of lum- 
ber, of water, and of agriculture. 

In the language of President Roose- 
velt, "Use the forests for grazing, for 
farming, for lumber, for whatever they 
are best adapted ; but so use them that 
you will not destroy their usefulness 
for future generations." 

Forest conservation, by keeping the 
forests and using them too, will be an 
unanswerable demonstration that a 
wise people may "eat their cake and 
keep it too." 

Forest conservation should be taught 
in every school and college. The na- 
tional government should give a great 
lesson in forest conservation to sixty 
million people by establishing the Ap- 
palachian Forest Reserve. The United 
States owns sixty forest reserves, of 



about 100,000,000 acres, worth $250,- 
000,000. Not one is east of the Missis- 
sippi River. The proposed Appala- 
chian Reserve will contain four million 
acres and cost ten million dollars. 

Every mountain system west of the 
Mississippi River contains a forest re- 
serve. The Appalachian Mountains, 
extending from Pennsylvania to Ala- 
bama, are, from every point of view, 
the most important system on the con- 
tinent. To crown their summits with 
a national forest reserve — the largest, 
the grandest, the most useful on the 
continent — would complete the system 
of national forest reserves. 

The Appalachian Forest Reserve is 
located in seven states with 13,000,000 
inhabitants and is within twenty-four 
hours of 60,000,000 people. It is, par 
excellence, the health and pleasure re- 
gion for all the states east of the Mis- 
sissippi River. 

Over one million horse power yet 
remains to be developed in this region, 
provided a steady stream-flow can be 
maintained. To do this, the forests 
must be preserved. Continued defor- 
esting will destroy much water power 
that is already developed. 

In the Appalachian Mountains rise 
many great rivers, flowing through 
many great states, whose waters, for 
power, for commerce, for health, for 
water supply to cities, and food fishes 
should be guarded with the utmost 
care from contamination and diminu- 
tion. 

The matchless flora and fauna and 
natural scenery of the Appalachian 
Forest Reserve would be a sufficient 
reason for their preservation, forming 
in the heart of the East Mississippi 
country a perpetual paradise of health 
and pleasure, where weary mortals 
may go for all ages and become strong 
asrain on the bosom of Mother Earth. 




*.^*".i 



;r^ft4:^!Vi^t||*fif 



m^m:-^^ 




MUTUAL RELATIONS OF THE FOR- 
EST SERVICE AND THE RECLA- 
MATION SERVICE 



BY 

C J. BLANCHARD 

Statistician, V. S. Reclamation Service. 



THE Forest Service and the Recla- 
mation Service are the infant 
prodigies of the Department of Agri- 
culture and of the Interior. Neither 
has emerged from its swaddling 
clothes, but both are mighty healthy 
infants and are attracting a good deal 
of public attention. Since they be- 
came big enough to sit up and take no- 
tice they have been occupying places 
at a table upon which the principal 
dish was a large piece of the public 
domain. Like Jack Sprat and his wife, 
they have proceeded to lick the platter 
clean ; but they have been well-behaved 
children and have not quarrelled over 
their portions. 

The forestry infant has shown an 
exceeding fondness for mountain tops, 
steep-sided hills, old pine barrens, and 
high altitudes generally, while the Re- 
clamation Service has selected the val- 
leys and mesas. 

Great national movements are not 
developed suddenly. The movement 
for a common-sense national forestry 
policv, like the movement for national 
reclamation of arid lands, has been 
gathering lungs and body for many 
years. The promoters of both experi- 
enced many grievous disappointments, 
and more than once all but gave up the 
fight. For more than a quarter of a 
century the best minds in the West, in 
season and out, urged the wisdom of 
the nation engaging upon the work of 
making its richest lands habitable, but 
prejudice due to lack of knowledge of 
the West's resources blocked every 
move for national irrigation. 

*Read at Annual Meeting of the Amer 
.lanuary 16 and 17. 



The forestry movement travelled 
over the same stony thoroughfare. 
From first being declared chimerical 
to later being denounced as paternal 
and sectional legislation, both move- 
ments drilled their way through the 
opposition and won national standing. 

Neither, however, would yet have 
achieved congressional endorsement 
and have become crystallized into law- 
had it not been for the forceful, tact- 
ful, and persistent efiforts of our Chief 
Executive, the first occupant of the 
White House whose knowledge of the 
West was not gained solely from 
books. For him the desert held no se- 
crets, and in the forest he was at home. 
\\^ith his strong and virile personality 
behind both movements the prejudices- 
against these measures gave way. The 
clogged and cumberous wheels of leg- 
islative machinery were set in motion, 
and in the brief time of one adminis- 
tration, fruition long withheld, came to- 
the hopes of the advocates of national 
forestry and irrigation. 

Three years of field work by the 
Reclamation Service— years full _ of 
things accomplished, great engineering 
works begun, and the real battle with 
the desert well under way — have 
served to emphasize the wisdom of the 
forestrv law. The investigations of 
the reclamation engineers and hvdro- 
graphers have carried them over many 
thousands of miles of valley and plain 
and to the distant headwaters of the 
streams. It has been forcibly im- 
pressed upon them that the greatest 
present need in many sections is forest 

can Forestry Association, Washington, D. C.,. 



1906 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



43 



preservation and restoration. With the 
tremendous development which has 
been taking place in the great Ameri- 
can desert, and which is yet going on, 
the question of preserving the forests 
to conserve and regulate the flow of 
streams becomes greater every year. 
Without the protection of the forests, 
and under the old policy of permitting 
the public timber to pass unrestricted 
into the hands of private owners, the 
limit of agricultural development in 
many western states had practically 
been reached ; in fact, the denudation 
of the forest cover in several sections 
had been so complete that agriculture 
in the valleys below became a failure 
and wide areas returned to the desert. 

The greatest asset of three-fifths of 
the United States is the water in the 
streams and underground. Upon the 
proper diversion and scientific utiliza- 
tion and application of this water 
depends the future of a region of im- 
measurable resources and productive- 
ness. 

Private capital has wrested ten mil- 
lion acres (or another state of Massa- 
chusetts) from what was once worth- 
less desert. Two million people now 
•dwell in prosperity and content in a 
region only a short time ago the most 
forbidding and desolate on our conti- 
nent. Cities populous and prosperous 
liave risen in the desert and have at- 
tained commercial and mercantile 
greatness. Every available stream is 
-now a potent factor for good. Modern 
methods and machinery have trans- 
formed the broad prairies of Louisiana 
and southeast Texas into productive 
rice fields, and irrigation in a few 
years has already fulfilled Secretary 
Wilson's prediction that from an im- 
porter this country would become an 
exporter of this important cereal. 

Neither forestry nor irrigation are 
local questions. Their application is 
hy no means confined to the arid re- 
gions. The denudation of forest cover 
in the South Atlantic states has already 
been followed with dire consequences 
to the irrigated rice plantations. The 



character of numerous tidal streams 
has been radically changed, and thous- 
ands of acres in rice plantations have 
been ruined. With the mountains cov- 
ered with dense forests, these streams 
were not subject to sudden and dan- 
gerous floods, and the regular rise of 
the tides was utilized in irrigating the 
cultivated areas. Today many of these 
streams rise twenty feet in a night and, 
coming down with tremendous force 
from the deforested slopes, are no 
longer restrained by the dikes, but 
sweep over the fields and destroy them. 

The dream of the future to make a 
populous empire out of the great 
American desert could never become 
a reality without the enactment of na- 
tional forestry and national irrigation 
laws. Under the policy of our ener- 
getic young Forester, Mr. Pinchot, we 
are going to cut our forests and still 
have them. There is to be no more of 
this ruthless and wanton wasting of 
the timber resources and the attending 
decrease of the precious water supply. 

It is not strange, therefore, that we 
of the Reclamation Service feel a deep 
and kindly interest in the growth of 
the Forest Service. In the extension 
or activity of that service in the West 
will come an enlargement of the work 
of national irrigation. 

We have all been very much im- 
pressed with the personnel of the For- 
est Service. It has been my pleasure 
in travelling over the West, and while 
in Washington, to meet a great many 
members of the service, and I confess 
to a feeling of surprise that Mr. Pin- 
chot has been able, in so short a time, 
to collect about him such a corps of 
clean, vigorous, intelligent, and ambi- 
tious young men. As in the Reclama- 
tion Service, the esprit de corps is ex- 
ceptional. There is a loyalty and de- 
votion to chief, and love of the work, 
which is remarked on every hand by 
other government employees. Such 
sentiments predicate future success, 
and at the same time are subtle com- 
pliments to the men who are respon. 
sible for the two organizations. 



ALABAMA'S INTEREST IN 
FORESTRY* 



BY 



LESLIE L. GILBERT 

Secretary, Alabama Commercial and Industrial Association. 



A N INTEREST in forest preserva- 
•**• tion is slowly being awakened in 
Alabama. A year ago the Commercial 
Club of Montgomery took the initia- 
tive, and a month ago a standing com- 
mittee on "Forest Preservation" was 
created in the state organization of 
commercial clubs. We had an able 
representative of the Forest Service 
present at our annual meeting in No- 
vember last, and expect now to have 
him spend the entire month of Febru- 
ary in Alabama, stirring up an inter- 
est in forest matters. 

Most cities awaken to the value of 
their franchises after they have given 
them all away. So, also, many com- 
munities realize the value of their for- 
ests only after their land has been 
stripped of its trees. To the publicity 
given this work by this Association— 
to the note of alarm sounded by the 
Forest Service — we in Alabama are 
indebted for time and opportunity to 
protect ourselves. 

I differ somewhat from the conclu- 
sions reached by Mr. Lippincott yes- 
terday. He spoke of the proprietory 
interest felt by the general citizenship 
in any nearby forest ; deploring its use 
for picnics and playgrounds and urg- 
ing a more rigorous protection of the 
rights of private property ; that vandal 
trespassers should be taught that the 
forest is as sound a crop as a golden 
orange orchard. All this is true; but 
do not attempt to destroy this "pro- 
prietory interest" as a remedy. This 
very sense of partnership in the forests 
is the very medium through which the 
strong influence of the people general- 
ly may be crystallized into protective 

*Read at Annual Meeting of the American Forestry Association 
January 16 and 17. 



legislation. The people love the for- 
ests. God intended they should. The 
good Lord gave us a partnership in 
them, and by virtue of that natural 
property interest we are enabled to say 
to forest owners, "You should so man- 
age your forest that its permanent fu- 
ture existence will never be endan- 
gered nor its beneficent protection 
withdrawn from the water powers and 
fertile fields of the valleys. You 
should manage your property so as not 
to injure or endanger the property of 
others." 

The South is vitally concerned in 
the conservation of her forests and the 
protection thereby afforded to her 
many valuable water powers. A great 
wave of industrial prosperity has swept 
over the Southland. In the past twen- 
ty-five years the capital invested in 
southern cotton mills (many of which 
are run by hydraulic power) has in- 
creased from $21,000,000 to $225,000,- 
000; the value of the crop from $315,- 
000,00 to $680,000,000 ; its production 
of pig-iron from 397,000 tons to 3,- 
300,00 tons ; its production of wool 
from $6,000,000 to $67,000,000; and 
its lumber from $39,000,000 to $250,- 
000,000. 

In all this remarkable progress, Ala- 
bama has led the march as first in the 
alphabet of natural resource and devel- 
opment. 

Of coke it produced last year about 
$8,000,000, being the second state in 
the Union. 

Of ore it produced last year about 
$4,500,000, being the third state in the 
Union. 



Washington, D. C. 



1906 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



45 



Of cotton it produced last year $56,- 
000,000, being the third state in the 
Union. 

Of iron it produced last year $20,- 
000,000, being the fourth state in the 
Union. 

Of coal it produced $15,000,000, be- 
ing the fifth state in the Union. 

Of pine it produced about $14,000,- 
000, being the fifth state in the Union. 

And yet with all this production of 
lumber, we have yellow pine timber 
still standing on about 21,000,000 acres 
in Alabama. 

As has been stated, this is an age of 
electricity. The forests are the safe- 
guards of our water powers and guar- 
antee a more steady and constant flow. 
The city of Montgomery runs its street 
railways and illumines its houses and 
stores with electricity developed thirty 
miles distant on the Talapoosa River. 
Emerson Marmillon, of New York, 
has a two million dollar investment in 
this enterprise. A further project is 
now under way for the development of 
another 10,000 or 15,000 horse power 
further up the river. Other valuable 
water sites are being secured. 

The Coosa valley of central Alaba- 
ma is a veritable wonderland of rich 
natural resources. Herein are valua- 
ble ore mines, both brown and red ; 
and side by side solid hills of lime rock 
for fluxing purposes. Herein are over 
4,000,000 acres of coal lands — the fa- 
mous Coosa coal fields ; herein are val- 
uable marble and building stone, min- 
erals of various kinds, forests of pine 
and forests of hardwood ; while every 
vegetable and fruit known to the tem- 
perate zone grow luxuriantly therein. 
Winding beautifully thro' this valley 
flows the majestic Coosa. You may 
not be aware, perhaps, that from its 
rise in the Ostenola River in the foot- 



hills of North Georgia to its junction 
with the Tallapoosa to form the Ala- 
bama at Montgomery and thence on 
down to the gulf, the Coosa River pre- 
sents the longest system of waterways 
in the United States, the Mississippi 
and its tributaries only excepted. 

For about one hundred miles of its 
length it is not navigable, being inter- 
rupted by shoals. Along this portion 
of the Coosa are valuable water power 
sites. Their permanent protection 
through forest conservation, and later 
development, will enable electricity to> 
be supplied to all Alabama and Geor- 
gia. 

Edison states that we should cease 
to transport coal in cars to be used im 
cities for power purposes ; but instead 
establish steam plants at the mouth of 
the mines and transmit the power itself 
there generated. It is stated that in 
California long-distance electric trans- 
mission is successfullv accomplished 
over a distance of 300 miles. If this 
be true, think of the mills and factories 
this Coosa coal field can electrically 
supply ! We have as yet scarcely 
scratched the back of our coal fields in 
Alabama. 

If, in addition to the hydraulic pow- 
er developed on the Coosa and tribu- 
taries, we turn the four million acres 
of coal into electric power at the mine 
door and transmit it over long-distance 
wires within a radius of 300 miles, we 
can supply all the factories and mills, 
run all the street railways and lighting 
systems of the cities of the entire 
southern states for ages. 

And, as safeguards for the protec- 
tion of these water powers, as silent 
sentinels upon our industrial frontier, 
the forests of Alabama, properly con- 
served, will shower rich blessings into 
the lot of all mankind. 



INFLUENCE OF THE WORK OF THE 
RECLAMATION SERVICE ON THE 
FORESTRY MOVEMENT 



BY 



MORRIS BIEN 

Consulting Engineer, U. S. Reclamation Service. 

r\ NE of the fundamental purposes sufficient water supply to irrigate the 
^-^ of the forestry legislation of re- lands under them. Dams and canals 

have been cheaply constructed and im- 



cent years is the conservation and re 
ulation of the water supply. In the 
western half of the United States the 
water supply is vital. According to 
the census reports, there are about ten 
jnillion acres now under irrigation, and 
■a population of several millions is di- 
rectly or indirectly dependent upon the 
"water supply. The enormous business 
interests of this great population have 
:not in the past exercised their propor- 
tionate influence upon the development 
•of the forestry interests of the public. 
'Considering that they are dependent 
ior their future prosperity upon the 
proper management of the forests on 
the public domain, they should consti- 
tute an overwhelming force in this 
movement. It is true that several asso- 
ciations are actively engaged in devel- 
,oping the public interest in the West, 
but the western people are not in the 
fore-front of this movement as they 
should be. 

The principal cause of this slow de- 
velopment is inherent in the local con- 
ditions. Most of the irrigation sys- 
tems are constructed by corporations. 
Even under the best of conditions the 
enterprises have not been properly 
managed from an engineering point of 
view. Construction has usually been 
"begun without adequate preliminary 
investigations. There are many in- 
stances of expensive dams being con- 
structed without the necessary water 
•supply available for storage. Large 
canal systems have been built without 



properly located so as to leave them 
inherently weak and subject to damage 
or destruction by natural conditions. 

The irrigators, consequently, have 
had an inadequate water supply and 
have been required to engage in a 
struggle to maintain their rights to the 
water claimed by them. The result has 
been that the canal owners and the 
water users have been so entirely en- 
grossed in the effort to maintain their 
systems and defend their water supply 
against aggression that they have been 
unable to give attention to the broader 
aspects of the industry. 

The legislation of the western states 
has to a large extent contributed to 
this condition. The protection of the 
law was not needed when the water 
supply was abundant, but as develop- 
ment extended the laws were inade- 
quate to enable those using the water 
to protect their rights. 

In several of the states legislation 
has been recently enacted which will 
improve these c6nditions. As the irri- 
gators are relieved from the necessity 
of devoting their whole attention to 
these fundamentals of possession, they 
will have opportunity to become inter- 
ested in the broader views and will 
take the place among the advocates of 
forestry protection to which their im- 
portance entitles them. This develop- 
ment will necessarily be slow. 

There is, however, a new element in 
the situation. The Reclamation Act 



*Read at Annual Meeting of the American Forestry Association, Washington, D. C. 
January 16 and 17. 



1906 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



47 



was placed upon the statute books 
about three and one-half years ago. 
The operations of the Reclamation 
Service in connection with the work of 
the Forest Service will add to the 
movement the influence of two impor- 
tant branches of the governmental ser- 
vice. Aside from the influence of of- 
ficial action itself, there is another 
phase of the work of the Reclamation 
Service which will have a marked ef- 
fect upon the development of the in- 
terest in the forestry movement. 

The Reclamation Service has begun 
the construction of thirteen irrigation 
projects, and will during the next 
spring begin the construction of ten 
others. Upon these twenty-three pro- 
jects there will be expended in the 
course of the next three or four years 
about $30,000,000. One of these pro- 
jects — a small one — will be practically 
completed this spring, and another will 
be so far advanced that a portion of 
the area can be placed under irriga- 
tion. It is expected that 50,000 acres 
of land will be placed under irrigation 
this summer. In the season of 1907 
the lands under irrigation from pro- 
jects of the Reclamation Service will 
be increased to about 350,000 acres ; in 
1908 the area irrigated will be about 
750,000 acres, and in 1909 nearly all of 
the twenty-three projects now author- 
ized will have been completed to the 
extent of the first sections undertaken 
and will provide for the irrigation of 
about 1,250,000 acres. 

This means that during the next 
three or four years there will be added 
to the present population of the irri- 
gated area in the West about 20,000 
families. Before many years the pop- 
ulation supported by this area may 
easily be several hundred thousand 
people, and when the lands attain a 
development such as the irrigated dis- 
trict of southern California has reached 
in thirty years, will sustain a popula- 
tion of about a million people. In the 
meanwhile, other projects will be con- 
structed by the Reclamation Service 
and new additions made to the popula- 
tion. 



These people come to the irrigated 
lands under radically different condi- 
tions from those affecting the water 
users upon existing irrigated areas. 
The Reclamation Act provides that the 
Secretary of the Interior shall deter- 
mine the area necessary for the sup- 
port of a family on public lands en- 
tered under its provisions ; shall limit 
the area to which water can be sup- 
plied for lands in private ownership to 
not more than 160 acres for any one 
person ; and all private land owners 
are required to reside upon the land 
irrigated or in the neighborhood. This 
policy will prevent a monoply of the 
land or of the water, the history of ir- 
rigated areas showing a tendency to- 
ward reduction of individual holdings 
rather than toward an increase. 

When the works are constructed, 
the Secretary of the Interior is re- 
quired by the act to turn over to the 
water users the management and op- 
eration of the system, under rules and 
regulations approved by him. The 
water users form corporations, known 
as water users' associations, and pro- 
vide for the regulation and control of 
the water systems by themselves, giv- 
ing each community complete local 
government. 

The Reclamation Act affords oppor- 
tunity for thorough and careful inves- 
tigation of the conditions before con- 
struction is begun. It supplies ample 
funds for proper and permanent con- 
struction. It eliminates all speculative 
interests from any control in the sys- 
tem, and turns over to the water users' 
association a well-constructed system, 
free from all doubtful questions of 
ownership or control of the water sup- 
ply. As a result, the water users' asso- 
ciation under each project will be a 
powerful body representing a united 
local community, in a position to look 
into the broader aspects of the irriga- 
tion problem. They are usually located 
close to the forest reserves upon which 
their water supply depends, and they 
cannot fail to be a potent factor in the 
future development of the interests of 
forest preservation and management. 



48 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



January 



The reclamation fund provides for 
the return by the waters users of the 
cost of construction ; so that when the 
first set of projects now undertaken is 
completed the returns to the fund will 
enable the Reclamation Service to ex- 
tend some of the projects which may 
be completed and to take up new ones. 
These extensions will continue indefi- 
nitely, because the reclamation fund 
provided by the act is a revolving 



fund. The additions to the communi- 
ties so developed will go on from time 
to time, adding their impetus to the 
progress of the forestry movement. 

It is safe to say, therefore, that, 
aside from the mere official action of 
the Reclamation Service, the results of 
the construction of the various pro- 
jects will introduce a powerful element 
that will bring into line with the work 
of the American Forestry Association 
the united West. 



THE NATIONAL BOARD OF TRADE 

Interesting Report of the Committee on Forestry 
and Irrigation Made at the Annual Meeting, 
Washington, D. C, January 16, 17 and 18. 



TT IS gratifying to note that much of 
'■ the legislation on forestry and irri- 
gation matters which has been consist- 
ently urged by the National Board of 
Trade has been enacted into law. The 
National Board was the first organi- 
zation representing the commercial in- 
terests of the whole country to rec 
ommend a national irrigation policy, 
and June 17, 1902, a national irriga- 
tion law was enacted. There is in the 
irrigation ' ;nd at the present time 
about $30,000,000, which is increasing 
from the sale of public lands at the 
rate of at least $3,000,000 a year. 

In the matter of forest legislation, 
the National Board of Trade recom- 
mended the passage of the bill provid- 
ing for the consolidation of the various 
forestry branches of the government 
into the Forest Service of the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture. This bill was 
enacted into law at the last session of 
Congress. 

The National Board of Trade has 
stood against the practice of exchang- 
ing worthless "scrip" land in the na- 
tional forest reserves for valuable pub- 
lic lands outside of the reserves, and 
has repeatedly recommended the repeal 
of the law permitting this practice. 



This law was repealed at the last ses- 
sion of Congress. 

At the last meeting of the National 
Board, opposition was expressed to 
what was known as the 640-acre home- 
stead bills, increasing the homestead 
entry in parts of South Dakota, Colo- 
rado and in Montana from 160 acres to 
640 acres. These bills were all de- 
feated at the last session of Congress. 

Other minor measures and appro- 
priations advocated in past meetings 
of the National Board, in relation to 
forestry and irrigation, have been fa- 
vorably acted upon by Congress. 

Much, however, remains to be done. 
The National Board of Trade has con- 
sistently advocated the saving of the 
great public domain for the use of the 
real homemaker as against the land 
and timber grabber and the specula- 
tor. Trade and commerce will in- 
crease as population increases, and our 
national land policy should be admin- 
istered to preserve our remaining half 
billion acres of public lands for those 
who will build homes upon them. xA.s 
laws which tend to overcome this poli- 
cy the National Board has continuous- 
ly, since its meeting in January, 1902 
urged the repeal of the Timber and 



1906 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



49 



Stone act, the commutation clause of 
the Homestead act, and the Desert 
Land act, in accordance with the rec- 
ommendations of the President in his 
annual messages to Congress. 

A Public Lands Commission, ap- 
pointed by the President, consisting of 
W. A. Richards, commissioner of the 
General Land Ofifice ; Frederick H. 
Newell, chief engineer of the Recla- 
mation Service, and Gifford Pinchot, 
chief of the Forest Service, has during 
the course of two years made a study 
of the public lands' condition and has 
brought in a report which has been 
forwarded to Congress by the Presi- 
dent with a special message recom- 
mending the repeal of the Timber and 
Stone act and the substitution of a 
rational forest policy of selling only 
the stumpage from the public timber 
lands, retaining the lands for future 
timber growth ; recommending the 
radical amendment of the commuta- 
tion clause of the Homestead act and 
a like amendment of the Desert Land 
act, in such manner as to require ac- 
tual residence and improvement under 
both of the latter named laws, amount- 
ing to their practical repeal. 

The provisions of this report are 
highly satisfactory to the forestry and 
irrigation committee of the National 
Board of Trade, which believes that 
their enactment into law, strictly en- 
forced, would do away with land and 
timber grabbing and promote those 
policies on this subject for which the 
Board has consistently striven. 

The present indefensible land policy 
of the United States is resulting in an 
actual money loss to the government 
of tens of millions of dollars annually, 
in the denuding of our watersheds and 
the destruction of all chances for a 
future timber supply, in the building 
up of lordly landed estates in the West 
of ten and hundreds of thousands of 
acres in single ownerships, instead of 
providing for the creating of thous- 
ands of small rural homes — in short, 
in the mismanagement and waste of 
the greatest resource ever possessed 
by any nation on earth. 



The attention of our lawmakers in 
Congress should be urgently called to 
the fact that while they are attempting 
economy in the expenditure of money, 
they are allowing laws to remain in 
force under which by far the most 
valuable asset of the nation is being 
recklessly wasted. 

The rapidity with which the public 
lands are being absorbed into private 
ownership is shown by the following 
table from the reports of the commis- 
sioner of the General Land Office : 

Year. Acres. 

1898 8,453,896 

1899 9,182,413 

1900 13,453,887 

I90I.---. 15.562,796 

1902 19,488,535 

1903 22,824,299 

1904 16,405,822 

1905 17,056,622 

Total for 8 years. .122,428,270 

Under the Timber and Stone act the 
sales of public timber lands during the 
last five years have been as follows : 

Year. Acres. 

1901 396,445-61 

1902 545,253.98 

1903 1,765,222.43 

1904 1,306,261.30 

1905 696,677.06 

Total 4,709,860.38 

A large proportion df these lands 
have been in the heavily timbered belt 
of the far northwest and is of the class 
of timber described by the Secretary 
of the Interior in his report for the 
fiscal year ended June 30, 1903, in 
which he says : 

"The Timber and Stone act will, if 
not repealed or radically amended, re- 
sult ultimately in the complete destruc- 
tion of the timber on the unappropri- 
ated and unreserved public lands. The 
rapidity with which the public tim- 
bered lands are being denuded of their 
timber, and the opportunity oflfered 
under the Timber and Stone act for 
the fraudulent acquisition of title to 



60 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



January 



public timbered lands at the uniform 
price of $2.50 per acre, when they are 
in many instances worth forty times 
that ($100), has been heretofore- set 
forth in the pages of my annual re- 
ports and those of my predecessors." 

As far back as 1902 the commission- 
er of the General Land Office said in 
his annual report : 

"Many lands which the government 
disposed of a few years ago for $2.50 
per acre are now worth $100 an acre, 
or even more. ' 

"Under this law the government has 
disposed of more than 5,000,000 acres 
of valuable timbered lands, and has 
received therefore about $13,000,000. 
The law has been too often violated. 
Individuals without funds of their own 
have been employed to make entries 
for others with large capital, and who 
paid the expenses, and some wealthy 
speculators have made enormous for- 
tunes, 

"Considering the forests simply as 
property whose only use is to be con- 
verted into lumber and other material 
of commercial value, the government 
has disposed of them at an actual loss 
of considerably more than $100,000,- 
000. In other words, through the op- 
eration of this law public property 
worth much more than $130,000,000 
has been disposed of for about $13,- 
000,000." 

Since that report was made, nearly 
4.000,000 additional acres have been 
disposed of under this law, the value 
of timber land in the meantime con- 
stantly increasing. 

But estimating the values only of 
the 4,709,860 acres of timber lands dis- 
posed of in the last five years, and at 
only $25 per acre, the government has. 
in that time, parted with the title to 
land worth $117,746,500. The price 
received for this land has been at the 
uniform rate of $2.50 per acre, or $11,- 
774,650, a loss to the government of 
over $100,000,000. Your committee 
endorses the recommendation of the 
President and his Public Lands Com- 
mission for the repeal of this Timber 
and Stone act and the substitution of a 



rational forest policy, by which the title 
to the public timber lands shall remain 
forever in the government, the stump- 
age only to be disposed of, at its mar- 
ket value. 

Under such a plan as this, and under 
an agreement whereby one-half the 
proceeds could be devoted to the For- 
est Service and the other half to the 
irrigation fund, two policies of great 
internal improvement and importance 
could be generously maintained, while 
at the same time the forestry question 
would be to a great extent solved, pub- 
lic forest lands being lumbered in such 
manner as to preserve the young 
growth and leave the forests as a per- 
petual source of income to the nation 
and at the same time conserve the 
water supply. 

If the $100,000,00 which have been 
lost to the government under the above 
showing were at hand, a score or more 
of enormous irrigation projects could 
be immediately constructed, reclaiming 
from 2,000,000 to 3,000,000 acres of 
desert land, and enormous areas of 
eastern forest reserves created through 
the purchase of mountain timber lands 
east of the Mississippi. 

In this connection, your committee 
is much impressed with the importance 
of the creation of federal forest re- 
serves to preserve the water supply of 
eastern streams, upon the continued 
flow of which depends much of our 
manufacturing industries. The west- 
ern half of the United States has over 
100,000,000 acres set aside in national 
forest reserves, as a source of future 
timber supply and for the preservation 
of the flow of streams for irrigation ; 
but the East has no such an advantage, 
whereas the menace to her water sup- 
ply from forest destruction is equally 
as great. Large areas in the Southern 
Appalachian and White Mountain 
ranges should be created into forest 
reserves. 

In a speech at Raleigh, N. C, on 
October 20 last, President Roosevelt 
said: "It is the upper altitudes of the 
forested mountains that are most val- 
uable to the nation as a whole, especial- 



1906 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



51 



ly because of their effects upon the 
water supply. Neither state nor nation 
can afford to turn these mountains 
over to the unrestrained greed of those 
who would exploit them at the expense 
of the future. We cannot afford to 
wait longer before assuming control in 
the interests of the public of these for- 
ests ; for if we do wait, the vested in- 
terests of private parties in them may 
become so strongly intrenched that it 
may be a most expensive task to oust 
them. If the eastern states are wise, 
then, from the Bay of Fundy to the 
Gulf, we will see within the next few 
years a policy set on foot similar to 
that so fortunately carried out in the 
high Sierras of the west by the nation- 
al government. All the higher Appa- 
lachians should be reserved. Such re- 
serves would be a paying investment, 
not only in protection to many inter- 
ests, but in dollars and cents to the 
government. The importance to the 
southern people of protecting the 
southern mountain forests is obvious. 
These forests are the best defense 
against the floods which, in the recent 
past, have during a single twelve 
months, destroyed property officially 
valued at nearly twice what it would 
cost to buy the Southern Appalachian 
Reserve. 

"The maintenance of your southern 
water powers is not less important 
than the prevention of floods, because 
if they are injured your manufacturing 
interests will suffer with them. The 
perpetuation of your forests, which 
have done so much for the South, 
should be one of the first objects of 
your public men." 

The importance of the Appalachian 
forest cover to the cotton milling in- 
dustry alone in the Piedmont regions 
of North Carolina, South Carolina and 
Georgia is shown by the statistics of 
the mills operated by the water power 
derived ftom the streams having their 
sources in these mountains. In these 
three states there are 163 mills so op- 
erated, with a combined capital stock 
of $33,000,000, with 2,770,000 spindles 
and 50,926 looms, and giving work to 



over 45,000 employees. The total an- 
nual production of these mills is ap- 
proximately $64,000,000. 

Virginia has interests also which are 
not included in the above figures, as 
have also Tennessee and Kentucky, on 
the western side of the mountains. 

A national forest reserve in the 
White Mountains of New Hampshire 
is also a matter of general concern and 
vital to the well-being of the industries 
of all New England. We are upon the 
threshold of great industrial competi- 
tion with the producing powers of the 
world ; to maintain our supremacy we 
must retain our hold upon our cheap 
water power, which, through electrical 
invention, is being utilized as never 
before and greatly aiding to our na- 
tional prosperity. 

The creation of the Appalachian and 
White Mountain Forest Reserves can- 
not be left to the states ; the question 
is an interstate, and therefore a nation- 
al one. Nearly all the rivers of New 
England head in the White Mountains 
of New Hampshire, and it is of su- 
preme importance to the industries of 
all the New England states, represent- 
ing tens of millions of dollars, that the 
forest cover at the river sources shall 
be preserved and improved. 

National delay in the acquisition of 
these reserves would be dangerous and 
wasteful. Timber land which a few 
years ago could have been purchased 
at $1.50" to $3 an acre, has now trebled 
and quadrupled in value. Additional 
delay will mean a further increase in 
cost. Congress should act at once and 
preserve from destruction one of the 
greatest resources of the nation. 
Committee, 
Wm. S. Harvey, Chairman^ 
F. Iv. Hitchcock, 
Geo. H. Anderson, 
F. B. Thurber. 

RESOLUTIONS OF THE NATIONAL BOARD 
OE TRADE. 

Resolved, That the National Board 
of Trade re-endorse the plan of gov- 
ernment irrigation of arid lands and 
their subdivision into small farms of 



52 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



January 



160 acres or less, the cost of construc- 
tion to be repaid into the reclamation 
fund as provided in the irrigation law. 

We endorse the broad national work 
of the Forest Service and the creation 
of national forest reserves. 

We endorse the high, business-like 
and non-political plane upon which the 
Reclamation Service and the Forest 
Service are being conducted. 

We endorse the fearless course pur- 
sued by and the manifest rigid integ- 
rity of the Secretary of the Interior in 
his prosecution of public land thieves 
and timber grafters, and congratulate 
the country upon the success of his en- 
deavors to' purge the nation of those 
who would rob it of one of its best 
assets.' 

We urge upon Congress the immedi- 
ate enactment of legislation to carry 
into effect the recommendations of the 
President as set forth in the report of 
the Public Lands Commission (being 
Senate Document 154, 58th Congress, 
Third Session), to the end that the 
Timber and Stone act be repealed 
forthwith and a forest policy substi- 
tuted providing for the sale of stump- 
age, at market value (the title to gov- 
ernment forest lands to remain forever 
in the government), the net proceeds 
therefrom to be divided equally be- 
tween the Forest Service and the Re- 
clamation Service, the latter of which 
now receives the entire receipts from 
the sale of government timber lands in 
the arid states and territories ; that the 
commutation clause of the Homestead 



act and the Desert Land act be repeal- 
ed, or so amended as to require long 
terms and actual residence and im- 
provement, the predominant idea be- 
ing that no more public lands shall 
ever pass from the government except 
for the purpose of actual and bona fide 
home-making in small tracts, not to 
exceed 160 acres each. 

We invite the attention of Congress 
to the vital importance of creating for- 
est reserves in the Southern Appala- 
chian and White Mountain regions for 
the preservation of both timber and 
water supplies, and we urge an imme- 
diate appropriation of at least $3,- 
000,000 for the purpose of reserves 
in the Southern Appalachian Moun- 
tains and in the White Mountains of 
iVew Hampshire. 

Members of the National Board of 
Trade are urged to use their personal 
influence with their representative sen- 
ators and representatives for the repeal 
of the Timber and Stone act and for 
the passage of the bills for national 
forest reservations in the Southern Ap- 
palachian Mountains and in the White 
Mountains, and to influence the press 
favorably to these measures in their 
respective cities and states. 

It is further Resolved, That copies 
of these resolutions and accompanying 
report be sent to the President, Secre- 
taries of the Interior and Agriculture 
and to the members of the public lands 
committees of the United States Sen- 
ate and House of Representatives. 




sm 



I 



4 



«? 



^ 



7 Forestry and Irrigation 

H. M. SUTER, Editor 

5'sag!i'gs=:S ffiJ,i.] ! ^i---.j|iij| =i»j'jgw; - 



CONTENTS FOR FEBRUARY, [906 

STEAM SHOVEL ON BELLE FOUECHE PROJECT - Frontispiece 
NEWS AND NOTES : 

Meeting of Directors - - - 55 Reclamation in New Mexico 

Awakening Interest in South 55 and Texas 58 

Storage Tests of Seeds - - 55 Tiie Reclamation Fund - - - 58 
Reform in Turpentining - 56 Reclamation Work— River Im- 
Com batting Damage by provement . - - - - 

Rabbits 56 Testing Red Fir 59 

Timber Testing 56 Forest Cover on Watersheds - 59 

Planting in Prairie Regions 56 Land Witlidrawals Effective - 59 
Progress on Umatilla Project 56 Telephones in Forest Reserves 60 
City Park Forestry - - - 57 Underground Waters of Great 

United States Reclamation 57 ' Plains _ - - 60 

Klamath Project - - - - 57 Studying Gum 60 

Payette-Boise Project - - 58 Foresters for Reserves - - - 61 
INDIVIDUAL RESPONSIBILITY vb. COMMISSIONS {with 

portrait). Bv Hon. Francis G. Newlands - - - - 63 
RISE IN LUIMBER PRICES. By R. S. Kellogg - - - - 68 
A HISTORY OF THE LUMBER INDUSTRY IN AMERICA 

{with portrait). By Treadwell Cleveland, Jr. - - - 70 

ENDORSEMENT OF MINNESOTA RESERVE {with cartoon) - 73 
MINNESOTA NATIONAL FOREST RESERVE {Illustrated). By 

Rev. J. T. Brabner Smith 78 

FORESTED WATERSHEDS (/;/«s<rai^d) Bv Alfred Akerman - 83 
REORGANIZATION OF THE PHILIPPINE BUREAU OF 

FORESTRY. Bv W. J. Hutchinson 

LETTERS URGING THE ESTABLISHMENT OF THE WHITE 

MOUNTAIN RESERVE 90 

SUGGESTIONS FOR STATE FOREST FIRE LAWS. By E. J. 

Cheynev ■ - - 93 

ANNUAL" REPORT, GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES MUTUAL 

RELIEF ASSOCIATION - - 

AIDING CITIES AND TOWNS TO NAME THEIR TREES - 97 
HUGE CONSl^MPTION OF WOODEN FENCE POSTS - - 98 
A NEW SAVING IN THE TURPENTINE INDUSTRY - 
NUT GROWING AND FORESTRY. Bv Le.slie Harrison - - 100 
THE CALAVERASGROVE OF BIG TREES. By Mrs.Lovell White 102 

Forestry and Irrigation is the official organ of the American Forestry Association 
Sut)scription price 81-00 a year; single copies 10 cents. Copyright, 1906, b> 
Forestry and Irrigation Publishing Co. Entered at the Post Office at Washington 
D (' , ai. second class mail matter. 




Published Monthly at 

WASHINGTON. D. C 




Forestry and Irrigatioa 



Vol. XIL 



FEBRUARY, 1906. 



No. 



NEWS AND NOTES 



. A meeting of the Board 

Directo?s° o^ Directors of the 

American Forestry As- 
sociation was held in the office of the 
president, at the Department of Ag- 
riculture, Washington, D. C, Tues- 
day, February 6. After election of of- 
ficers plans for the year's work were 
discussed and adopted, and referred to 
the newly-elected executive committee 
for action. This committee is com- 
posed of Mr. Gififord Pinchot, Mr. 
William S. Harvey, Mr. F. H. Newell, 
Mr. James H. Cutler, and Mr. Wil- 
liam h. Hall. A budget estimate of 
receipts and expenditures for the fiscal 
year of 1906 was presented by the 
treasurer. A statement by the secre- 
tary showed that 302 new members 
were elected during the month of Jan- 
uary. It was decided to hold meetings 
of the Board of Directors quarterly, in 
January. April, July, and October. 

Awakening Mr. Alfred Gaskill, of 
^"s"^th ^^^ Forest Service, is 

spending the month of 
February in Alabama, in meeting and 
addressing farmers' conferences and 
commercial bodies, to awaken an in- 
terest in forestry. Though the South- 
ern States are now the center of the 
Eastern lumber industry, and though 
the Southern forests are destined to 
play so important a part in the eco- 
nomic development of the region, the 
true importance of these forests and 
their great possibilities have by no 
means been grasped. Already great 
inroads have been made on Southern 
forest resources, and if the story of 
waste followed by useless regret which 
is told of the Northern forests is not 



to be repeated in the South, it is im- 
perative that the public mind be roused 
and that steps be taken in time to check 
exhaustion of supplies, before it is too 
late, by calling in the services of fores- 
try. Alabama, singularly rich in for- 
est resources, is still fortunately in a 
position, by taking thought, to add 
vastly to her industrial growth through 
the wise utilization of these forest 
riches. 

Numerous packages of 
oisT^ds * forest tree seed are being 

received by the Forest 
Service in Washington from the sev- 
eral nursery stations throughout the 
West where seedlings are being grown 
for planting on forest reserves. These 
seeds will be used in carrying on ex- 
tensive storage tests to determine the 
best methods of preserving seeds of 
the several species most commonly 
used. The more important species are 
western yellow pine, jack pine. Coul- 
ter pine, knobcone pine, red fir, white 
fir, and incense cedar. 

The work in Washington is in co- 
operation with the Seed Testing Labo- 
ratory, and the seeds will be stored 
dry, in cool basements, in cold storage, 
and in hermetically sealed jars. Cor- 
responding tests will be carried on at 
the nurseries on the western forest re- 
serves, and the comparative results are 
expected to show not only which meth- 
od of storage is best, but in which lo- 
cality seeds retain their vitality long- 
est. In view of" the rapid increase in 
forest planting operations, particularly 
in connection with planting on denud- 
ed watersheds, this work becomes of 
high importance. 



66 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



February 



. Now that experiment 

Turpe'Stining has shown that the pro- 
ductive Hfe and the total 
crop of turpentined trees may be pro- 
longed by reducing the size and depth 
of the wound made in chipping, the 
Forest Service, as the next step, has 
taken up the best means of accurately 
regulating the chipping so as to make 
it uniformly of the right depth and 
height. In the present method of hand 
chipping there is a good deal of varia- 
tion in the work of different men. To 
obviate this, an instrument is being de- 
vised by means of which exact chip- 
ping may be done. By this means it 
is hoped to give much greater certain- 
ty to the increased yield and greater 
total profit which the recent experi- 
ments have shown to be possible under 
an improved system of chipping. 

Combatting During the winter the 
Damage damage caused by rab- 

by Rabbits uu ^ j. j. j. t, 

bits to trees set out by 

the Forest Service on watersheds in 
reserves in southern California, will be 
met by the adoption of measures rec- 
ommended by Dr. C. Hart Merriam, 
Chief of the United States Biological 
Survey. The trees have many hard 
conditions to contend with. The thin 
soil and extreme aridity are trying 
enough, and of late rabbits have been 
eating off the young trees of certain 
species. Knobcone and Coulter pines 
are favorites with the rabbits, while 
incense cedar is not touched. By us- 
ing large seedlings and making a prop- 
er choice of species the injury done by 
the rabbits is to some extent obviated. 
But stronger measures are needed. 
Those to be tried will include steel 
traps set in the regular run-ways that 
the rabbits frequent, poisoned grain, 
and the wetting with strychnine syrup 
of the branches of those seedling which 
the rabbits injure. 



Timber 
Testing 



The timber-testing ma- 
chinery which the For- 
est Service will use at 
the laboratory of the University of 
Washington, at Seattle, has arrived, 
and Mr. Rolf Thelan, the assistant as- 



signed to the timber-testing work 
there, will go to Seattle to put the ma- 
chines in operation. The Seattle labo 
ratory is one of three on the Pacific 
Coast at which the Forest Service is 
conducting tests of the strength of 
the structural timbers of the region 
The two other laboratories are at the 
University of California and the Uni- 
versity of Oregon, which, like the 
Washington State University, are co- 
operating with the Service. 



Planting 
in Prairie 
Regions 



The success of the plant- 
ing operations on the 
Dismal River Forest Re- 
serve in Nebraska has indicated to 
ranchmen in the sand-hill country the 
advisability of planting for protection 
and timber supply. The jack pine and 
western yellow pine are very promis- 
ing, and, in addition, certain of the 
rapid-growing broadleaf trees, such as 
Carolina poplar, green ash, and Cot- 
tonwood, can be used. 

In the spring of 1904 some ten or a 
dozen ranchmen planted small quanti- 
ties of jack pine obtained from the 
woods of northern Minnesota on trial. 
Authoritative reports from nearly all 
of these men show a high proportion 
of success, only two absolute failures 
being reported, and these because of 
unfavorable local conditions and lack 
of care. 

The Forest Service has recently re- 
ceived an application for assistance in 
planting ten acres near Broken Bow, 
and it is expected that the applications 
from ranchmen will rapidly increase 
in the future. 

Progress on Officials of the Reclama- 
Umatilla ^jqj-^ gervice in Washing- 

rojec ^^^_^ ^^^ much pleased 

with the progress being made by the 
land owners on the Umatilla project, 
Oregon. Late advices from the engi- 
neer on the ground indicated a strong 
interest on the part of the water users 
who have already pledged 13.000 out 
of 18,000 acres included in the project. 
As most of the legal difficulties have 
been adjusted by the Secretary of the 
Interior, it is believed that no great 



190(! 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



57 



delay will occur in signing- up all of 
the land embraced in this project. Al- 
though the Umatilla is one of the 
minor national works in point of cost 
and acreage, the favorable climate, low 
altitude, the fertile soil and its adapta- 
bility to a very wide variety of pro- 
ducts, makes this one of the most at- 
tractive projects undertaken. 

The land is best suited for orchards 
and small fruits, and when so used 
from lo to 20 acres are ample for the 



tered, and predict a populous and pros- 
perous community here at no distant 
day. 

The Forest Service has 
Forestry submitted to the Im- 

provement Society of 
Helena, Montana, a detailed plan for 
forest planting on treeless portions of 
Mount Helena, which lies on the out- 
skirts of the city. This plan, in gen- 
eral, covers the collecting and storing 
of the necessary tree seeds, growing 









m\ ^;S*r^^;r 





Diamond Drill on Barge in Shoshone River at Dam Site, Shoshone Project, Wyoming 



support of a family. The fruit and 
vegetables are the first on the market. 
The transportation facilities are excel- 
lent, the markets being the large cities 
of Portland and Spokane. 

The engineering works are simple, 
and while the cost of water is $60 per 
acre, it is relatively low compared with 
the values produced. The soil experts 
who have thoroughly examined the 
whole area are enthusiastic concern- 
ing the future of this section when wa- 



the stock in a nursery, and planting 
the trees in the park. The proposed 
park contains about 900 acres, of 
which about 140 acres are already cov- 
ered with young timber. 
North '^'"'6 Secretary of the In- 

Dakota terior has set aside from 

Reclamation the Reclamation Fund 
the sum of $450,000 to be used in con- 
nection with the $550,000 already al- 
lotted for pumping projects in North 
Dakota, for initial installation on the 



68 FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION February 

Nesson, Williston, and Buford-Tren- Leasburg diversion dam and canals in 

ton projects, upon the following con- connection with the Rio Grande pro- 

ditions: ject. New Mexico and Texas, on the 

First : That the land owners pledge condition that the return of said sum 

themselves in the usual way through be guaranteed by the land owners. The 

the water users' association, to return prescribed conditions of repayment in 

the cost to the Reclamation Fund. two years having been found impossi- 

Second : That the holdings of pri- ble of fulfillment by the owners of 

vate lands in excess of i6o acres for lands, the Secretary has rescinded 

which water is to be furnished be dis- this requirement and directed that the 

posed of in tracts not exceeding 80 usual form of contract be entered into 

acres of irrigable land. with the water users' associations 

Third : That the owners of irrigable guaranteeing the return to the govern- 
lands in excess of 160 acres be re- ment of all expenditures made under 
quired to dispose of them in the man- the terms of the Reclamation Act, 
ner provided by the general form of which allows for ten equal annual pay- 
contract for this purpose and approved ments. 

bv the department. The The present status of the 

^, ^ ^ , ^ Reclamation Reclamation Fund, com- 

KLmath J^'^ Secretary of the n- Fund ^^ ^j^ ^^^ ^^_ 

Project tenor has autliorized the ^^ived from sales of public lands in 

u TT o -o Supervismg Engmeer of certain states and territories, is shown 

the U. S. Reclamation Service, at Los j^^ ^j^g following table : 

Angeles, California, to receive sealed ° Reclamation 

proposals for furnishing from 8,000 state or Territory fund, by states, Total Recla- 

f ^ , 1 r n .1 J . btateorierntorj. received in mation fund. 

to 10,000 barrels of Portland cement, 1905. 

for use in connection with the Kla- Arizona $30,368.46 $216,772.32 

math irrigation project, Oregon and California 498,488.37 2,470,396.58 

California. Colorado 318,546.14 1,909.713.70 

Particulars may be obtained by ap- Idaho 383,221.74 2,028,731.29 

plication to the Chief Engineer of the Kansas 30,423.91 128,273.49 

Reclamation Service at Washington, Montana 349,529.75 2,098,532.65 

D. C. or to the office of Supervising Nebraska 179,138.10 657,109.52 

Engineer J. B. Lippincott, 1 108 Union Nevada 11,167.70 59,321.11 

Trust Building, Los Angeles, Califor- New Mexico 133,243.57 533,445-83 

nia. North Dakota... 807,792.48 4213,892.62 

_ ^, . - , Oklahoma 490,629.78 3,042,767.11 

l7.T' The construction of the Qregon 610,797.394,841,457.14 

Project Payette-Boise reclama- g^^,^,^ Dakota... 217,688.34 960,468.94 

tion project will begm utah 77,662.81 380,013.84 

at a very early date. At the present Washington .... 451,773.36 3,187,136.34 

time the Secretary of the Interior is Wyoming 193,04549 1,070,299.37 

advertising for bids for 14,000 barrels , , 

of Portland cement, to be delivered f. Total $4,805,515.39 $27,818,351.85 

o. b. cars at stations within a radius 

of twentv-five miles from Nampa. ^'''vI^r^" ^'^^"^ prominent writers 

Idaho. These bids will be received by improvement '" ^'"'^ Mississippi valley 

the .Supervising Engineer at Boise, seem quite unable to un- 

Tdaho, until 2 o'clock, March 9, 1906. derstand the difiference between the 

appropriations made for the reclaim- 
Reclamation in On December 2, 1905, ing of arid lands and those for the im- 
amTTexar" ^^^. Secretary of the In- provement of rivers and harbors, 
terior allotted the sum of There is a disposition to criticise Con- 
$200,000 from the Reclamation Fund gress for permitting the expenditure 
for the immediate construction of the of millions in making habitable and 



1906 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



59 



productive vast areas of the public do- 
main now worthless, and at the same 
time cutting down the appropriation 
for work on our national waterways. 

Apparently the fact has been over- 
looked that Congress has never made 
an appropriation of any specific sum 
for reclamation. On June 17, 1902, a 
law was passed setting aside the pro- 
ceeds from the sales of public lands in 
certain western states and territories 
for the construction of irrigation 
works within their borders. The law 
at the same time provided that every 
dollar so expended should be returned 
to the government by the settlers who 
take up the lands reclaimed. In other 
words, the nation made an advance of 
the receipts from the sales of certain 
public property to make marketable 
other public property. Out of the many 
millions expended by the government 
in river and harbor improvements, not 
a cent has ever been returned directly 
to the Treasury, nor was it expected 
that any return would be made. 

The difference in the two kinds of 
appropriations here mentioned is so 
obvious, however, that comparisons 
for the purpose of criticism are unfair. 
The western beneficiaries under the 
Reclamation act are suggesting that if 
the sections so strenuously demanding 
appropriations for river and harbor 
improvements would indicate a wil- 
lingness to reimburse the government 
for these expenditures, Congress might 
be more inclined to favor their de- 
mands. 

The mechanical tests of 
Red pfr red fir, which the Forest 

Service has undertaken 
in co-operation with the University of 
Oregon, are now under way. Mr. J. 
F. Knapp, of the service, reports from 
Eugene, Ore., that the necessary ma- 
chinery and accessories needed for the 
tests have been installed in the labora- 
tory. The object of the experiments 
will be to determine accurately the ef- 
fect of knots and other defects upon 
the strength of large sticks of red fir, 
with a view to furnishing data which 



may l^e used for the inspection and 
improvement of specifications. 

The material for the tests is to be 
selected from the mills of a lumber 
company near Eugene, and will con- 
sist of sticks 8 by 16 inches and 5 by 8 
inches in cross section. The sticks will 
be mainly merchantable and seconds, 
according to the Pacific coast standard 
rule for grading, but will include a few 
"selects" of a rate of growth corre- 
sponding to the sticks containing de- 
fects. Most of them will be tests 
green, but an occasional specimen will 
first be air-dried. 

Forest Cover That the value of forest 
Sh Y*^^'^ cover on watersheds 

used for power and irri- 
gation is now realized and fully appre- 
ciated is strikingly shown in southern 
California, where the Pacific Electric 
Company has asked the Forest Service 
to make a preliminary examination of 
the watershed of the San Luis Key 
River in San Diego county, which they 
plan to develop. The waters of the 
San Luis Rey River now run to waste ; 
but by constructing flood and storage 
reservoirs and reforesting the denuded 
slopes, enough water can be developed 
to furnish electric power for a new 
system of suburban trolley lines in the 
vicinity of San Diego and connecting 
that city with Los Angeles. r)esides 
furnishing this electric power, the 
water, after it passes through the tur- 
bines, will be used for the reclamation 
of the lower valley of the San Luis 
Rey River. The preliminary work of 
the Forest Service will be to examine 
this watershed and ascertain the por- 
tions in need of reforestation, and to 
outline the general procedure in pre- 
paring a definite plan for forest plant- 
ing on these areas. Mr. G. B. Lull, 
who is now stationed at Los Angeles, 
will do this preliminary work. 

Land The attorney general of 

Withdrawals |.}-,e Department of the 
Effective Interior has decided that 

the lands within the former Ft. Buford 
Military Reservation, which are in- 
cluded in the area withdrawn for the 
Lower Yellowstone project, arc not 



60 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



Febinary 



subject to disposal under the act pro- 
viding for the disposal of abandoned 
military reservations. 

These lands were restored to the 
public domain by the act of May 19, 
1900 (312 Stat, 180), which provides 
that they shall be subject to disposal 
under the homestead, townsite, and 
desert land laws. It provides that the 
actual occupants thereon upon the first 
day of January, 1900. shall have a 
preference to make one entry not ex- 
ceeding one quarter section ; that lands 
occupied for townsite purposes and 
lands shown to be valuable for coal or 
minerals shall be subject to entry and 
sale under the townsite, coal and min- 
eral land laws, respectively. 

The practical effect of the act of 
'May 19, 1900, was to restore the land 
to entry under existing laws, except 
such laws as are not specifically named. 
These lands are, therefore, subject to 
withdrawal under the Reclamation Act 
as portions of the public domain which 
are subject to entry under the general 
land laws. The withdrawal made by 
the Reclamation Service is therefore 
effective and all the lands included and 
entries thereof are subject to the limi- 
tations and restrictions of the Recla- 
mation Act. 

Telephones Since Udy I, IQOS^ the 
R f ° v^* Forest" Service has ap- 

e erves proved the construction 

of 154.65 miles of telephone lines 
through various forest reserves. In so 
doing, the service has arranged, in all 
cases, to secure to forest officers the 
free use of these lines. 

Now that the telephone is recog- 
nized as one of the best safeguards 
against the spread of forest fires, this 
arrangement means greatly increased 
safety to the reserves, secured without 
expense. By the continuance of the 
policy, it is believed that in due time 
a full and adequate telephone system 
will be built up on the reserves, to the 
great advantage of the service. 

Underground Very widespread inter- 
Waters of gg^ jg being taken in the 
Great Plains • , . , -^ ,1 td 1 

mvestigations the Recla- 
mation Service is making of the feasi- 



bility of developing the underground 
waters of several portions of the Great 
Plains area. It is recognized that if 
the Garden City project in Kansas 
proves a success that private capital 
will immediately take up the work in 
other sections. There are many people 
in the east, especially in the New Eng- 
land states, who are deeply concerned 
in this work. 

During the days of the "rain-belter" 
a great wave of immigration swept 
over vast areas of western Kansas and 
Nebraska. For a year or two rainfall 
was abundaitt and prodigious crops 
were grown. Easterners, allured by 
the high rates of interest, invested 
their savings in mortgages on these 
farms. A cycle of dry years came, the 
settlers vanished, and the mortgages 
were foreclosed. A considerable amount 
of this land is still the property of 
New England school teachers, mer- 
chants, and farmers, and their interest 
in a proposition of reclamation is ob- 
vious. 

A large part of the Great Plains 
area is underlaid with a thick stratum 
of water-bearing gravel. The investi- 
gations of the government show that 
the water supply is enormous, and if it 
can be cheaply lifted into distributing 
ditches, will insure the reclamation of 
many thousands of acres of land of 
exceptional fertility. 

The government project in Kansas 
is a small one, only 9,000 acres ; but 
upon its successful operation may de- 
pend the future development of an 
area equal to several eastern states. 

Mr. H. B. Holroyd, of 
Studying ^j^^ p^j.gg^ Service, is in 

Louisiana at the request 
of the Southern Cypress Manufactu- 
rers' Association, to make a prelimi- 
nary study of the conditions necessary 
for the seasoning of tupelo gum, with 
which manufacturers have not a little 
difficulty, owing to the tendency of 
this wood to warp and twist. Though 
of a distinct genus, tupelo gum shows 
much similarity in this respect to red 
gum, which for some time offered 
much difficulty in the process of dry- 



1906 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



61 



ing. Indeed, red gum has only recent- 
ly been handled with sufficient success 
during seasoning to render it a reliable 
wood. It is believed that with due 
care the troubles with tupelo gum may 
be overcome as successfully as has 
been the case with red gum, with re- 
gard to which the Forest Service re- 
cently published a bulletin dealing both 
with the commercial uses and with the 
mechanical properties of the wood. 



not quite, four billion feet of standing 
tupelo on the lands of the association. 

„ , It is the intention of the 

Foresters -r^ ^ ^^ . , , , 

for Reserves -t'orest bervice to add a 
trained forester to the 
executive force of each forest reserve. 
This is to introduce practical forestry 
on all the reserves. In addition to his 
general duties he will act as a techni- 
cal assistant in mapping, estimating, 




Detail View of Complete West Entrance of Tunnel just below Shoshone Dam Site 
on Canyon Road, Shoshone Project, Wyoming 



Tupelo gum occurs through the 
coastal region . of the Atlantic states 
from Virginia to northern Florida, 
through the gulf states to Texas, 
through Arkansas and southern Mis- 
souri to western Kentucky and Ten- 
nessee, and to the valley of the Wabash 
River. It grows only in swamps and 
wetter situations, often in mixture 
with cypress and, in rainy seasons, 
stands in from six to twenty feet of 
water. There are said to be almost, if 



and disposing of the timber. For this 
purpose the following appointments 
of forest assistants have just been 
made : R. P. Imes, to assist Supervisor 
Seth Bullock in the Black Hills Forest 
Reserve in South Dakota and Wyo- 
ming; E. H. Hereford, to assist Su- 
pervisor Fred S. Breen in the Black 
Mesa and Grand Canyon Reserves in 
California; and A. R. Powers, to as- 
sist Supervisor L. A. Barrett in the 
Plumas Forest Reserve. California. 




Cascades near Head of Catawba River. 
There are hundreds of Cascades as beautiful as this in the Southern Appalachians. As long 
as these mounfain forests are preserved these streams have a regular flow ; united they 
furnish the water powers which operate the factories valued at increasing millions. 



INDIVIDUAL RESPONSIBILITY 

vs. COMMISSIONS* 

How Methods in Vogue Under National Reclamation Act could 
be Adapted to Advantage in Construction of the Panama Canal 

BY 

Hon. FRANCIS G. NEWLANDS 

United States Senator from Nevada. 



I THINK it is conceded by all men 
connected with great corporate en - 
terprises that the responsibility of a 
great work must be individual ; that it 
must be put upon one man ; that that 
man must appoint his assistants for the 
different branches of the work and 
hold them responsible to him, and that 
these assistants in their various areas 
of control shall pursue the same meth- 
od. 

At the very start we did not indi- 
vidualize this responsibility. It is true 
we intrusted the work (of constructing 
the Panama canal) to the President 
but instead of giving him a free hand 
in organization we instructed him that 
he should do this work through a com- 
mission, and we ourselves designated 
in great part the personnel of that 
commission. We provided for a com- 
mission of seven. I think that was a 
mistake. I think we should have put 
upon the President of the United 
States the responsibility for this work ; 
that we should not have permitted him 
to share that responsibility with any 
commission of this kind. We should 
impose upon him the duty of appoint- 
ing his own subordinates, individual- 
izing responsibility everywhere as far 
as possible. 

It is not to be wondered at that we 
should make mistakes in organization 
at first, for the United States govern- 
ment has not been accustomed to great 
works of construction. We are now 
entering upon an era of construction, 
and I believe the area of our work in 



that particular will increase until it 
finally embraces governmental public 
utilities which are not now dreamed of. 

The only other great work of con- 
struction upon which we have entered 
was entered upon under a law passed 
almost simultaneously with the act un- 
der which the President is acting, and 
that was the irrigation law. There 
we individualized responsibility. We 
shaped a most comprehensive bill ; pro- 
vided a fund from the sale of public 
lands through which construction 
should be conducted, and provided a 
revolving fund so that the money 
could be used over and over again as 
the lands reclaimed were sold. 

But he gave the Secretary of the 
Interior full power to execute the law, 
and he placed no limit upon that pow- 
er except that he should not make a 
contract for construction unless the 
money for its payment was actually in 
the fund. 

What did the Secretary of the In- 
terior do under that act? He referred 
the administration of the act to the 
Geological Survey, a scientific branch 
of the government which for years has 
been engaged not simply in geological 
research, but in the study of every- 
thing that relates to the topography 
and "resources of the country, to our 
mineral deposits, to the measurement 
of streams, to the control of streams 
for navigation as well as irrigation, 
and which, during the formative pro- 
cess of the irrigation agitation, had 
been engaged in making plans for the 



*From a speech delivered in the United States Senate, Dec. 16, 1905. 



64 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



February 



great work that was subsequently to 
be entered upon. 

The director of the Geological Sur- 
vey has demonstrated administrative 
capacity of a very high character. Al- 
though his special scientific specialty 
was the examination of fossils, yet the 
expanding area of his bureau had 
turned him gradually into a great ad- 
ministrator. His capacity has been 
recognized by Congress, by our appro- 
priations committees, and by all who 



the responsibility of their acceptance 
or their rejection. 

Under him is Mr. Newell, a gradu- 
ate of the Massachusetts Institute of 
Technology, a man who entered the 
service when he was very young, an 
enthusiast on the subject of irrigation, 
and who during fourteen years' patient 
investigation and patient work has 
been preparing for this great work of 
construction. Those are the two men 
upon whom the responsibility for this 
work centered. 




Hon. FRANCIS G. NEWLANDS 
United States Senator from Nevada, one of the fore- 
most exponents of National Irrigation. 



have been brought in contact with him 
"by a prompt acquiescence in almost 
everything he has asked. He has been 
termed in this body the greatest getter 
of appropriations in the service of the 
government, and he has been direct 
and straightforward, has presented his 
plans clearly, and without urgency, 
and has placed upon the committees of 
the Senate and the House themselves 



Now, what did they do? Select 
commissions to divide responsibility 
as to administration ? Not at all. They 
drew into the force gradually the men 
who had distinguished themselves all 
over the country as topographers, as 
hydrographers, as hydraulic engineers, 
as constructing engineers, and the re- 
sult is that today we have in the em- 
ployment of that service a number of 



1906 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



65 



scientific men of large practical experi- 
ence, a body that is unsurpassed by 
that in the employ of any other gov- 
ernment in the world. 

Now, let me say right here that it 
seems to me that the Panama canal in- 
volves the same problems that are in- 
volved in the construction of irrigation 
works. You may call it a simple prob- 
lem as compared with the construction 
of all the irrigation works that are 
contemplated in this country. The 
work of investigation and planning 
now embraces fourteen states in this 
Union. The topography of the coun- 
try has been studied, stream measure- 
ments have been made, surveys of 
canals and ditches have been made, 
dams have been planned, reservoirs 
have been provided for, and they are 
almost ready for construction, and 
some are already commenced, and 
some have been finished. The Panama 
canal involves the same work. What 
have you there? A line only forty- 
seven miles long. The irrigation work 
embraces the entire arid region, con- 
sisting of thirteen states and three ter- 
ritories. The canal is forty-seven miles 
long. As you proceed from Colon, the 
canal runs through a flat country for 
fifteen or sixteen miles, the govern- 
ment availing itself for a part of that 
distance of the Chagres River as a part 
of the canal. Then comes the Bohio 
dam, 80 feet above the surface of the 
land, and about 150 feet down to bed 
rock. Then you have this artificial 
lake as the result of the dam, which is 
to receive the flood waters of the 
Chagres and hold them, so that they 
will not tear the banks of the canal 
below. 

Then we have the reservoir rein- 
forced by other reservoirs upon the 
Chagres River, intended to control the 
violence of the stream. The Bohio 
reservoir is about 14 miles long. With 
15 miles of the canal through the al- 
most level plain to Bohio and the 14 
miles of the Bohio reservoir you have 
a distance of 29 miles of the 47 miles 
completed. Then, farther to the south, 
you have the Culebra cut of about 10 



miles, which is to be cut to a depth of 
from 66 to 80 feet, according to the 
number of locks employed. Then you 
have another level space, or almost 
level space, to the Pacific ocean, about 
8 miles, making in all about 47 miles. 

Now, this service involves exactly 
the same problems on which the em- 
ployees of the irrigation service have 
been engaged for fourteen years. It 
involves study of the geological for- 
mations, careful stream measurements 
through a series of years, so as to as- 
certain the extent of possible floods 
and prevent the destruction caused by 
such floods. It involves dam construc- 
tion, ditch construction, and canal con- 
struction, just as in the arid region, 
and it involves protecting canals. 

Now, let us see whether it would 
not have been wise for the President 
to have had a free hand to take hold 
of this scientific branch of the govern- 
ment, which is an evolution of four- 
teen years, which had an administra- 
tion already accomplished whose ex- 
perience covered these various prob- 
lems, instead of reaching out for a new 
administration, to be accomplished not 
by the aid of hydraulic engineers, but 
to be accomplished by the aid of rail- 
road engineers inexperienced in hy- 
draulic engineering. 

The Bohio dam is about 80 feet high 
above the surface, though its founda- 
tion is to go down 150 feet to bed rock. 
Its length is 3,800 feet. That is a very 
long dam, of course, but at the Salt 
River in Arizona the United States 
government is now constructing, un- 
der the Reclamation Service, a dam 
270 feet high and 800 feet in length. 
It is also constructing the Shoshone 
dam, 310 feet high, with a length of 
200 feet. It is constructing the Rio 
Grande dam, 255 high, with a length 
of 1,150 feet. That dam is to be con- 
structed at a total cost of $5,115,000 
whilst the Bohio dam at Panama will 
cost about $6,000,000. 

Now, I ask, would it not have been 
better to have intrusted this work to 
that branch of the government which 
has been built up through the slow 



66 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



February 



process of evolution and which has 
now in its corps, either by direct ap- 
pointment or as consuhing engineer, 
every man in the country who has dis- 
tinguished himself in hydraulic engi- 
neering. 

Then as to tunnels. The irrigation 
service is now constructing the Gunni- 
son tunnel, of a length of 6 miles — a 
tunnel lo by 12 feet — and of that tun- 
nel a mile is already completed. Rec- 
ollect that the irrigation act was passed 
almost in the same month that the 
Panama act was passed. The irriga- 
tion committees of the Senate and the 
House visited the various projects 
during the last summer, and we had 
opportunity of observing the quickness 
and extent of the work, and we were 
amazed at the progress that had been 
made in the short space of three years. 

At the same session of Congress a 
bill was passed for the construction of 
a post office building, to cost fifty or 
sixty thousand dollars, in the city of 
Reno, Nevada. That building is not 
yet constructed — the foundations are 
not yet laid ;and yet the Reclamation 
Service has during the intervening pe- 
riod expended over $2,000,000 in re- 
clamation work in Nevada ; has di- 
verted the Truckee River, a stream of 
floods during certain seasons of the 
3'ear, a distance of 30 miles by a new 
river over into the Carson valley ; has 
constructed dams and locks and all the 
hydraulic machinery that was neces- 
sary to make that enterprise effective, 
and the water is now being turned out 
upon the soil. 

Now, what salaries are paid these 
men? Mr. Walcott receives $6,000 
a year. He could, in my judgment, 
because of the value of his services as 
an administrator, get a very much 
larger sum in outside employment, but 
he feels, as I observe most government 
employees do, and particularly those 
relating to the scientific branches of 
the government, a personal pride in 
his work. The commercial spirit does 
not entirely possess the men who are 
in the employ of the Geological Sur- 
vey. They are content with reasonable 



compensation, and you could not tempt 
them from government employ b\' the 
offer of larger compensation. 

I know^ one distinguished engineer 
who has been employed in the great 
private enterprises of the West in irri- 
gation construction who accepted from 
the United States government a sal- 
ary about one-third that which he 
earned in private practice, and he ac- 
cepted it because he wished to identify 
his name with a great engineering 
work in which he was interested. The 
esprit de corps of this particular, 
branch of the service is most marvel- 
ous. We men of the West have had 
opportunities of observing it. We have 
every year in the West an irrigation 
congress, composed of about a thous- 
and men, deriving its membership 
from each one of the arid and sem-arid 
states. The last congress I attended 
was in El Paso. The one previous to 
that was at Ogden. This convention 
of a thousand men was attended also 
by the engineers and hydrographers 
and the expert men of the Reclamation 
Service. They have annually a con- 
gress of their own, in which these en- 
gineers, coming from various parts of 
the country and engaged in different 
projects, present to the judgment of. 
their associates in the congress their 
several projects, invite criticism, and 
ask judgment. To these conferences 
members of the irrigation congress 
were invited, and the result is they 
have been a great educational power 
in the West. Forty or fifty delegates 
from every state who attend that con- 
gress go back to their states familiar 
with the plans of the government. 
They become informed through these 
expositions that take place and they 
form an educational force in every 
state, and, so far as the engineers are 
concerned, they feel the sustaining 
power of the people themselves in that 
great work. 

Now, this demonstrates that the 
government can get men for much less 
compensation than obtains in commer- 
cial life. Mr. Walcott gets $6,000 a 
year; Mr. Newell gets $5,000, and he 



1906 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



67 



is chief engineer, and no one of the 
noted engineers under him gets, I be- 
Heve, more than $4,000 or $4,500. The 
salaries of the engineers range from 
$2,200 up to $4,500. The only excep- 
tion is Mr. Grunsky, formerly of the 
canal commission, who has been as- 
, signed by the President to the position 
of consulting engineer, at a salary of 
$10,000 per annum. 

It would have been very easy, sim- 
ply by an extension of this service, to 
have taken the Panama canal within 
the area of its work, involving exactly 
the same problems that this bureau has 
been devoting itself to for fourteen 
years, and in which it has accumulated 
an experience that no set of men, how- 
ever great their capacity, can acquire 
in a short time. 

I do not question the ability of the 
engineers who have been employed in 
this work, but I do contend that almost 
all of them— I may say all that have 
been brought to my attention — have 
been engaged in railroad construction 
and not in hydraulic construction. 
Railway engineering is comparatively 
easy. It consists simply in surveys of 
the right of way, in adopting a certain 
standard of grade, in constructing tun- 
nels and bridges across streams ; 
whereas hydraulic engineering, as con- 
ducted in the West, involves all the 
things that are embraced in the con- 
struction of the Panama canal, except 
possibly the question of sanitation. 

Now, let me show what the Recla- 
mation Service has done during these 
three years. It has built yy miles of 
main canals. These main canals have 
the size of rivers. You would be 
amazed at the magnitude of some of 
those works. It has built 50 miles of 
distributing canals. It has built 186 
miles of irrigating ditches, 150 miles 
of telephone, 125 miles of road in can- 
yons, involving deep rock cuts; 3]/^ 



miles of tunnels. It has excavated 
10,000,000 cubic yards. 

In one of their works, at the great 
Salt River dam, a dam which is to be 
constructed of cement and stone, they 
found they were held up by the cement 
trust. What did they do? They set 
their geologist to work, and the geolo- 
gist discovered very near the site of 
the dam material admirably suited to 
make cement. And so they put up, at 
a cost of $100,000, a Portland cement 
mill-, and there they are making ce- 
ment at a great saving to the govern- 
ment. I cannot recall exactly the fig- 
ures, but it is a very large sum. 

Work is now going on in eleven dif- 
ferent projects in as many dififerent 
states, and they are now constructing 
the Shoshone dam, the Pathfinder dam. 
the Roosevelt dam, the Laguna dam,, 
the Belle Fourche dam, the Gunnison 
tunnel (6 miles long), and 12 miles of 
ditches on the Colorado River. 

So this service i'^ moving along qui- 
etly, unobtrusively, in a businesslike 
wav, under this system of individual 
responsibility. Mr. Newell, the chief 
engineer, is responsible to Mr. Wal- 
cott, the director of the Geological 
Survey, and Mr. Walcott, the director 
of the' Geological Survey, is responsi- 
ble to the Secretary of the Interior; 
and I believe that this work will be one 
of the crowing glories in the history 
of this republic. 

But even if the service of the irriga- 
tion survey should not be employed, 
even if its accumulated experience and 
information should not be tapped in 
this way in this work of identical char- 
acter. It does seem to me that we 
should give the President of the Uni- 
ted States a free hand, so that he can, 
if he chooses, turn over this work to 
the Geological Survey, or so that he 
can, if he chooses, adopt the system of 
individual responsibility to which I 
have referred. 



THE RISE IN LUMBER PRICES* 



BY 
R. S. KELLOGG 

U. S. Forest Service 



/^URS is pre-eminently a wood-us- 
^^ ing civilization, and aside from 
food and clothing, no material is so 
essential to industrial progress as 
wood. Nature provided us with im- 
mense areas of easily accessible, high- 
ly valuable forests, and we have drawn 
upon them with so lavish a hand for 
every conceivable purpose that we are 
loath to believe that the time is rapidly 
approaching when our remaining for- 
ests must be handled constructively 
and not destructively ; or else wood of 
the higher classes will be obtainable 
only in insufficient quantity. Accord- 
ing to the Census of 1900, which was 
admittedly incomplete, we were then 
using annually thirty-five billion feet 
of lumber, and now the amount is 
probably nearing fifty billion feet. Yet 
how many of you ever stop to consider 
that the lumber cut is much less than 
half of the total annual drain upon 
our forests? The pulp mills take some 
2,000,000 cords of wood yearly, the 
tanneries 1,500,000 cords of hemlock 
and oak bark, the cooperage industry 
a vast amount of timber, the railroads 
about 115,000,000 ties for renewals 
alone, and then there are millions of 
posts and poles to be added to the to- 
tal before we even come to the half of 
of our wood consumption. The Cen- 
sus of 1880 showed that the wood 
used for fuel, at that time, amounted 
to 146,000,000 cords, and there is no 
reason to suppose that, despite the 
great increase in coal consumption, the 
85,000,000 people of 1906 are burning 
less wood than did the 50,000,000 of 
1880. 

All these items, huge though they 
be, belong to necessary demands upon 
the forest. We are a rapidly growing 



nation, and we have seized upon every 
available resource to aid in our growth. 
Though the forests have been destroy- 
ed, they have yielded rich returns. Yet 
there is another drain upon them, 
which has been wholly harmful. This 
is fire. As a single example : The 
Secretary of the Pacific Coast Associa- 
tion recently stated that during the 
last fifty years there has been 900,000 
acres more timber burned over than 
cut over in Oregon. 

In the early days New England was 
the great lumber region. Then came 
the Lake States with their supposedly 
"inexhaustible supply" of timber. This 
was said 30 or 40 years ago. Now, 
Michigan is a practically negligible 
factor in white pine. Wisconsin is on 
the wane, and it will not be many years 
until Minneapolis and Cloquet cease 
turning out a million and a half feet 
each daily during the sawing season. 
Southern yellow pine is at present fur- 
nishing in the neighborhood of 30 per 
cent of the total lumber supply, but it 
in turn will yield to the Pacific Coast 
woods ; and we have finally come to 
the realization that the so-caled "inex- 
haustible supply" is a pleasing, but 
most dangerous misconception. Ex- 
ploitation has been so easy, invention 
has supplied so many ingenious meth- 
ods of converting trees into lumber, 
that the output from a given region is 
maintained at a high level until the 
supply is close to the point of exhaus- 
tion. We are nearer a halting place 
than most of us realize. 

What is the condition confronting 
the lumberman and the user of his 
products to-day? Dr. Fernow states 
that an "extravagant estimate" of our 
stumpage is not over two trillion feet, 



*Paper read at (he sixteenth annual meeting of the Southern Lumber Manufacturers' 
Association at New Orleans, .January 23, 1906. 



1906 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



6^ 



standing on some 500,000,000 acres. 
At the present rate of sawing this will 
be cut in forty years. This does not 
mean that forty years hence there will 
be no more timber to saw, but it does 
mean that there must come a great re- 
adjustment to new conditions by both 
the manufacturer and the user of for- 
est products. So far we have been 
drawing on the older trees in our for- 
ests, or cutting virgin stands anywhere 
from 100 to 500 years old. In other 
words, we have been paying dividends 
out of our capital stock, and no good 
business man will do that. In the near 
future our wood must be supplied by 
growth and reproduction, and the now 
commonly despised "second growth" 
will come to be our source of supply. 

Going back to our estimated forest 
area of 500,000,000 acres, let us see 
what can be done with it. Of this 
500,000,000 acres, the government has 
nearly 100,000,000 acres in national 
forest reserves, but a considerable por- 
tion of this area lacks forests of any 
value for lumber. Four-fifths of our 
forest area is in private hands and 
quite likely will remain so for at least 
a long time to come. The highly man- 
aged forests of Germany grow, on an 
average, about 50 cubic feet of wood 
per acre annually. Were our forests 
in the condition of the German forests, 
their extent is barely sufficient to fur- 
nish by annual growth the amount of 
wood we now use. As a matter of 
fact, the annual growth of our forests 
as a whole, under present conditions 
of abuse, is probably not more than 
one-fifth that of the German forests. 

These, then, are the conditions as 
nearly as can be estimated to-day. It 
does not require any special gift of 
prophecy to outline what will follow. 
We will undoubtedly go on in the same 
old wasteful, extravagant way, for 
some years yet, until there comes a 
stern realization that things must 
change. And when I say a "stern rcal- 
izatioti," I mean one which is caused 
by a greater scarcity of stumpage and 
a much higher price for lumber than 
now exists. Then we shall begin to 



husband our resources, and make one 
board do where we now use two. Un- 
doubtedly, we are approaching the 
maximum of our annual consumption 
of forest products, and hereafter, the 
great increase will be in value instead 
of quantity. It is entirely possible for 
us to use less wood and we shall do so 
when we have to. We are consuming 
some 500 board feet of lumber, per 
capita, annually, where Europe uses 
but 60; and if we were forced to im- 
port 80 per cent of our wood supply 
as does France, or practically all, as 
does England, we should quickly learn 
how to economize. We are not likely 
to reach this extreme condition, but we 
may be sure that prices will advance 
until consumption is finally forced 
down to somewhere near the annual 
accretion of the forests that are left at 
that time. 

I do not decry high prices, much as 
the country has benefited by low prices 
for lumber. I recognize the fact that 
in general the lumbermen have oper- 
ated as economically as they could un- 
der prevailing conditions, and while it 
is fashionable to condemn them for de- 
stroying the forests, they have done so 
only because of economic demand, and 
their critics would have behaved no 
better under the same circumstances. 
But the forests will not be handled ra- 
tionally until they become valuable, 
until there is money in handling them 
that way; and so I say that from the 
standpoint of the forester, high prices 
for lumber are a good thing, because 
they make it profitable to utilize the 
forests rationally and economically. 
One of the prominent Pacific Coast 
lumbermen recently advised his asso- 
ciates to "slab lightly, reduce your saw 
kerf, and keep your eye on the burn- 
er." Carrying this a little further, it 
will not be long until the slabs are re- 
sawed and the burner abolished en- 
tirely, as the white pine manufacturers 
are now doing. 

In view of these conditions, there is 
nothing really surprising in the fact 
that in the last twelve years the price 
of rough white pine uppers on the 



70 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



February 



Buffalo market has risen from $47 to 
$91, or 94 per cent; that select cypress 
on the New York market has risen 
from $30.50 to $42.40, or 39 per cent; 
that hemlock, Pennsylvania stock, at 
New York, has risen from $11.40 to 
$22.25, or 95 per cent, and that accord- 
ing to your price lists, "A" flat-grain 
yellow pine flooring was quoted at 
$16.50 in 1894, delivered on a 22-cent 
rate, and at $29.50 in December, 1905. 
delivered on a 23-cent rate, or a raise 
of yy per cent. Of course, I under- 
stand that there are a number of fac- 
tors entering into the case, and am not 
overlooking the influence of the gen- 
eral rise in the price level during the 
past few years, the abundant crops, 



and the great building activity, but it 
requires more than these things to ex- 
plain why it was that your Committee 
on Values issued six price lists in the 
effort to keep up with the market last 
year, and that there is little sagging in 
the latest list during this winter. It is 
entirely possible and even likely that 
there will be temporary halts and even 
depressions in prices of lumber, but 
there is every reason to believe that the 
upward course shown by the price- 
curves for the last dozen years is but 
the beginning of a general advance 
which will continue until an equilib- 
rium between the demand for wood 
and the amount available for the year- 
ly cut is reached on a far higher price 
level than at present. 



A HISTORY OF THE LUMBER 
INDUSTRY IN AMERICA 

The first volume just published is an exceedingly 
valuable v^ork for vs^hich all interested in the w^ise use 
of our forests ow^e the author a debt of thanks 

BY 

TREADWELL CLEVELAND, JR. 

r. S. Forest Service. 



HTHE publication of Mr. J. E. Defe- 
baugh's "History of the Lumber 
Industry in America" is an important 
event in the world of forest interests. 
This is the first book in its field, writ- 
ten and compiled in a large, scholarly 
way by one of the few authorities emi- 
nently fitted for the task. And the 
task has been an unusually diflicult 
one. The sources on which it is based 
are scattered. Only indefatigable 
pains and a persistent devotion to his 
subject could have enabled the author 
to accomplish it even indifferently. He 
has accomplished it so well that, even 
were his long activity as editor of The 
Amcrkan Luinbcrmaii to be forgot- 
ten this volume would unquestionably 
give his name a ])ermanent place in 



the history of one of our largest in- 
dustries. Though necessarily in large 
part a compilation, the history is in a 
true sense an original work, the well- 
planned product of a practical and 
philosophic mind. 

F'erhaps the first point which favor- 
ably impresses the reader is the histo- 
rian's point of view. This proceeds 
from a firm grasp of the relation of 
economics to history and of the part 
which the forest has played in the eco- 
nomic progress of the world in general 
and of the New World in particular. 
What this means is well brought out 
in the thouglijiful preface. After em- 
phasizing the suggestive fact that "in- 
dustry and commerce have received in 
the past but incidental recognition 



1906 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



71 



from the historian," Mr. Defebaugh 
writes : "Despite this neglect, com- 
merce has always been a controlling 
factor in making the world's history. 
It has always been more important 
that men should live than that they 
should live under any particular gov- 
ernment or at any particular place." 
* * * "Out of this new appreciation 
have come histories of particular in- 
dustrial movements and of numerous 
branches of industry ; but notwith- 
standing the influence of the forests on 
the New World development and the 
importance of the present lumber in- 
dustry of the United States, Canada, 
and the Latin countries to the south, 
no comprehensive history of the lum- 
ber industry of America ever has been 
compiled." 

Chapter I, devoted to the discovery 
and settlement of the country, empha- 
sizes the dependence of civilized pion- 
eers upon forest resources. "Civilized 
man lives in houses, and as the house 
that does not contain wood in some 
form is practically unknown, the lum- 
ber industry accompanies civilized 
man in all his migrations and pro- 
gress." * * * "A treeless world might 
not be uninhabitable, but it is an his- 
torical fact that migration, racial pro- 
gress and growth of population have 
been guided by the forest distribution 
of the world — modified, of course, by 
other considerations, but having that 
as one of their chief controlling in- 
fluences." * * * "Whatever the cradle 
of the Aryan peoples may have been, 
their migrations led them by forest 
routes to forest countries." 

Chapter II deals with the forest geo- 
graphy of the North American conti- 
nent. It includes a consideration of 
the conditions which govern the 
growth and distribution of tree spe- 
cies, with the influence of past condi- 
tions as shown by geology and known 
climatic changes, and a list of the 
commercial tree species of America. 
Mr. George B. Sudworth, of the For- 
est Service, is the authority which the 
author follows, with due acknowledg- 
ment, and in giving the names and dis- 



tribution of tree species Mr. Sud- 
worth's "Check List of the Forest 
Trees of the United States" (Bulletin 
No. 17 of the Division of Forestry) is 
reprinted in substance. 

Beginning now with Labrador and 
Newfoundland, Mr. Defebaugh, in the 
next succeeding chapters, describes the 
forests and forest history of this re- 
gion, of Canada as a whole, and of 
Quebec, Ontario, New Brunswick, 
Nova Scotia, and the District of L^n- 
gava. In each case the value of the 




MR. J. E. DEFEBAUGH 
Author of History of " Lumber Industry 
of America," Editor of the Aiiuricnn 
lAUnlicniKtii. and one of the most prac- 
tical and efficient exponents of Ameri- 
can forestry. 

forest products is shown in historical 
tables ; such legal provisions as exist 
to regulate forest use and to secure 
forest protection are sufficientl\- out- 
lined ; and the develo])ment of the lum- 
ber industry is traced. Naturally 
enough, the American reader turns, 
however, with some patriotic impa- 
tience to page 272. at which the au- 
thor takes up the forest resources of 
the United States. This opens Chap- 
ter XNVL in the first few paragraphs 
of which Mr. DefcbauQ-h has ex- 



72 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



February 



pressed a judgment to which the 
trained forester will give enthusiastic 
assent. It is a good thing, indeed, that 
sentences so significant should have 
been written by a lumberman whose 
opinion carries weight and that they 
should have been given permanence in 
our forest literature : 

"The beginning of the Twentieth 
Century marked, with approximate 
accuracy, an epochal period in the tim- 
ber and' lumber history of the United 
States of America. Until that time the 
country, in its use of forest products, 
had been drawing upon a surplus, but 
thereafter a continuance of production 
on the former scale, without care for 
the perpetuation or reproduction of 
the forests, necessarily would draw 
upon the capital fund, so to speak, 
with the inevitable result of a grow- 
ing scarcity of forest products, or, to 
be more exact, of an increasing and 
manifest deficiency in the supply of 
standing timber from which the pro- 
duct must be secured." * * * The for- 
ests were formerly, "especially during 
the period of development up to about 
1850, in many instances a positive det- 
riment. Forests stood on millions of 
acres of fertile lands which were need- 
ed by the settler and the would-be 
farmer, and a slow-growing crop of 
timber was occupying land that might 
more profitably be devoted to the pro- 
duction of grain or other products of 
agriculture." * * * "But the best in- 
formed students of the subject believe, 
after as careful investigationr as they 
have been able to make, that the for- 
est yet remaining, if operated along 
conservative lines, would annually pro- 



duce in perpetuity an amount of for- 
est products little, if any, more than 
the present annual output. If that be 
true, the United States has come to 
the point where it can no longer be 
lavish in its use of its wonderful tim- 
ber resources, but must rigorously 
conserve them. It will no longer be 
consuming a surplus, but, except for 
the adoption of forestry methods, will 
be drawing upon its capital." 

That this judgment is safely on the 
conservative side may be seen by re- 
calling Dr. B. E. Fernow's figures, in 
his capital book "The Economics of 
Forestry." According to these, even 
with the per acre annual growth of the 
average German government forest — 
50 cubic feet — our 25,000 million feet 
of consumption would take all we 
could grow on our estimated total pro- 
ductive forest area of 500 million 
acres. As it is. Dr. Fernow will not 
allow that our untended forests are 
growing more than one-tenth as fast 
as this ; so that consumption is gaining 
on present supplies at a rate which 
would, if continued, drain them to the 
dregs in from 40 to 50 years. 

The closing pages of the "History" 
are made up of most useful statistical 
tables giving-the course of timber pro- 
duction and the use of forest products, 
as well as a review of tarifif legislation 
affecting the lumber industry. 

Mr. Defebaugh and his publishers 
are to be congratulated on this unique- 
ly serviceable volume. . It is to be 
hoped that the remaining volumes may 
follow without too great delay, and 
that they may not fall short of the ex- 
pectations encouraged by this one. 




ENDORSEMENT OF MINNESOTA 
RESERVE 

Memorial by the Commercial Clubs of Minneapolis and 
St. Paul calling for the preservation of this important Reserve 



IN the year 1889, there was passed 
■*• by Congress an act, known as the 
Nelson Law, in fulfiUment of the 
treaty with the Chippewa Indians of 
Minnesota, by which they ceded their 
land and timber to the United States. 
The operation of this law was attended 
with so much unnecessary expense that 
in 1899 the Indians were actually in- 
debted to the government. 

A sale of timber on the reservations 
at Cass and Leech Lakes had been 
advertised for May 15, 1899; but dis- 
satisfaction with tire law, public agita- 
tion for the creation of a National 
Park, and unwilingness of lumbermen 
— due at that time to a tight money 
market — to bid upon the timber, 
caused the state legislature upon Feb- 
ruary 20, 1899, to petition the Secre- 
tary of the Interior to postpone the 
sale, which was done on March i, of 
the same year. _ 

A three-years struggle then ensued 
to determine what the character of the 
new legislation should be. The Na- 
tional Park advocates wished the 
whole area set aside for public use, 
while the lumbermen contended with 
reason that this was impossible, and 
urged instead the carrying out of the 
treaty stipulations with the Indians, by 
the sale of the pine. 

Meanwhile large quantities of tim- 
ber were being cut under a clause of 
the Nelson Law inserted in 1897, 
whereby the Indian agent was allowed 
to sell dead or down timber, to pre- 
vent its being wasted. Thousands of 
feet of green pine were cut in defiance 
of the spirit of the law ; and in the 
winter of 1900 further operations be- 
gan in spite of the written protest of 
the State Federation of Women's 



Clubs and other organizations, which 
resulted in a scandal and caused the 
Secretary of the Interior to discon- 
tinue this feature of the law. 

In the fall of 1901 Representative 
Page Morris, of Duluth, introduced in 
Congress the first draft of what has 
ever since been known as the Morris 
Bill, providing for the sale of pine and 
the settlement of the lands. The pub- 
lic clamor which this aroused was so 
strong that Mr. Morris decided to 
modify his bill and to arrange a com- 
promise, upon which the Minnesota 
Congressional delegation could unite. 
At a conference at which Mr. Gifford 
Pinchot, Chief of the Forestry Bureau 
at Washington, was present a new 
draft of the Morris Bill was formu- 
lated, to which the entire Minnesota 
Congressional Delegation, of both 
Houses of Congress, agreed. Dele- 
gates from the town of Cass Lake 
were also present and agreed to stand 
by the compromise bill, as formulated 
at this conference ; and that bill was 
passed, chiefly through the efiforts of 
Senator Clapp, and became and has 
ever since been known as the Morris 
Law. 

In all respects this bill was a re- 
markable measure. Under it the tim- 
ber, instead of first being estimated 
and then sold on the stump, is scaled 
and sold on basis of the actual quan- 
tity cut. The increase in scale over 
the old estimates averages more than 
25 per cent ; the minimum price, re- 
reivable for the pine, was raised $1 per 
thousand, being fixed at $4 for Nor- 
way pine and $5 for White pine, as 
against $3 and $4 respectively. Again, 
the bill provides for the timber to be 
sold under sealed bids, instead of by 



76 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



February 



made from 1873 to 1876 show that 
one-half of the upland within these 
reservations is third-class, sandy and 
of little or no value for farming. It 
was the intention of the Morris Bill to 
embrace within the reservation as 
large a percentage of these sandy 
lands as possible, leaving outside 
thereof all lands of agricultural value ; 
and this policy has been pursued. 

While there is some land within the 
present reserve which might possibly 
make good farm land, the larger por- 
tion has a deep, loose, sandy soil which 
many years' experience in older farm- 
ing communities has shown to lack 
lasting productiveness. The stored- 
up fertility, which is released when 
these lands are cleared of timber 
makes a quick and fertile soil for three 
or four years ; but rains soon wash 
this plant food deep into the sub-soils ; 
artificial fertilization becomes neces- 
sary, but the effect of the application 
of manures does not last; clover will 
grow well at first but will not suffice 
to maintain the productiveness of such 
deep sandy soil. This worn-out con- 
dition does not, however, become ap- 
parent to the settlers, who locate upon 
such lands, until they have exhausted 
the original capital which they brought 
with them. 

Neither is it generally understood 
that existing general statutes provide 
that lands within forest reserves, 
which are suited to agriculture can be 
eliminated therefrom ; therefore, if 
there has been included within this re- 
serve land which should be used for 
farming, it will not be necessary either 
to amend the Morris Bill or pass any 
new legislation to eliminate it ; but the 
fitness of such land will be determined 
b^' specialists, whose judgment it is 
believed will be unbiased. Speculators 
and town-site men, whose only interest 
often seems to be only to bring in set- 
tlers regardless of their future wel- 
fare, will not be allowed to influence 
the selection and elimination of such 
land from the reserve. 



VALUE OF THE SEEDLING PINES. 

The value of this small nucleus of a 
future pine forest becomes apparent, 
when we consider that before these 
pine seedlings reach an age at which it 
will be profitable to cut them for lum- 
ber, the entire timber resources of the 
United States will, according to the 
best authorities, be completely ex- 
hausted. Substitutes for timber, no 
matter how numerous and effective, 
have so far failed to lessen the ever- 
increasing consumption of wood, 
made necessary by our advancing civ- 
ilization. 

At the American Forest Congress 
in Washington in 1905, President 
Roosevelt stated that if the American 
people did not now provide for a fu- 
ture timber supply, there would ensue, 
before trees could be grown to large 
enough size to meet the demand, a pe- 
riod of great hardship and depriva- 
tion. 

WHAT SHALL MINNESOTA DO? 

Shall the State of Minnesota and 
the nation at large stand aside and 
allow a small group of speculators, in 
pursuance of a more than question- 
able policy, to hinder and perhaps pre- 
vent forever the best and possibly the 
only practical effort now being made 
in the Mississippi Valley to provide 
for this future timber supply? The 
government maintains, upon the head 
waters of the Mississippi, a costly sys- 
tem of reservoirs to regulate the flow 
of that stream and to deepen its chan- 
nel. Last summer, the same selfish 
interests which are now attacking our 
forest reserve attempted to bring 
about the abandonment and destruc- 
tion of the reservoir system, but failed. 
The forest reserve supplements the 
work of the reservoirs ; and the same 
interests, which then so emphatically 
declared for their maintenance, should 
now as cordially support the reserve. 

MINNESOTA NATIONAL PARK. 

Perhaps the most important feature 
to the people of the Mississippi Valley, 
as well as to the public of the whole 



1906 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



77 



nation, is the preservation of the park 
lands upon the shores and islands of 
Cass and Leech Lakes. Thirty miles 
of shore line, covered with dense 
stands of Norway and White pine, em- 
bracing scenes of unparalleled beauty, 
are the heritage to the public be- 
queathed by the advocates of the old 
Minnesota National Park idea. The 
commercial value of this smaller park 
for the towns of Walker and Cass 
Lake is as great as is its esthetical 
value to the public at large. This fea- 
ture will prove a source of perpetual 
prosperity and the tourist and other 
business derived from the mere exist- 
ence of this park will increase more 
and more rapidly, as the fame of its 
beauty and healthfulness spreads. It ' 
would be the utmost folly for the peo- 
ple of these towns to exchange their 
park for the doubtful and evanescent 
privilege of having settlers take up 
these sandy lands. 

ATTEMPTED REPEAL OE THE MORRIS 
BILL. 

x\t the last session of the Minnesota 
legislature a resolution was passed, 
without debate or reference to a com- 
mittee, asking Congress that the Mor- 
ris Bill be repealed. It is believed that 
many of the legislators themselves did 
not realize what the effect might be of 
the motion for which they voted. The 
resolution was undoubtedly designed 
to make it appear that the people of 
Minnesota were opposed to the Morris 
Bill and were in favor of its repeal. 

THE COMMERCIAL CLUBS' APPEAL. 

The Commercial clubs of Minneap- 
olis and St. Paul join in an emphatic 
denial of the existence of such a senti- 
ment. 



In the above memorial they have 
truthfully set forth the history of our 
national legislation upon this impor- 
tant subject, the reason for its enact- 
ment and the beneficent results which 
have already flowed from it and which 
we believe have in reality only begun 
to appear. 

They have given to the whole mat- 
ter the most careful and intelligent 
consideration possible ; they were in 
favor of the original passage of the 
Morris Bill and have just declared 
themselves as not only opposed to its 
repeal but also to any modification or 
amendment of it, except such as may 
be asked for by the United States gov- 
ernment authorities in charge of our 
forest reserves. 

We, the undersigned of this memo- 
rial, do most urgently request the co- 
operation of all commercial organiza- 
tions and all thoughtful citizens, not 
only in the Mississippi Valley, but 
throughout the country, to arouse 
public interest and voice this impor- 
tant matter to the authorities at Wash- 
ington, for we believe that the people 
of the nation at large as well as the 
inhabitants of those states whose com- 
merce this great river fosters and 
whose acres it waters and fertilizes, 
are interested in the preservation and 
protection of every acre of the mag- 
nificent forest reserves, which are situ- 
ated at and tend to preserve and pro- 
tect its source. 

St. Paul Commercial Club, 
L. G. Hoffman, Pros. 
C. P. Stine, Secretary. 
Minneapolis Commercial Club, 
F. R. Salisbury, Pres. 
W. G. Nye, Sec. Public Affairs Com. 



MINNESOTA NATIONAL FOREST 
RESERVE 



BY 
Rev. J. T. BRABNER SMITH 

Frazee. Miiui. 



PRESIDENT ROOSEVELT acted 
^ wisely in securing the services of 
a disinterested expert in practical lum- 
bering- to visit the Minnesota National 
Forest Reserve, at Cass Lake, and to 
report the result o fhis investigations 
to him at Washington. This report 
has Ix'en made public, and the friends 



ends of a few persons, or even to sat- 
isfy the real want of a small minority. 
For two years I lived at Cass Lake 
village, adjacent to this reserve, and 
was there when the first selection of 
land for this reserve was made. Most 
of the land and the lakes included 
therein the writer has personally seen. 




Lake Thirteen in the "Ten Sections" — Minnesota National Forest Reserve 



and lovers of the natural beauties of 
the forest are encouraged. 

The knowledge that the Federal 
Forest Reserves are to be used for the 
national good will steadily gain them 
friends, and the idea is constantly 
growing that such marvellous beauty 
as exists in the Minnesota Reserve 
should not be destroyed for the selfish 



Eugene S. Bruce, now Expert Lum- 
berman of the L^. S. Forest Service, 
was in charge of the selection of lands 
to constitute this reserve, and a more 
able and conscientious man I have 
never met. He was for years engaged 
in lumbering work in the state of New 
York. He is a competent lumbennan, 
and no better man could have been in 



1906 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



79 



charge. His assistants were men of 
experience. Gififord Pinchot, Chief 
Forester of the Department of Agri- 
cuhure, also personally examined the 
lands. He is probably the most ca- 
pable forest expert in America, if not 
in the world, and a man of rare power 
of discernment. He had no personal 
preference where the reserve should 
be located, but simply acted for the 
good of the whole nation. ]Mr. Pin- 
chot, Forester, and Governor Rich- 



desiring only to do their full duty in 
making a wise selection. 

Settlement of the land by farmers 
was considered by some interested peo- 
ple better than a reserve ; the cutting 
and denuding of the vast forests of 
pine, better than keeping them grad- 
ually thinned out by scientific logging; 
the f[uick and present financial gain 
more to be desired than a steady and 
permanent growth and wealth ; but at 
a meeting of the most prominent busi- 




Good reproduction of young pine east ol Cass Lake. 



ards, Commissioner of the General 
Land Office, went over these lands to- 
gether with Mr. Bruce, and were 
agreed on the present location. Other 
experts also were in accord, and now 
comes President Roosevelt's special 
representative, Mr. J. B. White, who 
indorses all that has been done and 
reports it as the very best possible se- 
lection. 

In conversing with Mr. I'inchot, 
Mr. Ijruce, and Governor Richards, 
the writer found them all unbiased and 



ness men of Cass Lake village, held at 
the time of this visit, both Mr. Pin- 
chot and Governor Richards ex )lained 
that eventually Cass Lake would be 
better financially and every otlur way 
because of the reserve. 

Expert examination showed that the 
bulk of the land was sandy and best 
adapted for forestry. Merman H. 
Chapman, late sui>erintendent of the 
experimental farm at Grand Rapids, 
Minn., said, after a careful examina- 
tion of the lands selected : "The Mor- 



80 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



February 



ris Bill has set aside 225,000 acres of 
land for a forest reserve. The ques- 
tion raised as to the advisability of 
such action hinges largely on a single 
point — is the land agricultural or not? 
* * * Almost the entire area chosen, 
which lies east and south of Cass 
Lake, is solid Norway and Jack pine 
land * * * Farmers on Jack pine sands, 
except a fe\y truck gardeners, are of 
no benefit to a community in the end. 
Land which is not fit for farming can 
still grow trees." 



from sale and settlement. Of this se- 
lection Mr. Bruce, shortly after it was 
made, said, in an address before the 
American Forestry Association, at 
Minneapolis : "Regarding the loca- 
tion of this reserve, there are many 
reasons why that portion of the Chip- 
pewa Indian Reservation, situated in 
the northerly and westerly part, which 
includes within its boundaries some of 
the principal lakes and a long stretch 
of the Mississippi River, is most de- 
sirable as a location for the Minnesota 




Good reproduction of young pine east of Cass Lake 



On the loth of June, 1903, the first 
selection of land was approved by the 
Department of the Interior. This in- 
cluded 104,459 acres, of which 89,707 
acres were classed as pine land, and 
14,753 acres were classed as agricul- 
tural land; this constituted the first 
selection of the 225,000 acres of land 
to be selected by the Forester under 
the terms of the Morris Bill, and there 
were also selected 6,399 acres to be 
included in the ten sections reserved 



National Forest Reserve. One very 
important one is that this particular 
locality contains the largest compact 
acreage of classified pine land of any 
section within the reservation * * * 
This fact necessarily had a strong 
bearing on the selection, since one of 
the provisions of the Morris Act is 
that the selection shall be made from 
lands classified as pine lands * * * 
There is less true agricultural land in 
the territory selected than in any other 



1906 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



81 



area of equal size which could haveother suitable locality which could 
been selected. Most of the land inhave been selected." 
this selection, classified as agricultural, The agricultural, or so-called agri- 
is low, wet, swamp or marsh land, cultural land, is far less in area than 
subject to overflow by the governmentthe pine land, and the pine land is 
reservoirs * * * Much of this so-calledchiefly sandy. Here and there are 
agricultural land will eventually be de-some rare spots of black loam soil, but 
ducted when the delineation of thethe best land has almost invariably 
lands which will be overflowed by thebeen taken as allotments for the In- 
government reservoirs, located on thedians, who have secured land near the 
outlets of Leech Lake and Lake Win-lakes, stream, and rivers. The Chippe- 
nibigoshish, is completed * * * Thewa Indian has not been badly used, 
territory selected includes within itsas the allotments will show, for he has 




Good reproduction of Norway Pine. 



area some of the finest lake and river 
scenery in these Indian Reservations, 
and, indeed, some of the finest in the 
Northwest. It is very accessible from 
points which can be reached by rail- 
road. Steamboats and launches can be 
run through the various lakes and riv- 
ers in several directions, to the boun- 
daries of the reserve. Another very 
strong reason why this location is de- 
sirable is that the present reproduction 
of young pine in the locality selected 
is greater in proportion than in any 



a real paradise to dwell in, with as 
much freedom as his heart desires. The 
picturesque Indians add much to the 
natural beauty of the reserve. They 
are of a wandering disposition and are 
not settling down to farming yet ; the 
full-blooded Indian still prefers to live 
as of yore, by fishing and hunting, and 
in bands. 

The whole reserve area is practically 
surrounded by lakes, steams, and riv- 
ers. Lake Thirteen is one of the most 
lovely lakes in existence. It contains 



82 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



February 



pure and sparkling water, fed by natu- 
ral springs. Like most of the lakes in 
the reserve, it has sandy beaches, ex- 
cellent for bathing purposes. The In- 
dians travel by canoe and portages 
from Cass Lake to Lake Thirteen, 
through a chain of lakes. The lakes 
are all well stocked with pike, bass, 
perch, and some with muscalonge. 

From Cass Lake one can take a 
steam launch, canoe, or boat, and 
travel for days through the different 
lakes and streams, amid the choicest 



scending to the water's edge. From 
its crest the visitor can see the shining 
waters of several lakes and streams, 
and the distant course of the great 
"Father of Waters." On this island is 
the Indians' sacred lake, Windigo, 
which is a veritable lake within a lake, 
without inlet or outlet, surrounded by 
masses of veteran White and Norway 
pine. Pike Bay, wdiose shores the ten 
sections entirely protect, is a lake of 
extraordinary beauty and location, 
with a navigable outlet to Cass Lake. 




Looking Across Moss Lake in the "Ten Sections. 



and most exquisite scenery. The sun 
and moon, shining through the majes- 
tic White and Norway pine on the 
shores, make a most enchanting and 
vivid panorama. 

An additional proof of its choice lo- 
cation is that the islands in Cass Lake 
w^ere reserved from sale or settlement. 
Among those in Cass Lake is the 
famed Cooper or" (Star) Island. It 
cannot be excelled for charm, standing 
majestically above the surrounding 
waters, with its numerous points de- 



It has a fine sandy beach and bottom 
and is seldom troubled with storms, 
being guarded by pine covered hills. 

Along the south and west shores of 
Pike Bay are some very heavy stands 
of Norway of an excellent quality. 
Here and there are small quantities of 
dead and down timber. It is strange 
that fire has done so little to de- 
stroy this valuable stand of pine, but 
this is probably the result of the care 
exercised by the Chippewas to protect 
their favorite hunting grounds. 



1906 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



Wild flowers in the summer months 
are plentiful, and the odors from the 
pines fill the air with health-giving 
breezes. The wonderful tints of the 
trees and the colors of the flowers ap- 
peal to eye and inner sense and give 
added joy to the lover of nature. The 
lakes and woods are the dwelling 
places of numerous wild birds, ducks, 
partridges, and other species. Game 
is abundant. Deer, moose, and bear 
are plentiful. The reserve is certainly 



a great and manifold blessing to man- 
kind, and will be eagerly sought by 
tourists, naturalists, sportsmen, and 
lovers of God's out-of-doors. 

Let not man, by his greed, spoil that 
which God made so beautiful, so pure, 
and so lovely. The future will show 
the great wisdom of the choice of this 
reserve and, should it be maintained, 
people in years to come will rise up 
and call the Minnesota National For- 
est Reserve blessed. 



FORESTED WATERSHEDS 

A New Phase of New England Thrift 
BY 

ALFRED AKERMAN 

state Forester of Massachusetts. 



■Y77 ITHIN a few years several New 

^ England communities have be- 
come aware that they have been al- 
lowing one of their resources to go un- 
developed. Among these are Hart- 
ford, Middletown, New Haven, and 
Ansonia, Connecticut, and the Metro- 
politan District in Massachusetts. 

HARTFORD. 

About fifty years ago Hartford be- 
gan to acquire land contiguous to its 
water reservoir. This land was ac- 
quired to protect the water supply 
from pollution. From time to time, as 
the needs of the city giew, other ponds 
with surrounding lands were pur- 
chased. In 1902 the total area of wa- 
tershed owned by the city amounted to 
2,500 acres, of which some 1,300 acres 
were not covered by water. With the 
exception of a few cords of firewood, 
this land produced nothing. It was 
not in a condition to be of service as 
a park. And it must be held to protect 
the city's water supply. The question, 
then, which came before the Water 
Board was, Is it possible, consistent 
with its protection functions, to devel- 
op the tract as a public park and also 



to make it produce revenue? 

A forest engineer was engaged to 
examine and report on the tract. His 
report, or working plan, showed how 
the tract, if treated in a scientific and 
systematic way, might in time be made 
to produce considerable revenue and 
how at the same time it might be 
turned into a beautiful, though unpre- 
tentious park. 

The working plan showed that 1,300 
acres were available for forest grow- 
ing. Of this area 800 acres were 
already covered with a sprout growth 
of chestnut, oak. hickory, maple, and 
other broadleaf trees. The rest con- 
sisted of abandoned fields and pas- 
tures which were coming up to infe- 
rior growths, such as red juniper and 
poplar leaf birch. 

Improvement thinning was advised 
for most of the forest stands, and 
planting to timber producing kinds of 
tree for the old fields and pastures. 
The thinning was advised for two 
principal reasons. In many places the 
stand was so dense that its growth was 
being retarded. In others, many trees 
had been damaged by an ice storm 
which swept over this section of the 



84 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



February 



country in 1897. From these dam- 
aged areas all but the best trees were 
to be removed, in order to make room 
for a better growth. From the other 
portions of the forest only such trees 
were to removed as would increase the 



been thinned and 73 acres planted. 
The thinning has yielded a product of 
1,263 cords of firewood and 1,338 
fence posts. Of this product 369 cords 
were sold at a net profit, varying from 
twenty-five cents to a dollar and thirty 




A Quiet Woodland Road, Hartford Watershed. 



growth and improve the timber quality 
of those remaining. 

The working plan was put into oper- 
ation at once. In the three years that 
have elapsed since then, 156 acres have 



cents on the cord. The rest of the ma- 
terial has been used for construction 
and heating purposes ; and, although 
not offered for sale, the same profit 
has been made on it. for it would have 



1906 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



85 



been necessary to purchase other sup- 
plies, if this had not been at hand. As 
the work was undertaken to improve 
the growth and increase the future 
crop, the improvement would have been 
clear gain, had the product only paid 
for its removal. The profit that has 
been realized may be regarded as an 
extra profit that may be applied to 
planting the open lands. 

The planting has been chiefly to 
white pine in mixture .with broadleaf 
trees, such as chestnut, sugar maple, 
white and red oak, and hickory. All 



which has come with experience, and 
in part to the production of more and 
more of the stock in the nursery on 
the tract. 

This nursery was established in 
1903. It occupies only a third of an 
acre. It now has a stocking of 125,000 
plants, chiefly white pine, white ash, 
and sugar maple. 

It has been found expedient to sow 
such species as chestnut, oak and hick- 
ory directly in the place where they 
are to grow, rather than to start them 
in the nursery. 




An Improvement Thinning on New Haven Water Company's Land. 



but the choicest of the broadleaf trees 
will come out in the process of thin- 
ning, leaving a stand of white pine 
with a small admixture of hard woods. 
The mixed planting has been found 
cheaper than pure planting to pine ; 
and the broadleaf trees are a benefit to 
the pines ; and, moreover, their pres- 
ence make a choice of species for the 
final stand possible, should anything 
happen to the pines. As the work has 
progressed the cost of planting has 
been reduced from $8.00 per acre to 
$6.33. This is due in part to the in- 
creased efficiency of the workmen 



The plantations have been very suc- 
cessful, in all cases insuring a dense 
stand in the future. vSeveral averages 
in the 1903 plantings of white pine 
show that 93.4 per cent, are living. 

The young trees planted or sowed 
in the old fields and pastures have be- 
gun to show a little above the weeds 
and grass ; and their growth will be 
rapid now that they have made a start. 
For instance, the white pines planted 
in 1903 and which are now five years 
from the seed, having been planted 
as two-year-olds, now average 14.6 
inches in height, almost exactly half 



86 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



February 



of which or 7 inches was made this 
summer past. For the next twenty 
years they will average about 18 inches 
a year. 

PARK FEATURES. 

The Hartford tract contains noth- 
ing grand in the way of scenery. But 
a turn in the road sometimes brings 
one upon a scene of exquisite beauty. 
One of the accompanying ilhistrations 
is reproduced from a photograph of 
one of the reservoirs. On the after- 
noon of an Indian summer's day in 
late October, the quiet surface of this 
tiny lake reflects in charming manner 
the gorgeous autumnal foliage of the 



Maltl)y Park, the principal water- 
shed of the New Haven Water Com- 
pany, has been leased to the Yale 
Forest School for a term of years. It 
is used as a demonstration forest for 
the forestry students. Under the di- 
rection of their instructors they have 
mapped the dififerent kinds of growth, 
estimated the standing wood, and pre- 
scribed treatment for the areas that 
needed treatment. They have not only 
drawn up the working plan ; but they 
have marked the trees which should be 
removed, and they have planted a con- 
siderable area of the open lands. It 




Seedlings of Sugar Maple, White Ash, and White Pine in the Nursery on the 
Hartford Watershed. 



hardwoods and the deep green of the 
hemlocks on the wooded slope above it. 
The people of Hartford are finding 
out the attractions of the place ; and 
on fair days in spring and fall they 
come out to drive along the quiet 
woodland roads, or to ramble over the 
hills. 



HAVEN, .\NSONIA, 
TOWN. 



AND MIDDLE- 



The writer has dwelt at some length 
on the Hartford project, because it is 
typical. The conditions and problems 
are very much the same in New Hav- 
en, Ansonia, and Middletown. 



is the policy of the Forest School to 
make the instruction as practical as 
possible; and during term-time the 
students may often be seen at work 
with axe or mattock. It is a hopeful 
sign of the times — one that augurs 
well for the future of our wasted for- 
ests — when these bachelors that are, 
masters that would be, are willing to 
do manual labor in fair weather artd 
foul in order to train themselves for 
the battle that is now waged for forest 
perpetuation in this country. 

The working plan for the Ansonia 
watershed was also prepared by the 
Yale forestry students. 



1906 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



87 



Middletown is developing its water- 
shed under the direction of the Con- 
necticut State Forester. 

THE WACHUSETT RESERVOIR. 

The Metropolitan Water and Sew- 
erage Board began to practice forestry 
on the watershed about the Wachusett 
reservoir in 1898. There are about 
3,000 acres available for forestry pur- 



poses. There are some small patches 
of growth, but the greater part of the 
tract is made up of old fields. These 
fields are being planted at the rate of 
about 200 acres a year. 

It will be a quarter of a century or 
more before the Commonwealth be- 
gins to realize in a commercial way 
on this planting. But it will get its 
money back with interest ; and the 




I'ardwood Stand, Needing Moderate Thinning, on the Hartford Watershed. 



88 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



February 



forest on the watershed will be pre- 
venting pollution and purifying the 
water in the meantime. The tract will 
also serve as a park for the residents 
of Clinton and neighboring towns. 



to consider the reduction of unneces- 
sary expenses, it is also true that the 
great loss occasioned in a negative way 
by neglecting to make the most of a 
resource is in reality just as much an 




One of the Reservoirs, Hartford. 



A GOOD EXAMPLE. 

The cities that have been mentioned 
are setting a good example of public 
economy. Some people suppose that 
economy consists entirely in cutting 
down expenses. While it is true that 
most cities and towns would do well 



unnecessary expense as though money 
had been wasted. The New England 
people are beginning to see this ; and 
in the near future we may find many 
cities and towns improving their wa- 
tersheds by the application of the prin- 
ciples of forestry. 



REORGANIZATION OF THE PHILIP- 
PINE BUREAU OF FORESTRY 



BY 
W. J. HUTCHINSON 

Forester, Zamboanga, Mindanao, P. ] 



nrHE "Reorganization Act," which 
* provides for the consohdation of 
the various government bureaus and 
a reduction of a million dollars in the 
cost of running the same, was passed 
by the Philippine Commission, and ap- 
proved by the governor general of the 
islands, October 26, 1905. 
. Under the provisions of this act the 
Bureau of Forestry will not lose its 
identity, although several important 
changes, which take effect December 
I, 1905, have been made in its or- 
ganization. A brief outline of the 
most important of these changes fol- 
lows : 

1. The chief of the Bureau of For- 
estry will hereafter be known as the 
director of forestry. 

2. The position of assistant chief is 
abolished. 

3. The Division of Forest Inspec- 
tion, which has charge of the work of 
the various forest stations, and whose 
officials classify, appraise, and order 
payment on all forest products taken 
from public lands, is abolished, and its 
work transferred to the Bureau of In- 
ternal Revenue. 

As a result of this transfer, the for- 
esters of the different districts will be 
able to devote their entire time to the 
silvicultural study of the forests, the 
location of areas best suited for com- 
mercial exploitation of timber and 
minor forest products, and the inspec- 
tion of logging operations of various 
licensees. 

The islands are at present divided 
into ten forest districts with fifty-six 
forest stations. As all manifests and 
orders of payment will now be issued 
by officers of the Bureau of Internal 
Revenue, it will only be necessary to 
retain the most important stations as 
headquarters for the foresters, and a 
number of the best rangers to assist 



in the work of inspection, etc. 

4. The Division of Disbursements 
is abolished, and hereafter all accounLs 
etc., will be rendered to the Division 
of Disbursements, Bureau of the 
Treasury. 

5. The experiment station located 
on the Lamao Forest Reserve is to be 
transferred to the Department of Agri- 
culture, but the bureau will still con- 
tinue work on the various typo-areas 
in which botanical and silvical studies 
have been carried on since the estab- 
lishment of the reserve in 1903. 

6. Postal, telephone, and telegraph 
service on government business wnl be 
paid for at the regular rate established 
for similar services to private persons, 
out of a fund appropriated for the 
purpose. 

Another item of interest apart from 
the "Reorganization Act," is the gen- 
eral order issued by the Bureau of 
Forestry, and approved by the Secre- 
tary of the Interior, October 2, which 
will do much toward alleviating the 
hard times at present prevailing among 
the inhabitants of the islands. 

This order provides that for a peri- 
od of five years the residents of the 
islands will be allowed to utilize free 
of charge, and without license, forest 
products, earth and stone, for personal 
use, cutting of trees of the first group 
excepted. 

Timber cut for sale or export will 
continue to pay the regular govern- 
ment tax, but the new ruling will do 
away with the "red tape" heretofore 
necessary in order to obtain permis- 
sion to cut a few cubic feet of wood 
for personal use. 

At the present time there are eight 
American-trained foresters and assist- 
ant foresters in the islands, and a num- 
ber of new men are expected to arrive 
from the United States early in 1906. 



LETTERS URGING THE ESTABLISH- 
MENT OF THE WHITE MOUNTAIN 
FOREST RESERVE. 



United States Senate. 
Washington. D. C. 

January /j, /pod. 

H. M. SuTER, Esq., 

Secretary American Forestry Asso- 
ciation, Washington, D. C. 
My dear Sir : — 

It is a matter of much regret to me 
that I find myself unable to respond to 
vour kind invitation to attend the 
meeting of the American Forestry 
Association on the 17th inst., and to 
make a brief address in behalf of the 
proposed White Mountain Forest Re- 
serve. The press of public duties is 
such that I find myself just now una- 
ble to give much attention to matters 
outside of my legislative work. The 
reasons for an appropriation of public 
funds designed to save the forests of 
the White Mountain region from dev- 
astation are so clearly and forcibly set 
forth in a report from the Senate Com- 
mittee on Forest Reservations and the 
Preservation of Game made during the 
Fifty-eighth Congress that it is impos- 
sible to add anything to the presenta- 
tion there made. The White Moun- 
tains of New Hampshire are in the 
broad sense the property of the people 
of the entire country, and I am grati- 
fied to know that the destruction of 
those forests is being protested against 
by leading citizens of many of the states 
of the Union. While New Hampshire 
will sustain a loss if the forests of the 
White Mountain region are destroyed, 
it is equally true that a positive loss 
will accrue to the American people as 
a whole. The objection that has been 
made in certain quarters that it is a 
new departure to appropriate public 
money for the purchase of land for a 
forest reserve, while technically true, 
loses its force in view of the fact that 
millions of acres of the public domain 



have been set aside for forest reserves, 
thus indirectly taking from the Treas- 
ury the proceeds from the sale of such 
lands. In one case the money was 
halted before it reached the Treasury, 
and in the other it is proposed to take 
it from the Treasury after it has been 
paid in, which, after all, is but a differ- 
ence in methods. I hope that the re- 
quisite appropriations may be made in 
the near future for the acquisition of 
lands necessary to establish both the 
White Mountain and Appalachian for- 
est reserves, as is proposed by bills 
now before Congress. 

Very respectfully yours, 

J. H. Galeinger. 

u. s. s. 

From Hon. T. Jefferson Coolidge. 
Boston, Mass. 
Hon. F. W. Roleins. 

Dear Sir: — I have read with great 
interest the bill of Senator Gallinger, 
of New Hampshire, proposing that 
Congress should make a forest reser- 
vation of one half a million or more 
of acres in the region of the White 
Mountains. 

It is unnecessary for me to say to 
you that for some years the manufac- 
turing establishments on the Merri- 
mac River in New Hampshire have 
sufifered seriously from the cutting 
down of the forests. One freshet, a 
few years ago, cost the Amoskeag 
Company more than one hundred 
thousand dollars. 

Besides the injury done by the ex- 
cessive flow of water in freshets, we 
sufifer also in the same way from ab- 
sence of water during dry seasons, as 
the woods no longer retain the water. 
It is emptied at once, and not held 
back to trickle slowly into the streams. 

But New Hampshire is not the only 
state to which this reservation would 



1906 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



91 



be of inestimable value. The Connec- 
ticut, the Merrimac, and the Saco, all 
have their sources in the White Moun- 
tains ; so that Vermont, Connecticut, 
and Massachusetts are equally inter- 
ested in the scheme, and even the An- 
droscoggin derives part of its stream 
from the country north of the White 
^Mountains. ]\Iaine, therefore, will also 
be benefitted. 

All the states in Europe have real- 
ized that it is absolutely necessary to 
preserve the forests, in order to pre- 
vent freshets at one season and 
droughts at another, and I think al- 
most all of the governments have 
adopted forestry laws which forbid the 
cutting of wood unless with permis- 
sion of the government. 

I trust, therefore, that the senators 
and representatives will unite in the 
heartiest approval of vSenator GalHn- 
ger's proposition. 

T. Jefferson Coolidge. 

From Hon. Richard Oliiey. 
Hon. Frank W. Rollins. 

My dear Governor: — I trust Senate 
bill, Fifty-eighth Congress, No. 2327, 
introduced by Senator Gallinger, of 
New Hampshire, may become a law. 

That it is in the public interest and 
seeks to promote objects of great pub- 
lic importance cannot be doubted. 

The only question is whether these 
public objects may be properly con- 
sidered as national in character — as 
being purposes for which the national 
revenues may be legitimately appropri- 
ated. On this point it is to be remem- 
bered that the mountain regions of 
New Hampshire are the sources of 
three important rivers — the Connecti- 
cut, the Merrimac, and the Saco — and 
that the Androscoggin traverses a part 
of the state and is indebted to it for 
two important branches ; that these 
rivers flow into other states and fur- 
nish water and power to municipalities 
and large maviufacturing industries, 
whose welfare and prosperity are 
greatly dependent upon the regularity 
and evenness of the supply ; that the 
increase of the timber supply of the 



country is as important as the increase 
of any other product of the soil; and 
that in addition to the large commer- 
cial and industrial interests involved, 
thousands of people from all parts of 
the land annually visit the hill country 
of New Hampshire for rest and recre- 
ation. In view of these considerations, 
it cannot be fairly claimed that the 
subject matter of Senator Gallinger's 
bill is of interest to, and should be 
dealt with by New Hampshire alone. 
Richard Olney. 

From Morris K. Jcssup, Esq. 
New York City. 
Hox. F. W. Rollins. 

Dear Sir : — I am in receipt of yours 
of the twenty-second relative to a na- 
tional forest reserve in the White 
Mountains. I am in hearty accord 
with this movement, and have always 
advocated the cause of the preserva- 
tion of our forests, which are so es- 
sential to our water supply for the 
large cities, as well as the manufac- 
turing industries. ****** 

You have my earnest wishes for the 
success of your undertaking, and I 
trust Congress will see fit to carry out 
the proposed bill which has been intro- 
duced in the Senate. 

Morris K. Jessup. 

From Rev. Edzvard Everett Hale, D.D. 
Washington, D. C. 
My dear Governor Rollins : — I was 
appointed at Intervale, New Hamp- 
shire, chairman of the committee 
which should express the sentiments of 
powers outside New Hampshire re- 
garding the preservation of the New 
Hampshire forests. And I also write 
with a good deal of personal feeling. 
For I was on the Geological Survey 
in those regions in 1841, and have with 
these eyes seen forests demolished in 
which were trees centuries old, and 
where the region is given over to 
sumach and blackberry bushes. It is 
no mere matter of botanical curiosity 
which we are pleading for. It is the 
preservation of a water suppl\- which 



92 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



January 



affects five out of the six New Eng- 
land states. It also affects the very 
existence of whatever makes the re- 
gion attractive to persons from every 
part of the nation. It is easy to see on 
mere economical grounds that the de- 
struction of forests has been the ruin 
of many a nation which did not have 
wisdom enough to keep them. In our 
case the gradual denudation of our 
noblest mountains will destroy the 
noblest and best ground for Re-Crea- 
tion which is now open to all people 
east of the Mississippi. 

We hope with all our hearts that the 
great Appalachian reserve will be pur- 
chased for the nation. Four thousand 
square miles is none too large a reser- 
vation. Certainly with so satisfactory 
a standard as that, ten or twelve miles 
square, say a hundred and sixty square 
miles, is none too large for another 
breathing ground for forty million 
people. Edward E. Hale. 



RESOLUTIONS IN FAVOR OF THE RESER- 
VATION. 

Resolutions by various commercial 
and other organizations have disclosed 
an interest extending beyond the boun- 
daries of New England. A few typi- 
cal resolutions are here given : 

By the American Paper and Pulp 
Association. 

New York City. 
Resolved, That the American Paper 
and Pulp Association approve of Sen- 
ate Bill No. 2327, for the purchase by 
the government of a national forest re- 
serve in the White Mountains, to be 
known as the National White Moun- 
tain Reserve, it being a step in the di- 
rection of scientific forestry and prop- 
er protection of our water supply. 

By the Boston Associated Board of 
Trade. 

Boston, Mass. 
Whereas, the continued unscientific 
destruction of our forests in New Eng- 



land is affecting our rivers and indi- 
rectly our manufacturing resources, 
also denuding and permanently de- 
stroying the productiveness of large 
areas of land, 

Resohed,ThsLt the Associated Board 
of Trade heartily endorse Senate Bill 
2327, for the purchase by the govern- 
ment of a national forest reserve in the 
White Mountains, to be known as the 
National White Mountain Reserve, 
and that our senators and representa- 
tives in Congress be requested to assist 
in the passage of the bill. 



By the New Haven and Coastwise 
Lumber Dealers' Association. 
New Haven, Conn. 

Whereas, the New Haven Lumber 
Dealers' Association views with much 
concern the rapid cutting down of the 
forests of the great White Mountain 
region, a situation which threatens 
within a comparatively short time to 
sweep the central portion of these 
mountains entirely clean of the splen- 
did trees which "formerly made it one 
of the few great forests standing east 
of the Alleghanies ;" and 

Whereas, we learn a bill has been 
introduced in the United States Sen- 
ate which has for its object the saving 
of the remainder of these forests by 
an appropriation which shall create a 
national forest reserve in the White 
Mountains, 

Resolved, That as an association of 
lumbermen conversant with the needs 
and the urgency of the situation, we 
thoroughly endorse the purpose of this 
bill and hope that this present session 
of Congress will take speedy and fa- 
vorable action in the matter. 

Resolved, That copies of these reso- 
lutions be sent to our senators, the 
Hon. Joseph R. Hawley and the Hon. 
Orville H. Platte, and to our repre- 
senative. the Hon. Nehemiah D. Sper- 
ry, urging them to give their hearty 
and earnest support to this bill. 



1906 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



93 



By the National Wholesale Lumber 
Dealers' Association. 

Washington, D. C. 

The report of the committee on for- 
estry, which was adopted, contained 
the following: 

"There is at present legislation pro- 
jected, and in some cases far advanced, 
asking for state and federal aid in the 
establishment of forest reserves, which 
should receive the aid and support of 
the members of this association. 
Among these are the projected Appa- 
lachian reserve and the National 
White Mountain forest reserve ; for 
the latter Senate Bill No. 2327 is now 
pending in Congress, and your com- 
mittee asks that this association shall 
say that 

"It is the sense of this annual meet- 
ing that the members shall in every 



way possible lend their support, aid 
and influence to the passage of this bill 
and all legislation of like kind." 

Resolutions have been passed also 
by the following associations : Boston 
Lumber Trade Club, Boston Mer- 
chants' Association, Connecticut State 
Lumber Dealers' Association, Rhode 
Island State Lumber Dealers' Associa- 
tion, New Hampshire State Lumber- 
men's Association, Appalachian Moun- 
tain Club, and National Forestry Asso- 
ciation. 

The society has asked men and wo- 
men of New Hampshire birth and an- 
cestry who are living in other states 
to write to their respective congress- 
men requesting favorable action. 

The outlook for the bill in Congress 
is favorable. 



SUGGESTIONS FOR STATE FOREST 
FIRE LAWS 



BY 
E. J. CHEYNEY 

Minnesota Experiment Station. 



T"" HE forest laws of most of our 
*■ states are far more impressive 
in the reading than they are effective 
in the application. There are at least 
three glaring weaknesses — almost uni- 
versal in their occurrence — the correc- 
tion of which would make all the other 
shortcomings of the laws seem trivial 
indeed. 

In the first place, the legislatures — 
led by what is probably a false idea 
of economy — would all seem to have 
the bee by the wrong end. The laws 
are nearly all directed toward the 
fighting of fires which have already 
started in the woods, providing dire 
punishments to be visited on the heads 
of those who are supposed to have set 
such fires, and giving promise of hor- 
rible things which will be done to any 
district attorneys who do not properly 



prosecute such offenders. To this end 
a grudging and usually inefficient ap- 
propriation is made for fighting fires. 
Many of the laws simply appoint fire 
wardens, without pay, empowering 
( ?) them to fight fires and hire help 
for that purpose, without making any 
appropriation whatsoever. 

These laws are a good thing. Not 
only does it show that people are wak- 
ing up to the necessity of such things, 
but they are of practical value in pro- 
viding men where they are very badly 
needed. It would, however, be much 
better to look to the prevention of fires 
so that there would be no necessity 
of fighting them. The old adage that 
an ounce of prevention is worth a 
pound of cure applies nowhere better 
than to forest fires. And would it not 
be possible to bring this about with 



94 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



February 



little or no increased expense to the 
state ? 

Under the present system a fire 
warden is paid only for the time spent 
in actually fighting the fire. He can- 
not afford to neglect his own work to 
look for fires in the places where they 
are most likely to occur, nor even to 
waste an afternoon in hurrying to in- 
spect a rumor which may turn out to 
be a false alarm, and consequently no 
pay. In this way a fire almost neces- 
sarily grows to dangerous proportions 
before anyone can afford to take any 
notice of it, and a large number of 
men are then required to fight it. 

Every forest fire has a small begin- 
ning and a very large per cent of these 
beginnings would be found by a man 
who was paid to look for them ; and 
would be found in such time that he 
could put them out alone with the aid 
of one or two helpers. Without look- 
ing into the value of the property 
which would be saved in this way, it 
is an open question whether a paid 
regular patrol would not nip in the 
bud a sufficient number of fires to 
make that plan actually cheaper than 
paying the crowds of temporary la- 
borers who have to be called in at 
extra high wages to fight the fires 
after they have gotten well under 
way. For example : It would not re- 
c^uire a very large fire to force a war- 
den to hire thirty men for two days at 
$2 per day. One hundred and twenty 
dollars is spent in putting out this 
one little fire which has nevertheless 
done considerable damage before it 
was gotten under control. That $120 
would pay one man to patrol a large 
territory for three months of the sum- 
mer danger season — April, May, and 
June. Such a patrol would probably 
have caught this fire — together with 
dozens of others — in the incipient 
stage, saved several thousands of feet 
of lumber, and the expense of several 
hundred .fire fighters. 

That millions of feet of timber 
would be saved in this way is beyond 
question, but would it not also be 
cheaper in the actual cash outlav? 



APPOINTMENT OF WARDENS. 

Another mistake, though not nearly 
so important as the first, is the ap- 
pointment of elected men, such as the 
Selectmen of a town, to the position of 
fire warden. A man will not leave his 
own work to go fight a fire on some 
one else's ground and probably for 
some one else's benefit, unless he has 
to, and forcing men to do such things 
is not a business calculated to make a 
man popular. Consequently the elect- 
ed fire warden is not going to do it. 
or can he be greatly blamed for refus- 
ing. He does not care about losing 
the position as fire warden, but the 
more paying or more honorary posi- 
tion by virtue of which he is fire war- 
den. One or two of the states have 
realized this and found a very good so- 
lution of it in the appointment of the 
wardens by the courts. 

THE MATTER OE PAY. 

This difficulty which the fire warden 
has in obtaining aid in time of fire — a 
question which seems to puzzle some 
people unduly — is the result of an- 
other great weakness in the fire laws. 
They usually offer higher pay than is 
given for other work, but men do not 
volunteer for their work. The causes- 
are not far to seek. The job is a per- 
emptory and temporary one — which 
does not matter so much, though 
both these characteristics go against 
the grain of the average Ameri- 
can — and the pay comes somewhere 
in the far future — which matters 
a great deal. To the class of 
men hired on such occasions pay in 
the future is no pay at all ; they would 
rather work for fifty cents and get it 
at once, than for two dollars to come 
a month hence. And lucky is the man 
who gets his money through the gov- 
ernment red tape in a month ! The 
Pocono Protective Fire Association, in 
Pennsylvania, though they do not pay 
as high wages as the state, have no 
trouble in getting men for this work 
because they pay cash. This has been 
pretty generally acknowledged as a 



1906 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



95 



great fault, but nothing has been done 
to remedy it. 

I would like to suggest the follow- 
ing plan : The length of time taken to 
get the money from the state treas- 
uries is largely the result of the cum- 
brous working of those institutions 
and therefore unavoidable. But why 
not have a sub-pay station in the shape 
of the small country stores? Arrange- 
ments could easily be made with such 
stores, without expense, to credit the 
order of the fire wardens. These or- 
ders could be made out on the grounds 
immediately after the work was com- 
pleted, taken to the neighboring store, 
and there either be exchanged for cash 
or credited on the books. The stores 



would be willing enough to do this for 
the increased trade which it would in- 
evitably bring them, and could wait 
for the slower pay of the government. 
Probably many orders are now cashed 
at the stores at a tremendous discount ; 
an agreement between the store and 
the state would secure full pay for the 
holder. To make this system secure 
against leakage the wardens should be 
paid and bonded men, but the small 
amounts of money involved and the 
caution of the stores would act as a 
pretty good check on any fraud. 

This would seem to be the most ef- 
fective way of bracing up a weak sys- 
tem which is the next best thing to 
getting a new one. 



ANNUAL REPORT, GOVERNMENT 

EMPLOYEES MUTUAL RELIEF 

ASSOCIATION 



'T'HE Government Employees' Mu- 
■*• tual Relief Association is intend- 
ed to include male employees of the 
Geological Survey, the Reclamation 
Service, the Forest Service and other 
like government offices. It is organ- 
ized to meet the unexpected expenses 
of its members resulting from acci- 
dent, illness, or death. It is also in- 
tended to relieve their associates in 
services from the burden of caring 
for them, which in the past has some- 
times been excessive. 

The government does not assist 
civil employees who die, become sick, 
or injured, whether in the course of 
duty or otherwise. 

This organization is intended to 
meet the conditions arising from this 
fact in a way that shall enable each 
employee to care for himself and not, 
as in some cases in the past, be de- 
pendent upon the voluntary assistance 
of his associates. 

The policy issued provides : 
I. Indemnity for loss of time on ac- 
count of accident or illness to the 
extent of $i=;o in anv 12 months. 



2. Repayment of doctors' bills, hos- 
pital expenses, and medicines to the 
extent of $100 in any 12 months. 

3. In case of death, actual expense 
of preparation of body and its trans- 
portation home, also $100 additional for 
funeral expenses ; total not to exceed 
$600 ; or in case of death at home, a 
cash payment of $200 for funeral ex- 
penses. 

The dues are $12 per year, payable 
semi-animally or in some cases month- 
ly. A membership fee of $1 is pay- 
able upon joining the Asssociation, 
and goes into a reserve fund, available 
for benefits only. 

In the few months of its existence, 
the Association has relieved several 
cases that would have left the member 
or his family in a distressing condi- 
tion, besides requiring others in his 
party to aid in caring for him during 
several weeks. 

One member, who had been insured 
only four days, was thrown by a horse 
thus sustaining a serious double frac- 
ture of the leg. He received the 
maximum navment, v$ioo, for medical 



96 FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION Febrnaiy 

attendance and also $53.57 indemnity self and family from money loss due 
for loss of pay, which was particularly to death, sickness or accident, and pro- 
opportune as he was for several weeks tect himself against personal calls for 
without pay. assistance by continuing his member- 

An employee of the Forest Service *bip and by interesting his associates 

postponed joining the Asociation until to apply for membership, which will 

his return from a tield trip during be effective from date of application. 

which he was drowned. His unex- if certified by chief of party or other 

pected deatli, witli the attendant ex- superior officer. 

penses which were met with great The Association's experience to date 

difficulty, imposed a heavy burden proves what was expected at the time 

upon his family. This would have of its formation, that, through saving 

been avoided if he had carried out his of exorbitant salaries and advertising, 

intention of joining this Association, and by paying no rent or agent's com- 

A number of otlier cases have arisen missions, it furnishes a fourfold great- 
since tlie organization, in which tlie ^^ protection lor tlie rate of member- 
distress to an eligible emplovee. who ship dues than any known public 
had not joined, or to his familv, due accident and health company. The 
to the expense of death, illness or ac- credit dividend on January i, 1906, 
cident. has been seriouslv aggravated ^^'^^ ^s per cent of the amount paid in 
bv the need of funds for meeting such for _ membership dues. This will be 
an emero-encv. ' available as a credit on dues for the 

In manv such instances associates Matter half of the year 1906. 
have been compelled to help out with The Governing Committee an- 

these expenses from tlieir private re- "Ounces that on January 6. after the 

sources and such demands have at ^"dit of the books ot the Secretary 

times been verv heavv. ^"*^ ireasurer. the financial condition 

It is the aim of tlie Association to ©*' the Association is as follows : 
give every eligible employee an oppor- fixaxcial statemext. 

tunity to protect himself, his relatives. Receipts: 

and his associates from such calls and From dues, 190^. $937.00 

to relieve his associates from moral From dues, 1906. 6.00 

responsibilitv to aid. which cannot be $943-oo 

so binding when the injured man has ^'■°"' ^"' ^""^ ^.j^^oo 

failed to take advantage of the oppor- Disbursements: 

tumties ottered. , . ,. , Statione^^- and printing.. $76.10 

One teature to be emphasized is that Postage 21.20 

the relief is immediate. Pa}Tnents are General expftnses 20.00 

made as soon as notice of death is ^i^^^,P^f : • •, — .- 131-23 

J J,, . J 1 • ^ -Medical indemnity 134-50 

received, and there is no delay m meet- sick indemnity . . .' 53-57 

mg the request tor indemnity in cases Death benefit 200.00 

of sickness or accident when supported 636.60 

bv ordinarv receipts and a simple cer- „ , - , , - . Ti; 

■'j- ^ r ' ^t 1 • r r ^ .1 Balance in hands ol treasurer. . 5463.40 

tihcate from the chiet ot partv or other 
superior officer. ' credit dr'idexd. 

There is no red tape. A member Deducting from the balance in the 
died during the night of December 28. hands of the Treasurer the amount of 
The Secretary was informed at nine the reserve fund. Si 77, and the amount 
o'clock in the morning of the 29. and of dues paid for 1906. $6. there is left 
before noon of that day the death available for the credit dividend pro- 
benefit of S200 was in the hands of tlie vided by Article X of the Constitution, 
widow. S300.40. 

Every member can aid to make the Of the 177 members who have 

"Association stronger, can protect him- joined the Association. 28 are sus- 



1906 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



pended for non-payment of dues 
(monthly members), one member has 
died, and 3 members have received in- 
demnity, leaving 145 members entitled 
to share in the credit dividend. 

These 145 members have paid S832 
in dues, making the distribution of the 
$300.40 on the basis of 35 cents for 
each dollar of dues paid. This credit 
dividend, in the case of those whose 
membership began June i, 1905, will 
be $2.45. as they paid $7 dues. Those 
whose membership began July i, paid 
$6 dues, and will be entitled to S2.10, 
and so on. 

This credit dividend will be avail- 
able in payment of dues at the end of 



1906 by those who remain in good 
standing. 

Those whose credit is $2.45 will pay 
S3. 55 on July I, 1906, to be paid up 
to the end of the year, or if they pay 
monthly will be called upon to pay 
only 55 cents for October and will 
then be paid up to the end of the year. 

This dividend is a little less than 
the approximate amount announced in 
the notice of the annual meeting on ac- 
count of the death of Herbert B. Blair 
during the last week of the year. The 
death benefit of S200, paid to his wife, 
reduced to that extent the amount 
available for the dividend. 



AIDING CITIES AND TOWNS TO 
NAME THEIR TREES 

The Forest Service will Identify Trees in Streets and Parks 



'T'HE increased interest in forests 
■'■ and forest trees which is a sign 
of the times has, among other things, 
led many city and town officials to 
seek to make known the names of 
trees growing in streets and parks. 
Not only are such trees in very many 
cases now without marks of identifi- 
cation, but in not a few cases they 
have been labeled with incorrect 
names. The Forest Service has de- 
vised plans by which its co-operation 
may be secured in correctly identifying 
the public trees of any community 
which may care to call upon it. 

It is remarkable how little uniform- 
ity there is in the use of tree names. 
Even scientific names, which are, of 
course, always more exact than the 
common names, are in many cases un- 
settled, but common names are often 
used almost at random. In different 
parts of the country the same species 
may be popularly known under very 
different names, and, on the other 
hand, the same name is often used in 



different localities for altogether dif- 
ferent trees. 

In the effort to assist toward uni- 
formity of usage in scientific names of 
forest trees, and also to lessen the 
chaos in the use of common names, 
the Forest Service has already pub- 
lished "A Check List of the Forest 
Trees of the United States." This 
serves as a guide when once a tree has 
been identified by the botanist. But 
the first requisite is that the identifica- 
tion should be correct. It is here that 
difficulty is often met with. For this 
reason the Forest Service now offers 
its technical knowledge to city author- 
ities. 

There are two ways in which assist- 
ance may be given. Where the work 
is on a large scale, a representative of 
the Service will visit the town or city 
and identify the tree by examination 
on the spot. In most cases, however, 
identification by correspondence will 
prove entirely adequate. This will re- 
quire merely that specimens of the 



98 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



February 



trees be sent to the Forest Service, to- 
gether with a rough sample plat show- 
ing their location, the plat and speci- 
men being numbered to correspond. 

For such identification a full set of 
specimens, illustrating mature foliage, 
and, if possible, specimens of the flow- 
ers and of the fruit (as the botanist 
call the seeds) should be sent. Fruit 
specimens are very essential, but flow- 
ers may be omitted if they cannot be 
readily secured. Two or three speci- 
mens of branches in leaf, lo or 12 
inches long, taken from difi^erent parts 
of the crown, so as to exhibit all of the 
leaf forms common to the species, will 
answer for the foliage. One or two 
specimens of the foliage, flowers, and 
fruit may be placed between sheets of 
ordinary newspaper or blotting paper 
about 12 bv 16 inches in size. Thirtv 



to fifty specimens and sheets may thus 
be piled one on top of another, and the 
whole bundle placed between two stifif 
pieces of mill board, pasteboard, or 
thin picture backing, a little larger 
than the slieets of paper carrying the 
specimens. The package must then 
be well tied and wrapped, when it may 
be sent by mail if under 4 pounds in 
weight. If, before sending, the speci- 
mens are changed to dry sheets of pa- 
per once in twenty-four hours, keeping 
them constantly under a weight of 
from 40 to 50 pounds, they can be 
thoroughly dried within two, or three 
weeks, when they will not be so heavy 
and will still be in excellent condition 
for identification. 

Suggestions as to labels and their 
use are also made by the Service when 
requested. 



HUGE CONSUMPTION OF WOODEN 
FENCE POSTS 



In the Middle West, Where Trees are 
Scarce, It Will Pay to Grovs^ a Supply. 



T"* HE difficulty of obtaining fence 
■'' posts at reasonable prices has 
given an impetus scarcely realized to 
forest planting in the Middle West. 
Newspapers, farmers' institutes, wo- 
men's clubs, and boards of trade 
throughout the region are pointing 
out the need of such material and 
dwelling on the profit realized by the 
few men who planted trees years ago 
and whose plantations have been suc- 
cessful. The local supply of all forest 
products is insignificant, and timber, 
if not grown at home, must be import- 
ed. With the continuous retreat of the 
sources of supply under the attack of 
the vigorous demand, the length of the 
haul increases and the cost of trans- 
portation rises higher and higher. Yet 
the fields and pastures must be fenced. 
The posts must be had. 

The annual production of fence 
posts in the regular logging camps of 



the countr}-, as reported by the last 
Census, is 8,715,661. How many times 
greater than this is the annual cut 
from the home woodlot no figures ex- 
ist to show ; but by taking the total 
number of farms and their acreage 
and making a conservative allowance 
for posts for the fences inclosing each 
farm, it has been estimated that up- 
wards of 1,000,000,000 posts are set 
each year. Such figures are too vast 
to mean anything. Even the nine mil- 
lion posts of the Census, a mere drop 
in the bucket as compared with the un- 
reported production, would, if set 15 
feet apart, girdle the earth, or would 
build a solid pile 55 feet wide, 40 feet 
high, and a mile long. 

Durability and at least moderate 
strength are the desirable qualities for 
fence posts. The use of species which 
are not durable is expensive, both on 
account of the more frequent renewal 



1906 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



99 



which is necessary and because repair- 
ing is constantly called for. Timber 
of the required quality is produced in 
the Middle West by hardy catalpa, 
black locust, and Osage orange. 

Catalpa makes an excellent growth 
on deep, porous, fertile soil, but only 
on such soil. Five or six inch posts 
should be ready to cut in about ten 
years. In regions immune from the 
locust borer black locust will yield sat- 
isfactory returns from soil in which 
catalpa would fail, and for this reason 
it is adapted to a wide area where 
the rainfall is light. Under ordinary 
conditions, locust should produce fence 
material in fifteen years. 

Osage orange also is not exacting in 
its soil requirements. It is being ex- 
tensively planted for hedges and wind- 
breaks, from which a considerable 
yield df fence posts may be obtained. 
It makes satisfactory growth on dry 



soils and reaches post size in from fif- 
teen to twenty years. 

Several other species, such as white 
willow, European larch, Russian mul- 
berry, and red cedar, are also being 
grown with good results, but none of 
them is better fitted to supply fence 
posts than those first named. 

The Forest Service fully recognizes 
the importance of fence posts in farm 
economy and the great demand for^ 
suitable timber. Studies of the growth 
and durability of various species have 
been made, and the limits of the com- 
mercial planting range of each has 
been more closely defined. Rapid- 
growing species which are not durable 
have been studied to determine some 
form of preservation treatment which 
will increase their durability. Further 
work along this line will undoubtedly 
add largely to the list of species which 
can furnish the desired product. 



A NEW SAVING IN THE TURPEN 
TINE INDUSTRY 

Further Economy Effected in Experiments Made by the 
Forest Service, which Introduced the Cup and Gutter System. 



T^ HE recent experiments of the For- 
est Service, designed to conserve 
the life of turpentine trees, gives 
promise of remarkable success. It is 
believed that the improvements tested 
in these experiments will, in addition 
to prolonging the life of the trees, 
greatly increase their total yield of tur- 
pentine. 

When the cup and gutter system of 
turpentining was introduced by the 
Forest Service some three years ago, 
the economy which it secured led to its 
adoption on a large scale by southern 
turpentine producers. What lends this 
system its great value is the fact that 
it does away with the old practice of 
"boxing," which consists in cutting a 
deep cavity or "box" at the base of the 
tree for the purpose of catching and 



holding the resin which flows from the 
chipped "face" of the tree trunk above. 
In place of the "box" an earthenware 
cup, of the same capacity, is fastened 
to the tree. To this the flowing resin 
is directed by means of metal gutters. 
The disuse of the "box" effected a 
twofold gain — first, a saving of the 
deep, fatal wound in the base of the 
tree, and consequently a conservation 
of its vitality ; and second, much less 
waste in the gathering of the product, 
with a greater yield of turpentine and 
better grades of resin. 

While this decided, improvement 
spared the tree very considerably, the 
method of chipping "faces" to stimu- 
late resin flow remained unchanged. 
This in itself necessitates a deep 
wound, which, it is believed, exhausts 



100 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



February 



the vitality of the tree more than is 
necessary. Exhaustion is evident from 
the fact that after the first year the 
yield quickly falls off, and the total 
productive period is also limited. A 
further step in advance, to supplement 
the gains already secured by the cup 
and ':r''Lter system, was therefore 
sough, in the new plan. This aimed 
to reduce the size and number of 
"faces" chipped, and also the depth of 
the chipping, without diminishing the 
flow of resin. 

In the experiments carried out dur- 
ing the past season the first object was 
to show that at least an equal flow of 
resin can be secured from shallower 
and shorter "faces." The success of 
these experiments has tentatively es- 
tablished the practicability of this plan. 
A great saving naturally results, for 
by reducing the depth and the super- 
ficial extent of the wound the drain on 
the vitality of the tree is reduced, and 
at least an equal yield is secured with- 
out discounting tiie product of future 



years. Under the old system the an- 
nual yield gradually falls off. largely 
in consequence of the formation of 
"dry-face," which is a kind of local 
death, affecting the exposed wood of 
the tree. 

It is highly probable that with this 
diminution in the severity of the oper- 
ation the ordinary term of three or 
four years during which a forest is 
now worked can be greatly increased. 
This means not only a larger total re- 
turn, and consequently larger profits, 
but also that the investment period for 
turpentining capital is lengthened, a 
fact which especially appeals to the in- 
vestor. 

The experiments are being conduct- 
ed in co-operation with the Hillman- 
Sutherland Land Company, which last 
year placed four crops of trees, of 
about 8,000 trees each, at the disposal 
of the Forest Service, and for the sea- 
son of 1906 has consented to supply 
still more timber to further the study. 



NUT GROWING AND FORESTRY 



BY 



LESLIE HARRISON 



/^NE of the main causes working 
^^ against the immediate adoption 
of forestry is the distant future of the 
returns. American civilization lives 
too much in the present, and it is hard 
to persuade the average man to sacri- 
fice himself in the interests of a pos- 
terity some generations removed. 

But there are certain trees which are 
now and always will be valuable for 
their timber, and which also bear pay- 
ing crops long before they are avail- 
able for the sawmill. Chief among 
these are the chestnut, walnut, and 
hickory. There are a number of other 
valuable nut trees, but their cultiva- 
tion has come into the realm of the 
orchardist, as it notably the case with 
the so-called "English Walnut" and 



almond, in California and the pecan 
in Texas. 

Little has as yet been done in the 
improvement and cultivation of our 
native nuts, especially those borne on 
valuable forest trees. Much attention 
has been given to the orchard varie- 
ties, but when our indigenous nuts 
have been improved it is probable that 
they will be even more in demand than 
some of the more important carefully 
cultivated nuts of the present day. 

The chestnut has received some at- 
^"ention, -particularly in Pennsylvania 
and New Jersey, and it is deserving of 
considerable more, for its main value 
lies in the fact that it can be used on 
rough upland country where the pos- 
sibility of other crops would be at a 



1906 



FORESTRY AND ffiRIGATION 



101 



minimum. Moreover, it has been suc- 
cessfully demonstrated that imported 
and fancy varieties can be grafted onto 
native hardy stock, to produce fine 
nuts in great profusion. The different 
kinds of hickory and walnut need 
low^er lands, but even these trees can 
be successfully grown in bottom lands 
whose frequent overflow renders them 
unfit for farming purposes. While 
these varieties are growing they are 
not only producing a valuable timber 
stand for the future, but in the present 
they incidentally furnish a valuable 
by-product in the nuts grown, making 
such plantations valuable properties 
long years before they mature for 
lumber. By this plan annual harvests 
wil pay the expenses of forest opera- 
tions, and the man who plants these 
hardwood trees has a reward in addi- 
tion to the feeling that his children 
will have a valuable inheritance in the 
timber. 

Mr. E. A Sterling, of the U. S. For- 
est Service, in a report furnished to the 
New York Forest, Fish, and Game 
Commission, recommends highly the 
cultivation of chestnut groves, basing 
his recommendation on actual obser- 
vations of groves in New Jersey and 
Pennsylvania. In these two states 
chestnut culture has been tried in two 
ways ; in groves of actual forest 
growth under forest conditions, and 
in orchards under orchard conditions. 
The former method is a complete suc- 
cess, and in its utilization of waste 
land takes nothing from areas which 
otherwise might be profitably devoted 
to the cultivation of other crops. In 
the latter method the chances of fail- 
ure seem to be greater, and in case of 
a failure there is not onlv the loss of 



the crop itself, but the loss of the use 
of the ground on which the attempted 
crop was grown. The most successful 
method in use was the grafting of 
Japanese, European, or desirable na- 
tive varieties on the coppice growth on 
cut-over chestnut lands, thus insuring, 
in the second growth a maximum an- 
nual crop value in a minimum time. 

It has been found that the Paragon 
is the best variety for grafting, and 
these will be in bearing in four years, 
with an annual increase in the value 
of the harvested crop. There is no 
trouble in disposing of the yield, as 
the demand is far in excess of the sup- 
ply. The best Paragon nuts sell read- 
ily at prices averaging lo per hundred- 
weight, and a usual price is $7 per 
bushel. While the trees do not pro- 
duce phenomenal yields in their early 
years, especially if many of the burrs 
are removed in order to get improved 
quality and size of nuts in the remain- 
ing ones, still the yield of older trees 
is enormous, single trees giving $40 
worth of chestnuts. 

It is probable that the success at- 
tained by the Pennsylvania groves will 
tempt others to make use of worthless 
old hillsides to produce a crop of nuts 
as well as timber, and under such con- 
ditions the work forms a branch of 
forestry rather than horticulture, since 
the essential elements of the forest are 
all there. More than that, chestnut 
culture should go a long way in solv- 
ing the problem of reclaiming worth- 
less burned and waste land, which at 
the present time is a standing menace 
to surrounding forests. In addition to 
this it provides for a more complete 
utilization of forest areas. 



THE CALAVERAS GROVE 
BIG TREES 

Reasons for Their Preservation by the Federal Government 

BY 

MRS. LOVELL WHITE 

Chairman, Calaveras Big Tree Committee, Outdoor Art League of California. 



OF 



T^HE Calaveras Groves of Big Trees 
■'• were discovered by Gen. N. P. 
Chipman, of California, in 1 841. The 
existence of the Big Trees, those 
giants of the forest, became known 
over the entire world so soon as the 
slow methods of transportation then 
in vogue in California could carry the 
news of their discovery abroad. When 
the truth concerning the story of the 
Big Trees was verified, distinguished 
scientists from the great centers of 
learning in Europe visited the newly 
revealed mammoth groves, as they 
were sometimes called. The north 
grove contains loi big trees and the 
south grove, some six miles removed, 
claims 1,380. 

About this time a man came from 
England in the interest of the world's 
fair to be held in the Crystal Palace in 
London. He purchased from the own- 
er one of the largest and most beauti- 
ful trees in the north grove, called the 
"Mother of the Forest." He paid ten 
thousand dollar.s for the tree and killed 
her by literally skinning her alive. By 
the. aid of sharp instruments he took 
the thick bark in sections from her 
body and thus left the mighty "Mother 
of the Forest," white and bare and an 
almost tragic figure, standing in the 
midst of the green woods. Removing 
the bark to London, he there erected 
a cylinder of the sections into the ex- 
act shape of the denuded tree. This 
similitude of a Calaveras big tree was 
viewed by hundreds of thousands of 
people and the fame of the California 
big trees became world-wide. 

Tt is now six years since the grove 
passed, by pi-rchase, from the hands fif 



the original owner, who kept a hotel in 
the north grove, into the possession of 
another, who evidently was inspired 
with more practical ideas than were 
entertained Ijy the tree lover who ex- 
ploited the groves as mere show 
places. 

When the sale was reported by the 
newspapers, the women of the Califor- 
nia Club, of San Francisco, at once 
took action toward the end of preserv- 
ing to future generations a wonderful 
heritage worthy our name and coun- 
try. The California congressional del- 
egation was instructed to present a bill 
to Congress asking the government to 
purchase the groves. 

The Big Tree bill has easily passed 
the Senate at each of its six years of 
historv in Congress, but it can proceed 
no further and lodges ignobly in the 
House of Representatives, where ex- 
isting difficulties seem insurmountable. 
Meantime the price of timber holdings 
has increased so rapidly on the Pacific 
coast that property has almost doubled 
in value, and the problem of acquiring 
the trees becomes more and more com- 
plex. The age, size, beauty, and un- 
surpassed grandeur of these prehis- 
toric giants among trees lend them a 
worth beyond the mere commercial es- 
timate put upon them by lumber- 
men. We are told that the Sequoia 
Gii^antia are the oldest living things 
on earth today, and that they can only 
be found in detached groves on the 
western slopes of the Sierra Nevada 
Mountains. They are priceless, and 
their advent in the world's history an- 
tedates that of the patriarchs of 
the Bible. These matchless treasures 



1906 



FOKESTKY AND IRRIGATION 



103 



should belong to the nation and be 
vaunted as its chief pride and glory. 
Yet with them in peril we sit idly by 
awaiting the trend of events. 

What is to be the fate of the Cala- 
veras groves? What is the wish of 
the people concerning their destiny? 
There must be some way to acquire 
the groves for posterity. 

If the one million and a half of 
people who signed a petition in 1904 
sent by the Outdoor Art League of 
San Francisco to President Roosevelt 
urging him to request Congress to 
pass the Big Tree bill had accompa- 
nied their names with a dollar each 
the trees could easily have been pur- 
chased, and also the magnificent forest 
tracts immediately surrounding the 
groves. But this was not asked, be- 



cause the league believed that Con- 
gress would pass a bill so generally 
demanded by the people and indorsed 
by President Roosevelt, who sent a 
special message to Congress on receipt 
of the huge petition, urging it to pass 
the bill. 

In view of the monetary condition 
of the United States government, and 
the many demands to be made upon 
the common Treasury, but little hope 
can be entertained for favorable legis- 
latoin for the groves at the present 
session of Congress. What, then, is 
the next step to be taken? Will you 
abandon the big trees to an ignoble 
fate, or will all patriotic Americans 
unite in some feasible plan to preserve 
to the world the greatest living mar- 
vels now extant in the universe? 



RECENT PUBLICATIONS 



Evergreens; How to Grow Them. Bv 

C. S. Harrison. Pp. 95, illustrated. Webb 

Publishing Co., St. Paul, Minn., igo6. 

Cloth, 50 cents net; paper, 25 cents net. 

This little volume is, above all, a practical 
work. The text is in simple, untechnical 
language, combining a guide to the selec- 
tion and growth of the better known coni- 
fers, with full and explicit descriptions of 
various species and their peculiarities. Mr. 
Harrison is president of the Nebraska Park 
and Forestry Association, and the deep in- 
terest that he feels in forestry is manifested 
throughout the book, notably the first chap- 
ter, where the effects of forest denudation 
are .^orcibly and succinctly brought out. Mr. 
Harrison has had more than thirty years' 
experience in nursery work and forest 
planting in Nebraska, and this book is the 
result of his experience and observations. 
It should prove especially vahtable to the 
farmers and land owners of the West and 
Northwest. 



Forestry in Massachusetts. Second Edi- 
tion. Bulletin No. 1, Forest Service of 
Massachusetts. By Alfred Akermin, 
State Forester. Pp. 19. Wright and 
Potter Co., State Printers, Boston, 1905. 
This is an interesting little pamphlet de- 
signed to create an interest in forestry in 
Massachusetts and to set forth the aims of 
the State Forest Service and its work. The 
Forest Service of Massachusetts was only 
established in 1904^ but already it has ac- 
complished considerable, and in the futur.\ 
-when it secures even more gener:d support. 



plans to further increase its activities. The 
introductory part of the bulletin is an ex- 
cellent exposition of the forest situation in 
Massachusetts, and of the importance of 
conservative forest management. 



The First Country Park System. A 
History of the Development ot the Essex 
County Park of New Jersey. Bv Fred 
W. Kelsey. J. S. Ogilvie Publishmg Co., 
New York. Price. $1.25. 

It is quite true, as the author states in 
his opening paragraph, that the interest in 
parks and park development is constantly 
growing. One, therefore, turns to this pub- 
lication with the desire to know just what 
the community, of which the city of Newark 
is the center, has done. He is disappointed, 
however, 'to tind that there is very little 
information about the parks themselves, 
and that he must go through over 200 pages 
of uninteresting matter to learn a few facts. 
It is apparent that Essex county has ac- 
quired a valuable park system; but ■ the 
trials and tribulations through which the 
organizers went is of little importance to 
the outsidef. The essential fact seems to 
be that for an expenditure of about $5,- 
000,000 Newark and the Oranges have ac- 
quired a fine park system. This outlay is 
apparently excessive, though no doubt the 
future will count the money well spent. 
The book cannot be recommended as valu- 
;ible to anyone but those who care to know 
wh-it difficulties : r,- ..ncoirtered in a work 
of this kind. 



TROPICAL FORESTRY AND HORTICULTURE 

Reports and working plans for estates in Southern Florida, Bahamas, 
Cuba, Isle of Pines, Porto Rico, and neighboring regions .... 




The Pomelo, or Grape Fruit, the Favorite ol all Breakiast Fruits, tor which the 
southernmost part of the Peninsula of Florida is famous. For the produc- 
tion of this profitable fruit this region has no rival 



Tropical forest lands bought and sold. Villa sites and grove land 
for sale in Biscayne Bay region. Write for prospectus. Address 

JOHN GIFFORD, Princeton, N. J., or Cocoanut Grove Dade Co., Fla. 




Tree Protectors 

75c per 100 
$5 per 1000 

As valuable in summer against 
sun-scald, hot winds, etc., as 
thev are in winter against cold 
and rahbits. Recommended 
bv all leading Orchardists Hnd 
and Horticultural Societies. 
Send for samples and testimo- 
nials Do not wait until Rab- 
bits and Mice ruin your trees. 

WRITE US TODAY. 
niiolesale Nursery Catalogue now 

ready; send for copy. 

Agents Wanted Everywhere 

Hart Pioneer Nurseries 
Fort Scott, Kansas Box 40 



^ Liking for the Open Road 

Goes with a Taste for Apples 
and Schubert's Music 

THE OPEN ROAD 

A SAUNTERER'S CHRONICLE 



Edited by 
CHARLES WISNER BARRELL 

[Sometime of Vagabondia) 



Is a de luxe pocket magazine of 
outdoor philosophy and fiction 



If you ever long for a whiff of un- 
breatiied literary ozone, send Fiflij Cents 
without delay for a year's subscription to 



The Open lload 

137 GRANT AVEP<ITK 
Jersey City New Jersey 



Read "Irrigation in the United 
States," by Frederick Hayes 
Newell, Chief Engineer U. S. 
Reclamation Survey. Price, $2, 
postpaid to any address. Address 
"Forestry and Irrirjation," Wash- 
ington, D. C. 



*'Laiid Scrip." 

Safe, quick, economical method of 
acquiring Government land. 
Hugo L. Seaberg, 



Rttton, N. Mex. 



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More White Pine Seed 

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Seed Catalog: FREE 



THOMAS ME EH AN & SONS, Inc., Dreshertow^n, Renn. 

Nursery Lane 
Vt^holesale Nurserymen and Tree Seedsmen. 




RAISE IRRIGATING WATER 

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THE SA WEILL FALLS, MILFORD, PA. - - Frontispiece 

NEWS AND NOTES : 

Write Your Congressmen - 109 Meeting at Charlotte, N. C. - 111 
"'wholesale Lumber Dealers Yale Student for South Africa 112 
^leet 109 Reclamation Fund Threat- 
Nebraska Notes - - - - 110 ened 112 

"Fixing Control of Reclama- To Buy Salt River Canals - 113 

tion Work 110 

HON. HALVOR STEENERSON {ivifh portrait) . - - - - 114 
THE KLAMATH PROJECT {Illustrated). By H. L. Holgate - 115 
HOW SHALL FORESTS BE TAXED? Part I. By Alfred Gaskill 119 
SUMMERJSESSION OF THE YALE FOREST SCHOOL {Illus- 
trated). By C. S. Judd 122 

FOREST INTERESTS OF RHODE ISLAND. By J. B. Mowry 126 
NOTES ON FOREST TREES SUITABLE FOR PLANTING IN 

THE UNITED STATES; IV. The Russian Mulberry - 128 

FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION IN CONGRESS - - - ll9 
LAND RECLAMATION BY DRAINAGE {Illustrated). By Guy 

Elliott Mitchell 134 

THE FOREST SERVICE - - - -" - - - - J38 

THE YUMA RECLAMATION PROJECT {Illustrated). - - 143 

THE RECLAMATION SERVICE 145 

THE BLACK MESA FOREST RESERVE {Illustrated). By F. 

S. Breen 149 

SUCCESSFUL FIRE PROTECTION IN CALIFORNIA - - 153 

RECENT PUI^LICATIONS 154 

FoEFSTR-i AM) IRRIGATION is the Official organ of the American Forestry Association. 
SuLMTiption price 81.00 a year: single copies 10 cents. Copyright, 1906. by 
Forestry and Irrigation Publishing Co. Entered at the Poit Office at Washington, 
D (" , au becond-ulass mail mailer. 




Published Monthly at 



WASHINGTON, D. C. 





THE SAWKILL FALLS, NEAR MILFORD, PA. 
One of the many beautiful views in the vicinity of the Yale Summer.School ot Forestry 

(See page 122) 



Forestry and Irrigation. 



Vol. XII. 



MARCH, 1906. 



No. 3 



NEWS AND NOTES 



Write to The bill for national for- 

}f°"'' est reservations in the 

Congressmen ^^ite Mountains of 
New Hampshire and the Southern 
Appalachian Mountains, has been in- 
troduced in the present Congress. The 
Senate Committee on Agriculture and 
Forest Reserves has reported favor- 
ably upon the measure and the House 
Committee on Agriculture is to 
consider the bill at a hearing on April 
II. Readers of Forestry AND Irriga- 
tion are earnestly urged to write their 
representatives in Congress, or their 
senators, and urge their support of 
this measure. Say that you earnestly 
desire that these forest reservations be 
established, and ask them to see Speak- 
er Cannon and urge upon him the 
importance of securing a vote on this 
measure at the earliest possible day. 
■ The time for concerted action is at 
hand. 



Wholesale The Fourteenth Annual 
5^""?^^''iwr Meeting of the National 

Dealers Meet ^^j^Qigs^ig L^^niber Deal- 
ers' Association, held in Washington 
on March 7 and 8, was remarkable for 
the keen interest shown in practical 
forestry by the members of this pow- 
erful organization. The session on 
Thursday morning, March 8, was al- 
most entirely given up to the discus- 
sion of forestry as applied to the lum- 
ber industry. The session began with 
the report of the association's commit- 
tee on forestry, which was presented 
by its chairman, Mr. George F. Craig, 
of Philadelphia. He was followed bv 
Mr. Gifford Pinchot, head of the U. 
S. Forest Service, who spoke of the 
government forest work and the desire 



of the Service to co-operate in every 
way possible with the lumbermen of 
the country. Mr. Alfred Gaskill, of 
the Forest Service, then read an inter- 
esting paper on "How Shall Forest 
Lands Be Taxed?" In the afternoon, 
President Roosevelt received the dele- 
gates to the convention in the East 
Room. He shook hands with each of 
the delegates and made the following 
address : 

"I wish to state what a very real 
pleasure it is to have the chance of 
greeting this body here on this occa- 
sion. I hope I need not say the very 
deep interest I take in not only your 
business itself but in the way in which 
you are carrying it on. I want to con- 
gratulate you with all my heart, and I 
congratulate the country upon the way 
in which the exceptionally intelligent 
and energetic men who have been en- 
gaged in lumbering have met and are 
meeting the changed conditions of 
their business ; they way in which they 
are now seeking to put it upon a foot- 
ing not of exploiting a given area of 
forest and leaving nothing behind, but 
of so handling the forest that in using 
it it is yet left as an asset for their chil- 
dren and children's children. 

"The great desire I have in connec- 
tion with the government forest ser- 
vice is that you lumbermen should 
make the fullest use of that service, 
and I think I need not say that it is 
absolutely at your disposition, and that 
the more you use it, the more you 
work in conjunction with those en- 
gaged in managing it, the better it will 
be for the service, and I think for you. 
I am pleased to learn that you are to 



110 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



March 



help in establishing a chair in lumber- 
ing at Yale. 

"There is no business in the United 
States in which there is greater need of 
having it carried on with a combina- 
tion of scientific understanding and 
practical horse sense. And, after all, 
that is the way in which every success- 
ful business, including the business of 
governing, has got to be carried on." 

„ ^ , The Nebraska Park and 

Nebraska -r^ , . • ,• » 

l^Qjgg l^orestry Associations 

annual meeting, held at 
Lincoln recently, was a very successful 
afifair. Those on the program were 
Prof. A. E. Burnett, director of the 
Nebraska experiment station ; Mr. C. 
S. Harrison, president of the associa- 
tion ; Prof. N. E. Hansen, of South 
Dakota ; Mr. E. C. Bishop, assistant 
superintendent of public instruction 
for Nebraska; Mrs. H. M. Bushnell, 
president of the Nebraska Federation 
of Women's Clubs; Prof. Charles E. 
Bessey, Prof. R. A. Emerson, and 
Chas. A. Scott, Wm. H. Mast and 
Frank G. Miller, of the Forest Service. 
The establishment of a state park and 
a state forest nursery were among the 
more important questions discussed. 

Mr. Charles A. Scott delivered a 
special course of twelve lectures to the 
students of forestry in the University 
of Nebraska in January. The course 
included a discussion of the methods 
of gathering forest tree seeds, nursery 
practice, field planting, and forest pol- 
icy. The closing address, by special 
request of the city teachers, was an il- 
lustrated lecture on "Forest Indus- 
tries." Mr. Scott has been engaged 
for a similar course next year. 

Fixing Control A notable bill, designed 
tfon W^k*" to prevent any possible 
abuse of administrative 
power, has been introduced in the 
House of Representatives by Mr. 
Cooper of Pennsylvania in connection 
with the operations of the Reclamation 
Act. There is probably no law on the 
statute books which ])uts in the hands 
of a single official of the government 
such unlimited powers of expenditure 



as the act devoting the proceeds from 
the sale of public lands to the construc- 
tion of reclamation works. Prominent 
statesmen, both inside and out of Con- 
gress, and leading newspapers have 
called attention to the great possibili- 
ties for maladministration, while at the 
same time they have joined in com- 
mendation of the wisdom and conserv- 
ative policy of the present Secretary of 
the Interior. In view of the fact that 
no one man can be expected to remain 
indefinitely in charge of these great re- 
sponsibilities, it seemed wise at the 
present time while everything is pro- 
gressing well to make a provision of 
law such that Congress shall give at- 
tention annually to the expenditure of 
the reclamation fund. This fund at 
present amounts to $30,000,000. 

With this thought in view, Mr. 
Cooper, after an inspection of the work 
in the field, has introduced his bill (H. 
R. 16312), providing for the more 
complete placing of responsibilities in 
administration of the reclamation fund. 
This bill confirms the present practice 
which has proved successful-^that is. 
that of making the director of the Geo- 
logical Survey the director of the Re- 
clamation Service, and provides that 
he shall remain as such until some 
other person is designated by the Pres- 
ident to fill the office of director of the 
Reclamation Service. The bill also 
provides that the director shall submit 
annual estimates of expenditures to be 
made, so that Congress may have fuM 
information on this point. It in efifect 
places the responsibilities of distrib- 
uting the fund where it belongs — that 
is, with Congress — and to that extent 
relieves the executive officers from the 
endless worr\- and annoyance incident 
to the wise apportionment of the fund. 

It is believed that Mr. Cooper's bill 
will have the support of the leaders in 
Congress, as well as that of the higher 
executive officers who are conversant 
with the established system. It is not 
intended as a reflection upon the exist- 
ing order of things, but, on the con- 
trary, serves to crystallize the methods 
which have been found to be desirable 
and to put on the statute books a more 



19UH 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



111 



dehnite recognition of the responsibil- 
ities of Congress and of the adminis- 
trative ofificers of the government. 

On March 3, at Char- 
lotte, N. C, an interest- 
ing and important meet- 
ing was held in the interest of forestry. 
Three sessions were held in the morn- 
ing, afternoon and evening, and a 
number of those prominent in the for- 
est movement, and particularly in the 



Meeting at 
Charlotte, 
N. C. 



Gaskill, of the Forest Service ; Mr. F. 
H. Newell, chief engineer. United 
States Reclamation Service; Prof. J. 
A. Holmes, state geologist, and others. 

In the morning a reception was ten- 
dered by the Southern Manufacturers' 
Club ; the afternoon session was held 
at the Academy of Music, at which a 
number of excellent addresses were 
made. Stress was laid upon the im- 
portance of conserving the forests, lest 




View Showing the Remaining Portion of the Arizona Dam, which was Washed 
Away by the Flood of April 13, 1905. 



effort for the establishment of the Ap- 
palachian Forest Reserve, were pres- 
ent and spoke. These included Gover- 
nor Glenn of North Carolina, who 
presided at all sessions ; Governor Ter- 
rell of Georgia, Mr. Gifford Pinchot, 
chief of the United States Forest Ser- 
vice ; Mr. C. A. Schenck, director of 
Biltmore Forest School; Dr. W. Gill 
Wylie, president of the Southern Pow- 
er Co. ; Mr. Alfred Akerman, state 
forester of Massachusetts; Mr. Alfred 



the water powers of the South — so 
vital to its welfare — be dangerously 
impaired. 

The evening session was more large- 
ly attended, and a distinctly "popular" 
program was offered, probably the 
most interesting portion of which was 
an illustrated lecture on forest preser- 
vation by Prof. J. A. Holmes. Excel- 
lent addresses were made by Dr. T- 
Hyde Pratt, of Chapel Hill, N. C, as- 
sistant state geologist ; Mr. Fred C. 



112 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



March 



Bates, of the General Electric Com- 
pany : Prof. H. D. House, Mr. W. S. 
Lee', jr.. Dr. Collier Cobb, Governor 
Glenn, and others. 

The most important feature of the 
meeting was the decision to appoint a 
committee to urge the passage of the 
bill now pending in Congress provid- 
ing for forest reserves in the Southern 
Appalachian and White Mountains. 
Governor Glenn was selected chairman 
of this committee and requested to se- 
lect the same, asking the Governors of 
Virginia, West Virginia, Pennsylva- 
nia, Maryland, Tennessee, North Car- 
olina, South Carolina, Georgia, Alaba- 
ma, and each of the New England 
states to co-operate with him in the ap- 
pointment of such a committee. 

Interest in forestry in the South is 
slowly taking root, and judging from 
the excelent resolutions adopted at this 
Charlotte meeting, and the evident in- 
terest of all present, the time is not far 
ofif when the South will come to a 
realization of the importance of hus- 
banding its timber resources. 



pose, and has repeatedly expressed 
himself as more than satisfied with his 
choice. He also desired to study our 
methods of planting, as the main prob- 
lems of the South African forester are 
those of afiforestation. Since his arri- 
val here in the fall of 1904 he has spent 
his vacations in traveling about the 
country examining our work in for- 
estry, and particularly our experiments 
in tree planting in the Middle West. 
He is just now leaving, at the request 
of his government, and by the courtesy 
of the authorities of the Yale Forest 
School, to study the conifers of tem- 
perate Mexico. The climate condi- 
tions there being somewhat similar to 
those in South Africa, it is hoped by 
the officials of the South African gov- 
ernment that some of the Mexican 
conifers may be found suitable for 
planting in South Africa. Upon his 
return from Mexico, Captain Wilmot 
will proceed to Germany for a brief 
period of study there, after which he 
will go on to Cape Town to take up his 
work in the newly established forest 
school. 



Yale Captain George Adelbert 

Student for Wilmot of the class of 
South ALica j^^^ .^ ^^^ Yale Forest 
School has just been notified by the 
colonial government of the Cape of 
Good Hope in South Africa of his ap- 
pointment as an assistant instructor in 
forestry and lecturer in forest law in 
the newly established forest school at 
Cape Town. 

Captain Wilmot, who was educated 
at the University of Dublin, gave up 
his studies in forestry to join her 
majesty's forces in the Boer war, in 
which he served with distinction, re- 
tiring with rank of captain. After the 
close of the war he resumed his work 
in forestry under the colonial govern- 
ment, which oflfered to send him to any 
of the dififerent schools that he might 
elect. After canvassing the ground 
thoroughly and after considerable cor- 
respondence with Prof. Henry S. 
Graves, the director of the Yale Forest 
School, he finally chose the Yale For- 
est School as the best suited to his pur- 



Reclamation Following the lead of 

j^""*^ , Senator Hansbrough's 
Threatened 1 -n ^ j- ^ ir 

bill to divert a million 

dollars from the reclamation fund for 
drainage in his state of North Dakota, 
other congressmen, especially in the 
east, are waking up to the opportuni- 
ties such a lead presents. Representa- 
tive Small has introduced a bill to take 
$1,000,000 from the reclamation fund- 
to drain the historic Dismal Swamp in 
Virginia and North Carolina If funds 
are diverted for these projects, why 
not use the reclamation fund for re- 
claiming the swamps of Florida, Lou- 
isiana, Arkansas, and a long list of 
others? Active efforts along these 
lines may prove successful, but the 
plan of developing the arid West 
would in this way receive a mighty 
serious setback. The reclamation fund 
has been judiciously distributed by the 
Secretary of the Interior so as to pro- 
vide for the utilization of the fund, in- 
cluding the estimated receipts for the 
next three years, in order that the 



1906 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



113 



work may be carried on as the funds 
come in from year to year. This pro- 
vides for the finishing of the first sec- 
tions of various projects. The proper 
completion of the plans of work al- 
ready started necessitates the use of 
the funds that will be received for a 
number of years. Any disturbance of 
the equilibrium now established will 
require the curtailing of some projects 
and the abandonment of others. The 
selection must be made from those that 
would involve the least loss to the gov- 
ernment. The disturbance of compre- 
hensive plans for spending $30,000,000 
cannot be otherwise than disastrous 
to the West in general. 

No one disputes the immense value 
that would be created by draining the 
swamplands of the country. But for 
this purpose a bill has been introduced 
in Congress by Representative Steen- 
trrson of Minnesota, drawn along the 
sensible, practical lines of the National 
Reclamation Act of June 17, 1902. Its 
l)assage and administration will bring- 
about the drainage of swamplands 
throughout the country on an immense 
scale, without diverting a single penny 
from the present Reclamation Fund. 
This bill, described elsewhere in this 
issue of Forestry and Irrigation, 
ought to command the support of 
everyone interested in the highest de- 
velopment of the country. 

To Buy The Secretary of the In- 

Salt River terior has given his ap- 
^^"^^^ proval to a contract for 

the purchase by the government of the 
entire system of canals on the north 
side of the Salt River Valley, Arizona, 
in the center of which is Phoenix, the 
capital of the territory. These canals 
now become an integral part of the 
Salt River Project and will be remod- 
eled into an ideal system of distribu- 
tion by which to irrigate 125,000 or 
more acres of rich, fertile land. This 
disposition of the matter has been 
brought about as a consequence of the 
disastrous floods in the Salt River Val- 
lev last spring. Among other things 



the flood carried away the Arizona, 
dam. As a result the company owning 
the dam has been unable to furnish 
water and the farming operations of 
many persons in the Salt River Valley 
have been in serious danger. The ac- 
tion of the government in deciding to 
take over this irrigation system is in 
accord with its policy to acquire all 
possible water rights in regions affect- 
ed by its own projects, thereby avoid- 
ing useless and costly litigation. 

Now that the Secretary of the In- 
terior has decided that there is no ob- 
stacle to the approval of the contract 
for the purchase of the Arizona canal 
system, it is an appropriate time to 
recognize the invaluable services of 
Mr. B. A. Fowler, president of the 
Salt River Valley Water Users' Asso- 
ciation, in meeting and overcoming the 
numerous difficulties that have beset 
the consummation of these negotia- 
tions. Mr. Fowler's work in this con- 
nection cannot be fully appreciated ex- 
cept b}- one who has been on the 
ground and who has been cognizant of 
the many different phases which the 
matter has at various times assumed. 
The officers of the government are, of 
course, bound by the rules of regular 
and orderly procedure, and while they 
have consistently endeavored to do ev- 
erything that was officially possible to 
expedite the negotiations, the numer- 
ous delays incident to such matters 
could have been overcome only by tact- 
ful and persistent effort. Mr. Fowler 
kept in touch with the proceedings at 
every stage and by his attention, pa- 
tience and persistence aided in dispos- 
ing of many difficulties that would 
otherwise have caused great delay. 
The fact that these negotiations have 
been closed within two and one-half 
months, instead of taking twice that 
long, is unquestionably due almost 
solely to Mr. Fowler's presence in 
Washington and to his untiring ef- 
forts. The people of Salt River Val- 
ley should understand and appreciate 
this. 

















HON. HALVOR STEENERSON, of Minnesota 
Author of Qovernment Drainage Bill 





Representative Steenerson, champion of the drainage measure, which is 
elsewhere described in this issue of Forestry and Irrigation was born June 
30, 1852, in Dane County, Wis. His parents removed to Minnesota the follow- 
ing year, and he later grew up in Houston county, studying in the common 
schools of his section. Completing his education there he entered upon the 
study of law, and in 1878 was admitted to the Bar in the Supreme Court of 
Illinois, after a course of study at the Union College of Law in Chicago. The 
same year he was admitted to the Minnesota bar, and soon after removed to 
Crookston, Minn., and began the practice of his profession there. In 1880 
he was elected county attorney; and in 1882, State Senator. He attended the 
Republican National Conventions of 1884 and 1888 as a delegate, and was 
elected to the 58th Congress and re-elected to the 59th. 



THE KLAMATH PROJECT 

An Immense Reclamation Scheme in California and 
Oregon Combining Irrigation and Drainage Works 

BY 

H. L. HOLGATE 

U. S. Reclamation Service. 



IN the rock of rough marble the 
■^ sculptor saw an angel. His prac- 
tised hand chiseled away the imprison- 
ing stone, revealing to the world a 
figure of beauty. With an equal pre- 
scient eye the United States Reclama- 
tion Service sees in the Klamath 
plateau of Southern Oregon and 
Northern California, a land of thous- 
ands of prosperous farm homes, and 
with equal skill the engineers of the 
service will reveal the agricultural pos- 
sibilities of this undeveloped region. 



Under the Klamath Project, the offi- 
cial name of this irrigation scheme to 
be constructed by the government, 
lie 250,000 acres of irrigable land. 
About 145,000 acres are in private 
ownership and 105,000 acres are 
government lands. The public lands 
will be subdivided into tracts averag- 
ing 80 acres in extent, and under the 
law the private lands must be sub- 
divided into farms not exceeding 160 
acres under one ownership. The 
average size of all the farms will prob- 




-p^r 






''^^^w. 






Tule Lake, Oregon and Calitornia; the future site lor 1000 farms of 80 acres each. To be 
drained and irrigated as part of the Klamath project by the U. S. Reclamation Service. 



116 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



March 



ably be less than loo acres and the 
total number of farms will be some- 
thing more than 2,500. These farms 
and the immense timber resources of 
the country will easily support a popu- 
lation of 50.000 people. 

The engineers of the service are not 
liere confronted with difficult engineer- 
ing problems. The water supply is 
abundant and nature has provided the 
necessary reservoirs. The larger area 
of irrigable land, about i<)0,030 acres. 



Klamath Lake. This latter lake ex- 
tends from Klamath Falls, Oregon, to 
Laird. Siskiyou County, California, a 
distance of twenty-five miles. The 
depth of water varies from one to 
twelve feet and a heavy growth of 
tules marks the greater area. The lake 
has an elevation of 4,086 feet and an 
area of about 80,000 acres. Except 
for a large drainage channel, which 
will probably be navigable. Lower 
Klamath Lake will be reclaimed bv 




Link River, Oregon, Outlet of Upper Klamath Lake. 



will be su])])lied with water drawn 
from Upper Klamath Lake, situated in 
Klamath County, Oregon. This lake 
has an area of 60,000 acres, an average 
<lepth of about 8 feet and an elevation 
of 4,142 feet. The lake receives the 
drainage of an immense water shed. 
Tts only outlet over a rim-rock is Link 
River, a stream which has a length of 
about one mile and a fall in that dis- 
tance of 56 feet, emptying into Lower 



drainage and evai^)oration and subse- 
(|uent irrigation. Its outlet at Keno 
into the Klamath River will be deepen- 
ed twelve feet by a rock cut. 

The second reservoir is Clear Lake, 
in Modoc County, California, where a 
restraining dam must be constructed. 
The outlet of the Lake is Lost River, 
which flows north through rich valley 
lands in Oregon and then turns south, 
emptying after a course of sixty miles 



1906 



FORESTRY ANJJ) IRRIGATION 



117 



into Tule Lake, situated partially in 
Oregon but chiefly in California. 
Clear Lake has an elevation of 4,533 
feet. Its waters will be utilized in 
irrigating about 60,000 acres of land 
in Langells, Yonna, and Poe Valeys. 
Lost River, upon leaving Poe Valley, 
debouches upon the Klamath plateau 
and from this point its waters will be 
diverted, through a drainage channel 
into Klamath River, thus depriving 



undertaken. The government is ready 
to advertise for bids for the initial 
work and construction will i)robably 
begin this year. 

There will be no public land under 
the project subject to entry for several 
years. The government holdings are 
practically confined to the water- 
covered lake lands and will not be 
thrown open to entry until fully re- 
claimed and readv for cultivation. As 




Sage Brush Lands in Klamath Basin, Oregon and California ; to be Reclaimed 
by the Klamath Project. 



Tule Lake of its source of supply. It 
is expected that by evaporating 50,000 
acres now covered by the waters of 
Tule Lake which has no surface out- 
let, will be reclaimed. 

The estimated cost of the reclama- 
tion system is $4,500,000, or an aver- 
age cost of $18 per acre, the smallest 
cost per acre of any project whose con- 
struction the ijovernmcnt has vet 



the government will not sell a water 
right for more than 160 acres to any 
one person, a considerable acreage of 
the private holdings is upon the market 
at prices ranging from $10 to $50 per 
acre, depending upon the amount of 
improvements, state of cultivation. 
(|uality of soil and nearness to market. 
For particular information relative to 
land the officials of the Reclamation 



118 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



March 



Service refer inquiries to the Secretary 
of the Klamath Water Users' Associa- 
tion, Klamath Falls, Oregon. 

The growing season, owing to the 
high altitude and consequent frost, is 
compartively short, but the soil is 
very fertile and the grasses, grains, 
vegetables and hardier fruits are suc- 
cessfully grown. Great areas of moun- 
tain and hill country stretch away in 
every direction, affording excellent 
outrange, and even under present con- 



fir forests tributary to Upper Klamath 
Lake range from ten to fifteen billion 
feet. 

The climate is healthful and attract- 
ive. Many delightful nooks and cor- 
ners, forest-covered mountains, expan- 
sive lakes and crystalline, trout-stocked 
streams tempt the city folk who take 
summer outings ; and not the least im- 
portant is the beautiful and mysterious 
Crater Lake — one of the wonders of 
the West. The shotgun devotee finds 



,K,affi'i«Ke Map of KlaTTiath Project 




^4 oooooo 

Drainao;e and Irri^aUon Project 
of US Reclamation Ser 



ditions some 25,000 head of beef cattle 
are driven to market annually. Kla- 
math county sells each year to the Uni- 
ted States Army horses which bring 
from $125 to $150 each. Beets grown 
experimentally show a high percentage 
of sugar. Tests show the tule soil to 
be extremely rich and especially adapt- 
ed to the .growing of celery, asparagus, 
potatoes and fodder for dairy animals. 
The timber resources of the Kla- 
math region are enormous. The esti- 
mates of experts as to the pine and red 



nowhere such duck, geese and swan 
shooting as these mountain lakes af- 
ford. 

The Klamath country is one of vast 
undeveloped resources of immense 
possibilities. With the construction of 
the government irrigation system and 
the building of railroads to carry the 
products to market, both achievements 
of the immediate future, golden oppor- 
tunities for the farmer, the stockman, 
the manufacturer and the business 
man will present themselves. 



HOW SHALL FORESTS BE TAXED 

PART 1 — Inequitable Taxation 
Responsible for Much Fore^ De^ruction 

BY 

ALFRED GASKILL 

Forest Inspector, U. S. Forest Service. 



THE SITUATION. 

IT is generally admitted that taxation 
^ in the United States is as faulty 
in principle and in practice as it can 
well be. A well-known writer,* in dis- 
cussing the situation, says: "The 
outcome of all this is a system which 
powerfully contributes to arrest and 
hinder natural development, to cor- 
rupt society, and is without parallel 
in any country claiming to be civil- 
ized." This approach applies with 
especial force to the taxation of wood- 
lands, because the present practises 
favor and encourage the untimely or 
wasteful use of standing forests, dis- 
courage the propagation of others, 
and tend to hasten the time when the 
country shall be forced to face a wood 
famine. 

The present paper, however, aims 
at no radical reorganization of the tax 
system. It simply presents the situ- 
ation as it concerns the forest in- 
terests, makes several suggestions that 
seem to be reasonable and not im- 
practicable, and invites a full discus- 
sion of the subject. The problem is 
intricate, and perhaps on that account 
has failed to receive the attention it 
deserves, but the time has arived 
when its consideration can be put off 
no longer. The welfare of every 
State requires that it be faced. No 
other question concerning the wood- 
lands of the country, save that of fires, 
is so important, and we shall make 
little substantial progress in the effort 
to induce private owners to maintain 
their forests until the present condi- 
tion shall have been relieved, and the 



forests be so rated that they shall 
bear no more than their fair share of 
the cost of government. 

It is true that the virgin forests of 
the South and West have not yet felt 
the burden of overtaxation to any 
great extent, but the cut-over lands 
do feel it. In all the older States, 
those wherein lumbering has greatly 
enhanced timber values, the tax 
levied upon standing timber is often a 
warning to the owner that he must cut 
it or run the risk of great loss, and 
when he has cut it the bare land is 
taxed so high that he is forced to 
abandon it. 

A few attempts to correct the evil, 
through partial exemption, rebates, or 
bounties, have been made. But, 
though such micasures may serve for 
a beginning, the real need is for laws 
that, recognizing the public utility of 
forests, adjust the necessary tax levies 
to the facts and conditions that govern 
tree growth, and to the long periods of 
time that are required to produce 
timber. 

In general, it is assumed that taxes 
are imposed for the protection of per- 
son and property as well as for public 
necessities, yet rarely is the obligation 
extended to woodlands. The forest 
is not only allowed to go unguarded, 
but everyone may tramp and camp 
therein and do almost what harm he 
will. The common law and statutes 
relating to forest depredations are no- 
toriously disregarded, and, though the 
conditions in some parts of the country 
have been bettered of late years, 
private forest and public suffers much 



a Paper read before The Society of American Foresters. 

*David A. Wells, "The Theory and Practice of Taxation," p. :^95, 1900. 



120 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



March 



damage from careless and malicious 
sojourners. 

HOW FORESTS ARE TAXED. 

Under the common practice of in- 
trusting to local officers the levying 
of taxes upon real estate, forests are 
assessed, almost without exception, 
on the basis of agricultural land ; that 
is, the land is estimated to have a cer- 
tain value if cleared, and the standing 
timber is worth so much more, or is 
viewed as an encumbrance. The 
latter case is by no means rare in hard- 
wood sections. In many instances, 
perhaps in most, the assessment is fair 
so far as the value of the property is 
concerned. In many others it is far 
too high, because the land is not fit for 
farming and therefore valueless ex- 
cept to grow trees. At the same time, 
the timber often has only a potential 
value, since it can not be marketed for 
want of roads or some other temporary 
unreadiness. The argument is entirely 
apart from the admitted inability of 
many of the assessors to truly value 
woodlands, and who therefore resort 
to guessing, and from the quite 
general belief that in cases where the 
owner is a corporation or a nonresi- 
dent with no local interests, the prop- 
erty may be taxed to the limit. These 
things are not to be avoided under 
any system. In short, whether the 
assessment be made fairly or unfair- 
ly, the forest is considered a form of 
property which should be realized on 
at the earliest possible moment, and 
the more it can be made to yield to the 
county prior to its extinction the better 
for the county. 

One can easily understand the temp- 
tation that confronts the assessors in 
regions where everything is wanted — 
roads, schools, public buildings — to 
use the taxing power for present ad- 
vantage, yet instances are plenty of 
communities established on the re- 



turns from forest property and utterly 
abandoned as soon as the original 
timber was all cut. The few farms 
that had been taken could not keep 
u]) the roads and other public works. 

But the wisdom or unwisdom of 
raising a revenue once for all upon 
forests is only a part of the question. 
True forest land is not farm land un- 
cleared, and a forest is not the crop of 
a season. The problem concerns 
itself chiefly with those areas which, 
in their nature are fit only for tree 
growth, and with a crop representing 
the accumulated investment of the 
owner for as many years as were re- 
(|uired to bring the trees to maturity. 
If a man buy a mature forest, he 
acquires the investment of another ; if 
he plants, or waits for a natural one to 
grow, he gets no return for many 
years. In either case, his forest serves 
the public by providing a common 
necessity — wood — and by the benefi- 
cent influences that it gives freely. 

These considerations make it ap- 
parent that forests occupy, or should 
occupy, a separate place on the tax 
list ; that they need to be treated difTer- 
cntly from farms and town lots and 
mines. In fact it will be necessary to 
show that growing trees should be 
considered personal property, not real 
estate, as the are now by practice or 
law in virtually every State of the 
Union. ''■'' 

KATES OF TAXATIOIS'. 

Without going deeply into details, a 
few instances may be given to show 
how the present methods tend to rid 
the forest owner of all but a tem- 
porary interest in his property, and. 
instead of encouraging the practice of 
forestry and the maintenance of the 
forests, put a premium on destructive 
lumbering. 

A competent authority sa>s that "in 
Wisconsin the taxes on forest property 



*The language of the statute of Massachusetts is: "Real estate, tor tha purpose of 
taxation, shall include all lands within the State and all building and other things 
erected on or affixed to the same." The statute of New York declares, "The term land 
shall be construed to include the land itself, all buildings, structures, substructures erected 
upon under or above, or affixed to the same; all wharfs and piers * * * all trees and 
underwood growing upon land; * * *." 



1906 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



121 



have been for years 3 cents to 40 
cents per acre, without reference to 
changes in its condition or vahie/'y 
Forty cents is not unreasonable for 
an acre of forest containing 20,000 
feet of white pine, since it represents 
a rate of but 4 mills if the stumpage 
is worth $5 per thousand, but of 
course no owner would pay it after the 
timber had been logged unless he 
could reasonably expect to sell the 
land for farming. As a matter of 
fact, 37 per cent of the area of the 
State, once forested, consists of land 
too poor to be farmed, and may be 
bought for 25 to 50 cents per acre.t 

The forest commissioner of Penn- 
sylvania writes that on one of the 
few pieces of virgin forest still stand- 
ing in the State, containing a little 
less than 1,000 acres, the annual tax 
is $2.83 per acre. If the whole tract 
average 20,000 feet per acre of white 
pine worth $10 a thousand on the 
stump — both estimates are high — the 
tax is 1.4 per cent of the value, or, 
counting the assessed value at two- 
thirds the sale value, as is the common 
rule, the yearly tax is over 2 per cent, 
and the owner assumes all the risk 
of loss by fire and depredation. 

The same authority states that de- 
nuded lands are commonly assessed at 
50 cents to $1.25 per acre, and that the 
usual levies amount to 25 to 30 mills. 
This means a yearly tax of i j4 to 3^ 
cents per acre. If the soil is capable 
of agriculture the burden is not great, 
but much of it is absolute forest land, 
and the owners often prefer to sur- 
render it rather than pay the tax. 
The State forest reserve commission 
has bought at tax sales over 23,000 
acres of such land for the accrued 
taxes and costs. In some cases these 
have been as low as 2^ cents per 
acre, though the average is somewhat 
higher. The commissioner instances 
one case where several parcels contain- 
ing over 7,000 acres were bought in 
for a fraction over 8 cents per acre. 



These figures are suggestive. They 
|M-ove the passing of the forest in a 
State whose name indicates its original 
character, not entirely by the hand of 
the luiuberman. but largely through 
the operation of its laws. They prove 
that a county as a landowner is poorer 
than as the recipient of even small tax 
on that land. They prove that there 
is much land unfit for agriculture 
which presumably will bear forest, 
since it already has done so. They 
prove that the State which has bought 
a forest reserve now amounting to 
700,000 acres, and is still buying, and 
which has made man}' worthy efiforts 
to advance the cause of forestry, has 
still failed to secure the co-operation 
of private owners to any great extent 
because it persists in taxing their 
lands, especially their cut-over lands, 
at a rate that is unreasonable. 

In Xorth Carolina conditions are 
not much dififerent. The common 
levy is i per cent on a 60 per cent 
valuation, or 6 mills on the estimated 
value. Where this value is justly 
assessed, there can be no reasonable 
complaint, but there is much guessing, 
and in one county it is reported that 
land partly lumbered or cut over as 
the forester advises, is taxed 25 per 
cent higher than virgin forest, on the 
ground that it is improved land. In 
other words, a penalty is imposed on 
conservative lumbering ! 

On the Pacific Coast a similar situ- 
ation is found. The actual value of 
the great standing forests is undeter- 
mined and steadily growing, so that 
there is probably little overtaxing of 
virgin timber, but the burden on cut- 
over land is so great that large areas 
are relinquished every year. Some of 
this land may be taken up by settlers, 
but the rule is that when the counties 
become the enforced owners it remains 
unproductive, uncared for, and during 
the dry season a constant source of 
dangerous fires. A study of this ques- 
tion made in the State of \\^ashington 



t B. E. Fernow, Economics of Forestry, p. 252, 1900. 

J Bulletin 16, Division of Forestry, Table II and p. 54, 1899. 



122 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



March 



in 1900 developed the facts that in nine 
counties logged land was assessed 25 
per cent to 50 per cent as high as that 
bearing standing timber and that much 
of it was abandoned on that account. 
In two counties 20 per cent of the 
logged land had been surrendered and 
in another 71 per cent.* A recent re- 
port from that section states that the 
sale value of logged land is rarely as 
high as the assessed value. 

The figures given above will have 
more meaning, perhaps, if they be 
compared with what a forest can yield. 
Say that an acre of land produces in 
eighty years 7,000 feet board measure 
of lumber, worth $49 on the stump, 
and that a tax of 2 cents is paid each 
year. If money be worth 5 per cent, 
the 2 cents paid annually eighty times 
amounts to $19.42, or 40 per cent of 
the value of the crop! 

INDUCEMENTS TO FOREST OWNERS. 

In view of the facts that have just 
been stated, and of the very general 
interest manifested in forest preserva- 
tion, it is reasonable to expect that the 
laws and practices of at least one state 
have been adjusted to the necessities 
of the situation. Unfortunately that is 
not the case, for, though many states 
have dealt with the subject within the 



past thirty years, not one has framed 
a law of the right kind. Connecticut 
exempts from tax for twenty years 
plantations of certain specified trees 
made on land not previously wooded ; 
Wisconsin exempts shelter belts or 
wind breaks made and maintained in a 
certain way; Colorado, Indiana, Maine, 
Nebraska, New Hampshire, Pennsyl- 
vania, and Rhode Island give partial 
exemption on plantations or on limited 
areas of forest. None of the laws can 
apply to more than small woodlots. 
Illinois, Kansas, Wyoming, Minneso- 
ta and Wisconsin give bounties for 
tree plantations, and Massachusetts, 
Minnesota and Vermont offer premi- 
ums to encourage tree planters. 

To these state measures is to be add- ' 
ed the Federal act of 1873, known as 
the Timber Culture Law. This was 
intended to encourage tree planting on 
the public lands in the West, but was 
so abused that it was repealed in 1891. 

The laws and practices of many 
states concerning the observance of 
Arbor day evidence the desire and in- 
tent of the people to foster the grow- 
ing of trees, but at the same time they 
prove the entire insufificiency of such 
measures to support one acre of com- 
mercial forest or to maintain existing 
woodlands for the common weal. 



SUMMER SESSION OF THE YALE 
FOREST SCHOOL 

Decription of the Equipment and Daily Life 
at this Unique and Valuable Institution 

BY 

CHARLES S. JUDD 



'T'HE student entering the Yale For- 
*■ est School will begin his course 
with the summer work at Milford, Pa. 
He will reach this pretty little village 
by an eight-mile stage ride from Port 
Jervis, at the junction of the states of 



New York, New Jersey and Pennsyl- 
vania, or will drive up the valley from 
Bushkill, which is about ten miles 
north of the Delaware Water Gap. 

He will find the camp situated on 
high, dry ground about eight hundred 



*E. T. Allen, "The Western Hemlock," Bulletin .33, Bureau of Forestry, p. 37. 



1906 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



123 



feet above sea level, a location which 
is exceedingly healthful, and which 
commands a splendid view of the Del- 
aware River Valley near at hand and 
the even sky line of the Appalachian 
range, broken here and there by steep 
wooded valleys. 

In a grove of young oak and hick- 
ory a double row of tents, each equip- 
ped with wooden floor, cot, table, 
chair, washstand and crockery, accom- 
modates the thirty students of the 
junior or entering class and the twenty 
students in the summer school which 
is operated in conjunction with the 
regular work of the Yale Forest 
School. 



used in the spring by the senior class 
and in the summer for all lectures 
which are open to the public. Besides 
these buildings, Mr. Pinchot has given 
Stone Cottage for the use of the sum- 
mer school. This contains a lecture 
hall, botanical laboratory, a small li- 
brary and a reading room. He has 
also provided a tract of about two hun- 
dred acres for experimental work. 

A typical student begins at seven a. 
m. with breakfast ; at eight o'clock a 
lecture by the director of the school is 
given on some topic in forest mensura- 
tion, such as the use of American log 
rules, the iise of height measures and 
dendrometers, the construction and use 




The Camp Buildings, Yale Summer School of Forestry 



The school buildings consist of Ju- 
nior Hall and the club house, both 
frame buildings, containing single 
large lecture rooms and huge fire- 
places, which are for the work of the 
junior class in the courses in survey- 
ing and forest mensuration and for 
use as gathering places for evening 
study and recreation. A large open 
building serving as mess hall has also 
been erected by Mr. James W. Pinchot 
on this, his country estate. This phil- 
anthropic gentleman is now also hav- 
ing erected in Milford, Forest Hall, a 
large stone building which will contain 
a spacious lecture hall, which will be 



of volume tables, or the methods of 
determining the contents of whole 
stands. Three lectures may be given 
in a day, with two hours ofif at noon 
for dinner, or else lunch is taken along 
into the woods and the entire da\ 
spent in taking sample plots, making 
valuation surveys, or cutting trees 
such as chestnut and pitch pine»and 
making stem analysis. 

Half of the week is spent in this 
manner and the remainder is occupied 
l)y the work in surveying under super- 
vision of instructors from the Sheffield 
Scientific School of Yale University. 
Small squads may be sent out on a sur- 



124 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



March 



vey of the region about camp to estab- 
lish transit hnes, to find elevations of 
bench marks, to take details with the 
plane table or to run contour lines. 
The work extends even into the night, 
when observation must be made on the 
pole star to find the true north. 

At five o'clock in the afternoon the 
work of the day is over, and at once a 
crowd of healthy young men makes its 
wa}- across an open field to the gorge 



or else talks are given by the men 
about their different colleges and in- 
teresting tales of strange and foreign 
lands are narrated. At these gather- 
ings the young and companionable in- 
structors join in, and a familiar and 
welcome person is Mr. Gifford Pin- 
chot, the head of the United States 
Forest Service, who from time to time 
visits the camp. As the glowing em- 
bers burn low and the blackness grows 




Students at Work in the Woods 



of the Sawkill River, wiiere a refresh- 
ing bath is enjoyed in the cool and tur- 
bulent waters just above the famous 
falls. 

Immediately after the six o'clock 
sup]>er the base ball team has its short 
but snappy practice, for recreation in 
camp is not neglected. As darkness 
comes on a huge campfire is built and 
chairs are drawn about in a semi-circle. 
The crowd sings college and popular 
songs, diversified by individual talent. 



deeper the session breaks up and the 
fellows move off to their tents, guided 
by their lanterns, which look like fire- 
flies flitting about in the darkness. The 
still of the night is broken only by the 
harsh notes of the katydids as the for- 
esters drop off into well-earned slum- 
ber. 

Wednesday and Saturday after- 
noons are devoted to recreation, and 
there is usually a base ball game be- 
tween the school team and some local 



190t) 



FOKESTKY AND IHHIGATION 



12o 





* ■*^v;'.i?'.^ ■^V*^:^•^fi^p^^^^j'•'■';^>r''^-■r■'5 






■■^■''^•■■. ' -- '■ -"-■"■'•^'^' ■■ftj^^-j 




-•:*:^S 





Part of the Camp, Yale Summer School of Forestry 




The Beautiful Delaware River and Valley near Milford, Pa, 



126 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



March 



nine. Or else walks are taken to High 
Point, in New Jersey on the Kittatinny 
Ridge, to Raymondskill Falls, to the 
cliffs overlooking the pretty Delaware 
and to other points of interest, or the 
afternoon is spent in fishing in the 
lakes back in the country. 

The association of the camp life in 
itself is a great education, for here are 
gathered together for one purpose 
graduates from numerous universities 
and other educational institutions, in- 
cluding Yale, Harvard, Princeton, Co- 
lumbia, Cornell, University of Penn- 
sylvania, Bowdoin, Rutgers, Norwich, 
Maine, Tufts, Wisconsin, Beloit, Bilt- 
more, California, Massachusetts Agri- 
cultural Cohege, DePauw University, 
Ohio Wesleyan, Ohio State, Toronto, 
Regna Nielsens (Norway), Katwijk 



(Holland), and the University of the 
Cape of Good Hope.. Here are brought 
together men from Maine to Califor- 
nia, from Canada, England, Norway, 
South Africa and Hawaii. All of 
them have their own peculiar college 
ideas and customs deeply rooted, but 
these are subordinated for the new af- 
filiation to a great university and it is 
surprising how quickly the spirit of 
adoption takes hold. It warms the 
heart of the "son of old Eli" to hear 
the foresters give, already in a familiar 
way, the snappy Yale cheer and sing 
their song : 

Love to Alma Mater plighted 
From where'er we hail 
To that love is now united 
Loyaltv to Yale. 



FOREST INTERESTS OF RHODE 
ISLAND 

Much Land Can Be Made Productive Through Proper 
Care of Natural Timber Growth and by Planting 

BY 

J. B. MOWRY 



A CCORDING to the United States 
•**■ Soils Survey of Rhode Island of 
[905, about two-fifths of the total area 
of the state, or 268,248 acres, consist 
of unimproved and abandoned farms. 
Much of this. land was always unsuit- 
able for agriculture and has now re- 
verted to forest. Within the last half 
century the shifting of the grain and 
meat producing industries westward 
has greatly lessened the requirements 
of tillage and pasture lands in the 
state, but it is none the less important 
that the ever-increasing area of un- 
improved land should be put to the 
best possible use. 

While doubtless some oi this land is 
so ledgy and poor that it should be al- 
lowed to produce what growth it can 
naturally, there is also much land 



where forest planting would prove 
very remunerative. Natural afforesta- 
tion is a slow and often unsatisfactory 
process, and twenty years or more 
sometimes elapse before the land is 
fully covered with trees, many of these 
perhaps of the less valuable species. 
This delay, during which the land is 
producing little or no interest on the 
capital, is avoided by planting. Many 
instances could be cited of pasture land 
which, planted to pine and hardwoods 
at a very small outlay in time and 
money, has produced four or five time.«^ 
as much valuable timber per acre in 
forty years as would have grown b\ 
natural afforestation. While such a 
long investment tends to discourage 
the planter, he should not forget that 
land so planted to forest is yearly in- 



1906 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



127 



creasing in its sale value, and in our 
state is wisely released from taxation 
for a period of fifteen years. 

(3n those rugged ridges in western 
Rhode Island, where planting is un- 
necessary or unprofitable, the mixed 
forest of evergreens and hardwoods 
now existing could be much improved 
by judicious forest management. Very 
little of the wooded area of the state 
is producing as large a money return 
as it is capable of doing under less 
wasteful forest methods. Imported 
pine, oak, maple and walnut range 
higher in price per thousand feet board 
measure than our native product, 
which has become inferior in quality 
and dimensions. 

To any student of the subject it is 
very evident that the nation's supply 
of white pine, our most useful timber 
tree, is fast decreasing. The valleys 
of our many small rivers are strewn 
with glacial eskers and hummocks — 
too light and sandy and well drained 
for profitable tillage, yet just the kind 
of land on which the pine reaches its 
highest development. The largest 
speciment of Pinus strobus thus far re- 
ported as standing in North America 
today, is in the town of Gloucester. 
Within the past few years thousands 
of acres of this sort of land have been 
denuded of their virgin pine and sec- 
ond growth, and with few, if any, 
mother trees left in the vicinity for re- 
seeding, are growing up to gray birch, 
scrub oak, red cedar and brush, with 
only a sparse intermixture of seedling 
pine. With better laws to protect 
against fire, this area could be made 
again to yield a heavy growth of tim- 
l)er, and, if taken in time under for- 
estry methods, the tree weeds now oc- 
cupying the ground would serve as a 
pioneer growth to furnish shade and 
protection to the young pine seedlings. 
Nature, with all the time since Noah's 
deluge, has produced on an average 
only about 5,000 feet board measure 
per acre of pine in states like Michi- 
gan, while experiment in New Eng- 
land has proven that five times that 
amount can be grown per acre and 
harvested by the man who in youth 
plants the pine seed. 



The natural resources of the conti- 
nents have in all ages for a time at 
least been squandered by man without 
regard for the future. Private enter- 
prise usually has but one aim in the 
use of these resources, namely, to ob- 
tain the largest possible personal and 
immediate gain. The interests of fu- 
ture generations lie with the state. The 
state very properly guards against the 
exhaustion of its natural resources in 
fish and game — resources inconse- 
quential as compared with its forests. 
By the adoption of a wise forest pol- 
icy the state could not only enhance 
its forest wealth, but also incidentally 
increase the flow of the brooks and 
rivers upon which our varied indus- 
tries depend for water power, and all 
this is possible without materially in- 
vading private rights so dear to the 
hearts of us descendants of Roger 
Williams. Indeed the state could in 
many ways instruct and encourage 
owners of woodland to their own per- 
sonal profit. 

Maine, New Hampshire, Massachu- 
setts and Connecticut have already es- 
tablished bureaus of forestry which by 
educational and promotive measures 
are rendering valuable services to 
farmers, lumbermen and the commu- 
nity at large. Annual losses by fires 
have been greatly reduced by effective 
fire laws. A number of states are ac- 
quiring reservations, and in some in- 
stances are paying the town taxes on 
the same. 

President Roosevelt says: "If the 
present rate of forest destruction is al- 
lowed to continue with nothing to off- 
set it, a timber famine in the future is 
inevitable, and it is difificult to imagine 
what such a timber famine would 
mean to our natural resources, for 
there is a steadily increasing demand 
for wood even in our manufacturing 
industries. I am going to work with, 
and only with, the man who develops 
the country. Our policy is consistent 
to give to every portion of the public 
domain its highest possible amount of 
use, and, of course, that can only be 
done through the hearty co-operation 
of the people." 



NOTES ON FOREST TREES SUITABLE 

FOR PLANTING IN THE UNITED 

STATES* 

IV. The Russian Mulberry (morus alba tatarica) 



DISTRIIIUTIOX. 

HTHE Russian mulberry is a hard}' 
variety of the Asiatic white mul- 
berry. It was introduced into the 
western states by the Russian Menno- 
nites about thirty years ago and has 
become widel\- distributed over the 
]jlains region. The range for its eco- 
nomic planting is southern Xebraska, 
Kansas, Oklahoma and Indian Terri- 
tory. It cannot endure the cold win- 
ters of the Dakotas. and the leading 
shoots are often frozen back in Kan- 
.sas. 

CH.ARACTKKISTICS Ol' FoKM AND 



The habit, of growth of the Russian 
mulberry is low and bushy, hence se- 
vere pruning is required to make it de- 
velop a good trunk. Height and diam- 
eter growth are fairly rapid. A tree 
of this species growing near Fairburv, 
Neb., was found to measure eight 
inches in diameter and twenty feet in 
height when eight years old, but this 
growth is somewhat exceptional. Rus- 
sian mulberry never attain great size, 
although it is said to reach three feet 
in diameter and fifty or sixty feet in 
lieight. In favorable situations it will 
])roduce fence-post timbers in ten years 
or less. The natural form of the tree 
makes it well suited to form a low, 
<lense windbreak when left unpruned. 
It stands pruning well and may be 
made into an excellent sheared hedge. 

KCONOMIC USES. 

The Russian mulberry serves a num- 
ber of useful purposes. The wood is 
heavy, elastic, coarse-grained and 
moderately strong. It splits easily 



and. when seasoned, makes a ver}- 
durable fence post. It also has a high 
fuel value. While the frUit is of in- 
ferior quality, it is much used for do- 
mestic purposes in the absence of bet- 
ter kinds. Alany horticulturists like 
to have a mulberry windbreak around 
their orchards. Aside from being a 
]5rotection from the wind, the berries 
furnish food for birds, so that they are 
less likely to eat the more valuable 
fruit in the orchard. It is a good tree 
to plant in the farm woodlot for posts 
and fuel. 

The Russian mulberry will grow on 
either sandy or clay soils and can live 
through almost any amount of drought 
and neglect. It grows best on rich, 
loamy soil where the water table is 
ten to fifteen feet below the surface, 
but even in very dry situations growth 
is fairly rapid. These qualities adapt 
it to both upland and valley situations 
in the semi-arid regions. It is decid- 
edly tolerant of shade and can there- 
fore be used for underplanting or mix- 
ing with more rapid-growing species 
to increase height growth and aid nat- 
ural pruning. 

PROPAGATION. 

Reproduction of the Russian mul- 
berry takes place both by stump 
sprouts and by seed. Renewal after 
cutting is a simple matter A quick- 
growing stump sprout will have better 
form than the original tree, and all the 
treatment that is necessary is to re- 
move the surplus sprouts and give the 
best ones a chance to develop. Mul- 
berry can also be reproduced by cut- 
tings, but propagation from seed is 
easier, and produces better plants. 



Fnrnislied by U. S. Forest Service. 



1906 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



1-29 



Fruit is borne abundantly. The 
seed may be separated by crushing 
and washing the berries. After dry- 
ing, the seed should be kept in a cool, 
dry place until a week or ten days 
prior to sowing. In case of very un- 
favorable conditions the seed may be 
sown as soon as it ripens, but general- 
ly the better practice is to wait until 
the following spring, so that the seed- 
lings will have an entire season in 
which to grow before the coming of 
cold weather. The seed should be 
sown in good moist soil, and covered 
about one-half inch deep. One to two 
weeks or longer are required for its 
germination. Better results are ob- 
tained by mixing the seed with moist 
sand and keeping the mixture in a 
warm place until germination begins. 
The sand and seed can then be sown 
on a well-prepared bed. The seed can 
be given more even distribution by 
sprinkling the bed after it is sown. The 
bed should then be covered with one- 
eighth inch of sifted loam. The growth 
during the first season will be enough 
to make the little trees of proper size 
to transplant to the permanent situa- 
tion the next spring. Planters who do 
not care to raise their own trees can 
get them cheaply at nurseries which 
iiandle forest seedlings. The price for 
one-year-old seedlings runs from $i 
to $3 a thousand, depending upon the 
size and the nursery dealt with. 

The Russian mulberry should be 
close-planted in order to overcome as 
much as possible its inherent tendency 



to branched and crooked growth. For 
windbreaks it should be planted at 
about two-foot intervals ; for timber 
plantations it may be set four feet b^ 
four feet. The best method, however, 
is to have the rows eight feet apart and 
the trees two or three feet apart in the 
rows. This spacing permits of easy 
cultivation, and at the same time gives 
a large number of trees to the acre. 
Cutivation should be given for at least 
three years after planting, and until 
the ground is entirely shaded. 

ENEMIES. 

The Russian mulberry is attacked 
by a number of fungi, only a few of 
which, however, are of economic im- 
portance. If injury by a fungus is 
suspected, the Bureau of Plant Indus- 
try of the Department of Agriculture 
should be consulted regarding a possi- 
ble method of treatment, specimens be- 
ing submitted for examination. In- 
sects are sometimes destructive, par- 
ticularly in the semi-arid plains, where 
swarms of locusts sometimes devour 
the foliage and even strip the bark 
from the trees. The fall web worm 
sometimes attacks the trees. Its leaves 
also serve as food for the silkworm 
(Bomhex mori). When insect injury 
is serious, the Bureau of Entomology 
of the Department of Agriculture 
should be consulted regarding meth- 
ods of control, specimens of the in- 
sects and their work being forwarded 
for identification. 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 
CONGRESS 



IN 



Status of Bills on Fore^ry and Irrigation 
and Related Subjects on March 5, 1906 



In response to many requests for 
information regarding bills on 
forestry, irrigation and related sub- 
jects there is given herewith a list of 
the bills introduced up to March 6 : 



Al'l'A[..\CliL\N AND WHITE MOUNTAINS 
EOREST RESERVE BIEES. 

S. 34 (Sen. Gallinger) — Creation of 
\Vhite Mountains Forest Reserve. 



130 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



Marchr 



Referred to Com. on Forest Reser- 
vations and the Protection of Game. 

H. R. i8i (Rep. Currier)— Creation 
of White Mountains Forest Reserve. 
Referred to Com. on Agriculture. 

S. 408 (Sen. Overman) — Creation of 
Appalachian Forest Reserve. Re- 
ferred to Com. on Forest Reserva- 
tions and the Protection of Game. 

H. R. 40 (Rep. Brownlow) — Creation 
of Appalachian Forest Reserve. Re- 
ferred to Com. .on Agriculture. 

S. 3504 (Sen. Elkins) — Creation of 
Appalachian Forest Reserve and 
Protection of Potomac Watershed. 
Referred to Com. on Agriculture 
and Forestry. 

H. R. 5365 (Rep. Dovener) — Creation 
of Appalachian Forest Reserve and 
Protection of Potomac Watershed. 
Referred to Com. on Agriculture. 

S. 4271 (Sen. Elkins) — Creation of 
Appalachian Forest Reserve and 
Protection of Potomac Watersheds 
in Appalachian Region. Referred 
to Com. on Agriculture and For- 
estry. 

H. R. 13784 (Rep. Dovener) — Crea- 
tion of Appalachian Forest Reserve 
and Protection of Potomac Water- 
sheds in Appalachian Region. Re- 
ferred to Com. on Agriculture. 

FORESTRY AND FOREST RESERVES. 

S. 2455 (Sen. Hansbrough) — Limiting- 
time of entry of withdrawn lands 
upon restoration. Referred to Com. 
on Public Lands. 

H. R. loioo (Rep. Davis) — To pro- 
vide for instruction in Forestry at 
Agricultural Colleges and experi- 
ments in forestry at Agricultural 
Experiment Stations. Referred to 
Com. on Agriculture. 

H. R. 13930 (Rep. Gronna)— To 
amend the act repealing the lieu se- 
lection law. Referred to Com. on 
Public Lands. 

H. R. 14177 (Rep. Fordney) — Grant 
to Michigan for State Forest Re- 
serve. Referred to Com. on Public 
Lands. 



H. R. 15440 (Rep. HufT)— To erect 
timber-testing laboratory for Forest 
Service. Referred to Com. on Pub- 
lic Buildings and Grounds. 

H. R. 1 5919 (Rep. Lacey) — To pro- 
vide for agricultural settlement in 
forest reserves. Referred to Com. 
on Public Lands. 

S.2457 (Sen. Hansbrough) — Sec. 2461 
Revised Statutes U. S. regarding 
injury of living trees. 

GAME PROTECTION. 

S. 2966 (Sen. Perkins)— Protection 
of animals, birds and fish in forest 
reserves. Referred to Com. on For- 
est Reserves and the Protection of 
Game. 

H. R. 7019 (Rep. Lacey) — Protection 
of animals, birds and fish in forest 
reserves. Referred to Com. on Agri- 
culture. 

H. R. 376 (Rep. Myer) — President to- 
set aside public lands for game pre- 
serves. Referred to Com. on Pub- 
lic Lands. 

S. 2732 (Sen. Smoot) — Protection of 
wild animals in Grand Canyon For- 
est Reserve. Referred to Com. on 
Forest Reserves and Protection of 
Game. 

H. R. 15335 (Rep. Humphrey) — Pro- 
tection of game birds and fish in 
Olympic Forest Reserve. Referred 
to Com. on Public Lands. 

H. R. 13190 (Rep. Lacey) — To pro- 
tect birds and their eggs in game 
and bird preserves. Referred to 
Com. on Public Lands. Passed 
House of Representatives. Refer- 
red to Com. on Forest Reservations 
and the Protection of Game in Sen- 
ate. 

NATIONAL PARKS. 

S. 931 (Sen. Piles) — Appropriation 
for administration and improvement 
of Mt. Rainier National Park. Re- 
ferred to Com. on Forest Reserva- 
tions and Protection of Game. 

H. R. 64 (Rep. Cushman) — Appropri- 
ation for administration and im- 
provement of Mt. Rainier National 



1906 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



131 



Park. Referred to Com. on Public 
Lands. 

S. 3245 (Sen. Patterson) — To create 
Mesa Verde National Park. Re- 
ferred to Com. on Public Lands. Re- 
ported without amendment. 

H. R. 5998 (Rep. Hogg)— To create 
Mesa Verde National Park. Re- 
ferred to Com. on Public Lands. 

S. 3247 (Sen. Patterson)— To create 
Royal Gorge National Park. Refer- 
red to Com. on Public Lands. 

H. R. 4545 (Rep. Brooks)— To create 
Royal Gorge National Park. Re- 
ferred to Com. on Public Lands. 

H. R. 8966 (Rep. Lacey)— To create 
Petrified Forest National Park. Re- 
ferred to Com. on Public Lands. 

H. R. 7017 (Rep. Needham)— Trans- 
fer of National Parks from Secre- 
tary of Interior to Secretary of 
Agriculture. Referred to Com. on 
Public Lands. 

S. 4698 (Sen. Patterson) — Preserva- 
tion of American Antiquities. Re- 
ferred to Com. on Public Lands. 

H. R. 11016 (Rep. Lacey) — Preser- 
vation of American Antiquities. Re- 
ferred to Com. on Public Lands. 

GRAZING. 

H. R. 439 (Rep. Stephens)— Author- 
izing Commissioner of General Land 
Office to lease public grazing lands. 
Referred to Com. on Public Lands. 

H. R. 10509 (Rep. Curtis)— Author- 
izing Secretary of Interior to lease 
public grazing lands. Referred to 
Com. on Public Lands. 

H. R. 12068 (Rep. Kinkaid)— Au- 
thorizing Secretary of Interior to 
lease public grazing lands proclaim- 
ed by President. Referred to Com. 
on Public Lands. 

H. R. 15916 (Rep. Reeder)— Author- 
izing Secretary of Agriculture to 
lease public grazing lands. Refer- 
red to Com. on Public Lands. 

IRRIGATION. 

S. 87 (Sen. Heyburn) — Provision for 
locating townsites in irrigation dis- 
tricts. Referred to Com. on Irriga- 



tion and Reclamation of Arid Lands. 
Passed Senate. Referred to Com. 
on Irrigation of Arid Lands in 
House and reported with amend- 
ment. 
S. 276 (Sen. Fulton) — Purchase and 
condemnation of irrigable lands. 
Referred to Com. on Irrigation and 
Reclamation of Arid Lands. 
S- 539 (Sen. Carter) — Restoration of 
lands reserved for irrigation pro- 
jects. Referred to Com. on Public 
Lands. 
S. 3687 (Sen. Hansbrough) — Appro- 
priation of $1,000,000 for drainage- 
of North Dakota lands. Passed the 
Senate. Referred to Com. on Pub- 
lic Lands in House. 
H. R. 13 197, H. R. 14891 (Rep. Gron- 
na) — Appropriation of $1,000,000 
for drainage of North Dakota lands. 
Referred to Com. on Irrigation of 
Arid Lands. 
S. 4452 (Sen. Warren) — Secretary of 
Agriculture to investigate utilization 
of small water supplies. Referred 
to Com. on Agriculture and For- 
estry. 
H. R. 9728 (Rep. Mondell)— Secre- 
tary of Agriculture to experiment 
with limited water supply. Refer- 
red to Com. on Agriculture. 
H. R. 12698 (Rep. French)— Secre- 
tary of Agriculture to experiment in 
dry farming. Referred to Com. on 
Agriculture. 
S. 4624 (Rep. Carter)— Relative to ir- 
rigation rights of way. Referred to 
Com. on Public Lands. 
H. R. 13940 (Rep. Dixon)— Concern- 
ing irrigation rights of way. Re- 
ferred to Com. on Public Lands. 
H. R. 222 (Rep. Bonynge) — Relative 
to taxation, homesteading, and sale 
of federal lands within irrigation 
districts. Referred to Com. on Ir- 
rigation of Arid Lands. 
H. R. 444 (Rep. Stephens)— Extend- 
ing irrigation law to Texas. Refer- 
red to Com. on Irrigation of Arid 
Lands. 
H. R. 14184 (Rep. Smith of Texas)— 
To extend irrigation act to Texas. 



132 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



March 



Referred to Com. on Irrigation of 
Arid Lands. Reported without 
amendment. 

H. R. 8429 (Rep. Smith) — To amend 
Reclamation Act by extending law 
to Texas and for other purposes. 
Referred to Com. on Irrigation of 
Arid Lands. 

H. R. 9747 (Rep. Stephens)— Secre- 
tary of Agriculture to make irriga- 
tion experiments in Texas. Re- 
ferred to Com. on Agriculture. 

H. R. 8439 (Rep. Martin) — To amend 
-Reclamation Act regarding con- 
struction by contract, hours of la- 
Ibor, etc. Referred to Com. on Irri- 
gation of Arid Lands. 

Hi. R. 3071 (Rep. Dixon) — -To en- 
courage reclamation in Montana. 
Referred to Com. on Public Lands. 

IL R. 16007 (Rep. Steenerson) — Pro- 
viding for reclamation of swamp 
land. Referred to Com. on Public 
Lands. 

S. 2560 (Sen. Ankeny) — Authorizing 
disposition of surplus and allotted 
lands on Yakima Indian Reserva- 
tion, Washington, irrigable under 
Reclamation Act. Report made Jan. 
18 by director on H. 10067 (same 
bill), introduced by Rep. Sherman 
of New York. 

S. 3000 (Sen. Carter)— Survey and 
disposition of certain lands on Milk 
River, Ft. Belknap Indian Reserva- 
tion, Montana. 

.S. 3005 (Sen. Ankeny) — Ratify and 
-confirm agreement with Colville In- 
^•dians, Washington, and making ap- 
propriation for carrying same into 
effect. (H. 1 1 268.)" 

S. 3687 (Sen Hansbrough) — Segrega- 
tion of $1,000,000 from Reclamation 
Fund. (H. 13197.) 

H. R. 1 1796 (Rep. McKinlay)— For 
the diversion of water from the Sac- 
ramento River in California, for ir- 
rigation. 

H. R. 0748 (Rep. Wiley)— Purifica- 
tion of water supply in Washington. 

H. R. 149 (Rep. Van Duzer) — Appro- 
priation for artesian wells in Neva- 
da. 



H. R. 1222 1 (Rep. Brooks) — Author- 
izing Secretary of Agriculture to 
make experiments and investiga- 
tions in utilizing limited water sup- 
plies in connection with farming in 
the semi-arid regions of the United 
States and making appropriation 
therefor. 

S. 1802 (Sen. Gamble) — Regulating 
public use of reservoir sites. 

S- 539 (Sen. Carter) — Restoration of 
lands in reservoir sites. 

S. 17 (^Sen. Clark)— Printing of Re- 
clamation Service Report. 

S. 2193 (Sen. Teller)— Public build- 
ing for Geological Survey at Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

S. 87 (Sen. Heyburn)— Withdrawal 
of townsites under reclamations pro- 
jects. 

S. 91 (Sen. Heyburn) — Leaves of ab- 
sence to homesteaders on lands to ' 
be irrigated (H. R. 5361). 

S. 276 (Sen. Fulton) — Purchase and 
condemnation of irrigable lands. 

PUBLIC LANDS. 

H. R. 3019 (Rep. Lacey)— Repeal of 
Timber and Stone Act. 

H. R. 1 1268 (Rep. Jones) — ^Ratifying 
and confirming agreement with Col- 
ville Indians (S. 3005, Akeny). 

H. R. 10839 (Rep. Humphrey) — Re- 
lief of Desert Land Claimants for 
lands in Washington, entered be- 
tween Jan. I, 1902, and June 24, 
1903 (S. 2710). 

H. R. 311 (Rep. Kinkaid) — Amend- 
ing homestead laws as to certain 
public lands in Nebraska ; providing 
for entry by homesteaders of public 
lands cornering on their homesteads 
up to 640 acres, when there are no 
public lands contiguous. 

H. R. 313 (Rep. Kinkaid) — Restoring 
homestead rights to those who en- 
tered a certain area in Nebraska be- 
tween April 28 and June 28, 1904. 

H. R. 409 (Rep. Brooks) — Amending 
homestead laws as follows : That 
tracts of public lands up to 640 acres 
mav be homsteaded in a described 



1906 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



133 



section of Colorado, or entered by 
homesteaders eligible to patent for 
less than 640 acres, provided that 
the Secretary of the Interior may 
exclude irrigable lands and lands 
which will support a family in tracts 
of 180 acres or less. 

H. R. 5361 (Rep. French) — Leaves of 
absence to homesteaders. See S. 
91, reported on to Sec. Jan. 30. 

H. R. 6025 (Rep. Lacey) — Amend- 
ment of commutation provisions of 
homestead law. 

S. 2456 (Sen. Hansbrough) — Proofs 
in homstead and other claims to pub- 
lic lands and punishing false swear- 
ing therein. 

H. R. 8107 (Rep. Mondell)— Extend- 
ing public land laws to certain In- 
dian lands in Wyoming. 

H. R. 1 1268 (Rep. Jones)— Ratifying 
and confirming agreement with Col- 
ville Indians in Washington (S. 
3005, Ankeny). 

S. 2101 (Sen. Gamble) — To permit 
second homestead entries. 

S. 311 (Sen. Gamble) — Regulating 
public land accounts between U. S. 
and the several States. 

S. 1031 (Sen. Perkins) — Five per cent 
to California of proceeds of sale of 
public land. 

S. 2292 (Sen. Fulton) — For the relief 
of entrymen and settlers within the 
Northern Pacific Railway's land 
grant between Wallula, Wash., and 
Portland, Oregon. Reported back 
with amendments (S. Report 351). 
Amended and passed Senate. Re- 
ferred to House Com. on Public 
Lands. 

S. 2454 (Sen. Hansbrough) — Disposal 
of timber on public lands chifly val- 
uable for timber. 



if. K. 308 (Rep. Kinkaid) — Amend- 
ment to "An Act for the relief of 
settlers on public land (Sec. 2, Ch. 
89. Sup. to R. S., Vol. I, 2d edition, 
p. 282). In place of Sec. 2 a section 
providing for notification by land 
officers to contestant when he has 
procured cancellation of any home- 
stead entry or allotment of any In- 
dian lands, thirty days to be allowed 
him to enter said lands ; provided 
that the register be allowed a fee 
of $1 for giving such notice, to be 
paid by contestant and not reported. 

H. R. 3133 (Rep. Burke) — Rsgulating 
public land accounts between U. S. 
and the several states (S. 311). 

H. R. 8440 (Rep. Lacey) — Granting 
5 per cent of public land sales of 
Military Land Warrants to the pub- 
lic land states. 

H. R. 10067 (Rep. Jones) — Disposi- 
tion of surplus and allotte'd A'akima 
Indian lands in Washington (S. 
3005). 

H. R. 9719 (Rep. Lacey) — For rehef 
of certain entryemen and setlers 
within limits of Northern Pacific 
Railway's land grant. 

H. R. 8439 (Rep. Martin)— Amend- 
ing reclamation act to provide that 
when charges under projects are 
more than $20 per acre the Secre- 
tary of the Interior may adjust an- 
nual instalments so that not over $2 
per acre need by paid each year. 

H. R. 10700 (Rep. Curtis) — Granting 
to railroads right of way through 
the public lands in Arizona, New 
Mexico, and Oklahoma, heretofore 
reserved for public buildings, etc. 



LAND RECLAMATION BY DRAINAGE 

Great Government Drainage Projedls — Enlargement of the Old 
HDms^naad Idea— Nearly 1 00,000,000 Acres Can be Reclaimed 

BY 
GUY ELLIOTT MITCHELL 

Secretary, The National Irrigation Association^ 



A NOTHER striking plan to provide 
■**• homes for industrious Americans 
of small means is contained in Repre- 
sentative Steenerson's bill now pend- 
ing in Congress. This measure is real- 
ly an extension of the old homestead 
idea, embodying also the main features 
of the National Irrigation Act, but in 
this case to be applied to the reclama- 
tion of our swamplands. 



There are in the neighborhood of 
100,000,000 acres of swamplands in 
the United States, some 70,000,000 of 
which have been surveyed, and the 
great bulk would make splendid farms 
if the excess of water were drained ofif. 

The Steenerson bill provides for the 
beginning of the work of reclamation 
of these huge areas. The measure is 
framed after the irrigation law ; it pro- 




Courtesy Slate Entomologist of New Jersey 

A New Jersey Drainage Ditch 



1906 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



135 



vides that the receipts from the sales 
of pubHc lands in the non-irrigation 
states shall constitute a "drainage" 
fund, to be expended by the govern- 
ment in great drainage works, and 
further, that the cost of such drainage 
shall be prorated among the lands ben- 
efited and paid back by the settlers into 
the "fund," to be used over again for 
additional reclamation work. 

WOULD CREATE THOUSANDS OF HOMES. 

This plan of developing the internal 
resources of the country and making 



$ioo and $150 an acre. Yet it is esti- 
mated by the government surveyors 
and engineers that the entire system 
could be effectively drained at a cost 
in the neighborhood of $10 an acre. 
The same can be said of the lands of 
the Red River Valle}' in Minnesota. 
These include the finest grain and farm 
lands in the Northwest, except that 
they are frequently overflowed. It 
would be worth millions of dollars to 
the farmers and settlers who would 
occupy these lands in small tracts to 




Minnesota Swamp Scene 



homes of waste places is splendid in 
its scope, and appears to be entirely 
practicable and profitable. Take, for 
instance, the single example of the 
swamplands of the Kankakee River 
basin in Indiana and Illinois. Here 
are some 400,000 acres of the very 
richest of bottom lands, but subject 
to overflow. They are worthless ex- 
cept where they have been reclaimed 
through expensive private drainage 
works, when thev have become worth 



have a perfect system of drainage pro- 
vided. These extensive systems, how- 
ever, especially where they are inter- 
state, seem to be feasible for handling 
only by the general government. 

The Steenerson bill places the entire 
management of the work in the hands 
of the Reclamation Service, and the 
plan of operation follows very closely 
the irrigation work now being done by 
that branch of the Interior Depart- 
ment, (^.overnment lands, ceded Tndi- 



136 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



March 




Scene in the Everglades of Florida 



;,.! .'i'li' 




/ CHU U. .S. Forest ,S''/-r/r, 

Sentinel Cypresses of Lake Drummond in the Dismal Swamp of Virginia 



1906 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



137 



an lands and private lands may be in- 
cluded in any drainage project, but in 
each case the cost of the drainage im- 
provement is to be borne by the owner 
of the land, and no settler can have 
drainage provided for more than i6o 
acres, thus insuring the division of the 
tracts into small farms which must be 
actually settled upon and tilled. 

DRAINAGE WORK ALREADY IN PROGRESS. 

This work the Reclamation Service 
is qualified to do at this very moment. 
While primarily an engineering bu- 



ject, is rich tule land covered by eight 
or ten feet of water, and is to be drain- 
ed and converted into over a thousand 
farms. The topographic branch of the 
Geological Survey, of which the Re- 
clamation Service is also a branch, has 
already run its lines over many of the 
great swamp areas of the eastern states 
and as soon as the Steenerson bill be- 
comes a law the Geological Survey en- 
gineers will be ready to launch out into 
immediate activity in drainage pro- 
jects. 





Reclaimed Swamp Lands Produce Splendid Crops 



reau, it has. in all its great irrigation 
projects, to deal directly with the 
farmer. It must outline a comprehen- 
sive drainage system for each irriga- 
tion project, since there is as much 
danger from too much irrigation as 
too little, and tx) do this the Service 
has its own farm and soil experts. 
Some of the irrigation projects have 
distinctively drainage features ; in fact 
are almost as much drainage as they 
are irrigation projects. In the Kla- 
math Project, 136,000 acres, or more 
than half of the area of the total pro- 



WOI'LD START WITH A MILLION DOLLARS 

The fund provided by the bill would 
be small as C()m])ared with the irriga- 
tion fund — it would approximate half 
a million dollars a 'year and would start 
off with about $1,000,000, the receipts 
from the sales for the fiscal year 1905 
being included ; but on the other hand 
the cost of drainage would not be so 
great as thai of irrigation. 

The imjiortance of this work of 
wholesale drainage, in order to provide 
homes for increased population, is 



138 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



March 



scarcely second in importance to the ir- 
rigation work. It means that tens of 
milhons of acres of the most fertile 
land imaginable, which has lain idle 
for ages, may be converted from dis- 
mal and pestilential swamps and use- 
less bogs into highly prosperous homes, 
to become the garden spots of the na- 
tion. 

The Dutch have reclaimed vast areas 
in Holland from the encroachments of 
the ocean. Thousands of families live 
and farm below sea level, gaining their 
security by magnificent feats of engi- 
neering and persistence. They now 
contemplate the drainage of the Zuy- 
der Zee, reclaiming some 1,350,000 ad- 
ditional acres of meadowland. Ameri- 
can drainage in most cases would be 
far more simple and less expensive ; it 
is simply a question as to whether the 
nation will see the wisdom of setting 
its hand to this work. 

ANOTHER INLAND EMPIRE. 

In Florida the everglades alone — 
almost solid muck beds — would afiford 
an empire of some 7,000,000 acres ; in 
New Jersey and Virginia are vast 
swamps, among them the famous Dis- 



mal Swamp. In Illinois, which is gen- 
erally regarded as a well-settled agri- 
cultural state, there are 4,000,000 acres 
of swampland; in Michigan there are 
nearly 6,000,000 acres. Fertile Iowa 
has about 2,000,000 acres of swamp- 
land. In Minnesota there are almost 
5,000,000 acres of rich surveyed 
swamplands and huge swamp areas 
not yet surveyed. Arkansas has tre- 
mendous swamp areas which could be 
drained and made habitable, and in all 
there is a swamp area in the eastern 
half of the United States which is 
equal in extent to the great agricul- 
tural states of Indiana, Illinois and 
Iowa, with three or four smaller east- 
ern states thrown in. 

If the Steenerson bill demonstrates 
that the government can transform 
swamps into fertile farmland and that 
the settler or owner will pay back to 
the government the relatively small 
cost of the improvement, there seems 
to be no reason why this work of crea- 
tion of value out of worthless waste 
should not go on indefinitely and pro- 
vide homes for millions more of rural 
population. 



THE FOREST SERVICE 

History of a Month's Work in Government Forest Matters 



p. . In connection with the 

Wo'rk"^ proposed development of 

the barren lands along 
their new line of railroad, the Nevada 
Northern Railway Company has made 
application to the Forest Service 
for assistance in establishing ex- 
perimental forest plantations. These 
plantations will be made at each of the 
water tanks to determine what trees 
can be grown to advantage, and by 
what methods. The general aim is to 
encourage the settlement of the region 
by demonstrating that the lands are of 
agricultural value or will, at least, pro- 
duce timber. Experimental planting 
is proposed along the eighty miles of 



new road which will be completed next 
summer, most of it being located in 
Elko and White Pine counties, Ne- 
vada. 

The Frick Coke Company, of Penn- 
sylvania, which applied to the Forest 
Service for plans to utilize part of its 
land for growing forest trees, has just 
received a report with recommenda- 
tions upon the project. The object of 
the company is twofold. First, to add 
to the sale value of coal lands now 
worthless for agriculture; and second, 
to raise for its own use trees suitable 
for mine props. 

Among the lands acquired by the 
company in connection with the un- 



1906 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATIOJSI 



139 



derlying coal are some which are better 
adapted for tree growth than for rais- 
ing other crops ; other lands have sunk, 
owing to the removal of the coal, and 
are worthless except for tree growth. 
By planting such lands with forest 
trees they can be given a market value 
which they do not now possess. 

It is proposed to plant about five 
hundred acres with chestnut, Euro- 
pean larch, and other suitable species, 
from which mine props may be ex- 
pected after about twenty years. 

The Louisville and Nashville Rail- 
road Company has requested the For- 
est Service to supervise the manage- 
ment of its catalpa plantations at El 
Dorado, Shawneetown, and McLeans- 
horo, 111. These lands were examined 
hy a representative of the Forest 
Service last summer, and it was rec- 
ommended that the young trees be cut 
back to the ground this winter. It is 
the desire of the railroad company to 
have these recommendations carried 
out under the expert supervision of the 
Service. Many of the plantations es- 
tablished by the railroads in the past 
have failed because of improper meth- 
ods in planting, unwise choice of 
species, and lack of care after the trees 
were set out. The Forest Service is 
now in a position to co-operate with 
railroad companies in securing bet- 
ter results from plantations establish- 
ed, and in starting new ones. 

The Forest Service has recently 
made an examination of the grounds 
of the U. S. Marine Sanatorium at Ft. 
Stanton, New Mexico, with a view of 
recommending forest planting. The 
prime object is to secure shelterbelts 
which will break the force of the strong 
winds of that region. A series of such 
shelterbelts will be planted next spring 
with coniferous trees furnished from 
the Forest Service nursery near Pasa- 
dena, southern California, and detailed 
plans are being prepared for additional 
work of this kind in future years. 

The Mavor and Park Commission 
of Los Angeles have recently approved 
a plan whereby the city will appro- 
priate $500 to be used by the Forest 



Service in establishing forest planta- 
tions in Griffith Park. A planting plan 
for this park was prepared by the Ser- 
vice in 1903, but as yet very little 
planting has been done. The present 
arrangement is for the city to contrib- 
ute the necessary funds, and for the 
Service to execute the planting plan, 
using plant material from the govern- 
ment nursery in the San Gabriel 
Mountains, thirty miles from Los An- 
geles. This should secure the best of 
plant material and expert direction of 
the work, with the result that the 3,000 
acres of denuded and brush land com- 
prising Griffith Park will eventually be 
converted into a forest. 

An application for a planting plan 
has been received from the Hillen- 
brand Company, of Batesville, Ind. It 
is a company dealing in hardwood 
lumber, piling, and cordwood, and they 
desire to secure the co-operation of the 
Forest Service in planting certain 
areas for timber supply and to serve as 
an object-lesson to the general public. 

A bank in Luverne, Minn., has just 
applied to the Forest Service for a 
forest-planting plan, for the purpose 
of raising trees on some hundred acres 
of land owned by the bank, in order to 
secure a future income from the tim- 
ber. About twenty acres of the tract 
is level, and the remainder rolling. The 
soil ranges from sandy to loamy. Trees 
which thrive in the neighborhood are 
poplar, birch, tamarack, and various 
evergreens. Red and white pine, Nor- 
way spruce, and European larch are 
considered desirable trees for planting 
on this land. 

Last spring the Forest Service start- 
ed a forest nursery at Fort Bayard, 
New Mexico, in order to secure trees 
for planting the watershed of Cameron 
Creek, which furnishes the water sup- 
ply for the military post and hospital 
on the Ft. Bayard Military Reserva- 
tion. The seed' sown was mostly west- 
ern yellow pine, of which there are 
now 450,000 seedlings. Four-fifths of 
these will be transplanted this spring 
to secure better root development. A 
limited amount of seed of the Torrey, 



140 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



March 



New Forest 
Reserves 



Coulter, and knobcone pine was sown, 
but this was damaged by the rabbits. 
Further experiment with these species 
will be made this spring, and incense 
cedar and Jeffrey pine will also be 
sown. 

Experimental seed-spot planting of 
Mexican walnuts and acorns from the 
oaks native to the region was made 
last fall. Spring planting on seed 
spots will also be tried. Next spring 
the western yellow pine sedlings will 
be transplanted to their permanent sit- 
uations, in open places on the water- 
shed. 

The small group of re- 
serves on the checker- 
board pattern, just south 
of Bozeman, Montana, known as the 
Gallatin Forest Reserves, has been re- 
cently merged into a much larger re- 
serve, under the name of the Gallatin 
Forest Reserve, composed of a com- 
pact body of land, containing about 
850,000 acres. 

This new reserve, which entirely 
surrounds the former group, embraces 
the mountainous region bounded by 
the Gallatin Valley on the north, the 
Yellowstone and Madison Valleys on 
the east and west, and the Yellowstone 
Park and Madison Forest Reserve on 
the south. 

The fact that this area is traversed, 
north and south, by the Gallatin 
Range, which sheds east and west into 
the Yellowstone and Gallatin Rivers, 
and the Madison Range, which drains, 
in like manner, into the Gallatin and 
Madison Rivers, make the region one 
of great importance in connection with 
the agricultural development of the 
valleys watered by those streams. 

This is especially true as regards the 
Gallatin Valley, which is the most im- 
l)ortant irrigated valley in the state of 
Montana. While nothing can be raised 
in the valley proper without water, it 
already produces annually more than 
one-fourth of the cereals, and contains 
more than one-eighth of the total irri- 
gated area of the state, and with a suf- 
ficient water supply this area can be 
doubled. 



Approximately 90 per cent of the 
available water for the 112,000 acres 
of arable land in this valley comes- 
from the tract embraced in this new 
reserve, while both the Yellowstone 
and Madison Valleys are also largely 
supplied by streams flowing from this 
region. In fact, the importance of pro- 
tecting the watersheds within this re- 
serve, upon which all three of these 
valleys depend, can not be overesti- 
mated. 

The forests on these slopes, more- 
over, represent a timber supply for the 
railroads running through the treeless 
plains to the eastward, and also for the 
neighboring ranchers. While consid- 
erable lumber is shipped into this sec- 
tion, the supply of fence posts, rails, 
house logs, etc., must necessarily be 
obtained from the nearby mountains, 
and one of the chief objects of this 
reserve will be to perpetuate this sup- 
ply. The demand for timber in the 
coal mines that have been discovered 
in the Gallatin Basin, on Taylor's 
Fork, also causes a heavy draft on the 
timber resources of this region. 

The government will at once pro- 
ceed to take efficient measure to pro- 
tect and increase, as far as possible, 
the water, timber, grazing, and all 
other resources of this region. As fire 
is the greatest danger to_ be guarded 
against, a patrol force will be placed 
on the mountains to protect the timber 
from further injury from that cause. 
Danger from this source will be fur- 
ther reduced to a minimum by having 
necessary regulations thoroughly un- 
derstood' by all who enter the reserve, 
and effectively carried out by the re- 
serve officers. 

While all oossible precautions will 
thus be taken to protect the forests, it 
should be understood that the cutting 
of timber by miners, settlers, lumber 
concerns, and others will not be pre- 
vented, but merely regulated; so that 
the conserving power of the water- 
sheds will . not be injured, and the 
young growth of timber will be so 
protected and aided that a continuous 
supply will be guaranteed for the use 
of the public in the future. 



1906 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



141 



A small forest reserve has been es- 
tablished in Mesa county, Colorado, 
covering twelve sections of land, or 
7,680 acres, in order to protect the 
headw^aters of East Creek, from which 
the citizens of the town of Fruita, Col- 
orado, desire to draw their water sup- 
ply by constructing a pipe line more 
than twenty-four miles in length, at 
an estimated cost of $75,000 for a con- 
tinuous flow of one "second foot," a 
stream of one cubic foot per second. 

The great outlay involved in this 
undertaking makes it imperative that 
a continuous supply of water shall be 
assured in advance. This can only be 
done by firmly protecting the wooded 
area at the headwaters of East Creek 
from fires and further inroads by lum- 
bermen. 

Promotions Mr. W. G. Weigle. of 
and Assign- ^j^e Forest Service, has 
ments , ,,,■ ■ 

gone to Wisconsm to 

mark timber which the Office of In- 
dian Aflfairs has sold under contract 
on Indian Reservations there. 

Congress has empowered the Sec- 
retary of the Interior to dispose of 
timber on Indian Reservations in such 
way as is best for the Indians' welfare. 
and in order that such timber shall be 
cut in a manner to furnish the Indians 
the best business returns not only now 
but in the future, the Indian Office has 
asked the Forest Service to co-operate 
by marking the trees to be cut and 
supervising the logging. 

The reservations on which Mr. Wei- 
gle will mark timber are the Flambeau 
and Bad River reservations. 

William Hurst, of the Forest Ser- 
vice, formerly Assistant Forest Ran- 
ger on the Dixie Reserve, in Utah, has 
passed the recent supervisor's exami- 
nation, and has been assigned to the 
position of Forest Supervisor of the 
Beaver Forest Reserve in the same 
state. 

The Forest vService announces the 
promotion of two Forest Supervisors 
to the salary of $1,400 per annum for 
high efficiency and on their record as 
supervisors. They are: J. R. Bell, 
Forest Supervisor of the San Jacinto 



and Trabuco Canyon reserves, in south- 
ern California; and E. S. Morrissey, 
of the Wichita Forest Reserve, in Ok- 
lahoma. 

Madison B. Elliott has been ap- 
pointed Supervisor of the Tahoe and 
Yuba Forest Reserves, in California. 

Dr. H. K. Porter, of Delta, Colo., 
has been appointed Forest Supervisor 
of the Uncompahgre Forest Reserve, 
in that state, and took charge Febru- 
ary 21, with headquarters at Mont- 
rose. 

Forest Superintendent D. B. Sheller 
has been placed in temporary charge 
of the Yuba Forest Reserve, in Cali- 
fornia, with headquarters at Nevada 
City, Cal. 

TimberTest- Mr. C. G Crawford, of 
P^lsT/vation the Forest Service, re- 
cently went to Pottsville. 
Pa., to inspect the work which is being 
conducted in co-operation with the 
Philadelphia and Reading Coal and 
Iron Co. to determine the advisability 
and the best method of treating with 
preservatives the timber in the com- 
pany's mines. The investigation has 
so far progressed very satisfactorily, 
and the company has recently issued 
an order that all their mine props must 
be peeled, as recommended by the For- 
est Service, an order which will be 
strictly enforced by the company. 

Loblolly pine is very extensively 
used in the mines of the company for 
mine props. This wood, when untreat- 
ed, is subject to very rapid decay, so 
that timbers must frequently be re- 
newed. Any means of reducing the 
frequency of necessary renewals would 
mean a large saving in timber. Even 
the addition of three months to the life 
of the props would render desirable 
such preliminary outlay as this would 
entail. 

The timber testing station of the 
Forest' Service at Lafayette, Ind., has 
begun a series of tests upon Norway 
pine and tamarack grown in Minne- 
sota. The value of these woods for 
paving blocks and building material 
will be determined. 



142 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



March 



The timber testing station of the 
Forest Service at Berkley, Cal., has be- 
gun an investigation of the mechanical 
properties of the eucalptus. About 60 
trees have been cut from different 
sites, and the uses of the wood for ve- 
hicles, paving blocks, etc., will be re- 
ported upon. 

Basket Wii- The Forest Service is 
low Ex peri- ^^^ harvesting its crop 
"'^'''^ of basket willows at the 

Arlington experimental farm, near 
Washington, D. C. Some time ago the 
Service started a series of experiments 
to determine the relative value for bas- 
ket manufacture of European varie- 
ties of willow and those which have 
been heretofore grown in this country, 
the effect of close and wide planting 
and of high and low cutting, the value 
of inundation in fertilizing and retard- 
ing the work of insects, and the quali- 
ty of the shoots from each variety. 
The Service will distribute the cut- 
tings to growers and to any other per- 
sons who may wish them. Directions 
for the planting and cultivation of the 
basket willow are given in a recently 
published bulletin of the Forest Ser- 
vice. 
„ ,, Mr. J. P. Wentling, of 

Box Manu- -1 -n* ^ o • 

facturing the Forest Service, re- 

cently attended a meet- 
ing of the National Association of Box 
and Box Shook Manufacturers, at 
Chicago, before which he read a paper 
on the relation of box manufacture to 
the lumber industry. Though no ac- 
curate figures are at present to be had 
to show the statistical importance of 
box manufacture, estimates would in- 
dicate that a surprisingly large per- 
centage of lumber goes into boxes. In 
the early days of the industry, when 
all sorts of usable woods were plenti- 
ful, there was no cause to study econ- 
omy in box-making. Gradually, how- 
ever, depletion of lumber supplies be- 
gan to produce a scarcity in the more 
desirable box woods, such, for exam- 
ple, as white pine. This gave the in- 
centive to study the strength of woods 
for boxes, and how saving might be 
effected in box construction. Search 



for new box woods also followed, and 
led to experiments with hitherto un- 
tried kinds. At present economy is 
increasingly studied, and the Forest 
Service has made box woods the sub- 
ject of one of its several studies of 
woods for special uses. 

. , Among the commercial 
Commercial j- °^ 1 • 1 ^1 

Tree Study forest trees which the 
Forest Service has been 
studying is the white fir. This has 
generally been regarded as the least 
valuable of the conifers common to the 
commercial forests of the Western Si- 
eras. Yet it attains large dimensions 
and is capable of taking a fine, satiny 
finish, and the best grade of lumber 
has been considerably used and com- 
mands a good price in southern Cali- 
fornia especially. The Service has 
now completed the gathering of data 
for volume and growth tables, and a 
study of the silvical character of the 
tree. In connection with this, a mar- 
ket study was also made for the whole 
of California, with special reference to 
its possible uses, cost of manufacture 
and technical qualities. 

Examining A preliminary examina- 
Southern ^.j^j-, 1^3,5 been started on 

*" ^ a tract of 50,000 acres 

in South Carolina, which the owners 
have requested the Forest Service to 
examine, with a view to placing it un- 
der conservative forest management. 
This tract is the fourth for which a 
working plan has been sought from 
the Forest Service by forest owners in 
this state,' the total acreage of the four 
tracts being upward of 135,000 acres. 
The Forest Service has just com- 
pleted a preliminary examination of a 
large timber tract on the west coast of 
Florida. The tract in question is on 
low, sandy land, cut up by numerous 
creeks and cypress swamps. On the 
drier land Cuban pine is the principal 
tree, but, as these dry lands are apt to 
be flooded yearly during the rainy sea- 
son, the growth of this tree has been 
badly stunted, and the chief problem 
brought out by the examination was 
whether drainage on a large scale 



1906 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



143 



would sufficiently improve the tree 
growth to warrant the expense. This 
question has additional importance in 
view of the large amount of land of 
this character lying along the west 
Florida coast and extending well back 
into the interior of the state. 



Co-operative 



A plan has recently been 



State Work approved for co-opera- 
tive forest experiments 
between the Forest Service and the 
University of Nebraska. The univer- 
sity is to donate twenty-five acres of 
land at the North Platte substation, 
and systematic experimental planting 
is to be carried on under the slipervi- 
sion of the Forest Service. The aim 
is to increase the knowledge of forest 
planting in western Nebraska, laying 
especial emphasis on the valuable new 
species, the general relation of species 
to soil and climate, spacing, mixtures. 



cultivation, etc. The work will run 
through a period of years and only 
small lots will be planted annually. 

An estimate of the timber growing 
on what is known as the "north grove" 
of the Calaveras Big Tree Grove, in 
California, has just been completed by 
the Forest Service. The area covered 
by the big trees is about one hundred 
acres. The entire north grove com- 
prises 640 acres. This work forms 
part of the co-operative forest studies 
which the Service has undertaken at 
the request of the state of California. 
There is an earnest and widespread 
desire to save the Calaveras grove 
from such a sale as would result in its 
destruction. The owner is willing to 
dispose of it, and an accurate and sat- 
isfactory appraisal of the value of the 
timber should help to an agreement on 
a fair price if Congress sees fit to pur- 
chase it. 



THE YUMA RECLAMATION 
PROJECT 

One of the Largest of the Many Irrigation Works 
Undertaken by the Government — Similar to Nile Projects 



A SPECIAL interest attaches to the 
■**• Yuma reclamation project in Ari- 
zona and California, one of the great 
national irrigation works now well 
started, by reason of the unusual phys- 
ical conditions of that section of the 
Southwest, and the somewhat unique 
engineering problems which are in- 
volved. 

Physically and climatically the Colo- 
rado Delta is singularly like that of 
the Nile. Like the great river of 
Egypt, the Colorado rises in far-dis- 
tant mountains and empties through 
great tidal flats into an inland sea, its 
valley and climate all bearing out the 
likeness. The Colorado is one of the 
great rivers of the arid West. It 
drains an area of more than 225,000 
square miles and pours a turbid flood 



into the Gulf of California for hun- 
dreds of miles. It has cut its channel 
more than a mile deep through the 
plateaus, carving out abyssa canyons 
which are the most wonderful in the 
world. In flood its waters carry in 
solution millions of tons of silt and 
detritus which for ages the stream has 
deposited in the sea building up a 
broad delta through which it flows 
on top of a dyke so that its normal 
channel is elevated considerably above 
the country on either side. In time of 
flood it spills over its dyke inundating 
a portion of its valley. 

The engineering works involve a 
dam across the river, canals on both 
sides of the stream, and an extensive 
system of levees to protect the lower 
lands from flooding. The dam known 



144 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



March 



as the Laguna is being constrycted 
about twelve miles above Yuma by a 
New York contractor, and is notable 
as being the first of its type built in 
America. The diamond drillers sought 
in vain for bed rock .formation in the 
channel and finally the government de- 
cided upon a structure of the East In- 
dia weir type patterned after the dams 
built under similar conditions in India 
and Egypt by the English engineers. 

The Laguna dam will be 4,780 feet 
long, 19 feet high, with a maximum 



Unprecedented floods during the 
past year have emphasized the impor- 
tance of safe-guarding the construc- 
tion of the levees which are required 
to prevent inundation of valuable low- 
land areas. The problem is complicat- 
ed because of the fact that the area to 
be irrigated is in the drainage basin of 
two important streams, the Gila and 
Colorado Rivers, both subject to sud- 
den and tremendous floods. 

The main canal of the project will 
cross the valley of the Gila in a pres- 




Scene in the Valley of the Lower Colorado River Below Yuma Dam Site 



width of 267 feet and will contain 
356,000 cubic yards of loose rock. It 
will rest on a foundation of sand and 
will weigh approximately 600,000 tons. 
The settling basin formed by this 
structure will be one mile wide and ten 
miles long. To avoid the enormous 
quantities of silt carried by the Colo- 
rado and which would quickly fill up 
the canals, the headgates are so ar- 
ranged as to draw off only the top foot 
of water into the canals. 



sure pipe passing under the stream. 
The Gila is normally dry or nearly so, 
but when in violent flood, frequently 
changes its course so that the levees 
must be placed so as to confine the 
stream to a definite channel before 
Iniilding the crossing as it might other- 
wise change its course and leave the 
crossing to one side. The crossing- 
must be made during the coming win- 
ter and the dykes must be built in the 
spring and summer. 



THE RECLAMATION SERVICE 



Progress of Narional Irrigation During the Past Thirty Days 



_ , _. Plans and specifications 
pSfect for the machinery for 

the Garden City Project 
in western Kansas were approved by 
a board of engineers which met at 
•Garden City, Kan., recently. Bids will 
he opened at Chicago on May 28. 

This irigation project is not one of 
the large enterprises which the Recla- 
mation Service is developing. It is, 
however, attracting considerable at- 
tention on account of the numerous 
novel features involved in its construc- 
tion. The water for this project must 
l>e recovered from the underflow 
waters of the Arkansas valley, which 
lie in gravel deposits existing below 
the bed of the river. It is therefore 
necessary to sink several hundred 
wells, from which the water will be 
pumped and discharged into a collect- 
ing conduit. The wells are scattered 
along the line nearly five miles long. 
The power is generated at a single 
central plant situated on the railroad 
and then is distributed by electricity to 
the wells. 

This is the first reclamation project 
to be authorized in which it is neces- 
sary to pump the water, and is the 
only project in which the water must 
be recovered from wells and not from 
a flowing surface stream of water. On 
this account much interest is taken in 
the project by settlers in western Kan- 
sas and Nebraska. They believe that 
the demonstration to be made will be 
of value to many other communities 
situated similarly to that at Garden 
City. 

Applications for water under this 
project have been made by the owners 
of more than 12,000 acres of land to 
be benefited, and the community is 
very enthusiastic concerning the future 
success of irrigation in the Arkansas 
valley. Very large crops of wheat can 
be grown on the lands under the pro- 
ject if a small amount of water is 



available in the fall and spring to in- 
sure the starting of the seed. Garden 
City has long been famous as an alfal- 
fa center. This location seems to be 
especially well adapted to the maturing 
of the seed crop of alfalfa which has 
always paid well here. A sugar fac- 
tory is being constructed at Garden 
City where those who desire to raise 
sugar beets will find a market for their 
crop. 

Appoint- Mr. J. C. Stevens, hv- 

ments and drographer at Washing- 

Assignments ^ ° T-A r^ ^ \. 

^ ton, D. C, has been or- 

dered to report to Supervising Engi- 
neer D. C. Henry, Portland, Ore., to 
take charge of the hydrographic work 
of the Geological Survey in the states 
of Oregon and Washington, with head- 
quarters at Portland. The growing 
demand for more complete and accu- 
rate data concerning the flow of 
streams in Oregon and Washington 
has made necessary the selection of a 
hydrographic exepert who is familiar 
with the methods of the division of 
hydrography. Mr. Stevens has shown 
technical and executive ability in the 
performance of his duties during the 
last three years in the Washington of- 
fice. 

Mr. Wilbur PI. Fisher, engineering 
aid of the Reclamation Service, who 
has been on furlough, due to lack of 
work on account of climatic conditions 
in the West, has been assigned to duty 
at Cody, Wyo. Mr. Fisher while ab- 
sent from the Service has been em- 
ployed by one of the large cement- 
manufacturing companies of Califor- 
nia, where he has gained valuable ex- 
perience in this line of work. 

Mr. C. E. Slonaker, observer, and 
Mr. Ernest R. Childs, assistant engi- 
neer, of the Reclamation Service, have 
been transfered to Portland, Ore., for 
field duty. 

Mr. Carrol Paul, engineering aid of 
the Reclamation Service, who has been 



146 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



March 



on furlough on account of lack of 
work, due to climatic conditions, has 
been reassigned to duty at Wyncote, 
Wyo., for work in connection with the 
Interstate canal. 

Mr. W. S. Kanna, engineering aide 
in the Reclamation Service, has been 
transferred from the Washington of- 
fice, where he has been employed in 
the drafting division, to field duty at 
Chinook, Mont., in connection with 
the Milk River Project. 

Mr. Clinton R. Thompson was re- 
cently appointed topographic _ drafts- 
man in the Reclamation Service and 
ordered to report to Mr. John E. Field, 
district engineer, at Mitchell, Neb. 

Mr. A. H. Perkins, engineer. United 
States Reclamation Service, was re- 
cently transferred from the Washing- 
ton ofiice to duty at Cody, Wyo., on the 
Shoshone Project. Mr. Perkins is a 
graduate of the civil engineering 
course, Cornell University, 1894, and 
was transferred to the Reclamation 
Service from the Bureau of Engineer- 
ing in the Philippine service. 

The Secretary of the In- 
SusTended terior has suspended the 
operation of the contract 
of July 21, 1905, with Callahan Broth- 
ers, and Phelan and Shirley, of Oma- 
ha, Nebraska, for divisions 2, 3, and 4 
for main canal. Fort Buford Project, 
North Dakota and Montana. 

The suspension is made under pro- 
visions of paragraph No. 21 of the 
specifications, which provides that upon 
failure of the contractor to perform 
the work in accordance with the speci- 
fications the Secretary may suspend 
the contract and take possession of the 
machinery, tools, appliances, etc., of 
the contractor and make arrangements 
to complete the work. 
Repairing The Secretary of the In- 

of Pecos terior has authorized that 

ystem ^j^^ repair and recon- 

struction of the Pecos irrigation sys- 
tem at Carlsbad, New Mexico, be done 
by the Reclamation Service under 
force account and not by contract. 
This authority was granted to obviate 
the delay always incident to advertis- 



Contracts 
Let 



ing for bids and because of the fact 
that the works must be completed at 
the earliest possible moment in order 
to save the crops on 10,000 acres of 
land in that section. A large portion 
of this area is in orchards and if de- 
prived of water the orchards would be 
ruined, entailing a loss of property 
valued at hundreds of thousands of 
dollars. 

The Secretary of the 
Interior has approved 
the contract executed by 
the President and attested by the Sec- 
retary of the Strawberry Valley Water 
Users' Association, Utah, guarantee- 
ing repayment to the United States of 
the cost of the irrigation works which 
may be constructed thereby in connec- 
tion with the Strawberry Valley Pro- 
ject, Utah. Authority has been given 
the Reclamation Service to prepare 
plans and specifications for the work 
and to submit them to the department. 
The Secretary of the Interior has also 
executed a contract on behalf of the 
United States and approved the bond 
of the International Contract Com- 
pany, providing for the construction 
work of schedule 4, main canal, Kla- 
math Project, California-Oregon. This 
contract calls for the construction of 
five highway bridges at $1,158 each, 
with 85-foot Howe truss, spans, super- 
structures, complete in place, and one 
bridge, 80-foot Howe truss, spans, and 
superstructures, at $1,055. He has also 
approved the bond and executed con- 
tract on behalf of the United States 
with Messrs. Hughes and Olsen, pro- 
viding for the construction and com- 
pletion of division one, of main canal, 
Huntley Project. 

A contract has been let to Mason, 
Davis & Co., of Portland, Oregon, for 
the construction of schedules i, 2, and 
3, main canal, Klamath Project, Cali- 
fornia-Oregon. This contract calls for 
the construction of about 9 miles of 
main canal, near Klamath Falls, Ore- 
gon, with headworks, sluice gates, 
bridges, and other appurtenances in- 
volving about 600,000 cubic yards of 
excavation, 3,100 linear feet of con- 



1906 



FORESTKY AND IRRIGATION 



147 



Crete lined tunnel, and 4,000 cubic 
yards of concrete masonry, exclusive 
of tunnel lining. The bid of Mason, 
Davis & Co. was $377,330. 

A contract has been awarded to the 
McFee and McGinnity Company, of 
Denver, Colo., for 30,000 barrels of 
Portland cement for the Uncompah- 
gre Valley Project, Colorado. The 
bid of the contractors is $1.45 per bar- 
rel f. o. b. cars at lola, Kansas. 

The Secretary of the Interior has 
awarded to the Western Portland Ce- 
ment Company, of Yankton, South 
Dakota, the lowest bidder, the contract 
for furnishing from 20,000 to 30,000 
barrels of Portland cement for the 
Belle Fourche Project, South Dakota. 
The bid of this company was $2.43 
per barrel f. o. b. cars at Belle Fourche, 
South Dakota. 

There is a demand for from 8,000 to 
12,500 barrels of Portland cement for 
use in the construction of the Lower 
Yellowstone Project, Montana-North 
Dakota, and bids will be received by 
the project engineer, U. S. Reclama- 
tion Service, Glendive, Montana, until 
April 12, 1906. 

Bids are being asked for the con- 
struction of about twenty miles of 
main canal involving the excavation of 
975,000 cubic yards of earth, and 10,- 
000 cubic yards of solid rock, in con- 
nection with the Payette-Boise Project, 
Idaho. Also for the construction 
of a dam in Pecos River, involving the 
placing of 75,000 cubic yards of earth, 
40,000 cubic yards of rock fill, 12,000 
linear feet of steel sheet piling, 3,300 
cubic yards of rubble concrete, and the 
furnishing and placing of about 219,- 
000 pounds of steel, in connection with 
the Carlsbad Project, New Mexico. 

The construction of about 145 miles 
of irrigation ditches involving 600,000 
cubic 3'ards of excavation with struc- 
tures and bridges in Carson Sink Val- 
ley, Nevada, is ready for bids. 

Bids are being asked for by the Sec- 
retary of the Interior for the construc- 
tion of structures on main canal and 
laterals of the Lower Yellowstone Pro- 



ject, Montana and North Dakota, to 
be opened April 12, 1906. 

Land With- "^^9 Secretary of the In- 
drawals terior has finally with- 

drawn the following de- 
scribed lands in the State of Oregon, 
for use in connetcion with the Cold 
Sprmgs reservoir, Umatilla irrigation 
project: 



VVIIXAMKTTU MliRIDIAX. 

T. 5 N., R. 29 E., Sec. 34, SE li 
NE y4, SE M sw M. 
T. 5 N., R. 29 E., Sec. 34, SE % 

T. 5 N., R. 29 E., Sec. 36, NE >i 

SE y^. 

T. 4 N., R. 29 E.. Sec. I, E ^ NW 
y, NW >4 NE ^. 
,,X- 4 ^-^ R- 29 E., Sec. 3, NW y. 

T. 5 N., R. 30 E., Sec. 31, X ^ 

SW y, N /, SE y. ^ ^ 

These lands were temporarily with- 
drawn oh August 16, 1905, for exami- 
nation and survey, and their use has 
been found necessary for reservoir 
purposes. The Secretary has directed 
the Commissioner of the General Land 
Office to notify all persons who have 
made entry of such lands prior to the 
preliminary withdrawal and who have 
not acquired a vested right thereto, 
that said lands have been appropriated 
for irrigation purposes and that their 
entries will be cancelled and their im- 
provements paid for by the govern- 
ment, unless sufficient cause is shown 
within sixty days from date of such 
notice. 

The Secretary of the Interior has 
temporarily withdrawn from anv form 
of disposition whatever under tlie pub- 
he land laws the followino- described 
lands in the State of Idaho, for use in 
connection with the Flat Kock reser- 
voir site, Pavette-Boise irrigation pro- 
ject: T. 14 N., R. 43 E., Sees. I, 2, II, 
- 13, 14, 2-^, 24, and N y^ Sec. 25, 
Sec. 26, or 5,760 acres. 

He has also temporarily withdrawn 
the following described lands in the 
state of Colorado, for use in connec- 
tion with the Taylor Park reservoir 



12 

and N 



148 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



March 



Uncompahgre Valley Project: 6th P. 
M. Section 24, T. 14 S., R. 83 W. 

Kansas Secretary Hitchcock has 

Pumping executed a contract on 

^"■"J^"' behalf of the United 

States with the Finney County Water 
Users' Association, whereby the asso- 
ciation guarantees to repay to the 
United States the cost of the irriga- 
tion works which may be constructed 
in connection with the Garden City 
Project, Kansas. 

This project contemplates the re- 
covery of ground water in the Arkan- 
sas Valley by means of pumping, and 
its distribution over about 10,000 acres 
by the use of an existing canal known 
as The Farmers' Ditch. The proposed 
pumping plant involves the construc- 
tion of 23 separate pumping stations, 
each driven electrically from the cen- 
tral power station located on the main 
line of the Atchison, Topeka & Santa 
Fe Railroad. 

The annual rainfall in this part of 
the Arkansas Valley is about 20 inches, 
the larger part of which falls during 
the summer months. This portion of 
the high plains is peculiar in that there 
is an almost complete absence of run- 
off, practically all of the rain-fall sink- 
ing into the ground. An investigation 
of conditions was begun in 1904 by 
Prof. Charles S. Slichter, of the U. S. 
Reclamation Service, and a project of 
sufficient promise to warrant detailed 
study was then outlined. 

The value of land in this part of 
Kansas in its natural condition is from 
$5 to $10 per acre. When reclaimed 
by irrigation it is easily worth from 
$100 to $150. The soil is similar to 
that in the well known wheat belt of 
Kansas, very fine grained and fertile, 
/equiring the application of only a 
small amount of water for irrigation. 
The principal crops suitable for these 
lands are sugar beets and alfalfa, con- 
siderable quantities of which are al- 
ready under cultivation. Sugar beets 
are already located at points within 
easv shipping distance from Garden 
City. Back of the lands to be watered 



are wide strips of excellent grazing 
lands which will grow cane and forage 
plants without irrigation. 

The western portion of Kansas ap- 
pears to be underlaid with inexhausti- 
ble quantities of underground water at 
no great depth, and the successful ini- 
tiation of a government pumping sys- 
tem will undoubtedly encourage pri- 
vate capital to take up the work in 
other sections. 



Payette- 
Boise 
Project 



The Secretary of the In- 
terior has awarded the 
folowing contracts for 
certain schedules for the construction 
of dam, canal, and embankments in 
connection with the Payette-Boise 
Project, Idaho. 

Schedule No. i, for the dam and di- 
verting works on the Boise River, 
$158,950, to the Utah Fire Proofing 
Company, Salt Lake City, Utah. This 
contract calls for 15,000 cubic yards 
concrete masonry, 5,000 cubic yards 
concrete, 10,000 pounds of steel for re- 
inforcing, 325,000 feet B. M. common 
lumber, 20,000 pounds drift bolts, 
2,500 cubic yards fill in crib work, 
14,000 cubic yards wet excavation, 
12,000 cubic yards dry excavation, and 
1,000 cubic yards of rip rap. 

Schedule No. 3, for the main canal 
from Indian Creek to Deer Flat reser- 
voir, to Conway and Wilhite, Star, 
Idaho, $95,400. The requirements of 
this contract are for 414,800 cubic 
yards of excavation. 

Schedule No. 4, for structures on 
canal from Boise River to Deer Flat 
reservoir, including bridge structures, 
turn-outs, culverts and drops and di- 
verting works from Indian Creek, 
$48,855, to Page & Brinton, Salt Lake 
City, Utah. 

Schedule No. 3, for lower Deer Flat 
embankment and diverting works, 
$256,550, to Hubbard & Carlson, 
Boise, Idaho. This schedule includes 
950,000 cubic yards of material for 
embankment, 50,000 cubic yards of ex- 
cavation in foundation, 1,500 cubic 
yards of concrete, and 20,000 pounds 



1906 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



149 



of steel for reinforcing and in bridge 
and canopy. 

The Secretary of the Interior has 
directed that there be a new advertise- 
ment for the work of schedule No. 2, 
the main south side canal from Boise 



River to Indian Creek, and also au- 
thorizes the Reclamation Service to 
complete the work of schedule No. 5, 
the Upper Deer Flat embankment and 
diverting works, by force account un- 
der the supervision of the engineers 
of the Reclamation Service. 



THE BLACK MESA FOREST RESERVE 



BY 



F. S. BREEN 

Supervisor, Black Mesa Forest Reserve 



THE Black Mesa Forest Reserve of 
Arizona was created by execu- 
tive proclamation August 17, 1898, 
and contains 1,658,880 acres, or 2.786 
square miles, covering the MogoUon 
mountain range from a point north of 
Camp Verde southwest to the New 
Mexico territorial boundary. 

The main south boundary line is 
marked mainly by what is locally 
termed the "rim," an abrupt cliff or 
wall of rock that leaves a sheer, preci- 
pitous descent of from 1,000 to 1,500 
feet for a distance of over 250 miles, 
with but three places where it is pos- 
sible to ascend with teams, although 
there are two or three trails that may 
be used with pack horses. 

The reserve includes part of Coco- 
nino, Yavapai, Gila, Navajo, Apache 
and Graham Counties, and is located 
in the wildest and most broken part of 
the territory with very few settlements 
within its borders. The nearest rail- 
road points are Flagstaff and Hol- 
brook on the Santa Fe Railroad, both 
points being from sixty to seventy 
miles north by wagon roads. 

The north boundary line of the 
Apache Indian reservation closes on 
the south boundary line of the forest 
reserve for a distance of over 200 
miles, cutting off something in the 
neighborhood of a million acres of the 
Kest timbered area in Arizona, mainly 
unused, where large forest fires are 
numerous each spring, and come 



sweeping to the north onto the forest 
reserve. 

Recent examinations by the Forest 
Service were made for the purpose of 
including additional timbered areas 
both west and east of the Apache In- 
dian reservation, in this reserve, 
though no official action has been 
taken up to date. 

There are eight small settlements 
within the reserve, with population 
ranging from twenty to one hundred 
people, the Mormon sect predominat- 
ing in each. These settlements were 
made during the early history of Ari- 
zona by pioneer bands of Mormons 
moving down from Utah by wagon 
trains over hundreds of miles of desert 
land and who located on small streams 
or at natural springs, making a pre- 
carious livelihood by cultivating small 
patches of alluvial soil. During 1904 
a number of these settlements were 
practically abandoned because of 
drought for a succession of years. 

Along the western border of the re- 
serve are several points of scenic in- 
terest. The Montezuma Castle, a his- 
toric cliff dweling built in the angle of 
the cliffs two hundred feet from the 
ground, of stone and adobe, which in 
inself is four stories high containing 
many rooms and on top a breastworks 
with portholes commanding the upper 
angles of the cliffs on both sides; the 
Montezuma Well, a natural pheno- 
monon, covering an acre or more filled 



150 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



March 



with pure spring water, the bottom of 
which has not as yet been fathomed. 
The side walls of this well go down 
about eighty feet before water is 
reached, and small cliff dwellings are 
found just above water level. A short 
distance up Clear Creek from this 
point is the "Soda Spring," a spring of 
cold water tasting strongly of carbonic 
acid gas boiling up out of the ground 
in which it is impossible for a person 
to sink. 



difficult to utilize on account of the 
scarcity of water for stock purposes, 
let alone irrigation. 

Stock is mainly the means of mak- 
ing a living both inside the reserve and 
adjacent to it. When the reserve was 
first created there were 225,000 head 
of sheep and about 40,000 head of cat- 
tle grazed upon during the greater part 
of the year. The number of stock has 
been gradually reduced from year to 




Large Growth of Alligator Juniper in the Black Mesa Forest Reserve 



To the south four miles is the "Na- 
tural Bridge," the largest natural 
bridge in the United States; articles 
placed in the water running under- 
neath the bridge are rock-covered 
within a week. These points of inter- 
est are so far off the line of travel that 
they are not very well known except 
locally. 

There is very little agricultural land 
on the reserve and- that little is very 



year until at present there are 115,000 
head of sheep and 30,500 head of cat- 
tle and horses grazed under permit. 

The sheep grazing permits are for 
the grazing season commencing April 
1st and closing December ist each 
year; there is no regular grazing sea- 
son for cattle and horses, but during 
the winter months the greater part of 
the stock necessarily drifts off the re- 
serve to the lower levels. 




Grove of Aspen in the Black Mesa Forest Reserve 



Over half the sheep grazed on the 
reserve are taken south via the Heber 
Sheep Trail to Salt River Vallev 



where they are sheared, returning to 
the reserve by the same route usually 
in Mav. 




Yellow Pine in the Black Mesa Forest Reserve 



152 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



March 



The regulation of sheep grazing has 
resulted very beneficially to the re- 
serve as well as lo the stock owners, hy 
the elimination of many bands that 
were owned by transient sheepmen 
who neither owned land or water, 
leaving the range for the permanent 
stockmen, who now appreciate the 
protection afforded them in giving 
each sheep owner entitled to range, an 
exclusive range for his sheep. 

At first stockmen and settlers who 
had for years utilized the reserve with- 



of one district or another, saving the 
Government several thousands of dol- 
lars that otherwise would have had to 
have been paid for assistance, aside 
from the incalculable damage to young 
growing timber. 

Aside from the benefits derived 
from grazing, the people in general 
are commencing to more fully realize 
the fact that in reserving this large 
body of timber, it has been reserved 
for their use, instead of permitting it 
eventuallv to fall into the hands of 




Green Mountains from Mt. Baldwin 



out restrictions, resented the interfer- 
ence of the government, but gradually 
this feeling has been eradicated and 
the better element realize even the im- 
mediate benefits of the restrictions im- 
posed. During the past year these 
stockmen gave substantial evidence of 
their appreciation of the reserve by as- 
sisting at forest fires from April to the 
middle of July, an almost continuous 
service night and day for the stockmen 



speculators through fraudulent home- 
steads, thus preventing the small local 
saw mills from purchasing timber as it 
is required by the settler for the de- 
velopment of his claims, inside or out- 
side the reserve, as has been done in 
other States. 

Over 90 per cent of the reserve is 
covered with a good stand of yellow 
pine, running from 2,000 to as high as 
6,000 feet per acre, much of which at 



1906 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



153 



present is too far removed from a mar- 
ket, but in a short time much of this 
belt will be reached by railroads for 
which surveys are now being made. 

The great length of this reserve. 
covering as it does, the heart of the 
most inaccessible part of the territory, 
the greater part totally uninhabited, 
makes the management of the reserve 
very difficult. The Rangers' districts 
are extremely large amounting to as 
high as fifteen or sixteen townships. 
While there is only a small amount of 
business for them to handle aside from 



fires, it is scattered over such an ex- 
panse of country that it takes hard 
work, and a complete camp outfit to 
successfully see to it. 

The new rules issued by the Forest 
Service, taking effect July ist, last, 
have not become generally known 
among the settlers, but when they are, 
a much more favorable opinion will be 
conceived by them of the reserve by 
reason of the very liberal policy out- 
lined, in which many of the former 
technicalities have been eliminated. 



SUCCESSFUL FIRE PROTECTION IN 
CALIFORNIA 

Private Owner Has Built Fire Lines and Inaug- 
urated Patrol Sy^em to Guard Young Growth 



A N item of news of wide importance 
■**• to timberland owners is the an- 
nouncement that a California lumber 
company, which applied a plan of fire 
protection to a single township during 
the summer of 1905, is now preparing 
to extend the same protection to the 
rest of its large holdings of cut-over 
land. 

Except in the national forests, but 
little attempt has as yet been made to 
protect from fire the forests or cut- 
over lands of the Pacific coast. In 
California, it is true, the state forester 
has taken up fire protection as one of 
the most pressing problems of his ad- 
ministration. But in Oregon and 
Washington particularly, and on pri- 
vate holdings in California, fires are 
so destructive that little hope is cher- 
ished by owners of securing crops on 
cut-over land before fires have pre- 
vented or destroyed them. The severe 
losses which have come from these 
fires have, however, made a deep im- 
pression upon lumbermen. Where 
timberlands are owned, too often the 
investor must be contented with the 
profits of his first lumbering opera- 
tions, since, despite the excellent nat- 
ural reproduction which would, under 



better conditions, restore the lands to 
forest, fire is almost certain to burn 
over, killing seedlings, scorching larger 
growth, and so deferring future crops 
indefinitely. 

In the summer of IQ04 the McCloud 
River Lumber Company, of McCloud, 
Cal., appreciating the seriousness of 
the fire losses common to lumbering 
operations in the region, agreed to at- 
tempt to protect its land according to 
the advice of the Forest Service, pro- 
vided the plan of fire protection could 
be shown to be practicable and not too 
costly. The area chosen for the plan 
was cut-over land, a township in ex- 
tent, on which the amount and charac- 
ter of the young timber was, as is com- 
monly the case, sufficient to warrant 
expending something to guard it until 
it should establish a renewed forest. 

Last summer the plan was put in op- 
eration. It called for clearing and 
burning broad fire lines from 200 to 
300 feet in width, to serve as base lines 
from which to fight possible fires ; or- 
ganizing a patrol ; locating tool houses 
for the storage of fire-fighting tools ; 
erecting telephone lines to summon 
aid : and other similar measures. In 
making the tire lines, the old logging 



154 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



March 



trams were followed as far as possible. 
Twenty miles of lines were cleared. 

During the dry season of 1905 the 
operation of this plan proved so suc- 
cessful that the company took steps to 
extend the protection to the rest of its 
holdings — from three to four hundred 
thousand acres — and may now apply 
to the Forest Service for another plan 
to cover an additional 20,000 acres re- 
cently purchased in southern Oregon. 

The holdings of the McCloud River 
Lumber Company are in a region 



where the danger from fire is unusu- 
ally great, since the long dry season 
and the abundance of slash and chap- 
arrel not only make the starting of 
fires very probable, but also render 
their control difficult in a high degree. 
One of the most important and sig- 
nificant points in connection with this 
use of a fire-protection system by a pri- 
vate owner is the fact that it means 
the recognition of the future value of 
young timber — proof that forestry has 
made rapid strides in California. 



RECENT PUBLICATIONS 



A Handbook of the Trees of California. 

By Alice Eastwood. Occasional Pa- 
pers of the California Academy of 
Sciences IX. San Francisco, 1905; 86 
pp. 

We are very glad to welcome Miss 
Alice Eastwood's "A Handbook of the 
Trees of California," which is published 
by the California Academy of Sciences 
(1905). Until the recent appearance of 
Prof. C. S. Sargent's "Silva," students of 
California trees have had to depend 
mainly on Brewer & Watson's Botany 
of California. Following this. Dr. Albert 
Kellogg's "Illustrations of West Ameri- 
can Oaks," and Prof. J. G. Lemmon's 
"West American Conebearers," were ex- 
cellent for the groups they covered. Miss 
Eastwood's book covers the whole field 
and presents, in mostly popular langauge, 
carefully drawn descriptions of 169 spe- 
cies and varieties. Fifty-seven of these 
are illustrated by half-tones and photo- 
engravings which are clear, exceedingly 
helpful, and a most commendable and 
essential feature of the book, whether it 
be used by laymen or experts. In its 
range the work is more than it pretends 
to be, as it describes not only the trees 
of California but also the principal ones 
of Washington, Oregon, Arizona, Ne- 
vada, and Idaho. One new species of 
oak, Quercus alvordiana, is described for 
the first time. The conventional line be- 
tween a number of so-called shrubs 
and trees has been passed by ad- 
mitting as trees twelve shrubs not 
previously recognized as trees. Miss 
Eastwood studies trees and other plants 
in the field, as well as in the herbarium, 
and we are glad that she liad rated some 
of these formerly neglected species as 
trees; notably Narrya clliptica, Cercis oc- 
cidentals, three manzanitas (Arctostoply- 
los) and several species of Ceanothus, 



which we think should be considered 
trees. An important feature of this book 
is its three artificial keys to the trees 
described based on leaves, fruit, and on 
a combination of flowers, foliage, and 
fruit. The latter appeals to the trained 
botanist, while the first two can be used 
readily by laymen. The author has, we 
think, wisely excluded from her concise, 
clear, and helpful work, reference to 
mooted points in nomenclature, in which 
there is opportunity for discussion. We 
are glad to see even the preoccupied 
name Sequoia gigantea still used for Cali- 
fornia's greatest tree wonder, the Sierra 
Big-Tree, in place of the proposed Se- 
quoia Wellingtonia — which most Califor- 
nians resent. Geo. B. S. 



Proceedings of the Society of American 
Foresters. Vol. I, No. 1, pp. 28. Wash- 
ington, D. C, 1905. Price 25 cents. 
Proceedings of the Society of American 
Foresters. Vol. I, No. 2, pp. 108. Wash- 
ington, D. C, 1905. Price 25 cents. 
These two handsomely printed pam- 
phlets mark the beginning of a series of 
publications that will be of much value 
to technical foresters. The Society of 
American Foresters was organized No- 
vember 30, 1900, and has its headquarters 
in Washington, where the large majority 
of the trained foresters of the country 
are stationed through their connection 
with the government. The Society holds 
weekly meetings during about eight 
months of the year. At these meetings 
papers on forestry and related subjects 
are presented and discussed. It is the 
purpose of the Society to put these pa- 
pers into permanent form which explains 
the numbers at hand. 

Paper No. 1 contains an address on 
"Forestry and Foresters," by President 



1906 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



155 



Roosevelt, delivered before the Society 
on March 26. 1903. It also contains the 
text of the Society's constitution, and a 
full list of members. 

Paper No. 2 contains eight technical 
papers as follows: "The Reclamation 
Law and Its Relation to Forestry," by 
F. H. Newell; "The Application and 
Possibilities of the Federal Forest Re- 
serve Policy," Edward T. Allen; "The 
Disposal of the Public Lands," George 
W. Woodruff; "Silviculture Applied to 
Virgin Forest Conditions," Alfred Gas- 
kill; "Obiections to the Forest Reserves 
in Northern California," Alfred F. Pot- 
ter; "The Great Kansas River Flood of 
1903," George L. Clothier; "The Neces- 
sity for Saving the Forests on the Wa- 
tershed of the Sacramento River," J. B. 
Lippincott; "Results of a Rocky Moun- 
tain Forest Fire Studied Fifty Years 
After Its Occurrence," W. J. Gardner. 



Forest Park Reservation Commission of 
New Jersey. First Annual Report. 
For the year ending October 31, 1905; 
Trenton, N. J., pp. 27. Illustrated. 

Although the law for the establish- 
ment of forest reservations in New Jer- 
sey was only passed in March, 1905, the 
commission in charge of its execution 
has been actively at work. The report 
presented contains the text of the law 
under which they are operating, an ad- 
ministrative report covering their work 
from March to October inclusive and 
a chapter on forest fires. While New 
Jersey should have begun this work 
many years ago, it is encouraging to see 
the present activity. 



Eleventh Annual Report of the Commis- 
sioner of Public Roads of New Jersey. 

For year ending October 31, 1904. 

Trenton, N. J., pp. 220. Illustrated. 

Here again we have an excellent ex- 
ample of what may be done to improve 
public highways and thereby promote the 
upbuilding of a state's general welfare. 
New Jersey has taken the lead in the 
good roads movement, and these annual 
reports of its commissioner contain a 
splendid object-lesson to other commu- 
nities. 



Publications Received. 

Entomological Society of Ontario; 36th 
annual report. 1905, pp. 143. Illustrated. 
Published by the Ontario Department of 
Agriculture, Toronto. 

The Irrigation System of Ontario, Cal- 
ifornia — 'Its Development and Cost. By 
F. E. Trask. Reprint from Transactions 
of American Society of Civil Engineers. 
Pp. 173-184. Illustrated. 

The Municipal Water-Softening Plant 
at Oberlin. Ohio. By W. B. Gerrish. Re- 
print from Journal of New England Wa- 
ter W^orks Association. Pp. 421-436. Il- 
lustrated. 

State Forest Administration in South 
Australia. Annual Progress Report for 
the year 1904-5. By Walter Gill, Con- 
servator of Forests, Adelaide, 1905. Il- 
lustrated. 

Forestry Quarterly. Volume IV, No. 
1. Pp. 78. Ithaca, N. Y. 

Bulletin of the New York Botanical 
Garden, Volume V, No. 15, containing 
annual report of officers for 1904. 

The Indian Forester for January, 1906. 
Allahabad. 



Department of the Interior, Washington, 
D. C, March 5, 1906. Proposals will be 
received at the office of the United States Re- 
clamation Service, Boise, Idaho, until 2 o'clock 
p. m., April 16, 1906, for the construction of 
nbout 20 miles of main canal, involving the ex- 
cavation of 975,000 cubic yards of earth and 
10,000 cubic yards of solid rock, in connection 
with the Payette-Boise Project, Idaho. Par- 
ticulars may be obtained from the Chief Engi- 
neer of the .Reclamation Service, Washington, 
D. C, or the Supervising Engineer, Boise, 
Idaho. E. A. HITCHCOCK, Secretary. 



Department of the Interior, Washington, 

D. C, iVlarch 9, 1906. Proposals will be re- 
ceived at the office of the United States Recla- 
mation Service, Glendive, Mont., until 10 o'clock 
a. m., April 12, 1906, for the construction of 
about 2(>y2 miles of canal near Glendive, Mont., 
involving the excavation of approximately 
2,662,900 cubic yards of earth and 1,200 cubic 
yards of rock, and furnishing such material 
and doing such other work as may be necessary 
for the completion of the work. Particulars 
may be obtained by application to the Chief 
Engineer, U. S; Reclamation Service. Washing- 
ton, D. C. or to the Engineer, Glendive, Mont. 

E. A. HITCHCOCK, Secretary. 



Department of the Interior, Washington, 
D. C, March 9, 1906. Proposals will be re- 
ceived at the office of the U. S. Reclamation 
Service at iiazen, Nev., until 10 o'clock a. m., 
April 19, 1906, for the construction of about 
145 miles of irrigation ditches, involving about 
600,000 cubic yards of excavation, with struc- 
tures and bridges, in Carson Sink Valley, Neva- 
da. Particulars may be obtained from the Chief 
Engineer of the Reclamation Service, Washing- 
ton, D. C, or the Supervising Engineer, Hazen. 
Nev. E. A. HITCHCOCK. Secretary. • 



Department of the Interior, Washington, 
D. C. March 1, IQ06. Sealed proposals will be 
received at the office of the United States Re- 
clamation Service, Carlsbad, N. M., until 2 
o'clock p. m., April 12, 1906, for the construc- 
tion of a dam in Pecos River, involving the 
placing of 75,000 cubic yards of earth, 40,000 
cubic yards of rock fill, 12,000 linear feet of 
steel sheet piling, 3,300 cubic yards of rubble 
concrete, and the furnishing and placing of 
about 219,000 pounds of steel, in connection 
with the Carlsbad Project, New Mexico. Speci- 
fications, forms of proposal and plans may be 
obtained from the Chief Engineer of the Recla- 
mation Service, Washington, D. C, or from the 
Supervising Engineer, Carlsbad, N. M. E. A. 
HITCHCOCK, Secretary. 



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Reports and working plans for estates in Southern Florida, Bahamas, 
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Forestry and Irrigatioa 



Vol. XII. 



APRIL, 1906. 



No. 4 



NEWS AND NOTES 



r-., p. All efforts for the estab- 

Reserves Hshment of national for- 

est reserves in the South- 
ern Appalachians and the White 
Moiuitains are being centered in the 
hearing to take place before the 
House Committee on Agriculture 
Wednesday, April 25, at 10:30 A. M. 
It is of the greatest importance that all 
friends of the bill to establish these re- 
serves give their assistance at this 
time. The bill has already had a fa- 
vorable report in the Senate and is 
likely to reach a vote there any day. 
But is is in the House that the most 
force will be needed to secure early 
and favorable action. All those who 
feel a deep interest in this measure 
and have not yet done so should write 
or wire their views to their Congress- 
men at once. 

Forestry The bill creating a for- 

ary an ^^ Maryland, introduced 

by Senator Brown, of Garrett county, 
passed the legislature shortly before 
the close of the session, and was 
signed by the governor. The bill pro- 
vides for a board composed of seven 
persons, of which the governor, the 
president of Johns Hopkins Univer- 
sity, the president of the Maryland 
Agricultural College, the State geolo- 
gist, and the State comptroller are ex- 
officio members, while the two remain- 
ing members are to be practical lum- 
bermen, residents of the State. The 
bill also provides for a State forester, 
who shall have a practical and theo- 
retical knowledge of forestry and the 
board is now looking for such a man. 
An important section of the bill au- 
thorizes the purchase of land in the 
name of the State, at a price not to ex- 



ceed $5 per acre, suitable for forest 
culture and reserves, using for such 
purposes any surplus money which 
may be standing to the credit of the 
forest reserve fund. Stringent pro- 
visions for the prevention of forest 
fires are also included in the bill. 

Theodore Sedgwick 
Obituary Gold, a veteran agricul- 

turist of Connecticut and 
one of the very first in his section of 
the country to take an interest in for- 
estry, died at his home in West Corn- 
wall on March 19. In addition to his 
connection with many other organi- 
zations, Mr. Gold was an active mem- 
ber of the American Forestry Asso- 
ciation and took a keen interest in all 
that pertained to forestry in this coun- 
try. He was also a valued contributor 
to this magazine from time to time. 

Forest That the Forest Service 

Reserve Ad- j^ i^gi^or conducted on a 
ministration . . , ? . . , 

high plane is shown by 

the fact that since the transfer of for- 
est reserve administration from the 
Department of the Interior to the De- 
partment of Agriculture, a number of 
supervisors and rangers have been dis- 
missed from the service for wrong- 
doing, after careful investigations. 
Criminal proceedings were brought 
against one supervisor, Everett B. 
Thomas, of the San Gabriel Forest 
Reserve, with headquarters at Los An- 
geles, Cal. It was found that his ac- 
counts, for a period of over three 
years, had been constantly falsified. In- 
dictment was secured against Thomas 
last fall on fifteen counts, and on 
March 16 he was convicted on ten of 
the counts. On March 20 he was sen- 
tenced to three years' imprisonment at 
hard labor with a fine of $7,000. 



162 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



April 



The forest reserves, which now cov- 
er an area as great as New England, 
the Middle States, and Maryland, will 
require for their administration a small 
army of officials. It is absolutely nec- 
essary to prevent collusion and graft 
between these officials and would-be 
users of reserve resources who are not 
particular about the means to a desired 
end. The Forest Service will con- 
tinue, by inspection and all other means 
at its disposal, to guard the public and 
the government against improper offi- 
cial conduct, and it is believed that 
this conviction will be a great help to- 
ward eradicating official malfeasance 
altog-ether. 



Ranger 
Convention 



A ranger convention 
was held in California at 
the headquarters of the 
Sierra Forest Reserve, on Malum 
Ridge, near Northfork, Madera coun- 
ty, beginning April 12, 1906. When 
Supervisor Charles H. Shinn called 
the convention to order there were 
rangers, forest guards, candidates for 
ranger, inspectors, and several invited 
guests present. Some rangers had 
come through stormy weather full 60 
miles over mountain trails, leading 
their pack-horses. They made their 
camps in various cabins, and some 
tents had been pitched for the late- 
comers. Some of them brought their 
wives and arranged to stay for nearly 
a week. 

The object of this convention was to 
plan the work of the coming summer 
in this forest reserve. Incidentally, 



accustomed them to first-class team- 
accustomed the mto first-class team- 
work. The convention lasted three 
days, and the various subjects brought 
up were discussed freely by the rang- 
ers. Among those subjects were the 
following: "How Rangers Should 
Keep Books and Records," "Trespass 
Cases, and How to Handle Them," 
"Timber Sales from Application to 
Completion," "The Forestry System, 
and the Washington End of the 
Work," "Grazing Problems," "How 
to Deal with the Public," Trails and 
Trail Building," "Forest Fires." 

A bill to encourage the 
Forest Bill planting of forest and 

fruit trees in the State of 
Iowa was recently enacted by the gen- 
eral assembly of the State. It provides 
that on any tract of land in the State 
of Iowa the owner may select a perma- 
nent forest reservation not less than 
two acres in continuous area, or a fruit 
tree reservation not less than one nor 
more than five acres in area, or both, 
and that upon compliance with the 
provisions of this act, such owner or 
owners shall be entitled to an assess- 
ment on a taxable valuation at the rate 
of one dollar per acre for the land. 
The bill outlines very fully the condi- 
tions upon which such benefits accrue. 
Persons interested in the bill should 
ask for House Bill 209. The bill fur- 
ther provides that the Secretary of the 
Iowa State Horticultural Society shall 
be State Forestrv Commissioner. 



CONFERENCE OF ENGINEERS 

First Meeting of a National Advisory Board Invited by 
the President to Co-operate with Government Bureaus 
in the Study of Fuels and Structural Material. 



'T'HE National Advisory Board on 
Fuels and Structural Materials 
has just held its first meeting, at the 
invitation of the President, in Wash- 
ington, D. C, to consider the investi- 
gations, past and prospective, of the U. 



S. Geological Survey upon these sub- 
jects, and to suggest methods of in- 
creasing the value of the work. Upon 
organizing. Dr. Charles B. Dudley, of 
the Pennsylvania Railroad, was elected 
president; Lieutenant Colonel O. H. 



1906 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



163 



Ernst, of the Isthmian Canal Commis- 
sion, vice-president, and Richard L. 
Humphrey, president of the National 
Association of Cement Users, secre- 
tary. 

The government officials and engi- 
neers engaged in testing reviewed their 
past work and its significance, and pre- 
sented detailed plans of further inves- 
tigations. In the discussion of these 
plans many practical suggestions were 
made, and new questions which had 
arisen in the different lines of work 
were brought out. For instance, Mr. 
George B. Post, a New York architect 
of long experience, spoke of the scar- 
city of authoritative information on 
the strength of many building mate- 
rials. He said that had it not been for 
his training as a civil engineer, which 
had taught him the amount of strain 
materials would stand, he could not 
have slept nights while constructing 
the sky-scrapers demanded in the busi- 
ness life of the present age. There is 
no published manual which gives full 
information, and for this reason struc- 
tures of all kinds are overweighted 
with an unnecessary amount of mate- 
rial as a blind precaution against pos- 
sible failure in any part. The trans- 
portation and handling of needlessly 
bulky pieces of construction material 
is of course undesirable, and the cost 
and, in the case of timber, the growing 
scarcity of supplies make it necessary 
to economize and to seek cheaper sub- 
stitutes so far as safety will permit. 

The Forest Service, then the Divis- 
ion of Forestry, began studies of 
American woods in 1891. These were 
continued until 1896, 32 species in all 
having been tested as to their strength 
and other characteristics. These tests 
were made on selected small pieces, so 
that the figures could not always be 
applied with safety to large pieces tak- 
en from the ooen market, the strength 
of which is influenced by such defects 
as knots, checks, crooked grain, etc., 
in combination. Furthermore, the 
tests did not become generally known 
or accepted by practical engineers and 
architects. 



In the case of the other investiga- 
tions of the Forest Service, although a 
large body of valuable data had been 
gathered and published, it had not 
reached the men for whose direct bene- 
fit it had been sought. What was re- 
quired was a carefully planned scheme 
of co-operation between the govern- 
ment and private interests for the 
gradual practical application of the 
new knowledge. 

In the case of important govern- 
ment tests now under way and others 
soon to be started, both delay and ex- 
pense are to be avoided by enlisting 
the interest of prominent engineers 
from all parts of the country and rep- 
resenting diverse interests. These men, 
thoroughly acquainted with the p\r- 
pose and value and every detail of the 
experiments, will be ready to give them 
immediate application and to secure 
for their results a ready acceptance 
throughout their large organizations. 
By examining the plans for investiga- 
tions in advance they will also be able 
to make such suggestions as their va- 
ried experience may call forth, and in 
this way will help to make the work of 
the highest value. 

The list of members of the National 
Advisory Board of Fuels and Structu- 
ral Materials is as follows : 

From the iVmerican Institute of 
Mining Engineers — John Hays Ham- 
mond, past-president. Empire Build- 
ing, New York; Robert W. Hunt (of 
Robert W. Hunt & Co., testing engi- 
neers, Chicago, Pittsburg, and New 
York), Chicago, 111. ; B. F. Bush, man- 
ager and vice-president. Western Coal 
and Mining Co., St. Louis, Mo. 

From the American Institute of 
Electrical Engineers — F. B. Crocker, 
professor of Electrical Engineering, 
Columbia University, New York; Hen- 
ry C. Stott, superintendent motive 
power, Interborough Rapid Transit 
Co., New York. 

From the American Society of Civil 
Engineers — C. C. Schneider, presi- 
dent, chairman Committee on Concrete 
and Reinforced Concrete, Pennsylva- 
nia Building, Philadelphia, Pa. ; Geo. 



164 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



April 



S. Webster, chairman, Committee on 
Cement Specifications, city engineer, 
City Hall, Philadelphia, Pa. 

From the American Society of Me- 
chanical Engineers — W. F. M. Goss, 
dean of School of Engineering, Pur- 
due University, Lafayette, Ind. ; Geo. 
H. Barrus, steam engineer, Pemberton 
Square, Boston, Mass.; P. W. Gates, 
210 State Street, Chicago, 111. 

From the American Society for 
Testing Materials — Charles B. Dudley, 
president, xA-ltoona, Pa. ; Robert W. 
Lesley, vice-president, Pennsylvania 
Building, Philadelphia, Pa. 

From the American Institute of Ar- 
chitects — George B. Post, past-presi- 
dent, 33 East Seventeenth Street, New 
York; William S. Eames, past-presi- 
dent, Lincoln Trust Building, St. 
Louis, Mo. 

From the National Brick Manufac- 
turers' Association — John W. Sibley, 
treasurer, Sibley-Menge Press Brick 
Co., Birmingham, Ala. ; Wm. D. Gates, 
American Terra Cotta and Ceramic 
Co., Chicago, 111. 

From the National Fire Protective 
Association — O. U. Crosby, chairman, 
Executive Committee, 76 William 
Street, New York City. 

From the National Lumber Manu- 
facturers' Association — Nelson W. 
McLeod, president. Equitable Build- 
ing, St. Louis, Mo. ; John L. Kaul, 
president. Southern Lumber Manufac- 
turers' Association, Birmingham, Ala. 

From the Corps of Engineers, U. S. 
Army — Lieutenant Colonel Wm. L. 
Marshall, Army Building, New York. 

From the Isthmian Canal Commis- 
sion — Lieutenant Colonel O. H. Ernst, 
Washington, D. C. 

From the Bureau of Yards and 
Docks, U. S. Navy — Civil Engineer 
Frank T. Chambers, Washington. 

From the Supervising Architect's 
Office, U. S. Treasury Department — 



James K. Taylor, supervising archi- 
tect. Washington, D. C. 

From the Reclamation Service, U. 
S. Interior Department — F. H. New- 
ell chief engineer, Washington, D. C. 

From the American Railway Engi- 
neering and Maintenance of Way As- 
sociation — H. G. Kelley, president, 
Minneapolis, Minn. ; Julius Kruttsch- 
nitt, director of maintenance of way 
and operation, Union Pacific Railway, 
135 Adams Street, Chicago, 111.; Hun- 
ter McDonald, past-president, chief 
engineer, Nashville, Chattanooga and 
St. Louis Railway, Nashville, Tenn. 

From the American Railway Master 
Mechanics' Association — J. F. Deems, 
general superintendent of motive pow- 
er, New York Central lines. New 
York ; A. W. Gibbs, general superin- 
tendent of motive power, Pennsylvania 
Railway, Altoona, Pa. 

From the American Foundrymen's 
Association — Richard Moldenke, sec- 
retary, Washtung, N. J. 

From the Association of American 
Portland Cement Manufacturers — 
John B. Lober, president. Land Title 
Building, Philadelphia, Pa. 

From the Geological Society of 
America — Samuel Calvin, professor of 
Geology, University of Iowa, Iowa 
City, Iowa; I. C. White, State Geolo- 
gist, Morgantown, W. Va. 

From the Iron and Steel Institute — 
Julian Kennedy, metallurgical engi- 
neer, Pittsburg, Pa. ; C. S. Robinson, 
general manager, Colorado Fuel and 
Iron Co., Denver, Colo. 

From the National Association of 
Cement Users — Richard L. Hum- 
phrey, president, St. Louis, Mo. 

From the National Board of Fire 
LJnderwriters — Chas. A. Hexamer, 
chairman. Board of Consulting Ex- 
perts, Bullitt Building, Philadelphia, 
Pa. 





immmnmm. 



■.^m^ 



y»^%^rfil 



LURE OF THE CITY 

Hope of the Irrigated West as an Offset 

BY 

EDWARD EVERETT HALE 

CliHiilain of tht- rniterl States Senate. 



(Copyrighted 1906 by the Associated Sunday Magazine). 

T^HIS convenient phrase, "The Rush 
■*• to the Cities," is used more or less 
carelessly to describe one of the mis- 
fortunes of the last century which no 
one quite understands. 

People who have to deal w-ith it in 
the larger cities find themselves pow- 
erless to arrest it. In the end they 
come round to see that the causes of it 
are not of their making and that they 
have as much as they can do in healing 
the sick, in clothing the naked, and in 
providing homes for the homeless who 
are the results of the congestion of 
cities. As an academic phrase it means, 
alas ! a question of no consequence to 
anybody. It is discussed more or less, 
but often among the writers on what is 
called sociology where one does not 
get much comfort. 

Just at this moment one or two 
changes are taking place which seem 
to give some little help in the matter. 
A few years before his death the late 
Lord Salisbury expressed his hope that 
the transfer of power to considerable 
distances by electric wires might create 
a new civilization, or a new form of 
civilized life, by enlarging very much 
the number of small factory towns and 
diminishing in the same proportion the 
number of crowded "millionaire" 
towns of to-day. I do not think that 
this result has as yet followed ; still it 
is to be looked for among the possi- 
bilities of the near future. 

More effective has been the curious 
change in social order brought about 
by the trolley. The operative in the 
factory town is now able to live two, 
three or four miles from the engine 
which is his partner in his daily work. 
As one passes through the large man- 



ufacturing towns of New York, of 
New Jersey and all New England, he 
sees already an increased number or 
comfortable dwelling-houses which are 
in what you might call the suburbs of 
factory towns. These give homes to 
the working people in factories where 
they can still see God's sky and feel. 
His sunshine — homes with cultivated 
land by each of them for gardening, 
or if you please, for feeding a pig, a 
goat, a cow or a horse. This emanci- 
pation such working people gain from 
the trolley. 

Some years ago in walking in New 
Hampshire I stopped to make a call 
on an old woman, an old friend of 
mine, in a comfortable house which 
her husband had built a dozen years 
before in the wilderness. I found to 
my regret that he had died the winter 
before. His widow was carrying on 
the place with her own hands and with 
no help besides but that of the good 
God. She told me she could do every- 
thing but plow, and that in the spring 
she had to hire a plowman. She told 
me that her husband had loaded his 
gun a little before he died for an at- 
tack on the hawks which troubled their 
hen-yard, but he had had no chance 
to fire off the gun and the hawks had 
become more audacious. Only the day 
before w^e talked together a hawk had 
entered her kitchen while she was at 
work and had seized a chicken which 
had taken refuge there. Would I not 
be good enough to go into the garden 
and see if I could not arrest his ca- 
reer? 

This gave me a good text to speak 
about, and I suggested to her that a 
life so lonely as hers had great incon- 



166 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



April 



veniences. I asked her why she would 
not let her friends sell this comfortable 
little farm which she and her husband 
had created which would have brought, 
I suppose, a thousand dollars. I said : 
"Take your money and go back to 
England, to your brothers and sisters 
and your old home." 

She replied with a fine frenzy of 
rage which would have sounded well 
in a Greek tragedy: "I go back there? 
Not I ! I go back to their bloody 
Manchester where they have shut out 
God's light by their bloody chimbleys? 
Not I !" Absolute solitude, without 
a neighbor within two or three miles, 
was better than the "bloody chimbleys" 
of this "bloody Manchester." The wo- 
man had been glad of the chance to 
curse the home in which she was born. 

That is a side of the picture which 
one does not see as he climbs to the 
fifteenth story of a skyscraper in New 
York to attend to two or three scarlet- 
fever children who are in bed there. 
If you ask the mother of those children 
why she and her husband came to New 
York, they will find it hard to tell you. 
If you ask her whether she would like 
to take up the Manchester woman's 
empty house in New Hampshire, she 
will not know what you mean. You 
make your hurried visit and go across 
the street to the fourteenth story of 
another skyscraper there, and when 
your day is over you are in no condi- 
tion to work out the question of the 
congestion of cities or the machinery 
which will arrest it. 

It is easy to make faces as we meet 
the young countryman with his wife 
when they come from Podunk to New 
York and to ask them what they have 
come for ; but it is foolish to suppose 
that the congestion of cities results 
from their inexperience or ignorance. 
There are some important people who 
are working with them in this matter 
of crowding the towns. 

First of all, there is the large real 

estate interest in every city. It needs 

no organization ; it is an organization 

already. The man whose grandmoth- 

. er owned an orchard of old apple-trees 



in the heart of Boston or New York is 
glad that his grandmother owned that 
orchard. He is glad that he owns the 
square feet or square inches of that 
orchard to-day. He knows as well as 
I know that those square inches are 
worth a great deal more in money than 
they were worth a hundred years ago. 
Now that man does not mean to di- 
minish the current of population which 
falls into Boston or New York. He 
means to keep up the price of real 
estate in those cities if he can. And 
you address him a civil note, asking 
him if he will not attend a meeting of 
gentlemen who wish to promote emi- 
gration to Idaho it is almost certain 
that that man will have another en- 
gagement. 

Again, it is to be observed that the 
great cities have of necessity their own 
spokesmen — shall one say their own 
drummers ? — at work for them even 
unconsciously. Every issue of any 
newspaper of the week-day or a Sun- 
day has its announcements of the at- 
tractions of a -great city. The anima- 
tion of the streets, the entertainments 
at the theater or the concerts, the ad- 
dresses made at public meetings, all 
are displayed, and certainly they pre- 
sent wonderful attraction for people 
whose hours pass slowly. I was talk- 
ing once to an accomplished young 
woman who is now living in the city 
and will read these lines, and I con- 
gratulated her that with the end of that 
week of the college lectures she was 
attending she would be able to go to 
her home in North Brownwich some- 
what earlier than she had expected. 

"I go to North Brownwich?" said 
she. "Not I! I shall stay in New 
York till summer, if anyone will pay 
me five dollars a week with which I 
can pay my board." And when I ex- 
pressed my surprise that she chose 
exile from home for three months she 
said: "If you had ever lived in North 
Brownwich for three months you 
would understand." 

Now the average reader who is liv- 
ing in North Brownwich or New 
Padua or South Podunk does know 
that home life has many stupid sides. 



1906 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



167 




168 



FORESTRY AND IRKIGATION 



April 



In such stupidity and its tedium lie 
contrasts against it the varied, excit- 
ing, piquant Hfe described in the me- 
tropoHtan newspaper, and he says to 
himself: If there is room for four 
million people in New York there must 
be room for four million and one. 
Pardon him, dear reader, if he ranks 
himself as a little above the average 
of mankind — pardon him, for as you 
and I know perfectly well, you and 
I do the same. 

Every forward step taken in the 
management of cities goes to encour- 
age the North Brownwich man or wo- 
man in such decisions. A free library 
open all day and every evening, free 
lectures, the Central Park, the hippo- 
potamus and the lion in The Bronx, 
a speech by jNIr. Cockran. or by Mr. 
Choate or the President — such attrac- 
tions as these are not set in order by 
people who want to enlarge the attrac- 
tions of a city ; but they do enlarge 
the attractions of a city all the same, 
and as a western promoter would say, 
they advertise it to mankind. Now it 
is in face of the inducements to swell 
the population of large cities which are 
thus set in order that the sugges- 
tions or arguments have to be made 
which would relieve the congestion of 
cities. 

On the other hand, when I look back 
on 1854 and 1855 I remember that we 
had no difficulty then in collecting emi- 
grants by the thousand who were ea- 
ger to move from the crowded East to 
the West, where it was literally empty. 
Till the spring of 1854, I think there 
was no white settler in Kansas who 
had not been ordered to go there. I 
was a junior director in the New Eng- 
land Emigrant Aid Company at that 
time. We did not have to make any 
effort to persuade people to move from 
cities or factory towns upon the empty 
prairies. We had behind us the eager 
antislavery determination that Kansas 
should be a free State. I do not mean 
to say that this was a trifling induce- 
ment. ButT have the experience which 
enables me to say that with all this 
generous determination behind them, 
hardly one of these thousands of peo- 



ple would have gone into Kansas in the 
first three years of the beginning but 
that they could go together. Together 
is the great word in this affair, as it 
is in every other important affair in 
human life. 

We did not have to sa}- to a man liv- 
ing in an attic with his family that 
he was to take his wife and children, 
and that they were to work their way, 
choosing their own course between 
rival railways and through jealous 
States with no counsellors but them- 
selves. \\'hat we did say was that on 
such a day a competent guide would 
meet such a party at such and such a 
station, men. women or children, and 
that they would go together to Kan- 
sas. What followed was that, as the 
Bible says, "the carpenter encouraged 
the goldsmith, and he that smootheth 
with the hammer him that smote the 
anvil." 

If a man wanted to go first and se- 
lect the spot for his cabin, he left his 
wife and children, and we sent them 
after him. We did not make anybody 
promise to remain with his compan- 
ions. We left every man and every 
woman free as to where they should go 
and where they should settle ; but, 
as it is almost of course to say, if a 
hundred people went out together, 
coming probably from the same neigh- 
borhood and arriving after a three- 
weeks' journey of adventure, why, 
they were likely to stay together ; or if 
anybody left the party he left it to 
join in some other settlement where 
their attractions drew him. 

This fundamental necessity of main- 
taining "together" belongs deep down 
in any proposal for the removal west- 
ward of any considerable body of peo- 
ple from our eastern cities. Of course 
there is not a day when in fact John 
Doe with his family does not leave 
New York in the summer because his 
brother Dick or his wife's brother 
Tom, who is already in one of the 
western paradises, has sent for them. 
But such instances, though you could 
count them by thousands, are insigni- 
ficant and exceptional while the coun- 
try receives in the eight months of 



1906 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



169 



the longer days more than a mihion 
Europeans whose first sight of Ameri- 
ca is in the seaboard cities. 

The late Frederick I^aw Olmstead, 
who in fifty ways proved himself so 
great a benefactor to America, said to 
me once that while the public knew 
him best as one who had successfully 
tried to ruralize the cities, he cared 
more for plans which looked to urban- 
izing the country. He wrote with real 
dismay of regions quite considerable 
in different States where the attraction 



who do not know America. An Irish 
officer in high position in one of the 
seaport cities once asked me if all the 
signers of the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence were contemporaries. That 
is a good enough illustration of a cer- 
tain ignorance of America and Ameri- 
cans which makes it impossible for 
such men really to guide the Ameri- 
can commonwealth. 

But in the towns which are so small 
that the real leaders lead the town, and 
say : "We are going to build a bridge 




Southern California Home ; the Result of Irrigation. 



of cities was diminishing the popula- 
tion of the country regions. In this 
epigram of his with regard to his own 
work he pointed out one duty which be- 
longs to the leaders in the agricultural 
States. It is the duty of making small 
towns attractive. 

I am fond of saying that fortunate- 
ly for America the United States is 
governed by the public opinion of the 
smaller cities and the larger towns. 
For reasons which we need not dis- 
cuss, the larger cities are generally 
under the local government of people 



here," or "to lay a sewer there," or "to 
introduce electric light," or not to 
introduce it — that is to say, in a place 
where the leaders of opinion think it 
worth while to enter into the business 
of government — in that place public 
opinion asserts its own right. Such a 
nation as is made up by a thousand 
more or less of such towns has noth- 
ing to fear from any little coterie in 
the cities of men who are like the 
Phoenician navigators in the seaports 
of Old Spain, men who are really 
foreigners. 



170 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



April 



Such men as the American leaders 
of the small cities, especially in the 
small cities and large towns of the 
Middle West, have a large responsibil- 
ity in such matters as we are discuss- 
ing here, which relate to emigration 
from the seaport into the interior. 

I have not thought that the great 
mass of the Middle West fully under- 
stood the importance of more careful 
regulation of immigrants within the 
United States. In 1879 I heard the 
Governor of Kansas say in an address 
to thirty thousand people that Kansas 
did not distress herself about securing 
emigrants from Europe. He said that 
if among the States of the Valley of 
the Mississippi, Kansas had her share 
of the immigration of that year, she 
would receive fifteen thousand people. 
And with superb pride he said: "In 
fact, she receives more than fifteen 
thousand people every day of the sum- 
mer, and they come not from worn- 
out Europe, but from the best cities 
of the East, from which they bring to 
us the best people." 

That was a magnificent boast, and 
as I knew Kansas and know Kansas, 
I^ think it was hardly exaggerated. 
Now that condition of things is one 
which the statesmen of the Mississippi 
Valley ought to maintain. They ought 
to see what has made such cities as 
Indianapolis, which I like to call the 
Edinburgh of America, or such towns 
as you see scattered through all that 
region from Ohio to the Rocky Moun- 
tains, from which when the country 
needs they send to it such men as Mc- 
Kinley or Grant or John Hay or Judge 
Day, not to name living men of whom 
there are so many. I believe, in face 
of the Kansas Governor's boast, that 
it would be worth while if ever\- west- 
ern State were to have a board' of im- 
migration which should watch with 
care the measures to be taken, to make 
known the real advantages of dififerent 
regions. 

As far as foreign immigration goes, 
all this is left to greed and haphazard. 
Twenty years ago George Holyoke 
remonstrated with me seriously on the 
blindness of our general Government 



in such affairs. He said that the aver- 
age Englishman who had determined 
to come to America was more likely 
than not to be guided simply by the 
advertising tout of some railway agent 
who was circulating showy pictures or 
pamphlets crying up particular locali- 
ties. He said that no one at any port 
of arrival here told the Italian or the 
Scandinavian of the different climates 
between P'lorida and Minnesota. He 
said that as likely as not the new im- 
migrant from Sicily might be guided 
to Northern Minnesota by some rail- 
road agent, and that there was no one 
to tell him that orange-trees grew in 
the South and that the snow was six 
feet deep every winter in the North. 
He made the most earnest appeal for 
the good of mankind that the national 
Government would prepare an intelli- 
gible guide-book which should be cir- 
culated everywhere among the nations 
which contribute immigrants to the 
United States, As it stands to-day, I 
know of no such text-book, and I have 
made it my business to find one if it 
existed. 

But do not let anybody think that 
the separate emigration of separate 
families is a good thing. It is a bad 
thing to separate men, women and 
children from old friends. It is a bad 
thing to make a family go into a re- 
gion of absolute strangers and to work 
their way with their own habits, with 
their own pronunciation of words with 
a new language. 

I do not know why we do not see in 
the midst of our prosperity such men 
as in the prosperity of Athens grew up 
there. When we were school-boys we 
read of the colony that Miltiades led, 
or the colony that Themistocles led, or 
the colonies in Sicily and Southern 
Italy which one young Greek and an- 
other led, as if that were the way in 
which young gentlemen in Greece 
went "into business." It was as in 
Napoleon's day: every young gentle- 
man went into the army. 

And we are not without such exam- 
ples here. William Brewster and Wil- 
liam Bradford led one hundred people 
to New England. If Brewster's fam- 



1906 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



171 



ily had had to go alone, if Bradford's 
family had had to go alone, they would 
not have gone. So Winthrop led his 
colony to Massachusetts Bay; so Bal- 
timore sent his colony to Maryland. 
Practically it was John Smith and 
Lord Delaware who collected the peo- 
ple who went to Virginia together. 
When our Civil War broke out or 
when the Spanish War broke out, 
Aoung leaders of the people stepped 
to the front at once to say: 'T will 
form a regiment." Practically they 
said : "Rally round my white plume." 
A man opened an office at 999 Bar- 
rack street ; he issued his own bills, he 



not going to hire them, I am simply go- 
ing to unite them while going to take 
possession of the land. We will re- 
plenish the edrth and subdue it." Such 
a man, if he were a real leader of the 
people, would find that in the heart of 
everybody whose ancestors have lived 
here for four generations there lingers 
what Mr. Hoar calls the "thirst for the 
horizon." 

I am saying all this here, because 
just now there is a new chance open- 
ing before the Miltiades or Themisto- 
cles or Alcibiades, the Brewster or 
Baltimore of to-day. Thanks to the 
uepartment of Agriculture and the 




A View of a Western Valley. 



spoke at public meetings and he made 
his friends into recruits, bright in their 
new uniforms ; and they enlisted other 
recruits, and before a fortnight had 
passed he wrote to the Governor that 
he had a thousand men who were 
ready to go to the war. 

In days when people tell us that la- 
bor cannot get paid and has no chance, 
I always wonder wh}' some American 
Miltiades does not hang out his ban- 
ner and say : "I can give every man a 
chance for an estate as large as that on 
which is the home palace of an English 
nobleman. T can give two hundred 
families such chances a? that. \ am 



Department of the Interior, and to 
such men as Senator Newlands and 
Colonel Walcott and Mr. Mead, and to 
William Smythe and to Mr. Maxwell, 
and to two or three thousand other 
men of the first ability in Washington 
or in the ne\y West, all serving the 
good God in different ways, one mil- 
lion square miles, much of it of the 
most fertile land in the world, will be 
open to immigration within the next 
five years. 

They told us a few years ago that 
Oklahoma was the last region of un- 
claimed land which the Government 
had to offer to the adventurer. And 



172 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



April 



we remember what a deluge of men 
and women filled up Oklahoma. But 
Uncle Sam turned over in his bed one 
night, and thanks to a few thousand 
men such as I have named, determined 
to reclaim a bit of desert which he had, 
which was desert only because the wa- 
ter was not well distributed. Some 
of these men remember the valley west 
of Grenada in Spain, where with a 
proper irrigation they raise thirteen 
harvests every year. And some of 
these men highly determined that what 
was left of the great American desert 
should be transformed into such para- 
dises as those which you look upon 
from the Alhambra. A few thousand 
well-led men are at work at this mo- 
ment on calling such a paradise into 
existence. 

And before many years, not to say 
months, the time will come for the 
John Winthrop of the future or the 
John Smith or the Lord Baltimore, or 
the Manasseh Cutler, to hang out his 
baimer in one of the lower wards of 
New York, or on First street or Sec- 
ond street in Philadelphia, or in some 
district of Chicago, and he will say : 
"A chance for one thousand men, wo- 
men, boys and girls to go together and 
to luake a new home !" 



Perhaps he will give the new home a 
name. Perhaps he will call it Roose- 
velt, or Lincohi, or Garfield, or New- 
lands, or by some other name of which 
good men are proud. And then the 
young Miltiades will have to hurry 
backward and forward from fifty 
promising situations to select the place 
for the new home. And then on some 
fine day four or five giant engines will 
snort and blow and start, each with a 
score or two of cars behind it. And 
these cars will contain the household 
goods and the old familiar furniture 
of the thousand adventurers — will con- 
tain the choral of the child and the 
genealogical tree of the grandfather. 
And a few days more will bring them 
into the promised land, and in a few 
vears there will be a "cheerful city" 
there "builded by their sun-burned 
nands." 

It must be with some such leader- 
ship as this — the leadership of the 
young and the brave — that the rush 
from the cities will begin. Then they 
will enjoy the blessing promised to 
him whose "tree [is] planted by the 
rivers of water, that bringeth forth 
his fruit in his season." 



HOW SHALL FOREST LANDS BE 

TAXED ? * (In Two Parts) 

PART II — A Proposition to Encourage 
the Growing of Forests for Profit 

BY 

ALFRED GASKILL 

Forest Inspector, U. S. Forest Service. 



HOW FORESTS SHOULD BE T.\XED. 

ap])roaching this subject one natu- 
' ly turns to those European coun- 
tries in which forestry has become an 
art. for, manifestly, no oppressive bur- 
den of taxes could be borne where the 



growing of trees is found to be so 
profitable. The conclusions from such 
a study are two : ( i ) That the systems 
of taxation are so radically dififerent 
from ours that only general principles 
can be applied here; and (2) that the 



*Paper re:vl before 
tlie Xatioiiivl Wholesalt 



Society of American Foresters and Fourteenth Annual Meeting of 
Lumber Dealers Association. 



1906 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



173 



assessments are always based on the 
actual value of the forest, or on the 
earning power of the land, that is, its 
yield. 

The first principle in all these laws is 
that the forest shall be considered and 
rated apart from the land upon which 
it stands. This principle finds univer- 
sal acceptance in theory at least, 
though the practice dififers in the va- 
rious countries, and is based upon the 
fact that a forest is a crop of many 
years' growth and represents the own- 
er's savings — the accumulated capital 
and interest on a time investment. This 
fact is as obvious here as it is there, 
and in ni}- opinion makes it necessary 
for us to admit that in any piece of 
forest property the soil alone is realty, 
the growing trees are reinvested in- 
come — that is personalty.'^ 

To illustrate : A man has two fields. 
On one he raises corn, and year by 
year puts the value of the crop in bank 
or buys securities, which he holds and 
on which he pays, or should pay, a per- 
sonal property tax. On the second field 
he plants trees ; they thrive and make 
a good growth, but at the end of the 
season they are not convertible into 
money as the corn crop was. So it is 
for many years. The tree crop is made 
each season, but must be left on the 
stump until enough wood is accumu- 
lated to make it salable. Suppose the 
farmer, instead of selling his corn, had 
put it into a crib and added the second 
and third and each succeeding year's 
cro]) to the first ; would he not accu- 
mulate personalty in the crib of corn ? 
He does the same with the product of 
his trees, but the result shows this 
difl:'erence : The crib of corn earns nc 
increase ; it represents only simple in- 
terest on the land ; it is not like the 
money in bank that might have been 
obtained by selling the corn, which 
would earn compound interest by be- 
ing reinvested with the accrued inter- 
est every year. In the growing for- 



est, however, the increase in value is 
reinvested ; the owner expects his trees 
to yield him a profit on the capital 
which they themselves represent, as 
well as on the capital which the land 
represents. But the two values — that 
of the trees and that of the land — are 
distinct. 

It is thus evident that because the 
tree grower must reinvest his annual 
crop in stumpage it is no reason for 
considering it real estate. In the view 
that forests can be reproduced, trees 
are virtually movables, and the prac- 
tice of rating them a part of the land 
is the fundamental error in every 
American State. 

Theoretically it is as proper to tax 
growing grain as growing trees ; but 
since the grain matures in one year, 
while the trees recjuire many, and all 
our fiscal arrangements are based on 
annual returns, the trees should be 
taxed though the grain be exempt. 
Here, however, comes in the second 
principle in the taxation of forests, 
that it is unjust to require the owner 
to pay so long as the forest yields him 
nothing. There is no equity in making 
a man's other property carry his im- 
mature forest. In practice this works 
out in various ways. Most of the Ger- 
man States have not yet made the 
principle efifective, but Baden exempts 
newly established forests from tax for 
twenty years (law of 1886). In Aus- 
tria they are exempt for twenty-five 
years (law of 1869). In France three- 
fourths of the land tax is remitted for 
thirty years. '' In connection with these 
laws it should be remembered that for- 
ests in Europe begin to yield salable 
material when they are from 20 to 30 
years old. In most parts of the United 
States the productive period begins 
later because there is no market for 
small wood. 

This principle of exemption or re- 
bate is familiar enough in this coun- 
try, where undeveloped property of all 



rrTlie forests of the ( Jerman States, for instance, are estimated to have 75 per cent, to 
85 per cent, of their value in the timber and 25 per cent, to 15 per cent, in the land. — M. 
Endres, "Forsten," in Conrad's llundworterbuch der Staatswissenchaften, 1900. 

6M. Endres, Die Bestenernne des Waldes, in Forstwissenschaftliches Centralblatt, 
p. 509, 1899. 



174 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



April 



kinds is taxed at a nominal rate. Farm 
land not cleared bears little. A com- 
parison can not be made, however, 
with other forms of unproductive 
property — city lots, for instance. The 
owner of the latter produces nothing 
from his land ; he hopes to gain by 
what others do. The forest owner, on 
the other hand, does produce some- 
thing of value and will eventually pay 
a proper tax on it. 

One reason why forest property is 
held in such high esteem in most of the 
countries of Europe is that the taxes 
are levied fairly. No matter how high 
the rate in any locality may be, the 
owner has the assurance of absolute 
eriuity in- the valuation. 

It would be impossible to apply the 
European system here with anything 
like the exactness that attaches to it 
in the old countries, because we have 
not the means of knowing the true 
worth of forest soil or of forest crops, 
but the principle is applicable any- 
where. Even in the hands of non- 
expert assessors it gives a fairer basis 
of valuation than our present method 
and in the long run will insure larger 
returns. 

This is the equity of forest taxation ; 
but the communities have another in- 
terest than that of revenue, namely, to 
maintain the forests in the greatest 
possible extent and effectiveness for 
the sake of lumbering and its many 
dependent industries, and for the in- 
fluence that they have upon stream 
flow and the modification of climatic 
extremes. These subjects are begin- 
ning to be well understood, and need 
not be dwelt upon. 

POINTS TO BE CONSIDERED. 

The points that, in the writer's opin- 
ion, should be considered in any equit- 
able scheme of forest taxation are the 
following : 

( I ) Forests are necessary to the pub- 
lic welfare, and consequently each 
Commonwealth should bear a part of 
the cost of maintaining them. This 
means that the State treasuries should 



assume a considerable part of the ob- 
ligation, and, as far as is proper, re- 
lieve the counties, because a region 
that is rich in forest is poor in every- 
thing else — population, farms, indus- 
tries — and it is right that the cities and 
towns should contribute to the mainte- 
nance of conditions that are as impor- 
tant to them as they are to the people 
who live close to the forest borders, 
lixemptions and rebates, as usually al- 
lowed, do not meet this requirement, 
because the county bears the burden ; 
that is, if one piece of property pays 
less, all the rest must pay a higher rate 
to make up the deficiency. In no case 
are exemptions justified, unless every- 
one who shares the burden of it is cor- 
respondingly benefited. If a piece of 
private forest serves to protect a drain- 
age area, or is valued for its beauty, 
it is right for all who enjoy or profit 
by it to pay a proper share of the local 
taxes. For instance, if a town or vil- 
lage wants the owner of a woodlot to 
keep it for the people's pleasure they 
may remit the taxes on it, because no 
one else is concerned. 

But a State can not properly declare 
that its forest reserve shall be untaxed, 
because such action robs the counties 
of the revenue that they need. New 
York, which holds the largest State re- 
serve, recognizes this principle and 
pays local taxes on its land. The Aus- 
trian state forests pay taxes on land 
and income. With our National hold- 
ings the same principle should apply in 
all cases where land previously subject 
to taxation is taken over.'' 

(2) A forest is a form of property 
whose value is potential or prospective 
most of the time ; only when the trees 
are market ripe can an income be de- 
rived from it. 

(3) In consequence of yielding pe- 
riodic returns, the greater part of the 
tax to be paid upon a forest should fall 
due when the timber is sold and not 
to be made a burden upon the other 
property of the owner through many 
years. The periods at which forests 



<■ I'lider a new law enacted in 1905, Pennsylvania pays to th 
5 cents a year for eacli acre of State land. 



unties, in lieu of taxes 



1906 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



175 



may yield returns should not be consid- 
ered as the full time required to grow 
the average tree; some trees mature 
more quickly than others, and all nat- 
ural forests contain trees of various 
sizes and ages. It is doubtful if any 
forest, containing the usual diversity 
in size or species, and now market- 
ripe, would not yield again within 
twenty years if cut carefully. This 
point is often overlooked, yet it is of 
great importance in considering the 
periods during which a given piece of 
forest would pay only on the ground 
tax. 

(4) The deferred tax should bear a 
fair relation to the net yield of the 
property : that is, it should not exceed 
a sum that will leave the owner the 
equivalent of a fair annual return on 
his investment. 

(5) Forests occupying land of the 
kind here considered grow too slowly 
in most situations to yield by their an- 
nual increment a rate of interest com- 
parable with that commonly expected 
from ordinary business enterprises, 
they may easily produce wood at a rate 
that will compare favorably with the 
interest derived from State or national 
obligations. 

(6) Forests are exposed to unusual 
risks from fire and depredation, owing 
to their very general use by the public. 

OBJECTIONS. 

What are the objections that may be 
urged to a law embodying these prin- 
ciples? The fundamental proposition 
— that forests be assessed apart from 
the land upon which they stand — sug- 
gests a radical change in the tax sys- 
tem of most States ; but forestry itself 
is radical and demands new methods. 
Apart from that the only difficulty is 
to fix the values of land and forest. 
If it be admitted that forest owners 
are entitled to special rates on such 
property on account of its public value, 
the constitution of no State is likely 
to prove a bar to the necessary legis- 
lation, since existing bounty and ex- 
emption acts evidence the power of the 
legislatures. But if such difficulty be 
encountered it probably can be over- 



come by putting forests into a special 
class for purposes of taxation. The 
real questions, then, are how to fix the 
value of a forest and how to provide 
for the collection of the tax at inter- 
vals. The problem is less difficult than 
it appears to be. If the land alone is 
made to pay a yearly tax on its actual 
value, determined by the assessors in 
the usual way, the county gets at least 
as much income as it would if the for- 
est were not there. 

Then let the whole question of tim- 
ber value be determined by what it 
sells for, and base the forest tax on 
that. Everything that comes out of 
the forest must pay the accepted rate 
of tax. Of course, safeguards must be 
provided ; intermediate yields as well 
as the main crop must pay their shares, 
a proper return of quantities and value 
of material sold or used must be in- 
sured, and provision made for an ad- 
justment of loss in the event of serious 
damage to the property by fire or 
storm. If theft is committed, it may 
be assumed that the county is equally 
responsible with the owner. The coun- 
ty being thus protected against loss, 
the owner, on the other hand, must be 
assured that the rate will not be raised 
when it is known that his timber is 
ready for market. The deferred re- 
turns from this source would be viewed 
as sinking-fund accumulations, or they 
might be used as a basis for bond is- 
sues to supply special needs. 

A law framed along these lines 
would, of course, have to be adapted 
to local conditions and practices. Its 
proper execution would involve some 
increase in the executive personnel, yet 
even without that the change could not 
fail to be an improvement on the pres- 
ent system. 

HOW THE PLAN WOULD WORK. 

It is difficult to illustrate this plan as 
applied to a forest already grown, but 
which may not be cut for several 
years, without accurate knowledge of ' 
the value of the stand and of local 
conditions. Perhaps it would be found 
safe and entirely reasonable, in most 
cases, to remit the taxes until the trees 



176 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



April 



were cut and then collect a definite 
proportion of the net yield for each 
year that tax has, been unpaid. The 
difficulty naturally is to determine 
what that proportion should be, and it 
can only be settled by applying the 
principle to concrete cases. 

I'.ut it is possible to find an illustra- 
tion in an example of a forest grown 
on ground that is now bare. Let it be 
assumed that 50,000 acres of pine land 
in Michigan, valued at $1 per acre, 
will yield, eighty years hence, 350,- 
ooo.ooo board feet of lumber, worth 
$7 per thousand on the stump. The 
figures are conservative, and if a 
young forest be already started on a 
portion of the area, so much the better. 
If the local tax levy is 2 cents, on a 
two-thirds valuation, the land will pay 
to the county i}^ cents per acre, or 
$666.67 per year. Then, if the State 
pay half a cent per acre on account of the 
public utility of the forest (see table) 
the county will receive $250 more, 
or a total of $916.67 yearly. In prac- 
tice, the forest would begin to yield 
something after thirty or forty years, 
but for the sake of simplifying the cal- 
culation let it be assumed that it is all 
cut at the end of eighty years. How 
much of the sale price should the 
county get? The forest at i year old 
is actually worth nothing, hence no tax 
can properly be charged against it. At 
2 years old it is nearer maturity, but 
still has only an "expectation value," 
based upon what the mature trees may 
yield. In short, the value increases 
year by year from nothing to $2,450,- 
ooo. when it is 80 years old. 

The values upon which a tax might 
be levied each year are thus difficult 
to determine, but an average may be 
assumed to be the expectation value 
of the forest when it is 40 years old. 
That is $2,450,000 discounted at 4 per 
cent, for ' forty years, or $510,310. 
Then if exemption were allowed for 
the first thirty years the collectible tax 
would be the accepted rate paid on 



that sum yearly for fifty years. It is 
manifest that the accepted rate cannot 
be the same as that applied to the land 
— 2 per cent on a two-thirds valuation 
— for when continued for fifty years 
the sum of the taxes amount to nearly 
half the final value of the crop. Such 
a proportion is prohibitive, and it must 
be admitted that forests cannot pay the 
high rates commonly levied on real 
estate — at least, not until the crop is 
worth relatively more than it is now. 
This fact is strongly emphasized if we 
ignore all rebates and allowances and 
say that the forest shall pay i>^ per 
cent of its value yearly. Eighty times 
lys per cent equals 106^ per cent; in 
other words, the whole crop would not 
pay the tax. 

For the purpose of the present illus- 
tration, it may be assumed that the 
rate is one-half of i per cent, and, 
again, that money is worth 4 per cent. 
The total return at the time the timber 
is cut will then be $389,537, or about 16 
per cent of the stumpage price. It is 
possible that in some cases the county 
might claim more. The figures in any 
event would depend largely upon the 
length of time involved ; but bearing 
in mind the importance of encouraging 
the owner to keep his forest standing 
the proportion may be accepted as 
about what should be paid. The coun- 
ty is distinctly better ofif than it would 
be under the present system, for, in- 
stead of uncertain returns or no reve- 
nue at all. if the land were relinquish- 
ed, it has the assurance of a reason- 
able yearly revenue from the land, and 
a lien upon the mature forest for a 
further sum which, discounted at 4 per 
cent, is equal to $706.65 a year. 

This example does not pretend to be 
exact in any respect; it is purely illus- 
trative ; yet if the land value, the yield, 
and the interest rate be accepted as 
reasonable, the following table will 
show that both owner and community 
are treated fairly. If the owner's 
profit appear too small for the risk in- 



1906 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



177 



volved it should be remembered that able advance in land and stnmpag^e 
no alowance is made for a very prob- values. 



Co III pur i 



if Ui.r rolk'cfid uikI oivner'x profit from <( forcsl of 50,000 arrei^ yielding timber 
worth ^S, 450, 000 after eif/iiti/ i/earx. 



County's interest. 



Yearly revunne from land 

Yearly revenue tnini State 
Yearlv revenue from forest, ra leulalid fro 
final relLU-u 

Total 

Or praotically 8'4 cents j.er aere = S't per 
value of $1. 



Owner s laterest. 



Investment: 

Land at »1 per acre 95O.O0i> 

Capital to jjroduee $tiHti.ti7 yearly for 
land tax and SI, 000 yearly for man- 
agement 41,(i67 

Total 91.667 

Receipts: 

Forstumpage 2,4.i0,0C0 

Value ot land nO.OOO 

c;apital set aside to pay taxes and 
management -11.667 

Grosstotal 2, .ill, 667 

Less deferred tax :-;s9,.=):S7 

Nettotal '-'.ifvi'lSO 

Profit = 4 per cent (,aliOUt) compound interest on 
the investment. 



COXCLUSIOiX. 

In conclusion, forest taxation is pe- 
culiarly a legal question which each 
State must consider individually and 
without interference from the Nation- 
al Government. Any enactment must 
harmonize with the fundamental law 
and do justice to all interests. Oppo- 
sition to any measure is sure to be en- 
countered, and for that reason a radi- 
cal proposition has some advantage 
over one wdiich, like an exemption act, 
would seem to favor a class. Empha- 
sis needs to be laid upon the point that 
whereas the ability of most of the 
States of the Union to acquire forest 
reserves is limited by lack of revenue, 
those which contain the largest areas 
of private woodlands have the power 
above all others to keep the forest in 
those places that are naturally adapted 



From these considerations it ap- 
pears that the actual situation can be 
met only by accepting a principle in 
taxation which shall definitely recog- 
nize the public value of growing for- 
ests and in its application strive to 
maintain them as the sources of ma- 
terial needed in important industries 
and as valuable climate factors. This 
means that private property in forests 
should be taxed with reference to three 
considerations: (a) Necessity — the 
support of the local government; (b) 
equity — an assessment based upon the 
actual yield, collection of the tax (on 
the trees, not on the land) deferred 
until the crop is sold, and a recognition 
of the peculiar risks — fire, trespass, 
etc. — to which forests are subject : (c) 
encouragement — a special rating of the 
property to compensate the owner for 
whatever expense attaches to main- 
taining the forest in a condition that 
best serves the public interest. 



HOW SHOULD OUR FUTURE FOREST 
LANDS BE TAXED?* 



BY 



S. B. ELLIOTT 

Member Pennsylvania State Forestry Reservation Commission. 



T-RE following- is a tardy compliance 
^ with a promise made several 
months ago to discuss in the columns 
of forest Leaves the very important 
and pressing subject of taxation affect- 
ing the reforestation of the waste, bar- 
ren and cut-over lands in our state. 

All observing persons, all land own- 
ers, and all those who have to do with 
the lumber interests of our country, 
know that as conditions now are no re- 
forestation of those lands, whether 
naturally of artificially attempted, can 
take place while fires are allowed to 
devastate them or assessors allowed, as 
heretofore and now, to fix such values 
upon them and the young timber 
growing thereon, as may make it so 
unprofitable to owners as to cause them 
to refrain from attempting it. 

It is well known that in the past 
many owners of valuable timber tracts 
have been forced, from heavy taxa- 
tion, to cut and throw their product 
upon a glutted market to save that 
product from practical confiscation ; 
and this sort of work has done much 
towards bringing about the present 
deplorable state of depleted forests. 

Forest fires can and must be con- 
trolled, and it is gratifying to know- 
that public sentiment is awakening to 
the necessity of it that fires, especially 
upon State reservations, are less fre- 
quent. While it may seem hopeless 
now, awakened public opinion brought 
to bear upon the careless, heedless of- 
fender, and the law upon the wilful 
one. will and must settle the matter 
without disagreement; but it is not so 
with the question of taxation. Regard- 
ing that men may disagree as their va- 
ried interests may be involved, but all 



should admit that taxation should be 
so adjusted that it shall be equal, just, 
and fair as possible, and the general 
welfare subserved. 

There is no tax for state purposes 
levied upon land in Pennsylvania, and 
whatever may be levied upon realty 
must, therefore, be local. The rate of 
such local taxation varies with the 
needs of the community, and only the 
so-called rural districts can, in the 
very nature of the case, place a tax upon 
land with young and growing timber 
on it. Therefore, any tax that shall 
fall upon land, consequent upon grow- 
ing young trees thereon, must, neces- 
sarily, fall heavier upon rural districts 
than on towns and cities. That ine- 
quality should be relieved as much as 
possible, for the towns and cities re- 
quire timber as much as the rural dis- 
tricts. 

Article IX, section i, of our State 
Constitution, provides that "all taxes 
shall be uniform upon the same class 
of subjects." It is held that, under 
this clause, land cannot be exempted 
from taxation, save where it shall be 
used for public purposes. This view 
is certainly logical and must be cor- 
rect, and in the scheme I shall propose 
for relieving young growing timber 
from taxation, until such time as it 
shall reach an age wherein it shall have 
a commercial value when cut. will in 
no way conflict with that conclusion. 

There can be no truthful denial that 
the assessor of the past (and he of the 
present time is of the same mind), per- 
sistentlv laid a heavy valuation upon 
all land having growing or standing 
timber upon it, and what he has been 
doing in the past he will be almost cer- 



*Reprinted tlirougli the courtesy of Forest Leaves. 



190h- 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



179 



tain to do in the future, unless posi- 
tively forbidden. 

Our legislature has endeavoreded to 
circumvent him to a certain extent by 
providing for a rebate of taxes, not to 
exceed forty-five cents per acre, on 
land which may have three hundred 
or more growing young trees upon it, 
but he promptly puts that rebate out 
of action by increasing the valuation 
on that or the remainder of the own- 
er's holdings, and in this it may be 
reasonably expected that the county 
commissioners will uphold him. It 
must in some way be so fixed that it 
will be impossible to impose a tax on 
growing trees, or the owner thereof, 
until such trees have a value as a mer- 
chantable commodity if cut. Without 
that restraint no one need expect that 
land owners will plant or care for trees 
when they must wait half a century 
for returns on their investment and, in 
addition, endure increasing taxation 
besides. 

Rut can this be done ? Can we sep- 
arate the products of the land from 
the land itself for the purposes of tax- 
ation ? It is an established principle 
in taxation that land taxes may be 
measured by area, or they may be 
measured by rents — which, in a sense, 
is a product — or by value ; and no mat- 
ter which system prevails we primarily 
fix the value, in most cases, by what 
the land may produce. But suppose 
the rental or product of the land shall 
not be available in any possible way 
for half a century or more ; can any 
one give a good reason why such ren- 
tal or product should be subject to an 
annual and increasing tax ? 

That a tax should be levied and paid 
when the rental or product is received 
or becomes of merchantable value is 
not questioned nor proposed ; but what 
is suggested is, that such an extension 
of time should be given as will permit 
the holder of the land to be in a posi- 
tion to realize on his, thus far, non- 
paying investment, and then tax for 
full worth as on other property. In 
other words, tax the land annually as 
land, according to the Constitution, 
but at no higher rate than if no trees 



were growing upon it, and when such 
trees arrive at a marketable age, and 
saleable, if cut for any purpose, then 
tax the trees, which are simply the 
product, as well as the land. 

Do we separate the land from its 
products in the matter of taxation in 
our State? Most asuredly. The act 
of the legislature referred to (see act 
approved April 20, 1905), practically 
does that by partially relieving the 
land of taxation. Timber growing on 
land may be assessed to one party 
while the land is assessed to another. 
The case is the same wdth coal — both 
products of the land. Whether timber 
of suitable age, or coal lying in the 
ground, should be taxed before re- 
moval for sale is a question not, at this 
stage of the argument, under consid- 
eration, but the United States Govern- 
ment, by act of Congress, permits 
dutiable goods to be stored in bonded 
warehouses without payment of duty 
until removed for sale, and the law is 
the same in certain cases where an ex- 
cise duty — Internal Revenue — is not 
collected until the goods are taken 
from the bonded warehouses. But in 
regard to the timber trees referred to, 
the difference claimed between them 
and young growing ones is, that one 
is ripe and now merchantable, if cut, 
while the other is not, nor can be for a 
long time, and the contention is that 
taxes should not be levied until the 
growing trees shall have, at the time 
taxation begins, a then present value. 

In this State we do not tax colts or 
young cattle until they are four years 
old — an age in which they are es- 
teemed to have a merchantable value. 
A farmer may thus make a business of 
growing young cattle and young 
horses and disposing of them without 
being subject to taxation at all. Thus 
is the product of the land separated 
from the land itself in taxation. 

The value of young trees is purely 
prospective. It may never materialize. 
Fire, disease, or insects may destroy 
it. It has no marketable value until 
large enough for use, and it cannot be 
conceived that our Constitution con- 
templates taxing non-existent or pros- 



1«0 



FokESTKY AND [RRIGATIOX 



April 



pective values. It is real ones, actual 
ones, present ones that should be the 
subjects of taxation. 

It is pertinent to remark that there 
is more or less land in every county 
in our State that is unsuited for the 
general purposes of agriculture — land 
from which all merchantable timber 
has been removed or killed by fire. 
All such is subject to taxation under 
our Constitution, and, as the law upon 
stands, any trees that may now exist 
there, or may come to grow upon it in 
time, may be considered by the assess- 
or as having a value, when, in fact, 
the only value that can be conceived 
is a prospective one. The assessor 
may assume such value as he sees fit 
and add it, increasing it each year, to 
that of the land for the purposes of 
taxation. That in our present system, 
right in the face of the fact that no 
revenue can be received for many 
years, and the further fact that this 
prospective value may be wiped out at 
any time by fire or disease. At the 
very best, land devoted to tree-grow- 
ing cannot escape bearing a heavy bur- 
den. It should be placed in a separate 
class from that devoted to the general 
purposes of agriculture. A little com- 
putation will show how unequally it 
stands when compared with others. 

It is certainly fair to assume that 
three dollars per acre is the net annual 
income from cultivated land after 
taxes and all legitimate charges in cul- 
tivating it have been considered. In 
forty years — the time required for 
nearly all our valuable timber trees to 
grow to be at all suitable for mer- 
chantable timber, and most of them 
require sixty or more years — the sum 
received will amount to $120. As the 
owner gets the money each year he has 
the use of it. and it is but right that 
interest should be added. Simple in- 
terest of five per cent would increase 
the sum to $240, while compound in- 
terest — and that is what should be 
reckoned — would make it amount to 
$376.14. 

Now. take an acre upon which trees 
shall be planted. No income at all 
equal to cost of planting and care, up 



to forty years, can be received, except 
in the case of one or two species of 
quick-growing trees used for special 
purposes, and, should no additional 
tax consequent upon the growth of the 
trees be put upon it, and a tax of only 
three cents per acre be levied upon it 
to meet the requirements of the Con- 
stitution, the owner will, in forty 
years, have paid out $1.20 in taxes, 
and putting compound interest on this 
the amount will be $3.76. One case 
shows a gain of $376.14, and the other 
a loss of $3.76, to say nothing of the 
use of the money invested in planting 
trees and caring for them. One shows 
an annual net return of five per cent, 
on land valued at $60 per acre that in 
all probability was not assessed at one- 
half that amount, and the other a loss 
of three cents per acre on whatever 
sum you choose co value the land at. 
(Jne must look in vain for uniformity 
here. 

But what can be said in defence of 
adding to the burden of the timber 
land by assessing an assumed, pros- 
pective value upon it? If such ?hall 
be persisted in it will amount to abso- 
lute prohibition of reforestation in this 
State. Under the very best system 
that can be devised the owners of land 
will not be eager to engage in an en- 
terprise that will take so long a time 
to materialize. 

But can a better system than that 
now in vogue be devised ? That is the 
problem before us, and it is a very 
serious one. Taxation is a profound 
and perplexing question and, at best, 
must be a matter of compromise. 
However, the task of reforming our 
system will never be accomplished un- 
less some plan shall be proposed, and, 
claiming that a better plan is possible, 
the following is put forth for consid- 
eration : 

Let a board of competent freehold- 
ers of the county be appointed by the 
court, or elected for that purpose, 
whose duty it shall be to fix a valua- 
tion on any and all lands which the 
owners thereof shall elect to devote 
exclusive to growing trees of such 
species as are suitable for merchant- 



1906 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



181 



able lumber. This valuation to be 
made every ten years, and in no case 
to be any greater per acre than the 
lowest valuation placed by the assess- 
ors on any non-agricultural, barren, 
treeless or waste land of any sort with- 
in the county. An appeal to the court 
from this valuation shall be allowed 
any land owner, and, upon hearing, 
the court shall have power to determ- 
ine the sum. 

If any land owner, whether non- 
resident or resident, shall elect to de- 
vote any portion of his land exclusive- 
ly to tree-growing for commercial pur- 
poses he shall give notice, in proper 
form, to the assessor of the district in 
which such land may be located, and 
the assessor shall at once report the 
same to the county commissioners, 
who shall promptly lay it before the 
judge of the Court of Quarter Ses- 
sions of the county. Thereupon the 
court shall call upon the Department 
of Forestry of the State to appoint an 
expert in forestry, who shall at once 
examine the premises and decide 
whether they are suitable for growing 
trees of such species as will make 
good, marketable lumber, and to de- 
cide what species of trees shall be 
cared for, if any such are growing on 
the land, and also to decide what addi- 
tional ones, if any, must be planted, 
or whether all must be planted, and in 
all cases to determine how many and 
what species. 

If the report shall be favorable, and 
the land owner become obligated to 
the county to conduct tree-planting 
and tree-growing on said land in ac- 
cordance with the directions and con- 
ditions which the Forestry Depart- 
ment may formulate and exact, then, 
when so planted or devoted to tree- 
growing, said land shall not be as- 
sessed at a higher rate nor taxed more 
per acre than the valuation set upon it 
by the board appointed for that pur- 
pose or the court, on appeal, had fixed, 
until the trees growing thereon shall 
be large enough to produce good, mer- 
chantable lumber and cut therefor. In 
case of planted trees this period of 
time should not be fixed for less than 



fort\-five years, except where quick- 
growing trees shall be raised, for spe- 
cial purposes other than sawed timber. 

If, at any, time, the owner of any 
such land shall fail to maintain, in 
some stage of growth, such a number 
of trees as the Department of Forestry 
shall deem requisite — a designation of 
such number to be furnished the 
county Commissioners — then the land 
shall be removed from the list of tree- 
growing lands and subject to taxation 
as other lands in like condition are in 
the county. 

Whenever the owner of any such 
tree-growing land shall deem it desir- 
able to cut and remove any or all of 
the trees growing thereon, he shall ap- 
ply to the commissioners of the county 
for a valuation of such timber tree? 
growing therean as he shall elect to cut 
and remove for use or sale, and on 
such removal he shall pay to the prop- 
er collectors a total tax of not more 
than two per cent, on the sum fixed by 
the county commissioners. Appeal to 
the court from this valuation shall be 
at all times a matter of right. 

If any trees shall be removed at any 
time in order to permit a better devel- 
opment of those remaining, the value 
of the trees so removed shall not be 
liable to any tax unless the value in 
the vicinity shall be more than the cost 
of removal or sale, nor shall such fire- 
wood as may be necessary for use in 
the owner's house, or the house of any 
tenant thereon, in his service, be liable 
to any tax. 

The tax which may fall due at the 
time of cutting of said trees shall be a 
lien upon the same, and upon the land 
upon which they grow, and when the 
same shall be cut and removed the tax 
must be paid by the part}' so cutting 
and removing them. 

Much detail is necessarily omitted 
in the foregoing, the object being to 
show, in a general way, a method to 
relieve tree-growing land from unjust 
taxation, yet give to the public fund 
its due and equitable proportion of tax 
on property when that property be- 
comes of merchantable value, but not 
before. 



182 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



April 



If putting a tax on timber when sold 
shall not be thought advisable, then 
when the trees shall arrive at an age 
when some can be profitably removed 
for sale, say at the age of forty-five 
3ears from time of planting or elect- 
ing to care for growing trees for lum- 
ber that may be growing on the land 
at such time, a certain portion of said 
land may become taxable as timber 
land now is. If, on arriving at the age 
of forty-five years, one-twentieth shall- 
be set apart for such taxation, and a 
twentieth each 3^ear thereafter until 
all shall become taxable, an age of 
sixty-five years will be reached. Some 
of our timber trees will have then ar- 
rived at a suitable age for the manu- 
facture of lumber; but if the owner 
shall not then elect to cut the timber 
he will be paying tax on his land same 
as now. In this system there should 
be no tax levied when the timber is 
cut, for the tax began before that was 
fit and suitable for lumber. 

But it may be said that in both these 
proposed systems the timber has all 
the time been growing in value, but 
has paid no tax. True, but it has all 
the time been costing its owner money 
— the use of money invested in the 
land' and in the planting of trees and 
caring for them, and he has received 
no revenue — nothing to pay taxes with. 
The same can be said of buildings or 
constructions for any purpose which 
may be going on for the improvement 
of property. But who claims the right 
to tax such improvements until com- 
pleted, providing they are pushed for- 
ward to completion as rapidly as pos- 
sible? 

To suppose that our National and 
State governments will be able, from 
their limited holdings, to supply this 
country with the requisite amount of 
timber that our civilization demands 
is to suppose what cannot occur. In- 
dividuals, municipalities, corporations, 
companies and trustees of estates must 
engage in tree-growing, and that 
speedily, or there will be so disastrous 
a timber famine that the car of prog- 
ress in this country will not only ad- 
vance, but will go backward. Some 



relief and protection to tree-growing 
must be given or it will cease. Who- 
ever may engage in it will suffer 
enough in waiting for it to mature 
and in tieing up money invested in the 
enterprise, and should be exempt from 
taxation in any form. Full relief can 
not be given under our Constitution, 
and it should be amended. It should 
conform to the changed condition of 
things. With us tree-growing is new. 
It is unlike any other enterprise, be- 
cause of the long period of time taken 
to bring returns. At present only such 
relief as has been here suggested, or in 
some other form which will prevent 
confiscation, can be given by our State. 
But the government of the United 
States can and should aid in the mat- 
ter. A bounty on tree-growing would 
be of far more benefit to the country 
at large than a bounty on beet sugar, 
and a tree distribution of tree seeds 
and young trees of equal, if not great- 
er, benefit than free garden seeds. 



Note.— Since writing the foregoing, 
I have discovered that Dr. J. T. Roth- 
rock, former Commissioner of Fores- 
try of Pennsylvania, now of the For- 
estry Commission, held substantially 
the same views of the injustice of tax- 
ing growing timber that I have set 
forth. This he did in an article en- 
titled "Vanishing Industries," pub- 
lished in the Report of the State Board 
of Agriculture for 1894, page 223, a 
part of which is here given. I make 
this reference with great pleasure, as 
he thus saw, in the early days of the 
forestry movement, what must sooner 
or later be met. I was not aware of 
this declaration by him when I sent 
you the article, or I most certainly 
would have given credit to this worthy 
pioneer, whose clear vision saw what 
and must be done. 

S. B. Elliott. 



'As for the taxation of standing 
timber, one may as well come out on a 
distinct platform at once : it is a wrong, 
both to the owner and to the Com- 
monwealth, but chiefly to the latter. 
It is false in principle, for it taxes a 



1906 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



183 



man for a benefit which lie has not 
yet received. If a timber owner 
holds land twenty years and then 
sells at an advanced price, he then 
receives his increment and income, 
for both of which he should pay. 
So also he should when he realizes on 
his investment by cutting the trees. 
But, taxing standing timber is not only 
false in principle, but is pernicious in 
its results, because it is confiscating 
(practically) the lands, to avoid which 
the owner cuts the trees, and so in- 
flicts an injury (as things now are) 
on the State. There are known meth- 
ods of doing this. 

"It is objected that if growing tim- 
ber is exempted from taxation, it would 
work a wrong to the poorest counties, 
because it would leave them without 
requisite funds for opening and repair- 
ing roads. This, of course, would be 
bad enough, but is it any more than 
taking the taxes and failing to repair 
the roads? The argument may prove 
too much. 



"Let us look just a little down into 
the future : This good-road question 
is a rising one. It will not down. It 
has come to stay, and we may frankly 
meet the issue. The State requires 
ready means of communication from 
place to place. Without them we should 
be largely at the mercy of the rail- 
roads. In proportion as these are good 
we are less dependent of the railroads. 

"Now, is it not possible that we 
should be taking a step on which the 
wisdom of the future would pronounce 
favorably if we were to do this? 

"Remove the tax from standing tim- 
ber until it is sold or cut. And what- 
ever revenue a towniship loses, by thus 
exempting the timber, let the State re- 
store, to be expended under competent 
supervision in maintaining a proper 
road system in that township. 

"It will be observed that this grants 
the largest aid just where need of de- 
velopment is greatest, and that the 
State helps itself as much, or more, 
than it helps the townships." 



MANAGEMENT AND NATURAL 
REPRODUCTION OF CHIR PINE 
NEAR DEHRA DUN 



BY 
T. S. WOOLSEY, Jr. 

Forest Assistant, Uniteii States Forest Service. 



TO the American forest student the 
hill forests of the Eastern Hima- 
layas are perhaps the most interesting 
and instructive in India. The species 
at elevations over 4,000 feet are in 
many ways similar to the pine and 
spruce forests of the United States. 
The chir pine is similar to our South- 
ern pines, especially in the ease of 
natural reproduction when protected 
from fire. The blue pine is practi- 
cally our white pine. The spruce and 
fir forests differ chiefly in the difficulty 
of their reproduction and the absence 
of the hardwoods in mixture. 



The hill forests visited by the writer 
lie between Chakrata and Simla. Those 
bordering Chakrata and the Tons Riv- 
er (headwaters of the Ganges) are 
administered from Dehra Dun under 
the Jaunsar Division. This forest di- 
vision is one of the most important in 
India, and most deserves a visit on ac- 
count of its intensive silvicultural 
treatment and the interesting methods 
of lumbering. Their wet timber slides 
are especially ingenious in that the ties 
themselves serve as the sides of slide 
■ until the "drive" is completed when 
they in turn are sent to market. The 



184 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



April 



last Jaunsar working plan divided the 
forest into three zones, based vipon 
elevation above the sea level: i. Tem- 
perate Zone, 3,000 to 6,000 feet, with 
chir pine (Biuus long! folia) and ban 
oak {Quercns incana), as the chief 
species (see fig. i). 2. Subalpine 
Zone, 6,500 to 9.000, with deodar ( Cc- 



is next in value, and its popularity is 
upon the increase, while the blue pine, 
spruce, fir, and oak are practically un- 
merchantable unless close to where 
there is a demand for fire wood. Of 
these latter species the blue pine seems 
to be the least desirable. In some parts 
of the mountains it has been girdled 




Fig. 1. — General view of mature chir pine forest along tributary ot 
Tons River. This forest is open to grazing and is burned 
over annually. 



drus deodar), spruce {Bicca iiioiiida), 
fir (Abies zvebiaiia), and blue pine 
{Pinus excelsis). 3. Alpine Zone, 
9,000 to 11,125, with moru oak {Quer- 
cns dilatata), spruce, fir and deodar. 
The demand for insect resisting rail- 
road ties make the deodar by far the 
most valuable species. The chir pine 



extensively and arbitrarily to make 
way for the deodar. In recent years 
it has begun to be valued as a nurse 
tree and soil protector. The average 
exploitable deodar (over 24 inches in 
diameter breast high) is worth stand- 
ing perhaps $5 to $25 a tree. The 
head ranger noted a single tree to cut 



1906 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



185 



800 metre gauge ties and to net about 
$250 ! Such a stumpage price seems 
almost increditable. The chir pine, al- 
tnough always more accessible and 
cheaper to log, is worth only $1 to 
$5 per tree. It is hand sawed into 
scantlings of small dimensions and 
driven with the deodar down the riv- 
ers to market. Recently it has been 
tapped for resin. 

The chir pine is not of rapid de- 
velopment. According to measure- 



based upon the length of time required 
to grow the smallest merchantable size 
as determined from stem analysis. In 
Jaunsar they regulate the cutting by 
the well known method of periods. 
For example, if a rotation of 160 years 
had been adopted and the area of for- 
est were 1,600 acres the working plan 
would allot 400 acres to each of the 
four periods. That is, the first 400 
acres would be cut over and repro- 
duced during the first 40 years, and 



w^^^a-scamsm ^„«»tt.«Mi«s6««aj,i 




Fig. 2. — Over mature chir pine forest on Chatragdh showinag windfalls of over 
mature trees and a'lvance reproduction due to protection from fire. 



ments made by the Indian Forest Ser- 
vice it takes some 100 years to grow 
a tree 15 inches (see fig. 2) in diame- 
ter. It is a prolific seeder, however, 
every two or three years, and with 
protection from fire the reproduction 
is a certainty. Owing to this ease of 
obtaining reproduction the manage- 
ment of these pine forests is perhaps 
the simplest in India and the most suc- 
cessful. They usually adopt a rotation 



so on until at the end of 150 years the 
last of the 1,600 acres has been cut 
and the first acre cut contains a forest 
159 years old. This method of thus 
securing a uniform and normal aged 
forest with a regulation of the yield 
has numerous drawbacks. Suppose the 
forest is mature, as is the case in Jaun- 
sar. then the part which must wait for 
cutting 140 to 160 years will have lost 
a vast per cent »-if timlier by death and 



186 



FORES TRY AND IRRIGATION 



April 



windfall. In addition it is more than 
likely that tne regular gradation of 
age classes, for which sacrifices have 
been made will be spoiled by an un- 
expected fire. This also has recently 
occurred in Jaunsar. It is a method 
of regulating the yield but it is ap- 
parent from the silvicultural point of 
view that our rapid cutting by "diam- 
eter limit" methods is more desirable. 
By our methods we utilize rapidly the 
mature timber before it has time to 



ing for the other blocks to remove the 
dead and dying veterans and to aid the 
advance reproduction. It must be re- 
membered that in India a sustained an- 
nual yield is usually vital for the best 
interests of the native population. In 
addition the sviccessful marketing of 
the timber demands a steady annual 
supply. 

In the Jaunsar Division they have 
with success secured their reproduc- 
tion by reserving 5 to 10 seed trees 




Fig. 3. 



Cleared fire line, 200 feet wide, in chir pine forest near Tous River. Tall 
dry grass and chir reproduction in foreground. 



die. The whole forest is often com- 
pletely cut over in a cycle of 20 to 40 
years, while in India the Janusar for- 
est, according to the working plan 
must wait 160 years before it is cut 
over. This method by periods was 
varied by Mr. E. E. Fernandez in his 
working plan for the Ranikhet Work- 
ing Circle of the Naini Tal Division. 
In addition to the regular fellings l)y 
periods, he j^rescribes a selection fell- 



per acre (see fig. 4). They reserve 
the small, thrifty trees which will be 
most benefited by an extra period for 
growth. Successful regeneration us- 
ually takes 10 to 15 years. It is inter- 
esting to hear that the local forest of- 
ficers believe the moderate grazing of 
cattle greatly helps the reproduction, 
as otherwise the grass and needles 
cover the mineral soil to such an extent 
tliat the germination of the seeds is 



1906 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



187 



impossible. They believe the cattle 
break up the needles with their hoofs, 
keep the grass down, and do not pack 
and harden the soil because the steep 
hillsides tend to prevent their yarding 
long in one place. Wdien the under- 
story of young growth is complete a 
total clearance of the seed trees takes 
place. Some officers believe that a few 
of these trees should be left as an in- 
surance in case of fire. Quite recentlv 



reason is sometimes given why these 
insurance seed trees should not be left. 
They fear that in localities where elec- 
tric storms are frequent these scatter- 
ing seed trees would attract the light- 
ning and be the cause of forest fires. 

To give a more exact idea of the 
condition of the forest during and af- 
ter regeneration two plots are de- 
scribed below. These were located by 
the writer in fairly average forest, al- 




Fig. 4. 



-Result of fire protection commenced in 1890 and teed felling made in 1894. 
Five to ten chir pine seed trees are left on each acre. 



a large area of completed reproduction 
was destroyed by fire and now the only 
means to replace it is by costly artifi- 
cial reproduction. Had they retained 
only the two seed trees per acre, in the 
course of 20 years the area would 
probably have been completely re- 
stocked. Even if no fire takes place 
there are always the small blanks 
caused by the removal of the seed trees 
which ought to be filled. A curious 



though they are undoubtedly above the 
average for any large area. One plot 
was measured under the direction of 
the writer, while the Indian Forest 
Service kindy gathered the data for 
the odier. One plot of 20 acres was 
in the Dhmich Block, Jaunsar Forest, 
which was closed to fire in 1890. The 
seed felling was made in 1894 (see 
fig. 5). The final felling had not yet 
taken place, and in April, 1905. there 



188 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



April 




Fig. 5. — Result of the 1894 seed felling. The reproduction is nearly complete 




Fig 6. — Inter or of chir pine reproduction after the removal of the seed trees. The 



1906 



P^ORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



189 



were six seed trees per acre, ranging 
in girth from 2^ to 3^4 feet. There 
were 8i8 trees under 5 feet in height, 
and 1,312 over 5 feet, or a total of 
2,130 per acre. There were four 
blanks on the two acres, averaging 30 
feet in diameter and amounting to one- 
eleventh of an acre. The other plot 
was 1.6 acres in area and is in the 
Chatragodh Block of the Jaunsar For- 
est. The first seed felling was made 
in i88s, and the final removal of seed 



can lumbering, these trees were all 
sawed or chopped into lumber where 
they were felled in the forest. On the 
1.6 acres there were 6 blanks with 
average diameters of 28 feet or only 
about one-twelfth of an acre. With 
successful fire protection a fully stocked 
chir pine forest is assured, and this at 
practically no expense (see fig. 7). The 
illustrations, figures i to 7, show the 
chir forest before, during, and after 
these reproduction cuttings have been 




Fig. 7. — Final results obtained by natural chir pine reproduction on the Tons River . 
On the left a fire line runs up the ridge to where seed trees still remain. Below 
are cultivated fields. 



trees took place in 1899 and 1900. The 
measurements made in December, 
1904, showed an average per acre of 
1334 trees over five feet in height, 65 
trees under five feet or a total of 1,369. 
Twenty-five trees were either sup- 
pressed or already dead. The plot was 
not uniformly stocked with young 
growth on account of the blanks 
caused by the first removal of seed 
trees (see fig. b). Contrary to Ameri- 



made. While some details could be 
improved, yet how different is this con- 
servative treatment from our own 
slash and burn, which has devastated 
such vast areas. The natural repro- 
duction of almost all our pines, espe- 
cially in the South, can be readily se- 
cured by conservative lumbering and 
fire protection and the future ought to 
sItow equally good if not better re- 
sults than obtained in liritish India. 



THE LAND OF OPPORTUNITY. 



BY 
C. J. BLANCHARD 

statistician, U. S. Reclamation Serviee. 



'T'HE man who earnestly and intelli- 
*■ gently seeks an opportunity in 
this country to better his material wel- 
fare will generally find it. The same 
amount of well directed effort which 
brings a man success in the east and 



ment than anywhere else in the world. 
This is not an idle statement, but is 
readily substantiated by an examina- 
tion of county records, of the per capi- 
ta deposits in banks, and by the aver- 
age value of fann products per acre. 




Minidoka Dam, nearly closing the Snake River, Idaho 



middle west, if applied in almost any 
part of the Pacific Coast region, will 
be crowned with a larger degree of 
prosperity. A very general reconnais- 
sance of the great States of Oregon, 
Washington, and Idaho furnishes most 
convincing evidence that intelligent 
husbandry in these states is awarded 
b\- higher returns according to invest- 



If this evidence fails to convince, per- 
sonal observation will establish the 
truth of the statement beyond doubt. 

Statistics are always mighty dry 
reading. The average man shys at a 
column of figures as does a range 
horse at an automobile. He needs to 
be shown on the ground or demands a 
literal matter of fact statement. 



1906 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



191 



In discussing opportunities in the 
far west a writer is confronted with 
a serious obstacle and that is the diffi- 
culty of selecting a location and stick- 
ing to it. After journeying over thir- 
teen states and three territories the 
tendency is to scatter your facts, and 
the reader who wants details usually 
fails to get them. 

The remarkable transformation 
which has been wrought in the Great 



million acres are producing bountiful 
harvests in the valleys where only a 
short time ago desolation reigned su- 
preme. Within five years the acreage 
reclaimed has doubled and the popula- 
tion of the cities and towns has in- 
creased by leaps and bounds. The 
end is not yet. While the day of the 
pioneer with his small ditch leading 
the waters of mountain streams upon 
the thirstv land is over, the time is 







m 




View showing five Coffin 8x12 regulating gates, Diversion Channel, Minidoka Dam, Idaho. 



American Desert in a period of less 
than a quarter of a century, has served 
to awaken a lively interest in this vast 
region, so long regarded as the nation's 
waste place. While progress has been 
the watchword all over the arid region 
no more emphatic demonstration of 
the potential greatness of the rainless 
country can be found than that which 
is presented by the Snake River Val- 
ley in Idaho. To-day more than a 



ripe and advantage is being taken of 
the opportunities for initiating engi- 
neering works on a large scale to ex- 
tend irrgation to sections beyond the 
reach of the individual farmer. Cor- 
porations with large capital, tempted 
b}- the great promise of returns from 
irrigation systems, have constructed 
and are extending large irrigation sys- 
tems to cover hundreds of thousands 
of acres of fertile sage brush plain. 



19: 



FORESTKY AND IRRIGATION 



Ai)nl 



The Government, too. the princij^al 
owner of the unoccupied lands of the 
valley, has determined to improve and 
make marketable its property and es- 
tablish thereon thousands of new 
homes for intelligent, independent, and 
prosperous farmers. 

The Minidoka project which lies on 
both sides of Snake River in southern 
Idaho embraces 130,000 acres of choice 
land. Its engineering works, now rap- 
idly nearing completion, are a dam of 
the rock-lill type 650 feet long on top, 
50 feet high, requiring the placing of 
110,000 cubic yards of rock, 101,000 
cubic yards of earth. 1,200 cubic yards 
of rip rap, and i.ooo cubic yards of 
concrete in core wall. The spillway 
and main canals, 21 miles in length, 
will carry the water to the laterals 
which have a length of 102 miles. The 
canal excavation required the moving 
of 3,500,000 cubic yards of earth, 45,- 
000 cubic yards of loose rock, and 
170,000 cubic yards of solid rock. 
Nearly 19,000 horse power will be de- 
veloped from the dam. 

A transformation little less than 
marvelous has followed the initiation 
of this great work, and while it has a 
parallel in the opening of a similar 
project by private enterprise, in that 
section a year before, it is nevertheless 
worthy of note. A year ago last 
spring the Minidoka tract was an un- 
inhabited, dusty sagebrush plain, — a 
spot forbidding, desolate and uninvit- 
ing. To-day the land which is em- 
braced by the lines of canals is dotted 
with farm houses, three thriving towns 
containing 125 business houses have 
sprung up. A new railroad traverses 
the whole tract and 4,000 people are 
now living where two years ago there 
was no habitation. 

These thriving towns are located on 
land which is held by the Government 
for townsite purposes. Congress re- 
cently passed a law providing for the 
sale of the town lots and the date of 
the sale will be announced in the near 
future. Sale will be at public auction 
for cash to the highest bidder. As an 
opportunity for investment or a desir- 
able location for establishing a busi- 
ness these towns are ])articularly in- 



1906 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



193 






. ^ 







'i/ 


i 




1 ' 

f/ 

1: ■ 




-J 



194 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



April 



viting. The irrigation system will be 
completed in 1907 and more than a 
thousand farms will be under cultiva- 
tion. Such a farm population will cer- 



the Government for municipal and 
manufacturing purposes, the towns 
should make rapid and substantial 
progress. Everything predicates the 




A Chicago "Kid" Reporter's Enterprise at Heyburn, Idaho. 



tainly provide for a prosperous future 
for these towns. With almost unlim- 
ited electric power at the disposal of 



success of the Minidoka country and 
its early development into a model 
agricultural communitv. 



THE RECLAMATION SERVICE 

Progress of National Irrigation 
Work During the Past Thirty Days 



Reclamation Commendable progress 

J!^°.^^ '". is being made on the na- 

Cahtornia . , ^. . . 

tional irrigation works 

in California. On the Klamath project 
the Secretary of the Interior has for- 
mally approved the contract between 
the Klamath Water Usehs' Association 
and the United States. This is a rati- 



tication of the plans for constructing 
the Klamath project and involves the 
ultimate irrigation of about 250,000 
acres of land.. The amount equals the 
total irrigated area in southern Cali- 
fornia proper. Construction contracts 
amounting to approximately $400,000 
have been signed and construction 



1906 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



195 



work is now under way by contractors 
]\Iason, Davis & Co., of Portland, Ore- 
gon. The Pacific Portland Cement 
Company, of San Francisco, were the 
successful bidders for 10,000 barrels 
of cement at $1.55 per barrel for use 
•on this work. This firm is now supply- 
ing cement on the forty-thousand-bar- 
rel contract for the Yuma project, and 
has also furnished all the cement so 
far used on the Truckee-Carson pro- 
ject. The board of engineers which 
met at Klamath Falls on the 28th in- 
stant considered plans for new con- 
struction work and arranged details 
for the building of the entire project. 

On the Yuma project the Secretary 
.of the Interior has authorized the con- 
struction of the Gila Valley levees by 
force account at an expense of $100,- 
000. These levees will be the only per- 
fect levees ever constructed in this 
country. The work was started on 
March 12. In connection with the 
levee work the Secretary has author- 
ized the purchase of 100 mules with 
their equipments, and the Government 
is now prepared to purchase these ani- 
mals. In accordance with the general 
policy of the service a number of 
small contracts amounting to approxi- 
mately $1,000 each, have been let to 
the farmers of the Yuma Valley for 
the extension of the Yuma Valley 
levee toward the Mexican line. On 
the Laguna dam J. O. White & Co., 
contractors, are employing 450 men at 
present, and have just installed 
dredges and other machinery on the 
California side of the river at this dam 
site. This force will be doubled with- 
in the next thirty days. This firm was 
awarded the contract for the construc- 
tion of large sluice gates and regulator 
gates for the entrance of the canals at 
the dam. There will be three of these 
steel gates, each 33 feet wide and about 
20 feet high, and costing about $65,- 
900. They will be of the type known 
as "Stoney Gates," and are similar to 
those used on the Chicago drainage 
canal and the great locks at Sault St. 
Marie. 



Flood An associated press dis- 

DamageOver- ^^j^ ^^^^^ Caspar, 
estimated f, ^ • ..11 

VVyommg, stated that 

the great dam at Alcova and steel 
bridge across the North Platte River, 
structures erected by the Reclamation 
Service, were carried away by a flood 
on March 27, entailing a loss of 
$100,000. It would be difficult to 
crowd more misstatements into the 
same space than are contained in the 
above. In the first place the Govern- 
ment has not constructed a dam in 
the North Platte River. x\ contract 
has been let for this work and the con- 
tractor erected a temporary embank- 
ment to divert the stream from its 
channel in order to lay the foundations 
for the Pathfinder dam. This struc- 
ture was swept away by a flood, but 
aside from delaying the work no seri- 
ous damage was done. The Govern- 
ment erected a wooden bridge across 
the river near the dam site and not a 
steel structure, but the engineer in 
charge in his report of the flood makes 
no mention of its having been de- 
stroyed. The bridge cost only $3,000, 
and if it were washed away this would 
represent the total loss sustained by 
the Government, as the contractor 
must stand the loss of the temporary 
works in the river. The Pathfinder 
dam is to be a masonry concrete struct- 
ure, 210 feet high, and creating a stor- 
age reservoir with a capacity of 1,000,- 
000 acre feet, or several times greater 
than the Croton reservoir of New 
York. 

There is great rejoicing 
in the Sun River Valley, 
Montana, over the fact 
that the Secretary of the Interior has 
apportioned the sum of $500,000 for 
beginning a great irrigation work in 
that section. For the past two years 
the engineers of the Reclamation Ser- 
vice have been making surveys and 
completing plans for one of the largest 
of the National projects in the West. 

The preliminary investigations of 
the Sun River project indicate that 
2^6,000 acres are reclaimable in this 



Sun River 
Project 



196 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



April 



valley, at a cost of about $30 per acre, 
or a total expenditure of nearly $8,- 
000,000. A very large percentage of 
this area is public domain and its re- 
clamation will result in a very great 
increase in the population of the State. 
The irrigable area is a broad prairie 
extending from the Teton River on 
the north to the Sun River on the 
south, a distance of 30 miles, and from 
the Rocky Mountains on the West to 
the Missouri River on the east, a dis- 
tance of 70 miles. This land, although 
extremely rich in all the elements of 
fertility, without water is only fit for 
grazing, but when irrigated its pro- 
cluctiveness can not be surpassed any- 
where in the United States. 

The reclamation of this vast area 
will add to the crop-producing area of 
Montana a larger acreage than at pres- 
ent cultivated in the entire State of 
Rhode Island. The examinations 
made by the engineers show that this 
project is free from difficult engineer- 
ing features and the topography of the 
country is such that it can be built 
unit at a time. It is probable that the 
first unit selected for construction will 
be the reclamation of 16,000 acres in 
and about the Ft. Shaw Reservation. 

The Sun River is an important trib- 
utary of the Missouri, into which it 
empties at Great Falls. It flows out of 
steep canyons which it has cut deeply 
into the main chain of the Rockys. 

Basing the capacity of the Sun Riv- 
er lands upon the average census farm 
returns from Montana, the Sun River 
Valley when reclaimed should yield of 
rough crops nearly 10,000,000 bushels 
of wheat, or 600,000 tons of alfalfa. 
The production of vegetables, sugar 
beets or fruit can not be calculated. 
Once brought under a perfect system 
of irrigation this valley will support a 
prosperous farm population of 15,000. 
It is certain to make a splendid city of 
Great Falls which is the mercantile 
metropolis of this regon. 

Oklahoma ^^^^ Secretary of the In- 

Investigation tenor has authorized the 

purchase and installation 

of the necessary pumping plant, in- 



cluding a six-inch centrifugal pump 
and a twenty-five horse power gasoline 
engine, for the purpose of investigat- 
ing the feasibility of using the waters 
of the Red River for an irrigation 
project in Oklahoma. The estimated 
cost of the plant is $5,000. Owing to 
the presence of considerable quanti- 
ties of salt in the waters of this stream, 
it is deemed wise to experiment on a 
small scale before initiating a large 
gravity system. 

The Secretarv of the In- 



Fort Buford 
Project 



terior to-day authorized 
a new contract for the 
construction and repletion of divisions 
5, 6, 7, and 9, and a number of lateral 
ditches, in connection with the Ft. Bu- 
ford project. North Dakota and Mon- 
tana. The original contract with the 
Widell-Finlay Co. has been suspended 
on account of the failure of this com- 
pany to commence the work as provided 
in the proposal, and the new contract is 
entered into with John A. Nelson, of 
Minneapolis, who agrees to complete 
the work by September i, 1907, at the 
price named in the original contract. 
The Secretary's authority for the new 
contract is conditional on the furnish- 
ing of a new bond for $25,000 by the 
American Surety Company, and upon 
its agreement that its liability on the 
original bond shall remain in full force 
and efl^ect. 

„ .,, ,, The Secretarv of the In- 
Pecos Valley , . "i\ t 1 

Reclamation tenor ou March 21 
signed a contract with 
the Pecos Water Users' Association of 
Carlsbad, N. M., whereby the latter 
agrees, in conformity with the provis- 
ions of the Reclamation Act, to guar- 
antee to the government the return of 
moneys expended in the construction 
of the Carlsbad project. 

One of the last steps in the negotia- 
tions between the government and the 
Pecos Irrigation Company, Carlsbad, 
New Mexico, was taken March 21 
when the Secretary of the Interior ap- 
proved a contract for the transfer of 
the property of the company to the 
United States, for the consideration 
of $150,000. 



1906 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



197 



Opinion of The Director of the Geo- 
Homestead logical Survey recently 
" "^^ requested an opinion 

from the Department of the Interior 
as to whether a homesteader whose en- 
try is within the irrigable area of an 
irrigation project, but not subject to 
the restrictions, limitations, and condi- 
tions of the Reclamation Act, may sell 
a relinquishment of part of his entry. 

The Assistant Attorney General has 
rendered an opinion which is approved 
by the Secretary of the Interior, that 
an entryman who has not acquired title 
to his lands may not convey or agree 
to convey to a water users' association 
one or more legal subdivisions of his 
entry, to be held in trust by such as- 
sociation and sold for the benefit of 
the homesteader to persons competent 
to enter such lands,- under the same 
form and in the same manner now pro- 
vided for the conveyance and sale of 
lands in private ownership lying within 
the limits of an irrigable area. 

The opinion recites that one of the 
indispensable conditions of the home- 
stead law is that the entry must be 
made for the exclusive use and bene- 
fit of the applicant and not "either di- 
rectly or indirectly for the use of any 
other person." (Revised Statutes, Sec. 
2290.) In submitting final proof, the 
entryman is required to make oath that 
"no part of such land has been alien- 
ated, except as provided in section 
twenty-two hundred and eighty-eight" 
(Sec. 2291), which provides for alien- 
ation for church and cemetery pur- 
poses. Under such prohibition, "a 
contract by a homesteader to convey a 
portion of the tract when he shall ac- 
quire title from the United States is 



against public policy and void" (syl- 
labus), Anderson v. Carkins, 135 U. 

S., 483- 

Until the homesteader has acquired 
either a legal or equitable title to the 
land, he cannot make an agreement to 
convey any portion of it that will se- 
cure to another any right or interest 
therein. He may relinquish all or 
parts of it, but the relinquishment must 
be to the U. S. and the land relinquish- 
ed becomes public land subject to entry 
by the first legal applicant. If the land 
relinquished is within the irrigable area 
of a reclamation project, it becomes 
subject to the provisions of the Re- 
clamation Act. 

„. , ,, In connection with the 

Eight Hour ^ ^. r • ■ 

jy^ construction of irriga- 

tion works by the gov- 
ernment, especially that which is being 
done by the Reclamation Service en- 
gineers under force account and not 
by contractors, an interesting question 
arose as to whether the act of August 
I, 1902 (27 Stat., 340), and the act of 
June 17, 1902 (32 Stat., 388), are in- 
tended to fix the number of hours per 
day, when the employment is by the 
day, and if such be the case whether if 
these laborers are employed by the 
hour it would be lawful for the engi- 
neers of the Reclamation Service to 
require or permit them to work ten 
hours per day. The Assistant Attor- 
ney General has rendered an opinion 
which the Secretary of the Interior ap- 
proves, holding that but eight hours 
labor per day can be required of la- 
borers on such work, except in cases 
of extraordinary emergency, to be de- 
termined by the Secretary of the Inte- 
rior. 




THE FOREST SERVICE 

History of a Month's Government Forest Matters 



Forest The establishment of the 

Reserves and ^j^jg Mountains Forest 
Irrigation Reserve, embracing 2,- 

627,200 acres of the mountainous re- 
gion in the center of Eastern Ore- 
gon containing head-waters of the 
John Day, Umatilla, Malheur, Sil- 
vies, and other rivers, has an im- 
portant bearing upon the work of 
the U. S. Reclamation Service in that 
part of the State. The success of the 
widely-separated Umatilla, Malheur, 
and Silver Creek projects, located, re- 
spectively, at the mouths of the John 
Day and Malheur rivers and on Silver 
Creek in Harvey county, depends, in 
large measure, upon the conservation 
of the water supply within the great 
drainage area embraced in this reserve. 
The creation of the reserve will, con- 
sequently, have a very direct effect in 
bringing about the agricultural devel- 
opment of the greater portion of the 
State lying east of the Cascade Moun- 
tains, which needs only irrigation to 
develop the fertility of millions of 
acres of land. 

The great agricultural possibilities 
of this part of Oregon has led the Re- 
clamation Service to undertake a num- 
ber of irrigation projects, necessitating 
extensive examinations by the U. S. 
Forest Service of the forest cover 
throughout the several drainage bas- 
ins involved, with a view to extending 
the protection of forest reserve admin- 
istration over all important watersheds. 
As a result, the wild mountain regions 
embraced in the forest reserves will be 
carefully patrolled, at government ex- 
pense, to prevent disastrous fires, and 
all other possible efforts will be made 
to. sustain and regulate the streamflow 
of those regions. 

In other words, the work of these 
two scientific branches of the govern- 
ment is being conjointly directed to- 
wards bringing about the reclamation 
of vast areas of land in eastern Ore- 



gon. While the tracts thus reserved 
for the application of scientific princi- 
ples in conserving and utilizing the 
waterflow, will be made to conduce 
directly towards the development of 
other regions, it should be understood 
that they will, in no sense, be with- 
drawn from use by the public for all 
legitimate purposes. On the contrary, 
the timber, water, and herbage, the 
minerals, and other resources, will re- 
main open to the use of the people, and 
the control exercised by the govern- 
ment will be directed towards bring- 
ing the lands to the highest productiv- 
ity, in the interest of the various in- 
dustries involved. The forested lands, 
for instance, will be administered with 
a view to insuring a continuous supply 
of timber to meet local demands, while 
the fullest utilization of the grazing 
products consistent with a permanent 
use of the range, will be allowed. 
Every eft'ort will be made by the gov- 
ernment to prevent destruction and 
wasteful use of resources, in order to 
husband them properly for the use of 
the people. 

The government has just 
established a third re- 



New Reserve 
in Nebraska 



serve in Western Ne- 
braska in which to extend the work 
of forest-planting, recently begun in 
the Dismal River Forest Reserve, in 
that State. 

This new reserve, which is known 
as the North Platte Forest Reserve, 
embraces about 345,000 acres of sand- 
hill country in Grant and McPherson 
counties, which at present is practi- 
call}- worthless, except for grazing. 

The prospects, however, for gro\y- 
ing timber on the tract are good, as 
it contains a suitable site for a nur- 
sery, and it is thought that successful 
forest-planting can be effected on the 
north and east slopes of the hills, 
where there is always moisture near 
the surface. Some miles east of the 



1906 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



199 



reserve successful plantations of ash, 
boxelder, and cottonwood have already 
been established by ranchers, where 
cottonwood, in particular, has made 
good growth. 

The forest-planting contemplated by 
the Forest Service in this locality is of 
especial importance. Part of the re- 
serve is near the tract to be reclaimed 
under the great North Platte project, 
now under way by the U. S. Reclama- 
tion Service, and the irrigation of this 
stretch of country in the western por- 
tion of the State will of course create 
a demand for fence posts, fuel, etc., in 
connection with the settling up and 
development of the lands. Since the 
region is practically treeless, timber to 
meet this demand should be produced 
locally if possible. 

The success which has attended the 
experimental operations in the Halsey 
Nursery of the Dismal River Forest 
Reserve, indicates the future impor- 
tance of the government's work along 
this line. While the original intention 
in establishing this Halsey Nursery 
was to grow seedlings for planting on 
the Dismal River Reserve, it has al- 
ready been found that this station can 
be made a distributing point for a 
number of other regions, and it is 
likely that plans will be made to grow 
seedlings on a large scale for shipment 
to other parts of Nebraska and to ad- 
jacent States. No less than 50,000 
seedlings were shipped to the Black 
Hills of South Dakota last spring, and 
planted, and 40,000 more were shipped 
to the Pikes IP'eak region in Colorado. 
Seedlings have been raised at the Hal- 
sey Station more cheaply than any- 
where else in the United States, and 
there is no apparent reason why the 
same success should not be achieved on 
the new North Platte Reserve, where 
conditions are very similar, if a nurs- 
ery is established there. 

It is the intention to furnish seed- 
lings this spring from Halsey for 
planting in the Garden City Forest 
Reserve in Kansas, and a considerable 
number will also be shipped to the 
Pikes Peak region. 



In establishing this new reserve the 
only industry that will in anywise be 
effected is that of grazing, which will 
be greatly benefited by a forest reserve 
administration of the tract. Permits 
will be granted to graze the stock 
which is now occupying the ranges. 
Should the ranges be found to be over- 
grazed, the number of stock will grad- 
ually be reduced each year until such 
a limit is reached as will secure to the 
stockmen a permanent use of the re- 
serve. 

_ „, ^ The Butters Lumber 

Tree Plant- ^ r t-. j 

ing Work Company, 01 Boardman, 

Columbus Co., N. C, has 
made application to the Forest Service 
for a preliminary examination of 5,000 
acres of land on which they contem- 
plate planting. Mr. J. F. Bond, who 
is at present in the South, will visit this 
tract this week to determine the feas- 
ibility of preparing a detailed planting 
plan. The cut-over southern timber- 
lands are of little value unless system- 
atic plans are carried out to secure nat- 
ural reproduction or to have them re- 
planted. Substantial financial returns 
seem assured in either case, and lum- 
ber companies are showing increased 
interest in this movement. The com- 
pany in question contemplated the 
planting of cottonwood, as it gives 
quick returns in a region where there 
is a market for pulpwood and char- 
coal. 

Plans have been ap- 
o-operation , - .^ 

in Iowa proved for co-operative 

forest experiments be- 
tween the Iowa State College at Ames, 
Iowa, and the Forest Service. The 
College is to furnish 5 acres of land 
for experimental planting this spring, 
and additional areas when available. 
The expenses of material rnd labor 
will be borne equally by the c >operat- 
ing parties. It is the object of these 
experiments to determine the species 
best suited for varying purposes and 
to the soil and climatic conditions of 
Iowa, and to learn the silvicultural 
methods by which they can be most 
easily propagated. The work will com- 
prise both nursery practice and field 



200 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



April 



planting, and a large number of spe- 
cies will be handled under different 
methods. H. P. Baker, Forester for 
the College, will be in direct charge, 
but the Forest Service will have gen- 
eral supervision. 

_, . Notice has been received 

CoaiLa'nds" ^at the planting plan 
which was prepared by 
the Forest Service for certain lands 
owned by the H. C. Frick Coke Com- 
pany, in western Pennsylvania, has 
been accepted and that planting will 
be begun this spring. Plant material 
for use on the areas to be reforested 
has been ordered from dealers, and a 
nursery will be established for the pro- 
duction of seedlings for future use. 
This work will be supervised by a rep- 
resentative of the Forest Service. A 
similar request for supervision has 
been received from the Keystone Coal 
and Coke Company, for whom a plant- 
ing plan was prepared last summer. 

Planting on The War Department 
Military ^as requested the Forest 

Reservations ^ . ^ , , 

Service to make an ex- 
amination of the military reservations 
in and around San Francisco Bay with 
a view to their improvement by forest 
planting. This work will soon be un- 
dertaken, and it is expected that de- 
tailed plans will be made for planting 
on certain portions of the reservatons. 
The aim will be to establish useful for- 
est plantations which will at the same 
time improve the appearance of the 
islands and military grounds, which 
are now without tree growth. Special 
attention will also be given to the 
planting ' of windbreaks and shelter- 
belts for the protection of the parade 
grounds and buildings. 

San Francisco Bay is acknowledged 
to be one of the safest and most beau- 
tiful harbors in the country. By es- 
tablishing a forest cover on the shores 
and islands it will be made still more 
attractive. Instead of barren bluffs 
and islands covered only with brown 
grass, passengers on inbound ships will 
see groves of flourishing green trees. 



Rise of The demand for lodge- 

Pi°n?^^°^^ pole pine ties by the 
western railroads, which 
prefer them to any other because of the 
ease with which they take preserva- 
tives, has greatly increased the market 
value of the Rocky Mountain forests 
in northern Colorado, Wyoming, east- 
ern Idaho, and southern Montana, 
where lodgepole pine is the predomi- 
nant tree. These forests are largely 
within the existing or proposed Na- 
tional forest reserves, and are conse- 
quently under government control, so 
that the Forest Service has felt the 
need of preparing plans to permit the 
sale of such mature timber in them as 
may be safely spared. During the past 
year a working plan was completed for 
about 46,000 acres in the Wyoming 
Division of the Medicine Bow Reserve. 

It was found in the first place that 
the protective value of the forest as a 
cover for the watersheds is so great 
that any utilization of the timber crop 
must be subordinated to it. Through- 
out the region the control of stream- 
flow by the forest cover is the prime 
consideration. The mining industry, 
which is of high importance, will not 
be hampered by the disposal of reserve 
timber, since all the mining claims lo- 
cated in or near the tract include tim- 
ber sufficient for the needs of the own- 
ers. The present moderate grazing 
of cattle is carried on without risk to 
reproduction of the forest. 

The Medicine Bow Forest Reserve 
contains the largest continuous body of 
lodgepole pine to be found in the 
Rocky Mountains. The timber on the 
tract for which the plan was made is 
accessible ; tie cutting has been carried 
on in the reserve for some years ; and 
it was definitely known that all the 
timber which could safely be removed 
would find sale. Measurements in the 
woods and careful studies of the rate 
of past growth and of the forest's 
power of self-renewal furnished data 
from which the government foresters 
calculated what the forest can be ex- 
pected to yield and what per cent can 
be cut safely now. It was found that 
165,000,000 feet B. M. of lodgepole 



1906 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



201 



pine could be taken out and yet leave 
a large percentage for future crops. 
Special studies were made of the in- 
jury to which the forest is liable from 
insect attack and fungus, from wind- 
fall and fire. Local market conditions 
and the methods and cost of lumber- 
ing were investigated to see whether 
improvements and economies might 
not be instituted, as well as to fix upon 
a fair stumpage price. 

The completed plan provides for bet- 
ter protection of the forest from fire, 
including effective measures for com- 
pact piling of debris and brush in 
openings ready for burning ; stipulates 



that all timber to be removed shall be 
marked in advance by the forest offi- 
cers, who will be furnished with a full 
set of instructions to govern all steps 
in the logging operations ; and requires 
that all merchantable parts of the trees 
be used. 

Similar working plans will be pre- 
pared for available bodies of timber on 
other reserves, making possible the 
utilization of these vast forests under 
a system of scientific management 
which will perpetuate and improve the 
stand, and, above all, safeguard the 
forest cover on watersheds. 



PUMPING WATER^ 



'X'HE greater portion of water used 
■*• in irrigation is diverted by grav- 
ity from flowing streams. While this 
is true as regards bulk of the water, 
yet as regards value it may be said that 
some of the most important sources 
of supply are utilized through pump- 
ing. In ancient times, especially in 
Egypt and India, where labor had little 
value and the conditions for diverting 
water by gravity were not favorable, 
pmnping by hand or by animal power 
was largely in vogue. 

In modern times the devices for 
hand pumping have been improved 
upon, although some of them are still 
utilized in crude form by pioneers in 
the arid region ; but with ordinary 
farm wells irrigation is impracticable, 
other than the watering of a few tree.y 
or plats of vegetables ; but the begin-' 
nings of irrigation on many a farm in 
the sub-humid region may be traced to 
successful experiments with water 
raised in this laborious manner. 

1 he next step above human labor in 
pumping water has frequently been 
the utilization of horse-power. The 



accompanying figure shows a simple 
device by which a horse walking in a 
circle causes a series of buckets to be 
lifted from the well, drawing up water 
sufficient for several acres. The possi- 
bility of irrigation in this way is lim- 
ited largely by the depth of the water 
in the well and the number of animals 
available. 

The next step is the use of the ordi- 
nary threshing engine, replacing the 
horse and driving a pump as shown 
in the accompanying sketch. Tracts 
of considerable size have been watered 
in this way, and the value of the crops 
greatly increased. For example, on- 
ions, which would have been almost 
worthless, owing to a drouth, have as 
the result of water properly applied 
sold at $150 per acre, and celery at 
$200 per acre, repaying in a season 
the whole outlay for well, pump and 
engine. Special forms of pumps driv- 
en by steam, gasolene, and other forms 
of engine, have been devised suited to 
the needs of the irrigator. 

The most important source of power 



*It is our intention to publish a series of articles on pumping, giving illustrations of the 
various kinds of engines, pumps and windmills employed in tiie different parts of the 
country, both east and west. — Editor. 



202 



FORESTKY AND IRRIGATION 



April 



for pumping is the wind. On the sweeping up the loose soil. In many 
broad valleys and plains of the arid localities there are at depths of 20 or 
regions the wind movement is almost 50 feet or more beneath the surface, 




Pumping Water by Horse Power 



continuous for days and weeks, carry- pervious beds of sand or gravel filled 
ing away the dry leaves, even at times with waters by the infiltration or rain- 



-.^-^^- 



dT~^ 
















Pumping Water with a Threshing Engine 



1906 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



203 



fall or by percolation from stream 
channels. 

It is a comparatively simple and inex- 
pensive operation to sink a well into 
this water and erect a windmill, at- 
taching this to a suitable pump. The 
machinery once provided is operated 
dav and night by the over-present 
wind, bringing to "the surface a small, 
but continuous supply of water. This 
small stream, if turned out on the soil, 
would flow a short distance, then dis- 
appear into the thirsty ground, so that 
irrigation directly from a windmill is 
usually impracticable. 

To overcome this difficulty, it has 
been necessary to provide small stor- 
age reservoirs or tanks built of earth, 
wood or iron to hold the water until 



it has accumulated to a volume suffi- 
cient to permit of a stream of consid- 
erable size being taken out for irriga- 
tion. Such a stream flowing rapidly 
over the surface will penetrate to a dis- 
tance and cover an area which would 
seem impossible with the small flow 
delivered by the pump. 

The windmills employed in irriga- 
tion are of all kinds, from the highest 
type of the machinist's art down to 
the crude home-made devices. These 
latter are not to be despised, as many 
of them are highly effective, and at 
least they have enabled settlers to pro- 
cure a small amount of water and to 
obtain a foothold upon the soil, by 
which ultimately they may be able to 
obtain funds to procure better imple- 
ments. 



NOTES ON FOREST TREES SUITABLE 

FOR PLANTING IN THE 

UNITED STATES 



V — The Tulip Tree (Liriodendron Tulipifera) 



DISTRIBUTION. 

THE tulip tree (Liriodendron tuli- 
pifera) is distributed sparingly 
through southern New England and 
New York ; it is more plentiful on the 
southern shore of Lake Erie and west- 
ward through northern Indiana and 
Illinois. To the southward it is found 
in Alabama and the other Gulf States 
to northern Florida. It is rare west 
of the Mississippi except in northeast- 
ern Arkansas and southeastern Mis- 
souri. It is most abundant and of 
largest size in the south central part 
of its range, especially in Tennesee, 
Kentucky, and the western Carolinas, 
and in the basin of the Ohio River 
and its tributaries. 

The tree is hardy east of the Missis- 
sippi except in the colder portions of 
the Northern States, and thrives in a 
great variety of upland soils. The 
range for economic planting, broadly 



stated, includes all of the states east 
of the Mississippi, although the con- 
ditions of soil and site in some locali- 
ties make its development better than 
elsewhere. Near the western limits of 
its range it is sometimes injured by 
sun scald. 

SOIL AND SITE. 

The Tulip-tree is most common and 
attains its finest development on deep, 
fertile, rather moist loam, or rich san- 
dy soil, in which is mixed a consider^ 
able quantity of humus. In the South 
and in the Ohio Valley the soil in 
which the largest and best Tulip-trees 
once grew is of great value for agri- 
cultural purposes ; hence the forests of 
these regions have been destroyed and 
not replaced. The Tulip-tree will main- 
tain itself in heavy clay and hard rocky 
soils, but such soils are not favorable 
to it and almost always cause a marked 
diminution in the characteristic devel- 



204 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



April 



opment of the species, especially in 
height growth and quality of the tim- 
ber. The tree is found growing in 
exposed situations, but reaches greater 
size in sheltered ravines and valleys, 
and in protected coves along water 
courses. It is never found growing 
in standing water, but will endure very 
moist soil. 

MANNER OP OCCURRENCE. 

The Tulip-tree is scattered by sin- 
gle trees or clumps of trees through- 
out the forest. In specially favored 
localities in the South it is often the 
principal growth, but is not usually 
the predominant tree over extensive 
areas. In the North it occurs more 
sparingly than in the South. It is gen- 
erally associated with other deciduous 
trees, such as Chestnut, the oaks, wal- 
nuts, hickories, maples. Black Cherry, 
Locust, and Beech. On the South 
Atlantic coastal plain it occurs with 
Sweet Gum, Black Cherry, Black 
Gum, Swamp Chestnut Oak, and Wa- 
ter Oak, or in peaty soils with the 
White Cedar (Chamcecyparis thy- 
oides). 

CHARACTERISTICS OF FORM AND 



The growth of the Tulip-tree is 
rapid when compared with that of the 
hardwoods with which it grows; it is 
also long-lived, specimens having been 
cut 320 years old. During the first 
forty or fifty years the height growth 
is from i to 2 feet annually, with a 
diameter growth of one-tenth to one- 
fourth inch, or even more in favorable 
situations. Measurements made on 
sixteen trees averaging 28.1 inches 
showed an average rate of growth of 
I inch every six years. After passing 
fifty years, the rate of growth begins 
to decrease until it practically ceases 
when the tree is very old. The aver- 
age height is from 70 to 100 feet, with 
a diameter of from 3 to 6 feet; but 
much larger trees are often found, 
some with a height of 190 feet and a 
diameter of 10 feet having been re- 
ported. 



The Tulip-tree of the forest has a 
small pyramidical head held aloft by 
an exceptionally straight, cylindrical 
trunk, which in the forests of the Car- 
olinas and Tennessee is often free 
from branches for 80 to 100 feet. The 
tree must have plenty of light; it will 
not endure dense shades, but when 
crowded often pushes its crown up 
above the trees around it. If too 
closely crowded and overtopped it is 
sure to succumb. 

When grown in the open its form 
does not change so radically as does 
that of most other hardwoods under 
like conditions. Although the tree 
grown in the open is broader and more 
limby. the main axis is usually main- 
tained and the limbs grow out sym- 
metrically. The root system possesses 
both tap roots and a considerable de- 
velopment of the lateral roots. The 
tap roots make early transplanting 
rather difficult, but the young trees 
grow rapidly when once established. 

THE WOOD ITS ECONOMIC USES. 

The wood is usually light, but va- 
ries in weight; it is soft, tough but 
not strong, of fine texture, and when 
well seasoned is durable in contact 
with the ground. It shrinks consid- 
erably but seasons without injury, and 
works and stands exceedingly well. 
The sapwood is thin, light in color, 
and decays rapidly. The wood is used 
for siding, paneling, interior finishing, 
and in the manufacture of toys, boxes, 
culinary woodenware, etc. With the 
diminution of the White Pine supply 
Tulip-tree is much used in its place. 
It makes a fair wood pulp, and is the 
tree from which most of our postal 
cards are made. The lumbermen rec- 
ognize two kinds of Tulip timber, viz., 
white and yellow. The difference in 
color is caused mainly by the differ- 
ence in site conditions. On dry, grav- 
elly soil the wood produced is lighter 
in color, less durable, and harder to 
work, and is called "White Poplar." 
The "Yellow Poplar" is grown on rich 
alluvial or sandstone soil, where trees 
of mature age have little sapwood and 



1906 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



204 



a rich, yellow heartwood, which is 
highly prized because of its fine grain 
and easy working qualities. 

PROPAGATION. 

Natural reproduction is fairly good 
on open land in Kentucky, Virginia, 
Maryland, and southern Pennsylvania. 
A forest growth may be maintained 
in these regions if proper care is taken 
in cutting to regenerate towards the 
prevailing wind, "to leave seed trees in 
the cut-over area, and to break the 
surface soil so that it will form a fa- 
vorable seed-bed. The seedlings which 
spring up in these moist open fields 
grow with surprising rapidity, often 
making a growth in height of 4 to 6 
feet annually. Farther south, through 
Tennesee and the Carolinas, natural 
regeneration is rarerly seen except oc- 
casionally in open pastures where the 
mineral soil has been freely exposed 
-md there is plenty of light. The 
young seedlings cannot endure shade 
even to a limited extent. Sprouts grow 
from the stump, but should not be 
depended upon for reproduction. Seeds 
are produced in considerable numbers 
almost yearly, and the small percen- 
tage of perfect ones germinate freely 
if they fall upon a moist mineral soil. 
ThevVill not start in a bed of pure 
humus. The seeds are borne in a 
cone-like fruit i to 2 inches long. The 
scales are really carpels, but only a 
few of th^ 50 to 60 in each cone are 
productive. Young trees are apt to 
produce seeds which are absolutely 
worthless, while on old trees only the 
highest limbs and the center carpels 
are productive of good seed. 

Artificial propagation should be en- 
tirely by seeds. Where a forest growth 
has recently been removed from land 
which it is desired to reclothe with 
Tulip-tree, fair results may be at- 
tained by breaking the surface soil in 
the fall with a brush or harrow and 
sowing the seeds broadcast over the 
area. 

Nursery culture and the use of care- 
fully-grown seedlings or transplants 
is the surer but more expensive meth- 



od of propagating the Tulip-tree. The 
seed should be collected in the fall 
when mature, and may be sown as 
soon as obtained or stratified in sand 
for spring planting. Fall stratification 
is advisable, since the seeds will then 
germinate the following spring ; other- 
wise, if sown in the spring, they are 
very liable not to come up until the 
following spring. 

The seed should be sown thickly in 
a bed of light, rich, sandy soil and cov- 
ered to a depth of one-half inch. The 
bed should be kept evenly moist, with 
more moisture at first than later and 
should be completely shaded until the 
plans begin to appear. Subsequently 
there need be only partial protection, 
which is especially needed during the 
middle of the day, when the sun is 
hottest. Seedlings may stand in the 
seed-bed for from one to two years, 
but should not remain longer, because 
the tap root develops with but few lat- 
eral roots, which makes transplanting 
difficult. It thus becomes advisable to 
move the seedlings when one year old 
to nursery rows, which stimulates 
them to a vigorous development, in- 
suring success in transplanting. Seed- 
lings may be shifted nearly in the nur- 
sery until three or four years old, 
which causes a beneficial thickening 
of the root system, but such prolonged 
care is usually too expensive to be 
practical. If trees two years old or 
more are to be moved for the first 
time, it is often advisable to cut back 
the stem to the ground, taking care to 
move the roots intact; this will cause 
vigorous sprouts to spring up. Such 
practice is sometimes resorted to with 
younger seedlings. 

Transplanting from the nursery to 
the permanent site may be done most 
successfully in the spring. Fall trans- 
planting, although often fairly success- 
ful, usuallv gives a lower average of 
success than" spring planting. The 
work should be done before the buds 
start, but may be attempted after the 
leaves are out if the stem be cut back 
in the way mentioned above. 



206 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



Af.vil 



When grown for forest purposes, 
the Tulip-tree should be mixed with 
other deciduous species, but should be 
given a start or planted with slow- 
growing trees so that it may not be 
overtopped. When planted for a 
ground cover or for economic pur- 
poses, the trees should be set about 6 
feet apart each way. Within its range 
the Tulip-tree does not demand spe- 
cial preparation of the ground prior 
to planting, unless it be where there is 
an unusually tough sward, in which 
case the grass should be broken and 
turned under. In setting the trees the 
sod should be broken in a little circle 
and the tree set in the center of the 
broken ground, care being taken to 
pack the dirt firmly around the roots. 
The roots should never be allowed to 
become dry. If the plantation is in a 
sheltered valley or rich bottom land, 
the Tulip-tree may be planted as the 
predominant tree of the mixture. If 
it is in an exposed situation the spe- 
cies with which it grows should be in 
excess, so as to give the needed pro- 



tection from high winds and frost. 
The desirable species for such a mix- 
ture include most of our moderately 
shade-enduring hardwoods, such as 
the maples, oaks. Chestnut, hickories, 
walnuts, etc. There seems no reason 
why the Norway Spruce and some of 
the pines would not also make desir- 
able associate trees for the Tulip-tree. 

POSSIBILITIES AND USES. 

For shade and ornament the Tulip- 
tree possesses great merit and is de- 
serving of very general propagation. 
It is to be especially recommended for 
cities where bituminous coal is burned. 
It comes into leaf early, holds its fol- 
iage until late in the fall, and has few 
disfiguring insect enemies, while in 
general shape and manner of growth 
it leaves little to be desired. Forest 
planting of the Tulip-tree for econo- 
mic purposes has never been attempt- 
ed, but judging from the form and 
rate of growth of the natural forest- 
grown tree, and the value of the wood, 
few trees would be more profitable for 
such a purpose. 



RECENT PUBLICATIONS 



Post's Paper Mill Directory for 1905-6. 

Pp. 571. L. D. Post, Publisher, New 

York, 1905. $2.00. 

The latest edition of this standard direc- 
tory is probably the most comprehensive and 
inclusive list of manufacturers, dealers, 
mills, and mill officers of the paper, pulp, 
and chemical industry of the United States 
and Canada extant. Classification is made 
of mills by their goods, a list of projected 
mills given, and a very complete directory 
of foreign mills included. The mass of in- 
formation which the volume contains is ar- 
ranged in a manner that makes it easy of 
reference, and a complete index makes all 
information immediately "get-at-able." To 
the pulp and paper trade this volume should 
prove indispensable. 



The Board finds on every hand interested 
men and women of clear conceptions and 
advanced ideas of the forestry problem, and 
who are rendering assistance by both word 
and action." The report is unusually inter- 
esting and contains much information as to 
the forest situation in Indiana, and direc- 
tions as to the trees most suited to the 
State, methods of planting, injurious forest 
insects, etc. 



Fifth Annual Report of the Indiana 
State Board of Forestry, 1905. Pp. 245, 
illustrated. State Printer, Indianapolis, 
1906. 

The Indiana State Board of Forestry 
prefaces its annual report with the gratify- 
ing statement : "There is at this time a 
strong sentiment favorably inclining to the 
institution of stronger forestry methods in 
almost every community within the State. 



The Improvement of Columbia, South 
Carolina. Report by Kelsey & Guild. Pp. 
88, illustrated. 

The interesting pamphlet here presented 
is a report by Messrs. Kelsey and Guild, 
landscape architects, to the Civic League of 
Columbia, S. C, including suggestions for 
the civic improvement and beautification of 
that city. The report embraces a broad and 
comprehensive plan of treatment, extension 
and improvement of park systems, street 
tree planting, etc. A plea is made for civic 
beauty, for the obliteration of unsightly 
public nuisances, and the institution of such 
reforms as will reflect the best life and 
character of the people. The directions as 
to what particular species of trees are de- 
sirable for planting, their care, etc., are of 
particular interest. 




Vol. XII. 



MAY, 1906. 



No. 



NEWS AND NOTES 



To the many persons de- 
Report si^ng the establishment 

of federal forest reserves 
in the Southern Appalacians and the 
White Mountains, it will come as most 
welcome news that the Committee on 
Agriculture of the House of Represen- 
tatives has decided to make a favor- 
able report on the bill creating these 
reserves. The Senate Committee hav- 
ing in charge a like bill sometime ago 
made a favorable report. While no 
further action may be expected at the 
present session of Congress, the mat- 
ter is now in excellent shape for forc- 
ing it at the opening of the new session 
next fall. 

,, . In this connection we 

Heanner on . , ^ n ^^ .• 

Revised Bill wish to call attention to 
the notable hearing on 
this bill. April 25 and 26, before the 
Committee on Agriculture of the 
House of Representatives. 

The American Forestry Association, 
together with several of the State or- 
ganizations, has been earnestly work- 
ing to secure the passage by Congress 
of this measure, or similar ones, for a 
number of years. When the date of 
the hearing on the latest measure was 
announced by the House Committee, 
it was decided to make a strong plea 
before that Compiittee for the re- 



serves, substantiated by convincing 
evidence of the pressing need for ac- 
tion. At a forestry meeting held at 
Charlotte, N. C, early in March, Gov- 
ernor R. B. Glenn, of North Carolina, 
was asked, in a resolution, to request 
the Governors of all States interested 
in the reserves, to appoint a committee 
of five citizens to represent their re- 
spective States at the hearing, and pre- 
sent individual evidence of the need of 
the reserves, and voice the general de- 
sire of the people. Accordingly, at the 
hearing on April 25 and 26, there were 
present some seventy-five persons, rep- 
resenting, in all, fourteen States, and 
including the Governor of North Car- 
olina, and the Governor of New 
Hampshire — the latter . accompanied 
by his entire council. Governor Glenn, 
as chairman of the assembled commit- 
tees, was in charge of the presentation 
of evidence to the House Committee. 

The first day's session was opened 
with a forceful address by Governor 
McLane of New Hampshire, on the 
subject: "The States within which 
these proposed forest reserves are to 
be located cannot be reasonably ex- 
pected to establish and maintain forest 
reserves which are for the benefit of 
the entire eastern half of the United 
States, and the nation as a whole." 



208 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



May 



Governor McLane was followed by 
Mr. Theophil'.'^ ^'arsons, of Boston, 
chairman of the ^Massachusetts dele- 
gation, who spoke on the manufactur- 
ing interests and water powers as af- 
fected by the forest reserve problem, 
particularly in New England. As a 
representative from the South, ]\Iajor 
Augustine T. Smythe, of Charleston, 
S. C, spoke along the same lines, pre- 
senting much valuable information as 
regards the depreciation in values of 
water powers as a direct result of the 
cutting of timber. The effect of the 
denudation of the forests on the navi- 
gation interests was discussed by Mr. 
C. C. Goodrich, General Manager of 
the Hartford and New York Trans- 
portation Company, Hartford, Conn., 
speaking for New England, and Prof. 
L. C. Glenn, of Vanderbilt University, 
Nashville, Tenn., on the part of the 
South. Dr. Eugene Allen Smith, 
State Geologist of Alabama, also 
touched on this subject and the extent 
of the damage wTought to the shipping 
interests of the South. Prof. J. H. 
Stewart, Director of the Agricultural 
Experiment Station, Morgantown, W. 
Va., explained the interest of the farm- 
er in the proposed Southern reserve. 

Rev. Edward Everett Hale, Chap- 
lain of the Senate, and a pioneer in the 
movement for the White Mountain 
Reserve, made the opening speech of 
the second day's session, on April 26. 
Agricultural Commissioner E. J. Wat- 
son, of South Carolina, w^as called upon 
to explain the relation of agriculture 
to forestry, and to discuss the efit'ect of 
forest denudation upon agricultural 
prosperity. Mr. Harvey N. Sheppard, 
of Boston, representing the Appala- 
chian Mountain Club, urged, in a 
brilliant address, the creation of the 
reserves as a breathing space for the 
crowded inhabitants of the thickly set- 
tled East. Governor R. B. Glenn 
closed the arguments in an eloquent 
appeal for prompt action. 

The hearing in its entirety was a re- 
markable one. There has seldom been 
called together for a like purpose — viz.. 
to plead for action by Congress on any 
measure — a set of men speaking for 



so many varied interests, and repre- 
senting so much invested capital in the 
industries which have in a large meas- 
ure brought America to the front as a 
producing nation. 

As matters now stand for the action 
in Congress on the bill for these re- 
serves cannot be had before the next 
session. But meantime the many 
friends of the measure should continue 
actively at work in creating sentiment 
favorable to its passage. It is only 
the strongly expressed wish of the peo- 
ple that will bring final and favorable 
action. Much headway w^as made the 
past twelve months, and at no time 
since the geginning of this movement 
has the outlook for success been so 
bright. 

Forest Service According to such a high 



Lumber 
Statistics 



technical authority as 
the Mississippi Valley 
Lumbermen: "The first report of lum- 
ber statistics gathered by the Forest 
Service of the Department of Agricul- 
ture, and presented at the annual meet- 
ing of the National Lumber Manufac- 
turers' Association, at St. Louis, though 
admittedly incomplete, makes so good a 
showing as to- warrant the belief that 
this section of Government work will 
become immensely valuable during 
coming years. ' ' It further comments as 
follows : "Those who have, in the past, 
attempted to gather statistics of this 
character from a comparatively small 
area of country know the difficulties 
that must be overcome even where the 
compilers have personal knowledge of 
the business and personal acquaintance 
with a very large proportion of those 
from whom the information must be 
obtained. Errors of commission and 
errors of omission have not been miss- 
ing from the statistics compiled by the 
lumber trade journals that have been 
engaged in this class of work for more 
than a quarter of a century. Persist- 
ent effort in the form of second, third 
and fourth rec[uests have failed to 
bring reports from many manufactur- 
ers, and after an almost complete de- 
gree of accuracy was reached in the 
>s'orthern pine statistics, the manufac- 



1906 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



209 



turers suddenly decided that no more 
detailed figures would be available for 
publication. 

"For. the purpose for which these 
statistics were intended — to inform the 
readers of the trade journals not only 
the amount of available stock, but 
where it could be found, as well — a 
generalization or grouping of totals 
did not answer, so, from that point of 
■*■ view, the statistics given out by the 
Forest Service are not especially val- 
uable. They are valuable, however, 
as affording information of the ex- 
tent of the lumber industry, the dis- 
tribution of the various woods that 
enter into lumber commerce, and the 
rapidity with which the timber re- 
sources of the land are being exploit- 
ed. In the table published in the re- 
port of the St. Louis meeting, the 
Forest Service estimates that from 
seventy to eighty per cent of the total 
lumber cut is represented. The totals 
were a little short of 27,000,000,000 
feet, indicating that the total, cut of 
the country was betweent 35 and 40 
billion feet of lumber. But these fig- 
ures are only a part of the work that 
has been tmdertaken by the Forest 
Service in co-operation with the Na- 
tional Lumber Manufacturer's Asso- 
ciation, and it is only in connection 
with the other work that they attain 
their greatest value. It is the aim 
of the Service to obtain figuees of the 
total timber resources of the country, 
the increase by growth and the total 
drain upon those resources. When all 
this information is secured with a fair 
degree of accuracy, it wall be both val- 
uable and interesting." 

p The recently issued re- 

in°CanLda P^i't of the superintend- 

ent of forestry for the 
Dominion of Canada, for the fiscal 
year ended June 30, 1905, contains 
some interesting information regard- 
ing the progress of forestry in Canada. 
Superintendent Stewart points out the 
great difiference in forest conditions 
between the countries of the Old and 
New World, and states his conviction 
that European methods are not en- 



tirely practicable in Canada. The re- 
port emphasizes the necessity of train- 
ed foresters in the Dominion, and ad- 
vocates educational advantages in for- 
estrv. Strong emphasis is laid upon 
the necessity for adequate fire protec- 
tion. The fire ranging system, which 
has been 'put into operation in some 
districts with considerable success, is 
described. 

The importance of proper cutting 
is emphasized by Superintendent 
Stewart, as second only to fire protec- 
tion. Forest reserves have already 
been created in the Dominion, but only 
for two reservations have working 
plans been instituted. 

The distribution of seedling trees 
for forest planting, to settlers in the 
Northwest — a co-operation system, 
which was begun in 1901 — is alrealy 
assuming vast proportions. Some 
1,860,000 were listributed during the 
year. 

An unusually dry spring 
Forest Fires • has made conditions for 

forest fires peculiarly 
favorable in the Northwest. Close to 
Vancouver, B.C., fires of considerable 
magnitude have destroyed much val- 
uable timber, and a fire in Lynn Val- 
ley destroyed hundreds of cords of 
wood and shingle bolts belonging to 
the Hastings Shingle Manufacturing 
Company. The mining town of Ber- 
lin, Wash., was almost completely des- 
troyed, and along the Great Northern 
and Northern Pacific railways forest 
fires have kept firefighters at work. 
Skyomish and Monroe, Wash., were 
for a time seriously threatened, pre- 
vious to a heavy rainfall. Owing to 
the failure of the Washington Legis- 
lature to provide sufficient funds to 
carry on the work of fire fighting be- 
yond last year, the timber owners, 
headed by the Weyerhaeuser syndicate, 
are providing a fund, and wardens will 
be placed in the field to organize vol- 
unteer crews, where fires are discover- 
ed. 

The most serious damage caused by 
forest fires so far this season, has 
been done in the upper i)eninsular of 




Tallulah Falls, Georgia. 
There is>ere a succession oijbeautiful cascades which have within a short distance anlaggre- 
gate descent of 335 feet, within the boundaries of the proposed Southern Appalachian 
Forest Reserve. 



1906 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



211 



Michigan and northern Wisconsin, 
where reports indicate 200 square 
miles are affected. Newspaper reports 
from Escanaba and Gladstone, Mich., 
state that the towns of Saunders, 
Ouinnesec, Shaffer, Ralps, Salvoie, 
Cornell, Woodlawn, and Talbot have 
been completely destroyed, and several 
other towns seriously threatened. The 
exact loss is hard to estimate, on ac- 
count of the meager details, but the 
loss in timber alone will be consider- 
able, while thedamage to farms, homes, 
live stock, and real estate will be ver}" 
heavy. 

At the meeting of the 
Lumbering National Wholesale 

Lumber Dealers Asso- 
ciation, held at Chicago in May, 1905, 
a resohttion was adopted to secure 
funds for the endowment of a chair 
of applied fprestry and practical lum- 
bering at the Yale Forest School. A 
committee was appointed to have 
charge of raising the fund. 

At the annual meeting of the asso- 
ciation, held recently in St. Louis, Mr. 
V. E. Weyerhaeuser reported for the 
committee the progress of its work. 
Some difficulty was encountered in 
getting the work under way, owing 
to the large territory to be covered. 
Accordingly it was January of the 
present year before the committee 
undertook the active work of solicit- 
ing subscriptions. Since that time, 
however, the work has gone steadily 
forward and $54, 601 . 20 has been raised 
through 158 subscriptions, from the 
following sources : 

Arizona District 5 I 80,00 

Lumber trade journals i 100,00 

Pacific Coast Lumber Manufac- 
turers' Association i SOO.oo 

Pennsylvania State 1 i.OdO.oo 

New Yorlc State 1 i.ooo.iiO 

Michigan State 3 1,250 00 

Sugar Pine Manufacturers 2 1,250 00 

Southern Cypress Manufactur- 
ers' Association 19 2,17500 

National Wholesale Lumber 

Dealers' Association 43 4,350.00 

Northern Pine Manufacturers' 

Association 18 19,200.00 

Yellow Pine Mimnf.i.i mn^' As- 
sociation 48 20,046-20 

Hardwood Muiiuia.inivis Asso- 
ciation of llie liiiuil .^tates..l6 3,050-00 

158 854,001.20 



The members of the committee hav- 
ing this matter in charge are Messrs. 
William Carson, J. T. Barber, J. B. 
White, C. I. Mallard, N.W. McLeod, 

E. G. Griggs, R. A. Long, R. H. 
Downman, L C. Enochs, J. L. Kaul, 
and F. E. Weyerhaeuser. Mr. George 
K. Smith is secretary of the committee. 

New The annual meeting of 

Hampshire ^^^ Society for the Pro- 
Meeting . / .,., -^ 

tection of New Hamp- 
shire Forests was held at Concord, N. 
H., on May 9. The meeting was an 
unusually interesting one. Mr. Asa 

F. Williams, forester of the Berlin 
Mills Company, addressed the meeting 
on the subject, "The Influence of Log- 
ging Upon Natural Reforestation." In 
addition there were papers by Prof. 
F. William Rane, of the Department 
of Horticulture and Forestry, of the 
State Agricultural College at Durham ; 
Mr. Edwin A Start, secretary of the 
Massachusetts Forestry Association ; 
Hon. Henry F. Hollis, of Concord 
(who has recently planted ten acres 
of white pine), and others. Dr. A. D. 
Hopkins, forest entomologist of the 
Department of Agriculture, spoke on 
"Insects Injurious to the Forests of 
New England," illustrating his talk 
with lantern slides. 

A legacy of $5,000, left by Mrs. 
Julia B. Thaver, of Keene, N. H., was 
announced ; also that Dartmouth Col- 
lege has placed its large tract of 26,- 
000 acres under forest management in 
co-operation with the society, with the 
Forester, Mr. Philip W. Ayres, in 
charge. There were full reports upon 
the proposed forest reservations in 
the southern Appalachian and White 
Mountain regions, and the society ex- 
pressed its hearty appreciation for the 
efforts that have been made looking 
to their establishment by the Senators 
from New Hampshire, by Dr. Edward 
Everett Hale, and by Governor R. B. 
Glenn, of North Carolina. Governor 
Glenn was elected a vice president of 
the society. Dr. Hale already being an 
honorary life member. The society 
has selected a list of correspondents in 
the several states of the l^nion to 



212 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



At 



«y 



assist in the campaign for national 
forest reservations in the East. 

A-t this meeting action was taken 
looking toward closer affiliation with 
the American Forestry Association, 
viz., the society voted to become a sus- 
taining member, which, under the 
amended by-laws adopted at the last 
meeting of the American Forestry As- 
sociation, allows an organization join- 
ing in such a manner the privilege of 
representation on the advisory board 
of the association, one member of 
which is also elected a vice president 
of the American Forestry Association. 
Those, who will represent the Society 
for the Protection of New Hampshire 
Forests on the advisory board of the 
association, are Hon. Frank W. Rol- 
lins, Concord, N. H., president of the 
society ; Mr. George T. Cruft, Bethle- 
hem, president of the White Mountain 
Board of Trade, and treasurer of the 
society, and Mr. Philip W. Ayres, Con- 
cord, forester of the society. 



To Enforce The initiation of a large 
P^^^^ national irrigation pro- 

in Camps j^^^^ giving employment 

to hundreds of laborers, is almost al- 
ways followed by an influx of disrep- 
utable characters who attempt to es- 
tablish themselves in or near the con- 
struction camps. They are most ob- 
jectionable individuals and their pur- 
pose is to establish saloons, brothels 
and gambling houses. Their presence 
in the camps is invariably followed by 
a saturnalia of crime, drunkenness, 
robberies and murders. 

In many states laws have been en- 
acted prohibiting the establishment of 
saloons within a specified distance of 



any government works under construc- 
tion ; but in others apparently this im- 
portant matter has been overlooked, 
and the engineer is helpless to protect 
the laborers from being wantonly rob- 
bed and frecjuently murdered. Even 
in states which have enacted these laws 
great difficulty is experienced in prose- 
cuting the violators owing to political 
influence which the liquor element is 
able to bring to bear on state and coun- 
ty authorities. The processes of the 
law are so slow that the liquor sellers 
and gamblers openly boast they can 
delay proceedings against them until 
the works are completed, after which 
they are willing to give up their un- 
lawful pursuits and abandon the tem- 
porary buildings occupied by them. 

In Nevada the conditions at several 
points along the works became de- 
plorable. The laborers, intoxicated by 
the vile decoctions of the dram shops, 
have been robbed by the gamblers or 
highwaymen and murders have not 
been infrequent. Several lynchings 
have occurred when the hold-up artists 
have been taken red-handed by the in- 
furiated laborers. 

The Department of Justice has been 
called upon to assist the Reclamation 
Service in driving out these criminals 
and in keeping liquor off the govern- 
ment reservation and out of govern- 
ment camps. Thus far repressory 
measures have proved unavailing, 
owing to the impossibility of securing 
prompt action in local courts. It is 
hoped that with the co-operation of 
the Department of Justice the reign of 
lawlessness on several of the govern- 
ment works may be ended and some 
of the rascals punished. 



1906 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



213 




GOVERNOR JOHN McLANE OF NEW HAMPSHIRE 



ONE OF the most forceful of the addresses given before the Committee on Agriculture, 
of the House of Representatives, at the time of the recent hearing on the bill for the 
creation of national forest reserves in the White Mountains of New Hampshire and 
the Southern Appalachian Mountains, was tliat delivered by Governor John iNIcLane, of 
New Hampshire. So vitally does the government of the State of New Hampshire, in 
which the proposed White Mountain Reservation is located, feel the need of this reserva- 
tion, that it was unanimously voted that the Governor and his council should attend the 
hearing before the House Committee and exert all possible influence toward securing the 
reservation. 

John McLane was born at Lennoxtonn, Scotland, February 27, 1852. He wns educated 
in the public schools at Manchester, N. H., and learned the trade of cabinet maker, and 
since 1876 has been engaged as a manufacturer of postoflfice furniture and equipments. He 
is now President of the McLane Manufacturing Company ; also President of the Lonhegan 
National Bank, and variously connected with other institutions in his State. He was a 
member of the New Hampshire House of Representatives, 1885 ; State Senator, 1891-3, and 
President of the Senate at both sessions. He was elected Governor in 1905. 



214 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



May 




GOVERNOR R. B. GLENN OF NORTH CAROLINA 



SELDOM has forestry found a more ardent and enthusiastic advocate than Governor 
Robert Brodnax Glenn of Nortli Carolina. Among the first in North Carolina to dis- 
cern the value of forestry to his State, and appreciating the vast interests at stake, he 
has ardently championed the cause and bj- the force of his example and his unflagging 
interest gained the support of all substantial citizens. Just now the State is beginning 
to awake to its needs and to realize more fully the magnitude of its interests involved 
through destruction of the forests, and the many advantages to be derived from the pro- 
posed Appalachian Forest Reserve. Governor Glenn's prompt and intelligent support of 
the forest movement is characteristic of his work in other lines. 

Robert Brodnax Glenn was born in Rockingham County, North Carolina, August 11, 
1854, the son of Chalmers L. and Annie S. Glenn. He received education through a tutor 
at home, later attending the high school at Leaksville, N. C, Davidson's College, N. C, 
and finally Pearson's Law School at Richmond Hill, N. C. Upon completing his course at 
the latter school he engaged in the general practice of law, and since 1878 has been a mem- 
ber of the firm of Glenn, Moody and Hendren, at Winston, N. C. He has been assistant 
director for the Southern Railwav, attorney for the Western Union Telegraph Company, 
member of the State Legislature" (1881), solicitor for the State of North Carolina (1886), 
and district attorney for the United States, 1893-97. He was elected Governor of North 
Carolina in 1905. 



THE 



DRAINAGE OF THE EVER 
GLADES 



BY 



DR. JOHN GIFFORD 



A PROPOS of the Steenerson bill 
■**• for the reclamation of swamp- 
lands, I believe, although I have no 
statistics at hand, that the area of good 
land under cultivation in the United 
States which has been reclaimed by 
drainage, equals or exceeds that re- 
claimed by irrigation ; and the same 
applies to the amount of land still un- 
reclaimed. Our largest swamp areas 
are still wildernesses because their 
very vastness renders reclamation by 
private enterprise impossible. It is, 
however, undoubtedly quite as much 
the function of the federal government 
to remove water from land in the east 
as it is to put water on the land in the 
west. 

The vast swamp area known as the 
Everglades in the part of Florida 
which is tropical is of such size that 
private enterprise cannot handle it and 
it is doubtful even if the State of Flor- 
ida is equal to it. It is a project of 
such magnitude that in order to be 
done properly, federal aid is necessary. 
It is a pet project of the present Gov- 
ernor of Florida and the work of re- 
clamation has actually been begun both 
by the State and the Florida East 
Coast Railroad. These operations, 
however, compared with what there is 
to do are like the merest nibblings on 
the edge of an enormous cheese. The 
reclamation of the Everglades deserves 
attention from federal authorities, 
firstly, because a large part of it is still 
unsurveyed federal land, and, secondly, 
because it is capable of producing a 
great variety of crops at a time of the 
year when they cannot be produced 
elsewhere in the United States. Al- 
most every year an enormous quantity 
of winter vegetables is produced on 
the edge of the Everglades. The rain- 
fall was exceptional this year, how- 



ever, so that glade crops were impos- 
sible. The excessive and unusual 
amount of water has rendered trips 
by canoe into the Everglades possible 
this winter. 

The writer with a party of friends 
took advantage of this opportunity to 
visit Seminole village on one of the 
islands in the Everglades. 

The Everglades are, in part at least, 
surrounded by a rocky rim. This rim 
is mostly limestone rock. Here and 
there streams break through the rim, 
and thus the region is drained. In dry 
times the flow from the streams and 
the evaporation are sufficient to keep a 
large zone on the edge of the Ever- 
glades comparatively dry and fit for 
cultivation. In the saucer-like de- 
pression within the rocky rim there 
are immense springs which are fed 
from some inexhaustible source far up 
the country. When excessive precipi- 
tation is added to this spring supply 
the rocky water courses flowing into 
the sea are unable to carry off the 
water and the water-table which is 
ordinarily close to the surface is raised 
so far above it that navigation with 
a canoe is comparatively easy. One 
can follow for miles the trail of the 
Seminole canoes through the saw- 
grass. 

The rocky, pine-covered land occa- 
sionally juts into the marshes like fin- 
gers, and vice versa long slender minor 
glades run into the pine land. 

Here and there throughout the 
Everglades are islands which are en- 
tirely difi:erent from the pine land. On 
these islands the Seminole Indian lives 
and cultivates his crops. In the 
marshes he hunts alligators and other 
wild animals. The islands are rocky 
just like the pine land rim, in fact the 
whole of the Everglade region is un- 



216 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



May 



derlain with limestone rock, sometimes 
close to the surface, even exposed to 
view, while in other places it is cov- 
ered with several feet of partly decom- 
posed vegetation. 

On these islands we recognized sev- 
eral familiar trees, such as Magnolia 
glanca, so common in the south and 
sen as far north as Long Island, the 
cypress, the live oak and the cocoa- 
plum, mingled with such unusual trees 
as the wild calabash (C. ovata), etc. 
Here the Indians make their clearings 
and grow sweet potatoes, squashes, 



The Seminoles are much like other 
people in that some are clean, some 
are dirty, some industrious, some lazy ; 
most of them fond of liquor and tobac- 
co ; fond of finery and plenty to eat, 
but they are peculiar in that they ap- 
parently have no political status. Al- 
though they were driven into this land 
and sought refuge here, they have no 
legal claim to it. They are neither 
citizens nor are they wards of the 
government. They have their own 
laws and do as they please. While 
peaceful they are never molested. The 




Looking into the Everglades. One of the streams by which they are partly draii 



corn, etc. Here also are limes, rough 
lemon, sour orange, and other trees 
planted by the Indians. 

When one tries to land on one of 
these islands, the centre of which has 
been cleared mainly by girdling and 
fire, he realizes why the Seminole 
wears no pants. The water through 
which one must wade to approach the 
farm was waist deep this winter. The 
wetting did not concern us as much 
as did the thought of mocasins which 
frequent such places. 



time is coming when these islands will 
be needed for truck patches. The 
most successful grower in Dade Coun- 
ty, Florida, this season raised his crops 
on one of these islands. He is already 
clearing another. Additional islands 
are owned, and still other persons have 
tneir eyes on getting islands, and so 
on it will go until they are all used. 
Strange to say in order to grow truck 
successfully here, one must irrigate. 
The truck grower referred to above 
owns a long slender island. Down the 



1906 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



217 



middle of it winds a square trough of 
cypress boards. In the sides of this 
trough are holes; with a six-horse- 
power gasoline engine he pumps the 
water out of the Everglades and lets 
it out of the holes in the trough when 
and wherever he needs it. 

The rocky bed underlying the soil 
covering of the Everglades is appar- 
ently still in process of formation. 
The water as it comes from springs 
is full of lime. Owing to evaporation 
and chemical reasons the lime is de- 



jMangrove Swamp. These mangroves 
are often large, fine trees and when 
accessible are being used for piling. A 
small quantity has been used for floor- 
ing and the bark is being shipped from 
this region for tuning extract. The 
black mangrove is also a valuable 
tree. 

The main point of this article, how- 
ever, is this : If Congress is hunting 
for swamps to drain they are here. 
There are four or five million acres of 
them. Here is opportunity for tropical 




Indians coming out of the Everglades in their canoes on the Miami River. 



posited on everything. Every leaf and 
twig is covered with it. Over the sur- 
face innumerable shells of snails may 
be seen floating. These finally drop to 
the bottom and are incorporated with 
the rock. 

In the southern part of the Ever- 
glades there is an island called "Para- 
dise Key," on which there are many 
large royal palms. How they got 
there is a mystery. 

South of the Everglades stretching 
for miles to Cape Sable is the Great 



expansion nearer home than the Phil- 
lipines. Here is an empire to conquer 
which reminds the forester somewhat 
of the famous "Landes" which are 
now reclaimed and one of the most 
healthful and productive provinces of 
France. But, strange to say, the Ever- 
glades are not unhealty. In fact the 
Indians claim that mosquitos are fewer 
there than in the dry pine land. This 
is probably due to the little fish that 
live in its streams. In general, animal 
life does not appear to be plentiful in 



218 



FOEESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



May 



these glades. Two or three hundred 
Indians, born hunters, constantly hunt- 
ing can keep the fish and game animals 
in check over a broad area. 

No doubt when ditches are dug tour 
ists will tour these glades with com- 
fort, just as they will in the course of a 



he regarded the building of this rail- 
road second only in importance to the 
Panama Canal project. It would seem 
that if private enterprise is capable of 
building a railroad across the Florida 
Keys to Key West it might also be 
equal to the task of draining the Ever- 




A Group of Seminole Indians who inhabit the Everglades 



year or two cross the Keys to Key 
West, literally go to sea by train with 
the Straits of Florida on one side and 
the broad Gulf of Mexico on the other. 
The local papers report that Mr. 
Shonts, of the Canal Commission, 
while in Xey West recentlv, said that 



glades. Many of the canals which 
would be dug in the Everglades would 
serve at the same time for transporta- 
tion purposes. 

While land is so abundant and cheap 
even near the great centers of popu- 
lation the need for the reclamation of 



1906 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



219 



vast swamp areas might, however, 
seem questionable. It is people that 
are needed more than land. At the 
same time this swamp land is highly 
productive so that in the long run its 
reclamation pays. Swamp lands lie 
idle at the very doors of our great 



As Merriam points out in his bulle- 
tin on Life and Crop Zones, when a 
zone of one kind dips far into a zone 
of another kind there is great advant- 
age. In the Everglades region we 
have a vast territory of humid tropical 
land extending northward so close to 




A Boatload of Alligator Eggs. In the center of the boat 
there are young Alligators just hatched. 



cities. In Holland land is wrested 
from the sea while close by there is 
plenty of poor, cheap land to be had. 
The writer once visited a bleak health- 
land tract in Holland, called "Amer- 
ika," where a company was endeavor- 
ngi to induce settlers to come and start 
a boom. 



great centres of consumption that its 
ability to produce unusualy crops will 
some day be recognized. 

There have been objections ad- 
vanced to this old reclamation project. 
It is claimed on the East Coast that 
the lowering of the water table in the 
Everglades will remove the influence 



220 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



May 



which such a body of water exerts on 
tempering the northers which blow 
across it. There may be something in 
this objection but opinions are so di- 
verse on the subject that it is impos- 
sible to conjecture its effects. In case 
frosts are more severe after the drain- 
age is completed the drainage would 
be blamed although the frost might 
really be due to other causes. The 
planting of trees over this area which 
would immediately follow its drainage 
would probably more than counteract 
the influence of the drainage. Since 
the water in the 'Glades comes mostly 
from deep springs it is warmer in 
cold weather and cooler in warm 
weather than the air. 

It is the original cost of such pro- 
jects which stagger one, but operations 
just as great have been completed or 
are in process of construction. When 
the Panama Canal is done and in 
working order we will regard it as a 
matter of course and wonder why 
some nation had not done it long ago. 
The great Gulf trade now all goes 
around the south of Florida and when 
one sees ship after ship loaded with 
valuable cargoes piled up hopeless 
wrecks on the Florida Keys with mil- 
lions of dollars worth of human labor 
lost he realizes that a canal from Jack- 
sonville to the Gulf in a saving also of 
coal and time, would in the long run 
prove a great investment. 

So when one sees thousands of 
farmers working in poor sandy soil, 
which ought to be left to produce for- 
est, he wishes that they might have 
some of the unreclaimed swampland 
which they are prevented from using 
in consequence of the great initial cost 

It is an indisputable fact that land 
which is easy to clear is usually cleared 
first and that lands which have been 
reclaimed by drainage and irrigation 
are really the lands which have the 
most lasting fertility and the greater 
productiveness. When we consider 
the smallness of the return and the loss 
of time and labor in working poor 
land over a period of many years the 
first cost after all counts for Ittle. The 
man who pays five dollars an acre for 
poor land because he cannot aflford to 



pay one hundred for good land is 
making poor investment. 
■ One must beware drained lands 
which may be subject to flood in se- 
vere storms. On our eastern coast of 
the United States there are hundreds 
of acres of banked lands once carefully 
cultivated now swamp again. Drain- 
age must be perfect to meet extreme 
conditions of storm. This means 
great and lasting works on a large 
scale similar to those of Holland. 

The Everglades are higher than the 
sea. There is no danger of floods ex- 
cept from excessive precipitation. The 
water is constantly coming up from 
below. It is merely a matter of 
ditches. And ditches are merely a 
matter of money, men, and machinery. 
That work has begun is evidenced by 
the following note clipped from the 
Miami Metropolis: 

"Information has reached the city 
that the dredge under construction at 
Fort Lauderdale for the State, to be 
used in digging a canal to drain the 
Everglades, as proposed by Governor 
Broward and the State Drainage Com- 
mission, was successfully launched on 
Monday, and will at once be fitted 
with the machinery, all of which is on 
hand, and the craft made ready to be- 
gin dredging operations within a 
month. 

"The hull of the dredge is 50x112 
feet in size, and it is said the machin- 
ery to be installed will have a greater 
capacity than any similar dredge ever 
constructed in the State. Governor 
Broward will come down again and be 
present when the craft is put to work 
on the project which is just now agi- 
tating and interesting the State." 

But the Drainage Commission has 
ordered the special drainage tax to be 
severed from this year's collections un- 
til pending litigation has been settled. 
This means the suspension of the 
"Everglade scheme" for the present at 
least, though there is apparently noth- 
ing to prohibit Governor Brownard 
from continuing the work of building 
dredges with the money already on 
hand in the Internal Improvement 
Fund. 



BLACK CHERRY (Prunus Serotma)^ 

VI. — Notes on Fore^ Trees Suitable 
for Planting in the United States. 



DISTRIBUTION AND MANNER OF OCCUR- 
RENCE;. 

The Black Cherry flourishes through- 
out the eastern half of the United 
States from Nova Scotia to Tampa 
Bay, Florida ; westward it grows to the 
Missouri River in southeastern South 
Dakota, to eastern Kansas and Ne- 
braska, Indian Territory, and Texas; 
and extends through Mexico and along 
the Pacific Coast of Central America 
to Peru. In the northern extremity 
of the Lake States its distribution is 
limited to shaded lake shores and 
banks of streams, while in places it 
fades out entirely and is replaced by 
the Wild Cherry. 

Although growing over a wide 
range of territory, the region for eco- 
nomic planting should be limited to the 
region extending westward from In- 
diana to eastern South Dakota, and 
Kansas, and southward along the high 
moist slopes of the Appalachians. 

Throughout its range it is common 
under varying conditions of soil and 
exposure in open places in hardwood 
forests, but is nowhere abundant, 
though occasionally in the most fa- 
vorable locations numerous groups of 
trees are found. 

CHARACTERISTICS OE GROWTH — ASSO- 
CIATE SPECIES. 

Because of its adaptability to differ- 
ent conditions the Black Cherry va- 
ries greatly in form and size, depending 
on the region and locality in which it 
grows. In New England it is of rne- 
dium size, 30 to 50 feet in height, with 
a diameter varying from 10 inches to 
2 feet. In the Middle States and west- 
ward it becomes larger, with a height 
of 40 to 70 feet, and with sometimes a 
diameter of 3 feet, although it becomes 
smaller along the northern limit of its 



range. In the moist residual soil of 
the upper slopes of the southern Alle- 
ghenies it reaches its maximum 
growth ; here a height of 100 feet and 
a diameter of 5 feet is often attained. 

When forest-grown the trunk of the 
Black Cherry is long and slender, free 
from branches, and surmounted by a 
comparatively small, open crown com- 
posed of large, irregular branches. In 
the open the crown becomes more 
spreading, but seldom massive like that 
of the oak and chestnut. The root sys- 
tem is extensive, especiallv on dry, 
sterile soil, where the heart roots go 
deep in search of moisture. A con- 
siderable lateral system of surface 
roots is also developed. The tree is 
moderately shade-enduring. 

The rate of growth is so much de- 
pendent upon climate and soil condi- 
tions as tp cause different opinions 
concerning its real capabilities. Un- 
der the most favorable conditions it is 
a rapid growing tree, while in a very 
cold or exceedingly warm climate, and 
in unfavorable soil, the growth is 
rather slow. In a deep, rich soil and 
a mild climate, trees 25 to 30 years old 
have been known to make an average 
annual diameter growth of four-fifths 
of an inch, but the valuable, dark-col- 
ored timber is not produced until the 
age of 60 to 80 years. On the whole, 
the Black Cherry may be considered 
as a rapid-growing, short-lived spe- 
cies. 

The trees associated with the Black 
Cherry include nearly all of the com- 
mon hardwoods, among which may be 
mentioned the Beech, birches, oaks, 
hickories. Black Walnut, Ohio Buck- 
eye, and the maples. 

WOOD — ECONOMIC USES. 

The wood is light, strong, rather 
hard, with a close, fine grain which 



■Furnished by U. S. Forest Service. 



222 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



May 



takes a beautiful polish ; it is brown 
or red in color at maturity, with thin, 
yellow sapwood. It is suitable for 
cabinetmaking and interior decorating, 
and for such purposes has been so ex- 
tensively used that he largest and best 
trees of the country have now been 
cut. F'or general construction work 
or when exposed to the weather the 
wood is not good. This lessens the 
value of the tree for general planting. 

SOIL AND SITE). 

The Black Cherry is capable oi ex- 
isting in a variety of dry situations, 
but it is only in the moist, well-drain- 
ed, rich soils of mild climates that the 
maximum development is attained. 
The tree thrives on bottom lands and 
does fairly well on sandy or rocky up- 
lands if the soil is rich and penetrable. 
In the West its success as a forest tree 
has been variable, although on the 
whole encouraging. In the loess soil 
of western Iowa, on dry ridges and 
bluffs, and in black drift soils it makes 
a rapid growth. 

PROPAGATION. 

Birds are the natural agents of seed 
dissemination for the cherry, and by 
them the tree has been broadly distrib- 
uted. This means of starting repro- 
duction can hardly be depended upon, 
however, because the cherry pits are 
scattered too thinly and many of them 
are lost through falling in places un- 
favorable to germination. On limited 
areas in the South natural reproduc- 
tion is good on open or partly shaded 
land, but in the North and West it is 
often lacking. 

As the Black Cherry is easily trans- 
planted, it is better to plant the seeds 
in a nursery and transfer the trees to 
the final forest site when one or two 
years old than to attempt to grow 
young trees by planting seeds where 
the trees are to stand. 

The fruit, which is borne profusely 
almost every year by trees in the open 
and less frequently by those in the 
forest, ripens in late August or early 
September and may be collected by 
hand from low trees or from tall forest 



trees by shaking it down upon canvas. 
The pulp should be washed off and 
the surface of the pit dried to prevent 
moulding. For winter preservation 
the pits should be stratified in moist 
sand and placed on the north side of 
a building where they will breeze and 
not be thawed out too often or too 
rapidly by the sun. In the spring they 
should be planted in drills 8 to 12 
inches apart for hand cultivation, or 
2 to 3 feet apart if a horse cultivator 
is to be used, and covered about i inch 
deep. In the drill the seeds should be 
placed 2 or 3 inches apart. Planting 
must be done immediately after re- 
moving the pits from the sand, as even 
a partial drying at this stage is fatal. 
The transfer to the permanent planta- 
tion may be made in the spring when 
the trees are i year old, or they may 
be transplanted to nursery rows and 
allowed to develop for another year 
before the final setting. 

The Black Cherry, since it endures 
considerable shade, may be planted 
rather close, either in pure stands or 
with associated species. The best spe- 
cies for a mixture are Boxelder, Red 
Oak, ash, elm, Silver Maple, Black 
Walnut, and Hackberry, the choice 
depending upon the locality. 



The forest tent caterpillar {Clisio- 
campa americana) often seriously in- 
jures the Black Cherry by destroying 
the leaves. A fungus known as "black 
knot," by causing unsightly swellings 
on the branches, greatly disfigures the 
tree. In case of insect attack speci- 
mens should be sent to the Division of 
Entomology for identification and sug- 
gestions as to methods of control. 

The leaves and fruit of Black Cher- 
ry contain hydrocyanic acid, which is 
a deadly poison ; cattle have in rare 
instances been poisoned by eating the 
leaves, and it is said that children have 
died from eating the pits or swallow- 
ing the fruit whole. The fresh leaves 
are considered harmless, the poison be- 
ing the result of chemical action in the 
withering leaves. 



1906 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



223 



POSSIBILITIES AND USES. 

For limited use as a mixture in prai- 
rie planting, especially on rather moist 
soil, the Black Cherry will find a use- 
ful place. In general, however, it is 
too short lived and of too limited eco- 
nomic value to be recommended for 
extensive planting in the West. As a 
nurse tree in forest plantations and 
where a luxurious foliage effect is de- 
sired it serves a useful purpose. 

In the South and East, where it is 
of longer life and reaches its best de- 
velopment, it does not hold a high 
place because of the small size of the 
timber it produces and the presence of 
more valuable species. It is seldom 
used for ornamental purposes. With 
slight protection near the seacoast it 
has in a moderate degree shown its 
ability to withstand salt winds. 

NOTABLE PLANTATIONS. 

H. C. Raymond, of western Iowa, 
reports that lo-y ear-old Black Cherry 
grown in groves is 6 inches in diame- 
ter and 28 feet high, while Hardy 
Catalpa of the same age and in the 
same soil is of the same diameter but 
only 25 feet high. 



In the Farlington plantation in Kan- 
sas the Black Cherry for the first few 
years gave great promise, but it is now 
deteriorating and, in many cases, dy- 
ing. 

In a block planted in 1878, contain- 
ing 196 White Ash, 27 Catalpa, and 7 
Black Cherry trees, the Cherry, when 
measured in 1901, was the largest both 
in diameter and height. The follow- 
ing was the average size of the 7 trees : 
Average diameter at i foot from 

the ground 8.4 inches 

Average diameter at 7 feet from 

the ground 6.4 inches 

Average height 34.0 feet 

Average clear length of bole.. 19.0 feet 

In another block containing 149 
Black Cherry and 187 Catalpa trees 
the latter were entirely dominated by 
the Cherry. The average size of the 
Cherry was : 
Average diameter at i foot from 

the ground 5.6 inches 

Average diameter at 7 feet from 

the ground 4.0 inches 

Average height 32.0 feet 

Average clear length of bole.. 19.0 feet 



THE FORT BAYARD WATERSHED 



BY 



J. C. BLUMER 



17 IFTY miles east of the Arizona 
•'■ line, and seventy miles north of 
the Mexican boundary, on the south 
slope of the Pinos Altos Mountains of 
southwestern New Mexico, lies the Ft. 
Bayard watershed. It embraces the 
headwaters of Cameron Creek from 
the United States military hospital at 
Ft. Bayard northward nearly to the 
continental divide as it culminates in 
Black Peak and the Twin Sisters. It 
thus practically abuts on the backbone 
of America. The twenty-two square 
miles of its general southerly exposure 



thus lie at an altitude of, roughly, 
6,000 to 8,000 feet above sea level. 
Its southern and lower portion lies 
within the Ft. Bayard Military Reser- 
vation. The remainder, in July, 1905, 
became part of the Gila Forest Re- 
serve. 

The climate is warm and dry, but 
verv much less so than is commonly 
thought. The average annual precipi- 
tation for the last thirty-two vears on 
the neighboring plain has been 15 
inches.* As the mountain tops are 
approached, the rainfall increases. It 



*Stockman, Bulletin N, V. 8. Weather Bureau. 



224 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



May 



is conservative to place the average 
annual rainfall for the watershed in 
question at 25 inches. There is one 
pronounced rainy season, and this 
comes in July and August, usually 
closing in September. At this season 
the sweltering people of our cities 
north and east would do well to come 
to southwestern New Mexico for their 
summer resort. The mercury finds the 
midsummer forenoon too short to rise 
higher than 85 degrees Fahrenheit, 



where the air is quiet and several de- 
grees warmer than in the neighboring 
valley. Here is encountered at night 
a stream of cold air on its way from 
the mountains to the plain, there to 
replace the heated atmosphere of the 
day. The light snows and rains that 
usually fall during the mild winter 
suffer comparatively little by evapo- 
ration and transpiration. When the 
warmth of spring reappears, this 
moisture is quickly utilized bv the veg- 




Photo by W. R. Matoon. 



General View of Bull Pine on North Slope in center and along stream. Juniper and 
Blue Oak Chapparal on other slopes. Streams run dry except at time of floods; 
and where fed by a few precious springs. 



rarely does it venture above this point. 
By noon the warm air has ascended to 
the mountain tops, comes in contact 
with cooler bodies here and is con- 
densed, clouds begin to lower and de- 
scend through the keen atmosphere, 
and soon to refresh the entire moun- 
tain side by shade, or gentle shower, 
or bursting torrent. The nights are 
always cool. In autumn it is found ad- 
visable to pitch camp upon a knoll. 



etation, and it makes as quickened 
growth. As the drouth and parching 
heat of spring advances, this growth 
recedes to a minimum, takes on new 
impulse and fresh color with the be- 
nignant midsummer showers, only to 
dwindle and fade a second time with 
the approach of winter. 

Thus we find in evergreen trees the 
phenomenon of two annual rings 
formed within one year. Since many 



1906 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



225 



pronounced irregularities creep in, 
however, the determination of age by 
the counting of rings becomes a task 
of great difficulty. With the decidu- 
ous species the case is different. They 
usually present plainly but one annual 
ring per year. 

The geologic structure of this drain- 
age basin is varied and interesting. In 
the southeast portion the gentle swells 
are paved with great blocks of car- 
boniferous limestone. Resting upon 



formation from northeast to southeast, 
and together with erosion, govern the 
minor topography. These audesite 
dikes are often sufficiently mineral- 
bearing to deflect a transit ne.edle sev- 
eral degrees from its true course. As- 
cending nothward, we find resting 
upon this formation a body of rhyo- 
lite, a whitish acid, volcanic rock, its 
edge exposed in the form of several 
water-sculptured terraces that repre- 
sent as manv successive flows of lava. 




^>" 




Photo by \V. K. Matoon. 

A Closer View of North Slope. Note the deltoid mass of rock fragments and debris 
in left loreground at base of slope. Immediately above the gully is ten feet 
deep. This slope not long ago was covered by an open stand of Bull Pine. 



this are certain bodies of quartzite of 
perhaps Triassic age. Mt. Humboldt, 
marking the easternmost point of the 
basin, is a cone built of this exceed- 
ingly hard material. All the reinain- 
ing foothill portion of the watershed 
belongs to an eruptive formation, prob- 
ably Older Tertiary. It contains cer- 
tain bodies of volcanic sandstone. Ribs 
of intrusive rock, usually 8-12 feet 
wide, at intervals traverse this whole 



Surmounting this, and marking the 
line where the foothills merge into the 
mountain slopes, come bodies of con- 
glomerate hundreds of feet thick, 
rhese are composed of volcanic mate- 
rial, but evidently deposited by water. 
Spread upon top of the conglomerate, 
and showing itself continuous through- 
out the watershed and beyond, is a 
layer of brown, Miocene or Pliocene 
basalt, whose edge forms the perpen- 



226 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



May 



dicular "rim rock," that is such a char- 
acteristic feature of the great west. 
This lava floor has been cut and chis- 
elled by the drippings of the ages until 
we have to-day a whole system of 
mesas corresponding to the same, well- 
nigh perfect level. Above and beyond, 
reaching to the upper confines of the 
basin, rise other bodies of conglomer- 
ate, capped by still other strata of rhy- 
olite and basalt. 

The principal floral type is one of 
evergreen, orchard-like woodland, and 
of chapparal. This clothes all the bas- 
in except the strictly north slopes. 
These give rise to a deciduous oak 
{Querciis gambelii) mixed with west- 
ern yellow pine in an open stand. The 
strictly evergreen type covers perhaps 
90 per cent, or more of the area. The 
trees and shrubs of general distribu- 
tion are as follows, named in order of 
importance from the economic stand- 
point: Two species of iuniper, four of 
oak, two of pine, mountain mahogany 
(Cerocarpiis parvilfolius), and Garrya 
Wrightii. The junipers are Juniper us 
pachyphloea, and Junipenis monosper- 
ma, bearing the local names of juniper 
and cedar, respectively. The oaks are 
Quercus arizonica, Querciis hypoleuca, 
Qiiercns gambelii, Quercus emoryi. 
The first is locally known as scrub 
oak ; the third as water oak, white oak ; 
while the second and fourth are usu- 
ally combined under the names of red 
oak and black jack. The pines : Pinus 
edulis, and Pinus ponderosa. The fore- 
going are within each group placed in 
order of relative abundance, which, 
with the possible transposition of the 
pines, is also the order of present rela- 
tive economic value. 

There occur at least 26 other native 
species in the basin, nearly all growing 
along water-courses. The more prom- 
ising of these for soil-binding on 
stream banks and other purposes, are : 
The poplars (Populus wislizeni, Po pu- 
bis angustifolia) , box elder, Mexican 
walnut {Juglans rupestris), cherry 
{Primus salicifolia aciitifolia), willows 
(Salix irrorata, and two others), lo- 
cust (Robinia neomexicana). Aside 
from tree fruit and small fruit, three 



species have been introduced, viz. : 
Populus acuminata, Sapindus margina- 
tus, Sambucus glauca. The first-named 
makes a phenomenal growth (5 to 6 
feet annually) where water is at hand. 
The soap-berry, next in order, shows 
promise in spreading to arid soil. 

The chief use of such woody growth 
as will thrive on this watershed is its 
power for the conservation of soil and 
water. The secondary use is almost 
altogether for firewood and posts. 
With fuel in the neighboring town of 
Silver City worth $6.50 a cord, and 
juniper posts growing scarce at 40 
cents each, this is also important. 

The two species that deserve special 
mention are the alligator juniper (Jun- 
iperus pachyphloea) and Quercus ari- 
zonica. Both are of wide and general 
distribution, and maintain themselves 
well under adverse conditions, each on 
certain areas being the only woody 
plant to survive. The oak grows upon 
many steep slopes underlain by con- 
glomerate, a soil cover that nature has 
taken untold centuries of selection to 
produce, and that man will probably 
find impossible to improve. The juni- 
per thrives alone on many a grassy 
mesa, and reproduces vigorously on 
cut-over areas under surroundings that 
would kill any ordinary tree, root and 
branch. The latter is true of the other 
juniper as well, but this is limited in 
distribution. Junipers are of slow 
growth, and necessarily so in a climate 
like this. Yet the past season (1905) 
young growth has made an average of 
about 15 inches, much more than any 
other species on the same site. On 
large areas the junipers are capable of 
forming by far the best soil cover of 
anything now growing, and it is at 
least somewhat doubtful if anything 
better can be made to grow in the fu- 
ture. Moreover, they give the best 
quality of wood of any species on the 
watershed, both for fuel and posts. 
But junipers are hard to produce ar- 
tificially. The best present way to fa- 
vor them appears to be to provide the 
conditions best suited to the produc- 
tion of natural young growth. But it 



19(M) 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



227 




Courtesy Forest Service. 

Stephen's Creek, Ft Bayard Nursery. 
Run off during flood after hard showers, August 2, 1905 




Courtesy Forest Service. 



View taken in same place as preceding view one hour later. 
The stream has receded to its normal volume, emanating from springs. 



228 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



May 



would lead too far to discuss these 
here. 

The stupendous physical forces that 
have upheaved and convulsed this bit 
of the earth's surface belong to the 
unknown past. The more constant and 
more silent forces that little by little 
have worn this watershed down to its 
present topography may never have 
been so active as at present. The not 
infrequent cloudbursts corrugate the 
upper, and especially the north slopes 
to a remarkable degree, bring down 
countless tons of rock debris and soil, 
tear great, gaping channels through 
the ranches of remarkably rich alluvial 
adobe soil along the streams, only fur- 
ther down to double devastation by 
spreading sand, rock, and uprooted 
trees over other fertile fields and or- 
chards. During the rainy season it is 
the rule for roads to be impassable. 
At Ft. Bayard the pumping station 
and the water supply for the 500 pa- 
tients has been put in jeopardy. The 
springs upon which the ranches de- 
pend are often obliterated. 

Various recently eroded streambeds 
disclose 10 to 15 feet below the present 
flood plain the surface of an older one, 
rich with humus, and often supporting 
the roots of oak and walnut. While 
these trees were growing the stream 
was probably cutting a channel near 
by, and later overwhelming them by 
disposition. One stream has recently 
exposed a log cabin buried in about 12 
feet of sediment. Now the cabin was 
such as white men build, hence was 
put up less than 400 years ago. Logs 
not long cut have been buried in va- 
rious places. These are strong indi- 
cations that active erosion and deposi- 
tion takes place in certain cycles, and 
that these have continued from geolo- 
gic down through historic time to the 
present day. 

Local testimony bears witness, that 
a long period previous to 1903 had 
been very dry. The unusually heavy 
rainfall of the last two years has 
caused a tremendous amount of fresh 
gullying. It is possible that a new 
cycle of erosion has just begun. The 
severe grazing of past years that killed 



the grama sod over considerable areas, 
and caused such hardy shrubs as the 
mountain mahogany to succumb in 
large numbers, has without doubt con- 
tributed much to erosive activity. On 
several north slopes the last of the 
pines had been removed. The grasses 
and herbs of the ground cover had 
been literally shaved off by cattle and 
goats. The succeeding rains tore fur- 
rows into these slopes fully ten feet 
deep in places, and no further apart. 

But it must not be inferred that had 
there been no grazing or wood-cutting 
there would have been no gullies. They 
would only have been fewer and less 
deeper. Certain rhyolitic terraces are 
now being cut clean. The rains are 
washing the white rock bare of all 
soil and humus. But it should not be 
concluded that a forest should stand 
on those rocks had there been no cut- 
ting. If all influence -of grazing and 
wood-cutting, past and present, could 
be obliterated, the timber would still 
be scrubby, and it is more than likely 
that run-off and erosion should still 
take place to a remarkable degree. The 
factors that cause this large amount of 
run-off, erosion, and deposition can be 
safely put down in the following or- 
der : Character of rainfall, soil and 
rock, topography and vegetation, ma- 
jor factors. Grazing and wood-cut- 
ting, minor factors. 

Being human factors, grazing and 
wood-cutting can be controlled. In 
fact, on the public land in the water- 
shed, they are now being prohibited,- 
and for the present rightly so. But 23 
per cent, of the total area is either in 
private and territorial holdings, or in 
process of passing into such, the latter 
in some cases unrightfully. As a re- 
sult of the prohibition much of this 
land is now being absolutely denuded 
of both grass and wood, nor can the 
bona fide owners be blamed. As an 
offset it is possible on certain areas of 
the public domain to reverse the fac- 
tors of grazing and wood-cutting into 
that of tree-planting. 

A forest nursery was established on 
the watershed by Mr. Geo. F. Cloth- 
ier, of the Forest Service, in the sum- 



1906 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



229 



mer of 1905. In December following, 
450,000 western yellow pine, and some 
other seedlings, were growing in it, 
covering three-fifths of an acre. Plant- 
ed in July, the pines had made at the 
end of the growing season two inches 
of top, and 8 to 12 inches of root, with 



over, these same slopes are in most 
immediate need of attention. This 
pine should presently do a great deal 
to relieve the local situation. The fur- 
ther and larger use of the planting will 
come in the form of an object lesson 
to the people of that section. But it 




Courtesy Forest Service 

Ft. Bayard Forest Nursery, showing seed beds of Bull Pine, photo taken 30 days 
trom date of seed sowing, August, 1905. 



some laterals one inch long. They will 
probably be ready to transplant in the 
fall of igo6, or summer of 1907. Their 
logical place is on the north slopes. 
Being indigenous here, they should 
succeed readily when planted. More- 



must be conferred that to expect from 
these measures anything like a com- 
plete cessation of erosive activity on 
the watershed as a whole, even if rea- 
sonable time is allowed, would be the 
merest foUv. 










RUBBER CULTURE IN THE PHILIP- 
PINE ISLANDS 



BY- 
W. I. HUTCHINSON 

Forester, Philippine Bureau of Forestry. 



/^NE of the great problems to be 
^■^ solved in the development of 
every new country, apart from the 
principles of government, is, what 
products are best suited to the climatic 
and soil conditions at hand. 

So important is this matter that 
every civilized nation maintains num- 
erous agricultural stations and farms, 
not only at home but throughout its 
foreign possessions, in order that by 
careful experiments some light may 
be cast on this all important subject. 

To the business man and the farmer 
of the Philippine Islands, this question 
is a very vital one. A considerable 
amount of capital is usually required 
to further a large farming project, and 
it is but natural that the first question 
that those whose money is involved 
should ask, is, what returns may we 
expect, and how long will it be neces- 
sary to wait before the first crop can 
be gathered? 

Cocoanuts, hemp, and sugar cane 
have been planted in these islands for 
many years, so that the profit that may 
be secured from these products is gen- 
erally well known. One reads daily, 
however, of the large returns received 
from cultivation in the East, of trop- 
ical crops other than those mentioned, 
and on comparing their gross proceeds 
with those from cocoanuts or hemp, is 
surprised to find that the crops planted 
to the greatest extent in any country, 
are not always the ones that yield the 
largest income. 

It was undoubtedly on this account 
that rubber was first introduced into 
the Philippines, or perhaps it would 
be ir.ore accurate to say, into the Island 
of Mindanao, as it is in this section of 
the Archipelago that the greatest 
amount of planting has been done, 
through official channels. 



Up to the present time Para rubber 
seed has been secured either from San- 
dakan, Borneo ; or Singapore, through 
the Bureau of Forestry at Manila, 
and the Government of the Moro 
Province, Island of Mindanao. A few 
private ranch owners have also ob- 
tained small shipments of Ceara and 
Castilloa from Ceylon. 

On account of the different methods 
of treatment, growth, etc., of these 
various species, they will be considered 
separately. 

Para Rubber, (Hevea hrasiliensis). 

During 1905 several small lots of 
Para seed were received in the Phil- 
ippines. Eary in the year the Moro 
Government obtained 1,000 seed from 
Sandakan, Borneo, which were dis- 
tributed among ranch owners and gev- 
ernment officials throughout Min- 
danao ; but of these seed few germi- 
nated, due without doubt to their in- 
fertility, and the lack of knowledge 
as to the proper methods of planting. 

In October, 1905, the Bureau of 
Forestry, at Manila, received 5,000 
seed from Singapore, 2,500 of which 
were sent to the Island of Mindanao, 
where they were planted in seed-beds 
at the Moro Government Experimen- 
tal Farm, located on the Zamboanga 
Peninsula. Although every care pos- 
sible was given the seed, which were 
planted within a month from the date 
of shipment, only about 400 of the 
total number sprouted. The average 
rate of growth of these nursery plants 
was about 18 inches in 50 days, seeds 
unfiled when planted. 

In January of the present year the 
Moro Government again made a pur- 
chase of 6,000 seedlings, which had 
been raised from seed at the Lamao 
Forest Reserve, Bataan Province, by 
the Bureau of Agriculture. One 



i 



1906 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



231 



thousand of these seedUngs were dis- 
tributed to farmers in the vicinity of 
Zamboanga, and the remainder placed 
in seed-beds to await a favorable sea- 
son for planting. 

It is the intention of the Provincial 
Government to distribute a number of 
these seedlings among principal towns 
of the island, in order to ascertain 
which section of the country is best 
suited to rubber growing. A planta- 
tion will also be established on the 
Government Farm at an elevation of 
25 feet above sea level, with sample 
plots in the surrounding mountains at 
different altitudes up to 1,200 feet. 

Ceara Rubber, (Manihot glaziovii). 

As far as is known to the writer, 
there are only two rubber plantations 
of any size in the Philippine Islands, 
and these are located on the Island of 
Basilan, Moro Province. These plan- 
tations are situated at 200 and 250 feet 
elevation, and contain 2,500 and 1,000 
trees respectively. The soil of both of 
these areas is well drained, rich, heavy 
loam, with a small amount of volcanic 
gravel intermixed. 

The following figures on the annual 
rainfall of the island were furnished 
by the Weather Bureau sub-station at 
Port Isabela, Basilan: 

Inches. 

Year 1903, total rainfall, 65.30 
1904, total rainfall, 74.25 
[905, total rainfall, 42.43 

The Ceara seed, after having been 
en route for eight months, were filed 
and planted directly to stake. At the 
lower elevation 2,500 out of 3,000 seed 
germinated, while at 500 feet some- 
thing over 1,000 plants were obtained 
from 1,500 seed. 

The following measurements made 
by the writer, will be of interest to all 
rubber growers, and as far as is known 
compare favorably with the growth of 
other trees of the same species and 
age, planted in the East : 

Ceara rubber, elevation 500 feet; 
planted 15x15 feet; age, 7 months 5 
days ; number of trees measured, 43 ; 
average height, 12 feet 5 inches; max- 
imum height, 17 feet; elevation, 200 
feet; planted, 15x15 feet; age, 5 
months 15 days; number of trees 
measured, 65; average height, 9 feet 
•Q inches ; maximum height 1 3 feet. 



Castilloa Rubber^ (Castilloaelastica) 

A small Castilloa plantation, con- 
taining some 400 seedling trees irreg- 
ularly spaced, has recently been set out 
on the Island of Basilan at an eleva- 
tion of about 50 feet above sea level. 
The soil on this situation is a rich, 
heavy loam which has been washed 
down from the surrounding moun- 
tains, and contains but a small amount 
of gravel. 

The measurement of 45 plants in the 
seed-bed, which are slightly larger 
than those set out in the plantation, 
gave the following results : 

Castilloa rubber, age, 4 months 25 
days ; number of seedlings measured, 
45; average height, 17 inches; max- 
imum height 29 inches. 

After watching the growth of Para 
and Castilloa seedlings in nursery 
beds, and Ceara trees in plantation, it 
is the foresters opinion that all of these 
species are well suited to the climatic 
and soil conditions as found in the 
Island of Mindanao. 

Rambong (Fisctis elastica), the 
other great rubber producing species 
under cultivation, has been planted 
singly in private grounds in many 
towns in the islands. All seem to 
thrive well. 

Which of these four species will give 
the greatest returns per acre in the 
islands is a question which time alone 
can solve. Almost every large ranch 
owner in the eastern part of the Island 
of Mindanao will plant more or less 
rubber this year. Plans are being 
made to try all the principal kinds of 
rubber trees, and it is hoped that the 
species best adapted to the Philippines 
may be determined in the near future. 
With the ever increasing demand 
for rubber, the limited areas suitable 
for its production, and the rapid ex- 
haustion of the jungle product, it will 
doubtless be many years before the 
supply ever in a small measure be able 
to meet the demand. 

In this new country we have been 
slow in starting to plant rubber, but 
the first step in the right direction has 
been taken, and the day may not be 
far distant when the Philippine Islands 
will be reckoned as an important fac- 
tor among the rubber producing coun- 
tries of the world. 



'**«!» ■'M^ 



UNITED STATES 

FOREST SERVICE 



L^^:rrffi 



Hi^ory of Pa^ Month in Government Fore^ Work 



Veneer Stock Probably no branch of 
in 1905 lorest utilization, with 

the possible exception of 
the manufacture of pulpwood, shows 
such rapid development in this coun- 
try as the veneer industry. Until very 
recently the opinion has prevailed that 
the kinds of timber which could be 
made into veneer were very limited 
in number, but the reports furnished 
by the veneer producers to the Forest 
Service include 24 species. Many of 
these, to be sure, are now cut in un- 
important quantities, but the tendency 
to experiment with new woods is clear- 
ly shown. 

The following statement as to the 
kinds and quantities of wood used for 
the manufacture of veneer stock in 
1905 is compiled from the reports fur- 
nished to the Forest Service by 93 
firms. It should be noted that the total 
amount of wood used, 138,646,000 
feet, is in log measure. As the amount 
of lumber actually cut from the log 
averages about 20 per cent greater 
than the log measure, it is safe to say 
that the timber used for veneer stock 
would have made some 166,000,000 
feet of ordinary lumber. 



Wood used for 


veneer stock. 




Kind. 


Feet, log 
measure 


Per cent 
of total 


Red gum 


2P, 739, 000 
20,513,01.0 
18,^48,000 
]H,9-12,unO 
10,H8U,OoO 
9,9.sr^000 
.S,994,000 
5.315,000 
4,309,000 
3,.S92,000 
1,S93,000 
1,200,000 
9,5S4,000 


21 5 


Yellow poplar .. 


15 


Maple .. 


13 4 


Cottonwood 




White oak. ; . . 


S 


Birch 


7 


Basswood 




Pine . 


S 8 


Elm 




Red oak 

Ash 


2.8 
1 3 


Beech 




Other sjjecies 


6 9 






Total 


138,616,000 









All species for which a total cut of 
less than 1,000,000 feet was reported 
are tabulated, together with mixed 
timber, under the heading "Other spe- 
cies," which includes sycamore, tupe- 
lo, chestnut, hickorv, pecan, butternut, 
cherry, spruce, cypress, hackberry, lo- 
cust, and willow. 

Reserve '^^^ demand for lodge- 

Timber Sales pole pine ties by the 
western railroads, which 
prefer them to any other because of 
the ease with which they take preser- 
vatives, has greatly increased the mar- 
ket value of the Rocky Mountain for- 
ests in northern Colorado, Wyoming, 
eastern Idaho, and southern Montana, 
where lodgepole pine is the predomi- 
nant tree. These forests are largely 
within existing or proposed national 
forest reserves, and are consequently 
under government control, so that the 
Forest Service has felt the need of 
preparing plans to permit the sale of 
such mature timber in them as may be 
safely spared. During the past year a 
working plan was completed for about 
46,000 acres in the Wyoming Division 
of the Medicine Bow Reserve. 

It was found in the first place that 
the protective value of the forest as a 
cover for the watersheds is so great 
that any utilization of the timber crop 
must be subordinated to it. Through- 
out the region the control of stream 
flow by the forest cover is the prime 
consideration. 

The mining industry, which is of 
high importance, will not be hampered 
by the disposal of reserve timber, since 
all the mining claims located in or 
near the tract include timber sufficient 
for the needs of the owners. The pres- 



1906 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



233 



ent moderate grazing of cattle is car- 
ried on without risk to reproduction 
of the forest. 

The Medicine Bow Forest Reserve 
contains the largest continuous^ body 
of lodgepole pine to be found in the 
Rocky Mountains. The timber on the 
tract for which the plan was made is 
accessible ; tie cutting has been carried 
on in the reserve for some years ; and 
it was definitely known that all the 
timber which could safely be removed 
would find a ready sale. Measure- 
ments in the woods and careful stud- 
ies of the rate of past growth and of 
the forest's power of self-renewal fur- 
nished data from which the govern- 
ment foresters calculated what the for- 
est can be expected to yield and what 
per cent can be cut safely now. It was 
found that 165.000.000 feet B. M. of 
lodgepole pine could be taken out and 
vet leave a large percentage for future 
crops. Special studies were made of 
the injury to which the forest is liable 
from insect attack and fungus, from 
windfall and fire. Local market con- 
ditions and the methods and cost of 
lumbering were investigated to see 
whether mprovements. and economies 
might not be instituted, as well as to 
fix upon a fair stumpage price. 

Products ot Reports made to the 
Hardwood Forest Service by 58 
Distillation ^^rdwood distillers haye 
been compiled, so as to give the fol- 
lowing preliminary statement of the 
number of cords' of hardwood re- 
quired by this industry and the vol- 
ume of its products. The woods al- 
most universally used are beech, birch, 
and maple, only a little over i per cent 
being oak and chestnut. 



The preliminary state- 
^fTaXT" ™™t of the consump- 

tion of tanbark in 1905 
is compiled from the reports of 440 
firms to the Forest Service. These 
firms purchased hemlock and oak bark 
during the year as follows : 

Barh purchased. 





Wood 
used. 


Products. 


State. 


Alcohol 


Acetate. 


Char- 
coal. 


Pennsylvania 

New York 


Cords. 

208,861 

113,036 

239,992 

8,522 

570,411 


Gallons. 

2,242,899 

1,091,871 

1,246,121 

93,361 

1674,522 


Pounds. 

39,57.'?,508 

24,188,234 

14,778,695 

510,777 

^051^4 


Bushels. 

7,890,346 
4,075,595 


Michigan 


8,193,387 


Other States 

Total 


2,643,955 
22.803,283 







Kind. 


Number of 
cords. 


Per 
cent. 


Hemlock 


766,268 
293,758 

1,060,026 


72.3 


Oak 


27.7 




100.0 







The bark purchased was obtained 
from the various States as follows : 

Hemlock hark. 



State from which obtained. 


Number of 
cords. 


Per 
cent. 


PennsyUania 
Michigan 
Wisconsin 
West Virginia 
Maine.. 
New York 
Vermont 
other States 

Total 


379,733 
219,852 
68,247 
37,812 
29,700 
13,638 
7,451 
10,595 

766,268 


49.5 
28.5 
9.0 
5.0 
3.9 
1.7 
1.0 
1.8 

100.0 







Oak bark. 



State from which obtained. 


Number of 
cords. 


Per 

cent. 


Virginia 

California 

PennsyUania 

West Virginia 

Tennessee 

North Caiolina 

Kentuckv 

Maryland 

Georgia 

Ohio.... 

other States 

Total ... 


68.764 
48,144 
46,903 
37,890 
28,.599 
27,876 
17.648 
7,423 
4,457 
4,123 
1,931 

293,758 


23.4 

16.4 

16.0 

12.9 

9.7 

9.5 

6.0 

2.5 

1.5 

1.4 

100.0 







Seven different states 
f:^tZT now have eight forest 

experiment stations, es- 
tablished during the past year, for co- 
operation between the Forest Service 
and State forest commissions and ag- 
ricultural colleges. These stations are 
designed to meet the growing demand 
for detailed information on the prop- 
agation of forest trees in various re- 
gions. 

As a result of regional studies and 
special investigation's, the Forest Ser- 



234 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



May 



vice is already in possession of very 
complete data on tree growing for pro- 
tection and timber supply, and this in- 
formation is gladly supplied upon re- 
quest. There are many questions, 
however, regarding new species, nur- 
sery methods, mixtures, spacing, and 
cultivation which can not be satisfac- 
torily settled by studies of existing 
plantations. These matters will be in- 
vestigated by a long series of system- 
atic experiments, now under way at 
the new stations. 

Arrangements have been made for 
experimental forest planting in co- 
operation with the New York State 
Forest, Fish and Game Commission, at 
Saranac Inn in the Adirondacks ; with 
the Michigan Forestry Commission, at 
Roscommon; with the University of 
Michigan, at Ann Arbor; with Berea 
College, Kentucky ; with the State Ag- 
ricultural Colleges at Ames, Iowa, 
Fargo, N. Dak., and Agricultural Col- 
lege, Miss., and with the sub-station 
of the University of Nebraska, at 
North Platte. The work contemplated 
needs constant expert supervision, and 
great care has been exercised to limit 
the stations to regions where addi- 
tional data on forest planting are need- 
ed. Most of the stations are at insti- 
tutions where regular courses in for- 
estry are given, and the work is di- 
rected by the forester in charge. 

The co-operating institutions in most 
cases contribute the necessary land, 
and share all expenses for material 
and labor equally with the Forest Ser- 
vice. The Service passes upon all 
plans and directs the general opera- 
tions. The results are the joint prop- 
erty of the co-operating parties. 



Production 
of Tight 
Cooperage 



The following prelimi- 
nary statistics of the pro- 
duction of tight-cooper- 
age stock in 1905 are compiled from 
the reports of 124 firms to the Forest 
Service. The number of staves re- 
ported is 158,988,000, and the number 
of sets of heading, 8,030,000. 

The importance of white oak to the 
tight-cooperage industry is shown by 
the fact that over 92 per cent of the 



staves and 88 per cent of the heading 
were manufactured from it. It is also 
important that over one-third of the 
staves and heading reported were 
manufactured for alcoholic packages, 
which require the highest grade of 
white oak, and that 31 per cent of these 
staves were bucked and split or hewed. 
Saived staves — ■Alcoliolic slock. 



Kind. 


Timber. 


Number. 




White oak 


18,423,000 


Spirit and wine 


do 


15,117,000 


Half barrel 


do 


3,548,000 


Total 




37,088,000 










Bucl-ed and split or hewed staves - 
Alcoholic stock. 



Kind. 


Timber. 


N umber. 


French claret 


White oak 


7,687,000 




do 


4.470,000 


Spirit and wine 


do 


1,522,000 


Seconds 


do 


1,438,000 


West Indian 


do 


989,000 


Half barrel 


do 


291,000 


Pipe 


..do 


95,000 


Miscellaneous .... 


do 


171,000 








Total 


16,698,000 









Sawed stares — Oil, paekimg-h 
sirup stock. 



ouse, 07id 



Kind. 


• Timber. 


Number. 




White oak 


76,930,000 


Do 


Red oak 

White oak 


6,545,000 


Pork 


6,060,000 






2,431,000 


Oleomargarine 


White oak 


1,126,000 






80,000 




Ash ::".::::::: 


314,000 


Cut-offs 


White and red oak 


11,721,000 


Total 


105,207,000 









Heading. 



Kind. 


Timber. 


Number 
of sets. 




White oak 


1,763,000 


Spirit and wine 


. ..do 


1,197,000 


Oil anc tierce 


do 


3,734,000 


Half barrel and keg 


do 


1.099,000 


Pork 


. do 


208,000 


Do 


Ash 


29,000 








Total 


8,030,000 









Figures on 
Pulpwood 



The work of the Forest 
Service in gathering sta- 
tics of forest products 
for the past year has furnished the 
basis for a provisional statement of the 



1906 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



235 



wood consumed in the manufacture of 
paper pulp. As the accompanying ta- 
ble shows ,the returns from 159 firms, 
controlling 232 pulp mills, give over 
3,000.000 cords as the total amount of 
wood used. 



The second table shows the percent- 
age manufactured by each state: 



Wood. 


Cords. 


Spruce (domestic) 


1,56^,000 




614,000 


Poplar (domestic) 


274.000 




22.000 




370,000 


Pine 


57,000 




22,000 


Miscellaneous 


93,000 


Total 


3,016,000 



The wood used was divided among 
the various processes as follows : Sul- 
phite, 1,538,000 cords; soda, 410,000 
cords; ground wood, 1,068,000 cords. 
The total pulp production by all pro- 
cesses by the firms reporting was i,- 
993,000 tons. According to the census 
of 1900, the consumption of pulpwood 
was then 1,986.310 cords, so that there 
has been an increase of over 50 per 
cent in the last six years. This demon- 
strates, in a striking manner, the drain 
upon the forests caused by the pulp 
industry. 

Wood Used The returns received by 
in Box ti^g Forest Service show- 

^^^'"^ ing the woods used in 

box making in New England during 
the past year make possible the follow- 
ing preliminary statement. 

The first table shows that 292 box 
factories used 600.493,000 feet of lum- 
ber, valued at $8,831,000 delivered at 
the factories : 



Kind of 


wood. 


Feet. cenl 


White pine 




491.302,000 


81.1 






59,354,000 


9.9 


HemlrK'k 




25,94.5,000 


4.4 


Beech 




1- 8,442,000 




Birch 




2.0 


Mat.le 




) 




Fir 




7.964,n00 


1.4 


Other woods 




7,486,000 


1.2 









State. 


Per 
cent. 




48 


New Hampshire 


21 




20 




7 


Connecticut 


2 


Rhode Island 


2 







Under "other woods" are included 
poplar, chestnut, basswood, pitch pine, 
and a small quantity of yellow pine. 



The above figures include the lum- 
ber used in making all kinds of boxes, 
such as lock-corner, dovetail, and 
nailed boxes, and box shooks. 

The consumption of 491,302,000 
feet of white pine, or nearly five times 
as much as of all other woods com- 
bined, shows its great importance to 
the box makers of this region. 

,, ^ The Ashland Forest Re- 

New Forest . r-\ u 

Reserves serve, m Oregon, has 

just been enlarged, and 
the Vernon Forest Reserve, in Utah, 
created by proclamation of the Presi- 
dent. 

The expansion of the boundary of 
the Ashland Reserve has been made 
for the purpose of including more 
fully the watershed of Ashland Creek, 
which is the source of water supply 
for the city of Ashland and for a large 
territory of agricultural land in that 
vicinitv. The reserve, which was origi- 
nally established upon request of the 
common council and board of trade of 
the city of Ashland, presented in a me- 
morial and petition to the President, 
includes a rough, mountainous tract, 
covered largely with timber of an in- 
ferior quality and a dense growth of 
underbrush needed as a protection 
cover to Ashland Creek. 

The narrow strip of country which 
has been added to it is of a similar 
character, consisting of a tract lying 
along the summit of a spur from the 
Siskiyou Mountains, which has an 
average elevation of about 7.200 feet, 
and culminates in one of the most 
prominent landmarks in southern Ore- 
gon, known as Siskiyou Peak, or Ash- 
land Butte, which rises to a height of 
8,025 feet. 

The tract is unfit for cultivation and 
has no settlements on it. As. how- 



236 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



May 



ever, it forms the watershed of various 
tributaries to Ashland Creek, it is im- 
portant to insure proper protection to 
its forest cover and to prevent the 
streams from being contaminated in 
any way. This will now be carefully 
attended to by the forest officer in 
charge of the reserve. 

The Vernon Reserve, containing 
68,000 acres, lies in the extreme south- 
eastern corner of Toole county, Utah, 
embracing the southern end of the 
Onaqui Range, which rises in places 
to a height of about 9,500 feet, and 
forms the two divides between Rush, 
East Rush, and Skull valleys. 

The streams flowing from this tract 
are essential to the settlers at the heads 
of these valleys, who depend upon 
them at present for the irrigation of 
about 3,000 acres of land. Formerly, 
the water supply w^as much more 
abundant. In the days of the early 
settlement of this locality, the streams 
are said to have been three times their 
present size, and to have been used all 
the way down the valleys. In* Rush 
Valley water made its way in the 
spring as far north as Stockton Lake, 
and the south end of the valley sup- 
ported a population of 300 people, 
while now there are not more than 100 
people there. Stockton Lake, at that 
time, covered an expanse of two by 
five miles, fed mostly bv streams flow- 
ing from the hills which have been in- 
cluded in this reserve ; and there w^ere 
also 200 or 300 acres of wild hay 
meadows. Now, both the lake and 
meadows have dried up; and as the 
result, the ranches south of the lake 
have gradually been abandoned, until 
the population is now less than one- 
third its former size. 

An official examination of this re- 
gion to determine the cause of this les- 
sening of the waterflow, has resulted 
in showing that the change in condi- 
tions during the past twenty-five years 
has been caused by overgrazing on this 
watershed, and that protection to the 
headwaters of the streams is essential 
if settlement is to continue in these 
valleys. 

Beasts of Prey Wolves and mountain 

Ran^er""^ lious are giving the 

^^^ stockmen a good deal of 

trouble on the ranges in several of the 



National forest reserves. Vigorous 
complaints have been made to the 
Forest Service of the loss of cattle and 
sheep, particularly cattle, from this 
cause. Protection is sought by the 
stockmen, and the Forest Service, 
which collects a fee for the grazing 
permits, has promptly assumed the 
task of finding and putting into effect 
practical measures to aid the cattle 
owners in exterminating the destruc- 
tive animals. 

The chief difficulty has been on the 
Wind River Division of the Yellow- 
stone reserve, in Wyoming. Some of 
the livestock companies in the region 
assert that the wolves are increasing 
so rapidly that the future welfare of 
the cattle industry is in serious danger. 
Among the proposals which these con- 
ditions have called forth are that a 
bounty be offered for the animals' de- 
struction. The stockmen along the 
northern boundary of the Gila reserve, 
in New Mexico, and in the Wichita, 
in Oklahoma, have suffered almost as 
severely. 

Last spring the government appoint- 
ed John Goff, the skillful hunter who 
acted as guide to the President during 
his hunting trip a year ago, as Forest 
Ranger, and set him to hunting "lions" 
in the Shoshone Division of the Yel- 
lowstone reserve, in Montana. Now 
that the appeal from the stockmen on 
other reserves is so vigorous, espe- 
cially for the extermination of the 
wolves, the Service has just sent an 
expert into the field to study the wolf 
problem. The man selected for this 
work is a recognized authority on the 
game and other wild animals of the 
country. Mr. Vernon Bailey. Chief 
Field Naturalist of the Biological Sur- 
vey, from which he has been tempora- 
rily transferred in order to secure his 
services for this important project. 

The animals which are causing so 
much trouble to stockmen are common 
in their native habitat, but are little 
known to Easterners who have not 
hunted them. The wolf is known in 
the West as the "timber" wolf. Though 
not large, it is powerful and quick. Not 
only does it kill calves and vearlings 
with ease, but it attacks and overcomes 
full-grown cattle. When after this 
larger prey it does not go for the 



1906 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



237 



throat, as so many beasts do, but fas- 
tens its teeth in the muscles of the leg, 
hamstringing its victim, which falls 
defenseless. But little of the carcass 
is usually devoured by the wolves. The 
"lion" is, of course, the cougar, and no 
true lion at all. Nevertheless, it is a 
large and powerful beast, capable of 
playing havoc among the cattle. 

The wolves and lions are not classed 
in the West as game animals, but are 
regarded as pests and are commonly 
termed "varmints." Wherever they are 
plentiful a bounty is offered to encour- 
age their extermination. Despite this, 
they are still sufficiently numerous to 
work much harm, and it is said that in 
some localities they are on the in- 
crease. 

It is particularly notable that there 
has been so much complaint from the 
Wichita reserve, which the President 



has set aside as a game refuge. The 
wolves and cougars are the enemies of 
other wild animals, and the sportsman, 
who desires to encourage American 
sport and to preserve American game, 
can be counted on to aid in the work of 
hunting them down. 

In any case, however, the lion and 
the wolf must be driven from the 
ranges. Interests larger and more 
substantial than those of the huntsman 
and trapper demand it. The great live- 
stock industry, which the Forest Ser- 
vice has pledged itself to encourage in 
all legitimate directions, has had to 
pay heavy costs in the loss of cattle, 
young and full grown. That those 
holding permits may be assured the 
full enjoyment of their privilege un- 
molested, every effort will be made by 
the government to co-operate with the 
stockmen in protecting herds grazing 
on the reserves from attack. 



WASHINGTON STATE NOTES 



State Fire Warden Welty, of Wash- 
ington, will ask the prominent tim- 
ber owners and mill men of the State 
to contribute to the fund to maintain 
the forestry service during the year. 
The last State legislature appropriated 
money for this and provided for addi- 
tional appropriations from the coun- 
ties, but much of this money is not 
available and the fund has been ex- 
hausted. Therefore, in order to con- 
tinue the service the mill men will be 
asked to make necessary contribu- 
tions. 

The Waha Land and Water Com- 
pany has opened bids for the construc- 
tion of 22 miles of ditch, three tunnels 
and two immense dams, the contract 
prices for which will aggregate about 
$500,000. The work is a part of the 
big irrigation system which the water 
company will establish south of Lewis- 
ton. Idaho, to reclaim 20,000 acres of 
land. The work completed will cost 
three times this initial expenditure. 
The present work will irrigate about 
8,000 acres and will be completed this 
vear. 



It is believed that the approval by 
the Secretary of the Interior of the 
iieton and Sunnyside irrigation pro- 
ject means a great and rapid develop- 
ment for the central portion of Wash- 
ington. Reclamation engineers say 
when the work of irrigation is started, 
it means the reclamation of 400,000 
acres of some of the best soil in the 
world when supplied with water, and 
that $io,ooo,DOO will be expended in 
the coming ten years, beginning at 
once. In Benton county alone 200,000 
acres will be irrigated. 

L. MacLean and E. G. Taylor, both 
of Spokane, have purchased lumber 
for a flume which will tap Newman 
lake and irrigate 1,200 acres of land 
north of Spokane bridge. The flume 
will be about four miles long. John 
T. Whistler, of the Government Recla- 
mation Service, says if everything pro- 
gresses satisfactorily bids for the con- 
struction of the government dam of 
the East Umatilla. Oregon, project 
will be advertised for about May i. 
Practically all those owning lands un- 
der the project have signed up in the 
Water Users' Association. 




I UNITED STATES 

KLAMATION SERVICE 



>! 




. In further consideration 

Seuiers° ^^ rights of settlers to 

payment by the United 
States for improvements made by 
them on unsnrveyed public lands, the 
Assistant Attorney General in an opin- 
ion approved by the Secretary of the 
Interior, April 12, 1906, states as fol- 
lows: 

"... that settlers upon public 
lands appropriated by the Govern- 
ment for the use in construction and 
operation of irrigation works, who 
have made a bona fide settlement and 
have continued to comply with the 
law as to residence upon and cultiva- 
tion and improvement of the land set- 
tled upon, are entitled to be compen- 
sated for their improvements, al- 
though they have not placed t heir 
claim of record because of the unsnr- 
veyed condition of the land. But the 
bona fide character of the settlement, 
and the acts of the settler should be 
clearly established before allowing 
compensation, when the settler has not 
indicated his purpose and intent by 
placing his claim of record, whether 
from the unsurveyed condition of the 
land or from other cause." 

Interest in 



Irrigation 



The work of the Nation- 
al Government in re- 
claiming its western 
arid areas is attracting the attention 
of other nations. There is a growing 
demand from Canada and South 
American governments for informa- 
tion regarding the development of irri- 
gation projects and the methods fol- 
lowed by the United States in obtain- 
ing and compiling stream measure- 
ments and in making topographic sur- 
veys. 



One feature of the preliminary work 
of the U. S. Reclamation Service- 
that of making a diagnosis of the soil 
for the purpose of obtaiing the quan- 
tity of salts it contains has called forth 
inquiries from distant India. The ir- 
rigators in Bunna Valley in the Pun- 
jab province have been having serious 
trouble owing to the swamping and 
deterioration of the lower valley lands. 
The streams draining the Salt Range 
on one side of the valley carry quanti- 
ties of salt in solution, and consider- 
able areas have been ruined by this 
means. Similar conditions exist in 
some parts of our western country, 
and the engineers have devised means 
for successfully overcoming the diffi- 
culties. All of the Government pro- 
jects in such localities are provided 
with sufficient drainage systems which 
serve to carry off the harmful minerals 
in the water. When the topography 
of the country is such that the salts 
cannot be carried by means of ditches 
into the river, they are led into depres- 
sions and evaporated. 

The accumulated salts have a com- 
mercial value which may make their 
removal profitable. A plan similar to 
the above has been suggested by the 
Reclamation Service to the India en- 
gineers as one which might tend to 
ameliorate conditions at Bunna. 



Floods in 
Arizona 



The Reclamation Serv- 
ice is having its share 
of trouble with floods in 
the Salt River Valley, Arizona. Two 
unusual floods occurred in March, 
causing considerable damage to pri- 
vate property in the Valley and some 
delay to the Government work. 



1906 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



239 



During the last flood Salt River took 
a sharp bend to the south near the in- 
take of the power canal and made it 
necessary to construct works to pre- 
vent serious damage to the canal. The 
emergency was so great that a large 
force of men was immediately put to 
work at this point. The Government 
has contracted to furnish power to the 
contractor who is to build the great 
reservoir dam, one of the highest 
structures of the kind in the world, 
and any injury to the power canal 
would cause severe loss to the con- 
tractor. 

In Arizona the Reclamation engi- 
neers are geing dubbed "rain-makers," 
as ever since their appearance in Salt 
River Valley the floods have been of 
frequent occurrence and of unprece- 
dented volume. 



Nevada 
Work 



The construction of the 
. Truckee-Carson project, 

regressing Nevada, is progressing 
rapidly. At the present time 85 per 
cent of .the works required to supply 
the first 160,000 acres is completed. 
During the present stage of high 
water in Carson River the Truckee 
River is not supplying the system, as 
the flow of the former is ample at this 
time. 

Three vitrified pipe openings have 
been set in the main canal and water 
will be delivered to settlers under this 
part of the system during the month 
of May. The old and new settlers 
under the main distributing system are 
now receiving their supply from it, 
and with the exception of two districts 
the lateral systems are now delivering 
water. It is expected that the entire 
lateral system will be in working order 
at the end of the month. On force 
account work is now being carried on 
by the Government in six camps 400 
men and 450 head of stock are em- 
ployed. 

Uncle Sam, L^nclc Sam wants Port- 
Cement jj^j^^ cement and wants 
^*^" it badly. With 24 big 
irrigation projects under construction 
requiring hundreds of thousands of 
barrels of cement the engineers are 



finding it next to impossible to obtain 
anything like the quantity needed. The 
unprecedented demand for this com- 
modity all over the West has already 
over-taxed the capacity of the mills, 
and almost without exception the Gov- 
ernment's requests for bids are turned 
down. Apparently no manufacturers 
west of the Mississippi are able to sup- 
ply new orders. In reply to inquiries 
from the Government they state that, 
owing to the unusual demand new or- 
ders cannot be accepted for several 
months to come. Recently proposals 
were requested from eight manufac- 
turers and dealers in cement for 2,000 
barrels required on an Idaho project. 
Only one proposal was received and 
that was at a rate 50 per cent higher 
than the firm would have sold a few 
months ago. Still later invitations for 
bids for several thousand barrels were 
sent to 23 dealers. Again but one firm 
submitted a bid, and this was nearly 
60 per cent higher than the normal 
profitable rate of sale by this firm. 
Other attempts to purchase cement 
have been similarly unsuccessful. 

The Reclamation Service is gravely 
concerned. It has let contracts for 
structures involving millions of dol- 
lars, and a failure to secure cement as 
needed, entering as it does so largely 
in the work, will be disastrous. Ow- 
ing to the inaccessibility of many of 
the Government works, the transporta- 
tion of cement is difficult and costly. 
This was particularly the case in Salt 
River Valley in Arizona, where the 
great distance from existing mills and 
the expensive wagon haul, made the 
cost prohibitive. After making thor- 
ough investigation of the cost of bring- 
ing in cement for the Roosevelt Dam 
and other structures, the Government 
erected its own mill and for several 
months past has been turning out daily 
hundreds of barrels of first-class ce- 
ment at a price far below the cost of 
cement shipped in. It is known that 
materials required for manufacturing- 
cement of good quality exist near sev- 
eral of the projects, and private parties 
should embrace the opportunity to go 
into the business. From the present 



240 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



May 



outlook, however, the Government 
seems to have a choice of shipping 
from the far eastern seaboard or from 
Kurope, or of manufacturing its own 
cement. 

The town of Yuma, Ari- 
Water Supply ,. ,. , -^i • 

for Yuma zona, hes entirely withm 

the lines of the Yuma 
reclamation project, and at present has 
an execrable water system. The water 



from its irrigation projects to cities 
within or adjacent to the irrigated 
areas, and the citizens of Yuma, by a 
petition which has been signed by the 
largest property holders, are urging 
the town council to make an applica- 
tion to the Secretary of the Interior 
for a waer right. This will probably 
be the first application under the new 
law. 




Carrying Supplies into Roosevelt, Arizona, before the wagon road was completed. 



is now pumped directly from the river 
into settling tanks, and from these is 
distributed through the mains. Only 
a small part of the town is supplied 
with filtered water and the price is 
almost prohibitory. The climatic con- 
ditions being arid and nearly semi- 
tropical the town requires a larger pro- 
portional share of water than almost 
any other city in the United States. 

A recent act of Congress provides 
that the Government may supply water 



Co-operative Present indications are 

^'■°P . that Western Nebraska 

Experiments . ^ . r ^i n ^ 

IS to be one oi the first 

sections to be benefited by the recent 
arrangement for cooperative crop ex- 
periments between the Department of 
xA.griculture and the Reclamation Ser- 
vice. These experiments are to be car- 
ried on within the limits of or adjacent 
to areas covered by irrigation works 
constructed by the Government, and 
the stockholders of the North Platte 



1906 



FORESTHY AND IRIilGATION 



241 



Valley Water Users' Association in a 
recent memorial to the Secretary of 
the Interior requested that land be 
segrated for reservoir, park, experi- 
mental and demonstration purposes. 
Favorable action has been taken by 
Secretary Hitchcock on this request. 

This work will be of inestimable 
value in instructing the settlers in the 
fundamentals of irrigation and dem- 
onstrating what may be done in that 
section by the scientific application of 
water and by dry farming. An es- 
pecially interesting feature will be the 



name with which it is proposed to 
grace the reservoir. Out of considera- 
tion and esteem for the daughter of 
President Roosevelt the settlers have 
expressed the desire to christen the 
artificial body of water "Lake Alice." 
The lands adjoin the reservoir and are 
to be parked and beautified with trees, 
flowers, and shrubbery. Altogether 
the request is a pretty compliment to 
the daughter of the man to whose in- 
telligent and persistent efforts the 
present work of -reclaiming the arid 
West is largely due. 



THE PECOS RIVER FOREST RESERVE 



BY 



L. P. KNEIPP 



nr HE Pecos River Reserve was the 
*• second of the Federal Forest Re- 
serves to have its economic advantages 
recognized, it having been created in 
its original form by Presidential proc- 
lamation on January ii, 1892,. and was 
increased to its present area by a sec- 
ond proclamation, dated May 27, 1898. 
It is also entitled to the credit of being 
the first of all the Federal Reserves to 
be trod by the foot of the white man, 
for ahr.ost within its limits are the 
villages first visited by the hard fight- 
ing caballcros that followed Coronado 
in his search for the fabled seven cities 
in 1 54 1. Notwithstanding this fact 
much of the reserve is still a country 
whose splendid stands of timber have 
not yet felt the ever-advancing and all- 
destroying axe of the railroad tie con- 
tractor, whose onward march, how- 
ever, has halted only at the boundaries 
of the reserve. 

This reserve is situated in about the 
center of the north half of the Terri- 
tory of New Mexico, and covers parts 
of Santa Fe, San Miguel, Mora, and 
Rio Arriba counties. Topographically 
i*: comprises two ranges of mountains 
known locally as the Santa Fe range, 
and the Las Vegas range, both of 



which are spurs of the Sangre de Cris- 
to range, which forms part of the 
Rocky Mountain system, the altitude 
ranges from 7,500 feet to 13,350 feet, 
but the average e!evation is from 8,000 
to 10,000 feet. 

The area of the reserve is 430,880 
acres, or a trifle over 673 square miles ; 
approximately speaking this acreage is 
divided about as follows : Merchant- 
able timber, 200,000 acres; old brrns 
now undergoing the slow process of 
natural reforestation, 100,000 acres ; 
the balance, 130,880 acres, consists of 
open park and mountain meadow graz- 
ing land, and the barren peaks of the 
higher mountains. 

No figures are obtainable regarding 
the stand of timber on this reserve, 
and it would appear that no systematic 
attempt has been made to estimate it 
yet ; in round figures the reserve con- 
tains about a half a billion feet board 
measure of merchantable timber, aver- 
aging thirty per cent, western yellow 
pine, the balance chiefly Englemann 
spruce. 

The most important factor in forest 
preservation as applied to New Mex- 
ico is the protection of the main water- 
sheds to such an extent as to insure 



242 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



May 



the most equal and continuous flow of 
water possible. The reason is most 
apparent; almost all of the agricultu- 
ral products of New Mexico are pro- 
duced by irrigation and as the larger 
percentage of the population are en- 
gaged in agricultural or pastoral pur- 
suits, it is evident that nothing could 
cause an era of hard times and suffer- 
ing as general as that which would fol- 
low a series of floods followed by a 
shortage of water. 

The Pecos River Forest Reserve is 
situated upon one of the most impor- 
tant water sheds of the territory. 
Within its limits are the head waters 
of the Pecos River which traverses 
New Mexico and Texas on the way to 
its junction with the Rio Grande, and 
whose course may be traced by the 
number of flne ranches watered by it; 
and also the head waters of the Mora 
River whose importance in relation to 
the agricultural wealth of the territory 
is almost as great. In addition to these 
two streams the reserve contains the 
sources of several very important tri- 
butaries to the Rio Grande which be- 
fore being lost in the sandy bed of the 
Big River of the North, give life and 
fertility to thousands of acres of land 
and thereby sustain a large agricul- 
tural population that would otherwise 
be without resources of any sort. 

It IS a noteworthy fact that none of 
the streams above mentioned attain 
their maximum height until the last 
of May or during the month of June, 
at a time when the lower country is 
becoming parched and dry and when 
water for irrigation purposes is badly 
needed ; even then the run off is 
gradual, usually extending throughout 
a period of from two weeks to a 
month. Snow balling in June is a 
common amusement of the summer 
visitors to the timbered portions of the 
higher ranges and in some years the 
pleasure may be enjoyed during the 
month of July. 

In addition to the irrigation feat- 
ures, it might be mentioned that in and 
adjacent to the reserve are a number 
of sites for power plants, valueless to- 



day, but all of which will some day be 
utilized. It is hardly necessary to 
state that the value of such plants will 
depend upon a steady and continuous 
flow of water guaranteed by well- 
forested water sheds. 

Next in importance to the protection 
of the water sheds, at the present time, 
is the grazing of stock. From 7,000 to 
8,000 head of cattle and horses are al- 
lowed upon the reserve each year. 
Sheep and goats are excluded entirely 
and have been for a number of years. 
About thirty per cent of the stock 
grazed under permits is owned by resi- 
dent ranchers, the balance is held by 
neighboring stock owners whose 
ranches are located from one to five 
miles outside of the reserve and whose 
interests in the reserve are almost as 
great as the interests of the residents 
themselves. The number of permit 
holders is from 175 to 200, making the 
average number of cattle and horses 
owned by each about forty, the hold- 
ings ranging from 3 to 430 head, there 
being one bunch of the latter figure, 
the next largest being a trifle over 200 
head, and the balance very evenly di- 
vided. It is apparent that under Gov- 
ernment administration there is no 
monopoly of choice ranges. The graz- 
ing areas are allotted with a view of 
giving each stock owner the most con- 
venient and advantageous range pos- 
sible, and the small owner no longer 
has to suffer the injustice of having his 
range eaten out by the transient cattle- 
man whose interest in the ranges was 
but temporary, ending when his cattle 
were taken out of the mountains. 

The importance of the reserve as a 
permanent source of timber supply is 
hardly recognized yet; still it is daily 
becoming more apparent that the tim- 
ber resources of New Mexico are be- 
ing rapidly exhausted. And it is with 
astonishing frequency that one hears 
from representative men the remark 
"timber is timber nowadays" clearly 
indicating that the more thoughtful 
forsee the day when New Mexico, its 
magnificent forests destroyed, or re- 
tarded by indiscriminate cutting, will 



1906 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



243 



need for its development the splendid 
natural heritage that was sacrificed 
rather than utilized. 

The productive power of the Pecos 
River Forest Reserve is great, soil, 
moisture, and heat conditions are of 
the best, and three quarters of the re- 
serve is land that will produce mer- 
chantable timber. At the present time 
the high cost of production and low 
timber values make it impossible to 
completely utilize the timber resources 
of the reserve, but when the inevitable 
era of cheap and economical production 
and high timber values arrives, the re- 
serve should be capable of an annual 
production of five million feet. 

A factor that while of somewhat 
lesser importance is still worthy of 
note, is the value of the reserve as a 
game retreat. Deer are rapidly in- 
creasing in number and are so well 
protected that they display little or no 
fright at the sight of men. Bear and 
mountain lions are plentiful as are 
smaller animals, the rapidly decreasing 
wild turkey is still to be found though 
not in large numbers, while there is an 
abundance of grouse and other game 
birds. All of the rangers are commis- 
sioned game wardens, with the right 
to make arrests ; they are interested in 
this branch of the work and have had 
a prominent part in the enforcement 
of the game laws. 

A fact that may be worthy of men- 
tion is that private capital is beginning 
to follow the example of the Govern- 
ment in husbanding timber resources. 
On the Maxwell and Mora land grants 
systems of timber inspection have been 
in effect for some time, inspectors are 
employed and the rules in force rela- 
tive to the cutting of timber are in 
some respects more stringent than those 
governing the Federal Forest Reser- 
ves. A penalty is placed upon the cut- 
ting of undersized timber, and upon 



the wastage of merchantable timber ; 
while the anouncement is made that 
any person starting a forest fire will 
be prosecuted under the territorial 
laws. Another case is that of the 
Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Rail- 
road which owns about a township of 
timbered land adjacent to the reserve. 
It has requested a prominent local 
timber operator to take charge of its 
holdings and to conduct the cuttings in 
accordance with the rules and regula- 
tions governing timber cuttings in for- 
est reserves; the object being to hus- 
band the timber resources of the land 
and to secure as far as possible a per- 
manent supply of timber. 

These movements are signifiant, and 
indicate that the proclamations that 
set aside the Pecos River Forest Re- 
serve with the object of protecting the 
numerous and varied interests con- 
nected with it, were not made a day 
too soon. 

The serious nature of the problem 
which confronts the engineers will be 
appreciated when it is known that since 
the initiation of the work the Gila has 
twice so changed its channel and the 
topography of the country by cutting 
out in places and building up in others 
that re-surveys and plans of structure 
have been made and re-made by reason 
thereof. The levees are now ready for 
construction, but until they are com- 
pleted the uncertainty of the behavior 
of the Gila renders it unwise to let the 
work by contract under definite plans 
as contractors must necessarily be gov- 
erned by the conditions, and their bids 
will be made high accordingly. There 
is urgent need of haste. 

The Secretary of the Interior, rec- 
ognizing these facts and upon recom- 
mendation of the board of consulting 
engineers who investigated the situa- 
tion, has ordered that the work be un- 
dertaken immediately by the Recla- 
mation Service by force account. 



RECLAMATION WORK IN NORTH 
DAKOTA 



BY 



H. N. SAVAGE 

?opervisiDg Engineer, U. S. Reclamation Service. 



THREE pumping projects are under 
consideration in Xorth Dakota, 
and drawings and specifications have 
been developed for each of the three. 

The Buford-Trention project con- 
templates the irrigation of 8,000 acres, 
which may be increased to 20.000 or 
more in case the land owners desire 
to avail themselves of the opportunit\-. 
A water users' association has been or- 
ganized, stock subscriptions made, and 
a contract is being executed with the 
Secretar}- of the Interior which will 
insure the earh" construction of the 
work. 

The Williston project looks to the 
irrigation of 12,000 acres, which may 
be increased to from 35.000 to 40,000 
whenever the land owners make satis- 
factory- arrangements. A water users' 
association has been organized and a 
contract will soon be executed and 
transm.itted to the Secretary- of the In- 
terior for his approval. 

The Xesson project involves the ir- 
rigation of 12,000 acres. A water 
users' association has been organized 
and stock subscriptions are now being 
received. It is expected that the land 
owners will enter into a contract and 
submit same to the Secretan.- of the 
Interior at an early date. 

These three projects are located on 
the left or north side of the Missouri 
River, in the extreme western part of 
Xorth Dakota. The fall of the river 
is so slight that it is not possible to 
take out a canal and distribute the 
water by gravit>-, therefore pumping 
is necessarily resorted to. The abund- 
ance of lignite fuel in the immediate 



vicinit}" makes possible the develop- 
ment of power at an economical cost. 
\'er\- careful topographic sur\-eys were 
made during the season of 1905 of all 
the lands in the vicinity of each of 
these projects. The engineers have 
made a ver\- careful study of the to- 
pography in order to develop the most 
economical and efficient location for 
distribution canals. 

The plans developed contemplate 
power stations located adjacent to the 
lignite mines and the transmission 
electrically of the power generated. 
Owing to the changeable current of 
the Missouri River careful considera- 
tion has been given to the establish- 
ment of at least one of these pumping 
stations on a barge. The electrical 
actuation of the pimips by motor 
makes this plan not only feasible but 
ver\- attractive. The pvimps would be 
connected with the canal on shore by 
flexible joint pipes, and the barge 
would accommodate itself to varia- 
tions of water level in the river, and 
also if the river should move in nearer 
shore or leave the present shore alto- 
gether, the barge could readily follow 
the channel, and by an extension or 
decrease in the length of the barge pipe 
continue to deliver water, thus pro- 
tecting the irrigated crops against any 
change in the river. 

The land owners are evincing a 
great deal of enthusiasm regarding the 
development of these projects, and it is 
hoped that actual construction can be 
begun this season. A lively movement 
in real estate has already taken place 
in anticipation of the early construc- 
tion of the works. 



PUMPING WATER 

Second Paper 



•y HROUGHOUT a great part of the 
•^ arid and semi-arid region there 
are locaUties where water can be ob- 
tained at a short distance from the sur- 
face. The amount, although not large 
in the aggregate when compared wuth 
the quantity in some notable streams 
or lake, is yet inexhaustible by the or- 
dinary methods of pumping. If, there- 
fore, this water which exists from lO 
to 50 feet beneath the surface can be 
cheaply raised, it will be practicable to 
utilize it for agriculture tracts which 
otherwise have little or no value. 

The irrigation of 20 acres in the 
midst of a section or township of land 
is, figuratively speaking, a mere drop 
in the bucket ; but the reclamation of 
this small area generally means the 
utilization of adjoining lands. If, for 
example, 20 acres of some forage crop 
like alfalfa is made possible, this will 
result in obtaining a considerable 
amount of winter feed used in the sus- 
tenance of a herd which can be pas- 
tured upon the surrounding dry land. 
The successful cultivation of this 20 
acres may thus directly or indirectly 
support a family, and, with increased 
■ experience and adaptation to the sur- 
rounding conditions, the family may 
in turn give place to a rural commu- 
nity. Given the existence of sufficient 
Waaler underground to irrigate the 20 
acres, the first question is that of ways 
and means of bringing the water to the 
surface. 

The force which is ever present, 
making itself persistently felt through- 
out the Great Plains region, is the 
wind which blows almost continuously. 
It carries the dust before it, cuts out 
the traveled roads, carries away the 
line earth of the tilled fields, and builds 
up a fine loess, almost everywhere to 
be found. The wind, which has so 
long been considered as an annoyance 
and mischief-maker, has sufficient 
strength to perform the work of bring- 
ing water to the surface, if only suit- 



able means of directing its energy can 
be discovered. 

The windmill is the best-known 
method of converting wind energy 
into work. In one form or another it 
has been used from times antedating 
the dark ages. In the twelfth century 
windmills, built either by individuals 
or by communities, were common. 
Some of these mills were of enormous 
size. In the German type the whole 
building on which the windmill was 
placed w^as constructed in such a man- 
ner as tomturn on a post in order to 
bring the sails into the wind. In the 
Dutch form the building was fixed, 
but the head of the mill could be 
turned into the wind. The most nota- 
be use of these early mills was in Hol- 
land, where the land was drained by 
pumping water from behind the dikes 
into the sea. In 1391 the Bishop of 
Utrecht, holding that the wand of the 
whole province belonged exclusively 
to him, gave to the Convent at Winds- 
heim express permission to build a 
windmill wherever it was thought 
proper. In so doing he overruled a 
neighboring lord, who declared that 
the wind in the district belonged to 
him. Three years later the city of 
Haarlem obtained leave from Albert, 
Count Palatine of the Rhine, to build 
a windmill, using the wind of the 
country. 

The huge, clumsy windmills of Eu- 
ropean make, such as that erected at 
Lawrence, Kan., shown in the accom- 
panying plate, have within a few dec- 
ades given place in this country to the 
light, rapidly running forms. Thou- 
sands of these have been made by va- 
rious firms throughout the country. At 
first wood was used almost exclusive- 
ly, but this is being rapidly displaced 
by metal, especially by thin steel plates 
and forgings. Although millions of 
dollars have been invested in the man- 
ufacture and purchase of mills and 
much attention has been given to the 



246 



FORESTRY AND IKIilGATION 



May 



mechanical details and the saving in 
weight and cost, yet comparatively lit- 
tle study has been bestowed upon the 
actual efficiency of the various forms 
and upon their development toward 
theoretical ideals. 



platform. In the foreground is a small 
reservoir, divided by a bank in the 
area cultivated. Without windmills 
the cultivation of the tract of country 
middle, so that one part may be used 
independently of the other. The part 




Dutch Windmill at Lawrence, Kansas. 



A view of gardens cultivated by 
water pumped by windmills is shown 
in the accompanying plate. This pic- 
ture has been taken from a windmill 



nearer the observer is the older ; the 
second part is a recent addition ren- 
dered necessary by the increase of tne 
shown in this picture would be impos- 



1906 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



247 



sible. It is doubtful if a single cow 
could find subsistence on the area 
which now supports a family. 



the adjacent ground. On this pud- 
dled earth the banks are built at a 
height of from 4 to 10 feet. These are 




A section through one of these usually built b}- plowing and scraping 

small reservoirs shows at the bottom up the earth from the outside, the 

the puddled earth or clay that pre- tramping of the horses and the men 

vents the water from seeping into serving to consolidate it. When the 



248 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



May 



bank has been built to the proper 
height it is smoothed and sodded. On 
the right-hand side of the figure is the 
pipe or wooden flume from the wind- 
min and on the left-hand side is shown 
the outlet box, which is usually built 
of 2-inch plank. This is closed by some 
simple form of wooden gate or valve, 
either lifted by means of a screw or 
hinged so as to open outward, and is 



held in place by the pressure of the 
water against it. 

The square reservoir is the form 
usually adopted. The mills, as in the 
other cases, are placed on each side, 
pumping through short wooden flumes 
over the bank. These reservoirs are 
not only used for holding water for 
irrigation, but with a little care serve 
as ponds for raising fish. 



COST OF RECLAMATION WORK 

How Co^ of We^ern Irrigation Work 
Compares with Like Work Elsewhere 



/^NE of the most surprising features 
^"^ connected with the work of the Re- 
clamation Service, as well as the one 
affording highest gratification, is the 
cost of structures compared with those 
which have become familiar to engi- 
neers in the East. 

When the reclamation work was in- 
augurated it was a matter of conject- 
ure whether or not the standards of 
cost for dams, canals, etc., that had 
been established by engineering prac- 
tice in the eastern part of the country, 
could be relied upon as a basis of 
estimates of the cost of the proposed 
western structures. As the work has 
progressed it has become more and 
more evident that many classes of en- 
gineering work in the west can be per- 
formed considerably cheaper than in 
the East, and at the same time the 
natural conditions are such that these 
structures are economical and effec- 
tive. 

If we take, for example, the three 
great masonry dams now being erect- 
ed for the purpose of storing water, 
viz. : the Roosevelt dam in Arizona, 
the Pathfinder dam in southeastern 
Wyoming, and the Shoshone dam in 
northwestern Wyoming, we shall find 
that the effective storage capacity and 
costs are far below those of some of 
the great eastern dams like the New 
Croton in New York, and the Wachu- 
sett in Massachusetts. The heights of 



these dams are as follows : Roosevelt, 
280 feet; Pathfinder, 210 feet; Sho- 
shone, 308 feet ; New Croton, 297 feet, 
and Wachusett, 207 feet. These 
heights are measured from the foun- 
dation stones to parapet in each case, 
and they show that the Shoshone is the 
highest, while the New Croton is sec- 
ond and the Roosevelt third. If, how- 
ever, the height above the river bed 
be considered, that is, the effective 
storage height, the New Croton is the 
lowest. The order is then as follows : 
Shoshone, 240 feet ; Roosevelt, 230 
feet ; Pathfinder, 200 feet ; Wachusett, 
185 feet ,and the New Croton, 157 
feet. In other words, about 50 per 
cent of the masonry in the New Croton 
dam is below ground and is service- 
able for foundation purpose only. 

It is interesting to note the compar- 
ative reservoir capacities. While the 
New Croton dam is the largest in the 
world from the standpoint of its 
amount of masonry, the storage capa- 
city of the reservoir formed by it is 
by far the lowest of any of those above 
mentioned. In fact, from a stand- 
point of storage economy, the New 
Croton reservoir is one of the poorest 
that has been constructed in recent 
years. The dam contains 833,000 
cubic yards of masonry and was erect- 
ed at a cost of $7,600,000. The capa- 
city of the reservoir formed by it is 
4,000,000,000 cubic feet, or a cost of 



1906 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



249 



$1,900 per million cubic feet storage. 
Similar figures for the Wachusett dam 
show that it contains 280,000 cubic 
vards of masonry, and was erected at 
a cost of about $2,000,000. Its storage 
capacity is 8,400,000,000 cubic feet, or 
a cost of $238 per million cubic feet 
storage. In contrast to these exces- 
sive costs the three western dams ap- 
pear remarkable. The Roosevelt dam, 
for example, contains 350,000 cubic 
yards of masonry erected at a cost of 
$3,850,000. The capacity of the reser- 
voir is 61,000,000,000 cubic feet, or 
fifteen times that of the New Croton, 
and about seven and one-half times 
that of the Wachusett. The cost of 
this dam per million cubic feet storage 
is only $63.16. Even more remark- 
able appears the Pathfinder dam. It 
contains 53,000 cubic yards of mason- 
ry, erected at a cost of $1,000,000. 
The capacity of the reservoir is 43,- 
560,000,000 cubic feet, or more than 
ten times that of the Croton. The cost 
of the dam per million cubic feet stor- 
age is therefore only $22.95 as against 
$1,900 for the New Croton. and $238 
for the Wachusett. Similar figures 
for the Shoshone dam, the highest in 
the world, are: Cubic yards of mas- 
onry, 69,000; cost, $1,000,000; capa- 
city of reservoir, 20.000,000 cubic feet. 



or a cost per million cubic feet storage 
of $50.35- 

These extremely low costs have sel- 
dom been equalled in the history of 
reservoir construction, and are due 
largely to the excellent natural facili- 
ties which are found in the rugged 
western country. From this fact it 
must not be inferred that these west- 
ern structures are simple engineering 
works. On the contrary, owing to 
their isolated location, their inaccessi- 
bility by rail and often by wagon, and 
the erratic and torrential character of 
the streams, they involve problems 
which tax the skill and ingenuity of 
their builders to the utmost. 

It is most fortunate that these res- 
ervoirs provide enormous storage at 
relatively low cost, otherwise their 
construction would not be feasible, as 
the irrigated land could not bear the 
expense of the costly structures of the 
East with their limited storage capa- 
city. 

The Croton dam. if it had been con- 
structed in Salt River Valley in Ari- 
zona for irrigation, would only supply 
23,000 acres, and irrigators would 
have to pay $330 an acre for stored 
water, as against $20, the estimaed 
cost from the Roosevelt dam. 





RECENT 

PUBLICATIONS 




The Forester. A Practical Treatise on 
British Forestry and Arboriculture for 
Landowners, Land Agents, and For- 
esters. By John Nisbet, 2 Vols. Illus- 
trated. Pp. 506-642. William Blackwood 
& Sons, Publishers, Edinburg. 
This is in many ways the most important 
book on forestry that has yet appeared in 
English. As the author says in his preface, 
it is neither a reprint nor a revision of the 
work by John Brown, and Brown and Nis- 
bet, which, under the same title has gone 
through six editions, but is an entirely new 
production. The general character of the 
book is indicated in its sub-title, and the 
broad distinction made between forestry and 
arboriculture is worth noting. The differ- 
ence is too rarely recognized in this coun- 
try. 

The fact that the book is avowedly writ- 
ten from the British point of view, and for 
the guidance of British cultivators, limits 
its usefulness here in a very large measure ; 
yet we have so few books on the subject in 
English that one is disposed to value this 
for the many important things it does con- 
tain. What does not apply may be over- 
looked. 

In a lengthy mtroduction (Part I) are 
given an historical sketch of forestry and 
arboriculture in Britain, facts and statistics 
relative to British woodlands, and a dis- 
cussion of forest influences and the eco- 
nomic value of forests. The last is of gen- 
eral application and interest, and brings 
together many facts not available to one 
who reads no language but English. 

Part II considers individually the tree 
species of the British Isles, the large num- 
ber that have been introduced as well as 
those that are native. The effort is made 
to describe each tree botanically, silvicultu- 
rally, and economically, and while there is 
evidence of much painstaking, the state- 
ments made are often faulty. For in- 
stance, it is said of Douglas Fir, "the 
best wood comes from moderate elevations 
on the west slopes of the Rocky Mountains, 
and is of great durability." Even in the 
British part of its range the tree is best 
developed and produces the best timber west 
of the Cascade Mountains, and the wood 
is nowhere considered very durable. Again, 
it is said "The wood of the Scarlet Oak 
is of little value. It is so porous and open 



of texture that even in America it is chiefly 
used for making staves for dry-goods bar- 
rels. It does not even make fair fire-wood." 
V. .til respect to common names there is the 
usual confusion : Pinus sylvestris, L. is 
Scots Pine, or Common Fir," Acer Sac- 
charinum L. is "Soft Sugar or Bird's Eye 
Maple" and Pseudotsuga Douglasii Carr. is 
"Red Pine." The last name is used locally 
only in some parts of the Rocky Mountains, 
whereas Red Fir is the common name in 
the lumber trade. 

Part III is devoted to silviculture and pre- 
sents in a very satisfactory way the ac- 
cepted European practices. An American 
is always dissatisfied with this part of every 
work on forestry, because the methods are 
based upon rules of practice instead of upon 
principles of universal application. It may 
be reasonably expected that before long 
American foresters will answer the need for 
a true system of silviculture based upon 
natural laws. 

Part IV deals with the protection of 
woodlands from ill influences of every kind. 
The chief value of this section is in its 
suggestions because injury to forests and 
trees is so largely a question of local condi- 
tions. 

Part V treats of forest management and 
Part VI of forest products. Both sections 
are written for the British practicant, and 
consequently have a restricted value here. 
The theoretical principles of forest man- 
agement are well presented, however, and 
one is glad to find the various formulae for 
determining rotation, rate of increment, etc., 
in such convenient form. The tables in 
the appendix to Part V are especially val- 
uable. What is said of the technical prop- 
erties of timber is valuable as a compilation 
of the known facts, but the author himself 
doubtless realizes how little definite, exact 
knowledge there is on this subject. The 
chapters on forest utilization have little 
application here. The terminology fre- 
quently differs from that commonly used 
in the United States, and some words are 
worth adopting. Felling, for instance, in 
place of cutting. 

To the American forest student this book 
comes as a boon and the professional will 
often want to refer to it. Numerous faults 
and many shortcomings might be pointed 
out, but as a whole the book will be found 



1906 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



251 



almost indispensible. It is sparingly illus- 
trated with good wood cuts and half-tone 
engravings, and is furnished with that in- 
dispensible in a hand-book — a good index. 



A Working Plan for Forest Lands in 
Central Alabamb. Bulletin No. 68, U. 
S. Forest Service. By Franklin W. Reed. 
Pp. 72, with map and four half-tone 
plates. Washington, Government Print- 
ing Office, 1905. 

Just at this time when the forest resources 
of the South are being discussed by reason 
of the pending Appalachian Forest Reserve 
Bill, this bulletin, although describing a sec- 
tion outside of the proposed reserve, is 
nevertheless quite interesting. The plan de- 
scribed was prepared for the Kaul Lumber 
Company, of Birmingham, for lands in 
Coosa, Bibb, and portions of adjacent coun- 
ties. 



Davey's Primer on Trees and Birds 

By John Davey, author of "The Tree 

Doctor." Pp. 165. Profusely illustrated. 

Published by the author. Sewickley, Pa. 

This handsome little volume is written in 
popular vein and simple language, to be 
used as a school reader and generally as an 
elementary treatise on tree and bird life. 
The author has found that the most prac- 
tical suggestions looking toward the proper 
preservation of tree and bird life is "to 
teach the child." The volume before us was 
undertaken purely with this idea in view, 
and should be a help in creating a proper 
sentiment toward trees and birds. The il- 
lustrations are many and exceedingly clear. 



Neighbors of Field, Wood and Stream.- 

By Morton Grinnell. Forty-five illus- 
trations. Pp. 285. Frederick A. Stokes 
Co., Publishers, New York. 
This volume contains a deliehtful series 
of stories about the commoner species of 
birds, beasts, and fish of the Eastern United 
States. It plans to make known to the 
younger generation the habits and home life 
of our wild neighbors. With the idea of 
giving the subject a real and living inter- 
est, he has endowed the birds and beasts 
described with human intelligence, which 
undoubtedly is an attractive way to present 
such matter to young readers. The illus- 
trations are unsually pleasing and appro- 
priate. Altogether it is a book well worth 
adding to one's collection. 



A Guide to the Wild Flowers. By 

Alice Lounsberry. Illustrated by Mrs. 
Ellis Rowan. Pp. 347. Profusely illus- 
trated with line drawings and colored 
plates. Fourth editioji. Published by 
Frederick A. Stokes Co., New York. 



In this work one gets as complete and 
accurate a guide in wild flowers as is ob« 
tainable in one volume. Its value is appre- 
ciated, as shown by the fact that the book 
has gone through four editions. The ar- 
rangement of the text throughout is one of 
great simplicity and clearness, while the 
many illustrations are a great aid to the 
identification of the various species de- 
scribed. We know of no more valuable and 
useful publication of a popular character 
devoted to the wild flowers. 



A Guide to the Trees. By Alice Louns- 
berry. Pp. 313. Profusely illustrated. 
Published by Frederick A. Stokes Co., 
New York. 

This is a companion volume to Miss 
Lounsberry's Guide to the Wild Flowers, 
and is -uniform in arrangement, illustra- 
tions, and general makeup with the latter 
work. Its value lies in the same direction — 
simplicitv. clearness of descriptions, and full 
enough to satisfy the most ambitious stu- 
dent of our leading trees. Nearly 200 trees 
are described, besides a number of shrubs. 
Its illustrations include 64 colored plates 
and many black and white drawings and 
diagrams by Mrs. Rowan, who also illus- 
trated the volume on wild flowers. The 
volume also contains an introduction by Dr. 
N. L. Britton, Director of the New York 
Botanical Garden. 



Hardy Rhodendrons, Azaleas, and the 
Mountain Laurel. By J. Woodward Man- 
ning. Manning's Monographs, March, 
1906, No. 2. Pp. 36, illustrated. 
From the Reading nurseries, at Reading, 
Mass., comes this excellent little booklet, 
pleasing in its typographical excellence and 
in contents. The plants are exhaustively 
described and directions for their care 
given. 



The Fern Collector's Guide. By Willard 
Nelson Clute. Pp. 61. Illustrated. Fred- 
erick A. Stokes Co., New York. 
This handy little book has been published 
with the idea of showing the student "where 
to find and how to name the ferns." It is 
most conveniently arranged for ready ref- 
erence, and is enhanced in value bv many 
excellent text illustrations. This guide is 
based upon the more extensive writings by 
same author, and should meet with a warm 
reception from fern collectors. 



Silas Strong. A Novel. Bv Irving Bach- 
eller. Pp. 339. Price $1.50. Harper & 
Brothers. New York, 1906. 
"Silas Strong." with the sub-title of "Em- 
peror of the Woods," is a tale of life in 
the Adirondacks. Aside from a storv that 



252 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



May 



would be entertaining no matter where the 
scenes were laid, the book contains a 
strong and reasonable plea for the preserva- 
tion of the Adirondack forests. It shows 
the present tendency in the 'Great North 
Woods" and the conflicting interests that 
are threatening the destruction of America's 
most beautiful playground. The people and 
legislators of New York especially, might 
read this book with profit to the state prop- 
erty. 



Advice for Forest Planters in Okla- 
homa and Adjacent Regions. Bulle- 
tin No. 65, U. S. Forest Service. By Geo. 
L. Clothier, ]\I. F. Pp. 46, illustrated. 
Government Printing Office, 1905. 
This bulletin contains advice on the meth- 
ods of planting trees, proper species for 
planting, care of planted trees, and general 
suggestions to forest planters in the region 
covered. The information here published 
has been collected by agents of the Forest 
Service chiefly in connection with the mak- 
ing and execution of forest planting plans 
for different land owners in the region, and 
was issued because it was felt there was a 
general lack of definite information regard- 
ing forest planting. 



The Black Hills Beetle, With Further 
Notes on its Distribution, Life, History 
and methods ol Control. Bulletin No. 
56, Bureau of Entomology, U. S. Depart- 
ment of Agriculture. By A. D. Hopkins, 
Ph. D. Pp. 22, illustrated. Government 
Printing Office, 1905. 

The Black Hills beetle has killed between 
700,000,000 and 1,000,000,000 feet of western 
yellow pine timber in the Black Hills For- 
est Reserve, where it is found in abnormal 
numbers and lately its depredations in cen- 
tral Colorado and New Mexico have be- 
come extensive. The report here presented 
is the result of an investigation undertaken 
by Dr. Hopkins and his assistants, at the 
request of the Forest Service, and contains 
in addition to a description of the beetle, 
its habits and life-history, a method of con- 
trol, devised and tested by Dr. Hopkins. 
The actual discovery of the beetle and its 
identification as a new species by Dr. Hop- 
kins occurred in 1900. Owing to the se- 
rious nature of the beetle's depredations, it 
was felt that a full investigation should be 
undertaken to determine its character and 
extent, and the bulletin here presented is 
the final report of such investigation. 



Department of the Interior, Washington, 
D. C, May 8, 1906. Sealed proposals will be 
received at the office of the United States 
Reclamation Service, Billings, Montana, until 2 
o'clock p. m., June 20, 1906, for the construc- 
tion of about 1 7 miles of canal, involving ap- 
proximately 350,000 cubic yards of excavation. 
Plans, specifications, and proposal blanks may 
be obtained from the Chief Engineer, Reclama- 
tion Service, Washington, D. C, or from the 
Engineer, Huntlev, Montana. E. A. HITCH- 
COCK, Secretary." 

Department oe the Interior, Washington, 
D. C, April 26, 1906. Sealed proposals will be 
received at the office of the United States 
Reclamation Service, at Mitchell, Neb., until 2 
o'clock p. m. June 15, 1906, for the construc- 
tion of about 135 miles of distributing system 
involving about 720,000 cubic yards of earth 
work and 1 1,000 cubic yards of rock work, for 
the irrigation of lands in the North Platte Val- 
ley in Western Nebraska. Particulars may be 
obtained from the Chief Engineer of the Recla- 
mation Service, Washington, D. C, or the Engi- 
neer, Mitchell, Neb. E. A. HITCHCOCK, Sec- 
retary. 

Department of the Interior, Washington, 
D. C, April 26, 1906. Sealed proposals will be 
received at the office of the Supervising Engi- 
neer, United States Reclamation Service. Port- 
land, Ore., until 3 o'clock p. m., June 28, ]qo6, 
for building the Cold Springs Dam, near Her- 
miston. Ore., including about 694,000 cubic 
yards of earth and gravel excavation, about 
3,100 cubic yards of rock excavation, about 
3,110 cubic yards of concrete, and about 35,000 
cubic yards of rip rap and rock fill. Particu- 
lars may be obtained at the office of the U. S. 
Reclamaticm Service, at Washington, D. C, 
Portland, Ore., and Hermiston, Ore. E. A. 
HITCHCOCK, Secretary. 

Department of the Interior, Washington, 
D. C, April 23, 1906. Sealed proposals will be 
received at the office of the Supervising Engi- 
neer, United States Reclamation Service, Port- 
land, Ore., until 2 o'clock p. m., June 27, 1906, 
for the following work: Storage works near 
Conconully, Wash., including about 258,000 
cubic yards of earth excavation. 29,000 "cubic 
yards of rock excavation, 160 feet of tunnel, 
and 2,360 cubic yards of concrete. Particulars 



may be obtained at the offices of the U. S. 
Reclamation Service at Washington, D. C, Port- 
land, Ore., and Pogue, Wash. E. A. HITCH- 
COCK, Secretary. 

Department of the Interior, Washington, 

D. C, April 21, 1906. Sealed proposals will be 
received at the office of the Reclamation Service 
near Belle Fourche, S. Dak., until 4 p. m., May 
29, 1906, for the completion of the Main Supply 
Canal, Belle Fourche Project, South Dakota, 
from Station 80 to terminus, involving the ex- 
cavation of approximately 200,000 cubic yards, 
more or less of material. Specifications, form 
of proposal and plans may be obtained from the 
Chief Engineer, United States Geological Sur- 
vey, Washington, D. C, or from R. F. Walter. 
Engineer in Charge, Belle Fourche, S. Dak. 

E. A. HITCHCOCK, Secretary . 

Department of the Interior, Washington. 
D. C, May 12, 1906. Sealed proposals will 
be received at the office of the United States 
Reclamation Service, Klamath Falls, Ore., until 
2 o'clock p. m., June 21, 1906, for the construc- 
tion of 19 miles" of canal, and 27 miles of lat- 
erals in Klamath County. Ore., with checks, 
turnouts, culverts, bridg'es and other appur- 
tenances involving about s7o,ooo cubic yards 
of excavation, 1,550 cubic yards of concrete' 
masonry, and about 35,000 feet B. M. of lum- 
ber. Plans, specifications and forms of pro- 
posal may be obtained by application to the 
Chief Engineer of the United States Reclama- 
tion Service, Washington, D. C, the Supervis- 
ing Engineer, 1108 Union Trust Building, Los 
Angeles, Cal.. or the Proiect Engineer, Klamath 
Falls, Ore. E. A. HITCHCOCK. Secretary. 

Department of the Interior, Washington, 
D. C., May 3, 1006. Scpled proposals will be 
received at the office of the Supervising Engi- 
neer, United States Reclamation Service, Port- 
land, Ore., until 2 o'clock p. m., June 29, 1906. 
for the construction of about 25 miles of canal 
extending from the Umatilla River, near Echo, 
Ore., to the proposed Cold Springs Reservoir, 
con.sisting of the following work: About 7oo,ooo 
cubic yards of earth excavation, about 6,000 
cubic yards of rock excavation, about 2,300 
cubic yards of concrete, and about 3,600 cubic 
vards of riprap, divided into two schedules. 
Particulars may be obtained at the offices of the 
United States Reclamation Service, Washing- 
ton. D. C, and Portland, Ore. E. A. HITCH- 
COCK, Secretary. 




A .AIAGXIFICP:XT FOKEST and :\I0UNTA1N scene Frontispiece 

NEWS AND NOTES : 

Senate Passes Reserve Bill 255 Forest Instructor Wanted - 257 

IMenibersliip Cam] aign - 255 Irrigation in Hawaii - - - 257 

Tlie Glowing ForestService 256 Lower Yellowstone Project - 259 

Ivliode Island's Forester - 256 Progress on Huntley "Work - 259 

EARTHQUAKES AND THE FOREST (i//».^/TOf(Y7). By Myron 

L. Fuller 261 

AGRICULTURAL SETTLEMENT IN FOREST RESERVES. 

P.y (ieorge W. Woodruff 267 

IMl'OllTANT IRRIGATION LEGISLATION - - - - 271 

PR(:>GRESS OF SHOSHONE PROJECT. By H. N. Sayage - 275 

UNITED STATP.S RECLAIM ATION SERVICE - - - - 276 

PU:\IPING WATER. T\,\vd TiX\^er {lUiu^irated) - - - - 279 

UNITED STATES FOREST SERVICE 283 

STATE FORESTER FOR MARYLAND 287 

WEST VIRGINIA FAVORS RESERVES (*/(7// Po/-/r«(7) - - 289 

SPIMNG FIELD WORK OF JHE SENIOR CLASS OF THE 

YALE FORE>T SCHOOL. By Henuan H. Chapman - - 290 

THE MA NTI FOREST RESERVE. r>y A. W. Jensen - - 291 

TI.AIBER STUMPAGE BUSINESS OF THE NATIONAL 

GOVERNMENT 293 

NOTES ON FOREST TREES SUITABLE FOR PLANTING IN 

THE CNITEI) SPATES. \ 11- Beech {Fagus ((tropunicm) - 296 

REM. \RK ABLE SALE OF RESERVE TIMBER - - - 298 

RECENT PUBLICATIONS 




^Mffi) 




Vol. XII. 



JUNE, 1906. 



No. 6 



NEWS AND NOTES 



„ „ On Tune 22, Senator 

Senate Passes t-, j . j u 

Reserve Bill Brandegee presented be- 
fore the Senate the bill 
(S. 4953) for the purpose of acquir- 
ing lands for forest reserve purposes 
in the Southern Appalachian and the 
White Mountains of New Hampshire. 
The bill was passed without opposi- 
tion. It authorizes the Secretary of 
Agriculture to procure lands for forest 
reserves in Maryland, Virginia, North 
Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia. 
Alabama and Tennessee in the Appa- 
lachian Mountains and in New Hamp- 
shire in the White Mountains. He is 
also authorized to accept donations of 
lands for forest reserves. The bill 
carries an appropriation of $3,000,- 
000. 

This action marks a further big step 
in the work being carried on to pre- 
serve our Eastern forests. All energy 
should now be directed toward the 
House of Representatives at the next 
session of the present Congress. Never 
has there been a better outlook for the 
passage of this bill. 

For the past year the 
American Forestry As- 
sociation has been en- 
gaged in an active campaign to in- 



Membership 
Campaign 



crease its membership and influence. 
The success which has attended these 
efforts has been gratifying. A very 
substantial number of the persons in- 
vited to become members accepted, 
when the objects of the association 
were laid before them. 

The association realizes that there 
never has been a time in the history 
of the forest movement in the United 
States when well-directed effort was 
so certain to achieve good results for 
forest protection as at present. Largely 
through it public opinion has been 
brought to bear on the agitation for 
the creation of the Southern Appa- 
lachian and White Mountain forest 
reserves, and it seems probable that 
Congress will take favorable action 
on the bill now before it. The suc- 
cess the organization has achieved in 
its varied efforts so far only empha- 
sizes the desirability of extending its 
scope of operations and its influence 
throughout the country. This can only 
come through an increasing support 
in .membership. The association de- 
sires and needs as members represen- 
tative men and women in every city 
and town in the country. A very large 
proportion of persons in sympathy 
with the forest movement, or feeling 



256 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



JUIK 



a patriotic interest in this great eco- 
nomic movement, would gladly render 
support to the cause if the matter 
were brought to their attention. The 
Ameirican Forestry Association is en- 
deavoring to reach such persons all 
over the country, but it is certain that 
a very large number who would glad- 
ly accept membership are lost through 
inability to present to them the aims 
of the association. 

Therefore the officers of the asso- 
ciation submit this appeal to its mem- 
bers and friends : Lend your assistance 
in securing additional members. For- 
ward to H. M. Suter, Secretary, 131 1 
G street northwest. Washington, D. 
C. the names of friends or acquaint- 
ances whom you think would be in- 
terested in forestry and the work of 
the American Forestry Association. 
Information will be gladlv sent to all. 



The Growing 
Forest Service 



Some idea of the magni- 
tude and varietv of the 



operations of the United 
States Forest Service may be gained 
from one of the recent publications of 
that bureau, showing field assign- 
ments for June. In addition to the 
administrative work in connection 
with forest reserves, the service is 
prosecuting a very large number of 
examinations of lands for new forest 
reserves throughout the West. Special 
studies of specific phases of -forestry 
are being pursued in a number of 
States. The problem of forest plant- 
ing — particularly throughout the West 
— and the institution of nurseries for 
the propagation of seedlings has a 
prominent place in the work of the 
service. The preparation of planting 
plans for private owners occupies a 
number of its employees in a large 
number of States, and cooperative 
work with States, various other Gov- 
ernmental departments, municipalities, 
corporations, and individuals, is under 
way. The possibilities of treated tim- 
bers, experiments in preservation pro- 
cesses, and the strength of various 
timbers, is being investigated. Statis- 
. tics relating to the consumption of for- 



est products, etc., are being collected, 
and the publication section is constant- 
Iv issuing publications and reports of 
various investigations. Improved 
methods of turpentining are being 
pursued in Florida, in cooperation 
with a large corporation ; experiments 
are being conducted in Massachusetts 
to determine the value of various 
woods for pulp ; in ^lichigan the 
cross-tie problem is being studied, in 
codperation with the Chicago and 
Northwestern and the Wisconsin Cen- 
tral railroad companies ; in Pennsyl- 
vania, a preliminary study is being 
made to determine a forest policy for 
the Pennsylvania Railroad Company : 
and cooperation with the Reclamation 
Service is carried on largely through- 
out its field of operations. 

x^ltogether forestry in the United 
States has already become an import- 
ant economic factor. The rapidity of 
its progress is most evident in a com- 
parison of Government and State ac- 
tivities and appropriations of the pres- 
ent and a half dozen years ago. 

„, , , , lesse B. Mowrv, who 

Rhode Island - ., ' • ,. 1 

Forester ^^'^^ recently appouited 

by Gov. George H. 
Utter commissioner of forestry for 
Rhode Island, is considered well c[uali- 
fied for the duties of the office, hav- 
ing made a long study of the subject. 
Mr. ]Mowry is a native of the town of 
Glocester and is superintendent of 
public schools in that place. 

He received his early education in 
the schools of Glocester and took a 
course of study in the Rhode Island 
State Normal School. After leaving 
the Normal School he entered Nor- 
wich University, where he received 
the degree of Bachelor of Science and 
then entered Brown University where 
he took up the study of chemistry. 

Leaving his studies in Brown L'ni- 
versity, he w^as appointed officer in 
charge of the barracks at Norwich 
University, where he served two years. 
He has taught schools in several 
places, has been sub-master of high 
schools in Massachusetts, a professor 
of botany and geology in Grand Is- 



1906 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



267 



land College, Nebraska, and in the 
Leonard School of Pharmacy. In ad- 
dition to his duties as superintendent 
of schools of Glocester, Mr. Mowry is 
a member of the faculty of the Pente- 
costal Collegiate Institute, Scituate, 
and a member of the American Chemi- 
cal Society. 

In speaking of the opportunities and 
possibilities that lie in the unimproved 
and abandoned farms of Rhode Is- 
land, the new commissioner recently 
said : 

"There are in this State about 268,- 
000 acres of unimproved and aban- 
doned farm land. Much of it has al- 
w^ays been unsuitable for agriculture 
and a great deal of it has now reverted 
to forests. The shifting of the gram 
and meat producing industries west- 
ward has greatly lessened the require- 
ments of tillage and pasture land m 
the State, but it is none the less im- 
portant that the large area of unim- 
proved land should be put to the best 
possible use. 

"A great deal of the land is ledgy 
and some of it is so poor that it should 
be allowed to produce what it can na- 
turally while more of it should prove 
remunerative if devoted to forest 
planting. The natural afforestation is 
slow and many times unsatisfactory. 
Twenty years and more elapse before 
the land is covered with trees and 
many of these are of the less valuable 
species. This delay is unnecessary 
and may be avoided by forest planting, 
and many instances to pine and hard 
woods at a small outlay, has produced 
four or five times as much valuable 
timber per acre in forty years as would 
have been produced by natural affor- 
estotion. 

"The long investment discourages 
the planter, brt he should keep in mind 
that the land so planted is increasing 
in valre and is released from taxation 
for a period of fifteen years. In the 
rugged ridges, where forest planting 
would be unprofitable and where we 
now find the forests of evergreens 
mixed with hardwoods, forest man- 
agement would greatly improve the 



value. There is a very small percent- 
age of the woodland in the State that 
is producing as large a money return 
as it is capable of doing. The import- 
ed pine, maple, oak and other woods 
range higher in price than native pro- 
ducts because the latter has become in- 
ferior in quality and dimensions. 

"The nation's supply of white pine, 
which is our most useful tree for com- 
mercial purposes, is fast decreasing, 
and the valleys of Rhode Island's 
many small rivers, which art too light 
and sandy for profitable tillage, form 
natural places for the best production 
of this species. The largest speci- 
men in North America that I know of 
is found in the town of Glocester, but 
within the past few years many acres 
of this land has been cut off. A'ery few 
if any of the mother trees are left and 
the land is growing up with birch, 
scrub oak and brush. 

"With better laws to protect the 
planters from forest fires this area 
could be made again to yield a heavy 
growth of timber, and if taken in time 
under forestry methods the tree weeds 
now occupying the ground would 
serve as a shade and protection to the 
pine seedlings. In States like }*Iichi- 
gan nature has produced only about 
5,000 feet per acre of pine, while ex- 
periments in New England have 
proven that five times that amount can 
be grown per acre and harvested by 
the man who in youth plants the pine 
seed." 

Forest An assistant to the di- 

WameT' ^^^*°^' °^ ^'"'^ recently 

created School of For- 
estry at Colorado Springs, Colo., is 
wanted. His duty will be to give ele- 
mentary instruction in forestry. The 
salary will be $1,200 a year, with a 
prospect for advancement if the work 
done is satisfactory. Applications for 
this position should be made to the 
Forester, United States Forest Ser- 
vice, Washington, D. C. 

, . . The Kohala Ditch, the 

Irrigation , . ^ . . 

in Hawaii biggcst irrigation enter- 

prise of the kind in the 
Hawaiian Islands, was opened June 




''"^-^^l 






% ^-^-^ 
















-^""^ 


^ ""v 






^*">>. ^ 






-V, 




**^.-. 


1 


. < 


-^^^'- 


« i 

*^..^ 


i 


,^^^, 
~«^' 


.. -^;^^^l?^i* 










Granite Knob in the Sout'^ern Appalachian Mountains from which the forest, and later 
the soil has been largely removed. 




Badly Washed Mountain Valley Lands, Bakersville, N. C. The lower slopes border- 
ing this valley are largely cleared. 



1906 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



259 



II, with ceremonies, in which Secre- 
tary Atkinson, lately acting governor, 
took part. The ditch at present runs 
fourteen miles, of which nine are 
mountain tunneling, and it will even- 
tually be seventy miles long and will 
supply 70,000,000 gallons of water per 
day to numerous plantations and to 
large areas of land which are now un- 
cultivated through the lack of water. 
The ditch as far as at present con- 
structed cost $500,000. In the course 
of his address at the opening of the 
ditch, Secretary Atkinson quoted a 
letter from President Roosevelt, in 
which the latter pledges his support to 
efforts to secure immigrants who will 
settle on the lands of Hawaii. The 
President in his letter, which was ad- 
dressed to Mr. Atkinson while the lat- 
ter was acting governor, says that he 
will do all in his power to assist in the 
matter. 

Lower Public interest in na- 

Proerf °"^ tional irrigation has been 
^^'^ heightened by the pro- 

gress of the work on the Lower Yel- 
lowstone reclamation project. This 
project in eastern Montana and west- 
ern North Dakota contemplates the 
reclamation of 67,000 acres of land, 
two-thirds of which is in Montana. 
The canal takes its supply from the 
Lower Yellowstone River at a point 
about seventeen miles below Glendive, 
and extends down the left or west side 
of the river at total length of 80 miles. 

Contracts have been awarded and 
construction is now proceeding on all 
but one of the divisions of this work. 
Bids were recently opened for con- 
structing the main diverting dam 
across the river. This will be a tim- 
ber crib and rock structure 600 feet 
long and 12 feet in height. It will 
serve to divert the low flow of the 
Yellowstone River into the main canal. 
The canal when completed will have 
a capacity of 1,700 acre-feet of water 
every twenty-four hours. 

The initiation of the work has start- 
ed a boom in real estate all over the 
valley. A great many new settlers 
have already arrived and others are 



coming in every day. Many new build- 
ings have been erected and others are 
in process of construction. Land for 
which there was very little sale at any 
price is now selling at $25 and up- 
ward an acre. 

Progress The Huntley irrigation 

Wo?r*'^^ project on the ceded 
portion of the Crow In- 
dian Reservation, Mont., is attracting 
a great deal of attention just now by 
reason of the opening of the reserva- 
tion to settlement under the general 
land laws on August 15. 

Although no definite arrangements 
have been made as to the method of 
opening the land under the irrigation 
project, it is probable that some simi- 
lar form of drawing will be adopted 
as heretofore used in connection with 
the opening of other lands. Contracts 
have been awarded and construction 
is being rapidly pushed on all the work 
of the Huntley project. It is ex- 
pected that the land under the irri- 
gation system will be opened to set- 
tlement within a few months. 

This project, which embraces ap- 
proximately 50,000 acres, has a maxi- 
mum length of thirty miles and ex- 
tends along the right bank of the Yel- 
lowstone River, excepting at a point 
twelve miles east of Billings. It is 
traversed throughout its entire length 
by the Northern Pacific Railroad, and 
is crossed by the Chicago, Burlington 
and Quincy. Both of these railroads 
are arranging to establish stations 
every five miles, which will give the 
settlers under this project exception- 
ally good railroad and shipping facili- 
ties. Arrangements are also being 
perfected by the Reclamation Service 
for availing of the benefits of the re- 
cent town site bill passed by Congress 
whereby a small tract of land con- 
veniently located and surrounding the 
railway stations can be subdivided and 
sold to settlers and others. By this 
arrangement each farm unit will have 
stores, post-office, schools, and 
churches within an average of less 
than two miles, 




MR. WESLEY J. GARDNER 
Whose death removes an able member from the United States 
Forest Service 



^Ir. Wesley J. Gardner, Forest Assis-tant in tlie Forent. Service, died at the Episcopal 
Eye, Ear, and Throat Honpilal in Washingtfin, D. C, on June lotli. ^Ir. Gardner was 
born in Piainfield, N. J., January 30, 187- . lie graduated from Harvard University in 
1900 with an A. B. degree, and from Yale Forest School in 1903. His conueclion with the 
Forest Service dates from 11)00, during which time he has been engaged in important 
investigations in varions Western States. Conscientious devotion to his work and a quiet, 
refined manner were his charatfterislics at all times. His early death will be a life-long 
regret to his many friends and a serious loss to the Service. 



EARTHQUAKES AND THE FOREST* 



BY 
MYRON L. FULLER 

United States Geological Survey. 



'X'HE question of the relation of 
•'■ earthquakes to the forest is par- 
ticularly pertinent at this time when 
the public interest, aroused by the re- 
cent terrifying shock and appalling 
conflagration at San Francisco, is still 
at a high pitch. In the accounts of the 
destruction wrought by these great 
convulsions of nature, little is usually 
said of the effect of the disturbances 
on the forest growth. Nevertheless, 
there is hardly a shock, at least of the 
severe ones, which does not affect it 
to a greater or less extent. In some 
instances the havoc wrought is both 
widespread and complete. 

Earthquake waves may be popularly 
divided into (i) vibrations and (2) 
actual visible waves like the broad low 
swells of the ocean. The former are 
felt as relatively sharp and sudden 
jars, or shakings of the ground, while 
during the passage of the latter the 
earth is felt to rise, sway, and fall with 
the sickening motion so vividly im> 
pressed upon everyone who has ex- 
perienced it. The sharp vibrations are 
often destructive to artificial struc- 
tures, chimneys being snapped off, ma- 
sonry walls parted and shattered, and 
buildings jarred from their founda- 
tions. To the larger earth waves are 
to be ascribed most of the twistings 
of the surface, the warping and fold- 
ing of the ground, the Assuring of the 
soil, and the slipping of the hillside 
materials, as well as the destruction of 
buildings and other works of man. 

Usually, however, the vibrations are 
not sharp enough to seriously affect 
the forests, although in the case of cer- 
tain of the heavier shocks trees are 
said to have been snapped off short 
near their butts, but the landslides 
arising from the larger waves, aided 

^Published by permission of tlie Director 



perhaps by the vibrations, are oftert 
very destructive to the trees of the 
steeper hillisdes. Not only are the- 
trees directly overthrown by the shock, 
but bv the warping of the surface and 
the formation of swamps and lakes- 
through the obstruction of drainage, 
large numbers are often killed by sub- 
mergence. Of our three greatest earth- 
quakes — the famous New Madrid 
earthquake which shook the Missis- 
sippi valley in 181 1 and 1812, the 
Charleston earthquake of 1886, and 
the San Francisco of April i8th of this 
year — only the former had a marked 
effect on the forests. At Charleston, 
notwithstanding the severity of the 
shock, there was almost no effect on 
the trees, which remained upright and 
unbroken. In the San Francisco re- 
gion, the action was somewhat great- 
er, the trees of the slopes and hillsides 
often being tilted and overthrown by 
slippings started by the shock, but on 
the whole the forests were but little 
affected. Not so, however, was it in 
the case of the New Madrid area in 
which, as described in the following 
paragraphs, the destruction was great. 

New Madrid, from which the earth- 
quake of 1811-1812 was named, is a 
small town on the banks of the Missis- 
sippi in southeastern Missouri not far 
from the Arkansas line. It was near 
here that the earthquake reached its 
maximum intensity, but its area of de- 
struction reached westward to the St. 
Francis River, eastward into Tennes- 
see, and southward nearly to the pres- 
ent site of Memphis. The first shock 
was felt at 2 A. M. on December 16, 
181 1, being sufficient to awaken the 
settlers and to cause them to rush to 
the open to escape the falling chim- 
neys and other objects. Here they re- 

of the United States Geological Survey. 



262 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



June 



mained until morning, when a second 
shock, much heavier and more de- 
structive than the first, brought re- 
newed consternation upon them. This 
shock, according to an observer, was 
preceded by a rumbhng Hke distant 



thunder. A moment later "the earth 
began to totter and shake so that per- 
sons could neither stand nor walk. 
Then the earth was observed to roll 
in waves a few feet high with visible 
waves between. Bv and bv these 




Fig. 1— Earthauake crack filled with sand forced up from below during 
New Madrid earthquake, Charleston, Mo. (Photo loaned by Mr. Thomas 
Beckwith.) 



1906 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



263 



swells burst, throwing up large vol- 
umes of water, sand, and coal [lignite] 
(Fig. i). When the swells burst, fis- 
sures were left running in a northern 
and southern direction and parallel for 
miles." After the severest shocks a 
dense black "sulphurous" vapor, due 
to gases derived from long buried tim- 
ber and vegetable muck and issuing 
from the cracks, tainted the water for 
manv miles around. From the cracks 



The fowls and beasts cried ; trees fell." 
Again speaking of a shock on Febru- 
ary 7th, the same observer says : "At 
first the Mississippi seemed to recede 
from its banks, its waters gathered up 
like mountains, leaving boats high 
upon the sands. The waters then 
moved inward with a front wall 15 to 
20 feet perpendicular. * * * The 
river fell as rapidly as it had risen and 
receded within its banks with such 




i'ig- 2 — View in sunk Lands formed by New Madrid Earthquake southeastern 
Missouri, showing old timber in foreground, mostly killed by submergence, 
with young timber in background. 



there were also thrown out sand and 
water which covered the ground over 
large areas. The surface sunk in 
places, giving rise to swamps and 
lakes, while elsewhere it was uplifted 
and its bayous drained. (Fig. 2.) 

The effect on the forests has been 
described by many observers. One, 
speaking of the first shock, says "the 
affrighted inhabitants ran to and fro. 



force that it took with it the grove of 
Cottonwood trees which hedged its 
borders. They were broken off with 
such regularity that in some instances 
persons who had not witnessed the 
fact could with difficulty be persuaded 
that it was not the work of art." 

Another writer, speaking of the 
cracks, says, "oak trees would be split 
in the center and for 40 feet up the 



264 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



June 



trunk, one part standing on one side of 
a fissure, the other part on the other. 
* =!= * Near the St. Francis River 
there is a great deal of sunk land 
caused by the earthquake of 1811. 
Here are large trees sunk 10 or 20 feet 
beneath the water. * * '■' In 
Reelfoot Lake [Tennessee] the fisher- 
man floats his canoe above the branch- 
ing submerged tops of cypress trees." 
These submerg-ed trees after strug- 



the Cottonwood trees cracking and 
crashing, tossing their arms to and fro 
as if sensible of their danger, while 
they disappeared beneath the flood." 
btill another says the "roaring and 
whistling prodrced by the impetuosity 
of the air escaping from confinement, 
seemed to increase the horrid disorder 
of trees being blown up, cracked and 
split and falling by thousands at a 
time." 




Fig. 3 — Trees tilted by landslides caused by New 
Madrid Earthquake. Reelfoot Lake, Tennessee 



gling with the changed conditions for 
the most part finally died and their 
bare trunks may still be seen among 
the younger growth of cypress which 
is now taking possession of the old 
swamps. On the Mississippi, accord- 
ing to another observer, "The sand- 
bars and points of islands gave way, 
swallowed up in the tumultuous bosom 
of the ri.ver, carrying down with them 



Still another prominent source of 
destruction was the landslides occur- 
ring along the steep Chickasaw Blufifs 
which border the Mississippi lowlands 
on the east in Kentucky and Tennes- 
see. These bluffs, consisting of more 
or less clayey deposits, were already 
nearly as steep as the material could 
stand and needed only the shock of 
the earthquake to inaugurate the slip- 



1906 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



265 



ping. The face of the bluff hterally 
crumbled under its action ; wide rents 
opened and great masses slipped and 
slid downward, carrying with them 
the immense trees which covered the 
surface, and mingling both earth and 
timber in confused jumbles at the bot- 
tom. Two of the present views (Figs. 
3 and 4) show trees overthrown by the 
slides at this time. In one the orig- 
inal trees survived, gradually straight- 



ered an area of 2^ miles long and 5 
miles wide. Originally a small stream, 
know as Reelfoot Creek, flowed 
through the region, but at the time of 
the earthquake the land was upheaved 
across the lower portion and the 
waters dammed back to form the great 
lake, now so well known from the 
large quantities of fish taken from it 
each year. The region at the time of 
the shock was well wooded, much of 




^%:^" 



Fig. 4— Tree overturned and partly killed by New 
Madrid Earthquake, Reelfoot Lake, Tennessee 



ening to an upright position ; in the 
other the old broken trunk is decayed 
and gone, the present tree being devel- 
oped from one of the original limbs. 

Of all the causes of destruction 
which have been enumerated, that 
caused by the submergence of the land 
was most widespread. The most im- 
portant single instance was the for- 
mation of Reelfoot Lake, which cov- 



it being covered with species charac- 
teristic of dry situations. Over a large 
part of the area the timber remained 
upright after the shock, but was grad- 
ually killed by the rising waters. In 
Figure 5 is shown a view of such tim- 
ber standing in about 15 feet of water. 
Elsewhere, however, the timber was 
prostrated, forming a network of 
trunks, which even now can be seen 



266 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



June 




Fig. 5— Timber killed by submergence due to New Madrid Earth- 
quake. Reelfoot Lake, Tennessee 

beneath the waters of the lake, or, as Briefly summarizing the results of 

shown in Figure 6, projecting slightly the earthquake on the forest, we find 
above its surface. that its effects included the splitting of 




F.g. 



6 — Timber prostrated and submerged by Nev 
quake. Reelfoot Lake, Tennessee 



Madrid Earth- 



l906 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



267 



trunks, the. inclination of trees and in- 
terlocking of branches, the prostra- 
tion of considerable tracts of forest, 
the snapping ofif of the trunks by the 
rush of waters near the Mississippi, 
the precipitation of trees into the 
streams by caving banks, the complete 
uprooting and removal of the entire 
vegetable covering of many of the is- 
lands (which themselves, in some in- 
stances, were completely destroyed), 
the overturning and prostration by 
landslides, and the submergence of 
great areas by ponded waters. 

Over how great an area the forests 
were destroyed is difficult to say at 
the present time. Reelfoot Lake alone 
probably covered 125 square miles of 



forest, while the swamps formed at 
this time to the west of the Mississippi 
probably covered 75 square miles or 
more in addition. These two causes 
alone would account for the destruc- 
tion of over 125,000 acres. The 
amount of timber lost by the caving of 
the banks and by the overwhelming 
of the islands would probably bring 
the total to 150.000 acres. To this still 
further additions must be made of the 
areas in which the timber was over- 
thrown by landslides or other causes. 
No estimate of this can now be made, 
but it was undoubtedly considerable. 
That the destruction was sufficient to 
give earthquakes a place among the 
enemies of the forest can not be dis- 
puted. 



AGRICULTURAL SETTLEMENT IN 
FOREST RESERVES 

Important Law Enacted by Congress Affecting Settlers in Reserves 

BY 
GEORGE W. WOODRUFF 

In Charge of Section of Law, United States Forest Service. 



'T'HE enemies, and even the more 
■■• critical friends, of forest reserves 
have harped upon the fact that, no 
matter how much care is exercised in 
choosing forest reserve boundaries, it 
is impossible to avoid the inclusion of 
land actually valuable for agriculture. 
Those who are hostile to the reserves 
declare that these areas are large and 
valuable, and that their inclusion in 
the forest reserve takes away from the 
people a much-desired opportunity to 
build homes and thriving communities. 
Fair-minded critics, on the other hand, 
although they admit that the tracts 
are small and isolated, have deplored 
the necessity of withholding any pure- 
ly agricultural land from use by home- 
stead settlers. 

The Forest Service aimed to remedy 
this difficulty in the past l)v issuing 



permits to cultivate agricultural areas, 
not exceeding 40 acres, to any person 
who would actually live upon and cul- 
tivate such 'tracts. In addition it al- 
lowed such permittees to take, with- 
out charge, sufficient forest reserve 
timber for fences and buildings in con- 
nection with the enjoyment of the 
agricultural privilege. Recently the 
Secretary of Agriculture has approved 
a regulation to take effect July i, that 
such agricultural permits may be al- 
lowed by the Forester to the maximum 
of 160 acres. By this means, those 
willing to make their homes in the 
forests, were and are offered an oppor- 
tunity to do so. 

There was one drawback, however, 
namely that such permittees lacked 
one great incentive to improve their 
homes to the utmost. It was impos- 



268 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



Jun( 



sible under the land laws to obtain 
title to forest reserve land, and they 
hesitated about planting orchards or 
even building thoroughly comfortable 
homes for fear that in the future, 
either through whim or through need- 
ing the land for administrative pur- 
poses, the Forester might revoke their 
permits and eject them from the re- 
serve. The Forester was so keenly 
alive to this hardship and deterring in- 
fluence that he recommended to Con- 
gress, even before the forest reserves 
were transferred to his care, that a law 
be passed to give opportunity, under 
reasonable restrictions, for acquiring 
the title to forest reserve lands chiefly 
valuable for agriculture. A bill to this 
effect was introduced in the Second 
and again in the Third Session of the 
Fifty-eighth Congress, but failed of 
passage. Last winter, however, Mr. 
Lacey reintroduced the bill and ac- 
cepted several valuable amendments 
suggested by the Forester and by local 
interests. In its amended form the bill 
was finally signed by the President 
June II, 1906: It reads as follows: 

Be it enacted, etc., That the Secre- 
tary of Agriculture may, in his discre- 
tion, and he is hereby authorized, upon 
application or otherwise, to examine 
and ascertain as to the location and ex- 
tent of lands within permanent or tem- 
porary forest reserves, except the fol- 
lowing counties in the State of Cali- 
fornia: Inyo, Tulare, Kern, San Luis 
Obispo, Santa Barbara, Ventura, Los 
Angeles, San Bernardino, Orange, 
Riverside, and San Diego; which are 
chiefly valuable for agriculture, and 
which, in his opinion, may be occupied 
for agricultural purposes without in- 
jury to the forest reserves, and which 
are not needed for public purposes, 
and may list and describe the same by 
metes and bounds, or otherwise, and 
file the lists and descriptions with the 
Secretary of the Interior, with the re- 
quest that the said lands be opened to 
entry in accordance with the provis- 
ions of the homestead laws and this 
Act. 

Upon the filing of any such list or 
description the Secretary of the In- 



terior shall declare the said lands open 
to homestead settlement and entry in 
tracts not exceeding one hundred and 
sixty acres in area and not exceeding 
one mile in length, at the expiration of 
sixty days from the filing of the list 
in the land office of the district within 
which the lands are located, during 
which period the said list or descrip- 
tion shall be prominently posted in the 
land office and advertised for a period 
of not less than four weeks in one 
newspaper of general circulation pub- 
lished in the county in which the lands 
are situated : Provided, That any set- 
tler actually occupying and in good 
faith claiming such lands for agricul- 
tural purposes prior to January first, 
nineteen hundred and six, and who 
shall not have abandoned the same, 
and the person, if qualified to make a 
homestead entry, upon whose applica- 
tion the land proposed to be entered 
was examined and listed, shall, each 
in the order named, have a preference 
right of settlement and entry : Pro- 
vided further. That any entryman de- 
siring to obtain patent to any lands 
described by metes and bounds entered 
by him under the provisions of this 
Act shall, within five years of the date 
of making settlement, file, with the re- 
quired proof of residence and cultiva- 
tion, a plat and field notes of the lands 
entered, made by or under the direc- 
tion of the United States surveyor- 
general, showing accurately the 
boundaries of such lands, which shall 
be distinctly marked by monuments 
on the ground, and by posting a copy 
of such plat, together with a notice of 
the time and nlace of offering proof, in 
a conspicuous place on the land em- 
braced in such plat during the period 
prescribed by law for the publication 
of his notice of intention to offer 
proof, and that a copy of such plat and 
field notes shall also be kept posted in 
the office of the register of the land 
office for the land district in which 
such lands are situated for a like pe- 
riod ; and further, that any agricul- 
tural lands within forest reserves may, 
at the discretion of the Secretary, be 
surveyed bv metes and bounds, and 



1906 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



269 



that no lands entered under the pro- 
visions of this Act shall be patented 
under the commutation provisions of 
the homestead laws, but settlers, upon 
final proof, shall have credit for the 
period of their actual residence upon 
the lands covered by their entries. 

Sec. 2. That settlers upon lands 
chiefly valuable for agriculture within 
forest reserves on January first, nine- 
teen hundred and six, who have al- 
ready exercised or lost their home- 
stead privilege, but are otherwise com- 
petent to enter lands under the home- 
stead laws, are hereby granted an ad- 
ditional homestead right of entry for 
the purposes of this Act only, and 
such settlers must otherwise comply 
with the provisions of the homestead 
law, and in addition thereto must pay 
two dollars and fifty cents per acre 
for lands entered under the provisions 
•of this section, such payment to be 
made at the time of making final proof 
on such lands. 

Sec. 3. That all entries under this 
Act in the Black Hills Forest Reserve 
shall be subject to the quartz or lode 
mining laws of the United States, and 
the laws and regulations permitting 
the location, appropriation, and use of 
the waters within the said forest re- 
serves for mining, irrigation, and 
other purposes ; and no titles acquired 
to agricultural lands in said Black 
Hills Forest Reserve under this Act 
shall vest in the patentee any riparian 
rights to any stream or streams of 
flowing water within said reserve ; and 
that such limitation of title shall be ex- 
pressed in the patents for the lands 
covered by such entries. 

Sec. 4. That no homestead settle- 
ments or entries shall be allowed in 
that portion of the Black Hills Forest 
Reserve in Lawrence and Pennington 
counties in South Dakota except to 
persons occupying lands therein prior 
to January first, nineteen hundred and 
six, and the provisions of this Act 
shall apply to the said counties in said 
reserve only so far as is necessary to 
give and perfect title of such settlers 
or occupants to lands chiefly valuable 



for agriculture therein occupied or 
claimed by them prior to the said date, 
and all homestead entries under this 
Act in said counties in said reserve 
shall be described by metes and bounds 
survey. 

Sec. 5. That nothing herein con- 
tained shall be held to authorize any 
future settlement on any lands within 
forest reserves until such lands have 
been opened to settlement as provided 
in this Act, or to in any way impair 
the legal rights of any bona fide home- 
stead settlers who has or shall estab- 
lish residence upon public lands prior 
to their inclusion within a forest re- 
serve. 

To prepare the Forest Supervisors 
for the rush of applications, which was 
likely to follow the passage of this 
bill, and to inform the public of the 
first steps to be taken toward having 
agricultural lands examined, classified, 
and listed preparatory to opening them 
for settlement and entry, the Forester 
issued the following general instruc- 
tions : 

To Forest Officers in Charge: 

In order that you may be prepared 
to perform your duties under the 
Agricultural Settlement Act of June 
II, 1906, you will please notice: 

1. That the Secretary of Agricul- 
ture may use his discretion about ex- 
amining and listing lands under the 
law. 

2. Only lands chiefly valuable for 
agriculture and not needed for admin- 
istrative purposes by the Forest Serv- 
ice or for some other public use will 
be classified and listed under this Act. 

3. Land covered with a merchant- 
able growth of timber will not be de- 
clared agricultural, except upon the 
strongest evidence of its value for 
agricultural purposes, both as to pro- 
duction and accessibility to a market. 

4. Areas known to have been occu- 
pied by actual settlers prior to Janu- 
ary I, 1906, will be examined first, and 
when such areas are found chiefly val- 
uable for agriculture they will be list- 
ed, in order that the occupants may 
make entry under the Act. The mere 



270 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



June 



fact that a man has settled upon land 
will, however, not influence the de- 
cision with respect to its agricultural 
character. 

5. Anv one who was a bona Hdc 
settler on land within a forest reserve 
before January i, 1906, but who has 
already exercised or lost his home- 
stead privilege, may, if otherwise qual- 
ified, make homestead entry under the 
provision of the proposed law, but 
must pay $2.50 per acre for any lands 
entered. 

6. The first preference right to enter 
lands classified and listed under the 
Act will be given to persons who set- 
tled upon such lands prior to January 
I, 1906. The second preference right 
to enter any particular listed tract will 
be given to persons who apply to have 
the classification made, but this latter 
class should not apply for the classifi- 
cation of a tract occupied by a settler 
before that date; otherwise, they 
might lose their preference rights. 

7. Supervisors are often absent 
from their headquarters, and so can 
not be reached at all times with equal 
certainty by all applicants. To avoid 
any undue advantage of one applicant 
over another due to this cause, all ap- 
plications under this Act must be for- 
warded by mail to the Forester, Wash- 
ington, D. C, by the applicants. 

8. Applications dated and mailed 
before the bill had become a law will 
have no value and the Forester will re- 
turn them at once, notifying the send- 
er that he may apply again. 

9. All applications received in 
Washington in the same mail for the 
examination of the same tract will be 
treated as simultaneous, and simul- 
taneous applicants will be notified. A 
similar notice will be given to the later 
of two applicants for the examination 
of the same tract. 

10. No examination of more than 
one quarter-section will be ordered 
upon the application of the same per- 
son, but if an application is withdrawn 
or rejected a second application will 
be received for other land. 



11. All applications must give the 
name of the forest reserve and de- 
scribe the land, examination of which 
is requested, by legal subdivisions, sec- 
tion, township, and range, if surveyed, 
and if not surveyed, by reference to 
natural objects, streams, or improve- 
ments with sufficient accuracy to iden- 
tify the land. 

12. Forest officers must not make 
application for the examination and 
listing of lands under this Act. 

13. Instructions governing the al- 
lowance of entries to be made under 
the Act after the listing will be issued 
bv the Interior Department. 

' 14. When notified that the bill has 
become a law the Supervisors should 
inform the public as fully as practica- 
ble. 

15. The Act expressly provides that 
no settlement on any lands within for- 
est reserves is authorized until they 
have been publicly declared open to 
settlement by the Secretary of the In- 
terior. Any settlement on such lands 
prior to the opening by the Secretary 
of the Interior will not only confer no 
rights on the settler but will constitute 
trespass. 

16. You will please be diligent in 
discovering and preventing any such 
trespasses and report them promptly 
to the Forester. 

17. Please give the widest possible 
publicitv to tills order to discourage 
such settlement and to prevent loss 
and trouble to intending settlers. 

It will be impossible, with the official 
force and funds at the Forester's com- 
mand, to list agricultural land within 
forest reserves as soon as the appli- 
cants may wish. The first effort will 
be to place people who were actually 
living within the reserve on January 
I. 1906, and who are technically tres- 
passers, in the proper position by ex- 
aming and listing their lands, if they 
are found chiefly valuable for agricul- 
ture. Thereafter all purely agricul- 
tural lands within forest reserves will 
be brought within the reach of would- 
be homestead settlers as soon as prac- 
ticable. There is some danger that 



1906 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



^7/ 



hostile critics may carp at the neces- 
sary delay, but within a reasonable 
time we may hope to see all forest re- 
serve lands which is suitable for home- 
making, occupied by thrifty families. 

It is hoped and believed that these 
settlers will find that their own best 
interests are bound up in the protec- 
tion of the forest reserves from fire 



and trespass, and that they will be- 
come a great supplementary and vol- 
unteer ranger force, helping to protect 
and improve the reserves, and ulti- 
mately finding employment and a mar- 
ket for their farm products in the lum- 
ber and wood industries, which will 
soon and continuously be carried on 
within the National forests. 



IMPORTANT IRRIGATION 
LEGISLATION 



Bills Passed by Congress Which Affect 
the Working of the Reclamation Adt 



QN JUNE i8, the Senate adopted 
^^ the conference report on what may 
the conference report on what may 
be called a sort of Omnibus Bill re- 
lating to the Reclamation Act. The 
bill (H. R. 18536) is entitled, "An 
Act providing for the subdivision of 
lands entered under the Reclamation 
act, and for other purposes." 

The first section provides that the 
Secretary of the Interior may estab- 
lish farm units of not less than ten nor 
more than 160 acres whenever by rea- 
son of market conditions and the 
special fitness of the soil and climate 
for the growth of fruit and garden 
produce under a project, a smaller 
area than forty acres may be sufficient 
for the support of a family. 

This corrects a serious defect in the 
original Reclamation Act, which made 
the smaller limit of the homestead 
entry forty acres. In many cases, such 
as projects in the southern part of the 
country, or projects elsewhere, when 
the conditions of soil and climate were 
favorable to fruit and the higher grade 
of products, a farm of forty acres is 
far more than would be necessary for 
the support of a family, and, indeed, 
too great an area for one man to prop- 
erly irrigate under the intensive form 
of cultivation necessary to produce the 
more valuable crops. 



This section also permits the Secre- 
tary of Interior to have the necessary 
subdivision surveys of the public lands 
for farm units less than forty acres 
made by the Reclamation Service. 

Section 2 provides that whenever it 
has been necessary under the provi- 
sions of the Reclamation Act to ac- 
quire by relinquishment lands covered 
by a bona fide unperfected entry, the 
entryman may be permitted to make 
another entry as though his former 
entry had not been made. 

This m.eets a condition, which in 
some cases is a hardship upon a set- 
tler who might otherwise lose his 
homestead right, because the land in- 
cluded in his entry is necessary for a 
reclamation project. 

The Secretary of the Interior has 
already decided that under certain 
conditions an entryman, who is re- 
quired to give up his land, could make 
another entry. This proposed act 
bases the right of the entryman upon 
a statute rather than upon the inter- 
pretation of the Secretary of the In- 
terior. 

Section 3 provides that townsites 
which have been set apart by the 
President under the provisions of Sec- 
tions 2380 and 2381 of the United 
States Revised Statutes, within or 
near any reclamation project may be 



272 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



June 



disposed of under the provisions of 
the recent townsite act of April i6, 
1906. 

The necessity for this legislation is 
due to the fact that the Commissioner 
of the General Land Office had no 
funds available for the disposition of 
certain townsites withdrawn under the 
Minidoka project in pursuance of a 
proclamation of the President under 
these sections of the Revised Statutes. 
Bills have been introduced at the pres- 
ent session of Congress for the neces- 
sary appropriations, but have not yet 
passed and there was much urgency 
for the disposition of these townsites. 

Section 4 provides that in two of the 
townsites on the Minidoka project, 
which had been withdrawn, namely, 
Heyburn and Rupert, settlers who 
have established themselves thereon 
prior to March 5, 1906, in permanent 
buildings not easily moved, shall be 
permitted to purchase the lots built 
upon at an appraised valuation for 
cash. 

The conference report adds a pro- 
vision that the limitation of townsites 
in connection with reclamation pro- 
jects in the recent act of April 16, 
1906, to 160 acres, shall be repealed. 
This will enable the Secretary of the 
Interior to make withdrawals of town- 
sites of such size as in his opinion 
the public interest may require. 

A townsite of 160 acres is very 
small for such large areas as are in- 
volved in a number of projects, when 
the country was not settled upon at the 
time of the beginning of the project. 
The proposed modification of the 
townsite act will enable the Secretary 
of the Interior to provide adequate 
townsite facilities in many cases 
where, under the act as it now stands, 
townsites of 160 acres would be en- 
tirely insufficient. 

Section 5 provides that desert land 
entrymen, whose lands may be in- 
cluded in a reclamation project, and 
who may be directly or indirectly 
"hindered or prevented from making 
improvements and reclaiming the 
lands under the desert land act, shall 



be allowed an extension of time equal 
to the loss on account of such hin- 
drance. It also provides that desert 
land entrymen within reclamation 
projects which are undertaken shall 
relinquish all lands embraced within 
the entry in excess of 160 acres, and 
as to such 160 acres they may make 
final proof and obtain patent upon 
compliance with the terms of the Re- 
clamation Act. The section, how- 
ever, does not require a desert land 
entryman, who owns a water right and 
reclaims the land embraced in his en- 
try, to accept the conditions of the 
Reclamation Act. 

The Representatives of the House 
and Senate having agreed upon this 
bill and the report having been adopt- 
ed by the Senate, it is probable that it 
will likewise be adopted by the House 
and may therefore soon become a law. 

While there may be features in this 
act that cannot be regarded as legis- 
lation of the wisest character, yet there 
are many provisions corrective of the 
defects in previous acts which are 
very valuable, and will undoubtedly 
aid in the successful application of the 
Reclamation Act to the construction of 
projects and the reclamation of the 
desert lands. 

A copy of the act as agreed upon 
by the conferees follows : 

An Act providing for the subdi- 
vision of lands entered under the Re- 
clamation Act, and for other purposes. 

Be it enacted by the Senate and 
House of Representatives of the 
United States of America in Congress 
assembled. That whenever, in the 
opinion of the Secretary of the In- 
terior, by reason of market conditions 
and the special fitness of the soil and 
climate for the growth of fruit and 
garden produce, a lesser area than 
forty acres may be sufficient for the 
support of a family on lands to be 
irrigated under the provisions of the 
Act of June 17, 1902, known as the 
Reclamation Act, he may fix a lesser 
area than forty acres as the minimum 
entry and may establish farm units of 



1906 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



273 



not less than ten nor more than one 
hundred and sixty acres. That 
wherever it may be necessary, for the 
purpose of accurate description, to 
further subdivide lands to be irrigated 
under the provisions of said Recla- 
mation Act, the Secretary of the In- 
terior may cause subdivision surveys 
to be made by the officers of the recla- 
mation service, which subdivisions 
shall be rectangular in form, except in 
cases where irregular subdivisions 
may be necessary in order to provide 
for practicable and economical irriga- 
tion. Such subdivision surveys shall 
be noted upon the tract books in the 
General Land Office, and they shall 
be paid for from the reclamation 
fund : Provided, That an entryman 
may elect to enter under said Recla- 
mation Act a lesser area than the mini- 
mum limit in any State or Territory. 

Sec. 2. That wherever the Secretary 
of the Interior, in carrying out the 
provisions of the Reclamation Act, 
shall acquire by relinquishment lands 
covered by a bona fide unperfected 
entry under the land laws of the 
United States, the entryman upon 
such tract may make another and ad- 
ditional entry, as though the entry 
thus relinquished had not been made. 

Sue. 3. That any town site hereto- 
fore set apart or established by proc- 
lamation of the President, under the 
provisions of sections 2380 and 2381 
of the Revised Statutes of the United 
States, within or in the vicinity of any 
reclamation project, may be appraised 
and disposed of in accordance with 
the provisions of the Act of Congress 
approved April 16, 1906, entitled 'An 
Act providing for the withdrawal 
from public entry of lands needed for 
town-site purposes in connection with 
irrigation projects under the Recla- 
mation Act of June 17, 1902, and for 
other purposes ;" and all necessary ex- 
penses incurred in the appraisal and 
sale of lands embraced within any 
such town site shall be paid from the 
reclamation fund, and the proceeds of 
the sales of such lands shall be covered 
into the reclamation fund. 



Sec. 4. That in the town sites of 
Heyburn and Rupert, in Idaho, 
created and surveyed by the Govern- 
ment, on which town sites settlers 
have been allowed to establish them- 
selves, and had actually established 
themselves prior to March 5, 1906, in 
permanent buildings not easily moved, 
the said settlers shall be given the 
right to purchase the lots so built upon 
at an appraised valuation for cash, 
such appraisement to be made under 
rules to be prescribed by the Secre- 
tary of the Interior. 

Providing that the limitation on the 
size of town sites contained in the act 
of April 16, 1906, entitled 'An Act 
providing for the withdrawal from 
public entry of lands needed for town- 
site purposes in connection with irri- 
gation projects under the Reclamation 
Act of June \J, 1902, and for other 
purposes," shall not apply to the town 
sites named in this section and when- 
ever, in the opinion of the Secretary 
of the Interior, it shall be advisable for 
the public interest, he may withdraw 
and dispose of town sites in excess of 
160 acres under the provisions of the 
aforesaid act approved April 16, 1906, 
and reclamation funds shall be avail- 
able for the payment of all expenses 
incurred in executing the provisions, 
of this act, and the aforesaid act of 
April 16, 1906, and the proceeds of all 
sales of town sites shall be covered 
into the reclamation fund. 

Sec. 5. That where any bona fide 
desert-land entry has been or may be 
embraced within the exterior limits 
of any land withdrawal or irrigation 
project under the Act entitled "An 
Act appropriating the receipts from 
the sale and disposal of public lands 
in certain States and Territories to the 
construction of irrigation works for 
the reclamation of arid lands," ap- 
proved June 17, 1902, and the desert- 
land entryman has been or may be 
directly or indirectly hindered, de- 
layed, or prevented from making im- 
provements or from reclaiming the 
land embraced in any such entry by 
reason of such land withdrawal or ir-^ 



274 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



June 



rigation project, the time during 
which the desert-land entryman has 
been or may be so hindered, delayed, 
or prevented from complying with the 
desert-land law shall not be computed 
in determining the time within which 
such entryman has been or may be 
required to make improvements or 
reclaim the land embraced within any 
such desert-land entry: Provided, 
That if after investigation the irriga- 
tion project has been or may be aban- 
doned by the Government, time for 
compliance with the desert-land law 
by any such entryman shall begin to 
run from the date of notice of such 
abandonment of the project and the 
restoration to the public domain of the 
lands withdrawn in connection there- 
with, and credit shall be allowed for 
all expenditures and improvements 
heretofore made on any such desert- 
land entry of which proof has been 
filed; but if the reclamation project 
is carried to completion so as to 
make available a- water supply for 
the land embraced in any such desert- 
land entry, the entryman shall there- 
upon comply with all the provisions 
of the aforesaid Act of June 17, 1902, 
and shall relinquish all land embraced 
within his desert-land entry in excess 
of 160 acres, and as to such 160 acres 
retained, he shall be entitled to make 
final proof and obtain patent upon 
compliance with the terms of payment 
prescribed in said Act of June 17, 
1902, and not otherwise. But nothing 
herein contained shall be held to re- 
quire a desert-land entryman who 
owns a water right and reclaims the 
land embraced in his entry to accept 
the conditions of said Reclamation 
Act. 

On June 9, 1906, the President ap- 
proved "An Act to provide for the dis- 
position, under the public land laws, 
of lands within the abandoned Fort 
Shaw Military Reservation, Mont." 
The act is brief and its terms can be 
readily understood from the following 
text : 

An Act to provide for the disposi- 
tion under the public land laws of 
the lands in abandoned Fort Shaw 
Military Reservation, Mont. 



Be it enacted by the Senate and 
House of Representatives of the 
United States of America in Congress 
assembled. That the Secretary of the 
Interior is hereby authorized to dis- 
pose of the lands in the abandoned 
Fort Shaw IMilitary Reservation, in 
Montana, under the provisions of the 
public land laws, and the public land 
surveys shall be extended over the 
lands therein : Provided, That he may 
reserve for Indian school purposes the 
following-described lands in township 
twenty north, range two west, Mon- 
tana principal meridian, as determined 
by the extension of the public surveys : 
That portion of section two lying 
south of Sun River, all of sections 
eleven, fourteen, and twenty-three, 
and that portion of section twenty-six 
lying within the present reservation 
boundry : Provided further. That be- 
fore opening the reservation to entry, 
the Secretary of the Interior may 
withdraw any other lands therein 
needed in connection with an irriga- 
tion project under the provisions of 
the Act of June 17. 1902, known as 
the Reclamation Act, for use or dis- 
position thereunder. 

The lands in the Fort Shaw Mili- 
tary Reservation will form an import- 
ant part of the Sun River project in 
Montana, and the fact that this area 
of 29,843 acres, which contains 17,- 
500 acres of irrigable land, was not 
open to disposition under the Recla- 
mation Act excluded from the Sun 
River project some of the best lands 
which could have been irrigated under 
the system. 

This large area w^as unused except 
for the Indian school, which was es- 
tablished there some years ago. The 
school could properly use but a very 
small portion of the land and this act 
consequently sets apart about 2,200 
acres, which includes the lands al- 
ready improved by the school and is 
supposed to be ample for all its pur- 
poses. 

The passage of this act will simplify 
the development of the Sun River 
project and add to it a considerable 
area of valuable land. 



PROGRESS OF SHOSHONE PROJECT 



BY 
H. N. SAVAGE 



TV/ORK on the two principal struc- 
" tures in connection with this 
project has now assumed an interest- 
ing stage. The temporary works for 
the great Shoshone dam, which is to 
be the highest in the world, have been 
completed so far as possible and are 
now handling the annual flood. A 
tunnel, 500 feet long, has been driven 
through the rock ledge along the dam 
site, and a temporary dam has been 
completed across the stream, 1,000 
feet above the tunnel. A flume takes 
the water from this temporary dam 
and conducts it to the tunnel. The 
contractors are also damming the per- 
manent spillway tunnel. This is lo- 
cated 240 feet above the bed of the 
stream and has a cross section of 20 
feet square, and will have a discharge 
capacity of 20,000 cubic feet of water 
per second, ample provision being 
thus made for handling the greatest 
flood the river can produce. 

The big plant for crushing the rock 
and sand, (all sand for the masonry 
work being crushed from the granite,) 
and for mixing the concrete and also 
for excavating and handling the ma- 
terial from the dam site, is being 
erected. Two Lidgerwood cables, 
each having a span of over 1,000 feet, 
are being assembled and will be erect- 
ed as soon as the flood will permit. 
Cement is being hauled from Cody 
station, 8 miles away, and stored at 
the dam site, every provision being 
made to commence excavating and 
construction work on the main struc- 
ture at the earliest possible date when 
the flood shall have subsided sufficient- 
ly to permit. 

The water impounded behind the 
Shoshone dam will be first conducted 
30 miles down the main channel of the 



river, and then diverted by means of a 
tunnel 3J/2 miles long out upon the 
land to be irrigated. This tunnel is 
ten feet square in cross sections and 
will have a capacity of 2,000 acre-feet 
of water every 24 hours. Construc- 
tion work is being rapidly pushed. 
About 400 men are now at work, the 
nature of the material encountered be- 
ing exceptionally favorable for rapid 
excavating. The soft sandstone can 
easily be drilled by the use of coal-bor- 
ing auguers. These are driven by com- 
pressed air. Frequently a hole six feet 
in depth is driven in six minutes. The 
tunnel was located with special refer- 
ence to rapid construction. Ten head- 
ings have been opened up and work is 
being conducted in three continuous 
shifts. Two concrete mixing plants 
have been erected and the tunnel is be- 
ing lined as rapidly as it is driven. 
While active construction work was 
not begun until December, 1905, the 
contractor expects to complete the 
three miles and a half of tunnel by 
February i, 1907, and present prog- 
ress indicates his ability to do so. 

Bids for the Garland canal, which is 
an extension of the Corbett tunnel, 
were opened several weeks ago, and 
advertisement will be made at once 
for the structures along this canal. 
The engineers are now making final 
location for the lateral distribution 
system to cover the first 30,000 acres, 
the line being situated in the vicinity 
of Garland. In locating the main 
canal an opportunity for providing do- 
mestic water supply for the towns like- 
ly to spring up along the line of rail- 
road has been found. Provisions will 
be made whereby an abundant supply 
of domestic water can be had at a 
nominal expense whenever the re- 
quirements exist. 




Progress of Government Irrigation Work During Past Month 



Umatilla The Secretary of the 

a'^"!^'^^' d Interior has authorized 
the Reclamation Service 
to proceed at once with the work of 
construction on the Umatilla irriga- 
tion project, Oregon, for which the 
sum of $1,000,000 was set aside from 
the reclamation fund by the depart- 
ment on December 4, 1905. 

The Umatilla project embraces 20,- 
000 acres immediately south of Co- 
lumbia River, and east of Umatilla 
River. The engineering work in con- 
nection with this project consists of a 
feed canal from Umatilla River to the 
Cold Springs reservoir, and a distri- 
bution system. The works are of 
simple character and capable of being 
constructed in a short time. The irri- 
gable area under this project lies be- 
low 500 feet in altitude, is rolling in 
character, and the lands are of high 
fertility. The climate is warm and the 
soil adapted to orchards, small fruit 
and vegetables. Transportation facili- 
ties are excellent, the lands being with- 
in 200 miles of Portland, Ore., or 
Spokane, Wash., on the main lines of 
the Oregon Railroad and Navigation 
Company. 



For Private 
Enterprise 



After a careful investi- 
gation of conditions con- 
nected with the Lake 
DeSmet project, Wyoming, it has de- 
veloped that the conditions are more 
favorable for irrigation by private 
enterprise than by the Government. 
The Secretary of the Interior, there- 
fore, has restored to settlement a tract 
of land which was temporarily with- 



drawn in connection with this project, 
such land not to be subject to entry, 
filing, or selection, however, under the 
public land laws until ninety days 
after notice by such publication as 
may be prescribed by the department. 
The tract thus restored consists of 
the public lands within an area of 
about 400,000 acres. 

The inauguration of 
Engineers ^any large engmeermg 

works at this time, such 
as the National reclamation projects, 
the Panama canal, and the New York 
barge canal, and the unusual amount 
of railroad building has so stimulated 
the demand for engineers that it is 
found difficult to hold good men at 
the salaries the Reclamation Service 
is now paying. 

About forty engineers of various 
grades have resigned from this bureau 
in the past year, and a similar number 
have requested furloughs, nearly all of 
these being on account of railroad or 
other organizations. The emoluments 
of a Government position are seldom 
commensurate with the value of the 
services rendered by the engineering 
profession, and but for the magnitude 
of the works projected by the Govern- 
ment and the opportunities offered to 
obtain distinction in their construction, 
few engineers of ability would seek 
these positions. 

The regulations do not permit the 
engineers to accept outside work, even 
in an advisory capacity, a privilege 
Avhlch is not denied other members of 
the profession, and from which they 



1906 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



277 



are able to add materially to their 
salaries. In the matter of subsistence 
and other expenses the Government is 
not as liberal as other employers, and 
it is not to be wondered at that Uncle 
Sam is losing ' a large number of 
skilled and experienced -men whose 
services are greatly needed. The gravi- 
ty of the situation is appreciated, and 
is giving the department much con- 
cern. 

^ . . The Secretary of the In- 

Decision on ^ . , -^ ■ ■, 

Residence tenor has received a re- 

quest for an opinion as 
to whether a citizen of the United 
States, whose duties compel him to 
reside temporarily in Washington dur- 
ing the session of Congress, is en- 
titled to purchase lands within the 
limits of a reclamation project from 
present owners and obtain the bene- 
fits of the Reclamation Act, providing 
he complies so far as his duties will 
permit with the rules and regulations 
as prescribed. 

The Assistant Attorney General 
states that the question of residence is 
usually a mixed question of law and 
fact, and it would be impracticable to 
•attempt to formulate a general rule 
to govern all cases ; each must be de- 
termined upon the peculiar facts. 
Temporary absences do not neces- 
sarily terminate a residence once es- 
tablished. If the citizen shall estab- 
lish in good faith a residence upon the 
land or in the neighborhood of the 
tract, and shall maintain such resi- 
dence in accordance with the true in- 
tent of the law, his temporary absence 
would not disqualify him from receiv- 
ing and holding a water right. His 
right would have to be determined by 
the facts as they develop in the future. 

. The Reclamation ser- 

Work^'^*"^*' vice is cooperating heat- 
ily with the Bureau of 
Plant Industry in a series of experi- 
ments which the latter is initiating in 
the vicinity of Yuma, Ariz. A plot of 
ground controlled by the service has 
been turned over to the plant experts 
who propose to experiment with cot- 
ton and other crops. 



The delta of the Colorado River has 
always possessed a singular fascina- 
tion for the scientific men of the De- 
partment of Agriculture, and the re- 
sults of these experiments cannot fail 
to prove of inestimable value to the 
settlers, who will take up homes in 
this region as soon as the Govern- 
ment's irrigation works are completed. 

It is a demonstrable fact that no 
othef portion of the United States, 
when irrigated, is capable of support- 
ing a denser population than the Col- 
orado delta. Five acres properly cul- 
tivated and irrigated wall support a 
family in comfort as the crop season 
is practically continuous. One crop 
follows another throughout the year. 
Oranges, pomelos, melons, all the 
small fruits and vegetables mature 
earlier here than in California, and 
consequently are marketable at the top 
prices. 

In connection with the cooperative 
work between the United States Re- 
clamation Service and the Department 
of Agriculture, Prof. F. C. Miller, of 
the Forest Service, will at once begin 
a study of the tree planting possibili- 
ties in the North Flatte irrigation 
project. 

In cooperation with the work of the 
Reclamation Service on the Truckee- 
Carson irrigation project, Nevada, the 
Bureau of Forestry will begin at once 
a thorough study of the tree planting 
possibilities in that project. The work 
will be directed by Mr. E. O. Bierke. 

Southern Mississippi and eastern 

Stream Louisiana are about to 

»ging receive the attention of 

the Geological Survey. In response 
to numerous requests from many parts 
of this drainage area the Hydro- 
graphic Branch will establish at once 
a number of river stations irr the pur- 
pose of collecting data in connection 
with the development of water power 
and the irrigation of truck farms. 

Mr. W. E. Hall, a representative of 
the Hydrographic Branch, has recent- 
ly made reconnaissances to locate suit- 
able points for obtaining reliable data 
concerning the flow of several streams 



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-- - - ^i-'-yn^ —-zfi&y^ intmeut as 

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'Z *3igi:e«sr tana. 



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PUMPING V/ATEK 



■'/-rr-j-r. :■/.- /, ',- /> "^^•:4: .■■•'! -^>.'^- '' 



280 



FOHESTHY AND IRRIGATION 



June 



other hand, in situations where, as is 
often the case in a dry region, the 
farmer has lost crops year after year, 
has exhausted his resources, and is on 
the verge of bankruptcy, a contrivance 
of this kind may serve to save a small 
crop and give him a new start. In 
such instances there usuallv will be 



The mill or engine consists of a 
shaft of wood or iron placed horizon- 
tally and supported at each end. Upon 
this sails are fastened by arms extend- 
ing out at right angles. On each end 
of the shaft is attached a crank, and 
each of these cranks in turn drives 
some simple form of home-made 




Steel Windmill and Tower Carrying Tank. 



found pieces of broken-down machin- 
ery about the farm. Time and labor 
are commonly of little value where the 
ordinary farming operations have been 
unsuccessful, so that by the exercise 
of a little ingenuity the material and 
energy that otherwise would be wasted 
may be turned to advantage. 



pump. The lower half of the mill is 
boxed in, and thus forms a small 
building without roof, above which 
project the arms carrying the sails. 

Another home-made device has been 
introduced. This mill and water ele- 
vator, invented by the owner, has 
been successfullv used to furnish wa- 



1906 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



281 



^^^^W 




Home-made Wind Engine as Used on Great plains. 



ter for irrigation ; and, although not 
by any means an economical device, 
nor one that can be recommended, it 
has served its purpose. In other 
words, while, as a rule, it is economi- 
cal to purchase the best, there are cir- 



cumstances and times when for special 
reasons the best mill cannot be had ; 
but it is still practicable to construct a 
machine which will accomplish the de- 
sired end, that of getting water from 
the ground upon the land. 




Defender Windmill and Water Elevator. 



282 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



June 



These examples of inventive genius 
on the farms of the West might be 
ahnost indefinitely multiplied, but are 
sufficient to demonstrate the principle 
that with energy and ingenuity a start 
toward irrigation can be made. When, 
however, some experience has been 
had in irrigation and newer mills are 
being produced, it is highly essential 
for continued success that something 



ga.tor. Thousands of windmills are in 
use and thousands more will be pur- 
chased, involving expenditures on the 
part of farmers aggregating millions 
of dollars. A saving of even a small 
percentage in cost of repairs is a mat- 
ter of considerable importance to the 
irrigators of the country in the con- 
tinued use of the water. 




Windmills and Circular Reservoir. 



better than the ordinary form of mill 
be obtained. Many of these have been 
designed for some other purpose than 
that of raising large quantities of wa- 
ter through a short distance for irri- 
gation. Some, for example, have been 
built with the idea of pumping a small 
quantity from great depth for water- 
ing stock. Such mills, as a rule, do 
not fill the requirements of the irri- 



If a farmer is able to buy a windmill 
and pump he should get the best, as 
the first cost is about the same for dif- 
ferent makes ; but the economy of re- 
pairs is far different. In subsequent 
articles the 'attempt will be made to 
give the experience of practical irriga- 
tors in using various styles of machin- 
ery, pointing out the benefits of each 
other under certain conditions. 



NITED STATES 

rOKEST SERVICE 



m'^^LM 



*mp^ 



y-^^jff^^- 



Hi^ory of Pa^ Month in Government Fore^ Work 



Plantinglon 



A variety of causes are 



Watersheds awakening an interest in 
forest planting on lands 
owned primarily for some other pur- 
pose than the use of timber but capable 
of yielding an added revenue from 
crops of trees. Coal and railroad com- 
panies and other large landowners, in- 
cluding water companies, are taking 
active steps to utilize waste lands in 
tiiis way. The fact that local supplies 
of railroad ties, mine timbers, and lum- 
ber are shrinking, coupled with the re- 
alization that the needed timber can 
well be produced on soil now unpro- 
ductive, has made forcible appeals to 
the business mind. In Pennsylvania, 
especially, large forest plantations are 
actually under way. 

There are enormous areas in Penn- 
sylvania from which the original tim- 
ber has been cut. and which are too 
rough for profitable farming. In the 
coal regions both the farm lands and 
the mountainous areas overlying the 
coal veins are usually held by the oper- 
ating companies in order that they 
may obtain full rights to the coal un- 
derneath. Much of the land overlying 
the coal is useless for farming at any 
time, and it has been found that there 
is little profit to be derived from the 
agricultural land by any system of ten- 
ant or company farming. Both these 
classes of land may be planted to trees 
with advantage and the timber used in 
the mines, the old fields on which 
farming has been attempted being par- 
ticularly desirable for planting. In the 
bituminous coal fields it is necessary 
to select the planting sites with great 



care so as to avoid the sulphur fumes 
from coke ovens, which are very de- 
structive to vegetation. Watersheds 
owned to prevent further denudation 
and the contamination of streams and 
reservoirs rarely yield direct returns to 
water companies, but if properly plant- 
ed their water-conserving power 
would be increased, and at the same 
time future revenue would be in pros- 
pect. Waste lands in general through- 
out the State can be improved and 
made productive wholly or in part by 
forest planting. 

The possibilities of forest planting 
have been realized by several large 
companies, which have applied to the 
Forest Service for assistance. The 
Service has made planting plans for 
the H. C. Frick Coke Company and 
the Keystone Coal and Iron Company, 
in western Pennsylvania, and is super- 
vising planting and the establishment 
of forest nurseries this spring. The 
Pennsylvania Railroad Company has 
secured the assistance of the Service 
in working up a forest policy, and, in 
order to show what can be done on the 
lands they already own, a nursery is 
being started and planting begun along 
the right of way and also on an im- 
portant watershed near Altoona, Pa. 
The Johnstown Water Company is re- 
ceiving similar assistance. In eastern 
Pennsylvania the Lehigh Coal and 
Navigation Company has applied for 
an examination of a 36,000-acre tract 
of the Monroe Water Supply Com- 
pany, in Monroe County, and the pre- 
hminarv examination is under wav. 



284 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



June 



Planting is feasible on most of these 
lands, the greatest difficulty being to 
keep out fire. Chestnut, red oak, hick- 
ory, bassword, white, red, and Scotch 
pine, and European larch are suitable 
species, the selection depending on the 
character of the land and the kind of 
timber desired. 

By the plan of Government coopera- 
tion a technical forester can be_ sent 
without charge to make a preliminary 
examination of lands on which plant- 
ing is contemplated. This determines 
whether planting is advisable. If the 
preliminary report is favorable, a de- 
tailed plan for planting and nursey 
w^ork can be made at a cost to the own- 
er of the actual expenses of the work. 
Supervision can also be provided un- 
der special arrangement. 

Fire Fighting The worst enemy of the 
on Forest forests is fire. To com- 

Reserves ^^^ j^ ^^^ -potest Service 

maintains a fire-fighting system. How 
effective is this system is shown by the 
following figures for the last two 
years : 





Area in Acres. 


Per cent 
of re- 


Year ending- 


Of re- 
serves. 


Burned 
over. 


rerve 

area 

burned 


January 1, 1906 

January 1, 1906 


58,052,054 
92,741,030 


388,872 
152,557 


0.66 
0.16 



Area of forest reserves in the United 
States, exclusive of Alaska and 

Porto Rico. 
In other words, while the reserve 
area has almost doubled, the burned 
area has been reduced by more than 
one-half, and the percentage of area 
burned has been reduced by more than 
tliree-fourths. 

Only since February i, 1905, have 
the reserves been under the adminis- 
tration of the Forest Service. This re- 
duction is therefore the showing of the 
first eleven months of administration 
by Government foresters. The work- 
ing out of a system of effective con- 
trol of fire on the reserves is still in 
its infancy. "Too much fire" is still 
the judgment of the Forester on the 
situation. Of course, bad seasons play 



a large part in determining the fire 
losses of a year. Even with the best 
possible system of protection there are 
bound to be wide fluctuations between 
individual years. But it is believed 
that under expert care the injury to 
the National forests can be rapidly and 
permanently cut down. 

In developing its system of protec- 
tion the Forest Service availed itself 
of past experience, home and foreign. 
The reserve officers — forest guards, 
assistant forest rangers, deputy forest 
rangers, forest rangers, deputy forest 
supervisors, and forest supervisors — 
are under the direct supervision of the 
office of the Service at Washington, 
guided by a definite code of instruc- 
tions ; but large authority, with corre- 
sponding responsibility, is placed upon 
the local officers themselves. All ex- 
cept the forest guards are civil-service 
employees, and the salaries paid range 
from $720 to $2,500 a year. Each 
supervisor is responsible for the patrol 
of his reserve and is expected to devise 
systems best suited to his locality. Al- 
ready, in the brief period since the or- 
ganization of this system, a high 
standard of efficiency has been devel- 
oped, and a much higher is expected. 

A constant lookout for fires is kept 
from ridge trails and commanding 
points during the danger season, and 
the reserves are patrolled as efficient- 
ly as possible with the force available. 
Roads, trails, and fire lines are con- 
structed, affording means of rapid 
communication and points of vantage 
at which to arrest the progress of a 
fire, and telephone lines are being run 
to help give warning and summon as- 
sistance. 

Every forest supervisor is author- 
ized, in person or through a subordi- 
nate, to hire temporary men, purchase 
mate^-ial and supplies, and pay for 
their transportation from place to place 
to extinguish a fire. When the cost is 
likely to exceed $300 the supervisor 
telegraphs the Forester for authority 
to incur the additional expense. 

Forest rangers are required to re- 
port monthly to the supervisor regard- 
ing all fires occurring in their districts. 



IHnc 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



285 



These reports cover the location, dam- 
age done, probable cause, by whom the 
fire was discovered, when discovered, 
when brought to the notice of the for- 
est officer, when the work of fighting 
the fire was begun and finished, how 
many extra men were employed, and 
cost of fire. At the end of the year 
the supervisor submits an annual fire 
report to the Washington office. 

During the calendar year of 1905, 36 
of the 93 reserves escaped fires alto- 
gether. On the remaining 57, areas 
were burned over ranging from i to 
79,083 acres ( Northern Division of the 
Sierra Reserve) and amounting to 
279,592 acres. The largest amount of 
timber was destroyed on the Lewis and 
Clark Reserve (Southern Division) — 
42,893,000 board feet. The total for 
all reserves was 152,557,000 board 
feet, with a value of $101,282, but the 
greatest loss in money value was $27,- 
320 on the Priest River Reserve. The 
total cost of extra labor and supplies 
for fire fighting was $12,573.52. 

General cooperation of all coming in 
contact with the forests is earnestly to 
be sought, first, to guard sedulously 
against the starting of fires, and, sec- 
ond, to aid in every way in extinguish- 
ing such as occur. 

In this connection may be mentioned 
several steps already taken toward co- 
operation among the Forest Service, 
the State governments, and local in- 
terests in fighting fires. 

In California, the Forest Service, 
the State forester, and the lumber com- 
panies are cooperating to prevent and 
nght fires, all forest rangers having 
been made State fire wardens. In Ore- 
gon and Washington the Forest Serv- 
ice is cooperating with the timber com- 
panies to the same end. The Governor 
of Idaho is inaugurating a movement 
to organize the timber companies of 
that State to cooperate with each other 
and with the State in fighting fires, and 
has asked the assistance of the For- 
ester, who has replied that the Service 
will aid the movement by furnishing 
plans and assisting in carrying out any 
measures agreed upon by the Idaho 
organization. 



Probably no product of 
in^i905 *^^ ^^^^ forest has been the 

subject of more discus- 
sion and diversity of opinion than the 
annual consumption of cross-ties in the 
United States. 

The following statements are made 
possible by the almost unanimous co- 
operation of the steam railroads with 
the Forest Service in furnishing the 
necessary data. While these state- 
ments are nearly complete for the pur- 
chases of cross-ties by steam transpor- 
tation companies, they are below the 
total number of cross-ties used, since 
no reports from electric lines are in- 
cluded. The figures given are based 
upon reports from 750 companies, hav- 
ing an aggregate trackage of 278,262 
miles. Since, according to Poor's 
Manual for 1905, the total trackage of 
the railroads in the United States is 
293,937 miles, it follows that the mile- 
age reported is 95 per cent, of the to- 
tal. Switch ties have been figured into 
the equivalent number of cross-ties. 

The total number of ties reported is 
80,051,000, of which 22,569,000, or 36 
per cent., were to be used for the con- 
struction of new track. 

On this basis the total number of 
ties used by the steam railways would 
be 84,400,000, representing nearly 
3,000,000,000 feet of lumber, board 
measure. 

Preservative treatment was given to 
7,615,000 ties, representing nearly 10 
per cent, of the total number reported. 
Although the species of timber treated 
have not been separated in most cases, 
it is safe to say that almost all of the 
ties treated were softwoods. 



Control of Now that the Govern- 

Grazing on ment grazing policy is in 
Public Lands ^ . , ^ ^ -• 

successful operation on 

the National forest reserves, the ques- 
tion has arisen whether the same or 
some similar policy might not be ap- 
plied to the open public range. 

The policy of the Forest Service is 
not ot hold the reserves out of use, 
but to secure their fullest and most 
permanent use. To this end, grazing 
under proper restrictions is permitted. 



286 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



June 



Happily, these restrictions have thus 
far met with general approval. 

From the first, the importance of fit- 
ting the regulations to local conditions 
has been recognized. Rules occasion- 
ing needless hardship to stockmen 
have been modified, and emergencies 
demanding instant action have been 
promptly met. 

When a new reserve has been pro- 
claimed all stock grazing upon it is al- 
lowed to remain during the first year ; 
if, afterwards, this number is found to 
be too great for the resources of the 
range, it is gradually reduced. Stock- 
men are aided in effecting a satisfac- 
tory distribution of their stock upon 
the range and in securing from it the 
most profitable and permanent use. 
Small stock ow^ners living in the vicin- 
ity of the reserves are given such pref- 
erence in the allotment of grazing 
privileges as will protect their inter- 
ests. First occupants of the range and 
farmers owning improved lands adja- 
cent are also preferred. The rights of 
large owners based upon the range cus- 
tom of the past are recognizd, and re- 
ductions in the number of their stock 
are required only when necessary to 
protect the range or the grazing rights 
of bona fide settlers. 

Necessary range divisions between 
owners of different kinds of stock are 
made, and controversy between sheep- 
men and cattlemen is promptly ended. 
Where necessary, the construction of 
drift or division fences is also allowed, 
provided the area fenced is not great- 
er than the needs of the stock owner. 

Outside the forest reserves, how- 
ever, is an area of public land, esti- 
mated at 400,000,000 acres, which has 
no present value except for grazing 
purposes. On this land grazing is 
wholly unrestrained by law. Commer- 
cial interests, great and small, have 
competed for its use, and the result 
has been abuse of the range. Millions 
of acres have been recklessly over- 
grazed and practically ruined. In his 
last annual message the President 
says : "It is probable that the present 
grazing value of the open public range 
is scarcely more than half what it once 
was or what it might easily be again 
under careful regulation." Some stock- 



men have, to the exclusion of others, 
possessed themselves of the strategic 
positions — that is, the lands control- 
ling the streams, springs, and other 
watering places, and by this means 
have secured temporary control of the 
adjoining grazing lands. Charges of 
fraudulent entry have led to litigation. 
Great areas have been illegally fenced. 
Again, stock owners, notably sheep 
and cattlemen, have defended their 
conflicting claims by force of arms, 
causing serious loss of property and 
even of life. 

Obviously such conditions should 
be corrected by law. The remedy 
would seem to be to apply to the open 
public range the regulations already 
governing the forest reserves. This 
conclusion is strengthened not only 
by the success attending the forest- 
reserves policy, but also by the efifect 
of fencing the public grazing lands. 
Though illegal, this fencing has in 
most cases greatly improved the con- 
dition of the area inclosed. Care, how- 
ever, must be taken to avoid the ap- 
plication of sweeping and ironclad 
regulations to an area so vast and to 
conditions so dififerent. The investi- 
gations of the Public Lands Commis- 
sion show that immediate application 
of any inflexible rule to all grazing 
lands alike, regardless of local condi- 
tions or grazing values, would be dis- 
astrous, and that improvement must 
be sought through the gradual intro- 
duction into each locality of such form 
of control as is specifically suited to it. 

In his message, already referred to, 
the President says : 

"The best use of the public grazing 
lands requires the careful examination 
and classification of these lands in 
order to give each settler land enough 
to support his family and no more. 
While this work is being done, and 
until the lands are settled, the Govern- 
ment should take control of the open 
range, under reasonable regulations 
suited to local needs, following the 
general policy already in successful 
operation on the forest reserves." 

Should the policy thus suggested be 
established by law great good would 
undoubtedlv result. 



STATE FORESTER FOR MARYLAND 



•yHE appointment of Mr. Fred W. 
■■' Besley as State forester of Mary- 
land is a good one, and is a deserved 
recognition of a young man whose 
love for the profession induced him 
five years ago to give up a position in 
which he was receiving a good salary 
in order to secure a thorough training 
in forestry. 

Mr. Besley was born in Virginia, 
and graduated from the Maryland 
Agricultural College, with which in 
his new position he will be closely 
identified, the law providing for a 
course of lectures there each year by 
the State forester. The first two win- 
ters in the Forest Service he spent in 
the office, where he became thorough- 
ly acquainted with methods of calcu- 
lating forest measurements. In the 
summer of 1901 he was a member of 
a party which made a forest survey 
of Townships 5, 6, and 41, in the 
Adirondacks. The following summer 
he assisted in commercial-tree studies 
in Kentucky, and for a short time in 
the fall was engaged with others on a 
working plan for forest lands of the 
Kirby Lumber Company, in eastern 
Texas. Later in the fall he entered 
the Yale Forest School, from which 
he graduated in June, 1904. In Sep- 
tember of that year he temporarily re- 
lieved Mr. Charles A. Scott, "who 
wished to complete his course at Yale, 
taking charge for nine months of the 
forest nursery and tree planting on 
the Dismal River Forest Reserve, at 
Halsey, Neb. His work was so satis- 
factory that he was immediately put 
in charge of planting operations on 
the Pikes Peak Reserve, establishing 
nurseries at Clyde and Bear Creek, 
and planting a considerable area with 
trees shipped from Halsey. Later, his 
studies were enlarged to include lec- 
ture work in Colorado. In accepting 
his new duties on July i, he will still 
retain a connection with the Forest 
Service as collaborator, continuing the 



cooperative forest work of the Gov- 
ernment with the State of Maryland. 

This office, created by the new 
Maryland forest law, brings rare op- 
portunities and also heavy responsi- 
bilities. The variety in soil, climatic 
conditions, and topography, and the 
peculiar situation of the State where 
the northern forest and southern for- 
est meet, furnish an unusually large 
number of tree species, and the prob- 
lems of handling lands now forested 
and planting those which should be, 
present problems which will require 
the most careful application and 
special adaptation of the principles of 
forestry. For this the soundest knowl- 
edge of the subject is essential, and 
here Mr. Besley's wide experience 
with trees from the seed to the saw 
will stand him in excellent stead. His 
ability to interest the public in forest 
matters is also an important qualifi- 
cation, since the success of the new 
law depends largely upon the extent 
to which the services of the forester 
are utilized by the lumbermen, timber- 
land owners, and especially the farm- 
ers, in the management of their wood- 
lots. 

Although the State of Maryland has 
soil and climate admirably adapted for 
forest growth, in many situations be- 
ing better suited for them than for 
annual crops, forest lands are not now 
pajang their owners as well as they 
should. Indeed, considerable areas, 
capable of producing the best timber, 
are occupied by an inferior forest 
growth, or, having lost much of their 
fertility in growing tobacco and other 
soil-exhausting crops, are now scarce- 
ly utilized at all. In buying Maryland 
forest land at present prices and hand- 
ling it under the expert advice which 
is now available, the far-sighted man 
will make a profitable investment. 
Length of growing season, suitable 
moisture conditions, nearby markets 
and excellent transportation facilities 
would all contribute to the success of 



288 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



June 



forestry in Maryland. The Secretary 
of Agriculture spoke first of all of 
the possibilities in the production of 
timber in his address at the golden an- 
niversary of the Maryland Agricul- 
tural College, when he advised every 
young man to immediately buy a 
Maryland farm and settle on it. 

The forming of a State forest re- 
serve has begun auspiciously in the 
acceptance of a gift from Mr. Robert 
Garrett of 4,000 acres in Garrett 
County. 

Without detracting from the credit 
due State Senator Brown for the in- 
troduction and passage of this excel- 
lent law and the concern he is taking 
in its successful operation, it is inter- 
esting to note that in Maryland as in 
Wisconsin, Massachusetts, Connecti- 
cut, California, the enactment of a 
State forest law and the appointment 
of a trained forester follow the co- 
operative work of the Government. In 
cooperation with the State Geological 
Survey, the Forest Service has been 
conducting investigations in Maryland 
since 1900. In that year, Mr. George 
B. Sudworth made a forest survey of 
Allegany County, which was pub- 
lished in a State report upon that 
county. Under Mr. Sudworth's di- 
rection similar surveys were made of 
Cecil, Garrett, and Calvert counties 
from 1901 to IQ03, by Mr. H. M. Cur- 
ran, the first two of which have also 
been published by the State. Similar- 
ly, in 1903, a study of forest condi- 
tions in Worcester County was made 
by the late William F. Hubbard, and, 
durina: recent months, field work has 



been conducted by Mr. C. D. Mell for 
a forest description of St. Mary and 
Harford counties. 

In addition to the cooperative work, 
a study of the basket willow industry 
was made by Mr. Hubbard in Howard 
and Baltimore counties, and a com- 
mercial-tree study of chestnut in Anne 
Arundel, Calvert, Charles, and Prince 
George counties by Mr. Raphael Zon, 
the results of which were published in 
Bulletins 46 and 53, respectively, of 
the Forest Service. In connection with 
Mr. Hubbard's general forest descrip- 
tion of Worcester County, he conduct- 
ed a commercial investigation of lob- 
lolly pine — an exceedingly important 
timber tree in that county for short 
rotations for box lumber. 

In 1905, Mr. Curran made another 
field study of forest lands in Garrett 
County, including the tract which has 
become the nucleus of the State re- 
serve, preparing maps and sugges- 
tions for their management. 

During the summer of 1905, Mr. 
William D. Sterrett with a party made 
a study of scrub pine in Maryland, and 
Mr. George H. Myers established a 
number of permanent sample plots for 
the purpose of carrying on systematic 
experiments as to the effect of thin- 
nings upon forest growth, for loblolly 
pine in Worcester County, and for 
scrub pine at Bowie. Mr. W. W. Ashe 
made a study of the Potomac River 
watershed also during the last field 
season to determine the character of 
the forest and its relation to the water 
supply. 




WEST VIRGINIA FAVORS RESERVES 

The Governor of That Commonwealth 
Argues Strongly for Prompt Action 



West Virginia's interest in the 

eastern forest reserve question 
is shown in the following letter : 

June 5, 1906. 
Hon. James Wilson, 

President of the American Forestry 
Association, 

Washington, D. C. 
Dear Sir : I am in favor of the pro- 
posed establishment of the Appalach- 



ian Forest Reserve and the \\'hite 
Mountain Forest Reserve : 

(a) The teachings of history glean- 
ed from all civilized nations demand 
that forests should be preserved, that 
the balance of nature be not disturbed, 
thus fatally affecting sound economic 
conditions. Even Russia, since 1888, 
has had an Imperial Forest Policy. 
Japan has a reserve of twenty-nine 
million acres under a finely organized 




HON. WILLIAM M. O. DAWSON 
The able and aggressive Governor of West Virginia who favors the 
establishment of Forest Reserves in the Southtm Appalachians 
and the White Mountains. 



290 



FOKESTKY AND IRRIGATION 



June 



system. The Appalachian system is 
now the best hard-wood producing re- 
gion in the Union, possibly in the 
world. It can furnish cottages and 
palaces for the nations. The active 
spread of railroads is carrying de- 
struction into the heart of these for- 
ests, and all the growth, from sapling 
to trees of mature age, without respect 
to "color, age or previous condition" 
are cut. At the present rate of de- 
struction, without means of reproduc- 
tion, the price of timber for commerce 
will soon be prohibitive. 

(b) In all mountain countries a de- 
struction of the forest has been a de- 
struction of the country. "After the 
timber the flood." The soil hardens 
like a slate roof and the water runs 
off. It is the amount of water which 
enters the soil, not the precipitation, 
which makes a region a garden or a 
desert. The soil is destroyed, the 
streams dwindle to nothing or at times 
are irresistible torrents, spreading de- 
vastation and terror along their 



courses. The land under considera- 
tion is said to be valuable as forest 
lands only. It lies at the sources of 
interstate rivers and its preservation 
as a forest region is of untold and in- 
estimable value to the countries be- 
low. 

(c) In a denuded country the 
streams are yellow, the soil carried to 
the sea, navigation impeded thereby, 
water power imperilled, food fish and 
other aquatic life killed, and scenic 
beauty destroyed. 

The above applies not only to this 
State, but with equal force to the other 
States concerned. Nearly every Gov- 
ernor's message of recent years has 
directed attention to this important 
matter; and our recent Tax Commis- 
sion, an able body, went beyond its 
legitimate scope to urge attention to 
it. 

Respectfully, 
WM. M. O. DAWSON, 
Governor of West Virginia. 



SPRING FIELD WORK OF THE SENIOR 

CLASS OF THE YALE FOREST 

SCHOOL 



BY 



HERMAN H. CHAPMAN 



'X'HE senior class of the Yale Forest 
School, seventeen -in number, 
spent the spring term at Waterville, 
N. H., upon the tract of 22,000 acres 
owned by the International Paper Co. 
This valley contains one of the largest 
bodies of virgin spruce remaining in 
New Hampshire. The slopes of the 
surrounding mountains are still cov- 
ered with dense stands of timber, al- 
though most of the lower slopes have 
been logged. 

The conditions are ideal for train- 
ing in the practice of map making, 
and timber cruising and along these 
lines the work was organized. The 
School was fortunate in securins: Mr. 



Henry Gannett, Chief Topographer of 
the U. S. Geological Survey, to di- 
rect the construction of a topographi- 
cal map of the Waterville valley. A 
scale of 2.000 feet to i inch was used, 
with contour lines at 100 feet inter- 
vals. Primary points were located 
from a base line with the plane table, 
and transverses run along roads, 
streams and trails, using steel tapes 
and aneroids. From the data thus ob- 
tained the contours were sketched in. 
Each man completed this portion of 
the work independently. 

Practice in estimating was taken up 
systematically upon a tract of 40 acres 
on which all the spruce were first cal- 



1906 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



291 



ipered and their contents calculated 
from an existing volume table. One 
tract was then estimated by taking cir- 
cular quarter acre plots at regular in- 
tervals so as to obtain i-io of the 
area. The results so obtained, using 
the same volume table showed a con- 
servative estimate, running with some 
crews 20 per cent, lower than the ac- 
tual stand. 

The second method was the selec- 
tion of a sample acre, the contents of 
which was multiplied by 40 to get the 
total stand. This method universally 
overran the actual stand, in some cases 
going 40 per cent, too high. 

The class then took up the estima- 
tion of the log contents of trees. Strips 
were run 4 rods wide in compass 
courses. The diameters were esti- 
mated by the eye and recorded by dots 
and in parallel columns, the upper di- 
ameter of each log, and total number 
of logs in each tree. The contents of 
the logs were calculated by the Scrib- 
ner rule to obtain the stand per acre. 
By this method, and having a tract 
whose total stand was known, as a 
basis, the men rapidly acquired the 
ability to accurately estimate timber 
and became familiar with log sizes, 
number of logs per tree, number per 
thousand feet scaled and the taper of 



the timber. The slender rapidly taper- 
ing timber of upper slopes was esti- 
mated by this method as easily as the 
taller timber below, and the only 
checks found necessary were the occa- 
sional measurements of a fallen tree 
for merchantable length and taper. 

The whole tract of 22,000 acres 
minus the cut-over land was then esti- 
mated by this method, the work oc- 
cupying about 10 days for 17 men. 
While running the strips, distances 
were obtained wholly by pacing, the 
total distance of each line being scaled 
off the map to serve as a check, espe- 
cially on steep slopes. The cut-over 
areas, and types were mapped at the 
same time, and notes taken on the 
character of the timber, reproduction 
and possibilities of logging. 

During the final week this data was 
summed up and a working plan was 
made for the tract, comprising a plan 
for fire protection, lumbering and ad- 
ministration with the object to main- 
tain the spruce forests on all areas 
suitable for its growth and secure as 
large a return as possible in the future 
at minimum cost. 

The class will go out well equipped 
for similar work on the Government 
reserves or for private parties. 



THE MANTI FOREST RESERVE 

Description of a Typical Reservation in Utah 

BY 

A. W. JENSEN 

Forest Supervisor. 



'T'HE Manti Forest Reserve, Utah, 
■• was established by proclamation 
of the president of the United States. 
Theodore Roosevelt, on the 29th day 
of May, 1903, and embraces an area of 
584,640 acres. 

This reserve is located between the 
III and 112 degrees west longitude, 
and the 39 and 40 degrees of north lati- 
tude, and within townships thirteen to 
twenty-one south, and ranges two to 
•eight east, S. L. Mer., embracing valu- 
able grazing, timber, mining, and 



watershed lands of the Wasatch 
Plateau. Immediately at the foot of 
the reserve and upon its western side 
the valuable lands of San Pete County, 
and upon the eastern side the valuable 
farming lands of Emery County. 

The elevation of the reserve varies 
from 5,500 to 11,000 feet and from its 
summit or dividing watershed line 
which extends through the entire re- 
serve at an angle of south 18 degrees 
West, arise canyons which traverse the 
reserve from two to twentv miles and 



292 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



June 



enter the valleys below. Through these 
canyons flow the waters which come 
from the melting snow to the valley 
where it is used for irrigation. 

On the eastern slope immense, pre- 
cipitous ledges of rock, in many places 
hundreds of feet high have been ex- 
posed and yet left intact by the erosion 
of centuries, while on the western 
slope the grade is gradual toward the 
base of the mountain sides. 

Upon the higher elevation of the re- 
serve, especially within 8,000 feet to 
11,000 feet, falls, during the winter 
season, from November until March or 
April, great quantities of snow which 
melts during the months of May, June, 
and July and furnishes life to the 
mountain springs and streams. The 
water from this snow is used by the 
farmers for the irrigation of lands pro- 
ducing wheat, oats, barley, rye, corn, 
potatoes, beets, and alfalfa. The snow 
is piled and packed by the winds upon 
the north slopes of the canyons within 
the reserve and particularly at the alti- 
tude heretofore mentioned. 

The approximate acreage of irri- 
gated lands is 55,000, and upon such a 
small main watershed, have been 
grazed during the months of July and 
August, each year for ten years pre- 
ceding the year 1904, approximately 
300,000 sheep. 

This grazing was in excess to the 
producing power of the lands, and for 
each year for ten years past, and pre- 
ceding the year 1904, the watershed 
was being made a desert waste. 

The rains falling upon the denuded 
and over-grazed lands became torren- 
tial floods which swept their way into 
the hamlets and towns situated in the 
valleys below, and carried with them 
immense quantities of rock and debris. 

Creek beds were changed and cut 
deep into the mountains, the laterals 
taking water to the farmers' lands 
were destroyed, and the work of man 
in many places swept away. 

These floods, each one in its turn in- 
creased the taxes of the people, until 
the town of Manti decided that relief 
must be found. Manti turned its face 
toward the Government of the United 



States for help, and succeeded in se- 
curing it. The Government said the 
Manti city watershed must be protect- 
ed from devastation by stock. The pol- 
icy announced was set in active opera- 
tion, the vegetation began once again 
to come forth upon denuded areas, the 
rains falling upon the protected canyon 
area was to a marked degree held back 
in the mountains, the floods began to 
grow less, and the taxes of Manti City 
for years levied and collected to com- 
bat the floods were reduced, and in the 
year 1904 it was almost unanimously 
conceded that the Government had 
solved the vexatious question and re- 
stored a new hope and life to the 
troubled town. 

The people of other towns, both of 
San Pete and Emery Counties quickly 
noted the effect. This moved them to 
turn to the Government for the same 
class of protection. Therefore, Presi- 
dent Roosevelt expressed the majority 
voice of the people of San Pete and 
Emery Counties, Utah, when he estab- 
lished the Manti Forest Reserve, and 
since the date of the establishment of 
this reserve the people's petitions have 
been further answered by the proper 
Department in making rules of protec- 
tion against overstocking the main 
watershed. 

During the year 1904, the first year 
of Government management of graz- 
ing upon the reserve, it was almost 
universally conceded that upon seven- 
teen creeks originating within the re- 
serve and carrying the water supply 
for irrigation of lands in San Pete and 
Emery Counties, the work of the De- 
partment wrought great benefit in 
maintaining a continued and improved 
water supply. 

Within the eastern part of the re- 
serve are immense coal deposits, and 
in many of the canyons veins of coal 
varying in thickness from 6 to 12 feet 
appear upon the surface. The coal de- 
posits can be traced without fault for 
a distance of over 35 miles, and at coal' 
mines in several places the neighbor- 
ing residents of the reserve can be 
seen, during the fall season, to drive 
into the mine with teams unhitched. 



1906 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



293 



load the wagons and drive out of the 
mine. 

Much coal have heretofore been re- 
moved from the reserve lands, and it is 
expected that the establishment of the 
reserve will aid in such a manner as 
to have these lands only conveyed to 
private parties pursuant to the Federal 
law. 

It appears from the records made by 
the Department within the last two 
years that the Manti Forest Reserve 
has fed great numbers of stock during 
the summer seasons for ten years past. 

It was an agitated question of range 
management at the time of the creation 
of the reserve, for evidence of over- 
grazing indicated that some move must 
be made or the range would be made a 
desert. The establishment of the- re- 
serve and its management seems to 
have settled the question, and it has 
been the aim of the Forest Service to 
so conduct the reserve as to give the 
greatest benefit to the greatest number 
of people, commensurate with the pro- 
ductive power of the reserve. 

The regulation has reduced the 
number of sheep heretofore grazed by 
certain parties so as to not exceed one 
herd to each person. 

The timber valuable for lumber pur- 
poses as found within the reserve is 



situated at an elevation varying from 
7,000 to 9,000 feet, and always . upon 
the northern slopes, where it is protect^ 
ed from the fierce and heavy winds. 
Among the species found are : White 
Fir (abics concolor) local name Black 
Balsam; Balsam Fir (abies lasiocarpay 
local name White Balsam ; Engelmann 
Spruce, Douglas Spruce, Blue Spruce 
and Western Yellow Pine, and Lodge- 
pole Pine. 

During the past and before the es- 
tablishment of the reserve much tim- 
ber has been destroyed by fire and 
wasteful cutting, especially was this, 
true during the years of 1890 and 1891 
when the forests were cut without 
reservation and in an extremely waste- 
ful manner for the purpose of making- 
railway ties. 

Several places within the reserve 
virgin pine forests are to be found, 
and in many places dense undergrowth 
of shrubs. 

The timber operations have taken 
on a new aspect since the cuttings are 
done under the immediate supervision 
of an officer of the Forest Service, and 
at one cutting point upon the reserve 
last season where only 200,000 feet 
were cut, more than 700 cords of dead, 
down and valueless material was piled 
and burned. 



TIMBER STUMPAGE BUSINESS OF 
THE NATIONAL GOVERNMENT 

Over a Quarter of a Million Dollars' Worth Sold 
in 1905— Saving the Woods While Selling 
the Trees — Prompt, Businesslike Management. 



A NATURAL feeling among lum- 
■**• bermen toward the forest work 
of the Government is that the Govern- 
ment is not in the lumber business and 
can not, therefore, take the lumber- 
man's business point of view. Yet a 
greater misconception could scarcely 
exist. As a dealer in . stumpage the 
Government is the largest lumber deal- 



er in the country. Further, it applies 
to its sales the practice of scientific for- 
estry, requiring the removal of the 
timber under the same sort of instruc- 
tions which it advises for private oper- 
ators. Thus the Forest Service, in its 
reserve work, is giving an object les- 
son on a huge scale to enforce its 
teachings that conservative manage- 



294 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



June 



ment and profit may go hand in hand. 
In the year 1905 the total sales reached 
a value of $273,659.82. 

By the Act of March 3, 1891, the 
President of the United States was 
authorized to proclaim forest reserves ; 
a power first exercised by President 
Harrison, who, on March 30 of that 
year, created the Yellowstone Park 
Timber Land Reserve. Authority 
over these reserves was given to the 
Secretary of the Interior, the adminis- 
trative work to be conducted by the 
General Land Ofiice. 

The mere creation of forest re- 
serves, however, without provision, 
for their administration was both in- 
efifectual and annoying to local inter- 
ests dependent upon their resources. 
Consequently the Secretary of the In- 
terior, in 1896, requested the National 
Academy of Sciences to recommend 
a National forest policy. This result- 
ed in the passage of the Act of June 
4, 1897, under which, with several 
subsequent amendments, forest re- 
serves are now administered. 

CHANGE O^ ADMINISTRATION. 

Still, the result was not satisfactory. 
Scientific knowledge and a technically 
trained force were necessary. The Bu- 
reau of Forestry had frequently to be 
consulted. Finally, the Act of Febru- 
ary I, 1905, was passed, transferring 
the entire jurisdiction, except in mat- 
ters of surveys and passing of title, to 
the Secretary of Agriculture. The ac- 
tual work of administration was there- 
upon given to the Bureau of Forestry, 
since July i, 1905, styled the Forest 
Service. 

The policy upon which these re- 
serves were to be administered is in- 
dicated by the following extracts from 
the letter written February i, 1905, by 
the Secretary of Agriculture to the 
Forester : 

"In the administration of the forest 
reserves it must be clearly borne in 
mind that all land is to be devoted to 
its most productive use for the perma- 
nent good of the whole people, and not 
for the temporary benefit of individ- 
uals or companies. All the resources 



of forest reserves are for use, and this 
must be brought about in a thoroughly 
prompt and businesslike manner, un- 
der such restrictions only as will in- 
sure the permanence of these re- 
sources. * * * 

"You will see to it that the water, 
wood, and forage of the reserves are 
conserved and wisely used for the ben- 
efit of the home builder first of all. 
* :i^ * jn the management of each 
reserve local questions will be decided 
upon local grounds ; * * * where 
conflicting interests must be reconcil- 
ed, the question will always be decided 
from the standpoint of the greatest 
good to the greatest number in the 
long run." 

The principal object of the forest re- 
serves is use. The policy governing 
these great storehouses of natural 
wealth is not one of locking up and 
rendering inaccessible their resources, 
but of conserving and multiplying 
them and making them available to 
consumers. 

e;ffective organization. 

That a Government bureau can ac- 
tually thus subserve the interests of 
users is at first a matter of some skep- 
ticism with practical lumbermen. Their 
fear is that such work will be con- 
ducted from a remote Government of- 
fice by men unfamiliar with local 
needs. 

It has remained for the Forest Serv- 
ice practically to demonstrate the 
groundlessness of these fears. To this 
end it has rapidly developed an organ- 
ization. On July I, 1898, the Division 
of Forestry employed eleven persons, 
of whom six filled clerical or other 
subordinate positions, and five belong- 
ed to the scientific stafif. Of the lat- 
ter, two were professional .foresters. 
The Division possessed no field equip- 
ment; practically all of its work was 
office work. At the opening of the 
present fiscal year the employees of the 
Forest Service numbered 821, of 
whom 153 were professional, trained 
foresters. The field force of the For- 
est Service contains the grades of For- 
est Inspector, Forest Supervisor, For- 



1906 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



295 



est Assistant, and Forest Ranger. In 
so far as possible the administration of 
the reserves takes place on the ground 
and with the promptness that is sup- 
posed to characterize private business. 

One of the most important aspects 
of forest administration is the sale of 
timber. All timber on forest reserves 
which can be cut safely and for which 
there is actual need is for sale. Ap- 
plications to purchase are invited. 
Green timber may be sold except 
where its removal makes a second 
crop doubtful, reduces the timber sup- 
ply below the point of safety, or in- 
jures the streams. All dead timber is 
for sale. The cutting of this timber 
is done under the local supervision of 
the Forest Service and in accordance 
with certain clearly defined and practi- 
cal rules. 

SPECULATION PREVENTED. 

The restrictions governing the tim- 
ber sales, while effective, are simple. 
Application is made to the local officer 
in charge of the reserve from which 
the timber is desired, who executes 
small sales on the ground. In case of 
large sales, the application is forward- 
ed to the Forest Service, from which 
the advertisement of the sale is made. 
Applicants for timber are required to 
send sealed bids to the Forest Service. 
Small bidders enjoy exactly equal op- 
portunities with large, and monopoliz- 
ation is effectually forestalled. The 
highest bid fixes the price. Should the 
first applicant desire to begin cutting 
immediately he may (except in Cali- 
fornia) do so, on condition that he pay 
in advance at a price already fixed by 
the Forest Service, and that he obli- 
gate himself to pay the full amount 
named in the highest bid. Thus delay 
" is avoided and the Government is pro- 
tected. Speculation in reserve timber 
is made impossible by the provision 
that the timber must be removed with- 
in a specified time( and that when a 
contract extends over several years a 
proportionate amount of timber must 
be removed each year. Five years is 
the extreme limit of a sales contract. 



That these restrictions are not oner- 
ous is shown by the numerous sales 
made under them. A single sales of 
50,000,000 feet of lodgepole pine for 
railroad ties is pending on the Mon- 
tana Division of the Yellowstone For- 
est Reserve. It is estimated that 165,- 
000,000 feet B. M. of lodegpole pine 
can be taken from one watershed in 
the Medicine Bow Forest Reserve, still 
leaving a large percentage for future 
crops. Much timber is sold in small 
lots ; fifty applications for such sales 
are made to each single application 
for 1,000,000 board feet or more; the 
prompt, businesslike consideration ac- 
corded such applications standing in 
marked contrast with the slow meth- 
ods once prevailing, when all applica- 
tions had to be made through Wash- 
ington. 

FORESTS AS REVENUE. 

During the year 1905 the sales of 
timber from the National reserves 
were as follows : 

The largest sales so far made are 
71,466,537 board feet from South Da- 
kota; 68,255,916 from Wyoming; and 
5'327,443 from Utah. 

In sales of wood for fuel South Da- 
kota led with 29,844^4 cords ; Arizona 
followed with 16,649; and Colorado 
with io,795>4. The total number of 
cords sold was 74,120. 

In sales of posts and poles Montana 
led with 119,500, followed by Wyom- 
ing with 30,750, and Colorado with 
13,988. The total number sold was 
188,740. 

The largest timber sales were made 
in Wyoming, where they reached 
$143,894.81. South Dakota's sales 
ranked second in value, amounting to 
$78,958.24, and Colorado's to $23,- 
937.07. The total sales for 1905 
reached $273,659.82. 

Nor are the receipts from these sales 
swallowed up by the cost of adminis- 
tration. The entire property of the 
forest reserves, worth $250,000,00 in 
cash, is now being administered at a 
cost of less than one-third of i per 
cent, on its value, while increase in 



296 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



June 



that value of not less than lo per cent, 
a year is taking place. As the use of 
the reserves increases, the cost of ad- 
ministration must, of course, increase 
also, but receipts will certainly increase 



much more rapidly. The time is not 
far distant when the forest reserves 
will become self-sustaining-. Later, 
they may confidently be expected to 
become a source of public revenue. 



BEECH (Fagus atropunicea)' 

VII. — Notes on Fore^ Trees Suitable 
for Planting in the United States. 



DISTRIBUTION. 

The natural range of the beech is 
from Nova Scotia to northern Wis- 
consin; south to western Florida, and 
west to southeastern Missouri and 
Texas. It reaches its maximum de- 
velopment on the slopes of the Alle- 
gheny Mountains and in the valley of 
the lower Ohio River. It occurs in 
mixture with most of the trees in- 
cluded in its range. 

The range for economic planting 
corresponds closely with its natural 
range. 



The beech prefers fresh, cool, and 
rich soil. In the North it is found 
upon the slopes of mountains, where it 
sometimes forms pure stands ; in the 
South it grows along the margins of 
swamps, or in bottomlands along 
streams. It grows well on limy or 
chalky soils. 

GROWTH AND REPRODUCTION. 

The beech is a moderately rapid- 
growing tree, sometimes, under favor- 
able conditions, reaching the height 
of I20 feet. In dense forests it pro- 
duces a tall, straight, slender trunk, 
which is adapted for economic pur- 
poses. The tree is shade-enduring, 
and the lower limbs persist for a long 
time. The open-grown tree forms a 
short, conical trunk, with many small 
limbs branching from it. The lower 



ones droop towards the ground, and 
if not pruned the tree forms an elon- 
gated dome which is very ornamental 
for parks or lawns. The light-colored 
bark and fine spray of delicate branch- 
es make it even more beautiful in win- 
ter than when in full leaf. 

The beech usually forms the under- 
story in the mixed stands where it oc- 
curs. It reproduces well in shade from 
the seed, as well as from root suckers. 
The several nursery varieties are pro- 
pagated by grafting. 

The beech is adapted for planting 
under evergreens such as white, red, 
or pitch pines, or it may be planted in 
company with the yellow poplar, black 
walnut, ashes, or oaks. When planted 
with less tolerant trees, the beech acts 
beneficially by shading the ground, 
and at the same time aiding natural 
pruning and increasing the height 
growth of associated species. Beech 
is also adapted for planting on cut- 
over lands where reforestation is de- 
sirable. 

If planted in pure stands, 8 feet by 
8 feet is a good distance to set the 
seedlings. This requires 68o seedlings 
per acre. 

If planted in mixtures, the follow- 
ing diagram illustrates a good plan ; 
[6 feet by 6 feet.] 
P B P B 
B B B B 
P B P B 
B B B B 



•Furnished by U. S. Forest Service. 



1906 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



297 



P — White, red, or pitch pine, yellow 
poplar, ashes, or oaks. 

B— Beech. 

This plan requires 908 beeches and 
302 of the other species, or a total of 
1,210 trees, to the acre. 

Beech trees produce an abundant 
crop of nuts every two or three years. 
The three-cornered nuts ripen in the 
fall and drop soon after the first severe 
frost. If allowed to dry out, the nuts 
become rancid and the germs die. To 
prepare them for planting they should 
be stratified through the winter. A 
pit is dug and lined with mouse-proof 
material, or a large box is placed in it. 
Alternate layers of moist sand and 
nuts are then laid in and covered on 
top with a wire screen or boards. A 
mulch of leaves or straw mixed with 
some earth is thrown over the filled 
pit. Before the nuts are placed in the 
pit they should be fumigated with car- 
bon bisulphide to kill the worms that 
may infest them. This may be done 
by placing them in a box, boring a 
hole through the cover, and pouring 
in some liquid carbon bisulphide. The 
hole should then be immediately 
plugged and left closed for two or 
three days. This will completely kill 
all insects without injuring the seed. 

In the spring, as soon as the frost 
is out of the ground, the nuts should 
be planted, either directly in the per- 
manent site, in which case three or 
four should be planted in each hole, 
or in a seedbed, from which the seed- 
lings should be transplanted when a 
year old. In a seedbed the nuts, of 
which about 80 per cent should germi- 
nate, should be sown about 2 inches 
apart in rows. If they have not dried 
out during the winter, they should 
sprout in a few days. Care should be 
taken to keep weeds out by giving 
frequent cultivation. After a seed 
year young seedlings appear in large 
numbers in beech woods and may be 
dug up and transplanted, or they may 
be obtained at a reasonable price from 
nurserymen. 



ECONOMIC USES. 

Beech wood is hard, heavy, strong, 
and stiff. It is not durable in contact 
with the soil. It is fine grained and 
seasons with very little checking. It 
is used considerably in the manufac- 
ture of carpenters' tools and ma- 
chinery. On account of its great hard- 
ness and stiffness it is admirably 
adapted for flooring in machine shops 
where rigidity is demanded, for, al- 
though strong, it will break before it 
bends much. For ordinary flooring it 
is so hard that it soon becomes very 
slippery and is, therefore, objection- 
able. It takes a beautiful polish and 
should be used in cabinetwork. It 
makes an excellent fuel. 

ENEMIES. 

The beech is one of our healthiest 
trees, being comparatively free from 
severe injury by insects or fungi, al- 
though many species of the latter oc- 
cur upon it. A few common insects 
that prey upon it are the fall webworm 
and forest tent caterpillar, as well as 
other caterpillars which do consider- 
able damage to the foliage. Plant-lice 
and scale insects are sometimes abund- 
ant, especially upon cultivated beech. 

Whenever insects of any kind occur 
in destructive numbers, specimens 
should be referred to the Bureau of 
Entomology of the Department of 
Agriculture for determination and ad- 
vice regarding means of control. 

Information concerning the numer- 
ous fungi and methods for combating 
their attacks can be obtained by ap- 
plication to the Bureau of Plant In- 
dustry of the Department of Agricul- 
ture. Letters of inquiry should always 
be accompanied by specimens. Beech 
drops are low annual plants parisitic 
upon the roots of beech trees. 

Owing to the thinness of its bark, 
the beech is very susceptible to ^in- 
juries from fire, and plantations 
should be well protected by fire lines. 



REMARKABLE SALE OF RESERVE 

TIMBER 



A Million and A-half Ties to be Cut, a Large 
Percentage from Material Once Without a Mar- 
ket, but Now Made Servicable by Preservation 



17 ROM several aspects a striking in- 
*■ terest attaches to the recent sale 
by the government of about 50,000,000 
feet of timber on the Montana division 
of the Yellowstone Forest Reserve to 
a contracting company which will con- 
vert most of the timber into railroad 
ties. 

This is one of the largest sales ever 
made of government timber ; the price 
is advantageous, and a large percent- 
age of the cut will be of a species 
which a few years ago was without 
market value, namely, lodgepole pine. 
Further, it may be said with assurance 
that had not the preservative treat- 
ment of ties been shown to be both 
practical and economical, such a sale 
could not now have been made, for 60 
per cent of the cut, or approximately 
1,000,000 ties, is to be treated with 
preservatives by a process which ex- 
periment and trial have placed on a 
sound business basis. 

The purchasers of the timber have 
contracted to supply the Chicago, Bur- 
lington and Quincy and the Northern 
Pacific railway companies with ties for 
a period covering three years. The 
timber for which they applied to the 
government consists of lodgepole pine, 
red fir, and spruce. A large propor- 
tion of the stand is lodgepole pine, 
which grows very densely. Conse- 
quently after all the specified timber 
has been removed, a plentiful stand of 
young trees will be left, which in a 
few years will again form a forest of 
merchantable dimensions. 

The government will receive a 
stumping price of $2.50 per thousand 
feet for the red fir and $2.00 per thous- 
and feet for the spruce and pine. 



The story of the entrance of lodge- 
pole pine into the timber market is an 
interesting chapter in the history of the 
use of forest products. Five years ago 
this tree was classed among the nearly 
worthless, inferior timbers growing in 
the northwestern states. It had never 
come into extensive use. Its liability 
to attack by fungus and to check in 
drying, its softness and lightness, and 
the large percentage of sapwood in its 
structure were disadvantages which 
seemed to handicap it permanently. 
Yet the possibility and the need of 
finding substitutes for scarcer woods 
had already led to the closer study of 
a number of unexploited species, and 
devices were being sought by which 
artificial treatment might be made to 
take the place of natural adaptability 
to a specific service. 

Among these devices were improve- 
ments in seasoning methods and the 
use of preservatives. It was found 
that preservative treatment, which 
greatly prolonged the life of certain 
timbers, depends largely for its success 
upon the penetrability of the wood, 
which permits the preservative to en- 
ter the wood substance easily. The 
loblolly pine was seen to be exceed- 
ingly well adapted for preservative 
treatment, and also lodgepole pine, 
whose softness is combined with a high 
degree of permeability. In 1902 the 
seasoning and preserving of lodgepole 
pine was thoroughly taken up by the 
Forest Service, in co-operation with 
the Chicago, Burlington and Quincy 
Railroad and with the present pur- 
chasers of reserve timber in Montana. 
The results established its serviceabil- 
ity and thus opened a new field for the 
supply of ties, upon which the rail- 
roads are drawing so heavily. 




Laws Relating to Public Lands in the 
Philippine Islands. Pp. 110, with line 
cuts. Published by Bureau of Insular 
Affairs, U. S. War Department, 1905. 
Washington, D. C. 

The pamphlet here presented includes a 
complete synopsis of all the land laws of 
the Philippine Islands, methods of laying 
out claims, homesteads, etc., together with 
a resume of all forest legislation . In 
that latter subject there is presented some 
valuable information regarding the native 
trees of the islands, their values, etc., to- 
gether with various recognized rules for 
determining content, etc. 

Primer Containing Questions and Answers 
on the Public Land Laws in the Philippine 
Islands. 1906. 

Pamphlet Containing the Mining Laws of 
the Philippine Islands. 1906. 

Free Patent Circular. 1906. 

Sales Circular. 1905. 

Circular Relative to Leasing of Agricultural 
Public Lands in the PhiHppine Islands. 
1906. 

In line with the pamphlet reviewed just 
above are the iive publications here pre- 
sented. Each pamphlet is issued separately 
in English and Spanish, and they are all 
designed to place before the people of the 
islands, and those interested there, author- 
itative information regarding the workings 
of certain portions of the land laws of the 
Philippines. 



ed the papers and discussions of various 
agricultural subjects which have made 
previous editions of the voUime so popular 
throughout the country. The Yearbook for 
1905 contains a very laarge number of ar- 
ticles, all of which are of interest, and 
should prove exceedingly helpful. 

There are a number of valuable contri- 
butions on forest subjects, including "How 
To Grow Young Trees for Forest Plant- 
ing," by E. A. Sterling; "Insect Enemies of 
Forest Reproduction," A. D. Hopkins; 
"Waste in Logging Southern Yellow Pine," 
J. Girvin Peters ; "Prolonging the Life of 
Telephone Poles," Henry Grinnell ; and an 
exceedingly clear and comprehensive article 
on the "Progress of Forestry in 1905," by 
Quincy R. Craft. The latter contains a 
very valuable resume of the forest legisla- 
tion throughout the United States during 
the fiscal year of 1905. 



Forty-Eighth Annual Report of the Mis- 
souri State Horticultural Society. pp. 

451. Illustrated. Jefferson City, Mo., 

1906. 

The Forty-Eighth Annual Report of the 
Missouri Horticultural Society contains the 
proceedings in full of two of the most suc- 
cessful meetings in the history of the or- 
ganization, those held at Versailles, June 
13, 14, and 15, and at Kansas City, Decem- 
ber 28, 29, 30, 1905. The volume contains 
a large amount of interesting and valuable 
information on horticultural subjects. 



Yearbook, U. S. Department ot Agricul- 
ture, 1905. P. 440. Illustrated. Gov- 
ernment Printing Office, Washington, 
1906. 

By reason of a new ruling, the Yearbook 
of the Department of Agriculture has been 
divided into two separate bound parts, the 
first including the formal report of the Sec- 
retary of Agriculture to the President, and 
the reports of tbe various division chiefs 
to the Secretary, while in Part II. is includ- 



Forestry, A Profession for Young Men. 

By Samuel J. Record. Published by the 
Botanical Department of Wabash Uni- 
versity, 1906. 

In this little pamphlet Mr. Record de- 
fines the scope of the profession of fores- 
try, indicates what studies will be of most 
value to the student preparing to enter that 
profession, states what advantages and dis- 
advantages it offers, and includes a lot of 
good common sense advice relating to the 
subject, given in the guise of simple infor- 
n:Mt:on. 



Department of the Interior, Washington, 
D. C, Mav 8, 1906. Sealed proposals will be 
received at the office of the United States Recla- 
mation Sendee, Billings, Montana, until 2 o'clock 
p. m., June 20, 1906, for the construction of about 
17 miles of canal, involving approximately 350,000 
cubic yards of excavation. Plans, specifications, 
and proposal blanks may be obtained from the 
Chief Engineer, Reclamation Ser\-ice, Washing- 
ton, D. C, or from the Engineer, Huntley, 
Montana. E. A. HITCHCOCK, Secretary. 

Department of the Interior, Washington, 
D. C, April 26. 1906. Sealed proposals will be 
received at the oflice of the Supervising Engineer, 
United States Reclamation Service, Portland, 
Ore., until 3 o'clock p.m., June 28, 1906, for build- 
ing the Cold Springs Dam, near Hermiston, Ore., 
including about 694,000 cubic yards of earth and 
gravel excavation, about 3,100 cubic yards of rock 
excavation, about 3,110 cubic yards of concrete, 
and about 35,000 cubic yards of rip rap and rock 
fill. Particulars may be obtained at the office of 
the U. S. Reclamation Service, at Washington, D. 

C, Portland, Ore., and Hermiston, Ore. E. A. 
HITCHCOCK, Secretary. 

Department of the Interior, Washington, 

D. C, May 12, 1906. Sealed proposals will be 
received at the office of the United States Recla- 
mation .Service, Klamath Falls, Ore., until 2 
o'clock, p. m., June 21, 1906, for the construction 
of 19 miles of canal, and 27 miles of laterals in 
Klamath County, Ore., with checks, turnouts, 
culverts, bridges and other appurtenances involv- 
ing about 570,000 cubic yards of excavation, 1,550 
cubic yards of concrete masonry, and about 35,000 
feet B. M. of lumber. Plans, specifications and 
forms of proposal may be obtained by application 
to the Chief Engineer of the United States Recla- 
mation Service, Washington, D. C, the Supervis- 
ing Engineer, 1108 Union Trust Building, I,os 
Angeles, Cal., or the Project Engineer, Klamath 
Falls, Ore. E. A. HITCHCOCK, Secretary. 

Department of the Interior, Washington, 

D. C, May 3, 1906. Sealed proposals will be 
received at the office of the Supervising Engineer, 
United States Reclamation Service, Portland, 
Ore., until 2 o'clock p. m., June 29, 1906, for the 
construction of about 25 miles of canal extending 
from the Umatilla River, near Echo, Ore., to the 
proposed Cold Springs Reservoir, consisting of 
the following work : About 700,000 cubic yards of 
earth excavation, about 6,000 cubic yards of rock 
excavation, about 2,300 cubic yards of concrete, 
and abQUt3,600 cubic yards of riprap, divided into 
two schedules. Particulars may be obtained at 
the offices of the United States Reclamation Ser- 
vice, Washington, D. C, and Portland, Ore. 

E. A. HITCHCOCK, Secretary. 

Dkpartment of the Interior, Washington, 
D. C, June 15, 1906. Sealed proposals will be 
received at the office of the Engineer, United 
States Reclamation Service, Billings, Mont., 
until 2 o'clock p. m., July 24, 1906, for fur- 
nishing about 405,000 pounds of steel bars for 
reinforcement of concrete. Particulars may be 
obtained by application to the Chief Engineer 
of the Reclamation Service, U. S. Geological 
Survey, Washington, n. C, or to the Engineer, 
Cody, Wyo. E. A. HITCHCOCK, Secretary. 

Department of the Interior, Washington, 
D. C, June 11, 1906. Sealed proposals will be 
received at the office of the United States 
Reclamation Service, Salt Lake City, Utah, 
until 3 o'clock p. m., August 30, 1906, for the 
construction of the Strawberry Tunnel, involv- 
ing 18,600, linear feet, more or less, of tunnel, 
the same being a portion of a system for the 
diversion of about 500 cubic feet of water per 
second from Strawberry River to the Spanish 
Fork Valley, Utah. Particulars may be ob- 
tained from the Chief Engineer of the Recla- 
mation Service, Washington, D. C, or the En- 
gineer, Salt Lake City, Utah. E. A. HITCH- 
COCK, Secretary. 



Department of the Interior, Washington, 
D. C, June 7, 1906. Sealed proposals will be 
received at the office of the Reclamation Ser- 
vice, 376 Federal Building, Chicago, 111., until 
2 o'clock p. m., July 6. 1906, and thereafter 
opened, for the construction of deep and shal- 
low wells, suction pipes, pumping stations, 
siphons, concrete lined conduits, and fencing. 
Particulars may be obtained by application to 
the Chief Engineer of the Reclamation Service, 
Washington, D. C, or to the Engineer, Gar- 
den City, Kans. E. A. HITCHCOCK, Secre- 
tary. 

DEP.A.RTMENT OF THE INTERIOR, Washington, 
D. C, May 29, 1906. Sealed proposals will be 
received at the office of the United States Re- 
clamation Service, Billings, Mont., until 2 
o'clock p. m., July 10, 1906, for the construc- 
tion of the Corbett Dam, a reinforced concrete 
structure, located on the Shoshone River about 
8 miles northeast of Cody, Wyo. The struc- 
ture will require about 10,000 cubic yards of 
excavation, 5,000 cubic yards of concrete, 9,000 
cubic yards of earth and gravel embankment 
and the placing of 250,000 pounds of steel re- 
inforcement. Particulars may be obtained from 
the Chief Engineer of the Reclamation Service, 
Washington, D. C, or from the Project En- 
gineer, Cody, Wyo. E. A. HITCHCOCK, Sec- 
retary. 

Department of the Interior, Washington, 
D. C., May 29, 1906. Sealed proposals will be 
received at the office of the United States 
Reclamation Service, Browning, Mont., until 
2 o'clock p. m., July 31, 1906, for the construc- 
tion of about 14 miles of canal for the di- 
version of 850 cubic feet of water per second 
from the St. Mary River at a point about 35 
miles northwest of Browning, involving the ex- 
cavation of about i,7oo,ooo cubic yards of ma- 
terial. Particulars may be obtained at the of- 
fice of the Chief Engineer of the Reclamation 
Service, Washington, D. C, or from Cyrus C. 
Babb, Engineer, Browning, Mont. E. A. 
HITCHCOCK. Secretary. 

Department of the Interior, Washington, 
D. C, June 15, 1906. Sealed proposals will be 
received at the office of the United States Re- 
clamation Service, Billings, Mont., until 2 
o'clock p. m., August 7, 1906, for constructing 
a pumping plant, involving about 15,000 cubic 
yards of earth excavation, 600 cubic yards of 
concrete, building about 2,000 feet of reinforced 
concrete pipe, furnishing 120,000 pounds of 
steel, and furnishing and installing a water- 
power pumping plant, consisting of two verti- 
cal-shaft pumping units and accessories, each 
unit having a capacity of 28 cubic feet of water 
per second, lifted fifty feet. The plant will be 
located near Ballantine Station on the Chicago, 
Burlington and Ouincy Railway, 23 miles east 
of Billings, MontT Particulars may be obtained 
from the Chief Engineer of the Reclamation 
Service, Washington, D. C, or the Engineer, 
Huntley, Mont. E. A. HITCHCOCK, Secre- 
tary^ 

Department of the Interior, Washington, 
D. C, June 4, 1906. Sealed proposals will be 
received at the office of the United States 
Reclamation Service, Williston, N. D., until 
10 o'clock a. m., July 9, 1906, for the installa- 
tion of steam and electric pumping plants, and 
electric generating and transmission apparatus, 
including three pumping stations containing 
centrifugal pumps of 20 and 30 cubic feet per 
second capacity under heads of from 30 to 50 
feet, driven by steam engines and electric mo- 
tors aggregating 1,200 horsepower; also two 
300 K. W. steam turbine generating units, a 
1,000 horsepower boiler plant and accessories, 
the necessary buildings and 3-mile transmission 
line, located in the vicinity of Williston, N. D. 
Particulars may be obtained from the Chief 
Engineer, U. S. Reclamation Service, Washing- 
ton, D. C, or from H. A. Storrs, Electrical 
Engineer, Williston, N. D. E. A. HITCH- 
COCK, Secretary. 




Si. 




/ Forestry and Irrigation 

H. M. SUTER. Editor 

m- '.■.».iuk.. tei gif^.-i-^ __ .1 ii ii III III I I iir~i 

CONTENTS FOR JULY, 1906 

GORGE ON DOE RIVER ------ Frontispiece 

NEWS AND NOTES : 

New Forestry Association - 301 Aliotment of Funds - - o05 

Forests and Paper Supplies 802 Reclamation Work in Oregon 305 

New York Forestry - - 302 Funds for Klamath Project - 306 

About the Cotton Tree - 304 Joy and Sorrow - - 300 
Change of Quarters - - 304 

FOREST SERVICE APPROPRIATION 307 

SIZE OF IRRIGATED FAR^MS {with Portrait), by Prof. F. B. 

Linfield . - - 309 

PARANG AND COGONALES IN T^iE PHILIPPINES {Illustrated) 

by Wi'liam M. Maule 311 

PUIMPING WATER. Fourth Paper {Jllmtrated) - - - - 317 
FOREST LEGISLATION BEFORE THE 5f)TH CONGRESS- First 

Session ...-.-.---- 325 

I NJTED STATES RECLAMATION SERVICE - - - - 327 

I NITED STATES FOREST SERVICE 331 

NOTES ON FOREST TREES SUITABLE FOR PLANTING IN 

THE UNITED STATES. VIII— White Elm - - - - 334 
BEAUTIFYING THE STEEL HIGHWAY {illmtrated). By Prof. 

F. William Rane ...--.--- 336 

PROFITS FROM FOREST RESERVES TO BE SHARED BY 

COUNTIES 341 

NOTES ON THE FORESTS OF HARFORD COUNTY, MARY- 
LAND, by Treadwell Cleveland, Jr. ----- 343 
RECENT PUBLICATIONS 341 

Forestry and Irrigation is the official organ of the American Forestry Association 
SuDscription price 81.00 a vear ; single copies 10 cents. Copyright, 1906, by 
Forestry and Irrigation Publishing Co. Entered at the Post Office at Washington 
D. C, as second-class mail matter. 



Published Monthly at 

WASHINGTON, D. C. 



JL^ 




Doa. River Gorge, Tennessee. The Forests on the steep slopes of this beautiful gorge are 
being rapidly dest;o>'ed by the fire and the axe. 




Vol. XII. 



JULY, 1906. 



No. 7 



NEWS AND NOTES 



New Of the Northern New 

Forestry York Forestry Associa- 

Association ,. ,, -^ • 1 

tion recently organized 

the Paper Mill has the following to 
say: 

"There is considerable interest 
throughout this section in the new as- 
sociation just formed for promotion 
of common-sense methods in forest cul- 
ture in the Empire State. It will be re- 
membered that many members of the 
trade are interested in this association. 

"That the efforts of the new organ- 
ization will be intelligently directed 
and will result in much good for the 
important object involved is apparent 
at a glance. The men interested are 
among the leaders in the section's ac- 
tivities, and they will see to it that 
everything possible is done to help the 
people toward the right point of view 
in this matter. 

"The plan of campaign is not fully 
mapped out as yet, but it is understood 
that one portion of the plan in consid- 
eration is to disseminate literature 
compiling from the highest sources 
facts and figures to prove that the Eu- 
ropean system of forest culture, which 
permits the securing of no inconsider- 



able revenue through the judicious 
cutting of ripened timber, is better 
than the present 'let-alone' policy 
which doesn't do the State or anybody 
any good. The idea of allowing the 
forest to wallow in its own decay, 
without the right to take a single stick 
of timber therefrom, is an antiquated 
one, a fact which is better realized in 
Northern New York than in some 
other sections of the Empire State. 

"It must not be assumed, however, 
that the newly formed association for 
one moment stands for the wholesale 
destruction of the forest. Its mem- 
bers are not so foolish. Time was, a 
generation or so ago, when members 
of the trade as well as lumbermen, 
grown reckless through the accus- 
tomed sight of much profusion, were 
wasteful in their methods, though the 
brunt of these practices must be laid 
far more at the doors of lumbermen 
than of the trade. Certain operators 
were accustomed, after the first and 
second cuttings, which weeded out 
about everything worth while, to burn 
the denuded tracts over and leave of 
them only blackened wastes. There 
has not been the semblance of these 
practices among the trade in many 



302 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



July 



years, though certain lumbermen are 
still sinners in this regard. 

"Now this new association, to which 
belong many members of the trade 
and many enlightened lumbermen, in- 
tends to war upon these nractices just 
as much as it does upon the foolish 
'let-alone" policy. What the members 
of this organization desire is to insti- 
tute in Northern New York a system 
of forest preservation and culture in 
line with common sensee. In search- 
ing for such a system their eyes fall 
naturally upon the forests, splendid as- 
sets under governmental protection, as 
in Austria and Germany. The associa- 
tion, too, is in strict sympathy with the 
efforts along lines that are being made 
by the Government. 

"The trade's attitude in the matter 
of timber cutting has for years been 
along the line of retrenchment and the 
conservation and replanting of denud- 
ed wastes. The act of the Remington- 
Martin Company, of Norfolk and 
Watertown, in buying a great tract 
upon which forest culture is to pro- 
ceed annually, years to pass before any 
cutting is done, is a fair sample of how 
the mill owneers of this section feel 
about it. 

The Northern New York Forestry 
Association, whose principal office is 
at Watertown, was incorporated June 
29. to spread sound information in re- 
lation to the protection of the forests 
and the cultivation of forests on waste 
lands throughout Northern New 
York. The directors are : O. B. Tap- 
pan, of Potsdam ; G. H. P. Gould, of 
Lvon Falls : W. B. Van Allen and W. 
O. Ball, of Carthage; D. C. Aliddle- 
ton, Joseph Atwell, W. W. Conde and 
Elon R. Brown, of Watertown ; C. O. 
Roberts, of Philadelphia; T. B. Bas- 
selin, of Croghan ; Thomas Spratt, of 
Ogdensburg, and L. P. Hale, of Can- 
ton. 

Forests and That many newspaper 
Paper Supplies proprietors are not alive 
to the danger that 
threatens them in the shape of a scant 
supply of paper or already exorbitant 
and increasing prices for that material 



was the substance of a statement made 
recently by Lord Northcliffe ( Sir Al- 
fred Harmsworth), who arrived on 
the Kaiser Wilhelm der Grosse, of 
of the North German line, as reported 
by the Paper Trade. Lord Northcliffe 
also said that through having acquired 
a large tract of forest land in New- 
foundland he would be able to protect 
not only his own large interests but 
those of a dozen of the largest news- 
papers in the United States as well. 
He is the proprietor of 58 newspapers 
and periodicals. 

He said : "Broadly speaking, I con- 
sider that newspaper owners, as a rule, 
have not sufficiently considered the 
great difficulties that lie ahead of them 
in securing their paper supplies. 

"My eyes were opened to the situa- 
tion at the time of the Boer War, 
when the price of paper rose univer- 
sally. From that moment I made up 
my mind that my business should be- 
come independent of paper shortages, 
whether real or promoted by trusts, 
and I have been fortunate enough to 
secure from the Government of New- 
foundland a vast concession of forest 
land, sufficient, I believe, to protect 
not only my own business, but a dozen 
other of the largest businesses in the 
United States, a concession which will. 
I believe, also bring added prosperity 
to that wonderful colony." 

The Forest, Fish and 
Game Commission's re- 
cent trip through the 
Adirondacks was most encouraging to 
Senator Jotham P. Allds and his asso- 
ciates, both as to the state of things in 
Adirondack Park and the progress 
made in scientific forestry on certain 
of the State tracts. Colonel Fox's pol- 
icy of encouraging reforestation by 
transplanting young trees and by 
planting seed is proving more and 
more of a success as time goes on. The 
work accomplished by the State's ex- 
periments in the past five years has 
been remarkably successful. 

The first plantation under the direc- 
tion of the State was on Timothyberg 
Mountain, in the Catskills, in 1901. 



New York 
Forestry 



1906 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



308 



Scotch and white pine and Norway 
spruce were planted in groves at the 
foot and top and in rows rp the side 
of the mountain. At present these 
trees are four feet high. When set 
out they were but a foot high. 

The next plantation was started in 
1902, 250,000 trees being set out near 



set out along the railroad leading from 
Lake Clear to Saranac Lake. 

Four miles from Paul Smith's is lo- 
cated the fourth plantation. Ninety- 
eight per cent, of the trees set out are 
growing rapidly. Last fall another 
plantation was made on the property 
of the State hospital at Raybrook and 




J. B. LIPPINCOTT 

In whose resignation the United States Reclamation Service has lost the 
services of a splendid engineer. 



Lake Clear Junction in the Adiron- 
dacks. The trees included consider- 
able Norway spruce, Scotch pine, fir 
and larch. The average growth of 
these trees last year was eighteen 
inches, some growing fully two feet. 
Li the same year 250,000 trees were 



still another was established near 
Placid. The work of the forestry de- 
partment this spring, under the super- 
vision of Abraham Knechtel, has been 
confined to additions to the plantations 
made and in testing tree seeds. The 
forestry department reports that seeds 



S04 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



July 



planted last fall indicate by their de- 
velopment that this method of refor- 
estation is a srccess. 

The State owns three nurseries. 
One is at Saranac Inn Station, an- 
other as Wawbeek and the third at 
Axton. 

There are several private planta- 
tions in the Adirondacks. One of 
these, at Northville, is owned by Jas. 
S. Cole and the Saranac Inn Associa- 
tion owns another. The Delaware and 
Hudson Company has an experimental 
nursey at Wolf Pond. 

x\ccordine: to Mr. Her- 
About the , ^ t txt li_ i • r 

CotionTree -^e^t J. Webber, chiet 
of the plant-breeding 
laboratory of the U. S. Department of 
Agriculture, cotton planters in the 
United States need have no fear that 
the tree discovered by J. R. Spence, of 
Deesee, India, is going to put them out 
of business. He says the new cotton 
tree recurs as often as Christmas, and 
with a proportionate amount of noise. 

Speaking of this latest "discovery," 
Mr. Webber says: "So far as this 
country is concerned, the Spence tree 
is not worth 5 cents. In my opinion, 
the whole thing is a farce. Whatever 
value, if any. the tree may possess, will 
be a purely local one. and of ab.solutely 
no commercial value to people' putside 
of India. ' u 

"Trees of that kind are always be- 
ing discovered. The last was in Aus- 
tralia, and one was also recently found 
in India ; neither of which, however, 
revolutionized the cotton-growing in- 
dustr}-. 

"For seven or eight years the de- 
partment has been making experi- 
ments with cotton trees, and none of 
them has amounted to anything. The 
trees will not stand the severe climate 
in this country and always freeze. I 
have seen them grow as high as this 
room, but never have they put forth a 
single boll. 

"We have tried hybrydizing these 
foreign trees with out native plants, 
thinking that in this way we might 
secure a plant that did not require so 
long a time to reach the blooming age, 



but all of the efforts have been un- 
availing. 

"It takes two years to bring a cot- 
ton plant to the period when it will 
bear, and several more to make it a 
paying investment. Consequently, a 
tree from a tropical country stands 
no chance here. The only successful 
result that has attended our endeavors 
along this line of breeding is to have 
increased the length of the plant's 
staple. 

"Our agent in India has secured 
some of the seed from this new tree 
of Spence's, and we shall make ex- 
periment with them. I am not at all 
optimistic of the outcome. 

"These wonderful stories about the 
crops to be raised from these so-called 
new trees, are always based upon the 
growth of one or two trees, and are 
generally sent out in advance of some 
business scheme. 

"It has been so time and again, and 
wi'l probably continue so long as cot- 
ton is grown. 

_., The removal of the prin- 

Quarters° ^ipal offices of the Re- 

clamation Service from 
the Hooe Building to the Munsey 
Building in Washington marks the 
termination of the period of infancy 
of the Reclamation Service and its 
separation from the parent body, the 
Geological Survey. 

On the passage of the Reclamation 
Act on June 17, 1902, the Reclamation 
Service was organized by the Secre- 
tary of the Interior as a part of the 
Hydrographic Branch of the Geo- 
logical Survey, as the work to be per- 
formed was a natural outgrowth of the 
investigations which had been carried 
on for many years by that bureau. 
The principal engineers connected 
with this work formed the nucleus of 
the new organization, and other men 
were obtained from time to time as 
needed, from the eligible list of the 
Civil Service Commission. 

On the fourth anniversary of the 
formation of the Reclamation Service 
it has definitely broken away by mov- 
ing into new quarters. During these 



1906 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



305 



fours the organization has increased 
from less than a dozen men to over 
four hundred engineers and assistants, 
carrying on work throughout widely 
scattered localities in the arid West. 
Contracts have been let and work is 
under way involving the expenditure 
of upwards of $25,000,000, and other 
contracts are being prepared which 
will necessitate the expenditure in all 
of nearly $40,000,000. There are now 
working for the contractors nearly 
10,000 men, and the Reclamation 
Service has working directly for it 
over 2,000 men, including day labor- 
ers and mechanics. The monthly ex- 
penditures aggregate about $1,000,- 
000, having gradually increased until 
they are now practically at the maxi- 
mum. It is not probable that there 
will be further expansion, but, on the 
contrary, a considerable consolidation 
and reduction of force as the larger 
works are completed. 

The rapid growth of the Reclama- 
tion Service is indicated by the annual 
expenditures. For the fiscal year end- 
ing June 30, 1903, these were a little 
over half a million dollars ; for 1904, 
one and one-half millions ; for 1905, 
three and three-quarter millions ; and 
for the year ending June 30, 1906, 
very nearly eight millions, the greater 
part of this amount being expended 
during the months of May and June, 
when the expenditures reached over a 
million dollars each. 



Allotment 



The Secretary of the In- 
of'punds" terior has adjusted the 

allotments of the recla- 
mation fund in accordance with recent 
estimates from the General Land Of- 
fice as to the probable amount of this 
fund during the next two years. The 
fundamental principle has been to allot 
the fund to the projects where the 
wfork is now furthest advanced and 
where returns to the fund may be ex- 
pected in the near future. 

The surveys and examinations al- 
ready made show that at least $100,- 
000,000 could be used to advantage 
in various parts of the arid West.- The 
total fund which will be available 



from the proceeds of public lands foi 
the years 1901-8 is est.mated by the 
General Land Office to be a little over 
$41,000,000. In order, therefore, to 
continue the work, it is necessary that 
this money, or as much of it as pos- 
sible, be invested in works wdiich will 
begin to yield returns to the fund at 
the earliest possible date, so that the 
money may be used over again as soon 
as possible for the construction of 
other works. 

In several of the projects a num- 
ber of years must elapse before the 
works will be completed. Such pro- 
jects will not be revenve producing 
for some years. On the other hand, 
in Nevada the work has advanced to a 
point Vv'here upwards of 50,000 acres 
are already under irrigation and rev- 
enue may bee expected soon from this 
area. Other projects are nearing com- 
pletion and every possible efifort is be- 
ing made to finish these so that they 
iray begin to repay the cost. 



Reclamation 
Work in 



Oregon 



Oregon leads . in the 
Government work of 
reclamation, both in the 
amount of money contributed to the 
reels niation fund through the disposal 
of public lands in that State, and 
through the amount of money set 
aside for the construction of works 
within its borders. 

It also leads in the difficulties en- 
countered in getting the work started. 
Although the natural advantages of 
the State are great and appear at- 
tractive on first sight, yet it has re- 
quired more time and energy to find 
feasible reclamation projects than 
elsewhere. This is due to a number 
of conditions, such as legal complica- 
tions, the lack of transportation facili- 
ties, and the ownership of land in 
large bodies b}' cattle companies and 
syndicates who have acquired vast 
tracts under the Federal Land laws. 

Immediately after the passage of 
Reclamation Act on June 17, 1902, in- 
vestigations were begun throughout 
the State. Public meetings were held 
by interested citizens and a large num- 
ber of schemes suggested. One after 



300 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



July 



another these were found to be im- 
practicable from lack of dependable 
water supply, or were tied up in com- 
plications of vested rights to water, or 
entailed with large land grants. Dis- 
appointment followed most of the at- 
tempts, but finally ort of the large 
number of projects examined the Sec- 
retary of the Interior was able to de- 
clare feasible the Klamath project in 
the southern part of the State on the 
border of California, and the Umatilla 
project in the northeastern part of the 
State. 

For the Klamath project the Secre- 
tary of the Interior set aside the sum 
of $1,400,000, of which $2,000,003 are 
now available and are being used, the 
remainder, $2,400,000, to be used in 
the future. 

For the Umatilla project $1,000,000 
have been set aside and contracts are 
being let for the expenditure of that 
sum. This is the first unit of the pro- 
posed John Day project taking water 
from the river of that name and carry- 
ing it across the Blue Mountains to 
the fertile slopes south of Columbia 
River. This project will cost upwards 
of $10,000,000 and will reciuire many 
years for completion. The first part, 
however, near Umatilla River can be 
carried out within a relativelv short 
time. 

Funds f.r The Secretarv of the In- 

Klamath ^^^■^^. j^^^ 'transferred 

Project , .... , ., 

another million dollars 

to the reclamation fund for the Kla- 
math project, making $2,000,000 now 
immediately available for construction. 
There has already been set aside the 
sum of $4,400,000 for this project, of 
which the above stated $2,000,000 is 
now being expended. 

The greater part of this will be 



Joy and 
iSorrow 



spent in Oregon, a small portion of ir- 
rigable land being across the line in 
the State of California. Work is be- 
ing energetically pushed on the con- 
struction of the outlet tunnel from 
Klamath Lake. Two lines of railroad 
are being built from points in Cali- 
fornia to the irrigated region in the 
1- lamath project. 

There is some rejoicing 
and much sorrowing 
among the farmers un- 
der the first forty-five miles of the in- 
terstate canal. North Piatt project. 
The carse of this paradoxical situation 
is that the month of June saw the com- 
pletion of this section of the great 
ditch, the successful passage of water 
to the end of the constructed canal and 
its delivery for irrigation purposes, 
and that like the foolish virgins a large 
nrmber of settlers were not ready for 
it. 

On June 17th the water in the canal 
had reached a point at about the 41st 
mile, and on June 13th it had reached 
the end of the 45th mile. The Whalen 
trails Canal Company is drawing at all 
their head-gates a maximum of about 
five cubic feet per second, with an 
average of probablv not to exceed 
three cubic feet per second. There has 
been coming into the headgate a max- 
imum of about 150 and a minimum of 
about 30 cubic feet per second. 

Some 1,200 acres of land are in crop 
and have been irrigated from the 
canal : the balance of the 20,000 acres 
is not prepared to receive it. The lat- 
eral systems under the Whalen Falls 
Canal, and through which water is to 
be taken from the Government canal, 
are not built, with the exceeption of 
one at the 25th mile, which was 
opened about the middle of June. 



j^j^j f m-JM 









FOREST SERVICE APPROPRIATION 



Congress Gives One Million Dollars for Present Fiscal Year 



'T'HE rapid and substantial growth 
-'■ of the United States Forest Serv- 
ice is clearly set forth in that portion 
of the Agricultural Appropriation Bill 
for 1 906- 1 907 which provides for its 
administration. One million dollars is 
the total amount appropriated, and is 
a striking testimonial to the adminis- 
trative ability of the Forester, Mr. Gif- 
ford Pinchot, as well as to a keener 
appreciation by Congress of the im- 
portance of forestry to the nation. The 
text of the bill as relating to forestry 
is as follows : 

Salaries, Forest Service : One For- 
ester, who shall be chief of Bureau, 
three thousand five hundred dollars ; 
two clerks class four, three thousand 
six hundred dollars ; four clerks class 
three six thousand four hundred 
dollars ; three clerks class two, four 
thousand two hundred dollars ; five 
clerks class one, six thousand dollars ; 
seven clerks at one thousand one hun- 
dred dollars each, seven thousand 
seven hundred dollars ; nine clerks, at 
one thousand dollars each, nine thou- 
sand dollars ; nine clerks, at nine hun- 
dred dollars each, eight thousand one 
hundred dollars ; nineteen clerks, at 
eight hundred dollars each, fifteen 
thousand two hundred dollars ; twenty 
clerks, at seven hundred dollars each, 
fourteen thousand dollars ; thirteen 
clerks, at six hundred dollars each, 
seven thousand eight hundred dollars ; 
one draftsman, one thousand eight 
hundred dollars ; two draftsmen, at 
one thousand four hundred dollars 
each, two thousand eight hundred dol- 
lars ; two draftsmen, at one thousand 
two hundred dollars each, two thou- 
sand four hundred dollars; four 
draftsmen, at one thousand dollars 
each, four thousand dollars ; one artist, 
one thousand dollars ; one photogra- 
pher, one thousand four hundred dol- 
lars ; one photographer, one thousand 
two hundred dollars ; one photogra- 
pher, one thousand dollars; two mes- 



sengers, at seven hundred and twenty 
dollars each, one thousand four hun- 
dred and forty dollars ; three messen- 
gers, at seven hundred dollars each, 
two thousand one hundred dollars ; 
three messengers, at six hundred dol- 
lars each, one thousand eight hundred 
dollars ; three messengers, at four hun- 
dred dollars each, one thousand two 
hundred dollars ; one carpenter, one 
thousand dollars ; one carpenter, seven 
hundred and twenty dollars ; three 
watchmen, at seven hundred dollars 
each, two thousand one hundred dol- 
lars ; one electrician, seven hundred 
dollars ; one skilled laborer, seven hun- 
dred dollars ; in all, one hundred and 
twelve thousand eight hundred and 
sixty dollars. 

General Expenses, Forest Service : 
To enable the Secretary of Agriculture 
to experiment and to make and con- 
tinue investigations and report on for- 
estry, forest reserves, forest fires, and 
lumbering; to advise the owners of 
woodlands as to the proper care of 
the same ; to investigate and test 
American timber and timber trees, and 
their uses, and methods for the pre- 
servative treatment of timber ; to seek, 
through investigations and the plant- 
ing of native and foreign species, suit- 
able trees for the treeless regions ; to 
erect necessary buildings : Provided, 
That the cost of any building erected 
shall not exceed one thousand dollars ; 
for all expenses necessary to protect, 
administer, improve, and extend the 
national forest reserves, and officials 
of the forest service designated by the 
Secretary of Agriculture shall, in all 
ways that are practicable, aid in the en- 
forcement of the laws of the States or 
Territories with regard to stock, for 
the prevention and extinguishment of 
forest fires, and for the protection of 
fish and game. 

That the forest-reserve special fund 
provided for in section five of the Act 
approved February first, nineteen hun- 



308 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



JuU 



dred and five, entitled "An Act provid- 
ing for the transfer of forest reserves 
from the Department of the Interior to 
the Department of Agricuhure," shall 
continue until otherwise provided by 
law ; but after June thirtieth, nineteen 
hundred and eight, it shall not be ex- 
pended except in accordance with spe- 
cific estimates of expenditures to be 
made from said fund for the succeed- 
ing fiscal year, to be submitted by the 
Secretary of Agriculture with the esti- 
mates of appropriation in the annual 
Book of Estimates. 

•That ten per centum of all money 
received from each forest reserve dur- 
ing any fiscal year, including the year 
ending June thirtieth, nineteen hun- 
dred and six, shall be paid at the end 
thereof by the Secretary of the Treas- 
tiry to the State or Territory in which 
said reserve is situated, to be expended 
as the State or Territorial legislature 
may prescribe for the benefit of the 
public schools and public roads of the 
county or counties in which the forest 
reserve is situated : Provided, That 
when any forest reserve is in more 
than one State or Territory or county 
the distributive share to each from the 
proceeds of said reserve shall be pro- 
portional to its area therein: And pro- 
vided further, That there shall not be 
paid to any State or Territory for any 
county an amount equal to more than 
forty per centum of the total income of 
such county from all other sources. 

For ascertaining the natural condi- 
tions upon and for utilizing the na- 
tional forest reserves ; and the Secre- 
tary of Agriculture may, in his discre- 
tion, permit timber and other forest 
products cut or removed from the for- 
est reserves of the United States, ex- 
cept the Black Hills Forest Reserve in 
South Dakota, to be exported from the 
State, Territory, or the district of 
Alaska, in which said reserves are re- 
spectively situated : Provided, That 
the exportation of dead and insect-in- 
fested timber only from said Black 
Hills Forest Reserve shall be allowed 
until such time as the Forester shall 
certify that the ravages of the de- 
structive insects in said reserve are 



practically checked, but in no case 
after July first, nineteen hundred and 
eight ; and hereafter sales of timber on 
forest reserves in the State of Califor- 
nia shall in every respect conform to 
the law governing such sales in other 
States, as set forth in the Act of June 
sixth, nineteen hundred (Thirty-first 
Statutes at Large, page six hundred and 
sixty-one) ; and hereafter all moneys 
received as deposits to secure the pur- 
chase price on the sale of any products 
or the use of any land or resources of 
the forest reserves shall be covered 
into Treasury in the manner provided 
by section five of the Act of Congress 
approved February first, nineteen hun- 
dred and five, entitled "An Act provid- 
ing for the transfer of forest reserves 
from the Department of the Interior 
to the Department of Agriculture," 
and the fund created by that Act shall 
be available, as the Secretary of Agri- 
culture may direct, to make refunds to 
depositors of money heretofore or 
hereafter deposited by them in excess 
of amounts actually due to the United 
States ; and hereafter all moneys re- 
ceived as contributions toward coop- 
erative work in forest investigations 
shall be covered into the Treasury and 
shall constitute a special fund, which is 
hereby appropriated and made avail- 
able until expended, as the Secretary 
of Agriculture may direct, for the pay- 
ment of the expenses of said investiga- 
tions by the Forest Service and for re- 
funds to the contributors of amounts 
heretofore or hereafter paid in by them 
in excess of their share of the cost of 
said investigations, for the employ- 
ment of fiscal and other agents, clerks, 
assistants, and other labor required in 
practical forestry, in the administra- 
tion of forest reserves, and in conduct- 
ing experiments and investigations in 
the city of Washington and elsewhere, 
and he may dispose of photographic 
prints (including bromide enlarge- 
ments), lantern slides, transparencies, 
blue prints, and forest maps at cost 
and ten per centum additional, and 
condemned property or materials un- 
der his charge in the same manner as 
provided by law for other bureaus ; for 



1906 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



309 



collating, digesting, reporting, illus- 
trating, and printing the results of 
such experiments and investigations ; 
and for the purchase of all necessary 
supplies, apparatus, office fixtures, law 
books to an amount not exceeding five 
hundred dollars ; for freight, express, 
telegraph, telephone charges, electric 
light and power, fuel, gas, ice, wash- 
ing towels, and traveling and other 
necessary expenses, eight hundred and 
eighty-seven thousand one hundred 
and forty dollars of which sum not to 
exceed thirty-five thousand may be 
used for rent. And the employes 
of the Forest Service outside of 
the city of Washington may, in 
the discretion of the Secretary of 
Agriculture, without additional ex- 
pense to the Government, be granted 
leave of absence not to exceed fifteen 



days in any one year, which leave may, 
in exceptional and meritorious cases 
which such an employe is ill, be ex- 
tended, in the discretion of the Secre- 
tary of Agriculture, not to exceed fif- 
teen days additional in any one year. 

Total for Forest Service, one million 
dollars. 

In the emergency appropriation for 
the Bureau of Animal Industry there 
was the following provision : 

For Forest Service : For the erec- 
tion of a wire fence and necessary 
sheds on the Wichita Forest and Game 
Preserve, to provide a range for a buf- 
falo herd presented by the New York 
Zoological Society, and to provide for 
the maintenance of said herd, fifteen 
thousand dollars, of which sum not to 
exceed five hundred dollars shall be 
expended in buildings. 



SIZE OF IRRIGATED FARMS 

Amount of Land Needed in Northvs^est to 
Make it Profitable to Average Small Owner 

BY 

PROF. F. B. LINFIELD 

Director Montana p:xperiment Station. 



'T'HE question has been asked: What 
•'■ area of land under the irrigation 
ditches constructed by the Reclama- 
tion Service should be considered as 
the farm unit ? This question involves 
yet others. What is the purpose of 
the Government in undertaking this 
reclamation work? What class of peo- 
ple does it aim to help ? I think all will 
agree that the man of large means and 
large capacity should not have first 
consideration, but rather the man of 
small means and capacity. The wage 
earners and laborers rather than the 
employer of labor. The aim of the 
Government should be to make it pos- 
sible for the man of small means to 
build himself a home in a healthy at- 
mosphere where the social and educa- 
tional advantages are such as to de- 
velop the best type of citizenship. 



Next, what area of land under irri- 
gation will support a man and his 
family in comfort and also provide 
means for using educational oppor- 
tunities for his family ? The first part 
of this question can be answered only 
by asking another. What is the aver- 
age yearly income of the average 
working man ? While wages are good 
in Montana, probably $500 to $600 per 
year will be an outside wage obtained 
by the average laborer in the country 
towns. From this, house rent and all 
living expenses have to be paid. Now 
what will 40 acres of irrigated land 
return under careful, thorough and 
intelligent management? To be equal 
to the wage proposition it should pro- 
vide equal or better wages, interest 
on the investment, and keep or main- 
tenance of farm machinerv and horses. 



310 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



July 



Something on interest and wages will 
be returned by the home being pro- 
vided on the farm, and besides much 
of the fruit, all the vegetables and 
the wheat for flour may be grown on 
the farm and obtained without any 
cash outlay. The same is true for the 
poultry and the eggs, and for the 
milk, cream and butter needed. With 



five miles from Bozeman, last fall 
threshed 75 bushels of wheat per acre 
from a 70 acre field and sold the crop 
for $45 per acre; $10 per acre would 
pay very well for the labor and ex- 
pense of growing and harvesting the 
crop. Thus the gross return from 40 
acres would be $1,800, and the net re- 
turn $1,200. One hundred bushels of 




Prof. F. B. Linfield, Director Montana Experiment 
Station, Bozeman, Montana. 



the saving in rent and on the living 
grown on the farm, fully half a labor- 
ing man's expense is produced direct- 
ly from the farm with but little or no 
cash outlay. 

But what will a 40 acre tract under 
irrigation produce? A few illustra- 
tions will perhaps best answer the 
question. George Allen, living some 



oats per acre is a common crop for 
the good farmer. At i cent a pound, 
this means $35 per acre. If we again 
allow $10 per acre for expense, it 
would give $1,200 as a gross return, 
and $800 as the net return from 40 
acres of ground. 

In the Yellowstone valley five to 
six tons of alfalfa hay per acre is a 



1906 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



311 



common crop. At $4 per ton this is 
$20 to $24 per acre ; $8 per acre will 
be a large price for producing and 
handling this crop. At six tons per 
acre, this would give a gross return 
of $560 from 40 acres of land. 

If this alfalfa hay was fed to stock, 
particularly to dairy cows, these re- 
turns could be nearly doubled. 

The writer has pastured two milk 
cows on one acre of ground and ob- 
tained 200 pounds of butter fat. At 20 
cents per pound, this returns $10 per 
acre, or $1,600 from 40 acres. The 
above crops can be produced for a 
minimum outlay of labor. A man and 
a team could do practically all the 
work. In the above illustrations the 
returns from but one crop were con- 
sidered, but a combination of many of 
the crops mentioned would be the 
ideal farm practice. If livestock 
were handled this would spread the 
work over the year and the returns 
on these variety crops will be in pro- 
portion of the acreage of each, and 
would give the maximum return of 
from $800 to $1,600 per year from the 
40 acres, in addition to providing a 
home and many of the living expenses. 

In the above estimate none of the 
crops expensive to raise have been 
considered. Potatoes, sugar beets, 
garden truck and fruit of all kinds 



call for larger outlay of labor, but 
they are correspondingly larger pro- 
ducers and give greater returns per 
acre. 

Something in these kinds of crops 
should be grown. However, the ex- 
tent of these crops that might be 
grown will be determined by the time 
available for properly caring for them. 
To yield the largest returns, the work 
of the farm should be so planned as 
to afford profitable employment the 
year around. The farmer on 40 acres 
has to be a manufacturer, a concentra- 
tor of farm products as well as a 
producer of raw material. When prop- 
erly managed, this will bring not alone' 
income, but larger profits. 

I have known many families in the 
East raised on a farm of 50 acres with 
comfort, with sturdy bodies and vigor- 
ous, active minds. From 20 acres of 
Montana's irrigated land I have seen 
more grain and hay produced than on 
many of the best of these 50 acres 
farms. Forty acres is enough. Right- 
ly farmed, it will give any man a com- 
fortable living. It will give to every 
man a neighbor at his door. It will 
give to the country resident all the 
advantages of the urban resident 
without his disadvantage. It will bring 
to the rural home the best social, edu- 
cational and religious advantages. 



PARANG AND COGONALES IN THE 
PHILIPPINES 



BY 
WILLIAM M. MAULE 

Forester, Philippine Bureau of Forestry. 



T7ROM earliest times man, through 
^ various motives, has wrought 
havoc with the forest. The natural 
outlines and distribution of forest 
areas are determined largely by geo- 
graphical location and the physio- 
graphical features, or, in short, the 
factors which determine climate. Ev- 
■erywhere we find these outlines more 
or less modified bv artificial influences. 



There is little doubt but the greater 
portion of the grass areas and semi- 
open "parang" lands characteristic of 
many portions of the Philippine archi- 
pelago are due to the fixed custom of 
indiscriminately clearing and burning 
for purposes of temporary planting or 
for the chase. 

The open character of certain forest 
areas leads one to believe that the geo- 



312 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



July 



logical formation interferes with tree 
growth. Such areas, however, are 
small and unimportant when com- 
pared with those whose open condition 
we attribute to the interference of 
man. 

TYPES. 

According to cover, we may readily 
distinguish three types of public lands 
whose formation has been efifected by 
artificial means and is, therefore, in- 
constant. These are : Closed forest, 



forested, but subsequently cleared, 
planted, and are now abandoned and 
reverting back to forest cover. 

The first tree species to appear are 
usually of little value as timber pro- 
ducers, but, as we shall see later, serve 
their purposes well as fosters. 

"Cogonales" may be called an early 
"parang" stage. They are lands free 
at first of tree growth and heavily set 
with "cogon" {Impcrata arundinacea) , 
a perennial grass from three to five 





W'^? ^ ■■-.^.- --':■'' ■'*^^'': ^ff^ 


.^^ 


1 ' ' V- \ i. , . ]^' m^ 


^^HHH 


^M™^- ^^-2^^ 



Parang. 



semi-open or "parang" and open grass 
lands or "cogonales." 

This paper will not attempt to deal 
with the first type, but will briefly con- 
sider the more open lands. 

\'idal, who was the first to adopt the 
Tagal word "parang" as a technical 
term, defines it as "land covered with 
brushwood and invading species which 
have substituted the original foresl) 
species." These areas in general rep- 
resent tracts which were originallv 



feet high. The relative proportion of 
these areas is cjuite variable. In cer- 
tain provinces the open lands are in- 
significant, while in others they may 
occupy as much as 30 per cent, of the 
total area. Having been selected pri- 
marily for the growing of crops, such 
soils represent the most fertile portion 
of the non-cultivated areas, and, as a 
rule, occvipy the low rolling foothills 
adjacent to the cultivated plains, which 
they separate from the upland forests. 



1906 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



313 



damage;. 

At the present time, the greatest 
damage wrought to our Philippine for- 
rests is the making of clearings, and 
especially those of a transitory nature. 
The natives are well aware of the fer- 
tility of cleared and burned forest 
areas, and do not hesitate to sacrifice 
a good stand for the mere purpose of 
growing one or two crops of cereals. 
In some instances a portion of the tim- 
ber is utilized, but the general rule is 
to cut and burn. 

Tranistory clearings are those usu- 
ally planted with cereals or other an- 
nuals, and are held at the most but 
two or three seasons, when they are 
abandoned to nature and new ai*eas se- 
lected. In this manner, the open lands 
increase year by year to join the "co- 
gonales." 

On the other hand, where soil and 
climate are favorable, we find clearings 
made with a view of permanency, 
where the lands are cultivated and 
planted to permanent crops, such as 
cocoanuts, abaca, rubber, etc., thereby 
adding to the wealth of the commun- 
ity. Such clearings are justifiable. 

Inasmuch as we find the temporary 
clearings more wasteful than those 
held permanently, so are we able to 
distinguish two classes of people mak- 
ing them. The former comprise a less 
law-abiding class, whose habits are 
semi-nomadic, while the latter are 
more frugal and industrious. 

SEASON OF MAKING. 

As may be inferred, the making of 
clearings is not especially difficult, 
when advantage is taken of the dry 
season, usually during February, 
March, April, and May, at which pe- 
riod the newly felled timber rapidly 
becomes dry and burns with ease. 

Planting is done early in June, at 
which season the growth of crops is 
favored by copious rains, which con- 
tinue until September. The planter 
usually erects a small house on his 
claim, where he bides the time and 
watches the crop until harvest, after 
which he retires to an adjoining bar- 
rio. 



On the advent of the following sea- 
son, only a small portion of former 
claims are replanted, as the fresher 
soil of a new clearing is preferred. 
Lands once set with cogon, especially 
those of the hill regions, are of little 
value when reclaimed. The soil, hav- 
ing lain long exposed to erosion, be- 
comes thin and unproductive. The 
heavy root stalks, by which cogon re- 
produces vegetatively, render it diffi- 
cult to eradicate. This, together with 
the fact that forest soils are fresher 
and more easily worked, explains why 
the latter are preferable to the former. 
On private lands which are level and 
retain their fertility, cogon areas have 
been reclaimed for agricultural pur- 
poses. The Bureau of Agriculture 
employ methods by which cogon is de- 
stroyed in one season. The land is 
plowed and sown with legumes, at a 
cost averaging $3.00 per acre. 

ABANDONED. 

Clearings which are abandoned after 
one season still retain a certain num- 
ber of stumps which will coppice ; the 
soil is loose and more receptive to 
seeding than on those areas which 
have been planted for a longer period. 
Reforesting by means of coppice alone, 
however, cannot be relied upon, as but 
few species sprout at all, and, if they 
do, rarely attain tree size. The chief 
value of coppice here lies in the pro- 
tection which they afford the soil in 
preventing a rapid evaporation of soil 
moisture, erosion, and, finally, the en- 
trance of cogon. The value of a leaf 
cover in dissipating the heavy rain fall 
is well shown by the accompanying il- 
lustration. 

Clearings which have been planted 
for two or three seasons and aban- 
doned are found to have lost all volun- 
teer growth ; the soil becomes dry and 
is seldom receptive to natural seeding. 

Burns-Mordoch, Conservator of 
Forest of the Federated Malay States, 
writing of "Lalang" {hnpcrata cylin- 
drical), a closely related species of 
"cogon," says: 

"Cleared land in this country if not 
constantly kept clean becomes covered 



814 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



July 



with "Lalang" (/. cylindrical), the 
"Thetke" grass of Burma, but this 
grass here grows with such strength 
as to prevent young trees from taking 
hold. It is liable to fires and is bene- 
fitted by them, so much so that in large 



NATURAL REFORESTING OF CLEARED 
AREAS. 

A Study of natural reforesting of 
cleared areas presents an interesting 
example of Nature's methods and 




Clearing in Forest Planted One Ye. 



"Lalang" wastes that are regularly 
burnt over, it is doubtful if natural re- 
afiforestation would ever occur. The 
cost of regular plantations is increased 
enormously, owing to the necessity of 
most thorough clearing." 



shows the comparative ability of vari- 
ous species to endure light, or, more 
properly, drought. 

Ihe most successful examples of 
natural reforesting, because they are 
better protected from fibre and other 



1906 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



315 



harmful influences, are found on the 
smaller, isolated areas throughout the 
forests. The following specific exam- 
ple will be cited as one of several ways 
iDy which natural reforesting takes 
place. 

In effecting the transition back from 
clearings to high forest, the initial step 
is taken by a small, woody plant, 
"Cupao-cupao" {Flemingia strohili- 
fera). This plant is one of the very 
few that can endure extended drought, 
and not only grows well among the 
cogon, which it gradually replaces, but 
is seldom killed by fire. After estab- 
lishing itself well and affording a cer- 
tain amount of shade, which conserves 
small amounts of moisture, we find 
conditions which will permit the en- 
trance of Bayabas (Psidiuin guayava) 
and Alalangad {Alhhaia sp.), either 
of which are trees of the open or semi- 
open, and are intermediary in effect- 
ing steps from open grass lands back 
to forest cover. 

An important and valuable charac- 
teristic of these species is that they will 
reproduce vegetatively, and are there- 
by of service where the parched soil 
prevents the germination of seeds. 

Clearings having become set with 
the drought-enduring species, such as 
those noted above, pave the way for 
the better forest species and gradually 
partake of a nature peculiar to the sur- 
rounding forest. 

In the Remban district of the Malay 
States, "Tembusa" (Fagraea fra- 
grans) is one of the few trees which is 
able to grow on "Lalang" or cogon 
areas, and which it soon conquers. 

fire; on grass lands. 

Under the caption of clearings may 
properly be included the destructive 
influence of fires, which annually — or 
more frequently — sweep over the open 
grass lands. These fires are usually 
confined to the dry months of Febru- 
ary, March, April, and May, and dur- 
ing the rainy season which immediate- 
ly follows there springs up tender 
grass suitable for grazing. At this sea- 
son deer are attracted to the open and 
are more easilv hunted. Such fires 



are usually started by hunters, who 
have held the custom from remote 
times. Owing to the rapidity with 
which these fires travel, driven before 
the wind, and the difficulty of finding 
the author, the practice remains a hard 
one to overcome. 

Recent experiments by the Bureau 
of Government Laboratories show 
that cogon will furnish good paper 
material, and in the event of its exten- 
sive use for such a purpose, doubtless 
the natives, with view to reaping profit 
therefrom, will protect these areas 
from fire. 

While it would be of advantage to 
place fires under control of all areas, 
it is especially important to do so 
where the grass lands terminate 
abruptly at the edge of high forest, 
where each succeeding fire causes them 
to recede. 

During each rainy season, a certain 
amount of tree growth springs up on 
the grass lands. Some of the more 
hardy survive, but the majority suc- 
cumb to drought or are killed by suc- 
ceeding fires. Many rocky slopes are 
naturally seeded with Molave (Vitex 
littoralis). This species is moderately 
drought-enduring, and, were it not 
killed by fire, would no doubt spread 
gradually over considerable areas. 

CONTROL. 

The control of artificial clearings 
such as usually follow excessive cut- 
tings has been found much more sim- 
ple than that of firing the open grass 
lands, and there is little doubt that the 
latter causes less direct damage to the 
forests. 

The forest service of India, in deal- 
ing with much the same conditions as 
ex'ist here, has found the problem of 
fire protection to be one of the most 
difficult with which it has to contend. 
The people were taught that injury to 
the forest was an offense. Large areas 
were formerly destroyed by fire and 
axe in order to gather a few uncertain 
crops of cereals. The grazing ques- 
tion with which they had to deal — and 
one which is important in many coun- 
tries — need scarcely be considered 
here. India has found that a gradual 



816 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



July 



introduction of strict protective meas- 
ures has resulted in less friction than 
when the question has been attacked 
abruptly. 

The question of influence of forests 
in conserving the water supply, while 
being an important one, cannot be so 
grave here as is experienced in coun- 
tries whose climate allows the accumu- 
lation of a thick humus to cover the 
forest floor, and where rainfall is less 
abundant. 

The warm climate and continued 
moisture of these islands promote 
rapid decomposition of the forest lit- 
ter, so that the small quantities that 



damp soil, even . though practically 
void of humus, collect and conserve 
immense quantities of water during 
the rainy seasons, gradually releasing 
it during the succeeding dry months. 

Nowhere has the writer seen the ef- 
fect of deforestation so pronounced as 
in the southern portion of Rizal prov- 
ince. Here the watersheds which were 
formerly forested have long been ex- 
posed and are now mixed parang and 
cogonales. The rolling aspect of the 
country is extremely dry during three 
or four months of the year, at which 
season but few streams find their way 
to the lake. Certain of the ravines 




Protective Value ot Crown Cover Against Heavy Tropical Rains. 



are allowed to accumulate conserve an 
insignificant quantity of water. 

The question of erosion is an im- 
portant one, not only regarding its in- 
fluence on future forest growth, but 
from its bearing on agricultural soils 
of the low lands. Beyond the consid- 
erable benefit which the dense cover 
of tropical forest affords, by dissi- 
pating the force of heavy seasonal 
rains, wherever such may occur, and 
by retarding subsequent rapid evapo- 
ration, factors largely determining or 
regulating the "flow-off" are topogra- 
phical, and the character of the soil 
of the broad forested slopes, with their 



farther inland are still wooded and 
here water may be found throughout 
the year, but during their course 
through the open country the smaller 
streams are gradually absorbed and 
only the larger ones find their w«y to 
the lake. 

One would naturally expect that the 
grass-covered areas would be of great 
value in retarding erosion, and such 
would be the case were they not burn- 
ed over during the dry months just 
prior to the rainy season, which ex- 
poses those areas to the beating rains. 

The question of forest protection is 
one that stands among the foremost 



1906 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



317 



in a forest policy, and. among the va- 
rious conditions studied from which 
to draw conckisions, the status of the 
people whom it most concerns is not 
the least important. 

The wasteful custom of making 
clearings in these islands is deeply 
rooted and is one that has been prac- 
ticed for years with scarcely any re- 



straint. Aery satisfactory results are 
ensuing from making arrests, which 
seems to be the most effective way of 
solving the problem. During the past 
two years many arrests have been 
made, which has resulted in an appre- 
ciable decrease in the making of clear- 



PUMPING WATER 

Fourth Paper — Suggestions for the Construction of Small Pumping Plants 
for Irrigation — Kind of Wells Adopted for Securing Water from Gravels 



KIXD OF WELLS ADAPTED FOR SECUR- 
ING WATER FROM GRAVELS. 

The most economical well for se- 
curing water in the quantities needed 
for irrigation is a well from 12 to 15 
inches in diameter, extending into the 
water-bearirig gravels 30 to 60 feet, 
according to the thickness of the 
gravels at the place where the well is 
drilled. Strainers for these wells can 
be made of slotted galvanized iron. 
The perforated metal should be placed 
opposite all the coarse gravels, or at 
a depth of 10 feet below the surface 
of the water. These- strainers can be 
made by any mechanic by punching 
ys, by I inch slots into heavy galvan- 
ized iron and then riveting the sheets 
into cylinders of the proper diameter. 
The cylinders should be rolled in such 
a way that the burr made by punch- 
ing the slots will come on the outside 
of the finished casing, so that the slots 
will be vertical. A mrch better strainer 
can be made by purchasing the metal 
in sheets already perforated. For this 
purpose steel sheets 48 by 120 inches 
in dimensions, perforated with hit 
and miss slots. 3-16 by i inch, and gal- 
vanized after the perforations are 
made, will make ideal strainers. When 
rolled into cylinders these sheets form 
a casing about 15 inches in diameter. 
In constructing the well the perfor- 
ated sections should be put in place, 
one above another, to within about 10 



feet of the water level ; from this 
depth upward the casing should not 
be perforated. 

AMOUNT OF WATER THAT CAN BE OB- 
TAINED FROM THE WELLS. 

Wells constructed as above, in 
gravels similar to those in the South 
Platte and Arkansas valleys, will fur- 
nish at least 34 gallon of water per 
minute for each square foot of strain- 
er surface in the well, when the water 
in the well is lowered i foot by pump- 
ing. If the water in the well is low- 
ered 10 feet by pumping, the amount 
of water recovered should amount to 
at least ten times as much, or 25^ gal- 
lons per minute per square foot of 
strainer. If a 15-inch weh is drilled 
in good water bearing gravel to a 
depth of 40 feet, the lower 30 feet of 
which is strainer surface, and if the 
pump lowers the water in the well 10 
feet, the amount of water supplied by 
the well should amount to at least 
300 gallons per minute. A careful test 
of the water works at North Platte, 
Nebr., showed that the strainers in the 
wells were furnishing 3-10 gallon of 
water per minute per square foot of 
strainer surface, when the water in 
the wells was lowered i foot by pump- 
ing. The average of eleven pumping 
plants in the Arkansas valley kas 0.33 
gallon of water per minute for each 
square foot of strainer surface under 
one foot head. 



318 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



July 



For small pumping plants a single 
well of the depth indicated above 
would probably be sufficient, but if 
good water bearing gravels do not ex- 
tend to the requisite depth, it would 
be necessary to increase the number 
of wells and connect several of them 
to the pump. 



arrangement of the wells. Two dif- 
ferent methods will be found avail- 
able for this purpose. If the amount 
of water required is not greatly in ex- 
cess of that which can be supplied by 
a single tubular well it is often found 
practicable to construct a large dug 
well, 6 to 10 feet in diameter, to a 




Fig. 1 — Well strainers made of slotted galvanized iron. These strainers are 15 inches in 
diameter, and ten feet long, provided with 3-16 by 1 1-4 inch hit and miss slots, 
punched before the steel is galvanized. The strainers shown in the diagram were 
made of No. 18 wire gage sheet steel. 



DISTANCE BETWEEN WELLS. 

If it is necessary to construct sev- 
eral wells in order to secure the 
amount of water required for an irri- 
gation plant, it becomes important to 
consider the best and most economical 



depth of 5 to lo feet below the water 
level, inserting in the bottom of the 
dug well several feeders of perforated 
galvanized iron, as described above. 
This method has the advantage of per- 
mitting the pump that is to recover the 



1906 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



319 



water to be submerged in the water of 
the weh. A well of this sort is shown 
in Fig. 2. 

In order to sink a dug well the 
proper distance below the water level 
it is necessary to construct a wooden, 
brick, or concrete crib that will sink 
as the material is removed from its in- 
terior. The crib of the well shown in 
Fig. 2 is made of wood, and is made 
larger at the lower than at the upper 
end to facilitate sinking. 

Another method of recovering a 
large quantity of water is to sink a 
battery of wells and connect them by 
suction pipe to the pump. This method 
is adapted to secure a larger supply 
than the method just mentioned. Three 
or four, or more wells can be arranged 
in a straight line, 20 to 30 feet apart, 
and connected to a pump placed near 
the center of the row of wells. In the 
diagram (Fig. 3) will be found an 
arrangement suitable for a battery of 
eight to twelve wells. These wells 
are arranged in pairs, close together, 
each pair of wells being 40 to 60 
feet from the next pair on the same 
suction line. The object of placing 
the wells close together in pairs is 
for the purpose of removing a large 
amount of the fine sand from the wa- 
ter-bearing gravel. This can be done 
in gravels like those found in the 
Western valleys by pumping vigor- 
ously from one of the pair of wells, 
and at the same time running clear 
water into the neighboring well. By 
this means it should be possible to 
clear out all the fine material between 
the two wells. If the water-bearing 
gravels are of the kind usually found 
in the river valleys of the Western 
prairies, a pumping plant can be con- 
structed sufficiently large to supply 
from 2,500 to 3,500 gallons of water 
per minute without lowering the wa- 
ter more than 10 feet. Pumping plants 
of greater capacity than this will 
usually not be profitable. A large 
number of moderate sized plants is 
more desirable than a few large ones. 

KIND OF PUMP. 

Probably the most satisfactory 
pump for use in irrigation is the cen- 



trifugal pump. However, there are 
many kinds of small centrifugal 
pumps. It does not pay to purchase 
any but the very best, machinery for 
the pumping of water, as poorly de- 
signed machinery soon proves too ex- 
pensive. The various kinds of pumps 
differ greatly in this respect. The cen- 
trifugal pump used by the irrigator 
should be of the enclosed rttuner type, 
provided with self-oiling bearings of 
the oil ring type. There are several 
excellent makes of centrifugal pumps 
on the market, and any of them will do 
good work if the size and design of 
the pump fit the conditions under 
which it must work. The maker of 
the pump should have full information 
of all the conditions under which the 
pump is to be installed. These condi- 
tions should include the distance that 
the pump must discharge the water 
above its outlet ; also the amount of 
suction or the distance the water must 
be lifted below the pump inlet. The 
following points are important to those 
about to install pumping plants : 

1. The efficiency of the centrifugal 
pump under actual working conditions 
is higher for the large size pumps 
than for the small size. Pumps hav- 
ing less than 3 inches diameter dis- 
charge pipe will show a low efficiency. 

2. A centrifugal pump will work 
better and be more efficient if the suc- 
tion pipe is as short as possible, rela- 
tive to the length of the discharge 
pipe. On this account the pump should 
be placed as near the level of the water 
as the securing of a good foundation 
will permit. 

3. If the pump is to be driven by 
means of a belt, it should be provided 
with a large pulley. The pulley usually 
supplied with the pumps is so small 
that a great amount of slipping takes 
place between the belt and the pulley, 
and the efficiency of the pump is 
greatly decreased. Of course it is 
necessary to secure the proper propor- 
tion between the size of driving and 
driven pulleys, but both should be 
larger than are usually furnished with 
pumps and engines. 

4. The suction pipe on the pump 
and the discharge pipe should be large. 



320 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



July 



Piitman Bucket 



7 HP 
Gasoline Enqme 





SECTION 
THROUGH STRAINERS 



t'ig. 2 — Diagram of a pumping plant in the Arkansas Valley in which the water is recovered 
,.-«,from a dug well having a wooden crib, in the bottom of which are placed seven galva- 
nized iron strainers or feeders. A chain and bucket pump is used on this well. Better 
results would undoubtedly be obtained by using a vertical shaft centrifugal pump 
submerged in the open well. 



1906 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



321 





n 




n 










■ .1^ 
5 


- 








E 


■ 




w 


5 

P5 




Q- 
O 




1 


:|U| 




c 


1 


i 




<o 




z 












; 




! 






822 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



July 



A No. 4 centrifuj^al jjuni[) that draws 
water from a sinj^le well should have 
at least a 6-inch suction pipe, and the 
discharj^e pipe should gradually in- 
crease from 4 inches at the discharge 
opening'of the pump to 8 inches 3 feet 
ahove tlie discharge (jpening, and con- 
tinue this size uniil tlie flume or dis- 
charge conduit is reached. The dis- 
charge i)ipi' ran In- made of riveted 
galvanized irdu, and the suction pipe 
can he madi' eillu'r of standard pipe or 
gi 1(1(1 well casing. 

5. A ct'iUi'itngal ])um]i loses its el- 
ticienc\' al oner if there is an air leak 



shown an efficiency of about 80 per 
cent. 

METHOD OP PRIMING PUMPS. 

A large number of pumping plants 
are installed with foot valves at the 
l)ottom of the suction pipe. When 
these are provided, a centrifugal pump 
is always ready to start after it is once 
primed. The foot valves usually inter- 
fere very materially with the flow of 
water into the pipe, and its is undoubt- 
edly more economical to omit them 
and place a flap valve at the upper end 
of the discharge pipe which can be 




Fig. 4 — Measuring weir at pumping plant near Garden City, Kansas. At the time the 
photograph was taken the pumpang plant was yielding 200 gallons of water per minute 



around the stuffing- box, or at any 
place in the suction pipe. Many cen- 
trifugal pumps are now provided with 
a water seal around the stuffing gland 
that insures the absence of leaks at 
this point. 

A good centrifugal pump with en- 
closed ninner should show an effici- 
ency of about 60 per cent, on a 30-foot 
lift. Single stage centrifugal pumps, 
constructed with bronze runner made 
in two pieces so that the interior could 
be machined and smoothed, have 



lowered when it is desired to start the 
pump. An ordinary cast-iron house 
pump connected to the top of the cas- 
ing of the centrifugal pump can be 
used to prime the pump with water be- 
fore starting. 

PIPE FITTINGS. 

The suction pipe installed by those 
who construct pumping plants is not 
only usually too small for the best re- 
sults, but the elbows and tees used 
are ordinarily very poorly adapted to 



1906 



FORESTRY AND IkRIGATI05 






the purpose intended. It is a common 
practice to use steam pipe fittings for 
this purpose. In consequence the water 
is required to turn at sharp angles at 
the tees and elbows, and the best re- 
sults cannot be attained. In order to 
avoid this difficult}- "long sweep" fit- 
tings should be purchased. These are 
standard trade go<:xis and can be otn 
ained from any of the large dealers in 
pipe fittings. 

SOURCE OF powza. 

A popular source of power for small 
pumping plants is the gasoline engine. 
\\"here the price of gas<Dline is high, h 
is ver\- easy to make the cost of water 
prohibitive by the use of ^ ' 
\\Tiether or not it pays ic 
by gasoline is a maner wj 
ver\- largely upon the 
water must be lifted, but a.-- , _ _ . :. __._ 
kind of crop that is to be ungated. 
Gasoline, even at a high price, is usual- 
ly a cheaper fuel than coal in an ordi- 
nar\- steam engine of small horse pow- 
er, such as a common traction engine. 
For plants requiring from rvvent}- to 
tliirt}" horse power, producer gas gen- 
erators can be installed which will keep 
the cost of pimiping down to a mirxi- 
mum, A suction gas producer, using 
anthracite pea coal for fuel, should 
furnish power at the rate of one horse 
power per hour for each jx^und and a 
half of coal consumed. At S$^co per 
ton, the cost of coal should be equxA-a- 
!ent to gasoline at four to six cents per 
callon. 

In 'arire plants, requiring from tifr\' 
■ :"e v.:ndred horse power, or more, 
-•- .-:::i;:"s:ng Corliss engine is si:tfi- 
cieHtiy economical where the cost of 
coal does not exceed $3.50 to S^.co per 
ton. 

ECONOMICAL HEIGHT WATES MAY ISUS 
LiFmJt 

1 1 is ven.- unlikely that it will ^\x\ to 
pump water, under present conditions 
:r the %-:r,'ey? of the western plaitts, to 
-"^ : t.i: ■-, .:ht of more than 30 ter?:. in- 
:/--..::r,^- rhe suction lift of the pmtip. 
-I the pump lower the w-Ater in the 
■veils 10 feet: and if the distance to 



water be 10 fee: bel' 

the dischart- -'-•- 

reservorr t 

surface of t 

be 30 feet, :i f fci. 

I055 of bead due tc^. :'- 

and discharge pcpe. 

5TC)iiAGX issurrc-ixi. 
In order to irrigaie: eo^oDrrdtzZy 




: :_--.. ^ ^ l.3>: 

gal^.?<ns per rrim-re can iisus__y tDe h-ese 
operated withc'cr the tise of a reser- 
voir. 

COST OF PUMF-rXC. 

The cost of reco-vering- grooaiki 
frocTL wells - - - '^ - - - — 

V4> interest oc 



silked arid its 



KiLe. 
be -^ 



t:e:Si^) 






324 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



July 



APPROXIMATE COST OF FUEL REQUIRED TO PUMP 1,000 GALLONS OF 
WATER PER MINUTE, FOR VARIOUS LIFTS : 









i^5 


per hour for 
al at $8.00 
r ton in suc- 
n gas pro- 
cer plant. 


hour for 
at $4.00 
n incon- 
g steam 


depreci- 
and re- 
on ma- 
y, etc., 
ar. 




Si 


K:H 




l-'itl 


■^§?i!- 


C3 


hfi O 


-'^ 3 CO CS 


■i^ 3 O c3 




*^ o <ii a a 




o 


C & 


g^Sofl 


g^^l bC 


g O A'C 73 


§ o ft-o CU 


S^ ao a 


H 


W 


o 


O 


^ 


O 


o 


Feet 




Cents 


Cents 


Cents 


Cents 


Dollars 


10 


16 


11.2 


14 


4.2 


6 


70 


20 


11 


22.4 


28 


8.4 


12 


140 


30 


16 


33.6 


42 


12.6 


18 


210 



Note. — 1,000 gallons of water per minute 
equivalent to two acre feet of water. 

The accompanying table gives an 
estimate of approximate cost for fuel 
and maintenance of a pumping plant 
having a capacity of i,ooo gallons of 
"water per minute for total lifts of ten, 
twenty and thirty feet. 

In order to determine approximate- 
ly the cost of pumping water any dis- 
tance between twenty and thirty feet, 
a proportional part of the cost for ten * 
feet can be added to the cost for twen- 
ty feet. Thus, to get the cost of pump- 
ing water a distance of 25 feet, half 
the numbers in the first line of the 
table can be added to those in the sec- 
ond line. The table should only be 
used for estimating the cost of pump- 
ing water for lifts lying between twen- 
ty and thirty feet. The cost for ten 
feet is given for the purpose of mak- 
ing estimates, but it should not be sup- 
posed that the cost for this low lift 
would be merely half of that for the 
twenty foot lift, as friction losses and 
others would tend to make the cost for 
the low lift higher than that stated in 
the table. 

FIRST COST OF PUMPING PLANTS. 

At almost any point in the river val- 
leys of the western plains complete 
pumping plants, including wells, ma- 
chinery and buildings, can be con-« 
structed for about $100 per horse pow- 
er required. In some excejjtional cases 
the cost may run as low as $60 per 
horse power. 

The pumping plant of Mrs. M. 
Richler, near Garden City, Kan., uses 



pumped continuously for eleven hours is 

a Menge pump which is run by a 10- 
horse power Otto gasoline engine. The 
area of the strainer and the bottom of 
the well is 266.5 square feet. The spe- 
cific capacity per foot of percolating 
surface is .341 gallons per minute. The 
cost of operation with gasoline at 20 
cents per gallon amounted to 21 cents 
per hour, .89 cents per thousand gal- 
lons, $2.90 per acre foot, and 1-17 
cents per thousand foot-gallons. 

The pumping plant of Nathan Ful- 
mer, near Lakin, Kan., utilizes a chain 
and bucket pump. The power is sup- 
plied by a Howe gasoline engine which 
develops about 7 horse power at 285 
revolutions per minute. The cost of 
gasoline at 21 cents per gallon and the 
expense of running the engine was 
13.65 cents per hour. The cost of 
water was $1.37 per acre-foot, .22 
cents per thousand gallons, and 1-40 
cents per thousand foot-gallons. 

The pumping outfit of J. H. Logan 
near Garden City, Kan., consists of a 
6-horse power horizontal gasoline en- 
gine connected by a belt to a No. 3 
centrifugal pump. The specific ca- 
pacity of the well is 422 gallons per 
minute, or 3.94 gallons for each square 
foot of well strainer. The fuel cost of 
pumping was .9 cents per thousand 
gallons, $2.93 per acre-foot, or 1-25 
cents per thousand foot-gallons. 

The cost of pumping at 12 plants in 
the Arkansas Valley in Western Kan- 
sas ranged from $0.85 to $3.75 acre- 
foot. 



FOREST LEGISLATION BEFORE THE 
59th CONGRESS— FIRST SESSION 



'T'HE following Acts, which bear 
■*• more or less directly upon forest 
reserve interests, were passed at the 
last session of Congress : 

Act of March 15, 1906, permitting 
agricultural settlement in a certain re- 
stricted portion of the Yellowstone 
Forest Reserve. 

Act of March 16, 1906, to provide 
for an annual increase in the appro- 
priation for agricultural experiment 
stations until the total for each State 
and Territory shall be $30,000. Such 
stations as desire to do so can turn 
part of this added income toward ex- 
periments in forestry. 

Act of May i, 1906, to grant the 
Edison Electric Company a permit to 
occupy land in the San Bernardino, 
Sierra, and San Gabriel Forest Re- 
serves for electric power plants. This 
law was drawn in cooperation with the 
Forest Service, wdiich approve'.! it aa 
an entering wedge for a uniform law 
wnth regard to rights of way and privi- 
leges upon all land owned by the 
LInited States. Its salient features are : 

( 1 ) That it grants an .easement to 
the permittee, thus making his tenure 
certain for some definite length of 
time. 

(2) That the Secretary may fix the 
duration of the permit to suit the needs 
and the magnitude of the project in- 
volved in the permit. 

(3) That construction work must 
be completed within a definite time and 
the privilege enjoyed beneficially for 
a reasonable time each year. 

(4) That the Secretary may exact 
from the permittee such reasonable 
annual rental charge as he deems 
proper, changing it from year to year 
as circumstances seem to warrant. 

Act of June 4, 1906, to punish the 
cutting, chipping, or boxing of trees 
on the public lands. This law was 
passed to prevent the practice of going 
upon the pviblic domain and destroy- 



ing resin-bearing trees by conducting 
turpentine operations. The Commis- 
sioner of the General Land Office has 
already agreed to investigate turpen- 
tining in Florida and bring action 
against trespassers on the public land. 
Act of June 8, 1906, to preserve 
American antiquities. This Act pro- 
vides that the Secretaries of the Inte- 
rior, of War, and of Agriculture may 
join together to make such rules and 
regulations for excavation and study 
of historic or prehistoric ruins or mon- 
uments or other objects of antiquity 
upon the public land under their re- 
spective jurisdictions, as they may 
deem necessary to protect these an- 
tiquities. 

Act of June 11, 1906, to provide for 
the entry of agricultural lands within 
forest reserves. (Described fully in 
Fore;stry and Irrigation for June, 
1906.) This law makes it possible for 
the Secretary of Agriculture to list for 
entry under the homestead laws, such 
tracts of agricultural land as he may 
find within forest reserves. It should 
do much to allay criticism of the Na- 
tional forest policy and at the same 
time bring within the reserves a de- 
sirable class of inhabitants available 
for protection against forest fires and 
timber depredations. 

Act of June 11, 1906, to accept the 
recession by the State of California 
of the Yosemite Valley and Mariposa 
Big Tree Grove. This law brings 
these important parks again under the 
control of the United States Govern- 
ment, and incidentally modifies, to a 
slight extent, the boundary of the Yo- 
semite National Park. The change 
will probably be advantageous, since 
the State of California had not appro- 
priated the money necessary to care 
for the Yosemite Valley. 

Act of June 27, 1906, to grant lands 
to the State of Wisconsin for State 
forest reserve purposes. By means of 



326 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



July 



this law the Wisconsin forest reserves 
will be helped to a considerable extent. 

Act of June 29, 1906, to permit the 
President to designate such areas in 
the Grand Canyon Forest Reserve as 
should, in his opinion, be set aside for 
the protection of game animals. Ow- 
ing to a horseshoe bend of the canyon 
there is a certain portion of that forest 
reserve which, by building a short 
fence, can be completely cut off from 
the surrounding country. This will 
furnish an unusually secure breeding 
place for the native game animals and 
those which different societies may 
wish to import. 

Act of June 29, 1906, to create the 
Mesa Verde National Park. 

Act of June 30, 1906, (Agricultural 
Appropriation Act). This law pro- 
vides as follows : 

(i) That the forest reserve special 
fund, which would otherwise cease to 
be available for the administration and 
protection of forest reserves in 1910, 
shall continue available until Congress 
takes action to provide otherwise. 

(2) That ten per cent, of all money 
received from each forest reserve dur- 
ing any fiscal year, inclvding the one 
just passed, shall be paid to the coun- 
ties in which the reserve is situated for 
the benefit of the public schools and 
roads. Over $75,000 will be available 
for such counties at once, and the 
amount will increase rapidly from year 
to year. 

(3) Permission to export forest re- 
serve timber from the State or Terri- 
tory in which it was cut is extended to 
cover all States and Territories and 
the District of Alaska, with the sole 
exception of the Black Hills Forest 
Reserve in South Dakota, where dead 
and insect-infested timber only may be 
exported. 

(4) A special appropriation of $15,- 
000 was made for building a wire 
fence and necessary sheds in the 
Wichita Forest Reserve to provide a 
range for a buffalo herd which is to be 
presented by the New York Zoological 
Society. An area has been selected for 
this enclosure, and the conditions of 



climate and forage are such that the 
buffalo herd will probably increase and 
last for all time. 

Act of June 30, 1906, to authorize 
rights of way for the City of Los An- 
geles, Cal, through the Sierra, Santa 
Barbara and San Gabriel Forest Re- 
serves for a srfficient water supply to 
meet all possible increase in the popu- 
lation of that city. The city is allowed 
in the meantime to use the surplus 
water for generating electricity and 
for irrigation purposes. 

The principal bills, which were of 
interest but did not pass, are as fol- 
lows : 

The Appalachian and Uliitc Moun- 
tains Forest Reserve Bill passed the 
Senate and was reported as a Commit- 
tee measure in the House. In the lat- 
ter place, however, it was never called 
up for consideration. There seems to 
be considerable likelihood of its pas- 
sage next year. 

Senator Bitrkett's Gradng Bill was 
introduced in both Houses, but failed 
to receive any consideration owing to 
the pressure of such important meas- 
ures as the Rate Bill,- etc. The stock- 
growers, however, have shown great 
interest, and many meetings of their 
associations have declared in favor of 
Government control. It looks very 
likely that this bill will be actively con- 
sidered next year with a fair chance of 
becoming a law. The condition in the 
West on account of overgrazing, the 
insistent advent of new stockmen, and 
the conflict between sheep and cattle 
interests, is becoming too dangerously 
acute to be ignored. In a few years 
some irreparable damage to the for- 
age-producing power of the range will 
have been done, and stockmen will be 
practically in a condition of civil war- 
fare. 

The Tawney Bill, for more definite- 
ly fixing the boundaries of the Minne- 
sota National Forest Reserve and re- 
imbursing the Indians for their land 
taken for public purposes, seemed to 
fail of passage merely because it was 
not taken up in Committee early 
enough in the year. 



1906 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



327 



The General License Bill, spoken of 
above in connection with the Edison 
Electric Company's right of way, was 
not even introduced this winter, but 
will be a prominent factor at the next 
session. 

A hill proposing to transfer the Na- 



tional Parks to the care of the Secre- 
tary of Agriculture, in order that they 
may be administered from a forest 
standpoint, received very little atten- 
tion, and no prediction can be made 
concerning its treatment in the future. 




UNITED STATES 

RECLAMATION SERVICE 



K' 



r'^^1% 



^ 



'^- v~ y 




Progress of Government Irrigation Work During Past Month 



Important 
Decision 



The Assistant Attorney 
General has just ren- 
dered an important 
opinion on the following questions : 

First. Whether one who has made 
a homestead entry, not exceeding the 
farm unit limit, either under the pro- 
visions of the Reclamation Act or 
under the general law, may obtain wa- 
ter for such tract and also for one or 
more other tracts of which he is the 
proprietor, provided the area held in 
private owenrship does not exceed the 
private ownership limit fixed by the 
Secretary of the Interior. 

Second. If the homestead entry was 
made prior to the Reclamation Act 
withdrawal and contains an irrigable 
area in excess of the farm unit limit, 
whether, for the purposes under con- 
sideration, the excess area is to be re- 
garded as of the same status as land 
in private ownership. 

The case in point is on the Mini- 
doka project, Idaho, where certain 
state lands fall within the irrigable 
area. The lands under this project 
have been classified and the farm unit 
fixed at 80 acres. The question arose 
as to whether a person who makes a 
homestead entry of 80 acres under the 
Minidoka project and also purchases 



80 acres of state land may secure wa- 
ter from the Government works for 
the irrigation of both tracts. The point 
submitted involves a broad question 
applicable to all of the reclamation 
projects. The Assistant Attorney 
General holds that 

"A person who has made or may 
make homestead entry of lands with- 
drawn for disposal under the act of 
June 17, 1902 (52 Stat. 288) and sub- 
ject to the provisions, limitations and 
conditions of said act, may obtain wa- 
ter for such tract and may also obtain 
water for one or more tracts of which 
he is the proprietor, not exceeding the 
limit of area fixed by the statute, au- 
thorizing the use of water for land in 
private ownership, or as fixed by the 
Secretary of the Interior. 

"If the entry was made prior to the 
withdrawal under the Reclamation 
Act, the entryman may be entitled to 
the right to the use of water for the 
irrigable area of the land entered, and 
also for such area of lands held by 
him in private ownership which added 
to the irrigable area of his entry will 
not exceed 160 acres. 

"While there appears to be no re- 
striction in the act upon the right of 
a homesteader to the use of water for 



328 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



July 



land owned by him to the extent of 
area allowed to any one landowner, it 
has been deemed advisable to adminis- 
ter the law through the instrumen- 
tality of water users' associations 
which are organized by the owners of 
lands within the project. By the con- 
tracts heretofore made with such as- 
sociations by the Secretary of the In- 
terior, only those who are or may be- 
come members of such associations 
will be accepted as entrymen or ap- 
plicants for the right to the use of wa- 
ter which may be impounded or con- 
trolled by the works of such project. 

•"Under the articles of incorpora- 
tion and by the laws of such associa- 
tions, which are part of every con- 
tract, every member or shareholder of 
the association, whether he be the 
owner of lands or an entryman of 
public lands, is restricted in his hold- 
ing to 150 shares of stock, one share 
being allowed to each acre or fraction 
thereof, so that, the Secretary of the 
Interior, by entering into a contract 
with such association, has fixed 160 
acres as the limit of the right to the 
use of water by any one person, 
whether the land irrigated is entered 
as public land or is held in private 
ownership, or under both rights." 

Chance for An investigation was 
Cement recently made by the 

* '"^ cement experts of the 

United States Reclamation Service to 
determine the existence and avail- 
ability of raw materials for the manu- 
facture of Portland cement in the vi- 
cinity of Havre, Mont. 

An area exceeding 355 acres con- 
venient to Assinniboine station, on 
the main line of the Montana Central 
Railway, Great Northern system, was 
found to contain an unfailing supply 
of natural cement rock. Suitable clay 
for an admixture, if needed at any 
time in the preparation of cement, is 
abundant on the ground, and the bi- 
tuminous coal mines throughout the 
section furnish fuel adapted for the 
burning of the rock. A mill site and 
town site were located and large 
springs furnish an abundant water 



supply for domestic and other pur- 
poses. 

The Reclamation Service has four 
large projects in Montana which have 
been approved by the Secretary of the 
Interior. Upon two of these work is 
well under way. The estimated cost 
of these four great works is $12,000,- 
000, and upon their completion de- 
pends the reclamation of approxi- 
mately half a million acres of land. 
Thousands of barrels of cement will 
be' needed in their construction, and 
the service is naturally gravely con- 
cerned in the output of this material, 
as the present unprecedented demand 
for cement all over the West is al- 
ready taxing the capacity of mills 
throughout the country to the utmost. 
It is believed that investors will em- 
brace the opportunity presented by the 
known existence of materials suitable 
for cement manufacture in various lo- 
calities in the West. The great profits 
arising from the successful conduct of 
the cement business is now too well 
known to require comment. 

It is not the policy of the Govern- 
ment to go into the cement business 
unless through the inaccessibility of 
the works the success of a project 
should become jeopardized, as in the 
case of the Salt River project, Ari- 
zona, where the great distance from 
existing mills and the long wagon 
haul made the cost of cement pro- 
hibitive. 

Gaging The recent floods on 

Stations ^Yalla Walla and Uma- 

Washed Out ^.^^^ ^.^^^^ ^^^^.^^ ^^^^ 

several gages of the United States 
Geological Survey, and at one station 
(Milton) washed away the whole sta- 
tion outfit, including the cable from 
which discharge measurements were 
made. At another station at Milton, 
on the South Fork of Walla Walla 
River, a new channel was formed, 
leaving the bridge and gage high and 
dry. Estimates of discharge during 
this flood have not yet been made for 
most stations. A discharge measure- 
ment made at the crest of the flood 
in the lower stretch of Umatilla River 



1906 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



329 



shows the exceptional rate of eight 
second-feet per square mile for the 
drainage area of 2,270 square miles, 
or a maximum flow of more than 18,- 
000 second-feet. Gaging stations on 
these rivers were of value to irriga- 
tion interests, those on Umatilla River 
having been utilized by the Reclama- 
tion Service in the consideration of the 
Umatilla project. 

Payette- In order to preserve the 

Boise priority of water right 

Project ^^^ ^^^^ render possible 

the completion of the work on the 
Payette-Boise irrigation project, in 
Idaho, the Secretary of the Interior 
has declared that an extraordinary 
emergency exists, under the pro- 
visions of the eight-hour act of Au- 
gust I, 1892. 

According to the laws of the State 
of Idaho, before performing any 
work in connection with the construc- 
tion of projects involving the appro- 
priation of water, it is necessary to 
file an application with the State En- 
gineer for a permit to make such ap- 
propriation. This application must 
state the time required for the comple- 
tion of construction of the proposed 
works, and the law requires that one- 
fifth of the work must be completed 
in one-half the time required for the 
completion of the entire project. 

In order that the required amount 
of work on the Payette-Boise project 
may be completed within the time 
specified, it has been found necessary 
to rush the work of construction, 
which has been delayed by difficulty 
in obtaining early delivery of ma- 
chinery and in securing laborers. It 
was also found upon opening bids for 
the construction work that a portion 
of the system must be done by force 
account, and the necessity of read- 
vertising for bids caused much further 
delay. 

Rapid There was a surprised 

Work in \q^ ^f farmers in the 

New Mexico ^neighborhood of Ala- 
laga, Xew Mexico, a short time ago, 
when the Reclamation Service engi- 
neers turned the water into the Black 



River canal under the Carlsbad pro- 
ject. 

The work on the project has been 
pushed rapidly in order to serve as 
large an acreage as possible during 
the season. The Black River canal 
was completed in May, including 
about 4,000 feet of concrete lining and 
a full head of water is being delivered 
to the farms in the vicinity of Malaga. 
The work was finished in double 
quick time, and the farmers got the 
water before they expected it, and a 
larger quantity than they counted 
upon ; consequently, they did not pre- 
pare and plant all of the land that 
could have been cultivated. The old 
ditch leaked out threefourths of the 
water it diverted, but this fault is not 
found in the new canal. The Black 
River ditch diverts directly from Black 
River, a tributary entering the right 
bank of the Pecos River about 18 
miles below Carlsbad. 

The earthwork on the first three 
miles of the main canal of the Carls- 
bad project is practically completed, 
and another force is busy tearing out 
the old spillway at Dark Canyon, re- 
moving the present bank and making 
excavation for the seven-foot concrete 
pipe, and building new embankments. 
The large store house at Avalon dam 
has been completed, and the stone 
crusher is in place and nearly ready 
for operation. The bridge has been 
repaired and excavation has been be- 
gun for the core wall of the dam at 
the east end near the canal heading. 
Tools and machinery are arriving 
every day, and the force is being en- 
larged and organized for rapid and 
effective work. 

Cooperative The President has issued 
Work in ^j^ order reserving the 

South Dakota ^^ ^ ^^ g^^ ^4, T. 9 

N., R. 5 E., Black Hills Meridian, 
South Dakota, within the limits of the 
Belle Fourche irrigation project, for 
the purpose of experimental work in 
agriculture, under the supervision of 
the Department of Agriculture, the 
tract, however, to remain under the 
general jurisdiction and control of the 
keclamation Service. 



330 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



July 



The Secretary of the In- 
Conference ^erior has called a con- 
ference to be held at 
Portland, Ore., or Seattle, Wash., this 
month between the engineers of the 
Reclamation Service and Chief En- 
gineer Code, of the Indian Irrigation 
Service, and Mr. J. Lynch, superin- 
tendent of the Yakima Indian agency^ 
to consider matters with reference to 
the reclamation of the lands in the 
Yakima Indian reservation in connec- 
tion with the Yakima project. 



Rio Grande 
Project 



The Secretary of the In- 
terior has executed a 
contract with the Ele- 
phant Butte Water Users' Association 
and the El Paso Valley Water Users' 
Association to secure to the United 
States the cost of constructing the 
Leasburg diversion dam and canal, Rio 
Grande irrigation project, New 
Mexico. 

Gunnison The Reclamation Ser- 

Tunnel ^^^^ engineers are justly 

proud of the progress 
being made on the Gunnison Tunnel 
in Colorado, which is being con- 
structed by force account. The first 
mile, or one-sixth of the tunnel was 
completed on November 17, 1906. The 
first of the present month 13,767 feet 
had been excavated, 1,321 feet having 
been completed during the month of 
June. Night and day unceasingly the 
drills are breaking their way through 
the granite wall and the world's re- 
cord in tunnel excavation has been 
established on the work. 

, . . ., Mr. J. B. Lippincott. 
Lippincott y. 1 

Resigns consultmg and supervis- 

ing engineer in charge 
of work in California, has resigned his 
position with the United States Re- 
clamation Service. 



Mr. Lippincott, who is a graduate 
of Dickinson College, Pennsylvania, 
and the University of Kansas, has 
been engaged in civil engineering 
since 1886. For several years he was 
prominently connected with irrigation 
work in California in private capacity, 
and since 1895 has had charge of the 
hydrographic investigations for the 
United States Geological Survey in 
that state. He is one of the oldest 
engineers in point of service in the 
Reclamation Bureau, and the resigna- 
tion of so able and energetic an assist- 
ant is greatly regretted by the officials 
of the department. 

There is an increasing demand 
throughout the country for the ser- 
vices of first-class engineers, and 
owing to the limited salaries oflfered 
by the Reclamation Service the Gov- 
ernment is losing many men of ex- 
perience and ability. 

Force work The Secretary of the In- 
pl&llT^^^ terior has granted au- 
rojec thority to the Reclama- 

tion Service to prosecute the work 
incident to the construction of nine- 
teen miles of canal and twenty-seven 
miles of laterals, with appurtenances, 
in connection with the Klamath pro- 
ject, California-Oregon, by force ac- 
count, and to employ the force re- 
quired to carry the work vigorously to 
completion in order that this distri- 
buting system may be ready for use 
when the main canal, now under con- 
struction, is completed. 

The board of consulting engineers 
recently convened at Klamath Falls to 
open bids for this work reported that 
no bids were received. The time re- 
quired to readvertise this work, it is 
believed, would so delay construction 
that it is improbable water could be 
provided for irrigation by next sea- 
son. 



r.?^j 



NITED STATES 

FOREST SERVIC 



■1^^ 



W5] 




Reclaiming the barren 
Sand^Hufs ^and hills of the Middle 
West with forest cover, 
to supply timber when there is a 
dearth of it, is one of the more strik- 
ing of the important forest planting 
projects of the Forest Service. Four 
of the national forests have been es- 
tablished in the non-agricultural re- 
gion with the express purpose of get- 
ting a firm grip on methods which will 
overcome natural difficulties and set 
up object lessons for the benefit of 
the people. These are the Niobrara, 
the Dismal River, and the North 
Platte reserves in Nebraska and the 
Garden City reserve in Kansas. The 
Nebraska reserves have responded so 
well to careful treatment that hun- 
dreds of thousands of seedlings have 
been planted out and millions more 
are being raised in nurseries for use 
in other reserves. Thus, for the first 
planting on the Garden City reserve, 
just completed, most of the trees were 
taken from the nurseries in the Dis- 
mal River reserve. 

The Kansas reserve lies in a region 
of scattered, barren sand hills, inter- 
laced with prairie on which grass 
thrives well enough to support live 
stock. The origin of these hills, in 
itself interesting, reminds one in a wav 
of that of the sand dunes which en- 
croached from the sea upon the fertile 
fields of western France and laid them 
waste. In both cases the wind has been 
the enemy of the soil, for in France 
wind drove the sand of the seashore 
inland, and in the middle western re- 
gion of our own country wind drove 
eastward the sand which the Arkansas 
River had carried down in tioods and 



afterwards exposed to dry. The sand 
hills were formed long ago, and the 
action of the wind is now largely 
checked by the spread of the carpet 
of grass, which binds the sand where- 
ever there is enough moisture to en- 
courage it. 

The semiarid conditions of the re- 
gion necessarily restrict the selection 
of trees. Right choice of species, the 
crux of forest planting generally, is 
here especially decisive. By its aid, 
together with right planting methods 
and right care of the plantation, a tree- 
less region, one therefore in which 
wood is a scarce and a highly valuable 
commodity, can be made to produce 
useful woods, and at a cost so slight 
as to satisfy good business judgment. 
Thus on a light, sandy surface, whole 
only cover is wild grass and weeds, 
a merchantable forest crop is to be 
grown. In addition to the general de- 
mand for wood, there will be a special 
demand in connection with the Gar- 
den City irrigation project, which is 
within a few miles of the Garden Cit}- 
Reserve. 

Honey locust, Osage orange, Rus- 
sian mulberry, red cedar, and western 
yellow pine are the trees used in the 
new project, of which 51,000 came 
from the Government nursery, near 
Halsey, Nebr. The planting this sea- 
son progressed under highly favorable 
conditions as regards weather and the 
physical condition of the soil, and at 
the expiration of six and one-half days 
thirteen men had completed the task 
at a total cost, exclusive of the trees, 
of $3.88 per acre. 

A fence was built about the three- 
fourths of a section in which the plant- 



332 



FOKESTKY AND IRRIGATION 



July 



ing was done, though part of this area 
remains to be planted next season. 
This was to exclude stock. To ex- 
clude prairie fires a fire guard was 
ploughed about the plantation. 

,^., ^ . The Forest Service has 

Kiln Drying: i r i j 

Tupelo made a successful dem- 

Dnstration of kiln-drying 
tupelo, the experiment being under^ 
taken in cooperation with a lumber 
manufacturer in Louisiana, who deals 
in tupelo, and with a wagon manufac- 
turer in Michigan. The lumber was 
cut in the former state and shipped 
directly to the latter, where it was put 
through the dry-kiln without prelimi- 
nary seasoning. Tupelo is a wood 
suited to many commercial uses, and 
one to be profitably lumbered in con- 
nection with cypress, with which tim- 
ber it occurs. A drawback to the use 
of tupelo has been the difficulty of sea- 
soning, since it is subject to warping, 
checking, and staining in the season- 
ing process. Hence a demonstration 
of success in kiln-drying the wood 
without any of these defects is of 
great value to the tupelo industry. 

In the experiments the kiln used is 
that known as the blower type, op- 
erated on the moist-air principle of 
drying. The hot air is forced by fans 
into the dry end, thence passes back 
through the trucks of lumber to the 
wet end, and is returned to the engine 
room through a large drying chamber 
over the kiln itself. The whole struc- 
ture is as nearly air-tight as it can be 
made ; consequently the same air, pass- 
ing through the kiln and back over 
the steam-heating coils, is used over 
and over again. The necessary mois- 
ture is obtained from the green lum- 
ber as it is put into the wet end of the 
kiln. 

The lumber should enter a temper- 
ature of about 93 degrees Fahrenheit 
at the wet end of the kiln. The tem- 
perature gradually increases as the 
truck moves toward the dry end. 
where it should stand in a tempera- 
ture of 140 degrees to 150 degrees 
Fahrenheit for two or three days. In 
the experiment described the average 



temperature of the wet and dry ends 
was respectively 98 degrees and 133 
degrees Fahrenheit. In this particular 
case the relative humidity at wet and 
dry ends was 84 per cent and 29 per 
cent, respectively. 

As has been demonstrated in air- 
drying, so in kiln-drying, the correct 
piling of lumber is of utmost import- 
ance. The piles on the trucks should 
be arranged so that the spaces between 
the boards are not obstructed by ad- 
jacent courses, but remain open so 
as to give an upward vent to aid the 
circulation of the drying air. This 
can be accomplished by piling the wide 
boards apart from the narrow ones, 
or by laying the wide boards so that 
they do not extend over the open 
spaces. The old method of piling nar- 
row and wide boards together so as 
to get horizontal and criss-cross cir- 
culation, is satisfactory in the open air 
where there are strong winds ; but in 
a kiln, with only a few inches of space 
about the stack for air circulation, the 
lumber must be piled as openly as 
economical operation of the kiln will 
allow. 

The boards in this experiment were 
from eight to twelve inches wide, one 
inch thick, and fourteen feet long. One 
truck was piled with the cross strips 
twelve inches apart, and another with 
strips eighteen inches apart. Equally 
good results were obtained by both 
methods. The lumber was in the kiln 
fifteen days, and when taken out was 
dried satisfactory without molding, 
staining, or stick-rotting. . Only one 
board was checked as much as one 
foot from the end, and none of the 
other boards showed checks more than 
half an inch in length at the ends^ 
while most were not checked at all. 
Five of the boards on the top course 
were slightly warped. There was a 
loss of 4,200 pounds, or one-third of 
the green weight, and a shrinkage of 
127.2 board feet or 4.4 per cent of the 
original scale. 

The method here described is that 
regularly used at this kiln in the dry- 
ing of red gum, which occupied other 
trucks at the same time. Thus it was 



1906 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



333 



shown that the tupelo can be kihi- 
dried by the same methods that are 
used for the red gum, and with equal 
success. 

There is now in preparation Forest 
Service Circular 40, a comprehensive 
treatment of the "Utihzation of Tu- 
pelo," which will soon be ready for 
distribution. 

Use of Although it has been 

Timb^r"^'^ known for a number of 
'"^ ^^ years that fire-killed tim- 

ber has a considerable value in rail- 
road and mining operations in Colo- 
rado, it has been brought out only 
recently by the Forest Service that a 
wide number of uses are open for this 
timber, and that in certain respects it 
has actual advantages over green 
wood. 

These facts are deduced from a 
study of conditions on the Pikes Peak 
Forest Reserve, where the ravages of 
fire have been particularly widespread 
and destructive. In many instances 
the burned timber is the only kind 
available at a particular point, for ex- 
ample, in proximity to a mine or a spur 
of railroad, so for timbers and ties the 
dead material has been used for many 
years — fifteen years at Palmer Lake, 
seven years at Florissant for railroad 
ties, and longer than this for mine 
timbers. Three years ago it was first 
used for box boards and has proved 
excellent. In May, 1905, there was a 
sale for telephone poles. 

The species used are red fir, yellow 
pine, lodge-pole pine, limber pine, 
range pine, pinion, Engelmann spruce, 
and blue spruce. Of these, the pines, 
red fir, and Engelmann spruce, fur- 
nish the bulk of the material. Time 
elapsed since burning seems to make 
no great difference in the value of the 
wood, except that when serious check- 
ing results it loses its value for box 
purposes. The timber used has been 
burned all the way from three to fifty- 
five years. 

The amount o fthis timber which 
has been used is very considerable. 
There has been one sale from the re- 
serve for box boards and one for tele- 
phone poles, but the three main uses 
continue to be mine timbers, railroad 



ties, and firewood. 

Red fir is preferred for roailroad 
ties, then yellow pine, limber pine, and 
range pine. White pine has been ob- 
jected to because of its lack of dura- 
bility, but it is now taken in many places. 
At Rosemont, Colo., burned timber of 
all kinds is made into ties, some of the 
material having been burned fifty 
year ago. It is asserted that dry ties 
last as long and in many cases longer 
than green ties. On the Cripple Creek 
"short line" they were more satisfac- 
tory than green pine ties from Texas. 
Dry ties hold a spike well and a tie 
plate does not cut into the wood so 
seriously as it does in the case of a 
green tie. Englemann spruce is as 
good as other species as far as me- 
chanical wear is concerned, but it de- 
cays much quicker and so should be 
given a preservative treatment. 

Burned timber was first used for 
boxes by the Denver Crate and Box 
Lompany in February, 1903, the 
species used being Engelmann spruce 
and lodgepole pine, with some red fir 
and limber pine. The material used 
had been burned one one-half to four 
years. The Engelmann spruce was 
excellent, and the lodgepole pine also 
gave good results. The fire seasoning 
had driven the odor out of the pine so 
that it could be used for packing 
crackers and biscuits. Also, on ac- 
count of the perfect seasoning the 
boxes remained tight when put up and 
therefore sold better than green boxes. 

For mine timbers all species are 
used, if of the requisite size. Dry tim- 
ber is preferred because of its light- 
ness, durability, and stiffness, all prin- 
cipally due to its better seasoning. 

For many purposes fire-killed tim- 
ber should be preferred to green tim- 
ber because it is so well seasoned. This 
seasoning makes it more durable than 
green timber, and also makes it lighter, 
so that its cost of transportation is ap- 
preciably less, and it is therefore avail- 
able, not only for numerous local uses, 
but for shipping long distances. 
Actual experience with the fire-killed 
timber proves that its utilization 
should be a source of profit to the 
reserve. 



WHITE ELM (Ulmus Americana)' 

VIII. — Notes on Forest Trees Suitable 
for Planting in the United States 



DISTRIBUTION AND MANNER OF OC- 
CURRENCE. 

THE White or American Elm has 
been distributed through natural 
agencies from southern Newfound- 
land westward along the northern 
shores of Lake Superior to the east- 
ern base of the Rockies, and through 
the United States to the Black Hills, 
western Nebraska, Indian Territory, 
and Texas ; southward it grows as far 
as Florida. It is infrequent in the ex- 
treme western and southern portions 
of its range, but appears in greatest 
abundance in the Northeast, especially 
in New England, where trees of re- 
markable size and beauty are found. 
The highest development is attained in 
the rich alluvium of the Connecticut 
River Valley. 

Although seldom the most numer- 
ous species in a forest stand, the White 
Elm is widely and uniformly distri- 
buted in the East and is one of the 
most common trees. Its favorite place 
of growth is in rich intervales, or on 
fertile wooded slopes where moisture 
is constant and abundant. It will 
grow, however, in almost any soil, 
hence it may be found in nearly every 
open field, or woodlot, and along road- 
sides everywhere throughout the East. 
In the Middle West it is one of the 
most common species, but is more 
closely confined to river valleys than 
farther east. 

The range advised for economic 
planting comprises all of the middle 
Western States, as far south as north- 
ern Texas. For purposes of shade 
and ornament, planting may be done 
throughout the entire range of the 
tree. 

CHARACTERISTICS OE GROWTH — ASSO- 
CIATE SPECIES. 

The divided trunk and spreading 
vase, or broom-shaped crown, of trees 

*Furiii8hed by U. S. Forest Service. 



grown in the open is well known. 
When grown in the forest the trunk 
remains a single stem and the crown 
becomes reduced in size. In the South 
and West, and in unfavorable situa- 
tions, the tree becomes shorter, with 
a low, rounded crown not unlike that 
of the oak. Mature trees vary from 
60 to 120 feet in height, and have a 
maximum diameter of eight feet. The 
elm usually has a rapid grow^th and a 
long life, although on sterile soils both 
these qualities are materially reduced. 
The most rapid growth is during the 
first 50 to 60 years ; there is a falling 
off before the century mark is reached. 
The roots are long and fibrous, and 
run near the surface for a long dis- 
tance. The tree can endure a moderate 
amount of shade. The associate 
species include nearly all of the com- 
mon hardwoods, especially those with 
a preference for moist soils, as the 
walnuts, ashes, sycamores, Tulip-tree, 
birches, etc. 

THE WOOD ITS ECONOMIC USES. 

The wood of the young elm is very 
tough, but is usually considered of not 
much value. When the tree has 
reached maturity it furnishes timber 
which is moderately strong, coarse- 
grained, difficult to split, not suscepti- 
ble to polish, not durable, and liable 
to warp and check in drying. It is 
used chiefly in the manufacture of 
agricultural implements and carriages, 
and for flooring, cooperage, and sad- 
dletrees. 



SOIL AND SITE. 

The preferable soil for the White 
Elm is a deep, alluvial loam which is 
never dry or lacking in abundant plant 
food. Failing to obtain ideal condi- 
tions, the tree adapts itself readily to 
soils less favorable, or even decidedly 
poor, and to an adverse climate. It 
is considered one of the hardiest trees 



1906 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



335 



for prairie planting, and is able to en- 
dure the great extremes of temperature 
and drouth of the treeless West. Few 
trees have been more generally used in 
prairie planting, and perhaps none is 
more generally adapted for the ex- 
posed and arid planting places of the 
western plains and prairies. 

PROPAGATION. 

Reproduction of White Elm is by 
seeds alone. If propagated for timber 
it should be done by artificial methods 
and not left to natural seeding. The 
rearing of the young plants in nur- 
sery beds is usually advisable. Occo- 
sionally, when seeds cannot be ob- 
tained, or when the nursery crop fails, 
the seedlings which spring up in damp, 
open places may be dug and used on 
the plantation site. One-year-old 
seedlings can be obtained from dealers 
at from $3 to $5 per thousand, but it 
is often economy for the local planter 
to grow his own stock. 

The oval, winged fruit, with the 
seed inclosed in the center of the 
papery jnembrane, is produced in 
abundance nearly every year. It ripens 
in May, about the time the leaves ap- 
pear, and should be gathered and 
planted at once. Seeds may be obtained 
from dealers $1 to $1.50 per pound, 
but it is safer to depend on home-col- 
lected material, because, since the vi- 
tality of unplanted seeds cannot be 
preserved more than a few weeks at 
best, those furnished by dealers are 
liable to be worthless. 

The seeds may be gathered by 
sweeping them up from the pavements, 
shaking them down from the trees 
into a canvas spread out below, or col- 
lecting them in eddies or on sand bars 
where carried by streams. They should 
never be allowed to become dry from 
the time they mature until germina- 
tion is complete. Planting should be 
done in nursery beds in rich, moist 
soil, an old garden spot being a de- 
sirable site. The seed should be sown 
in shallow drills in rows 8 to 12 inches 
apart for hand cultivation and 2 to 3 
feet apart if a horse cultivator is to 
be used. In the rows the seeds should 



be spaced i to 2 inches apart, covered 
about one-half inch deep, and the sur- 
face soil gently firmed down by means 
of a roller or by pressing with a board. 
Irrigation should be resorted to in 
times of drought, since a uniformity 
of moisture conditions is essential for 
successful germination of the seed and 
the most rapid growth of the seed- 
lings. Shade for the young plants is 
not a necessity, although at times a 
partial protection from the hot sun or 
beating rain is beneficial. The seed-" 
lings may be transplanted to the per- 
manent site when i to 2 years old, at 
which time they should be 6 to 12 
inches high. 

To produce the most shapely trees,, 
some of the best nurserymen cut the 
young trees back to the ground when 
they are two or three years old from 
the seed. Vigorous sprouts start from 
near the wound ; the best one is se- 
lected for the trunk of the tree, and 
all other sprouts are kept pruned off. 
The strong root forces up a tall, 
straight trunk, which adds to the form 
and value of the tree. 

For prairie planting the White Elm 
may be set in rows from 4 to 6 feet 
apart each way. Where a heavy 
growth of grass exists is should be 
turned under a year or two before 
planting, and if possible a crop of ce- 
reals grown on the ground. The trees 
may be set in furrows or in holes dug 
by a mattock or spade. During the 
whole transplanting operations the 
roots should be kept constantly moist, 
and the dirt packed firmly around the 
newly-placed seedlings. Cultivation 
between the rows is advisable until the 
trees are large enough to shade the 
ground underneath. In the East the 
preliminary breaking of the ground is 
not so essential, although the young 
trees should not be allowed to become 
overtopped by weeds or grass. 

\Miite Elm may be grown in pure 
stands, or in mixtures with various 
rapid-growing, light-needing species, 
or with slow-growing trees if they are 
planted first and allowed to attain a 
lieight of 5 to 6 feet before setting the 
elm. Good associate species are the 



836 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



July 



Hardy Catalpa, ashes, locusts, coffee- 
tree, black walnut, black cherry, red 
cedar, and European larch. 



Although seldom injured by wind,, 
snow, or fungi, the White Elm is 
seriously affected by numerous in- 
sects. Borer larvae channel the inner 
bark and the surface of the wood so 
frequently as to kill the tree ; but by 
far the greatest .damage is done by the 
elmleaf-beetles, and other leaf de- 
stroyers. In parts of the country park 
and street trees have been killed, and 
planting of the elm has been discon- 
tinued on this account. It is possible, 
however, by early and thorough spray- 
ing to protect the trees and in the end 
to bring about the reduction or exter- 
mination of the leaf-destroying insects, 
In case of extended ravages, speci- 
mens of the insect, together with a full 
account of the character of the injury 
done, should be sent to the Division 



of Entomology of the Department of 
Agriculture, in order that the insect 
may be identified and measures sug- 
gested for its destruction or control. 

POSSIBILITIES AND USES. 

Stately and graceful in form and 
outline, and rapid growing and hardy 
in varied soils and severe climates, the 
White Elm adapts itself to the needs 
of most tree planters, and is grown 
extensively throughout its broad 
range. As a shade or park tree it has 
few equals, and throughout the East 
is considered the ideal tree for orna- 
mental planting. It does not thrive 
in cities where coft coal is habitually 
used, nor along streets where the mois- 
ture is all carried off by artificial drain- 
age. On the borders of gardens or 
cultivated land it is objectionable be- 
cause of the extensive spreading of the 
surface roots. For Western planting 
it has a recognized place in forest 
plantations which it well deserves. 



BEAUTIFYING THE STEEL HIGHWAY* 

Splendid Achievements of the Boston and 
Maine in Railroad Forestry and Horticulture 

BY 

F. WILLIAM RANE 

Director, New Hampshire College. 



P VERYTHING that tends to make 
•^ the world more beautiful, espe- 
cially when the usefulness of such 
beauty can be appreciated and enjoyed 
by the greater masses, deserves com- 
mendation and appreciative acknowl- 
edgement. 

In a quiet and persistent way our 
railroads are beginning to do what the 
writer predicts will eventually mean 
more to the nation's pride at home and 
its prestige abroad than some of our 
other efforts upon which we at present 
set greater value. 



*Text and illustrations reprinted througli 



There is just as much reason why 
public sentiment should be interested 
in improving our great commercial 
highways as there is that our local 
and inter-urban roads be made better. 

Every community gains its reputa- 
tion in proportion to the interest its 
citizens take in its welfare. The old 
adage "A good reputation gets abroad 
that begins at home" is as true to-day 
as it ever was. 

More has been done by American 
railroads to beautify the right of way, 
and particularly the stations and their 

courtesy of the Boston c't Maine Messengrr. 



1906 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



337 



surroundings, than most people 
realize. Up to a comparatively re- 
cent period even the decoration of our 
homes has been quite largely neglect- 
ed in the United States, and many of 
our people, wdiile making large ex-, 
penditures for paintings and other 
works of art, have allowed the very 
important feature of landscape gar- 
dening to go by default. There has 
even been a notable lack of harmony 
between architecture and landscape 
gardening in this country. 

Happily, this condition has already 
undergone a vast change, and the 



ation at heart, understands that a wise 
expenditure of money for landscape 
gardening and tree planting along his 
line is one of the very best investments 
for the present and the future that can 
be made, because of the effect it has in 
securing the co-operation and good 
will of the public. 

To take as an illustration the Bos- 
ton & Maine Railroad : This road trav- 
erses some of the most interesting and 
attractive country under the canopy. 
It not only furnishes the best of trans- 
portation facilities for business men, 
wage earners, tourists and "summer 




Students digging White Pine Seedlings for transplanting. 



American people are rapidly becoming 
better balanced in this respect. 

Our railroads, or at any rate the 
larger systems, are taking an advanced 
stand with reference to the question 
of landscape effects and embellish- 
ments. Many roads take great pride 
in the effective planting of flowers and 
shrubs around station buildings, as 
well as in adopting modern architec- 
ture for these buildings, especially 
where they have reason to know that 
their patrons appreciate such efforts. 

The far-sighted railroad manager 
having the best interests of his corpor- 



boarders," but practically provides the 
life blood of industrial northern New 
England. 

Not only has this progressive cor- 
poration set the pace in the matter of 
beautifying station grounds and thus 
helping to make communities more at- 
tractive, but it has done much to for- 
ward the interests of scientific forestry 
in New England. 

It is a matter of gratification that 
more work of a practical nature is be- 
ing attenrptcd toward a solution of the 
forestry problem to-day than ever be- 
fore. The writer is connected with 



338 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



1906 



one of the New England colleges and 
has participated in the work of fur- 
thering a rational system of forestry 
for this section. In this work the 
co-operation of the Boston & Maine 
Railroad has been of decided value. 
Its representatives have attended the 
meetings of the Society for Protection 
of New Hampshire Forests and simi- 
lar bodies, and on occasion of the For- 
est Congress in Washington last win- 
ter it was represented by a special 
delegate. 

Through the courtesy of the of- 
ficials, the writer has been enabled to 
become acquainted with a number of 



station agent ten dollars' worth of ten- 
der bedding plants for the decoration 
and improvement of his station had, 
however, long been practiced by the 
company. 

The practice of awarding prizes for 
effective plantings in the immediate 
vicinity of station buildings had great- 
ly encouraged the agents in the work ; 
brt while for a short time during the 
latter part of the summer the effect of 
these efforts was pleasing, it did not 
satisfy Mr. Curtis, and he began in 
a quiet way to direct the efforts of 
his men toward a more permanent re- 
ward for their labors. 




Rockingham Junction. N. H.— A sample of Modern Forestry. 



the men immediately in charge of the 
carrying out of the landscape improve- 
ment work of the road. 

Among those with whom he has 
talked and exchanged ideas is Mr. 
Lowville Curtis, general roadmaster 
of the Western Division, who has been 
in the employ of the company for a 
number of years and is not only an ex- 
cellent engineer, but has a marked 
taste for all horticultural and forestry 
pursuits. 

Four or five years ago scarcely any- 
thing important was being done in the 
way of embellishing the grounds about 
depots. The custom of allowing each 



He began to advocate the use of 
perennial shrubs and vines. An in- 
teresting incident occurred about this 
time. Mr. Curtis learned that one of 
his laborers had worked in a nursery 
in the old country. Upon questioning 
him as to the proper way to propagate 
Hydrangeas, the laborer replied in such 
fluency of scientific terms that Mr. 
Curtis at once directed his energies 
into the landscape gardening depart- 
menc. 

According as he could be spared, 
the man took cuttings, collected seeds 
and plants and propagated and 



1906 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



539 



brought together as many shrubs and 
plants as could be obtained. 

In a short time, a small progagating 
house was constructed, in order to en- 
able the men to continue the work 
during rainy days and in winter. 
While this house is comparatively 
small and inexpensive, it nevertheless 
stands for a large amount of work 
accomplished. 

The greenhouse was constructed at 



Although the work was started less 
than five years ago, it has grown so 
rapidly that practically all the avail- 
able space in the immediate neighbor- 
hood of the office and yards is utilized 
for nursery purposes. Thousands of 
shrubs are being distributed all along 
the line of the Western Division and 
many are sent to other divisions, and 
yet the propagating area increases. 

The nursery being located where 




General View of the Boston & Maine Nursery at South Lawrence. 



one end of the warehouse and supply 
yards of the Western Division at 
South Lawrence, Mass., where Mr. 
Curtis has his headquarters. One is 
struck with the happy manner in 
which the esthetic is blended with the 
practical here — a department of shrubs 
for embellishing right of way merg- 
ing into piles of rails, ties, switches 
and movable railroad property of all 
kinds. 



the workmen naturally congregate 
prior to setting forth upon their vari- 
ous duties along the line, gives an op- 
portunity to utilize the spare hours 
of these men, which in the aggregate 
means a great deal of time. 

Nearly every arriving train brings 
one or more men from a completed 
job of some kind, and instead of "kill- 
ing time" waiting for the next train, 
he spends his leisure to advantage hoe- 



S40 



FORESTRY AND IRRIGATION 



July 



ing, digging, transplanting or per- 
forming some sort of nursery work. 
The men greatly enjoy the novelty of 
the labor too. 

Often a large gang of men finishes 
work a few hours before quitting-time, 
and rather than start in on a new piece 
of work in which they could hardly 
make a beginning, this time is spent in 
the nursery. It surely has proven a 
great success, and a study of its work- 
ings would well repay any railroad 
corporation. 

In forestry the work is going on in 
a simewhat similar way. Danger 
from forest fires is a most important 
factor in railroad management. The 
Boston & Maine road follows the prac- 
tice of burning over the right of way 
by its section men and at once remov- 
ing all inflammable substances. 

To a certain extent, during a dry 
time, a system of patrol is carried out. 
Some of the accompanying illustra- 
tions show examples of forestry prac- 
tices as carried out by the Boston & 
Maine. This road has purchased a 
number of small tracts adjoining the 
right of way and is encouraging the 
adoption of modern methods of for- 
estry in developing these holdings. As 
with the work with shrubs, that in 
forestry is just beginning. 

In one of the small groves eighty 
cords of wood were cut in thinning, 
and the growth remaining is far better 
for it. Mr. Curtis finds that in the 
■quieter times of the year, it is pos- 
:sible to relieve a man here and there 
on a section for a day or so and have 
"him report for duty on some of these 
-wooded tracts, where his work is ac- 
complished at no extra expense to the 
-company. The company always finds 
:ready use for all forest products. 

The beautiful shady groves, such as 
those at Rockingham Junction, N. H., 
or Lowell Junction, Mass., are not 
only valuable forest properties of the 
railroad, but are more desirable and 
effective than any other possible sort 
of planting. To be able to while away 
one's time in summer at stations like 
these is a veritable pleasure. 



Trees and shrubs